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Sample records for carrot seed production

  1. Genetic Influences on the Seed Yielding Ability of Carrot Hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carrot seed production characteristics of four different threeway carrot hybrids were evaluated over three years during seed production from transplanted roots in Madison, Wisconsin. Components of seed yielding ability and plant architecture were measured. Both the male sterile seed parent and inbr...

  2. Carrot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carrot is among the top-ten most economically important vegetable crops in the world, in terms of both area of production and market value. The development of cultivars adapted for cultivation in both summer and winter seasons on all continents has allowed a year-round availability of carrot produc...

  3. Crotonic acid as a bioactive factor in carrot seeds (Daucus carota L.).

    PubMed

    Jasicka-Misiak, Izabela; Wieczorek, Piotr P; Kafarski, Paweł

    2005-06-01

    Water extracts from the carrot seed (Daucus carota L.) var. Perfekcja exhibit plant growth inhibitory properties against cress, cucumber, onion and carrot in a dose-dependant manner. This property results from the action of low-and high-molecular components of the extract. The low-molecular component was identified as crotonic acid ((E)-2-butenoic acid). Its presence was also confirmed in other late varieties of carrot. The determined strong herbicidal properties of crotonic acid and its availability after release to soil combined with its high level in seeds suggest that it might be considered as an allelopathic and autotoxic factor in the seeds. PMID:15960983

  4. Effect of UV-B light and different cutting styles on antioxidant enhancement of commercial fresh-cut carrot products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The results of the present study show that exposing five commercial fresh-cut carrot products (baby carrots, carrot sticks, shredded carrots, crinkle cut coins, and oblong chips) to UV-B radiation can significantly increase the antioxidant capacity of carrots. Optimization of the nutritional benefic...

  5. Carrot cells: a pioneering platform for biopharmaceuticals production.

    PubMed

    Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Tello-Olea, Marlene Anahí

    2015-03-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is of importance in the molecular farming field as it constitutes the first plant species approved to produce biopharmaceuticals for human use. In this review, features that make carrot an advantageous species in the molecular farming field are analyzed and a description of the developments achieved with this crop thus far is presented. A guide for genetic transformation procedures is also included. The state of the art comprises ten vaccine prototypes against Measles virus, Hepatitis B virus, Human immunodeficiency virus, Yersinia pestis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium diphtheria/Clostridium tetani/Bordetella pertussis, and Helicobacter pylori; as well as the case of the glucocerebrosidase, an enzyme used for replacement therapy, and other therapeutics. Perspectives for these developments are envisioned and innovations are proposed such as the use of transplastomic technologies-, hairy roots-, and viral expression-based systems to improve yields and develop new products derived from this advantageous plant species. PMID:25572939

  6. Possible involvement of abscisic acid in the induction of secondary somatic embryogenesis on seed-coat-derived carrot somatic embryos.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Yumiko; Iizuka, Misato; Nakayama, Daisuke; Ikeda, Miho; Kamada, Hiroshi; Koshiba, Tomokazu

    2005-06-01

    When seed coats (pericarps) were picked from 14-day-old carrot (Daucus carota) seedlings and cultured on agar plates, embryogenic cell clusters were produced very rapidly at a high frequency on the open side edge. Embryo induction progressed without auxin treatment; indeed treatment caused the formation of non-embryogenic callus. The embryogenic tissues (primary embryos) developed normally until the torpedo stage; however, after this a number of secondary somatic embryos were produced in the hypocotyl and root regions. "Tertiary" embryos were formed on some of the secondary embryos, but many developed into normal plantlets. The primary embryos contained significantly higher levels of abscisic acid (ABA) than the hypocotyl-derived normal and seed-coat-derived secondary embryos. Fluridone inhibited the induction of secondary embryogenesis, while exogenously supplied ABA induced not only "tertiary" embryogenesis on the seed-coat-derived secondary embryos, but also secondary embryos on the hypocotyl-derived normal somatic embryos. These results indicate that ABA is one of the important endogenous factors for the induction of secondary embryogenesis on carrot somatic embryos. Higher levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in primary embryos also suggest the presence of some concerted effect of ABA and IAA on the induction of secondary embryogenesis in primary embryos. PMID:15770487

  7. OPTIMIZING FERTILITY FOR SEED PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed corn production is a high input and high management endeavor that yields a high value product. Most seed production fields are managed as a unit in terms of cultivars, so timing of field operations follows the same scale. However, some producers are finding that spatial variability in soil prop...

  8. Antidiabetic II drug metformin in plants: uptake and translocation to edible parts of cereals, oily seeds, beans, tomato, squash, carrots, and potatoes.

    PubMed

    Eggen, Trine; Lillo, Cathrine

    2012-07-18

    Residues of pharmaceuticals present in wastewater and sewage sludge are of concern due to their transfer to aquatic and terrestrial food chains and possible adverse effects on nontargeted organisms. In the present work, uptake and translocation of metformin, an antidiabetic II medicine, by edible plant species cultivated in agricultural soil have been investigated in greenhouse experiment. Metformin demonstrated a high uptake and translocation to oily seeds of rape ( Brassica napus cv. Sheik and Brassica rapa cv. Valo); expressed as an average bioconcentration factor (BCF, plant concentration over initial concentration in soil, both in dry weight), BCF values as high as 21.72 were measured. In comparison, BCFs for grains of the cereals wheat, barley, and oat were in the range of 0.29-1.35. Uptake and translocation to fruits and vegetables of tomato (BCFs 0.02-0.06), squash (BCFs 0.12-0.18), and bean (BCF 0.88) were also low compared to rape. BCFs for carrot, potato, and leaf forage B. napus cv. Sola were similar (BCF 1-4). Guanylurea, a known degradation product of metformin by microorganisms in activated sludge, was found in barley grains, bean pods, potato peel, and small potatoes. The mechanisms for transport of metformin and guanidine in plants are still unknown, whereas organic cation transporters (OCTs) in mammals are known to actively transport such compounds and may guide the way for further understanding of mechanisms also in plants. PMID:22712757

  9. Residual tembotrione and atrazine in carrot.

    PubMed

    Bontempo, Amanda F; Carneiro, Gabriella D P; Guimarães, Fernanda A R; Dos Reis, Marcelo R; Silva, Daniel V; Rocha, Bruno H; Souza, Matheus F; Sediyama, Tocio

    2016-07-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is a vegetable crop that is grown throughout the year across various regions of Brazil in rotation or in succession to other cultures. Herbicide residual effect has emerged as a concern, because of the possibility of carryover. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of tembotrione and atrazine residues - in mixture and isolated - on carrot planted in succession to corn. The experiment was designed in randomized blocks with five replications. Treatments consisted of tembotrione (50.4 g ha(-1)), tembotrione (100.8 g ha(-1)), tembotrione + atrazine (50.4 g ha(-1)+ 2 L ha(-1)), tembotrione + atrazine (100.8 g ha(-1)+ 2 L ha(-1)), and atrazine (2.00 L ha(-1)) applied eight months before carrot seeding, plus a control treatment with no herbicide application. Investigated variables were shoot dry mass, productivity, and classification of carrot roots. The presence of atrazine and tembotrione decreased dry mass in the area, and only tembotrione reduced total root productivity. Thus, there is a carryover effect to tembotrione application that reduces the dry matter accumulation of shoot and total productivity, and an atrazine + tembotrione (100.8 g ha(-1)) mixture reduces the total productivity after application of these herbicides to soil. PMID:27052932

  10. Metabolism of pharmaceutical and personal care products by carrot cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoqin; Fu, Qiuguo; Gan, Jay

    2016-04-01

    With the increasing use of treated wastewater and biosolids in agriculture, residues of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in these reused resources may contaminate food produce via plant uptake, constituting a route for human exposure. Although various PPCPs have been reported to be taken up by plants in laboratories or under field conditions, at present little information is available on their metabolism in plants. In this study, we applied carrot cell cultures to investigate the plant metabolism of PPCPs. Five phase I metabolites of carbamazepine were identified and the potential metabolism pathways of carbamazepine were proposed. We also used the carrot cell cultures as a rapid screening tool to initially assess the metabolism potentials of 18 PPCPs. Eleven PPCPs, including acetaminophen, caffeine, meprobamate, primidone, atenolol, trimethoprim, DEET, carbamazepine, dilantin, diazepam, and triclocarban, were found to be recalcitrant to metabolism. The other 7 PPCPs, including triclosan, naproxen, diclofenac, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, sulfamethoxazole, and atorvastatin, displayed rapid metabolism, with 0.4-47.3% remaining in the culture at the end of the experiment. Further investigation using glycosidase hydrolysis showed that 1.3-20.6% of initially spiked naproxen, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and gemfibrozil were transformed into glycoside conjugates. Results from this study showed that plant cell cultures may be a useful tool for initially exploring the potential metabolites of PPCPs in plants as well as for rapidly screening the metabolism potentials of a variety of PPCPs or other emerging contaminants, and therefore may be used for prioritizing compounds for further comprehensive evaluations. PMID:26745399

  11. Optimization of flat plate drying of carrot pomace

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carrot pomace is a co-product of the carrot juice and cut-carrot industry; it has high nutritional value but is currently underutilized. Drum drying is one method that could be used to dry and stabilize carrot pomace. However, optimum conditions for the dryer inlet temperature, product dwell time, c...

  12. Weed Research in Alfalfa Seed Production 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control in alfalfa seed production is important to produce high quality and high yield of alfalfa seed. Herbicides were tested on a commercial field of alfalfa seed in central Washington in 2007. Flumioxzin slightly injured alfalfa when applied at 0.125 and 0.25 lb ai/a. to dormant alfalfa in M...

  13. Optimization of flat plate drying of carrot pomace

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carrot (Daucus carota var. sativus) pomace is a co-product of the carrot juice and cut-carrot industry; it has high nutritional value but is currently underutilized. Drum drying is one method that could be used to dry and stabilize carrot pomace. However, optimum conditions for the dryer surface tem...

  14. Prickly lettuce control in alfalfa seed production.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weeds are particularly troublesome in alfalfa grown for seed due to the wider row spacing and the lack of multiple cuttings compared to alfalfa grown for hay. Prickly lettuce is often an escape weed in alfalfa seed production fields as it can germinate throughout the entire year and is naturally tol...

  15. The Carrot Highway [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyss, Ron

    "The Carrot Highway" is a 40-minute award-winning videotape that takes viewers on a whirlwind tour around the world to tell the story of the carrot. This videotape reveals the carrot in all its glory by cleverly integrating live-action, music, animation, videotape footage, and games. Viewers travel with a troupe of animated carrot characters to…

  16. Effect of seeding rate on organic production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased demand for organic rice (Oryza sativa L.) has incentivized producer conversion from conventional to organically-managed rice production in the U.S. Little is known on the impacts of seeding rate on organic rice production. A completely randomized factorial design with four replications was...

  17. Uptake of 8:2 perfluoroalkyl phosphate diester and its degradation products by carrot and lettuce from compost-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Bizkarguenaga, E; Zabaleta, I; Prieto, A; Fernández, L A; Zuloaga, O

    2016-06-01

    The present work studied the uptake of 8:2 perfluoroalkyl phosphate diester (diPAP) by two different crops (lettuce and carrot) and two different amended soils. Firstly, the possible degradation of 8:2 diPAP in the absence of crop was studied and 8:2 monoPAP (monophosphate), 8:2 FTCA (saturated fluorotelomer carboxylate), 8:2 FTUCA (unsaturated fluorotelomer carboxylate), 7:3 FTCA (saturated fluorotelomer carboxylate), PFHpA (perfluoroheptanoic acid), PFHxA (perfluorohexanoic acid) and PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid) were detected. In the presence of crops, different degradation products were detected in the soil and, while PFNA (perfluorononanoic acid), PFHpA, PFHxA, PFPeA (perfluoropentacoic acid), PFBA (perfluorobutanoic acid), 7:3 FTCA and PFOA were determined in the cultivation media when carrot was grown, PFOA was the only degradation product detected in the case of lettuce experiments. Regarding the uptake in carrot, all the degradation products except 7:3 FTCA were translocated from the soil to the carrot. Carrot core, peel and leaves bioconcentration factors, BCFs, were determined for 8:2 diPAP and its degradation products. Values lower than method detection limits for core and low BCFs in peel (0.025-0.042) and leaves (0.028-0.049) were achieved for 8:2 diPAP. Regarding to the degradation products, the higher their water solubility, the higher the plant translocation. In this sense, the lower the carbon chain length of PFCAs, the higher the BCFs determined (PFBA > PFHxA > PFHpA > PFOA > PFNA). In general, lower total BCFs were achieved when the total organic carbon of the soils increased. For lettuce experiments, 8:2 diPAP (0.04-0.18) and PFOA (0.28-1.57) were only determined in lettuce heart. PMID:26991379

  18. Effect of UV-B light and different cutting styles on antioxidant enhancement of commercial fresh-cut carrot products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carrots are a rich source of antioxidants. Fresh-cut processing provides a convenient way to consume this nutritious root crop. Cutting operations induce wounding stress activation of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase, and enhance the nutrient content of carrots by increasing t...

  19. Meloidogyne incognita nematode resistance QTL in carrot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are major pests attacking carrots (Daucus carota) worldwide, causing galling and forking of the storage roots, rendering them unacceptable for market. Genetic resistance could significantly reduce the need for broad-spectrum soil fumigants in carrot production....

  20. Possibility of sweet corn synthetic seed production.

    PubMed

    Thobunluepop, P; Pawelzik, E; Vearasilp, S

    2009-08-01

    Somatic embryogenesis in sweet corn has been reported by a number of workers. However, the knowledge maintaining storage life, vigor and viability of these somatic embryos are limited. A model system of synchronous somatic embryos production combined with encapsulation to synthetic seed was studied in sweet corn (Zea mays var. saccharata). In this study immature zygotic embryo cultured on N6 medium, contained 2, 4-D 2 mg L(-1) and sucrose 60 g L(-1) form the embryogenic callus. Higher 2, 4-D levels did not show increasing in inducing embryogenic callus. If the concentration of 2, 4-D decreased globular-stage, somatic zygote form the roots. Somatic embryo develop without surrounding nutritive tissues and protective seed coat has been devoted to causing somatic embryos to functionally mimic embryo, then was encapsulated by 3% (w/v) sodium alginate with 4-6 mm in diameter. It was found that when synthetic seed were treated with 60 g L(-1) sucrose and stored at 15+/-2 degree Celsius for 2 weeks, the survival rate of synthetic seed were 44%, after 8 days of germination test, it was found that there were 91% of which were normal seedling and 9% were abnormal seedling. This result indicated that there is a possibility in sweet corn synthetic seed production. Anyhow, more research for better technique are further required. PMID:19943466

  1. Electrohydrodynamic drying of carrot slices.

    PubMed

    Ding, Changjiang; Lu, Jun; Song, Zhiqing

    2015-01-01

    Carrots have one of the highest levels of carotene, and they are rich in vitamins, fiber and minerals. However, since fresh carrots wilt rapidly after harvest under inappropriate storage conditions, drying has been used to improve their shelf life and retain nutritional quality. Therefore, to further investigate the potential of this method, carrot slices were dried in an EHD system in order to study the effect of different voltages on drying rate. As measures of quality, carotene content and rehydration ratio were, respectively, compared against the conventional oven drying regime. Carotene, the main component of the dried carrot, and rehydration characteristics of the dried product can both indicate quality by physical and chemical changes during the drying process. Mathematical modeling and simulation of drying curves were also performed, using root mean square error, reduced mean square of the deviation and modeling efficiency as the primary criteria to select the equation that best accounts for the variation in the drying curves of the dried samples. Theoretically, the Page model was best suited for describing the drying rate curve of carrot slices at 10kV to 30kV. Experimentally, the drying rate of carrots was notably greater in the EHD system when compared to control, and quality, as determined by carotene content and rehydration ratio, was also improved when compared to oven drying. Therefore, this work presents a facile and effective strategy for experimentally and theoretically determining the drying properties of carrots, and, as a result, it provides deeper insight into the industrial potential of the EHD drying technique. PMID:25874695

  2. Electrohydrodynamic Drying of Carrot Slices

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Changjiang; Lu, Jun; Song, Zhiqing

    2015-01-01

    Carrots have one of the highest levels of carotene, and they are rich in vitamins, fiber and minerals. However, since fresh carrots wilt rapidly after harvest under inappropriate storage conditions, drying has been used to improve their shelf life and retain nutritional quality. Therefore, to further investigate the potential of this method, carrot slices were dried in an EHD system in order to study the effect of different voltages on drying rate. As measures of quality, carotene content and rehydration ratio were, respectively, compared against the conventional oven drying regime. Carotene, the main component of the dried carrot, and rehydration characteristics of the dried product can both indicate quality by physical and chemical changes during the drying process. Mathematical modeling and simulation of drying curves were also performed, using root mean square error, reduced mean square of the deviation and modeling efficiency as the primary criteria to select the equation that best accounts for the variation in the drying curves of the dried samples. Theoretically, the Page model was best suited for describing the drying rate curve of carrot slices at 10kV to 30kV. Experimentally, the drying rate of carrots was notably greater in the EHD system when compared to control, and quality, as determined by carotene content and rehydration ratio, was also improved when compared to oven drying. Therefore, this work presents a facile and effective strategy for experimentally and theoretically determining the drying properties of carrots, and, as a result, it provides deeper insight into the industrial potential of the EHD drying technique. PMID:25874695

  3. 40 CFR 153.155 - Seed treatment products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seed treatment products. 153.155... REGISTRATION POLICIES AND INTERPRETATIONS Coloration and Discoloration of Pesticides § 153.155 Seed treatment products. (a) Pesticide products intended for use in treating seeds must contain an EPA-approved dye...

  4. 40 CFR 153.155 - Seed treatment products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seed treatment products. 153.155... REGISTRATION POLICIES AND INTERPRETATIONS Coloration and Discoloration of Pesticides § 153.155 Seed treatment products. (a) Pesticide products intended for use in treating seeds must contain an EPA-approved dye...

  5. 40 CFR 153.155 - Seed treatment products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... products. (a) Pesticide products intended for use in treating seeds must contain an EPA-approved dye to... the user to add an EPA-approved dye with the pesticide during the seed treatment process. (2) Products... in form or are used as fumigants. (c) EPA-approved dyes for seed treatment are listed in:...

  6. 40 CFR 153.155 - Seed treatment products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... products. (a) Pesticide products intended for use in treating seeds must contain an EPA-approved dye to... the user to add an EPA-approved dye with the pesticide during the seed treatment process. (2) Products... in form or are used as fumigants. (c) EPA-approved dyes for seed treatment are listed in:...

  7. 40 CFR 153.155 - Seed treatment products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... products. (a) Pesticide products intended for use in treating seeds must contain an EPA-approved dye to... the user to add an EPA-approved dye with the pesticide during the seed treatment process. (2) Products... in form or are used as fumigants. (c) EPA-approved dyes for seed treatment are listed in:...

  8. Cold tolerance, seed production and seed germination of a forage bermudagrass core collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage bermudagrass can be an important perennial warm-season forage for transitional zones of warm and cool season pastures. Cold-tolerant seeded varieties will be especially desirable. A forage bermudagrass core collection was assessed for seed production and seed germination. Also, a replicate...

  9. Plants as biofactories: glyphosate-induced production of shikimic acid and phenolic antioxidants in wounded carrot tissue.

    PubMed

    Becerra-Moreno, Alejandro; Benavides, Jorge; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Jacobo-Velázquez, Daniel A

    2012-11-14

    The use of plants to produce chemical compounds with pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications has intensified in recent years. In this regard, genetic engineering is the most commonly used tool to generate crop lines with enhanced concentrations of desirable chemicals. However, growing genetically modified plants is still limited because they are perceived as potential biological hazards that can create an ecological imbalance. The application of postharvest abiotic stresses on plants induces the accumulation of secondary metabolites and thus can be used as an alternative to genetic modification. The present project evaluated the feasibility of producing shikimic acid (SA) and phenolic compounds (PC) in wounded carrots ( Daucus carota ) treated with glyphosate. The spray application of a concentrated glyphosate solution on wounded carrot tissue increased the concentrations of SA and chlorogenic acid by ∼1735 and ∼5700%, respectively. The results presented herein demonstrate the potential of stressed carrot tissue as a biofactory of SA and PC. PMID:23101679

  10. CULTURAL METHODS FOR ENHANCING WYOMING BIG SAGEBRUSH SEED PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for sagebrush seed is expanding but wildland harvesting is impaired by several factors including loss of stands to weed invasions and fire. To increase the potential for seed production, sagebrush seed harvests were compared among cultural treatments for stands on a coal mine near Glenrock, W...

  11. Life cycle inventory for the production of germinated oil palm seeds at a selected seed production unit in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Ismail, B. S.; Muhamad, Halimah; May, Choo Yuen

    2013-11-01

    The increasing global demand for edible oil has encouraged Malaysia to increase the areas under oil palm cultivation. The total demand for germinated oil palm seeds in the years 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 were 86.4, 76.5, 72.6 and 75.2 million, respectively. Production of germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain. Therefore, good management practices at seed production stage is required to ensure only high quality germinated oil palm seeds are produced before sale to customers. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used as a tool to assess environmental impact of the processes throughout a product's lifespan and this approach is an important tool for assessing green house gas (GHG) emission. For this study, a gate-to-gate life cycle inventory (LCI) of a single germinated oil palm seed production unit was carried out. The functional unit used for this LCI was one germinated oil palm seed. To determine the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm seeds, information on the inputs were obtained. The inputs for the production of germinated oil palm seeds involved materials such as polyethylene bags, electricity, water, chemicals and fungicides. For this study, the system boundary involved seed germination process and management of germinated oil palm seeds. It was found that the amount of input such as materials and energy used in the production of germinated oil palm seeds was very minimal.

  12. Seed potato production system in Japan, starting from foundation seed of potato

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Tsukasa; Oohori, Hidemiki; Tajima, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Potato is one of the staple crops cultivated in upland farming in Japan and is propagated vegetatively by means of tubers. However once infected with diseases, potato yield decreases significantly. And one seed potato can produce approximately only 10 potato tubers. To improve the production system of seed potatoes in Japan, Japanese government established a three-stage propagation system for the production and distribution of healthy and disease-free seed potatoes. The National Center for Seeds and Seedlings (NCSS) has a role for the production of foundation seed potatoes and strictly manages the production in isolated fields that are treated thoroughly to control pests and diseases. Recently though the distribution of foundation seed potatoes is decreasing, the number of varieties of foundation seed potatoes has increased steadily. And new varieties of potato adapted various requirements, including resistance of the golden potato cyst nematode, have been increasing. Therefore, NCSS is introducing a new method of producing minitubers (MnTs) by using hydroponic cultivation greenhouse to increase the efficiency of propagation and to rapidly disseminate these new potato varieties. In this review, we describe a seed potato production system in Japan and the production of foundation seed potatoes as an important role of NCSS. PMID:25931977

  13. Seed potato production system in Japan, starting from foundation seed of potato.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Tsukasa; Oohori, Hidemiki; Tajima, Kazuyuki

    2015-03-01

    Potato is one of the staple crops cultivated in upland farming in Japan and is propagated vegetatively by means of tubers. However once infected with diseases, potato yield decreases significantly. And one seed potato can produce approximately only 10 potato tubers. To improve the production system of seed potatoes in Japan, Japanese government established a three-stage propagation system for the production and distribution of healthy and disease-free seed potatoes. The National Center for Seeds and Seedlings (NCSS) has a role for the production of foundation seed potatoes and strictly manages the production in isolated fields that are treated thoroughly to control pests and diseases. Recently though the distribution of foundation seed potatoes is decreasing, the number of varieties of foundation seed potatoes has increased steadily. And new varieties of potato adapted various requirements, including resistance of the golden potato cyst nematode, have been increasing. Therefore, NCSS is introducing a new method of producing minitubers (MnTs) by using hydroponic cultivation greenhouse to increase the efficiency of propagation and to rapidly disseminate these new potato varieties. In this review, we describe a seed potato production system in Japan and the production of foundation seed potatoes as an important role of NCSS. PMID:25931977

  14. Feasibility of Seed Production from Non-flowering Orchardgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-flowering or sparse flowering orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) would greatly simplify management of intensive rotational grazing systems. Our objective was to quantify seed production on non-flowering orchardgrass clones selected in cold-winter climates, but grown for seed in mild-winter cl...

  15. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-01-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change. PMID:27073598

  16. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds.

    PubMed

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-12-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change. PMID:27073598

  17. Pollen- and Seed-Mediated Transgene Flow in Commercial Cotton Seed Production Fields

    PubMed Central

    Heuberger, Shannon; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Carrière, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Background Characterizing the spatial patterns of gene flow from transgenic crops is challenging, making it difficult to design containment strategies for markets that regulate the adventitious presence of transgenes. Insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton is planted on millions of hectares annually and is a potential source of transgene flow. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we monitored 15 non-Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.) seed production fields (some transgenic for herbicide resistance, some not) for gene flow of the Bt cotton cry1Ac transgene. We investigated seed-mediated gene flow, which yields adventitious Bt cotton plants, and pollen-mediated gene flow, which generates outcrossed seeds. A spatially-explicit statistical analysis was used to quantify the effects of nearby Bt and non-Bt cotton fields at various spatial scales, along with the effects of pollinator abundance and adventitious Bt plants in fields, on pollen-mediated gene flow. Adventitious Bt cotton plants, resulting from seed bags and planting error, comprised over 15% of plants sampled from the edges of three seed production fields. In contrast, pollen-mediated gene flow affected less than 1% of the seed sampled from field edges. Variation in outcrossing was better explained by the area of Bt cotton fields within 750 m of the seed production fields than by the area of Bt cotton within larger or smaller spatial scales. Variation in outcrossing was also positively associated with the abundance of honey bees. Conclusions/Significance A comparison of statistical methods showed that our spatially-explicit analysis was more powerful for understanding the effects of surrounding fields than customary models based on distance. Given the low rates of pollen-mediated gene flow observed in this study, we conclude that careful planting and screening of seeds could be more important than field spacing for limiting gene flow. PMID:21152426

  18. Integrated utilization of red radish seeds for the efficient production of seed oil and sulforaphene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Xing; Fu, Min

    2016-02-01

    Supercritical CO2 was used to obtain seed oil from red radish seeds. The influence of pressure, temperature, CO2 flow rate and time on extraction yield of oil were investigated in detail. The maximum extraction yield of oil was 92.07 ± 0.76% at the optimal extraction conditions. The physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of oil indicated that the seed oil can be used as a dietary oil. Meanwhile, the high purity sulforaphene (96.84 ± 0.17%) was separated by solvent extraction coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography from red radish seed meal. The initial pH, R, extraction temperature and extraction time for each cycle had a considerable influence both on the extraction yield and purity of sulforaphene of crude product. The extraction of oil was directly responsible for an increase of 18.32% in the yield of sulforaphene. PMID:26304382

  19. Ionic thiocyanate (SCN(-)) production, fate, and phytotoxicity in soil amended with Brassicaceae seed meals.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Daniel; Morra, Matthew J; Borek, Vladimir; Snyder, André J; Johnson-Maynard, Jodi L; Thill, Donald C

    2008-06-11

    Brassicaceae seed meals produce ionic thiocyanate (SCN (-)), a bioherbicidal compound. This study determined the fate of SCN (-) in a field soil amended with seed meals of Sinapis alba, Brassica juncea, and Brassica napus and quantified crop phytotoxicity by monitoring carrot ( Daucus carota) emergence. Meals were applied at 1 or 2 t ha (-1), and soils were sampled to 35 cm for SCN (-). Maximum SCN (-) (211 micromol kg (-1) of soil) was measured at 5 days in 0-5 cm samples from plots amended with S. alba meal at 2 t ha (-1). Less than 30 micromol of SCN (-) kg (-1) of soil was measured at soil depths below 15 cm. At 44 days, SCN (-) was <15 micromol kg (-1) of soil in all treatments. Emergence inhibition of carrots seeded 15-36 days after meal amendment was found only in S. alba treatments. The rapid decrease of SCN (-) concentrations in Brassicaceae meal-amended soil indicates limited potential for off-site environmental impacts. PMID:18442242

  20. Inheritance and mapping of Mj-2, a new source of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) resistance in carrot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root-knot nematodes limit carrot production around the world by inducing taproot forking and galling deformities that render carrots unmarketable. In warmer climates, Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita are most prevalent. In F2 and F3 progeny from the cross between an Asian carrot resistant to M....

  1. Preparation of protein concentrates from whey and seed products

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, R.M.; Kohler, G.O.

    1980-01-01

    Whey is mixed with a seed product (e.g., cereal, legumes, oil seeds, flour, etc.) and the pH of the mixture adjusted to 9-10. The resultant mixture is treated to separate a juice from the fibrous residue; in a preferred embodiment of the subsequent process, a protein concentrate is recovered from the juice by adding an acid to it to adjust the pH to 3-4 and subsequently adding sodium hexametaphosphate in an amount sufficient to precipitate the protein product. After adjustment of the pH to 7, a protein concentrate may be obtained by drying the alkaline extract.

  2. CarrotDB: a genomic and transcriptomic database for carrot.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Tan, Hua-Wei; Wang, Feng; Hou, Xi-Lin; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is an economically important vegetable worldwide and is the largest source of carotenoids and provitamin A in the human diet. Given the importance of this vegetable to humans, research and breeding communities on carrot should obtain useful genomic and transcriptomic information. The first whole-genome sequences of 'DC-27' carrot were de novo assembled and analyzed. Transcriptomic sequences of 14 carrot genotypes were downloaded from the Sequence Read Archive (SRA) database of National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and mapped to the whole-genome sequence before assembly. Based on these data sets, the first Web-based genomic and transcriptomic database for D. carota (CarrotDB) was developed (database homepage: http://apiaceae.njau.edu.cn/car rotdb). CarrotDB offers the tools of Genome Map and Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. Using these tools, users can search certain target genes and simple sequence repeats along with designed primers of 'DC-27'. Assembled transcriptomic sequences along with fragments per kilobase of transcript sequence per millions base pairs sequenced information (FPKM) information of 14 carrot genotypes are also provided. Users can download de novo assembled whole-genome sequences, putative gene sequences and putative protein sequences of 'DC-27'. Users can also download transcriptome sequence assemblies of 14 carrot genotypes along with their FPKM information. A total of 2826 transcription factor (TF) genes classified into 57 families were identified in the entire genome sequences. These TF genes were embedded in CarrotDB as an interface. The 'GERMPLASM' part of CarrotDB also offers taproot photos of 45 carrot genotypes and a table containing accession numbers, names, countries of origin and colors of cortex, phloem and xylem parts of taproots corresponding to each carrot genotype. CarrotDB will be continuously updated with new information. Database URL: http://apiaceae.njau.edu.cn/carrotdb/ PMID

  3. Carrot yellow leaf virus Is Associated with Carrot Internal Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Ian P.; Skelton, Anna; Macarthur, Roy; Hodges, Tobias; Hinds, Howard; Flint, Laura; Nath, Palash Deb; Boonham, Neil; Fox, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Internal necrosis of carrot has been observed in UK carrots for at least 10 years, and has been anecdotally linked to virus infection. In the 2009 growing season some growers had up to 10% of yield with these symptoms. Traditional diagnostic methods are targeted towards specific pathogens. By using a metagenomic approach with high throughput sequencing technology, other, as yet unidentified causes of root necrosis were investigated. Additionally a statistical analysis has shown which viruses are most closely associated with disease symptoms. Carrot samples were collected from a crop exhibiting root necrosis (102 Affected: 99 Unaffected) and tested for the presence of the established carrot viruses: Carrot red leaf virus (CtRLV), Carrot mottle virus (CMoV), Carrot red leaf associated viral RNA (CtRLVaRNA) and Parsnip yellow fleck virus (PYFV). The presence of these viruses was not associated with symptomatic carrot roots either as single viruses or in combinations. A sub-sample of carrots of mixed symptom status was subjected to MiSeq sequencing. The results from these tests suggested Carrot yellow leaf virus (CYLV) was associated with symptomatic roots. Additionally a novel Torradovirus, a novel Closterovirus and two novel Betaflexiviradae related plant viruses were detected. A specific diagnostic test was designed for CYLV. Of the 102 affected carrots, 98% were positive for CYLV compared to 22% of the unaffected carrots. From these data we conclude that although we have yet to practically demonstrate a causal link, CYLV appears to be strongly associated with the presence of necrosis of carrots. PMID:25365290

  4. Use a rabbit or a rhino to sell a carrot? The effect of character-product congruence on children's liking of healthy foods.

    PubMed

    de Droog, Simone M; Buijzen, Moniek; Valkenburg, Patti M

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether unfamiliar characters are as effective as familiar characters in stimulating children's affective responses toward healthy foods. In particular, the authors investigated whether an unfamiliar character which is congruent with a product can be as effective as a familiar character. The authors tested 2 types of character-product congruence: conceptual congruence (on the basis of a familiar link), and perceptual congruence (on the basis of color similarity). In a repeated measures design, 166 children (4-6 years old) were exposed to a picture of a carrot combined randomly with 5 different types of character: an (incongruent) familiar character and four unfamiliar characters varying in character-product congruence (i.e., both conceptually and perceptually congruent, conceptual only, perceptual only, and incongruent). The authors measured children's automatic affective responses toward these character-product combinations using a time-constrained task, and elaborate affective responses using a nonconstrained task. Results revealed that the conceptually congruent unfamiliar characters were just as effective as the familiar character in increasing children's automatic affective responses. However, the familiar character triggered the most positive elaborate affective responses. Results are explained in light of processing fluency and parasocial relationship theories. PMID:22650613

  5. Indirect Effects of Field Management on Pollination Service and Seed Set in Hybrid Onion Seed Production.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Sandra; Long, Rachael; Williams, Neal

    2015-12-01

    Pollination in crops, as in native ecosystems, is a stepwise process that can be disrupted at any stage. Healthy pollinator populations are critical for adequate visitation, but pollination still might fail if crop management interferes with the attraction and retention of pollinators. Farmers must balance the direct benefits of applying insecticide and managing irrigation rates against their potential to indirectly interfere with the pollination process. We investigated these issues in hybrid onion seed production, where previous research has shown that high insecticide use reduces pollinator attraction. We conducted field surveys of soil moisture, nectar production, pollinator visitation, pollen-stigma interactions, and seed set at multiple commercial fields across 2 yr. We then examined how management actions, such as irrigation rate (approximated by soil moisture), or insecticide use could affect the pollination process. Onions produced maximum nectar at intermediate soil moisture, and high nectar production attracted more pollinators. Insecticide use weakly affected pollinator visitation, but when applied close to bloom reduced pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Ultimately, neither soil moisture nor insecticide use directly affected seed set, but the high correlation between pollinator visitation and seed set suggests that crop management will ultimately affect yields via indirect effects on the pollination process. PMID:26470371

  6. 7 CFR 201.72 - Production of all classes of certified seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production of all classes of certified seed. 201.72... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.72 Production of all classes of certified...

  7. 7 CFR 201.72 - Production of all classes of certified seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production of all classes of certified seed. 201.72... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.72 Production of all classes of certified...

  8. 7 CFR 201.72 - Production of all classes of certified seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production of all classes of certified seed. 201.72... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.72 Production of all classes of certified...

  9. 7 CFR 201.72 - Production of all classes of certified seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production of all classes of certified seed. 201.72... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.72 Production of all classes of certified...

  10. 7 CFR 201.72 - Production of all classes of certified seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production of all classes of certified seed. 201.72... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.72 Production of all classes of certified...

  11. Somatic proembryo production from excised, wounded zygotic carrot embryos on hormone-free medium: evaluation of the effects of pH, ethylene and activated charcoal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. L.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    Wounded zygotic embryos of cultivated carrot produce somatic proembryos on hormone-free nutrient medium containing 1 mM NH4+ as the sole nitrogen source. Continued maintenance of proembryos on this medium leads to a "pure" culture of preglobular stage proembryos (PGSPs). Ethylene had no effect on this process. Also, somatic embryo production was not affected by growing cultures on activated charcoal-impregnated filter papers. However, somatic proembyros initiated on activated charcoal papers were not maintainable as PGSPs and developed into later embryo stages. Normally, medium pH dropped from 5.7 to 4 during each subculture period, but when using activated charcoal papers the pH endpoint was around 6 - 7 due to a leachable substance(s) within the filter papers. When powdered, activated charcoal was used in the medium as an adsorbent of products potentially released after wounding, pH dropped at the normal rate and to the expected levels; proembryos did not mature into later embryo stages and were maintainable exclusively as PGSPs. Low pH (approximately 4) is detrimental to proembyro production, but is essential to maintaining PGSPs on hormone-free nutrient medium, whereas a sustained pH > or = 5.7 allows continued development of PGSPs into later embryo stages.

  12. Cultural practices in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) affect weed seed production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Billions of dollars are lost annually due to weeds or weed control, but weeds persist. Successful weed management systems must reduce weed populations. The objectives of this research were to 1) determine if cotton row spacing has an impact on weed growth and seed production and 2) evaluate the infl...

  13. Competencies Needed by Seed Production and Distribution Company Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Charles Kendall

    To determine competencies needed by employees in the seed production and distribution industry, a questionnaire containing 49 competencies was compiled with the assistance of specialists and mailed to 100 company managers and 200 nonmanagerial employees. Returns from the 200 usable questionnaires indicate that the competencies needed most by…

  14. Seed Production from Non-flowering Orchardgrass: Proof of Concept

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-flowering or sparse flowering orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) would greatly simplify management of intensive rotational grazing systems in which flowering stems are an impediment to efficient pasture utilization. Our objective was to quantify seed production on non-flowering orchardgrass c...

  15. Allium acuminatum Seed Production: First Look at Cultural Parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a report on the first year data for a two year project assessing seed production parameters for the native forb Allium acuminatum. As a component of greater sage-grouse and Southern Idaho ground squirrel habitat, Allium acuminatum Hook. (Taper-tip onion) has been targeted for use in restor...

  16. Ketocarotenoid Production in Soybean Seeds through Metabolic Engineering.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Emily C; LaFayette, Peter R; Ortega, María A; Joyce, Blake L; Kopsell, Dean A; Parrott, Wayne A

    2015-01-01

    The pink or red ketocarotenoids, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin, are used as feed additives in the poultry and aquaculture industries as a source of egg yolk and flesh pigmentation, as farmed animals do not have access to the carotenoid sources of their wild counterparts. Because soybean is already an important component in animal feed, production of these carotenoids in soybean could be a cost-effective means of delivery. In order to characterize the ability of soybean seed to produce carotenoids, soybean cv. Jack was transformed with the crtB gene from Pantoea ananatis, which codes for phytoene synthase, an enzyme which catalyzes the first committed step in the carotenoid pathway. The crtB gene was engineered together in combinations with ketolase genes (crtW from Brevundimonas sp. strain SD212 and bkt1 from Haematococcus pluvialis) to produce ketocarotenoids; all genes were placed under the control of seed-specific promoters. HPLC results showed that canthaxanthin is present in the transgenic seeds at levels up to 52 μg/g dry weight. Transgenic seeds also accumulated other compounds in the carotenoid pathway, such as astaxanthin, lutein, β-carotene, phytoene, α-carotene, lycopene, and β-cryptoxanthin, whereas lutein was the only one of these detected in non-transgenic seeds. The accumulation of astaxanthin, which requires a β-carotene hydroxylase in addition to a β-carotene ketolase, in the transgenic seeds suggests that an endogenous soybean enzyme is able to work in combination with the ketolase transgene. Soybean seeds that accumulate ketocarotenoids could potentially be used in animal feed to reduce or eliminate the need for the costly addition of these compounds. PMID:26376481

  17. Ketocarotenoid Production in Soybean Seeds through Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Emily C.; LaFayette, Peter R.; Ortega, María A.; Joyce, Blake L.; Kopsell, Dean A.; Parrott, Wayne A.

    2015-01-01

    The pink or red ketocarotenoids, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin, are used as feed additives in the poultry and aquaculture industries as a source of egg yolk and flesh pigmentation, as farmed animals do not have access to the carotenoid sources of their wild counterparts. Because soybean is already an important component in animal feed, production of these carotenoids in soybean could be a cost-effective means of delivery. In order to characterize the ability of soybean seed to produce carotenoids, soybean cv. Jack was transformed with the crtB gene from Pantoea ananatis, which codes for phytoene synthase, an enzyme which catalyzes the first committed step in the carotenoid pathway. The crtB gene was engineered together in combinations with ketolase genes (crtW from Brevundimonas sp. strain SD212 and bkt1 from Haematococcus pluvialis) to produce ketocarotenoids; all genes were placed under the control of seed-specific promoters. HPLC results showed that canthaxanthin is present in the transgenic seeds at levels up to 52 μg/g dry weight. Transgenic seeds also accumulated other compounds in the carotenoid pathway, such as astaxanthin, lutein, β-carotene, phytoene, α-carotene, lycopene, and β-cryptoxanthin, whereas lutein was the only one of these detected in non-transgenic seeds. The accumulation of astaxanthin, which requires a β-carotene hydroxylase in addition to a β-carotene ketolase, in the transgenic seeds suggests that an endogenous soybean enzyme is able to work in combination with the ketolase transgene. Soybean seeds that accumulate ketocarotenoids could potentially be used in animal feed to reduce or eliminate the need for the costly addition of these compounds. PMID:26376481

  18. Seed Production Affects Maternal Growth and Senescence in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wuest, Samuel Elias; Philipp, Matthias Anton; Guthörl, Daniela; Schmid, Bernhard; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2016-05-01

    Correlative control (influence of one organ over another organ) of seeds over maternal growth is one of the most obvious phenotypic expressions of the trade-off between growth and reproduction. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we characterize the physiological and molecular effects of correlative inhibition by seeds on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inflorescences, i.e. global proliferative arrest (GPA) during which all maternal growth ceases upon the production of a given number of seeds. We observed transcriptional responses to growth- and branching-inhibitory hormones, and low mitotic activity in meristems upon GPA, but found that meristems retain their identity and proliferative potential. In shoot tissues, we detected the induction of stress- and senescence-related gene expression upon fruit production and GPA, and a drop in chlorophyll levels, suggestive of altered source-sink relationships between vegetative shoot and reproductive tissues. Levels of shoot reactive oxygen species, however, strongly decreased upon GPA, a phenomenon that is associated with bud dormancy in some perennials. Indeed, gene expression changes in arrested apical inflorescences after fruit removal resembled changes observed in axillary buds following release from apical dominance. This suggests that GPA represents a form of bud dormancy, and that dominance is gradually transferred from growing inflorescences to maturing seeds, allowing offspring control over maternal resources, simultaneously restricting offspring number. This would provide a mechanistic explanation for the constraint between offspring quality and quantity. PMID:27009281

  19. Estimating seed production of common plants in seasonally flooded wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laubhan, Murray K.; Fredrickson, Leigh H.

    1992-01-01

    We developed a technique to quickly estimate seed production of common moist-soil plants because previously reported methods were too time consuming to be of value to waterfowl resource managers. Eleven regression equations were developed for 13 plant species in the upper Mississippi Alluvial Valley and the Rio Grande Valley, New Mexico. Estimated time to collect a sample was 1.5 minutes. Easily measured vegetation characteristics such as inflorescence number, inflorescence length, and plant height were used as independent variables to estimate seed mass of known mass samples. Coefficients of determination (R2) ranged from 0.79 for rice flatsedge (Cyperus iria) to 0.96 for smartweeds (Polygonum spp.). The accuracy and precision of equations tested using independent data indicate that the technique can be used to detect changes in seed mass of moist-soil plants in seasonally flooded impoundments. Because of the small sample area per plot used (0.0625 m2) and changes in the density of plants within an impoundment, we recommend that as many samples as economically feasible be collected to reliably estimate seed production.

  20. Development and quality evaluation of honey based carrot candy.

    PubMed

    Durrani, Anisa Musarath; Srivastava, P K; Verma, Sangeeta

    2011-08-01

    Candy was prepared with 3 different combinations of honey and carrot by using 750 g honey + 1,000 g carrot (T1), 1,000 g honey + 1,000 g carrot (T2) and 1,250 g honey + 1,000 g carrot (T3). To establish the best product, sensory evaluation was done on 9-point Hedonic scale. T1 was found to be most preferred candy. Further the T1 candy was assessed for overall quality during storage at room temperature (25-30 °C) for 6 months. Candy can be preserved safely for 6 months in both glass and LDPE packaging materials. PMID:23572779

  1. Characterization of volatile production during storage of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The duration that seeds stay vigorous during storage is difficult to predict but critical to seed industry and conservation communities. Production of volatile compounds from lettuce seeds during storage was investigated as a non-invasive and early detection method of seed aging rates. Over thirty...

  2. Recent advance in carrot genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years there has been an effort towards the development of genomic resources in carrot. The number of available sequences for carrot in public databases has increased recently. This has allowed the design of SSRs markers, COS markers and a high-throughput SNP assay for genotyping. Additiona...

  3. Genomics and genetic improvement of carrot pigments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The color of carrots was an important attribute during its domestication as a root crop. Modern carrot researchers continue to include color as a major breeding attribute so that the carotene content of U.S. carrots is 70% higher today than 30 years ago. Carrot breeding stocks have been developed wi...

  4. 7 CFR 52.1842 - Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds. 52.1842 Section 52.1842 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL... Raisins 1 § 52.1842 Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds. Raisins with Seeds...

  5. 7 CFR 52.1842 - Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds. 52.1842 Section 52.1842 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL... Raisins 1 § 52.1842 Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds. Raisins with Seeds...

  6. 7 CFR 52.1842 - Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds. 52.1842 Section 52.1842 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL... Raisins 1 § 52.1842 Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds. Raisins with Seeds...

  7. The next generation of carotenoid studies in carrot (Daucus carota L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange carrot (Daucus carota L.) is one of the richest sources of naturally occurring ß-carotene while red and yellow carrot varieties contain large quantities of lycopene and lutein. The human body utilizes carotenoids, particularly ß-carotene (provitamin A) as a precursor for the production of ret...

  8. Effect of seeding density on biomass production in mussel bottom culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelle, Jacob J.; Wijsman, Jeroen W. M.; van Stralen, Marnix R.; Herman, Peter M. J.; Smaal, Aad C.

    2016-04-01

    Effects of seeding density on biomass production in mussel bottom culture are investigated by detailed monitoring of culture practice in the western Wadden Sea, The Netherlands. The seeds originate from different sources. The seeds differ in size and farmers apply seeding techniques dependent on the seed size resulting in different seed densities on the culture plots. We hypothesise growth to be density dependent and that biomass production is primarily determined by survival and is therefore a function of seed density which is related to the activities of the farmers. Data was collected from 42 different culture plots over a three year period (June 2009-June 2012). During this period, 66 sub-populations were followed from seeding until harvest. Seeding at the start of the culture resulted in an instantaneous drop in biomass production, caused by large losses in mussel number. These losses were on average 42% of the mussels seeded. This seeding loss decreased with mussel size and increased with seeding density. A subsequent density dependent loss of 1.8 mussels per day was found for smaller mussels (< 30 mm), and a non-density dependent loss of 0.8 mussels per day for larger mussels (> 30 mm) during grow out. Overall loss from seeding to harvest was high, from 92% for the smallest seeds collected from spat collectors, to 54% for half-grown mussels fished from natural beds in the spring. No indication was found that growth or mussel condition was affected by culture plot scale density. Growth was dependent on mussel size and age, and this largely determined the differences in biomass production between seed sources. The density dependent seeding loss associated with seeding activities largely determined survival, and hence overall biomass production.

  9. Herbivore and Fungal Pathogen Exclusion Affects the Seed Production of Four Common Grassland Species

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Timothy L.; Mitchell, Charles E.

    2010-01-01

    Insect herbivores and fungal pathogens can independently affect plant fitness, and may have interactive effects. However, few studies have experimentally quantified the joint effects of insects and fungal pathogens on seed production in non-agricultural populations. We examined the factorial effects of insect herbivore exclusion (via insecticide) and fungal pathogen exclusion (via fungicide) on the population-level seed production of four common graminoid species (Andropogon gerardii, Schizachyrium scoparium, Poa pratensis, and Carex siccata) over two growing seasons in Minnesota, USA. We detected no interactive effects of herbivores and pathogens on seed production. However, the seed production of all four species was affected by either insecticide or fungicide in at least one year of the study. Insecticide consistently doubled the seed production of the historically most common species in the North American tallgrass prairie, A. gerardii (big bluestem). This is the first report of insect removal increasing seed production in this species. Insecticide increased A. gerardii number of seeds per seed head in one year, and mass per seed in both years, suggesting that consumption of flowers and seed embryos contributed to the effect on seed production. One of the primary insect species consuming A. gerardii flowers and seed embryos was likely the Cecidomyiid midge, Contarinia wattsi. Effects on all other plant species varied among years. Herbivores and pathogens likely reduce the dispersal and colonization ability of plants when they reduce seed output. Therefore, impacts on seed production of competitive dominant species may help to explain their relatively poor colonization abilities. Reduced seed output by dominant graminoids may thereby promote coexistence with subdominant species through competition-colonization tradeoffs. PMID:20711408

  10. Vegetable product containing caseinomacropeptide and germinated seed and sprouts.

    PubMed

    Karakaya, Sibel; El, Sedef Nehir; Simsek, Sebnem; Buyukkestelli, Hulya Ilyasoglu

    2016-01-01

    In this study vegetable product containing germinated seed and sprouts of lentils and cowpeas, and caseinomacropeptide isolated from whey is produced. Three different forms of vegetable product namely puree (VP), freeze-dried (FD) and drum-dried (DD) are produced. Freeze-dried and DD forms are produced to diversify forms of utilization and to improve functionality such as increased shelf life and decreased storage space. Their beneficial effects on health are determined using in vitro methods. All forms displayed antioxidant activities against DPPH radical and oxygen radical, α-amylase inhibitory activities, bile acid binding capacities, and angiotension converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities. Freeze-dried product exhibited the strongest inhibition on α-amylase and ACE with the IC50 value 0.09 μM total phenolic and 0.82 mg protein/g sample, respectively when evaluated on the basis of serving size. PMID:26788011

  11. Phytotoxicity assay for seed production using Brassica rapa L.

    PubMed

    Olszyk, David; Pfleeger, Thomas; Lee, E Henry; Plocher, Milton

    2010-10-01

    Although pesticide drift can affect crop yield adversely, current plant testing protocols emphasize only the potential impacts on vegetative plant growth. The present study was conducted to determine whether a plant species with a short life cycle, such as Brassica rapa L. Wisconsin Fast Plants®, can be used to indicate potential effects on seed production of herbicides applied at relatively low levels (e.g., low field application rates [FAR]). The effects of ≤0.1 × FAR of aminopyralid, cloransulam, glyphosate, primisulfuron, or sulfometuron applied 14 d after emergence (DAE), were evaluated for B. rapa grown in mineral soil in pots under greenhouse conditions. Effects were expressed as the effective concentration of the herbicide producing a 25% reduction in a response (EC25) based on nonlinear regression. Brassica rapa seed dry weight was reduced by sulfometuron at an EC25 of 0.00014 × a field application rate (FAR) of 53 g active ingredient (a.i.) ha(-1), primisulfuron at 0.008 (experiment 1) or 0.0050 (experiment 2) × FAR of 40 g a.i. ha(-1), cloransulam at 0.022 × FAR of 18 g a.i. ha(-1), glyphosate at 0.0399 × FAR of 834 g a.i. ha(-1), and by aminopyralid at 0.005 × FAR of 123 g a.i. ha(-1), but only for 1 of 2 experiments. Reduced seed production occurred at less than the FAR that reduced shoot dry weight with sulfometuron and primisulfuron, whereas neither aminopyralid, cloransulam, nor glyphosate affected shoot dry weight. A short life cycle form of B. rapa could be used to indicate reduced seed production with plants grown only 1 week longer (∼35 DAE) than as the current vegetative vigor test for nontarget herbicide effects on plants. PMID:20872651

  12. SUSTAINABILITY IN SEED PRODUCTION ENTERPRISES – WHAT WE’VE LEARNED

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 18 years of field studies comparing water and soil quality along with seed yield in conservation and conventional grass seed production systems is described. In many cases, minimum tillage and direct seeding approaches could be successfully implemented in these systems, and that their implemen...

  13. 7 CFR 52.1842 - Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds. 52.1842 Section 52.1842 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL... seeds. Raisins with Seeds that are referred to as Layer or Cluster raisins means that the raisins...

  14. 7 CFR 52.1842 - Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds. 52.1842 Section 52.1842 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL... seeds. Raisins with Seeds that are referred to as Layer or Cluster raisins means that the raisins...

  15. Structural and functional properties of hemp seed protein products.

    PubMed

    Malomo, Sunday A; He, Rong; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2014-08-01

    The effects of pH and protein concentration on some structural and functional properties of hemp seed protein isolate (HPI, 84.15% protein content) and defatted hemp seed protein meal (HPM, 44.32% protein content) were determined. The HPI had minimum protein solubility (PS) at pH 4.0, which increased as pH was decreased or increased. In contrast, the HPM had minimum PS at pH 3.0, which increased at higher pH values. Gel electrophoresis showed that some of the high molecular weight proteins (>45 kDa) present in HPM were not well extracted by the alkali and were absent or present in low ratio in the HPI polypeptide profile. The amino acid composition showed that the isolation process increased the Arg/Lys ratio of HPI (5.52%) when compared to HPM (3.35%). Intrinsic fluorescence and circular dichroism data indicate that the HPI proteins had a well-defined structure at pH 3.0, which was lost as pH value increased. The differences in structural conformation of HPI at different pH values were reflected as better foaming capacity at pH 3.0 when compared to pH 5.0, 7.0, and 9.0. At 10 and 25 mg/mL protein concentrations, emulsions formed by the HPM had smaller oil droplet sizes (higher quality), when compared to the HPI-formed emulsions. In contrast at 50 mg/mL protein concentration, the HPI-formed emulsions had smaller oil droplet sizes (except at pH 3.0). We conclude that the functional properties of hemp seed protein products are dependent on structural conformations as well as protein concentration and pH. PMID:25048774

  16. Weed management research in alfalfa seed production in Washington state

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control is an important component of producing high quality and high yielding alfalfa seed. Alfalfa seed is produced with wider row and lower plant populations than alfalfa forage requiring greater weed management inputs. Flumioxazin was evaluated for weed control in alfalfa seed and forage pro...

  17. Effectiveness of some substances in the control of carrot and parsley roots against fungal diseases.

    PubMed

    Nawrocki, Jacek

    2007-01-01

    Field experiments were carried out in the years 2005 and 2006 on carrot cv. 'Koral' and 'Perfekcja', and parsley cv. 'Berlinska' and 'Cukrowa'. Effectiveness of substances: Biochikol 020 PC (biologically active substances BAS--chitosan 20 g/dm3), Bioczos BR (extract of garlic 10 g/1 brick) and Biosept 33 SL (extract of grapefruit 33%) on seedling roots of carrot and parsley was studied. As the standard fungicide Zaprawa Funaben T (carbendazim 20% + tiuram 45%) was used. Roots of carrot and parsley were treated one of tested substances spring immediately before planting seedling roots. During vegetation period the growth of seedling shoots and setting of seeds, and their infestation by fungal and bacterial pathogens was noticed. Among substances used for spring dressing of carrot and also parsley seedling roots, the best efficacy exhibited Zaprawa Funaben T in both years of observation. The highest yield of carrot seeds had combination roots cv. 'Koral' and parsley seeds roots cvs 'Berlińska' and 'Cukrowa' dressed Zaprawa Funaben T. Effectiveness of biopreparates Biochikol and Biosept was lower in comparison with the standard fungicide, but their protective effect was significantly higher than in control. Bioczos had the lowest control efficacy. PMID:18396816

  18. 21 CFR 73.300 - Carrot oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carrot oil. 73.300 Section 73.300 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.300 Carrot oil. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive carrot oil is the liquid or the solid portion of the mixture or the mixture itself obtained by the...

  19. 21 CFR 73.300 - Carrot oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carrot oil. 73.300 Section 73.300 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.300 Carrot oil. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive carrot oil is the liquid or the solid portion of the mixture or the mixture itself obtained by the...

  20. 21 CFR 73.300 - Carrot oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carrot oil. 73.300 Section 73.300 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.300 Carrot oil. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive carrot oil is the liquid or the solid portion of the mixture or the mixture itself obtained by the...

  1. 21 CFR 73.300 - Carrot oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carrot oil. 73.300 Section 73.300 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.300 Carrot oil. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive carrot oil is the liquid or the solid portion of the mixture or the mixture itself obtained by the...

  2. 21 CFR 73.300 - Carrot oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carrot oil. 73.300 Section 73.300 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.300 Carrot oil. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive carrot oil is the liquid or the solid portion of the mixture or the mixture itself obtained by the...

  3. The demography of wild carrot in Wisconsin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild carrot was likely introduced to North America as a weed from Europe. It has spread since its introduction, now occurs in every state and has been declared invasive. Because wild carrot can easily hybridize with cultivated carrots, is an outcrosser and is pollinated by various insects, the intro...

  4. Identification and Characterization of Terpene Synthases Potentially Involved in the Formation of Volatile Terpenes in Carrot (Daucus carota L.) Roots.

    PubMed

    Yahyaa, Mosaab; Tholl, Dorothea; Cormier, Guy; Jensen, Roderick; Simon, Philipp W; Ibdah, Mwafaq

    2015-05-20

    Plants produce an excess of volatile organic compounds, which are important in determining the quality and nutraceutical properties of fruit and root crops, including the taste and aroma of carrots (Daucus carota L.). A combined chemical, biochemical, and molecular study was conducted to evaluate the differential accumulation of volatile terpenes in a diverse collection of fresh carrots (D. carota L.). Here, we report on a transcriptome-based identification and functional characterization of two carrot terpene synthases, the sesquiterpene synthase, DcTPS1, and the monoterpene synthase, DcTPS2. Recombinant DcTPS1 protein produces mainly (E)-β-caryophyllene, the predominant sesquiterpene in carrot roots, and α-humulene, while recombinant DcTPS2 functions as a monoterpene synthase with geraniol as the main product. Both genes are differentially transcribed in different cultivars and during carrot root development. Our results suggest a role for DcTPS genes in carrot aroma biosynthesis. PMID:25924989

  5. Foraging range of honey bees, Apis mellifera, in alfalfa seed production fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted in 2006 and 2007 designed to examine the foraging range of honey bees, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in a 15.2 km2 area dominated by a 128.9 ha glyphosate-resistant Roundup Ready® alfalfa seed production field and several non-Roundup Ready seed production fields (totalin...

  6. Genetic Dissection of Seed Production Traits and Identification of a Major-Effect Seed Retention QTL in Hybrid Leymus (Triticeae) Wildryes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many native grasses display seed shattering and other seed production problems. Basin wildrye (Leymus cinereus) and creeping wildrye (L. triticoides) are perennial Triticeae grasses native to western North America. In this study, variation in the number of florets per inflorescence, percent seed s...

