Science.gov

Sample records for cartels

  1. Cartel (In)Stability on "Survivor" Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mixon, Franklin G., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates the use of popular culture in business education by examining cartel behavior of contestants in the television show "Survivor." Examples depict incentives to form cartels and to cheat on cartel decisions. Ways to integrate the material into business courses are described. (SK)

  2. A Troubled Cartel: The NCAA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, James V.

    1973-01-01

    Despite the claims of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) that it is a champion of amateur athletics and physical fitness in colleges and universities, the NCAA is in fact a business cartel composed of university-firms that have varying desires to restrict competition and maximize profits in the area of intercollegiate athletics.…

  3. OPEC is not a cartel

    SciTech Connect

    Plaut, S.E.

    1981-11-01

    OPEC behavior is closer to that of an oligopoly than a cartel, which restricts supply and allocates output, because OPEC has never controlled either world supply or consumption. This group of producers has enough strength in the world market, however, to set prices higher than a competitive market price based on marginal costs, and the real question is why they do not lower production and charge still higher prices in order to extend their producing capacity. Saudi Arabia, OPEC's price leader and largest producer, is the moderating force that reflects that country's unique economic role in OPEC. Efforts to model OPEC decision making misunderstand how OPEC is structured and how it operates. The oligopolistic concept, with Saudi Arabia operating as the leading firm, is more appropriate than crediting Saudi Arabia with political moderation or conservatism. 1 table. (DCK)

  4. Decline of the oil cartel

    SciTech Connect

    Fieleke, N.S.

    1986-07-01

    A review of the development that led to the current decline in oil prices concludes that sharp relative price changes have been a major source of world economic instability for the past 13 years. The results for oil-importing countries have been cycles of inflation and contraction followed by inflation and rapid growth. Some see the recent price decline as an effort by OPEC to regain enough power to bring about an eventual price rise. Although past price and production relationships indicate that OPEC has operated as a cartel, the author sees current efforts to persuade non-OPEC producers to lower their production as an indication of weakness. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve could help the US cope with any future supply disruption. 7 figures, 3 tables.

  5. Clumsy cartel. [Overcapacity/supply problems

    SciTech Connect

    Adelman, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) has been operating a cartel which is rapidly raising prices toward the profit maximizing level at a time when demand for oil is declining. The cartel is responding by lowering its production levels. When the relationship between world income and oil consumption is examined, a near-zero supply elasticity appears to exist because high prices tend to discourage development in non-OPEC producing nations. The argument is made that the cartel nations have tightened the market too much because the multinational oil corporations have lost power and the shocks to supply were too abrupt. The statistics used by the cartel are too crude to make reliable production decisions. OPEC nations will continue to control their overcapacity without difficulty. Their problem is in trying to control actual supply surpluses enough to maintain their prices and stay within the long-run monopoly optimum price. (DCK)

  6. Exhaustible resources and cartels: an intertemporal Nash-Cournot model

    SciTech Connect

    Ulph, A.M.; Folie, G.M.

    1980-11-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the effects of the formation of a cartel in an industry extracting an exhaustible resource, where the cartel and competitive fringe have different costs of production. The important result of this paper is that cartelization can cause the rents on the fringe resources to fall, which is contrary to the results obtained if the usual cost assumption is invoked that all firms have identical cost functions. This result is proved for the special case of constant marginal costs, with the cartel enjoying a significant cost advantage. However, the result is more general and can occur even if the cartel enjoys only a slight cost advantage, and may also occur if there are convex rather than linear cost functions. The analysis also reveals that the patterns of production by both the fringe firms and the cartel will be altered by cartelization. 4 figures, 9 references.

  7. Cartels and the Incentive to Cheat: Evidence from the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudill, Steven B.; Mixon, Franklin G., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that members of cartels have tremendous incentives to cheat on production limits to maximize profits. Describes a classroom activity in which grading an examination using a "curve" permits students to establish "cartels." Provides instructions on how the activity is used in the classroom. (CFR)

  8. The Viability of Commodity Cartels: The Case of Oil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeijk, Peter A. G. van

    1989-01-01

    Explains the rise and fall of the oil cartel by applying an elasticity of demand analysis. Beginning from the demand side of the market, offers a simple derivation of the elasticity of demand for the cartel's product. Maintains that method helps undergraduates comprehend basic properties, requiring only an understanding of the elasticities of…

  9. Role of expropriation in the formation of the OPEC cartel

    SciTech Connect

    Hickel, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    After reviewing the evolution and changing philosophy of the OPEC cartel, the author concludes that the US chose to disarm itself in the fight against expropriation of its property abroad. The application of the ''act of state'' doctrine requires that US courts must not examine the acts of foreign governments, even when those acts involve the property of US citizens. Although it is almost certainly too late to impose sanctions of OPEC nations for their seizure of US property, all three branches of government can work to strengthen the response to expropriation. Cartels in fuel, mineral resources, and other raw materials are now developing. OPEC learned during its first 11 years that it is difficult to develop a cartel in a free market, but it learned in 1972 and after that it could expropriate monopoly power from a world unwilling to defend itself against the wholesale nationalization of its vital resources. 62 references.

  10. Indonesia and OPEC: the economic costs of cartel membership

    SciTech Connect

    Linquiti, P.D.

    1982-09-01

    The primary focus of this study is on why the Indonesians have cut production in the second quarter of 1982. There appears to be only one answer. The spector of triggering a price war seems powerful enough to deter Indonesia from acting against the dictates of the cartel. Additionally, the introduction of more competition into the oil market - the result of increased Indonesian production - can only cut the long-run price of oil and reduce the present discounted value of Indonesia's oil. Futhermore, it is critical to note that the other three scenarios hinge on Indonesia having excess capacity to boost production and capture added revenues. Excess capacity is the key to undercutting the cartel. By lowering prices, a producer is doomed to earn lower revenues unless it can up production. This has never been an option for Indonesia because the current level of excess capacity is a new phenomenon. Since the rise of President Suharto in 1967, Indonesia has consistently produced its oil at full capacity. Indonesia has thus spent the last fifteen years in a situation where there was little, if anything, to be gained from undercutting the cartel. Not surprisingly, Indonesia has not acted quickly to increase production in violation of OPEC ceilings. Only if the soft market continues for a long period of time does the cost of OPEC membership impose a serious burden on Indonesia. For a host of political and economic reasons, Indonesia seems willing to wait out the current cartel disarray. If the market continues its present weakness and OPEC membership becomes truly costly, the Indonesians will find it quite difficult to adhere to coordinated pricing and production policies. If however, the world market tightens again, Indonesia may soon find itself back at full production, with no incentive to undercut the cartel.

  11. Politactics of international cartels: economic illusions, political realities, and OPEC

    SciTech Connect

    Daoudi, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    This research investigates the nature and strategy of international cartels to determine both what constitutes a cartel and the causes of OPEC's longevity. To achieve that end, the study examines the political and economic background that led to the Organization's creation and determined its evolution. The study analyzes the factors underlying changes in the oil market and in the outlook of the oil-producing nations for the purpose of drawing some conclusions concerning the manner in which the contemporary, quasi-cartelistic OPEC system operates, and to set out the far-reaching implications of its emergence. What were the circumstances which have thus far favored cartelization and sustained the cohesiveness and power of OPEC. It is argued that links within OPEC have been forged by a mixture of politics and economics. Economic considerations created OPEC and maintained it through its early years, but political necessity and solidarity helped later to cement the various divergent blocks together. Contrary to expectations, political conflicts among the major members failed to cripple or destroy OPEC. Political links helped override economic disagreements, while economic links helped overcome political ill will.

  12. Madison oil case: a study of cartel behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Johnsen, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    The Madison Oil defendants, twelve so-called Major refiners, were convicted of conspiring to fix gasoline prices in the Midwestern area during 1935 and 1936. They are said to have carried out their conspiracy by systematically purchasing gasoline from so-called Independent refiners on the Mid-continent spot market. The problem is that price fixing requires a restriction of industry output to be successful, and open-market buying has nothing to do with that. As professed by one witness, in the absence of a concerted output restriction by the Majors, open-market buying would have been as useless as mopping up the ocean. In fact, evidence from the trial record indicates that the Majors were indeed restricting refinery output. But once having done this, why would they have bothered to purchase gasoline on the open market. The answer to this question relies, in part, on the costs of assuring optimal participation in cartel and, in part, on the Major's desire to enforce property rights to their investments in brand-name capital. To assure the Independents' participation in the cartel, the Majors made sidepayments to them in the form of disproportionately large production allocations.

  13. Bushel of wheat for a barrel of oil: can we offset OPEC's gains with a grain cartel

    SciTech Connect

    Luttrell, C.B.

    1981-04-01

    Among the proposals for retaliating against OPEC prices and production cuts is a grain cartel that will match a bushel of wheat for a barrel of oil. The concept is not valid, however, because the grain market does not have the particular economic conditions which allow OPEC to succeed. Cartels are able to charge higher prices than a competitive industry, but the profit-maximizing rate of output will be less. A US grain cartel would be ineffective because a rise in prices would only result in increased world production by non-cartel members. A food cartel would also harm less-developed countries and would increase famine. 19 references, 5 tables. (DCK)

  14. Gradual loss of synaptic cartels precedes axon withdrawal at developing neuromuscular junctions.

    PubMed

    Balice-Gordon, R J; Chua, C K; Nelson, C C; Lichtman, J W

    1993-11-01

    We have studied the spatial deployment of synapses arising from different axons that converge on the same developing neuromuscular junctions. Labeling the competing synaptic "cartels" with different dyes in mouse muscle showed that, perinatally, each axon adds similar terminal areas, whereas later, areas occupied by the competing cartels diverged by gradual elimination of one axon's synapses and ongoing addition of synaptic area by the other. Activity-dependent labeling of synapses capable of vesicle recycling in snake muscle also revealed a gradual change in territories occupied by competing inputs, implying that an axon maintained some functional synapses even as others in its cartel were being eliminated. Thus the process of synapse elimination is gradual, with loss of one viable synapse after another, until an axon is left with no synaptic territory and withdraws. PMID:8240805

  15. No need for conspiracy: self-organized cartel formation in a modified trust game.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Tiago P; Bornholdt, Stefan

    2012-05-25

    We investigate the dynamics of a trust game on a mixed population, where individuals with the role of buyers are forced to play against a predetermined number of sellers whom they choose dynamically. Agents with the role of sellers are also allowed to adapt the level of value for money of their products, based on payoff. The dynamics undergoes a transition at a specific value of the strategy update rate, above which an emergent cartel organization is observed, where sellers have similar values of below-optimal value for money. This cartel organization is not due to an explicit collusion among agents; instead, it arises spontaneously from the maximization of the individual payoffs. This dynamics is marked by large fluctuations and a high degree of unpredictability for most of the parameter space and serves as a plausible qualitative explanation for observed elevated levels and fluctuations of certain commodity prices. PMID:23003311

  16. Impacts of Weather Shocks on Murder and Drug Cartel Violence in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miguel, E.; Hsiang, S. M.; Burke, M.; Gonzalez, F.; Baysan, C.

    2014-12-01

    We estimate impacts of weather shocks on several dimensions of violence in Mexico during 1990-2010, using disaggregated data at the state-by-month level. Controlling for location and time fixed effects, we show that higher than normal temperatures lead to: (i) higher total murder rates, (ii) higher rates of drug cartel related murders, and (iii) higher suicide rates. The effects of high temperatures on inter-personal violence (murders) and on inter-group violence (drug cartel related murders) are large, statistically significant and similar to those found in other recent settings. The use of panel data econometric methods to examine the effect of weather on suicide incidence is novel. We assess the role of economic channels (i.e., agricultural production affected by weather) and conclude that they cannot account for most of the estimated impacts, suggesting that other mechanisms, including psychological explanations, are likely to be important in this setting.

  17. No Need for Conspiracy: Self-Organized Cartel Formation in a Modified Trust Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peixoto, Tiago P.; Bornholdt, Stefan

    2012-05-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a trust game on a mixed population, where individuals with the role of buyers are forced to play against a predetermined number of sellers whom they choose dynamically. Agents with the role of sellers are also allowed to adapt the level of value for money of their products, based on payoff. The dynamics undergoes a transition at a specific value of the strategy update rate, above which an emergent cartel organization is observed, where sellers have similar values of below-optimal value for money. This cartel organization is not due to an explicit collusion among agents; instead, it arises spontaneously from the maximization of the individual payoffs. This dynamics is marked by large fluctuations and a high degree of unpredictability for most of the parameter space and serves as a plausible qualitative explanation for observed elevated levels and fluctuations of certain commodity prices.

  18. International minerals cartels and embargoes: policy implications for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Klass, M.W.; Burrows, J.C.; Beggs, S.D.

    1980-01-01

    The continued existence of the petroleum cartel (OPEC), disruptions of petroleum supplies from Iran, and civil disturbances in Zaire, the source of much of the world's cobalt, highlight the industrial world's dependence on a relatively few suppliers of important materials. In addition, fears of cartel price gouging and politically motivated embargoes continue to provide a basis for much of US energy policy. This book addresses the policy issues posed by such risks; it assesses the likelihood of cartels or embargoes involving a number of important materials, and then applies a consistent economic framework to evaluate a range of policies the United States might adopt in anticipation of such contingencies. The work applies a consistent analytical framework to evaluate the economic merits of a wide range of economic policies, including stockpiling, development of alternative technologies, tariffs, and subsidies. It is industry specific, covering petroleum as well as six other major nonfuel minerals, and focuses primarily on the economic merits of the policies considered. The authors do not attempt to treat the full range of foreign- and domestic-policy considerations raised by the problem of potentially insecure imported materials. 17 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

  19. Model of the world oil market with an OPEC cartel. [1980 AD to 2040 AD

    SciTech Connect

    Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Horwedel, J.E.; Marshalla, R.A.; Nesbitt, D.M.; Haas, S.M.

    1984-08-01

    A world oil market model (WOM) with OPEC treated as a Stackelberg cartel has been developed within the framework of the Generalized Equilibrium Modeling System (GEMS) that is available from Decision Focus, Inc. The US sector of the model is represented by a Liquid Fuels Supply model that was presented previously. The WOM model is described and results obtained with the model for the period 1980 to 2040 are presented. For comparative purposes, results obtained with the model when OPEC is treated as a competitive producer are also presented. By comparing the world oil price as a function of time from the two calculations, the influence that OPEC may have on the oil market by exploiting all of its market power is quantified. The world oil price as obtained with the WOM model is also compared with world oil price projections from a variety of sources. 22 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  20. Cooperative and non-cooperative discrete differential models of oil pricing and the OPEC cartel

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmadian, M.

    1984-01-01

    The theoretical purpose of the study is to determine and to compare the oil price paths for different market structures, which include cooperative and non-cooperative discrete differential models of the world oil market. The latter (NCDDMs) includes competitive, monopolistic, and Nash-Cournot markets; whereas, the former consists of a Nash-bargaining model (NBM). The empirical purpose of the study are: 1) to apply the NBM to the world oil market and evaluate the OPEC behavior as a price-maker, 2) to elaborate the implications of oil price rises on OPEC cartel stability, and 3) to show how restrictions on production are allocated among OPEC nations. In the monopolistic and competitive markets, under the assumptions of constant production costs over time and identical discount rates, the study concludes that when the initial monopoly price is higher than (lower than) the initial competitive price, the optimal monopoly price path with increasing (decreasing) oil demand elasticities over time will intersect the optimal competitive price path. Also, the optimal monopoly price path with constant oil demand elasticities over time will continue along and be identical and parallel to the competitive price path, whether the initial monopoly price is equal to or different from the inital competitive price.

  1. Traumatic events and trauma-related psychopathology in former drug cartel soldiers in Rio de Janeiro: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bojahr, Lisa S; van Emmerik, Arnold A P

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the occurrence of traumatic events and trauma-related psychopathology in former drug cartel soldiers (FDCS) in Rio de Janeiro. Furthermore, the authors examined the relationship between the number of traumatic events and symptom severity, and compared symptom severity in perpetrators versus victims of traumatic events. They found high exposure rates to traumatic events, with 83.5% of the FDCS (n = 97) and 57.9% of the controls (n = 95) having experienced more than 5 events. FDCS had higher mean scores for trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress (PTS), depressive symptoms, and general mental health problems, compared to controls. More FDCS than controls satisfied DSM-IV symptom criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (36.4% vs. 15.8%) and reported severe depressive symptoms (25.8% vs. 8.3%). The number of traumatic events was strongly related to PTS among FDCS (r = .48). Furthermore, more FDCS than controls (23.7% vs. 10.5%) identified themselves as a perpetrator of 1 or more traumatic events. Among FDCS, perpetrators reported more PTS than victims. It is concluded that being a (former) drug cartel soldier is associated with elevated trauma exposure and severe trauma-related psychopathology. PMID:25793319

  2. Single and cartel effect of pesticides on biochemical and haematological status of Clarias batrachus: A long-term monitoring.

