Explicitly computing geodetic coordinates from Cartesian coordinates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Huaien
2013-04-01
This paper presents a new form of quartic equation based on Lagrange's extremum law and a Groebner basis under the constraint that the geodetic height is the shortest distance between a given point and the reference ellipsoid. A very explicit and concise formulae of the quartic equation by Ferrari's line is found, which avoids the need of a good starting guess for iterative methods. A new explicit algorithm is then proposed to compute geodetic coordinates from Cartesian coordinates. The convergence region of the algorithm is investigated and the corresponding correct solution is given. Lastly, the algorithm is validated with numerical experiments.
Stable boundary conditions for Cartesian grid calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berger, M. J.; Leveque, R. J.
1990-01-01
The inviscid Euler equations in complicated geometries are solved using a Cartesian grid. This requires solid wall boundary conditions in the irregular grid cells near the boundary. Since these cells may be orders of magnitude smaller than the regular grid cells, stability is a primary concern. An approach to this problem is presented and its use is illustrated.
The 3D Euler solutions using automated Cartesian grid generation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melton, John E.; Enomoto, Francis Y.; Berger, Marsha J.
1993-01-01
Viewgraphs on 3-dimensional Euler solutions using automated Cartesian grid generation are presented. Topics covered include: computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and the design cycle; Cartesian grid strategy; structured body fit; grid generation; prolate spheroid; and ONERA M6 wing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Polkowski, Marcin
2016-04-01
Seismic wave travel time calculation is the most common numerical operation in seismology. The most efficient is travel time calculation in 1D velocity model - for given source, receiver depths and angular distance time is calculated within fraction of a second. Unfortunately, in most cases 1D is not enough to encounter differentiating local and regional structures. Whenever possible travel time through 3D velocity model has to be calculated. It can be achieved using ray calculation or time propagation in space. While single ray path calculation is quick it is complicated to find the ray path that connects source with the receiver. Time propagation in space using Fast Marching Method seems more efficient in most cases, especially when there are multiple receivers. In this presentation a Python module pySeismicFMM is presented - simple and very efficient tool for calculating travel time from sources to receivers. Calculation requires regular 2D or 3D velocity grid either in Cartesian or geographic coordinates. On desktop class computer calculation speed is 200k grid cells per second. Calculation has to be performed once for every source location and provides travel time to all receivers. pySeismicFMM is free and open source. Development of this tool is a part of authors PhD thesis. National Science Centre Poland provided financial support for this work via NCN grant DEC-2011/02/A/ST10/00284.
Transonic airfoil design using Cartesian coordinates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carlson, L. A.
1976-01-01
A numerical technique for designing transonic airfoils having a prescribed pressure distribution (the inverse problem) is presented. The method employs the basic features of Jameson's iterative solution for the full potential equation, except that inverse boundary conditions and Cartesian coordinates are used. The method is a direct-inverse approach that controls trailing-edge closure. Examples show the application of the method to design aft-cambered and other airfoils specifically for transonic flight.
Errors of Remapping of Radar Estimates onto Cartesian Coordinates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharif, H. O.; Ogden, F. L.
2014-12-01
Recent upgrades to operational radar rainfall products in terms of quality and resolution call for re-examination of the factors that contribute to the uncertainty of radar rainfall estimation. Remapping or gridding of radar polar observations onto Cartesian coordinates is implemented using various methods, and is often applied when radar estimates are compared against rain gauge observations, in hydrologic applications, or for merging data from different radars. However, assuming perfect radar observations, many of the widely used remapping methodologies do not conserve mass for the rainfall rate field. Research has suggested that optimal remapping should select all polar bins falling within or intersecting a Cartesian grid and assign them weights based on the proportion of each individual bin's area falling within the grid. However, to reduce computational demand practitioners use a variety of approximate remapping approaches. The most popular approximate approaches used are those based on extracting information from radar bins whose centers fall within a certain distance from the center of the Cartesian grid. This paper introduces a mass-conserving method for remapping, which we call "precise remapping", and evaluates it by comparing against two other commonly used remapping methods based on areal weighting and distance. Results show that the choice of the remapping method can lead to large errors in grid-averaged rainfall accumulations.
Conversion of Cartesian coordinates from and to Generalized Balanced Ternary addresses
van Roessel, Jan W.
1988-01-01
Hexagonal grids have several advantages over square grids, such as a greater angular resolution and unambiguous connectivity. The Generalized Balanced Ternary (GBT) system is a spatial addressing method for hexagonal grids in which the hexagons are arranged in hierarchical aggregates, and which accommodates vector operations in GBT space. Efficient algorithms for converting Cartesian coordinates from and to GBT addresses are based on the dual representation of the hexagonal tessellation. The GBT-to-Cartesian algorithm is an order of magnitude faster than the Cartesian-to-GBT algorithm, the latter requiring interpolation and GBT addition for each digit of the generated GBT address.
On differential transformations between Cartesian and curvilinear (geodetic) coordinates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Soler, T.
1976-01-01
Differential transformations are developed between Cartesian and curvilinear orthogonal coordinates. Only matrix algebra is used for the presentation of the basic concepts. After defining the reference systems used the rotation (R), metric (H), and Jacobian (J) matrices of the transformations between cartesian and curvilinear coordinate systems are introduced. A value of R as a function of H and J is presented. Likewise an analytical expression for J(-1) as a function of H(-2) and R is obtained. Emphasis is placed on showing that differential equations are equivalent to conventional similarity transformations. Scaling methods are discussed along with ellipsoidal coordinates. Differential transformations between elipsoidal and geodetic coordinates are established.
Efficient Fluid Dynamic Design Optimization Using Cartesian Grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dadone, A.; Grossman, B.; Sellers, Bill (Technical Monitor)
2004-01-01
This report is subdivided in three parts. The first one reviews a new approach to the computation of inviscid flows using Cartesian grid methods. The crux of the method is the curvature-corrected symmetry technique (CCST) developed by the present authors for body-fitted grids. The method introduces ghost cells near the boundaries whose values are developed from an assumed flow-field model in vicinity of the wall consisting of a vortex flow, which satisfies the normal momentum equation and the non-penetration condition. The CCST boundary condition was shown to be substantially more accurate than traditional boundary condition approaches. This improved boundary condition is adapted to a Cartesian mesh formulation, which we call the Ghost Body-Cell Method (GBCM). In this approach, all cell centers exterior to the body are computed with fluxes at the four surrounding cell edges. There is no need for special treatment corresponding to cut cells which complicate other Cartesian mesh methods.
A Cartesian grid approach with hierarchical refinement for compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quirk, James J.
1994-01-01
Many numerical studies of flows that involve complex geometries are limited by the difficulties in generating suitable grids. We present a Cartesian boundary scheme for two-dimensional, compressible flows that is unfettered by the need to generate a computational grid and so it may be used, routinely, even for the most awkward of geometries. In essence, an arbitrary-shaped body is allowed to blank out some region of a background Cartesian mesh and the resultant cut-cells are singled out for special treatment. This is done within a finite-volume framework and so, in principle, any explicit flux-based integration scheme can take advantage of this method for enforcing solid boundary conditions. For best effect, the present Cartesian boundary scheme has been combined with a sophisticated, local mesh refinement scheme, and a number of examples are shown in order to demonstrate the efficacy of the combined algorithm for simulations of shock interaction phenomena.
Triangle geometry processing for surface modeling and cartesian grid generation
Aftosmis, Michael J [San Mateo, CA; Melton, John E [Hollister, CA; Berger, Marsha J [New York, NY
2002-09-03
Cartesian mesh generation is accomplished for component based geometries, by intersecting components subject to mesh generation to extract wetted surfaces with a geometry engine using adaptive precision arithmetic in a system which automatically breaks ties with respect to geometric degeneracies. During volume mesh generation, intersected surface triangulations are received to enable mesh generation with cell division of an initially coarse grid. The hexagonal cells are resolved, preserving the ability to directionally divide cells which are locally well aligned.
Triangle Geometry Processing for Surface Modeling and Cartesian Grid Generation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aftosmis, Michael J. (Inventor); Melton, John E. (Inventor); Berger, Marsha J. (Inventor)
2002-01-01
Cartesian mesh generation is accomplished for component based geometries, by intersecting components subject to mesh generation to extract wetted surfaces with a geometry engine using adaptive precision arithmetic in a system which automatically breaks ties with respect to geometric degeneracies. During volume mesh generation, intersected surface triangulations are received to enable mesh generation with cell division of an initially coarse grid. The hexagonal cells are resolved, preserving the ability to directionally divide cells which are locally well aligned.
Topology preserving advection of implicit interfaces on Cartesian grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Zhipeng; Delaney, Keegan; Riaz, Amir; Balaras, Elias
2015-06-01
Accurate representation of implicit interface topology is important for the numerical computation of two phase flow on Cartesian grids. A new method is proposed for the construction of signed distance function by geometrically projecting interface topology onto the Cartesian grid using a multi-level projection framework. The method involves a stepwise improvement in the approximation to the signed distance function based on pointwise, piecewise and locally smooth reconstructions of the interface. We show that this approach provides accurate representation of the projected interface and its topology on the Cartesian grid, including the distance from the interface and the interface normal and curvature. The projected interface can be in the form of either a connected set of marker particles that evolve with Lagrangian advection, or a discrete set of points associated with an implicit interface that evolves with the advection of a scalar function. The signed distance function obtained with geometric projection is independent of the details of the scaler field, in contrast to the conventional approach where advection and reinitialization cannot be decoupled. As a result, errors introduced by reinitialization do not amplify advection errors, which leads to substantial improvement in both volume conservation and topology representation.
Nested Cartesian grid method in incompressible viscous fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Yih-Ferng; Mittal, Rajat; Sau, Amalendu; Hwang, Robert R.
2010-09-01
In this work, the local grid refinement procedure is focused by using a nested Cartesian grid formulation. The method is developed for simulating unsteady viscous incompressible flows with complex immersed boundaries. A finite-volume formulation based on globally second-order accurate central-difference schemes is adopted here in conjunction with a two-step fractional-step procedure. The key aspects that needed to be considered in developing such a nested grid solver are proper imposition of interface conditions on the nested-block boundaries, and accurate discretization of the governing equations in cells that are with block-interface as a control-surface. The interpolation procedure adopted in the study allows systematic development of a discretization scheme that preserves global second-order spatial accuracy of the underlying solver, and as a result high efficiency/accuracy nested grid discretization method is developed. Herein the proposed nested grid method has been widely tested through effective simulation of four different classes of unsteady incompressible viscous flows, thereby demonstrating its performance in the solution of various complex flow-structure interactions. The numerical examples include a lid-driven cavity flow and Pearson vortex problems, flow past a circular cylinder symmetrically installed in a channel, flow past an elliptic cylinder at an angle of attack, and flow past two tandem circular cylinders of unequal diameters. For the numerical simulations of flows past bluff bodies an immersed boundary (IB) method has been implemented in which the solid object is represented by a distributed body force in the Navier-Stokes equations. The main advantages of the implemented immersed boundary method are that the simulations could be performed on a regular Cartesian grid and applied to multiple nested-block (Cartesian) structured grids without any difficulty. Through the numerical experiments the strength of the solver in effectively
Cartesian to geodetic coordinates conversion on a triaxial ellipsoid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ligas, Marcin
2012-04-01
A new method of transforming Cartesian to geodetic (or planetographic) coordinates on a triaxial ellipsoid is presented. The method is based on simple reasoning coming from essentials of vector calculus. The reasoning results in solving a nonlinear system of equations for coordinates of the point being the projection of a point located outside or inside a triaxial ellipsoid along the normal to the ellipsoid. The presented method has been compared to a vector method of Feltens (J Geod 83:129-137, 2009) who claims that no other methods are available in the literature. Generally, our method turns out to be more accurate, faster and applicable to celestial bodies characterized by different geometric parameters. The presented method also fits to the classical problem of converting Cartesian to geodetic coordinates on the ellipsoid of revolution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Civicioglu, Pinar
2012-09-01
In order to solve numerous practical navigational, geodetic and astro-geodetic problems, it is necessary to transform geocentric cartesian coordinates into geodetic coordinates or vice versa. It is very easy to solve the problem of transforming geodetic coordinates into geocentric cartesian coordinates. On the other hand, it is rather difficult to solve the problem of transforming geocentric cartesian coordinates into geodetic coordinates as it is very hard to define a mathematical relationship between the geodetic latitude (φ) and the geocentric cartesian coordinates (X, Y, Z). In this paper, a new algorithm, the Differential Search Algorithm (DS), is presented to solve the problem of transforming the geocentric cartesian coordinates into geodetic coordinates and its performance is compared with the performances of the classical methods (i.e., Borkowski, 1989; Bowring, 1976; Fukushima, 2006; Heikkinen, 1982; Jones, 2002; Zhang, 2005; Borkowski, 1987; Shu, 2010 and Lin, 1995) and Computational-Intelligence algorithms (i.e., ABC, JDE, JADE, SADE, EPSDE, GSA, PSO2011, and CMA-ES). The statistical tests realized for the comparison of performances indicate that the problem-solving success of DS algorithm in transforming the geocentric cartesian coordinates into geodetic coordinates is higher than those of all classical methods and Computational-Intelligence algorithms used in this paper.
GSRP/David Marshall: Fully Automated Cartesian Grid CFD Application for MDO in High Speed Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2003-01-01
With the renewed interest in Cartesian gridding methodologies for the ease and speed of gridding complex geometries in addition to the simplicity of the control volumes used in the computations, it has become important to investigate ways of extending the existing Cartesian grid solver functionalities. This includes developing methods of modeling the viscous effects in order to utilize Cartesian grids solvers for accurate drag predictions and addressing the issues related to the distributed memory parallelization of Cartesian solvers. This research presents advances in two areas of interest in Cartesian grid solvers, viscous effects modeling and MPI parallelization. The development of viscous effects modeling using solely Cartesian grids has been hampered by the widely varying control volume sizes associated with the mesh refinement and the cut cells associated with the solid surface. This problem is being addressed by using physically based modeling techniques to update the state vectors of the cut cells and removing them from the finite volume integration scheme. This work is performed on a new Cartesian grid solver, NASCART-GT, with modifications to its cut cell functionality. The development of MPI parallelization addresses issues associated with utilizing Cartesian solvers on distributed memory parallel environments. This work is performed on an existing Cartesian grid solver, CART3D, with modifications to its parallelization methodology.
3D Euler flow solutions using unstructured Cartesian and prismatic grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melton, John E.; Pandya, Shishir A.; Steger, Joseph L.
1993-01-01
A hyperbolic prismatic grid generation technique is combined with a background Cartesian grid for the study of inviscid three-dimensional flows. The mathematics of the hyperbolic prismatic grid generation algorithm are described, and some simple inviscid demonstration cases are presented. By combining the simplicity of the Cartesian background grid with the geometric flexibility and computational efficiencies inherent to prismatic grids, this approach shows promise for improving computational aerodynamic simulations.
On NUFFT-based gridding for non-Cartesian MRI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fessler, Jeffrey A.
2007-10-01
For MRI with non-Cartesian sampling, the conventional approach to reconstructing images is to use the gridding method with a Kaiser-Bessel (KB) interpolation kernel. Recently, Sha et al. [L. Sha, H. Guo, A.W. Song, An improved gridding method for spiral MRI using nonuniform fast Fourier transform, J. Magn. Reson. 162(2) (2003) 250-258] proposed an alternative method based on a nonuniform FFT (NUFFT) with least-squares (LS) design of the interpolation coefficients. They described this LS_NUFFT method as shift variant and reported that it yielded smaller reconstruction approximation errors than the conventional shift-invariant KB approach. This paper analyzes the LS_NUFFT approach in detail. We show that when one accounts for a certain linear phase factor, the core of the LS_NUFFT interpolator is in fact real and shift invariant. Furthermore, we find that the KB approach yields smaller errors than the original LS_NUFFT approach. We show that optimizing certain scaling factors can lead to a somewhat improved LS_NUFFT approach, but the high computation cost seems to outweigh the modest reduction in reconstruction error. We conclude that the standard KB approach, with appropriate parameters as described in the literature, remains the practical method of choice for gridding reconstruction in MRI.
On NUFFT-based gridding for non-Cartesian MRI.
Fessler, Jeffrey A
2007-10-01
For MRI with non-Cartesian sampling, the conventional approach to reconstructing images is to use the gridding method with a Kaiser-Bessel (KB) interpolation kernel. Recently, Sha et al. [L. Sha, H. Guo, A.W. Song, An improved gridding method for spiral MRI using nonuniform fast Fourier transform, J. Magn. Reson. 162(2) (2003) 250-258] proposed an alternative method based on a nonuniform FFT (NUFFT) with least-squares (LS) design of the interpolation coefficients. They described this LS_NUFFT method as shift variant and reported that it yielded smaller reconstruction approximation errors than the conventional shift-invariant KB approach. This paper analyzes the LS_NUFFT approach in detail. We show that when one accounts for a certain linear phase factor, the core of the LS_NUFFT interpolator is in fact real and shift invariant. Furthermore, we find that the KB approach yields smaller errors than the original LS_NUFFT approach. We show that optimizing certain scaling factors can lead to a somewhat improved LS_NUFFT approach, but the high computation cost seems to outweigh the modest reduction in reconstruction error. We conclude that the standard KB approach, with appropriate parameters as described in the literature, remains the practical method of choice for gridding reconstruction in MRI. PMID:17689121
On NUFFT-based gridding for non-Cartesian MRI
Fessler, Jeffrey A.
2007-01-01
For MRI with non-Cartesian sampling, the conventional approach to reconstructing images is to use the gridding method with a Kaiser-Bessel (KB) interpolation kernel. Recently, Sha et al. [1] proposed an alternative method based on a nonuniform FFT (NUFFT) with least-squares (LS) design of the interpolation coefficients. They described this LS_NUFFT method as shift variant and reported that it yielded smaller reconstruction approximation errors than the conventional shift-invariant KB approach. This paper analyzes the LS_NUFFT approach in detail. We show that when one accounts for a certain linear phase factor, the core of the LS_NUFFT interpolator is in fact real and shift invariant. Furthermore, we find that the KB approach yields smaller errors than the original LS_NUFFT approach. We show that optimizing certain scaling factors can lead to a somewhat improved LS_NUFFT approach, but the high computation cost seems to outweigh the modest reduction in reconstruction error. We conclude that the standard KB approach, with appropriate parameters as described in the literature, remains the practical method of choice for gridding reconstruction in MRI. PMID:17689121
A multilevel Cartesian non-uniform grid time domain algorithm
Meng Jun; Boag, Amir; Lomakin, Vitaliy; Michielssen, Eric
2010-11-01
A multilevel Cartesian non-uniform grid time domain algorithm (CNGTDA) is introduced to rapidly compute transient wave fields radiated by time dependent three-dimensional source constellations. CNGTDA leverages the observation that transient wave fields generated by temporally bandlimited and spatially confined source constellations can be recovered via interpolation from appropriately delay- and amplitude-compensated field samples. This property is used in conjunction with a multilevel scheme, in which the computational domain is hierarchically decomposed into subdomains with sparse non-uniform grids used to obtain the fields. For both surface and volumetric source distributions, the computational cost of CNGTDA to compute the transient field at N{sub s} observation locations from N{sub s} collocated sources for N{sub t} discrete time instances scales as O(N{sub t}N{sub s}logN{sub s}) and O(N{sub t}N{sub s}log{sup 2}N{sub s}) in the low- and high-frequency regimes, respectively. Coupled with marching-on-in-time (MOT) time domain integral equations, CNGTDA can facilitate efficient analysis of large scale time domain electromagnetic and acoustic problems.
A general time element for orbit integration in Cartesian coordinates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Janin, G.; Bond, V. R.
1981-01-01
Two techniques are discussed for increasing the accuracy of the numerical integration of eccentric orbits in Cartesian coordinates. One involves the use of an independent variable different from time; this increases the efficiency of the numerical integration. The other uses a time element, which reduces the in-track error. A general expression is given of a time element valid for an arbitrary independent variable. It is pointed out that this time element makes it possible to switch the independent variable merely by applying a scaling factor; there is no need to change the differential equations of the motion. Eccentric, true, and elliptic anomalies are used as independent variables in the case of a transfer orbit for a geosynchronous orbit. The elliptic anomaly is shown to perform much better than the other classical anomalies.
OTAHAL,THOMAS J.; GALLIS,MICHAIL A.; BARTEL,TIMOTHY J.
2000-06-27
This paper presents an investigation of a technique for using two-dimensional bodies composed of simple polygons with a body decoupled uniform Cmtesian grid in the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method (DSMC). The method employs an automated grid pre-processing scheme beginning form a CAD geometry definition file, and is based on polygon triangulation using a trapezoid algorithm. A particle-body intersection time comparison is presented between the Icarus DSMC code using a body-fitted structured grid and using a structured body-decoupled Cartesian grid with both linear and logarithmic search techniques. A comparison of neutral flow over a cylinder is presented using the structured body fitted grid and the Cartesian body de-coupled grid.
Choi, Cheol Ho
2004-02-22
A new way of generating the multipole moments of Cartesian Gaussian functions in spherical polar coordinates has been established, bypassing the intermediary of Cartesian moment tensors. A new set of recurrence relations have also been derived for the resulting analytic integral values. The new method furnishes a conceptually simple and numerically efficient evaluation procedure for the multipole moments. The advantages over existing methods are documented. The results are relevant for the linear scaling quantum theories based on the fast multipole method. PMID:15268515
Cartesian Off-Body Grid Adaption for Viscous Time- Accurate Flow Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buning, Pieter G.; Pulliam, Thomas H.
2011-01-01
An improved solution adaption capability has been implemented in the OVERFLOW overset grid CFD code. Building on the Cartesian off-body approach inherent in OVERFLOW and the original adaptive refinement method developed by Meakin, the new scheme provides for automated creation of multiple levels of finer Cartesian grids. Refinement can be based on the undivided second-difference of the flow solution variables, or on a specific flow quantity such as vorticity. Coupled with load-balancing and an inmemory solution interpolation procedure, the adaption process provides very good performance for time-accurate simulations on parallel compute platforms. A method of using refined, thin body-fitted grids combined with adaption in the off-body grids is presented, which maximizes the part of the domain subject to adaption. Two- and three-dimensional examples are used to illustrate the effectiveness and performance of the adaption scheme.
Development and application of a 3D Cartesian grid Euler method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melton, John E.; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Berger, Marsha J.; Wong, Michael D.
1995-01-01
This report describes recent progress in the development and application of 3D Cartesian grid generation and Euler flow solution techniques. Improvements to flow field grid generation algorithms, geometry representations, and geometry refinement criteria are presented, including details of a procedure for correctly identifying and resolving extremely thin surface features. An initial implementation of automatic flow field refinement is also presented. Results for several 3D multi-component configurations are provided and discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rhee, Young Min
2000-10-01
A modified method to construct an accurate potential energy surface by interpolation is presented. The modification is based on the use of Cartesian coordinates in the weighting function. The translational and rotational invariance of the potential is incorporated by a proper definition of the distance between two Cartesian configurations. A numerical algorithm to find the distance is developed. It is shown that the present method is more exact in describing a planar system compared to the previous methods with weightings in internal coordinates. The applicability of the method to reactive systems is also demonstrated by performing classical trajectory simulations on the surface.
An adaptive discretization of compressible flow using a multitude of moving Cartesian grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Linhai; Lu, Wenlong; Fedkiw, Ronald
2016-01-01
We present a novel method for simulating compressible flow on a multitude of Cartesian grids that can rotate and translate. Following previous work, we split the time integration into an explicit step for advection followed by an implicit solve for the pressure. A second order accurate flux based scheme is devised to handle advection on each moving Cartesian grid using an effective characteristic velocity that accounts for the grid motion. In order to avoid the stringent time step restriction imposed by very fine grids, we propose strategies that allow for a fluid velocity CFL number larger than 1. The stringent time step restriction related to the sound speed is alleviated by formulating an implicit linear system in order to find a pressure consistent with the equation of state. This implicit linear system crosses overlapping Cartesian grid boundaries by utilizing local Voronoi meshes to connect the various degrees of freedom obtaining a symmetric positive-definite system. Since a straightforward application of this technique contains an inherent central differencing which can result in spurious oscillations, we introduce a new high order diffusion term similar in spirit to ENO-LLF but solved for implicitly in order to avoid any associated time step restrictions. The method is conservative on each grid, as well as globally conservative on the background grid that contains all other grids. Moreover, a conservative interpolation operator is devised for conservatively remapping values in order to keep them consistent across different overlapping grids. Additionally, the method is extended to handle two-way solid fluid coupling in a monolithic fashion including cases (in the appendix) where solids in close proximity do not properly allow for grid based degrees of freedom in between them.
Geometry optimization for peptides and proteins: comparison of Cartesian and internal coordinates.
Koslover, Elena F; Wales, David J
2007-12-21
We present the results of several benchmarks comparing the relative efficiency of different coordinate systems in optimizing polypeptide geometries. Cartesian, natural internal, and primitive internal coordinates are employed in quasi-Newton minimization for a variety of biomolecules. The peptides and proteins used in these benchmarks range in size from 16 to 999 residues. They vary in complexity from polyalanine helices to a beta-barrel enzyme. We find that the relative performance of the different coordinate systems depends on the parameters of the optimization method, the starting point for the optimization, and the size of the system studied. In general, internal coordinates were found to be advantageous for small peptides. For larger structures, Cartesians appear to be more efficient for empirical potentials where the energy and gradient can be evaluated relatively quickly compared to the cost of the coordinate transformations. PMID:18154373
Geometry optimization for peptides and proteins: Comparison of Cartesian and internal coordinates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koslover, Elena F.; Wales, David J.
2007-12-01
We present the results of several benchmarks comparing the relative efficiency of different coordinate systems in optimizing polypeptide geometries. Cartesian, natural internal, and primitive internal coordinates are employed in quasi-Newton minimization for a variety of biomolecules. The peptides and proteins used in these benchmarks range in size from 16 to 999 residues. They vary in complexity from polyalanine helices to a β-barrel enzyme. We find that the relative performance of the different coordinate systems depends on the parameters of the optimization method, the starting point for the optimization, and the size of the system studied. In general, internal coordinates were found to be advantageous for small peptides. For larger structures, Cartesians appear to be more efficient for empirical potentials where the energy and gradient can be evaluated relatively quickly compared to the cost of the coordinate transformations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Finley, Dennis B.
1995-01-01
This report documents results from the Euler Technology Assessment program. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of Euler computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes for use in preliminary aircraft design. Both the accuracy of the predictions and the rapidity of calculations were to be assessed. This portion of the study was conducted by Lockheed Fort Worth Company, using a recently developed in-house Cartesian-grid code called SPLITFLOW. The Cartesian grid technique offers several advantages for this study, including ease of volume grid generation and reduced number of cells compared to other grid schemes. SPLITFLOW also includes grid adaptation of the volume grid during the solution convergence to resolve high-gradient flow regions. This proved beneficial in resolving the large vortical structures in the flow for several configurations examined in the present study. The SPLITFLOW code predictions of the configuration forces and moments are shown to be adequate for preliminary design analysis, including predictions of sideslip effects and the effects of geometry variations at low and high angles of attack. The time required to generate the results from initial surface definition is on the order of several hours, including grid generation, which is compatible with the needs of the design environment.
Schwartz, Peter; Barad, Michael; Colella, Phillip; Ligocki, Terry
2004-11-02
We present an algorithm for solving Poisson's equation and the heat equation on irregular domains in three dimensions. Our work uses the Cartesian grid embedded boundary algorithm for 2D problems of Johansen and Colella (1998, J. Comput. Phys. 147(2):60-85) and extends work of McCorquodale, Colella and Johansen (2001, J. Comput. Phys. 173(2):60-85). Our method is based on a finite-volume discretization of the operator, on the control volumes formed by intersecting the Cartesian grid cells with the domain, combined with a second-order accurate discretization of the fluxes. The resulting method provides uniformly second-order accurate solutions and gradients and is amenable to geometric multigrid solvers.
Equivalence of the Path Integral for Fermions in Cartesian and Spherical Coordinates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Briggs, Andrew; Camblong, Horacio E.; Ordóñez, Carlos R.
2013-06-01
The path integral calculation for the free energy of a spin-1/2 Dirac-fermion gas is performed in spherical polar coordinates for a flat space-time geometry. Its equivalence with the Cartesian-coordinate representation is explicitly established. This evaluation involves a relevant limiting case of the fermionic path integral in a Schwarzschild background, whose near-horizon limit has been shown to be related to black hole thermodynamics.
Grid-coordinate generation program
Cosner, Oliver J.; Horwich, Esther
1974-01-01
This program description of the grid-coordinate generation program is written for computer users who are familiar with digital aquifer models. The program computes the coordinates for a variable grid -used in the 'Pinder Model' (a finite-difference aquifer simulator), for input to the CalComp GPCP (general purpose contouring program). The program adjusts the y-value by a user-supplied constant in order to transpose the origin of the model grid from the upper left-hand corner to the lower left-hand corner of the grid. The user has the options of, (1.) choosing the boundaries of the plot; (2.) adjusting the z-values (altitudes) by a constant; (3.) deleting superfluous z-values and (4.) subtracting the simulated surfaces from each other to obtain the decline. Output of this program includes the fixed format CNTL data cards and the other data cards required for input to GPCP. The output from GPCP then is used to produce a potentiometric map or a decline map by means of the CalComp plotter.
Cartesian grid simulations of gas-solids flow systems with complex geometry
Dietiker, Jean-Francois; Li, Tingwen; Garg, Rahul; Shahnam, Mehrdad
2013-02-01
Complex geometries encountered in many applications of gas–solids flow need special treatment in most legacy multiphase flow solvers with Cartesian numerical grid. This paper briefly outlines the implementation of a cut cell technique in the open-source multiphase flow solver—MFIX for accurate representation of complex geometries. Specifically, applications of the Cartesian cut cell method to different gas–solids fluidization systems including a small scale bubbling fluidized bed with submerged tube bundle and a complete pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed will be presented. In addition to qualitative predictions on the general flow behaviors inside each system, quantitative comparison with the available experimental data will be presented. Furthermore, some results on extending the current cut-cell technique to Lagrangian–Eulerian simulations will be presented.
On the new analytical solution for a well in Cartesian coordinates with MODFLOW comparisons.
Batu, Vedat
2014-01-01
In this paper, the comparison process of Batu (2012) generalized three-dimensional well hydraulics solution for confined aquifers in Cartesian coordinates with MODFLOW is presented. First, a brief description of Batu (2012) solution along with the governing equations and some of its key features are described. The final average drawdown expression in an observation well is given with the conversion expressions from Cartesian to radial coordinates. A generalized comparison using Batu (2012), Hantush (1964), and MODFLOW (Harbaugh et al. 2000), for vertical wells in horizontally isotropic aquifers, that is, ayx = Ky /Kx = 1, is presented. Comparisons are also presented with Batu (2012) and MODFLOW for horizontally anisotropic aquifers, that is, ayx ≠ 1. After that comparisons are presented for horizontal wells between Batu (2012) and MODFLOW. PMID:24236933
Mackie, Cameron J; Candian, Alessandra; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J; Tielens, Alexander G G M
2015-06-28
A full derivation of the analytic transformation of the quadratic, cubic, and quartic force constants from normal coordinates to Cartesian coordinates is given. Previous attempts at this transformation have resulted in non-linear transformations; however, for the first time, a simple linear transformation is presented here. Two different approaches have been formulated and implemented, one of which does not require prior knowledge of the translation-rotation eigenvectors from diagonalization of the Hessian matrix. The validity of this method is tested using two molecules H2O and c-C3H2D(+). PMID:26133410
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noda, N.; Ashida, F.; Okumura, I. A.
1992-07-01
In the present paper we propose a new general solution technique for transient thermoelastic problems of transversely isotropic solids in Cartesian coordinates. The solution technique consists of five fundamental solutions. By considering the relations among the material constants of transverse isotropy, the solution technique is classified into five groups. One among those corresponds to Goodier's thermoelastic potential function as well as the generalized Boussinesq solutions and the Michell function. For an application of the solution technique, an inverse problem of transient thermoelasticity in a transversely isotropic semi-infinite solid is analyzed.
Tensor decomposition in electronic structure calculations on 3D Cartesian grids
Khoromskij, B.N. Khoromskaia, V.; Chinnamsetty, S.R.; Flad, H.-J.
2009-09-01
In this paper, we investigate a novel approach based on the combination of Tucker-type and canonical tensor decomposition techniques for the efficient numerical approximation of functions and operators in electronic structure calculations. In particular, we study applicability of tensor approximations for the numerical solution of Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham equations on 3D Cartesian grids. We show that the orthogonal Tucker-type tensor approximation of electron density and Hartree potential of simple molecules leads to low tensor rank representations. This enables an efficient tensor-product convolution scheme for the computation of the Hartree potential using a collocation-type approximation via piecewise constant basis functions on a uniform nxnxn grid. Combined with the Richardson extrapolation, our approach exhibits O(h{sup 3}) convergence in the grid-size h=O(n{sup -1}). Moreover, this requires O(3rn+r{sup 3}) storage, where r denotes the Tucker rank of the electron density with r=O(logn), almost uniformly in n. For example, calculations of the Coulomb matrix and the Hartree-Fock energy for the CH{sub 4} molecule, with a pseudopotential on the C atom, achieved accuracies of the order of 10{sup -6} hartree with a grid-size n of several hundreds. Since the tensor-product convolution in 3D is performed via 1D convolution transforms, our scheme markedly outperforms the 3D-FFT in both the computing time and storage requirements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Y.; Chen, C.; Du, J.; Sun, S.; Liang, Q.
2015-12-01
In the study of the inversion of gravity and magnetic data, the discretization of underground space is usually achieved by the use of structured grids. For instance, using the regular block as the module unit to divide model space in Cartesian coordinate system and the tesseroid in spherical coordinate system. Structured grids show clear spatial structures and mathematical properties. However, the block can only provide a rough approximation to the given terrain and using the tesseroid to approximate the terrain even seems impracticable. These shape determining errors cause the reduction of forward modeling precision. Moreover, the precision decreases again while using the tesseroid as no analytical algorithm has been acquired. On the other hand, since most terrain data has a limited resolution, unstructured grids, based on the polyhedron or tetrahedron, could fill the space completely, which allows us to reduce errors in shape determination to the minima. In addition, the analytical algorithms for polyhedron have been proposed. In our study, we use the tetrahedron as the module unit to divide the underground space. Moreover, based on the former researches, we supplement new analytical algorithms for tetrahedron to forward modeling gravity and magnetic fields and their gradient tensors in both Cartesian and spherical coordinate systems. The algorithm is testified by comparing the forward gravity and magnetic data of a block with the data obtained using the existed algorithms. The absolute difference between these two data is under 10e-9 mGal. Our approach is suitable for the inversion of gravity and magnetic data in both Cartesian and spherical coordinate systems.This study is supported by Natural Science Fund of Hubei Province (Grant No.: 2015CFB361) and International Cooperation Project in Science and Technology of China (Grant No.: 2010DFA24580).
A Cartesian grid embedded boundary method for the heat equation on irregular domains
McCorquodale, Peter; Colella, Phillip; Johansen, Hans
2001-03-14
We present an algorithm for solving the heat equation on irregular time-dependent domains. It is based on the Cartesian grid embedded boundary algorithm of Johansen and Colella (J. Comput. Phys. 147(2):60--85) for discretizing Poisson's equation, combined with a second-order accurate discretization of the time derivative. This leads to a method that is second-order accurate in space and time. For the case where the boundary is moving, we convert the moving-boundary problem to a sequence of fixed-boundary problems, combined with an extrapolation procedure to initialize values that are uncovered as the boundary moves. We find that, in the moving boundary case, the use of Crank--Nicolson time discretization is unstable, requiring us to use the L{sub 0}-stable implicit Runge--Kutta method of Twizell, Gumel, and Arigu.
Cartesian-Grid Simulations of a Canard-Controlled Missile with a Free-Spinning Tail
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murman, Scott M.; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The proposed paper presents a series of simulations of a geometrically complex, canard-controlled, supersonic missile with free-spinning tail fins. Time-dependent simulations were performed using an inviscid Cartesian-grid-based method with results compared to both experimental data and high-resolution Navier-Stokes computations. At fixed free stream conditions and canard deflections, the tail spin rate was iteratively determined such that the net rolling moment on the empennage is zero. This rate corresponds to the time-asymptotic rate of the free-to-spin fin system. After obtaining spin-averaged aerodynamic coefficients for the missile, the investigation seeks a fixed-tail approximation to the spin-averaged aerodynamic coefficients, and examines the validity of this approximation over a variety of freestream conditions.
A Fast and Robust Poisson-Boltzmann Solver Based on Adaptive Cartesian Grids.