  7. Pea (Pisum sativum) seed production as an assay for reproductive effects due to herbicides.

    PubMed

    Olszyk, David; Pfleeger, Thomas; Lee, E Henry; Plocher, Milton

    2009-09-01

    Even though herbicide drift can affect plant reproduction, current plant testing protocols emphasize effects on vegetative growth. In this study, we determined whether a short-growing season plant can indicate potential effects of herbicides on seed production. Pea (Pisum sativum cv. Dakota) plants were grown in mineral soil in pots under greenhouse conditions. Plants were treated with a variety of herbicides (dicamba, clopyralid, glufosinate, glyphosate, 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, primisulfuron, or sulfometuron) at below standard field application rates applied at a vegetative stage of growth (approximately 14 d after emergence) or at flowering (approximately 20 d after emergence). Pea seed production was greatly reduced by sulfometuron at the minimum concentration used (0.001 x field application rate), with an effective concentration producing a 25% reduction in seed dry weight of 0.00007 x field application rate. Primisulfuron and glyphosate had a 25% reduction in seed dry weight for seed dry weight of 0.0035 and 0.0096 x field application rate, respectively. Clopyralid and dicamba reduced pea seed dry weight at a 25% reduction in seed dry weight of approximately 0.07 x field application rate. Glufosinate only reduced pea seed weight in one experiment, with a 25% reduction in seed dry weight of 0.07 and 0.008 x field application rate at vegetative growth and flowering stages, respectively. Pea seed dry weight was not affected by 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid. Plant developmental stage had no consistent effect on herbicide responses. Reduced seed production occurred with some herbicides (especially acetolactate synthase inhibitors), which caused little or no reduction in plant height or shoot biomass and little visible injury. Thus, pea may be a model species to indicate seed reproductive responses to herbicides, with seed production obtained by extending plant growth for usually only 7 d longer than the period usually used in the vegetative vigor

  8. Defoliation effects on Bromus tectorum seed production: Implications for grazing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hempy-Mayer, K.; Pyke, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) is an invasive annual grass that creates near-homogenous stands in areas throughout the Intermountain sagebrush steppe and challenges successful native plant restoration in these areas. A clipping experiment carried out at two cheatgrass-dominated sites in eastern Oregon (Lincoln Bench and Succor Creek) evaluated defoliation as a potential control method for cheatgrass and a seeding preparation method for native plant reseeding projects. Treatments involved clipping plants at two heights (tall = 7.6 cm, and short = 2.5 cm), two phenological stages (boot and purple), and two frequencies (once and twice), although purple-stage treatments were clipped only once. Treatments at each site were replicated in a randomized complete block design that included a control with no defoliation. End-of-season seed density (seeds??m-2) was estimated by sampling viable seeds from plants, litter, and soil of each treatment. Undipped control plants produced an average of approximately 13 000 and 20 000 seeds??m-2 at Lincoln Bench and Succor Creek, respectively. Plants clipped short at the boot stage and again 2 wk later had among the lowest mean seed densities at both sites, and were considered the most successful treatments (Lincoln Bench: F 6,45 = 47.07, P < 0.0001; Succor Creek: F6,40 = 19.60, P < 0.0001). The 95% confidence intervals for seed densities were 123-324 seeds??m-2 from the Lincoln Bench treatment, and 769-2256 seeds??m-2 from the Succor Creek treatment. Literature suggests a maximum acceptable cheatgrass seed density of approximately 330 seeds??m-2 for successful native plant restoration through reseeding. Thus, although this study helped pinpoint optimal defoliation parameters for cheatgrass control, it also called into question the potential for livestock grazing to be an effective seed-bed preparation technique in native plant reseeding projects in cheatgrass-dominated areas.

  9. Nonequilibrium boundary layer of potassium-seeded combustion products

    SciTech Connect

    Benilov, M.S.; Pozdeev, P.A.; Rogov, B.V.; Sinel'shchikov, V.A. . Inst. for High Temperatures)

    1994-09-01

    Results are reported from numerical modeling and experimental study of a chemically reacting boundary layer, formed on a body inserted into a stream of potassium-seeded combustion products of gaseous hydrocarbon fuels. The numerical model developed in previous work is modified to incorporate current data on potassium chemical kinetics. The temperature and potassium atom number density profiles are measured across the boundary layer formed on a cylindrical specimen of Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] dense ceramics by flow of combustion products of a propane-air mixture. The numerical results are compared with present experimental data as well as those available from the literature. The comparison is carried out for a broad range of experimental conditions including the postflame burned-gas region, and the boundary layers on a cylinder and on a flat plate. It provides verification of the proposed model, revision of the rate constants of some reactions of potassium-containing species, and supports the value of potassium superoxide dissociation energy of 247 kJ/mol.

  10. Effect of simultaneous infrared dry-blanching and dehydration on quality characteristics of carrot slices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the effects of various processing parameters on carrot slices exposed to infrared (IR) radiation heating for achieving simultaneous infrared dry-blanching and dehydration (SIRDBD). The investigated parameters were product surface temperature, slice thickness and processing ti...

  11. A simple method to identify the unprocessed Strychnos seeds used in herbal medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Han, Quan-Bin; Li, Song-Lin; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Song, Jing-Zheng; Cai, Zong-Wei; Pui-Hay But, Paul; Shaw, Pang-Chui; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2008-03-01

    The seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica are popularly used in the treatment of arthritis. Being extremely toxic, the raw seeds are forbidden and must be processed before clinical use. The quality of crude and processed Strychnos seeds can be controlled by examining the toxic alkaloids using established HPLC methods. But this procedure does not work in the case where the seeds are powdered and mixed with other medicinal materials in proprietary production. In this quality control study on Strychnos seeds, the contents of two major toxic alkaloids (strychnine and brucine) and a major non-alkaloid constituent (loganic acid) in twenty-four samples of Strychnos seeds (nine processed and fifteen unprocessed) were compared using published HPLC-UV methods. The results showed that the better the seeds were processed, the less loganic acid was found. The alkaloids and non-alkaloid components simultaneously decreased in processed seeds. The content ratio between alkaloids and loganic acid was clearly different in well-processed and crude Strychnos seeds. Based on this interesting discovery, a simple chromatographic method was established which allows a simultaneous determination of loganic acid and the alkaloids strychnine and brucine. The relative peak area (RPA) of strychnine-to-loganic acid was revealed to be a reliable key quality control parameter in order to effectively identify the processed seeds. This new method has been successfully applied to detect the insufficiently processed Strychnos material in marketed herbal medicinal products. PMID:18484543

  12. Identification and Characterization of DcUSAGT1, a UDP-Glucose: Sinapic Acid Glucosyltransferase from Purple Carrot Taproots.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Yun; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Purple carrots accumulate abundant cyanidin-based anthocyanins in taproots. UDP-glucose: sinapic acid glucosyltransferase (USAGT) can transfer the glucose moiety to the carboxyl group of sinapic acid thereby forming the ester bond between the carboxyl-C and the C1 of glucose (1-O-sinapoylglucose). 1-O-sinapoylglucose can serve as an acyl donor in acylation of anthocyanins and generate cyanidin 3-xylosyl (sinapoylglucosyl) galactoside in purple carrots. This final product helps stabilize the accumulation of anthocyanins. In this study, a gene named DcUSAGT1 encoding USAGT was cloned from 'Deep purple' carrot taproots. Enzymatic activity was determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The optimal temperature and pH value were 30°C and 7.0, respectively. Kinetic analysis suggested a Km (sinapic acid) of 0.59 mM. Expression profiles of DcUSAGT1 showed high expression levels in the taproots of all the three purple carrot cultivars but low expression levels in those of non-purple carrot cultivars. The USAGT activity of different carrots in vitro indicated that crude enzyme extracted from the purple carrot taproots rather than non-purple carrot taproots exhibited USAGT activity. These results indicated that DcUSAGT1 may influence anthocyanin biosynthesis of purple carrot taproots. PMID:27171142

  13. Identification and Characterization of DcUSAGT1, a UDP-Glucose: Sinapic Acid Glucosyltransferase from Purple Carrot Taproots

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Yun; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Purple carrots accumulate abundant cyanidin-based anthocyanins in taproots. UDP-glucose: sinapic acid glucosyltransferase (USAGT) can transfer the glucose moiety to the carboxyl group of sinapic acid thereby forming the ester bond between the carboxyl-C and the C1 of glucose (1-O-sinapoylglucose). 1-O-sinapoylglucose can serve as an acyl donor in acylation of anthocyanins and generate cyanidin 3-xylosyl (sinapoylglucosyl) galactoside in purple carrots. This final product helps stabilize the accumulation of anthocyanins. In this study, a gene named DcUSAGT1 encoding USAGT was cloned from ‘Deep purple’ carrot taproots. Enzymatic activity was determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The optimal temperature and pH value were 30°C and 7.0, respectively. Kinetic analysis suggested a Km (sinapic acid) of 0.59 mM. Expression profiles of DcUSAGT1 showed high expression levels in the taproots of all the three purple carrot cultivars but low expression levels in those of non-purple carrot cultivars. The USAGT activity of different carrots in vitro indicated that crude enzyme extracted from the purple carrot taproots rather than non-purple carrot taproots exhibited USAGT activity. These results indicated that DcUSAGT1 may influence anthocyanin biosynthesis of purple carrot taproots. PMID:27171142

  14. Development of Kentucky Bluegrass for Non-Burn Seed Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A ban on burning of post-harvest grass seed residue has been implemented in Washington and Idaho and restrictions are in place in Oregon, USA. Without residue burning, Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) seed yield decreases over time. Growers have implemented yearly mechanical residue removal (ra...

  15. Seed production areas for the global restoration challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed availability of wild species is fundamental to the conservation of biodiversity and the achievement of global ecosystem restoration or reforestation targets. The current and future demands for seeds for restoration and reforestation far exceed what can be practically, economically, and ethicall...

  16. Integration of brassicaceous seed meals into red raspberry production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassicaceous seed meals are an alternative to synthetic chemical fumigation for the pre-plant soil management of soil borne organisms. Greenhouse, microplot, and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of Brassica juncea and Sinapis alba seed meals on raspberry (Rubus idaeus) soil ...

  17. Production of functional pita bread using date seed powder.

    PubMed

    Platat, Carine; Habib, Hosam M; Hashim, Isameldin Bashir; Kamal, Hina; AlMaqbali, Fatima; Souka, Usama; Ibrahim, Wissam H

    2015-10-01

    Functional foods represent a novel approach to prevent diet-related diseases. Due to its excellent nutritional and antioxidant properties, date seed was used to develop functional pita bread. Flour was replaced by 5, 10, 15 and 20 % date seed powder. Regular and whole wheat pita breads were the references. Results clearly showed that date seed powder containing bread contained comparable dietary fibers levels as in whole wheat bread and higher levels of flavonoids and phenolics. Date seed powder containing breads were particularly rich in flavan-3-ols whereas reference breads did not contain any of them and only a limited amount of other phenolic compounds. They also exhibited a much higher antioxidant capacity. Additionally, compared to regular bread, acrylamide level was significantly lower in 5 % date seed powder containing bread, and lower in all date seed powder containing breads compared to whole wheat bread. Date seed powder supplemented bread appears as a promising functional ingredient to prevent chronic diseases. PMID:26396382

  18. An Economic Analysis of Pigeonpea Seed Production Technology and Its Adoption Behavior: Indian Context

    PubMed Central

    Channanamchery, Radhika; Singh, R. K.; Kethineni, Udaya Bhaskar; Ram, H.; Prasad, S. Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    The present study was based on primary data collected from 100 farmers in Gulbarga district of Karnataka, India, during the agricultural year 2013-2014. Study shows that average land holding size of pigeonpea seed farmers was higher in comparison to grain farmers and district average. The study illustrates a ratio of 32 : 68 towards fixed and variable costs in pigeonpea certified seed production with a total cost of ₹ 39436 and the gross and net returns were ₹ 73300 and ₹ 33864 per hectare, respectively. The total cost of cultivation, gross return, and net return in pigeonpea seed production were higher by around 23, 32, and 44 percent than grain production, respectively. Hence, production of certified seed has resulted in a win-win situation for the farmers with higher yield and increased returns. The decision of the farmer on adoption of seed production technology was positively influenced by his education, age, land holding, irrigated land, number of crops grown, and extension contacts while family size was influencing negatively. Higher yield and profitability associated with seed production can be effectively popularized among farmers, resulting in increased certified seed production. PMID:27478865

  19. Potential Link Between Contents of Fatty Acids and Soybean Seed Germination Rate Under Early Production System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean seed produced from the Early Soybean Production System (ESPS) in the Midsouth often has low germination with poor seed quality. The mechanism of this phenomenon is not clear. A field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 on a silt-loam -soil at the Delta Research and Extension Center, Stonevi...

  20. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) germplasm for non-burn seed production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A ban on open-field burning of post-harvest residue of grass seed production fields has been implemented in Washington, and restrictions are in place in Idaho and Oregon, USA. Our previous research showed that without post-harvest burning of residue, bluegrass seed yield decreased over time (Johnson...

  1. Production of high levels of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate in plastids of Camelina sativa seeds.

    PubMed

    Malik, Meghna R; Yang, Wenyu; Patterson, Nii; Tang, Jihong; Wellinghoff, Rachel L; Preuss, Mary L; Burkitt, Claire; Sharma, Nirmala; Ji, Yuanyuan; Jez, Joseph M; Peoples, Oliver P; Jaworski, Jan G; Cahoon, Edgar B; Snell, Kristi D

    2015-06-01

    Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) production in plastids of Camelina sativa seeds was investigated by comparing levels of polymer produced upon transformation of plants with five different binary vectors containing combinations of five seed-specific promoters for expression of transgenes. Genes encoding PHB biosynthetic enzymes were modified at the N-terminus to encode a plastid targeting signal. PHB levels of up to 15% of the mature seed weight were measured in single sacrificed T1 seeds with a genetic construct containing the oleosin and glycinin promoters. A more detailed analysis of the PHB production potential of two of the best performing binary vectors in a Camelina line bred for larger seed size yielded lines containing up to 15% polymer in mature T2 seeds. Transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of distinct granules of PHB in the seeds. PHB production had varying effects on germination, emergence and survival of seedlings. Once true leaves formed, plants grew normally and were able to set seeds. PHB synthesis lowered the total oil but not the protein content of engineered seeds. A change in the oil fatty acid profile was also observed. High molecular weight polymer was produced with weight-averaged molecular weights varying between 600 000 and 1 500 000, depending on the line. Select lines were advanced to later generations yielding a line with 13.7% PHB in T4 seeds. The levels of polymer produced in this study are the highest reported to date in a seed and are an important step forward for commercializing an oilseed-based platform for PHB production. PMID:25418911

  2. Practical considerations for maximizing heat production in a novel thermobrachytherapy seed prototype

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Bhoj; Warrell, Gregory; Shvydka, Diana; Subramanian, Manny; Ishmael Parsai, E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A combination of hyperthermia and radiation in the treatment of cancer has been proven to provide better tumor control than radiation administered as a monomodality, without an increase in complications or serious toxicities. Moreover, concurrent administration of hyperthermia and radiation displays synergistic enhancement, resulting in greater tumor cell killing than hyperthermia and radiation delivered separately. The authors have designed a new thermobrachytherapy (TB) seed, which serves as a source of both radiation and heat for concurrent brachytherapy and hyperthermia treatments when implanted in solid tumors. This innovative seed, similar in size and geometry to conventional seeds, will have self-regulating thermal properties. Methods: The new seed's geometry is based on the standard BEST Model 2301 125I seed, resulting in very similar dosimetric properties. The TB seed generates heat when placed in an oscillating magnetic field via induction heating of a ferromagnetic Ni–Cu alloy core that replaces the tungsten radiographic marker of the standard Model 2301. The alloy composition is selected to undergo a Curie transition near 50 °C, drastically decreasing power production at higher temperatures and providing for temperature self-regulation. Here, the authors present experimental studies of the magnetic properties of Ni–Cu alloy material, the visibility of TB seeds in radiographic imaging, and the ability of seed prototypes to uniformly heat tissue to a desirable temperature. Moreover, analyses are presented of magnetic shielding and thermal expansion of the TB seed, as well as matching of radiation dose to temperature distributions for a short interseed distance in a given treatment volume. Results: Annealing the Ni–Cu alloy has a significant effect on its magnetization properties, increasing the sharpness of the Curie transition. The TB seed preserves the radiographic properties of the BEST 2301 seed in both plain x rays and CT images

  3. Practical considerations for maximizing heat production in a novel thermobrachytherapy seed prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Gautam, Bhoj; Warrell, Gregory; Shvydka, Diana; Ishmael Parsai, E.; Subramanian, Manny

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: A combination of hyperthermia and radiation in the treatment of cancer has been proven to provide better tumor control than radiation administered as a monomodality, without an increase in complications or serious toxicities. Moreover, concurrent administration of hyperthermia and radiation displays synergistic enhancement, resulting in greater tumor cell killing than hyperthermia and radiation delivered separately. The authors have designed a new thermobrachytherapy (TB) seed, which serves as a source of both radiation and heat for concurrent brachytherapy and hyperthermia treatments when implanted in solid tumors. This innovative seed, similar in size and geometry to conventional seeds, will have self-regulating thermal properties. Methods: The new seed's geometry is based on the standard BEST Model 2301{sup 125}I seed, resulting in very similar dosimetric properties. The TB seed generates heat when placed in an oscillating magnetic field via induction heating of a ferromagnetic Ni–Cu alloy core that replaces the tungsten radiographic marker of the standard Model 2301. The alloy composition is selected to undergo a Curie transition near 50 °C, drastically decreasing power production at higher temperatures and providing for temperature self-regulation. Here, the authors present experimental studies of the magnetic properties of Ni–Cu alloy material, the visibility of TB seeds in radiographic imaging, and the ability of seed prototypes to uniformly heat tissue to a desirable temperature. Moreover, analyses are presented of magnetic shielding and thermal expansion of the TB seed, as well as matching of radiation dose to temperature distributions for a short interseed distance in a given treatment volume. Results: Annealing the Ni–Cu alloy has a significant effect on its magnetization properties, increasing the sharpness of the Curie transition. The TB seed preserves the radiographic properties of the BEST 2301 seed in both plain x rays and CT

  4. Pollen and seed mediated gene flow in commercial alfalfa seed production fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential for gene flow has been widely recognized since alfalfa is pollinated by bees. The Western US is a major exporter of alfalfa seed and hay and the organic dairy industry is one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors. Because of this, many alfalfa producers are impacted by market sen...

  5. Transgene movement in commercial alfalfa seed production: Implications for seed purity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States is a major exporter of alfalfa seed and hay and the organic dairy industry is one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors. With the advent of genetically-engineered (GE) alfalfa concerns have risen regarding the coexistence of GE and non GE alfalfa since the crop is largely ou...

  6. Perennially young: seed production and quality in controlled and natural populations of Cistus albidus reveal compensatory mechanisms that prevent senescence in terms of seed yield and viability.

    PubMed

    Müller, Maren; Siles, Laura; Cela, Jana; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2014-01-01

    The question of whether or not perennial plants senesce at the organism level remains unresolved. The aim of this study was to unravel whether or not plant age can influence the production and composition of seeds. Flower and seed production was examined in 3-, 8-, and 13-year-old Cistus albidus plants growing in experimental plots corresponding to the F2, F1, and F0 generations of the same population. Furthermore, the phytohormone, fatty acid, and vitamin E content of the seeds was evaluated, and their viability was examined. Whether or not age-related differences in seed quality were observed in a natural population in the Montserrat Mountains (NE Spain) was also tested. The results indicate that under controlled conditions, the oldest plants not only produced fewer flowers, but also had higher rates of embryo abortion in mature seeds. However, germination capacity was not negatively affected by plant ageing. Seeds of the oldest plants contained significantly higher salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and vitamin E levels compared with those from younger plants. Despite vigour (in terms of plant growth) being severely reduced due to harsh environmental conditions in the natural population, the oldest individuals produced seeds with no decline in viability. Seed biomass was instead positively correlated with seed viability. In conclusion, increased plant size may explain the loss of seed viability in the experimental field, but older smaller individuals in natural populations can escape senescence in terms of seed viability loss. PMID:24218328

  7. Effects of pollination timing and distance on seed production in a dioecious weed Silene latifolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Jay F.; Duddu, Hema S. N.; Shirtliffe, Steven J.; Benaragama, Dilshan; Syrovy, Lena D.; Stanley, Katherine A.; Haile, Teketel A.

    2015-11-01

    Silene latifolia Poir. (white cockle or white campion) is an important invasive weed in North American agriculture. It exhibits dioecy, therefore, both male and female plants are required in order for seed production to occur. However, dioecious species being invasive is not common because of their limitations in pollination and subsequent seed production. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of pollination timing and distance on seed production of Silene latifolia. A series of experiments including pollination exclusion, timing and pollination distance were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at or around Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. For pollination exclusion, exclosures were built around the natural female plants for exclosure, sham-exclosure, and male and female combined treatments. Pollination timing was studied by applying exclosure, non-exclosure, night-exclosure, and day-exclosure treatments to individual female plants. Female plants were transplanted along a linear interval at six different distances from the pollen source to study the effect of pollination distance. S. latifolia was exclusively insect-pollinated and pollination occurred both day and night; however, in one year, pollination occurred mainly at night. Female plants that were in the range of 0-4 m from a compatible pollen source experienced no limitation to pollination. However, when the distance was increased further up to 128 m, pollination levels and subsequent seed production were declined. Moreover, there were differences in seed production between years suggesting that pollination was affected by the environmental conditions during pollination and the crop that white cockle was grown in. These experiments indicate that seed production in S. latifolia is limited by insect-pollination. Although there was pollination limitation for seed production at greater distances from a pollen source, the high fecundity rate (3000-18000 seeds per plant) resulted in a large seed output. Thus, we

  8. Functional properties of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed and its application as bakery product.

    PubMed

    Nyam, Kar-Lin; Leao, Sod-Ying; Tan, Chin-Ping; Long, Kamariah

    2014-12-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed is a valuable food resource as it has an excellent source of dietary fibre. Therefore, this study examined the functional properties of roselle seeds. Replacement of cookie flour with roselle seed powder at levels of 0-30 % was investigated for its effect on functional and nutritional properties of cookies. Among the four formulations cookies, the most preferred by panelists was 20 % roselle seed powder cookie (F3), followed by 10 % roselle seed powder cookie (F2) and 30 % roselle seed powder cookie (F4). The least preferred formulation among all was control cookie (F1). Cookie with 20 % roselle seed powder added showed higher content of total dietary fibre (5.6 g/100 g) as compared with control cookie (0.90 g/100 g). Besides that, cookies incorporated with roselle seed powder exhibited improved antioxidant properties. Thus, roselle seed powder can be used as a dietary fibre source and developed as a functional ingredient in food products. PMID:25477650

  9. ANALYSIS OF GLUCOSINOLATES AND GLUCOSINOLATE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS IN SPROUTING BROCCOLI SEEDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total glucosinolate content and glucosinolate degradation products were examined in unsprouted `Marathon' broccoli (Brassica oleracea L., Italica group) seeds and in 1-, 2-, 3-, 5-, 7-, and 10-day-old sprouts. Glucosinolates identified were glucoiberin, glucoraphanin, gluconapin, glucoiberverin, 4-...

  10. Fresh market carrot inspection by machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howarth, M. Scott; Searcy, Stephen W.

    1991-02-01

    A machine vision system was developed to inspect fresh market carrots. It was designed to grade carrots with an axial and transverse resolution of 0. 5mmper pixel. Hardware consisted of camera digital signal processing (DSP) imaging board host computer and illumination components. Feature extraction methods detect the major defects. A Bayes classification technique was used to construct the decision function which classify carrots as acceptable or cull. The system was able to image and classify in approximately 2. 5carrots/second. 1.

  11. Bioaccessibility of Polyphenols from Plant-Processing Byproducts of Black Carrot (Daucus carota L.).

    PubMed

    Kamiloglu, Senem; Capanoglu, Esra; Bilen, Fatma Damla; Gonzales, Gerard Bryan; Grootaert, Charlotte; Van de Wiele, Tom; Van Camp, John

    2016-03-30

    Plant-processing byproducts of black carrot represent an important disposal problem for the industry; however, they are also promising sources of polyphenols, especially anthocyanins. The present study focused on the changes in polyphenols from black carrot, peel, and pomace during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Total phenolic content (TPC), total monomeric anthocyanin content (TMAC), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined using spectrophotometric methods, whereas identification and quantification of polyphenols were carried out using UPLC-ESI-MS(E) and HPLC-DAD, respectively. TPC, TMAC, and TAC significantly decreased (23-82%) as a result of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Nevertheless, the amount of pomace anthocyanins released at all stages of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was higher than black carrot anthocyanins, suggesting that pomace may be a better source of bioaccessible anthocyanins. Overall, the current study highlighted black carrot byproducts as substantial sources of polyphenols, which may be used to enrich food products. PMID:26262673

  12. Impact of Biofumigation with Seed Meal on Plasticulture Strawberry Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was initiated in 2006 to study the effects of seed meals on weed control, soilborne diseases and strawberry yield. A trial with five replications and 13 treatments arranged in a randomized complete block design was established at the East Tennessee Research and Education Center in Knoxville...

  13. Camelina production affected by seeding rate and depth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Camelina (Camelina sativa L.) is an oilseed that has shown potential as an alternative crop to diversify wheat-fallow systems in the northern Great Plains. However, agronomic information is lacking for management of this relatively new crop. The impact of seeding depth and rate were determined in s...

  14. A technique for estimating seed production of common moist soil plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laubhan, Murray K.

    1992-01-01

    Seeds of native herbaceous vegetation adapted to germination in hydric soils (i.e., moist-soil plants) provide waterfowl with nutritional resources including essential amino acids, vitamins, and minerals that occur only in small amounts or are absent in other foods. These elements are essential for waterfowl to successfully complete aspects of the annual cycle such as molt and reproduction. Moist-soil vegetation also has the advantages of consistent production of foods across years with varying water availability, low management costs, high tolerance to diverse environmental conditions, and low deterioration rates of seeds after flooding. The amount of seed produced differs among plant species and varies annually depending on environmental conditions and management practices. Further, many moist-soil impoundments contain diverse vegetation, and seed production by a particular plant species usually is not uniform across an entire unit. Consequently, estimating total seed production within an impoundment is extremely difficult. The chemical composition of seeds also varies among plant species. For example, beggartick seeds contain high amounts of protein but only an intermediate amount of minerals. In contrast, barnyardgrass is a good source of minerals but is low in protein. Because of these differences, it is necessary to know the amount of seed produced by each plant species if the nutritional resources provided in an impoundment are to be estimated. The following technique for estimating seed production takes into account the variation resulting from different environmental conditions and management practices as well as differences in the amount of seed produced by various plant species. The technique was developed to provide resource managers with the ability to make quick and reliable estimates of seed production. Although on-site information must be collected, the amount of field time required is small (i.e., about 1 min per sample); sampling normally is

  15. Nectar replenishment and pollen receipt interact in their effects on seed production of Penstemon roseus.

    PubMed

    Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Lara, Carlos

    2009-07-01

    Resource supply and pollen delivery are often thought to equally limit seed production in animal-pollinated plants. At equilibrium, plants should show no response to experimental pollen supplementation because resources limit seed set above the current level of pollen attraction, while experimental reduction in pollen deposition below the equilibrium level would reduce seed set. The predicted equilibrium may be disrupted, however, if plants expend additional energy to replenish removed nectar. We investigated the combined effects of nectar removal and pollen delivery on female reproductive success of Penstemon roseus (Plantaginaceae), a hummingbird-pollinated plant that replenishes removed nectar. We first documented that the frequency of experimental nectar removal was correlated with total nectar secretion; and increased frequency of nectar removal resulted in increased female reproductive costs to the plant. Trade-offs between investing resources in nectar and investing resources in seeds were then investigated in two contrasting natural populations by removing nectar from flowers at increasing frequencies while simultaneously hand-pollinating flowers with increasing amounts of pollen. Seed set was lowest at low levels of pollen deposition, highest at medium-sized pollen loads, and intermediate when pollen loads were highest. At both sites, the frequency of nectar removal and pollen deposition had an interactive effect on seed production, in that intermediate levels of nectar removal result in the absolute highest seed set, but only at intermediate pollen loads. At high pollen loads, seed set was higher following little to no nectar removal, and at low pollen loads, all rates of nectar removal affected fecundity equally. Seed mass responded to nectar removal and pollination differently than did seed set. High levels of nectar removal and pollen delivery both lowered seed mass, with little interaction between main effects. Our findings are among the first to

  16. DDT and HCH isomer levels in soils, carrot root and carrot leaf samples.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, S M; Carvajal, O; Gómez-Arroyo, S; Amador-Muñoz, O; Villalobos-Pietrini, R; Hayward-Jones, P M; Valencia-Quintana, R

    2008-10-01

    Agricultural cultivation assists organochlorine pesticide migration from contaminated soils to growing plants. This phenomenon is caused by retention processes that modify volatile pesticide exchange between soil, air and plants. The aim of the study was to monitor organochlorine pesticide (HCB, alpha- and gamma-HCH, pp'DDE, op'DDT, pp'DDT) levels and compare these concentrations in soil, carrot roots and carrot leaves. Fifty soil samples, 50 carrot root and 50 carrot leaf samples were taken from the same fields and analyzed by GLC-ECD. The results reveal organochlorine pesticide diffusion from agricultural soils to growing carrot plants and their vapors adsorption by leaves. Within the carrot plant, organochlorine pesticides accumulate especially in carrot root peel, 3-7 times more than in root flesh. PMID:18626561

  17. Cross-country disparity in agricultural productivity: quantifying the role of modern seed adoption.

    PubMed

    O'Gorman, Melanie; Pandey, Manish

    2010-01-01

    Inequality of agricultural labour productivity across the developing world has increased substantially over the past 40 years. This article asks: to what extent did the diffusion of Green Revolution seed varieties contribute to increasing agricultural labour productivity disparity across the developing countries? We find that 22 per cent of cross-country variation in agricultural labour productivity can be attributed to the diffusion of high-yielding seed varieties across countries, and that the impact of such diffusion differed significantly across regions. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy directed at increasing agricultural labour productivity in the developing world. PMID:21280414

  18. Insecticide use in hybrid onion seed production affects pre- and postpollination processes.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Sandra; Long, Rachael; Seitz, Nicola; Williams, Neal

    2014-02-01

    Research on threats to pollination service in agro-ecosystems has focused primarily on the negative impacts of land use change and agricultural practices such as insecticide use on pollinator populations. Insecticide use could also affect the pollination process, through nonlethal impacts on pollinator attraction and postpollination processes such as pollen viability or pollen tube growth. Hybrid onion seed (Allium cepa L., Alliaceae) is an important pollinator-dependent crop that has suffered yield declines in California, concurrent with increased insecticide use. Field studies suggest that insecticide use reduces pollination service in this system. We conducted a field experiment manipulating insecticide use to examine the impacts of insecticides on 1) pollinator attraction, 2) pollen/stigma interactions, and 3) seed set and seed quality. Select insecticides had negative impacts on pollinator attraction and pollen/stigma interactions, with certain products dramatically reducing pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Decreased pollen germination was not associated with reduced seed set; however, reduced pollinator attraction was associated with lower seed set and seed quality, for one of the two female lines examined. Our results highlight the importance of pesticide effects on the pollination process. Overuse may lead to yield reductions through impacts on pollinator behavior and postpollination processes. Overall, in hybrid onion seed production, moderation in insecticide use is advised when controlling onion thrips, Thrips tabaci, on commercial fields. PMID:24665681

  19. Production of seed samples for the effective molecular analysis of dormancy cycling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Footitt, Steven; Finch-Savage, William E

    2011-01-01

    Most often, the samples used for molecular analysis of dormancy are populations of seeds. An essential survival characteristic of seed populations inhabiting the variable surface layers of the soil is that individuals in the population do not behave uniformly. In addition, seed dormancy (SD) status of the whole population constantly changes even in the dry state. For these and other reasons, production of appropriate and adequately characterized seed samples is the key to the correct and most informative interpretation of molecular studies. This is particularly important when the aim is to describe and explain seed behaviour in the natural environment. Molecular studies of seed dormancy, and especially ecologically relevant behaviour, such as dormancy cycling, should therefore involve characterization of dormancy status based on a sound understanding of seed physiology. This chapter discusses the problems and pitfalls of using Arabidopsis and provides protocols devised for use with the Arabidopsis ecotype Cape Verde Islands for the production and characterization of samples to be used in molecular analysis of dormancy transitions and cycling. PMID:21898250

  20. Production of Rice Seed-Based Allergy Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Hidenori; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant hypoallergenic derivative is the next generation of tolerogen replacing the natural allergen extract to increase safety and efficacy. Japanese cedar pollinosis is the predominant seasonal allergy disease in Japan. A rice seed-based oral vaccine containing the recombinant hypoallergens derived from these allergens was developed. Efficacy of this rice-based allergy vaccine was evaluated by oral administration in animal models. PMID:27076162

  1. Hair waving natural product: Dillenia indica seed sap.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Jyoti Prasad

    2013-02-01

    Knowing keratin is the main component and mechanical strength of hair a study was performed to evaluate whether Dillenia indica seed sap can affect molecular strength of hair or not. In the present study the human hair collected from barber shop waste were subjected to purified sap for 12 h and then analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for documenting evidence for keratin degradation. Further the deterioration was confirmed by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PMID:23124020

  2. Primary productivity, bacterial productivity and nitrogen uptake in response to iron enrichment during the SEEDS II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Isao; Noiri, Yoshifumi; Cochlan, William P.; Suzuki, Koji; Aramaki, Takafumi; Ono, Tsuneo; Nojiri, Yukihiro

    2009-12-01

    Primary productivity (PP), bacterial productivity (BP) and the uptake rates of nitrate and ammonium were measured using isotopic methods ( 13C, 3H, 15N) during a mesoscale iron (Fe)-enrichment experiment conducted in the western subarctic Pacific Ocean in 2004 (SEEDS II). PP increased following Fe enrichment, reached maximal rates 12 days after the enrichment, and then declined to the initial level on day 17. During the 23-day observation period, we observed the development and decline of the Fe-induced bloom. The surface mixed layer (SML) integrated PP increased by 3-fold, but was smaller than the 5-fold increase observed in the previous Fe-enrichment experiment conducted at almost the same location and season during 2001 (SEEDS). Nitrate uptake rates were enhanced by Fe enrichment but decreased after day 5, and became lower than ammonium uptake rates after day 17. The total nitrogenous nutrient uptake rate declined after the peak of the bloom, and accumulation of ammonium was obvious in the euphotic layer. Nitrate utilization accounted for all the requirements of N for the massive bloom development during SEEDS, whereas during SEEDS II, nitrate accounted for >90% of total N utilization on day 5, declining to 40% by the end of the observation period. The SML-integrated BP increased after day 2 and peaked twice on days 8 and 21. Ammonium accumulation and the delayed heterotrophic activity suggested active regeneration occurred after the peak of the bloom. The SML-integrated PP between days 0 and 23 was 19.0 g C m -2. The SML-integrated BP during the same period was 2.6 g C m -2, which was 14% of the SML-integrated PP. Carbon budget calculation for the whole experimental period indicated that 33% of the whole (particulate plus dissolved) PP (21.5 g C m -2) was exported below the SML and 18% was transferred to the meso-zooplankton (growth). The bacterial carbon consumption (43% of the whole PP) was supported by DOC or POC release from phytoplankton, zooplankton

  3. First Report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in Carrots in Europe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carrot (Daucus carota) plants exhibiting symptoms that resembled those of carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis) damage were observed in commercial fields in southern Finland in August 2008. Carrot psyllid is a serious pest of carrots in northern and central Europe, where it can cause up to 100% yield los...

  4. Trace Determination of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates: Application in Artificially Polluted Soil—Carrots System

    PubMed Central

    Sablayrolles, Caroline; Montréjaud-Vignoles, Mireille; Silvestre, Jérôme; Treilhou, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Surfactants are widely used in household and industrial products. The risk of incorporation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) from biosolids, wastewater, and fertilizers land application to the food chain is being assessed at present by the European Union. In the present work, a complete analytical method for LAS trace determination has been developed and successfully applied to LAS (C10–C13) uptake in carrot plants used as model. These carrots were grown in soil with the trace organics compounds added directly into the plant containers in pure substances form. LAS trace determination (μg kg−1 dry matter) in carrots samples was achieved by Soxtec apparatus and high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. The methodology developed provides LAS determination at low detection limits (5 μg kg−1 dry matter) for carrot sample (2 g dry matter) with good recoveries rate (>90%). Transfer of LAS has been followed into the various parts of the carrot plant. LAS are generally found in the carrot leaves and percentage transfer remains very low (0.02%). PMID:20107562

  5. Descriptive analysis and early-stage consumer acceptance of yogurts fermented with carrot juice.

    PubMed

    Cliff, M A; Fan, L; Sanford, K; Stanich, K; Doucette, C; Raymond, N

    2013-07-01

    This research explored the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of novel probiotic unsweetened yogurts. Yogurts were made with 4 carrot juice levels (8, 16, 24, and 32%), 2 firmness levels (regular, 45g/L milk solids; firm, 90g/L milk solids), and 2 starter cultures (C1, C2). The sensory profile characterized the color intensity (before and after stirring), carrot flavor, sourness, and 7 texture/mouth-feel attributes (astringency, chalkiness, mouth-coating, thickness, smoothness, creaminess, and graininess). The influence of carrot juice level and firmness level were evaluated using ANOVA, polynomial contrasts, and principal component analysis. Mean scores and standard errors were calculated. Consumer acceptance panels in Wolfville, Nova Scotia (n=56), and in Vancouver, British Columbia (Asian n=72, non-Asian n=72), evaluated the hedonic responses to the C1 and C2 formulations, respectively. We observed increases in color intensity, carrot flavor, creaminess, mouth-coating, and chalkiness with increasing carrot juice levels, as well as increases in color intensity, carrot flavor, creaminess, mouth-coating, thickness, and astringency with increasing milk solids concentrations of the C1 and C2 yogurts. Mean hedonic scores for color, appearance, and texture/mouth-feel were greater than hedonic scores for aroma, flavor/taste, and overall liking. This research identified the sensory qualities that need further development and demonstrated the importance of early-stage consumer acceptance research for directing new product development. PMID:23664338

  6. Boosting heterologous protein production in transgenic dicotyledonous seeds using Phaseolus vulgaris regulatory sequences.

    PubMed

    De Jaeger, Geert; Scheffer, Stanley; Jacobs, Anni; Zambre, Mukund; Zobell, Oliver; Goossens, Alain; Depicker, Ann; Angenon, Geert

    2002-12-01

    Over the past decade, several high value proteins have been produced in different transgenic plant tissues such as leaves, tubers, and seeds. Despite recent advances, many heterologous proteins accumulate to low concentrations, and the optimization of expression cassettes to make in planta production and purification economically feasible remains critical. Here, the regulatory sequences of the seed storage protein gene arcelin 5-I (arc5-I) of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) were evaluated for producing heterologous proteins in dicotyledonous seeds. The murine single chain variable fragment (scFv) G4 (ref. 4) was chosen as model protein because of the current industrial interest in producing antibodies and derived fragments in crops. In transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana seed stocks, the scFv under control of the 35S promoter of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) accumulated to approximately 1% of total soluble protein (TSP). However, a set of seed storage promoter constructs boosted the scFv accumulation to exceptionally high concentrations, reaching no less than 36.5% of TSP in homozygous seeds. Even at these high concentrations, the scFv proteins had antigen-binding activity and affinity similar to those produced in Escherichia coli. The feasibility of heterologous protein production under control of arc5-I regulatory sequences was also demonstrated in Phaseolus acutifolius, a promising crop for large scale production. PMID:12415287

  7. [Survey of synthetic disinfectants in grapefruit seed extract and its compounded products].

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Naoki; Tada, Atsuko; Kuroyanagi, Masanori; Yoneda, Yuko; Yun, Young Sook; Kunugi, Akira; Sato, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Ken-Ichi

    2008-02-01

    Grapefruit seed extract (GSE), derived from the seeds of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi MCAF.), is listed as a natural food additive in Japan. Products containing GSE are used as disinfectants made from only natural sources, especially after Japanese researchers found that GSE prevents the growth of norovirus. On the other hand, recent overseas studies indicated that synthetic disinfectants, such as benzalkonium and benzethonium chlorides, were present in some commercial GSE products. To confirm the quality of commercial GSE products available in Japanese markets, we carried out comprehensive research to identify the major constituents of commercial GSE products which are used as food additives (13 products from 6 manufacturers), dietary supplements (5 products from 4 manufacturers), cosmetic materials (16 products from 10 manufacturers) and disinfectant or deodorant sprays (7 products from 7 manufacturers). By means of NMR and LC/MS analysis, synthetic disinfectants such as benzethonium or benzalkonium salts were detected in most of the commercial GSE products. PMID:18344660

  8. Herbicidal Activity of Glucosinolate Degradation Products in Fermented Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) Seed Meal

    PubMed Central

    STEVENS, JAN F.; REED, RALPH L.; ALBER, SUSAN; PRITCHETT, LARRY; MACHADO, STEPHEN

    2009-01-01

    Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) is an oilseed crop grown in western Oregon. After extraction of the oil from the seeds, the remaining seed meal contains 2-4% of the glucosinolate, glucolimnanthin. We investigated the effect of fermentation of seed meal on its chemical composition and the effect of the altered composition on downy brome (Bromus tectorum) coleoptile emergence. Incubation of enzyme-inactive seed meal with enzyme-active seeds (1% by weight) resulted in complete degradation of glucolimnanthin and formation of 3-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate in 28% yield. Fermentation in the presence of an aqueous solution of FeSO4 (10 mM) resulted in the formation of 3-methoxyphenylacetonitrile and 2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethanethioamide, a novel natural product. The formation of the isothiocyanate, the nitrile and the thioamide, as a total, correlated with an increase of herbicidal potency of seed meal (r2 = 0.96). The results of this study open new possibilities for the refinement of glucosinolate-containing seed meals for use as bioherbicides. PMID:19170637

  9. Decreased seed oil production in FUSCA3 Brassica napus mutant plants.

    PubMed

    Elahi, Nosheen; Duncan, Robert W; Stasolla, Claudio

    2015-11-01

    Canola (Brassica napus L.) oil is extensively utilized for human consumption and industrial applications. Among the genes regulating seed development and participating in oil accumulation is FUSCA3 (FUS3), a member of the plant-specific B3-domain family of transcription factors. To evaluate the role of this gene during seed storage deposition, three BnFUSCA3 (BnFUS3) TILLING mutants were generated. Mutations occurring downstream of the B3 domain reduced silique number and repressed seed oil level resulting in increased protein content in developing seeds. BnFUS3 mutant seeds also had increased levels of linoleic acid, possibly due to the reduced expression of ω-3 FA DESATURASE (FAD3). These observed phenotypic alterations were accompanied by the decreased expression of genes encoding transcription factors stimulating fatty acid (FA) synthesis: LEAFY COTYLEDON1 and 2 (LEC1 and 2) ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE 3 (BnABI3) and WRINKLED1 (WRI1). Additionally, expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in sucrose metabolism, glycolysis, and FA modifications were down-regulated in developing seeds of the mutant plants. Collectively, these transcriptional changes support altered sucrose metabolism and reduced glycolytic activity, diminishing the carbon pool available for the synthesis of FA and ultimately seed oil production. Based on these observations, it is suggested that targeted manipulations of BnFUS3 can be used as a tool to influence oil accumulation in the economically important species B. napus. PMID:26302483

  10. Tomato seeds as a novel by-product feed for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cassinerio, C A; Fadel, J G; Asmus, J; Heguy, J M; Taylor, S J; DePeters, E J

    2015-07-01

    Whole tomato seeds, a novel by-product feedstuff, were fed to lactating Holstein cows to determine the nutritive value of whole tomato seeds by replacing whole cottonseed in the total mixed ration. Four primiparous and 4 multiparous Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design and fed 1 of 4 total mixed rations. Whole tomato seeds replaced whole cottonseed on a weight-to-weight basis for lipid. The proportion of whole tomato seeds to whole cottonseed in the diets were 100:0, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100 on a lipid basis. Thus, tomato seeds were 4.0, 2.4, 1.1, and 0% of the ration dry matter, respectively. Milk yield and the concentrations and yields of protein, lactose, and solids-not-fat did not differ for the effect of diet. However, milk fat concentration decreased and milk fat yield tended to decrease as whole tomato seeds replaced whole cottonseed. Intakes of dry matter, lipid, and crude protein did not differ. Whole-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter and ash-free neutral detergent fiber did not differ, but digestibility of total fatty acids and crude protein decreased with increasing proportion of whole tomato seeds. Urea concentration in milk and plasma both decreased with increasing whole tomato seeds. Fecal concentration of linoleic and α-linolenic acids increased with increasing whole tomato seeds, suggesting that seeds were passing out of the digestive tract undigested. The concentrations of C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 in milk fat had small increases, but their yields were not different, suggesting that only a small amount of whole-tomato-seed lipid might have been digested postruminally. Amounts of trans C18:1 fatty acids in milk fat were higher with increasing whole cottonseed, which might suggest a shift in rumen biohydrogenation pathways. At the level of feeding used in the current study, whole tomato seeds replaced whole cottonseed in the diet of lactating dairy cows without a change in production. PMID:25981076

  11. Characteristics of Surian Flower, Fruit and Seed Productions (Toona sinensis (A. Juss.) M. Roem.) in Sumedang, West Java.

    PubMed

    Pramono, Agus Astho; Palupi, Endah Retno; Siregar, Iskandar Zulkarnaen; Kusmana, Cecep

    2016-02-01

    Community forest development requires a constant supply of high-quality seeds. In addition, sound management of Toona sinensis (surian) seed sources requires a deep understanding of factors affecting seed production. This present study investigated the reproduction characteristics of surian, including flower, fruit and seed productions, variations in the productions of fruits and seeds among trees and among branches, and dendrometric factors that influence the productions of fruits and seeds. Flower production characteristics were observed in 99 panicles, fruit production characteristics were observed in 128 panicles, and seed characteristics were evaluated based on 890 fruits. The number of fruits per panicle ranged from 38 to 646. The number of seeds in fruits ranged from 1 to 35. Fruit size was correlated to the number of filled seeds following a quadratic regression equation. The optimal number of filled seeds was 20 per fruit. Stem diameter, crown width, crown base height, and the number of sub-branches positively influenced the production of panicles per tree, while the crown base height (of the tree) negatively affected the fruit set. PMID:27019683

  12. Characteristics of Surian Flower, Fruit and Seed Productions (Toona sinensis (A. Juss.) M. Roem.) in Sumedang, West Java

    PubMed Central

    Pramono, Agus Astho; Palupi, Endah Retno; Siregar, Iskandar Zulkarnaen; Kusmana, Cecep

    2016-01-01

    Community forest development requires a constant supply of high-quality seeds. In addition, sound management of Toona sinensis (surian) seed sources requires a deep understanding of factors affecting seed production. This present study investigated the reproduction characteristics of surian, including flower, fruit and seed productions, variations in the productions of fruits and seeds among trees and among branches, and dendrometric factors that influence the productions of fruits and seeds. Flower production characteristics were observed in 99 panicles, fruit production characteristics were observed in 128 panicles, and seed characteristics were evaluated based on 890 fruits. The number of fruits per panicle ranged from 38 to 646. The number of seeds in fruits ranged from 1 to 35. Fruit size was correlated to the number of filled seeds following a quadratic regression equation. The optimal number of filled seeds was 20 per fruit. Stem diameter, crown width, crown base height, and the number of sub-branches positively influenced the production of panicles per tree, while the crown base height (of the tree) negatively affected the fruit set. PMID:27019683

  13. Soybean Seeds: A Practical Host for the Production of Functional Subunit Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Laura C.; Bost, Kenneth L.; Piller, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Soybean seeds possess several inherent qualities that make them an ideal host for the production of biopharmaceuticals when compared with other plant-based and non-plant-based recombinant expression systems (e.g., low cost of production, high protein to biomass ratio, long-term stability of seed proteins under ambient conditions, etc.). To demonstrate the practicality and feasibility of this platform for the production of subunit vaccines, we chose to express and characterize a nontoxic form of S. aureus enterotoxin B (mSEB) as a model vaccine candidate. We show that soy-mSEB was produced at a high vaccine to biomass ratio and represented ~76 theoretical doses of human vaccine per single soybean seed. We localized the model vaccine candidate both intracellularly and extracellularly and found no difference in mSEB protein stability or accumulation relative to subcellular environment. We also show that the model vaccine was biochemically and immunologically similar to native and recombinant forms of the protein produced in a bacterial expression system. Immunization of mice with seed extracts containing mSEB mounted a significant immune response within 14 days of the first injection. Taken together, our results highlight the practicality of soybean seeds as a potential platform for the production of functional subunit vaccines. PMID:24822195

  14. Soybean seeds: a practical host for the production of functional subunit vaccines.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Laura C; Garg, Renu; Bost, Kenneth L; Piller, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    Soybean seeds possess several inherent qualities that make them an ideal host for the production of biopharmaceuticals when compared with other plant-based and non-plant-based recombinant expression systems (e.g., low cost of production, high protein to biomass ratio, long-term stability of seed proteins under ambient conditions, etc.). To demonstrate the practicality and feasibility of this platform for the production of subunit vaccines, we chose to express and characterize a nontoxic form of S. aureus enterotoxin B (mSEB) as a model vaccine candidate. We show that soy-mSEB was produced at a high vaccine to biomass ratio and represented ~76 theoretical doses of human vaccine per single soybean seed. We localized the model vaccine candidate both intracellularly and extracellularly and found no difference in mSEB protein stability or accumulation relative to subcellular environment. We also show that the model vaccine was biochemically and immunologically similar to native and recombinant forms of the protein produced in a bacterial expression system. Immunization of mice with seed extracts containing mSEB mounted a significant immune response within 14 days of the first injection. Taken together, our results highlight the practicality of soybean seeds as a potential platform for the production of functional subunit vaccines. PMID:24822195

  15. [Sex structure and seed productivity of Mentha canadensis L. from natural flora of primorye of Russia].

    PubMed

    Voronkova, T V; Shelepova, O V; Kondrat'eva, V V; Bidiukova, G F

    2014-01-01

    The sex structure and seed productivity of Mentha canadensis L. from different climatic regioins of Primorye of Russia was studied. We established that M. canadensis is characterized by a homogeneous population structure due to the formation of vegetative clones. The ratio of female and androgynous individuals was 1:5, and it is possible that this is a species-specific trait. Both sexual forms produced fruits under conditions of isolation from cross-pollination. We discuss the possibility of apomixis and the influence of climatic conditions on seed productivity and morphometric characteristics of plants. PMID:25720285

  16. Seed sprout production: Consumables and a foundation for higher plant growth in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Michelle; Thomas, Terri; Johnson, Steve; Luttges, Marvin

    1990-01-01

    Seed sprouts can be produced as a source of fresh vegetable materials and as higher plant seedlings in space. Sprout production was undertaken to evaluate the mass accumulations possible, the technologies needed, and the reliability of the overall process. Baseline experiments corroborated the utility of sprout production protocols for a variety of seed types. The automated delivery of saturated humidity effectively supplants labor intensive manual soaking techniques. Automated humidification also lend itself to modest centrifugal sprout growth environments. A small amount of ultraviolet radiation effectively suppressed bacterial and fungal contamination, and the sprouts were suitable for consumption.

  17. Production of Biologically Active Cecropin A Peptide in Rice Seed Oil Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo, Esther; Campo, Sonia; Badosa, Esther; Rossignol, Michel; Montesinos, Emilio; San Segundo, Blanca; Coca, María

    2016-01-01

    Cecropin A is a natural antimicrobial peptide that exhibits fast and potent activity against a broad spectrum of pathogens and neoplastic cells, and that has important biotechnological applications. However, cecropin A exploitation, as for other antimicrobial peptides, is limited by their production and purification costs. Here, we report the efficient production of this bioactive peptide in rice bran using the rice oleosin 18 as a carrier protein. High cecropin A levels were reached in rice seeds driving the expression of the chimeric gene by the strong embryo-specific oleosin 18 own promoter, and targeting the peptide to the oil body organelle as an oleosin 18-cecropin A fusion protein. The accumulation of cecropin A in oil bodies had no deleterious effects on seed viability and seedling growth, as well as on seed yield. We also show that biologically active cecropin A can be easily purified from the transgenic rice seeds by homogenization and simple flotation centrifugation methods. Our results demonstrate that the oleosin fusion technology is suitable for the production of cecropin A in rice seeds, which can potentially be extended to other antimicrobial peptides to assist their exploitation. PMID:26760761

  18. Production of Biologically Active Cecropin A Peptide in Rice Seed Oil Bodies.

    PubMed

    Montesinos, Laura; Bundó, Mireia; Izquierdo, Esther; Campo, Sonia; Badosa, Esther; Rossignol, Michel; Montesinos, Emilio; San Segundo, Blanca; Coca, María

    2016-01-01

    Cecropin A is a natural antimicrobial peptide that exhibits fast and potent activity against a broad spectrum of pathogens and neoplastic cells, and that has important biotechnological applications. However, cecropin A exploitation, as for other antimicrobial peptides, is limited by their production and purification costs. Here, we report the efficient production of this bioactive peptide in rice bran using the rice oleosin 18 as a carrier protein. High cecropin A levels were reached in rice seeds driving the expression of the chimeric gene by the strong embryo-specific oleosin 18 own promoter, and targeting the peptide to the oil body organelle as an oleosin 18-cecropin A fusion protein. The accumulation of cecropin A in oil bodies had no deleterious effects on seed viability and seedling growth, as well as on seed yield. We also show that biologically active cecropin A can be easily purified from the transgenic rice seeds by homogenization and simple flotation centrifugation methods. Our results demonstrate that the oleosin fusion technology is suitable for the production of cecropin A in rice seeds, which can potentially be extended to other antimicrobial peptides to assist their exploitation. PMID:26760761

  19. Production of 16.5% v/v ethanol from seagrass seeds.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Motoharu; Miyoshi, Tatsuo; Kaneniwa, Masaki; Ishihara, Kenji; Nakashimada, Yutaka; Urano, Naoto

    2014-12-01

    Ethanol fermentation on seeds of seagrass Zostera marina was studied. The seeds were collected from the annual plant colony of Z. marina at Hinase Bay, Okayama. The seeds contained 83.5% carbohydrates including 48.1% crude starch on a dry weight basis, which is comparable to cereals such as wheat flour and corns. The seeds were saccharified with glucoamylase (50°C, 96 h) and 103.4 g/l concentration of glucose juice was obtained. The glucose juice was further fermented (23°C-35°C, 15 days) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains NBRC10217(T) and Kyokai 7-go, and ethanol was obtained at a 65.0 g/l (82.3 ml/l) level by monographic double-fermentation and at a 130.4 g/l (165.1 ml/l) level by parallel double-fermentation. Fermented products of seagrass seeds containing such a high ethanol concentration as the present study have potential to be utilized not only for biofuel but also for foods and beverages in the future. Culturing of seagrass seeds as a crop may enable development of a new marine fermentation industry. PMID:24969514

  20. Tobacco seeds as efficient production platform for a biologically active anti-HBsAg monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Velázquez, Abel; López-Quesada, Alina; Ceballo-Cámara, Yanaysi; Cabrera-Herrera, Gleysin; Tiel-González, Kenia; Mirabal-Ortega, Liliana; Pérez-Martínez, Marlene; Pérez-Castillo, Rosabel; Rosabal-Ayán, Yamilka; Ramos-González, Osmani; Enríquez-Obregón, Gil; Depicker, Ann; Pujol-Ferrer, Merardo

    2015-10-01

    The use of plants as heterologous hosts is one of the most promising technologies for manufacturing valuable recombinant proteins. Plant seeds, in particular, constitute ideal production platforms for long-term applications requiring a steady supply of starting material, as they combine the general advantages of plants as bioreactors with the possibility of biomass storage for long periods in a relatively small volume, thus allowing manufacturers to decouple upstream and downstream processing. In the present work we have used transgenic tobacco seeds to produce large amounts of a functionally active mouse monoclonal antibody against the Hepatitis B Virus surface antigen, fused to a KDEL endoplasmic reticulum retrieval motif, under control of regulatory sequences from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seed storage proteins. The antibody accumulated to levels of 6.5 mg/g of seed in the T3 generation, and was purified by Protein A affinity chromatography combined with SEC-HPLC. N-glycan analysis indicated that, despite the KDEL signal, the seed-derived plantibody bore both high-mannose and complex-type sugars that indicate partial passage through the Golgi compartment, although its performance in the immunoaffinity purification of HBsAg was unaffected. An analysis discussing the industrial feasibility of replacing the currently used tobacco leaf-derived plantibody with this seed-derived variant is also presented. PMID:26109093

  1. (1)H NMR-Based Metabolomics Reveals a Pedoclimatic Metabolic Imprinting in Ready-to-Drink Carrot Juices.

    PubMed

    Tomassini, Alberta; Sciubba, Fabio; Di Cocco, Maria Enrica; Capuani, Giorgio; Delfini, Maurizio; Aureli, Walter; Miccheli, Alfredo

    2016-06-29

    Carrots are usually consumed in their native form or processed into many different products. Carrot juice is a popular beverage consumed throughout the world and is attracting increasing attention due to its nutritional value, being a natural source of bioactive compounds. Ready-to-drink carrot juices produced in the same factory were analyzed by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The juices were made from carrot roots of the same cultivar grown in three different geographical areas in Italy. More than 30 compounds have been identified and quantified, and the data was subjected to univariate ANOVA and multivariate analyses. Clear geographical-dependent clustering was observed, and the metabolic profiles were related to the different pedoclimatic conditions. The proposed phytoprofiling approach could be employed on an industrial scale to evaluate finished products involving different sites of supply of the raw material, thus improving both the quality and uniformity of the juices. PMID:27281439

  2. Partial Resistance of Carrot to Alternaria dauci Correlates with In Vitro Cultured Carrot Cell Resistance to Fungal Exudates

    PubMed Central

    Voisine, Linda; Gatto, Julia; Hélesbeux, Jean-Jacques; Séraphin, Denis; Peña-Rodriguez, Luis M.; Richomme, Pascal; Boedo, Cora; Yovanopoulos, Claire; Gyomlai, Melvina; Briard, Mathilde; Simoneau, Philippe; Poupard, Pascal; Berruyer, Romain

    2014-01-01

    Although different mechanisms have been proposed in the recent years, plant pathogen partial resistance is still poorly understood. Components of the chemical warfare, including the production of plant defense compounds and plant resistance to pathogen-produced toxins, are likely to play a role. Toxins are indeed recognized as important determinants of pathogenicity in necrotrophic fungi. Partial resistance based on quantitative resistance loci and linked to a pathogen-produced toxin has never been fully described. We tested this hypothesis using the Alternaria dauci – carrot pathosystem. Alternaria dauci, causing carrot leaf blight, is a necrotrophic fungus known to produce zinniol, a compound described as a non-host selective toxin. Embryogenic cellular cultures from carrot genotypes varying in resistance against A. dauci were confronted with zinniol at different concentrations or to fungal exudates (raw, organic or aqueous extracts). The plant response was analyzed through the measurement of cytoplasmic esterase activity, as a marker of cell viability, and the differentiation of somatic embryos in cellular cultures. A differential response to toxicity was demonstrated between susceptible and partially resistant genotypes, with a good correlation noted between the resistance to the fungus at the whole plant level and resistance at the cellular level to fungal exudates from raw and organic extracts. No toxic reaction of embryogenic cultures was observed after treatment with the aqueous extract or zinniol used at physiological concentration. Moreover, we did not detect zinniol in toxic fungal extracts by UHPLC analysis. These results suggest that strong phytotoxic compounds are present in the organic extract and remain to be characterized. Our results clearly show that carrot tolerance to A. dauci toxins is one component of its partial resistance. PMID:24983469

  3. Processing of coriander fruits for the production of essential oil, triglyceride, and high protein seed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a summer annual traditionally grown for use as a fresh green herb or as a spice. The essential oil extracted from coriander fruit is also widely used as flavoring in a variety of food products. The fatty oil (triglyceride) fraction in the seed is rich in petrosel...

  4. Selfing rate in an alfalfa seed production field pollinated with leafcutter bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Self-pollination or “selfing” in autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (2n = 4x = 32) leads to severe inbreeding depression. Investigating selfing in alfalfa seed production may allow mitigation strategy development against potential negative impacts of selfing on varietal performance. Using m...