    PubMed

    Narra, Madhusudan Reddy

    2016-02-01

    Pesticide mixtures are common in the streams of agricultural or urban catchments. Individual and cartel toxicity of four different pesticides, namely Endosulfan, Carbofuran, Methyl parathion and Cypermethrin were studied. Sub acute exposure (1/10th of LC50) for 1, 7, 15, 30 and 60 days in Clarias batrachus active tissues such as brain, gills, blood and liver were evaluated. Growth, hepatosomatic index and survival performance were decreased, inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase, gills Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activities, and abnormal behavior are noticed. The characteristics of the blood respiratory burst activity, erythrocyte count, contents of hematocrit and hemoglobin are dwindled. Plasma total proteins and liver glycogen decreased whereas blood glucose and serum creatinine, triglycerides are elevated. The immunological attributes such as white blood cell count was elevated, whereas albumin, globulins and lysozyme activity significantly decreased. Hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities and lipid peroxidation levels are elevated, whereas glutathione peroxidase and glutathione are reduced. Toxicity effect of pesticides reached to a crest on 30th day and showed a descent thereafter except in endosulfan which mounted its detrimental effect throughout the experimental period. Toxicity trends of the present study are determined to be highest in Mix group followed by cypermethrin, methyl parathion and carbofuran. Indiscriminate application of these chemicals pose a toxic threat to non-target organisms, damage the ecosystems and jeopardizes human health. PMID:26432990

  3. Breaking the Cartel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmore, Richard F.

    2006-01-01

    It is clear that the system we have relied on to produce school leaders is not up to the task. A redesigned system will have a better chance of succeeding if it follows the basic principles Mr. Elmore offers here. (Contains 1 endnote.)

  4. FoxO: a new addition to the ESC cartel.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Kevin Andrew Uy; Ng, Huck-Hui

    2011-09-01

    The forkhead box O (FoxO) family is involved in diverse cellular processes such as tumor suppression, stress response, and metabolism. In a recent Nature Cell Biology Letter, Zhang et al. (2011) uncover a novel role for FoxO proteins in regulating the identity of human ESCs. PMID:21885013

  5. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  6. Future of OPEC: price level and cartel stability

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, G.; Griffin, J.M.; Steele, H.B.

    1983-01-01

    In contrast to the unanimity of the 10 world oil models in projecting permanent high prices, the findings outlined in this paper suggest that the 1978-79 OPEC price hikes may have defined the limits of OPEC's monoply power. A long-run real-price path significantly greater that $32 per barrel seems likely to bring forth large supplies of conventional fuels, coupled with substantial conservation efforts. These forces, together with increased supplies of non-OPEC oil, render the sustaining of higher real prices unlikely without major institutional adaptations within OPEC. The critical variables in determining OPEC's future are our supply-side assumptions about the technical, financial, and behavioral factors of the non-OPEC response and the demand-side assumptions about supply and economic growth elasticities. 11 references, 2 tables.

  7. [Cartel]: Monthly Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  8. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  9. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  10. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  11. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  12. African-American Students and the Financial Aid Cartel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Herschel I.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how competition for black college students among the nation's most prestigious institutions could become more intense if these universities abandon their agreement to set financial aid based on merit as well as on need. It argues that by enforcing limitations on financial aid, Congress is protecting Ivy League schools and is sanctioning…

  13. Fellowship Behavior in Division 17 and the MOMM Cartel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, John J.; Erickson, Chris D.

    1991-01-01

    Notes that, although the Council of Counseling Psychology Training Programs lists 64 members, graduates and employees of 4 institutions (Minnesota, Ohio State, Maryland, and Missouri) heavily dominate every science and practice organ of the American Psychological Association Division 17's governing body. Cites examples of barriers to professional…

  14. An oil and gas cartel OPEC in evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-23

    More than ever before, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting countries is faced with a sophisticated and complex market, a highly charged environmental movement, and new calls for energy conservation and alternative fuels. It has lost a member, Ecuador. However OPEC's future evolves, it will be challenged to change. As non-OPEC oil production continues to decline, OPEC's future could brighten considerably. Natural gas presents a great opportunity to OPEC as many industrial and developing countries utilize gas more extensively because of price and environmental advantages. Whether oil or gas, OPEC will require large amounts of capital to satisfy the world's appetite for petroleum. The loss of Ecuador seems a setback to the Organization, but there are burgeoning Soviet Republics with large reserves in need of development assistance to tap into their natural resources more effectively. On the demand side, many companies are seeking hospitable recipients for their exploratory activities and investment capital. OPEC's role might somehow include the embrace of these developments for the betterment of its individual, unique members.

  15. Coming after U.: Why Colleges Should Fear the Accrediting Cartel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    Examines how the college accreditation process can allow a centralized body of bureaucrats to impose a political agenda through their control of funding. The author provides the example of Aquinas College (Michigan) to show how this process can threaten educational quality by forcing changes in the curriculum and administrative practices to…

  16. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  17. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  18. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  19. Cartel: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This booklet contains an annotated listing of instructional materials for use in bilingual-bicultural programs. Each entry includes the following information: title, author or developing agency, name and address of the publisher, publication date, number of pages, language(s) used, intended audience or level, and a descriptive statement. Any…

  20. Exclusive: OPEC's story - denies it is a cartel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-03-23

    Coverage of OPEC news in the Western press exploded in 1973 during the Arab Oil Embargo and blossomed during the 1979 oil price hike. Since then, however, coverage wanes when OPEC's problems are its own and not widely impacting consuming nations. OPECNA, the OPEC News Agency, was established in 1980 to improve the quantity and quality of world press coverage of OPEC activities. Since then, OPECNA has also been OPEC's historian. It is felt that OPECNA has achieved its principal goal, that of providing reliable and frequent information about OPEC and the activities of its member countries; however, it appears to have little success in restructuring world opinion. Included here is an exclusive interview by Energy Detente with Mr. Gonzalo Plaza, Director of OPECNA. The Energy Detente fuel price/tax series and industrial fuel prices for March 1983 are presented for countries of the Western Hemisphere.

  1. Is OPEC a cartel? Evidence from cointegration and causality tests

    SciTech Connect

    Guelen, G.

    1996-12-01

    One would expect a carter to curb production in order to raise prices of its product as well as to share the market among its members. The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is no exception, and blamed for the quadrupling of crude oil prices in 1974. However, OPEC could not prevent prices from falling in the 1980s, even after it adopted output rationing in 1982. The author addresses the question of whether OPEC was ever able to increase market price of oil by curbing production, or simply took advantage of high prices caused by political problems and conflicts between members. 17 refs., 1 fig.

  2. CARTEL: A method to calibrate S-band ranges with geostationary satellites. Results of orbit determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guitart, A.; Mesnard, B.

    1986-05-01

    A satellite tracking campaign was organized, with 4 S-band stations, for 1 wk. The relative geometry of the network with respect to the satellites was an opportunity to show how the most precise orbit can be computed with the operational software. This precise orbit served as a reference to evaluate what can be achieved with one station with range and angular measurements, a typical configuration used for stationkeeping of geostationary satellites. Orbit computation implied numerical integration with gravitational (Earth, Moon, and Sun) and solar radiation pressure forces acting on the satellite. Arc lengths of 2 days gave initial state vectors which were compared every day. Precision of 10 m is achieved. However, an analysis of the influence of parameters in the orbit computations reveals that the absolute accuracy is of the order of 100 m, since modeling perturbations were neglected in the operational software (e.g., polar motion). In a relative sense, the reference orbit allows estimation of systematic errors for other tracking antennas.

  3. CARTEL: A method to calibrate S-band ranges with geostationary satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guitart, A.; Mesnard, R.; Nouel, F.

    1986-12-01

    An intersite tracking campaign was organized, with 4 S-band stations, for a period of 1 wk to show how the most precise orbit can be computed with the operational software. This precise orbit served as a reference in order to evaluate what can be achieved with one single station with range and angular measurements (a typical configuration used for stationkeeping of geostationary satellites). Orbit computation implied numerical integration with gravitational (Earth, Moon, and Sun) and solar radiation pressure as forces acting on the satellite. Arc lengths of 2 days gave initial state vectors which were compared every day. A precision of 10 m is achieved. However, an analysis of the influence of several parameters entering the orbit computations reveals that the absolute accuracy is of the order of 100 m, since modeling perturbations were neglected in the operational software (polar motion for example). This reference orbit allows estimation of systematic errors for other tracking antennas.

  4. Cartel. Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials. Vol. III, No. 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is an informative listing for educators, librarians, and others interested in materials for bilingual multicultural education. Items are listed according to: title, author, subject, and publisher/distributor indexes. The following are among the topics covered: (1) African and Afro-American culture; (2) Native American cultures; (3) arts and…

  5. Cartel-Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials. No. 36, December 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    Thirty-two documents are listed in this annotated bibliography which includes audio-visual, classroom, curriculum, library, and professional bilingual bicultural resources. A reference on an annotated bibliography of doctoral dissertations on social and psychological studies of minority children and youth is also included. Entries are listed…

  6. CARTEL: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials No. 12. Cumulative Issue--1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    Approximately 400 books, curriculum guides, journals, and educational resource materials published between 1967 and 1973 are listed in this annotated bibliography of bilingual bicultural materials on the Spanish-speaking, American Indians, French, Portuguese, Chinese, and Russians. This listing shares with bilingual bicultural project personnel…

  7. Cartel: Annotations and Analyses of Bilingual Multicultural Materials. Winter 1976-77. Vol. IV, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is an informative listing for educators, librarians, and others interested in materials for bilingual multicultural education. There are two main sections, annotations and analyses. Annotated entries are arranged under the following headings: (1) assessment and evaluation; (2) bibliographies; (3) classroom resources; (4) English as a second…

  8. Guias para los carteles puertorriquenos (Guides for the Puerto Rican Posters).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colon, Luisa; Rivera, Carlos

    These teacher's guides are designed to accompany four Puerto Rican posters by Juan Maldonado. Each narrative or biographical essay in the guides is followed by lists of suggested learning objectives, materials needed for the lesson, instructions for presentation to the students, vocabulary, and classroom learning activities. The four guides and…

  9. Cartel-Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials, No. 37, January 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    Forty-six documents are listed in this annotated bibliography, which includes audio-visual, classroom, curriculum, library, and professional bilingual bicultural resources. A reference on an annotated bibliography of doctoral dissertations on social and psychological studies of minority children and youth is also included. Entries are listed…

  10. Departmental Takeover and the Peculiar Property Rights of Academics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulbrich, Holley H.

    1989-01-01

    The academic department is viewed as a form of cartel, a model of monopolistic behavior characterized by control over a particular differentiated product. The development and operation of this academic cartel is explored. (MSE)

  11. Unstable world oil market

    SciTech Connect

    Adelman, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The size of low-cost oil reserves available for development creates a permanent surplus that OPEC controls in order to maintain prices. The future is uncertain, however, because the cartel is clumsy and inclined to overreact. A quick rise in oil demand might help the cartel, but there is a better chance of movement the other way as economic recovery increases investment to discover and develop non-OPEC oil and gas reserves. A cartel of consuming nations can balance the exporters' cartel, but OPEC is likely to survive because the world market needs it.

  12. Experiential Learning through Classroom Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowes, David; Johnson, Jay

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes classroom experiments in cooperative behavior as examples of experiential learning in economics classes. Several games are briefly discussed and a new game in cartel behavior is presented. In this game, Students make production decisions as a cartel and earn revenues based on their own output decision and the output decision…

  13. OPEC at thirty years; What have we learned

    SciTech Connect

    Adelman, M.A. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper is a review of the lessons learned concerning OPEC. It includes: the history of the formation of OPEC, OPEC and the energy crisis of the 1970's, models of the cartel, and pricing and output (production) policies.

  14. Manifestations of the MOMM Phenomenon II: Relevant Data on Professional Darwinism and Membership Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, John J.; And Others

    Horan (1989) reported that graduates and employees of four institutions (Minnesota, Ohio State, Maryland, and Missouri - the "MOMM Cartel") heavily dominate every science and practice organ of the American Psychological Association's Division 17 governing body. Goldman (1990) provided additional data indicating that egregious exclusion of…

  15. Super PHOs provide clout and added efficiencies.

    PubMed

    1997-03-01

    Joining or forming a super PHO can increase the attractiveness to payers through broader geographic coverage and also generate administrative efficiencies for the individual PHOs. The key is to make sure the organization adds value to the managed care product and is not just a cartel to leverage payers. PMID:10167559

  16. Core-Periphery Relationships of Resource-Based Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Courtland L.; Steel, Brent S.

    1995-01-01

    Data from Oregon communities, 1949-1989, show dramatic changes in income between urban centers and rural communities at the periphery. Coping strategies for rural areas include cartels, self-sufficiency, community sustainability, harmonized interests with urban cores, and changing community identity. (Author/SK)

  17. Educating and Organizing Globally: Perspectives on the Internet and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allport, Carolyn

    2001-01-01

    Explores benefits and dangers of electronic learning and the globalization of higher education, focusing on the strategic response of Australian institutions to international cartels in partnership arrangements that cross national boundaries and involve for-profit media or information technology companies in curriculum development and delivery.…

  18. An Empire of Schools. Japan's Universities and the Molding of a National Power Elite.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutts, Robert L.

    This book addresses issues of American-Japanese relations by focusing on how the Japanese educational system molds the Japanese people and culture. It identifies the vital determining issue in U.S.-Japan communications in the fact that all Japanese leaders emerge from the same educational treadmill or "cartels of the mind." This system, especially…

  19. The United States and multilateral resource management

    SciTech Connect

    Jordon, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the issue of international cooperation with regard to global energy sources. Topics considered include oil and cartel power, food resources, the US role in international organizations, the multilateral management of marine mineral resources, the International Seabed Authority, and the issue of global interests versus national interests.

  20. The U. S., Its Press, and the New World Information Order. Freedom of Information Center Report No. 488.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wete, Francis N.

    Criticisms of the one-way flow of international information were first voiced in the 1940s, when, in the name of free flow of information and worldwide access to news, the United States launched an offensive to dismantle European news cartels. At a UNESCO conference in 1945, the United States was chiefly responsible for making the free flow of…

  1. Institutional Struggles for Recognition in the Academic Field: The Case of University Departments in German Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munch, Richard; Baier, Christian

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how the application of New Public Management (NPM) and the accompanying rise of academic capitalism in allocating research funds in the German academic field have interacted with a change from federal pluralism to a more stratified system of universities and departments. From this change, a tendency to build cartel-like…

  2. Losing American Students, Mexican Universities Struggle against a Scary Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrus, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Like most Mexicans, Eugenio Yarce has been deeply affected by the violence between drug cartels and the Mexican army, which has filled news coverage with accounts of kidnappings, assassinations, and torture. But for Mr. Yarce, deputy rector for outreach here at the private Autonomous Popular University of the State of Puebla, or Upaep, the…

  3. OPEC behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bo

    This thesis aims to contribute to a further understanding of the real dynamics of OPEC production behavior and its impacts on the world oil market. A literature review in this area shows that the existing studies on OPEC still have some major deficiencies in theoretical interpretation and empirical estimation technique. After a brief background review in chapter 1, chapter 2 tests Griffin's market-sharing cartel model on the post-Griffin time horizon with a simultaneous system of equations, and an innovative hypothesis of OPEC's behavior (Saudi Arabia in particular) is then proposed based on the estimation results. Chapter 3 first provides a conceptual analysis of OPEC behavior under the framework of non-cooperative collusion with imperfect information. An empirical model is then constructed and estimated. The results of the empirical studies in this thesis strongly support the hypothesis that OPEC has operated as a market-sharing cartel since the early 1980s. In addition, the results also provide some support of the theory of non-cooperative collusion under imperfect information. OPEC members collude under normal circumstances and behave competitively at times in response to imperfect market signals of cartel compliance and some internal attributes. Periodic joint competition conduct plays an important role in sustaining the collusion in the long run. Saudi Arabia acts as the leader of the cartel, accommodating intermediate unfavorable market development and punishing others with a tit-for-tat strategy in extreme circumstances.

  4. Bringing a Global Perspective to Economics. Field Test Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woyach, Robert B.; And Others

    Eight lessons on integrated global economics provide detailed instructional materials on world food and energy systems, international cartels, and the nature and process of foreign investments. The materials are designed to help high school social studies teachers develop student understanding of key economic systems and activities and reinforce…

  5. Nigeria`s oil production behavior: Tests of alternative hypotheses

    SciTech Connect

    Awokuse, T.O.; Jones, C.T.

    1994-12-31

    The sudden quadrupling of world oil prices in 1973-1974 marked the beginning of several formal inquiries by economists into the production behavior of members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). Interest in the organization was further heightened in 1979 when nominal oil prices further doubled. However, oil market analysts have differed in their evaluation of OPEC`s role in the determination of world oil prices. Most energy economists have modeled OPEC as a cartel. Morris Adelman has suggested that OPEC`s true nature lies somewhere between two polar cases of a dominant-firm industry and an imperfect, market-sharing cartel. In the former case, one large, dominant firm (i.e., Saudi Arabia) serves as the {open_quotes}swing producer,{close_quotes} allowing other cartel members and non-OPEC oil producers to produce whatever they wished, controlling the market price by itself through its own output adjustments. The latter case of an imperfect market-sharing cartel is a loose collusive arrangement in which all members agree on an acceptable price level and individual output shares for each producer. Adelman believes that OPEC wobbles between these two cases, depending upon market conditions.

  6. Geometry of Cournot-Nash Equilibrium with Application to Commons and Anticommons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Agata, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The author develops a simple geometric analysis of Cournot-Nash equilibrium in the price-quantity space by exploiting the economic content of the first-order condition. The approach makes it clear that strategic interdependency in oligopoly originates from externalities among producers. This explains why cartels are unstable and casts oligopoly…

  7. Peddling Pablo: Escobar's Cultural Renaissance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pobutsky, Aldona Bialowas

    2013-01-01

    Nearly two decades after his death, Pablo Escobar has reemerged in a number of autobiographical publications that revisit the era of the Medellín cartel and its most infamous capo. Rather than providing strictly historical information, these texts adopt an anecdotal and intimate angle from the positions of Escobar's hitman, his lover, his…

  8. One OPEC is enough

    SciTech Connect

    Ely, N.