Boschitsch, Alexander H; Fenley, Marcia O
2011-05-10
An adaptive Cartesian grid (ACG) concept is presented for the fast and robust numerical solution of the 3D Poisson-Boltzmann Equation (PBE) governing the electrostatic interactions of large-scale biomolecules and highly charged multi-biomolecular assemblies such as ribosomes and viruses. The ACG offers numerous advantages over competing grid topologies such as regular 3D lattices and unstructured grids. For very large biological molecules and multi-biomolecule assemblies, the total number of grid-points is several orders of magnitude less than that required in a conventional lattice grid used in the current PBE solvers thus allowing the end user to obtain accurate and stable nonlinear PBE solutions on a desktop computer. Compared to tetrahedral-based unstructured grids, ACG offers a simpler hierarchical grid structure, which is naturally suited to multigrid, relieves indirect addressing requirements and uses fewer neighboring nodes in the finite difference stencils. Construction of the ACG and determination of the dielectric/ionic maps are straightforward, fast and require minimal user intervention. Charge singularities are eliminated by reformulating the problem to produce the reaction field potential in the molecular interior and the total electrostatic potential in the exterior ionic solvent region. This approach minimizes grid-dependency and alleviates the need for fine grid spacing near atomic charge sites. The technical portion of this paper contains three parts. First, the ACG and its construction for general biomolecular geometries are described. Next, a discrete approximation to the PBE upon this mesh is derived. Finally, the overall solution procedure and multigrid implementation are summarized. Results obtained with the ACG-based PBE solver are presented for: (i) a low dielectric spherical cavity, containing interior point charges, embedded in a high dielectric ionic solvent - analytical solutions are available for this case, thus allowing rigorous
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, XinJian
2012-12-01
This paper presents an application of a three-dimensional unstructured Cartesian grid model (Chen, 2011) to a real-world case, namely the Crystal River/Kings Bay system located on the Gulf coast of the Florida peninsula of the United States. Crystal River/Kings Bay is a spring-fed estuarine system which is believed to be the largest natural refuge in the United States for manatees during the coldest days in winter because of the existence of a large amount of discharge out of numerous spring vents at the bottom of Kings Bay. The unstructured Cartesian grid model was used to simulate hydrodynamics, including salinity transport processes and thermodynamics, in the estuary during a 34-month period from April 2007 to February 2010. Although there are some unidentified uncertainties in quantifying flow rates from the spring vents and salinity variations in spring flows, simulated water elevations, salinities, temperatures, and cross-sectional flux all match well or very well with measured real-time field data. This suggests that the unstructured Cartesian grid model can adequately simulate hydrodynamics in a complex shallow water system such as Crystal River/Kings Bay and the numerical theory for the unstructured Cartesian grid model works properly. The successful simulation of hydrodynamics in the estuarine system also suggests that an empirical formula that relates the spring discharge with the water level in Kings Bay and the groundwater level measured in a nearby well is reasonable.
An adaptive discretization of incompressible flow using a multitude of moving Cartesian grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
English, R. Elliot; Qiu, Linhai; Yu, Yue; Fedkiw, Ronald
2013-12-01
We present a novel method for discretizing the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on a multitude of moving and overlapping Cartesian grids each with an independently chosen cell size to address adaptivity. Advection is handled with first and second order accurate semi-Lagrangian schemes in order to alleviate any time step restriction associated with small grid cell sizes. Likewise, an implicit temporal discretization is used for the parabolic terms including Navier-Stokes viscosity which we address separately through the development of a method for solving the heat diffusion equations. The most intricate aspect of any such discretization is the method used in order to solve the elliptic equation for the Navier-Stokes pressure or that resulting from the temporal discretization of parabolic terms. We address this by first removing any degrees of freedom which duplicately cover spatial regions due to overlapping grids, and then providing a discretization for the remaining degrees of freedom adjacent to these regions. We observe that a robust second order accurate symmetric positive definite readily preconditioned discretization can be obtained by constructing a local Voronoi region on the fly for each degree of freedom in question in order to obtain both its stencil (logically connected neighbors) and stencil weights. Internal curved boundaries such as at solid interfaces are handled using a simple immersed boundary approach which is directly applied to the Voronoi mesh in both the viscosity and pressure solves. We independently demonstrate each aspect of our approach on test problems in order to show efficacy and convergence before finally addressing a number of common test cases for incompressible flow with stationary and moving solid bodies.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Finley, Dennis B.; Karman, Steve L., Jr.
1996-01-01
The objective of the second phase of the Euler Technology Assessment program was to evaluate the ability of Euler computational fluid dynamics codes to predict compressible flow effects over a generic fighter wind tunnel model. This portion of the study was conducted by Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems, using an in-house Cartesian-grid code called SPLITFLOW. The Cartesian grid technique offers several advantages, including ease of volume grid generation and reduced number of cells compared to other grid schemes. SPLITFLOW also includes grid adaption of the volume grid during the solution to resolve high-gradient regions. The SPLITFLOW code predictions of configuration forces and moments are shown to be adequate for preliminary design, including predictions of sideslip effects and the effects of geometry variations at low and high angles-of-attack. The transonic pressure prediction capabilities of SPLITFLOW are shown to be improved over subsonic comparisons. The time required to generate the results from initial surface data is on the order of several hours, including grid generation, which is compatible with the needs of the design environment.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aftosmis, M. J.; Berger, M. J.; Adomavicius, G.
2000-01-01
Preliminary verification and validation of an efficient Euler solver for adaptively refined Cartesian meshes with embedded boundaries is presented. The parallel, multilevel method makes use of a new on-the-fly parallel domain decomposition strategy based upon the use of space-filling curves, and automatically generates a sequence of coarse meshes for processing by the multigrid smoother. The coarse mesh generation algorithm produces grids which completely cover the computational domain at every level in the mesh hierarchy. A series of examples on realistically complex three-dimensional configurations demonstrate that this new coarsening algorithm reliably achieves mesh coarsening ratios in excess of 7 on adaptively refined meshes. Numerical investigations of the scheme's local truncation error demonstrate an achieved order of accuracy between 1.82 and 1.88. Convergence results for the multigrid scheme are presented for both subsonic and transonic test cases and demonstrate W-cycle multigrid convergence rates between 0.84 and 0.94. Preliminary parallel scalability tests on both simple wing and complex complete aircraft geometries shows a computational speedup of 52 on 64 processors using the run-time mesh partitioner.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aftosmis, M. J.; Berger, M. J.; Adomavicius, G.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
The work presents a new method for on-the-fly domain decomposition technique for mapping grids and solution algorithms to parallel machines, and is applicable to both shared-memory and message-passing architectures. It will be demonstrated on the Cray T3E, HP Exemplar, and SGI Origin 2000. Computing time has been secured on all these platforms. The decomposition technique is an outgrowth of techniques used in computational physics for simulations of N-body problems and the event horizons of black holes, and has not been previously used by the CFD community. Since the technique offers on-the-fly partitioning, it offers a substantial increase in flexibility for computing in heterogeneous environments, where the number of available processors may not be known at the time of job submission. In addition, since it is dynamic it permits the job to be repartitioned without global communication in cases where additional processors become available after the simulation has begun, or in cases where dynamic mesh adaptation changes the mesh size during the course of a simulation. The platform for this partitioning strategy is a completely new Cartesian Euler solver tarcreted at parallel machines which may be used in conjunction with Ames' "Cart3D" arbitrary geometry simulation package.
Features of CPB: A Poisson-Boltzmann Solver that Uses an Adaptive Cartesian Grid
Harris, Robert C.; Mackoy, Travis
2014-01-01
The capabilities of an adaptive Cartesian grid (ACG)-based Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) solver (CPB) are demonstrated. CPB solves various PB equations with an ACG, built from a hierarchical octree decomposition of the computational domain. This procedure decreases the number of points required, thereby reducing computational demands. Inside the molecule, CPB solves for the reaction-field component (ϕrf) of the electrostatic potential (ϕ), eliminating the charge-induced singularities in ϕ. CPB can also use a least-squares reconstruction method to improve estimates of ϕ at the molecular surface. All surfaces, which include solvent excluded, Gaussians and others, are created analytically, eliminating errors associated with triangulated surfaces. These features allow CPB to produce detailed surface maps of ϕ and compute polar solvation and binding free energies for large biomolecular assemblies, such as ribosomes and viruses, with reduced computational demands compared to other PBE solvers. The reader is referred to http://www.continuum-dynamics.com/solution-mm.html for how to obtain the CPB software. PMID:25430617
Features of CPB: a Poisson-Boltzmann solver that uses an adaptive Cartesian grid.
Fenley, Marcia O; Harris, Robert C; Mackoy, Travis; Boschitsch, Alexander H
2015-02-01
The capabilities of an adaptive Cartesian grid (ACG)-based Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) solver (CPB) are demonstrated. CPB solves various PB equations with an ACG, built from a hierarchical octree decomposition of the computational domain. This procedure decreases the number of points required, thereby reducing computational demands. Inside the molecule, CPB solves for the reaction-field component (ϕrf ) of the electrostatic potential (ϕ), eliminating the charge-induced singularities in ϕ. CPB can also use a least-squares reconstruction method to improve estimates of ϕ at the molecular surface. All surfaces, which include solvent excluded, Gaussians, and others, are created analytically, eliminating errors associated with triangulated surfaces. These features allow CPB to produce detailed surface maps of ϕ and compute polar solvation and binding free energies for large biomolecular assemblies, such as ribosomes and viruses, with reduced computational demands compared to other Poisson-Boltzmann equation solvers. The reader is referred to http://www.continuum-dynamics.com/solution-mm.html for how to obtain the CPB software. PMID:25430617
The Dirac equation in external fields: Variable separation in Cartesian coordinates
Shishkin, G.V.; Cabos, W.D. )
1991-11-01
The method of separation of variables in the Dirac equation proposed in an earlier work by one of the present authors (J. Math. Phys. {bold 30}, 2132 (1989)) is developed for the complete set of interactions of the Dirac particle. The essence of the method consists of the separation of the first-order matrix differential operators that define the dependence of the Dirac bispinor on the related variables, but commutation of such operators with or between the operator of the equation is not assumed. This approach, which is perfectly justified in the presence of gravitational (Theor. Math. Phys. {bold 70}, 204 (1987)) or vector fields (J. Math. Phys. {bold 30}, 2132 (1989)), permits one to find all the possibilities of separation of variables in the Dirac equation in the case of the most general set of external fields. The complete set of interactions of the Dirac particle is determined by the symmetry group of equations, namely, viz. the SU(4) group. The interactions are scalar, vector, tensor, pseudovector and pseudoscalar. The analysis in this article is limited to Cartesian coordinates. The corresponding results for the general curvilinear coordinates will be presented in a future paper.
The Dirac equation in external fields: Variable separation in Cartesian coordinates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shishkin, German V.; Cabos, William D.
1991-11-01
The method of separation of variables in the Dirac equation proposed in an earlier work by one of the present authors [J. Math. Phys. 30, 2132 (1989)] is developed for the complete set of interactions of the Dirac particle. The essence of the method consists of the separation of the first-order matrix differential operators that define the dependence of the Dirac bispinor on the related variables, but commutation of such operators with or between the operator of the equation is not assumed. This approach, which is perfectly justified in the presence of gravitational [Theor. Math. Phys. 70, 204 (1987)] or vector fields [J. Math. Phys. 30, 2132 (1989)], permits one to find all the possibilities of separation of variables in the Dirac equation in the case of the most general set of external fields. The complete set of interactions of the Dirac particle is determined by the symmetry group of equations, namely, viz. the SU(4) group. The interactions are scalar, vector, tensor, pseudovector and pseudoscalar. The analysis in this article is limited to Cartesian coordinates. The corresponding results for the general curvilinear coordinates will be presented in a future paper.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sawada, Ryohto; Sato, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Kenichi L.
2016-02-01
We report a three-dimensional numerical implementation of the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree-Fock method based on a multiresolution Cartesian grid, with no need to assume any symmetry of molecular structure. We successfully compute high-harmonic generation of H2 and H2O . The present implementation will open a way to the first-principles theoretical study of intense-field- and attosecond-pulse-induced ultrafast phenomena in general molecules.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sato, Norikazu; Takeuchi, Shintaro; Kajishima, Takeo; Inagaki, Masahide; Horinouchi, Nariaki
2016-09-01
A new discretization scheme on Cartesian grids, namely, a "consistent direct discretization scheme", is proposed for solving incompressible flows with convective and conjugate heat transfer around a solid object. The Navier-Stokes and the pressure Poisson equations are discretized directly even in the immediate vicinity of a solid boundary with the aid of the consistency between the face-velocity and the pressure gradient. From verifications in fundamental flow problems, the present method is found to significantly improve the accuracy of the velocity and the wall shear stress. It is also confirmed that the numerical results are less sensitive to the Courant number owing to the consistency between the velocity and pressure fields. The concept of the consistent direct discretization scheme is also explored for the thermal field; the energy equations for the fluid and solid phases are discretized directly while satisfying the thermal relations that should be valid at their interface. It takes different forms depending on the thermal boundary conditions: Dirichlet (isothermal) and Neumann (adiabatic/iso-heat-flux) boundary conditions for convective heat transfer and a fluid-solid thermal interaction for conjugate heat transfer. The validity of these discretizations is assessed by comparing the simulated results with analytical solutions for the respective thermal boundary conditions, and it is confirmed that the present schemes also show high accuracy for the thermal field. A significant improvement for the conjugate heat transfer problems is that the second-order spatial accuracy and numerical stability are maintained even under severe conditions of near-practical physical properties for the fluid and solid phases.
Modelling rapid mass movements using the shallow water equations in Cartesian coordinates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hergarten, S.; Robl, J.
2015-03-01
We propose a new method to model rapid mass movements on complex topography using the shallow water equations in Cartesian coordinates. These equations are the widely used standard approximation for the flow of water in rivers and shallow lakes, but the main prerequisite for their application - an almost horizontal fluid table - is in general not satisfied for avalanches and debris flows in steep terrain. Therefore, we have developed appropriate correction terms for large topographic gradients. In this study we present the mathematical formulation of these correction terms and their implementation in the open-source flow solver GERRIS. This novel approach is evaluated by simulating avalanches on synthetic and finally natural topographies and the widely used Voellmy flow resistance law. Testing the results against analytical solutions and the proprietary avalanche model RAMMS, we found a very good agreement. As the GERRIS flow solver is freely available and open source, it can be easily extended by additional fluid models or source areas, making this model suitable for simulating several types of rapid mass movements. It therefore provides a valuable tool for assisting regional-scale natural hazard studies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miao, Sha; Hendrickson, Kelli; Liu, Yuming; Subramani, Hariprasad
2015-11-01
This work presents a novel and efficient Cartesian-grid based simulation capability for the study of an incompressible, turbulent gas layer over a liquid flow with disparate Reynolds numbers in two phases. This capability couples a turbulent gas-flow solver and a liquid-layer based on a second-order accurate Boundary Data Immersion Method (BDIM) at the deformable interface. The turbulent gas flow solver solves the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations via direct numerical simulation or through turbulence closure (unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Models) for Reynolds numbers O(106). In this application, a laminar liquid layer solution is obtained from depth-integrated Navier-Stokes equations utilizing shallow water wave assumptions. The immersed boundary method (BDIM) enforces the coupling at the deformable interface, the boundary conditions to turbulence closure equations and defines the domain geometry on the Cartesian grid. Validations are made for the turbulent gas channel flow over high-viscosity liquid. This simulation capability can be applied to problems in the oil and industrial sector such as channel and pipe flows with heavy oils as well as wind wave generation in shallow waters. Sponsored by the Chevron Energy Technology Company.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Eric T.; Ciarlet, Patrick; Yu, Tang Fei
2013-02-01
In this paper, a new type of staggered discontinuous Galerkin methods for the three dimensional Maxwell’s equations is developed and analyzed. The spatial discretization is based on staggered Cartesian grids so that many good properties are obtained. First of all, our method has the advantages that the numerical solution preserves the electromagnetic energy and automatically fulfills a discrete version of the Gauss law. Moreover, the mass matrices are diagonal, thus time marching is explicit and is very efficient. Our method is high order accurate and the optimal order of convergence is rigorously proved. It is also very easy to implement due to its Cartesian structure and can be regarded as a generalization of the classical Yee’s scheme as well as the quadrilateral edge finite elements. Furthermore, a superconvergence result, that is the convergence rate is one order higher at interpolation nodes, is proved. Numerical results are shown to confirm our theoretical statements, and applications to problems in unbounded domains with the use of PML are presented. A comparison of our staggered method and non-staggered method is carried out and shows that our method has better accuracy and efficiency.
Vandewalle, Kristof; Festjens, Nele; Plets, Evelyn; Vuylsteke, Marnik; Saeys, Yvan; Callewaert, Nico
2015-01-01
Reverse genetics research approaches require the availability of methods to rapidly generate specific mutants. Alternatively, where these methods are lacking, the construction of pre-characterized libraries of mutants can be extremely valuable. However, this can be complex, expensive and time consuming. Here, we describe a robust, easy to implement parallel sequencing-based method (Cartesian Pooling-Coordinate Sequencing or CP-CSeq) that reports both on the identity as well as on the location of sequence-tagged biological entities in well-plate archived clone collections. We demonstrate this approach using a transposon insertion mutant library of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine strain, providing the largest resource of mutants in any strain of the M. tuberculosis complex. The method is applicable to any entity for which sequence-tagged identification is possible. PMID:25960123
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Chenadec, Vincent; Bay, Yong Yi
2015-11-01
The treatment of complex geometries in Computational Fluid Dynamics applications is a challenging endeavor, which immersed boundary and cut-cell techniques can significantly simplify by alleviating the meshing process required by body-fitted meshes. These methods also introduce new challenges, in that the formulation of accurate and well-posed discrete operators is not trivial. A cut-cell method for the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation is proposed for staggered Cartesian grids. In both scalar and vector cases, the emphasis is set on the structure of the discrete operators, designed to mimic the properties of the continuous ones while retaining a nearest-neighbor stencil. For convective transport, different forms are proposed (divergence, advective and skew-symmetric), and shown to be equivalent when the discrete continuity equation is satisfied. This ensures mass, momentum and kinetic energy conservation. For diffusive transport, conservative and symmetric operators are proposed for both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. Symmetry ensures the existence of a sink term (viscous dissipation) in the discrete kinetic energy budget, which is beneficial for stability. The accuracy of method is finally assessed in standard test cases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tran, L. B.; Udaykumar, H. S.
2004-01-01
An Eulerian, sharp interface, Cartesian grid method is developed for the numerical simulation of the response of materials to impact, shocks and detonations. The mass, momentum, and energy equations are solved along with evolution equations for deviatoric stresses and equivalent plastic strain. These equations are cast in Eulerian conservation law form. The Mie-Grüneisen equation of state is used to obtain pressure and the material is modeled as a Johnson-Cook solid. The ENO scheme is employed to capture shocks in combination with a hybrid particle level set technique to evolve sharp immersed boundaries. The numerical technique is able to handle collisions between multiple materials and can accurately compute the dynamics of the immersed boundaries. Results of calculations for axisymmetric Taylor bar impact and penetration of a Tungsten rod into steel plate show good agreement with moving finite element solutions and experimental results. Qualitative agreement with theory is shown for the void collapse phenomenon in an impacted material containing a spherical void.
Relationship between Students' Understanding of Functions in Cartesian and Polar Coordinate Systems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Montiel, Mariana; Vidakovic, Draga; Kabael, Tangul
2009-01-01
The present study was implemented as a prelude to a study on the generalization of the single variable function concept to multivariate calculus. In the present study we analyze students' mental processes and adjustments, as they are being exposed to single variable calculus with polar coordinates. The results show that there appears to be a…
Katz, Jessica; Denholm, Paul; Cochran, Jaquelin
2015-06-01
Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. Coordinating balancing area operation can promote more cost and resource efficient integration of variable renewable energy, such as wind and solar, into power systems. This efficiency is achieved by sharing or coordinating balancing resources and operating reserves across larger geographic boundaries.
A topological coordinate system for the diamond cubic grid.
Čomić, Lidija; Nagy, Benedek
2016-09-01
Topological coordinate systems are used to address all cells of abstract cell complexes. In this paper, a topological coordinate system for cells in the diamond cubic grid is presented and some of its properties are detailed. Four dependent coordinates are used to address the voxels (triakis truncated tetrahedra), their faces (hexagons and triangles), their edges and the points at their corners. Boundary and co-boundary relations, as well as adjacency relations between the cells, can easily be captured by the coordinate values. Thus, this coordinate system is apt for implementation in various applications, such as visualizations, morphological and topological operations and shape analysis. PMID:27580205
Solwnd: A 3D Compressible MHD Code for Solar Wind Studies. Version 1.0: Cartesian Coordinates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deane, Anil E.
1996-01-01
Solwnd 1.0 is a three-dimensional compressible MHD code written in Fortran for studying the solar wind. Time-dependent boundary conditions are available. The computational algorithm is based on Flux Corrected Transport and the code is based on the existing code of Zalesak and Spicer. The flow considered is that of shear flow with incoming flow that perturbs this base flow. Several test cases corresponding to pressure balanced magnetic structures with velocity shear flow and various inflows including Alfven waves are presented. Version 1.0 of solwnd considers a rectangular Cartesian geometry. Future versions of solwnd will consider a spherical geometry. Some discussions of this issue is presented.
Crockett, Robert; Graves, Daniel; Colella, Phillip
2009-10-23
We present a method for solving Poisson and heat equations with discon- tinuous coefficients in two- and three-dimensions. It uses a Cartesian cut-cell/embedded boundary method to represent the interface between materi- als, as described in Johansen& Colella (1998). Matching conditions across the interface are enforced using an approximation to fluxes at the boundary. Overall second order accuracy is achieved, as indicated by an array of tests using non-trivial interface geometries. Both the elliptic and heat solvers are shown to remain stable and efficient for material coefficient contrasts up to 106, thanks in part to the use of geometric multigrid. A test of accuracy when adaptive mesh refinement capabilities are utilized is also performed. An example problem relevant to nuclear reactor core simulation is presented, demonstrating the ability of the method to solve problems with realistic physical parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trost, Nico; Jiménez, Javier; Imke, Uwe; Sanchez, Victor
2014-06-01
TWOPORFLOW is a thermo-hydraulic code based on a porous media approach to simulate single- and two-phase flow including boiling. It is under development at the Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) at KIT. The code features a 3D transient solution of the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations for two inter-penetrating fluids with a semi-implicit continuous Eulerian type solver. The application domain of TWOPORFLOW includes the flow in standard porous media and in structured porous media such as micro-channels and cores of nuclear power plants. In the latter case, the fluid domain is coupled to a fuel rod model, describing the heat flow inside the solid structure. In this work, detailed profiling tools have been utilized to determine the optimization potential of TWOPORFLOW. As a result, bottle-necks were identified and reduced in the most feasible way, leading for instance to an optimization of the water-steam property computation. Furthermore, an OpenMP implementation addressing the routines in charge of inter-phase momentum-, energy- and mass-coupling delivered good performance together with a high scalability on shared memory architectures. In contrast to that, the approach for distributed memory systems was to solve sub-problems resulting by the decomposition of the initial Cartesian geometry. Thread communication for the sub-problem boundary updates was accomplished by the Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard.
An efficient game for vehicle-to-grid coordination problems in smart grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Xingyu; Ma, Zhongjing
2015-11-01
Emerging plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), as distributed energy sources, are promising to provide vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services for power grids, like frequency and voltage regulations, by coordinating their active and reactive power rates. However, due to the autonomy of PEVs, it is challenging how to efficiently schedule the coordination behaviours among these units in a distributed way. In this paper, we formulate the underlying coordination problems as a novel class of Vickrey-Clarke-Groves style (VCG-style) auction games where players, power grids and PEVs do not report a full cost or valuation function but only a multidimensional bid signal: the maximum active and reactive power quantities that a power grid wants and the maximum per unit prices it is willing to pay, and the maximum active and reactive power quantities that a PEV can provide and the minimum per unit prices it asks for. We show the existence of the efficient Nash equilibrium (NE) for the underlying auction games, though there may exist other inefficient NEs. In order to deal with large-scale PEVs, we design games with aggregator players each of which submits bid profiles representing the overall utility for a collection of PEVs, and extend the so-called quantised-progressive second price mechanism to the underlying auction games to implement the efficient NE.
Akçakaya, Mehmet; Nam, Seunghoon; Basha, Tamer A.; Kawaji, Keigo; Tarokh, Vahid; Nezafat, Reza
2014-01-01
Background Non-Cartesian trajectories are used in a variety of fast imaging applications, due to the incoherent image domain artifacts they create when undersampled. While the gridding technique is commonly utilized for reconstruction, the incoherent artifacts may be further removed using compressed sensing (CS). CS reconstruction is typically done using conjugate-gradient (CG) type algorithms, which require gridding and regridding to be performed at every iteration. This leads to a large computational overhead that hinders its applicability. Methods We sought to develop an alternative method for CS reconstruction that only requires two gridding and one regridding operation in total, irrespective of the number of iterations. This proposed technique is evaluated on phantom images and whole-heart coronary MRI acquired using 3D radial trajectories, and compared to conventional CS reconstruction using CG algorithms in terms of quantitative vessel sharpness, vessel length, computation time, and convergence rate. Results Both CS reconstructions result in similar vessel length (P = 0.30) and vessel sharpness (P = 0.62). The per-iteration complexity of the proposed technique is approximately 3-fold lower than the conventional CS reconstruction (17.55 vs. 52.48 seconds in C++). Furthermore, for in-vivo datasets, the convergence rate of the proposed technique is faster (60±13 vs. 455±320 iterations) leading to a ∼23-fold reduction in reconstruction time. Conclusions The proposed reconstruction provides images of similar quality to the conventional CS technique in terms of removing artifacts, but at a much lower computational complexity. PMID:25215945
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kedia, Kushal S.; Safta, Cosmin; Ray, Jaideep; Najm, Habib N.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.
2014-09-01
In this paper, we present a second-order numerical method for simulations of reacting flow around heat-conducting immersed solid objects. The method is coupled with a block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR) framework and a low-Mach number operator-split projection algorithm. A “buffer zone” methodology is introduced to impose the solid-fluid boundary conditions such that the solver uses symmetric derivatives and interpolation stencils throughout the interior of the numerical domain; irrespective of whether it describes fluid or solid cells. Solid cells are tracked using a binary marker function. The no-slip velocity boundary condition at the immersed wall is imposed using the staggered mesh. Near the immersed solid boundary, single-sided buffer zones (inside the solid) are created to resolve the species discontinuities, and dual buffer zones (inside and outside the solid) are created to capture the temperature gradient discontinuities. The development discussed in this paper is limited to a two-dimensional Cartesian grid-conforming solid. We validate the code using benchmark simulations documented in the literature. We also demonstrate the overall second-order convergence of our numerical method. To demonstrate its capability, a reacting flow simulation of a methane/air premixed flame stabilized on a channel-confined bluff-body using a detailed chemical kinetics model is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kapahi, A.; Sambasivan, S.; Udaykumar, H. S.
2013-05-01
This work presents a three-dimensional, Eulerian, sharp interface, Cartesian grid technique for simulating the response of elasto-plastic solid materials to hypervelocity impact, shocks and detonations. The mass, momentum and energy equations are solved along with evolution equations for deviatoric stress and plastic strain using a third-order finite difference scheme. Material deformation occurs with accompanying nonlinear stress wave propagation; in the Eulerian framework the boundaries of the deforming material are tracked in a sharp fashion using level-sets and the conditions on the immersed boundaries are applied by suitable modifications of a ghost fluid approach. The dilatational response of the material is modeled using the Mie-Gruneisen equation of state and the Johnson-Cook model is employed to characterize the material response due to rate-dependent plastic deformation. Details are provided on the treatment of the deviatoric stress ghost state so that physically correct boundary conditions can be applied at the material interfaces. An efficient parallel algorithm is used to handle computationally intensive three-dimensional problems. The results demonstrate the ability of the method to simulate high-speed impact, penetration and fragmentation phenomena in three dimensions.
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2012-09-20
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Large Scale Networking (LSN); Middleware and Grid Interagency Coordination (MAGIC) Team AGENCY: The... to the Large Scale Networking (LSN) Coordinating Group (CG). Public Comments: The government...
78 FR 7464 - Large Scale Networking (LSN)-Middleware And Grid Interagency Coordination (MAGIC) Team
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2013-02-01
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Recognizing Patterns In Log-Polar Coordinates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weiman, Carl F. R.
1992-01-01
Log-Hough transform is basis of improved method for recognition of patterns - particularly, straight lines - in noisy images. Takes advantage of rotational and scale invariance of mapping from Cartesian to log-polar coordinates, and offers economy of representation and computation. Unification of iconic and Hough domains simplifies computations in recognition and eliminates erroneous quantization of slopes attributable to finite spacing of Cartesian coordinate grid of classical Hough transform. Equally efficient recognizing curves. Log-Hough transform more amenable to massively parallel computing architectures than traditional Cartesian Hough transform. "In-place" nature makes it possible to apply local pixel-neighborhood processing.
Coordinated grid and place cell replay during rest.
Ólafsdóttir, H Freyja; Carpenter, Francis; Barry, Caswell
2016-06-01
Hippocampal replay has been hypothesized to underlie memory consolidation and navigational planning, yet the involvement of grid cells in replay is unknown. During replay we found grid cells to be spatially coherent with place cells, encoding locations 11 ms delayed relative to the hippocampus, with directionally modulated grid cells and forward replay exhibiting the greatest coherence with the CA1 area of the hippocampus. This suggests grid cells are engaged during the consolidation of spatial memories to the neocortex. PMID:27089021
Electronic Absolute Cartesian Autocollimator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leviton, Douglas B.
2006-01-01
An electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator performs the same basic optical function as does a conventional all-optical or a conventional electronic autocollimator but differs in the nature of its optical target and the manner in which the position of the image of the target is measured. The term absolute in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of the position measurement, which, unlike in a conventional electronic autocollimator, is based absolutely on the position of the image rather than on an assumed proportionality between the position and the levels of processed analog electronic signals. The term Cartesian in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of its optical target. Figure 1 depicts the electronic functional blocks of an electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator along with its basic optical layout, which is the same as that of a conventional autocollimator. Referring first to the optical layout and functions only, this or any autocollimator is used to measure the compound angular deviation of a flat datum mirror with respect to the optical axis of the autocollimator itself. The optical components include an illuminated target, a beam splitter, an objective or collimating lens, and a viewer or detector (described in more detail below) at a viewing plane. The target and the viewing planes are focal planes of the lens. Target light reflected by the datum mirror is imaged on the viewing plane at unit magnification by the collimating lens. If the normal to the datum mirror is parallel to the optical axis of the autocollimator, then the target image is centered on the viewing plane. Any angular deviation of the normal from the optical axis manifests itself as a lateral displacement of the target image from the center. The magnitude of the displacement is proportional to the focal length and to the magnitude (assumed to be small) of the angular deviation. The direction of the displacement is perpendicular to the axis about which the
Discretization formulas for unstructured grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baumeister, Kenneth J.
1988-01-01
The Galerkin weighted residual technique using linear triangular weight functions is employed to develop finite difference formula in cartesian coordinates for the Laplacian operator, first derivative operators and the function for unstructured triangular grids. The weighted residual coefficients associated with the weak formulation of the Laplacian operator are shown to agree with the Taylor series approach on a global average. In addition, a simple algorithm is presented to determine the Voronoi (finite difference) area of an unstructured grid.
78 FR 70076 - Large Scale Networking (LSN)-Middleware and Grid Interagency Coordination (MAGIC) Team
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2013-11-22
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Large Scale Networking (LSN)--Middleware and Grid Interagency Coordination (MAGIC) Team AGENCY: The... and responsibility for middleware, Grid, and cloud projects. The MAGIC Team reports to the Large...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dulikravich, D. S.
1982-01-01
A fast computer program, GRID3C, was developed for accurately generating periodic, boundary conforming, three dimensional, consecutively refined computational grids applicable to realistic axial turbomachinery geometries. The method is based on using two functions to generate two dimensional grids on a number of coaxial axisymmetric surfaces positioned between the centerbody and the outer radial boundary. These boundary fitted grids are of the C type and are characterized by quasi-orthogonality and geometric periodicity. The built in nonorthogonal coordinate stretchings and shearings cause the grid clustering in the regions of interest. The stretching parameters are part of the input to GRID3C. In its present version GRID3C can generate and store a maximum of four consecutively refined three dimensional grids. The output grid coordinates can be calculated either in the Cartesian or in the cylindrical coordinate system.
Gai, Jiading; Obeid, Nady; Holtrop, Joseph L.; Wu, Xiao-Long; Lam, Fan; Fu, Maojing; Haldar, Justin P.; Hwu, Wen-mei W.; Liang, Zhi-Pei; Sutton, Bradley P.
2013-01-01
Several recent methods have been proposed to obtain significant speed-ups in MRI image reconstruction by leveraging the computational power of GPUs. Previously, we implemented a GPU-based image reconstruction technique called the Illinois Massively Parallel Acquisition Toolkit for Image reconstruction with ENhanced Throughput in MRI (IMPATIENT MRI) for reconstructing data collected along arbitrary 3D trajectories. In this paper, we improve IMPATIENT by removing computational bottlenecks by using a gridding approach to accelerate the computation of various data structures needed by the previous routine. Further, we enhance the routine with capabilities for off-resonance correction and multi-sensor parallel imaging reconstruction. Through implementation of optimized gridding into our iterative reconstruction scheme, speed-ups of more than a factor of 200 are provided in the improved GPU implementation compared to the previous accelerated GPU code. PMID:23682203
Multi-agent coordination algorithms for control of distributed energy resources in smart grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cortes, Andres
Sustainable energy is a top-priority for researchers these days, since electricity and transportation are pillars of modern society. Integration of clean energy technologies such as wind, solar, and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), is a major engineering challenge in operation and management of power systems. This is due to the uncertain nature of renewable energy technologies and the large amount of extra load that PEVs would add to the power grid. Given the networked structure of a power system, multi-agent control and optimization strategies are natural approaches to address the various problems of interest for the safe and reliable operation of the power grid. The distributed computation in multi-agent algorithms addresses three problems at the same time: i) it allows for the handling of problems with millions of variables that a single processor cannot compute, ii) it allows certain independence and privacy to electricity customers by not requiring any usage information, and iii) it is robust to localized failures in the communication network, being able to solve problems by simply neglecting the failing section of the system. We propose various algorithms to coordinate storage, generation, and demand resources in a power grid using multi-agent computation and decentralized decision making. First, we introduce a hierarchical vehicle-one-grid (V1G) algorithm for coordination of PEVs under usage constraints, where energy only flows from the grid in to the batteries of PEVs. We then present a hierarchical vehicle-to-grid (V2G) algorithm for PEV coordination that takes into consideration line capacity constraints in the distribution grid, and where energy flows both ways, from the grid in to the batteries, and from the batteries to the grid. Next, we develop a greedy-like hierarchical algorithm for management of demand response events with on/off loads. Finally, we introduce distributed algorithms for the optimal control of distributed energy resources, i
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eriksson, L. E.
1980-01-01
A direct algebraic method was developed and applied to generate three dimensional grids around wing-body configurations. The method used is a generalized transfinite interpolation method which generates the desired coordinate transformation using geometric data only on the boundaries of the domain of interest. The geometric data that can be specified includes not only coordinates on the boundaries but also out-of-surface parametric derivatives that give a very precise control over the transformation in the vicinity of the surface. In addition to this, the method gives good control over the stretching of the mesh between different boundaries.
The adaptive, cut-cell Cartesian approach (warts and all)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Powell, Kenneth G.
1995-01-01
Solution-adaptive methods based on cutting bodies out of Cartesian grids are gaining popularity now that the ways of circumventing the accuracy problems associated with small cut cells have been developed. Researchers are applying Cartesian-based schemes to a broad class of problems now, and, although there is still development work to be done, it is becoming clearer which problems are best suited to the approach (and which are not). The purpose of this paper is to give a candid assessment, based on applying Cartesian schemes to a variety of problems, of the strengths and weaknesses of the approach as it is currently implemented.
A Hybrid Advection Scheme for Conserving Angular Momentum on a Refined Cartesian Mesh
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Byerly, Zachary D.; Adelstein-Lelbach, Bryce; Tohline, Joel E.; Marcello, Dominic C.