  5. Activity of meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) seed meal glucolimnanthin degradation products against soilborne pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba L.) is a herbaceous winter-spring annual grown as a commercial oilseed crop. The meal remaining after oil extraction from the seed contains up to 4% of the glucosinolate glucolimnanthin. Degradation of glucolimnanthin yields toxic breakdown products, and therefore the mea...

  6. Alfalfa subsp. sativa by falcata intersubspecific semi-hybrid seed production using alfalfa leafcutter bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intersubspecific sativa by falcata alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hybrids offer a means of improving alfalfa dry matter yields. The alfalfa leafcutter bee (Megachile rotundata F.) is a major pollinator used in alfalfa seed production in North America. Alfalfa leafcutter bees have a pollinator prefer...

  7. DIURON OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION IN SOIL AND SURFACE AND GROUND WATER ASSOCIATED WITH GRASS SEED PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea) is the principal herbicide used in grass seed production. The occurrence and distribution of diuron was investigated at a poorly-drained field site located along an intermittent tributary of Lake Creek in the southern Willamette ...

  8. Seeding cool-season grasses to suppress white locoweed (Oxytropis sericea) reestablishment and increase forage production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock poisoning can occur on short-grass prairies when locoweeds (Astragalus and Oxytropis spp.) are actively growing in spring before warm-season grasses begin growth. White locoweed grows in early spring, completes flowering and seed production by early summer, and goes dormant. Perennial co...

  9. Herbicide and Application Timing Influence Cutleaf Groundcherry Biomass and Seed Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate herbicide and application timing on cutleaf groundcherry population, biomass, seed production, and peanut yield. Treatments included: 1) a non-treated control; 2) hand pruning; 3) diclosulam applied preemergence (PRE) at 0.027 kg ai/ha alone; 4) paraquat...

  10. Effects of growth regulator herbicide on downy brome (Bromus tectorum) seed production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research showed growth regulator herbicides, such as picloram and aminopyralid, have a sterilizing effect on Japanese brome (Bromus japonicus Thunb.) that can reduce this invasive annual grass’s seed production nearly 100%. This suggests growth regulators might be used to control invasive ...

  11. Hydrothermal transformation of Chinese privet seed biomass to gas-phase and semi-volatile products.

    PubMed

    Eberhardt, Thomas L; Catallo, W James; Shupe, Todd F

    2010-06-01

    Hydrothermal (HT) treatment of seeds from Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense), a non-native and invasive species in the southeastern United States, was examined with respect to the generation of gas-phase and semi-volatile organic chemicals of industrial importance from a lipid-rich biomass resource. Aqueous seed slurries were transformed into biphasic liquid systems comprised of a milky aqueous phase overlain by a black organic layer. Present in the headspace were elevated levels of CO(2) and acetic acid. Analysis of the semi-volatiles by GC-MS showed the formation of alkyl substituted benzenes, oxygenated cyclic alkenes, phenol, substituted phenolics, and alkyl substituted pyridines. Compared to immature seeds, mature seeds gave high relative amounts of oxygenated cyclic alkenes (cyclopentenones) and alkyl pyridines. The presence of fatty acids in the HT products likely resulted from both lipid hydrolysis reactions and the inherent stability of fatty acids under HT treatment conditions. Estimates of lignin and protein contents showed no definite trend that could be linked to the HT data. The proportion of aromatic HT products appeared to derive primarily from the proportion of extractives. Thus, variations in extractives yields impact HT product yields and thereby demonstrate the importance of timing in feedstock collection to favor targeted HT products. PMID:20149648

  12. Pea (Pisum sativum) Seed Production as an Assay for Reproductive Effects Due to Herbicides.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Even though herbicide drift can affect plant reproduction, current plant testing protocols emphasize effects on vegetative growth. In this study, we determined whether a short–growing season plant can indicate potential effects of herbicides on seed production. Pea (Pisum sativum...

  13. The CIOA (Carrot Improvement for Organic Agriculture) Project: Location, cropping system, and genetic background influence carrot performance including top height and flavor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S. organic farmers surveyed listed improved seedling germination and Alternaria leaf blight resistance as top breeding priorities for field production of organic carrots. Nematode resistance is also very important for growers. Flavor was deemed the most important consumer trait to improve in carro...

  14. Location, cropping system, and genetic background influence carrot performance including top height and flavor in the CIOA (Carrot Improvement for Organic Agriculture) Project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S. organic farmers surveyed listed improved seedling germination and Alternaria leaf blight resistance as top breeding priorities for field production of organic carrots. Nematode resistance is also very important for growers. Flavor was deemed the most important consumer trait to improve in carro...

  15. Organic potato productionseed potato production and participatory variety trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes are vegetatively propagated, thus many pathogens can be transmitted in seed potatoes and affect the subsequent crop. Certified seed potatoes, which are inspected to ensure that pathogen levels are below a specified threshold, provide effective control of most tuber-borne diseases. Organic g...

  16. From seed production to seedling establishment: Important steps in an invasive process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreras, Ana Elisa; Galetto, Leonardo

    2010-03-01

    It is widely accepted that exotic invasive species are one of the most important ecological and economic problems. Reproductive and establishment traits are considered key features of a population expansion process, but few works have studied many of these simultaneously. This work examines how large the differences are in reproductive and establishment traits between two Fabaceae, the exotic invasive, Gleditsia triacanthos and the native, Acacia aroma. Gleditsia is a serious leguminous woody invader in various parts of the world and Acacia is a common native tree of Argentina. Both species have similar dispersal mechanisms and their reproductive phenology overlaps. We chose 17 plants of each species in a continuous forest of the Chaco Serrano Forest of Córdoba, Argentina. In each plant we measured fruit production, fruit removal (exclusion experiments), seed predation (pre- and post-dispersal), seed germination, seed bank (on each focal tree, three sampling periods during the year), and density of seedlings (around focal individuals and randomly in the study site). Gleditsia presented some traits that could favour the invasion process, such as a higher number of seeds per plant, percentage of scarified seed germination and density of seedlings around the focal individuals, than Acacia. On the other hand, Gleditsia presented a higher percentage of seed predation. The seed bank was persistent in both species and no differences were observed in fruit removal. This work highlights the importance of simultaneously studying reproductive and establishment variables involved in the spreading of an exotic invasive species. It also gives important insight into the variables to be considered when planning management strategies. The results are discussed from the perspective of some remarkable hypotheses on invasive species and may contribute to rethinking some aspects of the theory on invasive species.

  17. Fruit production and predispersal seed fall and predation in Rhamnus alaternus (Rhamnaceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bas, Josep M.; Gómez, Crisanto; Pons, Pere

    2005-03-01

    In the reproductive cycle of fleshy-fruited plants, and before the seeds are dispersed, some fruits fall down or are predated on the branches. Here, we study the predispersal biology of Rhamnus alaternus in the north-east of the Iberian Peninsula over a 4-year period. Specifically, we examined fruit production, fructification and the phenology of ripening, together with the causes and the consequences of the predispersal loss in female plants. In addition, we evaluated the influence of the biometric traits and the spatial distribution of plants with regard to these aspects. The total estimated fruit production and fruiting phenology varied between localities and years, and there was no relation either to the plant biometry or to the spatial situation. The ripening period was between April and August, with a mean period of fruit permanence on the branches of 102 days. The maximum presence of ripe fruits was from early June to July, 54 days in average after fruit ripening began. The interaction of animals with the fruits has four important consequences: (a) losses in the initial production due to depredation of seeds, mainly by rodents; (b) direct fall of fruit and seeds under the cover of the female plants due to invertebrate predators of pulp; (c) reduction of the period of fruit availability on the branches; and (d) reduction of the proportion of ripe fruits on branches. In summary, the number of seeds available to be dispersed by frugivorous vertebrates is considerably reduced as a consequence of predispersal effects.

  18. Recombinant Antibody Production in Arabidopsis Seeds Triggers an Unfolded Protein Response1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    De Wilde, Kirsten; De Buck, Sylvie; Vanneste, Kevin; Depicker, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Among the many plant-based production systems that are being tested for molecular farming, seeds are very attractive, as they provide a stable environment in which the accumulating recombinant proteins can be stored. However, it is not known exactly how high production levels of recombinant antibodies influence the endogenous transcriptome and proteome of the developing seed. To address this question, we studied the transcriptomic status in developing Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds 13 d post anthesis of three transgenic lines, producing varying levels of recombinant VHH or single-chain Fv antibody fragments fused to the human immunoglobulin G1-derived Fc fragment under the control of the β-PHASEOLIN seed-specific promoter. Using genome-wide Tiling arrays, we demonstrated that only a small proportion of the transcriptome was significantly changed in each of the lines compared with the wild type. Strikingly, in all three lines, we found a large overlap of up-regulated genes corresponding to protein folding, glycosylation/modification, translocation, vesicle transport, and protein degradation, suggestive of a state of cellular stress called the unfolded protein response. Moreover, the gene up-regulation amplitude was similar in all three lines. We hypothesize that the production of recombinant antibodies in the endoplasmic reticulum triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress, causing a disturbance of the normal cellular homeostasis. PMID:23188806

  19. Environmental Effects of Nanoceria on Seed Production of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): A Proteomic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Almeida, Igor C; Arigi, Emma A; Choi, Hyungwon; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; Trujillo-Reyes, Jesica; Flores-Margez, Juan P; White, Jason C; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-11-17

    The rapidly growing literature on the response of edible plants to nanoceria has provided evidence of its uptake and bioaccumulation, which delineates a possible route of entry into the food chain. However, little is known about how the residing organic matter in soil may affect the bioavailability and resulting impacts of nanoceria on plants. Here, we examined the effect of nanoceria exposure (62.5-500 mg/kg) on kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) productivity and seed quality as a function of soil organic matter content. Cerium accumulation in the seeds produced from plants in organic matter enriched soil showed a dose-dependent increase, unlike in low organic matter soil treatments. Seeds obtained upon nanoceria exposure in soils with higher organic matter were more susceptible to changes in nutrient quality. A quantitative proteomic analysis of the seeds produced upon nanoceria exposure provided evidence for upregulation of stress-related proteins at 62.5 and 125 mg/kg nanoceria treatments. Although the plants did not exhibit overt toxicity, the major seed proteins primarily associated with nutrient storage (phaseolin) and carbohydrate metabolism (lectins) were significantly down-regulated in a dose dependent manner upon nanoceria exposure. This study thus suggests that nanoceria exposures may negatively affect the nutritional quality of kidney beans at the cellular and molecular level. More confirmatory studies with nanoceria along different species using alternative and orthogonal "omic" tools are currently under active investigation, which will enable the identification of biomarkers of exposure and susceptibility. PMID:26488752

  20. Protocols for In Vitro Propagation, Conservation, Synthetic Seed Production, Microrhizome Production, and Molecular Profiling in Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.).

    PubMed

    Nirmal Babu, K; Divakaran, Minoo; Pillai, Geetha S; Sumathi, V; Praveen, K; Raj, Rahul P; Akshita, H J; Ravindran, P N; Peter, K V

    2016-01-01

    Turmeric is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial but cultivated as annual, belonging to the family Zingiberaceae. It is a native of India and South East Asia. The tuberous rhizomes or underground stems of turmeric are used from antiquity as condiments, a dye and as an aromatic stimulant in several medicines. Turmeric is an important crop in India and it is used as a spice, food preservative, coloring agent, cosmetic as well as for its medicinal properties. Propagation is done vegetatively with rhizome bits as seed materials. It is plagued by rhizome rot diseases most of which are mainly spread through infected seed rhizomes. Micropropagation will help in production of disease-free seed. Sexual reproduction is rare in turmeric, making recombinant breeding very difficult. In vitro technology can thus become the preferred choice and it can be utilized for multiplication, conservation of genetic resources, generating variability, gene transfer, molecular tagging, and their utility in crop improvement. PMID:27108332

  1. Integrating Sunflower Oil Seed Crops into Florida Horticultural Production Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Locally produced biodiesel feedstock plant oil creates a unique possibility to integrate multiple-goal oriented cover crops into Florida horticultural production systems. Typically, cover crops are planted to improve soil fertility and the natural suppression of soilborne pests at times when fields...

  2. Processing of Brassica seeds for feedstock in biofuels production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several Brassica species are currently being evaluated to develop regionalized production systems based on their suitability to the environment and with the prevailing practices of growing commodity food crops like wheat, corn, and soybeans. This integrated approach to farming will provide high qual...

  3. Mapping swamp timothy (Cripsis schenoides) seed productivity using spectral values and vegetation indices in managed wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Rahilly, P.J.A.; Li, D.; Guo, Q.; Zhu, J.; Ortega, R.; Quinn, N.W.T.; Harmon, T.C.

    2010-01-15

    This work examines the potential to predict the seed productivity of a key wetland plant species using spectral reflectance values and spectral vegetation indices. Specifically, the seed productivity of swamp timothy (Cripsis schenoides) was investigated in two wetland ponds, managed for waterfowl habitat, in California's San Joaquin Valley. Spectral reflectance values were obtained and associated spectral vegetation indices (SVI) calculated from two sets of high resolution aerial images (May 11, 2006 and June 9, 2006) and were compared to the collected vegetation data. Vegetation data were collected and analyzed from 156 plots for total aboveground biomass, total aboveground swamp timothy biomass, and total swamp timothy seed biomass. The SVI investigated included the Simple Ratio (SR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Transformed Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (TSAVI), Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI), and Global Environment Monitoring Index (GEMI). We evaluated the correlation of the various SVI with in situ vegetation measurements for linear, quadratic, exponential and power functions. In all cases, the June image provided better predictive capacity relative to May, a result that underscores the importance of timing imagery to coincide with more favorable vegetation maturity. The north pond with the June image using SR and the exponential function (R{sup 2}=0.603) proved to be the best predictor of swamp timothy seed productivity. The June image for the south pond was less predictive, with TSAVI and the exponential function providing the best correlation (R{sup 2}=0.448). This result was attributed to insufficient vegetal cover in the south pond (or a higher percentage of bare soil) due to poor drainage conditions which resulted in a delay in swamp timothy germination. The results of this work suggest that spectral reflectance can be used to estimate seed productivity in managed seasonal

  4. Effect of air velocity on kinetics of thin layer carrot pomace drying.

    PubMed

    Kumar, N; Sarkar, B C; Sharma, H K

    2011-10-01

    Carrot pomace is a by-product obtained during carrot juice processing. Thin layer carrot pomace drying was performed in a laboratory scale hot air forced convective dryer. The drying experiments were carried out at the air velocity of 0.5, 0.7 and 1.0 m/s at air temperatures from 60 to 75 °C. It was observed that whole drying process of carrot pomace took place in a falling rate period except a very short accelerating period at the beginning. Mathematical models were tested to fit drying data of carrot pomace. The best fit model was observed on the basis of R², Chi-square and RMSE values. R² values for all the selected models were above 0.9783. The average values of effective diffusivity ranged from 2.61 × 10(-9) to 3.64 × 10(-9) m²/s. PMID:21954311

  5. Effect of repetitive mowing on common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) pollen and seed production.

    PubMed

    Simard, Marie-Josée; Benoit, Diane Lyse

    2011-01-01

    Ambrosia artemisiifolia L (common ragweed) is a familiar roadside weed in southern Québec (Canada) that produces large amounts of airborne pollen responsible for multiple rhino-conjunctivitis (hay fever) cases. As roadside weeds are increasingly controlled by mowing alone, the effect of a mowing treatment on pollen production was evaluated. Ambrosia artemisiifolia plants were grown in a greenhouse at 4 densities (1, 3, 6 and 12 plants per 314 cm(2) pot) and either left intact or mowed (10 cm from the ground) when the plants reached 25 cm in height, i.e. twice during the life cycle of this annual plant. Pollen production per male inflorescence was collected in open-top bags and counted. Inflorescence mass, length, location on the plant and date of anthesis onset was noted. Above-ground plant biomass and seed production was also evaluated. Mowed plants produced less pollen per unit of inflorescence length than intact plants. Pollen production per plant was reduced by a factor of 8.84 by the double mowing treatment, while viable seed production per plant was reduced by a factor of 4.66, irrespective of density. Mowing twice has the potential to reduce airborne pollen loads but Ambrosia artemisiifolia seed banks are unlikely to be depleted by this management strategy. PMID:21736270

  6. Seed Production Affects Maternal Growth and Senescence in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Philipp, Matthias Anton; Guthörl, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Correlative control (influence of one organ over another organ) of seeds over maternal growth is one of the most obvious phenotypic expressions of the trade-off between growth and reproduction. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we characterize the physiological and molecular effects of correlative inhibition by seeds on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inflorescences, i.e. global proliferative arrest (GPA) during which all maternal growth ceases upon the production of a given number of seeds. We observed transcriptional responses to growth- and branching-inhibitory hormones, and low mitotic activity in meristems upon GPA, but found that meristems retain their identity and proliferative potential. In shoot tissues, we detected the induction of stress- and senescence-related gene expression upon fruit production and GPA, and a drop in chlorophyll levels, suggestive of altered source-sink relationships between vegetative shoot and reproductive tissues. Levels of shoot reactive oxygen species, however, strongly decreased upon GPA, a phenomenon that is associated with bud dormancy in some perennials. Indeed, gene expression changes in arrested apical inflorescences after fruit removal resembled changes observed in axillary buds following release from apical dominance. This suggests that GPA represents a form of bud dormancy, and that dominance is gradually transferred from growing inflorescences to maturing seeds, allowing offspring control over maternal resources, simultaneously restricting offspring number. This would provide a mechanistic explanation for the constraint between offspring quality and quantity. PMID:27009281

  7. The Seeding and Cultivation of a Tropical Species of Filamentous Ulva for Algal Biomass Production

    PubMed Central

    Carl, Christina; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous species of Ulva are ideal for cultivation because they are robust with high growth rates and maintained across a broad range of environments. Temperate species of filamentous Ulva are commercially cultivated on nets which can be artificially ‘seeded’ under controlled conditions allowing for a high level of control over seeding density and consequently biomass production. This study quantified for the first time the seeding and culture cycle of a tropical species of filamentous Ulva (Ulva sp. 3) and identified seeding density and nursery period as key factors affecting growth and biomass yield. A seeding density of 621,000 swarmers m-1 rope in combination with a nursery period of five days resulted in the highest growth rate and correspondingly the highest biomass yield. A nursery period of five days was optimal with up to six times the biomass yield compared to ropes under either shorter or longer nursery periods. These combined parameters of seeding density and nursery period resulted in a specific growth rate of more than 65% day−1 between 7 and 10 days of outdoor cultivation post-nursery. This was followed by a decrease in growth through to 25 days. This study also demonstrated that the timing of harvest is critical as the maximum biomass yield of 23.0±8.8 g dry weight m−1 (228.7±115.4 g fresh weight m−1) was achieved after 13 days of outdoor cultivation whereas biomass degraded to 15.5±7.3 g dry weight m−1 (120.2±71.8 g fresh weight m−1) over a longer outdoor cultivation period of 25 days. Artificially seeded ropes of Ulva with high biomass yields over short culture cycles may therefore be an alternative to unattached cultivation in integrated pond-based aquaculture systems. PMID:24897115

  8. Association Between Pachytene Chromosomes and Linkage Groups in Carrot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genome of carrot (Daucus carota L.) consists of ~ 480 Mb/1C organized in 9 chromosome pairs. The importance of carrots in human nutrition is triggering the development of genomic resources, including carrot linkage maps, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone library and BAC end sequence...

  9. Split-gene system for hybrid wheat seed production

    PubMed Central

    Kempe, Katja; Rubtsova, Myroslava; Gils, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid wheat plants are superior in yield and growth characteristics compared with their homozygous parents. The commercial production of wheat hybrids is difficult because of the inbreeding nature of wheat and the lack of a practical fertility control that enforces outcrossing. We describe a hybrid wheat system that relies on the expression of a phytotoxic barnase and provides for male sterility. The barnase coding information is divided and distributed at two loci that are located on allelic positions of the host chromosome and are therefore “linked in repulsion.” Functional complementation of the loci is achieved through coexpression of the barnase fragments and intein-mediated ligation of the barnase protein fragments. This system allows for growth and maintenance of male-sterile female crossing partners, whereas the hybrids are fertile. The technology does not require fertility restorers and is based solely on the genetic modification of the female crossing partner. PMID:24821800

  10. Use of Se-enriched mustard and canola seed meals as potential bioherbicides and green fertilizers in strawberry production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New plant-based products can be produced from seed harvested from Brassica species used for phytomanaging selenium (Se) in the westside of central California. We tested Se-enriched seed meals produced from canola (Brassica napus) and mustard (Sinapis alba) plants as potential bio-herbicides and as g...

  11. The role of competition and seed production environment on the success of two perennial grass species in a roadside restoration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When large-scale restorations are undertaken using local genotypes, wild-collected sources often undergo a generation in an agronomic environment for seed increase. We have little information on how a single generation of agronomic production can alter seed success in restoration. In this study, we...

  12. Thermophysical characterization of the seeds of invasive Chinese tallow tree: importance for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Picou, Laura; Boldor, Doran

    2012-10-16

    The limited supply of traditional fossil based fuels, and increased concern about their environmental impact has driven the interest in the utilization of biomass based energy sources, including those that are underutilized or otherwise nuisance species such as Chinese tallow trees (Triadica sebifera [L.]). This species is a prolific seeds producer, and this paper shows that they contain more than 50% lipids by mass that are suitable for conversion into biodiesel. We present here, for the first time, the seeds' thermophysical properties important for biofuel production. The seeds were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and ultimate analysis; their thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and specific heat were determined. The characterization results were correlated to fatty acid composition and lipid content for whole seeds and individual layers, as well as to the protein, hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin content. The TGA analysis indicated the presence, in addition to lipids, of hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, and proteins, depending on the layer analyzed. Thermal conductivity and specific heat were, respectively 0.14 ± 0.007 W/mK and 3843.5 ± 171.16 J/kgK for wax, 0.20 ± 0.002 W/mK and 2018.7 ± 5.18 J/kgK for shells, 0.13 ± 0.0 W/mK and 1237 ± 3.15 J/kgK for internal kernel, and 0.13 ± 0.000 W/mK and 2833.9 ± 104.11 J/kgK for whole seeds. These properties and characterization method can be further used in engineering analysis used to determine the most optimum processing method for production of biofuels from this feedstock. PMID:23013244

  13. Beach almond (Terminalia catappa, Combretaceae) seed production and predation by scarlet macaws (Ara macao) and variegated squirrels (Sciurus variegatoides).

    PubMed

    Henn, Jonathan J; McCoy, Michael B; Vaughan, Christopher S

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of ecological impacts of exotic beach almond (Terminalia catappa) in the central Pacific of Costa Rica are little known, but studies have found this species to be a potentially important food source for endangered scarlet macaws (Ara macao). In this study, reproductive phenology and seed predation by variegated squirrels (Sciurus variegatoides) and scarlet macaws were measured during March and April 2011 on beaches of central Pacific coastal Costa Rica. Seed productivity and predation levels were quantified on a weekly basis for 111 beach almond trees to assess the importance of beach almond as a food source for scarlet macaws and the extent of resource partitioning between seed predators. Seed production of the trees was great (about 194 272 seeds) and approximately 67% of seeds were predated by seed predators. Macaws consumed an estimated 49% of seeds while squirrels consumed 18%. Additionally, evidence of resource partitioning between squirrels and macaws was found. Scarlet macaws preferred to feed on the northern side and edge of the canopy while squirrels preferred to feed on the southern and inside parts of the canopy. Both species ate most seeds on the ocean side of the tree. Despite the status of this tree as an exotic species, the beach almond appears to be an important resource for scarlet macaw population recovery. The resource produced by this tree should be taken into account as reforestation efforts continue in Costa Rica. PMID:25412525

  14. Seed coating with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as an ecotechnologicalapproach for sustainable agricultural production of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rui S; Rocha, Inês; Ma, Ying; Vosátka, Miroslav; Freitas, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The exploitation of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi has become of great interest in agriculture due to their potential roles in reducing the need for agrochemicals, while improving plant growth and nutrition. Nevertheless, the application of AM fungi by dispersing inocula in granular form to open agricultural fields is not feasible because nontargeted spreading of inocula over large surface areas results in high cost per plant. Seed coating has the potential to significantly reduce the amount of inoculum needed, resulting in cost reduction and increased efficiency. The aim of this study was to assess whether seed coating with AM fungal inoculum is a feasible delivery system for production of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Wheat seeds were coated with inoculum of Rhizophagus irregularis BEG140 and grown under different fertilization conditions: (1) none, (2) partial, or (3) complete. Data indicated that mycorrhizal inoculation via seed coating significantly increased the dry weight of shoot and seed spikes of wheat associated with reduced fertilization. Assessment of nutritional status of wheat showed that plants inoculated with R. irregularis via seed coating displayed enhanced stem concentrations of potassium (K), sulfur (S), and zinc (Zn). There were no significant differences in root colonization between plants conventionally inoculated with R. irregularis in soil and those inoculated via seed coating. Seed coating with AM fungi may be as effective as conventional soil inoculation and may contribute to reduce the utilization of chemical fertilizers. The application of AM via seed coating is proposed as an ecotechnological approach for sustainable agricultural wheat production. PMID:27077274

  15. Pyrimidine degradation influences germination seedling growth and production of Arabidopsis seeds

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Stefanie; Witz, Sandra; Rolletschek, Hardy; Möhlmann, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    PYD1 (dihydropyrimidine dehydogenase) initiates the degradation of pyrimidine nucleobases and is located in plastids. In this study, a physiological analysis of PYD1 employing T-DNA knockout mutants and overexpressors was carried out. PYD1 knockout mutants were restricted in degradation of exogenously provided uracil and accumulated high uracil levels in plant organs throughout development, especially in dry seeds. Moreover, PYD1 knockout mutants showed delayed germination which was accompanied by low invertase activity and decreased monosaccharide levels. Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important regulator of seed germination, and ABA-responsive genes were deregulated in PYD1 knockout mutants. Together with an observed increased PYD1 expression in wild-type seedlings upon ABA treatment, an interference of PYD1 with ABA signalling can be assumed. Constitutive PYD1 overexpression mutants showed increased growth and higher seed number compared with wild-type and knockout mutant plants. During senescence PYD1 expression increased to allow uracil catabolism. From this it is concluded that early in development and during seed production PYD1 is needed to balance pyrimidine catabolism versus salvage. PMID:21865177

  16. Aflatoxin B1 in sesame seeds and sesame products from the Greek market.

    PubMed

    Kollia, Eleni; Tsourouflis, Kyriakos; Markaki, Panagiota

    2016-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is considered as the most potent liver carcinogen for humans. A method for determination in sesame seeds was developed. AFB1 was extracted by methanol-water, cleaned by immunoaffinity columns and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The recovery factor and the limit of detection (LOD) of AFB1 in sesame seeds were 111.5% and 0.02 ng g(-1), respectively. Thirty samples of sesame products were examined for the presence of AFB1. After analysis, 77.6% of samples were found to be contaminated. Eight samples exceeded the European Union (EU) limit (2 µg AFB1 kg(-1)). In 15 samples, AFB1 was below the EU limit. Seven samples remained below the LOD. The most contaminated (14.49 ng AFB1 g(-1)) sample was unpeeled packaged sesame seeds. In all samples, aflatoxigenic Aspergilli fungi as well as the risk for AFB1 presence in sesame seed was investigated. PMID:27088795

  17. The potential of residues of furfural and biogas as calcareous soil amendments for corn seed production.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunchen; Yan, Zhibin; Qin, Jiahai; Ma, Zhijun; Zhang, Youfu; Zhang, Li

    2016-04-01

    Intensive corn seed production in Northwest of China produced large amounts of furfural residues, which represents higher treatment cost and environmental issue. The broad calcareous soils in the Northwest of China exhibit low organic matter content and high pH, which led to lower fertility and lower productivity. Recycling furfural residues as soil organic and nutrient amendment might be a promising agricultural practice to calcareous soils. A 3-year field study was conducted to evaluate the effects of furfural as a soil amendment on corn seed production on calcareous soil with compared to biogas residues. Soil physical-chemical properties, soil enzyme activities, and soil heavy metal concentrations were assessed in the last year after the last application. Corn yield was determined in each year. Furfural residue amendments significantly decreased soil pH and soil bulk density. Furfural residues combined with commercial fertilizers resulted in the greater cumulative on soil organic matter, total phosphorus, available phosphorus, available potassium, and cation exchange capacity than that of biogas residue. Simultaneously, urease, invertase, catalase, and alkaline phosphatase increased even at the higher furfural application rates. Maize seed yield increased even with lower furfural residue application rates. Furfural residues resulted in lower Zn concentration and higher Cd concentration than that of biogas residues. Amendment of furfural residues led to higher soil electrical conductivity (EC) than that of biogas residues. The addition of furfural residues to maize seed production may be considered to be a good strategy for recycling the waste, converting it into a potential resource as organic amendment in arid and semi-arid calcareous soils, and may help to reduce the use of mineral chemical fertilizers in these soils. However, the impact of its application on soil health needs to be established in long-term basis. PMID:26606935

  18. Ocular irritation from product of pesticide degradation among workers in a seed warehouse

    PubMed Central

    MATSUKAWA, Takehisa; YOKOYAMA, Kazuhito; ITOH, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Four workers at a seed supply warehouse in Chiba Prefecture, Japan, complained of ocular irritation on the job. Pesticide-coated seeds were stored in the warehouse but no significant amount of pesticide was detected in the air inside the warehouse. To identify the cause of the ocular irritation and to determine an appropriate solution to the problem, the authors used thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to analyze the profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the air of the two warehouses at the site—warehouse A, where the four workers experienced ocular irritation, and warehouse B, where no workers experienced ocular irritation. Comparing the profiles of VOCs in these warehouses indicated that n-butyl isocyanate, a hydrolyzed product of the fungicide benomyl, was the cause of the workers’ ocular irritation. n-Butyl isocyanate is known to be a contact irritant and if the benomyl-coated seeds were not properly dried before storage in the warehouse n-butyl isocyanate would have been produced. The results of the study suggest that more attention should be paid both to the pesticide itself and to the products of pesticide degradation. In this study, n-butyl isocyanate was identified as a product of pesticide degradation and a causative chemical affecting occupational health. PMID:25327297

  19. Production of hydrophobic amino acids from biobased resources: wheat gluten and rubber seed proteins.

    PubMed

    Widyarani; Sari, Yessie W; Ratnaningsih, Enny; Sanders, Johan P M; Bruins, Marieke E

    2016-09-01

    Protein hydrolysis enables production of peptides and free amino acids that are suitable for usage in food and feed or can be used as precursors for bulk chemicals. Several essential amino acids for food and feed have hydrophobic side chains; this property may also be exploited for subsequent separation. Here, we present methods for selective production of hydrophobic amino acids from proteins. Selectivity can be achieved by selection of starting material, selection of hydrolysis conditions, and separation of achieved hydrolysate. Several protease combinations were applied for hydrolysis of rubber seed protein concentrate, wheat gluten, and bovine serum albumin (BSA). High degree of hydrolysis (>50 %) could be achieved. Hydrophobic selectivity was influenced by the combination of proteases and by the extent of hydrolysis. Combination of Pronase and Peptidase R showed the highest selectivity towards hydrophobic amino acids, roughly doubling the content of hydrophobic amino acids in the products compared to the original substrates. Hydrophobic selectivity of 0.6 mol-hydrophobic/mol-total free amino acids was observed after 6 h hydrolysis of wheat gluten and 24 h hydrolysis of rubber seed proteins and BSA. The results of experiments with rubber seed proteins and wheat gluten suggest that this process can be applied to agro-industrial residues. PMID:27118013

  20. Mechanism of Column and Carrot Sprites Derived from Optical and Radio Observations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, J.; Celestin, S. J.; Pasko, V. P.; Cummer, S. A.; McHarg, M. G.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.

    2013-12-01

    The lightning current moment waveforms observed simultaneously with high-speed video records of a column and a carrot sprite event are incorporated in a plasma fluid model to provide quantitative explanation of these two distinct morphological classes of transient luminous events. We first modeled the spatial and temporal variations of the large-scale lightning quasi-static electric field at sprite altitudes. The ability of this field to produce carrot or column sprites is then evaluated using a time integral of the reduced electric field dependent ionization frequency ∫vi(E/N)dt, with exp(∫vi(E/N)dt) representing the total number of free electrons produced by a single seed electron through ionization. For the studied two events, modeling results indicate that in the upper atmosphere these integral values never exceed 18, which is the minimum value required for the initiation of sprite streamers from single seed electrons according to the Raether-Meek criterion. It is therefore suggested that the presence of electron inhomogeneities in the lower ionosphere is a necessary condition for the initiation of sprite streamers. Moreover, the initiation of upward negative streamers is a necessary morphological attribute of carrot sprites. Streamer simulations using a two-step simulation technique demonstrated that upward negative streamers can be initiated in the carrot sprite event at altitudes where the strength of the lightning electric field is large, represented by a minimum value ~10 of the integral. By contrast, in the column sprite event, the integral values in the entire upper atmosphere are smaller than ~10 and the streamer simulations indicate that only downward positive streamers can be produced.

  1. Effect of shade on seed protein oil fatty acids and minerals in soybean lines varying in seed germinability in the Early Soybean Production System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cause of poor seed quality (germination) of soybean produced in the Early Soybean Production System in the midsouth U.S.A. is still not completely understood. Temperature, solar radiation, and soybean genotype may all be important factors involved. The objective of this research was to evaluate...

  2. Use of acid whey and mustard seed to replace nitrites during cooked sausage production.

    PubMed

    Wójciak, Karolina M; Karwowska, Małgorzata; Dolatowski, Zbigniew J

    2014-02-01

    The aim was to determine the effects of sea salt, acid whey, native and autoclaved mustard seed on the physico-chemical properties, especially colour formation, microbial stability and sensory evaluation of non-nitrite cooked sausage during chilling storage. The cooked pork sausages were divided into 4 groups (group I--control sausages with curing salt (2.8%) and water (5%) added; group II--sausages with sea salt (2.8%) and acid whey (5%) added; group III--sausages with sea salt (2.8%), acid whey (5%) and mustard seed (1%) added; group IV--sausages with sea salt (2.8%), acid whey (5%) and autoclaved mustard seed (1%) added). Instrumental colour (L*, a*, b*), oxygenation index (ΔR), 650/570 nm ratio, heme iron, pH value and water activity (aw) were determined 1 day after production and after 10, 20 and 30 days of refrigerated storage (4 °C). Sensory analysis was conducted immediately after production (day 1). Microbial analysis (lactic acid bacteria, total viable count, Clostridium spp.) was determinated at the end of storage (30 days). The autoclaved mustard with acid whey can be used at 1.0% (w/w) of model cooked sausages with beneficial effect on physico-chemical and sensory qualities of no-nitrite sausage. This product can be stored at refrigeration temperature for up to 30 days, in vacuum, with good acceptability. The colour, visual appearance and overall quality of samples with autoclaved mustard seed and acid whey were similar to the control with curing agent. PMID:24200566

  3. Production of active human glucocerebrosidase in seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana complex-glycan-deficient (cgl) plants

    PubMed Central

    He, Xu; Galpin, Jason D; Tropak, Michael B; Mahuran, Don; Haselhorst, Thomas; von Itzstein, Mark; Kolarich, Daniel; Packer, Nicolle H; Miao, Yansong; Jiang, Liwen; Grabowski, Gregory A; Clarke, Lorne A; Kermode, Allison R

    2012-01-01

    There is a clear need for efficient methods to produce protein therapeutics requiring mannose-termination for therapeutic efficacy. Here we report on a unique system for production of active human lysosomal acid β-glucosidase (glucocerebrosidase, GCase, EC 3.2.1.45) using seeds of the Arabidopsis thaliana complex-glycan-deficient (cgl) mutant, which are deficient in the activity of N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase I (EC 2.4.1.101). Gaucher disease is a prevalent lysosomal storage disease in which affected individuals inherit mutations in the gene (GBA1) encoding GCase. A gene cassette optimized for seed expression was used to generate the human enzyme in seeds of the cgl (C5) mutant, and the recombinant GCase was mainly accumulated in the apoplast. Importantly, the enzymatic properties including kinetic parameters, half-maximal inhibitory concentration of isofagomine and thermal stability of the cgl-derived GCase were comparable with those of imiglucerase, a commercially available recombinant human GCase used for enzyme replacement therapy in Gaucher patients. N-glycan structural analyses of recombinant cgl-GCase showed that the majority of the N-glycans (97%) were mannose terminated. Additional purification was required to remove ~15% of the plant-derived recombinant GCase that possessed potentially immunogenic (xylose-and/or fucose-containing) N-glycans. Uptake of cgl-derived GCase by mouse macrophages was similar to that of imiglucerase. The cgl seed system requires no addition of foreign (non-native) amino acids to the mature recombinant GCase protein, and the dry transgenic seeds represent a stable repository of the therapeutic protein. Other strategies that may completely prevent plant-like complex N-glycans are discussed, including the use of a null cgl mutant. PMID:22061999

  4. Effect of Monascus purpureus inoculum concentration on pigment production in jackfruit seed flour substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdiyati, Yanti; Kusnadi, Yuliani, Lia Amelia

    2016-02-01

    The used of synthetic dyes have various negative effects on human health. Roomates pigment produced by Monascus purpureus mold can be used as an alternative natural food coloring. The research on the effect of inoculum concentration's M. purpureus to pigment production on the jackfruit seed flour has been done. The objective of research to is to investigate the effect of inoculum concentration's M. purpureus to the production of red, yellow and orange pigment on the jackfruit seed flour. The concentrations used were 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% (v/w). The result of the data analysed using One-Way ANOVA showed that the inoculum concentration affected the production of red pigment M. purpureus, as well as the data analysis using the Kruskal-Wallis showed that inoculum concentration has influence on the production of yellow and orange pigments. Inoculum concentration of 15% is the optimum concentration for the production of red, yellow and orange pigments with 0:10, 0:50 and 0:20 absorbance units per gram of sample respectively. Based on the results of the research, it can be concluded that inoculum concentration of M. purpureus influenced the production of red, yellow and orange pigments.

  5. Staged invasions across disparate grasslands: effects of seed provenance, consumers and disturbance on productivity and species richness.

    PubMed

    Maron, John L; Auge, Harald; Pearson, Dean E; Korell, Lotte; Hensen, Isabell; Suding, Katharine N; Stein, Claudia

    2014-04-01

    Exotic plant invasions are thought to alter productivity and species richness, yet these patterns are typically correlative. Few studies have experimentally invaded sites and asked how addition of novel species influences ecosystem function and community structure and examined the role of competitors and/or consumers in mediating these patterns. We invaded disturbed and undisturbed subplots in and out of rodent exclosures with seeds of native or exotic species in grasslands in Montana, California and Germany. Seed addition enhanced aboveground biomass and species richness compared with no-seeds-added controls, with exotics having disproportionate effects on productivity compared with natives. Disturbance enhanced the effects of seed addition on productivity and species richness, whereas rodents reduced productivity, but only in Germany and California. Our results demonstrate that experimental introduction of novel species can alter ecosystem function and community structure, but that local filters such as competition and herbivory influence the magnitude of these impacts. PMID:24467348

  6. Antimicrobial properties of pepsin-digested lactoferrin added to carrot juice and filtrates of carrot juice.

    PubMed

    Chantaysakorn, P; Richter, R L

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of pepsin-digested lactoferrin added to carrot juice and filtrates prepared from carrot juice. Lactoferrin isolated from raw skim milk was digested by pepsin for 4 h at pH 3. The digest of lactoferrin was lyophilized, and the antimicrobial activity of the digests was determined in peptone-yeast-glucose broth, carrot juice, permeate from carrot juice, and the dialysate of carrot juice permeate using Escherichia coli (American Type Culture Collection strain 35343) as the test organism. Growth of E. coli and the inhibitory effect of the peptide were greater in peptone-yeast-glucose broth at pH 7 than at pH 4. The peptic digest of lactoferrin did not have antimicrobial properties in carrot juice at concentrations of less than 10 mg/ml of juice. Carrot juice was filtered through a membrane with a molecular weight rejection of 10,000 or 500 Da, and the permeate was dialyzed against distilled water. Growth of E. coli was delayed in the filtrate by 5 mg but not by 1 mg of the peptic digest of lactoferrin per ml of filtrate. Bacterial counts of the control and experimental samples were not significantly different after 24 h of incubation. The peptic digest of lactoferrin at a concentration of 5 mg of digest per ml of dialysate was bacteriostatic toward E. coli after 24 h of incubation at 23 degrees C. Dialysis of permeate caused a percentage reduction in cation concentration in the permeate ranging from 69.23% (Co) to 99.32% (Na). The antimicrobial activity of lactoferrin added to carrot juice was probably inhibited by cations. PMID:10716568

  7. Effect of guar crispbread with cereal products and leguminous seeds on blood glucose concentrations of diabetics.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, D J; Wolever, T M; Taylor, R H; Barker, H M; Fielden, H; Jenkins, A L

    1980-11-01

    To compare the effect on blood glucose concentrations of guar incorporated into crispbreads with that of unprocessed high-fibre foods groups of four to six diabetics took a total of seven test breakfasts on separate days. By comparison with a breakfast of wholemeal bread and cheese, guar crispbread combined with bread reduced the area under the glucose response curve to 51% (p < 0.05); bread and soya beans reduced the area to 65% (p < 0.05); guar crispbread with soya beans to 25% (p < 0.002); and soya beans with lentils to 29% (p < 0.002). Porridge and cornflake breakfasts showed no difference. The favourable results with leguminous seeds may not make such meals more acceptable than meals of guar products, but a combination of leguminous seeds and guar may allow smaller and more acceptable amounts of both to be used. PMID:6253021

  8. Amygdalin content of seeds, kernels and food products commercially-available in the UK.

    PubMed

    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat F; Orfila, Caroline; Morgan, Michael R A

    2014-01-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are a large group of secondary metabolites that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, including many plants that are commonly consumed by humans. The diverse chemical nature of cyanogenic glycosides means that extraction and analysis of individual compounds can be difficult. In addition, degradation can be rapid under appropriate conditions. Amygdalin is one of the cyanogenic glycosides found, for example, in apples, apricots and almonds. We have developed and applied a high performance liquid chromatographic procedure for amygdalin quantification to investigate extraction efficiency and to determine levels in a range of commercially-available foods for the first time. Our results show that seed from Rosaceae species contained relatively high amounts (range 0.1-17.5 mg g(-1)) of amygdalin compared to seed from non-Rosaceae species (range 0.01-0.2 mg g(-1)). The amygdalin content of processed food products was very low. PMID:24444917

  9. Diuron occurrence and distribution in soil and surface and ground water associated with grass seed production.

    PubMed

    Field, Jennifer A; Reed, Ralph L; Sawyer, Thomas E; Griffith, Steven M; Wigington, P J

    2003-01-01

    Little is known about the occurrence and distribution of the herbicide diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea] in soil, ground water, and surface water in areas affected by grass-seed production. A field study was designed to investigate the occurrence and distribution of diuron and its transformation products at a poorly drained field site located along an intermittent tributary of Lake Creek in the southern Willamette Valley of Oregon. The experimental sites consisted of a field under commercial grass seed production with a cultivated riparian zone and a second site that was part of the same grass seed field but with a noncultivated riparian zone. Diuron and its transformation product DCPMU [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1-methylurea] were the only significant residues detected in this study. Concentrations of diuron in surface water declined from a maximum of 28 microg/L immediately following application to low levels that persisted as long as flow was present. Diuron and DCPMU concentrations in shallow ground water (15-36 cm below ground surface) were highest (2-13 microg/L) in the zone immediately adjacent (0.5 m) to Lake Creek and indicated the influence of stream water on shallow ground water near the stream. Diuron and DCPMU detected in soil prior to the second season's application indicated the persistence of diuron and DCPMU from the previous year's application. Surface runoff during the rainy season removes only a very small percentage (<1%) of the applied herbicide. In addition, no evidence was obtained for the downward transport of diuron or its transformation products to deep ground water. PMID:12549556

  10. On the Use of Carrots and Sticks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Dan M.

    1988-01-01

    Draws upon author's experience in developing and modifying a computer-assisted language learning (CALL) program for elementary school students to make suggestions about how requirements and grades can serve as "carrots and sticks" to motivate students to conscientiously use CALL programs. (Author/CB)

  11. Understanding polysaccharide production and properties using seed coat mutants: future perspectives for the exploitation of natural variants

    PubMed Central

    North, Helen M.; Berger, Adeline; Saez-Aguayo, Susana; Ralet, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidermal cells of the seed coat of certain species accumulate polysaccharides during seed development for cell wall reinforcement or release on imbibition to form mucilage. Seed-coat epidermal cells show natural variation in their structure and mucilage production, which could explain the diverse ecophysiological roles proposed for the latter. Arabidopsis mucilage mutants have proved to be an important tool for the identification of genes involved in the production of seed-coat polysaccharides. Scope This review documents genes that have been characterized as playing a role in the differentiation of the epidermal cells of the arabidopsis seed coat, the natural variability in polysaccharide features of these cells and the physiological roles attributed to seed mucilage. Conclusions Seed-coat epidermal cells are an excellent model for the study of polysaccharide metabolism and properties. Intra- and interspecies natural variation in the differentiation of these epidermal cells is an under-exploited resource for such studies and promises to play an important part in improving our knowledge of polysaccharide production and ecophysiological function. PMID:24607722

  12. Increasing the production yield of recombinant protein in transgenic seeds by expanding the deposition space within the intracellular compartment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Seeds must maintain a constant level of nitrogen in order to germinate. When recombinant proteins are produced while endogenous seed protein expression is suppressed, the production levels of the foreign proteins increase to compensate for the decreased synthesis of endogenous proteins. Thus, exchanging the production of endogenous seed proteins for that of foreign proteins is a promising approach to increase the yield of foreign recombinant proteins. Providing a space for the deposition of recombinant protein in the intracellular compartment is critical, at this would lessen any competition in this region between the endogenous seed proteins and the introduced foreign protein. The production yields of several recombinant proteins have been greatly increased by this strategy. PMID:23563599

  13. Effects of Increased Nitrogen Deposition and Precipitation on Seed and Seedling Production of Potentilla tanacetifolia in a Temperate Steppe Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Yang, Haijun; Xia, Jianyang; Zhang, Wenhao; Wan, Shiqiang; Li, Linghao

    2011-01-01

    Background The responses of plant seeds and seedlings to changing atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition and precipitation regimes determine plant population dynamics and community composition under global change. Methodology/Principal Findings In a temperate steppe in northern China, seeds of P. tanacetifolia were collected from a field-based experiment with N addition and increased precipitation to measure changes in their traits (production, mass, germination). Seedlings germinated from those seeds were grown in a greenhouse to examine the effects of improved N and water availability in maternal and offspring environments on seedling growth. Maternal N-addition stimulated seed production, but it suppressed seed mass, germination rate and seedling biomass of P. tanacetifolia. Maternal N-addition also enhanced responses of seedlings to N and water addition in the offspring environment. Maternal increased-precipitation stimulated seed production, but it had no effect on seed mass and germination rate. Maternal increased-precipitation enhanced seedling growth when grown under similar conditions, whereas seedling responses to offspring N- and water-addition were suppressed by maternal increased-precipitation. Both offspring N-addition and increased-precipitation stimulated growth of seedlings germinated from seeds collected from the maternal control environment without either N or water addition. Our observations indicate that both maternal and offspring environments can influence seedling growth of P. tanacetifolia with consequent impacts on the future population dynamics of this species in the study area. Conclusion/Significance The findings highlight the importance of the maternal effects on seed and seedling production as well as responses of offspring to changing environmental drivers in mechanistic understanding and projecting of plant population dynamics under global change. PMID:22194863

  14. Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pimpinella anisum L. seeds on milk production in rats.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Abedzadeh, Shirin; Taghiabadi, Elahe

    2014-08-01

    Pimpinella anisum L. (P. anisum) is used as a galactagogue in traditional medicine; hence, the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. anisum seeds on milk production in rats was evaluated. The milk production was assessed by measuring the pups' weights during the suckling period. The intraperitoneal LD(50) values of P. anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts were 4.93 and 3.77 g/kg, respectively. The aqueous (1 g/kg) and ethanolic extracts (1 g/kg) increased the milk production significantly (p < 0.001), with about 68.1% and 81% more milk being produced, respectively, than in the control group. The pups gained weight during the study period with the aqueous (0.5 and 1 g/kg, p < 0.05) and ethanolic (0.5 and 1 g/kg, p < 0.01) extracts. Thus, P. anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts can increase milk production in rats. PMID:25151455

  15. Phospholipase Dε enhances Braasca napus growth and seed production in response to nitrogen availability.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shaoping; Yao, Shuaibing; Wang, Geliang; Guo, Liang; Zhou, Yongming; Hong, Yueyun; Wang, Xuemin

    2016-03-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD), which hydrolyses phospholipids to produce phosphatidic acid, has been implicated in plant response to macronutrient availability in Arabidopsis. This study investigated the effect of increased PLDε expression on nitrogen utilization in Brassica napus to explore the application of PLDε manipulation to crop improvement. In addition, changes in membrane lipid species in response to nitrogen availability were determined in the oil seed crop. Multiple PLDε over expression (PLDε-OE) lines displayed enhanced biomass accumulation under nitrogen-deficient and nitrogen-replete conditions. PLDε-OE plants in the field produced more seeds than wild-type plants but have no impact on seed oil content. Compared with wild-type plants, PLDε-OE plants were enhanced in nitrate transporter expression, uptake and reduction, whereas the activity of nitrite reductase was higher under nitrogen-depleted, but not at nitrogen-replete conditions. The level of nitrogen altered membrane glycerolipid metabolism, with greater impacts on young than mature leaves. The data indicate increased expression of PLDε has the potential to improve crop plant growth and production under nitrogen-depleted and nitrogen-replete conditions. PMID:26260942

  16. Genetic structure and domestication of carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus)(Apiaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated domestication and genetic structure in wild and open pollinated cultivated carrots (Daucus carota L.) with 3481 SNPs developed from carrot transcriptome sequences. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a clear genetic separation between wild and cultivated carrot accessions. Among the wild ...

  17. A novel male sterility-fertility restoration system in plants for hybrid seed production

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surendra Pratap; Singh, Sudhir P.; Pandey, Tripti; Singh, Ram Rakshpal; Sawant, Samir V.

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid seeds are used for stimulated crop production, as they harness heterosis. The achievement of complete male-sterility in the female-parent and the restored-fertility in F1-hybrids are the major bottlenecks in the commercial hybrid seed production. Here, we report a male sterility–fertility restoration system by engineering the inmost nutritive anther wall layer tapetum of female and male parents. In the female parent, high–level, and stringent expression of Arabidopsis autophagy–related gene BECLIN1 was achieved in the tapetum, which altered the tapetal degeneration program, leading to male sterility. This works on our previously demonstrated expression cassette based on functional complementation of TATA-box mutant (TGTA) promoter and TATA-binding protein mutant3 (TBPm3), with modification by conjugating Long Hypocotyle in Far-Red1 fragment (HFR1NT131) with TBPm3 (HFR1NT131-TBPm3) to exercise regulatory control over it. In the male parent, tapetum–specific Constitutive photo-morphogenesis1 (COP1) was expressed. The F1 obtained by crossing these engineered parents showed decreased BECLIN1 expression, which was further completely abolished when COP1-mutant (COP1L105A) was used as a male parent, leading to normal tapetal development and restored fertility. The system works on COP1-HFR1 interaction and COP1–mediated degradation of TBPm3 pool (HFR1NT131-TBPm3). The system can be deployed for hybrid seed production in agricultural crops. PMID:26073981

  18. Testing hypotheses for excess flower production and low fruit-to-flower ratios in a pollinating seed-consuming mutualism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; Bronstein, Judith L.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2004-01-01

    Pollinator attraction, pollen limitation, resource limitation, pollen donation and selective fruit abortion have all been proposed as processes explaining why hermaphroditic plants commonly produce many more flowers than mature fruit. We conducted a series of experiments in Arizona to investigate low fruit-to-flower ratios in senita cacti, which rely exclusively on pollinating seed-consumers. Selective abortion of fruit based on seed predators is of particular interest in this case because plants relying on pollinating seed-consumers are predicted to have such a mechanism to minimize seed loss. Pollinator attraction and pollen dispersal increased with flower number, but fruit set did not, refuting the hypothesis that excess flowers increase fruit set by attracting more pollinators. Fruit set of natural- and hand-pollinated flowers were not different, supporting the resource, rather than pollen, limitation hypothesis. Senita did abort fruit, but not selectively based on pollen quantity, pollen donors, or seed predators. Collectively, these results are consistent with sex allocation theory in that resource allocation to excess flower production can increase pollen dispersal and the male fitness function of flowers, but consequently results in reduced resources available for fruit set. Inconsistent with sex allocation theory, however, fruit production and the female fitness function of flowers may actually increase with flower production. This is because excess flower production lowers pollinator-to-flower ratios and results in fruit abortion, both of which limit the abundance and hence oviposition rates, of pre-dispersal seed predators.

  19. Encapsulation of black carrot juice using spray and freeze drying.

    PubMed

    Murali, S; Kar, Abhijit; Mohapatra, Debabandya; Kalia, Pritam

    2015-12-01

    Black carrot juice extracted using pectinase enzyme was encapsulated in three different carrier materials (maltodextrin 20DE, gum arabic and tapioca starch) using spray drying at four inlet temperatures (150, 175, 200 and 225 ℃) and freeze drying at a constant temperature of - 53 ℃ and vacuum of 0.22-0.11 mbar with the constant feed mixture. The products were analyzed for total anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, water solubility index, encapsulation efficiency and total colour change. For both the drying methods followed in this study, maltodextrin 20DE as the carrier material has proven to be better in retaining maximum anthocyanin and antioxidant activity compared to gum arabic and tapioca starch. The best spray dried product, was obtained at 150 ℃. The most acceptable was the freeze dried product with maximum anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, water solubility index, encapsulation efficiency and colour change. PMID:25367889

  20. Production of biodiesel from winery waste: extraction, refining and transesterification of grape seed oil.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Carmen María; Ramos, María Jesús; Pérez, Angel; Rodríguez, Juan Francisco

    2010-09-01

    In regions with a large wine production the usage of their natural waste to make biodiesel can result an interesting alternative. In this work, different methods of extraction, refining and transesterification of grape seed oil were assayed. Two techniques of oil extraction were compared: solvent extraction and pressing. Two conventional transesterifications of the refined oil were carried out using methanol and bioethanol, being the methyl and ethyl ester contents higher than 97 wt.%. Finally, several in situ transesterifications were done. In situ transesterification did not reach either the oil yield extraction or the alkyl ester contents but the obtained biodiesel had better oxidation stability in comparison with the conventional process. PMID:20435475

  1. [Production of pectinases by Penicillium simplicissimum A3263 in an amaranth-seed flour medium].

    PubMed

    Pastor, M D; Lorda, G S; Balatti, A

    2002-01-01

    The present work studies the production of pectinases using a strain of Penicillium simplicissimum A3263 and considering the influence of adding Amaranthus cruentus seed meal in a selected medium. We also considered the influence of aeration on enzyme production. Research was oriented towards the production of pectin lyase, the enzyme having the highest commercial value. This work was carried out in Erlenmeyer flasks in rotary shaker to select the medium and in a mechanically stirred fermentor to study aeration. The microorganism was developed as pellets of 1 mm diameter. Enzyme levels were of the order of 8216.21 pectin lyase units and 167.57 polygalacturonase units per gram of fungal biomass, respectively, using a medium containing 40 g/l of amaranth seed meal. As for the influence of aeration, it was determined that the higher values were obtained at 750 rpm corresponding to an oxygen absorption rate of 2691 ml O2/lh for an air flow of 1 l/l.min. The results obtained are considered very important in view of the fact that they exceeded in 550% those obtained by other authors. PMID:11942079

  2. Nutritional value of broad bean seeds. Part 3: Changes of dietary fibre and starch in the production of commercial flours.

    PubMed

    Giczewska, Anna; Borowska, Julitta

    2004-04-01

    We report on the impact of flour production from small- and large-seed varieties of broad bean on the quantitative and qualitative distribution of dietary fibre and starch. The experimental material consisted of the seeds of small-seed varieties of broad bean: Gobik and Goral, large-seed varieties of broad bean: Windsor Bialy and Bartom, and pea seeds of Albatros, Karat and Miko varieties (for comparison). The seeds were at full physiological maturity. Soaking and hydrothermal processing were shown to cause multidirectional, statistically significant changes in dietary fibre and starch, depending on both parameters of the process and type of the seeds. The flours of both small-seed broad bean varieties contained 20.15%-28.31%, flours of the large-seed broad bean 23.10%-27.50%, and those from pea seeds 20.13%-22.81% total dietary fibre. Attention should be paid to the considerable, approximately 2-fold increase in the soluble dietary fibre (SDF) content, compared to the raw material. The processing of seeds caused significant changes also with reference to starch. The most considerable changes were observed when the variant with the longest times of soaking (18 h) and heating (45 min) was applied. In the broad bean flours, the content of analytically available starch decreased by 22.94-30.60% and its digestibility was observed to decrease up to 30.25%. The pea flours, however, were characterised by an increased concentration of both forms of starch, especially significant for the digestible starch. The calculated content of resistant starch (RS) differentiated, to a high extent, the flours obtained. Under the same processing conditions, the flours of small-seed Gobik and Goral varieties of broad bean were characterised by a significantly higher RS content than those obtained from the large-seed varieties. A decrease in the starch digestibility rate index (SDRI) values, especially high for the small-seed varieties, should also be emphasised. The results obtained

  3. Coexistence in tropical forests through asynchronous variation in annual seed production.

    PubMed

    Usinowicz, Jacob; Wright, S Joseph; Ives, Anthony R

    2012-09-01

    The storage effect is a mechanism that can facilitate the coexistence of competing species through temporal fluctuations in reproductive output. Numerous natural systems have the prerequisites for the storage effect, yet it has rarely been quantitatively assessed. Here, we investigate the possible importance of the storage effect in explaining the coexistence of tree species in the diverse tropical forest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. This tropical forest has been monitored for more than 20 years, and annual seed production is asynchronous among species, a primary requirement for the storage effect. We constructed a model of forest regeneration that includes species-specific recruitment through seed, sapling, and adult stages, and we parameterized the model using data for 28 species for which information is known about seedling germination and survival. Simulations of the model demonstrated that the storage effect alone can be a strong mechanism allowing long-term persistence of species. We also developed a metric to quantify the strength of the storage effect in a way comparable to classical resource partitioning. Applying this metric to seed production data from 108 species, the storage effect reduces the strength of pairwise interspecific competition to 11-43% of the strength of intraspecific competition, thereby demonstrating strong potential to facilitate coexistence. Finally, for a subset of 51 species whose phylogenetic relationships are known, we compared the strength of the storage effect between pairs of species to their phylogenetic similarity. The strength of the storage effect between closely related species was on average no different from distantly related species, implying that the storage effect can be important in promoting the coexistence of even closely related species. PMID:23094379

  4. Inhibitory effects of raw carrots on Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Beuchat, L R; Brackett, R E

    1990-01-01

    The survival and growth of two strains of Listeria monocytogenes on raw and cooked carrots stored at 5 and 15 degrees C and in carrot juice media at 30 degrees C were investigated. The influence of shredding, chlorine treatment, and packaging under an atmosphere containing 3% O2 and 97% N2 on the behavior of L. monocytogenes and naturally occurring microflora was determined. Populations of viable L. monocytogenes decreased upon contact with whole and shredded raw carrots but not cooked carrots. Viable populations also decreased in cell suspensions in which raw carrots were dipped. Small populations of L. monocytogenes detected on whole carrots immediately after dipping were essentially nondetectable after 7 days of storage at 5 or 15 degrees C. After a lag of 7 days at 5 degrees C, significant (P less than or equal to 0.05) increases in populations were detected on shredded carrots after 24 days of storage. Carrots stored at 5 or 15 degrees C spoiled before L. monocytogenes grew. Populations of mesophilic aerobes, psychrophiles, and yeasts and molds increased throughout storage at 5 and 15 degrees C. Cutting treatment (whole or shredded carrots), chlorine treatment, and modified-atmosphere packaging had no effect on the survival or growth of L. monocytogenes or naturally occurring microflora. The presence of raw carrot juice in tryptic phosphate broth at a concentration as low as 1% substantially reduced the maximum population of L. monocytogenes reached after 24 h at 30 degrees C. The anti-Listeria effect of carrots was essentially eliminated when the carrots were cooked.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2116759

  5. Effects of rutin and buckwheat seeds on energy metabolism and methane production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Stoldt, Ann-Kathrin; Derno, Michael; Das, Gürbüz; Weitzel, Joachim M; Wolffram, Siegfried; Metges, Cornelia C

    2016-03-01

    Flavonoids are secondary plant metabolites with several health promoting effects. As dairy cows often suffer from metabolic imbalance and health problems, interest is growing in health improvements by plant substances such as flavonoids. Our group has recently shown that the flavonoids quercetin and rutin (a glucorhamnoside of quercetin) are bioavailable in cows when given via a duodenal fistula or orally, respectively, affect glucose metabolism, and have beneficial effects on liver health. Furthermore, flavonoids may reduce rumen methane production in vitro through their antibacterial properties. To test the hypothesis that rutin has effects on energy metabolism, methane production, and production performance in dairy cows, we fed rutin trihydrate at a dose of 100mg/kg of body weight to a group of 7 lactating dairy cows for 2 wk in a crossover design. In a second experiment, 2 cows were fed the same ration but were supplemented with buckwheat seeds (Fagopyrum tartaricum), providing rutin at a dose comparable to the first experiment. Two other cows receiving barley supplements were used as controls in a change-over mode. Blood samples were taken weekly and respiration measurements were performed at the end of each treatment. Supplementation of pure rutin, but not of rutin contained in buckwheat seeds, increased the plasma quercetin content. Methane production and milk yield and composition were not affected by rutin treatment in either form. Plasma glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, and albumin were increased by pure rutin treatment, indicating a possible metabolic effect of rutin on energy metabolism of dairy cows. In addition, we did not show that in vivo ruminal methane production was reduced by rutin. In conclusion, we could not confirm earlier reports on in vitro methane reduction by rutin supplementation in dairy cows in established lactation. PMID:26805964

  6. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Results Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g)), total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g)), and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g)). Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Conclusions Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit". PMID:21299842

  7. Phenology, fruit production and seed dispersal of Astrocaryum jauari (Arecaceae) in Amazonian black water floodplains.