    1981-11-01

    In the author's view, the Law of the Sea Treaty would end freedom of the seas and initiate one of the greatest land grabs in history. It would establish an authority to control Western access to sea bed minerals and operate as an OPEC-type cartel. The Third World Enterprise proposed in the treaty, with first preference over sites, could delay or deny permits to companies that had already invested heavily in exploration in favor of enhancing the development opportunities of other states. The treaty also mandates technology transfer, grants control of mining operations to the Authority according to a complex production formula, and encourages the organization of cartels to keep prices and tariffs high. The Enterprise could benefit from all the disadvantages of the private miners and develop its own worldwide monopoly. (DCK)

  9. Theory and measurement of OPEC stability

    SciTech Connect

    Danielsen, A.L.

    1980-07-01

    The theory of cartel behavior admits the possibility of either stability or disintegration and provides some guidance in seeking empirical measures of stability. Every cartel must devise some basis for limiting total output and sharing the limited total among participants. Sacrifice ratios provide a framework for appraising the stability of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) to see if it is gaining or losing strength. It appears that OPEC is becoming more cohesive with respect to production shares, capacity, and reserves. The author says the split-level price increase of 1976 was divisive at the time, but has led to greater stability within the ranks of OPEC. He feels that the future of OPEC now appears more secure than at any time since its inception. 18 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  10. OPEC behavior: a test of alternative hypotheses

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, J.M.

    1985-12-01

    Since interpretations of past and future oil price patterns depends on the model chosen, the author tests and compares alternative theories of OPEC as a first step in validating the choice on any one model. The results show that among OPEC countries, the partial market-sharing cartel model is the only model not rejected by at least some of the 11 members and gives the best explanation of production. In comparison with 11 non-OPEC countries, the competitive model could not be rejected for 10 of the 11 non-OPEC producers. This raises the question of why, if OPEC is a cartel, Friedman's predictions have not come true, and introduces new questions for future research. 19 references, 3 tables.

  11. Pigouvian taxation of energy for flow and stock externalities and strategic, noncompetitive energy pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Wirl, F. )

    1994-01-01

    The literature on energy and carbon taxes is by and large concerned about the derivation of (globally) efficient strategies. In contrast, this paper considers the dynamic interactions between cartelized energy suppliers and a consumers' government that collectively taxes energy carriers for Pigouvian motives. Two different kinds of external costs are associated with energy consumption: flow (e.g., acid rain) and stock externalities (e.g., global warming). The dynamic interactions between a consumers' government and a producers' cartel are modeled as a differential game with a subgame perfect Nash equilibrium in linear and nonlinear Markov strategies. The major implications are that the nonlinear solutions are Pareto-inferior to the linear strategies and energy suppliers may preempt energy taxation and thereby may raise the price at front; however, this effect diminishes over time because the producers' price declines, while taxes increase. 22 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Oil price forecasting in the 1980`s: What went wrong?

    SciTech Connect

    Huntington, H.G.

    1994-12-31

    This paper reviews forecasts of oil prices over the 1980s that were made in 1980. It identifies the sources of errors due to such factors as erogenous GNP assumptions, resource supply conditions outside the cartel, and demand adjustments to price changes. Through 1986, the first two factors account for most of the difference between projected and actual prices. After 1986, misspecification of the demand adjustments becomes a particularly troublesome problem. 21 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Order has been restored to world oil production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    This paper reports on the activities of OPEC during the past few years and on world oil production. The cartel has shown an increasing willingness to discipline itself and foster cooperation. Meanwhile, growth in world oil output during 1989 was much more in line with increases in global demand. World production averaged 59.62 MMbopd, a 2.2% gain over 1988's level.

  14. The social costs to the US of monopolization of the world oil market, 1972--1991

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Leiby, P.N.

    1993-03-01

    The partial monopolization of the world oil market by the OPEC cartel has produced significant economic costs to the economies of the world. This paper reports estimates of the costs of monopolization of oil to the US over the period 1972--1991. Two fundamental assumptions of the analysis are, (1) that OPEC has acted as a monopoly, albeit with limited control, knowledge, and ability to act and, (2) that the US and other consuming nations could, through collective (social) action affect the cartel`s ability to act as a monopoly. We measure total costs by comparing actual costs for the 1972--1991 period to a hypothetical ``more competitive`` world oil market scenario. By measuring past costs we avoid the enormous uncertainties about the future course of the world oil market and leave to the reader`s judgment the issue of how much the future will be like the past. We note that total cost numbers cannot be used to determine the value of reducing US oil use by one barrel. They are useful for describing the overall size of the petroleum problem and are one important factor in deciding how much effort should be devoted to solving it. Monopoly pricing of oil transfers wealth from US oil consumers to foreign oil producers and, by increasing theeconomic scarcity of oil, reduces the economy`s potential to produce. The actions of the OPEC cartel have also produced oil price shocks, both upward and downward, that generate additional costs because of the economy`s inherent inability to adjust quickly to a large change in energy prices. Estimated total costs to the United States from these three sources for the 1972--1991 period are put at $4.1 trillion in 1990$($1.2 T wealth transfer, $0.8 T macroeconomic adjustment costs, $2.1 T potential GNP losses). The cost of the US`s primary oil supply contingency program is small ($10 B) by comparison.

  15. Morbidity study of oil shale workers employed at anvil points, colorado, during 1948-1969

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, J.; Attfield, M.; Burkart, J.A.; Turner, E.R.; Krueger, G.G.

    1981-01-05

    With the advent of oil shortages caused by the oil cartel in the Middle East, the possibility of using synthetic fuels became of interest. Because of the vast reserves of shale oil on the Colorado Plateau, research on this fuel began to increase. The present morbidity study, an outgrowth and continuation of an earlier Birmingham study, was one of the results of increased interest in synthetic fuels.

  16. Lack of agreement over the use and ownership of the internationally shared resources (such as air space, outer space and the oceans) leading to international conflict

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The lack of adequate institutional mechanisms to regulate, monitor and govern the use of commonly owned world resources appears to be politically destabilizing and subject to socioeconomic pressures of overpopulation, food shortages, cartelism, terrorism, and wealth distribution to developing countries. The capacity and propensity to wage war and its potential consequences are elaborated. It is shown that technology is one of the dominant factors affecting the exploration and management of commonly shared resources.

  17. Exhaustible resources and market structure in world oil: a Nash-Cournot approach

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    Most studies in the economic literature suggested the 1974-1978 world oil price structure as nearly compatible with optimum OPEC profits. Since 1978, however, renewed market instability has led to much higher prices. This study deals with the role of the world oil market structure and its implications for long-term equilibrium prices. Various market models are investigated to study the impact of large-scale cartelization and the probable long-term evolution in the event of a cartel breakdown. All results are referenced to the perfectly competitive solution. The theoretical structure of the various imperfect competition models follows the standard Nash-Cournot analysis of oligopolistic markets. The solutions are derived from dynamic optimization problems subject to the constraint of resource exhaustion. The empirical parameterization of the models is a simplified version of intricate realities. In spite of the simplified approach, important insights are gained on the nature of alternative world oil equilibria. The most-significant findings concern the stability of the relative effects of different imperfectly competitive models across parametric cases and the substantial monopoly gains attainable without large-scale cartelization.

  18. Theory and evidence about the structure of the international oil market: 1974-1980; a collection of related essays

    SciTech Connect

    Loderer, C.F.

    1983-01-01

    One can argue that the international oil market is competitive. This dissertation, a collection of related essays, tries to resolve that issue by considering the 1974-80 period. The first essay tests the hypotheses that OPEC affects market prices. The analysis employs time-series tests involving spot prices of oil products and stock market portfolio returns. The findings confirm the hypothesis. The second essay looks for other evidence supporting the claim that OPEC is an effective cartel. The cartel is modelled as a dominant producer in a multiperiod world. The evidence contradicts the model. The findings cast doubts on most cartel explanations of the high oil prices. The third essay builds on MacAvoy's findings that the oil prices of the 1970's are mainly the result of an increasing demand and of declining new discoveries. During the first half of the 1970's, ownership of most crude oil reserves in the world was shifted from the international oil producing companies to their host countries through nationalizations and more or less forced equity participation agreements. The evidence shows that the timing of output policy changes in individual countries. However, controlling for changes in price expectations and reserve accumulations, these events are not an important determinant of output rates. Assuming the methodology used is correct, they cannot be a major reason for the oil price increase of the 1970's.

  19. What causes oil price shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Bohi, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    It is common, though debatable, to model the world oil market as some form of a producer cartel that administers oil prices. In this context, the central question is what motivates the cartel to change prices and output. The answer is only partially given by presuming that producers seek to optimize the stream of earnings over time. Aside from complexities introduced by differences in discount rates and objective functions across producers, there is still the question of determining what the market will bear. A simple and popular explanation is that the cartel has been guided by changes in prices in spot markets. In this report, the author casts doubt on the importance of spot market prices in determining OPEC selling prices, and indeed on the proposition that OPEC price increases are administered rather than market induced. These observations are drawn from an examination of inventory and price behavior during the after the price shock of 1979. Although an alternative explanation of the 1979 experience is advanced, the primary message of this paper is that caution is advisable in accepting prevailing interpretations of how the market works. The ready corollary of this conclusion is that policies for mitigating harm during a disruption should be robust across a range of possible formulation processes. 14 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries members and US policies

    SciTech Connect

    Erb, R.D.

    1982-03-01

    Time and events since 1974 have provided perspective on the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) revolution. The oil price shock of 1973 to 1974 was the outcome of a confluence of economic, security, and political trends that had been evolving during the previous two decades. Although many had predicted the collapse of the OPEC cartel and of the price of oil following 1974, the oil price increases were sustained primarily by the price and production decisions of two dominant producers: Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. The OPEC cartel did not collapse because OPEC was not a cartel. A revolution in one major oil-producing nation and a war between two oil-producing states during the period from late 1978 to early 1980 triggered the second oil price shock of the last decade. Thus the world learned the hard way that it is as necessary to pay attention to the potential impact of political and military events on world oil markets as it is to focus on energy consumption and production trends. Regarding US policies, further reductions in US oil imports would encourage oil producers to be more cautious when setting their price and production policies. At the same time, the United States should also work to reduce the risk of oil-supply disruptions - in particular in the Persian Gulf region.

  1. Bringing together an ocean of information: An extensible data integration framework for biological oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocks, Karen I.; Condit, Chris; Qian, Xufei; Brewin, Paul E.; Gupta, Amarnath

    2009-09-01

    As increasing volumes and varieties of data are becoming available online, the challenges of accessing and using heterogeneous data resources are growing. We have developed a mediator-based data integration system called Cartel for biological oceanography data. A mediation approach is appropriate in cases where a single central warehouse is not desirable, such as when the needed data sources change frequently through time, or when there are advantages for holding heterogeneous data in their native formats. Through Cartel, data sources of a variety of types can be registered to the system, and users can query against simplified virtual schemas, without needing to know the underlying schema and computational capabilities of each data source. The system can operate on a variety of relational and geospatial data formats, and can perform joins between formats. We tested the performance of the Cartel mediator in two biological oceanography application areas, and found that the system was able to support the variety of data types needed in a typical ecology study, but that the response times were unacceptably slow when very large databases (i.e. Ocean Biogeographic Information System and the World Ocean Atlas) were used. Indexing and caching are currently being added to the system to improve response times. The mediator is an open-source product, and was developed to be a generic, extensible component available to projects developing oceanography data systems.

  2. The social costs to the US of monopolization of the world oil market, 1972--1991

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Leiby, P.N.

    1993-03-01

    The partial monopolization of the world oil market by the OPEC cartel has produced significant economic costs to the economies of the world. This paper reports estimates of the costs of monopolization of oil to the US over the period 1972--1991. Two fundamental assumptions of the analysis are, (1) that OPEC has acted as a monopoly, albeit with limited control, knowledge, and ability to act and, (2) that the US and other consuming nations could, through collective (social) action affect the cartel's ability to act as a monopoly. We measure total costs by comparing actual costs for the 1972--1991 period to a hypothetical more competitive'' world oil market scenario. By measuring past costs we avoid the enormous uncertainties about the future course of the world oil market and leave to the reader's judgment the issue of how much the future will be like the past. We note that total cost numbers cannot be used to determine the value of reducing US oil use by one barrel. They are useful for describing the overall size of the petroleum problem and are one important factor in deciding how much effort should be devoted to solving it. Monopoly pricing of oil transfers wealth from US oil consumers to foreign oil producers and, by increasing theeconomic scarcity of oil, reduces the economy's potential to produce. The actions of the OPEC cartel have also produced oil price shocks, both upward and downward, that generate additional costs because of the economy's inherent inability to adjust quickly to a large change in energy prices. Estimated total costs to the United States from these three sources for the 1972--1991 period are put at $4.1 trillion in 1990$($1.2 T wealth transfer, $0.8 T macroeconomic adjustment costs, $2.1 T potential GNP losses). The cost of the US's primary oil supply contingency program is small ($10 B) by comparison.

  3. The Social Costs to the U.S. of Monopolization of the World Oil Market, 1972-1991

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    The partial monopolization of the world oil market by the OPEC cartel has produced significant economic costs to the economies of the world. This paper reports estimates of the costs of monopolization of oil to the U.S. over the period 1972-1991. Two fundamental assumptions of the analysis are, (1) that OPEC has acted as a monopoly, albeit with limited control, knowledge, and ability to act and, (2) that the U.S. and other consuming nations could, through collective (social) action affect the cartel's ability to act as a monopoly. We measure total costs by comparing actual costs for the 1972-1991 period to a hypothetical ''more competitive'' world oil market scenario. By measuring past costs we avoid the enormous uncertainties about the future course of the world oil market and leave to the reader's judgment the issue of how much the future will be like the past. We note that total cost numbers cannot be used to determine the value of reducing U.S. oil use by one barrel. They are useful for describing the overall size of the petroleum problem and are one important factor in deciding how much effort should be devoted to solving it. Monopoly pricing of oil transfers wealth from US. oil consumers to foreign oil producers and, by increasing the economic scarcity of oil, reduces the economy's potential to produce. The actions of the OPEC Cartel have also produced oil price shocks, both upward and downward, that generate additional costs because of the economy's inherent inability to adjust quickly to a large change in energy prices. Estimated total costs to the United States from these three sources for the 1972-1991 period are put at $4.1 trillion in 1990$ ($1.2 T wealth transfer, $0.8 T macroeconomic adjustment costs, $2.1 T potential GNP losses). The cost of the US's primary oil supply contingency program is small ($10 B) by comparison.

  4. OPEC: 10 years later

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    This paper summarizes the trends and developments in the OPEC cartel since the Arab oil boycott. It discusses the economic developments among OPEC countries and the impacts on the US economy caused price increases. It discusses the adjustments the US and other world markets are making to cut the amounts of oil consumption. The paper also goes on to discuss the effects of a possible Persian Gulf cut-off of oil to the US and US allies. The effects of falling oil prices on Arab oil producers as compared to benefits are compared.

  5. Montana strikes it rich: Commonwealth Edison Co. v. Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The Supreme Court decision in Commonwealth Edison v. Montana confirms the right of states to impose a severance tax on natural resources and the right of Congress to limit the rate of taxation, but it declined to mandate an equitable rate. If other states follow Montana's example and raise their severance taxes, the Court and Congress can avert any effort to form a coal cartel among the Western mining states. This article reviews the issues behind the suit and analyzes the decision. An appendix compares the rate and revenue disposition of the 16 states that impose severance taxes. (DCK)

  6. ECUADOR: counting down the barrels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-02-09

    Within the world oil market, OPEC faces a reduced role as supplier and production/price dilemmas. One of its members, Ecuador, faces rapid drawdown of its reserves and ultimate loss of membership in the cartel. But Ecuador is tackling the problem by a variety of means and is still defending OPEC prices, as its OPEC Governor tells Energy Detente. The complete interview with Cesar Guerra Navarrete, the OPEC Governor is presented. The Energy Detente fuel price/tax series and the principal industrial fuel prices as of February 1983 are included for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere.

  7. Patent pools: intellectual property rights and competition.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major players to form a cartel that excludes new competitors. For all the above reasons, patent pools are subject to regulatory clearance because they could result in a monopoly. The aim of this article is to present the relationship between patents and competition in a broad context. PMID:20200607

  8. Patent Pools: Intellectual Property Rights and Competition

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major players to form a cartel that excludes new competitors. For all the above reasons, patent pools are subject to regulatory clearance because they could result in a monopoly. The aim of this article is to present the relationship between patents and competition in a broad context. PMID:20200607

  9. OPEC: 10 years after the Arab oil boycott

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.H.

    1983-09-23

    OPEC's dominance over world oil markets is waning 10 years after precipitating world-wide energy and economic crises. The 1979 revolution in Iran and the start of the Iranian-Iraqi war in 1980 introduced a second shock that caused oil importers to seek non-OPEC supplies and emphasize conservation. No breakup of the cartel is anticipated, however, despite internal disagreements over production and price levels. Forecasters see OPEC as the major price setter as an improved economy increases world demand for oil. Long-term forecasts are even more optimistic. 24 references, 2 figures, 2 tables. (DCK)

  10. International banking system: the calm before the storm

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-04

    The success of efforts to recycle the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) surpluses during 1973-76, together with the relative absence of clear distress signals from debtor countries, has disguised the gravity of the financial crisis that faced the Western banking system after the 1979-80 price increases. The US Administration's misplaced confidence in the free market's ability to withstand the deviant economic forces unleashed by the cartel has made little effort in the US-dominated international agencies to strengthen the West's financial base and avoid a fracturing of the international banking system next year. 10 tables.

  11. An assessment of the role of coal in the long-term energy plan for Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, J.S.

    1982-03-01

    During the last two decades, Korean industry has been developed very quickly. Energy consumption also has been increased very rapidly by the growth of industry. These energy requirements should be imported from other countries because Korea has few energy sources. Korean energy consumption depends highly on oil, even though oil has less security of supply and a higher price than other energy sources due to the limitation of oil reserves and the oil cartel. The Korean government wishes to import energy sources with more security of supply and a lower price.