2014-06-01
We test a new "hybrid" scheme for simulating dynamical fluid flows in which cylindrical components of the momentum are advected across a rotating Cartesian coordinate mesh. This hybrid scheme allows us to conserve angular momentum to machine precision while capitalizing on the advantages offered by a Cartesian mesh, such as a straightforward implementation of mesh refinement. Our test focuses on measuring the real and imaginary parts of the eigenfrequency of unstable nonaxisymmetric modes that naturally arise in massless polytropic tori having a range of different aspect ratios and on quantifying the uncertainty in these measurements. Our measured eigenfrequencies show good agreement with the results obtained from the linear stability analysis of Kojima and from nonlinear hydrodynamic simulations performed on a cylindrical coordinate mesh by Woodward et al. When compared against results conducted with a traditional Cartesian advection scheme, the hybrid scheme achieves qualitative convergence at the same or, in some cases, much lower grid resolutions and conserves angular momentum to a much higher degree of precision. As a result, this hybrid scheme is much better suited for simulating astrophysical fluid flows such as accretion disks and mass-transferring binary systems.
Blodwell, J.F.
1987-10-01
It is argued that the point structure of space and time must be constructed from the primitive extensional character of space and time. A procedure for doing this is laid down and applied to one-dimensional and two-dimensional systems of abstract extensions. Topological and metrical properties of the constructed point systems, which differ nontrivially from the usual R and R/sup 2/ models, are examined. Briefly, constructed points are associated with directions and the Cartesian point is split. In one-dimension each point splits into a point pair compatible with the linear ordering. An application to one-dimensional particle motion is given, with the result that natural topological assumptions force the number of left point, right point transitions to remain locally finite in a continuous motion. In general, Cartesian points are seen to correspond to certain filters on a suitable Boolean algebra. Constructed points correspond to ultrafilters. Thus, point construction gives a natural refinement of the Cartesian systems.
Inverting x,y grid coordinates to obtain latitude and longitude in the vanderGrinten projection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubincam, D. P.
1980-01-01
The latitude and longitude of a point on the Earth's surface are found from its x,y grid coordinates in the vanderGrinten projection. The latitude is a solution of a cubic equation and the longitude a solution of a quadratic equation. Also, the x,y grid coordinates of a point on the Earth's surface can be found if its latitude and longitude are known by solving two simultaneous quadratic equations.
Curvilinear grids for sinuous river channels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tatom, F. B.; Waldrop, W. R.; Smith, S. R.
1980-01-01
In order to effectively analyze the flow in sinuous river channels, a curvilinear grid system was developed for use in the appropriate hydrodynamic code. The CENTERLINE program was designed to generate a two dimensional grid for this purpose. The Cartesian coordinates of a series of points along the boundaries of the sinuous channel represent the primary input to CENTERLINE. The program calculates the location of the river centerline, the distance downstream along the centerline, and both radius of curvature and channel width as a function of such distance downstream. These parameters form the basis for the generation of the curvilinear grid. Based on input values for longitudinal and lateral grid spacing, the corresponding grid system is generated and a file is created containing the appropriate parameters for use in the associated explicit finite difference hydrodynamic programs. Because of the option for a nonuniform grid, grid spacing can be concentrated in areas containing the largest flow gradients.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takenaka, H.; Komatsu, M.; Toyokuni, G.; Nakamura, T.; Okamoto, T.
2015-12-01
A simple and efficient finite-difference scheme is developed to compute seismic wave propagation for a partial spherical shell model of a three-dimensionally (3-D) heterogeneous global earth structure. This new scheme solves the elastodynamic equations in the "quasi-Cartesian" coordinate system similar to a local Cartesian one, instead of the spherical coordinate system, with a staggered-grid finite-difference method in time domain (FDTD) which is one of the most popular numerical methods in seismic motion simulations for local to regional scale models. The proposed scheme may be useful for modeling seismic wave propagation in a very large region of sub-global scale beyond regional and less than global ones, where the effects of roundness of earth cannot be ignored. In "quasi-Cartesian" coordinates, x, y, and z are set to be locally in directions of latitude, longitude and depth, respectively. The stencil for each of the x-derivatives then depends on the depth coordinate at the evaluation point, while the stencil for each of the y-derivatives varies with both coordinates of the depth and latitude. In order to reduce lateral variations of the horizontal finite-difference stencils over the computational domain, we move the target area to a location around the equator of the computational spherical coordinate system using a way similar to the conversion from equatorial coordinates to ecliptic coordinates. The developed scheme can be easily implemented in 3-D Cartesian FDTD codes for local to regional scale modeling by changing a very small part of the codes. Our scheme may be able to open a window for multi-scale modeling of seismic wave propagation in scales from sub-global to local one.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Chaing
1991-01-01
This study presents a nested-grid nonhydrostatic and elastic model using a terrain-following coordinate transformation as well as a unique application of grid-nesting techniques to the time-splitting elastic model. A simulation of the 10-m-high Witch of Agnesi Mountain provides the control to test this new model. The results show that the model produces the same solution as that derived from a simple linear analytic model. It is demonstrated that the new nested-grid model improves model resolution without resorting to the costly method of placing a fine-resolution grid over the entire domain. Since the wave reflection from the boundaries of the fine-grid model is well controlled, the boundary of the nested fine-grid model can be located even at the wave-active region. The model can be used to simulate various weather systems in which scale interactions are important.
Development and Applications of 3D Cartesian CFD Technology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melton, John E.; Berger, Marsha J.; VanDalsem, William (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
The urgent need for dramatic reductions in aircraft design cycle time is focusing scrutiny upon all aspects of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). These reductions will most likely come not from increased reliance upon user-interactive (and therefore time-expensive) methods, but instead from methods that can be fully automated and incorporated into 'black box' solutions. In comparison with tetrahedral methods, three-dimensional Cartesian grid approaches are in relative infancy, but initial experiences with automated Cartesian techniques are quite promising. Our research is targeted at furthering the development of Cartesian methods so that they can become key elements of a completely automatic grid generation/flow solution procedure applicable to the Euler analysis of complex aircraft geometries.
Flexible Two-Dimensional Square-Grid Coordination Polymers: Structures and Functions
Kajiro, Hiroshi; Kondo, Atsushi; Kaneko, Katsumi; Kanoh, Hirofumi
2010-01-01
Coordination polymers (CPs) or metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted considerable attention because of the tunable diversity of structures and functions. A 4,4′-bipyridine molecule, which is a simple, linear, exobidentate, and rigid ligand molecule, can construct two-dimensional (2D) square grid type CPs. Only the 2D-CPs with appropriate metal cations and counter anions exhibit flexibility and adsorb gas with a gate mechanism and these 2D-CPs are called elastic layer-structured metal-organic frameworks (ELMs). Such a unique property can make it possible to overcome the dilemma of strong adsorption and easy desorption, which is one of the ideal properties for practical adsorbents. PMID:21152303
Software for Automated Generation of Cartesian Meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aftosmis, Michael J.; Melton, John E.; Berger, Marshal J.
2006-01-01
Cart3D is a collection of computer programs for generating Cartesian meshes [for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and other applications] in volumes bounded by solid objects. Aspects of Cart3D at earlier stages of development were reported in "Robust and Efficient Generation of Cartesian Meshes for CFD" (ARC-14275), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 23, No. 8 (August 1999), page 30. The geometric input to Cart3D comprises surface triangulations like those commonly generated by computer-aided-design programs. Complexly shaped objects can be represented as assemblies of simpler ones. Cart3D deletes all portions of such an assembled object that are not on the exterior surface. Intersections between components are preserved in the resulting triangulation. A tie-breaking routine unambiguously resolves geometric degeneracies. Then taking the intersected surface triangulation as input, the volume mesh is generated through division of cells of an initially coarse hexahedral grid. Cells are subdivided to refine the grid in regions of increased surface curvature and/or increased flow gradients. Cells that become split into multiple unconnected regions by thin pieces of surface are identified.
A Cartesian embedded boundary method for hyperbolic conservation laws
Sjogreen, B; Petersson, N A
2006-12-04
The authors develop an embedded boundary finite difference technique for solving the compressible two- or three-dimensional Euler equations in complex geometries on a Cartesian grid. The method is second order accurate with an explicit time step determined by the grid size away from the boundary. Slope limiters are used on the embedded boundary to avoid non-physical oscillations near shock waves. They show computed examples of supersonic flow past a cylinder and compare with results computed on a body fitted grid. Furthermore, they discuss the implementation of the method for thin geometries, and show computed examples of transonic flow past an airfoil.
Three-dimensional adaptive grid generation for body-fitted coordinate system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, S. C.
1988-08-01
This report describes a numerical method for generating 3-D grids for general configurations. The basic method involves the solution of a set of quasi-linear elliptic partial differential equations via pointwise relaxation with a local relaxation factor. It allows specification of the grid spacing off the boundary surfaces and the grid orthogonality at the boundary surfaces. It includes adaptive mechanisms to improve smoothness, orthogonality, and flow resolution in the grid interior.
Three-dimensional adaptive grid generation for body-fitted coordinate system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, S. C.
This report describes a numerical method for generating 3-D grids for general configurations. The basic method involves the solution of a set of quasi-linear elliptic partial differential equations via pointwise relaxation with a local relaxation factor. It allows specification of the grid spacing off the boundary surfaces and the grid orthogonality at the boundary surfaces. It includes adaptive mechanisms to improve smoothness, orthogonality, and flow resolution in the grid interior.
Rapid Structured Volume Grid Smoothing and Adaption Technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alter, Stephen J.
2006-01-01
A rapid, structured volume grid smoothing and adaption technique, based on signal processing methods, was developed and applied to the Shuttle Orbiter at hypervelocity flight conditions in support of the Columbia Accident Investigation. Because of the fast pace of the investigation, computational aerothermodynamicists, applying hypersonic viscous flow solving computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes, refined and enhanced a grid for an undamaged baseline vehicle to assess a variety of damage scenarios. Of the many methods available to modify a structured grid, most are time-consuming and require significant user interaction. By casting the grid data into different coordinate systems, specifically two computational coordinates with arclength as the third coordinate, signal processing methods are used for filtering the data [Taubin, CG v/29 1995]. Using a reverse transformation, the processed data are used to smooth the Cartesian coordinates of the structured grids. By coupling the signal processing method with existing grid operations within the Volume Grid Manipulator tool, problems related to grid smoothing are solved efficiently and with minimal user interaction. Examples of these smoothing operations are illustrated for reductions in grid stretching and volume grid adaptation. In each of these examples, other techniques existed at the time of the Columbia accident, but the incorporation of signal processing techniques reduced the time to perform the corrections by nearly 60%. This reduction in time to perform the corrections therefore enabled the assessment of approximately twice the number of damage scenarios than previously possible during the allocated investigation time.
Rapid Structured Volume Grid Smoothing and Adaption Technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alter, Stephen J.
2004-01-01
A rapid, structured volume grid smoothing and adaption technique, based on signal processing methods, was developed and applied to the Shuttle Orbiter at hypervelocity flight conditions in support of the Columbia Accident Investigation. Because of the fast pace of the investigation, computational aerothermodynamicists, applying hypersonic viscous flow solving computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes, refined and enhanced a grid for an undamaged baseline vehicle to assess a variety of damage scenarios. Of the many methods available to modify a structured grid, most are time-consuming and require significant user interaction. By casting the grid data into different coordinate systems, specifically two computational coordinates with arclength as the third coordinate, signal processing methods are used for filtering the data [Taubin, CG v/29 1995]. Using a reverse transformation, the processed data are used to smooth the Cartesian coordinates of the structured grids. By coupling the signal processing method with existing grid operations within the Volume Grid Manipulator tool, problems related to grid smoothing are solved efficiently and with minimal user interaction. Examples of these smoothing operations are illustrated for reduction in grid stretching and volume grid adaptation. In each of these examples, other techniques existed at the time of the Columbia accident, but the incorporation of signal processing techniques reduced the time to perform the corrections by nearly 60%. This reduction in time to perform the corrections therefore enabled the assessment of approximately twice the number of damage scenarios than previously possible during the allocated investigation time.
Yin-Yang-Zhong grid: An overset grid system for a sphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayashi, Hiroshi; Kageyama, Akira
2016-01-01
For numerical simulations inside a sphere, an overset grid system, Yin-Yang-Zhong grid, is proposed. The Yin-Yang-Zhong grid is an extension of the Yin-Yang grid, which is widely used in various simulations in spherical shell geometry. The Yin-Yang grid is itself an overset grid system with two component grids, and a new component grid called Zhong is placed at the center of the Yin-Yang grid. The Zhong grid component is constructed on Cartesian coordinates. Parallelization is intrinsically embedded in the Yin-Yang-Zhong grid system because the Zhong grid points are defined with cuboid blocks that are decomposed domains for parallelization. The computational efficiency approaches the optimum as the process number increases. Quantitative test simulations are performed for a diffusion problem in a sphere with the Yin-Yang-Zhong grid. Correct decay rates are obtained by the simulations. Two other tests in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in a sphere are also performed. One is an MHD dynamo simulation, and the other is an MHD relaxation simulation in a sphere.
Lalonde, R; Hayzoun, K; Selimi, F; Mariani, J; Strazielle, C
2003-11-01
Grid2(ho/ho) is a loss of function gene mutation resulting in abnormal dendritic arborizations of Purkinje cells. These mutants were compared in a series of motor coordination tests requiring balance and equilibrium to nonataxic controls (Grid2(ho/+)) and to a double mutant (Grid2(ho/Lc)) with an inserted Lc mutation. The performance of Grid2(ho/ho) mutant mice was poorer than that of controls on stationary beam, coat hanger, unsteady platform, and rotorod tests. Grid2(ho/Lc) did not differ from Grid2(Lc/+) mice. However, the insertion of the Lc mutation in Grid2(ho/Lc) potentiated the deficits found in Grid2(ho/ho) in stationary beam, unsteady platform, and rotorod tests. These results indicate a deleterious effect of the Lc mutation on Grid2-deficient mice. PMID:14637233
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Planinsic, G.; Kos, M.; Jerman, R.
2004-01-01
It is quite easy to make a version of the well known Cartesian diver experiment that uses two immiscible liquids. This allows students to test their knowledge of density and pressure in explaining the diver's behaviour. Construction details are presented here together with a mathematical model to explain the observations.
Cartesian control of redundant robots
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Colbaugh, R.; Glass, K.
1989-01-01
A Cartesian-space position/force controller is presented for redundant robots. The proposed control structure partitions the control problem into a nonredundant position/force trajectory tracking problem and a redundant mapping problem between Cartesian control input F is a set member of the set R(sup m) and robot actuator torque T is a set member of the set R(sup n) (for redundant robots, m is less than n). The underdetermined nature of the F yields T map is exploited so that the robot redundancy is utilized to improve the dynamic response of the robot. This dynamically optimal F yields T map is implemented locally (in time) so that it is computationally efficient for on-line control; however, it is shown that the map possesses globally optimal characteristics. Additionally, it is demonstrated that the dynamically optimal F yields T map can be modified so that the robot redundancy is used to simultaneously improve the dynamic response and realize any specified kinematic performance objective (e.g., manipulability maximization or obstacle avoidance). Computer simulation results are given for a four degree of freedom planar redundant robot under Cartesian control, and demonstrate that position/force trajectory tracking and effective redundancy utilization can be achieved simultaneously with the proposed controller.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Li; Jabbari, Faryar; Brown, Tim; Samuelsen, Scott
2014-12-01
Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) shift energy consumption from petroleum to electricity for the personal transportation sector. This work proposes a decentralized charging protocol for PEVs with grid operators updating the cost signal. Each PEV calculates its own optimal charging profile only once based on the cost signal, after it is plugged in, and sends the result back to the grid operators. Grid operators only need to aggregate charging profiles and update the load and cost. The existing PEV characteristics, national household travel survey (NHTS), California Independent System Operator (CAISO) demand, and estimates for future renewable generation in California are used to simulate PEV operation, PEV charging profiles, grid demand, and grid net load (demand minus renewable). Results show the proposed protocol has good performance for overnight net load valley filling if the costs to be minimized are proportional to the net load. Annual results are shown in terms of overnight load variation and comparisons are made with grid level valley filling results. Further, a target load can be approached in the same manner by using the gap between current load and the target load as the cost. The communication effort involved is quite modest.
Irreducible Cartesian tensors of highest weight, for arbitrary order
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mane, S. R.
2016-03-01
A closed form expression is presented for the irreducible Cartesian tensor of highest weight, for arbitrary order. Two proofs are offered, one employing bookkeeping of indices and, after establishing the connection with the so-called natural tensors and their projection operators, the other one employing purely coordinate-free tensor manipulations. Some theorems and formulas in the published literature are generalized from SO(3) to SO(n), for dimensions n ≥ 3.
Off-Grid DOA Estimation Using Alternating Block Coordinate Descent in Compressed Sensing.
Si, Weijian; Qu, Xinggen; Qu, Zhiyu
2015-01-01
This paper presents a novel off-grid direction of arrival (DOA) estimation method to achieve the superior performance in compressed sensing (CS), in which DOA estimation problem is cast as a sparse reconstruction. By minimizing the mixed k-l norm, the proposed method can reconstruct the sparse source and estimate grid error caused by mismatch. An iterative process that minimizes the mixed k-l norm alternately over two sparse vectors is employed so that the nonconvex problem is solved by alternating convex optimization. In order to yield the better reconstruction properties, the block sparse source is exploited for off-grid DOA estimation. A block selection criterion is engaged to reduce the computational complexity. In addition, the proposed method is proved to have the global convergence. Simulation results show that the proposed method has the superior performance in comparisons to existing methods. PMID:26343658
Off-Grid DOA Estimation Using Alternating Block Coordinate Descent in Compressed Sensing
Si, Weijian; Qu, Xinggen; Qu, Zhiyu
2015-01-01
This paper presents a novel off-grid direction of arrival (DOA) estimation method to achieve the superior performance in compressed sensing (CS), in which DOA estimation problem is cast as a sparse reconstruction. By minimizing the mixed k-l norm, the proposed method can reconstruct the sparse source and estimate grid error caused by mismatch. An iterative process that minimizes the mixed k-l norm alternately over two sparse vectors is employed so that the nonconvex problem is solved by alternating convex optimization. In order to yield the better reconstruction properties, the block sparse source is exploited for off-grid DOA estimation. A block selection criterion is engaged to reduce the computational complexity. In addition, the proposed method is proved to have the global convergence. Simulation results show that the proposed method has the superior performance in comparisons to existing methods. PMID:26343658
Tao, Liang; McCurdy, C.W.; Rescigno, T.N.
2008-11-25
We show how to combine finite elements and the discrete variable representation in prolate spheroidal coordinates to develop a grid-based approach for quantum mechanical studies involving diatomic molecular targets. Prolate spheroidal coordinates are a natural choice for diatomic systems and have been used previously in a variety of bound-state applications. The use of exterior complex scaling in the present implementation allows for a transparently simple way of enforcing Coulomb boundary conditions and therefore straightforward application to electronic continuum problems. Illustrative examples involving the bound and continuum states of H2+, as well as the calculation of photoionization cross sections, show that the speed and accuracy of the present approach offer distinct advantages over methods based on single-center expansions.
76 FR 70721 - Voltage Coordination on High Voltage Grids; Notice of Staff Workshop
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-11-15
... software could improve reliability and market efficiency. The workshop will address how entities currently coordinate economic dispatch and voltage control and the capability of existing and emerging software to... interested in better understanding the interaction between voltage control, reliability, and...
The cancer cell 'energy grid': TGF-β1 signaling coordinates metabolism for migration.
Jiang, Lei; Deberardinis, Ralph; Boothman, David A
2015-01-01
Cancer cells have an increased reliance on lipogenesis, which is required for uncontrolled cell division. We recently reported transcriptional and functional 'reprogramming' of the cellular energy grid, allowing cancer cells to divert metabolism from biosynthesis to bioenergetic pathways and thus supplying enhanced mobility during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by transforming growth factor β (TGF-β1) (Fig. 1). PMID:27308459
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lopez, Isaac; Follen, Gregory J.; Gutierrez, Richard; Foster, Ian; Ginsburg, Brian; Larsson, Olle; Martin, Stuart; Tuecke, Steven; Woodford, David
2000-01-01
This paper describes a project to evaluate the feasibility of combining Grid and Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) technologies, with a view to leveraging the numerous advantages of commodity technologies in a high-performance Grid environment. A team from the NASA Glenn Research Center and Argonne National Laboratory has been studying three problems: a desktop-controlled parameter study using Excel (Microsoft Corporation); a multicomponent application using ADPAC, NPSS, and a controller program-, and an aviation safety application running about 100 jobs in near real time. The team has successfully demonstrated (1) a Common-Object- Request-Broker-Architecture- (CORBA-) to-Globus resource manager gateway that allows CORBA remote procedure calls to be used to control the submission and execution of programs on workstations and massively parallel computers, (2) a gateway from the CORBA Trader service to the Grid information service, and (3) a preliminary integration of CORBA and Grid security mechanisms. We have applied these technologies to two applications related to NPSS, namely a parameter study and a multicomponent simulation.
Coordinating the Global Information Grid Initiative with the NG9-1-1 Initiative
Michael Schmitt
2008-05-01
As the Department of Defense develops the Global Information Grid, the Department of Transportation develops the Next Generation 9-1-1 system. Close examinations of these initiatives show that the two are similar in architectures, applications, and communications interoperability. These similarities are extracted from the lowest user level to the highest commander rank that will be involved in each network. Once the similarities are brought into perspective, efforts should be made to collaborate between the two departments.
Adjoint Formulation for an Embedded-Boundary Cartesian Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nemec, Marian; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Murman, Scott M.; Pulliam, Thomas H.
2004-01-01
Many problems in aerodynamic design can be characterized by smooth and convex objective functions. This motivates the use of gradient-based algorithms, particularly for problems with a large number of design variables, to efficiently determine optimal shapes and configurations that maximize aerodynamic performance. Accurate and efficient computation of the gradient, however, remains a challenging task. In optimization problems where the number of design variables dominates the number of objectives and flow- dependent constraints, the cost of gradient computations can be significantly reduced by the use of the adjoint method. The problem of aerodynamic optimization using the adjoint method has been analyzed and validated for both structured and unstructured grids. The method has been applied to design problems governed by the potential, Euler, and Navier-Stokes equations and can be subdivided into the continuous and discrete formulations. Giles and Pierce provide a detailed review of both approaches. Most implementations rely on grid-perturbation or mapping procedures during the gradient computation that explicitly couple changes in the surface shape to the volume grid. The solution of the adjoint equation is usually accomplished using the same scheme that solves the governing flow equations. Examples of such code reuse include multistage Runge-Kutta schemes coupled with multigrid, approximate-factorization, line-implicit Gauss-Seidel, and also preconditioned GMRES. The development of the adjoint method for aerodynamic optimization problems on Cartesian grids has been limited. In contrast to implementations on structured and unstructured grids, Cartesian grid methods decouple the surface discretization from the volume grid. This feature makes Cartesian methods well suited for the automated analysis of complex geometry problems, and consequently a promising approach to aerodynamic optimization. Melvin e t al. developed an adjoint formulation for the TRANAIR code
Dimbylow, Peter
2011-07-21
This paper sets out to explore the effects of voxel resolution, from 2 mm down to 0.1 mm for Cartesian co-ordinates and the differences between Cartesian and spherical polar co-ordinates for a standardized test-bed model of the eye. This model was taken from the work of Yoriyaz et al (2005 Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 115 316-9) who have developed a detailed geometric description of the eye including choroid, retina, sclera, lens, cornea, anterior chamber, vitreous humour and optic nerve for ophthalmic brachytherapy. The spherical co-ordinate model has radial and angular steplengths of 0.1 mm and 0.25°, respectively. The current density averaged over 1 cm(2) and the 99th percentile value of the induced electric field have been calculated in the retina and central nervous system for uniform magnetic fields. The Cartesian co-ordinate calculations proceed in a sequence of grids at 2, 1, 0.5, 0.2 and 0.1 mm resolution with the potentials from the previous calculation at a coarser grid providing the boundary conditions on the finer grid. The 0.2 mm grid provides the boundary conditions for the spherical polar calculations. Comparisons are made with the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels. PMID:21725142
A NEW THREE-DIMENSIONAL SOLAR WIND MODEL IN SPHERICAL COORDINATES WITH A SIX-COMPONENT GRID
Feng, Xueshang; Zhang, Man; Zhou, Yufen
2014-09-01
In this paper, we introduce a new three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics numerical model to simulate the steady state ambient solar wind from the solar surface to 215 R {sub s} or beyond, and the model adopts a splitting finite-volume scheme based on a six-component grid system in spherical coordinates. By splitting the magnetohydrodynamics equations into a fluid part and a magnetic part, a finite volume method can be used for the fluid part and a constrained-transport method able to maintain the divergence-free constraint on the magnetic field can be used for the magnetic induction part. This new second-order model in space and time is validated when modeling the large-scale structure of the solar wind. The numerical results for Carrington rotation 2064 show its ability to produce structured solar wind in agreement with observations.
CUDA accelerated uniform re-sampling for non-Cartesian MR reconstruction.
Feng, Chaolu; Zhao, Dazhe
2015-01-01
A grid-driven gridding (GDG) method is proposed to uniformly re-sample non-Cartesian raw data acquired in PROPELLER, in which a trajectory window for each Cartesian grid is first computed. The intensity of the reconstructed image at this grid is the weighted average of raw data in this window. Taking consider of the single instruction multiple data (SIMD) property of the proposed GDG, a CUDA accelerated method is then proposed to improve the performance of the proposed GDG. Two groups of raw data sampled by PROPELLER in two resolutions are reconstructed by the proposed method. To balance computation resources of the GPU and obtain the best performance improvement, four thread-block strategies are adopted. Experimental results demonstrate that although the proposed GDG is more time consuming than traditional DDG, the CUDA accelerated GDG is almost 10 times faster than traditional DDG. PMID:26406102
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, R. E.
1981-01-01
A grid generation technique called the two boundary technique is developed and applied for the solution of the three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. The Navier-Stokes equations are transformed from a cartesian coordinate system to a computational coordinate system, and the grid generation technique provides the Jacobian matrix describing the transformation. The two boundary technique is based on algebraically defining two distinct boundaries of a flow domain and the distribution of the grid is achieved by applying functions to the uniform computational grid which redistribute the computational independent variables and consequently concentrate or disperse the grid points in the physical domain. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a MacCormack time-split technique. Grids and supersonic laminar flow solutions are obtained for a family of three dimensional corners and two spike-nosed bodies.
Rabow, A. A.; Scheraga, H. A.
1996-01-01
We have devised a Cartesian combination operator and coding scheme for improving the performance of genetic algorithms applied to the protein folding problem. The genetic coding consists of the C alpha Cartesian coordinates of the protein chain. The recombination of the genes of the parents is accomplished by: (1) a rigid superposition of one parent chain on the other, to make the relation of Cartesian coordinates meaningful, then, (2) the chains of the children are formed through a linear combination of the coordinates of their parents. The children produced with this Cartesian combination operator scheme have similar topology and retain the long-range contacts of their parents. The new scheme is significantly more efficient than the standard genetic algorithm methods for locating low-energy conformations of proteins. The considerable superiority of genetic algorithms over Monte Carlo optimization methods is also demonstrated. We have also devised a new dynamic programming lattice fitting procedure for use with the Cartesian combination operator method. The procedure finds excellent fits of real-space chains to the lattice while satisfying bond-length, bond-angle, and overlap constraints. PMID:8880904
On automating domain connectivity for overset grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chiu, Ing-Tsau
1994-01-01
An alternative method for domain connectivity among systems of overset grids is presented. Reference uniform Cartesian systems of points are used to achieve highly efficient domain connectivity, and form the basis for a future fully automated system. The Cartesian systems are used to approximated body surfaces and to map the computational space of component grids. By exploiting the characteristics of Cartesian Systems, Chimera type hole-cutting and identification of donor elements for intergrid boundary points can be carried out very efficiently. The method is tested for a range of geometrically complex multiple-body overset grid systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rousseau, Guy; Gay, David; Piché, Michel
2006-09-01
A recent analysis [G. Rousseau, D. Gay and M. Piché, One-dimensional description of cylindrically symmetric laser beams: application to Bessel-type nondiffracting beams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 22 (2005) 1274] has shown that any cylindrically symmetric laser beam can be synthesized from a single wave called a constituent wave. This representation allows the introduction of one-dimensional Cartesian root-mean-square (rms) parameters to describe the conical structure of cylindrically symmetric laser beams. In this paper, we compare the rms characterization of Bessel-Gauss beams in polar coordinates with that of their respective constituent waves in Cartesian coordinates. Numerical results reveal an asymptotic correspondence between polar and Cartesian rms parameters of Bessel-Gauss beams propagating in a nondiffracting regime. Such a correspondence eliminates misleading interpretations about the propagation factor and the Rayleigh range of nondiffracting Bessel-type beams characterized in terms of polar rms parameters.
A Cartesian cut cell method for rarefied flow simulations around moving obstacles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dechristé, G.; Mieussens, L.
2016-06-01
For accurate simulations of rarefied gas flows around moving obstacles, we propose a cut cell method on Cartesian grids: it allows exact conservation and accurate treatment of boundary conditions. Our approach is designed to treat Cartesian cells and various kinds of cut cells by the same algorithm, with no need to identify the specific shape of each cut cell. This makes the implementation quite simple, and allows a direct extension to 3D problems. Such simulations are also made possible by using an adaptive mesh refinement technique and a hybrid parallel implementation. This is illustrated by several test cases, including a 3D unsteady simulation of the Crookes radiometer.
Parameter Studies, time-dependent simulations and design with automated Cartesian methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aftosmis, Michael
2005-01-01
Over the past decade, NASA has made a substantial investment in developing adaptive Cartesian grid methods for aerodynamic simulation. Cartesian-based methods played a key role in both the Space Shuttle Accident Investigation and in NASA's return to flight activities. The talk will provide an overview of recent technological developments focusing on the generation of large-scale aerodynamic databases, automated CAD-based design, and time-dependent simulations with of bodies in relative motion. Automation, scalability and robustness underly all of these applications and research in each of these topics will be presented.
Minimization of deviations of gear real tooth surfaces determined by coordinate measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Litvin, F. L.; Kuan, C.; Wang, J.-C.; Handschuh, R. F.; Masseth, J.; Maruyama, N.
1992-01-01
The deviations of a gear's real tooth surface from the theoretical surface are determined by coordinate measurements at the grid of the surface. A method was developed to transform the deviations from Cartesian coordinates to those along the normal at the measurement locations. Equations are derived that relate the first order deviations with the adjustment to the manufacturing machine-tool settings. The deviations of the entire surface are minimized. The minimization is achieved by application of the least-square method for an overdetermined system of linear equations. The proposed method is illustrated with a numerical example for hypoid gear and pinion.
Turing instabilities on Cartesian product networks
Asllani, Malbor; Busiello, Daniel M.; Carletti, Timoteo; Fanelli, Duccio; Planchon, Gwendoline
2015-01-01
The problem of Turing instabilities for a reaction-diffusion system defined on a complex Cartesian product network is considered. To this end we operate in the linear regime and expand the time dependent perturbation on a basis formed by the tensor product of the eigenvectors of the discrete Laplacian operators, associated to each of the individual networks that build the Cartesian product. The dispersion relation which controls the onset of the instability depends on a set of discrete wavelengths, the eigenvalues of the aforementioned Laplacians. Patterns can develop on the Cartesian network, if they are supported on at least one of its constitutive sub-graphs. Multiplex networks are also obtained under specific prescriptions. In this case, the criteria for the instability reduce to compact explicit formulae. Numerical simulations carried out for the Mimura-Murray reaction kinetics confirm the adequacy of the proposed theory. PMID:26245138
Turing instabilities on Cartesian product networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asllani, Malbor; Busiello, Daniel M.; Carletti, Timoteo; Fanelli, Duccio; Planchon, Gwendoline
2015-08-01
The problem of Turing instabilities for a reaction-diffusion system defined on a complex Cartesian product network is considered. To this end we operate in the linear regime and expand the time dependent perturbation on a basis formed by the tensor product of the eigenvectors of the discrete Laplacian operators, associated to each of the individual networks that build the Cartesian product. The dispersion relation which controls the onset of the instability depends on a set of discrete wavelengths, the eigenvalues of the aforementioned Laplacians. Patterns can develop on the Cartesian network, if they are supported on at least one of its constitutive sub-graphs. Multiplex networks are also obtained under specific prescriptions. In this case, the criteria for the instability reduce to compact explicit formulae. Numerical simulations carried out for the Mimura-Murray reaction kinetics confirm the adequacy of the proposed theory.
Turing instabilities on Cartesian product networks.
Asllani, Malbor; Busiello, Daniel M; Carletti, Timoteo; Fanelli, Duccio; Planchon, Gwendoline
2015-01-01
The problem of Turing instabilities for a reaction-diffusion system defined on a complex Cartesian product network is considered. To this end we operate in the linear regime and expand the time dependent perturbation on a basis formed by the tensor product of the eigenvectors of the discrete Laplacian operators, associated to each of the individual networks that build the Cartesian product. The dispersion relation which controls the onset of the instability depends on a set of discrete wavelengths, the eigenvalues of the aforementioned Laplacians. Patterns can develop on the Cartesian network, if they are supported on at least one of its constitutive sub-graphs. Multiplex networks are also obtained under specific prescriptions. In this case, the criteria for the instability reduce to compact explicit formulae. Numerical simulations carried out for the Mimura-Murray reaction kinetics confirm the adequacy of the proposed theory. PMID:26245138
Extension of Efficient Low Dissipative High Order Schemes for 3-D Curvilinear Moving Grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vinokur, Marcel; Yee H. C.; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
The efficient low dissipative high order schemes proposed by Yee et al. is formulated for 3-D curvilinear moving grids. These schemes consists of a high order base schemes combined with nonlinear characteristic filters. The amount of numerical dissipation is minimized by applying the schemes to the entropy splitting form of the inviscid flux derivatives. The analysis is given for a thermally perfect gas. The main difficulty in the extension of higher order schemes that were formulated in Cartesian coordinates to curvilinear moving grids is the higher order transformed metric evaluations. The higher order numerical evaluation of the transformed metric terms to insure freestream preservation is done in a coordinate invariant manner. The formulation is an improvement over existing formulation of high order scheme in curvilinear moving grids.
Moment Closures on Two-Dimensional Cartesian Grids
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2015-07-31
Some moment methods for kinetic equations are complicated and take time to develop. Over the course of a couple years, this software was developed to test different closures on standard test problems in the literature. With this software, researchers in the field of moment closures will be able to rapidly test new methods.
A Laplacian Equation Method for Numerical Generation of Boundary-Fitted 3D Orthogonal Grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Theodoropoulos, T.; Bergeles, G. C.
1989-06-01
A sethod for generating boundary fitted orthogonal curvilinear grids in 3-dimensional space is described. The mapping between the curvilinear coordinates and the Cartesian coordinates is provided by a set of Laplace equations which, expressed in curvilinear coordinates, involve the components of the metric tensor and are therefore non-linear and coupled. An iterative algorithm is described, which achieves a numerical solution. Grids appropriate for the calculation of flow fields over complex topography or in complex flow passages as those found in turbomachinery, and for other engineering applications can be constructed using the proposed method. Various examples are presented and plotted in perspective, and data for the assessment of the properties of the resulting meshes is provided.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Melaaen, M. C.
1992-02-01
Tensor calculus is presently employed to furnish both necessary coordinate and velocity transformations in the present use of two different finite-volume methods for discretization of conservation equations in 3D curvilinear nonorthogonal coordinates. While one method is based on the nonstaggered grid arrangement and employs Cartesian velocity components as dependent variables in the momentum equations, the other combines a staggered grid arrangement with physical covariant velocity projections in a locally fixed coordinate system. In the second part of this work, a comparative evaluation of the two methods indicates that while results of comparable accuracy are achieved after a similar number of iterations, the staggered method may be recommended for curvilinear nonorthogonal coordinate problems due to its reduced memory and computational requirements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Guang-Zhen; Li, Xiao-Dong; Xin, Ling-Yun; Li, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Li-Ya
2013-07-01
Diverse (4,4) grid layers are exemplified in five two-dimensional coordination polymers with dual μ2-bridged ligands, namely, {[Zn(cbaa)(bpp)]·H2O}n (1), [Zn2(cbaa)2(bpy)]n (2), [Co2(cbaa)2(bpp)2]n (3), [Co(cbaa)(bpp)]n (4), and [Co(bdaa)(bpp)(H2O)2]n (5) (H2cbaa=4-carboxybenzeneacetic acid, bpp=1,3-di(4-pyridyl)propane, bpy=4,4‧-bipyridyl, and H2bdaa=1,4-benzenediacrylic acid). For 1, two (4,4) grid layers with [ZnN2O2] tetrahedron as the node are held together by lattice water forming a H-bonding bilayer. Individual (4,4) grid layer in 2 is based on {Zn2(OCO)4} paddlewheel unit as the node. Two (4,4) grid layers with {Co2O(OCO)2} dimer as the node are covalently interconnected by organic ligands affording a thick bilayer of 3 with new framework topology. The different entanglements between two coincident (4,4) grid layers with [CoN2O4] octahedron as the node leads to two 2D→2D interpenetrated structures for 4 and 5. Furthermore, fluorescent properties of 1 and 2 as well as magnetic properties of 3 are investigated.