    PubMed

    Piedade, Maria Teresa F; Parolin, Pia; Junk, Wolfgang J

    2006-12-01

    Astrocaryum jauari Mart. (Arecaceae) is one of the commonest palm species occurring in nutritionally poor Amazonian black water floodplains. It is an emergent or subcanopy tree that grows on river banks and islands, with a wide distribution along the entire flooding gradient, tolerating flood durations between 30 and 340 days. The species is important for fish nutrition in the floodplains, and is also used for hearts of palm. In the present study, the auto-ecology of A. jauari was analysed over a period of two years in the Anavilhanas Archipelago, Rio Negro, Brazil, with a focus on phenology, fruit production, and seed dispersal. Fruit fall is annual and synchronized with high water levels, with a production of 1.6 ton of fruit ha(-1). The fruits are eaten by at least 16 species of fish which either gnaw the pulp, fragment the seed, or ingest the entire fruit, thus acting as dispersal agents. Besides ichthyocory, barochory (with subsequent vegetative propagation) is an important dispersal mode, enhancing the occurrence of large masses of individuals in the Anavilhanas islands and in the region of maximum palm heart extraction near Barcelos. PMID:18457155

  8. Yucca brevifolia fruit production, predispersal seed predation, and fruit removal by rodents during two years of contrasting reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borchert, Mark I.; DeFalco, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The distribution of Yucca brevifolia, a keystone species of the Mojave Desert, may contract with climate change, yet reproduction and dispersal are poorly understood. We tracked reproduction, seed predation, and fruit dispersal for two years and discuss whether Y. brevifolia is a masting species. METHODS: Fruit maturation, seed predation (larval yucca moths), and fruit dispersal (rodents) were monitored on a random sample of panicles during 2013 and 2014, which were years of high and low reproduction, respectively. Fates of fruits placed on the ground and in canopies were also tracked. Rodents were live-trapped to assess abundance and species composition. KEY RESULTS: In 2013, 66% of inflorescences produced fruit of which 53% escaped larval predation; 19.5% of seeds were destroyed in infested fruits. Total seed production was estimated to be >100 times greater in 2013 than 2014. One-third of the fruit crop fell to the ground and was removed by rodents over the course of 120 d. After ground fruits became scarce, rodents exploited canopy fruits. Rodent numbers were low in 2013, so fruits remained in canopies for 370 d. In 2014, fruit production was approximately 20% lower. Larvae infested the majority of fruits, and almost twice the number of seeds were damaged. Fruits were exploited by rodents within 65 d. CONCLUSIONS: High fertilization, prolific seed production, and low predispersal predation in 2013 suggests that pollinator attraction and satiation of seed predators influence masting in Y. brevifolia. Abundant, prolonged fruit availability to seed-dispersing rodents likely extends recruitment opportunities during mast years.

  9. Kuechemann Carrots for transonic drag reduction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechert, D. W.; Hage, W.; Stanewsky, E.

    1999-11-01

    Wave drag reduction bodies on the suction side of transonic wings are investigated. Following the original invention by O. Frenzl (1942), subsequently, such bodies have been suggested by Kuechemann and Whitcomb. These devices have been used sucessfully on various TUPOLEV aircraft and on the CONVAIR 990 airliner. New transonic wind tunnel data from an unswept wing with an array of Kuechemann Carrots are presented (airfoil: CAST 10/DOA-2). In a certain parameter range (M= 0.765-0.86) the measurements exhibit a significant reduction of the shock strength on a wing between the Kuechemann Carrots. This entails a dramatic reduction of drag, in a certain Mach number and angular regime up to 50-60%.

  10. Microwave assisted alkali-catalyzed transesterification of Pongamia pinnata seed oil for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ritesh; Kumar, G Ravi; Chandrashekar, N

    2011-06-01

    In this study, microwave assisted transesterification of Pongamia pinnata seed oil was carried out for the production of biodiesel. The experiments were carried out using methanol and two alkali catalysts i.e., sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH). The experiments were carried out at 6:1 alcohol/oil molar ratio and 60°C reaction temperature. The effect of catalyst concentration and reaction time on the yield and quality of biodiesel was studied. The result of the study suggested that 0.5% sodium hydroxide and 1.0% potassium hydroxide catalyst concentration were optimum for biodiesel production from P. pinnata oil under microwave heating. There was a significant reduction in reaction time for microwave induced transesterification as compared to conventional heating. PMID:21482464

  11. Evaluating the Role of Seed Treatments in Canola/Oilseed Rape Production: Integrated Pest Management, Pollinator Health, and Biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Sekulic, Gregory; Rempel, Curtis B

    2016-01-01

    The use patterns and role of insecticide seed treatments, with focus on neonicotinoid insecticides, were examined for canola/oilseed rape production in Canada and the EU. Since nearly all planted canola acres in Western Canada and, historically, a majority of planted oilseed acres in the EU, use seed treatments, it is worth examining whether broad use of insecticidal seed treatments (IST) is compatible with principles of integrated pest management (IPM). The neonicotinoid insecticide (NNI) seed treatment (NNI ST) use pattern has risen due to effective control of several early season insect pests, the most destructive being flea beetles (Phyllotreta sp.). Negative environmental impact and poor efficacy of foliar applied insecticides on flea beetles led growers to look for better alternatives. Due to their biology, predictive models have been difficult to develop for flea beetles, and, therefore, targeted application of seed treatments, as part of an IPM program, has contributed to grower profitability and overall pollinator success for canola production in Western Canada. Early evidence suggests that the recent restriction on NNI may negatively impact grower profitability and does not appear to be having positive impact on pollinator health. Further investigation on impact of NNI on individual bee vs. hive health need to be conducted. Predictive models for flea beetle emergence/feeding activity in canola/oilseed rape need to be developed, as broad acre deployment of NNI seed treatments may not be sustainable due to concerns about resistance/tolerance in flea beetles and other pest species. PMID:27527233

  12. Hypergravity prevents seed production in Arabidopsis by disrupting pollen tube growth.

    PubMed

    Musgrave, Mary E; Kuang, Anxiu; Allen, Joan; van Loon, Jack J W A

    2009-10-01

    How tightly land plants are adapted to the gravitational force (g) prevailing on Earth has been of interest because unlike many other environmental factors, g presents as a constant force. Ontogeny of mature angiosperms begins with an embryo that is formed after tip growth by a pollen tube delivers the sperm nucleus to the egg. Because of the importance to plant fitness, we have investigated how gravity affects these early stages of reproductive development. Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants were grown for 13 days prior to being transferred to growth chambers attached to a large diameter rotor, where they were continuously exposed to 2-g or 4-g for the subsequent 11 days. Plants began flowering 1 day after start of the treatments, producing hundreds of flowers for analysis of reproductive development. At 4-g, Arabidopsis flowers self-pollinated normally but did not produce seeds, thus derailing the entire life cycle. Pollen viability and stigma esterase activity were not compromised by hypergravity; however, the growth of pollen tubes into the stigmas was curtailed at 4-g. In vitro pollen germination assays showed that 4-g average tube length was less than half that for 1-g controls. Closely related Brassica rapa L., which produces seeds at 4-g, required forces in excess of 6-g to slow in vitro tube growth to half that at 1-g. The results explain why seed production is absent in Arabidopsis at 4-g and point to species differences with regard to the g-sensitivity of pollen tube growth. PMID:19649651

  13. Salinity affects production and salt tolerance of dimorphic seeds of Suaeda salsa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengxia; Xu, Yan-Ge; Wang, Shuai; Shi, Weiwei; Liu, Ranran; Feng, Gu; Song, Jie

    2015-10-01

    The effect of salinity on brown seeds/black seeds ratio, seed weight, endogenous hormone concentrations, and germination of brown and black seeds in the euhalophyte Suaeda salsa was investigated. The brown seeds/black seeds ratio, seed weight of brown and black seeds and the content of protein increased at a concentration of 500 mM NaCl compared to low salt conditions (1 mM NaCl). The germination percentage and germination index of brown seeds from plants cultured in 500 mM NaCl were higher than those cultured in 1 mM NaCl, but it was not true for black seeds. The concentrations of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), ZR (free zeatin riboside) and ABA (abscisic acid) in brown seeds were much greater than those in black seeds, but there were no differences in the level of GAs (gibberellic acid including GA1 and GA3) regardless of the degree of salinity. Salinity during plant culture increased the concentration of GAs, but salinity had no effect on the concentrations of the other three endogenous hormones in brown seeds. Salinity had no effect on the concentration of IAA but increased the concentrations of the other three endogenous hormones in black seeds. Accumulation of endogenous hormones at different concentrations of NaCl during plant growth may be related to seed development and to salt tolerance of brown and black S. salsa seeds. These characteristics may help the species to ensure seedling establishment and population succession in variable saline environments. PMID:26184090

  14. Use of transgenic seeds in Brazilian agriculture and concentration of agricultural production to large agribusinesses.

    PubMed

    Marinho, C D; Martins, F J O; Amaral Júnior, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; Amaral, S C S; de Mello, M P

    2012-01-01

    We identified the commercial releases of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in Brazil, their characteristics, the types of genetic transformation used, and the companies responsible for the development of these GMOs, classifying them into two categories: private companies, subdivided into multinational and national, and public institutions. The data came from the data bank of the national registration of cultivars and the service of national protection of cultivars of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fishing and Supply (MAPA). This survey was carried out from 1998 to February 12, 2011. Until this date, 27 GMOs had been approved, including five for soybean, 15 for maize and seven for cotton cultivars. These GMOs have been used for the development of 766 cultivars, of which, 305 are soybean, 445 are maize, and 13 are cotton cultivars. The Monsato Company controls 73.2% of the transgenic cultivars certified by the MAPA; a partnership between Dow AgroSciences and DuPont accounts for 21.4%, and Syngenta controls 4.96%. Seed supply by these companies is almost a monopoly supported by law, giving no choice for producers and leading to the fast replacement of conventional cultivars by transgenic cultivars, which are expensive and exclude small producers from the market, since seeds cannot be kept for later use. This situation concentrates production in the hands of a few large national agribusiness entrepreneurs. PMID:22869542

  15. Pistil Smut Infection Increases Ovary Production, Seed Yield Components, and Pseudosexual Reproductive Allocation in Buffalograss

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Ambika; Huff, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Sex expression of dioecious buffalograss [Bouteloua dactyloides Columbus (syn. Buchloë dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.)] is known to be environmentally stable with approximate 1:1, male to female, sex ratios. Here we show that infection by the pistil smut fungus [Salmacisia buchloëana Huff & Chandra (syn. Tilletia buchloëana Kellerman and Swingle)] shifts sex ratios of buffalograss to be nearly 100% phenotypically hermaphroditic. In addition, pistil smut infection decreased vegetative reproductive allocation, increased most seed yield components, and increased pseudosexual reproductive allocation in both sex forms compared to uninfected clones. In female sex forms, pistil smut infection resulted in a 26 fold increase in ovary production and a 35 fold increase in potential harvest index. In male sex forms, pistil smut infection resulted in 2.37 fold increase in floret number and over 95% of these florets contained a well-developed pistil. Although all ovaries of infected plants are filled with fungal teliospores and hence reproductively sterile, an average male-female pair of infected plants exhibited an 87 fold increase in potential harvest index compared to their uninfected clones. Acquiring an ability to mimic the effects of pistil smut infection would enhance our understanding of the flowering process in grasses and our efforts to increase seed yield of buffalograss and perhaps other grasses. PMID:27135522

  16. Identification and phytotoxicity of a new glucosinolate breakdown product from Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) seed meal.

    PubMed

    Intanon, Suphannika; Reed, Ralph L; Stevens, Jan F; Hulting, Andrew G; Mallory-Smith, Carol A

    2014-07-30

    Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba Hartw. ex Benth.) is an oilseed crop grown in the Willamette Valley of Oregon. Meadowfoam seed meal (MSM), a byproduct after oil extraction, contains 2-4% glucosinolate (glucolimnanthin). Activated MSM, produced by adding freshly ground myrosinase-active meadowfoam seeds to MSM, facilitates myrosinase-mediated formation of glucosinolate-derived degradation products with herbicidal activity. In the activated MSM, glucolimnanthin was converted into 3-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate ("isothiocyanate") within 24 h and was degraded by day three. 3-Methoxyphenylacetonitrile ("nitrile") persisted for at least 6 days. Methoxyphenylacetic acid (MPAA), a previously unknown metabolite of glucolimnanthin, appeared at day three. Its identity was confirmed by LC-UV and high resolution LC-MS/MS comparisons with a standard of MPAA. Isothiocyanate inhibited lettuce germination 8.5- and 14.4-fold more effectively than MPAA and nitrile, respectively. Activated MSM inhibited lettuce germination by 58% and growth by 72% compared with the control. Results of the study suggest that MSM has potential uses as a pre-emergence bioherbicide. PMID:24998843

  17. Evaluation of sensory acceptability and storage stability of frozen carrot based dessert.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Tanushree Maity; Raju, P S; Bawa, A S

    2014-06-01

    In the present study a recipe for frozen carrot based dessert (carrot halwa) was standardized on the basis of sensory characteristics such as appearance, odor, texture, taste and overall acceptability (OAA). The product was developed without addition of pure ghee to improve the storage stability under frozen conditions (-20 °C). Sensory properties of the developed product (OAA score = 8.60) were found to be equally good as compared to the conventional carrot halwa (OAA score = 8.75) which was prepared using pure ghee. From the physico-chemical analysis the developed product was found to have lower amount of fat (ca. 12%) than the conventional one. During the frozen storage, microbial growth in the product was found to be non-significant (P > 0.05). The free fatty acid content, peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid content increased during frozen storage of 15 months. But the increase was insignificant. Loss in total carotenoids content of the product was found to be 60.5% from initial value at the end of 15 months frozen storage. PMID:24876657

  18. Estimating fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of ensiled and dried pomegranate seeds for ruminants using in vitro gas production technique

    PubMed Central

    Taher-Maddah, M.; Maheri-Sis, N.; Salamatdoustnobar, R.; Ahmadzadeh, A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition and estimation of fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of ensiled and dried pomegranate seeds using in vitro gas production technique. Samples were collected, mixed, processed (ensiled and dried) and incubated in vitro with rumen liquor taken from three fistulated Iranian native (Taleshi) steers at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h. The results showed that ensiling lead to significant increase in gas production of pomegranate seeds at all incubation times. The gas volume at 24 h incubation, were 25.76 and 17.91 ml/200mg DM for ensiled and dried pomegranate seeds, respectively. The gas production rate (c) also was significantly higher for ensiled groups than dried (0.0930 vs. 0.0643 ml/h). The organic matter digestibility (OMD), metabolizable energy (ME), net energy for lactation (NEL) and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) of ensiled pomegranate seeds were significantly higher than that of dried samples (43.15%, 6.37 MJ/kg DM, 4.43 MJ/kg DM, 0.5553 mmol for ensiled samples vs. 34.62%, 5.10 MJ/kg DM, 3.56 MJ/kg DM, 0.3680 mmol for dried samples, respectively). It can be concluded that ensiling increases the nutritive value of pomegranate seeds. PMID:26623290

  19. Development of EST based markers for exploiting the carrot genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carrot is the most economically important member of the Apiaceae family and a major source of provitamin A in the human diet. Breeding and genetic studies are ongoing to improve quantitative and qualitative traits. However, carrot molecular resources are relatively underdeveloped, hampering progress...

  20. Vegetables of temperate climates: Carrot, parsnip and beetroot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carrots, parsnips and beets are horticultural root crops eaten around the world. These root vegetables have a long shelf-life when kept in cold storage. Among them are sources of vitamin A, vitamin C, fiber, and other colorful pigments that provide antioxidant activity. Carrots come in many color...

  1. Detection and prediction of post harvest carrot diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carrot is the most important outdoor vegetable crop in Norway with a market value of NOK 675 million in 2010. Because demand for carrots is year-round but the growing season is short, the crop is typically stored after harvest for as long as 6 months. Diseases that develop during low temperature sto...

  2. Biotechnologically-modified carrots: Calcium absorption relative to milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotechnology to increase the nutrient content of fruits and vegetables is an innovative strategy to address insufficient mineral intakes. A novel biotechnologically modified carrot that has higher levels of calcium than control carrots has been developed. For dietary guidance, it is necessary to un...

  3. Effect of high pressure high temperature processing on the volatile fraction of differently coloured carrots.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Biniam T; Grauwet, Tara; Palmers, Stijn; Vervoort, Liesbeth; Carle, Reinhold; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2014-06-15

    To get deeper insight into the effect of high pressure high temperature (HPHT) processing on the volatile fraction of carrots, differently coloured cultivars exhibiting orange, purple, red and yellow hues were investigated. The impact of HPHT sterilisation was compared with thermal sterilisation based on equivalent microbiological inactivation. The results of this study demonstrated HPHT sterilisation to exert a distinct effect on important chemical reactions in comparison to thermal sterilisation. A comprehensive integration of MS-based metabolomic fingerprinting (HS-SPME-GC-MS) and chemometric tools has been implemented as an untargeted multivariate screening tool to identify differences. In all carrot cultivars, two dominant discriminative quality-related reactions were found: oxidative degradation and the Maillard reaction. Regarding the first reaction, oxidative terpenes, free fatty acids and carotenoids degradation products were detected at higher levels after HPHT sterilisation. Regarding the latter reaction, HPHT sterilisation appeared to suppress the formation of Maillard and Strecker degradation products. PMID:24491739

  4. Consumption and quantitation of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in commercially available hemp seed oil products.

    PubMed

    Bosy, T Z; Cole, K A

    2000-10-01

    There has been a recent and significant increase in the use and availability of hemp seed oil products. These products are being marketed as a healthy source of essential omega fatty acids when taken orally. Although the health aspects of these oils is open to debate, the probability that oils derived from the hemp seed will contain delta9-tetrahyrdocannabinol (THC) is noteworthy. Recent additions to the literature cite a number of studies illustrating that the ingestion of these products results in urinary levels of the THC metabolite, delta9-tetrahyrdocannabinol carboxylic acid (THCA), well above the administrative cutoff (50 ng/mL) used during random drug screens. Testing performed by our laboratory found that the concentration of THC in hemp oil products has been reduced considerably since the publication of earlier studies. The purpose of this study is to quantitate the THC levels in commercially available hemp oils and to administer those oils tested to THC-free volunteers to determine urine metabolite levels following several 15-g doses. Two extraction protocols were evaluated for removing THC from the oil matrix: a single step liquid-liquid extraction was compared to a two-phase process using both liquid-liquid and solid-phase techniques. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine THC levels in several products: four from Spectrum Essentials (3 bottled oils and 1-g capsules), two from Health from the Sun (1-g capsules and bottled oil) oils, and single samples of both Hempstead and Hempola hemp oils. These hemp oil products contained THC concentrations of 36.0, 36.4, 117.5, 79.5, 48.6, 45.7, 21.0, and 11.5 mg/g, respectively. The Abbott AxSYM FPIA and Roche On-Line KIMS immunoassays were used to screen the urine samples, and GC-MS was used to determine the amount of THC in each oil as well as confirm and quantitate THCA in the urine of study participants immediately before and 6 h after each dose. Peak THCA levels in the participants' urine

  5. Methyl ester of [Maclura pomifera (Rafin.) Schneider] seed oil: biodiesel production and characterization.

    PubMed

    Saloua, Fatnassi; Saber, Chatti; Hedi, Zarrouk

    2010-05-01

    Oil extracted from seeds of Maclura pomifera fruits grown in Tunisia was investigated as an alternative feedstock for the production of biodiesel fuel. Biodiesel was prepared by transesterification of the crude oil with methanol in the presence of NaOH as catalyst. Maximum oil to ester conversion was 90%. The viscosity of the biodiesel oil (4.66 cSt) is similar to that of petroleum diesel (2.5-3.5 cSt). The density (0.889 g/cm(3)), kinematic viscosity (4.66 cSt), flash point (180 degrees Celsius), iodine number (125 degrees Celsius), neutralization number (0.4), pour point (-9 degrees Celsius), cloud point (-5 degrees Celsius), cetane number (48) are very similar to the values set forth by the ASTM and EN biodiesel standards for petroleum diesel (No. 2). The comparison shows that the methyl esters of M. pomifera oil could be possible diesel fuel replacements. PMID:20060293

  6. Statistical studies on high molecular weight pullulan production in solid state fermentation using jack fruit seed.

    PubMed

    Sugumaran, K R; Sindhu, R V; Sukanya, S; Aiswarya, N; Ponnusami, V

    2013-10-15

    The purpose of the work was to optimize the medium variables for maximizing pullulan production using jack fruit seed as a low cost substrate by Aureobasidium pullulans in solid state fermentation. Effects of K2HPO4, KH2PO4, ZnSO4·5H2O, MgSO4·7H2O, NaCl, (NH4)2SO4·5H2O, yeast extract, moisture content (%, w/w) in the production medium on pullulan production were studied using Plackett-Burman design. Production of pullulan was significantly affected by the medium variables namely KH2PO4, ZnSO4·5H2O, NaCl and moisture content (%, w/w). Then screened variables were optimized by Box Behnken experiment design. The pullulan obtained was characterized and confirmed by FTIR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. Molecular weight of pullulan was found to be 1.733×10(6) g/mol by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). PMID:23987421

  7. Foraging range of honey bees, Apis mellifera, in alfalfa seed production fields.

    PubMed

    Hagler, James R; Mueller, Shannon; Teuber, Larry R; Machtley, Scott A; Van Deynze, Allen

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted in 2006 and 2007 designed to examine the foraging range of honey bees, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in a 15.2 km(2) area dominated by a 128.9 ha glyphosate-resistant Roundup Ready® alfalfa seed production field and several non-Roundup Ready alfalfa seed production fields (totaling 120.2 ha). Each year, honey bee self-marking devices were placed on 112 selected honey bee colonies originating from nine different apiary locations. The foraging bees exiting each apiary location were uniquely marked so that the apiary of origin and the distance traveled by the marked (field-collected) bees into each of the alfalfa fields could be pinpointed. Honey bee self-marking devices were installed on 14.4 and 11.2% of the total hives located within the research area in 2006 and 2007, respectively. The frequency of field-collected bees possessing a distinct mark was similar, averaging 14.0% in 2006 and 12.6% in 2007. A grand total of 12,266 bees were collected from the various alfalfa fields on seven sampling dates over the course of the study. The distances traveled by marked bees ranged from a minimum of 45 m to a maximum of 5983 m. On average, marked bees were recovered ~ 800 m from their apiary of origin and the recovery rate of marked bees decreased exponentially as the distance from the apiary of origin increased. Ultimately, these data will be used to identify the extent of pollen-mediated gene flow from Roundup Ready to conventional alfalfa. PMID:22224495

  8. Foraging Range of Honey Bees, Apis mellifera, in Alfalfa Seed Production Fields

    PubMed Central

    Hagler, James R.; Mueller, Shannon; Teuber, Larry R.; Machtley, Scott A.; Van Deynze, Allen

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted in 2006 and 2007 designed to examine the foraging range of honey bees, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in a 15.2 km2 area dominated by a 128.9 ha glyphosate-resistant Roundup Ready® alfalfa seed production field and several non-Roundup Ready alfalfa seed production fields (totaling 120.2 ha). Each year, honey bee self-marking devices were placed on 112 selected honey bee colonies originating from nine different apiary locations. The foraging bees exiting each apiary location were uniquely marked so that the apiary of origin and the distance traveled by the marked (field-collected) bees into each of the alfalfa fields could be pinpointed. Honey bee self-marking devices were installed on 14.4 and 11.2% of the total hives located within the research area in 2006 and 2007, respectively. The frequency of field-collected bees possessing a distinct mark was similar, averaging 14.0% in 2006 and 12.6% in 2007. A grand total of 12,266 bees were collected from the various alfalfa fields on seven sampling dates over the course of the study. The distances traveled by marked bees ranged from a minimum of 45 m to a maximum of 5983 m. On average, marked bees were recovered ∼ 800 m from their apiary of origin and the recovery rate of marked bees decreased exponentially as the distance from the apiary of origin increased. Ultimately, these data will be used to identify the extent of pollen-mediated gene flow from Roundup Ready to conventional alfalfa. PMID:22224495

  9. Seasonality of Leaf and Fig Production in Ficus squamosa, a Fig Tree with Seeds Dispersed by Water

    PubMed Central

    Pothasin, Pornwiwan; Compton, Stephen G.; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit

    2016-01-01

    The phenology of plants reflects selection generated by seasonal climatic factors and interactions with other plants and animals, within constraints imposed by their phylogenetic history. Fig trees (Ficus) need to produce figs year-round to support their short-lived fig wasp pollinators, but this requirement is partially de-coupled in dioecious species, where female trees only develop seeds, not pollinator offspring. This allows female trees to concentrate seed production at more favorable times of the year. Ficus squamosa is a riparian species whose dispersal is mainly by water, rather than animals. Seeds can float and travel in long distances. We recorded the leaf and reproductive phenology of 174 individuals for three years in Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand. New leaves were produced throughout the year. Fig production occurred year-round, but with large seasonal variations that correlated with temperature and rainfall. Female and male trees initiated maximal fig crops at different times, with production in female trees confined mainly to the rainy season and male figs concentrating fig production in the preceding months, but also often bearing figs continually. Ficus squamosa concentrates seed production by female plants at times when water levels are high, favouring dispersal by water, and asynchronous flowering within male trees allow fig wasps to cycle there, providing them with potential benefits by maintaining pollinators for times when female figs become available to pollinate. PMID:27010540

  10. Seasonality of Leaf and Fig Production in Ficus squamosa, a Fig Tree with Seeds Dispersed by Water.

    PubMed

    Pothasin, Pornwiwan; Compton, Stephen G; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit

    2016-01-01

    The phenology of plants reflects selection generated by seasonal climatic factors and interactions with other plants and animals, within constraints imposed by their phylogenetic history. Fig trees (Ficus) need to produce figs year-round to support their short-lived fig wasp pollinators, but this requirement is partially de-coupled in dioecious species, where female trees only develop seeds, not pollinator offspring. This allows female trees to concentrate seed production at more favorable times of the year. Ficus squamosa is a riparian species whose dispersal is mainly by water, rather than animals. Seeds can float and travel in long distances. We recorded the leaf and reproductive phenology of 174 individuals for three years in Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand. New leaves were produced throughout the year. Fig production occurred year-round, but with large seasonal variations that correlated with temperature and rainfall. Female and male trees initiated maximal fig crops at different times, with production in female trees confined mainly to the rainy season and male figs concentrating fig production in the preceding months, but also often bearing figs continually. Ficus squamosa concentrates seed production by female plants at times when water levels are high, favouring dispersal by water, and asynchronous flowering within male trees allow fig wasps to cycle there, providing them with potential benefits by maintaining pollinators for times when female figs become available to pollinate. PMID:27010540

  11. The effect of temperature on phenolic content in wounded carrots.

    PubMed

    Han, Cong; Li, Jing; Jin, Peng; Li, Xiaoan; Wang, Lei; Zheng, Yonghua

    2017-01-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to play important roles in biosynthesis of phenolic antioxidants in wounded carrots. This study has gone further to understand the effects of storage temperature on phenolics accumulation in wounded carrots. The results indicated that both increased wounding intensity and higher storage temperature promoted the generation of ROS and enhanced phenolics accumulation in wounded carrots. Moreover, treatment with ROS inhibitor inhibited ROS generation, suppressed the activities of key enzymes in phenylpropanoid pathway (phenylalanine ammonia lyase, PAL; cinnamate-4-hydroxylase, C4H; 4-coumarate coenzyme A ligase, 4CL) and restrained phenolics accumulation in shredded carrots confirming previous reports. In contrast, treatment with ROS elicitor promoted ROS generation, enhanced the activities of PAL, C4H and 4CL, and induced phenolics accumulation. Thus, our results confirmed that ROS are essential for mediating wound-induced phenolics accumulation in carrots and suggested that increase temperature enhanced the accumulation of phenolics through inducing ROS generation. PMID:27542457

  12. Magnitude and Timing of Leaf Damage Affect Seed Production in a Natural Population of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Reiko; Ågren, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Background The effect of herbivory on plant fitness varies widely. Understanding the causes of this variation is of considerable interest because of its implications for plant population dynamics and trait evolution. We experimentally defoliated the annual herb Arabidopsis thaliana in a natural population in Sweden to test the hypotheses that (a) plant fitness decreases with increasing damage, (b) tolerance to defoliation is lower before flowering than during flowering, and (c) defoliation before flowering reduces number of seeds more strongly than defoliation during flowering, but the opposite is true for effects on seed size. Methodology/Principal Findings In a first experiment, between 0 and 75% of the leaf area was removed in May from plants that flowered or were about to start flowering. In a second experiment, 0, 25%, or 50% of the leaf area was removed from plants on one of two occasions, in mid April when plants were either in the vegetative rosette or bolting stage, or in mid May when plants were flowering. In the first experiment, seed production was negatively related to leaf area removed, and at the highest damage level, also mean seed size was reduced. In the second experiment, removal of 50% of the leaf area reduced seed production by 60% among plants defoliated early in the season at the vegetative rosettes, and by 22% among plants defoliated early in the season at the bolting stage, but did not reduce seed output of plants defoliated one month later. No seasonal shift in the effect of defoliation on seed size was detected. Conclusions/Significance The results show that leaf damage may reduce the fitness of A. thaliana, and suggest that in this population leaf herbivores feeding on plants before flowering should exert stronger selection on defence traits than those feeding on plants during flowering, given similar damage levels. PMID:22276140

  13. The effect of organic solvent, temperature and mixing time on the production of oil from Moringa oleifera seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Q.; Yasin, N. H. M.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of three different organic solvent, temperature and mixing time on the production of oil from M.oleifera seeds were studied to evaluate the effectiveness in obtaining the high oil yield based on the percentage of oil production. The modified version of Soxhlet extraction method was carried out to extract the oil from M.oleifera seeds by using hexane, heptane and ethanol as the organic solvent. Among the three solvents, it is found that heptane yield higher oil from M.oleifera seeds with maximum oil yield of 36.37% was obtained followed by hexane and ethanol with 33.89% and 18.46%, respectively. By using heptane as a solvent, the temperature (60oC, 70oC, 80oC) and mixing time (6 h, 7 h, and 8 h) were investigated to ensure the high oil yield over the experimental ranges employed and high oil yield was obtained at 600C for 6 h with percentage oil yield of 36.37%. The fatty acid compositions of M.oleifera seeds oil were analyzed using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The main components of fatty acid contained in the oil extracted from M.oleifera seeds was oleic acid, followed by palmitic acid and arachidic acid, and small amount of behenic acid and margaric acid.

  14. Transgenic rice seed synthesizing diverse flavonoids at high levels: a new platform for flavonoid production with associated health benefits.

    PubMed

    Ogo, Yuko; Ozawa, Kenjiro; Ishimaru, Tsutomu; Murayama, Tsugiya; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2013-08-01

    Flavonoids possess diverse health-promoting benefits but are nearly absent from rice, because most of the genes encoding enzymes for flavonoid biosynthesis are not expressed in rice seeds. In the present study, a transgenic rice plant producing several classes of flavonoids in seeds was developed by introducing multiple genes encoding enzymes involved in flavonoid synthesis, from phenylalanine to the target flavonoids, into rice. Rice accumulating naringenin was developed by introducing phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase (CHS) genes. Rice producing other classes of flavonoids, kaempferol, genistein, and apigenin, was developed by introducing, together with PAL and CHS, genes encoding flavonol synthase/flavanone-3-hydroxylase, isoflavone synthase, and flavone synthases, respectively. The endosperm-specific GluB-1 promoter or embryo- and aleurone-specific 18-kDa oleosin promoters were used to express these biosynthetic genes in seed. The target flavonoids of naringenin, kaempferol, genistein, and apigenin were highly accumulated in each transgenic rice, respectively. Furthermore, tricin was accumulated by introducing hydroxylase and methyltransferase, demonstrating that modification to flavonoid backbones can be also well manipulated in rice seeds. The flavonoids accumulated as both aglycones and several types of glycosides, and flavonoids in the endosperm were deposited into PB-II-type protein bodies. Therefore, these rice seeds provide an ideal platform for the production of particular flavonoids due to efficient glycosylation, the presence of appropriate organelles for flavonoid accumulation, and the small effect of endogenous enzymes on the production of flavonoids by exogenous enzymes. PMID:23551455

  15. Strong sexual selection in males against a mutation load that reduces offspring production in seed beetles.

    PubMed

    Grieshop, K; Stångberg, J; Martinossi-Allibert, I; Arnqvist, G; Berger, D

    2016-06-01

    Theory predicts that sexual reproduction can increase population viability relative to asexual reproduction by allowing sexual selection in males to remove deleterious mutations from the population without large demographic costs. This requires that selection acts more strongly in males than females and that mutations affecting male reproductive success have pleiotropic effects on population productivity, but empirical support for these assumptions is mixed. We used the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus to implement a three-generation breeding design where we induced mutations via ionizing radiation (IR) in the F0 generation and measured mutational effects (relative to nonirradiated controls) on an estimate of population productivity in the F1 and effects on sex-specific competitive lifetime reproductive success (LRS) in the F2 . Regardless of whether mutations were induced via F0 males or females, they had strong negative effects on male LRS, but a nonsignificant influence on female LRS, suggesting that selection is more efficient in removing deleterious alleles in males. Moreover, mutations had seemingly shared effects on population productivity and competitive LRS in both sexes. Thus, our results lend support to the hypothesis that strong sexual selection on males can act to remove the mutation load on population viability, thereby offering a benefit to sexual reproduction. PMID:26991346

  16. Seed Oil from Ten Algerian Peanut Landraces for Edible Use and Biodiesel Production.

    PubMed

    Giuffrè, Angelo Maria; Tellah, Sihem; Capocasale, Marco; Zappia, Clotilde; Latati, Mourad; Badiani, Maurizio; Ounane, Sidi Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    As a result of a recent ad hoc prospection of the Algerian territory, a collection of peanut (groundnut; Arachis hypogaea L.) landraces was established, covering a remarkable array of diversity in terms of morphological and physiological features, as well as of adaptation to local bioclimatic conditions. In the present work, the oils extracted from the seeds of these landraces were evaluated in terms of edible properties and suitability for biodiesel production. As for edible use, a low free acidity (ranging from 0.62 to 1.21%) and a high oleic acid content (44.61-50.94%) were common features, although a poor stability to oxidation [high peroxide values, high spectrophotometric indices, and low % of inhibition in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH)· test] was observed in a few cases. As for biodiesel production, low values of acidity [1.23-2.40 mg KOH (g oil)(-1)], low iodine values [90.70-101.54 g I2 (g oil)(-1)], high cetane numbers (56.95-58.88) and high calorific values (higher heating value 37.34-39.27 MJ kg(-1)) were measured. Edible properties and suitability for biodiesel production were discussed with respect to the German standard DIN 51605 for rapeseed oil and to the EN 14214 standard, respectively. One way ANOVA and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis showed significant differences among the oils from the Algerian peanut landraces. PMID:26743667

  17. Hybrid breeding in wheat: technologies to improve hybrid wheat seed production.

    PubMed

    Whitford, Ryan; Fleury, Delphine; Reif, Jochen C; Garcia, Melissa; Okada, Takashi; Korzun, Viktor; Langridge, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Global food security demands the development and delivery of new technologies to increase and secure cereal production on finite arable land without increasing water and fertilizer use. There are several options for boosting wheat yields, but most offer only small yield increases. Wheat is an inbred plant, and hybrids hold the potential to deliver a major lift in yield and will open a wide range of new breeding opportunities. A series of technological advances are needed as a base for hybrid wheat programmes. These start with major changes in floral development and architecture to separate the sexes and force outcrossing. Male sterility provides the best method to block self-fertilization, and modifying the flower structure will enhance pollen access. The recent explosion in genomic resources and technologies provides new opportunities to overcome these limitations. This review outlines the problems with existing hybrid wheat breeding systems and explores molecular-based technologies that could improve the hybrid production system to reduce hybrid seed production costs, a prerequisite for a commercial hybrid wheat system. PMID:24179097

  18. Ascosporic fertilization of Epichloe typhina in Dactylis glomerata seed production fields in Oregon and implications for choke management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epichloe typhina, cause of choke disease of orchardgrass is a newly emerged fungal pathogen that causes significant yield losses in orchardgrass seed production fields in Oregon. Experiments were conducted to determine whether ascospores of E. typhina could function as spermatia and fertilize stroma...

  19. The Adoption Process of Ricefield-Based Fish Seed Production in Northwest Bangladesh: An Understanding through Quantitative and Qualitative Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haque, Mohammad Mahfujul; Little, David C.; Barman, Benoy K.; Wahab, Md. Abdul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to understand the adoption process of ricefield based fish seed production (RBFSP) that has been developed, promoted and established in Northwest Bangladesh. Design/Methodology/Approach: Quantitative investigation based on regression analysis and qualitative investigation using semi-structured interview were…

  20. Cutleafgroundcherry (physalis angulata) density, biomass and seed production in peanut (arachis hypogaea L.) following regrowth due to inadequate control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate herbicide and application timing on cutleaf groundcherry density, biomass, seed production, and crop yield in a peanut system. Treatments included: 1) a non-treated control; 2) hand pruning; 3) diclosulam applied preemergence (PRE) alone at 0.027 kg ai h...

  1. Increase of Farmers' Knowledge through Farmer Seed Production Schools in Vietnam as Assessed on the Basis of Ex-Ante and Ex-Post Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tin, Huynh Q.; Struik, Paul C.; Price, Lisa L.; Tuyen, Nguyen P.; Hoan, Nguyen P.; Bos, Heleen

    2010-01-01

    The study was designed to assess changes in farmers' knowledge of farmer seed production through schools (FSPSs) in Vietnam. A set of 25 questions covering five technical areas of the seed production process was used for pre and post knowledge testing at 12 FSPSs in the provinces Binh Dinh, Nam Dinh, Nghe An and Dong Thap. The main findings show…

  2. Evapotranspiration partitioning and variation of sap flow in female and male parents of maize for hybrid seed production in arid region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the variation of sap flow in female and male parents of maize for hybrid seed production and evapotranspiration (ET) partitioning is useful in accurately determining water use of the female and male parents and improving irrigation management of maize for hybrid seed production. Sap fl...

  3. Crushed sunflower, flax, or canola seeds in lactating dairy cow diets: effects on methane production, rumen fermentation, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M; Benchaar, C; Holtshausen, L

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of reducing enteric methane production from dairy cows by incorporating into the diet various sources of long-chain FA varying in their degree of saturation and ruminal availability. The experiment was conducted as a crossover design with 16 lactating dairy cows maintained in 2 groups and fed 4 dietary treatments in four 28-d periods. Eight ruminally cannulated primiparous cows (96 +/- 18 d in milk) were assigned to group 1 and 8 multiparous cows (130 +/- 31 d in milk) were assigned to group 2. The dietary treatments were: 1) a commercial source of calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (CTL), 2) crushed sunflower seeds (SS), 3) crushed flaxseed (FS), and 4) crushed canola seed (CS). The oilseeds added 3.1 to 4.2% fat to the diet (DM basis). All 3 oilseed treatments decreased methane production (g/d) by an average of 13%. When corrected for differences in dry matter intake (DMI), compared with CTL, methane production (g/kg of DM intake) was decreased by feeding FS (-18%) or CS (-16%) and was only numerically decreased (-10%) by feeding SS. However, compared with the CTL, feeding SS or FS lowered digestible DMI by 16 and 9%, respectively, because of lowered digestibility. Thus, only CS lowered methane per unit of digestible DM intake. Feeding SS and CS decreased rumen protozoal counts, but there were no treatment effects on mean ruminal pH or total volatile fatty acid concentration. Milk efficiency (3.5% fat corrected milk/DMI), milk yield, and component yield and concentrations were not affected by oilseed treatments. The study shows that adding sources of long-chain fatty acids to the diet in the form of processed oilseeds can be an effective means of reducing methane emissions. However, for some oilseeds such as SS or FS, the reduction in methane can be at the expense of diet digestibility. The use of crushed CS offers a means of mitigating methane without negatively affecting diet digestibility, and

  4. Antioxidant activities and phenolics of Passiflora edulis seed recovered from juice production residue.

    PubMed

    Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree

    2013-01-01

    Passion fruit seed was refluxed in methanolic water and further liquid - liquid extracted yielding n-Hexane, Ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and aqueous (Aq.) extracts. The EtOAc part was the most potent antioxidant (IC 50DPPH = 2.7 ± 0.2 and IC 50ABTS = 9.0 ± 0.0 µg/mL) that significantly (p < 0.05) better than Aq. extract (IC 50DPPH = 177.8 ± 1.3 and IC 50ABTS = 15.4 ± 0.0 µg/mL). The antioxidant EtOAc exhibited ferric reducing powder (EC1mM FeSO4 = 2,813.9 ± 11.6) and tyrosinase inhibitory effect (39.9 ± 0.0 % at 1 mg/mL). The more potent active extract had significant higher total phenolic content than the Aq. one (p < 0.05). Sun protection factor of the EtOAc extract was comparable to ferulic acid. Chlorogenic acid, rosmarinic acid and quercetin were highly found in EtOAc extract, whereas kojic acid and gallic acid were largely determined in the Aq. part. The most potent biologically active fraction was non cytotoxic in vero cells at the highest test concentration (50 µg/mL). A process to minimize the waste from the fruit juice production is offered. Passion fruit value and profitability in agribusinesses will be increased by the biochemical transformation of the seed into active extracts appraisal for natural cosmetic as a multifunction ingredient. PMID:23535311

  5. Genistein production in rice seed via transformation with soybean IFS genes.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Soo-In; Kim, Yul-Ho; Kim, Sun-Lim; Lee, Jang-Yong; Oh, Young-Ju; Chung, Joo-Hee; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol

    2014-03-01

    To produce genistein in rice, the isoflavone synthase (IFS) genes, SpdIFS1 and SpdIFS2 were cloned from the Korean soybean cultivar, Sinpaldalkong II as it has a higher genistein content than other soybean varieties. SpdIFS1 and SpdIFS2 show a 99.6% and 98.2% identity at the nucleotide level and 99.4% and 97.9% identity at the amino acid level, respectively, with IFS1 and IFS2 from soybean (GenBank accession Nos. AF195798 and AF195819). Plant expression vectors were constructed harboring SpdIFS1 or SpdIFS2 under the control of a rice globulin promoter that directs seed specific expression, and used to transform two rice varieties, Heugnam, a black rice, and Nakdong, a normal rice cultivar without anthocyanin pigment. Because naringenin, the substrate of SpdIFS1 and SpdIFS2, is on the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway, the relative production rate of genistein was compared between SpdIFS-expressing transgenic Heugnam and Nakdong. Southern blot analysis of eight of the resulting transgenic rice plants revealed that the T0 plants had one to three copies of the SpdIFS1 or SpdIFS2 gene. The highest level of genistein content found in rice seeds was 103 μg/g. These levels were about 30-fold higher in our transgenic rice lines than the genistein aglycon content of a non-leguminous IFS-expressing transgenic tobacco petal, equaling about 12% of total genistein content of Sinpaldalkong II. There were no significant differences found between the genistein content in Heugnam and Nakdong transgenic rice plants. PMID:24467893

  6. Differential Contribution of the First Two Enzymes of the MEP Pathway to the Supply of Metabolic Precursors for Carotenoid and Chlorophyll Biosynthesis in Carrot (Daucus carota)

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Kevin; Quiroz, Luis F.; Rodriguez-Concepción, Manuel; Stange, Claudia R.

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids and chlorophylls are photosynthetic pigments synthesized in plastids from metabolic precursors provided by the methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. The first two steps in the MEP pathway are catalyzed by the deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and reductoisomerase (DXR) enzymes. While DXS has been recently shown to be the main flux-controlling step of the MEP pathway, both DXS and DXR enzymes have been proven to be able to promote an increase in MEP-derived products when overproduced in diverse plant systems. Carrot (Daucus carota) produces photosynthetic pigments (carotenoids and chlorophylls) in leaves and in light-exposed roots, whereas only carotenoids (mainly α- and β-carotene) accumulate in the storage root in darkness. To evaluate whether DXS and DXR activities influence the production of carotenoids and chlorophylls in carrot leaves and roots, the corresponding Arabidopsis thaliana genes were constitutively expressed in transgenic carrot plants. Our results suggest that DXS is limiting for the production of both carotenoids and chlorophylls in roots and leaves, whereas the regulatory role of DXR appeared to be minor. Interestingly, increased levels of DXS (but not of DXR) resulted in higher transcript abundance of endogenous carrot genes encoding phytoene synthase, the main rate-determining enzyme of the carotenoid pathway. These results support a central role for DXS on modulating the production of MEP-derived precursors to synthesize carotenoids and chlorophylls in carrot, confirming the pivotal relevance of this enzyme to engineer healthier, carotenoid-enriched products.

  7. HPLC-DAD-q-TOF-MS as a powerful platform for the determination of phenolic and other polar compounds in the edible part of mango and its by-products (peel, seed, and seed husk).

    PubMed

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; López-Cobo, Ana; Verardo, Vito; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Free and bound phenolic and other polar compounds in mango edible fraction and its by-products (peel, seed, and seed husk) have been determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-qTOF-MS. This analytical technique has demonstrated to be a valuable platform for the identification and quantification of these compounds in mango. In fact, UV-Vis and mass spectra data allowed the determination of 91 free compounds and 13 bound (cell wall linked) compounds taking into account the four fractions of mango. To our knowledge, this is the first time that mango seed husk has been studied regarding its phenolic compounds. The method proposed showed LODs between 0.006 and 0.85 μg/mL and accuracy ranged from 94.8 and 100.7%. Mango peel presented the highest concentration of free polar compounds followed by seed, pulp, and seed husk. It is also important to highlight that bound phenolic compounds had never been determined in mango pulp, seed, and seed husk before. Furthermore, ellagic acid was the most abundant bound compound in the four mango fractions analyzed. These results show that mango pulp and its by-products are a good source of phenolic and other polar compounds. In particular, mango seed contains a high total concentration of ellagic acid (650 mg/100 g dry weight). PMID:26703086

  8. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Stephanie L.; Kesoju, Sandya R.; Martin, Ruth C.; Kramer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa), a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1) evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2) determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges in Fresno, California; Canyon, Idaho; and Walla Walla, Washington were surveyed in 2011 and 2012 for feral plants, and samples were tested for the CP4 EPSPS protein that conveys resistance to glyphosate. Of 4580 sites surveyed, feral plants were observed at 404 sites. Twenty-seven percent of these sites had transgenic plants. The frequency of sites having transgenic feral plants varied among our study areas. Transgenic plants were found in 32.7%, 21.4.7% and 8.3% of feral plant sites in Fresno, Canyon and Walla Walla, respectively. Spatial analysis suggested that feral populations started independently and tended to cluster in seed and hay production areas, places where seed tended to drop. Significant but low spatial auto correlation suggested that in some instances, plants colonized nearby locations. Neighboring feral plants were frequently within pollinator foraging range; however, further research is needed to confirm transgene flow. Locations of feral plant clusters were not well predicted by environmental and production variables. However, the likelihood of seed spillage during production and transport had predictive value in explaining the occurrence of transgenic feral populations. Our study confirms that genetically engineered alfalfa has dispersed into the environment, and suggests that minimizing seed spillage and eradicating feral alfalfa along road sides would be effective strategies to minimize transgene dispersal. PMID:26699337

  9. Transgenic Production of Epoxy Fatty Acids by Expression of a Cytochrome P450 Enzyme from Euphorbia lagascae Seed

    PubMed Central

    Cahoon, Edgar B.; Ripp, Kevin G.; Hall, Sarah E.; McGonigle, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Seed oils of a number of Asteraceae and Euphorbiaceae species are enriched in 12-epoxyoctadeca-cis-9-enoic acid (vernolic acid), an unusual 18-carbon Δ12-epoxy fatty acid with potential industrial value. It has been previously demonstrated that the epoxy group of vernolic acid is synthesized by the activity of a Δ12-oleic acid desaturase-like enzyme in seeds of the Asteraceae Crepis palaestina and Vernonia galamensis. In contrast, results from metabolic studies have suggested the involvement of a cytochrome P450 enzyme in vernolic acid synthesis in seeds of the Euphorbiaceae species Euphorbia lagascae. To clarify the biosynthetic origin of vernolic acid in E. lagascae seed, an expressed sequence tag analysis was conducted. Among 1,006 randomly sequenced cDNAs from developing E. lagascae seeds, two identical expressed sequence tags were identified that encode a cytochrome P450 enzyme classified as CYP726A1. Consistent with the seed-specific occurrence of vernolic acid in E. lagascae, mRNA corresponding to the CYP726A1 gene was abundant in developing seeds, but was not detected in leaves. In addition, expression of the E. lagascae CYP726A1 cDNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was accompanied by production of vernolic acid in cultures supplied with linoleic acid and an epoxy fatty acid tentatively identified as 12-epoxyoctadeca-9,15-dienoic acid (12-epoxy-18:2Δ9,15) in cultures supplied with α-linolenic acid. Consistent with this, expression of CYP726A1 in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) callus or somatic soybean (Glycine max) embryos resulted in the accumulation of vernolic acid and 12-epoxy-18:2Δ9,15. Overall, these results conclusively demonstrate that Asteraceae species and the Euphorbiaceae E. lagascae have evolved structurally unrelated enzymes to generate the Δ12-epoxy group of vernolic acid. PMID:11842164

  10. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    Nowadays is widely well know that the potato is an important vegetable crop at Brazíl. It is grown on about 173.000 ha, with total yield of 2.6 million tons year-1. The average yield is 15 t ha-1. This level is very low because degeneration of crop is rapid under high temperature and high viruses pressure. Therefore seed potato propagation and production is principal on consumption potato production. This is why we found it necessary to develop it. The latossolo vermelho soil-farmyard manure- burnt rice straw-fertilizer 4N:14P:8K greenhouse pot trial was set up at the National Vegetable Crops Research Center, Brasília-DF, Brazíl in 1990. The methods of the experiments were soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw, soil x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer and soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer on randomized block design in total 29 combination of treatments in 5, 5 and 3 repetitions with in a total parcel of 116. According to chemical analysis of the a., soil, b., farmyard manure and c., burnt rice straw the agrochemistry parameters were as follows (estimated datas): a., latossolo vermelho soil: CaCO3 0.3-0.7%, humo 0.9-1.0%, pH (H2O) 5.3, pH (KCl) 4.5, AL- P2O5 3.2-3.5 mg kg-1, AL- K2O 180 mg kg-1, Mg (KCl) 70 mg kg-1, EDTA-Zn 0.5-0.8 mg kg-1, EDTA-Cu 0.5-0.6 mg kg-1, b., farmyard manure: N 1.8 g kg-1, P2O5 2.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.0 g kg-1, c., burnt rice straw: N 0.8 g kg-1, P2O5 7.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.5 g kg-1. The experimental datas were estimated by analysis of variance, ANOVA and MANOVA. The main conclusions were as follows: 1. Mixture of 80% latossolo vermelho, 10% burnt rice straw and 10% farmyard manure were shown best performance on seed potato productivity. The piece of tubers with a 0-20 mm (consumption seeds) was increased by 77%. 2. Total seed potato number was reached maximum at 10.8 g pot-1 4N:14P:8K fertilizer regarding to average of treatments with a 33%. 3. Dry biomassa production plant-1 was decreased by high dose of 4N:14P:8K

  11. Production of wax esters in plant seed oils by oleosomal cotargeting of biosynthetic enzymes[S

    PubMed Central

    Heilmann, Mareike; Iven, Tim; Ahmann, Katharina; Hornung, Ellen; Stymne, Sten; Feussner, Ivo

    2012-01-01

    Wax esters are neutral lipids exhibiting desirable properties for lubrication. Natural sources have traditionally been whales. Additionally some plants produce wax esters in their seed oil. Currently there is no biological source available for long chain length monounsaturated wax esters that are most suited for industrial applications. This study aimed to identify enzymatic requirements enabling their production in oilseed plants. Wax esters are generated by the action of fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR), generating fatty alcohols and wax synthases (WS) that esterify fatty alcohols and acyl-CoAs to wax esters. Based on their substrate preference, a FAR and a WS from Mus musculus were selected for this study (MmFAR1 and MmWS). MmWS resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), whereas MmFAR1 associates with peroxisomes. The elimination of a targeting signal and the fusion to an oil body protein yielded variants of MmFAR1 and MmWS that were cotargeted and enabled wax ester production when coexpressed in yeast or Arabidopsis. In the fae1 fad2 double mutant, rich in oleate, the cotargeted variants of MmFAR1 and MmWS enabled formation of wax esters containing >65% oleyl-oleate. The data suggest that cotargeting of unusual biosynthetic enzymes can result in functional interplay of heterologous partners in transgenic plants. PMID:22878160

  12. Chemical composition and bile acid binding activity of products obtained from amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) seeds.

    PubMed

    Tiengo, Andréa; Motta, Eliana Maria Pettirossi; Netto, Flavia Maria

    2011-11-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are currently the greatest cause of mortality in the world, and dislipidemia is appearing as one of the most important risk factors. The binding of bile acids (BAs) has been hypothesized as a possible mechanism by which dietary fibers lower blood cholesterol levels. Besides the fibers, other components in the amaranth seeds may be related to this hypocholesterolemic effect. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the BA binding capacity of some products obtained from defatted amaranth flour (DAF) and from the amaranth protein concentrate (APC). The alkaline residue, rich in fibers (8.6%), presented the lowest binding activity for the BAs tested, with the exception of glycocholic acid. The DAF showed intermediary binding activity for all the BAs tested, although similar to that of the APC for deoxycholic acid, and to that of the amaranth protein hydrolysate (APH) for taurocholic acid. The DAF and APC showed binding activity for secondary bile acids toxic to the intestinal mucus. From the results, amaranth products were shown to have the ability to bind BAs, but it was not possible to affirm whether the main component responsible for this activity was the proteins, fibers or eventually some other non-evaluated component. PMID:21901402

  13. New neolignans from the seeds of Myristica fragrans that inhibit nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Cao, Gui-Yun; Xu, Wei; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Gonzalez, Frank J; Li, Fei

    2015-04-15

    Five new 8-O-4' type neolignans, named myrifralignan A-E (1-5), together with five known analogues (6-10), were isolated from the seeds of Myristica fragrans Houtt. Their chemical structures were determined using several spectroscopic methods. Compounds 3-10 exhibited potent inhibitory activity against the production of nitric oxide (NO) in the RAW264.7 cell line stimulated by lipopolysaccaride. Myrislignan (7) and machilin D (10) were the most potent inhibitors of NO production amongst these compounds. The IC50 values of myrislignan and machilin D were 21.2 and 18.5 μM. And, their inhibitory activity was more than L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)-lysine, a selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (IC50=27.1 μM). Furthermore, real-time PCR analysis revealed that these neolignans could significantly suppress the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA. These results demonstrated that the 8-O-4' type neolignans are promising candidates as anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:25466017

  14. Production and short-term of synthetic seeds from encapsulated begonia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synthetic seeds were formed from in vitro grown Begonia (cvs ‘Sweetheart Mix’ and ‘Baby Wing White’) shoot tips using 3% sodium alginate in Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium (MS) salt solution as the gel matrix and 100 mM calcium chloride for complexation. Synthetic seed formation was achieved by re...

  15. Numerical modelling of agricultural products on the example of bean and yellow lupine seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, Andrzej; Kaliniewicz, Zdzisław; Markowski, Piotr

    2015-10-01

    Numerical models of bean seeds cv. Złota Saxa and yellow lupine seeds cv. Juno were generated with the use of a 3D scanner, the geometric parameters of seeds were determined based on the models developed, and compared with the results of digital image analysis and micrometer measurements. Measurements of seed length, width and thickness performed with the use of a micrometer, 3D scanner and digital image analysis produced similar results that did not differ significantly at α = 0.05. The micrometer delivered the simplest and fastest measurements. The mean surface area of bean seeds cv. Złota Saxa and yellow lupine seeds cv. Juno, calculated with the use of mathematical formulas based on the results of micrometer measurements and digital image analysis, differed significantly from the mean surface area determined with a 3D scanner. No significant differences in seed volume were observed when this parameter was measured with a 3D scanner and determined with the use of mathematical formulas based on the results of digital image analysis and micrometer measurements. The only differences were noted when the volume of yellow lupine seeds cv. Juno was measured in a 25 ml liquid pycnometer.

  16. Dehulling of cuphea seed for the production of crude oil with low chlorophyll content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cuphea (PSR23) seed oil is rich in medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs). MCFAs are used in soaps, detergents, cosmetics, lubricants, and food applications. Currently, cuphea is being grown to provide oil needed for research. The oil can be extracted effectively by screw pressing flaked whole seeds. ...

  17. Development of turf-type Poa pratensis l. germplasm for seed production without field burning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Open-field burning of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) post- harvest residue, which maintains grass seed yield and stand longevity, has been eliminated in Washington and is restricted in Idaho and Oregon, USA. Our objective was to develop Kentucky bluegrass germplasm that has sustainable seed y...