  12. Yamani

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, J.

    1988-01-01

    In 1962, when oil was $2/bbl (*12.50/m/sup 3/), King Faisal appointed a lawyer as minister of petroleum. According to the author, he wrestled control of Saudi Arabia's oil away from the U.S. during the next 11 years and turned the OPEC cartel into a major world force. In Oct. 1973, when war broke out in the Middle East, this man held the world to ransom. Yet in 1989, a one-sentence edict brought his political career to an end. This book traces these events in a biographical account of the former Saudi Arabian oil minister and leading force behind OPEC, Sheik Ahmed Zaki Yamani.

  13. OPEC, the petroleum industry, and United States energy policy

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, A.

    1984-01-01

    An historical review of OPEC's rise to prominence and of the structural and operational changes that took place in the US petroleum industry during the 1954-1979 period draws on new oil-industry data. Separate chapters deal with OPEC pricing and multinational companies, the oil industry's acquisitions and efforts to diversify, and the efforts of oil-consuming nations to deal with OPEC. It concludes that the cartel remains viable, although the inherent weaknesses in its structure (especially the power wielded by Saudi Arabia) are destabilizing and vulnerable to a weakening demand and an expanding supply. 72 references, 155 notes, 5 figures, 59 tables

  14. Dangerous properties of petroleum-refining products: carcinogenicity of motor fuels (gasoline).

    PubMed

    Mehlman, M A

    1990-01-01

    Gasoline contains large numbers of dangerous and cancer-causing chemicals such as benzene, butadiene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, trimethyl pentane, methyltertbutylether (MTBE) and many others. For the U.S. alone approximately 140 billion gallons of gasoline were consumed in 1989. An increase in only ten cents per gallon in price of gasoline generates 14 billion dollars in extra profit per year for oil industry cartel. Laboratory animals exposed to gasoline developed cancers in different tissues and organs. A number of epidemiological studies in humans provide evidence of increased cancer risk of leukemia, kidney, liver, brain, lymphosarcoma, lymphatic tissue pancreas and other tissues and organs. PMID:1981951

  15. Future US energy demands based upon traditional consumption patterns lead to requirements which significantly exceed domestic supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Energy consumption in the United States has risen in response to both increasing population and to increasing levels of affluence. Depletion of domestic energy reserves requires consumption modulation, production of fossil fuels, more efficient conversion techniques, and large scale transitions to non-fossile fuel energy sources. Widening disparity between the wealthy and poor nations of the world contributes to trends that increase the likelihood of group action by the lesser developed countries to achieve political and economic goals. The formation of anticartel cartels is envisioned.

  16. Application of Core Theory to the Airline Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raghavan, Sunder

    2003-01-01

    Competition in the airline industry has been fierce since the industry was deregulated in 1978. The proponents of deregulation believed that more competition would improve efficiency and reduce prices and bring overall benefits to the consumer. In this paper, a case is made based on core theory that under certain demand and cost conditions more competition can actually lead to harmful consequences for industries like the airline industry or cause an empty core problem. Practices like monopolies, cartels, price discrimination, which is considered inefficient allocation of resources in many other industries, can actually be beneficial in the case of the airline industry in bringing about an efficient equilibrium.

  17. Observing OPEC's 20th birthday: how the oil bloc stands today

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, Y.

    1981-04-01

    OPEC was formed 20 years ago when the producers perceived that major oil companies were conspiring to lower prices, but OPEC's domination of total world production and the industralized world's dependence on imported oil have led to the cartel's major triumphs of the past eight years. OPEC's power has caused major price shocks after 1973 and 1978. A major contribution to the growth of cartel power was the decline in US oil production, which peaked in 1970. Supply and demand in terms of oil prices and the world economic condition have fluctuated several times since the 1973 supply disruption and remain unstable in 1981. At the time this article was written, the author foresaw that OPEC prices could still rise as much as 30% in 1981 in spite of conservation efforts and more stable supply and demand conditions. Government policies to offset US vulnerability to OPEC control include building a strategic oil reserve and deregulation of oil prices, but the tradeoff has been higher inflation. (DCK)

  18. Strategic development of a backstop technology

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    A research program directed towards developing a substitute for an exhaustible resource can have strategic implications for the current resource market. Such strategic interactions are analyzed for a market structure where the exhaustible resource is supplied exclusively by a cartel (the exporting coutry) and R and D for a backstop technology is controlled by the importing country. First, it is assumed that R and D is without risk, and that the importing country can commit to a specific program at the start of the game. It is shown that, under some circumstances, it is feasible for the importing country to achieve a favorable production/pricing response from the cartel by deliberately delaying the date of invention. Next, it is assumed that R and D is risky, but still the importing country can credibly commit to some specific R and D program at the start of the game. Finally, it is assumed that commitment times become short and that the backstop technology can become quickly available. Uncertainty is ignored. A subgame perfect Nash equilibrium exists for this game. It is probed that there is a critical stock such that R and D investment is initiated immediately if remaining reserves are smaller than this stock.

  19. From War on Drugs to War against Terrorism: modeling the evolution of Colombia's counter-insurgency.

    PubMed

    Banks, Catherine M; Sokolowski, John A

    2009-03-01

    Strategic and tactical planning for military intervention needs revision as the causes, methods, and means of conflict have evolved. Counter-insurgent engagement is one such intervention that governments, militaries, and non-governmental organizations seek to better understand. Modeling insurgencies is an acceptable means to gain insight into the various characteristics of asymmetric warfare to proffer prescriptive resolutions for mitigating their effects. Colombia's insurgency poses the challenge of assessing population behavior in a non-traditional revolutionary climate. Factors prevalent in traditional insurgency are not applicable in Colombia, specifically between the years 1993 and 2001 with the democratization of the drug cartels. The catastrophic events of September 11th reverberated in Colombia resulting in a new policy and strategy to the waging the counter-insurgency there. This research introduces a structured methodology to modeling the Colombian counter-insurgency incorporating qualitative assessment, mathematical representation, and a System Dynamics approach to represent the effects of the policy change. PMID:19569297

  20. [Free choice of doctor: patient's right or doctor's power?].

    PubMed

    Bertens, R M; Huisman, F G

    2016-01-01

    This article outlines the historical development of the principle of patients' free choice of doctor in the Netherlands. Far from being the result of debates on patients' rights, this principle was used instead as an instrument by the medical profession to gain a foothold in the power relations between doctors and sickness funds back in the early 20th-century. This development created a medical power bloc that lasted for most of that century and forced sickness funds and private insurers to start organizing in this fashion too. Therefore, when the new market ideology of introducing competition in health care was introduced in 1987, the fields of health provision and insurance were already defined by a high degree of cartelization. These relations lingered even after the introduction of regulated competition in 2006. Knowledge of this history therefore leads to a better understanding of current debates and problems in the organization of Dutch health care. PMID:27353160

  1. World oil outlook. Hearings before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session, January 22 and March 11, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Dr. James E. Akins, Ambassador to Saudi Arabia, James R. Schlesinger of the Georgetown Center for Strategic and International Studies, Dr. Daniel Dreyfus of the Gas Research Institute, Dr. Scott Jones of Chase Econometrics, Inc., and Dr. John H. Lichtblau of the Petroleum Industry Research Foundation were the principal witnesses at a hearing held to review the potential for another oil crisis due to reduced domestic production and exploration and a diminished capability in both areas. Statements made by several senators reviewed the dangers of depending upon Middle East oil imports and the threat of an energy problem more serious than those of 1973 and 1979. Of primary concern was the need to retain a healthy domestic petroleum industry in the wake of fluctuating prices and restrengthening of OPEC as a cartel. Additional material submitted by Americans for Energy Independence follows the two-day testimony of the 16 witnesses.

  2. Management of food waste materials: Biogas and biomass production and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Angelo, P.G.; Alamis, M.A.; Pacheco, M.; Tan, B.V.

    1983-12-01

    Management of food wastes has been the subject of investigation especially in developing countries where food processors produce enormous quantities of waste materials from the processed foods they manufacture. One possible solution is to integrate biogas technology to augment, at least, the fuel needs of the company. The escalation in the cost of energy brought about by the cartel members of the oil-exporting countries has affected considerably food processing companies in maintaining an optimal margin of profit. Conversion of food wastes into biofuel through the process of anaerobic digestion may lessen energy consumption significantly, in addition to reduction of environmental pollution in the area. In this paper, researches on the possibility of utilizing some food processing wastes from food manufacturing industries have been undertaken. This may be the time that regional research cooperation be intensified to help and solve the common problems on energy in developing countries.

  3. Critical materials cut-offs feared

    SciTech Connect

    Szuprowicz, B.

    1981-11-01

    US high technology depends on imported materials, many from the Soviet Union, South Africa, and other areas which could restrict the flow of strategic materials to the US. A combination of nationalizaton moves, continued poverty, and rising expectations in the Third World countries has changed market conditions and could lead to a materials cartel. The Soviet Union succeeded in slowing Chinese development, for example, by reducing exports in the 1960s. Comparisons of US import dependence with that of the Soviet Union show the US a significant disadvantage. Another comparison identifies the major uses of high-technology materials. Corrective measures to this vulnerability include assessing the opportunity for substitutions and developing a vulnerability index for each material that weighs import dependence against a range of critical factors. Other steps include stockpiling, recycling, conservation, and research into new alloys and new designs. 3 figures, 2 tables. (DCK)

  4. Will the US be left vulnerable if a resource war breaks out

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, M.R.

    1981-04-18

    Concerns that the Soviet Union will take advantage of US materials shortages by cutting off access to resources in Africa and Asia led to the Administration's effort to stockpile $100 million in strategic materials, a review of the Law of the Sea Treaty, and a proposal to expand mineral exploration on public lands. Another suggested initiative is a government-guaranteed price floor for strategic minerals. US mineral vulnerability is comparable to its oil dependency, although cartel development is considered unlikely. Critics of the views of the Administration doubt that a Buy America strategy will yield critical minerals, but it will have a high economic and environmental cost. A chart comparing US and Soviet metal and mineral imports shows the US is a net exporter of only iron and steel scrap and an importer of 35 items, while the Soviets are net exporters of 19 strategic minerals and importers of only seven. (DCK)

  5. World oil market: an exporter's view

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    Inadequate information plagues those making decisions on both the supply and the demand side of petroleum policy because accurate predictions are nearly impossible. Surges of optimism and pessimism about world oil supplies in response to world events belie the concept of a society making minor adjustments in a constant movement toward equilibrium. What has changed so rapidly is our awareness and our expectations rather than reality. A trend toward more-rational expectations is evident. A more-orderly market of systematic price adjustments that producers and consumers can understand will be as helpful to the cartel as to the importing nations. With production policies now emphasizing long-term resource conservation, it is not reasonable to expect the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries to increase production levels. (DCK)

  6. Competition and the Reference Pricing Scheme for pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Ghislandi, Simone

    2011-12-01

    By introducing n (>1) firms with infinite cross-price elasticity (i.e. generic drugs), we explore the effects of competition on the optimal pricing strategies under a Reference Pricing Scheme (RPS). A two-stage model repeated infinite number of times is presented. When stage 1 is competitive, the equilibrium in pure strategies exists and is efficient only if the reference price (R) does not depend on the price of the branded product. When generics collude, the way R is designed is crucial for both the stability of the cartel among generics and the collusive prices in equilibrium. An optimally designed RPS must set R as a function only of the infinitely elastic side of the market and should provide the right incentives for competition. PMID:21937137

  7. Industrial electrification trend shows strength

    SciTech Connect

    Burwell, C.C.

    1983-05-01

    One outcome of the oil embargo and cartel has been that, on the average, the price ratio of electricity to oil and gas has been cut in half. Some observers of the electric-utility industry may consider this change unimportant as electricity is still four times as expensive as oil or gas based on dollars per delivered Btu. For numerous uses, however, a given amount of electricity can replace several times as much fossil-fuel energy when relative efficiencies are considered. Thus with decreasing cost ratio, electricity can be justified by certain processes where it was previously uneconomical. A study of industrial activity suggests that several large industries are poised for a substantial shift to electric processing. Among them are the steel, aluminum, copper, glass, cement, petroleum, and paper industries. The potential and incentive for further electrification, from a thermodynamic standpoint, are strongest in manufacturing sectors that require high processing temperatures. 2 figures.

  8. Interdependencies 1989, Part III: Focus on solidarity with OPEC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-10

    Several non-OPEC countries, and sometimes elements within countries, have been in dialogue with OPEC about oil market supply, demand, and pricing for the past few years. Recently, some have attended OPEC meetings as observers for the first time. Economists have asked, Will this strengthen OPEC make it into a true cartel Is free oil marketing threatened In this issue a remarkable paper addresses the evolution of relationships between OPEC and non-OPEC producers. This issue also presents the following: (1) ED refining netback data series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of July 7, 1989; and (2) ED fuel price/tax series for the countries of the Western Hemisphere, July 1989 edition. Includes paper by John Roberts, OPEC and non-OPEC Relations, March 1989. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Production gains won't offset dips elsewhere

    SciTech Connect

    LeBlanc, L.; Redden, J.; Cornitius, T.; Tanner, R.

    1984-12-01

    It's not the best of times currently for the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). The cartel is struggling to maintain its benchmark price of $29/bbl for crude, primarily through a disparate set of production cutbacks among its member nations. Though it's too early to tell if their effort has succeeded, the members are putting up a front and vowing to hang tough. OPEC still has the bulk of the world's hydrocarbon reserves, with the bonus of being able to produce those reserves more cheaply than competing producers in most cases. World supply and demand should be more closely in balance by the end of the decade, allowing OPEC to regain much of its price leverage.

  10. Economic model of OPEC coalition

    SciTech Connect

    Razavi, H.

    1984-10-01

    Efforts to formulate the economic behavior of OPEC are complicated because the coalition is made up of member countries, each of which pursues a different objective, arrives at its own optimum price and quantity, and has an opportunity to participate in a group consensus. This requires a new cartel model that will explain the coalitionary process, yet remain flexible enough to consider the diverse objectives of individual members. The author analyzes the possibility of realizing this consensus in relation to the differing politico-economic structures of the members. He concludes that the long-run stability of OPEC requires reversing some historical patterns, although offsetting effects may avoid a short-term instability. 19 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  11. South African minerals and world demand

    SciTech Connect

    van Rensburg, W.C.J.

    1983-01-01

    South Africa is a prodigious source of many mineral supplies that are critical to the industrial nations. Increasing and intensifying Soviet and Soviet-surrogate thrusts into Africa reflect a longstanding ambition to target the ''weak links'' in vulnerable Western supplies. The dangers to the Western countries relate not only to direct denial of critical resources, but to a trend toward a mineral cartel. The cessation of mineral supplies from South Africa would in most cases have a more serious effect on the availability of these commodities to the West than on their prices. A review ofpossible Soviet control and international trade developments suggests that the Western nations must consider the possible elimination of South Africa as a major supplier. 15 references, 1 figure.

  12. OPEC game: heads they win, tails we lose

    SciTech Connect

    Adelman, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    In summary, the author expects world oil prices to rise while the supply of oil remains unstable, with chronic shortages punctuated by occasional gluts. There is nothing America has that the OPEC nations cannot buy or do not have already because of our oil dependence. The United States cannot give or withhold technical assistance; they can buy it. The United States must give military protection regardless of their actions because of our dependence. Without a bargaining position, Persian Gulf producers will continue to fine-tune the cartel by trying to match supply and demand at their price. They are in a position to lower supplies when the demand slackens or raises prices when demand increases. (SAC)

  13. Crude oil prices as determined by OPEC and market fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    MacAvoy, P.W.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the causes of oil price increases during the last decade and of the consequences for price levels in the 1980s, this study includes both market fundamentals and the OPEC cartel in identifying major and minor determinants of price changes in the world crude-oil market. MacAvoy poses a scenario without OPEC, and argues that world-market supply-and-demand conditions would have resulted in the same yearly average price increases. He argues that pressuring OPEC to prevent or mitigate future price increases will not work. Instead, policymakers must view crude oil prices from a wider political and economic perspective. Only then can they successfully anticipate abrupt price changes that are inherent to the market itself. 30 references, 9 figures, 52 tables.

  14. Oil and turmoil: America faces OPEC and the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Rustow, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    Middle-East expert Rustow traces the chain of events that placed economic power in an unstable region. He recounts how European imperialists acquired and surrendered their positions of domination, how nationalists such as Nasser and Qaddafi sought to manipulate the superpowers, and how leaders such as Sadat and Begin wrestled with war and peace. Meanwhile, the oil industry's Seven Sisters lost their preeminence as OPEC grew from a loose confederacy of oil shiekdoms into a cartel strong enough to shake the world economy. Rustow analyzes the confusion in oil-consuming countries that led to long gasoline lines one year and talk of an oil glut and OPEC's collapse the next. He puts into context Washington's uneven efforts to bring stability to the strife-torn Middle East. 221 references, 3 figures, 7 tables.

  15. World petroleum outlook: statement before the Committee on Energy and National Resources of the United States Senate. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtblau, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The current world oil situation is exerting a shock on producers rather than consumers as production continues a three-year decline of 16.5%. The OPEC nations are experiencing most of the shock, while non-OPEC production increases. The drop in world demand for oil is due to price-induced conservation efforts, a general worldwide recession, and surplus inventories. The lower prices that have followed are not likely to continue because the recession and high-inventory factors are ready to turn around. World demand will probably rise at a slow, but steady rate, with OPEC probably surviving as an effective price-setting cartel. Saudi Arabia will have to assist the weaker nations to keep them within OPEC price-and-quota regulations. (DCK)

  16. Oil gluts and oil tariffs

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, W.W.