Maintain rigid structures in Verlet based Cartesian molecular dynamics simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tao, Peng; Wu, Xiongwu; Brooks, Bernard R.
2012-10-01
An algorithm is presented to maintain rigid structures in Verlet based Cartesian molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. After each unconstrained MD step, the coordinates of selected particles are corrected to maintain rigid structures through an iterative procedure of rotation matrix computation. This algorithm, named as SHAPE and implemented in CHARMM program suite, avoids the calculations of Lagrange multipliers, so that the complexity of computation does not increase with the number of particles in a rigid structure. The implementation of this algorithm does not require significant modification of propagation integrator, and can be plugged into any Cartesian based MD integration scheme. A unique feature of the SHAPE method is that it is interchangeable with SHAKE for any object that can be constrained as a rigid structure using multiple SHAKE constraints. Unlike SHAKE, the SHAPE method can be applied to large linear (with three or more centers) and planar (with four or more centers) rigid bodies. Numerical tests with four model systems including two proteins demonstrate that the accuracy and reliability of the SHAPE method are comparable to the SHAKE method, but with much more applicability and efficiency.
Solution-Adaptive Cartesian Cell Approach for Viscous and Inviscid Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coirier, William J.; Powell, Kenneth G.
1996-01-01
A Cartesian cell-based approach for adaptively refined solutions of the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations in two dimensions is presented. Grids about geometrically complicated bodies are generated automatically, by the recursive subdivision of a single Cartesian cell encompassing the entire flow domain. Where the resulting cells intersect bodies, polygonal cut cells are created using modified polygon-clipping algorithms. The grid is stored in a binary tree data structure that provides a natural means of obtaining cell-to-cell connectivity and of carrying out solution-adaptive mesh refinement. The Euler and Navier-Stokes equations are solved on the resulting grids using a finite volume formulation. The convective terms are upwinded: A linear reconstruction of the primitive variables is performed, providing input states to an approximate Riemann solver for computing the fluxes between neighboring cells. The results of a study comparing the accuracy and positivity of two classes of cell-centered, viscous gradient reconstruction procedures is briefly summarized. Adaptively refined solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations are shown using the more robust of these gradient reconstruction procedures, where the results computed by the Cartesian approach are compared to theory, experiment, and other accepted computational results for a series of low and moderate Reynolds number flows.
Near-Body Grid Adaption for Overset Grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buning, Pieter G.; Pulliam, Thomas H.
2016-01-01
A solution adaption capability for curvilinear near-body grids has been implemented in the OVERFLOW overset grid computational fluid dynamics code. The approach follows closely that used for the Cartesian off-body grids, but inserts refined grids in the computational space of original near-body grids. Refined curvilinear grids are generated using parametric cubic interpolation, with one-sided biasing based on curvature and stretching ratio of the original grid. Sensor functions, grid marking, and solution interpolation tasks are implemented in the same fashion as for off-body grids. A goal-oriented procedure, based on largest error first, is included for controlling growth rate and maximum size of the adapted grid system. The adaption process is almost entirely parallelized using MPI, resulting in a capability suitable for viscous, moving body simulations. Two- and three-dimensional examples are presented.
Liu, Guang-Zhen; Li, Xiao-Dong; Xin, Ling-Yun; Li, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Li-Ya
2013-07-15
Diverse (4,4) grid layers are exemplified in five two-dimensional coordination polymers with dual µ{sub 2}-bridged ligands, namely, ([Zn(cbaa)(bpp)]·H{sub 2}O){sub n} (1), [Zn{sub 2}(cbaa){sub 2}(bpy)]{sub n} (2), [Co{sub 2}(cbaa){sub 2}(bpp){sub 2}]{sub n} (3), [Co(cbaa)(bpp)]{sub n} (4), and [Co(bdaa)(bpp)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} (5) (H{sub 2}cbaa=4-carboxybenzeneacetic acid, bpp=1,3-di(4-pyridyl)propane, bpy=4,4′-bipyridyl, and H{sub 2}bdaa=1,4-benzenediacrylic acid). For 1, two (4,4) grid layers with [ZnN{sub 2}O{sub 2}] tetrahedron as the node are held together by lattice water forming a H-bonding bilayer. Individual (4,4) grid layer in 2 is based on (Zn{sub 2}(OCO){sub 4}) paddlewheel unit as the node. Two (4,4) grid layers with (Co{sub 2}O(OCO){sub 2}) dimer as the node are covalently interconnected by organic ligands affording a thick bilayer of 3 with new framework topology. The different entanglements between two coincident (4,4) grid layers with [CoN{sub 2}O{sub 4}] octahedron as the node leads to two 2D→2D interpenetrated structures for 4 and 5. Furthermore, fluorescent properties of 1 and 2 as well as magnetic properties of 3 are investigated. - Graphical abstract: Diverse assemblies of the (4,4) grid layers with different network nodes forms five coordination polymers that are well characterized by IR, TGA, element analysis, fluorescent and magnetic measurement. - Highlights: • Diverse assemblies of the (4,4) grid layers with different structural units as the nodes. • A new topology type with the uninodal 6-connected net of (4{sup 12}.5{sup 2}.6) is found. • Intense fluorescence emissions with a rare blue-shift of 55 nm compared to free carboxylate ligand.
Adventures in Coordinate Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chambers, J. E.
2003-08-01
A variety of coordinate systems have been used to study the N-body problem for cases involving a dominant central mass. These include the traditional Keplerian orbital elements and the canonical Delaunay variables, which both incorporate conserved quantities of the two-body problem. Recently, Cartesian coordinate systems have returned to favour with the rise of mixed-variable symplectic integrators, since these coordinates prove to be more efficient than using orbital elements. Three sets of canonical Cartesian coordinates are well known, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Inertial coordinates (which include barycentric coordinates as a special case) are the simplest and easiest to implement. However, they suffer from the disadvantage that the motion of the central body must be calculated explicitly, leading to relatively large errors in general. Jacobi coordinates overcome this problem by replacing the coordinates and momenta of the central body with those of the system as a whole, so that momentum is conserved exactly. This leads to substantial improvements in accuracy, but has the disadvantage that every object is treated differently, and interactions between each pair of bodies are now expressed in a complicated manner involving the coordinates of many bodies. Canonical heliocentric coordinates (also known as democratic heliocentric coordinates) treat all bodies equally, and conserve the centre of mass motion, but at the cost of introducing momentum cross terms into the kinetic energy. This complicates the development of higher order symplectic integrators and symplectic correctors, as well as the development of methods used to resolve close encounters with the central body. Here I will re-examine the set of possible canonical Cartesian coordinate systems to determine if it is possible to (a) conserve the centre of mass motion, (b) treat all bodies equally, and (c) eliminate the momentum cross terms. I will demonstrate that this is indeed possible
A spectral element shallow water model on spherical geodesic grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giraldo, Francis X.
2001-04-01
The spectral element method for the two-dimensional shallow water equations on the sphere is presented. The equations are written in conservation form and the domains are discretized using quadrilateral elements obtained from the generalized icosahedral grid introduced previously (Giraldo FX. Lagrange-Galerkin methods on spherical geodesic grids: the shallow water equations. Journal of Computational Physics 2000; 160: 336-368). The equations are written in Cartesian co-ordinates that introduce an additional momentum equation, but the pole singularities disappear. This paper represents a departure from previously published work on solving the shallow water equations on the sphere in that the equations are all written, discretized, and solved in three-dimensional Cartesian space. Because the equations are written in a three-dimensional Cartesian co-ordinate system, the algorithm simplifies into the integration of surface elements on the sphere from the fully three-dimensional equations. A mapping (Song Ch, Wolf JP. The scaled boundary finite element method - alias consistent infinitesimal finite element cell method - for diffusion. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1999; 45: 1403-1431) which simplifies these computations is described and is shown to contain the Eulerian version of the method introduced previously by Giraldo (Journal of Computational Physics 2000; 160: 336-368) for the special case of triangular elements. The significance of this mapping is that although the equations are written in Cartesian co-ordinates, the mapping takes into account the curvature of the high-order spectral elements, thereby allowing the elements to lie entirely on the surface of the sphere. In addition, using this mapping simplifies all of the three-dimensional spectral-type finite element surface integrals because any of the typical two-dimensional planar finite element or spectral element basis functions found in any textbook (for example, Huebner et al
Development of a grid-independent approximate Riemannsolver. Ph.D. Thesis - Michigan Univ.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, Christopher Lockwood
1991-01-01
A grid-independent approximate Riemann solver for use with the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations was introduced and explored. The two-dimensional Euler and Navier-Stokes equations are described in Cartesian and generalized coordinates, as well as the traveling wave form of the Euler equations. The spatial and temporal discretization are described for both explicit and implicit time-marching schemes. The grid-aligned flux function of Roe is outlined, while the 5-wave grid-independent flux function is derived. The stability and monotonicity analysis of the 5-wave model are presented. Two-dimensional results are provided and extended to three dimensions. The corresponding results are presented.
Schäfer, Bernhard; Greisch, Jean-François; Faus, Isabelle; Bodenstein, Tilmann; Šalitroš, Ivan; Fuhr, Olaf; Fink, Karin; Schünemann, Volker; Kappes, Manfred M; Ruben, Mario
2016-08-26
The coordination of iron(II) ions by a homoditopic ligand L with two tridentate chelates leads to the tautomerism-driven emergence of complexity, with isomeric tetramers and trimers as the coordination products. The structures of the two dominant [Fe(II) 4 L4 ](8+) complexes were determined by X-ray diffraction, and the distinctness of the products was confirmed by ion-mobility mass spectrometry. Moreover, these two isomers display contrasting magnetic properties (Fe(II) spin crossover vs. a blocked Fe(II) high-spin state). These results demonstrate how the coordination of a metal ion to a ligand that can undergo tautomerization can increase, at a higher hierarchical level, complexity, here expressed by the formation of isomeric molecular assemblies with distinct physical properties. Such results are of importance for improving our understanding of the emergence of complexity in chemistry and biology. PMID:27411212
A Cartesian Adaptive Level Set Method for Two-Phase Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ham, F.; Young, Y.-N.
2003-01-01
In the present contribution we develop a level set method based on local anisotropic Cartesian adaptation as described in Ham et al. (2002). Such an approach should allow for the smallest possible Cartesian grid capable of resolving a given flow. The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. In section 2 the level set formulation for free surface calculations is presented and its strengths and weaknesses relative to the other free surface methods reviewed. In section 3 the collocated numerical method is described. In section 4 the method is validated by solving the 2D and 3D drop oscilation problem. In section 5 we present some results from more complex cases including the 3D drop breakup in an impulsively accelerated free stream, and the 3D immiscible Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Conclusions are given in section 6.
Inflow-outflow boundary conditions along arbitrary directions in Cartesian lake models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramón, C. L.; Cortés, A.; Rueda, F. J.
2015-01-01
Specifying point sources and sinks of water near boundaries is presented as a flexible approach to prescribe inflows and outflows along arbitrary directions in Cartesian grid lake models. Implementing the approach involves a straightforward modification of the governing equations, to include a first order source term in the continuity and momentum equations. The approach is implemented in a Cartesian grid model and applied to several test cases. First, the flow along a straight flat bottom channel with its axis forming different angles with the grid directions is simulated and the results are compared against well-known analytical solutions. Point-sources are then used to simulate unconfined inflows into a reservoir (a small river entering a reservoir in a jet-like manner), which occur at an angle with the grid directions. The model results are assessed in terms of a mixing ratio between lake and river water, evaluated at a cross section downstream of the inflow boundary. Those results are particularly sensitive to changes in the inflow angle. It is argued that differences in mixing rates near the inflow sections could affect the fate of river-borne substances in model simulations.
Multilevel Error Estimation and Adaptive h-Refinement for Cartesian Meshes with Embedded Boundaries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aftosmis, M. J.; Berger, M. J.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This paper presents the development of a mesh adaptation module for a multilevel Cartesian solver. While the module allows mesh refinement to be driven by a variety of different refinement parameters, a central feature in its design is the incorporation of a multilevel error estimator based upon direct estimates of the local truncation error using tau-extrapolation. This error indicator exploits the fact that in regions of uniform Cartesian mesh, the spatial operator is exactly the same on the fine and coarse grids, and local truncation error estimates can be constructed by evaluating the residual on the coarse grid of the restricted solution from the fine grid. A new strategy for adaptive h-refinement is also developed to prevent errors in smooth regions of the flow from being masked by shocks and other discontinuous features. For certain classes of error histograms, this strategy is optimal for achieving equidistribution of the refinement parameters on hierarchical meshes, and therefore ensures grid converged solutions will be achieved for appropriately chosen refinement parameters. The robustness and accuracy of the adaptation module is demonstrated using both simple model problems and complex three dimensional examples using meshes with from 10(exp 6), to 10(exp 7) cells.
Structured background grids for generation of unstructured grids by advancing front method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pirzadeh, Shahyar
1991-01-01
A new method of background grid construction is introduced for generation of unstructured tetrahedral grids using the advancing-front technique. Unlike the conventional triangular/tetrahedral background grids which are difficult to construct and usually inadequate in performance, the new method exploits the simplicity of uniform Cartesian meshes and provides grids of better quality. The approach is analogous to solving a steady-state heat conduction problem with discrete heat sources. The spacing parameters of grid points are distributed over the nodes of a Cartesian background grid by interpolating from a few prescribed sources and solving a Poisson equation. To increase the control over the grid point distribution, a directional clustering approach is used. The new method is convenient to use and provides better grid quality and flexibility. Sample results are presented to demonstrate the power of the method.
Chassin, David P.; Kiesling, Lynne
2008-10-15
The project highlights the idea that technology-enabled decentralized coordination can achieve the same, or better, economic and reliability benefits when compared to utility-focused centralized physical and economic control. Among the design's unique features was a retail double auction with five-minute market-clearing intervals that included residential customers as direct, active market participants. (author)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Indrani, Murugan; Ramasubramanian, Ramasamy; Fronczek, Frank R.; Vasanthacharya, N. Y.; Kumaresan, Sudalaiandi
2009-08-01
Three distinct coordination complexes, viz., [Co(imi) 2(tmb) 2] ( 1) [where imi = imidazole], {[Ni(tmb) 2(H 2O) 3]·2H 2O} n ( 2) and [Cu 2(μ-tmb) 4(CH 3OH) 2] ( 3), have been synthesized hydrothermally by the reactions of metal acetates, 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoic acid (Htmb) and with or without appropriate amine. The Ni analogue of 1 and the Co analogue of 2 have also been synthesized. X-ray single-crystal diffraction suggests that complex 1 represents discrete mononuclear species and complex 2 represents a 1D chain coordination polymer in which the Ni(II) ions are connected by the bridging water molecules. Complex 3 represents a neutral dinuclear complex. In 1, the central metal ions are associated by the carboxylate moiety and imidazole ligands, whereas the central metal atom is coordinated to the carboxylate moiety and the respective solvent molecules in 2 and 3. In 3, the four 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoate moieties act as a bridge connecting two copper (II) ions and the O atoms of methanol coordinate in an anti arrangement to form a square pyramidal geometry, with the methanol molecule at the apical position. In all the three structures the central metal atom sits on a crystallographic inversion centre. In all the cases, the coordination entities are further organized via hydrogen bonding interactions to generate multifarious supramolecular networks. Complexes 1, 2 and 3 have also been characterized by spectroscopic (UV/Vis and IR) and thermal analysis (TGA). In addition, the complexes were found to exhibit antimicrobial activity.The magnetic susceptibility measurements, measured from 8 to 300 K, revealed antiferromagnetic interactions between the Co(II) ions in compound 1 and the Ni(II) ions in 1a, respectively.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moore, Reagan W.; Jagatheesan, Arun; Rajasekar, Arcot; Wan, Michael; Schroeder, Wayne
2004-01-01
The "Grid" is an emerging infrastructure for coordinating access across autonomous organizations to distributed, heterogeneous computation and data resources. Data grids are being built around the world as the next generation data handling systems for sharing, publishing, and preserving data residing on storage systems located in multiple administrative domains. A data grid provides logical namespaces for users, digital entities and storage resources to create persistent identifiers for controlling access, enabling discovery, and managing wide area latencies. This paper introduces data grids and describes data grid use cases. The relevance of data grids to digital libraries and persistent archives is demonstrated, and research issues in data grids and grid dataflow management systems are discussed.
Tao, Liang; McCurdy, Bill; Rescigno, Tom
2010-06-10
Our previously developed finite-element/ discrete variable representation in prolate spheroidal coordinates is extended to two-electron systems with a study of double ionization of H$_2$ with fixed-nuclei. Particular attention is paid to the development of fast and accurate methods for treating the electron-electron interaction. The use of exterior complex scaling in the implementation offers a simple way of enforcing Coulomb boundary conditions for the electronic double continuum. While the angular distributions calculated in this study are found to be completely consistent with our earlier treatments that employed single-center expansions in spherical coordinates, we find that the magnitude of the integrated cross sections are sensitive to small changes in the initial-state wave function. The present formulation offers significant advantages with respect to convergence and efficiency and opens the way to calculations on more complicated diatomic targets.
A Two-dimensional Cartesian and Axisymmetric Study of Combustion-acoustic Interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hood, Caroline; Frendi, Abdelkader
2006-01-01
This paper describes a study of a lean premixed (LP) methane-air combustion wave in a two-dimensional Cartesian and axisymmetric coordinate system. Lean premixed combustors provide low emission and high efficiency; however, they are susceptible to combustion instabilities. The present study focuses on the behavior of the flame as it interacts with an external acoustic disturbance. It was found that the flame oscillations increase as the disturbance amplitude is increased. Furthermore, when the frequency of the disturbance is at resonance with a chamber frequency, the instabilities increase. For the axisymmetric geometry, the flame is found to be more unstable compared to the Cartesian case. In some cases, these instabilities were severe and led to flame extinction. In the axisymmetric case, several passive control devices were tested to assess their effectiveness. It is found that an acoustic cavity is better able at controlling the pressure fluctuations in the chamber.
On automating domain connectivity for overset grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chiu, Ing-Tsau; Meakin, Robert L.
1995-01-01
An alternative method for domain connectivity among systems of overset grids is presented. Reference uniform Cartesian systems of points are used to achieve highly efficient domain connectivity, and form the basis for a future fully automated system. The Cartesian systems are used to approximate body surfaces and to map the computational space of component grids. By exploiting the characteristics of Cartesian systems, Chimera type hole-cutting and identification of donor elements for intergrid boundary points can be carried out very efficiently. The method is tested for a range of geometrically complex multiple-body overset grid systems. A dynamic hole expansion/contraction algorithm is also implemented to obtain optimum domain connectivity; however, it is tested only for geometry of generic shapes.
Adaptively Refined Euler and Navier-Stokes Solutions with a Cartesian-Cell Based Scheme
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coirier, William J.; Powell, Kenneth G.
1995-01-01
A Cartesian-cell based scheme with adaptive mesh refinement for solving the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations in two dimensions has been developed and tested. Grids about geometrically complicated bodies were generated automatically, by recursive subdivision of a single Cartesian cell encompassing the entire flow domain. Where the resulting cells intersect bodies, N-sided 'cut' cells were created using polygon-clipping algorithms. The grid was stored in a binary-tree data structure which provided a natural means of obtaining cell-to-cell connectivity and of carrying out solution-adaptive mesh refinement. The Euler and Navier-Stokes equations were solved on the resulting grids using an upwind, finite-volume formulation. The inviscid fluxes were found in an upwinded manner using a linear reconstruction of the cell primitives, providing the input states to an approximate Riemann solver. The viscous fluxes were formed using a Green-Gauss type of reconstruction upon a co-volume surrounding the cell interface. Data at the vertices of this co-volume were found in a linearly K-exact manner, which ensured linear K-exactness of the gradients. Adaptively-refined solutions for the inviscid flow about a four-element airfoil (test case 3) were compared to theory. Laminar, adaptively-refined solutions were compared to accepted computational, experimental and theoretical results.
Electrostatic PIC with adaptive Cartesian mesh
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolobov, Vladimir; Arslanbekov, Robert
2016-05-01
We describe an initial implementation of an electrostatic Particle-in-Cell (ES-PIC) module with adaptive Cartesian mesh in our Unified Flow Solver framework. Challenges of PIC method with cell-based adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) are related to a decrease of the particle-per-cell number in the refined cells with a corresponding increase of the numerical noise. The developed ES-PIC solver is validated for capacitively coupled plasma, its AMR capabilities are demonstrated for simulations of streamer development during high-pressure gas breakdown. It is shown that cell-based AMR provides a convenient particle management algorithm for exponential multiplications of electrons and ions in the ionization events.
An adaptive Cartesian control scheme for manipulators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seraji, H.
1987-01-01
A adaptive control scheme for direct control of manipulator end-effectors to achieve trajectory tracking in Cartesian space is developed. The control structure is obtained from linear multivariable theory and is composed of simple feedforward and feedback controllers and an auxiliary input. The direct adaptation laws are derived from model reference adaptive control theory and are not based on parameter estimation of the robot model. The utilization of feedforward control and the inclusion of auxiliary input are novel features of the present scheme and result in improved dynamic performance over existing adaptive control schemes. The adaptive controller does not require the complex mathematical model of the robot dynamics or any knowledge of the robot parameters or the payload, and is computationally fast for online implementation with high sampling rates.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swinbank, Richard; Purser, James
2006-01-01
Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in a variety of non-standard computational grids for global numerical prediction. The motivation has been to reduce problems associated with the converging meridians and the polar singularities of conventional regular latitude-longitude grids. A further impetus has come from the adoption of massively parallel computers, for which it is necessary to distribute work equitably across the processors; this is more practicable for some non-standard grids. Desirable attributes of a grid for high-order spatial finite differencing are: (i) geometrical regularity; (ii) a homogeneous and approximately isotropic spatial resolution; (iii) a low proportion of the grid points where the numerical procedures require special customization (such as near coordinate singularities or grid edges). One family of grid arrangements which, to our knowledge, has never before been applied to numerical weather prediction, but which appears to offer several technical advantages, are what we shall refer to as "Fibonacci grids". They can be thought of as mathematically ideal generalizations of the patterns occurring naturally in the spiral arrangements of seeds and fruit found in sunflower heads and pineapples (to give two of the many botanical examples). These grids possess virtually uniform and highly isotropic resolution, with an equal area for each grid point. There are only two compact singular regions on a sphere that require customized numerics. We demonstrate the practicality of these grids in shallow water simulations, and discuss the prospects for efficiently using these frameworks in three-dimensional semi-implicit and semi-Lagrangian weather prediction or climate models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lamer, K.; Tatarevic, A.; Jo, I.; Kollias, P.
2013-11-01
The Scanning ARM Cloud Radars (SACR's) provide continuous atmospheric observations aspiring to capture the 3-D cloud-scale structure. Sampling clouds in 3-D is challenging due to their temporal-spatial scales, the need to sample the sky at high elevations and cloud radar limitations. Thus, a common scan strategy is to repetitively slice the atmosphere from horizon to horizon as clouds advect over the radar (Cross-Wind Range Height Indicator - CWRHI). Here, the processing and gridding of the SACR CW-RHI scans are presented. First, the SACR sample observations from the ARM Oklahoma (SGP) and Cape-Cod (PVC) sites are post-processed (detection mask, velocity de-aliasing and gaseous attenuation correction). The resulting radial Doppler moment fields are then mapped to Cartesian coordinates with time as one of the dimension. The Cartesian-gridded Doppler velocity fields are next decomposed into the horizontal wind velocity contribution and the vertical Doppler velocity component. For validation purposes, all gridded and retrieved fields are compared to collocated zenith pointing ARM cloud radar measurements. We consider that the SACR sensitivity loss with range, the cloud type observed and the research purpose should be considered in determining the gridded domain size. Our results also demonstrate that the gridded SACR observations resolve the main features of low and high stratiform clouds. It is established that the CW-RHI observations complemented with processing techniques could lead to robust 3-D clouds dynamical representations up to 25-30° off zenith. The proposed gridded products are expected to advance our understanding of 3-D cloud morphology, dynamics, anisotropy and lead to more realistic 3-D radiative transfer calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lamer, K.; Tatarevic, A.; Jo, I.; Kollias, P.
2014-04-01
The scanning Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) cloud radars (SACRs) provide continuous atmospheric observations aspiring to capture the 3-D cloud-scale structure. Sampling clouds in 3-D is challenging due to their temporal-spatial scales, the need to sample the sky at high elevations and cloud radar limitations. Thus, a suggested scan strategy is to repetitively slice the atmosphere from horizon to horizon as clouds advect over the radar (Cross-Wind Range-Height Indicator - CW-RHI). Here, the processing and gridding of the SACR CW-RHI scans are presented. First, the SACR sample observations from the ARM Southern Great Plains and Cape Cod sites are post-processed (detection mask, gaseous attenuation correction, insect filtering and velocity de-aliasing). The resulting radial Doppler moment fields are then mapped to Cartesian coordinates with time as one of the dimensions. Next the Cartesian-gridded Doppler velocity fields are decomposed into the horizontal wind velocity contribution and the vertical Doppler velocity component. For validation purposes, all gridded and retrieved fields are compared to collocated zenith-pointing ARM cloud radar measurements. We consider that the SACR sensitivity loss with range, the cloud type observed and the research purpose should be considered in determining the gridded domain size. Our results also demonstrate that the gridded SACR observations resolve the main features of low and high stratiform clouds. It is established that the CW-RHI observations complemented with processing techniques could lead to robust 3-D cloud dynamical representations up to 25-30 degrees off zenith. The proposed gridded products are expected to advance our understanding of 3-D cloud morphology, dynamics and anisotropy and lead to more realistic 3-D radiative transfer calculations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coirier, William J.; Powell, Kenneth G.
1994-01-01
A Cartesian, cell-based approach for adaptively-refined solutions of the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations in two dimensions is developed and tested. Grids about geometrically complicated bodies are generated automatically, by recursive subdivision of a single Cartesian cell encompassing the entire flow domain. Where the resulting cells intersect bodies, N-sided 'cut' cells are created using polygon-clipping algorithms. The grid is stored in a binary-tree structure which provides a natural means of obtaining cell-to-cell connectivity and of carrying out solution-adaptive mesh refinement. The Euler and Navier-Stokes equations are solved on the resulting grids using a finite-volume formulation. The convective terms are upwinded: a gradient-limited, linear reconstruction of the primitive variables is performed, providing input states to an approximate Riemann solver for computing the fluxes between neighboring cells. The more robust of a series of viscous flux functions is used to provide the viscous fluxes at the cell interfaces. Adaptively-refined solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations using the Cartesian, cell-based approach are obtained and compared to theory, experiment, and other accepted computational results for a series of low and moderate Reynolds number flows.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coirier, William J.; Powell, Kenneth G.
1995-01-01
A Cartesian, cell-based approach for adaptively-refined solutions of the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations in two dimensions is developed and tested. Grids about geometrically complicated bodies are generated automatically, by recursive subdivision of a single Cartesian cell encompassing the entire flow domain. Where the resulting cells intersect bodies, N-sided 'cut' cells are created using polygon-clipping algorithms. The grid is stored in a binary-tree data structure which provides a natural means of obtaining cell-to-cell connectivity and of carrying out solution-adaptive mesh refinement. The Euler and Navier-Stokes equations are solved on the resulting grids using a finite-volume formulation. The convective terms are upwinded: A gradient-limited, linear reconstruction of the primitive variables is performed, providing input states to an approximate Riemann solver for computing the fluxes between neighboring cells. The more robust of a series of viscous flux functions is used to provide the viscous fluxes at the cell interfaces. Adaptively-refined solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations using the Cartesian, cell-based approach are obtained and compared to theory, experiment and other accepted computational results for a series of low and moderate Reynolds number flows.
Grid-based Methods in Relativistic Hydrodynamics and Magnetohydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martí, José María; Müller, Ewald
2015-12-01
An overview of grid-based numerical methods used in relativistic hydrodynamics (RHD) and magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) is presented. Special emphasis is put on a comprehensive review of the application of high-resolution shock-capturing methods. Results of a set of demanding test bench simulations obtained with different numerical methods are compared in an attempt to assess the present capabilities and limits of the various numerical strategies. Applications to three astrophysical phenomena are briefly discussed to motivate the need for and to demonstrate the success of RHD and RMHD simulations in their understanding. The review further provides FORTRAN programs to compute the exact solution of the Riemann problem in RMHD, and to simulate 1D RMHD flows in Cartesian coordinates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Dejun
2015-09-01
Accurate representation of intermolecular forces has been the central task of classical atomic simulations, known as molecular mechanics. Recent advancements in molecular mechanics models have put forward the explicit representation of permanent and/or induced electric multipole (EMP) moments. The formulas developed so far to calculate EMP interactions tend to have complicated expressions, especially in Cartesian coordinates, which can only be applied to a specific kernel potential function. For example, one needs to develop a new formula each time a new kernel function is encountered. The complication of these formalisms arises from an intriguing and yet obscured mathematical relation between the kernel functions and the gradient operators. Here, I uncover this relation via rigorous derivation and find that the formula to calculate EMP interactions is basically invariant to the potential kernel functions as long as they are of the form f(r), i.e., any Green's function that depends on inter-particle distance. I provide an algorithm for efficient evaluation of EMP interaction energies, forces, and torques for any kernel f(r) up to any arbitrary rank of EMP moments in Cartesian coordinates. The working equations of this algorithm are essentially the same for any kernel f(r). Recently, a few recursive algorithms were proposed to calculate EMP interactions. Depending on the kernel functions, the algorithm here is about 4-16 times faster than these algorithms in terms of the required number of floating point operations and is much more memory efficient. I show that it is even faster than a theoretically ideal recursion scheme, i.e., one that requires 1 floating point multiplication and 1 addition per recursion step. This algorithm has a compact vector-based expression that is optimal for computer programming. The Cartesian nature of this algorithm makes it fit easily into modern molecular simulation packages as compared with spherical coordinate-based algorithms. A
Adjoint Algorithm for CAD-Based Shape Optimization Using a Cartesian Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nemec, Marian; Aftosmis, Michael J.
2004-01-01
Adjoint solutions of the governing flow equations are becoming increasingly important for the development of efficient analysis and optimization algorithms. A well-known use of the adjoint method is gradient-based shape optimization. Given an objective function that defines some measure of performance, such as the lift and drag functionals, its gradient is computed at a cost that is essentially independent of the number of design variables (geometric parameters that control the shape). More recently, emerging adjoint applications focus on the analysis problem, where the adjoint solution is used to drive mesh adaptation, as well as to provide estimates of functional error bounds and corrections. The attractive feature of this approach is that the mesh-adaptation procedure targets a specific functional, thereby localizing the mesh refinement and reducing computational cost. Our focus is on the development of adjoint-based optimization techniques for a Cartesian method with embedded boundaries.12 In contrast t o implementations on structured and unstructured grids, Cartesian methods decouple the surface discretization from the volume mesh. This feature makes Cartesian methods well suited for the automated analysis of complex geometry problems, and consequently a promising approach to aerodynamic optimization. Melvin et developed an adjoint formulation for the TRANAIR code, which is based on the full-potential equation with viscous corrections. More recently, Dadone and Grossman presented an adjoint formulation for the Euler equations. In both approaches, a boundary condition is introduced to approximate the effects of the evolving surface shape that results in accurate gradient computation. Central to automated shape optimization algorithms is the issue of geometry modeling and control. The need to optimize complex, "real-life" geometry provides a strong incentive for the use of parametric-CAD systems within the optimization procedure. In previous work, we presented
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaul, Upender K.
2005-01-01
A three-dimensional numerical solver based on finite-difference solution of three-dimensional elastodynamic equations in generalized curvilinear coordinates has been developed and used to generate data such as radial and tangential stresses over various gear component geometries under rotation. The geometries considered are an annulus, a thin annular disk, and a thin solid disk. The solution is based on first principles and does not involve lumped parameter or distributed parameter systems approach. The elastodynamic equations in the velocity-stress formulation that are considered here have been used in the solution of problems of geophysics where non-rotating Cartesian grids are considered. For arbitrary geometries, these equations along with the appropriate boundary conditions have been cast in generalized curvilinear coordinates in the present study.
Visual Methods for Model and Grid Validation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pang, Alex
1998-01-01
This joint research interchange proposal allowed us to contribute in two directions that are of interest to NASA. These are: (a) data level comparative visualization of experimental and computational fluid flow, and (b) visualization tools for analysis of adaptively refined Cartesian grids.
OVERGRID: A Unified Overset Grid Generation Graphical Interface
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chan, William M.; Akien, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)
1999-01-01
This paper presents a unified graphical interface and gridding strategy for performing overset grid generation. The interface called OVERGRID has been specifically designed to follow an efficient overset gridding strategy, and contains general grid manipulation capabilities as well as modules that are specifically suited for overset grids. General grid utilities include functions for grid redistribution, smoothing, concatenation, extraction, extrapolation, projection, and many others. Modules specially tailored for overset grids include a seam curve extractor, hyperbolic and algebraic surface grid generators, a hyperbolic volume grid generator, and a Cartesian box grid generator, Grid visualization is achieved using OpenGL while widgets are constructed with Tcl/Tk. The software is portable between various platforms from UNIX workstations to personal computers.
Biangular Coordinates Redux: Discovering a New Kind of Geometry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Winkel, Brian; Naylor, Michael
2010-01-01
Biangular coordinates specify a point on the plane by two angles giving the intersection of two rays emanating from two fixed poles. This is a dual of Cartesian coordinates wherein a point on the plane is described by two distances. Biangular coordinates, first written about in 1803 in France, were subsequently studied in Britain at the end of the…
Frequency-Offset Cartesian Feedback Based on Polyphase Difference Amplifiers
Zanchi, Marta G.; Pauly, John M.; Scott, Greig C.
2010-01-01
A modified Cartesian feedback method called “frequency-offset Cartesian feedback” and based on polyphase difference amplifiers is described that significantly reduces the problems associated with quadrature errors and DC-offsets in classic Cartesian feedback power amplifier control systems. In this method, the reference input and feedback signals are down-converted and compared at a low intermediate frequency (IF) instead of at DC. The polyphase difference amplifiers create a complex control bandwidth centered at this low IF, which is typically offset from DC by 200–1500 kHz. Consequently, the loop gain peak does not overlap DC where voltage offsets, drift, and local oscillator leakage create errors. Moreover, quadrature mismatch errors are significantly attenuated in the control bandwidth. Since the polyphase amplifiers selectively amplify the complex signals characterized by a +90° phase relationship representing positive frequency signals, the control system operates somewhat like single sideband (SSB) modulation. However, the approach still allows the same modulation bandwidth control as classic Cartesian feedback. In this paper, the behavior of the polyphase difference amplifier is described through both the results of simulations, based on a theoretical analysis of their architecture, and experiments. We then describe our first printed circuit board prototype of a frequency-offset Cartesian feedback transmitter and its performance in open and closed loop configuration. This approach should be especially useful in magnetic resonance imaging transmit array systems. PMID:20814450
Frequency-Offset Cartesian Feedback Based on Polyphase Difference Amplifiers.
Zanchi, Marta G; Pauly, John M; Scott, Greig C
2010-05-01
A modified Cartesian feedback method called "frequency-offset Cartesian feedback" and based on polyphase difference amplifiers is described that significantly reduces the problems associated with quadrature errors and DC-offsets in classic Cartesian feedback power amplifier control systems.In this method, the reference input and feedback signals are down-converted and compared at a low intermediate frequency (IF) instead of at DC. The polyphase difference amplifiers create a complex control bandwidth centered at this low IF, which is typically offset from DC by 200-1500 kHz. Consequently, the loop gain peak does not overlap DC where voltage offsets, drift, and local oscillator leakage create errors. Moreover, quadrature mismatch errors are significantly attenuated in the control bandwidth. Since the polyphase amplifiers selectively amplify the complex signals characterized by a +90° phase relationship representing positive frequency signals, the control system operates somewhat like single sideband (SSB) modulation. However, the approach still allows the same modulation bandwidth control as classic Cartesian feedback.In this paper, the behavior of the polyphase difference amplifier is described through both the results of simulations, based on a theoretical analysis of their architecture, and experiments. We then describe our first printed circuit board prototype of a frequency-offset Cartesian feedback transmitter and its performance in open and closed loop configuration. This approach should be especially useful in magnetic resonance imaging transmit array systems. PMID:20814450
Configuration space representation in parallel coordinates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fiorini, Paolo; Inselberg, Alfred
1989-01-01
By means of a system of parallel coordinates, a nonprojective mapping from R exp N to R squared is obtained for any positive integer N. In this way multivariate data and relations can be represented in the Euclidean plane (embedded in the projective plane). Basically, R squared with Cartesian coordinates is augmented by N parallel axes, one for each variable. The N joint variables of a robotic device can be represented graphically by using parallel coordinates. It is pointed out that some properties of the relation are better perceived visually from the parallel coordinate representation, and that new algorithms and data structures can be obtained from this representation. The main features of parallel coordinates are described, and an example is presented of their use for configuration space representation of a mechanical arm (where Cartesian coordinates cannot be used).