  18. Aroma characteristic and volatile profiling of carrot varieties and quantitative role of terpenoid compounds for carrot sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Tomohiko; Okazaki, Keiki; Shinano, Takuro

    2013-11-01

    The aroma characteristics and volatile profiles of 14 carrot varieties were investigated by sensory evaluations and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry volatile analyses. The sensory map obtained by principal components analysis showed that the sensory attributes comprised 3 categories: sour/green, overall carrot/harsh/ink-like, and fruity/fresh/sweet. The Kuroda type is characterized by lower intensities of overall carrot/harsh/ink-like and fruity/fresh/sweet notes. Furthermore, volatile profiling indicated that this type did not have significantly higher amounts of volatiles. Partial least squares regression analysis determined the quantitative contributions to ink-like, harsh, and fruity carrot aromas; monoterpenes had significant positive correlations with these attributes, while bisabolene isomers had negative correlations. The aroma attribute intensity and contents of volatiles and nutritional compounds are relatively low in the Kuroda type than in other carrot types. This type may be useful for reducing carrot harshness during the development of new carrots with good eating qualities. PMID:24245899

  19. Biodiesel production from yellow horn (Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge.) seed oil using ion exchange resin as heterogeneous catalyst.

    PubMed

    Li, Ji; Fu, Yu-Jie; Qu, Xue-Jin; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Zhao, Chun-Jian; Zu, Yuan-Gang

    2012-03-01

    In this study, biodiesel production from yellow horn (Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge.) seed oil using ion exchange resin as heterogeneous catalyst was investigated. After illustration of the mechanisms of transesterification reactions catalyzed by typical ion exchange resins, the factors affecting microwave-assisted transesterification process were studied. A high conversion yield of about 96% was achieved under optimal conditions using high alkaline anion exchange resins as catalyst. Analyzing the FAMEs composition by GC-MS and main physical-chemical properties demonstrated that the biodiesel product prepared from yellow horn seed oil was of high quality. Compared with conventional alkali catalyst, the outstanding characteristics of reusability and operational stability made the resin catalyst more predominant for biodiesel production. In addition, a comprehensive kinetic model was established for analyzing the reaction. The results of present research showed that microwave-assisted transesterification process catalyzed by high alkaline anion exchange resin was a green, effective and economic technology for biodiesel industry. PMID:22284757

  20. Plants grow better if seeds see green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Andrei P.; Franke, Ralf-Peter

    2006-07-01

    We report on the response of dry plant seeds to their irradiation with intense green light applied at biostimulatory doses. Red and near-infrared light delivered by lasers or arrays of light emitting diodes applied at such doses have been shown previously by us to have effects on mammalian cells. Effects include cell proliferation and elevation of cell vitality, and have practical applications in various biomedical fields. Growth processes induced by photoreceptor stimulation (phytochromes and cryptochromes) in plant seeds with green light were described so far only for imbibed seeds. In this paper, we show that irradiation of dry cress, radish and carrot seeds with intense green light (laser or arrays of light emitting diodes), applied at biostimulatory doses, resulted in a significant increase in biomass—14, 26, and 71 days after seeding, respectively. In the case of radish and carrot, the irradiation led to important changes in the root-to-foliage surface ratio. Seeds with a potential to grant growth acceleration could be of special interest in agricultural applications, and could even compensate for shorter growth seasons caused by climate change.

  1. Potential treatments to reduce phorbol esters levels in jatropha seed cake for improving the value added product.

    PubMed

    Sadubthummarak, Umapron; Parkpian, Preeda; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Kongchum, Manoch; Delaune, R D

    2013-01-01

    Jatropha seed cake contains high amounts of protein and other nutrients, however it has a drawback due to toxic compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the methods applied to detoxify the main toxin, phorbol esters in jatropha seed cake, to a safe and acceptable level by maintaining the nutritional values. Phorbol esters are tetracyclic diterpenoids-polycyclic compounds that are known as tumor promoters and hence exhibited the toxicity within a broad range of species. Mismanagement of the jatropha waste from jatropha oil industries would lead to contamination of the environment, affecting living organisms and human health through the food chain, so several methods were tested for reducing the toxicity of the seed cake. The results from this investigation showed that heat treatments at either 120°C or 220°C for 1 hour and then mixing with adsorbing bentonite (10%), nanoparticles of zinc oxide (100 μg/g) plus NaHCO3 at 4%, followed by a 4-week incubation period yielded the best final product. The remaining phorbol esters concentration (0.05-0.04 mg/g) from this treatment was less than that reported for the nontoxic jatropha varieties (0.11-0.27 mg/g). Nutritional values of the seed cake after treatment remained at the same levels found in the control group and these values were crude protein (20.47-21.40 + 0.17-0.25%), crude lipid (14.27-14.68 + 0.13-0.14%) and crude fiber (27.33-29.67 + 0.58%). A cytotoxicity test conducted using L929 and normal human dermal fibroblast cell lines confirmed that most of the toxic compounds, especially phorbol esters, were shown as completely eliminated. The results suggested that the detoxification of phorbol esters residues in the jatropha seed cake was possible while it also retained nutritional values. Therefore, the methods to detoxify phorbol esters are necessary to minimize the toxicity of jatropha seed cake. Further, it is essential to reduce the possible environmental impacts that may be generated

  2. Consumption of endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period does not decrease milk production in the following lactation.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Ransom L; Capuco, Anthony V; Evock-Clover, Christina M; Grossi, Paolo; Choudhary, Ratan K; Vanzant, Eric S; Elsasser, Theodore H; Bertoni, Giuseppe; Trevisi, Erminio; Aiken, Glen E; McLeod, Kyle R

    2016-09-01

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming these grasses. We investigated the effects of consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during late lactation and the dry period on mammary growth, differentiation, and milk production. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups. Starting at 90±4 d prepartum, cows were fed endophyte-free fescue seed (control; CON), endophyte-free fescue seed plus 3×/wk subcutaneous injections of bromocriptine (0.1mg/kg of body weight, positive control; BROMO), or endophyte-infected fescue seed (INF) as 10% of the diet on an as fed basis. Although milk yield of groups did not differ before treatment, at dry off (-60 d prepartum) INF and BROMO cows produced less milk than CON. Throughout the treatment period, basal concentrations of PRL and the prepartum increase in plasma PRL were reduced in INF and BROMO cows compared with CON cows. Three weeks after the end of treatment, circulating concentrations of PRL were equivalent across groups. In the subsequent lactation milk yield was not decreased; in fact, BROMO cows exhibited a 9% increase in milk yield relative to CON. Evaluation of mammary tissue during the dry period and the subsequent lactation, by quantitative histology and immunohistochemical analysis of proliferation markers and putative mammary stem or progenitor cell markers, indicated that feeding endophyte-infected fescue seed did not significantly affect mammary growth and development. Feeding endophyte-infected grasses during the dry period may permit effective utilization of feed resources without compromising milk production in the next lactation. PMID:27320660

  3. Patterns of Gene Flow between Crop and Wild Carrot, Daucus carota (Apiaceae) in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Jennifer R; Ramsey, Adam J; Iorizzo, Massimo; Simon, Philipp W

    2016-01-01

    Studies of gene flow between crops and their wild relatives have implications for both management practices for cultivation and understanding the risk of transgene escape. These types of studies may also yield insight into population dynamics and the evolutionary consequences of gene flow for wild relatives of crop species. Moreover, the comparison of genetic markers with different modes of inheritance, or transmission, such as those of the nuclear and chloroplast genomes, can inform the relative risk of transgene escape via pollen versus seed. Here we investigate patterns of gene flow between crop and wild carrot, Daucus carota (Apiaceae) in two regions of the United States. We employed 15 nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and one polymorphic chloroplast marker. Further, we utilized both conventional population genetic metrics along with Shannon diversity indices as the latter have been proposed to be more sensitive to allele frequency changes and differentiation. We found that populations in both regions that were proximal to crop fields showed lower levels of differentiation to the crops than populations that were located farther away. We also found that Shannon measures were more sensitive to differences in both genetic diversity and differentiation in our study. Finally, we found indirect evidence of paternal transmission of chloroplast DNA and accompanying lower than expected levels of chloroplast genetic structure amongst populations as might be expected if chloroplast DNA genes flow through both seed and pollen. Our findings of substantial gene flow for both nuclear and chloroplast markers demonstrate the efficiency of both pollen and seed to transfer genetic information amongst populations of carrot. PMID:27603516

  4. Projected Dietary Intake of Zinc, Copper, and Cerium from Consumption of Carrot (Daucus carota) Exposed to Metal Oxide Nanoparticles or Metal Ions.

    PubMed

    Ebbs, Stephen D; Bradfield, Scott J; Kumar, Pawan; White, Jason C; Ma, Xingmao

    2016-01-01

    The expanding production and use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have raised concerns about the potential risk of those materials to food safety and human health. In a prior study, the accumulation of Zn, Cu, and Ce from ZnO, CuO, or CeO2, respectively, was examined in carrot (Daucus carota L.) grown in sand culture in comparison to accumulation from exposure to equivalent concentrations of ionic Zn(2+), Cu(2+), or Ce(4+). The fresh weight concentration data for peeled and unpeeled carrots were used to project dietary intake of each metal by seven age-mass classes from child to adult based on consumption of a single serving of carrot. Dietary intake was compared to the oral reference dose (oral RfD) for chronic toxicity for Zn or Cu and estimated mean and median oral RfD values for Ce based on nine other rare earth elements. Reverse dietary intake calculations were also conducted to estimate the number of servings of carrot, the mass of carrot consumed, or the tissue concentration of Zn, Cu, or Ce that would cause the oral RfD to be exceeded upon consumption. The projections indicated for Zn and Cu, the oral RfD would be exceeded in only a few highly unrealistic scenarios of exceedingly high Zn or Cu concentrations in the substrate from ZnO or CuO or consumption of excessive amounts of unpeeled carrot. The implications associated with the presence of Ce in the carrot tissues depended upon whether the mean or median oral RfD value from the rare earth elements was used as a basis for comparison. The calculations further indicated that peeling carrots reduced the projected dietary intake by one to two orders of magnitude for both ENM- and ionic-treated carrots. Overall in terms of total metal concentration, the results suggested no specific impact of the ENM form on dietary intake. The effort here provided a conservative view of the potential dietary intake of these three metals that might result from consumption of carrots exposed to nanomaterials (NMs) and how

  5. Projected Dietary Intake of Zinc, Copper, and Cerium from Consumption of Carrot (Daucus carota) Exposed to Metal Oxide Nanoparticles or Metal Ions

    PubMed Central

    Ebbs, Stephen D.; Bradfield, Scott J.; Kumar, Pawan; White, Jason C.; Ma, Xingmao

    2016-01-01

    The expanding production and use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have raised concerns about the potential risk of those materials to food safety and human health. In a prior study, the accumulation of Zn, Cu, and Ce from ZnO, CuO, or CeO2, respectively, was examined in carrot (Daucus carota L.) grown in sand culture in comparison to accumulation from exposure to equivalent concentrations of ionic Zn2+, Cu2+, or Ce4+. The fresh weight concentration data for peeled and unpeeled carrots were used to project dietary intake of each metal by seven age-mass classes from child to adult based on consumption of a single serving of carrot. Dietary intake was compared to the oral reference dose (oral RfD) for chronic toxicity for Zn or Cu and estimated mean and median oral RfD values for Ce based on nine other rare earth elements. Reverse dietary intake calculations were also conducted to estimate the number of servings of carrot, the mass of carrot consumed, or the tissue concentration of Zn, Cu, or Ce that would cause the oral RfD to be exceeded upon consumption. The projections indicated for Zn and Cu, the oral RfD would be exceeded in only a few highly unrealistic scenarios of exceedingly high Zn or Cu concentrations in the substrate from ZnO or CuO or consumption of excessive amounts of unpeeled carrot. The implications associated with the presence of Ce in the carrot tissues depended upon whether the mean or median oral RfD value from the rare earth elements was used as a basis for comparison. The calculations further indicated that peeling carrots reduced the projected dietary intake by one to two orders of magnitude for both ENM- and ionic-treated carrots. Overall in terms of total metal concentration, the results suggested no specific impact of the ENM form on dietary intake. The effort here provided a conservative view of the potential dietary intake of these three metals that might result from consumption of carrots exposed to nanomaterials (NMs) and how peeling

  6. New inhibitors of nitric oxide production from the seeds of Myristica fragrans.

    PubMed

    Cao, Gui-Yun; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Xu, Wei; Li, Fei

    2013-12-01

    Six dihydrobenzofuran type neolignans were isolated from the dried ripe seeds of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (family: Myristicaceae) and their chemical structures were identified as licarin B (1), 3'-methoxylicarin B (2), myrisfrageal A (3), isodihydrocainatidin (4), dehydrodiisoeugenol (5), and myrisfrageal B (6), respectively, on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses. Among them, compounds 3 and 6 are new compounds. Compounds 1-6 showed inhibition of nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated murine monocyte-macrophage RAW264.7 with IC50 values of 53.6, 48.7, 76.0, 36.0, 33.6, and 45.0 μM, respectively. These values were compared to those of the positive controls, indomethacin and L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)-lysine, which have IC50 values of 65.3 and 27.1 μM, respectively. Further compounds 3, 5 and 6 suppressed LPS-induced iNOS mRNA expression in a does-dependent manner in RAW 264.7 cells assayed by real-time RT-PCR. Compounds 3, 5 and 6 may inhibit NO overproduction via inhibition of iNOS mRNA expression. The results provided valuable information for further investigation of compounds 1-6 as anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive agents. PMID:23994084

  7. The population ecology of male gametophytes: the link between pollination and seed production.

    PubMed

    Harder, Lawrence D; Aizen, Marcelo A; Richards, Shane A

    2016-05-01

    The fate of male gametophytes after pollen reaches stigmas links pollination to ovule fertilisation, governing subsequent siring success and seed production. Although male gametophyte performance primarily involves cellular processes, an ecological analogy may expose insights into the nature and implications of male gametophyte success. We elaborate this analogy theoretically and present empirical examples that illustrate associated insights. Specifically, we consider pollen loads on stigmas as localised populations subject to density-independent mortality and density-dependent processes as they traverse complex stylar environments. Different combinations of the timing of pollen-tube access to limiting stylar resources (simultaneous or sequential), the tube distribution among resources (repulsed or random) and the timing of density-independent mortality relative to competition (before or after) create signature relations of mean pollen-tube success and its variation among pistils to pollen receipt. Using novel nonlinear regression analyses (two-moment regression), we illustrate contrasting relations for two species, demonstrating that variety in these relations is a feature of reproductive diversity among angiosperms, rather than merely a theoretical curiosity. Thus, the details of male gametophyte ecology should shape sporophyte reproductive success and hence the dynamics and structure of angiosperm populations. PMID:26970246

  8. [Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on growth and phoxim residue of carrot (Daucus carota L.)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fa-Yuan; Chen, Xin; Sun, Xian-Ming; Shi, Zhao-Yong

    2010-12-01

    A pot culture experiment was carried out to study the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on the growth and phoxim residue of carrot (Daucus carota L). Four levels of phoxim (0, 200, 400, 800 mg x L(-1)) and two AM fungal inocula, Glomus intraradices BEG 141(141), Glomus mosseae BEG 167 (167),and one nonmycorrhizal inoculum (CK), were applied to the sterilized soil. The plants were harvested after 5 months of growth and phoxim was irrigated into the root zone 14 d before plant harvest. Although decreasing with the increase of phoxim dosage, root infection rates of all the mycorrhizal plants were higher than 70%. Phoxim showed no significant dose effect on shoot wet weights and root yields, which were all increased by AM inoculation at four phoxim dosages. Phoxim residues in shoots and roots increased with the increase of phoxim dosage, but decreased by AM inoculation. In general, Glomus intraradices BEG 141 showed more pronounced effects on the growth and phoxim residue of carrot than Glomus mosseae BEG 167 did. Our results show a promising potential of AM fungi in carrot production and controlling pesticide residues. PMID:21360902

  9. Identification and genetic characterization of Clostridium botulinum serotype A strains from commercially pasteurized carrot juice.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Kristin M; Nowaczyk, Louis; Raphael, Brian H; Skinner, Guy E; Rukma Reddy, N

    2014-12-01

    Clostridium botulinum is an important foodborne pathogen capable of forming heat resistant endospores and producing deadly botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs). In 2006, C. botulinum was responsible for an international outbreak of botulism attributed to the consumption of commercially pasteurized carrot juice. The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize strains of C. botulinum from the adulterated product. Carrot juice bottles retrieved from the manufacturing facility were analyzed for the presence of BoNT and BoNT-producing isolates using DIG-ELISA. Toxigenic isolates from the carrot juice were analyzed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and DNA microarray analysis to determine their genetic relatedness to the original outbreak strains CDC51348 and CDC51303. PFGE revealed that isolates CJ4-1 and CJ10-1 shared an identical pulsotype with strain CDC51303, whereas isolate CJ5-1 displayed a unique restriction banding pattern. DNA microarray analysis identified several phage related genes unique to strain CJ5-1, and Southern hybridization analysis of XhoI digested and nondigested DNA showed their chromosomal location, while a homolog to pCLI_A009 of plasmid pCLI of C. botulinum serotype Langeland F, was located on a small plasmid. The acquisition or loss of bacteriophages and other mobile genetic elements among C. botulinum strains has epidemiological and evolutionary implications. PMID:25084657

  10. Why Is Seed Production So Variable among Individuals? A Ten-Year Study with Oaks Reveals the Importance of Soil Environment

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio M.; Aponte, Cristina; García, Luis V.; Padilla-Díaz, Carmen M.; Marañón, Teodoro

    2014-01-01

    Mast-seeding species exhibit not only a large inter-annual variability in seed production but also considerable variability among individuals within the same year. However, very little is known about the causes and consequences for population dynamics of this potentially large between-individual variability. Here, we quantified seed production over ten consecutive years in two Mediterranean oak species – the deciduous Quercus canariensis and the evergreen Q. suber - that coexist in forests of southern Spain. First, we calibrated likelihood models to identify which abiotic and biotic variables best explain the magnitude (hereafter seed productivity) and temporal variation of seed production at the individual level (hereafter CVi), and infer whether reproductive effort results from the available soil resources for the plant or is primarily determined by selectively favoured strategies. Second, we explored the contribution of between-individual variability in seed production as a potential mechanism of satiation for predispersal seed predators. We found that Q. canariensis trees inhabiting moister and more fertile soils were more productive than those growing in more resource-limited sites. Regarding temporal variation, individuals of the two studied oak species inhabiting these resource-rich environments also exhibited larger values of CVi. Interestingly, we detected a satiating effect on granivorous insects at the tree level in Q. suber, which was evident in those years where between-individual variability in acorn production was higher. These findings suggest that individual seed production (both in terms of seed productivity and inter-annual variability) is strongly dependent on soil resource heterogeneity (at least for one of the two studied oak species) with potential repercussions for recruitment and population dynamics. However, other external factors (such as soil heterogeneity in pathogen abundance) or certain inherent characteristics of the tree might be

  11. Compositional analysis of grain and forage from MON 87427, an inducible male sterile and tissue selective glyphosate-tolerant maize product for hybrid seed production.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Tyamagondlu V; Breeze, Matthew L; Liu, Kang; Harrigan, George G; Culler, Angela H

    2014-02-26

    Conventional maize hybrid seed production has historically relied upon detasseling using either manual methods or semiautomated processes to ensure the purity of the hybrid cross. Monsanto Co. has developed biotechnology-derived MON 87427 maize with tissue-selective glyphosate tolerance to facilitate the production of hybrid maize seed. MON 87427 utilizes a specific promoter and intron combination to drive expression of CP4 EPSPS protein in vegetative and female reproductive tissues, conferring tolerance to glyphosate. This specific combination of regulatory elements also results in limited or no production of CP4 EPSPS protein in two key male reproductive tissues: pollen microspores, which develop into pollen grains, and tapetum cells that supply nutrients to the pollen. Thus, MON 87427 induces a male sterile phenotype after appropriately timed glyphosate applications. To confer additional benefits of herbicide tolerance and/or insect resistance, MON 87427 was combined with MON 89034 and NK603 by conventional breeding to develop MON 87427 × MON 89034 × NK603. The work described here is an assessment of the nutrient, antinutrient, and secondary metabolite levels in grain and forage tissues of MON 87427 and MON 87427 × MON 89034 × NK603. Results demonstrated that MON 87427 is compositionally equivalent to a near-isogenic conventional comparator. Results from this analysis established that the compositional equivalence observed for the single-event product MON 87427 is extendable to the combined-trait product, MON 87427 × MON 89034 × NK603. With increasing global demand for food production, the development of more efficient seed production strategies is important to sustainable agriculture. The study reported here demonstrated that biotechnology can be applied to simplify hybrid maize seed production without affecting crop composition. PMID:24397242

  12. Gamma-linolenic acid egg production enriched with hemp seed oil and evening primrose oil in diet of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Oh; Hwangbo, Jong; Yuh, In-Suh; Park, Byung-Sung

    2014-07-01

    This study was carried out to find out the effect of supplying gamma linolenic acid (GLA) on laying performance and egg quality. A hundred twenty of 30 weeks old hyline brown laying hens with 98% of egg production were completely randomized to 4 different treatment groups by 30 hens (the control group fed with the diet containing beef tallow, 3 treatment groups fed with the diet containing corn oil, the diet containing hemp seed oil and the diet containing evening primrose oil, respectively), and their laying performance and egg production were investigated for 5 weeks. Intake of hemp seed oil or evening primrose helped to increase the retention rate of GLA, which was transmigrated into eggs from blood. GLA was not detected in the blood samples of control group and treatment group fed diet containing corn oil, while it was significantly increased in the blood samples of the treatment groups fed with diet containing hemp seed oil and diet containing evening primrose oil, respectively. GLA retention was not observed in the eggs produced respectively by control group and treatment group fed with diet containing corn oil, whereas it was significantly increased in the eggs produced by the treatment group fed with diet containing hemp seed oil by 1.09% and the treatment group fed with diet containing evening primrose oil by 4.87%. This result suggests that GLA-reinforced functional eggs can be produced by adding hemp seed oil and evening primrose oil to the feed for laying hens and feeding them with it. It is thought that further researches and clinical trials on biochemical mechanism related to atopic dermatitis should be conducted in future. PMID:25004746

  13. Enhancing Nutraceutical Bioavailability from Raw and Cooked Vegetables Using Excipient Emulsions: Influence of Lipid Type on Carotenoid Bioaccessibility from Carrots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruojie; Zhang, Zipei; Zou, Liqiang; Xiao, Hang; Zhang, Guodong; Decker, Eric Andrew; McClements, David Julian

    2015-12-01

    The influence of the nature of the lipid phase in excipient emulsions on the bioaccessibility and transformation of carotenoid from carrots was investigated using a gastrointestinal tract (GIT) model. Excipient emulsions were fabricated using whey protein as an emulsifier and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), fish oil, or corn oil as the oil phase. Changes in particle size, charge, and microstructure were measured as the carrot-emulsion mixtures were passed through simulated mouth, stomach, and small intestine regions. Carotenoid bioaccessibility depended on the type of lipids used to form the excipient emulsions (corn oil > fish oil ≫ MCT), which was attributed to differences in the solubilization capacity of mixed micelles formed from different lipid digestion products. The transformation of carotenoids was greater for fish oil and corn oil than for MCT, which may have been due to greater oxidation or isomerization. The bioaccessibility of the carotenoids was higher from boiled than raw carrots, which was attributed to greater disruption of the plant tissue facilitating carotenoid release. In conclusion, excipient emulsions are highly effective at increasing carotenoid bioaccessibility from carrots, but lipid type must be optimized to ensure high efficacy. PMID:26585671

  14. Automated small scale oil seed processing plant for production of fuel for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.C.; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    University of Idaho seed processing research is centered about a CeCoCo oil expeller. A seed preheater-auger, seed bin, meal auger, and oil pump have been constructed to complete the system, which is automated and instrumented. The press, preheater, cake removal auger, and oil transfer pump are tied into a central panel where energy use is measured and the process controlled. Extracted oil weight, meal weight, process temperature, and input energy are all recorded during operation. The oil is transferred to tanks where it settles for 48 hours or more. It is then pumped through a filtering system and stored ready to be used as an engine fuel. The plant has processed over 11,000 kg of seed with an average extraction efficiency of 78 percent. 5 tables.

  15. Arabidopsis seed production limited by CO2 in simulated space experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoshizaki, T.

    1984-01-01

    Several generations of Arabidopsis thaliana were grown axenically from seed to seed on nutrient agar medium. The Arabidopsis plants produce seeds within 30 days after seeding, when grown either in containers open to the ambient atmosphere or in large sealed jars, but not in sealed test tubes. Moreover, the plant height was directly proportional to the size of the sealed container. Periodic analyses of the CO2 levels in the sealed containers has shown a decrease during the first week, but a tenfold increase in the following weeks. It is speculated that, by the end of the second week, the cotyledons entering the senescence stage would release ethylene into the culture atmosphere with a concomitant release of CO2, which in turn would induce further release of ethylene, hastening the senescence process in other tissues. Thus, in a controlled ecological life-support system of a space station, various components of the plant atmosphere may have to be maintained within the prescribed limits.

  16. Seed-mediated biomineralizaton toward the high yield production of gold nanoprisms.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xi; Roth, Kristina L; Freyman, Megan C; Liu, Jianzhao; Grove, Tijana Z

    2016-07-28

    Gold nanotriangles (Au NTs) with tunable edge length were synthesized via a green chemical route in the presence of the designed consensus sequence tetratricopeptide repeat (CTPR) protein, halide anions (Br(-)) and CTPR-stabilized Ag seeds. The well-defined morphologies, tailored plasmonic absorbance from visible-light to the near infrared (NIR) region, colloidal stability and biocompatibility are attributed to the synergistic action of CTPR, halide ions, and CTPR-stabilized Ag seeds. PMID:27424736

  17. Carapanolides J-L from the seeds of Carapa guianensis (Andiroba) and their effects on LPS-activated NO production.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Yuuki; Kikuchi, Takashi; Inoue, Takanobu; Muraoka, Osamu; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    A novel gedunin and two novel phragmalin-type limonoids, named carapanolides J-L (compounds 1-3) as well as a known gedunin-type limonoid 4 were isolated from the seeds of Carapa guianensis (andiroba). Their structures were determined on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and HRFABMS. Compounds 1-4 were evaluated for their effects on the production of NO in LPS-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages. PMID:25347457

  18. Determination of volatile glucosinolate degradation products in seed coat, stem and in vitro cultures of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori.

    PubMed

    Dehshahri, S; Afsharypuor, S; Asghari, G; Mohagheghzadeh, A

    2012-01-01

    Moringaceae, a monogeneric family in Capparales (glucosinolate-containing species), includes 14 species. One of them is Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori., a small tree, which grows in south east of Iran. Volatile constituents of seed coat and stem of M. peregrina were determined by GC and GC/MS. Moreover, extracts of seed and different cultured cells were analyzed by TLC and GC. Three volatile isothiocyanates including isopropyl isothiocyanate (4.2%), sec-butyl isothiocyanate (< 0.1%) and isobutyl isothiocyanate (92.9%) were found in the volatile oil of the stem , while only two volatile isothiocyanates namely isopropyl isothiocyanate (7.0%) and isobutyl isothiocyanate (51.5%) were determined in the seed coat of the tree. For the first time, the callus and suspension cultures of M. peregrina were initiated and established successfully on Murashige and Skoog medium, containing plant growth hormones. Different precursors and elicitors were fed to the cultures to induce glucosinolates production. This is the first report of in vitro culture production of M. peregrina. There was no production of volatile isothiocyanates in M. peregrina callus and suspension cultures with different treatments. PMID:23181080

  19. High performance batch production of LREBa 2Cu 3O y using novel thin film Nd-123 seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muralidhar, M.; Suzuki, K.; Fukumoto, Y.; Ishihara, A.; Tomita, M.

    2011-11-01

    A batch production for fabrication of LREBa 2Cu 3O y (LRE: Sm, Gd, NEG) “LRE-123” pellets are developed in air and Ar-1% O 2 using a novel thin film Nd-123 seeds grown on MgO crystals. The SEM and XRD results conformed that the quality and orientation of the seed crystals are excellent. On the other hand, new seeds can withstand temperatures >1100 °C, as a result, the cold seeding process was applied even to grow Sm-123 material in Air. The trapped field observed in the best 45 mm single-grain puck of Gd-123 was in the range of 1.35 T and 0.35 T at 77.3 K and 87.3 K, respectively. The average trapped field at 77.3 K in the 24 mm diameter NEG-123 samples batch lies between 0.9 and 1 T. The maximum trapped field of 1.2 T was recorded at the sample surface. Further, the maximum trapped field of 0.23 T at 77 K was recorded in a sample with 16 mm diameter of Sm-123 with 3 mol% BaO 2 addition. As a result we made more then 130 single grain pucks within a couple of months. Taking advantage of the single grain batch processed material, we constructed self-made chilled levitation disk, which was used on the open day of railway technical research Institute. More then 150 children stood on the levitation disk and revel the experience of levitation. The present results prove that a high-performance good-quality class of LREBa 2Cu 3O y material can be made by using a novel thin film Nd-123 seeds.

  20. Selectivity lists of pesticides to beneficial arthropods for IPM programs in carrot--first results.

    PubMed

    Hautier, L; Jansen, J-P; Mabon, N; Schiffers, B

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve IPM programs in carrot, 7 fungicides, 12 herbicides and 9 insecticides commonly used in Belgium were tested for their toxicity towards five beneficial arthropods representative of most important natural enemies encountered in carrot: parasitic wasps - Aphidius rhopalosiphi (De Stefani-Perez) (Hym., Aphidiidae), ladybirds - Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Col., Coccinellidae), hoverfly - Episyrphus balteatus (Dipt.. Syrphidae), rove beetle - Aleochara bilineata (Col., Staphylinidae) and carabid beetle - Bembidion lampros (Col., Carabidae). Initialy, all plant protection products were tested on inert substrate glass plates or sand according to the insect. Products with a corrected mortality (CM) or a parasitism reduction (PR) lower than 30% were kept for the constitution of positive list (green list). The other compounds were further tested on plant for A. rhopalosiphi, A. bipunctata, E. balteatus and soil for B. lampros and A. bilineata. With these extended laboratory tests results, products were listed in toxicity class: green category [CM or PR < or = 30%], yellow category [30% < CM or PR < or = 60%] and orange category [60% < CM or PR < or = 80%]. Products with toxicity higher than 80% on plants or that reduce parasitism more than 80% on soil were put in red category and are not recommended to Integrated Pest Management programs in carrot. Results showed that all fungicides tested were harmless to beneficials except Tebuconazole, which was slightly harmful for A. bipunctata. Herbicides were also harmless for soil beneficials, except Chlorpropham. This product was very toxic on sand towards A. bilineata and must be tested on soil. All soil insecticides tested were very toxic for ground beneficials and considered as non-selective. Their use in IPM is subject to questioning in view of negative impacts on beneficials. Among foliar insecticides, Dimethoate and Deltamethrin are not recommended for IPM because their high toxicity for all beneficials. The

  1. Effect of weightlessness conditions on the somatic embryogenesis in the culture of carrot cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butenko, R. G.; Dmitriyeva, N. N.; Ongko, V.; Basyrova, L. V.

    1977-01-01

    A carrot cell culture seeded in Petri dishes in the United States and transported to the USSR was subjected to weightlessness for 20 days during the flight of Kosmos 782. The controls were cultures placed on a centrifuge (1 g) inside the satellite and cultures left on ground in the U.S.S.R. and the United States. A count of structures in the dishes after the flight showed that the number of developing embryonic structures and the extent of their differentiation in weightlessness did not reliably differ from the number and extent of differentiation in structures developed on the ground. Structures with long roots developed in weightlessness. Analysis of the root zones showed that these roots differed by the increased size of the zone of differentiated cells. The increased size of the zones of differentiated cells can indicate earlier development of embryonic structures.

  2. Ecological and evolutionary conditions for fruit abortion to regulate pollinating seed-eaters and increase plant production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    Coevolved mutualisms, such as those between senita cacti, yuccas, and their respective obligate pollinators, benefit both species involved in the interaction. However, in these pollination mutualisms the pollinator's larvae impose a cost on plants through consumption of developing seeds and fruit. The effects of pollinators on benefits and costs are expected to vary with the abundance of pollinators, because large population sizes result in more eggs and larval seed-eaters. Here, we develop the hypothesis that fruit abortion, which is common in yucca, senita, and plants in general, could in some cases have the function of limiting pollinator abundance and, thereby, increasing fruit production. Using a general steady-state model of fruit production and pollinator dynamics, we demonstrate that plants involved in pollinating seed-eater mutualisms can increase their fecundity by randomly aborting fruit. We show that the ecological conditions under which fruit abortion can improve plants fecundity are not unusual. They are best met when the plant is long-lived, the population dynamics of the pollinator are much faster than those of the plant, the loss of one fruit via abortion kills a larva that would have the expectation of destroying more than one fruit through its future egg laying as an adult moth, and the effects of fruit abortion on pollinator abundance are spatially localized. We then use the approach of adaptive dynamics to find conditions under which a fruit abortion strategy based on regulating the pollinator population could feasibly evolve in this type of plant–pollinator interaction.

  3. Effect of different cooking methods on structure and quality of industrially frozen carrots.

    PubMed

    Paciulli, Maria; Ganino, Tommaso; Carini, Eleonora; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Pugliese, Alessandro; Chiavaro, Emma

    2016-05-01

    The effect of boiling, steaming and microwaving on microstructure, texture and colour of raw and industrially frozen carrots was investigated. The raw carrots, after cooking, showed dehydrated and separated cells with swollen walls. The carrots subjected to blanching, freezing and followed by frozen storage exhibited marked tissue damages indicating deep oriented fissures. Cooking caused cellular dehydration and separation in the tissue, with the same intensity between raw and frozen carrots and independently from the cooking treatment applied. Among different cooking methods, microwaving showed better retention of the initial texture and colour quality for both raw and frozen carrots. On the other hand, the steamed carrots revealed the highest degree of softening and colour differences from the control for both raw and frozen carrots, despite the worst tissue conditions were observed for the boiled carrots. PMID:27407211

  4. Rice SPK, a Calmodulin-Like Domain Protein Kinase, Is Required for Storage Product Accumulation during Seed Development

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Takayuki; Kunieda, Noriko; Omura, Yuhi; Ibe, Hirokazu; Kawasaki, Tsutomu; Takano, Makoto; Sato, Miho; Furuhashi, Hideyuki; Mujin, Toshiyuki; Takaiwa, Fumio; Wu, Chuan-yin; Tada, Yuichi; Satozawa, Tomomi; Sakamoto, Masahiro; Shimada, Hiroaki

    2002-01-01

    Suc, an end product of photosynthesis, is metabolized by Suc synthase in sink organs as an initial step in the biosynthesis of storage products. Suc synthase activity is known to be regulated by reversible phosphorylation, but the details of this process are unclear at present. Rice SPK, a calcium-dependent protein kinase, is expressed uniquely in the endosperm of immature seed, and its involvement in the biosynthetic pathways of storage products was suggested. Antisense SPK transformants lacked the ability to accumulate storage products such as starch, but produced watery seed with a large amount of Suc instead, as the result of an inhibition of Suc degradation. Analysis of in vitro phosphorylation indicated that SPK phosphorylated specifically a Ser residue in Suc synthase that has been shown to be important for its activity in the degradation of Suc. This finding suggests that SPK is involved in the activation of Suc synthase. It appears that SPK is a Suc synthase kinase that may be important for supplying substrates for the biosynthesis of storage products. PMID:11910009

  5. Development of "Naked-Tufted" Seed Coat Mutants for Potential Use in Cotton Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of chemical mutagenesis has been highly successful in most major crops but has only recently been used in improving cotton. The objective of this research was to develop ‘naked-tufted’ seed mutants and to incorporate this genetic trait into cotton to enhance crop quality and reduce processing co...

  6. Responsive Surface Methodology Optimizes Extraction Conditions of Industrial by-products, Camellia japonica Seed Cake

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Kyeom; Lim, Ho-Jeong; Kim, Mi-So; Choi, Soo Jung; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Cho Rong; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Eui-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Background: The central nervous system is easily damaged by oxidative stress due to high oxygen consumption and poor defensive capacity. Hence, multiple studies have demonstrated that inhibiting oxidative stress-induced damage, through an antioxidant-rich diet, might be a reasonable approach to prevent neurodegenerative disease. Objective: In the present study, response surface methodology was utilized to optimize the extraction for neuro-protective constituents of Camellia japonica byproducts. Materials and Methods: Rat pheochromocytoma cells were used to evaluate protective potential of Camellia japonica byproducts. Results: Optimum conditions were 33.84 min, 75.24%, and 75.82°C for time, ethanol concentration and temperature. Further, we demonstrated that major organic acid contents were significantly impacted by the extraction conditions, which may explain varying magnitude of protective potential between fractions. Conclusions: Given the paucity of information in regards to defatted C. japonica seed cake and their health promoting potential, our results herein provide interesting preliminary data for utilization of this byproduct from oil processing in both academic and industrial applications. SUMMARY Neuro-protective potential of C. japonica seed cake on cell viability was affected by extraction conditionsExtraction conditions effectively influenced on active constituents of C. japonica seed cakeBiological activity of C. japonica seed cake was optimized by the responsive surface methodology. Abbreviations used: GC-MS: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer, MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, PC12 cells: Pheochromocytoma, RSM: Response surface methodology. PMID:27601847

  7. SOIL ORGANIC CARBON: BENEFITS OF DIRECT SEEDING TO PRODUCTIVITY AND ENVIRONMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural carbon (C) sequestration may be one of the most cost effective ways to slow the processes of global warming. Direct seeding aims to conserve, improve and make more efficient use of natural resources through integrated management of available soil, water and biological resources. Numerou...

  8. Dehulling of Lesquerella Seeds for the Production of Gums and Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lesquerella (Lesquerella fendleri), an oilseed crop native to the southwestern United States, is being developed as an alternative source of hydroxy fatty acid (HFA). HFA is used in industrial applications such as lubricants, plastics, emulsifiers, and coatings. The seed coat contains a natural gu...

  9. A GmAOX2b antisense gene compromises vegetative growth and seed production in soybean.

    PubMed

    Chai, Tsun-Thai; Simmonds, Daina; Day, David A; Colmer, Timothy D; Finnegan, Patrick M

    2012-07-01

    The alternative oxidase mediates the cyanide-resistant respiratory pathway in plant mitochondria. In non-thermogenic plants, the role of alternative oxidase in plant growth and development is not well understood. Soybean (Glycine max) lines carrying a GmAOX2b antisense gene had compromised vegetative growth and reproductive performance under typical glasshouse growth conditions. The reduction in vegetative growth was demonstrated by reduction in shoot height, the number of leaves per plant and the green leaf area. Antisense plants also had decreased pod formation and seed to pod ratios, which together led to a reduction in the number and total mass of seed produced. The negative effects of the antisense gene on pod set, seed set, ovule availability and total seed mass were primarily confined to the branches, rather than the main stem. The preferential effect of alternative oxidase suppression in the branches is discussed in relation to the reproductive potential of soybean under stress. Taken together, these results demonstrate that alternative oxidase provides the benefit of sustaining plant vegetative growth and reproductive capacity in soybean. PMID:22307678

  10. Mustard seed meal for management of root-knot nematode and weeds in tomato production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mustard seed meals of indian mustard [InM (Brassica juncea)] and yellow mustard [YeM (Sinapis alba)], alone and combined, were tested for effects on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants and for suppression of southern root-knot nematode [RKN (Meloidogyne incognita)] and weed populations. In the gree...

  11. Genomic Studies in Soybean: Toward Understanding Seed Oil and Protein Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The molecular mechanisms that influence soybean seed composition are not well understood. Insight into the genetic controls involved in these traits is important for future soybean improvement. In this study, we identified candidate genes at the major soybean protein quantitative trait locus at Link...

  12. Method for obtaining three products with different properties from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of distillation time (DT; 15-1080 min) on yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seed essential oil (EO) as well as on the yield, composition, and properties of lipids extracted from steam-distilled fenne...

  13. Phenotype and seed production among hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus L. Sweet) accessions rescued using hydroponic techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyacinth bean, Lablab purpureus L. (Sweet) is a legume used as a vegetable, forage, and in home gardens as an ornamental plant. Many accessions do not flower during their juvenile period in Byron, GA. Other hyacinth bean accessions produce few seed when regenerated in the field. This study was condu...

  14. Seed production from Aeschynomene genetic resources rescued and regenerated using aeroponics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jointvetch (Aeschynomene americana L. or A. americana L. var. americana) and A. villosa Poir. var. villosa are legumes used for cover cropping and forage. These accessions require a very long growing season and do not produce mature seed before the first hard freezes in Griffin, GA. This study was c...

  15. Diversity in seed production characteristics within the USDA-ARS Limnanthes alba germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meadowfoam (L. alba) seeds are a source of long chain fatty acids which are stable under diverse environmental conditions. The fatty acid composition makes the oil valuable for use in cosmetics, lubricants, rubber additives, and plastics. While a few meadowfoam cultivars have been developed, high se...

  16. Seed Production as Influenced by Glyphosate Applications Across a Weed Community

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Late-season weed infestations often do not affect yields and are allowed to mature and contribute seed to the soil seedbank, ensuring the future establishment of competitive weed communities. Effective long-term weed management strategies must incorporate practices to reduce the soil seedbank by re...

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L... consignments only. (b) Immature “baby” carrots (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus) for consumption measuring 10...

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L... consignments only. (b) Immature “baby” carrots (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus) for consumption measuring 10...

  19. First Report of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ Associated with Psyllid-Infested Carrots in Germany

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carrot plants with symptoms resembling those associated with the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” were observed in commercial carrot fields in Lower Saxony, Germany in September 2014. The fields were infested with the carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis and the infection rate was about 50...

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L... consignments only. (b) Immature “baby” carrots (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus) for consumption measuring 10...

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L... consignments only. (b) Immature “baby” carrots (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus) for consumption measuring 10...

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L... consignments only. (b) Immature “baby” carrots (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus) for consumption measuring 10...

  3. Incidence and severity of cavity spot of carrot as affected by pigmentation, temperature, and rainfall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field trials to determine the effect of carrot pigmentation and weather parameters on cavity spot of carrot (CS) were conducted in the Holland/Bradford Marsh region of Ontario between 2002 and 2009. Twenty three colored carrots from the USDA-ARS breeding program at the University of Wisconsin (5) an...

  4. Role of Color and Pigments in Breeding, Genetics, and Nutritional Improvement of Carrots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The color of carrots was an important attribute during its domestication as a root crop. Modern carrot researchers continue to study color, and carrot genetic stocks have been developed with not only orange, but also distinctive dark orange, red, yellow and purple color. Genes for 22 carotenoid bios...

  5. Cell-specific expression of the carrot EP2 lipid transfer protein gene.

    PubMed Central

    Sterk, P; Booij, H; Schellekens, G A; Van Kammen, A; De Vries, S C

    1991-01-01

    A cDNA corresponding to a 10-kD protein, designated extracellular protein 2 (EP2), that is secreted by embryogenic cell cultures of carrot was obtained by expression screening. The derived protein sequence and antisera against heterologous plant lipid transfer proteins identified the EP2 protein as a lipid transfer protein. Protein gel blot analysis showed that the EP2 protein is present in cell walls and conditioned medium of cell cultures. RNA gel blot analysis revealed that the EP2 gene is expressed in embryogenic cell cultures, the shoot apex of seedlings, developing flowers, and maturing seeds. In situ hybridization showed expression of the EP2 gene in protoderm cells of somatic and zygotic embryos and transient expression in epidermis cells of leaf primordia and all flower organs. In the shoot apical meristem, expression is found in the tunica and lateral zone. In maturing seeds, the EP2 gene is expressed in the outer epidermis of the integument, the seed coat, and the pericarp epidermis, as well as transiently in between both mericarps. Based on the extracellular location of the EP2 protein and the expression pattern of the encoding gene, we propose a role for plant lipid transfer proteins in the transport of cutin monomers through the extracellular matrix to sites of cutin synthesis. PMID:1822991

  6. Anaerobic digestion of selected Italian agricultural and industrial residues (grape seeds and leather dust): combined methane production and digestate characterization.

    PubMed

    Caramiello, C; Lancellotti, I; Righi, F; Tatàno, F; Taurino, R; Barbieri, L

    2013-01-01

    A combined experimental evaluation of methane production (obtained by anaerobic digestion) and detailed digestate characterization (with physical-chemical, thermo-gravimetric and mineralogical approaches) was conducted on two organic substrates, which are specific to Italy (at regional and national levels). One of the substrates was grape seeds, which have an agricultural origin, whereas the other substrate was vegetable-tanned leather dust, which has an industrial origin. Under the assumed experimental conditions of the performed lab-scale test series, the grape seed substrate exhibited a resulting net methane production of 175.0 NmL g volatile solids (VS)(-1); hence, it can be considered as a potential energy source via anaerobic digestion. Conversely, the net methane production obtained from the anaerobic digestion of the vegetable-tanned leather dust substrate was limited to 16.1 NmL gVS(-1). A detailed characterization of the obtained digestates showed that there were both nitrogen-containing compounds and complex organic compounds present in the digestate that was obtained from the mixture of leather dust and inoculum. As a general perspective of this experimental study, the application of diversified characterization analyzes could facilitate (1) a better understanding of the main properties of the obtained digestates to evaluate their potential valorization, and (2) a combination of the digestate characteristics with the corresponding methane productions to comprehensively evaluate the bioconversion process. PMID:24191456

  7. Evaluation of the potential of squash pumpkin by-products (seeds and shell) as sources of antioxidant and bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, M J; Aires, A; Dias, C; Almeida, J A; De Vasconcelos, M C B M; Santos, P; Rosa, E A

    2015-02-01

    The transformation of byproducts and wastes generated by agro-food companies is of high importance since only a small portion of plant material is utilized directly for human consumption. Squash pumpkin is greatly used in Portugal and as by-products of its processing are generated tons of shell and seeds. In this study we aim to evaluate the potential of these wastes as sources of beneficial and bioactive compounds (antioxidants and antimicrobials), studying the effect of different extraction solvents and drying methods. The samples (fresh and cooked) were freeze-dried and oven-dried followed by extraction with different solvents that revealed the following decreasing order of efficiency: 70 % ethanol, 70 % methanol, 70 % acetone, ultra-pure water and 100 % dichloromethane. The oven-dried samples showed higher values of antioxidant activity and phenolic content, with exception of the values of phenolics for the seeds material. The shell samples presented higher values (1.47 - 70.96 % inhibition) of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (2.00 - 10.69 mg GAE/g DW). A positive correlation was found between these two parameters on the shell samples, however the squash seeds revealed a negative correlation between the phenolic content and the antioxidant activity. The results show that these industrial agro-food residues are potentially good sources of bioactive compounds with health benefits. PMID:25694712

  8. Transformation of carrots with mutant acetolactate synthase for Orobanche (broomrape) control.

    PubMed

    Aviv, Dvora; Amsellem, Ziva; Gressel, Jonathan

    2002-12-01

    Parasitic Orobanche spp are major constraints to vegetable crop production in the Mediterranean basin (to eastern Europe) and in localized places in India, China and the USA. Transgenic target-site herbicide resistance (eg, to acetolactate synthase inhibitors) allows for movement of unmetabolized herbicide through the crop to the photosynthate sink in the parasite, as well as through the soil. We report the successful engineering of a mutant acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene into carrot, allowing control of broomrape already in heterozygotes of the first back-crossed generation, by imazapyr, an imidazolinone ALS inhibitor. It is expected that homozygotes will have higher levels of resistance. PMID:12476991

  9. Polyamine Uptake in Carrot Cell Cultures 1

    PubMed Central

    Pistocchi, Rossella; Bagni, Nello; Creus, José A.

    1987-01-01

    Putrescine and spermidine uptake into carrot (Daucus carota L.) cells in culture was studied. The time course of uptake showed that the two polyamines were very quickly transported into the cells, reaching a maximum absorption within 1 minute. Increasing external polyamine concentrations up to 100 millimolar showed the existence of a biphasic system with different affinities at low and high polyamine concentrations. The cellular localization of absorbed polyamines was such that a greater amount of putrescine was present in the cytoplasmic soluble fraction, while spermidine was mostly present in cell walls. The absorbed polyamines were released into the medium in the presence of increasing external concentrations of the corresponding polyamine or Ca2+. The effects of Ca2+ were different for putrescine and spermidine; putrescine uptake was slightly stimulated by 10 micromolar Ca2+ and inhibited by higher concentrations, while for spermidine uptake there was an increasing stimulation in the Ca2+ concentration range between 10 micromolar and 1 millimolar. La3+ nullified the stimulatory effect of 10 micromolar Ca2+ on putrescine uptake and that of 1 millimolar Ca2+ on spermidine uptake. La3+ at 0.5 to 1 millimolar markedly inhibited the uptake of both polyamines, suggesting that it interferes with the sites of polyamine uptake. Putrescine uptake was affected to a lesser extent by metabolic inhibitors than was spermidine uptake. It is proposed that the entry of polyamines into the cells is driven by the transmembrane electrical gradient, with a possible antiport mechanism between external and internal polyamine molecule. PMID:16665446

  10. Protocols for In Vitro Propagation, Conservation, Synthetic Seed Production, Embryo Rescue, Microrhizome Production, Molecular Profiling, and Genetic Transformation in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe.).

    PubMed

    Nirmal Babu, K; Samsudeen, K; Divakaran, Minoo; Pillai, Geetha S; Sumathi, V; Praveen, K; Ravindran, P N; Peter, K V

    2016-01-01

    Ginger is a rhizomatous plant that belongs to the family Zingiberaceae. It is a herbaceous perennial but cultivated as annual, with crop duration of 7-10 months. Ginger is native to India and Tropical South Asia. The tuberous rhizomes or underground stems of ginger are used as condiment, an aromatic stimulant, and food preservative as well as in traditional medicine. Ginger is propagated vegetatively with rhizome bits as seed material. Cultivation of ginger is plagued by rhizome rot diseases, most of which are mainly spread through infected seed rhizomes. Micropropagation will help in production of disease-free planting material. Sexual reproduction is absent in ginger, making recombinant breeding very impossible. In vitro technology can thus become the preferred choice as it can be utilized for multiplication, conservation of genetic resources, generating variability, gene transfer, molecular tagging, and their utility in crop improvement of these crops. PMID:27108333

  11. Assessment of pectinase production by Bacillus mojavensis I4 using an economical substrate and its potential application in oil sesame extraction.

    PubMed

    Ghazala, Imen; Sayari, Nadhem; Romdhane, Molka Ben; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia; Haddar, Anissa

    2015-12-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota) peels, local agricultural waste product, is rich in lignocellulolytic material, including pectin which can act as an inducer of pectinase production. Pectinolytic enzymes production by Bacillus mojavensis I4 was studied in liquid state fermentation using carrot peel as a substrate. Medium composition and culture conditions for the pectinase production by I4 were optimized using two statistical methods: Taguchi design was applied to find the key ingredients and conditions for the best yield of enzyme production and The Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the value of the four significant variables: carrot peels powder, NH4Cl, inoculum size and incubation time. The optimal conditions for higher production of pectinase were carrot peels powder 6.5 %, NH4Cl 0.3 %, inoculum level 3 % and cultivation time 32 h. Under these conditions, the pectinase experimental yield (64.8 U/ml) closely matched the yield predicted by the statistical model (63.55 U/ml) with R (2) = 0.963. The best pectinase activity was observed at the temperature of 60 °C and at pH 8.0. The enzyme retained more than 90 % of its activity after 24 h at pH ranging from 6.0 to 10.0. The enzyme preserved more than 85 % of its initial activity after 60 min of pre-incubation at 30-40 °C and more than 67 % at 50 °C. The extracellular juice of I4 was applied in the process of sesame seeds oil extraction. An improvement of 3 % on the oil yield was obtained. The findings demonstrated that the B. mojavensis I4 has a promising potential for future use in a wide range of industrial and biotechnological applications. PMID:26604345

  12. NM-Scale Anatomy of an Entire Stardust Carrot Track

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Keller, L. P.; Clemett, S. J.; Messenger, S.

    2009-01-01

    Comet Wild-2 samples collected by NASA s Stardust mission are extremely complex, heterogeneous, and have experienced wide ranges of alteration during the capture process. There are two major types of track morphologies: "carrot" and "bulbous," that reflect different structural/compositional properties of the impactors. Carrot type tracks are typically produced by compact or single mineral grains which survive essentially intact as a single large terminal particle. Bulbous tracks are likely produced by fine-grained or organic-rich impactors [1]. Owing to their challenging nature and especially high value of Stardust samples, we have invested considerable effort in developing both sample preparation and analytical techniques tailored for Stardust sample analyses. Our report focuses on our systematic disassembly and coordinated analysis of Stardust carrot track #112 from the mm to nm-scale.

  13. Mechanism of oocyte maturation and ovulation and its application to seed production in the Japanese eel.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, H; Sakurai, Y; Horiuchi, R; Kazeto, Y; Gen, K; Imaizumi, H; Masuda, Y

    2013-02-01

    Reduction in eel resources and catches of glass eels as seedlings for aquaculture have been a serious concern in recent years in both Europe and East Asia. Thus, technical advancement to produce eel seeds for artificial cultivation is most desired. Fundamental information on oocyte maturation and ovulation and its application to artificial induction of sexual maturation are needed to produce good quality seeds of the Japanese eel. This review introduces hormonal mechanisms of cytoplasmic maturation (such as hydration, lipid coalescence, and clearing of the ooplasm) and the maturational competence (the ability to respond to maturation-inducing steroid) and nuclear maturation (germinal vesicle breakdown). In addition, previous and newly developed methods for induction of spawning have been described. PMID:22278706

  14. Formation of norisoprenoid flavor compounds in carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots: characterization of a cyclic-specific carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carotenoids are isoprenoid pigments that upon oxidative cleavage lead to the production of norisoprenoids that have profound effect on flavor and aromas of agricultural produce. The biosynthetic pathway to norisoprenoids in carrots (Daucus carota L.) is still widely unknown. We found that geranial i...

  15. Optimization of seed production for a simultaneous saccharification cofermentation biomass-to-ethanol process using recombinant Zymomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Lawford, H.G.; Rousseau, J.D.; McMillan, J.D.

    1997-12-31

    The five-carbon sugar D-xylose is a major component of hemicellulose and accounts for roughly one-third of the carbohydrate content of many lignocellulosic materials. The efficient fermentation of xylose-rich hemicellulose hydrolyzates (prehydrolyzates) represents an opportunity to improve significantly the economics of large-scale fuel ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstocks. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is currently investigating a simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF) process for ethanol production from biomass that uses a dilute-acid pretreatment and a metabolically engineered strain of Zymomonas mobilis that can coferment glucose and xylose. The objective of this study was to establish optimal conditions for cost-effective seed production that are compatible with the SSCF process design. 55 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Diversity of plant oil seed-associated fungi isolated from seven oil-bearing seeds and their potential for the production of lipolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Venkatesagowda, Balaji; Ponugupaty, Ebenezer; Barbosa, Aneli M; Dekker, Robert F H

    2012-01-01

    Commercial oil-yielding seeds (castor, coconut, neem, peanut, pongamia, rubber and sesame) were collected from different places in the state of Tamil Nadu (India) from which 1279 endophytic fungi were isolated. The oil-bearing seeds exhibited rich fungal diversity. High Shannon-Index H' was observed with pongamia seeds (2.847) while a low Index occurred for coconut kernel-associated mycoflora (1.018). Maximum Colonization Frequency (%) was observed for Lasiodiplodia theobromae (176). Dominance Index (expressed in terms of the Simpson's Index D) was high (0.581) for coconut kernel-associated fungi, and low for pongamia seed-borne fungi. Species Richness (Chao) of the fungal isolates was high (47.09) in the case of neem seeds, and low (16.6) for peanut seeds. All 1279 fungal isolates were screened for lipolytic activity employing a zymogram method using Tween-20 in agar. Forty isolates showed strong lipolytic activity, and were morphologically identified as belonging to 19 taxa (Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chalaropsis, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor, Penicillium, Pestalotiopsis, Phoma, Phomopsis, Phyllosticta, Rhizopus, Sclerotinia, Stachybotrys and Trichoderma). These isolates also exhibited amylolytic, proteolytic and cellulolytic activities. Five fungal isolates (Aspergillus niger, Chalaropsis thielavioides, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Phoma glomerata) exhibited highest lipase activities, and the best producer was Lasiodiplodia theobromae (108 U/mL), which was characterized by genomic sequence analysis of the ITS region of 18S rDNA. PMID:22806781

  17. Neural network predicts carrot volume with only three images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Federico; Sanchez, Sergio

    1998-09-01

    A mechanism turned a vision camera around a fixed carrot taking 100 images of it. A 3D reconstruction finite element algorithm reproduced the volume using finite area triangles and morphological operations to optimize memory utilization. Volume from several carrots were calculated and correlated against real volume achieving a 98% success rate. Three images 120 degrees apart were acquired and the main features extracted. A neural network system was trained using the features, increasing the measuring speed and obtaining together with a regression algorithm an accuracy of 95% in predicting the real volume.

  18. Diversity of Δ12 fatty acid desaturases in santalaceae and their role in production of seed oil acetylenic fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Okada, Shoko; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Damcevski, Katherine; Gibb, Nerida; Wood, Craig; Hamberg, Mats; Haritos, Victoria S

    2013-11-01

    Plants in the Santalaceae family, including the native cherry Exocarpos cupressiformis and sweet quandong Santalum acuminatum, accumulate ximenynic acid (trans-11-octadecen-9-ynoic acid) in their seed oil and conjugated polyacetylenic fatty acids in root tissue. Twelve full-length genes coding for microsomal Δ12 fatty acid desaturases (FADs) from the two Santalaceae species were identified by degenerate PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the predicted amino acid sequences placed five Santalaceae FADs with Δ12 FADs, which include Arabidopsis thaliana FAD2. When expressed in yeast, the major activity of these genes was Δ12 desaturation of oleic acid, but unusual activities were also observed: i.e. Δ15 desaturation of linoleic acid as well as trans-Δ12 and trans-Δ11 desaturations of stearolic acid (9-octadecynoic acid). The trans-12-octadecen-9-ynoic acid product was also detected in quandong seed oil. The two other FAD groups (FADX and FADY) were present in both species; in a phylogenetic tree of microsomal FAD enzymes, FADX and FADY formed a unique clade, suggesting that are highly divergent. The FADX group enzymes had no detectable Δ12 FAD activity but instead catalyzed cis-Δ13 desaturation of stearolic acid when expressed in yeast. No products were detected for the FADY group when expressed recombinantly. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the FADY genes were expressed in leaf rather than developing seed of the native cherry. FADs with promiscuous and unique activities have been identified in Santalaceae and explain the origin of some of the unusual lipids found in this plant family. PMID:24062307

  19. Overexpression of the Wheat Expansin Gene TaEXPA2 Improved Seed Production and Drought Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanhui; Han, Yangyang; Zhang, Meng; Zhou, Shan; Kong, Xiangzhu; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Expansins are cell wall proteins that are grouped into two main families, α-expansins and β-expansins, and they are implicated in the control of cell extension via the disruption of hydrogen bonds between cellulose and matrix glucans. TaEXPA2 is an α-expansin gene identified in wheat. Based on putative cis-regulatory elements in the TaEXPA2 promoter sequence and the expression pattern induced when polyethylene glycol (PEG) is used to mimic water stress, we hypothesized that TaEXPA2 is involved in plant drought tolerance and plant development. Through transient expression of 35S::TaEXPA2-GFP in onion epidermal cells, TaEXPA2 was localized to the cell wall. Constitutive expression of TaEXPA2 in tobacco improved seed production by increasing capsule number, not seed size, without having any effect on plant growth patterns. The transgenic tobacco exhibited a significantly greater tolerance to water-deficiency stress than did wild-type (WT) plants. We found that under drought stress, the transgenic plants maintained a better water status. The accumulated content of osmotic adjustment substances, such as proline, in TaEXPA2 transgenic plants was greater than that in WT plants. Transgenic plants also displayed greater antioxidative competence as indicated by their lower malondialdehyde (MDA) content, relative electrical conductivity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation than did WT plants. This result suggests that the transgenic plants suffer less damage from ROS under drought conditions. The activities of some antioxidant enzymes as well as expression levels of several genes encoding key antioxidant enzymes were higher in the transgenic plants than in the WT plants under drought stress. Collectively, our results suggest that ectopic expression of the wheat expansin gene TaEXPA2 improves seed production and drought tolerance in transgenic tobacco plants. PMID:27073898

  20. Overexpression of the Wheat Expansin Gene TaEXPA2 Improved Seed Production and Drought Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco Plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanhui; Han, Yangyang; Zhang, Meng; Zhou, Shan; Kong, Xiangzhu; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Expansins are cell wall proteins that are grouped into two main families, α-expansins and β-expansins, and they are implicated in the control of cell extension via the disruption of hydrogen bonds between cellulose and matrix glucans. TaEXPA2 is an α-expansin gene identified in wheat. Based on putative cis-regulatory elements in the TaEXPA2 promoter sequence and the expression pattern induced when polyethylene glycol (PEG) is used to mimic water stress, we hypothesized that TaEXPA2 is involved in plant drought tolerance and plant development. Through transient expression of 35S::TaEXPA2-GFP in onion epidermal cells, TaEXPA2 was localized to the cell wall. Constitutive expression of TaEXPA2 in tobacco improved seed production by increasing capsule number, not seed size, without having any effect on plant growth patterns. The transgenic tobacco exhibited a significantly greater tolerance to water-deficiency stress than did wild-type (WT) plants. We found that under drought stress, the transgenic plants maintained a better water status. The accumulated content of osmotic adjustment substances, such as proline, in TaEXPA2 transgenic plants was greater than that in WT plants. Transgenic plants also displayed greater antioxidative competence as indicated by their lower malondialdehyde (MDA) content, relative electrical conductivity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation than did WT plants. This result suggests that the transgenic plants suffer less damage from ROS under drought conditions. The activities of some antioxidant enzymes as well as expression levels of several genes encoding key antioxidant enzymes were higher in the transgenic plants than in the WT plants under drought stress. Collectively, our results suggest that ectopic expression of the wheat expansin gene TaEXPA2 improves seed production and drought tolerance in transgenic tobacco plants. PMID:27073898

  1. Diversity of Δ12 Fatty Acid Desaturases in Santalaceae and Their Role in Production of Seed Oil Acetylenic Fatty Acids*

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Shoko; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Damcevski, Katherine; Gibb, Nerida; Wood, Craig; Hamberg, Mats; Haritos, Victoria S.