    1982-01-01

    The free market does not provide the level of oil imports that is in the best interest of oil-importing nations. Common sense tells us that the best time to combat the economic power of a cartel is when it is weak, such as during a period of oil glut. The glut conditions still leave us with a large gap between the true cost of oil and the market price. The authors could justify an oil import tariff of 30-40% of the price of oil, or more. Nearly every other consideration, especially the positive effect on the federal budget, reinforces the recommendation for a large import tariff. An analysis in the appendix showing the otpimal tariff at 65-100% suggests that we should impose the largest tariff we can get through the political system. 9 references, 10 tables.

  17. Competitive interstate taxation of western coal

    SciTech Connect

    Kolstad, C.D.; Wolak, F.A. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    This paper analyzes the potential market power of western states in setting coal severance taxes. An attempt to determine the emphasis placed by the western states on the development of their coal resources is also made. Three market structures are analyzed. One involves a western regional cartel, setting taxes collectively. The other cases are noncooperative tax equilibria with Montana and Wyoming competing against each other. We study the effects on these equilibria of changes in each region's relative emphasis on development of coal resources vs tax revenue. The welfare impacts of these tax setting policies are also addressed. The analysis is based on an activity analysis of US coal markets. The results show that the taxes associated with the noncooperative competitive tax equilibria are close to present tax levels. Additionally, we conclude that western states currently are quite efficient extractors of economic rent from coal produced within their boundaries, in terms of welfare loss per dollar of tax revenue collected. 2 figures.

  18. Politics of Uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, N.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium is the most political of all the elements, the material for the production of both the large amounts of electricity and the most destructive weapons in the world. The problems that its dual potential creates are only now beginning to become evident. Author Norman Moss looks at this situation and sheds light on many of the questions that emerge. The nuclear issue always comes back to how much uranium there is, what can be done with it, and which countries have it. Starting with a concise history of uranium and explaining its technology in terms the nonspecialist can understand, The Politics of Uranium considers the political issues that technical arguments obscure. It tells the little-known story of the international uranium cartel, explains the entanglements of governments with the uranium trade, and describes the consequences of wrong decisions and blunders-especially the problems of nuclear waste. It also examines the intellectual and emotional roots of the anti-nuclear movement.

  19. How price linkage ties world oil markets

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, A.J.

    1989-01-23

    Since 1973, the oil industry has seen control of the price mechanism move from a small number of integrated international oil companies to OPEC, and then from OPEC to the free market. The reasons for this are well documented. Growth in petroleum demand through the early seventies put a handful of Middle East producers in a short run oligopolistic position. This allowed them to wrest the pricing initiative from the oil companies. Virtually overnight, the world moved from an era of stable--if contrived--tax reference prices to one of official government sales prices dictated by a producers' cartel. The resulting massive jump in real prices proved unsustainable. Demand for oil declined because of conservation and substitution. Also, supply, from noncartel members increased dramatically.

  20. The key to better times is Opec pricing discipline

    SciTech Connect

    Crouse, P.C. )

    1989-02-01

    According to the author, 1988 proved again that Opec's ability to control world oil markets in tenuous at best. Oil analysts had trouble determining direction of the cartel, with forecasts showing a wide range of possibilities for oil prices. In the last half of the year, concern about a long-term collapse in oil prices sent many U.S. producers to the sidelines with drilling activity languishing at 911 rigs running at the end of November. Most active rigs were looking for natural gas, further complicating U.S. oil reserve replenishment. Opec gradually lost control of world oil markets in 1988. Opec impotence will continue unless non-Opec producers cooperate to cut output, global oil demand increases significantly, or members finally begin to seriously address the critical issue of adhering strictly to production quotas. The author discusses the status of OPEC and U.S. petroleum in regard to current U.S. and worldwide economic conditions.

  1. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  2. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  3. The H0 function, a new index for detecting structural/topological complexity information in undirected graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscema, Massimo; Asadi-Zeydabadi, Masoud; Lodwick, Weldon; Breda, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Significant applications such as the analysis of Alzheimer's disease differentiated from dementia, or in data mining of social media, or in extracting information of drug cartel structural composition, are often modeled as graphs. The structural or topological complexity or lack of it in a graph is quite often useful in understanding and more importantly, resolving the problem. We are proposing a new index we call the H0function to measure the structural/topological complexity of a graph. To do this, we introduce the concept of graph pruning and its associated algorithm that is used in the development of our measure. We illustrate the behavior of our measure, the H0 function, through different examples found in the appendix. These examples indicate that the H0 function contains information that is useful and important characteristics of a graph. Here, we restrict ourselves to undirected.

  4. Historical Review: Problematic Malaria Prophylaxis with Quinine.

    PubMed

    Shanks, G Dennis

    2016-08-01

    Quinine, a bitter-tasting, short-acting alkaloid drug extracted from cinchona bark, was the first drug used widely for malaria chemoprophylaxis from the 19th century. Compliance was difficult to enforce even in organized groups such as the military, and its prophylaxis potential was often questioned. Severe adverse events such as blackwater fever occurred rarely, but its relationship to quinine remains uncertain. Quinine prophylaxis was often counterproductive from a public health viewpoint as it left large numbers of persons with suppressed infections producing gametocytes infective for mosquitoes. Quinine was supplied by the first global pharmaceutical cartel which discouraged competition resulting in a near monopoly of cinchona plantations on the island of Java which were closed to Allied use when the Japanese Imperial Army captured Indonesia in 1942. The problems with quinine as a chemoprophylactic drug illustrate the difficulties with medications used for prevention and the acute need for improved compounds. PMID:27185766

  5. Tobacco industry tactics.

    PubMed

    Sweda, E L; Daynard, R A

    1996-01-01

    The tobacco industry's strong-arm tactics have been used consistently over many years. These tactics include: using the industry's size, wealth, and legal resources to intimidate individuals and local governmental bodies; setting up 'front groups' to make it appear that it has more allies than it really does; spending large sums of money to frame the public debate about smoking regulations around 'rights and liberty' rather than health and portraying its tobacco company adversaries as extremists; 'investing' thousands of dollars in campaign contributions to politicians; and using financial resources to influence science. These tactics are designed to produce delay, giving the nicotine cartel more time to collect even more profits at the direct expense of millions of lives around the world. PMID:8746306

  6. The Economic Effect of Competition in the Air Transportation Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, H. B.

    1972-01-01

    The air transportation industry has been described as a highly-competitive, regulated oligopoly or as a price-regulated cartel with blocked entry, resulting in excessive service and low load factors. The current structure of the industry has been strongly influenced by the hypotheses that increased levels of competition are desirable per se, and that more competing carriers can be economically supported in larger markets, in longer haul markets, with lower unit costs, and with higher fare levels. An elementary application of competition/game theory casts doubt on the validity of these hypotheses, but rather emphasizes the critical importance of the short-term non-variable costs in determining economic levels of competition.

  7. Trade with polluting nonrenewable resources

    SciTech Connect

    Tahvonen, O.

    1996-01-01

    A major part of accumulating pollution, such as acidification or atmospheric carbon dioxide, orginates from nonrenewable resources. Uses of fossil fuels must take the long-term pollution damage into account; at the same time owners of nonrenewable resource face the problem of maximizing the resource rent. The implications on the global market are very complex, raising questions about the international incidence effects of a carbon dioxide tax and about who receives the revenues, especially if fossil fuels are supplied by resource cartels like OPEC. This paper considers an extended version of the problem in which pollution decays and extraction costs depend on the resource stock level. Buyers and sellers optimization problems are introduced in section 2. Section 3 solves the simplified version of the model. A generalized version of the model is analyzed in section 4, and section 5 summarizes the main results.

  8. Mexican journalists: an investigation of their emotional health.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Anthony

    2012-08-01

    Mexican journalists are frequently the victims of violence, often drug related. The purpose of the study was to assess their mental well-being. Of 104 journalists recruited from 3 news organizations, those who had stopped working on drug-related stories because of intimidation from the criminal drug cartels (n = 26) had significantly greater social dysfunction (p = .024); and more depressive (p = .001) and higher intrusive (p = .027), avoidance (p = .005), and arousal (p = .033) symptoms than journalists living and working under threat in regions of drug violence (n = 61). They also had more arousal (p = .05) and depressive (p = .027) symptoms than journalists (n = 17) never threatened before and living in regions without a drug problem. These findings provide preliminary data on the deleterious effects of drug-related violence on the Mexican media, amplifying the concerns expressed by journalist watchdog organizations monitoring the state of the press in the country. PMID:22807229

  9. Transportation energy policy: Back to the past or ahead to the future?

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.

    1992-12-31

    The past 20 years have been both a great shock and a great experiment for the US transportation system. Our predominantly internal combustion engine (ICE)-powered, petroleum-based transportation system has proven to be robust and able to adapt. After nearly twenty years, the US transportation system is still 96% fueled by petroleum, ICE-powered, and consuming greater quantities and a greater percentage of US oil use than ever. But the costs to our nation of the OPEC cartel`s monopolization of the world oil market have been enormous, as have the envirorunental consequences of ever greater production, transportation, and combustion of petroleum. As we look toward the future, the experience of the past twenty years gives us reasons for both confidence and concern. The future appears to hold still greater challenges from local and global envirorunental problems, and a resurrected problem of oil dependence. Among many possible technological and economic solutions, none clearly emerges as the single best alternative. Yet we can learn much from our past mistakes and successes that can help formulate plans and policies for the future. The future will not be identical to the past and we must be prepared to envision, experiment, adapt, and change the course of history. Given the enormous uncertainties, it would be easy to do little and rely on the robustness of the oil-driven transportation system to muddle through. it would be easy to try to go back to the past. But we could lead the world into the future, not by promoting any one particular technology or fuel, but by sending the right signals through the marketplace and aggressively pursuing research and development of technologies that hold promise for solving the problems of tomorrow.

  10. Labor Migration, Drug Trafficking Organizations, and Drug Use: Major Challenges for Transnational Communities in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    González, Laura

    2009-01-01

    In our article, we present the recent findings of our ethnographic field study on drug use and the emergence of a drug use culture in transnational communities in Mexico. Transnational communities are part of a larger migratory labor circuit that transcends political borders and are not restricted to a single locality. Transnational migrants and returning immigrants link the multiple localities through their social networks. In southern Guanajuato, Mexico, using a transnational migration paradigm, we examined the manner in which transnational migration and drug trafficking organizations are contributing to a growing drug problem in these communities. We found that transnational migrants and returning immigrants, including deported workers, introduce drugs and drug use practices, and contribute to the creation of a drug use culture within the communities. The social conditions in the community that foster and proliferate drug use are many: the erosion of the traditional family, truncated kinship bases, and new social formations. These conditions are all consequences of migration and emigration. Recent drug cartel activities are also contributing to this growing drug problem. The cartels have aggressively targeted these communities because of availability of money, existing drug use, a drug use culture, and the breakdown of traditional deterrents to substance abuse. Although a number of communities in three municipalities were part of our study, we focus on two: Lindavista, a rancho, Progreso, a municipal seat. Our field study in Mexico, one of four sequential ethnographic field studies conducted in Guanajuato and Pennsylvania, was completed over a six month period, from September, 2008, through February, 2009, using traditional ethnography. The four field studies are part of a larger, ongoing, three-year bi-national study on drug use among transnational migrants working in southeastern Pennsylvania. This larger study, near its third and final year, is funded by the

  11. Life is getting scary in the oil markets

    SciTech Connect

    Uttal, B.

    1980-01-28

    In the four years prior to 1978, crude was plentiful and often sold on the spot market for less than official OPEC prices. Then in late 1978, Iran quit exporting, and a severe winter in Europe drove stocks of heating oil far below their usual levels. Fear of shortages sent spot prices for heating oil up 112%, and crude prices followed. Many OPEC members realized that sticking to the cartel's official selling price was no longer in their interests. Some OPEC members are now pulling contracts out from under the majors and are selling directly to consuming nations. The move away from the majors has increased the chances that an end user will have its supplies disrupted, causing it to buy and stockpile supplies beyond storage capacity. The producing states' new dominance has had its greatest impact not on the majors but on a special class of customers who rely on the majors for much of their crude. These are the third-party buyers, a category that includes independent refiners, governments, and any other customer not directly associated with the majors' captive distribution networks. DOE estimates that some independent refiners have lost 40% of their third-party supplies; Japan has been informed that, as of March 1980, it will lose all of the oil it receives under third-party contracts. It now seems that none of the majors has enough crude to run its own refineries and to keep up supplies to its established third-party customers. And, when supplies are loose, cartel members are likely to cut production. One analyst has said that OPEC could fulfill all of their revenue needs and still slash production by about 70%. (MCW)

  12. Labor Migration, Drug Trafficking Organizations, and Drug Use: Major Challenges for Transnational Communities in Mexico.

    PubMed

    García, Víctor; González, Laura

    2009-06-01

    In our article, we present the recent findings of our ethnographic field study on drug use and the emergence of a drug use culture in transnational communities in Mexico. Transnational communities are part of a larger migratory labor circuit that transcends political borders and are not restricted to a single locality. Transnational migrants and returning immigrants link the multiple localities through their social networks. In southern Guanajuato, Mexico, using a transnational migration paradigm, we examined the manner in which transnational migration and drug trafficking organizations are contributing to a growing drug problem in these communities. We found that transnational migrants and returning immigrants, including deported workers, introduce drugs and drug use practices, and contribute to the creation of a drug use culture within the communities. The social conditions in the community that foster and proliferate drug use are many: the erosion of the traditional family, truncated kinship bases, and new social formations. These conditions are all consequences of migration and emigration. Recent drug cartel activities are also contributing to this growing drug problem. The cartels have aggressively targeted these communities because of availability of money, existing drug use, a drug use culture, and the breakdown of traditional deterrents to substance abuse. Although a number of communities in three municipalities were part of our study, we focus on two: Lindavista, a rancho, Progreso, a municipal seat. Our field study in Mexico, one of four sequential ethnographic field studies conducted in Guanajuato and Pennsylvania, was completed over a six month period, from September, 2008, through February, 2009, using traditional ethnography. The four field studies are part of a larger, ongoing, three-year bi-national study on drug use among transnational migrants working in southeastern Pennsylvania. This larger study, near its third and final year, is funded by the

  13. Necropolitics, narcopolitics, and femicide: gendered violence on the Mexico-U.S. border.

    PubMed

    Wright, Melissa W

    2011-01-01

    In 1993, a group of women shocked Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, with the news that dozens of girls and women had been murdered and dumped, like garbage, around the city during the year. As the numbers of murders grew over the years, and as the police forces proved unwilling and unable to find the perpetrators, the protestors became activists. They called the violence and its surrounding impunity "femicide," and they demanded that the Mexican government, at the local, state, and federal levels, stop the violence and capture the perpetrators. Nearly two decades later, the city's infamy as a place of femicide is giving way to another terrible reputation as a place of unprecedented drug violence. Since 2006, more than six thousand people have died in the city, as have more than twenty-eight thousand across the country, in relation to the violence associated with the restructuring of the cartels that control the production and distribution of illegal drugs. In response to the public outcry against the violence, the Mexican government has deployed thousands of troops to Ciudad Juárez as part of a military strategy to secure the state against the cartels. In this essay, I argue that the politics over the meaning of the drug-related murders and femicide must be understood in relation to gendered violence and its use as a tool for securing the state. To that end, I examine the wars over the interpretation of death in northern Mexico through a feminist application of the concept of necropolitics as elaborated by the postcolonial scholar Achille Mbembe. I examine how the wars over the political meaning of death in relation both to femicide and to the events called "drug violence" unfold through a gendering of space, of violence, and of subjectivity. My objective is twofold: first, to demonstrate how the antifemicide movement illustrates the stakes for a democratic Mexican state and its citizens in a context where governing elites argue that the violence devastating Ciudad Ju

  14. Multi-period natural gas market modeling Applications, stochastic extensions and solution approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egging, Rudolf Gerardus

    This dissertation develops deterministic and stochastic multi-period mixed complementarity problems (MCP) for the global natural gas market, as well as solution approaches for large-scale stochastic MCP. The deterministic model is unique in the combination of the level of detail of the actors in the natural gas markets and the transport options, the detailed regional and global coverage, the multi-period approach with endogenous capacity expansions for transportation and storage infrastructure, the seasonal variation in demand and the representation of market power according to Nash-Cournot theory. The model is applied to several scenarios for the natural gas market that cover the formation of a cartel by the members of the Gas Exporting Countries Forum, a low availability of unconventional gas in the United States, and cost reductions in long-distance gas transportation. 1 The results provide insights in how different regions are affected by various developments, in terms of production, consumption, traded volumes, prices and profits of market participants. The stochastic MCP is developed and applied to a global natural gas market problem with four scenarios for a time horizon until 2050 with nineteen regions and containing 78,768 variables. The scenarios vary in the possibility of a gas market cartel formation and varying depletion rates of gas reserves in the major gas importing regions. Outcomes for hedging decisions of market participants show some significant shifts in the timing and location of infrastructure investments, thereby affecting local market situations. A first application of Benders decomposition (BD) is presented to solve a large-scale stochastic MCP for the global gas market with many hundreds of first-stage capacity expansion variables and market players exerting various levels of market power. The largest problem solved successfully using BD contained 47,373 variables of which 763 first-stage variables, however using BD did not result in

  15. Price of oil and OPEC behavior: a utility maximization model

    SciTech Connect

    Adeinat, M.K.