A Cartesian parametrization for the numerical analysis of material instability
Mota, Alejandro; Chen, Qiushi; Foulk, III, James W.; Ostien, Jakob T.; Lai, Zhengshou
2016-02-25
We examine four parametrizations of the unit sphere in the context of material stability analysis by means of the singularity of the acoustic tensor. We then propose a Cartesian parametrization for vectors that lie a cube of side length two and use these vectors in lieu of unit normals to test for the loss of the ellipticity condition. This parametrization is then used to construct a tensor akin to the acoustic tensor. It is shown that both of these tensors become singular at the same time and in the same planes in the presence of a material instability. Furthermore, themore » performance of the Cartesian parametrization is compared against the other parametrizations, with the results of these comparisons showing that in general, the Cartesian parametrization is more robust and more numerically efficient than the others.« less
Applications of Space-Filling-Curves to Cartesian Methods for CFD
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aftosmis, Michael J.; Berger, Marsha J.; Murman, Scott M.
2003-01-01
The proposed paper presents a variety novel uses of Space-Filling-Curves (SFCs) for Cartesian mesh methods in 0. While these techniques will be demonstrated using non-body-fitted Cartesian meshes, most are applicable on general body-fitted meshes -both structured and unstructured. We demonstrate the use of single O(N log N) SFC-based reordering to produce single-pass (O(N)) algorithms for mesh partitioning, multigrid coarsening, and inter-mesh interpolation. The intermesh interpolation operator has many practical applications including warm starts on modified geometry, or as an inter-grid transfer operator on remeshed regions in moving-body simulations. Exploiting the compact construction of these operators, we further show that these algorithms are highly amenable to parallelization. Examples using the SFC-based mesh partitioner show nearly linear speedup to 512 CPUs even when using multigrid as a smoother. Partition statistics are presented showing that the SFC partitions are, on-average, within 10% of ideal even with only around 50,000 cells in each subdomain. The inter-mesh interpolation operator also has linear asymptotic complexity and can be used to map a solution with N unknowns to another mesh with M unknowns with O(max(M,N)) operations. This capability is demonstrated both on moving-body simulations and in mapping solutions to perturbed meshes for finite-difference-based gradient design methods.
Applications of Space-Filling-Curves to Cartesian Methods for CFD
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aftosmis, M. J.; Murman, S. M.; Berger, M. J.
2003-01-01
This paper presents a variety of novel uses of space-filling-curves (SFCs) for Cartesian mesh methods in CFD. While these techniques will be demonstrated using non-body-fitted Cartesian meshes, many are applicable on general body-fitted meshes-both structured and unstructured. We demonstrate the use of single theta(N log N) SFC-based reordering to produce single-pass (theta(N)) algorithms for mesh partitioning, multigrid coarsening, and inter-mesh interpolation. The intermesh interpolation operator has many practical applications including warm starts on modified geometry, or as an inter-grid transfer operator on remeshed regions in moving-body simulations Exploiting the compact construction of these operators, we further show that these algorithms are highly amenable to parallelization. Examples using the SFC-based mesh partitioner show nearly linear speedup to 640 CPUs even when using multigrid as a smoother. Partition statistics are presented showing that the SFC partitions are, on-average, within 15% of ideal even with only around 50,000 cells in each sub-domain. The inter-mesh interpolation operator also has linear asymptotic complexity and can be used to map a solution with N unknowns to another mesh with M unknowns with theta(M + N) operations. This capability is demonstrated both on moving-body simulations and in mapping solutions to perturbed meshes for control surface deflection or finite-difference-based gradient design methods.
Branduardi, Davide; Faraldo-Gómez, José D
2013-09-10
The string method is a molecular-simulation technique that aims to calculate the minimum free-energy path of a chemical reaction or conformational transition, in the space of a pre-defined set of reaction coordinates that is typically highly dimensional. Any descriptor may be used as a reaction coordinate, but arguably the Cartesian coordinates of the atoms involved are the most unprejudiced and intuitive choice. Cartesian coordinates, however, present a non-trivial problem, in that they are not invariant to rigid-body molecular rotations and translations, which ideally ought to be unrestricted in the simulations. To overcome this difficulty, we reformulate the framework of the string method to integrate an on-the-fly structural-alignment algorithm. This approach, referred to as SOMA (String method with Optimal Molecular Alignment), enables the use of Cartesian reaction coordinates in freely tumbling molecular systems. In addition, this scheme permits the dissection of the free-energy change along the most probable path into individual atomic contributions, thus revealing the dominant mechanism of the simulated process. This detailed analysis also provides a physically-meaningful criterion to coarse-grain the representation of the path. To demonstrate the accuracy of the method we analyze the isomerization of the alanine dipeptide in vacuum and the chair-to-inverted-chair transition of β-D mannose in explicit water. Notwithstanding the simplicity of these systems, the SOMA approach reveals novel insights into the atomic mechanism of these isomerizations. In both cases, we find that the dynamics and the energetics of these processes are controlled by interactions involving only a handful of atoms in each molecule. Consistent with this result, we show that a coarse-grained SOMA calculation defined in terms of these subsets of atoms yields nearidentical minimum free-energy paths and committor distributions to those obtained via a highly-dimensional string. PMID
Implicit Approaches for Moving Boundaries in a 3-D Cartesian Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murman, Scott M.; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Berger, Marsha J.; Kwak, Dochan
2003-01-01
This work considers numerical simulation of three-dimensional flows with time-evolving boundaries. Such problems pose a variety of challenges for numerical schemes, and have received a substantial amount of attention in the recent literature. Since such simulations are unsteady, time-accurate solution of the governing equations is required. In special cases, the body motion can be treated by a uniform rigid motion of the computational domain. For the more general situation of relative-body motion, however, this simplification is unavailable and the simulations require a mechanism for ensuring that the mesh evolves with the moving boundaries. This involves a "remeshing" of the computational domain (either localized or global) at each physical timestep, and places a premium on both the speed and robustness of the remeshing algorithms. This work presents a method which includes unsteady flow simulation, rigid domain motion, and relative body motion using a time-evolving Cartesian grid system in three dimensions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gilmanov, Anvar; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2005-08-01
A numerical method is developed for solving the 3D, unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in Cartesian domains containing immersed boundaries of arbitrary geometrical complexity moving with prescribed kinematics. The governing equations are discretized on a hybrid staggered/non-staggered grid layout using second-order accurate finite-difference formulas. The discrete equations are integrated in time via a second-order accurate dual-time-stepping, artificial compressibility iteration scheme. Unstructured, triangular meshes are employed to discretize complex immersed boundaries. The nodes of the surface mesh constitute a set of Lagrangian control points used to track the motion of the flexible body. At every instant in time, the influence of the body on the flow is accounted for by applying boundary conditions at Cartesian grid nodes located in the exterior but in the immediate vicinity of the body by reconstructing the solution along the local normal to the body surface. Grid convergence tests are carried out for the flow induced by an oscillating sphere in a cubic cavity, which show that the method is second-order accurate. The method is validated by applying it to calculate flow in a Cartesian domain containing a rigid sphere rotating at constant angular velocity as well as flow induced by a flapping wing. The ability of the method to simulate flows in domains with arbitrarily complex moving bodies is demonstrated by applying to simulate flow past an undulating fish-like body and flow past an anatomically realistic planktonic copepod performing an escape-like maneuver.
The Cartesian Diver as an Aid for Teaching Respiratory Physiology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fitch, Greg K.
2004-01-01
The mechanism by which air enters the mammalian lung is difficult for many students of physiology. In particular, some students have trouble seeing how pressure can be transmitted through a fluid such as the intrapleural fluid and how the magnitude of that pressure can change. A Cartesian diver, an old-time child's toy, may be used as a visual aid…
The Cartesian Diver, Surface Tension and the Cheerios Effect
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chen, Chi-Tung; Lee, Wen-Tang; Kao, Sung-Kai
2014-01-01
A Cartesian diver can be used to measure the surface tension of a liquid to a certain extent. The surface tension measurement is related to the two critical pressures at which the diver is about to sink and about to emerge. After sinking because of increasing pressure, the diver is repulsed to the centre of the vessel. After the pressure is…
A Lot of Good Physics in the Cartesian Diver
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
De Luca, Roberto; Ganci, Salvatore
2011-01-01
The Cartesian diver experiment certainly occupies a place of honour in old physics textbooks as a vivid demonstration of Archimedes' buoyancy. The original experiment, as described in old textbooks, shows Archimedes buoyancy qualitatively: when the increased weight of the diver is not counterbalanced by Archimedes' buoyancy, the diver sinks. When…
Lin, Dejun
2015-09-21
Accurate representation of intermolecular forces has been the central task of classical atomic simulations, known as molecular mechanics. Recent advancements in molecular mechanics models have put forward the explicit representation of permanent and/or induced electric multipole (EMP) moments. The formulas developed so far to calculate EMP interactions tend to have complicated expressions, especially in Cartesian coordinates, which can only be applied to a specific kernel potential function. For example, one needs to develop a new formula each time a new kernel function is encountered. The complication of these formalisms arises from an intriguing and yet obscured mathematical relation between the kernel functions and the gradient operators. Here, I uncover this relation via rigorous derivation and find that the formula to calculate EMP interactions is basically invariant to the potential kernel functions as long as they are of the form f(r), i.e., any Green’s function that depends on inter-particle distance. I provide an algorithm for efficient evaluation of EMP interaction energies, forces, and torques for any kernel f(r) up to any arbitrary rank of EMP moments in Cartesian coordinates. The working equations of this algorithm are essentially the same for any kernel f(r). Recently, a few recursive algorithms were proposed to calculate EMP interactions. Depending on the kernel functions, the algorithm here is about 4–16 times faster than these algorithms in terms of the required number of floating point operations and is much more memory efficient. I show that it is even faster than a theoretically ideal recursion scheme, i.e., one that requires 1 floating point multiplication and 1 addition per recursion step. This algorithm has a compact vector-based expression that is optimal for computer programming. The Cartesian nature of this algorithm makes it fit easily into modern molecular simulation packages as compared with spherical coordinate-based algorithms. A
Lin, Dejun
2015-09-21
Accurate representation of intermolecular forces has been the central task of classical atomic simulations, known as molecular mechanics. Recent advancements in molecular mechanics models have put forward the explicit representation of permanent and/or induced electric multipole (EMP) moments. The formulas developed so far to calculate EMP interactions tend to have complicated expressions, especially in Cartesian coordinates, which can only be applied to a specific kernel potential function. For example, one needs to develop a new formula each time a new kernel function is encountered. The complication of these formalisms arises from an intriguing and yet obscured mathematical relation between the kernel functions and the gradient operators. Here, I uncover this relation via rigorous derivation and find that the formula to calculate EMP interactions is basically invariant to the potential kernel functions as long as they are of the form f(r), i.e., any Green's function that depends on inter-particle distance. I provide an algorithm for efficient evaluation of EMP interaction energies, forces, and torques for any kernel f(r) up to any arbitrary rank of EMP moments in Cartesian coordinates. The working equations of this algorithm are essentially the same for any kernel f(r). Recently, a few recursive algorithms were proposed to calculate EMP interactions. Depending on the kernel functions, the algorithm here is about 4-16 times faster than these algorithms in terms of the required number of floating point operations and is much more memory efficient. I show that it is even faster than a theoretically ideal recursion scheme, i.e., one that requires 1 floating point multiplication and 1 addition per recursion step. This algorithm has a compact vector-based expression that is optimal for computer programming. The Cartesian nature of this algorithm makes it fit easily into modern molecular simulation packages as compared with spherical coordinate-based algorithms. A
A grid spacing control technique for algebraic grid generation methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, R. E.; Kudlinski, R. A.; Everton, E. L.
1982-01-01
A technique which controls the spacing of grid points in algebraically defined coordinate transformations is described. The technique is based on the generation of control functions which map a uniformly distributed computational grid onto parametric variables defining the physical grid. The control functions are smoothed cubic splines. Sets of control points are input for each coordinate directions to outline the control functions. Smoothed cubic spline functions are then generated to approximate the input data. The technique works best in an interactive graphics environment where control inputs and grid displays are nearly instantaneous. The technique is illustrated with the two-boundary grid generation algorithm.
Grid Interaction Technical Team Roadmap
2013-06-01
The mission of the Grid Interaction Technical Team (GITT) is to support a transition scenario to large scale grid-connected vehicle charging with transformational technology, proof of concept and information dissemination. The GITT facilitates technical coordination and collaboration between vehicle-grid connectivity and communication activities among U.S. DRIVE government and industry partners.
A finite volume Fokker-Planck collision operator in constants-of-motion coordinates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Z.; Xu, X. Q.; Cohen, B. I.; Cohen, R.; Dorr, M. R.; Hittinger, J. A.; Kerbel, G.; Nevins, W. M.; Rognlien, T.
2006-04-01
TEMPEST is a 5D gyrokinetic continuum code for edge plasmas. Constants of motion, namely, the total energy E and the magnetic moment μ, are chosen as coordinate s because of their advantage in minimizing numerical diffusion in advection operato rs. Most existing collision operators are written in other coordinates; using them by interpolating is shown to be less satisfactory in maintaining overall numerical accuracy and conservation. Here we develop a Fokker-Planck collision operator directly in (E,μ) space usin g a finite volume approach. The (E, μ) grid is Cartesian, and the turning point boundary represents a straight line cutting through the grid that separates the ph ysical and non-physical zones. The resulting cut-cells are treated by a cell-mergin g technique to ensure a complete particle conservation. A two dimensional fourth or der reconstruction scheme is devised to achieve good numerical accuracy with modest number of grid points. The new collision operator will be benchmarked by numerical examples.
Duality between coordinates and Dirac field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdalla, M. C. B.; Gadelha, A. L.; Vancea, I. V.
2000-07-01
The duality between the Cartesian coordinates on the Minkowski space-time and the Dirac field is investigated. Two distinct possibilities to define this duality are shown to exist. In both cases, the equations satisfied by prepotentials are of second order.
Polar versus Cartesian velocity models for maneuvering target tracking with IMM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laneuville, Dann
This paper compares various model sets in different IMM filters for the maneuvering target tracking problem. The aim is to see whether we can improve the tracking performance of what is certainly the most widely used model set in the literature for the maneuvering target tracking problem: a Nearly Constant Velocity model and a Nearly Coordinated Turn model. Our new challenger set consists of a mixed Cartesian position and polar velocity state vector to describe the uniform motion segments and is augmented with the turn rate to obtain the second model for the maneuvering segments. This paper also gives a general procedure to discretize up to second order any non-linear continuous time model with linear diffusion. Comparative simulations on an air defence scenario with a 2D radar, show that this new approach improves significantly the tracking performance in this case.
Plasticity of Intermediate Mechanics Students' Coordinate System Choice
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sayre, Eleanor C.; Wittman, Michael C.
2008-01-01
We investigate the interplay between mathematics and physics resources in intermediate mechanics students. In the mechanics course, the selection and application of coordinate systems is a consistent thread. At the University of Maine, students often start the course with a strong preference to use Cartesian coordinates, in accordance with their…
Simulations of 6-DOF Motion with a Cartesian Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murman, Scott M.; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Berger, Marsha J.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
2003-01-01
Coupled 6-DOF/CFD trajectory predictions using an automated Cartesian method are demonstrated by simulating a GBU-32/JDAM store separating from an F-18C aircraft. Numerical simulations are performed at two Mach numbers near the sonic speed, and compared with flight-test telemetry and photographic-derived data. Simulation results obtained with a sequential-static series of flow solutions are contrasted with results using a time-dependent flow solver. Both numerical methods show good agreement with the flight-test data through the first half of the simulations. The sequential-static and time-dependent methods diverge over the last half of the trajectory prediction. after the store produces peak angular rates. A cost comparison for the Cartesian method is included, in terms of absolute cost and relative to computing uncoupled 6-DOF trajectories. A detailed description of the 6-DOF method, as well as a verification of its accuracy, is provided in an appendix.
Conservation equations of gasdynamics in curvilinear coordinate systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vinokur, M.
1974-01-01
Description of a new method of writing the conservation equations of gasdynamics in curvilinear coordinates which eliminates undifferentiated terms. It is thus possible to readily apply difference schemes derived for Cartesian coordinates which conserve mass, momentum, and energy in the total flow field. The method is derived for orthogonal coordinates, and then extended to cover the most general class of coordinate transformations, using general tensor analysis. Several special features of the equations are discussed.
Quality-based generation of weather radar Cartesian products
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osrodka, K.; Szturc, J.
2015-05-01
Weather radar data volumes are commonly processed to obtain various 2-D Cartesian products based on the transfer from polar to Cartesian representations through a certain interpolation method. In this research an algorithm of the spatial interpolation of polar reflectivity data employing quality index data is applied to find the Cartesian reflectivity as plan position indicator products. On this basis, quality-based versions of standard algorithms for the generation of the following products have been developed: ETOP (echo top), MAX (maximum of reflectivity), and VIL (vertically integrated liquid water). Moreover, as an example of a higher-level product, a CONVECTION (detection of convection) has been defined as a specific combination of the above-listed standard products. A corresponding quality field is determined for each generated product, taking into account the quality of the pixels from which a given product was determined and how large a fraction of the investigated heights was scanned. Examples of such quality-based products are presented in the paper.
Frequency-offset Cartesian feedback for MRI power amplifier linearization.
Zanchi, Marta G; Stang, Pascal; Kerr, Adam; Pauly, John M; Scott, Greig C
2011-02-01
High-quality magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) requires precise control of the transmit radio-frequency (RF) field. In parallel excitation applications such as transmit SENSE, high RF power linearity is essential to cancel aliased excitations. In widely-employed class AB power amplifiers, gain compression, cross-over distortion, memory effects, and thermal drift all distort the RF field modulation and can degrade image quality. Cartesian feedback (CF) linearization can mitigate these effects in MRI, if the quadrature mismatch and dc offset imperfections inherent in the architecture can be minimized. In this paper, we present a modified Cartesian feedback technique called "frequency-offset Cartesian feedback" (FOCF) that significantly reduces these problems. In the FOCF architecture, the feedback control is performed at a low intermediate frequency rather than dc, so that quadrature ghosts and dc errors are shifted outside the control bandwidth. FOCF linearization is demonstrated with a variety of typical MRI pulses. Simulation of the magnetization obtained with the Bloch equation demonstrates that high-fidelity RF reproduction can be obtained even with inexpensive class AB amplifiers. Finally, the enhanced RF fidelity of FOCF over CF is demonstrated with actual images obtained in a 1.5 T MRI system. PMID:20959264
Frequency-Offset Cartesian Feedback for MRI Power Amplifier Linearization
Zanchi, Marta Gaia; Stang, Pascal; Kerr, Adam; Pauly, John Mark; Scott, Greig Cameron
2011-01-01
High-quality magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) requires precise control of the transmit radio-frequency field. In parallel excitation applications such as transmit SENSE, high RF power linearity is essential to cancel aliased excitations. In widely-employed class AB power amplifiers, gain compression, cross-over distortion, memory effects, and thermal drift all distort the RF field modulation and can degrade image quality. Cartesian feedback (CF) linearization can mitigate these effects in MRI, if the quadrature mismatch and DC offset imperfections inherent in the architecture can be minimized. In this paper, we present a modified Cartesian feedback technique called “frequency-offset Cartesian feedback” (FOCF) that significantly reduces these problems. In the FOCF architecture, the feedback control is performed at a low intermediate frequency rather than DC, so that quadrature ghosts and DC errors are shifted outside the control bandwidth. FOCF linearization is demonstrated with a variety of typical MRI pulses. Simulation of the magnetization obtained with the Bloch equation demonstrates that high-fidelity RF reproduction can be obtained even with inexpensive class AB amplifiers. Finally, the enhanced RF fidelity of FOCF over CF is demonstrated with actual images obtained in a 1.5 T MRI system. PMID:20959264
SU-E-I-41: Non-Cartesian MR Image Reconstruction with Integrated Gradient Non-Linearity Correction
Tao, S; Trzasko, JD; Polley, TW; Shu, Y; Bernstein, MA
2014-06-01
Purpose: Nonlinearities in the spatial encoding gradients of MRI systems cause geometric distortion in images. Typically, this is retrospectively corrected via image-domain interpolation (a.k.a., “gradwarp”) albeit with a loss of spatial resolution. For non-Cartesian MRI, the latter problem is exaggerated by noise and undersampling artifact. In this study, we describe a novel correction strategy that accounts for gradient nonlinearities during — rather than after — non-Cartesian MRI reconstruction, and demonstrate that this approach mitigates the resolution loss that can occur with standard methods. Methods: To test the proposed method, the American College of Radiology (ACR) quality control phantom was scanned on at 1.5 T (General Electric, v16.0, “zoom” gradient) using a 1.6x undersampled 3D non- Cartesian Shells trajectory (GRE, FOV=24 cm3, 120 shells, 16552 shots, 512 readout, matrix=2403). Image reconstruction was first performed via standard k-space density-compensated gridding and retrospectively corrected via cubic spline interpolation. Image reconstruction was then separately performed using a k-space and image-domain densitycompensated type-3 non-uniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT), which provides a direct mapping between non-Cartesian k-space samples and warped image space voxel locations. Thus, no separate distortion correction procedure is needed for the proposed approach. The gradient distortion field was determined using vendor provided calibration data. Results: Phantom scan results show that both processing approaches successfully correct geometric distortion. However, visual inspection of the ACR phantom spatial resolution inserts shows that the proposed strategy preserves the resolution of the nominal (uncorrected) reconstruction while “gradwarp” imparts marked spatial blurring (especially for the 1.0 and 1.1 mm inserts) and thus resolution loss. Conclusion: We've presented a novel reconstruction strategy for non-Cartesian MRI
High Energy Boundary Conditions for a Cartesian Mesh Euler Solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pandya, Shishir; Murman, Scott; Aftosmis, Michael
2003-01-01
Inlets and exhaust nozzles are common place in the world of flight. Yet, many aerodynamic simulation packages do not provide a method of modelling such high energy boundaries in the flow field. For the purposes of aerodynamic simulation, inlets and exhausts are often fared over and it is assumed that the flow differences resulting from this assumption are minimal. While this is an adequate assumption for the prediction of lift, the lack of a plume behind the aircraft creates an evacuated base region thus effecting both drag and pitching moment values. In addition, the flow in the base region is often mis-predicted resulting in incorrect base drag. In order to accurately predict these quantities, a method for specifying inlet and exhaust conditions needs to be available in aerodynamic simulation packages. A method for a first approximation of a plume without accounting for chemical reactions is added to the Cartesian mesh based aerodynamic simulation package CART3D. The method consists of 3 steps. In the first step, a components approach where each triangle is assigned a component number is used. Here, a method for marking the inlet or exhaust plane triangles as separate components is discussed. In step two, the flow solver is modified to accept a reference state for the components marked inlet or exhaust. In the third step, the flow solver uses these separated components and the reference state to compute the correct flow condition at that triangle. The present method is implemented in the CART3D package which consists of a set of tools for generating a Cartesian volume mesh from a set of component triangulations. The Euler equations are solved on the resulting unstructured Cartesian mesh. The present methods is implemented in this package and its usefulness is demonstrated with two validation cases. A generic missile body is also presented to show the usefulness of the method on a real world geometry.
Claes Hellerström and Cartesian diver microrespirometry
Welsh, Michael
2016-01-01
Cartesian diver microrespirometry was introduced by Claes Hellerström at the Department of Histology/Medical Cell Biology at Uppsala University, Sweden, to determine rates of oxygen consumption in islets of Langerhans. The theory behind this method is touched upon and the main findings described. Glucose-stimulated beta cell respiration significantly contributes to increased ATP generation, which is a prerequisite for stimulated insulin secretion and synthesis. This has had major implications for understanding the beta cell stimulus–secretion coupling. PMID:27181825
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, C. S.; Young, D. L.; Chiu, C. L.
2013-12-01
This article aims to develop a Cartesian-grid-based numerical model to study the interaction between free-surface flow and stationary or oscillating immersed obstacle in a viscous fluid. To incorporate the effect of the free surface motion, an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) scheme is employed to accurately capture the configuration of free surface. To deal with the complex submerged obstacle in the fluid, a hybrid Cartesian/immersed boundary (HCIB) method is adopted, which allows easy implementation of the solid boundary conditions for a fixed structured grid. The two numerical techniques are combined to study the wave-structure interaction problems. The major merit of the proposed model is that the fluid grid is fixed throughout the computations during the transients, while the immersed body can move arbitrarily through the Cartesian grid. The meshes deform smoothly over the solid and free-surface boundaries, especially for representing sharp interface. There is no re-meshing process needed since this scheme only depends on the simple mesh generation to promote the efficiency of calculation. Some numerical examples are displayed respectively to validate the robustness and accuracy of the HCIB method, the ALE based finite-element scheme and their combinations. In addition, the other two numerical applications are carried out to simulate the wave-structure interaction with stationary and moving immersed body. In case studies some physical characteristics are also discussed for a range of amplitude of free-surface wave, Reynolds numbers and the proximity of structure under the liquid surface. The feasibility of the developed novel numerical model is shown through five numerical experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pathak, Harshavardhana S.; Shukla, Ratnesh K.
2016-08-01
A high-order adaptive finite-volume method is presented for simulating inviscid compressible flows on time-dependent redistributed grids. The method achieves dynamic adaptation through a combination of time-dependent mesh node clustering in regions characterized by strong solution gradients and an optimal selection of the order of accuracy and the associated reconstruction stencil in a conservative finite-volume framework. This combined approach maximizes spatial resolution in discontinuous regions that require low-order approximations for oscillation-free shock capturing. Over smooth regions, high-order discretization through finite-volume WENO schemes minimizes numerical dissipation and provides excellent resolution of intricate flow features. The method including the moving mesh equations and the compressible flow solver is formulated entirely on a transformed time-independent computational domain discretized using a simple uniform Cartesian mesh. Approximations for the metric terms that enforce discrete geometric conservation law while preserving the fourth-order accuracy of the two-point Gaussian quadrature rule are developed. Spurious Cartesian grid induced shock instabilities such as carbuncles that feature in a local one-dimensional contact capturing treatment along the cell face normals are effectively eliminated through upwind flux calculation using a rotated Hartex-Lax-van Leer contact resolving (HLLC) approximate Riemann solver for the Euler equations in generalized coordinates. Numerical experiments with the fifth and ninth-order WENO reconstructions at the two-point Gaussian quadrature nodes, over a range of challenging test cases, indicate that the redistributed mesh effectively adapts to the dynamic flow gradients thereby improving the solution accuracy substantially even when the initial starting mesh is non-adaptive. The high adaptivity combined with the fifth and especially the ninth-order WENO reconstruction allows remarkably sharp capture of
Compact-range coordinate system established using a laser tracker.
Gallegos, Floyd H.; Bryce, Edwin Anthony
2006-12-01
Establishing a Cartesian coordinate reference system for an existing Compact Antenna Range using the parabolic reflector is presented. A SMX (Spatial Metrix Corporation) M/N 4000 laser-based coordinate measuring system established absolute coordinates for the facility. Electric field characteristics with positional movement correction are evaluated. Feed Horn relocation for alignment with the reflector axis is also described. Reference points are established for follow-on non-laser alignments utilizing a theodolite.
[Cartesian misunderstanding as a cause of therapeutic failure].
Isler, H
1986-01-01
Headache patients disassociate themselves from their own automatic responses, relying on the traditional separation of body and mind. On the other hand, patients who obtain voluntary control of automatic functions by biofeedback training modify not only vegetative but also voluntary behaviour patterns, losing "neurotic" traits. The basic misconception of the separation of body and mind, Cartesian dualism, is now ingrained in our culture. In the 17th century Descartes asserted that concepts applied to the soul must be entirely different from those used for the body in order to improve comprehension of the immortality of the soul. This dualism also led to "enlightenment" and to many later social and philosophical developments. But his basic neurophysiology was obsolete when he wrote it down. Other models from mainstream natural philosophy were better compatible with observation and experiments. Gassendi assumed a "body soul" consisting of energy as the functional principle of the nervous system, and Willis accommodated a series of anticipations of 19th century discoveries within this model. No comparable progress resulted from Descartes' own medieval model. Cartesian dualism has become untenable in view of recent neuropsychology but it still obstructs our management of functional patients. Instead of reinforcing the delusion of separation of psyche and soma, we ought to encourage patients to understand that their malfunctioning organs are on-line with their emotions, and with their mind. PMID:2420000
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Fei; Ye, Zhengyin
2015-12-01
Despite significant progress in recent computational techniques, the accurate numerical simulations, such as direct-numerical simulation and large-eddy simulation, are still challenging. For accurate calculations, the high-order finite difference method (FDM) is usually adopted with coordinate transformation from body-fitted grid to Cartesian grid. But this transformation might lead to failure in freestream preservation with the geometric conservation law (GCL) violated, particularly in high-order computations. GCL identities, including surface conservation law (SCL) and volume conservation law (VCL), are very important in discretization of high-order FDM. To satisfy GCL, various efforts have been made. An early and successful approach was developed by Thomas and Lombard [6] who used the conservative form of metrics to cancel out metric terms to further satisfy SCL. Visbal and Gaitonde [7] adopted this conservative form of metrics for SCL identities and satisfied VCL identity through invoking VCL equation to acquire the derivative of Jacobian in computation on moving and deforming grids with central compact schemes derived by Lele [5]. Later, using the metric technique from Visbal and Gaitonde [7], Nonomura et al. [8] investigated the freestream and vortex preservation properties of high-order WENO and WCNS on stationary curvilinear grids. A conservative metric method (CMM) was further developed by Deng et al. [9] with stationary grids, and detailed discussion about the innermost difference operator of CMM was shown with proof and corresponding numerical test cases. Noticing that metrics of CMM is asymmetrical without coordinate-invariant property, Deng et al. proposed a symmetrical CMM (SCMM) [12] by using the symmetric forms of metrics derived by Vinokur and Yee [10] to further eliminate asymmetric metric errors with stationary grids considered only. The research from Abe et al. [11] presented new asymmetric and symmetric conservative forms of time metrics and
Cartesian grid simulations of bubbling fluidized beds with a horizontal tube bundle
Li, Tingwen; Dietiker, Jean-Francois; Zhang, Yongmin; Shahnam, Mehrdad
2011-12-01
In this paper, the flow hydrodynamics in a bubbling fluidized bed with submerged horizontal tube bundle was numerically investigated with an open-source code: Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchange (MFIX). A newly implemented cut-cell technique was employed to deal with the curved surface of submerged tubes. A series of 2D simulations were conducted to study the effects of gas velocity and tube arrangement on the flow pattern. Hydrodynamic heterogeneities on voidage, particle velocity, bubble fraction, and frequency near the tube circumferential surface were successfully predicted by this numerical method, which agrees qualitatively with previous experimental findings and contributes to a sounder understanding of the non-uniform heat transfer and erosion around a horizontal tube. A 3D simulation was also conducted. Significant differences between 2D and 3D simulations were observed with respect to bed expansion, bubble distribution, voidage, and solids velocity profiles. Hence, the 3D simulation is needed for quantitative prediction of flow hydrodynamics. On the other hand, the flow characteristics and bubble behavior at the tube surface are similar under both 2D and 3D simulations as far as the bubble frequency and bubble phase fraction are concerned. Comparison with experimental data showed that qualitative agreement was obtained in both 2D and 3D simulations for the bubble characteristics at the tube surface.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coirier, William John
1994-01-01
A Cartesian, cell-based scheme for solving the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations in two dimensions is developed and tested. Grids about geometrically complicated bodies are generated automatically, by recursive subdivision of a single Cartesian cell encompassing the entire flow domain. Where the resulting cells intersect bodies, polygonal 'cut' cells are created. The geometry of the cut cells is computed using polygon-clipping algorithms. The grid is stored in a binary-tree data structure which provides a natural means of obtaining cell-to-cell connectivity and of carrying out solution-adaptive refinement. The Euler and Navier-Stokes equations are solved on the resulting grids using a finite-volume formulation. The convective terms are upwinded, with a limited linear reconstruction of the primitive variables used to provide input states to an approximate Riemann solver for computing the fluxes between neighboring cells. A multi-stage time-stepping scheme is used to reach a steady-state solution. Validation of the Euler solver with benchmark numerical and exact solutions is presented. An assessment of the accuracy of the approach is made by uniform and adaptive grid refinements for a steady, transonic, exact solution to the Euler equations. The error of the approach is directly compared to a structured solver formulation. A non smooth flow is also assessed for grid convergence, comparing uniform and adaptively refined results. Several formulations of the viscous terms are assessed analytically, both for accuracy and positivity. The two best formulations are used to compute adaptively refined solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. These solutions are compared to each other, to experimental results and/or theory for a series of low and moderate Reynolds numbers flow fields. The most suitable viscous discretization is demonstrated for geometrically-complicated internal flows. For flows at high Reynolds numbers, both an altered grid-generation procedure and a
Progress Towards a Cartesian Cut-Cell Method for Viscous Compressible Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berger, Marsha; Aftosmis, Michael J.
2011-01-01
The proposed paper reports advances in developing a method for high Reynolds number compressible viscous flow simulations using a Cartesian cut-cell method with embedded boundaries. This preliminary work focuses on accuracy of the discretization near solid wall boundaries. A model problem is used to investigate the accuracy of various difference stencils for second derivatives and to guide development of the discretization of the viscous terms in the Navier-Stokes equations. Near walls, quadratic reconstruction in the wall-normal direction is used to mitigate mesh irregularity and yields smooth skin friction distributions along the body. Multigrid performance is demonstrated using second-order coarse grid operators combined with second-order restriction and prolongation operators. Preliminary verification and validation for the method is demonstrated using flat-plate and airfoil examples at compressible Mach numbers. Simulations of flow on laminar and turbulent flat plates show skin friction and velocity profiles compared with those from boundary-layer theory. Airfoil simulations are performed at laminar and turbulent Reynolds numbers with results compared to both other simulations and experimental data
The Overgrid Interface for Computational Simulations on Overset Grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chan, William M.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Computational simulations using overset grids typically involve multiple steps and a variety of software modules. A graphical interface called OVERGRID has been specially designed for such purposes. Data required and created by the different steps include geometry, grids, domain connectivity information and flow solver input parameters. The interface provides a unified environment for the visualization, processing, generation and diagnosis of such data. General modules are available for the manipulation of structured grids and unstructured surface triangulations. Modules more specific for the overset approach include surface curve generators, hyperbolic and algebraic surface grid generators, a hyperbolic volume grid generator, Cartesian box grid generators, and domain connectivity: pre-processing tools. An interface provides automatic selection and viewing of flow solver boundary conditions, and various other flow solver inputs. For problems involving multiple components in relative motion, a module is available to build the component/grid relationships and to prescribe and animate the dynamics of the different components.
Enhanced Elliptic Grid Generation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaul, Upender K.