    2013-01-01

    Plants in the Santalaceae family, including the native cherry Exocarpos cupressiformis and sweet quandong Santalum acuminatum, accumulate ximenynic acid (trans-11-octadecen-9-ynoic acid) in their seed oil and conjugated polyacetylenic fatty acids in root tissue. Twelve full-length genes coding for microsomal Δ12 fatty acid desaturases (FADs) from the two Santalaceae species were identified by degenerate PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the predicted amino acid sequences placed five Santalaceae FADs with Δ12 FADs, which include Arabidopsis thaliana FAD2. When expressed in yeast, the major activity of these genes was Δ12 desaturation of oleic acid, but unusual activities were also observed: i.e. Δ15 desaturation of linoleic acid as well as trans-Δ12 and trans-Δ11 desaturations of stearolic acid (9-octadecynoic acid). The trans-12-octadecen-9-ynoic acid product was also detected in quandong seed oil. The two other FAD groups (FADX and FADY) were present in both species; in a phylogenetic tree of microsomal FAD enzymes, FADX and FADY formed a unique clade, suggesting that are highly divergent. The FADX group enzymes had no detectable Δ12 FAD activity but instead catalyzed cis-Δ13 desaturation of stearolic acid when expressed in yeast. No products were detected for the FADY group when expressed recombinantly. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the FADY genes were expressed in leaf rather than developing seed of the native cherry. FADs with promiscuous and unique activities have been identified in Santalaceae and explain the origin of some of the unusual lipids found in this plant family. PMID:24062307

  2. An Ecological Friendly Dragee Technic Application on Crop Seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    Summary: In Brazíl, in EMBRAPA/CNPH was developing a dragée technic for seeds of crops and vegetables of carrot (Daucus carota L.), onion (Allium cepa L.), tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), micro tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), Andropogon ssp. and Eucalyptus ssp. using as inert material the dolomite (CaCO3 96%) powder fractions (0.05 to 1.00 mm) and as cementing adhesives the polyvinyl acetate (PVA) and Gumma arabicum (Ga) (0 to 80% in water). On dragée process were using fungicides with agent of metalaxyl, iprodyon, benomyl, mankoceb (1 to 5 g fungicide/kg dolomite powder) and nutrients (N, P2O5, K2O 0.05 to 0.5, MgO, Fe, Zn, Mn, B, Cu, Mo, Co 0.000005 to 0.1 g/ kg dolomite powder) were applied from 1990. to 1993. Best results obtained with fraction of dolomite powder of 0.07 to 0.60 mm of diameter and adhesive of polyvinyl acetate (PVA) with the concentration between 10 to 20%. The dragées obtained presented a mechanical resistance of 0.5 kg/cm2 had show a germination higher than 90% without any phytotoxical effects to the seedlings. Fungicides with agent of metalaxyl, iprodyon, benomyl, mankoceb with the concentration 3-3 and mineral nutrients N, P2O5, K2O, MgO, Fe, Zn, Mn, B, Cu, Mo, Co with the concentration 0.2, 0.1, 0.15, 0.06, 0.00045, 0.00025, 0.0011, 0.00057, 0.00045, 0.000084, 0.00001 g/kg dolomite powder were showed best reultes, respectively. With this dragée utilization we could make possible the intensive use of highest quality seeds wich because of their higher costs are prohibitive in the actual systems of production. Keywords:crops, vegetables, seeds, dragée, nutrients, fungicides Introduction: In Latin America, Brazíl is the far greatest producer of crops and vegetables, with an annual production estimated at 9.631.000 tons in the value of 1.576 million dollars. Fifty species are cultivated of which 35 are producing botanical seeds including 162 varieties commercialized. The average national

  3. An elemental analysis of conventionally, organically and self-grown carrots.

    PubMed

    Krejčová, Anna; Návesník, Jakub; Jičínská, Jaroslava; Černohorský, Tomáš

    2016-02-01

    Conventionally-, organically- and self-grown carrots available across the Czech market were characterised based on their elemental, nitrate and dry matter content (218 samples, 20 parameters) in order to assess the quality of the carrots and address the question whether organic also means better. The results were compared with information describing the elemental composition of carrots published previously, recommended daily intakes, and legislative limits for contaminants in food. Significant differences in the amounts of Na, K, S, Al, Mn, Ni, As and Cd were observed between conventional and organic carrots. From the perspective of inter-element interactions, and the origin of these, a principal components analysis of the datasets found no significant differences between conventionally- and organically-grown carrots. For the consumer, it is valuable to know there are no differences between conventionally- and organically-grown carrots, and no potential harm arising from heavy metal contamination. Based on our data, carrots are an excellent source of potassium. PMID:26304343

  4. Effect of treatments and packaging on the quality of dried carrot slices during storage.

    PubMed

    Sra, S K; Sandhu, K S; Ahluwalia, P

    2014-04-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of treatments and packaging on the quality of dried carrot slices during storage. Carrot cultivar 'Nantes' was sliced into 4.5 mm thick slices which were blanched in water at 95 °C for 4 min followed by dipping in 6% potassium metabisulphite (KMS) solution for 40 min and 350 ppm potassium sorbate solution for 10 min prior to two stage phase drying i.e. at 90 ± 5 °C for 2 h and further drying at 60 ± 5 °C for 7 h in a cross-flow hot air cabinet dryer. The dried carrot slices were packed in 50 g packages of aluminium foil laminate (AFL) (polyethylene, aluminium foil and polyester) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) pouches having 32.5 μm and 56.0 μm thickness respectively and stored under ambient conditions i.e.18.5-29.1 °C temperature and 44.4-60.4% relative humidity for 6 months. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase was observed in the moisture content, water activity, reducing sugars and non-enzymatic browning while total solids, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, total sugars, pectin, rehydration ratio, sulphur dioxide, sorbic acid and carotenoids decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) during storage. Carrot slices pre-treated with 6% KMS and packed in AFL pouches were found to retain best physico-chemical quality. The curried product and soup prepared from dried slices from the same had highly acceptable sensory quality with initial overall acceptability scores 8.2 and 8.5 for curried slices and soup respectively on 9-point hedonic scale. The overall acceptability scores decreased from 8.2 to 7.9 and 8.5 to 7.7 in curried product and soup respectively after 6 months storage. All the samples were microbially safe during 6 months of storage. PMID:24741157

  5. The impact of fermentation with exopolysaccharide producing lactic acid bacteria on rheological, chemical and sensory properties of pureed carrots (Daucus carota L.).

    PubMed

    Juvonen, Riikka; Honkapää, Kaisu; Maina, Ndegwa H; Shi, Qiao; Viljanen, Kaarina; Maaheimo, Hannu; Virkki, Liisa; Tenkanen, Maija; Lantto, Raija

    2015-08-17

    Fermentation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) offers a natural means to modify technological and nutritional properties of foods and food ingredients. This study explored the impact of fermentation with different exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing LAB on rheological, chemical and sensory properties of puréed carrots in water, as a vegetable model, with the focus on texture formation. The screening of 37 LAB strains for starter selection revealed 16 Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc and Weissella strains capable of EPS (dextran, levan, and/or β-glucan) production in the carrot raw material. Fermentations with five out of six selected EPS producers modified perceived texture of the liquid carrot model (p<0.05). The formation of low-branched dextran correlated with perceived thickness, whereas the production of β-glucan correlated with perceived elasticity. Low-branched dextran producing Weissella confusa and Leuconostoc lactis strains produced thick texture accompanied by pleasant odour and flavour. The fermentation with the selected EPS-producing LAB strains is a promising clean label approach to replace hydrocolloid additives as texturizers in vegetable containing products, not only carrot. PMID:26001525

  6. ATP Production by Respiration and Fermentation, and Energy Charge during Aerobiosis and Anaerobiosis in Twelve Fatty and Starchy Germinating Seeds.

    PubMed

    Raymond, P; Al-Ani, A; Pradet, A

    1985-11-01

    The respiration and fermentation rates were compared in germinating seeds of 12 different cultivated species from five families. In air, fermentation contributes significantly to the energy metabolism only in some species (pea, maize), but is generally negligible when compared to respiration. The fermentation rate under anoxia was related either to the metabolic activity under air or to the adenine nucleotide content of the seeds: it was generally higher in seeds which contain starchy reserves (rice, maize, sorghum, pea), than in seeds which do not contain starch (lettuce, sunflower, radish, turnip, cabbage, flax); however, it was similar in wheat, sorghum (starchy seeds), and soya (nonstarchy seeds). The value of the energy charge of all the seeds was lower under anoxia than in air: after 24 hours under anoxia, it was higher than 0.5 in the starchy seeds and in soya and it was around 0.25 in the other fatty seeds. PMID:16664509

  7. ATP Production by Respiration and Fermentation, and Energy Charge during Aerobiosis and Anaerobiosis in Twelve Fatty and Starchy Germinating Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Philippe; Al-Ani, Ali; Pradet, Alain

    1985-01-01

    The respiration and fermentation rates were compared in germinating seeds of 12 different cultivated species from five families. In air, fermentation contributes significantly to the energy metabolism only in some species (pea, maize), but is generally negligible when compared to respiration. The fermentation rate under anoxia was related either to the metabolic activity under air or to the adenine nucleotide content of the seeds: it was generally higher in seeds which contain starchy reserves (rice, maize, sorghum, pea), than in seeds which do not contain starch (lettuce, sunflower, radish, turnip, cabbage, flax); however, it was similar in wheat, sorghum (starchy seeds), and soya (nonstarchy seeds). The value of the energy charge of all the seeds was lower under anoxia than in air: after 24 hours under anoxia, it was higher than 0.5 in the starchy seeds and in soya and it was around 0.25 in the other fatty seeds. PMID:16664509

  8. Screening of dried plant seed extracts for adiponectin production activity and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitory activity on 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue; Sagesaka, Yumi

    2010-09-01

    To search for dried plant seeds with potent anti-diabetes activity, we conducted a large scale screening for inhibitory activity on tumor necrosis factor-alpha and facilitating activity on adiponectin production in vitro. These activities in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were screened from ethanol extracts of 20 kinds of dried plant seed marketed in Japan. komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), qing geng cai (Brassica rapa var. chinensis), green soybean (Glycine max), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum L.) markedly enhanced adiponectin production (11.3 ~ 12.7 ng/ml) but Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus), edible burdock (Arctium lappa L.), bitter melon (Momordica charantia) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) did not (0.9 ~ 2.7 ng/ml). All adiponectin-production-enhancing seeds except spinach (2.7 pg/ml) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (6.6 pg/ml) effectively decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels (0.0 pg/ml). We further examined the effects on free radical scavenging activities in the dried seed extracts. Although scavenging activity correlated well with total phenolic content of samples, no correlation was observed with adiponectin production. These results point to the potential of dried seed extracts as a means to modify the activity of tumor necrosis factor-alpha for the adiponectin production. PMID:20717728

  9. Seed electron production from O{sup -} ions under high-power microwave excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Edmiston, G. F.; Neuber, A. A.; Krompholz, H. G.; Krile, J. T.

    2008-03-15

    Surface and volume breakdown formation during pulsed high-power microwave (HPM) excitation can severely limit the power densities which can be transmitted into an atmospheric medium. Recent studies in this area have focused on developing models which accurately predict flashover formation at either dielectric/air interfaces or in the gas volume directly adjacent to these interfaces. These models are typically validated through comparison with experimentally gathered data. With respect to HPM surface flashover, experiments in the S-band at 5 MW power levels have reported on the contributing factors to flashover development including the effects of gas type, pressure, and relative humidity. A Monte Carlo-type electron motion simulation code, MC, has been developed to calculate the increasing electron density during flashover formation in this case. Results from the MC code have exhibited a quantitative agreement with experimental data over a wide range of atmospheric conditions. A critical parameter to flashover development is the stochastic process involving the appearance of initiatory or ''seed'' electrons, as seen by the reduction in flashover delay time by approximately 10-20% in the presence of external ultraviolet illumination. While the current version of the MC code seeds the flashover location with electron densities on the order of background ion densities produced by cosmic radiation, it fails to incorporate the field-assisted collisional detachment processes which are often assumed to be the primary origin of these electrons on the time scales of interest. Investigation of these processes and development of more accurate seeding in the MC code is a key step toward predicting HPM flashover over a wide range of parameters, particularly in the presence of highly electronegative gases such as SF{sub 6} or O{sub 2}, in which there is an absence of free electrons with zero applied field.

  10. Composition of the endophytic filamentous fungi associated with Cinchona ledgeriana seeds and production of Cinchona alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Maehara, Shoji; Agusta, Andria; Kitamura, Chinami; Ohashi, Kazuyoshi; Shibuya, Hirotaka

    2016-04-01

    Four kinds of endophytic filamentous fungi (code names: CLS-1, CLS-2, CLS-3, and CLS-4) associated with the seeds of Cinchona ledgeriana (Rubiaceae) from West Java, Indonesia, were isolated. All of the isolates were classified into Diaporthe spp. based on phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) including the 5.8S ribosomal DNA region. All four of these endophytic fungi produce Cinchona alkaloids, mainly quinine and quinidine, in synthetic liquid medium. PMID:26645397

  11. Extract of the seed coat of Tamarindus indica inhibits nitric oxide production by murine macrophages in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Komutarin, T; Azadi, S; Butterworth, L; Keil, D; Chitsomboon, B; Suttajit, M; Meade, B J

    2004-04-01

    The seed coat extract of Tamarindus indica, a polyphenolic flavonoid, has been shown to have antioxidant properties. The present studies investigated the inhibitory effect of the seed coat extract of T. indica on nitric oxide production in vitro using a murine macrophage-like cell line, RAW 264.7, and in vitro and in vivo using freshly isolated B6C3F1 mouse peritoneal macrophages. In vitro exposure of RAW 264.7 cells or peritoneal macrophages to 0.2-200 microg/mL of T. indica extract significantly attenuated (as much as 68%) nitric oxide production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) in a concentration-dependent manner. In vivo administration of T. indica extract (100-500 mg/kg) to B6C3F1 mice dose-dependently suppressed TPA, LPS and/or IFN-gamma induced production of nitric oxide in isolated mouse peritoneal macrophages in the absence of any effect on body weight. Exposure to T. indica extract had no effect on cell viability as assessed by the MTT assay. In B6C3F1 mice, preliminary safety studies demonstrated a decrease in body weight at only the highest dose tested (1000 mg/kg) without alterations in hematology, serum chemistry or selected organ weights or effects on NK cell activity. A significant decrease in body weight was observed in BALB/c mice exposed to concentrations of extract of 250 mg/kg or higher. Oral exposure of BALB/c mice to T. indica extract did not modulate the development of T cell-mediated sensitization to DNFB or HCA as measured by the local lymph node assay, or dermal irritation to nonanoic acid or DNFB. These studies suggest that in mice, T. indica extract at concentrations up to 500 mg/kg may modulate nitric oxide production in the absence of overt acute toxicity. PMID:15019190

  12. Antibacterial activity of 11 essential oils against Bacillus cereus in tyndallized carrot broth.

    PubMed

    Valero, M; Salmerón, M C

    2003-08-15

    The antibacterial activity of 11 essential oils from aromatic plants against the strain INRA L2104 of the foodborne pathogen Bacillus cereus grown in carrot broth at 16 degrees C was studied. The quantity needed by the essential oils of nutmeg, mint, clove, oregano, cinnamon, sassafras, sage, thyme or rosemary to produce 14-1110% relative extension of the lag phase was determined. Total growth inhibition of bacterial spores was observed for some of the antimicrobial agents assayed. The addition of 5 microl cinnamon essential oil per 100 ml of broth in combination with refrigeration temperatures of product, made with carrots and tyndallized. This is especially important considering that the psychrotrophic enterotoxigenic strain of B. cereus INRA TZ415 was able to grow in this substrate at low temperatures in the absence of any essential oil. Furthermore, the study of the sensory characteristics of the final product suggests that the use of cinnamon essential oil can be considered as an alternative to "traditional food preservatives". PMID:12810272

  13. Impact of close habitat on the entomological diversity and abundance in carrot open fields.

    PubMed

    Colignon, P; Gaspar, C; Haubruge, E; Francis, F

    2002-01-01

    Vegetable open fields areas have been increasing for the last decade in Wallonia (South part of Belgium), mainly in Hesbaye. To be in accordance with quality standards, especially in terms of agrochemical residues (R.M.L.), biological pest control was developed and reduces the insecticide use, leading to have safer fresh products. Carrot represents an important cultivated species in Wallonia. To asses the impact of close habitat on both pest (mainly aphids) and beneficial insects, carrot fields were investigated during all the production duration in 2000. Twelve fields between Waremme and Hannut were visited weekly from June to October. Insects were caught using yellow traps and determined to the family level. Approximately 90,000 insects belonging to 109 families were identified. Significant differences linked to field closed habitat were observed on 31 families. An increase of biodiversity in term of family number near set-asides and woody borders was observed. Evaluation of pest and beneficial diversity and density in vegetable crops was discussed to promote future IPM program. PMID:12696415

  14. Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats.

    PubMed

    Morsy, T A; Kholif, S M; Kholif, A E; Matloup, O H; Salem, A Z M; Elella, A Abu

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5) fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control) in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS) or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO) in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA), and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017) ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (p<0.001) and acetate (p = 0.034) concentrations. Serum glucose increased (p = 0.013) in SO and SS goats vs Control. The SO and SS treated goats had improved milk yield (p = 0.007) and milk fat content (p = 0.002). Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048) and feed efficiency (p = 0.046) compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (p<0.05) milk unsaturated fatty acids content specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021) C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3), without detrimental effects on animal performance. PMID:26104519

  15. Evaluation of the Agronomic Performance of Atrazine-Tolerant Transgenic japonica Rice Parental Lines for Utilization in Hybrid Seed Production

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanlan; Li, Yanan; Wang, Shengjun; Su, Jinping; Liu, Xuejun; Chen, Defu; Chen, Xiwen

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the purity of hybrid seed is a crucial limiting factor when developing hybrid japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.). To chemically control hybrid seed purity, we transferred an improved atrazine chlorohydrolase gene (atzA) from Pseudomonas ADP into hybrid japonica parental lines (two maintainers, one restorer), and Nipponbare, by using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We subsequently selected several transgenic lines from each genotype by using PCR, RT-PCR, and germination analysis. In the presence of the investigated atrazine concentrations, particularly 150 µM atrazine, almost all of the transgenic lines produced significantly larger seedlings, with similar or higher germination percentages, than did the respective controls. Although the seedlings of transgenic lines were taller and gained more root biomass compared to the respective control plants, their growth was nevertheless inhibited by atrazine treatment compared to that without treatment. When grown in soil containing 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg atrazine, the transgenic lines were taller, and had higher total chlorophyll contents than did the respective controls; moreover, three of the strongest transgenic lines completely recovered after 45 days of growth. After treatment with 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg of atrazine, the atrazine residue remaining in the soil was 2.9–7.0% or 0.8–8.7% respectively, for transgenic lines, and 44.0–59.2% or 28.1–30.8%, respectively, for control plants. Spraying plants at the vegetative growth stage with 0.15% atrazine effectively killed control plants, but not transgenic lines. Our results indicate that transgenic atzA rice plants show tolerance to atrazine, and may be used as parental lines in future hybrid seed production. PMID:25275554

  16. Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats

    PubMed Central

    Morsy, T. A.; Kholif, S. M.; Kholif, A. E.; Matloup, O. H.; Salem, A. Z. M.; Elella, A. Abu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5) fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control) in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS) or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO) in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA), and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017) ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (p<0.001) and acetate (p = 0.034) concentrations. Serum glucose increased (p = 0.013) in SO and SS goats vs Control. The SO and SS treated goats had improved milk yield (p = 0.007) and milk fat content (p = 0.002). Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048) and feed efficiency (p = 0.046) compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (p<0.05) milk unsaturated fatty acids content specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021) C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3), without detrimental effects on animal performance. PMID:26104519

  17. Characterization of source- and sink-specific sucrose/H+ symporters from carrot.

    PubMed

    Shakya, R; Sturm, A

    1998-12-01

    To understand how sucrose (Suc) is transported from source leaves to developing tap roots of carrot (Daucus carota L.), we cloned two cDNAs (DcSUT1 and DcSUT2) for proteins with homologies to plant Suc/H+ symporters. The deduced polypeptide sequences are 52% identical and have 12 predicted membrane-spanning domains each. Transport activities were confirmed by expression of the clones in yeast cells. Both transporters had optimal activity below pH 5.0 and Michaelis constant values of 0.5 mM. Suc uptake was inhibited by protonophores, suggesting that Suc transport is linked to the proton electrochemical potential across the plasma membrane. DcSUT1 and DcSUT2 had markedly different expression patterns. Transcripts of DcSUT1 were found only in the green parts of plants, with highest levels in the lamina of source leaves, indicating that DcSUT1 is required for the loading of Suc into the phloem. In leaf lamina expression was diurnally regulated, suggesting that Suc export from the leaves is higher during the day than during the night. The mRNA of DcSUT2 was found mainly in sink organs, and no diurnal expression pattern was detected in the storage root. Here, expression was not restricted to the phloem but was much higher in storage parenchyma tissues of phloem and xylem. The close relationship of DcSUT2 with a Suc/H+ symporter from fava bean, which facilitates Suc uptake into the cotyledons of developing seeds, indicates that this carrot Suc transporter may be involved in loading Suc into storage parenchyma cells. PMID:9847123

  18. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' on carrot in Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In March of 2014, carrot plants (Daucus carota L. var. Mascot) exhibiting symptoms of yellowing, purpling, and curling of leaves, proliferation of shoots, formation of hairy secondary roots, general stunting and plant decline were observed in commercial fields in the Gharb region of Morocco. The sym...

  19. The carrot genome sequence brings colors out of the dark.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Rodriguez-Concepcion, Manuel

    2016-05-27

    The genome sequence of carrot (Daucus carota L.) is the first completed for an Apiaceae species, furthering knowledge of the evolution of the important euasterid II clade. Analyzing the whole-genome sequence allowed for the identification of a gene that may regulate the accumulation of carotenoids in the root. PMID:27230684

  20. Improving Classroom Behavior: The Carrot and the Stick.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talent, Barbara K.; Busch, Suzanne G.

    A set of practical behavior change techniques for improving young children's classroom behavior are briefly discussed. Techniques are classified and discussed under two general categories: those that reduce frequency of behaviors ("sticks") and those that increase their frequency ("carrots"). Included under "sticks" are techniques such as ignoring…

  1. Expression and mapping of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes in carrot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthocyanin gene expression has been extensively studied in leaves, fruits and flowers of numerous plants. Little, however, is known about anthocyanin accumulation in roots, or in carrots or other Apiaceae. We quantified expression of six anthocyanin biosynthetic genes (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (...

  2. Transmission of Spiroplasma citri to Carrots by Circulifer tenellus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spiroplasma citri is a wall-less bacterium that causes citrus stubborn disease (CSD) and brittle root in horseradish. Recently, carrot purple disease was reported in Washington State, and attributed to S. citri, but the mechanisms of transmission and fulfillment of Koch’s postulates were not complet...

  3. Interaction Effect Between Herbivory and Plant Fertilization on Extrafloral Nectar Production and on Seed Traits: An Experimental Study With Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    De Sibio, P R; Rossi, M N

    2016-08-01

    It is known that the release of volatile chemicals by many plants can attract the natural enemies of herbivorous insects. Such indirect interactions are likely when plants produce nectar from their extrafloral nectaries, and particularly when the production of extrafloral nectar (EFN) is induced by herbivory. In the present study, we conducted experiments to test whether foliar herbivory inflicted by Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Noctuidae) increases nectar production by extrafloral nectaries on one of its host plants, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae). Due to the current economic importance of R. communis, we also investigated whether the following seed traits-water content, dry mass, and essential oil production-are negatively affected by herbivory. Finally, we tested whether or not nectar production and seed traits are influenced by plant fertilization (plant quality). We found that nectar production was increased after herbivory, but it was not affected by the type of fertilization. Seed dry mass was higher in plants that were subjected to full fertilization, without herbivory; plants maintained in low fertilization conditions, however, had higher seed mass when subjected to herbivory. The same inverted pattern was observed for oil production. Therefore, our results suggest that EFN production in R. communis may act as an indirect defense strategy against herbivores, and that there is a trade-off between reproduction and plant growth when low-fertilized plants are subjected to herbivory. PMID:27247300

  4. The optical, physical and chemical properties of the products of glyoxal uptake on ammonium sulfate seed aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trainic, M.; Riziq, A. A.; Lavi, A.; Flores, J. M.; Rudich, Y.

    2011-07-01

    The heterogeneous reaction between gas phase glyoxal and ammonium sulfate (AS) aerosols, a proxy for inorganic atmospheric aerosol, was studied in terms of the dependence of the optical, physical and chemical properties of the product aerosols on initial particle size and ambient RH. The reactions were studied under different relative humidity (RH) conditions, varying from dry conditions (~20 % RH) and up to 90 % RH, covering conditions prevalent in many atmospheric environments. At λ = 355 nm, the reacted aerosols demonstrate a substantial growth in optical extinction cross section, as well as in mobility diameter under a broad range of RH values (35-90 %). The ratio of the product aerosol to seed aerosol geometric cross section reached up to ~3.5, and the optical extinction cross-section up to ~250. The reactions show a trend of increasing physical and optical growth with decreasing seed aerosol size, from 100nm to 300 nm, as well as with decreasing RH values from 90 % to ~40 %. Optically inactive aerosols, at the limit of the Mie range (100 nm diameter) become optically active as they grow due to the reaction. AMS analyses of the reaction of 300 nm AS at RH values of 50 %, 75 % and 90 % show that the main products of the reaction are glyoxal oligomers, formed by acetal formation in the presence of AS. In addition, imidazole formation, which is a minor channel, is observed for all reactions, yielding a product which absorbs at λ = 290 nm, with possible implications on the radiative properties of the product aerosols. The ratio of absorbing substances (C-N compounds, including imidazoles) increases with increasing RH value. A core/shell model used for the investigation of the optical properties of the reaction products of AS 300nm with gas phase glyoxal, shows that the refractive index (RI) of the reaction products are in the range between 1.57-1.71 for the real part and between 0-0.02 for the imaginary part of the RI at 355 nm. The observed increase in the

  5. Empty Seeds Are Not Always Bad: Simultaneous Effect of Seed Emptiness and Masting on Animal Seed Predation

    PubMed Central

    Perea, Ramón; Venturas, Martin; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal) and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered) to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis). In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P). Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds) was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds) did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators) consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed. PMID:23776503

  6. Validation of a quantitative NMR method for suspected counterfeit products exemplified on determination of benzethonium chloride in grapefruit seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Bekiroglu, Somer; Myrberg, Olle; Ostman, Kristina; Ek, Marianne; Arvidsson, Torbjörn; Rundlöf, Torgny; Hakkarainen, Birgit

    2008-08-01

    A 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy method for quantitative determination of benzethonium chloride (BTC) as a constituent of grapefruit seed extract was developed. The method was validated, assessing its specificity, linearity, range, and precision, as well as accuracy, limit of quantification and robustness. The method includes quantification using an internal reference standard, 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene, and regarded as simple, rapid, and easy to implement. A commercial grapefruit seed extract was studied and the experiments were performed on spectrometers operating at two different fields, 300 and 600 MHz for proton frequencies, the former with a broad band (BB) probe and the latter equipped with both a BB probe and a CryoProbe. The concentration average for the product sample was 78.0, 77.8 and 78.4 mg/ml using the 300 BB probe, the 600MHz BB probe and CryoProbe, respectively. The standard deviation and relative standard deviation (R.S.D., in parenthesis) for the average concentrations was 0.2 (0.3%), 0.3 (0.4%) and 0.3mg/ml (0.4%), respectively. PMID:18456447

  7. Characterization of particulate products for aging of ethylbenzene secondary organic aerosol in the presence of ammonium sulfate seed aerosol.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mingqiang; Zhang, Jiahui; Cai, Shunyou; Liao, Yingmin; Zhao, Weixiong; Hu, Changjin; Gu, Xuejun; Fang, Li; Zhang, Weijun

    2016-09-01

    Aging of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles formed from OH- initiated oxidation of ethylbenzene in the presence of high mass (100-300μg/m(3)) concentrations of (NH4)2SO4 seed aerosol was investigated in a home-made smog chamber in this study. The chemical composition of aged ethylbenzene SOA particles was measured using an aerosol laser time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ALTOFMS) coupled with a Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering algorithm. Experimental results showed that nitrophenol, ethyl-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, methyl glyoxylic acid, 5-ethyl-6-oxo-2,4-hexadienoic acid, 2-ethyl-2,4-hexadiendioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy-5-ethyl-6-oxo-4-hexenoic acid, 1H-imidazole, hydrated N-glyoxal substituted 1H-imidazole, hydrated glyoxal dimer substituted imidazole, 1H-imidazole-2-carbaldehyde, N-glyoxal substituted hydrated 1H-imidazole-2-carbaldehyde and high-molecular-weight (HMW) components were the predominant products in the aged particles. Compared to the previous aromatic SOA aging studies, imidazole compounds, which can absorb solar radiation effectively, were newly detected in aged ethylbenzene SOA in the presence of high concentrations of (NH4)2SO4 seed aerosol. These findings provide new information for discussing aromatic SOA aging mechanisms. PMID:27593289

  8. Effects of Cropping Sequences on Population Densities of Meloidogyne hapla and Carrot Yield in Organic Soil.

    PubMed

    Bélair, G

    1992-09-01

    The influence of various cropping sequences on population densities of Meloidogyne hapla and carrot yield was studied in organic soil under microplot-and field conditions. Spinach, radish, barley, oat, and wheat were poor or nonhosts for M. hapla. Population densities of M. hapla were maintained or increased on cabbage, celery, lettuce, leek, marigold, and potato. Marketable percent-age and root weight of carrots were greater following spinach, oat, radish, and fallow-onion than those following two crops of onion or carrot in microplots. Under field conditions, the carrot-onion-oat-carrot cropping sequence decreased M. hapla population densities and provided a 282% increase in marketable yield of carrot compared to a carrot monoculture. Two consecutive years of onion increased M. hapla population densities causing severe root galling and a 50% yield loss in the following crop of carrot. Based on root-gall indices, carrots could be grown economically for 2 years following radish, spinach, and oat, but not following onion and carrot without the use of nematicides. PMID:19283022

  9. Genetic variability for phenotype, seed production, oil content, and fatty acid composition among 17 Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed oil and fatty acids in plants have human health implications. Oil from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seeds are used in Taiwan as a diuretic, laxative, and tonic. The objectives of this study were to evaluate seeds from 17 roselle accessions for oil and fatty acid variation in a greenhouse. S...

  10. Production of the seed germination stimulant karrikinolide from combustion of simple carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Flematti, Gavin R; Scaffidi, Adrian; Dixon, Kingsley W; Smith, Steven M; Ghisalberti, Emilio L

    2011-02-23

    The naturally occurring seed germination stimulant karrikinolide is formed from the combustion of plant material including cellulose. It has previously been reported that combustion of simple carbohydrates such as d-glucose does not produce extracts containing karrikinolide. Moreover, it was reported that extracts with germination-promoting ability could be obtained only by combustion of simple carbohydrates in the presence of amino acids such as l-glycine. By employing a (13)C-labeled karrikinolide to physically quantify natural karrikinolide, we now show that it is produced from combustion of simple carbohydrates in similar amounts regardless of whether l-glycine is present or not. The addition of l-glycine appears to be beneficial in reducing the inhibitory effect of smoke extracts and provides a greater concentration range for effective germination-promoting activity. PMID:21280622

  11. Continued Selenium Biofortification of Carrots and Broccoli Grown in Soils Once Amended with Se-enriched S. pinnata.

    PubMed

    Bañuelos, Gary S; Arroyo, Irvin S; Dangi, Sadikshya R; Zambrano, Maria C

    2016-01-01

    Selenium (Se) biofortification has been practiced in Se-deficient regions throughout the world primarily by adding inorganic sources of Se to the soil. Considering the use of adding organic sources of Se could be useful as an alternative Se amendment for the production of Se-biofortified food crops. In this multi-year micro-plot study, we investigate growing carrots and broccoli in soils that had been previously amended with Se-enriched Stanleya pinnata Pursh (Britton) three and 4 years prior to planting one and two, respectively. Results showed that total and extractable Se concentrations in soils (0-30 cm) were 1.65 mg kg(-1) and 88 μg L(-1), and 0.92 mg kg(-1) and 48.6 μg L(-1) at the beginning of the growing season for planting one and two, respectively. After each respective growing season, total Se concentrations in the broccoli florets and carrots ranged from 6.99 to 7.83 mg kg(-1) and 3.15 to 6.25 mg kg(-1) in planting one and two, respectively. In broccoli and carrot plant tissues, SeMet (selenomethionine) was the predominant selenoamino acid identified in Se aqueous extracts. In postharvest soils from planting one, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analyses showed that amending the soil with S. pinnata exerted no effect on the microbial biomass, AMF (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi), actinomycetes and Gram-positive and bacterial PLFA at both 0-5 and 0-30 cm, respectively, 3 years later. Successfully producing Se-enriched broccoli and carrots 3 and 4 years later after amending soil with Se-enriched S. pinnata clearly demonstrates its potential source as an organic Se enriched fertilizer for Se-deficient regions. PMID:27602038

  12. Continued Selenium Biofortification of Carrots and Broccoli Grown in Soils Once Amended with Se-enriched S. pinnata

    PubMed Central

    Bañuelos, Gary S.; Arroyo, Irvin S.; Dangi, Sadikshya R.; Zambrano, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    Selenium (Se) biofortification has been practiced in Se-deficient regions throughout the world primarily by adding inorganic sources of Se to the soil. Considering the use of adding organic sources of Se could be useful as an alternative Se amendment for the production of Se-biofortified food crops. In this multi-year micro-plot study, we investigate growing carrots and broccoli in soils that had been previously amended with Se-enriched Stanleya pinnata Pursh (Britton) three and 4 years prior to planting one and two, respectively. Results showed that total and extractable Se concentrations in soils (0–30 cm) were 1.65 mg kg-1 and 88 μg L-1, and 0.92 mg kg-1 and 48.6 μg L-1 at the beginning of the growing season for planting one and two, respectively. After each respective growing season, total Se concentrations in the broccoli florets and carrots ranged from 6.99 to 7.83 mg kg-1 and 3.15 to 6.25 mg kg-1 in planting one and two, respectively. In broccoli and carrot plant tissues, SeMet (selenomethionine) was the predominant selenoamino acid identified in Se aqueous extracts. In postharvest soils from planting one, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analyses showed that amending the soil with S. pinnata exerted no effect on the microbial biomass, AMF (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi), actinomycetes and Gram-positive and bacterial PLFA at both 0–5 and 0–30 cm, respectively, 3 years later. Successfully producing Se-enriched broccoli and carrots 3 and 4 years later after amending soil with Se-enriched S. pinnata clearly demonstrates its potential source as an organic Se enriched fertilizer for Se-deficient regions. PMID:27602038

  13. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    Nowadays is widely well know that the potato is an important vegetable crop at Brazíl. It is grown on about 173.000 ha, with total yield of 2.6 million tons year-1. The average yield is 15 t ha-1. This level is very low because degeneration of crop is rapid under high temperature and high viruses pressure. Therefore seed potato propagation and production is principal on consumption potato production. This is why we found it necessary to develop it. The latossolo vermelho soil-farmyard manure- burnt rice straw-fertilizer 4N:14P:8K greenhouse pot trial was set up at the National Vegetable Crops Research Center, Brasília-DF, Brazíl in 1990. The methods of the experiments were soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw, soil x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer and soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer on randomized block design in total 29 combination of treatments in 5, 5 and 3 repetitions with in a total parcel of 116. According to chemical analysis of the a., soil, b., farmyard manure and c., burnt rice straw the agrochemistry parameters were as follows (estimated datas): a., latossolo vermelho soil: CaCO3 0.3-0.7%, humo 0.9-1.0%, pH (H2O) 5.3, pH (KCl) 4.5, AL- P2O5 3.2-3.5 mg kg-1, AL- K2O 180 mg kg-1, Mg (KCl) 70 mg kg-1, EDTA-Zn 0.5-0.8 mg kg-1, EDTA-Cu 0.5-0.6 mg kg-1, b., farmyard manure: N 1.8 g kg-1, P2O5 2.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.0 g kg-1, c., burnt rice straw: N 0.8 g kg-1, P2O5 7.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.5 g kg-1. The experimental datas were estimated by analysis of variance, ANOVA and MANOVA. The main conclusions were as follows: 1. Mixture of 80% latossolo vermelho, 10% burnt rice straw and 10% farmyard manure were shown best performance on seed potato productivity. The piece of tubers with a 0-20 mm (consumption seeds) was increased by 77%. 2. Total seed potato number was reached maximum at 10.8 g pot-1 4N:14P:8K fertilizer regarding to average of treatments with a 33%. 3. Dry biomassa production plant-1 was decreased by high dose of 4N:14P:8K

  14. Major QTL for Carrot Color are Associated with Carotenoid Biosynthetic Genes and Interact Epistatically in a Domesticated x Wild Carrot Cross

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild carrot roots are white and do not accumulate pigments while the cultivated carrot is one of the richest sources of carotenoid pigments – mainly provitamin A alpha and beta carotenes. In this study we performed QTL analyses for pigment content on a carotenoid biosynthesis function map based on t...

  15. Stabilization of emulsion and butter like products containing essential fatty acids using kalonji seeds extract and curcuminoids.

    PubMed

    Rege, Sameera A; Momin, Shamim A; Bhowmick, Dipti N; Pratap, Amit A

    2012-01-01

    Owing to the tendency of essential fatty acids (EFAs) to undergo autoxidation, their storage becomes a key problem. Generally, they are stabilized by synthetic antioxidants like TBHQ that are toxic in nature. Recently many studies were reported where these EFAs are stabilized by natural antioxidants. In the present study, curcuminoids and kalonji seeds ethanol extract (KEE) were used to stabilize these EFAs in refined sunflower oil (RSFO), water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion and butter like products (BLPs). In RSFO, though curcuminoids alone exerted pro-oxidant effect, KEE and curcuminoids showed synergistic antioxidant activity that was comparable to TBHQ. KEE exhibited good antioxidant activity in emulsions and BLPs, providing fine physical properties like slipping point, dropping point and spreadability. EFAs increased the nutritional value of BLPs and antioxidants added for their stabilization provided their medicinal benefits. PMID:22188801

  16. Inactivation of escherichia coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella on mung beans, alfalfa, and other seed types destined for sprout production by using an oxychloro-based sanitizer.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M; Hora, R; Kostrzynska, M; Waites, W M; Warriner, K

    2006-07-01

    The efficacy of a stabilized oxychloro-based food grade sanitizer to decontaminate seeds destined for sprout production has been evaluated. By using mung bean seeds as a model system, it was demonstrated that the sanitizer could be used to inactivate a five-strain cocktail of Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella introduced onto beans at 10(3) to 10(4) CFU/g. Salmonella was more tolerant to stabilized oxychloro than was E. coli O157:H7, with sanitizer levels of >150 and >50 ppm, respectively, being required to ensure pathogen-free sprouts. The decontamination efficacy was also found to be dependent on treatment time (>8 h optimal) and the seed-to-sanitizer ratio (>1:4 optimal). Stabilized oxychloro treatment did not exhibit phytotoxic effects, as germination and sprout yields were not significantly (P > 0.05) different as compared with untreated controls. Although human pathogens could be effectively eliminated from mung beans, the aerobic plate count of native microflora on sprouts grown from treated seed was not significantly (P > 0.05) different from the controls. The diversity of microbial populations (determined through 16S rRNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis) associated with bean sprouts was not significantly affected by the sanitizer treatment. However, it was noted that Klebsiella and Herbasprillum (both common plant endophytes) were absent in sprouts derived from decontaminated seed but were present in control sprouts. When a further range of seed types was evaluated, it was found that alfalfa, cress, flax, and soybean could be decontaminated with the stabilized oxychloro sanitizer. However, the decontamination efficacy with other seed types was less consistent. It appears that the rate of seed germination and putative activity of sanitizer sequestering system(s), in addition to other factors, may limit the efficacy of the decontamination method. PMID:16865888

  17. Modest Pollen Limitation of Lifetime Seed Production Is in Good Agreement with Modest Uncertainty in Whole-Plant Pollen Receipt.

    PubMed

    Rosenheim, Jay A; Williams, Neal M; Schreiber, Sebastian J; Rapp, Joshua M

    2016-03-01

    We recently introduced a model that predicts the degree to which a plant's lifetime seed production may be constrained by unpredictable shortfalls of pollen receipt ("pollen limitation"). Burd's comment in this issue criticized our analysis, first by arguing that the empirical literature documents much higher levels of pollen limitation than our model predicts and then suggesting that the apparent discrepancy stemmed from our (1) underestimating the costs of securing a fertilized ovule and (2) assuming too little unpredictability in whole-plant pollen receipt. We reply as follows. First, the empirical literature must be consulted carefully. Burd relies on pollen supplementation experiments performed on parts of plants or on whole plants but during only one reproductive season for polycarpic perennials; in both cases, resource reallocation often leads to gross overestimates of pollen limitation. We comprehensively review pollen limitation estimates that are free of these estimation problems and find strong agreement with our model predictions. Second, although cost estimates for different components of seed production are imprecise, errors are likely to be small relative to the >1,000-fold differences observed across plant species, the primary focus of our article. Finally, contrary to Burd's argument, pollen receipt by entire plants is much more predictable than that by individual flowers because the flower-to-flower variation "averages out" when summed across many flowers. Our model uses parameter values that are in broad agreement with the empirical record of modest plant-to-plant variation in pollen receipt and thus predicts the generally modest pollen limitation that is observed in nature. PMID:26913951

  18. Vitamin C content and sensorial properties of dehydrated carrots blanched conventionally or by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Gamboa-Santos, Juliana; Cristina Soria, A; Pérez-Mateos, Miriam; Carrasco, J Atanasio; Montilla, Antonia; Villamiel, Mar

    2013-01-15

    Vitamin C content and sensorial properties have been evaluated in air-dried carrots previously subjected to different ultrasound (US) or conventional blanching pretreatments. In addition, mass spectral fingerprints obtained by the Headspace ChemSensor System have been evaluated for the first time for classification of carrots according to their processing. Conventional blanching treatments at high temperature gave rise to carrots with retention of vitamin C in the range 37.5-85%, whereas carrots blanched conventionally at 60°C and by US-probe at temperatures up to 60 and 70°C showed vitamin C retention values lower than 4%. Regarding sensorial analysis of rehydrated carrots, US-pretreated samples presented acceptable quality, and no statistically significant differences with respect to conventionally blanched carrots, were detected. In spite of this, differentiation of samples processed under comparable intensity conditions and/or with similar composition was possible from their mass spectral fingerprints after chemometric data analysis. PMID:23122127

  19. Modifying the lipid content and composition of plant seeds: engineering the production of LC-PUFA.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Lopez, Noemi; Usher, Sarah; Sayanova, Olga V; Napier, Johnathan A; Haslam, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids are characterized by a double bond at the third carbon atom from the end of the carbon chain. Latterly, long chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5Δ5,8,11,14,17) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA; 22:6 Δ4,7,10,13,16,19), which typically only enter the human diet via the consumption of oily fish, have attracted much attention. The health benefits of the omega-3 LC-PUFAs EPA and DHA are now well established. Given the desire for a sustainable supply of omega-LC-PUFA, efforts have focused on enhancing the composition of vegetable oils to include these important fatty acids. Specifically, EPA and DHA have been the focus of much study, with the ultimate goal of producing a terrestrial plant-based source of these so-called fish oils. Over the last decade, many genes encoding the primary LC-PUFA biosynthetic activities have been identified and characterized. This has allowed the reconstitution of the LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway in oilseed crops, producing transgenic plants engineered to accumulate omega-3 LC-PUFA to levels similar to that found in fish oil. In this review, we will describe the most recent developments in this field and the challenges of overwriting endogenous seed lipid metabolism to maximize the accumulation of these important fatty acids. PMID:25417743

  20. Seed Germination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Initiation of seed germination is a critical decision for plants. It is important for seed populations under natural conditions to spread the timing of germination of individual seeds to maximize the probability of species survival. Therefore, seeds have evolved the multiple layers of mechanisms tha...

  1. The effect of dilute acid pre-treatment process in bioethanol production from durian (Durio zibethinus) seeds waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, K. A.; Salleh, S. F.; Riayatsyah, T. M. I.; Aditiya, H. B.; Mahlia, T. M. I.

    2016-03-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is one of the promising feedstocks for bioethanol production. The process starts from pre-treatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and finally obtaining the final product, ethanol. The efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass depends heavily on the effectiveness of the pre-treatment step which main function is to break the lignin structure of the biomass. This work aims to investigate the effects of dilute acid pre-treatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis of durian seeds waste to glucose and the subsequent bioethanol fermentation process. The yield of glucose from dilute acid pre-treated sample using 0.6% H2SO4 and 5% substrate concentration shows significant value of 23.4951 g/L. Combination of dilute acid pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis using 150U of enzyme able to yield 50.0944 g/L of glucose content higher compared to normal pre-treated sample of 8.1093 g/L. Dilute acid pre-treatment sample also shows stable and efficient yeast activity during fermentation process with lowest glucose content at 2.9636 g/L compared to 14.7583g/L for normal pre-treated sample. Based on the result, it can be concluded that dilute acid pre-treatment increase the yield of ethanol from bioethanol production process.

  2. Optimization of supercritical methanol reactive extraction by response surface methodology and product characterization from Jatropha curcas L. seeds.

    PubMed

    Lim, Steven; Lee, Keat Teong

    2013-08-01

    In this study, optimization of supercritical reactive extraction directly from Jatropha seeds in a high pressure batch reactor using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) coupled with Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) was performed. Four primary variables (methanol to solid ratio (SSR), reaction temperature, time and CO2 initial pressure) were investigated under the proposed constraints. It was found that all variables had significant effects towards fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) yield. Moreover, three interaction effects between the variables also played a major role in influencing the final FAME yield. Optimum FAME yield at 92.0 wt.% was achieved under the following conditions: 5.9 SSR, 300°C, 12.3 min and 20 bar CO2. Final FAME product was discovered to fulfil existing international standard. Preliminary characterization analysis proved that the solid residue can be burnt as solid fuel in the form of biochar while the liquid product can be separated as specialty chemicals or burned as bio-oil for energy production. PMID:23735793

  3. Pasting and rheological properties of oat products dry-blended with ground chia seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oat products containing ß-glucan are documented for lowering blood cholesterol that could be beneficial for preventing coronary heart disease. Oat products (oat flour, oat bran concentrate, and Nutrim) were dry-blended with ground chia (Salvia hispanica L.) that contains omega-3 polyunsaturated fatt...

  4. Effect of seeding on the capture of six stored product beetle species: The relative species matters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    n trapping programs prior capture of individuals of the same or different species may influence subsequent attractiveness of the trap. To evaluate this process with stored-product insects, the effect of the presence of dead or alive adults on the behavioral responses of six stored product insect spe...

  5. Data in support of optimized production of angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory peptides derived from proteolytic hydrolysate of bitter melon seed proteins

    PubMed Central

    Priyanto, Anugerah Dany; Doerksen, Robert J.; Chang, Chi-I; Sung, Wang-Chou; Widjanarko, Simon Bambang; Kusnadi, Joni; Lin, Ya-Chi; Wang, Ting-Chin; Hsu, Jue-Liang

    2015-01-01

    VY-7 has been demonstrated as a potent ACE inhibitory peptide in the previous study [1]. In this article, we provide accompanying data about the identification of bitter melon seed proteins (BMSPs), and quantitative analysis and optimized production of VY-7 in BMSPs hydrolysate. PMID:26958600

  6. Characterization of the carrot defect in 4H-SiC epitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, J.; Henry, A.; McNally, P. J.; Bergman, J. P.

    2010-05-01

    Characterization of the epitaxial defect known as the carrot defect was performed in thick 4H-SiC epilayers. A large number of carrot defects have been studied using different experimental techniques such as Nomarski optical microscopy, KOH etching, cathodoluminescence and synchrotron white beam X-ray topography. This has revealed that carrot defects appear in many different shapes and structures in the epilayers. Our results support the previous assignment of the carrot defect as related to a prismatic stacking fault. However, we have observed carrot defects with and without a visible threading dislocation related etch pit in the head region, after KOH etching. Polishing of epilayers in a few μm steps in combination with etching in molten KOH and imaging using Nomarski optical microscope has been used to find the geometry and origin of the carrot defects in different epilayers. The defects were found to originate both at the epi-substrate interface and during the epitaxial growth. Different sources of the carrot defect have been observed at the epi-substrate interface, which result in different structures and surfaces appearance of the defect in the epilayer. Furthermore, termination of the carrot defect inside the epilayer and the influence of substrate surface damage and growth conditions on the density of carrot defects are studied.

  7. Interdisciplinary cantilever physics: Elasticity of carrot, celery, and plasticware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestka, Kenneth A.

    2014-05-01

    This article presents several simple cantilever-based experiments using common household items (celery, carrot, and a plastic spoon) that are appropriate for introductory undergraduate laboratories or independent student projects. By applying Hooke's law and Euler beam theory, students are able to determine Young's modulus, fracture stress, yield stress, strain energy, and sound speed of these apparently disparate materials. In addition, a cellular foam elastic model is introduced—applicable to biologic materials as well as an essential component in the development of advanced engineering composites—that provides a mechanism to determine Young's modulus of the cell wall material found in celery and carrot. These experiments are designed to promote exploration of the similarities and differences between common inorganic and organic materials, fill a void in the typical undergraduate curriculum, and provide a foundation for more advanced material science pursuits within biology, botany, and food science as well as physics and engineering.

  8. Production of protease and lipase by solvent tolerant Pseudomonas aeruginosa PseA in solid-state fermentation using Jatropha curcas seed cake as substrate.

    PubMed

    Mahanta, Nilkamal; Gupta, Anshu; Khare, S K

    2008-04-01

    Deoiled Jatropha seed cake was assessed for its suitability as substrate for enzyme production by solid-state fermentation (SSF). Solvent tolerant Pseudomonas aeruginosa PseA strain previously reported by us was used for fermentation. The seed cake supported good bacterial growth and enzyme production (protease, 1818 U/g of substrate and lipase, 625 U/g of substrate) as evident by its chemical composition. Maximum protease and lipase production was observed at 50% substrate moisture, a growth period of 72 and 120 h, and a substrate pH of 6.0 and 7.0, respectively. Enrichment with maltose as carbon source increased protease and lipase production by 6.3- and 1.6-fold, respectively. Nitrogen supplementation with peptone for protease and NaNO(3) for lipase production also enhanced the enzyme yield reaching 11,376 U protease activity and 1084 U lipase activity per gram of Jatropha seed cake. These results demonstrated viable approach for utilization of this huge biomass by solid-state fermentation for the production of industrial enzymes. This offers significant benefit due to low cost and abundant availability of cake during biodiesel production. PMID:17509877

  9. Somatic embryogenesis, pigment accumulation, and synthetic seed production in Digitalis davisiana Heywood.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sandeep Kumar; Sahin, Gunce; Gurel, Ekrem

    2016-04-01

    Digitalis davisiana, commonly called Alanya foxglove, from Turkey, is an important medicinal herb as the main source of cardiac glycosides, cardenolides, anthraquinones, etc. It is also known in the Indian Medicine for treatment of wounds and burns. It has ornamental value as well. Overexploitation of D. davisiana has led this species to be declared protected, and thereby encouraged various methods for its propagation. In this study, an optimized and efficient plant tissue culture protocol was established using cotyledonary leaf, hypocotyl and root explants of D. davisiana. Callus tissues were obtained from the cotyledonary leaf, hypocotyl and root segments cultured on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium containing different plant growth regulators. The maximum number of somatic embryos were achieved by the MS medium containing 6-benzyladenine (1.0 mg/L BAP) or 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acids (0.1 mg/L 2,4-D), which produced an average of 8.3 ± 1.5 or 5.3 ± 1.5 embryos per cotyledonary leaf, respectively. After 3 wk of culture in MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 2,4-D, callus showed a clear accumulation of orange pigmentation. Shoot regeneration was remarkably higher (14.3 indirect shoots) in a combination of α-naphthalene acetic acid (0.25 mg/L NAA) plus 3.0 mg/L BAP than 2.0 mg/L zeatin (10.3 ± 0.5 direct shoots) alone. The shoots were successfully rooted on MS medium supplemented with NAA (0.1-1.0 mg/L). In addition, synthetic seeds were produced by encapsulating shoot tips in 4% sodium alginate solution. Maximum conversion frequency of 76.6% was noted from encapsulated shoot tips cultured on 0.25 mg/L NAA with 1.0 mg/L BAP. The encapsulated shoot tips could be stored up to 60 days at 4 °C. Regenerated plantlets of D. davisiana were successfully acclimatized and transferred to soil. This study has demonstrated successful preservation of elite genotypes of D. davisiana. PMID:27295921

  10. Production of microbial medium from defatted brebra (Milletia ferruginea) seed flour to substitute commercial peptone agar

    PubMed Central

    Andualem, Berhanu; Gessesse, Amare

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate and optimize microbial media that substitute peptone agar using brebra seed defatted flour. Methods 'Defatted process, inoculums preparation, evaluation of bacterial growth, preparation of cooked and hydrolyzed media and growth turbidity of tested bacteria were determined. Results Two percent defatted flour was found to be suitable concentration for the growth of pathogenic bacteria: Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Salmonella (NCTC 8385) and Shigella flexneri (ATCC 12022) (S. flexneri), while 3% defatted flour was suitable for Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) (S. aureus). E. coli (93±1) and S. flexneri (524±1) colony count were significantly (P≤0.05) greater in defatted flour without supplement than in supplemented medium. E. coli [(3.72×109±2) CFU/mL], S. aureus [(7.4×109±2) CFU/mL], S. flexneri [(4.03×109±2) CFU/mL] and Salmonella [(2.37×109±1) CFU/mL] in non-hydrolyzed sample were statistically (P≤0.05) greater than hydrolyzed one and commercial peptone agar. Colony count of Salmonella [(4.55×109±3) CFU/mL], S. flexneri [(5.40×109±3) CFU/mL] and Lyesria moncytogenes (ATCC 19116) [(5.4×109±3) CFU/mL] on raw defatted flour agar was significantly (P≤0.05) greater than cooked defatted flour and commercial peptone agar. Biomass of E. coli, S. aureus, Salmonella and Enterococcus faecalis in non-hydrolyzed defatted flour is highly increased over hydrolyzed defatted flour and commercial peptone broth. Conclusions The defatted flour agar was found to be better microbial media or comparable with peptone agar. The substances in it can serve as sources of carbon, nitrogen, vitamins and minerals that are essential to support the growth of microorganisms without any supplements. Currently, all supplements of peptone agar are very expensive in the market. PMID:24075344

  11. Characterization of inositol phosphates in carrot (Daucus carota L. ) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rincon, M.; Chen, Q.; Boss, W.F. )

    1989-01-01

    We have shown previously that inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) stimulates an efflux of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} from fusogenic carrot protoplasts. In light of these results, we suggested that IP{sub 3} might serve as a second messenger for the mobilization of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} in higher plant cells. To determine whether or not IP{sub 3} and other inositol phosphates were present in the carrot cells, the cells were labeled with myo-(2-{sup 3}H)inositol for 18 hours and extracted with ice-cold 10% trichloroacetic acid. The inositol metabolites were separated by anion exchange chromatography and by paper electrophoresis. We found that ({sup 3}H)inositol metabolites coeluted with inositol bisphosphate (IP{sub 2}) and IP{sub 3} when separated by anion exchange chromatography. However, we could not detect IP{sub 2} or IP{sub 3} when the inositol metabolites were analyzed by paper electrophoresis even though the polyphosphoinositides, which are the source of IP{sub 2} and IP{sub 3}, were present in these cells. Thus, ({sup 3}H)inositol metabolites other than IP{sub 2} and IP{sub 3} had coeluted on the anion exchange columns. The data indicate that either IP{sub 3} is rapidly metabolized or that it is not present at a detectable level in the carrot cells.

  12. Extracts from black carrot tissue culture as potent anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Sevimli-Gur, Canan; Cetin, Burcu; Akay, Seref; Gulce-Iz, Sultan; Yesil-Celiktas, Ozlem

    2013-09-01

    Black carrots contain anthocyanins possessing enhanced physiological activities. Explants of young black carrot shoots were cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium for callus initiation and were transferred to new MS medium supplemented with four different combinations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and kinetin. Subsequently, the lyophilized calli and black carrot harvested from fields were subjected to ultrasound extraction with ethanol at a ratio of 1:15 (w:v). Obtained extracts were applied to various human cancer cell lines including MCF-7 SK-BR-3 and MDA-MB-231 (human breast adenocarcinomas), HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma), PC-3 (human prostate adenocarcinoma), Neuro 2A (Musmusculus neuroblastoma) cancer cell lines and VERO (African green monkey kidney) normal cell line by MTT assay. The highest cytotoxic activity was achieved against Neuro-2A cell lines exhibiting viability of 38-46% at 6.25 μg/ml concentration for all calli and natural extracts. However, a significantly high IC50 value of 170.13 μg/ml was attained in normal cell line VERO indicating that its natural counterpart is an ideal candidate for treatment of brain cancer without causing negative effects to normal healthy cells. PMID:23828497

  13. The optical, physical and chemical properties of the products of glyoxal uptake on ammonium sulfate seed aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trainic, M.; Abo Riziq, A.; Lavi, A.; Flores, J. M.; Rudich, Y.