    1985-01-01

    There is growing evidence that OPEC has neither behaved as a cartel, at least in the last decade, nor maximized the discounted value of its profits as would be suggested by the theory of exhaustible resources. This dissertation attempts to find a way out of this dead end by proposing a utility maximization model. According to the utility maximization model, the decisions of how much crude oil each country produces is determined by a country's budgetary needs. The objective of each country is to choose present consumption and future consumption (which must be financed by its future income which can, in turn, be generated either by its investment out of current income or the proceeds of its oil reserves) at time t to maximize its utility function subject to its budget and absorptive capacity constraints. The model predicted that whenever the amount of savings is greater than the country's absorptive capacity as a result of higher prices of oil, it would respond by cutting back its production of oil. This prediction is supported by the following empirical findings: (1) that the marginal propensity to save (MPS) exceeded the marginal propensity to invest (MPI) during the period of study (1967-1981), implying that OPEC countries were facing an absorptive capacity constraint and (2) the quantity of oil production responded negatively to the permanent income in all three countries, the response being highly significant for those countries with the greatest budget surpluses.

  16. Solar-thermal technology development: estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume I. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, W.R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R and D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R and D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artifically manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R and D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: the Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R and D funding. These mecahnisms can be expected to provide the required incentives to establish a viable self-sustaining private STT industry. Discussions of STT impacts on the environment and oil imports are also included.

  17. Oil Dependence: The Value of R{ampersand}D

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.

    1997-07-01

    Over the past quarter century the United States` dependence on oil has cost its economy on the order of $5 trillion. Oil dependence is defined as economically significant consumption of oil, given price inelastic demand in the short and long run and given the ability of the OPEC cartel to use market power to influence oil prices. Although oil prices have been lower and more stable over the past decade, OPEC still holds the majority of the world`s conventional oil resources according to the best available estimates. OPEC`s share of the world oil market is likely to grow significantly in the future,restoring much if not all of their former market power. Other than market share, the key determinants of OPEC`s market power are the long and short run price elasticities of world oil demand and supply. These elasticities depend critically on the technologies of oil supply and demand, especially the technology of energy use in transportation. Research and development can change these elasticities in fundamental ways, and given the nature of the problem,the government has an important role to play in supporting such research.

  18. Why OPEC's sheikhs shock no more

    SciTech Connect

    Fraker, S.

    1983-12-26

    The author notes that the old cartel isn't what it used to be - pumping only 18 million barrels of oil a day, far below its 30 million bbl/day capacity. She cites figures from John H. Lichtblau, president of the New York's Petroleum Industry Research Foundation, who says the real, inflation-adjusted GNP of non-Communist nations could rise 3% a year during the 1980s and oil consumption would increase only about 1% a year. This means these countries would consume just under 49 million bbl/day in 1990 - 2 million less than in 1979. In the US, practically no increase in oil consumption is projected before the end of the century if GNP growth averages 2.5% a year. Even if GNP grew 5% a year, US consumption, now 15 million bbl/day, would increase at less than 2% annual rate. The ingenuity of people, through conservation, fuel switching, etc. and the effectiveness of market forces probably means that OPEC will not be able to raise prices in real terms until after the year 2000 - if then.

  19. An alternative model for OPEC stability: The carrot and stick approach

    SciTech Connect

    Akacem, M.; Fleisher, A.A. III

    1994-12-31

    The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) has gone through turbulent times since its inception in 1960. The decade of the 1970s represented the peak of its power; however, the 1980s and 1990s are characterized by the erosion of OPECs position. After a brief exposition of the principles of resource economics and their relevance to OPEC, we review oligopoly theory and its specific application to OPEC. A model of cartel behavior will then be presented and its relevance to OPEC will be emphasized. Our theory is that OPEC can use a trigger price strategy (a punishment phase when overproduction occurs, followed by a resumption phase of full compliance of the quota agreement) to stabilize output. An insurance policy scheme will be presented in combination with the trigger price strategy, the goal of which may improve the stability of OPEC. Finally, we shall show how the present organization may evolve over time into a much smaller entity by the late 1990s composed of the Gulf producers.

  20. Oil market power and United States national security.

    PubMed

    Stern, Roger

    2006-01-31

    It is widely believed that an oil weapon could impose scarcity upon the United States. Impending resource exhaustion is thought to exacerbate this threat. However, threat seems implausible when we consider strategic deficits of prospective weapon users and the improbability of impending resource exhaustion. Here, we explore a hypothesis relating oil to national security under a different assumption, abundance. We suggest that an oil cartel exerts market power to keep abundance at bay, commanding monopoly rents [or wealth transfers (wt)] that underwrite security threats. We then compare security threats attributed to the oil weapon to those that may arise from market power. We first reexamine whether oil is abundant or scarce by reviewing current development data, then we estimate a competitive price for oil. From this, we derive wt(2004) collections by Persian Gulf states approximately USD $132-178 x 10(9). We find that wt and the behavior of states collecting it interact to actuate security threats. Threats underwritten by wt are (i) the potential for emergence of a Persian Gulf superpower and (ii) terrorism. It is therefore oil market power, not oil per se, that actuates threats. We also describe a paradox in the relation of market power to the United States' defense doctrine of force projection to preempt a Gulf superpower. Because the superpower threat derives from wt, force alone cannot preempt it. A further paradox is that because foreign policy is premised on oil weapon fear, market power is appeased. Threats thereby grow unimpeded. PMID:16428291

  1. Battle of the Seabed

    SciTech Connect

    McMenamin, M.

    1981-07-06

    Flaws in the proposed Law of the Sea Treaty will put two-thirds of world mineral wealth under Third World control and will establish a global bureaucracy to exercise that control as a cartel. The general agreements of the treaty appear reasonable, but the law goes beyond traditional issues to form a supranational authority designed to maintain world-mineral prices. State Deparment negotiators with no understanding of economics are faulted. A supply-side approach will introduce the model of low tax rates, minimal central planning, and hard money that produced the US economy and could do the same for the Third World. Treaty supporters point out that the US must accept the entire package and not pull out seabed mining for special treatment. This position is challenged as an effort to close off debate. At issue is whether the concept of common heritage allows exploitation outside areas of national jurisdiction and whether past efforts to trade off mining for navigational rights should be dropped. US policies should avoid the traps of thinking that national security will be lost, that anarchy will prevail, or that the country is selling out to business when debating these issues. (DCK)

  2. Solar-thermal technologies benefits assessment: objectives, methodologies, and results for 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, W.R.

    1982-07-01

    The future economic and social benefits of developing cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) were assessed during FY 81. The analysis was restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs were considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. After considering the numerous benefits of introducing STT into the energy market, three primary benefits were identified and evaluated: (1) direct energy cost savings were estimated to range from zero to $50 billion; (2) oil imports may be reduced by up to 9 percent, improving national security; (3) significant environmental benefits can be realized in air basins where electric power plant emissions create substantial air pollution problems. STT R and D was found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. The normal risks associated with investments in R and D are accentuated because the OPEC cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut the growth of alternative energy sources. When this fact was weighed against the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT, Federal participation in STT R and D was found to be in the national interest.

  3. Oil export policy and economic development in OPEC

    SciTech Connect

    Aperjis, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    During the 1970s, members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) increased the price of their oil exports by 2000% in nominal terms. The ability of OPEC countries to increase the economic and other benefits they drew from each barrel of oil was a familiar theme of that decade. However, recent developments in the world oil market may not be so encouraging for OPEC. From 1979 to 1983, demand for OPEC crude oil decreased by almost 45%, or from 30.9 to 17.5 million barrels per day (mbd). Despite this dramatic decrease, the news on the price front has not so far been that bad for OPEC. The average OPEC oil price, which had increased from $1.80/bbl (barrel) in 1970 to $36/bbl by 1980, declined to $29/bbl by 1983. OPEC has thus defied many experts by managing to avoid a price collapse. Not surprisingly, these developments have raised arguments about the nature of OPEC and how it operates. OPEC has been characterized variously as a very tight cartel and as a loose and ineffectual organization. This paper tries to shed some light on OPEC, and especially on how the economic development objectives of influential OPEC members affect their oil policies.

  4. A biennially renewable fuel resource: woodchips

    SciTech Connect

    Krantz, B.

    1982-08-01

    Recent genetic improvements with some tree species have yielded hybrids that have disease resistance, rapid growth, and the ability to regenerate from the stump after harvest. Grown intensively, these hybrids are capable of producing and storing a usable 250 mBTU per acre per year on a biennial harvest of the total tree. Employing the best of today's silvicultural techniques and boiler equipment each tree can produce a little more than one boiler horsepower per year. Utilizing non-prime lands for the production of ''hybrid poplars'' one acre can generate the woodfuel equivalent of 40 barrels of oil ($8/bbl) or 2500 therms of natural gas (13 /therm) per year and can be harvested every other year. Beyond the economic and environmental benefits there are additional merits to be realized by growing your own woodfuel. Like money in the bank, fuel may be withdrawn from the forest bank ''as needed'' while the reserves accrue growth. The nutrient rich ash ''remains'' can be utilized to sustain the yield of an energy plantation. Unlike other alternative sources of energy that are capital intensive, ''growing your own woodfuel'' is labor intensive. One can also receive significant forestry tax incentives; and, above all, one can avoid any fuel ''cartel''.

  5. Solar thermal technology development: estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume II. Assumptions, methodology, and results

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, W.R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 SST systems costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R and D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings are projected to range from $0 to 10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R and D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artifically manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R and D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: the Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R and D funding. These mechanisms can be expected to provide the required incentives to establish a viable self-sustaining private STT industry. Discussions of STT impacts on the environment and on oil imports are also included.

  6. Pattern of state coal taxation. [Review

    SciTech Connect

    Gulley, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent history of state coal taxation and reports an empirically-based effort at defining the key determinants of state and local coal taxation. A pattern emerges but the analysis is complicated by the empirical and conceptual difficulties typical of such studies. Perhaps as important a result as the detection of a pattern is the recognition that many seemingly important variables do not appear to have consistently influenced tax levels. For policy makers and for industry, it appears that the present concern over a coal-states cartel is excessive. One can speculate that draconian tax adjustments on the basis of a crude-indicator-like reserve base will ultimately transfer less wealth than would skillful preemption of rent. It is also noteworthy that the sign of the tax effort variable is positive, indicating that coal tax rates are consistent with other tax efforts, not a substitute for them. Accepting impacts and general tax effort variables as the best explanations of interstate variations in tax effort is a somewhat different matter than determining what any given state's tax rate ought to be; such a question lies beyond the scope of this paper. This tax-determinant study can not define the right level of coal taxation, but it can suggest that no trend is yet evident toward entrepreneurial tax rates. 20 references, 4 figures.

  7. The pacific coast: a reluctant area of promise

    SciTech Connect

    McNally, R.

    1983-12-01

    America's first offshore well was drilled from a wooden pier extending outward from the coastal town of Summerland, Calif., just east of Santa Barbara. That was in 1894, and in the 90 years since then some 4,000 additional wells have been drilled off the California coast. But the region still qualifies as a legitimate Area of Promise because those 4,000 wells account for only 13% of all U.S. offshore wells, and leases offshore California accounted for only 7% of the 12.6 million acres under lease around the U.S. as of the end of 1982. platform plans already have been announced. But installing the platforms won't be without problems-most of them caused by the environmental concerns of coastal residents. During the course of drilling 30,000 wells around the U.S. there has been only one serious mishap. And that, unfortunately, was the 1969 Santa Barbara blowout. Besides coating beaches and wildlife along the Santa Barbara Channel with crude oil, the blowout had a more-lasting effect in that it galvanized and unified the environmental movement. So now there is a virtual cartel of some 30 environmental groups that must be dealt with by oil companies that want to drill offshore the U.S. Pacific Coast.

  8. Oil market and macroeconomic activity in the industrialized countries

    SciTech Connect

    Viscio, A.J. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    In the oil market, the price inelasticity of non-OPEC supply and demand for oil requires most of the shortrun adjustment to occur through changes in price rather than quantity. This inflexibility of quantity if compounded by the ability of OPEC as a cartel to successfully prevent its nominally quoted official price from declining during periods of excess supply. A model of the shortrun price behavior of OPEC oil, which described the behavior of producers and consumers, is derived and estimated. The resultant spot-price reaction function proves to be highly nonlinear, and oil demand must exceed a critical level of capacity before the spot price begins to rise. This model explains the upward staircasing of nominal OPEC prices. The spot price leads the official price upward. The new official price establishes a higher floor for the spot price. Simulations are used to study the effects of changes in the rate of economic growth in the industrialized countries and the level of OPEC capacity on the price and consumption of oil. The relevant shortrun relationships between the price of oil and the economy, extracted from the literature, are estimated in a two-country model representing the United States and an aggregate of the remaining major industrialized countries.

  9. Optimal pricing and production of an exhaustible resource: the case of Saudi Arabian crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Gaynor, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    It is hypothesized in this paper that cartel members, such as Saudi Arabia, are maximizing the utility of diversified income streams that include not only oil-based revenues, but also yields to non-oil sector domestic capital investment and yields to foreign held assets. Optimization of such a utility function with respect to the resource stock constraint produces optimal prices and output paths that are well defined, regardless of price-inelastic demand, and permits a straightforward application to prediction of prices and outputs with alternative projections of GDP growth and export unit value inflation. The results of the forecast simulations indicate that substantial benefits to oil consuming countries, in terms of oil prices and export availability, would accrue if prices of non-oil goods in trade to oil exporters were stabilized. Policies of oil importers would improve oil availability and reduce costs to importers. Likewise, policies to improve the yield of foreign assets owned by the oil exporters would have favorable effects on cost and availability to importers. Neither of these effects, however, is as substantial as those associated with price stabilization.

  10. The triumph of pragmatism: Nigeria's role in the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries

    SciTech Connect

    Dimah, A.

    1988-01-01

    Formed in 1960, the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) became a key participant in the international oil industry after the so-called oil shock in the early 1970s. OPEC's power in world trade increased tremendously during the 1970s and, as oil prices skyrocketed, literature on OPEC proliferated. Although OPEC's demise has often been predicted since its creation; it has, however, endured. Thus study examines OPEC from distinct vantage points: those of regime theory, oligopoly models, and cartel theory. The aim is to gain insight into the activities of the organization as a whole and in terms of the behavior of one of its members, the Government of Nigeria. The objective is to ascertain which of these theories, or aspects of the theories, best describes OPEC's activities and Nigeria's actions as a member. The review of OPEC and Nigeria's role in its demonstrates that OPEC is difficult to classify. It is more than anything, a fluid coalition of Third World countries seeking to improve their national economies by ensuring better prices for crude oil, their chief export product; and helping other Third World countries focus global awareness on the chronic political and economic inequities in the international system. Therefore, OPEC and Nigeria's role is best explained by coalition theory.

  11. Alkali-Metal-Mediated Magnesiations of an N-Heterocyclic Carbene: Normal, Abnormal, and "Paranormal" Reactivity in a Single Tritopic Molecule.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martínez, Antonio J; Fuentes, M Ángeles; Hernán-Gómez, Alberto; Hevia, Eva; Kennedy, Alan R; Mulvey, Robert E; O'Hara, Charles T

    2015-11-16

    Herein the sodium alkylmagnesium amide [Na4Mg2(TMP)6(nBu)2] (TMP=2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidide), a template base as its deprotonating action is dictated primarily by its 12 atom ring structure, is studied with the common N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) IPr [1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene]. Remarkably, magnesiation of IPr occurs at the para-position of an aryl substituent, sodiation occurs at the abnormal C4 position, and a dative bond occurs between normal C2 and sodium, all within a 20 atom ring structure accommodating two IPr(2-). Studies with different K/Mg and Na/Mg bimetallic bases led to two other magnesiated NHC structures containing two or three IPr(-) monoanions bound to Mg through abnormal C4 sites. Synergistic in that magnesiation can only work through alkali-metal mediation, these reactions add magnesium to the small cartel of metals capable of directly metalating a NHC. PMID:26417985

  12. Dagher redux: searching for the missing pieces.

    PubMed

    Kopit, William; Wagner, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    The most relevant question for any joint venture is, when does the relationship become a jointventure and not simply a price-fixing cartel? With respect to this question, this Article juxtaposes Texaco, Inc. v. Dagher, 126 S. Ct. 1276 (2006), against years of contrary precedent. In Dagher, the Court altered the seemingly settled foundation of antitrust law by changing its view on past holdings and abandoning the ancillary effects doctrine. The Article provides an outline of key holdings prior to Dagher, as well as a discussion of the issues that can arise as joint ventures are formed. Additionally, the authors examine how the decision altered the foundation of joint venture law in the United States. In particular, the Article exposes several important antitrust concerns relating to joint ventures that the Supreme Court did not address in Dagher. Perhaps the most perplexing issue of Dagher is whether the venture at issue would have survived analysis under the Federal Trade Commission's "continuum" approach. PMID:17260545

  13. The oil supply/demand outlook for 1987 and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.T.

    1987-01-01

    OPEC has managed to structure an agreement that limits production among its members. That agreement is still very fluid, an amalgam of varied interests, market factors, and oil production criteria. Each member of the cartel must get term commitments from purchasers to lift crude at fixed prices, if the long-term viability of the agreement is to be assured. OPEC leadership did a remarkable job fashioning the current agreement. Clearly, precedent and indecision up to the final 48 hours of the December meeting in Geneva appeared to be working against a substantive change in the way oil is priced. The lure for both buyer and seller to continue to support the 1985 Saudi-led move to netback-pricing was strong, weakening all prospects for an early-1987 return to fixed oil prices. But they did it. Spot oil rices in March were at $18/Bbl after having fallen temporarily in February to $16/Bbl, and fixed prices are now being used as the basis for (most) new contracts with Persian Gulf crude oil suppliers. Will it last. Yes, under certain conditions that the author discusses.

  14. A system dynamics approach to the study of Colombian coca cultivation and the counter-intuitive consequence of law enforcement.