2007-01-01
An enhanced method of elliptic grid generation has been invented. Whereas prior methods require user input of certain grid parameters, this method provides for these parameters to be determined automatically. "Elliptic grid generation" signifies generation of generalized curvilinear coordinate grids through solution of elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs). Usually, such grids are fitted to bounding bodies and used in numerical solution of other PDEs like those of fluid flow, heat flow, and electromagnetics. Such a grid is smooth and has continuous first and second derivatives (and possibly also continuous higher-order derivatives), grid lines are appropriately stretched or clustered, and grid lines are orthogonal or nearly so over most of the grid domain. The source terms in the grid-generating PDEs (hereafter called "defining" PDEs) make it possible for the grid to satisfy requirements for clustering and orthogonality properties in the vicinity of specific surfaces in three dimensions or in the vicinity of specific lines in two dimensions. The grid parameters in question are decay parameters that appear in the source terms of the inhomogeneous defining PDEs. The decay parameters are characteristic lengths in exponential- decay factors that express how the influences of the boundaries decrease with distance from the boundaries. These terms govern the rates at which distance between adjacent grid lines change with distance from nearby boundaries. Heretofore, users have arbitrarily specified decay parameters. However, the characteristic lengths are coupled with the strengths of the source terms, such that arbitrary specification could lead to conflicts among parameter values. Moreover, the manual insertion of decay parameters is cumbersome for static grids and infeasible for dynamically changing grids. In the present method, manual insertion and user specification of decay parameters are neither required nor allowed. Instead, the decay parameters are
Verification and validation of the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model for strand grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tong, Oisin
The strand-Cartesian grid approach provides many advantages for complex moving- body flow simulations, including fully-automatic volume grid generation, highly scalable domain connectivity, and high-order accuracy. In this work the Spalart-Allmaras model is implemented, verified, and validated for high Reynolds number turbulent flows in a strand- Cartesian solver. Second-order convergence is achieved using the Method of Manufactured Solutions implying correct implementation of the turbulence model. By using the NASA- Langley online resource, specific flow cases are validated with two independent compressible codes: FUN3D and CFL3D. The strand solver is validated with zero-pressure gradient flat plate and bump-in-channel cases, and shows excellent agreement with FUN3D and CFL3D for various aspects of turbulent flow, including: velocity profiles, turbulent viscosity profile, coefficient of surface pressure, and drag. Methods of handling sharp corners with strand grids through combinations of strand vector smoothing, multiple strands emanating from a single surface node, and telescoping Cartesian refinement into corner regions of the near- body grid are investigated for a NACA 0012 case. For standard viscous high-aspect ratio grids, smoothed strands with telescoping Cartesian refinement provide the most accurate results with the least complexity. Mesh discontinuities associated with use of multiple strands at sharp corners produce more error than with smoothed strands. With both strand approaches -- vector smoothing and multiple strands -- targeted Cartesian refinement is critical to capture features near sharp corners where strand grids alone are too coarse to capture. Other results show agreement with FUN3D and CFL3D. By using strand vector smoothing and telescoping Cartesian refinement, a NACA 4412 trailing edge separation case is validated with comparison against CFL3D and FUN3D. Velocity profiles show reasonable agreement with CFL3D; however implementing
Internal Coordinate Molecular Dynamics: A Foundation for Multiscale Dynamics
2015-01-01
Internal coordinates such as bond lengths, bond angles, and torsion angles (BAT) are natural coordinates for describing a bonded molecular system. However, the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation methods that are widely used for proteins, DNA, and polymers are based on Cartesian coordinates owing to the mathematical simplicity of the equations of motion. However, constraints are often needed with Cartesian MD simulations to enhance the conformational sampling. This makes the equations of motion in the Cartesian coordinates differential-algebraic, which adversely impacts the complexity and the robustness of the simulations. On the other hand, constraints can be easily placed in BAT coordinates by removing the degrees of freedom that need to be constrained. Thus, the internal coordinate MD (ICMD) offers an attractive alternative to Cartesian coordinate MD for developing multiscale MD method. The torsional MD method is a special adaptation of the ICMD method, where all the bond lengths and bond angles are kept rigid. The advantages of ICMD simulation methods are the longer time step size afforded by freezing high frequency degrees of freedom and performing a conformational search in the more important low frequency torsional degrees of freedom. However, the advancements in the ICMD simulations have been slow and stifled by long-standing mathematical bottlenecks. In this review, we summarize the recent mathematical advancements we have made based on spatial operator algebra, in developing a robust long time scale ICMD simulation toolkit useful for various applications. We also present the applications of ICMD simulations to study conformational changes in proteins and protein structure refinement. We review the advantages of the ICMD simulations over the Cartesian simulations when used with enhanced sampling methods and project the future use of ICMD simulations in protein dynamics. PMID:25517406
Nonlinear Accelerator with Transverse Motion Integrable in Normalized Polar Coordinates
Nagaitsev, S.; Kharkov, Y.; Morozov, I.A.; Zolkin, T.V.; /Chicago U.
2012-05-01
Several families of nonlinear accelerator lattices with integrable transverse motion were suggested recently. One of the requirements for the existence of two analytic invariants is a special longitudinal coordinate dependence of fields. This paper presents the particle motion analysis when a problem becomes integrable in the normalized polar coordinates. This case is distinguished from the others: it yields an exact analytical solution and has a uniform longitudinal coordinate dependence of the fields (since the corresponding nonlinear potential is invariant under the transformation from the Cartesian to the normalized coordinates). A number of interesting features are revealed: while the frequency of radial oscillations is independent of the amplitude, the spread of angular frequencies in a beam is absolute. A corresponding spread of frequencies of oscillations in the Cartesian coordinates is evaluated via the simulation of transverse Schottky noise.
Direct adaptive control of manipulators in Cartesian space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seraji, H.
1987-01-01
A new adaptive-control scheme for direct control of manipulator end effector to achieve trajectory tracking in Cartesian space is developed in this article. The control structure is obtained from linear multivariable theory and is composed of simple feedforward and feedback controllers and an auxiliary input. The direct adaptation laws are derived from model reference adaptive control theory and are not based on parameter estimation of the robot model. The utilization of adaptive feedforward control and the inclusion of auxiliary input are novel features of the present scheme and result in improved dynamic performance over existing adaptive control schemes. The adaptive controller does not require the complex mathematical model of the robot dynamics or any knowledge of the robot parameters or the payload, and is computationally fast for on-line implementation with high sampling rates. The control scheme is applied to a two-link manipulator for illustration.
Multi-fault Tolerance for Cartesian Data Distributions
Ali, Nawab; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Daily, Jeffrey A.
2013-06-01
Faults are expected to play an increasingly important role in how algorithms and applications are designed to run on future extreme-scale sys- tems. Algorithm-based fault tolerance (ABFT) is a promising approach that involves modications to the algorithm to recover from faults with lower over- heads than replicated storage and a signicant reduction in lost work compared to checkpoint-restart techniques. Fault-tolerant linear algebra (FTLA) algo- rithms employ additional processors that store parities along the dimensions of a matrix to tolerate multiple, simultaneous faults. Existing approaches as- sume regular data distributions (blocked or block-cyclic) with the failures of each data block being independent. To match the characteristics of failures on parallel computers, we extend these approaches to mapping parity blocks in several important ways. First, we handle parity computation for generalized Cartesian data distributions with each processor holding arbitrary subsets of blocks in a Cartesian-distributed array. Second, techniques to handle corre- lated failures, i.e., multiple processors that can be expected to fail together, are presented. Third, we handle the colocation of parity blocks with the data blocks and do not require them to be on additional processors. Several al- ternative approaches, based on graph matching, are presented that attempt to balance the memory overhead on processors while guaranteeing the same fault tolerance properties as existing approaches that assume independent fail- ures on regular blocked data distributions. The evaluation of these algorithms demonstrates that the additional desirable properties are provided by the pro- posed approach with minimal overhead.
76 FR 46279 - Smart Grid Advisory Committee
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-08-02
... National Institute of Standards and Technology Smart Grid Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The Smart Grid... should be sent to Office of the National Coordinator for Smart Grid Interoperability, National...
TIGGERC: Turbomachinery Interactive Grid Generator for 2-D Grid Applications and Users Guide
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, David P.
1994-01-01
A two-dimensional multi-block grid generator has been developed for a new design and analysis system for studying multiple blade-row turbomachinery problems. TIGGERC is a mouse driven, interactive grid generation program which can be used to modify boundary coordinates and grid packing and generates surface grids using a hyperbolic tangent or algebraic distribution of grid points on the block boundaries. The interior points of each block grid are distributed using a transfinite interpolation approach. TIGGERC can generate a blocked axisymmetric H-grid, C-grid, I-grid or O-grid for studying turbomachinery flow problems. TIGGERC was developed for operation on Silicon Graphics workstations. Detailed discussion of the grid generation methodology, menu options, operational features and sample grid geometries are presented.
Finite element method formulation in polar coordinates for transient heat conduction problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duda, Piotr
2016-04-01
The aim of this paper is the formulation of the finite element method in polar coordinates to solve transient heat conduction problems. It is hard to find in the literature a formulation of the finite element method (FEM) in polar or cylindrical coordinates for the solution of heat transfer problems. This document shows how to apply the most often used boundary conditions. The global equation system is solved by the Crank-Nicolson method. The proposed algorithm is verified in three numerical tests. In the first example, the obtained transient temperature distribution is compared with the temperature obtained from the presented analytical solution. In the second numerical example, the variable boundary condition is assumed. In the last numerical example the component with the shape different than cylindrical is used. All examples show that the introduction of the polar coordinate system gives better results than in the Cartesian coordinate system. The finite element method formulation in polar coordinates is valuable since it provides a higher accuracy of the calculations without compacting the mesh in cylindrical or similar to tubular components. The proposed method can be applied for circular elements such as boiler drums, outlet headers, flux tubes. This algorithm can be useful during the solution of inverse problems, which do not allow for high density grid. This method can calculate the temperature distribution in the bodies of different properties in the circumferential and the radial direction. The presented algorithm can be developed for other coordinate systems. The examples demonstrate a good accuracy and stability of the proposed method.
An Efficient Means of Adaptive Refinement Within Systems of Overset Grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meakin, Robert L.
1996-01-01
An efficient means of adaptive refinement within systems of overset grids is presented. Problem domains are segregated into near-body and off-body fields. Near-body fields are discretized via overlapping body-fitted grids that extend only a short distance from body surfaces. Off-body fields are discretized via systems of overlapping uniform Cartesian grids of varying levels of refinement. a novel off-body grid generation and management scheme provides the mechanism for carrying out adaptive refinement of off-body flow dynamics and solid body motion. The scheme allows for very efficient use of memory resources, and flow solvers and domain connectivity routines that can exploit the structure inherent to uniform Cartesian grids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ebrahimi, F.; Blackman, E. G.
2016-06-01
For cylindrical differentially rotating plasmas, we study large-scale magnetic field generation from finite amplitude non-axisymmetric perturbations by comparing numerical simulations with quasi-linear analytic theory. When initiated with a vertical magnetic field of either zero or finite net flux, our global cylindrical simulations exhibit the magnetorotational instability (MRI) and large-scale dynamo growth of radially alternating mean fields, averaged over height and azimuth. This dynamo growth is explained by our analytic calculations of a non-axisymmetric fluctuation-induced electromotive force that is sustained by azimuthal shear of the fluctuating fields. The standard `Ω effect' (shear of the mean field by differential rotation) is unimportant. For the MRI case, we express the large-scale dynamo field as a function of differential rotation. The resulting radially alternating large-scale fields may have implications for angular momentum transport in discs and corona. To connect with previous work on large-scale dynamos with local linear shear and identify the minimum conditions needed for large-scale field growth, we also solve our equations in local Cartesian coordinates. We find that large-scale dynamo growth in a linear shear flow without rotation can be sustained by shear plus non-axisymmetric fluctuations - even if not helical, a seemingly previously unidentified distinction. The linear shear flow dynamo emerges as a more restricted version of our more general new global cylindrical calculations.
Extending a CAD-Based Cartesian Mesh Generator for the Lattice Boltzmann Method
Cantrell, J Nathan; Inclan, Eric J; Joshi, Abhijit S; Popov, Emilian L; Jain, Prashant K
2012-01-01
This paper describes the development of a custom preprocessor for the PaRAllel Thermal Hydraulics simulations using Advanced Mesoscopic methods (PRATHAM) code based on an open-source mesh generator, CartGen [1]. PRATHAM is a three-dimensional (3D) lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) based parallel flow simulation software currently under development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The LBM algorithm in PRATHAM requires a uniform, coordinate system-aligned, non-body-fitted structured mesh for its computational domain. CartGen [1], which is a GNU-licensed open source code, already comes with some of the above needed functionalities. However, it needs to be further extended to fully support the LBM specific preprocessing requirements. Therefore, CartGen is being modified to (i) be compiler independent while converting a neutral-format STL (Stereolithography) CAD geometry to a uniform structured Cartesian mesh, (ii) provide a mechanism for PRATHAM to import the mesh and identify the fluid/solid domains, and (iii) provide a mechanism to visually identify and tag the domain boundaries on which to apply different boundary conditions.
Some studies on generalized coordinate sets for polyatomic molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Wenjin; Ma, Ao
2015-12-01
Generalized coordinates are widely used in various analyses of the trajectories of polyatomic molecules from molecular dynamics simulations, such as normal mode analysis and force distribution analysis. Here, we presented detailed discussions on the properties of some specific sets of generalized coordinates, which separate translational, rotational, and vibrational motions of a molecule from one another once the trajectories of dynamical systems are known. Efficient methods were suggested for estimating the transformation matrix between generalized and Cartesian coordinates. Some properties of the well-known BAT coordinates (bond length, angle, and torsional coordinates) were discussed as well.
Exact Integrations of Polynomials and Symmetric Quadrature Formulas over Arbitrary Polyhedral Grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel
1997-01-01
This paper is concerned with two important elements in the high-order accurate spatial discretization of finite volume equations over arbitrary grids. One element is the integration of basis functions over arbitrary domains, which is used in expressing various spatial integrals in terms of discrete unknowns. The other consists of quadrature approximations to those integrals. Only polynomial basis functions applied to polyhedral and polygonal grids are treated here. Non-triangular polygonal faces are subdivided into a union of planar triangular facets, and the resulting triangulated polyhedron is subdivided into a union of tetrahedra. The straight line segment, triangle, and tetrahedron are thus the fundamental shapes that are the building blocks for all integrations and quadrature approximations. Integrals of products up to the fifth order are derived in a unified manner for the three fundamental shapes in terms of the position vectors of vertices. Results are given both in terms of tensor products and products of Cartesian coordinates. The exact polynomial integrals are used to obtain symmetric quadrature approximations of any degree of precision up to five for arbitrary integrals over the three fundamental domains. Using a coordinate-free formulation, simple and rational procedures are developed to derive virtually all quadrature formulas, including some previously unpublished. Four symmetry groups of quadrature points are introduced to derive Gauss formulas, while their limiting forms are used to derive Lobatto formulas. Representative Gauss and Lobatto formulas are tabulated. The relative efficiency of their application to polyhedral and polygonal grids is detailed. The extension to higher degrees of precision is discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seki, Rycichi
1989-01-01
Because the governing equations in fluid dynamics contain partial differentials and are too difficult in most cases to solve analytically, these differentials are generally replaced by finite difference terms. These terms contain terms in the solution at nearby states. This procedure discretizes the field into a finite number of states. These states, when plotted, form a grid, or mesh, of points. It is at these states, or field points, that the solution is found. The optimum choice of states, the x, y, z coordinate values, minimizes error and computational time. But the process of finding these states is made more difficult by complex boundaries, and by the need to control step size differences between the states, that is, the need to control the spacing of field points. One solution technique uses a different set of state variables, which define a different coordinate system, to generate the grid more easily. A new method, developed by Dr. Joseph Steger, combines elliptic and hyperbolic partial differential equations into a mapping function between the physical and computational coordinate systems. This system of equations offers more control than either equation provides alone. The Steger algorithm was modified in order to allow bodies with stronger concavities to be used, offering the possibility of generating a single grid about multiple bodies. Work was also done on identifying areas where grid breakdown occurs.
A HYBRID SOLAR WIND MODEL OF THE CESE+HLL METHOD WITH A YIN-YANG OVERSET GRID AND AN AMR GRID
Feng Xueshang; Zhang Shaohua; Xiang Changqing; Yang Liping; Jiang Chaowei; Wu, S. T.
2011-06-10
A hybrid three-dimensional (3D) MHD model for solar wind study is proposed in the present paper with combined grid systems and solvers. The computational domain from the Sun to Earth space is decomposed into the near-Sun and off-Sun domains, which are respectively constructed with a Yin-Yang overset grid system and a Cartesian adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) grid system and coupled with a domain connection interface in the overlapping region between the near-Sun and off-Sun domains. The space-time conservation element and solution element method is used in the near-Sun domain, while the Harten-Lax-Leer method is employed in the off-Sun domain. The Yin-Yang overset grid can avoid well-known singularity and polar grid convergence problems and its body-fitting property helps achieve high-quality resolution near the solar surface. The block structured AMR Cartesian grid can automatically capture far-field plasma flow features, such as heliospheric current sheets and shock waves, and at the same time, it can save significant computational resources compared to the uniformly structured Cartesian grid. A numerical study of the solar wind structure for Carrington rotation 2069 shows that the newly developed hybrid MHD solar wind model successfully produces many realistic features of the background solar wind, in both the solar corona and interplanetary space, by comparisons with multiple solar and interplanetary observations.
A flux-coordinate independent field-aligned approach to plasma turbulence simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hariri, F.; Ottaviani, M.
2013-11-01
This work illustrates a new approach to field-aligned coordinates for plasma turbulence simulations which is not based on flux variables. The method employs standard Cartesian or polar coordinates to discretize the fields. Parallel derivatives are computed directly along a coordinate that follows the local field, and poloidal derivatives are computed in the original Cartesian frame. Several advantages of this approach are presented. The tests on a drift-wave model demonstrate that the method is well suited to exploit the flute property of small parallel gradients by minimizing the number of degrees of freedom needed to treat a given problem in an accurate and efficient manner.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1998-01-01
Pointwise Inc.'s, Gridgen Software is a system for the generation of 3D (three dimensional) multiple block, structured grids. Gridgen is a visually-oriented, graphics-based interactive code used to decompose a 3D domain into blocks, distribute grid points on curves, initialize and refine grid points on surfaces and initialize volume grid points. Gridgen is available to U.S. citizens and American-owned companies by license.
Iterative reconstruction method for three-dimensional non-cartesian parallel MRI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Xuguang
Parallel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with non-Cartesian sampling pattern is a promising technique that increases the scan speed using multiple receiver coils with reduced samples. However, reconstruction is challenging due to the increased complexity. Three reconstruction methods were evaluated: gridding, blocked uniform resampling (BURS) and non-uniform FFT (NUFFT). Computer simulations of parallel reconstruction were performed. Root mean square error (RMSE) of the reconstructed images to the simulated phantom were used as image quality criterion. Gridding method showed best RMSE performance. Two type of a priori constraints to reduce noise and artifacts were evaluated: edge preserving penalty, which suppresses noise and aliasing artifact in image while preventing over-smoothness, and object support penalty, which reduces background noise amplification. A trust region based step-ratio method that iteratively calculates the penalty coefficient was proposed for the penalty functions. Two methods to alleviate computation burden were evaluated: smaller over sampling ratio, and interpolation coefficient matrix compression. The performance were individually tested using computer simulations. Edge preserving penalty and object support penalty were shown to have consistent improvement on RMSE. The performance of calculated penalty coefficients on the two penalties were close to the best RMSE. Oversampling ratio as low as 1.125 was shown to have impact of less than one percent on RMSE for the radial sampling pattern reconstruction. The value reduced the three dimensional data requirement to less than 1/5 of what the conventional 2x grid needed. Interpolation matrix compression with compression ratio up to 50 percent showed small impact on RMSE. The proposed method was validated on 25MR data set from a GEMR scanner. Six image quality metrics were used to evaluate the performance. RMSE, normalized mutual information (NMI) and joint entropy (JE) relative to a reference
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sidler, Rolf; Carcione, José M.; Holliger, Klaus
2013-02-01
We present a novel numerical approach for the comprehensive, flexible, and accurate simulation of poro-elastic wave propagation in 2D polar coordinates. An important application of this method and its extensions will be the modeling of complex seismic wave phenomena in fluid-filled boreholes, which represents a major, and as of yet largely unresolved, computational problem in exploration geophysics. In view of this, we consider a numerical mesh, which can be arbitrarily heterogeneous, consisting of two or more concentric rings representing the fluid in the center and the surrounding porous medium. The spatial discretization is based on a Chebyshev expansion in the radial direction and a Fourier expansion in the azimuthal direction and a Runge-Kutta integration scheme for the time evolution. A domain decomposition method is used to match the fluid-solid boundary conditions based on the method of characteristics. This multi-domain approach allows for significant reductions of the number of grid points in the azimuthal direction for the inner grid domain and thus for corresponding increases of the time step and enhancements of computational efficiency. The viability and accuracy of the proposed method has been rigorously tested and verified through comparisons with analytical solutions as well as with the results obtained with a corresponding, previously published, and independently benchmarked solution for 2D Cartesian coordinates. Finally, the proposed numerical solution also satisfies the reciprocity theorem, which indicates that the inherent singularity associated with the origin of the polar coordinate system is adequately handled.
Sidler, Rolf; Carcione, José M.; Holliger, Klaus
2013-02-15
We present a novel numerical approach for the comprehensive, flexible, and accurate simulation of poro-elastic wave propagation in 2D polar coordinates. An important application of this method and its extensions will be the modeling of complex seismic wave phenomena in fluid-filled boreholes, which represents a major, and as of yet largely unresolved, computational problem in exploration geophysics. In view of this, we consider a numerical mesh, which can be arbitrarily heterogeneous, consisting of two or more concentric rings representing the fluid in the center and the surrounding porous medium. The spatial discretization is based on a Chebyshev expansion in the radial direction and a Fourier expansion in the azimuthal direction and a Runge–Kutta integration scheme for the time evolution. A domain decomposition method is used to match the fluid–solid boundary conditions based on the method of characteristics. This multi-domain approach allows for significant reductions of the number of grid points in the azimuthal direction for the inner grid domain and thus for corresponding increases of the time step and enhancements of computational efficiency. The viability and accuracy of the proposed method has been rigorously tested and verified through comparisons with analytical solutions as well as with the results obtained with a corresponding, previously published, and independently benchmarked solution for 2D Cartesian coordinates. Finally, the proposed numerical solution also satisfies the reciprocity theorem, which indicates that the inherent singularity associated with the origin of the polar coordinate system is adequately handled.
Stromyer, Michael L; Lilly, Cassandra P; Dillner, Adam J; Knaust, Jacqueline M
2016-01-01
Three isostructural coordination networks of Ce, Pr, and Nd nitrate with 4,4'-bi-pyridine N,N'-dioxide (bpydo) are reported, namely poly[[tris-(nitrato-κ(2) O,O')cerium(III)]-bis-(μ2-4,4'-bi-pyridine N,N'-dioxide-κ(2) N:N')], [Ce(NO3)3(C10H8N2O2)2], poly[[tris-(nitrato-κ(2) O,O')praeseodymium(III)]-bis-(μ2-4,4'-bi-pyridine N,N'-dioxide-κ(2) N:N')], [Pr(NO3)3(C10H8N2O2)2], and poly[[tris(nitrato-κ(2) O,O')neodymium(III)]-bis-(μ2-4,4'-bi-pyridine N,N'-dioxide-κ(2) N:N'], [Nd(NO3)3(C10H8N2O2)2]. All three compounds are isostructural to the previously reported La analogue. The asymmetric unit of [Ln(NO3)3(μ2-bpydo)2] contains one lanthanide cation, two bpydo ligands, and three nitrate anions. Both bpydo ligands act as end-to-end μ2-bridges and display nearly ideal cis and gauche conformations, respectively. The bpydo ligands link the ten-coordinate Ln (III) cations, forming inter-digitating 4(4) grid-like layers extending parallel to (-101), where inter-digitation of layers is promoted by C-H⋯O inter-actions between nitrate anions and bpydo ligands. The inter-digitated layers are linked to sets of neighboring layers via further C-H⋯O and π-π inter-actions. PMID:26870578
Stromyer, Michael L.; Lilly, Cassandra P.; Dillner, Adam J.; Knaust, Jacqueline M.
2016-01-01
Three isostructural coordination networks of Ce, Pr, and Nd nitrate with 4,4′-bipyridine N,N′-dioxide (bpydo) are reported, namely poly[[tris(nitrato-κ2 O,O′)cerium(III)]-bis(μ2-4,4′-bipyridine N,N′-dioxide-κ2 N:N′)], [Ce(NO3)3(C10H8N2O2)2], poly[[tris(nitrato-κ2 O,O′)praeseodymium(III)]-bis(μ2-4,4′-bipyridine N,N′-dioxide-κ2 N:N′)], [Pr(NO3)3(C10H8N2O2)2], and poly[[tris(nitrato-κ2 O,O′)neodymium(III)]-bis(μ2-4,4′-bipyridine N,N′-dioxide-κ2 N:N′], [Nd(NO3)3(C10H8N2O2)2]. All three compounds are isostructural to the previously reported La analogue. The asymmetric unit of [Ln(NO3)3(μ2-bpydo)2] contains one lanthanide cation, two bpydo ligands, and three nitrate anions. Both bpydo ligands act as end-to-end μ2-bridges and display nearly ideal cis and gauche conformations, respectively. The bpydo ligands link the ten-coordinate Ln III cations, forming interdigitating 44 grid-like layers extending parallel to (-101), where interdigitation of layers is promoted by C—H⋯O interactions between nitrate anions and bpydo ligands. The interdigitated layers are linked to sets of neighboring layers via further C—H⋯O and π–π interactions. PMID:26870578
General formulation of vibronic spectroscopy in internal coordinates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baiardi, Alberto; Bloino, Julien; Barone, Vincenzo
2016-02-01
Our general platform integrating time-independent and time-dependent evaluations of vibronic effects at the harmonic level for different kinds of absorption and emission one-photon, conventional and chiral spectroscopies has been extended to support various sets of internal coordinates. Thanks to the implementation of analytical first and second derivatives of different internal coordinates with respect to cartesian ones, both vertical and adiabatic models are available, with the inclusion of mode mixing and, possibly, Herzberg-Teller contributions. Furthermore, all supported non-redundant sets of coordinates are built from a fully automatized algorithm using only a primitive redundant set derived from a bond order-based molecular topology. Together with conventional stretching, bending, and torsion coordinates, the availability of additional coordinates (including linear and out-of-plane bendings) allows a proper treatment of specific systems, including, for instance, inter-molecular hydrogen bridges. A number of case studies are analysed, showing that cartesian and internal coordinates are nearly equivalent for semi-rigid systems not experiencing significant geometry distortions between initial and final electronic states. At variance, delocalized (possibly weighted) internal coordinates become much more effective than their cartesian counterparts for flexible systems and/or in the presence of significant geometry distortions accompanying electronic transitions.
General formulation of vibronic spectroscopy in internal coordinates.
Baiardi, Alberto; Bloino, Julien; Barone, Vincenzo
2016-02-28
Our general platform integrating time-independent and time-dependent evaluations of vibronic effects at the harmonic level for different kinds of absorption and emission one-photon, conventional and chiral spectroscopies has been extended to support various sets of internal coordinates. Thanks to the implementation of analytical first and second derivatives of different internal coordinates with respect to cartesian ones, both vertical and adiabatic models are available, with the inclusion of mode mixing and, possibly, Herzberg-Teller contributions. Furthermore, all supported non-redundant sets of coordinates are built from a fully automatized algorithm using only a primitive redundant set derived from a bond order-based molecular topology. Together with conventional stretching, bending, and torsion coordinates, the availability of additional coordinates (including linear and out-of-plane bendings) allows a proper treatment of specific systems, including, for instance, inter-molecular hydrogen bridges. A number of case studies are analysed, showing that cartesian and internal coordinates are nearly equivalent for semi-rigid systems not experiencing significant geometry distortions between initial and final electronic states. At variance, delocalized (possibly weighted) internal coordinates become much more effective than their cartesian counterparts for flexible systems and/or in the presence of significant geometry distortions accompanying electronic transitions. PMID:26931688
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2014-07-15
Matlab Toolbox for simulating the impact of solar energy on the distribution grid. The majority of the functions are useful for interfacing OpenDSS and MATLAB, and they are of generic use for commanding OpenDSS from MATLAB and retrieving GridPV Toolbox information from simulations. A set of functions is also included for modeling PV plant output and setting up the PV plant in the OpenDSS simulation. The toolbox contains functions for modeling the OpenDSS distribution feedermore » on satellite images with GPS coordinates. Finally, example simulations functions are included to show potential uses of the toolbox functions.« less
Broderick, Robert; Quiroz, Jimmy; Grijalva, Santiago; Reno, Matthew; Coogan, Kyle
2014-07-15
Matlab Toolbox for simulating the impact of solar energy on the distribution grid. The majority of the functions are useful for interfacing OpenDSS and MATLAB, and they are of generic use for commanding OpenDSS from MATLAB and retrieving GridPV Toolbox information from simulations. A set of functions is also included for modeling PV plant output and setting up the PV plant in the OpenDSS simulation. The toolbox contains functions for modeling the OpenDSS distribution feeder on satellite images with GPS coordinates. Finally, example simulations functions are included to show potential uses of the toolbox functions.
Post, R.F.
1960-08-01
An electronic grid is designed employing magnetic forces for controlling the passage of charged particles. The grid is particularly applicable to use in gas-filled tubes such as ignitrons. thyratrons, etc., since the magnetic grid action is impartial to the polarity of the charged particles and, accordingly. the sheath effects encountered with electrostatic grids are not present. The grid comprises a conductor having sections spaced apart and extending in substantially opposite directions in the same plane, the ends of the conductor being adapted for connection to a current source.
Visual analytics for power grid contingency analysis.
Pak Chung Wong; Zhenyu Huang; Yousu Chen; Mackey, Patrick; Shuangshuang Jin
2014-01-01
Contingency analysis employs different measures to model scenarios, analyze them, and then derive the best response to any threats. A proposed visual-analytics pipeline for power grid management can transform approximately 100 million contingency scenarios to a manageable size and form. Grid operators can examine individual scenarios and devise preventive or mitigation strategies in a timely manner. Power grid engineers have applied the pipeline to a Western Electricity Coordinating Council power grid model. PMID:24808167
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoeft, B.; Epting, U.; Koenig, T.
2008-07-01
While many fields relevant to Grid security are already covered by existing working groups, their remit rarely goes beyond the scope of the Grid infrastructure itself. However, security issues pertaining to the internal set-up of compute centres have at least as much impact on Grid security. Thus, this talk will present briefly the EU ISSeG project (Integrated Site Security for Grids). In contrast to groups such as OSCT (Operational Security Coordination Team) and JSPG (Joint Security Policy Group), the purpose of ISSeG is to provide a holistic approach to security for Grid computer centres, from strategic considerations to an implementation plan and its deployment. The generalised methodology of Integrated Site Security (ISS) is based on the knowledge gained during its implementation at several sites as well as through security audits, and this will be briefly discussed. Several examples of ISS implementation tasks at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe will be presented, including segregation of the network for administration and maintenance and the implementation of Application Gateways. Furthermore, the web-based ISSeG training material will be introduced. This aims to offer ISS implementation guidance to other Grid installations in order to help avoid common pitfalls.
Static Aeroelastic Analysis with an Inviscid Cartesian Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rodriguez, David L.; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Nemec, Marian; Smith, Stephen C.
2014-01-01
An embedded-boundary Cartesian-mesh flow solver is coupled with a three degree-offreedom structural model to perform static, aeroelastic analysis of complex aircraft geometries. The approach solves the complete system of aero-structural equations using a modular, loosely-coupled strategy which allows the lower-fidelity structural model to deform the highfidelity CFD model. The approach uses an open-source, 3-D discrete-geometry engine to deform a triangulated surface geometry according to the shape predicted by the structural model under the computed aerodynamic loads. The deformation scheme is capable of modeling large deflections and is applicable to the design of modern, very-flexible transport wings. The interface is modular so that aerodynamic or structural analysis methods can be easily swapped or enhanced. This extended abstract includes a brief description of the architecture, along with some preliminary validation of underlying assumptions and early results on a generic 3D transport model. The final paper will present more concrete cases and validation of the approach. Preliminary results demonstrate convergence of the complete aero-structural system and investigate the accuracy of the approximations used in the formulation of the structural model.
Static Aeroelastic Analysis with an Inviscid Cartesian Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rodriguez, David L.; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Nemec, Marian; Smith, Stephen C.
2014-01-01
An embedded-boundary, Cartesian-mesh flow solver is coupled with a three degree-of-freedom structural model to perform static, aeroelastic analysis of complex aircraft geometries. The approach solves a nonlinear, aerostructural system of equations using a loosely-coupled strategy. An open-source, 3-D discrete-geometry engine is utilized to deform a triangulated surface geometry according to the shape predicted by the structural model under the computed aerodynamic loads. The deformation scheme is capable of modeling large deflections and is applicable to the design of modern, very-flexible transport wings. The coupling interface is modular so that aerodynamic or structural analysis methods can be easily swapped or enhanced. After verifying the structural model with comparisons to Euler beam theory, two applications of the analysis method are presented as validation. The first is a relatively stiff, transport wing model which was a subject of a recent workshop on aeroelasticity. The second is a very flexible model recently tested in a low speed wind tunnel. Both cases show that the aeroelastic analysis method produces results in excellent agreement with experimental data.
Shared Memory Parallelism for 3D Cartesian Discrete Ordinates Solver
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moustafa, Salli; Dutka-Malen, Ivan; Plagne, Laurent; Ponçot, Angélique; Ramet, Pierre
2014-06-01
This paper describes the design and the performance of DOMINO, a 3D Cartesian SN solver that implements two nested levels of parallelism (multicore+SIMD) on shared memory computation nodes. DOMINO is written in C++, a multi-paradigm programming language that enables the use of powerful and generic parallel programming tools such as Intel TBB and Eigen. These two libraries allow us to combine multi-thread parallelism with vector operations in an efficient and yet portable way. As a result, DOMINO can exploit the full power of modern multi-core processors and is able to tackle very large simulations, that usually require large HPC clusters, using a single computing node. For example, DOMINO solves a 3D full core PWR eigenvalue problem involving 26 energy groups, 288 angular directions (S16), 46 × 106 spatial cells and 1 × 1012 DoFs within 11 hours on a single 32-core SMP node. This represents a sustained performance of 235 GFlops and 40:74% of the SMP node peak performance for the DOMINO sweep implementation. The very high Flops/Watt ratio of DOMINO makes it a very interesting building block for a future many-nodes nuclear simulation tool.
Consistent finite-volume discretization of hydrodynamic conservation laws for unstructured grids
Burton, D.E.
1994-10-17
We consider the conservation properties of a staggered-grid Lagrange formulation of the hydrodynamics equations (SGH). Hydrodynamics algorithms are often formulated in a relatively ad hoc manner in which independent discretizations are proposed for mass, momentum, energy, and so forth. We show that, once discretizations for mass and momentum are stated, the remaining discretizations are very nearly uniquely determined, so there is very little latitude for variation. As has been known for some time, the kinetic energy discretization must follow directly from the momentum equation; and the internal energy must follow directly from the energy currents affecting the kinetic energy. A fundamental requirement (termed isentropicity) for numerical hydrodynamics algorithms is the ability to remain on an isentrope in the absence of heating or viscous forces and in the limit of small timesteps. We show that the requirements of energy conservation and isentropicity lead to the replacement of the usual volume calculation with a conservation integral. They further forbid the use of higher order functional representations for either velocity or stress within zones or control volumes, forcing the use of a constant stress element and a constant velocity control volume. This, in turn, causes the point and zone coordinates to formally disappear from the Cartesian formulation. The form of the work equations and the requirement for dissipation by viscous forces strongly limits the possible algebraic forms for artificial viscosity. The momentum equation and a center-of-mass definition lead directly to an angular momentum conservation law that is satisfied by the system. With a few straightforward substitutions, the Cartesian formulation can be converted to a multidimensional curvilinear one. The formulation in 2D symmetric geometry preserves rotational symmetry.
Continuous parallel coordinates.
Heinrich, Julian; Weiskopf, Daniel
2009-01-01
Typical scientific data is represented on a grid with appropriate interpolation or approximation schemes,defined on a continuous domain. The visualization of such data in parallel coordinates may reveal patterns latently contained in the data and thus can improve the understanding of multidimensional relations. In this paper, we adopt the concept of continuous scatterplots for the visualization of spatially continuous input data to derive a density model for parallel coordinates. Based on the point-line duality between scatterplots and parallel coordinates, we propose a mathematical model that maps density from a continuous scatterplot to parallel coordinates and present different algorithms for both numerical and analytical computation of the resulting density field. In addition, we show how the 2-D model can be used to successively construct continuous parallel coordinates with an arbitrary number of dimensions. Since continuous parallel coordinates interpolate data values within grid cells, a scalable and dense visualization is achieved, which will be demonstrated for typical multi-variate scientific data. PMID:19834230
White, Vicky
2003-05-21
By now almost everyone has heard of 'The Grid', or 'Grid Computing' as it should more properly be described. There are frequent articles in both the popular and scientific press talking about 'The Grid' or about some specific Grid project. Run II Experiments, US-CMS, BTeV, the Sloane Digital Sky Survey and the Lattice QCD folks are all incorporating aspects of Grid Computing in their plans, and the Fermilab Computing Division is supporting and encouraging these efforts. Why are we doing this and what does it have to do with running a physics experiment or getting scientific results? I will explore some of these questions and try to give an overview, not so much of the technical aspects of Grid Computing, rather of what the phenomenon means for our field.
Simulation of disk-disk encounters with co-moving polar grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salo, Heikki
1990-01-01
The two-grid simulation method combining advantages of both polar and Cartesian mesh-codes is described. In addition to the stellar component reacting solely to gravitational forces, the gas component is included with dissipatively colliding particles. This allows fairly realistic simulation of planar encounters where both systems contain star plus gas disks.
Tracking algorithms using log-polar mapped image coordinates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weiman, Carl F. R.; Juday, Richard D.