    2011-09-01

    The heterogeneous reaction between gas phase glyoxal and ammonium sulfate (AS) aerosols, a proxy for inorganic atmospheric aerosol, was studied in terms of the dependence of the optical, physical and chemical properties of the product aerosols on initial particle size and ambient relative humidity (RH). Our experiments imitate an atmospheric scenario of a dry particle hydration at ambient RH conditions in the presence of glyoxal gas followed by efflorescence due to decrease of the ambient RH. The reactions were studied under different RH conditions, starting from dry conditions (~20% RH) and up to 90% RH, covering conditions prevalent in many atmospheric environments, and followed by consequent drying of the reacted particles before their analysis by the aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), cavity ring down (CRD) and scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) systems. At λ = 355 nm, the reacted aerosols demonstrate a substantial growth in optical extinction cross section, as well as in mobility diameter under a broad range of RH values (35-90%). The ratio of the product aerosol to seed aerosol geometric cross section reached up to ~3.5, and the optical extinction cross-section up to ~250. The reactions show a trend of increasing physical and optical growth with decreasing seed aerosol size, from 100 nm to 300 nm, as well as with decreasing RH values from 90% to ~40%. Optically inactive aerosols, at the limit of the Mie range (100 nm diameter) become optically active as they grow due to the reaction. AMS analyses of the reaction of 300 nm AS at RH values of 50%, 75% and 90% show that the main products of the reaction are glyoxal oligomers, formed by acetal formation in the presence of AS. In addition, imidazole formation, which is a minor channel, is observed for all reactions, yielding a product which absorbs at λ = 290 nm, with possible implications on the radiative properties of the product aerosols. The ratio of absorbing substances (C-N compounds, including

  14. Production of African breadfruit (Treculia africana) and soybean (Glycine max) seed based food formulations, 1: Effects of germination and fermentation on nutritional and organoleptic quality.

    PubMed

    Ariahu, C C; Ukpabi, U; Mbajunwa, K O

    1999-01-01

    Germination and fermentation were investigated as methods of improving the nutritional and organoleptic properties of soybean and African breadfruit seed based food formulations. Four products consisting of germinated-fermented soy-breadfruit seeds (GFSB), nongerminated-fermented soy-breadfruit seeds (NGFSB), germinated-nonfermented soy-breadfruit seeds (GNFSB) and nongerminated-nonfermented soy-breadfruit seeds (NGNFSB) were prepared. Phytic acid contents, in vitro protein digestibilities, protein efficiency ratios (PER), net protein ratios (NPR), flavor, appearance and overall acceptability were evaluated. Germination followed by natural lactic fermentation significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the phytic acid by a factor of 11.6 in NGNFSB compared to reduction factors of 2.1 and 1.5 in GNFSB and NGFSB, respectively. The in vitro protein digestibility (%), PER and NPR values of 73.4, 2.46 and 3.62 for GFSB; 71.1, 2.35 and 3.46 for NGFSB; 68.7, 2.16 and 3.41 for GNFSB were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the 64.7, 1.82 and 2.11 for NGNFSB. The mean sensory scores were 5.26-5.67 for GNFSB, 4.66-4.94 for NGNFSB, 4.33-4.80 for GFSB and 4.27-4.34 for NGFSB on a 7-point rating scale. PMID:10716401

  15. Increased milk production by Holstein cows consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming endophyte-infected grasses. We hypothesized that consumption of endophyte-infected fescue during the dry period inhibits mammary differentiation and subsequent milk produ...

  16. Peanut pod, seed, and oil yield for biofuel following conventional and organic production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increase in demand for organic peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) makes it increasingly necessary to develop organic methods in their production. Corn gluten meal (CGM) and vinegar are materials used in organic weed control. These were used alone, or in conjunction with cultivation, to evaluate their ef...

  17. Development of a novel recessive genetic male sterility system for hybrid seed production in maize and other cross-pollinating crops.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yongzhong; Fox, Tim W; Trimnell, Mary R; Wang, Lijuan; Xu, Rui-Ji; Cigan, A Mark; Huffman, Gary A; Garnaat, Carl W; Hershey, Howard; Albertsen, Marc C

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a novel hybridization platform that utilizes nuclear male sterility to produce hybrids in maize and other cross-pollinating crops. A key component of this platform is a process termed Seed Production Technology (SPT). This process incorporates a transgenic SPT maintainer line capable of propagating nontransgenic nuclear male-sterile lines for use as female parents in hybrid production. The maize SPT maintainer line is a homozygous recessive male sterile transformed with a SPT construct containing (i) a complementary wild-type male fertility gene to restore fertility, (ii) an α-amylase gene to disrupt pollination and (iii) a seed colour marker gene. The sporophytic wild-type allele complements the recessive mutation, enabling the development of pollen grains, all of which carry the recessive allele but with only half carrying the SPT transgenes. Pollen grains with the SPT transgenes exhibit starch depletion resulting from expression of α-amylase and are unable to germinate. Pollen grains that do not carry the SPT transgenes are nontransgenic and are able to fertilize homozygous mutant plants, resulting in nontransgenic male-sterile progeny for use as female parents. Because transgenic SPT maintainer seeds express a red fluorescent protein, they can be detected and efficiently separated from seeds that do not contain the SPT transgenes by mechanical colour sorting. The SPT process has the potential to replace current approaches to pollen control in commercial maize hybrid seed production. It also has important applications for other cross-pollinating crops where it can unlock the potential for greater hybrid productivity through expanding the parental germplasm pool. PMID:26442654

  18. An Ecological Friendly Dragee Technic Application on Crop Seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    Summary: In Brazíl, in EMBRAPA/CNPH was developing a dragée technic for seeds of crops and vegetables of carrot (Daucus carota L.), onion (Allium cepa L.), tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), micro tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), Andropogon ssp. and Eucalyptus ssp. using as inert material the dolomite (CaCO3 96%) powder fractions (0.05 to 1.00 mm) and as cementing adhesives the polyvinyl acetate (PVA) and Gumma arabicum (Ga) (0 to 80% in water). On dragée process were using fungicides with agent of metalaxyl, iprodyon, benomyl, mankoceb (1 to 5 g fungicide/kg dolomite powder) and nutrients (N, P2O5, K2O 0.05 to 0.5, MgO, Fe, Zn, Mn, B, Cu, Mo, Co 0.000005 to 0.1 g/ kg dolomite powder) were applied from 1990. to 1993. Best results obtained with fraction of dolomite powder of 0.07 to 0.60 mm of diameter and adhesive of polyvinyl acetate (PVA) with the concentration between 10 to 20%. The dragées obtained presented a mechanical resistance of 0.5 kg/cm2 had show a germination higher than 90% without any phytotoxical effects to the seedlings. Fungicides with agent of metalaxyl, iprodyon, benomyl, mankoceb with the concentration 3-3 and mineral nutrients N, P2O5, K2O, MgO, Fe, Zn, Mn, B, Cu, Mo, Co with the concentration 0.2, 0.1, 0.15, 0.06, 0.00045, 0.00025, 0.0011, 0.00057, 0.00045, 0.000084, 0.00001 g/kg dolomite powder were showed best reultes, respectively. With this dragée utilization we could make possible the intensive use of highest quality seeds wich because of their higher costs are prohibitive in the actual systems of production. Keywords:crops, vegetables, seeds, dragée, nutrients, fungicides Introduction: In Latin America, Brazíl is the far greatest producer of crops and vegetables, with an annual production estimated at 9.631.000 tons in the value of 1.576 million dollars. Fifty species are cultivated of which 35 are producing botanical seeds including 162 varieties commercialized. The average national

  19. Production of Escherichia coli heat labile toxin (LT) B subunit in soybean seed and analysis of its immunogenicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expression of the heat-labile toxin B subunit of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (LT) B was directed to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of soybean seed storage parenchyma cells for immunogen sequestration in de novo synthesized, ER-derived protein accretions in transgenic seed. Pentameric LTB accumu...

  20. Effect of Early Seed Removal During Fermentation on Proanthocyanidin Extraction in Red Wine: A Commercial Production Example

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot) were made by a commercial winery to examine the effects of seed removal at ~10 °Brix on the extraction of proanthocyanidins during fermentation. Seeds were removed at the point when they fell to the bottom of the fermentor, and were thus easily removed during reg...

  1. Allelopathic potential of oil seed crops in production of crops: a review.

    PubMed

    Shah, Adnan Noor; Iqbal, Javaid; Ullah, Abid; Yang, Guozheng; Yousaf, Muhammad; Fahad, Shah; Tanveer, Mohsin; Hassan, Waseem; Tung, Shahbaz Atta; Wang, Leishan; Khan, Aziz; Wu, Yingying

    2016-08-01

    Agricultural production enhancement has been realized by more consumption of fossil energy such as fertilizer and agrochemicals. However, the production provides the present human with sufficient and diversified commodities, but at the same time, deprives in some extent the resources from the future human as well. In the other hand, it is known that synthetic herbicides face worldwide threats to human's health and environment as well. Therefore, it is a great challenge for agricultural sustainable development. The current review has been focussed on various oilseed crop species which launch efficient allelopathic intervention, either with weeds or other crops. Crop allelopathic properties can make one species more persistent to a native species. Therefore, these crops are potentially harmful to both naturalized as well as agricultural settings. On the other side, allelopathic crops provide strong potential for the development of cultivars that are more highly weed suppressive in managed settings. It is possible to utilize companion plants that have no deleterious effect on neighbor crops and can be included in intercropping system, thus, a mean of contributing to agricultural sustainable development. In mixed culture, replacement method, wherein differing densities of a neighbor species are planted, has been used to study phytotoxic/competitive effects. So, to use alternative ways for weed suppression has become very crucial. Allelochemicals have the ability to create eco-friendly products for weed management, which is beneficial for agricultural sustainable development. Our present study assessed the potential of four oilseed crops for allelopathy on other crops and associated weeds. PMID:27263104

  2. Survey of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in carrot crops affected by the psyllid Trioza apicalis (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Norway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis Förster (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a serious insect pest of carrot (Daucus carota L.) in northern Europe, where it can cause up to 100% crop loss. Although it was long believed that T. apicalis causes damage to carrot by injection of toxins into the plant, it was re...

  3. Oviposition deterrent activities of Pachyrhizus erosus seed extract and other natural products on Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Basukriadi, Adi; Wilkins, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    An extract of a rotenone-containing plant yam bean, Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban, seeds was tested against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) in a greenhouse to determine its potential as an oviposition deterrent and compared with coumarin and rutin, known as diamondback moth oviposition deterrent compounds, rotenone, and an extract of Peruvian cube root, at a concentration of 0.5% (w/v). Oviposition deterrent index (ODI) was used to determine effects of extracts or compounds in inhibiting oviposition of diamondback moth. Coumarin showed a stronger deterrent effect than the yam bean seed extract with a higher ODI value. On the contrary, rotenone, rutin, and the cube root extract, containing 6.7% (w/w) of rotenone, showed no significant deterrent effects having low or negative ODI values, suggesting that the deterrent effect of the yam bean seed extract is not due to rotenone content of the yam bean seeds. The extract of yam bean seed and coumarin partially deterred the moth from laying eggs on treated leaves in a concentration-dependent manner. The effective concentration for 50% deterrency of coumarin and the yam bean seed extract were 0.11 and 0.83% (w/v), respectively. However, the yam bean seed extract showed a residual deterrent effect on the moth even at 3 d after the treatment and is probably because of its low volatile nature. A long-term deterrency of the yam bean seed extract is an advantage over coumarins. Both the yam bean seed extract and coumarin deterred diamondback moth from laying eggs in total darkness, indicating their nonvisual deterrent effect. This made the extract an effective deterrence to diamondback moth in light and in darkness. To conclude, this study revealed the potential of the crude extract of the yam bean seed to prevent diamondback moth from ovipositing on its plant host. PMID:25525107

  4. The effect of variety and maturity on the quality of freeze-dried carrots. The effect of microwave blanching on the nutritional and textural quality of freeze-dried spinach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Using carrots, the quality of freeze-dried products was studied to determine the optimum varieties and maturation stages for quality attributes such as appearance, flavor, texture, and nutritive value. The quality of freeze-dried carrots is discussed in terms of Gardner color, alcohol insoluble solids, viscosity, and core/cortex ratio. Also, microwave blanching of freeze-dried spinach was studied to determine vitamin interrelationships, anatomical changes, and oxidative deteriorations in terms of preprocessing microwave treatments. Statistical methods were employed in the gathering of data and interpretation of results in both studies.

  5. Mechanism of column and carrot sprites derived from optical and radio observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jianqi; Celestin, Sebastien; Pasko, Victor P.; Cummer, Steven A.; McHarg, Matthew G.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, Hans C.

    2013-09-01

    The lightning current waveforms observed simultaneously with high-speed video records of a column and a carrot sprite event are incorporated in a plasma fluid model to provide quantitative explanation of these two distinct morphological classes of transient luminous events. We calculate the strength of the lightning-induced electric field at sprite altitudes using a time integral of the ionization frequency ∫0tνi(E/N)dt. For the studied two events, modeling results indicate that these integral values never exceed 18 in the lower ionosphere, which is the minimum value required for the initiation of streamers from single seed electrons according to the Raether-Meek criterion. It is therefore suggested that the presence of electron inhomogeneities is a necessary condition for the initiation of sprite streamers. It is further demonstrated using streamer modeling that a minimum value of the integral ˜10 is necessary to initiate upward negative streamers from inhomogeneities, corresponding to a minimum charge moment change of ˜500 C km under typical nighttime conditions. If the integral values in the entire upper atmosphere are smaller than ˜10, only column sprites can be produced, dominated by downward positive streamers.

  6. Beyond Carrots and Sticks: Toward a Transformative Model of Division I Athletics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clubb, Sandy Hatfield

    2012-01-01

    The old expression about the carrot and the stick, which refers to the application of reward and punishment to induce action, dates back to the days when pack mules were used for transportation. The mules would move toward carrots that dangled just ahead of them--and move all the faster because they feared drivers with sticks behind them. In 2012,…

  7. New carrot and garlic germplasm to advance breeding and understand crop origins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic variation provided by diverse plant germplasm is the basic building material used for crop improvement that shapes the crops we grow today. Wild carrot from the U.S. provided the cytoplasm used to develop a reliable system to produce hybrid carrots that account for most of the commercial...

  8. Biological characterization and complete genomic sequence of Carrot thin leaf virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The host range of a cilantro isolate of Carrot thin leaf virus (CTLV-Cs) was determined to include 15 plant species. The virus was also transmitted to 9 of 11 tested apiaceous species by aphids. Complete genomic sequences of CTLV-Cs and a carrot isolate of CTLV were determined. Their genomic sequenc...

  9. Molecular mapping of vernalization requirement and fertility restoration genes in carrot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is a cool-season vegetable normally classified as a biennial species, requiring vernalization to induce flowering. Nevertheless, some cultivars adapted to warmer climates require less vernalization and can be classified as annual. Most modern carrot cultivars are hybrids wh...

  10. Genetic diversity of carrot (Daucus carota L.) cultivars revealed by analysis of SSR loci

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this work we evaluate a collection of 88 carrot cultivars and landraces for polymorphisms at SSR loci and use the obtained markers to assess the genetic diversity, and we show molecular evidence for divergence between Asiatic and Western carrot genetic pools. The use of primer pairs flanking repe...

  11. Expression of an "Arabidopsis" Ca(2+)/H(+) transporter increases bioavailable Ca(2+) in edible carrot roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our long range goal is to make vegetables a better source of dietary calcium. We demonstrate that carrots expressing the Arabidopsis H(+)/Ca(2+) transporter sCAX1 contain up to 50% more calcium compared to plants transformed with the vector only. These modified carrots were fertile and robust, wit...

  12. Progress in the Development of Nutrient-Rich Nematode Resistant Carrots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carrots are an important source of nutrients for the U.S. diet and economic value to agriculture, but root-knot nematode threatens approximately 3/4 of U.S. carrot crop. We have identified resistance to M. javanica (MJ) and recent germplasm evaluations indicate additional genetic resistance for M. ...

  13. Accumulation of lead and arsenic by carrots grown on four lead-arsenate contaminated orchard soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns have been raised about possible human food chain transfer of contaminants resulting from crops grown on orchard soils with histories of lead arsenate use. The objective of this study was to determine the uptake of arsenic and lead by three cultivars of carrots. Carrots were grown on four ...

  14. Bioavailability of Anthocyanins from Purple Carrot Juice: Effects of Acylation and Plant Matrix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioavailability of anthocyanins from juiced purple carrots was investigated through a human feeding study. Ten healthy adults consumed three doses of purple carrot juice, and bioavailability was assessed by appearance of anthocyanins in plasma for 8 hours after the dose. Doses were 50 mL, 150 mL, ...

  15. The biological evaluation of Zato 50 WG in protection of carrot against Alternaria blight.

    PubMed

    Nawrocki, J; Mazur, S

    2005-01-01

    Effectiveness of new fungicide Zato 50 WG (biologically active substances BAS - trifloxystrobin 50%) in the control of Alternaria blight on carrot was studied. Field experiments were carried out in the years 2003-2004 on carrot cv. Koral. As the standard fungicide Amistar 250 SC (BAS - azoxystrobin 250 g/dm3) was used. The results of health status of carrot leaves analysis in first and second year of experiment showed, that development of disease symptoms was lower on leaves of chemical protected plants than on leaves of control plants. The last estimation of infestation degree of carrot leaves made immediately before harvest showed, that standard fungicide Amistar had longer systemic influence on plants. This was confirmed the lower (statistically significant) infestation index of protected carrot in combination with Amistar. The estimations of health status of carrot roots were made directly after digging up indicate, that there wasn't difference of value of infestation index between protected combination and control. Experiment showed, significant effect of tested fungicides on crop quantity of carrot roots per 1 m2. Especially in the second year of study the crop of carrot roots in combination with Zato was higher - statistically significant - than in the rest combinations. PMID:16637184

  16. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' associated with psyllid-affected carrots in Sweden

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carrot (Daucus carota) plants with symptoms resembling those of the carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis and “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” damage were observed in 70% of commercial fields in southern Sweden in August 2011; all cultivars grown were affected, at about 1 to 45% symptomatic plants pe...

  17. Biofortified Carrot Intake Enhances Liver Antioxidant Capacity and Vitamin A Status in Mongolian Gerbils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofortification efforts have increased concentrations of bioactive compounds in carrots. Vitamin A bioefficacy and antioxidant potential of four biofortified carrot varieties [purple/orange (PO), purple/orange/red (POR), orange/red (OR) and orange (O)] were measured in Mongolian gerbils (n = 73). ...

  18. New carrot microsatellites – linkage mapping, diversity analysis and transferability to other apiaceae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nearly 300 new microsatellite, or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed from genomic sequences of carrot. Efforts to map these markers and evaluate their usefulness in diversity studies are underway. In one F2 carrot population, a total of 51 polymorphic markers, including 37 codominan...

  19. EXPRESSION OF AN ARABIDOPSIS CA2+/H+ TRANSPORTER INCREASES BIOAVAILABLE CA2+ IN EDIBLE CARROT ROOTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our long range goal is to make vegetables a better source of dietary calcium. We demonstrate that carrots expressing the Arabidopsis H+/Ca2+ transporter sCAX1 contain up to 50% more calcium compared to plants transformed with the vector only. These modified carrots were fertile and robust, with no d...

  20. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' associated with psyllid-affected carrots in Norway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carrot (Daucus carota) plants with symptoms resembling those associated with the carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis and the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” were observed in 70-80% of commercial fields and experimental plots in southeastern Norway from late July to mid-September 2011; al...

  1. Seed proteomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeds comprise a protective covering, a small embryonic plant, and a nutrient-storage organ. Seeds are protein-rich, and have been the subject of many mass spectrometry-based analyses. Seed storage proteins (SSP), which are transient depots for reduced nitrogen, have been studied for decades by cel...

  2. Evaluation of Lettuce Genotypes for Seed Thermotolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermoinhibition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seed germination is a common problem associated with lettuce production. Depending on lettuce cultivars, seed germination may be inhibited when temperatures exceed 28oC. The delay or inhibition of seed germination at high temperatures may reduce seedli...

  3. Ethanol, feed components and fungal biomass production from field bean (Vicia faba var. equina) seeds in an integrated process.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, Witold; Kawa-Rygielska, Joanna; Król, Barbara; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-09-01

    The use of field beans, a non-food leguminous crop, was studied for ethanol, feed components and fungal biomass production. The seeds were hydrolyzed using enzymes or with combination of acid (H3PO4) and alkaline (Ca(OH)2) pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with or without removal of suspended solids, yielded 38.3-42.5gL(-1) ethanol (71.3-79.2% efficiency). The filtration residues contained ca. 247-326gkg(-1) crude protein, 10.6-15.5% acid detergent fiber and 19.9-29.1% neutral detergent fiber. They were enriched in phenolics (by up to 93.4%) and depleted in condensed tannin (by up to 59.3%) in comparison to the raw material. The thin stillages were used for cultivation of edible fungus Neurospora intermedia which produced 8.5-15.9gL(-1) ethanol and 4.8-16.2gL(-1) biomass containing over 62% protein. The mass balances showed that fermentation of unfiltered mashes was more efficient yielding up to 195.9gkg(-1) ethanol and 84.4% of protein recovery. PMID:27233099

  4. Microbial community structure and pharmaceuticals and personal care products removal in a membrane bioreactor seeded with aerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhao; Xiao-chun, Wang; Zhong-lin, Chen; Hao, Xu; Qing-fang, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    A process involving the use of membrane bioreactor seeded with aerobic granular sludge (GMBR) was applied to the treatment of sewage containing pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). The removal effects of five kinds of medicines in the reactor were investigated, and the microbial communities were constructed by polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. We also determined the effects of different sludge retention and hydraulic retention times (SRT and HRT, respectively) and influent organic loading on GMBR's efficiency in processing sewage containing PPCPs. The removal effects of the GMBR on five PPCPs varied. Using the GMBR, the removal rates of prednisolone, naproxen and norfloxacin were 98.56, 84.02 and 87.85%, respectively. The removal rates of sulfamethoxazole and ibuprofen were 77.83 and 63.32%, respectively. In the system, PPCP drugs had relatively less effect on microbial diversity. A certain succession was observed in the structural variation of microbial species in the GMBR. Microorganisms that can degrade PPCPs gradually accumulated, and antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, such as Firmicutes sp., Aeromonas sp. and Nitrospira sp., served a key function in the treatment of sewage containing antibiotics. Long SRT and HRT during the GMBR process can facilitate the removal of most PPCPs. The system efficiently removed PPCPs at high influent organic loading. PMID:25099174

  5. Bioaccessibility and arsenic speciation in carrots, beets and quinoa from a contaminated area of Chile.

    PubMed

    Pizarro, Isabel; Gómez-Gómez, Milagros; León, Jennifer; Román, Domingo; Palacios, M Antonia

    2016-09-15

    Consumption of vegetables grown in arsenic (As)-contaminated soils is an important exposure route to the element for humans. The present study is focused on locally-grown, frequently-consumed vegetables, such as carrots (Daucus carota), beets (Beta vulgaris) and quinoa (Chenopodium) from the As-polluted Chiu Chiu area in Northern Chile. The latter region is affected both by As discharge from copper mining activity and natural As contamination, leading to a high As content in local food and water. For the selected vegetables, the following aspects were investigated: i) Their total As, Cu, Pb, Cr, Cd and Mn content; ii) Arsenic speciation in the edible part of the vegetables by liquid chromatography inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICPMS) analysis; iii) Arsenic bioaccessibility in the vegetables during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion; iv) Arsenic species present in the extracts obtained from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion; and v) Arsenic dietary exposure estimates for the assessment of the risk posed by the vegetables consumption. A significant degree of As contamination was found in the vegetables under study, their metal content having been compared with that of similar Spanish uncontaminated products. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the studied vegetables led to quantitative extraction of As from carrots and beets, whereas efficiency was about 40% for quinoa. For carrots, only As(III) and As(V) species were found, being their concentration levels similar. In the case of quinoa, around 85% of the element was present as As(V). For beets, inorganic As(V) and unknown overlapped As species (probably arsenosugars) were found. No significant transformation of the original As species was observed during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Arsenic dietary exposure values obtained for the three vegetables (0.017-0.021μg As person(-1)day(-1)) were much lower than the JFCFA's safety limit of 50μg As person(-1)day(-1). Therefore, no

  6. Effect of blanching in water and sugar solutions on texture and microstructure of sliced carrots.

    PubMed

    Neri, Lilia; Hernando, Isabel Hernando; Pérez-Munuera, Isabel; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Pittia, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Thermal processing of vegetables has pronounced effects on the cell structure, often negatively affecting the final textural properties of the product. In order to study the effect of thermal processing and the protective effect of sugars on the tissue, sliced carrots were subjected to blanching treatments under different time and temperature combinations both in water and in 4% sugar solutions made of trehalose or maltose. The influence of these process conditions on mass transfer, texture, and microstructure (Cryo-scanning electron microscopy) was thus investigated. The total mass loss of all the samples blanched in water was associated to their cook value (C(100)(18)) except for the overprocessed one (90 °C, 10 min) that showed a total mass change significantly lower due to water uptake. The use of trehalose and maltose in the blanching solution reduced the solute loss while increasing the water loss. Microstructural analysis of the differently blanched carrots showed detachments between adjacent cell walls as well as plasmolysis phenomena as the time and temperature of the thermal treatment were increased. A protective effect of both sugars on cell structures was observed mostly in the sample treated at 90 °C. At macroscopic level, textural changes upon blanching were observed by a penetration test. As blanching time was increased, samples processed at 75 °C showed a hardness increase, while those processed at 90 °C showed a hardness decrease. However, both trehalose and maltose did not exert significant effects on the textural properties of blanched carrots when compared with those blanched in water. Practical Application: The results of this study could offer interesting perspectives in the optimization of the heat treatments in order to preserve the quality of semi-finished processed vegetables. Furthermore, the microstructural analysis is nowadays an important investigation tool that could contribute to a deeper understanding of both the effects of

  7. Assessing the Likelihood of Transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum to Carrot by Potato Psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae).

    PubMed

    Munyaneza, Joseph E; Mustafa, Tariq; Fisher, Tonja W; Sengoda, Venkatesan G; Horton, David R

    2016-01-01

    'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (Lso) is a phloem-limited bacterium that severely affects important Solanaceae and Apiaceae crops, including potato, tomato, pepper, tobacco, carrot and celery. This bacterium is transmitted to solanaceous species by potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, and to Apiaceae by carrot psyllids, including Trioza apicalis and Bactericera trigonica. Five haplotypes of Lso have so far been described, two are associated with solanaceous species and potato psyllids, whereas the other three are associated with carrot and celery crops and carrot psyllids. Little is known about cross-transmission of Lso to carrot by potato psyllids or to potato by carrot psyllids. Thus, the present study assessed whether potato psyllid can transmit Lso to carrot and whether Lso haplotypes infecting solanaceous species can also infect carrot and lead to disease symptom development. In addition, the stylet probing behavior of potato psyllid on carrot was assessed using electropenetrography (EPG) technology to further elucidate potential Lso transmission to Apiaceae by this potato insect pest. Results showed that, while potato psyllids survived on carrot for several weeks when confined on the plants under controlled laboratory and field conditions, the insects generally failed to infect carrot plants with Lso. Only three of the 200 carrot plants assayed became infected with Lso and developed characteristic disease symptoms. Lso infection in the symptomatic carrot plants was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction assay and Lso in the carrots was determined to be of the haplotype B, which is associated with solanaceous species. EPG results further revealed that potato psyllids readily feed on carrot xylem but rarely probe into the phloem tissue, explaining why little to no Lso infection occurred during the controlled laboratory and field cage transmission trials. Results of our laboratory and field transmission studies, combined with our EPG results, suggest

  8. Assessing the Likelihood of Transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum to Carrot by Potato Psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    PubMed Central

    Munyaneza, Joseph E.; Mustafa, Tariq; Fisher, Tonja W.; Sengoda, Venkatesan G.; Horton, David R.

    2016-01-01

    ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso) is a phloem-limited bacterium that severely affects important Solanaceae and Apiaceae crops, including potato, tomato, pepper, tobacco, carrot and celery. This bacterium is transmitted to solanaceous species by potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, and to Apiaceae by carrot psyllids, including Trioza apicalis and Bactericera trigonica. Five haplotypes of Lso have so far been described, two are associated with solanaceous species and potato psyllids, whereas the other three are associated with carrot and celery crops and carrot psyllids. Little is known about cross-transmission of Lso to carrot by potato psyllids or to potato by carrot psyllids. Thus, the present study assessed whether potato psyllid can transmit Lso to carrot and whether Lso haplotypes infecting solanaceous species can also infect carrot and lead to disease symptom development. In addition, the stylet probing behavior of potato psyllid on carrot was assessed using electropenetrography (EPG) technology to further elucidate potential Lso transmission to Apiaceae by this potato insect pest. Results showed that, while potato psyllids survived on carrot for several weeks when confined on the plants under controlled laboratory and field conditions, the insects generally failed to infect carrot plants with Lso. Only three of the 200 carrot plants assayed became infected with Lso and developed characteristic disease symptoms. Lso infection in the symptomatic carrot plants was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction assay and Lso in the carrots was determined to be of the haplotype B, which is associated with solanaceous species. EPG results further revealed that potato psyllids readily feed on carrot xylem but rarely probe into the phloem tissue, explaining why little to no Lso infection occurred during the controlled laboratory and field cage transmission trials. Results of our laboratory and field transmission studies, combined with our EPG results

  9. Complete utilization of non-edible oil seeds of Cascabela thevetia through a cascade of approaches for biofuel and by-products.

    PubMed

    Sut, Debashis; Chutia, Rahul Singh; Bordoloi, Neonjyoti; Narzari, Rumi; Kataki, Rupam

    2016-08-01

    Lipid-rich biomass, generally opted for biodiesel production, produces a substantial amount of by-product (de-oiled cake and seed cover) during the process. Complete utilization of Cascabela thevetia seeds for biofuel production through both chemical and thermochemical conversion route is investigated in the present study. Various properties of biodiesel produced was characterized and compared with those obtained from similar oil seeds. The by-products of the chemical process were used as a feedstock for pyrolysis at different temperatures in a fixed bed reactor. Maximum bio-oil yields of 29.11% and 26.18% were observed at 500°C. The bio-oil obtained at optimum yield was characterized by CHN analyzer, NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The biochar produced was further characterized by SEM-EDX, XRD and FTIR along with elemental analysis to explore its utilization for various purposes. The present investigation depicts a new approach towards complete utilization of lipid-rich bio-resources to different types of biofuels and biochar. PMID:26927236

  10. Seed and vegetative production of shrubs and growth of understory conifer regeneration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wender, B.; Harrington, C.; Tappeiner, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    We observed flower and fruit production for nine understory shrub species in western Washington and Oregon and examined the relationships between shrub reproductive output and plant size, plant age, site factors, and overstory density to determine the factors that control flowering or fruiting in understory shrubs. In Washington, 50 or more shrubs or microplots (for rhizomatous species) were sampled for each of eight species. The variables examined were more useful for explaining abundance of flowers or fruit on shrubs than they were for explaining the probability that a shrub would produce flowers or fruit. Plant size was consistently the most useful predictor of flower/fruit abundance in all species; plant age was also a good predictor of abundance and was strongly correlated with plant size. Site variables (e.g., slope) and overstory competition variables (e.g., presence/absence of a canopy gap) also helped explain flower/fruit abundance for some species. At two Oregon sites, the responses of five species to four levels of thinning were observed for 2-4 yr (15 shrubs or microplots per treatment per year). Thinning increased the probability and abundance of flowering/fruiting for two species, had no effect on one species, and responses for two other species were positive but inconsistent between sites or from year to year. We believe reducing overstory density or creating canopy gaps may be useful tools for enhancing shrub size and vigor, thus, increasing the probability and abundance of fruiting in some understory shrub species.

  11. Brassinosteroid functions in Arabidopsis seed development

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wen-Bo; Lin, Wen-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Seed development of flowering plant is a complicated process controlled by a signal network. Double fertilization generates 2 zygotic products (embryo and endosperm). Embryo gives rise to a daughter plant while endosperm provides nutrients for embryo during embryogenesis and germination. Seed coat differentiates from maternally derived integument and encloses embryo and endosperm. Seed size/mass and number comprise final seed yield, and seed shape also contributes to seed development and weight. Seed size is coordinated by communication among endosperm, embryo, and integument. Seed number determination is more complex to investigate and shows differencies between monocot and eudicot. Total seed number depends on sillique number and seed number per sillique in Arabidopsis. Seed comes from fertilized ovule, hence the ovule number per flower determines the maximal seed number per sillique. Early studies reported that engineering BR levels increased the yield of ovule and seed; however the molecular mechanism of BR regulation in seed development still remained unclear. Our recent studies demonstrated that BR regulated seed size, shape, and number by transcriptionally modulating specific seed developmental pathways. This review summarizes roles of BR in Arabidopsis seed development and gives clues for future application of BR in agricultural production. PMID:24270689

  12. Supercritical fluid extraction of grape seeds: extract chemical composition, antioxidant activity and inhibition of nitrite production in LPS-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Concepción; Ruiz del Castillo, María Luisa; Gil, Carmen; Blanch, Gracia Patricia; Flores, Gema

    2015-08-01

    Grape by-products are a rich source of bioactive compounds having broad medicinal properties, but are usually wasted from juice/wine processing industries. The present study investigates the use of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) for obtaining an extract rich in bioactive compounds. First, some variables involved in the extraction were applied. SFE conditions were selected based on the oil mass yield, fatty acid profile and total phenolic composition. As a result, 40 °C and 300 bar were selected as operational conditions. The phenolic composition of the grape seed oil was determined using LC-DAD. The antioxidant activity was determined by ABTS and DPPH assays. For the anti-inflammatory activity the inhibition of nitrite production was assessed. The grape seed oil extracted was rich in phenolic compounds and fatty acids with significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. From these results, added economic value to this agroindustrial residue is proposed using environmentally friendly techniques. PMID:26130020

  13. Production of Sporotrichum thermophile xylanase by solid state fermentation utilizing deoiled Jatropha curcas seed cake and its application in xylooligosachharide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sadaf, Ayesha; Khare, S K

    2014-02-01

    De-oiled Jatropha curcas seed cake, a plentiful by-product of biodiesel industry was used as substrate for the production of a useful xylanase from Sporotrichum thermophile in solid state fermentation. Under the optimized conditions, 1025U xylanase/g (deoiled seed cake) was produced. The xylanase exhibited half life of 4h at 45°C and 71.44min at 50°C respectively. It was stable in a broad pH range of 7.0-11.0. Km and Vmax were 12.54mg/ml and 454.5U/ml/min respectively. S. thermophile xylanase is an endoxylanase free of exoxylanase activity, hence advantageous for xylan hydrolysis to produce xylooligosachharides. Hydrolysis of oat spelt xylan by S. thermophile xylanase yielded 73% xylotetraose, 15.4% xylotriose and 10% xylobiose. The S. thermophile endoxylanase thus seem potentially useful in the food industries. PMID:24362246

  14. Ethanol production in small- to medium-size facilities for use in internal combustion engines. Final report. [30 liters per hour

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    The general areas in which research has been directed are ethanol production from alternate feedstocks, stillage utilization and processing, and ethanol usage in internal combustion engines. This report covers research conducted between September 1, 1981 and August 31, 1983. Extensive research on ethanol yield from sweet potatoes has shown that alcohol production can be as high as 137 liters per tonne. Some dilution water was required to handle the sweet potato mash as a slurry. This resulted in low ethanol concentrations in the beer (6%). Fermentation of carrot culls yielded 26 to 36 liters of ethanol per tonne of carrots. As with sweet potatoes, dilution water resulted in low ethanol concentrations in the beer. Seed grain sorghum that had been chemically treated with the fungicide Captan and the pesticides heptachlor and methoxychlor was feremented and distilled. The chemical seed treatments had no significant effect on ethanol yield from grain sorghum. Captan was destroyed in the cooking process. Methoxychlor and heptachlor residue remained throughout the process and most was recovered in the wet pressed stillage solids. Research with stillage processing and treatment had the overall goal of developing processes for recovering animal and plant nutrients for reuse and reducing water pollution potential. An ethanol vaporizing system has been installed on a natural gas spark ignition engine. The system can be retrofitted to spark ignition engines without changes to the original fuel system. Vaporized 170 to 180 proof ethanol proved to be a satisfactory fuel. 56 references, 21 figures, 40 tables.

  15. Male fertility versus sterility, cytotype, and DNA quantitative variation in seed production in diploid and tetraploid sea lavenders (Limonium sp., Plumbaginaceae) reveal diversity in reproduction modes.

    PubMed

    Róis, Ana Sofia; Teixeira, Generosa; Sharbel, Timothy F; Fuchs, Jörg; Martins, Sérgio; Espírito-Santo, Dalila; Caperta, Ana D

    2012-12-01

    The genus Limonium Miller, a complex taxonomic group, comprises annuals and perennials that can produce sexual and/or asexual seeds (apomixis). In this study, we used diverse cytogenetic and cytometric approaches to analyze male sporogenesis and gametogenesis for characterizing male reproductive output on seed production in Limonium ovalifolium and Limonium multiflorum. We showed here that the first species is mostly composed of diploid cytotypes with 2n = 16 chromosomes and the latter species by tetraploid cytotypes with 2n = 32, 34, 35, 36 chromosomes and had a genome roughly twice as big as the former one. In both species, euploid and aneuploid cytotypes with large metacentric chromosomes having decondensed interstitial sites were found within and among populations, possibly involved in chromosomal reconstructions. L. ovalifolium diploids showed regular meiosis resulting in normal tetrads, while diverse chromosome pairing and segregation irregularities leading to the formation of abnormal meiotic products are found in balanced and non-balanced L. multiflorum tetraploids. Before anther dehiscence, the characteristic unicellular, bicellular, or tricellular pollen grains showing the typical Limonium micro- or macro-reticulate exine ornamentation patterns were observed in L. ovalifolium using scanning electron microscopy. Most of these grains were viable and able to produce pollen tubes in vitro. In both balanced and unbalanced L. multiflorum tetraploids, microspores only developed until the "ring-vacuolate stage" with a collapsed morphology without the typical exine patterns, pointing to a sporophytic defect. These microspores were unviable and therefore never germinated in vitro. L. ovalifolium individuals presented larger pollen grains than those of L. multiflorum, indicating that pollen size and ploidy levels are not correlated in the Limonium system. Cytohistological studies in mature seeds from both species revealed that an embryo and a residual endosperm

  16. Irradiation treatment of minimally processed carrots for ensuring microbiological safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf Chaudry, Muhammad; Bibi, Nizakat; Khan, Misal; Khan, Maazullah; Badshah, Amal; Jamil Qureshi, Muhammad

    2004-09-01

    Minimally processed fruits and vegetables are very common in developed countries and are gaining popularity in developing countries due to their convenience and freshness. However, minimally processing may result in undesirable changes in colour, taste and appearance due to the transfer of microbes from skin to the flesh. Irradiation is a well-known technology for elimination of microbial contamination. Food irradiation has been approved by 50 countries and is being applied commercially in USA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the quality of minimally processed carrots. Fresh carrots were peeled, sliced and PE packaged. The samples were irradiated (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 kGy) and stored at 5°C for 2 weeks. The samples were analyzed for hardness, organoleptic acceptance and microbial load at 0, 7th and 15th day. The mean firmness of the control and all irradiated samples remained between 4.31 and 4.42 kg of force, showing no adverse effect of radiation dose. The effect of storage (2 weeks) was significant ( P< 0.05) with values ranging between 4.28 and 4.39 kg of force. The total bacterial counts at 5°C for non-irradiated and 0.5 kGy irradiated samples were 6.3×10 5 cfu/g, 3.0×10 2 and few colonies(>10) in all other irradiated samples(1.0, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy) after 2 weeks storage. No coliform or E. coli were detected in any of the samples (radiated or control) immediately after irradiation and during the entire storage period in minimally processed carrots. A dose of 2.0 kGy completely controlled the fungal and bacterial counts. The irradiated samples (2.0 kGy) were also acceptable sensorially.

  17. Establishment of a standard seed lot system of an Iranian Mumps virus strain; RS-12, for mass production of mumps and MMR vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Shahkarami, M K; Mokhtari Azad, T; Aghaiypour, K; Shafyi, A; Taqavian, M; Mohammadi, A

    2012-01-01

    Background At present the mumps virus strain used for production of mumps vaccine for our local use is Hoshino strain. However, according to our National public health policies, this strain should be replaced with a safer strain. Based on our previous data, the Iranian mumps strain; RS-12 has been proved to be the most suitable alternative to Hoshino strain with little or no adverse events following vaccination Methods The aim of the present study was to optimize propagation of RS-12 strain and prepare standard seeds for vaccine mass production. The virus was inoculated to cells using different methods and different multiplicity of infection (MOI). The viral suspensions were harvested using different methods. Quality control tests were run at different stages. Results Maximum viral yield was achieved when cell suspensions were inoculated at MOI of 1:10 and incubated at 36-37ºC for 48 hours, followed by replacement of the media and incubation at 33-34 ºC for 5-7 days. Filtration did not affect the viral titre. A standard seed lot system was successfully established and experimental batches of MMR vaccines were produced. Conclusion The established seed lot system has met all requirements of WHO regulations and could be used in mass production of safe and efficacious mumps and MMR vaccines. Clinical trials are in progress for this newly produced vaccine. PMID:23115712

  18. Overexpression of the MYB37 transcription factor enhances abscisic acid sensitivity, and improves both drought tolerance and seed productivity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong-Tao; Wu, Zhen; Lu, Kai; Bi, Chao; Liang, Shan; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Da-Peng

    2016-02-01

    Although a lot of genes have been revealed to participate in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, many of the additional components involved in ABA signaling remain to be discovered. Here we report that overexpression of MYB37, a R2R3 MYB subgroup 14 transcription factor in Arabidopsis thaliana, confers hypersensitive phenotypes to exogenous ABA in all the major ABA responses, including ABA-induced inhibition of seed germination, cotyledon greening and early seedling growth, and ABA-induced stomatal closure and inhibition of stomatal opening. Interestingly and importantly, MYB37-overexpression improves plant tolerance to drought, enhances growth of mature plants and seed productivity, thought it delays flowering, which suggests that this gene may be used for improving crop adaptability to drought environment and productivity. However, a myb37-1 knockout mutant displays wild-type ABA responses most likely due to a functional redundancy of the multiple MYB members. Real-time PCR analysis shows that upregulation of the MYB37 expression changes expression of a subset of ABA-responsive genes. Together, these findings suggest that the MYB37 transcription factor plays an important, positive role in plant response to ABA and drought stress, and meanwhile, it plays a positive role in the regulation of seed production. PMID:26646286

  19. Chapter 3: Seed and Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed is one of the most important factors in sugarbeet production. Seed selection is one of the most important decisions a grower can make. Without a uniform plant population of a sugarbeet variety adapted to the growing region, the producer will have difficulty achieving economical crop production....

  20. Transcriptional silencing of heterologous anther promoters in maize: a genetic method to replace detasseling for seed production.

    PubMed

    Cigan, A Mark; Haug-Collet, Kristin; Clapp, Joshua

    2014-09-01

    The promoter of the maize male fertility gene ZmMs45, and other anther-specific maize promoters, was previously shown to be transcriptionally silenced by constitutively expressed promoter-inverted repeat RNAs (pIRs). In addition, ZmMS45pIR-mediated male sterility was reversed by co-expression of Ms45 transcribed by promoters not targeted by pIR RNA silencing. In this report, male fertility was restored to ms45 maize by fusing non-maize inflorescence promoters to the ZmMS45 coding region. This complementation assay also established that these rice or Arabidopsis promoters, when expressed as pIRs, functioned to silence sequence identical promoters. These observations were exploited to develop a genetic method to replace maize detasseling during hybrid seed production. In this system, the ZmMS45 coding region was fused to one of two dissimilar non-maize promoters to generate paired sets of ms45 recessive inbred parents which could be self-pollinated and maintained independently. Linked to each unique Ms45 gene was a non-maize pIR which targeted the promoter transcribing the Ms45 copy contained in the paired inbred parent plant. A cross of these pairs brings the dissimilar pIR cassettes together and resulted in silencing both transformed copies of Ms45. The net result uncovers the ms45 allele carried by the inbreds yielding male sterile progeny. The application of heterologous promoters and transcriptional silencing in plants provides an alternative to post-transcriptional gene silencing as a means to restore and silence gene function in plants. PMID:24966130

  1. Production of granular activated carbon from food-processing wastes (walnut shells and jujube seeds) and its adsorptive properties.

    PubMed

    Bae, Wookeun; Kim, Jongho; Chung, Jinwook

    2014-08-01

    Commercial activated carbon is a highly effective absorbent that can be used to remove micropollutants from water. As a result, the demand for activated carbon is increasing. In this study, we investigated the optimum manufacturing conditions for producing activated carbon from ligneous wastes generated from food processing. Jujube seeds and walnut shells were selected as raw materials. Carbonization and steam activation were performed in a fixed-bed laboratory electric furnace. To obtain the highest iodine number, the optimum conditions for producing activated carbon from jujube seeds and walnut shells were 2 hr and 1.5 hr (carbonization at 700 degrees C) followed by 1 hr and 0.5 hr (activation at 1000 degrees C), respectively. The surface area and iodine number of activated carbon made from jujube seeds and walnut shells were 1,477 and 1,184 m2/g and 1,450 and 1,200 mg/g, respectively. A pore-distribution analysis revealed that most pores had a pore diameter within or around 30-40 angstroms, and adsorption capacity for surfactants was about 2 times larger than the commercial activated carbon, indicating that waste-based activated carbon can be used as alternative. Implications: Wastes discharged from agricultural and food industries results in a serious environmental problem. A method is proposed to convert food-processing wastes such as jujube seeds and walnut shells into high-grade granular activated carbon. Especially, the performance of jujube seeds as activated carbon is worthy of close attention. There is little research about the application ofjujube seeds. Also, when compared to two commercial carbons (Samchully and Calgon samples), the results show that it is possible to produce high-quality carbon, particularly from jujube seed, using a one-stage, 1,000 degrees C, steam pyrolysis. The preparation of activated carbon from food-processing wastes could increase economic return and reduce pollution. PMID:25185390

  2. Investigations into the causes of residue variability on carrots in the UK.

    PubMed

    Carter, A D; Fogg, P; Beard, G R

    2000-07-01

    A pilot study was established to determine whether the preferential flow of water and thus insecticide in carrot beds might be responsible for the high residues of organophosphorus insecticides detected in individual carrot roots grown in the UK. A field site typical of UK carrot growing conditions was selected on a sandy soil with a low organic carbon content. Brilliant blue dye was applied in water to a small number of field plots located in the carrot beds to trace water movement through the bed and not to simulate insecticide application or irrigation. The plots were excavated following sufficient time for infiltration and drainage. Horizontal and vertical cross-sections through the soil profile were cut and descriptions of the dye presence in relation to soil features and the position of the carrot roots were made. Dye tracing and soil analyses showed there was a clear mechanical cultivation effect which generated a preferential movement of dye and water within the bed. The subsequent growth of carrots also created additional pathways of preferential movement due to stem-flow or canopy drip. A second study which increased replication of samples and allowed analysis of triazophos and chlorfenvinphos residues in the carrots could not identify any single factor which was conclusively responsible for initiating high residues in individual roots. PMID:10983572

  3. Inhibitory effect of a novel combination of Salvia hispanica (chia) seed and Punica granatum (pomegranate) fruit extracts on melanin production.

    PubMed

    Diwakar, Ganesh; Rana, Jatinder; Saito, Lisa; Vredeveld, Doug; Zemaitis, Dorothy; Scholten, Jeffrey

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, dietary fatty acids have been extensively evaluated for nutritional as well as cosmetic benefits. Among the dietary fats, the omega-3 (ω3) and omega-6 (ω6) forms of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been found to exhibit many biological functions in the skin such as prevention of transepidermal water loss, maintenance of the stratum corneum epidermal barrier, and disruption of melanogenesis in epidermal melanocytes. In this study, we examined the effect of chia seed extract, high in ω3 (linolenic acid) and ω6 (linoleic acid) PUFAs, for its capacity to affect melanogenesis. Chia seed extract was shown to inhibit melanin biosynthesis in Melan-a cells; however, linoleic and α-linolenic acids alone did not effectively reduce melanin content. Further investigation demonstrated that chia seed extract in combination with pomegranate fruit extract had a synergistic effect on the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis with no corresponding effect on tyrosinase activity. Investigation of the possible mechanism of action revealed that chia seed extract downregulated expression of melanogenesis-related genes (Tyr, Tyrp1, and Mc1r), alone and in combination with pomegranate fruit extract, suggesting that the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis by a novel combination of chia seed and pomegranate fruit extracts is possibly due to the downregulation of gene expression of key melanogenic enzymes. PMID:24909999

  4. Inhibitory effect of gamma radiation and Nigella sativa seeds oil on growth, spore germination and toxin production of fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeinab, E. M. EL-Bazza; Hala, A. Farrag; Mohie, E. D. Z. EL-Fouly; Seham, Y. M. EL-Tablawy

    2001-02-01

    Twenty samples of Nigella sativa seeds (Black cumin) were purchased from different localities in Egypt. The mold viable count ranged from 1.7×10 1 to 9.8×10 3 c.f.u. Sixty six molds were isolated belonging to six genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Mucor, Alternaria and Fusarium. Exposure of seeds samples to different radiation doses showed that a dose level of 6.0 kGy could be considered as a sufficient dose for decontamination of the tested samples. Seven radioresistant isolates were identified as Rhizopus oryzae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium corylophillum. All the herb samples were found to be free from aflatoxins B 1, B 2, G 1, G 2 and ochratoxin A. One mold isolate was identified as Aspergillus flavus could produce aflatoxin B 1 and G 1. None of the isolated radioresistant strains could produce mycotoxins. The water activities of seeds were slightly decreased by the storage time and the seeds needed to be stored at relative humidity not more than 85%. The addition of extract volatile and fixed oil from tested seeds to the medium stimulated the growth of isolated Aspergillus sp.

  5. Comparisons of Pathological Responses in Carrot to Root-knot Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yunhee; Kim, Yong Su; Park, Yong; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-01-01

    Carrot (Dacus carota var. sativus) is one of the top-ten most economically important vegetable crops produced worldwide, and the root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., are one of the most important pests in the carrot. In Korea, M. hapla and M. incognita are presumed to be the major root-knot nematodes distributing mostly in open carrot fields and greenhouses, respectively. In our study, currently-developed and commercial carrot cultivars and the parental lines were examined for their pathological responses to M. incognita and M. hapla 7 weeks after inoculation with about 1,000 second-stage juveniles (J2) of the nematodes. All the carrot cultivars and lines showed susceptible responses to both nematodes with the gall index (GI) of 2.4–4.4, which were always higher on the carrot plants infected with M. incognita than M. hapla. Gall sizes were remarkably larger with more serious reduction of the root growths in the plants infected with M. incognita than M. hapla, suggesting the carrot lines examined in our study were more susceptible to the former than the latter. In the infection sites of the root tissues, giant cells were more extensively formed, occupying larger stellar regions with the prominent destruction of adjacent xylem vessels by M. incognita than M. hapla. All of these results suggest M. incognita affect more seriously on the carrot plants that are grown in greenhouses, compared to M. hapla that has a major distribution in open carrot fields, which would be used for determining cropping systems based on target nematode species, their damage and pathological characteristics. PMID:26675114

  6. Comparisons of Pathological Responses in Carrot to Root-knot Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yunhee; Kim, Yong Su; Park, Yong; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-12-01

    Carrot (Dacus carota var. sativus) is one of the top-ten most economically important vegetable crops produced worldwide, and the root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., are one of the most important pests in the carrot. In Korea, M. hapla and M. incognita are presumed to be the major root-knot nematodes distributing mostly in open carrot fields and greenhouses, respectively. In our study, currently-developed and commercial carrot cultivars and the parental lines were examined for their pathological responses to M. incognita and M. hapla 7 weeks after inoculation with about 1,000 second-stage juveniles (J2) of the nematodes. All the carrot cultivars and lines showed susceptible responses to both nematodes with the gall index (GI) of 2.4-4.4, which were always higher on the carrot plants infected with M. incognita than M. hapla. Gall sizes were remarkably larger with more serious reduction of the root growths in the plants infected with M. incognita than M. hapla, suggesting the carrot lines examined in our study were more susceptible to the former than the latter. In the infection sites of the root tissues, giant cells were more extensively formed, occupying larger stellar regions with the prominent destruction of adjacent xylem vessels by M. incognita than M. hapla. All of these results suggest M. incognita affect more seriously on the carrot plants that are grown in greenhouses, compared to M. hapla that has a major distribution in open carrot fields, which would be used for determining cropping systems based on target nematode species, their damage and pathological characteristics. PMID:26675114

  7. Thioredoxin and NADP-thioredoxin reductase from cultured carrot cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. C.; Cao, R. Q.; Kung, J. E.; Buchanan, B. B.

    1987-01-01

    Dark-grown carrot (Daucus carota L.) tissue cultures were found to contain both protein components of the NADP/thioredoxin system--NADP-thioredoxin reductase and the thioredoxin characteristic of heterotrophic systems, thioredoxin h. Thioredoxin h was purified to apparent homogeneity and, like typical bacterial counterparts, was a 12-kdalton (kDa) acidic protein capable of activating chloroplast NADP-malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.82) more effectively than fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.11). NADP-thioredoxin reductase (EC 1.6.4.5) was partially purified and found to be an arsenite-sensitive enzyme composed of two 34-kDa subunits. Carrot NADP-thioredoxin reductase resembled more closely its counterpart from bacteria rather than animal cells in acceptor (thioredoxin) specificity. Upon greening of the cells, the content of NADP-thioredoxin-reductase activity, and, to a lesser extent, thioredoxin h decreased. The results confirm the presence of a heterotrophic-type thioredoxin system in plant cells and raise the question of its physiological function.

  8. Effects of ethylene on gene expression in carrot roots

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, S.E.

    1984-01-01

    To investigate ethylene effects on expression of genetic information, cDNA clones corresponding to ethylene-induced carrot root mRNAs were constructed and isolated. RNA dot blot analysis showed that for the three clones studied peak cytosolic mRNA prevalence occurred at 21 hours of treatment followed thereafter by rapid messenger decay. DNA filter excess hybridization to in vitro synthesized nuclear RNA showed that the ethylene-induced mRNA increase is engendered by transcription of previously quiescent genes. The kinetics and magnitude of changes in mRNA prevalence parallel changes in transcriptional activity; therefore, the ethylene effect is primarily at the level of the transcription. In vivo pulse labelling with (/sup 35/S)-methionine showed that between 18 and 27 hours of ethylene treatment a 2.5 fold increase in translational efficiency occurred for one message studied. The resulting protein is the predominant protein synthesized in carrots treated with ethylene for 27 hours. Thus, ethylene exerts multiple regulatory controls on the expression of genetic information.

  9. Growth and productivity of different Pleurotus ostreatus strains on sunflower seed hulls supplemented with N-NH4+ and/or Mn(II).

    PubMed

    Curvetto, N R; Figlas, D; Devalis, R; Delmastro, S

    2002-09-01

    The mycelial growth rates in lineal growth assay, yield, and production rate of five Pleurotus ostreatus strains were evaluated in response to different levels of Mn(II) and/or NH4+ in a substrate containing sunflower seed hulls as a main energy and nutritional component. Each strain showed different basal values for mycelial growth rate and biological efficiency on sunflower seed-hull substrate. Adding growth limiting mineral nutrients increased the mycelial growth rate by 13-25%. Primordia initiation for the first flush appeared between day 24 and 28 and days to the second crop ranged from 39 to 51. Biological efficiency increased over control values and reached 60-112%, depending on the strain and the concentration of Mn(II) and NH4+. This study demonstrated the advantage of selecting the most productive P. ostreatus strains in a substrate formulated with sunflower seed hulls to provide the main energy and nutritional ingredients and supplemented with Mn(II) and/or NH4+. PMID:12139334

  10. Harnessing indigenous plant seed oil for the production of bio-fuel by an oleaginous fungus, Cunninghamella blakesleeana- JSK2, isolated from tropical soil.