    PubMed

    Jaén, Sebastian; Dyner, Isaac

    2014-03-01

    A large-scale expansion of the Colombian coca cultivation is one of the most revealing signs of a structural change in the illegal cocaine market in the Andean region. From being a modest and domestic production, in the space of five years Colombian coca cultivation supplied a competitive market, capable of substituting almost completely the foreign sources of supply. The purpose of this work is to explore the role and potential of system dynamics (SD) as a modeling methodology to better understand the consequences of drug policy. As a case study, this work tests the hypothesis that the outbreak of Colombian coca cultivations is a consequence of the take down of large cartels, leading to the surge of small drug-trafficking firms called "cartelitos." Using an SD model, and elements from the economic theory of the criminal firm, our work shows how the formation of these small firms might significantly contribute to the configuring of a more competitive domestic coca industry (and hence to a more efficient crime industry). We conclude that SD seems an appropriate dynamic modeling-based approach to address policy issues regarding drug markets. The methodology takes into account the dynamic nature of drug markets and their multi-dimensional responses to policy interventions. PMID:24534325

  15. Seven lean years. [No quick fix available

    SciTech Connect

    Byron, C.

    1980-12-22

    The end of the cheap oil era is having a more profound impact than any other single issue or event since World War II, making the everything crisis a more-appropriate label than energy crisis. Warnings from OPEC that oil may rise to $60 per barrel will not have worldwide inventories as a moderating force because the Iran-Iraq war has reduced OPEC production to the point where oil companies are unwilling to draw down their stockpiles. The cartel's prices have merely exploited a worldwide increase in demand for oil that would have pushed prices up anyway. The social and economic havoc is straining the economies of developed countries and could bankrupt and destabilize much of the Third World. The search for non-OPEC oil sources and alternatives to oil prompted a global race to discover new reserves, exploit renewable fuel sources, and initiate conservation. With no quick fix available, a painful period is foreseen while people learn to husband natural resources. (DCK)

  16. Sustainable fuel, food, fertilizer and ecosystems through a global artificial photosynthetic system: overcoming anticompetitive barriers

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Alex; Faunce, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses challenges that artificial photosynthetic (AP) systems will face when entering and competing in a global market characterized by established fossil fuel technology. It provides a perspective on the neoliberal principles underpinning much policy entrenching such environmentally destructive technology and outlines how competition law could aid overcoming these hurdles for AP development. In particular, it critiques the potential for competition law to promote a global AP initiative with greater emphasis on atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen fixation (as well as solar-driven water splitting) to produce an equitable, globally distributed source of human food, fertilizer and biosphere sustainability, as well as hydrogen-based fuel. Some relevant strategies of competition law evaluated in this context include greater citizen–consumer involvement in shaping market values, legal requirements to factor services from the natural environment (i.e. provision of clean air, water, soil pollution degradation) into corporate costs, reform of corporate taxation and requirements to balance maximization of shareholder profit with contribution to a nominated public good, a global financial transactions tax, as well as prohibiting horizontal cartels, vertical agreements and unilateral misuse of market power. PMID:26052427

  17. [Deaths by homicide in Mexico: trends, socio-geographical variations and associated factors].

    PubMed

    González-Pérez, Guillermo Julián; Vega-López, María Guadalupe; Cabrera-Pivaral, Carlos Enrique; Vega-López, Agustín; Muñoz de la Torre, Armando

    2012-12-01

    This study seeks to analyze the trend of homicide rates (total and by firearm) in Mexico between 1990 and 2009 and identify the variables that best explain the geographical variations of these rates in the 2008-2009 two-year period. Homicide rates, adjusted for age, were calculated for both sexes between 1990 and 2009 and for each state in 2008-2009. Factors associated with the interstate variations in the homicide rates were identified using multiple linear regression analysis. Results show that the homicide rate in Mexico decreased between 1990 and 2007, but doubled over the last two years (from 7.6 to 16.6 per 100,000). In 2009, the male homicide rate was almost 9 times higher than the female rate and about two-thirds of homicides involved firearms. Multivariate analysis reveals that impunity, drug trafficking, alcohol and drug consumption and school dropout in basic education - in that order - are key factors for understanding the geographical variations in homicide rates in Mexico in 2008-2009. Findings suggest that to reduce the number of homicide victims and spatial variations in the rate, it is necessary not only to fight the drug cartels, but above all to implement structural reforms in the criminal justice system and reduce the socioeconomic disparities among states. PMID:23175396

  18. Solar thermal technologies benefits assessment: Objectives, methodologies and results for 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    The economic and social benefits of developing cost competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) were assessed. The analysis was restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high insolation/high energy price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs were considered, reflecting uncertainty over fuel prices and STT cost projections. After considering the numerous benefits of introducing STT into the energy market, three primary benefits were identified and evaluated: (1) direct energy cost savings were estimated to range from zero to $50 billion; (2) oil imports may be reduced by up to 9 percent, improving national security; and (3) significant environmental benefits can be realized in air basins where electric power plant emissions create substantial air pollution problems. STT research and development was found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. The normal risks associated with investments in research and development are accentuated because the OPEC cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut the growth of alternative energy sources.

  19. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 2: Assumptions, methodology and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.

  20. Oil market power and United States national security

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Roger

    2006-01-01

    It is widely believed that an oil weapon could impose scarcity upon the United States. Impending resource exhaustion is thought to exacerbate this threat. However, threat seems implausible when we consider strategic deficits of prospective weapon users and the improbability of impending resource exhaustion. Here, we explore a hypothesis relating oil to national security under a different assumption, abundance. We suggest that an oil cartel exerts market power to keep abundance at bay, commanding monopoly rents [or wealth transfers (wt)] that underwrite security threats. We then compare security threats attributed to the oil weapon to those that may arise from market power. We first reexamine whether oil is abundant or scarce by reviewing current development data, then we estimate a competitive price for oil. From this, we derive wt2004 collections by Persian Gulf states ≈ $132-178 × 109. We find that wt and the behavior of states collecting it interact to actuate security threats. Threats underwritten by wt are (i) the potential for emergence of a Persian Gulf superpower and (ii) terrorism. It is therefore oil market power, not oil per se, that actuates threats. We also describe a paradox in the relation of market power to the United States' defense doctrine of force projection to preempt a Gulf superpower. Because the superpower threat derives from wt, force alone cannot preempt it. A further paradox is that because foreign policy is premised on oil weapon fear, market power is appeased. Threats thereby grow unimpeded. PMID:16428291

  1. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 2: Assumptions, methodology and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.

  2. Energy and globalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birjandi, Hossein Saremi

    Before the Industrial Revolution, nations required no energy fuel. People relied on human, animal, and wind and waterpower for energy need. Energy (oil) has resettled populations, elected officials in the free world, or changed the governments of the energy rich countries by force. Energy fueled wars, played the major factor in the might of those who have it or more importantly the abilities to acquire it by force. This dissertation researches the primacy of oil as an energy source from the time of oil's discovery to the present times. Between 1945 and 1960, the use of oil and gas doubled as power was generated for industries as steel, cement, metalworking and more important of all filling station hoses into automobiles gas tanks, thus energy swept people and societies quite literally off their feet. One in every six jobs in the industrial world hired by the giant automotive industries. The big five American oil companies spurred on by special tax benefit, these companies grew to gigantic sizes by taking out the best part of the nation's oil. Then, for greater growth, they leaped overseas and built up an immensely profitable system, in alliance with Anglo-Dutch Shell and British Petroleum, known as seven sisters. On the other side of the world, the energy producing nations form an alliance mainly to protect themselves from downward price fluctuations of oil. The struggle for survival in the global energy market forced those countries to get together and form OPEC, which is referred as an "oil cartel".

  3. Solar thermal technologies benefits assessment: Objectives, methodologies and results for 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1982-07-01

    The economic and social benefits of developing cost competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) were assessed. The analysis was restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high insolation/high energy price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs were considered, reflecting uncertainty over fuel prices and STT cost projections. After considering the numerous benefits of introducing STT into the energy market, three primary benefits were identified and evaluated: (1) direct energy cost savings were estimated to range from zero to $50 billion; (2) oil imports may be reduced by up to 9 percent, improving national security; and (3) significant environmental benefits can be realized in air basins where electric power plant emissions create substantial air pollution problems. STT research and development was found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. The normal risks associated with investments in research and development are accentuated because the OPEC cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut the growth of alternative energy sources.

  4. Building the world's supply of quinine: Dutch colonialism and the origins of a global pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Goss, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Quinine, a naturally occurring alkaloid from the Cinchona tree, was one of the first drugs produced and sold by a global pharmaceutical industry during the nineteenth century. Factories in Europe and North America dominated the manufacturing industry, and between 1890 and 1940, Cinchona plantations on Java supplied most of the bark for the quinine pharmaceutical business. At the end of the nineteenth century, the Dutch colonial state kept a hands-off approach to the Cinchona enterprises, in keeping with its liberal orientation. But the persistent low-price for bark, which led to the near ruin of the Cinchona planters, eventually pushed the colonial state to actively protect the Cinchona plantations. Colonial officials sought to stabilize the colonial Cinchona export-business by encouraging the integration of the quinine industry on a global scale. Most important was the colonial state's sponsorship in 1913 of the Quinine Agreement, establishing a set price for Cinchona bark, which created the world's first pharmaceutical cartel. In the interwar period, an alliance of Dutch government officials, planters, scientists, doctors and drug-makers, working in both the motherland and the colony, actively promoted the expansion of quinine consumption, as well as the merit of the Quinine Agreement, which they argued supplied guaranteed a steady supply of quinine, all for the wellbeing of global humanity. PMID:24287061

  5. Honorary authorship epidemic in scholarly publications? How the current use of citation-based evaluative metrics make (pseudo)honorary authors from honest contributors of every multi-author article.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Jozsef

    2013-08-01

    The current use of citation-based metrics to evaluate the research output of individual researchers is highly discriminatory because they are uniformly applied to authors of single-author articles as well as contributors of multi-author papers. In the latter case, these quantitative measures are counted, as if each contributor were the single author of the full article. In this way, each and every contributor is assigned the full impact-factor score and all the citations that the article has received. This has a multiplication effect on each contributor's citation-based evaluative metrics of multi-author articles, because the more contributors an article has, the more undeserved credit is assigned to each of them. In this paper, I argue that this unfair system could be made fairer by requesting the contributors of multi-author articles to describe the nature of their contribution, and to assign a numerical value to their degree of relative contribution. In this way, we could create a contribution-specific index of each contributor for each citation metric. This would be a strong disincentive against honorary authorship and publication cartels, because it would transform the current win-win strategy of accepting honorary authors in the byline into a zero-sum game for each contributor. PMID:22865926

  6. Sustainable fuel, food, fertilizer and ecosystems through a global artificial photosynthetic system: overcoming anticompetitive barriers.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Alex; Faunce, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    This article discusses challenges that artificial photosynthetic (AP) systems will face when entering and competing in a global market characterized by established fossil fuel technology. It provides a perspective on the neoliberal principles underpinning much policy entrenching such environmentally destructive technology and outlines how competition law could aid overcoming these hurdles for AP development. In particular, it critiques the potential for competition law to promote a global AP initiative with greater emphasis on atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen fixation (as well as solar-driven water splitting) to produce an equitable, globally distributed source of human food, fertilizer and biosphere sustainability, as well as hydrogen-based fuel. Some relevant strategies of competition law evaluated in this context include greater citizen-consumer involvement in shaping market values, legal requirements to factor services from the natural environment (i.e. provision of clean air, water, soil pollution degradation) into corporate costs, reform of corporate taxation and requirements to balance maximization of shareholder profit with contribution to a nominated public good, a global financial transactions tax, as well as prohibiting horizontal cartels, vertical agreements and unilateral misuse of market power. PMID:26052427

  7. A political economic theory of the dental care market.

    PubMed Central

    Lipscomb, J; Douglass, C W

    1982-01-01

    A theory of the dental care market is introduced which proposes that the vertically integrated (local/state/national) structure of the profession services as an organizational vehicle both for intra-professional debate and for developing provider-oriented dental care policy. We suggest that a special relationship exists between professionalism and professional regulation. Such regulation has functioned simultaneously to limit competition and to foster a prized consumption commodity for providers: professionalism and professional esteem. The organized pursuit of this commodity inherently dampens competition. Professionalism itself plays a crucial role in: 1) securing for organized dentistry a form of state regulation in which the providers themselves are the principal decision-makers; and 2) influencing provider and consumer market behavior in several significant respects, the net result being the formation of maintenance of a type of "leadership cartel" in the local market. Thus, a political-economic theory of the dental care market formally acknowledges professionalism as valued by established dentists and recent graduates as a central determining influence. Traditional models of pure competition and monopoly emerge as special, extreme cases of the general theory. Hypotheses are offered regarding consumer and provider behavior, market dynamics, and health policy and regulation. PMID:7091455

  8. The proliferation of surface-to-surface missiles and weapons of mass destruction and the emerging role of tactical missile defenses in Israel, Syria and Iran

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, T.H.

    1993-01-01

    The proliferation of surface-to-surface missiles (SSMs) and weapons of mass destruction has become one of the more serious security threats to post-Cold War peace. This dissertation examines the history of proliferation within the Middle East by focusing primarily on three trend-setting countries: Israel, Syria and Iran. Building on the theoretical framework established by Lewis A. Dunn and Herman Kahn, this dissertation examines why and how Israel, Syria and Iran have procured SSMs and weapons of mass destruction. The author also includes an analysis of tactical missile defenses and their impact on proliferation trends. The final section investigates the numerous arms control treaties and supplier cartels designed to halt or slow the pace of unconventional weapons proliferation. In many instances, Iraq serves as the primary example of how well-intentioned nonproliferation efforts have fallen short. This dissertation reveals some of the major flaws in these regimes while proposing necessary improvements if nonproliferation efforts are to succeed. In conclusion, this dissertation returns to the expanded Dunn-Kahn nuclear proliferation model. By categorizing the various reasons as to why countries choose to procure unconventional weapons, a more successful nonproliferation policy can be constructed. However, this dissertation warns that without political solutions to long-term disputes in the region, western-imposed nonproliferation regimes will fail. Thus, nonproliferation policies must be accompanied or preceded by a vigorous diplomatic and political effort to solve seemingly intractable differences.

  9. Analysis of México's Narco-War Network (2007-2011).

    PubMed

    Espinal-Enríquez, Jesús; Larralde, Hernán

    2015-01-01

    Since December 2006, more than a thousand cities in México have suffered the effects of the war between several drug cartels, amongst themselves, as well as with Mexican armed forces. Sources are not in agreement about the number of casualties of this war, with reports varying from 30 to 100 thousand dead; the economic and social ravages are impossible to quantify. In this work we analyze the official report of casualties in terms of the location and the date of occurrence of the homicides. We show how the violence, as reflected by the number of casualties, has increased over time and spread across the country. Next, based on the correlations between cities in the changes of the monthly number of casualties attributed to organized crime, we construct a narco-war network where nodes are the affected cities and links represent correlations between them. We find that close geographical distance between violent cities does not imply a strong correlation amongst them. We observe that the dynamics of the conflict has evolved in short-term periods where a small core of violent cities determines the main theatre of the war at each stage. This kind of analysis may also help to describe the emergence and propagation of gang-related violence waves. PMID:25993657

  10. Analysis of México’s Narco-War Network (2007–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Espinal-Enríquez, Jesús; Larralde, Hernán

    2015-01-01

    Since December 2006, more than a thousand cities in México have suffered the effects of the war between several drug cartels, amongst themselves, as well as with Mexican armed forces. Sources are not in agreement about the number of casualties of this war, with reports varying from 30 to 100 thousand dead; the economic and social ravages are impossible to quantify. In this work we analyze the official report of casualties in terms of the location and the date of occurrence of the homicides. We show how the violence, as reflected by the number of casualties, has increased over time and spread across the country. Next, based on the correlations between cities in the changes of the monthly number of casualties attributed to organized crime, we construct a narco-war network where nodes are the affected cities and links represent correlations between them. We find that close geographical distance between violent cities does not imply a strong correlation amongst them. We observe that the dynamics of the conflict has evolved in short-term periods where a small core of violent cities determines the main theatre of the war at each stage. This kind of analysis may also help to describe the emergence and propagation of gang-related violence waves. PMID:25993657

  11. GIS application on modern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Bharath

    This is a GIS based tool for showcasing the history of modern Mexico starting from the post-colonial era to the elections of 2012. The tool is developed using simple language and is flexible so as to allow for future enhancements. The application consists of numerous images and textual information, and also some links which can be used by primary and high school students to understand the history of modern Mexico, and also by tourists to look for all the international airports and United States of America consulates. This software depicts the aftermaths of the Colonial Era or the Spanish rule of Mexico. It covers various topics like the wars, politics, important personalities, drug cartels and violence. All these events are shown on GIS (Geographic information Science) maps. The software can be customized according to the user requirements and is developed using JAVA and GIS technology. The user interface is created using JAVA and MOJO which contributes to effective learning and understanding of the concepts with ease. Some of the user interface features provided in this tool includes zoom-in, zoom-out, legend editing, location identifier, print command, adding a layer and numerous menu items.

  12. Future world oil prices: review of current forecasts, identification of price-determining factors, and delineation of a quantitative framework for analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hirshfeld, D.S.; Frye, K.N.; Bendersky, C.; Coleman, K.J.; Montano, W.B.