1990-01-01
The use of log-polar image sampling coordinates rather than conventional Cartesian coordinates offers a number of advantages for visual tracking and docking of space vehicles. Pixel count is reduced without decreasing the field of view, with commensurate reduction in peripheral resolution. Smaller memory requirements and reduced processing loads are the benefits in working environments where bulk and energy are at a premium. Rotational and zoom symmetries of log-polar coordinates accommodate range and orientation extremes without computational penalties. Separation of radial and rotational coordinates reduces the complexity of several target centering algorithms, described below.
Multiscale geometric modeling of macromolecules I: Cartesian representation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Kelin; Feng, Xin; Chen, Zhan; Tong, Yiying; Wei, Guo-Wei
2014-01-01
This paper focuses on the geometric modeling and computational algorithm development of biomolecular structures from two data sources: Protein Data Bank (PDB) and Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB) in the Eulerian (or Cartesian) representation. Molecular surface (MS) contains non-smooth geometric singularities, such as cusps, tips and self-intersecting facets, which often lead to computational instabilities in molecular simulations, and violate the physical principle of surface free energy minimization. Variational multiscale surface definitions are proposed based on geometric flows and solvation analysis of biomolecular systems. Our approach leads to geometric and potential driven Laplace-Beltrami flows for biomolecular surface evolution and formation. The resulting surfaces are free of geometric singularities and minimize the total free energy of the biomolecular system. High order partial differential equation (PDE)-based nonlinear filters are employed for EMDB data processing. We show the efficacy of this approach in feature-preserving noise reduction. After the construction of protein multiresolution surfaces, we explore the analysis and characterization of surface morphology by using a variety of curvature definitions. Apart from the classical Gaussian curvature and mean curvature, maximum curvature, minimum curvature, shape index, and curvedness are also applied to macromolecular surface analysis for the first time. Our curvature analysis is uniquely coupled to the analysis of electrostatic surface potential, which is a by-product of our variational multiscale solvation models. As an expository investigation, we particularly emphasize the numerical algorithms and computational protocols for practical applications of the above multiscale geometric models. Such information may otherwise be scattered over the vast literature on this topic. Based on the curvature and electrostatic analysis from our multiresolution surfaces, we introduce a new concept, the
Multiscale geometric modeling of macromolecules I: Cartesian representation
Xia, Kelin; Feng, Xin; Chen, Zhan; Tong, Yiying; Wei, Guo-Wei
2014-01-15
This paper focuses on the geometric modeling and computational algorithm development of biomolecular structures from two data sources: Protein Data Bank (PDB) and Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB) in the Eulerian (or Cartesian) representation. Molecular surface (MS) contains non-smooth geometric singularities, such as cusps, tips and self-intersecting facets, which often lead to computational instabilities in molecular simulations, and violate the physical principle of surface free energy minimization. Variational multiscale surface definitions are proposed based on geometric flows and solvation analysis of biomolecular systems. Our approach leads to geometric and potential driven Laplace–Beltrami flows for biomolecular surface evolution and formation. The resulting surfaces are free of geometric singularities and minimize the total free energy of the biomolecular system. High order partial differential equation (PDE)-based nonlinear filters are employed for EMDB data processing. We show the efficacy of this approach in feature-preserving noise reduction. After the construction of protein multiresolution surfaces, we explore the analysis and characterization of surface morphology by using a variety of curvature definitions. Apart from the classical Gaussian curvature and mean curvature, maximum curvature, minimum curvature, shape index, and curvedness are also applied to macromolecular surface analysis for the first time. Our curvature analysis is uniquely coupled to the analysis of electrostatic surface potential, which is a by-product of our variational multiscale solvation models. As an expository investigation, we particularly emphasize the numerical algorithms and computational protocols for practical applications of the above multiscale geometric models. Such information may otherwise be scattered over the vast literature on this topic. Based on the curvature and electrostatic analysis from our multiresolution surfaces, we introduce a new concept, the
Multiscale geometric modeling of macromolecules I: Cartesian representation
Xia, Kelin; Feng, Xin; Chen, Zhan; Tong, Yiying; Wei, Guo Wei
2013-01-01
This paper focuses on the geometric modeling and computational algorithm development of biomolecular structures from two data sources: Protein Data Bank (PDB) and Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB) in the Eulerian (or Cartesian) representation. Molecular surface (MS) contains non-smooth geometric singularities, such as cusps, tips and self-intersecting facets, which often lead to computational instabilities in molecular simulations, and violate the physical principle of surface free energy minimization. Variational multiscale surface definitions are proposed based on geometric flows and solvation analysis of biomolecular systems. Our approach leads to geometric and potential driven Laplace-Beltrami flows for biomolecular surface evolution and formation. The resulting surfaces are free of geometric singularities and minimize the total free energy of the biomolecular system. High order partial differential equation (PDE)-based nonlinear filters are employed for EMDB data processing. We show the efficacy of this approach in feature-preserving noise reduction. After the construction of protein multiresolution surfaces, we explore the analysis and characterization of surface morphology by using a variety of curvature definitions. Apart from the classical Gaussian curvature and mean curvature, maximum curvature, minimum curvature, shape index, and curvedness are also applied to macromolecular surface analysis for the first time. Our curvature analysis is uniquely coupled to the analysis of electrostatic surface potential, which is a by-product of our variational multiscale solvation models. As an expository investigation, we particularly emphasize the numerical algorithms and computational protocols for practical applications of the above multiscale geometric models. Such information may otherwise be scattered over the vast literature on this topic. Based on the curvature and electrostatic analysis from our multiresolution surfaces, we introduce a new concept, the
Multiscale geometric modeling of macromolecules I: Cartesian representation.
Xia, Kelin; Feng, Xin; Chen, Zhan; Tong, Yiying; Wei, Guo Wei
2014-01-01
This paper focuses on the geometric modeling and computational algorithm development of biomolecular structures from two data sources: Protein Data Bank (PDB) and Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB) in the Eulerian (or Cartesian) representation. Molecular surface (MS) contains non-smooth geometric singularities, such as cusps, tips and self-intersecting facets, which often lead to computational instabilities in molecular simulations, and violate the physical principle of surface free energy minimization. Variational multiscale surface definitions are proposed based on geometric flows and solvation analysis of biomolecular systems. Our approach leads to geometric and potential driven Laplace-Beltrami flows for biomolecular surface evolution and formation. The resulting surfaces are free of geometric singularities and minimize the total free energy of the biomolecular system. High order partial differential equation (PDE)-based nonlinear filters are employed for EMDB data processing. We show the efficacy of this approach in feature-preserving noise reduction. After the construction of protein multiresolution surfaces, we explore the analysis and characterization of surface morphology by using a variety of curvature definitions. Apart from the classical Gaussian curvature and mean curvature, maximum curvature, minimum curvature, shape index, and curvedness are also applied to macromolecular surface analysis for the first time. Our curvature analysis is uniquely coupled to the analysis of electrostatic surface potential, which is a by-product of our variational multiscale solvation models. As an expository investigation, we particularly emphasize the numerical algorithms and computational protocols for practical applications of the above multiscale geometric models. Such information may otherwise be scattered over the vast literature on this topic. Based on the curvature and electrostatic analysis from our multiresolution surfaces, we introduce a new concept, the
Towards Hybrid Overset Grid Simulations of the Launch Environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moini-Yekta, Shayan
A hybrid overset grid approach has been developed for the design and analysis of launch vehicles and facilities in the launch environment. The motivation for the hybrid grid methodology is to reduce the turn-around time of computational fluid dynamic simulations and improve the ability to handle complex geometry and flow physics. The LAVA (Launch Ascent and Vehicle Aerodynamics) hybrid overset grid scheme consists of two components: an off-body immersed-boundary Cartesian solver with block-structured adaptive mesh refinement and a near-body unstructured body-fitted solver. Two-way coupling is achieved through overset connectivity between the off-body and near-body grids. This work highlights verification using code-to-code comparisons and validation using experimental data for the individual and hybrid solver. The hybrid overset grid methodology is applied to representative unsteady 2D trench and 3D generic rocket test cases.
Analysis of Crustal Magnetisation in Cartesian Vector Harmonics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gubbins, D.; Ivers, D.; Williams, S.
2015-12-01
We present a new set of functions, Vector Cartesian Harmonics (VCH), analogous to the Vector Spherical Harmonics that we have applied recently to global models of crustal and lithospheric magnetisation. Like their spherical counterpart, the VCH form a complete, orthogonal set: planar models of magnetisation can be expanded in them. There are 3 distinct types of VCH, one representing that part of the magnetisation which generates the potential magnetic field above the surface, another the potential magnetic field below the surface, and a toroidal function that generates only a non-potential field. One function therefore describes the magnetisation detected by observations of the magnetic anomaly while the other two describe the null space of an inversion of magnetic observations for magnetisation. The formalism is therefore ideal for analysing the results of inversions for magnetic structures in plane layers such as local or regional surveys where Earth's curvature can be ignored. The null space is in general very large, being an arbitrary combination of a doubly-infinite set of vector functions. However, in the absence of remanence and when the inducing field is uniform the null space reduces to only 2 types of structure, uniform susceptibility (Runcorn's Theorem) and a pattern of susceptibility induced by a uniform field, the null space is restricted to uniform magnetisation and 1D patterns of susceptibility aligned with a horizontal inducing field. Both these cases are already well known, but this analysis shows them to be the ONLY members of the null space. We also give results for familiar text-book structures to show the nature of the null space in each case. Curiously, inversion of the magnetic field from a buried dipole returns exactly half the correct magnitude plus a spurious distributed magnetisation. A more complex application is the topographic structure based on the Bishop formation in California (Fairhead and Williams, SEG exp. abstr. 25, 845, 2006
The National Grid Project: A system overview
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gaither, Adam; Gaither, Kelly; Jean, Brian; Remotigue, Michael; Whitmire, John; Soni, Bharat; Thompson, Joe; Dannenhoffer,, John; Weatherill, Nigel
1995-01-01
The National Grid Project (NGP) is a comprehensive numerical grid generation software system that is being developed at the National Science Foundation (NSF) Engineering Research Center (ERC) for Computational Field Simulation (CFS) at Mississippi State University (MSU). NGP is supported by a coalition of U.S. industries and federal laboratories. The objective of the NGP is to significantly decrease the amount of time it takes to generate a numerical grid for complex geometries and to increase the quality of these grids to enable computational field simulations for applications in industry. A geometric configuration can be discretized into grids (or meshes) that have two fundamental forms: structured and unstructured. Structured grids are formed by intersecting curvilinear coordinate lines and are composed of quadrilateral (2D) and hexahedral (3D) logically rectangular cells. The connectivity of a structured grid provides for trivial identification of neighboring points by incrementing coordinate indices. Unstructured grids are composed of cells of any shape (commonly triangles, quadrilaterals, tetrahedra and hexahedra), but do not have trivial identification of neighbors by incrementing an index. For unstructured grids, a set of points and an associated connectivity table is generated to define unstructured cell shapes and neighboring points. Hybrid grids are a combination of structured grids and unstructured grids. Chimera (overset) grids are intersecting or overlapping structured grids. The NGP system currently provides a user interface that integrates both 2D and 3D structured and unstructured grid generation, a solid modeling topology data management system, an internal Computer Aided Design (CAD) system based on Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS), a journaling language, and a grid/solution visualization system.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Popovic, Zorana B.; Kim, Moonil; Rutledge, David B.
1988-01-01
Loading a two-dimensional grid with active devices offers a means of combining the power of solid-state oscillators in the microwave and millimeter-wave range. The grid structure allows a large number of negative resistance devices to be combined. This approach is attractive because the active devices do not require an external locking signal, and the combining is done in free space. In addition, the loaded grid is a planar structure amenable to monolithic integration. Measurements on a 25-MESFET grid at 9.7 GHz show power-combining and frequency-locking without an external locking signal, with an ERP of 37 W. Experimental far-field patterns agree with theoretical results obtained using reciprocity.
Freitas, Andreia C; Wylezinska, Marzena; Birch, Malcolm J; Petersen, Steffen E; Miquel, Marc E
2016-01-01
Dynamic imaging of the vocal tract using real-time MRI has been an active and growing area of research, having demonstrated great potential to become routinely performed in the clinical evaluation of speech and swallowing disorders. Although many technical advances have been made in regards to acquisition and reconstruction methodologies, there is still no consensus in best practice protocols. This study aims to compare Cartesian and non-Cartesian real-time MRI sequences, regarding image quality and temporal resolution trade-off, for dynamic speech imaging. Five subjects were imaged at 1.5T, while performing normal phonation, in order to assess velar motion and velopharyngeal closure. Data was acquired using both Cartesian and non-Cartesian (spiral and radial) real-time sequences at five different spatial-temporal resolution sets, between 10 fps (1.7×1.7×10 mm3) and 25 fps (1.5×1.5×10 mm3). Only standard scanning resources provided by the MRI scanner manufacturer were used to ensure easy applicability to clinical evaluation and reproducibility. Data sets were evaluated by comparing measurements of the velar structure, dynamic contrast-to-noise ratio and image quality visual scoring. Results showed that for all proposed sequences, FLASH spiral acquisitions provided higher contrast-to-noise ratio, up to a 170.34% increase at 20 fps, than equivalent bSSFP Cartesian acquisitions for the same spatial-temporal resolution. At higher frame rates (22 and 25 fps), spiral protocols were optimal and provided higher CNR and visual scoring than equivalent radial protocols. Comparison of dynamic imaging at 10 and 22 fps for radial and spiral acquisitions revealed no significant difference in CNR performance, thus indicating that temporal resolution can be doubled without compromising spatial resolution (1.9×1.9 mm2) or CNR. In summary, this study suggests that the use of FLASH spiral protocols should be preferred over bSSFP Cartesian for the dynamic imaging of velopharyngeal
Freitas, Andreia C.; Wylezinska, Marzena; Birch, Malcolm J.; Petersen, Steffen E.; Miquel, Marc E.
2016-01-01
Dynamic imaging of the vocal tract using real-time MRI has been an active and growing area of research, having demonstrated great potential to become routinely performed in the clinical evaluation of speech and swallowing disorders. Although many technical advances have been made in regards to acquisition and reconstruction methodologies, there is still no consensus in best practice protocols. This study aims to compare Cartesian and non-Cartesian real-time MRI sequences, regarding image quality and temporal resolution trade-off, for dynamic speech imaging. Five subjects were imaged at 1.5T, while performing normal phonation, in order to assess velar motion and velopharyngeal closure. Data was acquired using both Cartesian and non-Cartesian (spiral and radial) real-time sequences at five different spatial-temporal resolution sets, between 10 fps (1.7×1.7×10 mm3) and 25 fps (1.5×1.5×10 mm3). Only standard scanning resources provided by the MRI scanner manufacturer were used to ensure easy applicability to clinical evaluation and reproducibility. Data sets were evaluated by comparing measurements of the velar structure, dynamic contrast-to-noise ratio and image quality visual scoring. Results showed that for all proposed sequences, FLASH spiral acquisitions provided higher contrast-to-noise ratio, up to a 170.34% increase at 20 fps, than equivalent bSSFP Cartesian acquisitions for the same spatial-temporal resolution. At higher frame rates (22 and 25 fps), spiral protocols were optimal and provided higher CNR and visual scoring than equivalent radial protocols. Comparison of dynamic imaging at 10 and 22 fps for radial and spiral acquisitions revealed no significant difference in CNR performance, thus indicating that temporal resolution can be doubled without compromising spatial resolution (1.9×1.9 mm2) or CNR. In summary, this study suggests that the use of FLASH spiral protocols should be preferred over bSSFP Cartesian for the dynamic imaging of velopharyngeal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foster, Ian
2001-08-01
The term "Grid Computing" refers to the use, for computational purposes, of emerging distributed Grid infrastructures: that is, network and middleware services designed to provide on-demand and high-performance access to all important computational resources within an organization or community. Grid computing promises to enable both evolutionary and revolutionary changes in the practice of computational science and engineering based on new application modalities such as high-speed distributed analysis of large datasets, collaborative engineering and visualization, desktop access to computation via "science portals," rapid parameter studies and Monte Carlo simulations that use all available resources within an organization, and online analysis of data from scientific instruments. In this article, I examine the status of Grid computing circa 2000, briefly reviewing some relevant history, outlining major current Grid research and development activities, and pointing out likely directions for future work. I also present a number of case studies, selected to illustrate the potential of Grid computing in various areas of science.
Unstructured Grid Generation Techniques and Software
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Posenau, Mary-Anne K. (Editor)
1993-01-01
The Workshop on Unstructured Grid Generation Techniques and Software was conducted for NASA to assess its unstructured grid activities, improve the coordination among NASA centers, and promote technology transfer to industry. The proceedings represent contributions from Ames, Langley, and Lewis Research Centers, and the Johnson and Marshall Space Flight Centers. This report is a compilation of the presentations made at the workshop.
Advances in Distance-Based Hole Cuts on Overset Grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chan, William M.; Pandya, Shishir A.
2015-01-01
An automatic and efficient method to determine appropriate hole cuts based on distances to the wall and donor stencil maps for overset grids is presented. A new robust procedure is developed to create a closed surface triangulation representation of each geometric component for accurate determination of the minimum hole. Hole boundaries are then displaced away from the tight grid-spacing regions near solid walls to allow grid overlap to occur away from the walls where cell sizes from neighboring grids are more comparable. The placement of hole boundaries is efficiently determined using a mid-distance rule and Cartesian maps of potential valid donor stencils with minimal user input. Application of this procedure typically results in a spatially-variable offset of the hole boundaries from the minimum hole with only a small number of orphan points remaining. Test cases on complex configurations are presented to demonstrate the new scheme.
An assessment of unstructured grid technology for timely CFD analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kinard, Tom A.; Schabowski, Deanne M.
1995-01-01
An assessment of two unstructured methods is presented in this paper. A tetrahedral unstructured method USM3D, developed at NASA Langley Research Center is compared to a Cartesian unstructured method, SPLITFLOW, developed at Lockheed Fort Worth Company. USM3D is an upwind finite volume solver that accepts grids generated primarily from the Vgrid grid generator. SPLITFLOW combines an unstructured grid generator with an implicit flow solver in one package. Both methods are exercised on three test cases, a wing, and a wing body, and a fully expanded nozzle. The results for the first two runs are included here and compared to the structured grid method TEAM and to available test data. On each test case, the set up procedure are described, including any difficulties that were encountered. Detailed descriptions of the solvers are not included in this paper.
Numerical solution of the full potential equation using a chimera grid approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holst, Terry L.
1995-01-01
A numerical scheme utilizing a chimera zonal grid approach for solving the full potential equation in two spatial dimensions is described. Within each grid zone a fully-implicit approximate factorization scheme is used to advance the solution one interaction. This is followed by the explicit advance of all common zonal grid boundaries using a bilinear interpolation of the velocity potential. The presentation is highlighted with numerical results simulating the flow about a two-dimensional, nonlifting, circular cylinder. For this problem, the flow domain is divided into two parts: an inner portion covered by a polar grid and an outer portion covered by a Cartesian grid. Both incompressible and compressible (transonic) flow solutions are included. Comparisons made with an analytic solution as well as single grid results indicate that the chimera zonal grid approach is a viable technique for solving the full potential equation.
An accuracy assessment of Cartesian-mesh approaches for the Euler equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coirier, William J.; Powell, Kenneth G.
1995-01-01
A critical assessment of the accuracy of Cartesian-mesh approaches for steady, transonic solutions of the Euler equations of gas dynamics is made. An exact solution of the Euler equations (Ringleb's flow) is used not only to infer the order of the truncation error of the Cartesian-mesh approaches, but also to compare the magnitude of the discrete error directly to that obtained with a structured mesh approach. Uniformly and adaptively refined solutions using a Cartesian-mesh approach are obtained and compared to each other and to uniformly refined structured mesh results. The effect of cell merging is investigated as well as the use of two different K-exact reconstruction procedures. The solution methodology of the schemes is explained and tabulated results are presented to compare the solution accuracies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuczyński, Paweł; Białecki, Ryszard
2014-06-01
The paper deals with a solution of radiation heat transfer problems in enclosures filled with nonparticipating medium using ray tracing on hierarchical ortho-Cartesian meshes. The idea behind the approach is that radiative heat transfer problems can be solved on much coarser grids than their counterparts from computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The resulting code is designed as an add-on to OpenFOAM, an open-source CFD program. Ortho-Cartesian mesh involving boundary elements is created based upon CFD mesh. Parametric non-uniform rational basis spline (NURBS) surfaces are used to define boundaries of the enclosure, allowing for dealing with domains of complex shapes. Algorithm for determining random, uniformly distributed locations of rays leaving NURBS surfaces is described. The paper presents results of test cases assuming gray diffusive walls. In the current version of the model the radiation is not absorbed within gases. However, the ultimate aim of the work is to upgrade the functionality of the model, to problems in absorbing, emitting and scattering medium projecting iteratively the results of radiative analysis on CFD mesh and CFD solution on radiative mesh.
A mixed volume grid approach for the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coirier, William J.; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.
1996-01-01
An approach for solving the compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations upon meshes composed of nearly arbitrary polyhedra is described. Each polyhedron is constructed from an arbitrary number of triangular and quadrilateral face elements, allowing the unified treatment of tetrahedral, prismatic, pyramidal, and hexahedral cells, as well the general cut cells produced by Cartesian mesh approaches. The basics behind the numerical approach and the resulting data structures are described. The accuracy of the mixed volume grid approach is assessed by performing a grid refinement study upon a series of hexahedral, tetrahedral, prismatic, and Cartesian meshes for an analytic inviscid problem. A series of laminar validation cases are made, comparing the results upon differing grid topologies to each other, to theory, and experimental data. A computation upon a prismatic/tetrahedral mesh is made simulating the laminar flow over a wall/cylinder combination.
MESH2D GRID GENERATOR DESIGN AND USE
Flach, G.; Smith, F.
2012-01-20
Mesh2d is a Fortran90 program designed to generate two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i),y(i,j)] where [x,y] are grid coordinates identified by indices (i,j). The x(i) coordinates alone can be used to specify a one-dimensional grid. Because the x-coordinates vary only with the i index, a two-dimensional grid is composed in part of straight vertical lines. However, the nominally horizontal y(i,j{sub 0}) coordinates along index i are permitted to undulate or otherwise vary. Mesh2d also assigns an integer material type to each grid cell, mtyp(i,j), in a user-specified manner. The complete grid is specified through three separate input files defining the x(i), y(i,j), and mtyp(i,j) variations. The overall mesh is constructed from grid zones that are typically then subdivided into a collection of smaller grid cells. The grid zones usually correspond to distinct materials or larger-scale geometric shapes. The structured grid zones are identified through uppercase indices (I,J). Subdivision of zonal regions into grid cells can be done uniformly, or nonuniformly using either a polynomial or geometric skewing algorithm. Grid cells may be concentrated backward, forward, or toward both ends. Figure 1 illustrates the above concepts in the context of a simple four zone grid.
Sebastian Schunert; Yousry Y. Azmy; Damien Fournier
2011-05-01
We present a comprehensive error estimation of four spatial discretization schemes of the two-dimensional Discrete Ordinates (SN) equations on Cartesian grids utilizing a Method of Manufactured Solution (MMS) benchmark suite based on variants of Larsen’s benchmark featuring different orders of smoothness of the underlying exact solution. The considered spatial discretization schemes include the arbitrarily high order transport methods of the nodal (AHOTN) and characteristic (AHOTC) types, the discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element method (DGFEM) and the recently proposed higher order diamond difference method (HODD) of spatial expansion orders 0 through 3. While AHOTN and AHOTC rely on approximate analytical solutions of the transport equation within a mesh cell, DGFEM and HODD utilize a polynomial expansion to mimick the angular flux profile across each mesh cell. Intuitively, due to the higher degree of analyticity, we expect AHOTN and AHOTC to feature superior accuracy compared with DGFEM and HODD, but at the price of potentially longer grind times and numerical instabilities. The latter disadvantages can result from the presence of exponential terms evaluated at the cell optical thickness that arise from the semianalytical solution process. This work quantifies the order of accuracy and the magnitude of the error of all four discretization methods for different optical thicknesses, scattering ratios and degrees of smoothness of the underlying exact solutions in order to verify or contradict the aforementioned intuitive expectation.
Smith, C U
2001-08-01
J. C. Eccles (1903-1997) had a highly distinguished career in neurophysiology, being awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology in 1963. This paper sets him within the Cartesian tradition of British neurophysiology initiated by Thomas Henry Huxley in the mid-19th century. It shows how the mind-brain problematique of the Cartesian tradition troubled him throughout his career, leading him finally to a solution in terms of quantum microphysics and microphysiology. This position, which has subsequently become fashionable, is discussed and shown (at least in the form Eccles espoused) to provide no solution to the problem posed by Descartes in the early 17th century. PMID:11487286
Random subspaces for encryption based on a private shared Cartesian frame
Bartlett, Stephen D.; Hayden, Patrick; Spekkens, Robert W.
2005-11-15
A private shared Cartesian frame is a novel form of private shared correlation that allows for both private classical and quantum communication. Cryptography using a private shared Cartesian frame has the remarkable property that asymptotically, if perfect privacy is demanded, the private classical capacity is three times the private quantum capacity. We demonstrate that if the requirement for perfect privacy is relaxed, then it is possible to use the properties of random subspaces to nearly triple the private quantum capacity, almost closing the gap between the private classical and quantum capacities.
Dynamic coordination of a self-reconfigurable manipulator system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Sungbok; Lee, Sukhan
1991-01-01
The authors present the dynamic coordination of a self-reconfigurable manipulator system capable of changing its mechanical structure according to given task requirements. The self-reconfiguration is achieved by reconfiguring the topology of a dual-arm system through serial, parallel, and bracing structures. Particular emphasis is placed on the dynamic coordination of two arms having three different dual-arm topologies. The authors develop the Cartesian space dynamic models of a dual-arm system of three dual-arm topologies and derive the kinematic and dynamic constraints imposed on two arms in cooperation. Dual-arm dynamic manipulabilities are defined to quantify the dynamic performance of three dual-arm topologies in terms of the efficiency of generating Cartesian accelerations. A methodology of selecting serial, parallel, and bracing structures based on dual-arm dynamic manipulabilities is provided.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muralidharan, Balaji; Menon, Suresh
2016-09-01
A new adaptive finite volume conservative cut-cell method that is third-order accurate for simulation of compressible viscous flows is presented. A high-order reconstruction approach using cell centered piecewise polynomial approximation of flow quantities, developed in the past for body-fitted grids, is now extended to the Cartesian based cut-cell method. It is shown that the presence of cut-cells of very low volume results in numerical oscillations in the flow solution near the embedded boundaries when standard small cell treatment techniques are employed. A novel cell clustering approach for polynomial reconstruction in the vicinity of the small cells is proposed and is shown to achieve smooth representation of flow field quantities and their derivatives on immersed interfaces. It is further shown through numerical examples that the proposed clustering method achieves the design order of accuracy and is fairly insensitive to the cluster size. Results are presented for canonical flow past a single cylinder and a sphere at different flow Reynolds numbers to verify the accuracy of the scheme. Investigations are then performed for flow over two staggered cylinders and the results are compared with prior data for the same configuration. All the simulations are carried out with both quadratic and cubic reconstruction, and the results indicate a clear improvement with the cubic reconstruction. The new cut-cell approach with cell clustering is able to predict accurate results even at relatively low resolutions. The ability of the high-order cut-cell method in handling sharp geometrical corners and narrow gaps is also demonstrated using various examples. Finally, three-dimensional flow interactions between a pair of spheres in cross flow is investigated using the proposed cut-cell scheme. The results are shown to be in excellent agreement with past studies, which employed body-fitted grids for studying this complex case.
Coordinate transformation by minimizing correlations between parameters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kumar, M.
1972-01-01
This investigation was to determine the transformation parameters (three rotations, three translations and a scale factor) between two Cartesian coordinate systems from sets of coordinates given in both systems. The objective was the determination of well separated transformation parameters with reduced correlations between each other, a problem especially relevant when the sets of coordinates are not well distributed. The above objective is achieved by preliminarily determining the three rotational parameters and the scale factor from the respective direction cosines and chord distances (these being independent of the translation parameters) between the common points, and then computing all the seven parameters from a solution in which the rotations and the scale factor are entered as weighted constraints according to their variances and covariances obtained in the preliminary solutions. Numerical tests involving two geodetic reference systems were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of this approach.
Solving Partial Differential Equations on Overlapping Grids
Henshaw, W D
2008-09-22
We discuss the solution of partial differential equations (PDEs) on overlapping grids. This is a powerful technique for efficiently solving problems in complex, possibly moving, geometry. An overlapping grid consists of a set of structured grids that overlap and cover the computational domain. By allowing the grids to overlap, grids for complex geometries can be more easily constructed. The overlapping grid approach can also be used to remove coordinate singularities by, for example, covering a sphere with two or more patches. We describe the application of the overlapping grid approach to a variety of different problems. These include the solution of incompressible fluid flows with moving and deforming geometry, the solution of high-speed compressible reactive flow with rigid bodies using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), and the solution of the time-domain Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism.
Introduction to grid generation systems in turbomachinery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Camarero, R.; Ozell, B.; Reggio, M.; Caron, A.
Body-fitted curvilinear grid generation for the numerical simulation of three dimensional flow in turbomachines is introduced. The grids yield coordinate curves aligned with the domain boundaries. The numerical scheme for the governing equations is carried out on a rectangular mesh, giving a simpler and more accurate algorithm since bondaries coincide with coordinate grids, and no interpolation is required. The geometric complexity, through the transformation, is imbedded into the coefficients of the governing equations, affording the possibility of writing generalized codes applicable to a variety of geometries. This results in a great saving in the code development effort.
An improved method for calculating self-motion coordinates for redundant manipulators
Reister, D.B.
1997-04-01
For a redundant manipulator, the objective of redundancy resolution is to follow a specified path in Cartesian space and simultaneously perform another task (for example, maximize an objective function or avoid obstacles) at every point along the path. The conventional methods have several drawbacks: a new function must be defined for each task, the extended Jacobian can be singular, closed cycles in Cartesian space may not yield closed cycles in joint space, and the objective is point-wise redundancy resolution (to determine a single point in joint space for each point in Cartesian space). The author divides the redundancy resolution problem into two parts: (1) calculate self-motion coordinates for all possible positions of a manipulator at each point along a Cartesian path and (2) determination of optimal self-motion coordinates that maximize an objective function along the path. This paper will discuss the first part of the problem. The path-wise approach overcomes all of the drawbacks of conventional redundancy resolution methods: no need to define a new function for each task, extended Jacobian cannot be singular, and closed cycles in extended Cartesian space will yield closed cycles in joint space.
Structure sensitive normal coordinate analysis of metal-diethyldithiocarbamate - complexes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mikosch, H.; Bauer, G.; Kellner, R.; Trendafilova, N. S.; St. Nikolov, G.
1986-03-01
Symmetry changes in the course of dissolution are assumed to produce frequency shifts in molecular spectra of N, N-Disubstituted Dithiocarbamates. Using (mass-weighted) cartesian coordinates it is possible to calculate eigenvalues both for the site- and the molecular symmetry. Calculated shifts for Cu- and Zn- complexes are of the same order of magnitude as experimental results and calculation of frequencies even for assumed structures is possible.
Interactive grid generation program for CAP-TSD
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bland, Samuel R.
1990-01-01
A grid generation program for use with the CAP-TSD transonic small disturbance code is described. The program runs interactively in FORTRAN on the Sun Workstation. A fifth-degree polynomial is used to map the grid index onto the computational coordinate. The grid is plotted to aid in the assessment of its quality and may be saved on file in NAMELIST format.
Gridding and fast Fourier transformation on non-uniformly sparse sampled multidimensional NMR data.
Jiang, Bin; Jiang, Xianwang; Xiao, Nan; Zhang, Xu; Jiang, Ling; Mao, Xi-an; Liu, Maili
2010-05-01
For multidimensional NMR method, indirect dimensional non-uniform sparse sampling can dramatically shorten acquisition time of the experiments. However, the non-uniformly sampled NMR data cannot be processed directly using fast Fourier transform (FFT). We show that the non-uniformly sampled NMR data can be reconstructed to Cartesian grid with the gridding method that has been wide applied in MRI, and sequentially be processed using FFT. The proposed gridding-FFT (GFFT) method increases the processing speed sharply compared with the previously proposed non-uniform Fourier Transform, and may speed up application of the non-uniform sparse sampling approaches. PMID:20236843
Gridding and fast Fourier transformation on non-uniformly sparse sampled multidimensional NMR data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Bin; Jiang, Xianwang; Xiao, Nan; Zhang, Xu; Jiang, Ling; Mao, Xi-an; Liu, Maili
2010-05-01
For multidimensional NMR method, indirect dimensional non-uniform sparse sampling can dramatically shorten acquisition time of the experiments. However, the non-uniformly sampled NMR data cannot be processed directly using fast Fourier transform (FFT). We show that the non-uniformly sampled NMR data can be reconstructed to Cartesian grid with the gridding method that has been wide applied in MRI, and sequentially be processed using FFT. The proposed gridding-FFT (GFFT) method increases the processing speed sharply compared with the previously proposed non-uniform Fourier Transform, and may speed up application of the non-uniform sparse sampling approaches.
Grid systems for Earth radiation budget experiment applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brooks, D. R.
1981-01-01
Spatial coordinate transformations are developed for several global grid systems of interest to the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment. The grid boxes are defined in terms of a regional identifier and longitude-latitude indexes. The transformations associate longitude with a particular grid box. The reverse transformations identify the center location of a given grid box. Transformations are given to relate the rotating (Earth-based) grid systems to solar position expressed in an inertial (nonrotating) coordinate system. The FORTRAN implementations of the transformations are given, along with sample input and output.
Topological Invariants and CW Complexes of Cartesian Product and Hexagonal Tiling Paces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Escudero, Juan García
2011-09-01
The cohomology of a class of cartesian product tiling spaces in N dimensions when the inflation factor is a Pisot-Vijayaraghavan unit is analyzed. A CW complex for an hexagonal tiling space is defined in terms of collared tiles for the study of its topological invariants.
Onset of buoyancy-driven convection in Cartesian and cylindrical geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Myint, Philip C.; Firoozabadi, Abbas
2013-04-01
We perform a linear stability analysis to examine the onset of buoyancy-driven convection relevant to subsurface carbon dioxide sequestration in confined, porous Cartesian and cylindrical domains. Our work amends the analysis in an earlier study on cylindrical geometries. We consider Cartesian geometries where the aspect ratio between the two horizontal dimensions is not necessarily equal to one. Two key elements of the stability analysis are: (1) the critical time and (2) the critical wavenumber. Lateral boundaries have a much greater influence on the critical wavenumber than on the critical time. The confinement due to these boundaries impedes the onset of convection to the extent that convection cannot even occur in domains that are smaller than a certain size. Large aspect ratios can significantly reduce boundary effects. Patterns of the earliest-growing perturbation mode in the horizontal plane reveal many interesting dynamics which have not been examined in previous stability analyses. We illustrate several differences between patterns in Cartesian geometries and patterns in cylindrical geometries. Based on observations from earlier papers, we hypothesize that the contrasts between the Cartesian and cylindrical patterns may lead to significantly different behavior in the two geometries after the onset of convection. Our results may guide future numerical studies that can investigate this hypothesis and may help with understanding the onset of buoyancy-driven convection in real systems where lateral boundary effects are significant.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Earnest, Darrell Steven
2012-01-01
This dissertation explores fifth and eighth grade students' interpretations of three kinds of mathematical representations: number lines, the Cartesian plane, and graphs of linear functions. Two studies were conducted. In Study 1, I administered the paper-and-pencil Linear Representations Assessment (LRA) to examine students'…
Real-time cartesian force feedback control of a teleoperated robot
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, Perry
1989-01-01
Active cartesian force control of a teleoperated robot is investigated. An economical microcomputer based control method was tested. Limitations are discussed and methods of performance improvement suggested. To demonstrate the performance of this technique, a preliminary test was performed with success. A general purpose bilateral force reflecting hand controller is currently being constructed based on this control method.
"Mens Sana in Corpore Sano": Cartesian Dualism and the Marginalisation of Sex Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Paechter, Carrie
2004-01-01
Cartesian dualism has left a heavy legacy in terms of how we think about ourselves, so that we treat humans as minds within bodies rather than mind/body unities. This has far-reaching effects on our conceptualisation of the sex/gender distinction and on the relationship between bodies and identities. Related to this is a dualism that is embedded…
C[squared] = Creative Coordinates
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McHugh, Shelley R.
2007-01-01
"C[squared] = Creative Coordinates" is an engaging group of tasks that fosters the integration of mathematics and art to create meaningful understanding. The project lets students illustrate of find an image, then plot points to map their design on a grid. The project usually takes about a week to complete. When it is finished, students who are…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tai, C.