    PubMed

    Sukrutha, S K; Janakiraman, Savitha

    2014-01-01

    Cunninghamella blakesleeana- JSK2, a gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) producing tropical fungal isolate, was utilized as a tool to evaluate the influence of various plant seed oils on biomass, oleagenicity and bio-fuel production. The fungus accumulated 26 % total lipid of their dry biomass (2 g/l) and 13 % of GLA in its total fatty acid. Among the various plant seed oils tested as carbon sources for biotransformation studies, watermelon oil had an effect on biomass and total lipid increasing up to 9.24 g/l and 34 % respectively. Sunflower, pumpkin, and onion oil increased GLA content between 15-18 %. Interestingly, an indigenous biodiesel commodity, Pongamia pinnata oil showed tremendous effect on fatty acid profile in C. blakesleeana- JSK2, when used as a sole source of carbon. There was complete inhibition of GLA from 13 to 0 % and increase in oleic acid content, one of the key components of biodiesel to 70 % (from 20 % in control). Our results suggest the potential application of indigenous plant seed oils, particularly P. pinnata oil, for the production of economically valuable bio-fuel in oleaginous fungi in general, and C. blakesleeana- JSK2, in particular. PMID:24142351

  11. Simultaneous quantification of sinigrin, sinalbin, and anionic glucosinolate hydrolysis products in Brassica juncea and Sinapis alba seed extracts using ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Popova, Inna E; Morra, Matthew J

    2014-11-01

    Although mustards such as Sinapis alba and Brassica juncea contain glucosinolates (sinalbin and sinigrin, respectively) that hydrolyze to form biopesticidal products, routine quality control methods to measure active ingredients in seed and seed meals are lacking. We present a simple and fast ion chromatography method for the simultaneous quantification of sinigrin, sinalbin, and anionic hydrolysis products in mustard seed to assess biological potency. Optimum conditions include isocratic elution with 100 mM NaOH at a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min on a 4 × 210 mm hydroxide-selective anion-exchange column. All anion analytes including sinigrin, sinalbin, SO4(2-), and SCN(-) yielded recoveries ranging from 83 to 102% and limits of detection ≤0.04 mM, with samples displaying little interference from plant matrix components. Sample preparation is minimized and analysis times are shortened to <90 min as compared with previous methods that took days and multiple instruments. PMID:25314611

  12. Decontamination method using heat and relative humidity for radish seeds achieves a 7-log reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 without affecting product quality.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y B; Kim, H W; Song, M K; Rhee, M S

    2015-05-18

    We developed a novel decontamination method to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds without adversely affecting seed germination or product quality. The use of heat (55, 60, and 65 °C) combined with relative humidity (RH; 25, 45, 65, 85, and 100%) for 24h was evaluated for effective microbial reduction and preservation of seed germination rates. A significant two-way interaction of heat and RH was observed for both microbial reduction and germination rate (P<0.0001). Increases in heat and RH were associated with corresponding reductions in E. coli O157:H7 and in germination rate (P<0.05). The order of lethality for the different treatments was generally as follows: no treatment <55 °C/25-65% RH ≒60 °C/25-45% RH ≒65 °C/25% RH <55 °C/85% RH =60 °C/65% RH <55 °C/100% RH =60 °C/85-100% RH =65 °C/45-100% RH. The most effective condition, 65 °C/45% RH, completely inactivated E. coli O157:H7 on the seeds (7.0 log CFU/g reduction) and had no significant effect on the germination rate (85.4%; P>0.05) or product quality. The method uses only heat and relative humidity without chemicals, and is thus applicable as a general decontamination procedure in spout producing plants where the use of growth chambers is the norm. PMID:25732001

  13. Occurrence of aflatoxins in mahua (Madhuca indica Gmel.) seeds: synergistic effect of plant extracts on inhibition of Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, O P; Chandra, Harish; Behl, H M

    2009-04-01

    Occurrence of aflatoxin in Madhuca indica Gmel. seeds was determined by competitive ELISA. Eighty percent of mahua seed samples were found to be contaminated with aflatoxin. Total aflatoxin content ranged from 115.35 to 400.54ppb whereas the concentration of AFB(1) was in the range of 86.43 to 382.45ppb. Mahua oil was extracted by cold press expeller and analysed for contamination of aflatoxin in both the oil and cake samples. Total aflatoxin and aflatoxin B(1) were 220.66 and 201.57ppb in oil as compared to that in cake samples where it was 87.55 and 74.35ppb, respectively. Various individual and combined plant extracts were evaluated for their efficacy against growth of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin production in vitro. Combination of botanicals were found to be more effective in controlling fungal growth and aflatoxin production than individual extracts. Results of the present study suggests that synergistic effect of plant extracts can be used for control of fungal growth and aflatoxin production. These natural plant products may successfully replace synthetic chemicals and provide an alternative method to protect mahua as well as other agricultural commodities of nutritional significance from toxigenic fungi such as A. flavus and aflatoxin production. PMID:19167450

  14. Seed priming to alleviate salinity stress in germinating seeds.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ehab A

    2016-03-15

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop production in arid and semiarid areas. Seed germination and seedling growth are the stages most sensitive to salinity. Salt stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in germinating seeds. It can affect the seed germination and stand establishment through osmotic stress, ion-specific effects and oxidative stress. The salinity delays or prevents the seed germination through various factors, such as a reduction in water availability, changes in the mobilization of stored reserves and affecting the structural organization of proteins. Various techniques can improve emergence and stand establishment under salt conditions. One of the most frequently utilized is seed priming. The process of seed priming involves prior exposure to an abiotic stress, making a seed more resistant to future exposure. Seed priming stimulates the pre-germination metabolic processes and makes the seed ready for radicle protrusion. It increases the antioxidant system activity and the repair of membranes. These changes promote seed vigor during germination and emergence under salinity stress. The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature on the response of plants to seed priming under salinity stress. The mechanism of the effect of salinity on seed germination is discussed and the seed priming process is summarized. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes induced by priming that lead to seed enhancement are covered. Plants' responses to some priming agents under salinity stress are reported based on the best available data. For a great number of crops, little information exists and further research is needed. PMID:26812088

  15. Crop protection by seed coating.

    PubMed

    Ehsanfar, S; Modarres-Sanavy, S A M

    2005-01-01

    Providence of sufficient and healthy food for increasing human population clears the importance of notice to increasing crop production in company with environmental loss reduction. Growth and yield of every plant with sexual reproduction, depends on germination & emergence of sown seeds. Seed is a small alive plant that its biological function is protection and nutrition of embryo. Biological, chemical and physiological characteristics of seed, affect on plant performance & its resistance to undesirable environmental conditions, and even on its total yield. So attention to seed and try to increase its performance is so important. One of the factors that cause reduction in germination percentage and seedling establishment, is seed disease. It's possible to control these diseases by treating the seed before planting it. Coating the seed with pesticides, is one of the ways to gain this goal. Seed coating is a technique in which several material as fertilizers, nutritional elements, moisture attractive or repulsive agents, plant growth regulators, rhizobium inocolum, chemical & pesticide etc, add to seed by adhesive agents and cause to increase seed performance and germination. Seed coating, leads to increase benefits in seed industry, because seeds can use all of their genetic vigor. This technique is used for seeds of many garden plants, valuable crops (such as corn, sunflower, canola, alfalfa,...) and some of the grasses. In this technique that was first used in coating cereal seeds in 1930, a thin and permeable layer of pesticide is stuck on seed surface and prevent damage of seedborn pathogens. This layer is melted or splited after absorption of moisture and suitable temperature by seed, and let the radical to exit the seed. In this approach materials are used accurately with seed, evaporation & leakage of pesticide and also adverse effects of some pesticides on seeds are diminished, and these factors cause to increase the accuracy and performance of pesticide

  16. Agriculture--Agricultural Production 1, Seed Bed. Kit No. 6. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Lee

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on the seed bed are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  17. [Physical and antioxidant characteristics of black (Brassica nigra) and yellow mustard (Brassica alba) seeds and their products].

    PubMed

    Mejia-Garibay, Beatriz; Guerrero-Beltrán, José Ángel; Palou, Enrique; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2015-06-01

    The composition, some physical properties (density, refraction index, and color), antioxidant capacity (DPPH), and fatty acid profile of seeds of black (Brassica nigra) or yellow mustard (Brassica alba) were evaluated, as well as for their oils and residues from oil extraction. Density of the black and yellow mustard oils were 0.912 ± 0.01 and 0.916 ± 0.01 g/mL, respectively; their refraction indexes were 1.4611 ± 0.01 and 1.4617 ± 0.01, respectively; being not significantly different (p > 0.05) between two mustards. Color parameters of the black and yellow mustard oils presented greenish-yellow tones and reddish-yellow tones, respectively; regarding antioxidant activities, these ranged from 25 mg equivalents of Trolox/100 gin the yellow mustard oil to 1,366 mg equivalents of Trolox/100 g in the residues from oil extraction of black seed mustard. The fatty acid profile of the black mustard seed revealed that its predomipant fatty acid is oleic (22.96%), followed by linoleic (6.63%) and linolenic (3.22%), whereas foryellow mustard seed the major fatty acid is erucic (6.87%), followed by oleic (5.08%) and linoleic (1.87%) acids. PMID:26817385

  18. Planting date and seeding rate effects on sunn hemp biomass and nitrogen production for a winter cover crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) is a tropical legume that produces plant biomass and nitrogen (N) quickly. Our objectives were to assess the growth of a new sunn hemp cultivar breed to produce seed in a temperate climate and determine the residual N effect on a subsequent rye (Secale cereale L.) wi...

  19. Brassica seed meal soil amendments transform the rhizosphere microbiome and improve apple production through resistance to pathogen reinfestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassicaceae seed meal (SM) formulations were compared with pre-plant 1,3-dichloropropene/chloropicrin (Telone-C17®) soil fumigation for the ability to control apple replant disease and to suppress pathogen/parasite re-infestation of organic orchard soils at two sites in Washington State. Pre-plant...

  20. Seed Priming Alters the Production and Detoxification of Reactive Oxygen Intermediates in Rice Seedlings Grown under Sub-optimal Temperature and Nutrient Supply

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Saddam; Khan, Fahad; Cao, Weidong; Wu, Lishu; Geng, Mingjian

    2016-01-01

    The production and detoxification of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) play an important role in the plant response to nutrient and environmental stresses. The present study demonstrated the behavior of growth, ROIs-production and their detoxification in primed and non-primed rice seedlings under chilling stress (18°C) and nitrogen-(N), phosphorus-(P), or potassium-(K) deprivation. The results revealed that chilling stress as well as deprivation of any mineral nutrient severely hampered the seedling growth of rice, however, seed priming treatments (particularly selenium- or salicylic acid-priming), were effective in enhancing the rice growth under stress conditions. The N-deprivation caused the maximum reduction in shoot growth, while the root growth was only decreased by P- or K-deprivation. Although, N-deprivation enhanced the root length of rice, the root fresh weight was unaffected. Rate of lipid peroxidation as well as the production of ROIs, was generally increased under stress conditions; the K-deprived seedlings recorded significantly lower production of ROIs than N- or P-deprived seedlings. The responses of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in rice seedlings to chilling stress were variable with nutrient management regime. All the seed priming were found to trigger or at least maintain the antioxidant defense system of rice seedlings. Notably, the levels of ROIs were significantly reduced by seed priming treatments, which were concomitant with the activities of ROIs-producing enzymes (monoamine oxidase and xanthine oxidase), under all studied conditions. Based on these findings, we put forward the hypothesis that along with role of ROIs-scavenging enzymes, the greater tolerance of primed rice seedlings can also be due to the reduced activity of ROIs-producing enzymes. PMID:27092157

  1. Physico-chemical parameters, bioactive compounds and microbial quality of thermo-sonicated carrot juice during storage.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Flores, Héctor E; Garnica-Romo, Ma Guadalupe; Bermúdez-Aguirre, Daniela; Pokhrel, Prashant Raj; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V

    2015-04-01

    Thermosonication has been successfully tested in food for microbial inactivation; however, changes in bioactive compounds and shelf-life of treated products have not been thoroughly investigated. Carrot juice was thermo-sonicated (24 kHz, 120 μm amplitude) at 50 °C, 54 °C and 58 °C for 10 min (acoustic power 2204.40, 2155.72, 2181.68 mW/mL, respectively). Quality parameters and microbial growth were evaluated after processing and during storage at 4 °C. Control and sonicated treatments at 50 °C and 54 °C had 10, 12 and 14 d of shelf-life, respectively. Samples sonicated at 58 °C had the best quality; microbial growth remained low at around 3-log for mesophiles, 4.5-log for yeasts and molds and 2-log for enterobacteria after 20 d of storage. Furthermore, thermo-sonicated juice at 58 °C retained >98% of carotenoids and 100% of ascorbic acid. Phenolic compounds increased in all stored, treated juices. Thermo-sonication is therefore a promising technology for preserving the quality of carrot juice by minimising the physicochemical changes during storage, retarding microbial growth and retaining the bioactive compounds. PMID:25442602

  2. Sucrose, glucose, and fructose extraction in aqueous carrot root extracts prepared at different temperatures by means of direct NMR measurements.

    PubMed

    Cazor, Anne; Deborde, Catherine; Moing, Annick; Rolin, Dominique; This, Hervé

    2006-06-28

    Solutions obtained by heating carrot roots in water (stocks) are widely used in the food industry, but little information is available regarding the metabolites (intermediates and products of metabolism) found in the stock. The effect of treatment temperature and duration on the sugar composition of stocks was investigated directly by quantitative (1)H NMR spectroscopy, to understand the extraction mechanism when processing at 100 degrees C. Stocks prepared at three different temperatures (50, 75, and 100 degrees C) were investigated for up to 36 h. Three sugars (sucrose, glucose, and fructose) were detected and quantified. The concentrations of these three sugars reached a maximum after 9 h when the temperature of treatment was 50 or 75 degrees C. At 100 degrees C, the sucrose concentration reached a maximum after 3 h, whereas the concentration of glucose and fructose was still increasing at that time. Comparison of the kinetic composition of these carrot stocks with that of model sugar solutions leads to the proposal that the changes in stock composition result from sugar diffusion, sucrose hydrolysis, and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation. PMID:16787015

  3. Mathematical modelling of thin layer hot air drying of carrot pomace.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Navneet; Sarkar, B C; Sharma, H K

    2012-02-01

    Thin layer carrot pomace drying characteristics were evaluated in a laboratory scale hot air forced convective dryer. The drying experiments were carried out at 60, 65, 70 & 75 °C and at an air velocity of 0.7 m/s. Mathematical models were tested to fit drying data of carrot pomace. The whole drying process of carrot pomace took place in a falling rate period except a very short accelerating period at the beginning. The average values of effective diffusivity ranged from 2.74 × 10(-9) to 4.64 × 10(-9) m(2)/s for drying carrot pomace. The activation energy value was 23.05 kJ/mol for the whole falling rate period. PMID:23572823

  4. Damage and Management of Meloidogyne hapla Using Oxamyl on Carrot in New York.

    PubMed

    Gugino, B K; Abawi, G S; Ludwig, J W

    2006-12-01

    The northern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) is a major pathogen of processing carrot in New York, significantly reducing marketable yield and profitability. Severely infected carrots are stubby, galled and forked and therefore unmarketable. In field microplot trials in 1996 and 1998, the incidence and severity of root-galling increased and the marketable yield of carrot decreased as the initial inoculum density of M. hapla was increased from 0 to 8 eggs/cm(3) soil, in mineral or organic soils. The application of oxamyl at planting was effective against M. hapla and its damage to carrots grown in mineral and organic soils. Oxamyl application reduced root-galling severity and increased marketable yield. In commercial fields, the cost-effectiveness of oxamyl application was related to the level of soil infestation with M. hapla. PMID:19259467

  5. Damage and Management of Meloidogyne hapla Using Oxamyl on Carrot in New York

    PubMed Central

    Gugino, B.K.; Abawi, G.S.; Ludwig, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The northern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) is a major pathogen of processing carrot in New York, significantly reducing marketable yield and profitability. Severely infected carrots are stubby, galled and forked and therefore unmarketable. In field microplot trials in 1996 and 1998, the incidence and severity of root-galling increased and the marketable yield of carrot decreased as the initial inoculum density of M. hapla was increased from 0 to 8 eggs/cm3 soil, in mineral or organic soils. The application of oxamyl at planting was effective against M. hapla and its damage to carrots grown in mineral and organic soils. Oxamyl application reduced root-galling severity and increased marketable yield. In commercial fields, the cost-effectiveness of oxamyl application was related to the level of soil infestation with M. hapla. PMID:19259467

  6. Toward production of jet fuel functionality in oilseeds: identification of FatB acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases and evaluation of combinatorial expression strategies in Camelina seeds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hae Jin; Silva, Jillian E; Vu, Hieu Sy; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Nam, Jeong-Won; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2015-07-01

    Seeds of members of the genus Cuphea accumulate medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs; 8:0-14:0). MCFA- and palmitic acid- (16:0) rich vegetable oils have received attention for jet fuel production, given their similarity in chain length to Jet A fuel hydrocarbons. Studies were conducted to test genes, including those from Cuphea, for their ability to confer jet fuel-type fatty acid accumulation in seed oil of the emerging biofuel crop Camelina sativa. Transcriptomes from Cuphea viscosissima and Cuphea pulcherrima developing seeds that accumulate >90% of C8 and C10 fatty acids revealed three FatB cDNAs (CpuFatB3, CvFatB1, and CpuFatB4) expressed predominantly in seeds and structurally divergent from typical FatB thioesterases that release 16:0 from acyl carrier protein (ACP). Expression of CpuFatB3 and CvFatB1 resulted in Camelina oil with capric acid (10:0), and CpuFatB4 expression conferred myristic acid (14:0) production and increased 16:0. Co-expression of combinations of previously characterized Cuphea and California bay FatBs produced Camelina oils with mixtures of C8-C16 fatty acids, but amounts of each fatty acid were less than obtained by expression of individual FatB cDNAs. Increases in lauric acid (12:0) and 14:0, but not 10:0, in Camelina oil and at the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols resulted from inclusion of a coconut lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase specialized for MCFAs. RNA interference (RNAi) suppression of Camelina β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II, however, reduced 12:0 in seeds expressing a 12:0-ACP-specific FatB. Camelina lines presented here provide platforms for additional metabolic engineering targeting fatty acid synthase and specialized acyltransferases for achieving oils with high levels of jet fuel-type fatty acids. PMID:25969557

  7. Toward production of jet fuel functionality in oilseeds: identification of FatB acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases and evaluation of combinatorial expression strategies in Camelina seeds

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hae Jin; Silva, Jillian E.; Vu, Hieu Sy; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Nam, Jeong-Won; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2015-01-01

    Seeds of members of the genus Cuphea accumulate medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs; 8:0–14:0). MCFA- and palmitic acid- (16:0) rich vegetable oils have received attention for jet fuel production, given their similarity in chain length to Jet A fuel hydrocarbons. Studies were conducted to test genes, including those from Cuphea, for their ability to confer jet fuel-type fatty acid accumulation in seed oil of the emerging biofuel crop Camelina sativa. Transcriptomes from Cuphea viscosissima and Cuphea pulcherrima developing seeds that accumulate >90% of C8 and C10 fatty acids revealed three FatB cDNAs (CpuFatB3, CvFatB1, and CpuFatB4) expressed predominantly in seeds and structurally divergent from typical FatB thioesterases that release 16:0 from acyl carrier protein (ACP). Expression of CpuFatB3 and CvFatB1 resulted in Camelina oil with capric acid (10:0), and CpuFatB4 expression conferred myristic acid (14:0) production and increased 16:0. Co-expression of combinations of previously characterized Cuphea and California bay FatBs produced Camelina oils with mixtures of C8–C16 fatty acids, but amounts of each fatty acid were less than obtained by expression of individual FatB cDNAs. Increases in lauric acid (12:0) and 14:0, but not 10:0, in Camelina oil and at the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols resulted from inclusion of a coconut lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase specialized for MCFAs. RNA interference (RNAi) suppression of Camelina β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II, however, reduced 12:0 in seeds expressing a 12:0-ACP-specific FatB. Camelina lines presented here provide platforms for additional metabolic engineering targeting fatty acid synthase and specialized acyltransferases for achieving oils with high levels of jet fuel-type fatty acids. PMID:25969557

  8. Effect of acidification on carrot (Daucus carota) juice cloud stability.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Alison K; Barrett, Diane M; Dungan, Stephanie R

    2014-11-26

    Effects of acidity on cloud stability in pasteurized carrot juice were examined over the pH range of 3.5-6.2. Cloud sedimentation, particle diameter, and ζ potential were measured at each pH condition to quantify juice cloud stability and clarification during 3 days of storage. Acidification below pH 4.9 resulted in a less negative ζ potential, an increased particle size, and an unstable cloud, leading to juice clarification. As the acidity increased, clarification occurred more rapidly and to a greater extent. Only a weak effect of ionic strength was observed when sodium salts were added to the juice, but the addition of calcium salts significantly reduced the cloud stability. PMID:25354298

  9. Insecticide seed treatments for sugarbeet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest feeding and vectoring of viruses cause serious problems in sugarbeet production worldwide. In order to ameliorate pest and disease problems on sugarbeet, two seed treatments, Poncho Beta (60 g a.i. clothianidin + 8 g a.i. beta-cyfluthrin/100,000 seed) and Cruiser Tef (60 g a.i. thiamethoxam + 8...

  10. Evaluation of fungicides for the control of carrot cavity spot.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Carole; Lévesque, C André; Bélanger, Richard R; Tweddell, Russell J

    2005-08-01

    Cavity spot is one of the most common and serious diseases of carrot (Daucus carota L). The disease, caused by different species of Pythium, including P. violae Chesters & Hickman, P. sulcatum Pratt & Mitchell and P. sylvaticum Campbell & Hendrix, leads to frequent high rejection rates during grading worldwide. In the area of the city of Québec, the disease is caused mainly by P. sulcatum, P. sylvaticum and P. macrosporum Vaartaja & van der Plaats-Niterink. Cavity spot can be controlled with metalaxyl, but reports are emerging that this treatment show little or no efficacy in many regions. This situation reinforces the need for alternative fungicides. The objectives of the present study were: (1) to determine the sensitivity of 14 pathogenic isolates of P. sulcatum, P. sylvaticum and P. macrosporum collected from carrots produced in the area of the city of Québec to different broad-spectrum and oomycete-specific fungicides (chlorothalonil, etridiazole, fludioxonil, fosetyl-Al, metalaxyl, zoxamide), (2) to evaluate the efficacy of the fungicides in controlling cavity spot, and (3) to evaluate the risk of resistance development of isolates with the best-performing fungicide(s). The determination of EC50 for the fungicides tested showed that most isolates were highly sensitive to both metalaxyl and zoxamide but insensitive to fludioxonil, fosetyl-Al and chlorothalonil. In greenhouse assays, only zoxamide provided significant and consistent disease control as measured by the number of cavity spot lesions caused by P. sulcatum. Investigations into the risk of resistance development to zoxamide showed that, for specific isolates, repeated exposure to the fungicide resulted in a loss of sensitivity. PMID:15880371

  11. Thalassic biogas production from sea wrack biomass using different microbial seeds: cow manure, marine sediment and sea wrack-associated microflora.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Gian Powell B; Reichardt, Wolfgang T; Azanza, Rhodora V; Klocke, Michael; Montaño, Marco Nemesio E

    2013-04-01

    Sea wrack (dislodged sea grasses and seaweeds) was used in biogas production. Fresh water scarcity in island communities where sea wrack could accumulate led to seawater utilization as liquid substrate. Three microbial seeds cow manure (CM), marine sediment (MS), and sea wrack-associated microflora (SWA) were explored for biogas production. The average biogas produced were 2172±156 mL (MS), 1223±308 mL (SWA) and 551±126 mL (CM). Though methane potential (396.9 mL(CH4) g(-1) volatile solid) computed from sea wrack proximate values was comparable to other feedstocks, highest methane yield was low (MS=94.33 mL(CH4) g(-1) VS). Among the microbial seeds, MS proved the best microbial source in utilizing sea wrack biomass and seawater. However, salinity (MS=42‰) observed exceeded average seawater salinity (34‰). Hence, methanogenic activity could have been inhibited. This is the first report on sea wrack biomass utilization for thalassic biogas production. PMID:23453978

  12. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jixiang; Wang, Yingnan; Qi, Mingming; Li, Xiaoyu; Yang, Chunxue; Wang, Yongcui

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT) and accelerated ageing test (AAT). Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest. PMID:27170257

  13. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jixiang; Wang, Yingnan; Qi, Mingming; Li, Xiaoyu; Yang, Chunxue; Wang, Yongcui; Mu, Chunsheng

    2016-01-01

    Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT) and accelerated ageing test (AAT). Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest. PMID:27170257

  14. Effectiveness of sal deoiled seed cake as an inducer for protease production from Aeromonas sp. S1 for its application in kitchen wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Saini, Vandana; Bhattacharya, Amrik; Gupta, Anshu

    2013-08-01

    The present study is an attempt to demonstrate the feasibility of sal (Shorea robusta) deoiled cake--a forest-based industrial by-product--as a cheaper media supplement for augmented protease production from Aeromonas sp. S1 and application of protease in the treatment of kitchen wastewater. Under optimized conditions, protease production could successfully be enhanced to 5.13-fold (527.5 U mL(-1)) on using sal deoiled seed cake extract (SDOCE), as medium additive, compared to an initial production of 102.7 U mL(-1) in its absence. The culture parameters for optimum production of protease were determined to be incubation time (48 h), pH (7.0), SDOCE concentration (3 % (v/v)), inoculum size (0.3-0.6 % (v/v)), and agitation rate (100 rpm). The enzyme was found to have an optimum pH and temperature of 8.0 and 60 °C, respectively. The protease preparation was tested for treatment of organic-laden kitchen wastewater. After 96 h of wastewater treatment under static condition, enzyme preparation was able to reduce 74 % biological oxygen demand, 37 % total suspended solids, and 41 % oil and grease. The higher and improved level of protease obtained using sal deoiled seed cake-based media hence offers a new approach for value addition to this underutilized biomass through industrial enzyme production. The protease produced using this biomass could also be used as pretreatment tool for remediation of organic-rich food wastewater. PMID:23780343

  15. Varietal Response and Estimates of Heritability of Resistance to Meloidogyne javanica in Carrots

    PubMed Central

    Huang, S. P.; Vecchia, P. T. Della; Ferreira, P. E.

    1986-01-01

    With methods developed in this study, varietal responses to M. javanica were evaluated and heritability of resistance of two promising carrot cultivars was estimated. More egg masses were found on root systems inoculated with eggs added to the soil in three holes in 250 cm³ cups than by mixing the inoculum with soil in the cups. A resistant breeding line, CNPH 1437, was discriminated from susceptible cultivar Nova Kuroda with inoculum levels higher than 2,000 eggs per cup. Greenhouse and field results suggested that cultivars Nantes Superior and Shin Kuroda were susceptible, Kuronan was somewhat tolerant, and Brasilia and Tropical were resistant to M. javanica. Nantes Superior or Shin Kuroda yielded less in carbofuran-treated soil (3 kg a.i./ha) than Kuronan, Brasilia, and Tropical did in nontreated soil. However, incorporation of the nematicide greatly increased yields of Kuronan (32%), Brasilia (62%), and Tropical (91%). Primary root galling at the seedling stage was an adequate parameter for resistance evaluation. Estimated heritability were 0.48 ± 0.07 for primary root galling and 0.35 ± 0.08 for egg mass production in Brasilia, and 0.16 ± 0.11 for primary root galling and 0.31 ± 0.09 for egg mass production in Kuronan. PMID:19294218

  16. Effect of Radiation on Seed Germinating Ability Ofwild-Growing and Cultivated Plants, Sources of Bioactive Substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabanov, Aleksandr; Tirranen, Lyalya; Zykova, Irina; Bondarenko, Gennadiy

    2016-07-01

    In the above-ground parts of common chickweed (Stellaria media) the content of vitamin C was experimentally quantified, which (in terms of dry matter) was 81.55 mg/100 g; 133 mg/100 g and 161.76 mg/100 g depending on the growing site. 52 components were detected in the essential oil of the above-ground parts of common chickweed (Stellaria media). Chamazulene, neophytodien and phytol are the major components of whole oil. A wide range of elements was identified in the plants and seeds of common chickweed (Stellaria media), and in the seeds of carrots, parsley and lettuce. It was established that UV irradiation (lamp with a wavelength of 254 nm and 283 nm) of chickweed seeds (Stellaria media) for 15 sec. and 100 sec. in a microbiological box on a table at a distance from the object didn't affect their germinating ability. The germinating ability of the experimental seeds was identical to the control (no irradiation) seeds. With the help of an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer Renger 2 (Germany) at a voltage of 1.6 kV during 15 sec. the effect of "soft" radiation on the seed germinating ability of chickweed, carrot, parsley and lettuce seeds was studied.Under the effect of "soft" radiation during 15 sec. all the experimental chickweed seeds sprouted, like in the control. The germinating ability of the exposed lettuce seeds was 100% after one day, while only 45% of the exposed parsley seeds grew after 21 days. The exposed carrot seeds (70%) grew after 18 days. The effect of "hard" radiation on the germinating ability of common chickweed seeds was investigated using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer S4 Pioneer (Germany) at a voltage of 60 kV for 15 sec and 100 sec. Under the effect of "hard" radiation and during 15 seconds of exposure, where the distance (L) from the focus of the X-ray tube to the seeds of chickweed was 20 mm, the germinating ability of the experimental chickweed seeds was 30 %. At a voltage of 60 kV and 100-second exposure the germinating ability of the

  17. Production and Testing of Transgenic Cotton that Expresses Transcription Factors for Enhanced Seed and Fiber Traits and Productivity Under Drought Stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone involved in abiotic and biotic stress adaptation and seed development. We have previously shown that Basic3 (B3) domain and basic leucine zipper (b-ZIP) transcription factors from the model plant species maize and Arabidopsis thaliana can transactivate monocot...

  18. Predation of italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) can be a productive and high-quality cool-season forage, but is considered a weed in some pastures. Italian ryegrass does not form a persistent seed bank and needs to produce sufficient seed annually for effective re-establishment. Before the re-seeding ...

  19. Rapid cycling with true potato seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid generation cycling via true seed production can increase the efficiency of potato breeding programs and genetics studies. This study was carried out to determine the fruit ripening and seed treatment conditions needed for generating true potato seed (TPS) with a high germination rate in a shor...

  20. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  1. Production of the 42-kDa fragment of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1, a leading malaria vaccine antigen, in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds.

    PubMed

    Lau, On Sun; Ng, Danny W-K; Chan, Wendy W L; Chang, Sandra P; Sun, Samuel S M

    2010-12-01

    Malaria is widely associated with poverty, and a low-cost vaccine against malaria is highly desirable for implementing comprehensive vaccination programmes in developing countries. Production of malaria antigens in plants is a promising approach, but its development has been hindered by poor expression of the antigens in plant cells. In the present study, we targeted plant seeds as a low-cost vaccine production platform and successfully expressed the Plasmodium falciparum 42-kDa fragment of merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1₄₂), a leading malaria vaccine candidate, at a high level in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. We overcame hurdles of transcript and protein instabilities of MSP1₄₂ in plants by synthesizing a plant-optimized MSP1₄₂ cDNA and either targeting the recombinant protein to protein storage vacuoles or fusing it with a stable plant storage protein. An exceptional improvement in MSP1₄₂ expression, from an undetectable level to 5% of total extractable protein, was achieved with these combined strategies. Importantly, the plant-derived MSP1₄₂ maintains its natural antigenicity and can be recognized by immune sera from malaria-infected patients. Our results provide a strong basis for the development of a plant-based, low-cost malaria vaccine. PMID:20444208

  2. Production of maize tortillas and cookies from nixtamalized flour enriched with anthocyanins, flavonoids and saponins extracted from black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seed coats.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O; Perez-Carrillo, Esther

    2016-02-01

    Ethanolic extract from black beans coat is a source of flavonoids, saponins and antocyanins. Nixtamalized maize flours (NF) are used for the preparation of products such as tortillas, tortillas chips, cookies among others. The objective of this research was to study the effect on textural parameters and color after adding flavonoids, saponins and anthocyanins from black bean seed coat in NF used for the production of tortillas and gluten-free cookies. Furthermore, the retention of bioactive compounds after tortilla and gluten-free-cookie preparation was assessed. Ethanolic extracts of black bean seed coats were added (3g/kg or 7 g/kg) to NF in order to prepare corn tortillas and gluten free cookies characterized in terms of dimensions, color and texture. Addition of 7 g/kg affected the color of cookies and tortillas without effect on texture and dimensions. It was possible to retain more than 80% and 60% of bioactives into baked tortillas and cookies, respectively. PMID:26304324

  3. Multiple Biological Effects of Olive Oil By-products such as Leaves, Stems, Flowers, Olive Milled Waste, Fruit Pulp, and Seeds of the Olive Plant on Skin.

    PubMed

    Kishikawa, Asuka; Ashour, Ahmed; Zhu, Qinchang; Yasuda, Midori; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-06-01

    As olive oil production increases, so does the amount of olive oil by-products, which can cause environmental problems. Thus, new ways to utilize the by-products are needed. In the present study, five bioactive characteristics of olive oil by-products were assessed, namely their antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-melanogenesis, anti-allergic, and collagen-production-promoting activities. First, the extracts of leaves (May and October), stems (May and October), flowers, olive milled waste, fruit pulp and seeds were prepared using two safe solvents, ethanol and water. According to HPLC and LC/MS analysis and Folin-Ciocalteu assay, the ethanol extracts of the leaves (May and October), stems (May and October) and flowers contained oleuropein, and the ethanol extract of the stems showed the highest total phenol content. Oleuropein may contribute to the antioxidant and anti-melanogenesis activities of the leaves, stems, and flowers. However, other active compounds or synergistic effects present in the ethanol extracts are also likely to contribute to the anti-bacterial activity of the leaves and flowers, the anti-melanogenesis activity of some parts, the anti-allergic activity of olive milled waste, and the collagen-production-promoting activity of the leaves, stems, olive milled waste and fruit pulp. This study provides evidence that the by-products of olive oil have the potential to be further developed and used in the skin care industry. PMID:25779104

  4. Production of a Highly Protease-Resistant Fungal α-Galactosidase in Transgenic Maize Seeds for Simplified Feed Processing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenxia; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhou, Xiaojin; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Xiaolu; Chen, Rumei; Meng, Qingchang; Yuan, Jianhua; Yang, Peilong; Yao, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Raffinose-family oligosaccharide (RFO) in soybeans is one of the major anti-nutritional factors for poultry and livestocks. α-Galactosidase is commonly supplemented into the animal feed to hydrolyze α-1,6-galactosidic bonds on the RFOs. To simplify the feed processing, a protease-resistant α-galactosidase encoding gene from Gibberella sp. strain F75, aga-F75, was modified by codon optimization and heterologously expressed in the embryos of transgentic maize driven by the embryo-specific promoter ZM-leg1A. The progenies were produced by backcrossing with the commercial inbred variety Zheng58. PCR, southern blot and western blot analysis confirmed the stable integration and tissue specific expression of the modified gene, aga-F75m, in seeds over four generations. The expression level of Aga-F75M reached up to 10,000 units per kilogram of maize seeds. In comparison with its counterpart produced in Pichia pastoris strain GS115, maize seed-derived Aga-F75M showed a lower temperature optimum (50 °C) and lower stability over alkaline pH range, but better thermal stability at 60 °C to 70 °C and resistance to feed pelleting inactivation (80 °C). This is the first report of producing α-galactosidase in transgenic plant. The study offers an effective and economic approach for direct utilization of α-galactosidase-producing maize without any purification or supplementation procedures in the feed processing. PMID:26053048

  5. Production of a Highly Protease-Resistant Fungal α-Galactosidase in Transgenic Maize Seeds for Simplified Feed Processing

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaojin; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Xiaolu; Chen, Rumei; Meng, Qingchang; Yuan, Jianhua; Yang, Peilong; Yao, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Raffinose-family oligosaccharide (RFO) in soybeans is one of the major anti-nutritional factors for poultry and livestocks. α-Galactosidase is commonly supplemented into the animal feed to hydrolyze α-1,6-galactosidic bonds on the RFOs. To simplify the feed processing, a protease-resistant α-galactosidase encoding gene from Gibberella sp. strain F75, aga-F75, was modified by codon optimization and heterologously expressed in the embryos of transgentic maize driven by the embryo-specific promoter ZM-leg1A. The progenies were produced by backcrossing with the commercial inbred variety Zheng58. PCR, southern blot and western blot analysis confirmed the stable integration and tissue specific expression of the modified gene, aga-F75m, in seeds over four generations. The expression level of Aga-F75M reached up to 10,000 units per kilogram of maize seeds. In comparison with its counterpart produced in Pichia pastoris strain GS115, maize seed-derived Aga-F75M showed a lower temperature optimum (50°C) and lower stability over alkaline pH range, but better thermal stability at 60°C to 70°C and resistance to feed pelleting inactivation (80°C). This is the first report of producing α-galactosidase in transgenic plant. The study offers an effective and economic approach for direct utilization of α-galactosidase-producing maize without any purification or supplementation procedures in the feed processing. PMID:26053048

  6. Effects of irrigation on seed production and vegetative characteristics of four moist-soil plants on impounded wetlands in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mushet, D.M.; Euliss, N.H., Jr.; Harris, S.W.

    1992-01-01

    We examined the effects of irrigation on 4 moist-soil plants commonly managed for waterfowl in the Sacramento Valley, California. Irrigation resulted in taller and heavier swamp timothy (Heleochloa schoenoides), pricklegrass (Crypsis niliaca), and sprangletop (Leptochloa fasicularis). Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crusgalli) grew taller in irrigated wetlands, but no significant difference in weight was detected. Only sprangletop yielded larger seed masses in response to irrigation. Without irrigation, swamp timothy and pricklegrass assumed a typical prostrate growth form, but with irrigation, they assumed a vertical growth form. Irrigation did not significantly affect plant density. Because of rising water costs, wetland managers should consider wildlife management objectives and plant responses before implementing irrigation practices.

  7. Biotechnology of oil seed crops

    SciTech Connect

    James, A.T.

    1985-02-01

    A general summary of possibilities and limitation application of biotechnology processes to processing and/or production of fats and oils is presented. Enzymatic processes, cloning of premium perennial oil crops and genetic manipulation of oil seed compositions are discussed.

  8. Production of (5R,6S)-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide, the mosquito oviposition pheromone, from the seed oil of the summer cypress plant, Kochia scoparia (Chenopodiaceae).

    PubMed

    Olagbemiro, T O; Birkett, M A; Mordue (Luntz), A J; Pickett, J A

    1999-08-01

    The oviposition pheromone for the pathogen-vectoring mosquitoes in the genus Culex (Diptera: Culicidae), that is, (5R, 6S)-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide, is efficiently synthesized, in admixture with the inactive (5S,6R) enantiomer ( approximately 33% w/w), from the fixed oil extracted from the seeds of the summer cypress plant, Kochia scoparia (Chenopodiaceae), cultivated on an industrial scale. Oviposition bioassays using gravid females of Culex quinquefasciatus, a vector of filariasis in human beings, showed that the product was attractive, with activity comparable to that of a pure synthetic sample containing the same amount of the active enantiomer. Production of the pheromone in the form of a biologically active crude material via a cheap and renewable plant suitable for development as a new industrial crop provides the basis for control of Cx. quinquefasciatus and other congeneric vectors of pathogens in resource-poor areas of the world. PMID:10552665

  9. Release of somatic embryogenic potential from excised zygotic embryos of carrot and maintenance of proembryonic cultures in hormone-free medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. L.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1989-01-01

    Excised zygotic embryos, mericarps ("seeds") and hypocotyls of seedlings of cultivated carrot Daucus carota cv. Scarlet Nantes were evaluated for their ability to generate somatic embryos on a semisolid hormone-free nutrient medium. Neither intact zygotic embryos nor hypocotyls ever produced somatic embryos. However, mericarps and broken zygotic embryos were excellent sources for somatic embryo production (response levels as high as 86%). Somatic embryo formation was highest from cotyledons, but was also observed on isolated hypocotyls and root tips of mature zygotic embryos. On media containing unreduced nitrogen, somatic embryo formation led to the generation of vigorous cultures comprised entirely of somatic embryos at various stages of development which in turn proliferated still other somatic embryos. However, a medium was devised which when 1-5 mM NH4+ was the sole nitrogen source, led only to a proliferation of globular proembryos. Sustained subculturing of these proembryos at 2-3 week intervals enabled establishment of highly uniform cultures in which no further development into more mature stages of embryonic development occurred. These have been maintained, without decline, as morphogenetically competent proembryonic globules for over ten months. A basal medium containing from 1-5 mM NH4+ as the sole nitrogen source appears not to be inductive to somatic proembryo formation. Instead, such a medium is best thought of as permissive to the expression of embryogenically determined cells within zygotic embryos. By excising and breaking or wounding zygotic embryos, constituent cells are probably released from positional or chemical restraints and thus are able to express their innate embryogenic potential. Once a proembryonic culture is established, this medium containing 1-5 mM NH4+ as the sole nitrogen source provides a nonpermissive environment to the development and growth of later embryonic stages, but it does allow the continued formation and

  10. Evolution of Volatile Flavour Compounds during Fermentation of African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) Seeds for “Ugba” Production

    PubMed Central

    Nwokeleme, C. O.; Ugwuanyi, J. Obeta

    2015-01-01

    Fermented African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) seed is a successful and well studied seasoning and snack in parts of Western Africa. GC-MS analysis of fermenting seeds revealed a mixture of several volatile aroma compounds which changed with time and starter organism. During natural mixed culture process 36 volatile compounds including 12 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 5 alcohols, 2 phenols, 2 ketones, and one each of furan, amine, acid, thiophene, and lactone were identified. When Bacillus subtilis was used in pure culture, 30 compounds comprising 10 hydrocarbons, 8 esters, 3 alcohols, 2 amines, 2 sulfur compounds, and one of each of acid, aldehyde, phenol, ketone, and furan were identified. Sample fermented with B. megaterium produced 29 aroma compounds comprising 9 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 2 nitrogenous compounds, 2 ketones, 3 alcohols, and one of each of lactone, aldehyde, furan, and amine. Methyl esters of various long chain fatty acids may be key aroma compounds, based on consistency and persistence. Qualitative or quantitative contribution of individual compounds may only be determined following flavour threshold analysis. PMID:26904664

  11. Glyoxal uptake on ammonium sulphate seed aerosol: reaction products and reversibility of uptake under dark and irradiated conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, M. M.; Chhabra, P. S.; Chan, A. W. H.; Surratt, J. D.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Keutsch, F. N.

    2008-12-01

    Chamber studies of glyoxal uptake onto neutral ammonium sulphate aerosol were performed under dark and irradiated conditions to gain further insight into processes controlling glyoxal uptake onto ambient aerosol. Organic fragments from glyoxal dimers and trimers were observed within the aerosol under dark and irradiated conditions; glyoxal oligomer formation and overall organic growth were found to be reversible under dark conditions. Analysis of high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectra provides evidence for irreversible formation of carbon-nitrogen (C-N) compounds in the aerosol. These compounds are likely to be imidazoles formed by reaction of glyoxal with the ammonium sulphate seed. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time C-N compounds resulting from condensed phase reactions with ammonium sulphate seed have been detected in aerosol. Organosulphates were not detected under dark conditions. However, active oxidative photochemistry, similar to that found in cloud processing, was found to occur within aerosol during irradiated experiments. Organosulphates, carboxylic acids, and organic esters were identified within the aerosol. Our study suggests that both C-N compound formation and photochemical processes should be considered in models of secondary organic aerosol formation via glyoxal.

  12. Surface motion upregulates superficial zone protein and hyaluronan production in chondrocyte-seeded three-dimensional scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Grad, Sibylle; Lee, Cynthia R; Gorna, Katarzyna; Gogolewski, Sylwester; Wimmer, Markus A; Alini, Mauro

    2005-01-01

    A cartilage engineering bioreactor has been developed that provides joint-specific kinematics. This study investigated the effect of articular motion on the gene expression of superficial zone protein (SZP) and hyaluronan synthases (HASs) and on the release of SZP and hyaluronan of chondrocytes seeded onto biodegradable scaffolds. Cylindrical (8 x 4 mm) porous polyurethane scaffolds were seeded with bovine articular chondrocytes and subjected to static or dynamic compression, with and without articulation against a ceramic hip ball. After loading, the mRNA expression of SZP and HASs was analyzed, and SZP immunoreactivity and hyaluronan concentration of conditioned media were determined. Surface motion significantly upregulated the mRNA expression of SZP and HASs. Axial compression alone had no effect on SZP and increased HAS mRNA only at high strain amplitude. SZP was immunodetected only in the media of constructs exposed to surface motion. The release of hyaluronan into the culture medium was significantly enhanced by surface motion. These results indicate that specific stimuli that mimic the kinematics of natural joints, such as articular motion, may promote the development of a functional articular surface-synovial interface. PMID:15738679

  13. Evolution of Volatile Flavour Compounds during Fermentation of African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) Seeds for "Ugba" Production.

    PubMed

    Nwokeleme, C O; Ugwuanyi, J Obeta

    2015-01-01

    Fermented African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) seed is a successful and well studied seasoning and snack in parts of Western Africa. GC-MS analysis of fermenting seeds revealed a mixture of several volatile aroma compounds which changed with time and starter organism. During natural mixed culture process 36 volatile compounds including 12 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 5 alcohols, 2 phenols, 2 ketones, and one each of furan, amine, acid, thiophene, and lactone were identified. When Bacillus subtilis was used in pure culture, 30 compounds comprising 10 hydrocarbons, 8 esters, 3 alcohols, 2 amines, 2 sulfur compounds, and one of each of acid, aldehyde, phenol, ketone, and furan were identified. Sample fermented with B. megaterium produced 29 aroma compounds comprising 9 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 2 nitrogenous compounds, 2 ketones, 3 alcohols, and one of each of lactone, aldehyde, furan, and amine. Methyl esters of various long chain fatty acids may be key aroma compounds, based on consistency and persistence. Qualitative or quantitative contribution of individual compounds may only be determined following flavour threshold analysis. PMID:26904664

  14. Conversion of a diversity arrays technology marker differentiating wild and cultivated carrots to a co-dominant cleaved amplified polymorphic site marker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated carrot and its wild ancestor co-occur in most temperate regions of the world and can easily hybridize. The genetic basis of the process of domestication in carrot is not well recognized. Recent results of an investigation on genetic diversity structure of cultivated and wild carrot and si...

  15. Molecular detection of aster yellows phytoplasma and 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in carrots affected by the psyllid Trioza apicalis (Hemiptera: triozidae) in Finland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis Förster) causes considerable damage to carrot (Daucus carota L.) in many parts of Europe. It was recently established that the new bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” is associated with carrot psyllid and plants affected by this insect pest. No other path...

  16. ß-Carotene from Red Carrot Maintains Vitamin A Status, but Lycopene Bioavailability Is Lower Relative to Tomato Paste in Mongolian Gerbils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red carrots contain lycopene in addition to ß-Carotene. The utility of red carrot as a functional food depends in part on the bioavailability of its constituent carotenoids. Lycopene bioavailability was compared in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) fed freeze-dried red carrot and tomato pa...

  17. Diversity, genetic mapping, and signatures of domestication in the carrot (Daucus carota L.) genome, as revealed by Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carrot is one of the most economically important vegetables worldwide, however, genetic and genomic resources supporting carrot breeding remain limited. We developed a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) platform for wild and cultivated carrot and used it to investigate genetic diversity and to devel...

  18. 9 CFR 101.7 - Seed organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed organisms. 101.7 Section 101.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.7 Seed organisms....

  19. 9 CFR 101.7 - Seed organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed organisms. 101.7 Section 101.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.7 Seed organisms....

  20. 9 CFR 101.7 - Seed organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed organisms. 101.7 Section 101.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.7 Seed organisms....

  1. 9 CFR 101.7 - Seed organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed organisms. 101.7 Section 101.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.7 Seed organisms....

  2. 9 CFR 101.7 - Seed organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed organisms. 101.7 Section 101.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.7 Seed organisms....

  3. Microscopic evidence for Ca(2+) mediated pectin-pectin interactions in carrot-based suspensions.

    PubMed

    Kyomugasho, Clare; Willemsen, Katleen L D D; Christiaens, Stefanie; Van Loey, Ann M; Hendrickx, Marc E

    2015-12-01

    This study explored the use of fluorescently labeled pectin to obtain evidence for Ca(2+) mediated pectin-pectin interactions in situ. Specifically, carrots were either blanched at low temperature (LTB) or blanched at high temperature (HTB) to activate or inactivate endogenous pectin methylesterase, respectively. Consequently, pectin in tissue particles of LTB and HTB carrots exhibited low degree of methylesterification (DM) and high DM, respectively. Pectin present in the LTB carrot serum exhibited a lower DM, was more branched, and showed a higher molar mass compared to HTB carrot serum pectin. Ca(2+) mediated pectin-pectin interactions were influenced by serum pectin molecular structure, increased with increasing pH and Ca(2+) concentration, and decreasing DM. Presence of more linear pectin in the serum created a competition, leading to less intense interactions between labeled pectin and pectin at tissue particle surfaces. Generally, the most intense Ca(2+) mediated pectin-pectin interactions were observed for pectin of LTB carrot particles. PMID:26041174

  4. A novel dehydration technique for carrot slices implementing ultrasound and vacuum drying methods.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Gang; Guo, Xiao-Yu; Wu, Tao

    2016-05-01

    A novel drying technique using a combination of ultrasound and vacuum dehydration was developed to shorten the drying time and improve the quality of carrot slices. Carrot slices were dried with ultrasonic vacuum (USV) drying and vacuum drying at 65 °C and 75 °C. The drying rate was significantly influenced by the drying techniques and temperatures. Compared with vacuum drying, USV drying resulted in a 41-53% decrease in the drying time. The drying time for the USV and vacuum drying techniques at 75 °C was determined to be 140 and 340 min for carrot slices, respectively. The rehydration potential, nutritional value (retention of β-carotene and ascorbic acid), color, and textural properties of USV-dried carrot slices are predominately better compared to vacuum-dried carrot slices. Moreover, lower energy consumption was used in the USV technique. The drying data (time versus moisture ratio) were successfully fitted to Wang and Singh model. PMID:26703199

  5. Quantitative analysis of biologically active ingredients of Five Seeds Combo by liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for quality control of commercial herbal product.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meng-Li; Miao, Lan; Cao, Jin; Ip, Siu-Po; Che, Chun-Tao

    2012-07-01

    Five Seeds Combo (wu zi yan zong wan) is a traditional Chinese herbal formula composed of fructus Lycii, semen Cuscutae, fructus Rubi, semen Plantaginis, and fructus Schisandrae. This herbal prescription has been developed into herbal products by many pharmaceutical manufacturers for treating age-related symptoms. The present study aims to develop an analytical method for the quality control of this herbal drug. Nine active ingredients including schisantherin A, schisandrin B, schisandrin, schisandrin A, quercitrin, betaine, verbascoside, hyperoside, and kaempferol were selected as the targeted analytes for the analysis. By using liquid chromatogram/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS), the nine chemical compounds were determined simultaneously from the chromatogram. The parameters for MS were optimized by orthogonal array testing and the best condition of the MS for the determination of the nine marker compounds was found to be 175, 75, and 700 V for fragmentor, skimmer, and voltage of capillary, respectively. The method validation showed that this analytical method had high precision and sensitivity (limit of quantitation was smaller than 10 ng/mL for most of the analytes). The method was found to be able to demonstrate the quality of Five Seeds Combo from different manufacturers. PMID:22761139

  6. Oilseed rape seeds with ablated defence cells of the glucosinolate–myrosinase system. Production and characteristics of double haploid MINELESS plants of Brassica napus L.

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Ishita; Borgen, Birgit Hafeld; Hansen, Magnor; Honne, Bjørn Ivar; Müller, Caroline; Rohloff, Jens; Rossiter, John Trevor; Bones, Atle Magnar

    2011-01-01

    Oilseed rape and other crop plants of the family Brassicaceae contain a unique defence system known as the glucosinolate–myrosinase system or the ‘mustard oil bomb’. The ‘mustard oil bomb’ which includes myrosinase and glucosinolates is triggered by abiotic and biotic stress, resulting in the formation of toxic products such as nitriles and isothiocyanates. Myrosinase is present in specialist cells known as ‘myrosin cells’ and can also be known as toxic mines. The myrosin cell idioblasts of Brassica napus were genetically reprogrammed to undergo controlled cell death (ablation) during seed development. These myrosin cell-free plants have been named MINELESS as they lack toxic mines. This has led to the production of oilseed rape with a significant reduction both in myrosinase levels and in the hydrolysis of glucosinolates. Even though the myrosinase activity in MINELESS was very low compared with the wild type, variation was observed. This variability was overcome by producing homozygous seeds. A microspore culture technique involving non-fertile haploid MINELESS plants was developed and these plants were treated with colchicine to produce double haploid MINELESS plants with full fertility. Double haploid MINELESS plants had significantly reduced myrosinase levels and glucosinolate hydrolysis products. Wild-type and MINELESS plants exhibited significant differences in growth parameters such as plant height, leaf traits, matter accumulation, and yield parameters. The growth and developmental pattern of MINELESS plants was relatively slow compared with the wild type. The characteristics of the pure double haploid MINELESS plant are described and its importance for future biochemical, agricultural, dietary, functional genomics, and plant defence studies is discussed. PMID:21778185

  7. Cooked carrots volatiles. AEDA and odor activity comparisons. Identification of Linden Ether as an important aroma component

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MS with GC-RI evidence was found for the presence of Linden ether in cooked carrot. Evaluation of the GC effluent from cooked carrot volatiles using Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA) found Linden ether with the highest Flavor Dilution (FD) factor. Others with 10 fold lower FD factors were B-i...

  8. Compatibility Relations Between the Edible Carrot Daucus Carota and D. Pusillus, a Related Wild Species from the Argentinian Pampas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To establish the feasibility of hybridization between the wild carrot species Daucus pusillus Michx. (2n = 2x = 22; 2n = 2x = 22 and 20), collected in the pampas grasslands of Argentina, and the edible carrot, Daucus carota L. (2n = 2x = 18), controlled pollinations were attempted on the plant. Due ...

  9. MOLECULAR TAGGING AND SELECTION FOR SUGAR-TYPE IN CARROT ROOTS USING CO-DOMINANT, PCR-BASED MARKERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carrots storage roots accumulate free sugars. The type of sugar accumulated is conditioned by the Rs locus so that typical carrot roots (Rs/-) accumulate predominantly glucose and fructose while rs/rs plants accumulate predominantly sucrose. We recently have found rs/rs plants in one inbred line har...

  10. Transmission of different strains of Spiroplasma citri to carrot and citrus by Circulifer tenellus Baker (Hemiptera:Cicadellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carrot purple leaf disease (CPLD) was associated with the presence of Spiroplasma citri in 2006 in the state of Washington, USA (Lee et al. 2006). The objectives of this work were to (1) confirm S. citri as the causal agent of CPLD by fulfilling Koch’s postulates, (2) to determine whether carrot str...

  11. PCR based identification of Pythium spp. causing cavity spot in carrots and sensitive detection in soil samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cavity spot is caused by several Pythium species and is one of the most economically important diseases of carrot (Daucus carota L.). Diagnosis of the pathogens in soil and in carrot tissue has been complicated. On the bases of ITS sequences PCR primers were designed for the identification of the fi...

  12. Constitutive or seed-specific overexpression of Arabidopsis G-protein γ subunit 3 (AGG3) results in increased seed and oil production and improved stress tolerance in Camelina sativa.

    PubMed

    Roy Choudhury, Swarup; Riesselman, Adam J; Pandey, Sona

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins consisting of Gα, Gβ and Gγ subunits play an integral role in mediating multiple signalling pathways in plants. A novel, recently identified plant-specific Gγ protein, AGG3, has been proposed to be an important regulator of organ size and mediator of stress responses in Arabidopsis, whereas its potential homologs in rice are major quantitative trait loci for seed size and panicle branching. To evaluate the role of AGG3 towards seed and oil yield improvement, the gene was overexpressed in Camelina sativa, an oilseed crop of the Brassicaceae family. Analysis of multiple homozygous T4 transgenic Camelina lines showed that constitutive overexpression of AGG3 resulted in faster vegetative as well as reproductive growth accompanied by an increase in photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, when expressed constitutively or specifically in seed tissue, AGG3 was found to increase seed size, seed mass and seed number per plant by 15%-40%, effectively resulting in significantly higher oil yield per plant. AGG3 overexpressing Camelina plants also exhibited improved stress tolerance. These observations draw a strong link between the roles of AGG3 in regulating two critical yield parameters, seed traits and plant stress responses, and reveal an effective biotechnological tool to dramatically increase yield in agricultural crops. PMID:24102738

  13. Microbes Associated with Freshly Prepared Juices of Citrus and Carrots

    PubMed Central

    Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Kumar, Vikas; Kaur, Manpreeet

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are popular drinks as they contain antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that are essential for human being and play important role in the prevention of heart diseases, cancer, and diabetes. They contain essential nutrients which support the growth of acid tolerant bacteria, yeasts, and moulds. In the present study, we have conducted a microbiological examination of freshly prepared juices (sweet lime, orange, and carrot) by serial dilution agar plate technique. A total of 30 juice samples were examined for their microbiological quality. Twenty-five microbial species including 9 bacterial isolates, 5 yeast isolates, and 11 mould isolates were isolated from juices. Yeasts and moulds were the main cause of spoilage of juices. Aspergillus flavus and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were observed in the maximum number of juice samples. Among bacteria Bacillus cereus and Serratia were dominant. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in few samples. Candida sp., Curvularia, Colletotrichum, and Acetobacter were observed only in citrus juice samples. Alternaria, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were also observed in tested juice samples. Some of the microorganisms detected in these juice samples can cause disease in human beings, so there is need for some guidelines that can improve the quality of fruit juices. PMID:26904628

  14. Project SEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Reports on Project SEED (Summer Educational Experience for the Disadvantaged) a project in which high school students from low-income families work in summer jobs in a variety of academic, industrial, and government research labs. The program introduces the students to career possibilities in chemistry and to the advantages of higher education.…

  15. Fusarium seed stalk blight and rot in sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium can cause damage to seed stalks that can cause reductions or complete loss of seed production. Fusarium oxysporum has been the reported cause of seed stalk blight, which is characterized by vascular discoloration. We sampled diseased seed stalks and examined isolates for their pathogenicity...

  16. Mustard Seed Meal suppresses Weeds in Potato and Peppermint

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed meal is a co-product remaining after pressing mustard seed to remove the oil. Seed meals containing high glucosinolates have been reported to have herbicidal activity. Weed suppression with seed meal of Sinapis alba, variety Ida Gold was evaluated in field trials on potatoes and peppermint in ...

  17. Formation of embryogenic cell clumps from carrot epidermal cells is suppressed by 5-azacytidine, a DNA methylation inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Nozomi; Kobayashi, Hatsumi; Togashi, Takashi; Mori, Yukiko; Kikuchi, Koji; Kuriyama, Kyoko; Tokuji, Yoshihiko

    2005-01-01

    Using a direct somatic embryogenesis system in carrot, we examined the role of DNA methylation in the change of cellular differentiation state, from somatic to embryogenic. 5-Azacytidine (aza-C), an inhibitor of DNA methylation suppressed the formation of embryogenic cell clumps from epidermal carrot cells. Aza-C also downregulated the expression of DcLEC1c, a LEC1-like embryonic gene in carrot, during morphogenesis of embryos. A carrot DNA methyltransferase gene, Met1-5 was expressed transiently after the induction of somatic embryogenesis by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), before the formation of embryogenic cell clumps. These findings suggested the significance of DNA methylation in acquiring the embryogenic competence in somatic cells in carrot. PMID:15700420

  18. Transfer of resistance traits from carrot into tobacco by asymmetric somatic hybridization: Regeneration of fertile plants

    PubMed Central

    Dudits, Denes; Maroy, Eszter; Praznovszky, Tunde; Olah, Zoltan; Gyorgyey, Janos; Cella, Rino

    1987-01-01

    Transfer of methotrexate and 5-methyltryptophan resistance from carrot (Daucus carota) to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) was achieved by fusion between leaf mesophyll protoplasts of tobacco and irradiated cell culture protoplasts of carrot. Some of the regenerated somatic hybrids exhibited normal tobacco morphology with coexpression and independent segregation of the transferred resistance markers. Chromosomal instability resulted in aneuploid somatic hybrids with significantly lower chromosome number than predicted by simple addition of parental chromosome number. The methotrexate resistance phenotype was correlated with the expression of carrot-specific dihydrofolate reductase as judged by isozyme and immunological characteristics of the enzyme. The genomic construct of these somatic hybrids made the transmission of the resistance character into the next sexual generation possible. Images PMID:16593902

  19. Developmental Genes Have Pleiotropic Effects on Plant Morphology and Source Capacity, Eventually Impacting on Seed Protein Content and Productivity in Pea1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Burstin, Judith; Marget, Pascal; Huart, Myriam; Moessner, Annie; Mangin, Brigitte; Duchene, Christiane; Desprez, Bruno; Munier-Jolain, Nathalie; Duc, Gérard

    2007-01-01

    Increasing pea (Pisum sativum) seed nutritional value and particularly seed protein content, while maintaining yield, is an important challenge for further development of this crop. Seed protein content and yield are complex and unstable traits, integrating all the processes occurring during the plant life cycle. During filling, seeds are the main sink to which assimilates are preferentially allocated at the expense of vegetative organs. Nitrogen seed demand is satisfied partly by nitrogen acquired by the roots, but also by nitrogen remobilized from vegetative organs. In this study, we evaluated the respective roles of nitrogen source capacity and sink strength in the genetic variability of seed protein content and yield. We showed in eight genotypes of diverse origins that both the maximal rate of nitrogen accumulation in the seeds and nitrogen source capacity varied among genotypes. Then, to identify the genetic factors responsible for seed protein content and yield variation, we searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seed traits and for indicators of sink strength and source nitrogen capacity. We detected 261 QTL across five environments for all traits measured. Most QTL for seed and plant traits mapped in clusters, raising the possibility of common underlying processes and candidate genes. In most environments, the genes Le and Afila, which control internode length and the switch between leaflets and tendrils, respectively, determined plant nitrogen status. Depending on the environment, these genes were linked to QTL of seed protein content and yield, suggesting that source-sink adjustments depend on growing conditions. PMID:17449650

  20. Buried Seed Banks as Indicators of Seed Output along an Altitudinal Gradient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, K.

    1985-01-01

    Study of buried seed banks (viable seeds deposited in the soil near parent plants) provides a relatively easy way of determining cumulative effects on seed production and species' altitudinal limits. Sites, methods, validity, interpretation, problems of collection on a mountain, and germination techniques are discussed. (Author/DH)