    1982-09-17

    This study is part of an examination of strategic questions underlying decisions regarding the US' development of new conventional oil and gas reserves and synthetic fuels production. As a baseline, an attempt is made to identify the actual determinants driving foreign oil prices of which production costs are but one element. By examining what foreign suppliers are charging and what latitude they have to change their prices, we should be better able to identify options for dealing with them. Specifically, we need to know what prices OPEC may want to set over time and how low they could allow prices to go without damaging their economies. Also, we need a better understanding of how much domestic oil consumption could be curtailed by substituting gas and a better understanding of the comparative economics of new oil and gas sources. Eventually, we also need a sound basis for strengthening agreements with western hemisphere oil exporters and improving relations with our oil-consuming allies and non-cartel nations in other parts of the world, all in keeping with the President's new program for developing potential economic allies and reducing their dependency on OPEC oil. This report analyzes: (1) Key energy market and non-market forces, including national policies, that will largely determine future world oil prices; (3) recent world oil price forecasts by a number of public-sector and private-sector organizations; and (3) a framework and method of attack, involving energy market equilibrium analysis, for estimating long-term growth rates in world oil prices in relation to alternative energy policies of the oil-consuming and oil-exporting countries. These topics are all facets of the central issue: the prospective interactions between future world oil prices and US energy policies - particularly those policies that can increase long-term domestic energy supplies.

  13. Generation expansion planning in a competitive electric power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Angela Shu-Woan

    This work investigates the application of non-cooperative game theory to generation expansion planning (GEP) in a competitive electricity industry. We identify fundamental ways competition changes the nature of GEP, review different models of oligopoly behavior, and argue that assumptions of the Cournot model are compatible with GEP. Applying Cournot theory of oligopoly behavior, we formulate a GEP model that may characterize expansion in the new competitive regime, particularly in pool-dominated generation supply industries. Our formulation incorporates multiple markets and is patterned after the basic design of the California ISO/PX system. Applying the model, we conduct numerical experiments on a test system, and analyze generation investment and market participation decisions of different candidate expansion units that vary in costs and forced outage rates. Simulations are performed under different scenarios of competition. In particular, we observe higher probabilistic measures of reliability from Cournot expansion compared to the expansion plan of a monopoly with an equivalent minimum reserve margin requirement. We prove several results for a subclass of problems encompassed by our formulation. In particular, we prove that under certain conditions Cournot competition leads to greater total capacity expansion than a situation in which generators collude in a cartel. We also show that industry output after introduction of new technology is no less than monopoly output. So a monopoly may lack sufficient incentive to introduce new technologies. Finally, we discuss the association between capacity payments and the issue of pricing reliability. And we derive a formula for computing ideal capacity payment rates by extending the Value of Service Reliability technique.

  14. Tracking illegal small arms traffic across U.S. borders through the implementation of firearm microstamping to small arms and small arms exports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Ohar, Orest P.

    2009-05-01

    At a border security conference in August 2008, Michael Sullivan, acting director of Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives stated that, "Nearly all illegal firearms (90% to 95%) seized in Mexico come from the United States"[1]. When firearms are recovered at a crime scene, the firearms can be traced providing specific details on illegal firearm dealers or straw purchasers within the United States. Criminals or narco terrorist groups target US dealers to source firearms for drug cartels in Mexico and South America. Joint law enforcement programs between the US and Mexico law enforcement have been effective, however, in most cases the firearms that are seized are only a small fraction of the firearms trafficked across the United States border. A technology called Microstamping, when applied to newly manufactured firearms will provide further opportunities for tracing illegal firearms for law enforcement in the United States and across the globe. Microstamping is a patented technology and trace solution where intentional tooling marks are formed or micromachined onto firearms interior surfaces that come into contact or impact the surfaces of cartridge casings. The intentional tooling marks can take the form of alphanumeric codes or encoded geometric codes, such as a barcode. As the firearm is discharged the intentional tooling marks transfer a code to the cartridge casing before it is ejected out of the firearm. When recovered at the scene of an incident, the Microstamped cartridge can indentify a specific firearm, without the need to recover that firearm. Microstamping provides critical intelligence for use in border security operations and cross border violent drug related crime investigations. This paper will explain the key attributes of microstamping technology; including its potential benefits in border security operations and how data gathered from the technique can be used in geospatial information systems to identify illicit firearm sources

  15. Global leaf companies control the tobacco market in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Otañez, Marty G; Mamudu, Hadii; Glantz, Stanton A

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine the influence of US‐based tobacco leaf‐buying companies, Universal Corporation and Alliance One International, on Malawi's economy and trade policy in 2000–6. Design Analyses of ethnographic data and tobacco industry documents. Results Universal Corporation and Alliance One International, through their subsidiary companies Limbe Leaf and Alliance One, respectively, in Malawi, control policy‐making advisory groups and operate a tobacco cartel to influence Malawi's economic and trade sectors. Limbe Leaf's corporate secretary and lawyer is a member of several policy‐making committees that advise the Malawi government on tobacco‐related trade policy. The corporate representative's presence prevents other committee members from taking positions against the tobacco industry and ensures government policy that advances industry interests to obtain low‐cost tobacco. The World Bank and Malawi's Anti‐corruption Bureau report allegations of collusion between Limbe Leaf and Alliance One over prices at tobacco markets. Allegations of collusion between Limbe Leaf and Alliance One prompted Malawi President Bingu Mutharika in 2006 to warn the companies to end non‐competitive practices or leave the country, but there was no meaningful follow‐up action. Findings from interviews with small‐scale tobacco traders in Malawi suggest that Universal and Alliance One International purchase smuggled raw tobacco from the neighbouring countries, Zambia and Mozambique, undermining growers' efforts to benefit from tobacco farming in Malawi. Conclusion These actions restrict competition, depress tobacco prices for Malawi's farmers and contribute to poverty in Malawi, while keeping the country dependent on tobacco growing. PMID:17652242

  16. The biochemistry of citric acid accumulation by Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Karaffa, L; Sándor, E; Fekete, E; Szentirmai, A

    2001-01-01

    Fungi, in particular Aspergilli, are well known for their potential to overproduce a variety of organic acids. These microorganisms have an intrinsic ability to accumulate these substances and it is generally believed that this provides the fungi with an ecological advantage, since they grow rather well at pH 3 to 5, while some species even tolerate pH values as low as 1.5. Organic acid production can be stimulated and in a number of cases conditions have been found that result in almost quantitative conversion of carbon substrate into acid. This is exploited in large-scale production of a number of organic acids like citric-, gluconic- and itaconic acid. Both in production volume as well as in knowledge available, citrate is by far the major organic acid. Citric acid (2-hydroxy-propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid) is a true bulk product with an estimated global production of over 900 thousand tons in the year 2000. Till the beginning of the 20th century, it was exclusively extracted from lemons. Since the global market was dominated by an Italian cartel, other means of production were sought. Chemical synthesis was possible, but not suitable due to expensive raw materials and a complicated process with low yield. The discovery of citrate accumulation by Aspergillus niger led to a rapid development of a fermentation process, which only a decade later accounted for a large part of the global production. The application of citric acid is based on three of its properties: (1) acidity and buffer capacity, (2) taste and flavour, and (3) chelation of metal ions. Because of its three acid groups with pKa values of 3.1, 4.7 and 6.4, citrate is able to produce a very low pH in solution, but is also useful as a buffer over a broad range of pH values (2 to 7). Citric acid has a pleasant acid taste which leaves little aftertaste. It sometimes enhances flavour, but is also able to mask sweetness, such as the aspartame taste in diet beverages. Chelation of metal ions is a very

  17. The value test: An exercise in futility

    SciTech Connect

    Cordato, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This exercise has not been to demonstrate that Patricia Herman`s value test is flawed. Indeed, it appears to be a very diligent attempt to get it right. Even a perfect cost/benefit analysis will be fundamentally flawed because all such analysis is an attempt to do something that conceptually cannot be done. Cost/benefit analysis is a non-operational approach for making determinations about social efficiency. Making assumptions to the contrary and then proceeding does not change this fact; it does not change things to argue that this is the best we can do. If we do proceed with the analysis, any conclusion regarding social efficiency is pure speculation. The point is that the problems with the analysis precludes demonstrating that its the best we can do because there is no way to assess the analysis ex post. In order to determine whether the results of a cost/benefit analysis, ex post, moves us in the direction of enhanced social welfare one would have to understand the direction. To know this, the analyst would have to be able to overcome the problems that we have discussed, and this is a catch 22. This analysis also has broader implications for DSM. Support for DSM is based on the assumption that electricity is being overconsumed, but all of the problems that must be overcome to perform cost/benefit analysis must also be overcome to demonstrate that there is an overconsumption problem. It must be shown that existing restrictions on oil drilling/explorations, energy taxes/regulations, and monopoly/cartel influences are not already compensating for the overconsumption. To understand the extent of any overconsumption problem one must overcome the subjective value problem since interpersonal comparisons of costs and benefits have to be made. Combine these problems with the fact that the passage of time changes results and that the science behind some social cost problems is controversial, and it becomes doubtful that DSM as public policy has any economic justification.

  18. Associating Human-Centered Concepts with Social Networks Using Fuzzy Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, Ronald R.

    The rapidly growing global interconnectivity, brought about to a large extent by the Internet, has dramatically increased the importance and diversity of social networks. Modern social networks cut across a spectrum from benign recreational focused websites such as Facebook to occupationally oriented websites such as LinkedIn to criminally focused groups such as drug cartels to devastation and terror focused groups such as Al-Qaeda. Many organizations are interested in analyzing and extracting information related to these social networks. Among these are governmental police and security agencies as well marketing and sales organizations. To aid these organizations there is a need for technologies to model social networks and intelligently extract information from these models. While established technologies exist for the modeling of relational networks [1-7] few technologies exist to extract information from these, compatible with human perception and understanding. Data bases is an example of a technology in which we have tools for representing our information as well as tools for querying and extracting the information contained. Our goal is in some sense analogous. We want to use the relational network model to represent information, in this case about relationships and interconnections, and then be able to query the social network using intelligent human-centered concepts. To extend our capabilities to interact with social relational networks we need to associate with these network human concepts and ideas. Since human beings predominantly use linguistic terms in which to reason and understand we need to build bridges between human conceptualization and the formal mathematical representation of the social network. Consider for example a concept such as "leader". An analyst may be able to express, in linguistic terms, using a network relevant vocabulary, properties of a leader. Our task is to translate this linguistic description into a mathematical formalism

  19. The use of ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the detection of illicit drugs on clandestine records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnelly, Brian; Jourdan, Thomas; Fetterolf, Dean D.; Beasley, James O., II

    1995-01-01

    Illicit drug distribution has over the past decade grown tremendously from simple 'drug pushing' where drugs were distributed from poorly organized individuals to today's well organized and well financed drug cartels. This change to a more 'corporate-like' atmosphere has resulted in a greater use of record keeping to monitor the profits generated. The use of record keeping by drug distributors is not restricted to high level drug smugglers but is used at all levels within the distribution network. Dealers at all levels including street dealers are generally 'fronted', given on consignment quantities of drugs that they in turn sell to customers, thereby requiring the need for records to keep track of drug sales versus liabilities. These records because of their illicit nature are often encrypted to hide the fact that they are indeed records of drug transactions. The creation of a handwritten notation concerning a drug transaction is normally brought on because of a purchase or sale. In a sale, this is commonly accomplished through a consignment, or the designation of a quantity to a customer to whom that amount has been 'fronted'. Because this activity generates a debt, it follows that an accounting for payments made, as well as new transactions completed, is only logical. One of the most common means of representing these is through an 'accounting flow', in which payments are subtracted from a running balance while new sales are added to it. The examination of illicit drug records has been the key to the prosecution of numerous federal, state, and local drug cases for a number of years. The Document Section of the FBI Laboratory, through its Racketeering Records Analysis Unit (RRAU), has been involved in such analytical efforts since 1983. Detailed analytical research brought about an evolution in the systematic approach utilized in the RRAU since that time. The close proximity of the drugs to the records often results in trace drug evidence being transferred to

  20. Phenol oxidase activity in secondary transformed peat-moorsh soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styła, K.; Szajdak, L.

    2009-04-01

    The chemical composition of peat depends on the geobotanical conditions of its formation and on the depth of sampling. The evolution of hydrogenic peat soils is closely related to the genesis of peat and to the changes in water conditions. Due to a number of factors including oscillation of ground water level, different redox potential, changes of aerobic conditions, different plant communities, and root exudes, and products of the degradation of plant remains, peat-moorsh soils may undergo a process of secondary transformation conditions (Sokolowska et al. 2005; Szajdak et al. 2007). Phenol oxidase is one of the few enzymes able to degrade recalcitrant phenolic materials as lignin (Freeman et al. 2004). Phenol oxidase enzymes catalyze polyphenol oxidation in the presence of oxygen (O2) by removing phenolic hydrogen or hydrogenes to from radicals or quinines. These products undergo nucleophilic addition reactions in the presence or absence of free - NH2 group with the eventual production of humic acid-like polymers. The presence of phenol oxidase in soil environments is important in the formation of humic substances a desirable process because the carbon is stored in a stable form (Matocha et al. 2004). The investigations were carried out on the transect of peatland 4.5 km long, located in the Agroecological Landscape Park host D. Chlapowski in Turew (40 km South-West of Poznań, West Polish Lowland). The sites of investigation were located along Wyskoć ditch. The following material was taken from four chosen sites marked as Zbechy, Bridge, Shelterbelt and Hirudo in two layers: cartel (0-50cm) and cattle (50-100cm). The object of this study was to characterize the biochemical properties by the determination of the phenol oxidize activity in two layers of the four different peat-moors soils used as meadow. The phenol oxidase activity was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring quinone formation at λmax=525 nm with catechol as substrate by method of Perucci

  1. Economics of lifecycle analysis and greenhouse gas regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2009-11-01

    the market power of OPEC (Oil Producing and Exporting Countries), a cartel of nations which is the single largest oil exporting entity in the world, and is an entity considered unreliable. On the other hand, it reduces the demand for domestic farm subsidies. At the same crops comprise a small share of the retail price of food. As a result, the expected negative impact of biofuel was at worst a small increase in the retail price of food. However, the food price inflation in the year 2008 suggests that the negative impact on food consumers was significantly higher than expected and also outweighed the impact fuel consumers. I estimate the effect on biofuels on food and oil prices and compare them to other estimates in the literature and also relate these to prices observed in the real world. The third topic is the economics of greenhouse gas regulations of transportation fuels. Climate change policies such as United Nations' Kyoto protocol, European Union Emission Trading Scheme, and the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative in the US north-east mandate an aggregate emission target, called a cap and allow regulated entities to trade responsibilities for abatement. Furthermore, these policies have generally and sometimes exclusively targeted the electricity and industrial sector for emission reduction. However, the Low carbon fuel standard and Renewable fuel standard are two policies about to be implemented by the State of California and the US federal government, which exclusively target the transportation sector for emission reduction. Furthermore, these regulations mandate emission intensity target for fuels rather than aggregate emission reduction. I compare the cost-effectiveness of these two types of regulations, namely, aggregate emission caps versus emission intensity standards and discuss how prices, output and emissions vary between these two types of policies.

  2. Replacing the Rare Earth Intellectual Capital

    SciTech Connect

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl

    2011-04-01

    The rare earth crisis slowly evolved during a 10 to 15 year period beginning in the mid-1980s, when the Chinese began to export mixed rare earth concentrates. In the early 1990s, they started to move up the supply chain and began to export the individual rare earth oxides and metals. By the late 1990s the Chinese exported higher value products, such as magnets, phosphors, polishing compounds, catalysts; and in the 21st century they supplied finished products including electric motors, computers, batteries, liquid-crystal displays (LCDs), TVs and monitors, mobile phones, iPods and compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) light bulbs. As they moved to higher value products, the Chinese slowly drove the various industrial producers and commercial enterprises in the US, Europe and Japan out of business by manipulating the rare earth commodity prices. Because of this, the technically trained rare earth engineers and scientists who worked in areas from mining to separations, to processing to production, to manufacturing of semifinished and final products, were laid-off and moved to other fields or they retired. However, in the past year the Chinese have changed their philosophy of the 1970s and 1980s of forming a rare earth cartel to control the rare earth markets to one in which they will no longer supply the rest of the world (ROW) with their precious rare earths, but instead will use them internally to meet the growing demand as the Chinese standard of living increases. To this end, they have implemented and occasionally increased export restrictions and added an export tariff on many of the high demand rare earth elements. Now the ROW is quickly trying to start up rare earth mines, e.g. Molycorp Minerals in the US and Lynas Corp. in Australia, to cover this shortfall in the worldwide market, but it will take about five years for the supply to meet the demand, even as other mines in the ROW become productive. Unfortunately, today there is a serious lack of technically trained

  3. The Astronomy Club of Araranguá: Educating Science Teachers as Science Communicators. (Breton Title: Clube de Astronomia de AraranguÁ: a Formação de Professores de Ciências Como Divulgadores Científicos. ) Club de Astronomía de Araranguá: la Formación del Profesorado Como Comunicadores de la Ciencia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damasio, Felipe; Allain, Olivier; Antunes Rodrigues, Adriano

    2013-07-01

    -se na Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa, sempre procurando alcançar a pré-disposição em aprender e produzir material potencialmente significativo, as duas condições necessárias para que a aprendizagem significativa ocorra. El estudio relatado en este trabajo se lleva a cabo desde 2009 en el Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnología de Santa Catarina, campus Araranguá. En él se busca formar a comunicadores de la ciencia durante la formación inicial de los docentes Licenciatura en Ciencias Naturales con especialidad en Física, y también promover acciones de divulgación científica para el público en general en la región de Araranguá a través de un club de astronomía llamado CA2 (Clube de Astronomia Araranguá). Entres las acciones de los estudiantes que se promueven están: producción de videos, programas de radio, conferencias, observaciones nocturnas, la preparación y exposición de carteles, la educación en física para los niños, actividades de formación permanente del profesorado y enseñanza de la física de con el tema generador Astronomía. El trabajo de la formación del profesorado y la difusión de club científico se basa en la teoría del aprendizaje significativo, buscando siempre la predisposición para aprender y producir material potencialmente significativo, las dos condiciones necesarias para que ocurra el aprendizaje significativo.