2001-12-01
It is proved that the mid-point grid, which is composed of samples obtained at ground track locations midway between crossover points (thus a subset of the full sampling), has the same resolving power as the full set; i.e., they resolve the same three-dimensional spectral space. The resolving power of the mid-point grid as derived previously by Tai (1995, 1998) is characterized by the Nyquist frequency ω c=π /T (where T is the repeat period of the exact-repeat satellite), and by (in local Cartesian coordinates) the zonal and meridional Nyquist wavenumber kc=2π /X and lc=2π /Y respectively (where X and Y are the east-west and north-south separation between adjacent parallel ground tracks). Here we re-derive this result in simplified terms. First, it is shown through the sampling theorem as demonstrated previously by Tai (1999) that even though samples of the real mid-point grid are not taken simultaneously, they resolve the same frequency range as that of a hypothetical mid-point grid, wherein samples are taken simultaneously at time t=nT (where n is an integer), hence sharing the same Nyquist frequency as cited above. This also reduces the three-dimensional problem to a two-dimensional one. The spatial part of the mid-point grid is a textbook regular grid with zonal and meridional sampling interval of X/2 and Y/2 respectively. As such, the Nyquist wavenumbers are exactly as those stated above. Now with the resolving power of the mid-point grid clearly understood, we are ready to prove that the mid-point grid provides the maximum resolving power. Putting the origin of the xy coordinate system on one of the crossover points, the proof comes in the demonstration that cos(2π x/X) is indistinguishable from cos(2π y/Y) along track; i.e., along-track samples are unable to distinguish the cosine part of the spectral component k=+/-kc, l=0 from that of the spectral component k=0, l=+/-lc. Thus any spatial spectral range containing both of these spectral components
TBGG- INTERACTIVE ALGEBRAIC GRID GENERATION
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, R. E.
1994-01-01
TBGG, Two-Boundary Grid Generation, applies an interactive algebraic grid generation technique in two dimensions. The program incorporates mathematical equations that relate the computational domain to the physical domain. TBGG has application to a variety of problems using finite difference techniques, such as computational fluid dynamics. Examples include the creation of a C-type grid about an airfoil and a nozzle configuration in which no left or right boundaries are specified. The underlying two-boundary technique of grid generation is based on Hermite cubic interpolation between two fixed, nonintersecting boundaries. The boundaries are defined by two ordered sets of points, referred to as the top and bottom. Left and right side boundaries may also be specified, and call upon linear blending functions to conform interior interpolation to the side boundaries. Spacing between physical grid coordinates is determined as a function of boundary data and uniformly spaced computational coordinates. Control functions relating computational coordinates to parametric intermediate variables that affect the distance between grid points are embedded in the interpolation formulas. A versatile control function technique with smooth cubic spline functions is also presented. The TBGG program is written in FORTRAN 77. It works best in an interactive graphics environment where computational displays and user responses are quickly exchanged. The program has been implemented on a CDC Cyber 170 series computer using NOS 2.4 operating system, with a central memory requirement of 151,700 (octal) 60 bit words. TBGG requires a Tektronix 4015 terminal and the DI-3000 Graphics Library of Precision Visuals, Inc. TBGG was developed in 1986.
Kim, Joshua; Ionascu, Dan; Zhang, Tiezhi
2013-01-01
Purpose: To accelerate iterative algebraic reconstruction algorithms using a cylindrical image grid. Methods: Tetrahedron beam computed tomography (TBCT) is designed to overcome the scatter and detector problems of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Iterative algebraic reconstruction algorithms have been shown to mitigate approximate reconstruction artifacts that appear at large cone angles, but clinical implementation is limited by their high computational cost. In this study, a cylindrical voxelization method on a cylindrical grid is developed in order to take advantage of the symmetries of the cylindrical geometry. The cylindrical geometry is a natural fit for the circular scanning trajectory employed in volumetric CT methods such as CBCT and TBCT. This method was implemented in combination with the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART). Both two- and three-dimensional numerical phantoms as well as a patient CT image were utilized to generate the projection sets used for reconstruction. The reconstructed images were compared to the original phantoms using a set of three figures of merit (FOM). Results: The cylindrical voxelization on a cylindrical reconstruction grid was successfully implemented in combination with the SART reconstruction algorithm. The FOM results showed that the cylindrical reconstructions were able to maintain the accuracy of the Cartesian reconstructions. In three dimensions, the cylindrical method provided better accuracy than the Cartesian methods. At the same time, the cylindrical method was able to provide a speedup factor of approximately 40 while also reducing the system matrix storage size by 2 orders of magnitude. Conclusions: TBCT image reconstruction using a cylindrical image grid was able to provide a significant improvement in the reconstruction time and a more compact system matrix for storage on the hard drive and in memory while maintaining the image quality provided by the Cartesian voxelization on a
TIGGERC: Turbomachinery interactive grid generator energy distributor and restart code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, David P.
1992-01-01
A two dimensional multi-block grid generator was developed for a new design and analysis system for studying multi-blade row turbomachinery problems with an axisymmetric viscous/inviscid 'average passage' through flow code. TIGGERC is a mouse driven, fully interactive grid generation program which can be used to modify boundary coordinates and grid packing. TIGGERC generates grids using a hyperbolic tangent or algebraic distribution of grid points on the block boundaries and the interior points of each block grid are distributed using a transfinite interpolation approach. TIGGERC generates a blocked axisymmetric H grid, C grid, I grid, or O grid for studying turbomachinery flow problems. TIGGERC was developed for operation on small high speed graphic workstations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hartman, Steven
1992-01-01
Viewgraphs on technology coordination are provided. Topics covered include: technology coordination process to date; goals; how the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) can support the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA); how OSSA can support OAST; steps to technology transfer; and recommendations.
A formulation for the boundary-layer equations in general coordinates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steger, Joseph L.; Vandalsem, William R.; Panaras, Argyris G.; Rao, K. V.
1988-01-01
This is a working paper in which a formulation is given for solving the boundary-layer equations in general body-fitted curvilinear coordinates while retaining the original Cartesian dependent variables. The solution procedure does not require that any of the coordinates be orthogonal, and much of the software developed for many Navier-Stokes schemes can be readily used. A limited number of calculations has been undertaken to validate the approach.
MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC MODELING OF SOLAR SYSTEM PROCESSES ON GEODESIC GRIDS
Florinski, V.; Guo, X.; Balsara, D. S.; Meyer, C.
2013-04-01
This report describes a new magnetohydrodynamic numerical model based on a hexagonal spherical geodesic grid. The model is designed to simulate astrophysical flows of partially ionized plasmas around a central compact object, such as a star or a planet with a magnetic field. The geodesic grid, produced by a recursive subdivision of a base platonic solid (an icosahedron), is free from control volume singularities inherent in spherical polar grids. Multiple populations of plasma and neutral particles, coupled via charge-exchange interactions, can be simulated simultaneously with this model. Our numerical scheme uses piecewise linear reconstruction on a surface of a sphere in a local two-dimensional 'Cartesian' frame. The code employs Haarten-Lax-van-Leer-type approximate Riemann solvers and includes facilities to control the divergence of the magnetic field and maintain pressure positivity. Several test solutions are discussed, including a problem of an interaction between the solar wind and the local interstellar medium, and a simulation of Earth's magnetosphere.
Technology for a NASA Space-Based Science Operations Grid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bradford, Robert N.; Redman, Sandra H.
2003-01-01
This viewgraph representation presents an overview of a proposal to develop a space-based operations grid in support of space-based science experiments. The development of such a grid would provide a dynamic, secure and scalable architecture based on standards and next-generation reusable software and would enable greater science collaboration and productivity through the use of shared resources and distributed computing. The authors propose developing this concept for use on payload experiments carried aboard the International Space Station. Topics covered include: grid definitions, portals, grid development and coordination, grid technology and potential uses of such a grid.
Easing The Calculation Of Bolt-Circle Coordinates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burley, Richard K.
1995-01-01
Bolt Circle Calculation (BOLT-CALC) computer program used to reduce significant time consumed in manually computing trigonometry of rectangular Cartesian coordinates of holes in bolt circle as shown on blueprint or drawing. Eliminates risk of computational errors, particularly in cases involving many holes or in cases in which coordinates expressed to many significant digits. Program assists in many practical situations arising in machine shops. Written in BASIC. Also successfully compiled and implemented by use of Microsoft's QuickBasic v4.0.
Determination of Ship Approach Parameters in the Polar Coordinates System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banachowicz, Andrzej; Wolski, Adam
2014-06-01
An essential aspect of the safety of navigation is avoiding collisions with other vessels and natural or man made navigational obstructions. To solve this kind of problem the navigator relies on automatic anti-collision ARPA systems, or uses a geometric method and makes radar plots. In both cases radar measurements are made: bearing (or relative bearing) on the target position and distance, both naturally expressed in the polar coordinates system originating at the radar antenna. We first convert original measurements to an ortho-Cartesian coordinate system. Then we solve collision avoiding problems in rectangular planar coordinates, and the results are transformed to the polar coordinate system. This article presents a method for an analysis of a collision situation at sea performed directly in the polar coordinate system. This approach enables a simpler geometric interpretation of a collision situation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Kuinghttons, Ryan; Koziol, Benjamin; Oehmke, Robert; DeLuca, Cecelia; Theurich, Gerhard; Li, Peggy; Jacob, Joseph
2016-04-01
The Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF) Python interface (ESMPy) supports analysis and visualization in Earth system modeling codes by providing access to a variety of tools for data manipulation. ESMPy started as a Python interface to the ESMF grid remapping package, which provides mature and robust high-performance and scalable grid remapping between 2D and 3D logically rectangular and unstructured grids and sets of unconnected data. ESMPy now also interfaces with OpenClimateGIS (OCGIS), a package that performs subsetting, reformatting, and computational operations on climate datasets. ESMPy exposes a subset of ESMF grid remapping utilities. This includes bilinear, finite element patch recovery, first-order conservative, and nearest neighbor grid remapping methods. There are also options to ignore unmapped destination points, mask points on source and destination grids, and provide grid structure in the polar regions. Grid remapping on the sphere takes place in 3D Cartesian space, so the pole problem is not an issue as it can be with other grid remapping software. Remapping can be done between any combination of 2D and 3D logically rectangular and unstructured grids with overlapping domains. Grid pairs where one side of the regridding is represented by an appropriate set of unconnected data points, as is commonly found with observational data streams, is also supported. There is a developing interoperability layer between ESMPy and OpenClimateGIS (OCGIS). OCGIS is a pure Python, open source package designed for geospatial manipulation, subsetting, and computation on climate datasets stored in local NetCDF files or accessible remotely via the OPeNDAP protocol. Interfacing with OCGIS has brought GIS-like functionality to ESMPy (i.e. subsetting, coordinate transformations) as well as additional file output formats (i.e. CSV, ESRI Shapefile). ESMPy is distinguished by its strong emphasis on open source, community governance, and distributed development. The user
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krzyżek, Robert
2015-09-01
The paper presents an innovative solution which increases the reliability of determining the coordinates of corners of building structures in the RTN GNSS mode. Having performed the surveys of the base points in real time, it is proposed to use the method of line-line intersection, which results in capturing the Cartesian coordinates X, Y of the corners of buildings. The coordinates which were obtained in this way, are subjected to an innovative solution called the method of vectors translation. This method involves modeling the coordinates obtained by the algorithm developed by the author. As a result, we obtain the Cartesian coordinates X and Y of the corners of building structures, the accuracy and reliability of determining which is on a very high level.
Direct simulation of multi-phase MHD flows on an unstructured Cartesian adaptive system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jie; Ni, Ming-Jiu
2014-08-01
An approach for direct simulation of the multi-phase magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) flows has been developed in the present study on an unstructured Cartesian adaptive system. The approach is based on the volume-of-fluid (VOF) method for capturing the interface with the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) technique used to well resolve the interface and the boundary layer. The Lorentz force is calculated using the consistent and conservative scheme, which is specially designed on a Cartesian adaptive mesh to conserve the physical conservation laws. The continuous-surface-tension (CSF) formulation is adopted for surface tension calculation. Moreover, the interfacial flows driven by thermal Marangoni effects at multifluid interfaces are also studied with a special numerical treatment presented. The method is able to simulate bubble motion in liquid metal under magnetic field irrespective of high density ratio and electric conductivity ratio. The proposed scheme for multi-phase MHD flows is validated by experimental results as well as analytical solutions.
On the Use of Parmetric-CAD Systems and Cartesian Methods for Aerodynamic Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nemec, Marian; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Pulliam, Thomas H.
2004-01-01
Automated, high-fidelity tools for aerodynamic design face critical issues in attempting to optimize real-life geometry arid in permitting radical design changes. Success in these areas promises not only significantly shorter design- cycle times, but also superior and unconventional designs. To address these issues, we investigate the use of a parmetric-CAD system in conjunction with an embedded-boundary Cartesian method. Our goal is to combine the modeling capabilities of feature-based CAD with the robustness and flexibility of component-based Cartesian volume-mesh generation for complex geometry problems. We present the development of an automated optimization frame-work with a focus on the deployment of such a CAD-based design approach in a heterogeneous parallel computing environment.
Aerodynamic Design of Complex Configurations Using Cartesian Methods and CAD Geometry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nemec, Marian; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Pulliam, Thomas H.
2003-01-01
The objective for this paper is to present the development of an optimization capability for the Cartesian inviscid-flow analysis package of Aftosmis et al. We evaluate and characterize the following modules within the new optimization framework: (1) A component-based geometry parameterization approach using a CAD solid representation and the CAPRI interface. (2) The use of Cartesian methods in the development Optimization techniques using a genetic algorithm. The discussion and investigations focus on several real world problems of the optimization process. We examine the architectural issues associated with the deployment of a CAD-based design approach in a heterogeneous parallel computing environment that contains both CAD workstations and dedicated compute nodes. In addition, we study the influence of noise on the performance of optimization techniques, and the overall efficiency of the optimization process for aerodynamic design of complex three-dimensional configurations. of automated optimization tools. rithm and a gradient-based algorithm.
Mean square optimal NUFFT approximation for efficient non-Cartesian MRI reconstruction
Yang, Zhili; Jacob, Mathews
2014-01-01
The fast evaluation of the discrete Fourier transform of an image at non-uniform sampling locations is key to efficient iterative non-Cartesian MRI reconstruction algorithms. Current non-uniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT) approximations rely on the interpolation of oversampled uniform Fourier samples. The main challenge is high memory demand due to oversampling, especially when multi-dimensional datasets are involved. The main focus of this work is to design an NUFFT algorithm with minimal memory demands. Specifically, we introduce an analytical expression for the expected mean square error in the NUFFT approximation based on our earlier work. We then introduce an iterative algorithm to design the interpolator and scale factors.Experimental comparisons show that the proposed optimized NUFFT scheme provides considerably lower approximation errors than our previous scheme that rely on worst case error metrics. The improved approximations are also seen to considerably reduce the errors and artifacts in non-Cartesian MRI reconstruction. PMID:24637054
A fast nested dissection solver for Cartesian 3D elliptic problems using hierarchical matrices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmitz, Phillip G.; Ying, Lexing
2014-02-01
We present a fast algorithm for solutions to linear systems arising from three dimensional elliptic problems on a regular Cartesian mesh. We follow the approach of Schmitz and Ying (2012) on combining the nested dissection matrix factorization method with hierarchical matrices in two dimensions and extend it to the three dimensional case. A theoretical linear time complexity is derived and a more practical variant with slightly worse scaling is demonstrated.
A computer program for converting rectangular coordinates to latitude-longitude coordinates
Rutledge, A.T.
1989-01-01
A computer program was developed for converting the coordinates of any rectangular grid on a map to coordinates on a grid that is parallel to lines of equal latitude and longitude. Using this program in conjunction with groundwater flow models, the user can extract data and results from models with varying grid orientations and place these data into grid structure that is oriented parallel to lines of equal latitude and longitude. All cells in the rectangular grid must have equal dimensions, and all cells in the latitude-longitude grid measure one minute by one minute. This program is applicable if the map used shows lines of equal latitude as arcs and lines of equal longitude as straight lines and assumes that the Earth 's surface can be approximated as a sphere. The program user enters the row number , column number, and latitude and longitude of the midpoint of the cell for three test cells on the rectangular grid. The latitude and longitude of boundaries of the rectangular grid also are entered. By solving sets of simultaneous linear equations, the program calculates coefficients that are used for making the conversion. As an option in the program, the user may build a groundwater model file based on a grid that is parallel to lines of equal latitude and longitude. The program reads a data file based on the rectangular coordinates and automatically forms the new data file. (USGS)
A Vertical Grid Module for Baroclinic Models of the Atmosphere
Drake, John B
2008-04-01
The vertical grid of an atmospheric model assigns dynamic and thermo- dynamic variables to grid locations. The vertical coordinate is typically not height but one of a class of meteorological variables that vary with atmo- spheric conditions. The grid system is chosen to further numerical approx- imations of the boundary conditions so that the system is terrain following at the surface. Lagrangian vertical coordinates are useful in reducing the numerical errors from advection processes. That the choices will effect the numercial properties and accuracy is explored in this report. A MATLAB class for Lorentz vertical grids is described and applied to the vertical struc- ture equation and baroclinic atmospheric circulation. A generalized meteo- rolgoical coordinate system is developed which can support σ, isentropic θ vertical coordinate, or Lagrangian vertical coordinates. The vertical atmo- spheric column is a MATLAB class that includes the kinematic and ther- modynamic variables along with methods for computing geopoentials and terms relevant to a 3D baroclinc atmospheric model.
Density- and wavefunction-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonics for l ≤ 20
Michael, J. Robert; Volkov, Anatoliy
2015-03-01
The widely used pseudoatom formalism in experimental X-ray charge-density studies makes use of real spherical harmonics when describing the angular component of aspherical deformations of the atomic electron density in molecules and crystals. The analytical form of the density-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonic functions for up to l ≤ 7 and the corresponding normalization coefficients were reported previously by Paturle & Coppens. It was shown that the analytical form for normalization coefficients is available primarily for
Density- and wavefunction-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonics for l ≤ 20
Michael, J. Robert; Volkov, Anatoliy
2015-03-01
The widely used pseudoatom formalism in experimental X-ray charge-density studies makes use of real spherical harmonics when describing the angular component of aspherical deformations of the atomic electron density in molecules and crystals. The analytical form of the density-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonic functions for up to l ≤ 7 and the corresponding normalization coefficients were reported previously by Paturle & Coppens. It was shown that the analytical form for normalization coefficients is available primarily forl ≤ 4. Only in very special cases it is possible to derive an analytical representation of the normalization coefficients for 4 < l ≤ 7.more » In most cases for l > 4 the density normalization coefficients were calculated numerically to within seven significant figures. In this study we review the literature on the density-normalized spherical harmonics, clarify the existing notations, use the Paturle–Coppens method in the Wolfram Mathematicasoftware to derive the Cartesian spherical harmonics for l ≤ 20 and determine the density normalization coefficients to 35 significant figures, and computer-generate a Fortran90 code. The article primarily targets researchers who work in the field of experimental X-ray electron density, but may be of some use to all who are interested in Cartesian spherical harmonics.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, H.-L.; Röttgermann, A.; Wagner, S.
1995-01-01
The Field Panel Method (FPM) with grid stretching technique, presented in this paper, was developed for solving transonic full potential flow around arbitrary airfoils at incidence. In this method, the total potential values are represented by boundary integrals together with a volume integral. The volume integral domain includes both inside and finite outside of the configuration and can be discretisized in a Cartesian grid which may penetrate into the configuration surface. Thus, we avoid the very difficult task of generating body-fitted grids around complex configurations. The boundary potential values are obtained by implementing a standard panel method (symmetrical singularity model), whereas the field potential values are estimated by solving the full potential equation (using AF3 scheme in a Cartesian grid) with approximate inner and proper outer boundary conditions. Furthermore, the grid stretching technique has been utilized that allows to capture the shock waves in a much better quality. It is also shown that both field grid and panel distribution have to be stretched at the same time. Results for transonic potential flows about NACA0012 and RAE2822 airfoils at different Mach numbers and incidences are obtained and compared with other numerical solutions. Great improvement in shock wave quality was achieved by using the present method.
Minor, B.M.
1993-09-01
The exponential characteristic spatial quadrature for discrete ordinates neutral particle transport with rectangular cells is developed. Numerical problems arising in the derivation required the development of exponential moment functions. These functions are used to remove indeterminant forms which can cause catastrophic cancellations. The EC method is positive and nonlinear. It conserves particles and satisfies first moment balance. Comparisons of the EC method's performance to other methods in optically thin and thick spatial cells were performed. For optically thin cells, the EC method was shown to converge to the correct answer, with third order truncation error in the thin cell limit. In deep penetration problems, the EC method attained its highest computational efficiencies compared to the other methods. For all the deep penetration problems examined, the number of spatial cells required by the EC method to attain a desired accuracy was less than the other methods.... Mathematics functions, Nuclear radiation, Nuclear engineering, Radiation attenuation, Radiation shielding, Transport theory, Radiation transport.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Joolen*, Vince; Givoli, Dan; Neta, Beny
2003-07-01
Among the many areas of research that Professor Kawahara has been active in is the subject of open boundaries in which linear time-dependent dispersive waves are considered in an unbounded domain. The infinite domain is truncated via an artificial boundary B on which an open boundary condition (OBC) is imposed. In this paper, Higdon OBCs and Hagstrom-Hariharan (HH) OBCs are considered. Higdon-type conditions, originally implemented as low-order OBCs, are made accessible for any desired order via a new scheme. The higher-order Higdon OBC is then reformulated using auxiliary variables and made compatible for use with finite element (FE) methods. Methodologies for selecting Higdon parameters are also proposed. The performances of these schemes are demonstrated in two numerical examples. This is followed by a discussion of the HH OBC, which is applicable to non-dispersive media on cylindrical and spherical geometries. The paper extends this OBC to the "slightly dispersive" case.
Weller, Daniel S.; Ramani, Sathish; Fessler, Jeffrey A.
2013-01-01
SPIRiT (iterative self-consistent parallel imaging reconstruction), and its sparsity-regularized variant L1-SPIRiT, are compatible with both Cartesian and non-Cartesian MRI sampling trajectories. However, the non-Cartesian framework is more expensive computationally, involving a nonuniform Fourier transform with a nontrivial Gram matrix. We propose a novel implementation of the regularized reconstruction problem using variable splitting, alternating minimization of the augmented La-grangian, and careful preconditioning. Our new method based on the alternating direction method of multipliers converges much faster than existing methods because of the preconditioners' heightened effectiveness. We demonstrate such rapid convergence substantially improves image quality for a fixed computation time. Our framework is a step forward towards rapid non-Cartesian L1-SPIRiT reconstructions. PMID:24122551
Moriguchi, H; Wendt, M; Duerk, J L
2000-11-01
Various kinds of nonrectilinear Cartesian k-space trajectories have been studied, such as spiral, circular, and rosette trajectories. Although the nonrectilinear Cartesian sampling techniques generally have the advantage of fast data acquisition, the gridding process prior to 2D-FFT image reconstruction usually requires a number of additional calculations, thus necessitating an increase in the computation time. Further, the reconstructed image often exhibits artifacts resulting from both the k-space sampling pattern and the gridding procedure. To date, it has been demonstrated in only a few studies that the special geometric sampling patterns of certain specific trajectories facilitate fast image reconstruction. In other words, the inherent link among the trajectory, the sampling scheme, and the associated complexity of the regridding/reconstruction process has been investigated to only a limited extent. In this study, it is demonstrated that a Lissajous trajectory has the special geometric characteristics necessary for rapid reconstruction of nonrectilinear Cartesian k-space trajectories with constant sampling time intervals. Because of the applicability of a uniform resampling (URS) algorithm, a high-quality reconstructed image is obtained in a short reconstruction time when compared to other gridding algorithms. PMID:11064412
GridMan: A grid manipulation system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eiseman, Peter R.; Wang, Zhu
1992-01-01
GridMan is an interactive grid manipulation system. It operates on grids to produce new grids which conform to user demands. The input grids are not constrained to come from any particular source. They may be generated by algebraic methods, elliptic methods, hyperbolic methods, parabolic methods, or some combination of methods. The methods are included in the various available structured grid generation codes. These codes perform the basic assembly function for the various elements of the initial grid. For block structured grids, the assembly can be quite complex due to a large number of clock corners, edges, and faces for which various connections and orientations must be properly identified. The grid generation codes are distinguished among themselves by their balance between interactive and automatic actions and by their modest variations in control. The basic form of GridMan provides a much more substantial level of grid control and will take its input from any of the structured grid generation codes. The communication link to the outside codes is a data file which contains the grid or section of grid.
caGrid 1.0: An Enterprise Grid Infrastructure for Biomedical Research
Oster, Scott; Langella, Stephen; Hastings, Shannon; Ervin, David; Madduri, Ravi; Phillips, Joshua; Kurc, Tahsin; Siebenlist, Frank; Covitz, Peter; Shanbhag, Krishnakant; Foster, Ian; Saltz, Joel
2008-01-01
Objective To develop software infrastructure that will provide support for discovery, characterization, integrated access, and management of diverse and disparate collections of information sources, analysis methods, and applications in biomedical research. Design An enterprise Grid software infrastructure, called caGrid version 1.0 (caGrid 1.0), has been developed as the core Grid architecture of the NCI-sponsored cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG™) program. It is designed to support a wide range of use cases in basic, translational, and clinical research, including 1) discovery, 2) integrated and large-scale data analysis, and 3) coordinated study. Measurements The caGrid is built as a Grid software infrastructure and leverages Grid computing technologies and the Web Services Resource Framework standards. It provides a set of core services, toolkits for the development and deployment of new community provided services, and application programming interfaces for building client applications. Results The caGrid 1.0 was released to the caBIG community in December 2006. It is built on open source components and caGrid source code is publicly and freely available under a liberal open source license. The core software, associated tools, and documentation can be downloaded from the following URL: https://cabig.nci.nih.gov/workspaces/Architecture/caGrid. Conclusions While caGrid 1.0 is designed to address use cases in cancer research, the requirements associated with discovery, analysis and integration of large scale data, and coordinated studies are common in other biomedical fields. In this respect, caGrid 1.0 is the realization of a framework that can benefit the entire biomedical community. PMID:18096909
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosenfeld, Moshe; Kwak, Dochan; Vinokur, Marcel
1992-01-01
A fractional step method is developed for solving the time-dependent three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in generalized coordinate systems. The primitive variable formulation uses the pressure, defined at the center of the computational cell, and the volume fluxes across the faces of the cells as the dependent variables, instead of the Cartesian components of the velocity. This choice is equivalent to using the contravariant velocity components in a staggered grid multiplied by the volume of the computational cell. The governing equations are discretized by finite volumes using a staggered mesh system. The solution of the continuity equation is decoupled from the momentum equations by a fractional step method which enforces mass conservation by solving a Poisson equation. This procedure, combined with the consistent approximations of the geometric quantities, is done to satisfy the discretized mass conservation equation to machine accuracy, as well as to gain the favorable convergence properties of the Poisson solver. The momentum equations are solved by an approximate factorization method, and a novel ZEBRA scheme with four-color ordering is devised for the efficient solution of the Poisson equation. Several two- and three-dimensional laminar test cases are computed and compared with other numerical and experimental results to validate the solution method. Good agreement is obtained in all cases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schulz, M.; Chen, M. W.
2010-12-01
The eventual goal of this work is to develop an approximate analytical representation of solar-wind streamlines in the magnetosheath surrounding a magnetosphere of rather general shape. Previous analytical representations of magnetosheath streamlines and magnetic fields have invoked magnetopause shapes that conform to standard coordinate systems (e.g., spherical, cylindrical, paraboloidal, ellipsoidal), but it seems now that such a restriction on magnetopause shape is unnecessary. In the present work it is assumed only that the magnetopause is a continuously differentiable convex surface axisymmetric about the Sun-Earth line. This geometry permits the construction of an orthogonal coordinate system (mu, eta, chi) such that eta is the cosine of the cone angle between the Sun-Earth line and any conical surafce extending normally outward from the magnetopause, mu is a measure of the perpendicular distance of any magnetosheath point from the magnetopause, and chi is an azimuthal coordinate measured around the Sun-Earth line. It is convenient here to assign a label mu = mu* to the magnetopause itself, so that mu - mu* denotes perpendicular distance from the magnetopause and mu* is an adjustable parameter roughly comparable to the radius of the magnetotail. This choice provides for a rough correspondence between the (mu, eta, chi) coordinates introduced here and the ellipsoidal coordinates used in our previous efforts at magnetosheath modeling.
A Moving Grid Capability for NPARC
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Slater, John W.
1998-01-01
Version 3.1 of the NPARC computational fluid dynamics flow solver introduces a capability to solve unsteady flow on moving multi-block, structured grids with nominally second-order time accuracy. The grid motion is due to segments of the boundary grid that translate and rotate in a rigid-body manner or deform. The grid is regenerated at each time step to accommodate the boundary grid motion. The flow equations and computational models sense the moving grid through the grid velocities, which are computed from a time-difference of the grids at two consecutive time levels. For three-dimensional flow domains, it is assumed that the grid retains a planar character with respect to one coordinate. The application and accuracy of NPARC v3.1 is demonstrated for flow about a flying wedge, rotating flap, a collapsing bump in a duct, and the upstart / restart flow in a variable-geometry inlet. The results compare well with analytic and experimental results.
Barnhill, R.E.; Farin, G.; Hamann, B.
1995-12-31
This paper provides a basic overview of NURBS and their application to numerical grid generation. Curve/surface smoothing, accelerated grid generation, and the use of NURBS in a practical grid generation system are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abad Lopez, Carlos Adrian
Current electricity infrastructure is being stressed from several directions -- high demand, unreliable supply, extreme weather conditions, accidents, among others. Infrastructure planners have, traditionally, focused on only the cost of the system; today, resilience and sustainability are increasingly becoming more important. In this dissertation, we develop computational tools for efficiently managing electricity resources to help create a more reliable and sustainable electrical grid. The tools we present in this work will help electric utilities coordinate demand to allow the smooth and large scale integration of renewable sources of energy into traditional grids, as well as provide infrastructure planners and operators in developing countries a framework for making informed planning and control decisions in the presence of uncertainty. Demand-side management is considered as the most viable solution for maintaining grid stability as generation from intermittent renewable sources increases. Demand-side management, particularly demand response (DR) programs that attempt to alter the energy consumption of customers either by using price-based incentives or up-front power interruption contracts, is more cost-effective and sustainable in addressing short-term supply-demand imbalances when compared with the alternative that involves increasing fossil fuel-based fast spinning reserves. An essential step in compensating participating customers and benchmarking the effectiveness of DR programs is to be able to independently detect the load reduction from observed meter data. Electric utilities implementing automated DR programs through direct load control switches are also interested in detecting the reduction in demand to efficiently pinpoint non-functioning devices to reduce maintenance costs. We develop sparse optimization methods for detecting a small change in the demand for electricity of a customer in response to a price change or signal from the utility
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
CLEAVES, PAUL C.; AND OTHERS
THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS CENTER IS LOCATED IN THE LOCAL HIGH SCHOOL AND SUPPLIES ALL SCHOOLS IN THE AREA. AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT ORDERS, AFTER SELECTIONS ARE MADE BY THE CLASSROOM TEACHER, ARE PROCESSED BY THE CENTER, CONFIRMED AND DELIVERED BY TRUCK THREE TIMES EACH WEEK. EACH SCHOOL HAS A BUILDING COORDINATOR WHO CHECKS THE ORDERS INTO THE…
Interactive grid generation for turbomachinery flow field simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choo, Yung K.; Reno, Charles; Eiseman, Peter R.
1988-01-01
The control point form of algebraic grid generation presented provides the means that are needed to generate well structured grids of turbomachinery flow simulations. It uses a sparse collection of control points distributed over the flow domain. The shape and position of coordinate curves can be adjusted from these control points while the grid conforms precisely to all boundaries. An interactive program called TURBO, which uses the control point form, is being developed. Basic features of the code are discussed and sample grids are presented. A finite volume LU implicit scheme is used to simulate flow in a turbine cascade on the grid generated by the program.
Interactive grid generation for turbomachinery flow field simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choo, Yung K.; Eiseman, Peter R.; Reno, Charles
1988-01-01
The control point form of algebraic grid generation presented provides the means that are needed to generate well structured grids for turbomachinery flow simulations. It uses a sparse collection of control points distributed over the flow domain. The shape and position of coordinate curves can be adjusted from these control points while the grid conforms precisely to all boundaries. An interactive program called TURBO, which uses the control point form, is being developed. Basic features of the code are discussed and sample grids are presented. A finite volume LU implicit scheme is used to simulate flow in a turbine cascade on the grid generated by the program.
Algebraic grid generation for wing-fuselage bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, R. E.; Everton, E. L.; Kudlinski, R. A.
1984-01-01
An algebraic procedure for the generation of boundary-fitted grids about wing-fuselage configurations is presented. A wing-fuselage configuration is specified by cross sections and mathematically represented by Coons' patches. A configuration is divided into sections so that several grid blocks that either adjoin each other or partially overlap each other can be generated, and each grid has six surfaces that map into a computational cube. Grids are first determined on the six boundary surfaces and then in the interior. Grid curves that are on the surface of the configuration are derived using plane-patch intersections, and single-valued functions relating approximate arc lengths along the curves to computational coordinates define the distribution of grid points. The two-boundary technique and transfinite interpolation are used to determine the boundary surface grids that are not on the configuration, and transfinite interpolation with linear blending functions is used to determine the interior grids.
Surface grid generation for wing-fuselage bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, R. E.; Kudlinski, R. A.; Pitts, J. I.
1984-01-01
In the application of finite-difference methods to obtain numerical solutions of viscous compressible fluid flow about wing-fuselage bodies, it is advantageous to transform the governing equations to an idealized boundary-fitted coordinate system. The advantages are reduced computational complexity and added accuracy in the application of boundary conditions. The solution process requires that a grid be superimposed on the physical solution domain which corresponds to a uniform grid on a rectangular computational domain (uniform rectangular parallel-epiped). Grid generation is the determination of a one to one relationship between grid points in the physical domain and grid points in the computational domain. A technique for computing wing-fuselage surface grids using the Harris geometry and software for smooth-surface representation is described. Grid spacing control concepts which govern the relationship between the wing-fuselage surface and the computational grid are also presented.
Density- and wavefunction-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonics for l ≤ 20.
Michael, J Robert; Volkov, Anatoliy
2015-03-01
The widely used pseudoatom formalism [Stewart (1976). Acta Cryst. A32, 565-574; Hansen & Coppens (1978). Acta Cryst. A34, 909-921] in experimental X-ray charge-density studies makes use of real spherical harmonics when describing the angular component of aspherical deformations of the atomic electron density in molecules and crystals. The analytical form of the density-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonic functions for up to l ≤ 7 and the corresponding normalization coefficients were reported previously by Paturle & Coppens [Acta Cryst. (1988), A44, 6-7]. It was shown that the analytical form for normalization coefficients is available primarily for l ≤ 4 [Hansen & Coppens, 1978; Paturle & Coppens, 1988; Coppens (1992). International Tables for Crystallography, Vol. B, Reciprocal space, 1st ed., edited by U. Shmueli, ch. 1.2. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers; Coppens (1997). X-ray Charge Densities and Chemical Bonding. New York: Oxford University Press]. Only in very special cases it is possible to derive an analytical representation of the normalization coefficients for 4 < l ≤ 7 (Paturle & Coppens, 1988). In most cases for l > 4 the density normalization coefficients were calculated numerically to within seven significant figures. In this study we review the literature on the density-normalized spherical harmonics, clarify the existing notations, use the Paturle-Coppens (Paturle & Coppens, 1988) method in the Wolfram Mathematica software to derive the Cartesian spherical harmonics for l ≤ 20 and determine the density normalization coefficients to 35 significant figures, and computer-generate a Fortran90 code. The article primarily targets researchers who work in the field of experimental X-ray electron density, but may be of some use to all who are interested in Cartesian spherical harmonics. PMID:25727874
Adjoint Sensitivity Computations for an Embedded-Boundary Cartesian Mesh Method and CAD Geometry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nemec, Marian; Aftosmis,Michael J.
2006-01-01
Cartesian-mesh methods are perhaps the most promising approach for addressing the issues of flow solution automation for aerodynamic design problems. In these methods, the discretization of the wetted surface is decoupled from that of the volume mesh. This not only enables fast and robust mesh generation for geometry of arbitrary complexity, but also facilitates access to geometry modeling and manipulation using parametric Computer-Aided Design (CAD) tools. Our goal is to combine the automation capabilities of Cartesian methods with an eficient computation of design sensitivities. We address this issue using the adjoint method, where the computational cost of the design sensitivities, or objective function gradients, is esseutially indepeudent of the number of design variables. In previous work, we presented an accurate and efficient algorithm for the solution of the adjoint Euler equations discretized on Cartesian meshes with embedded, cut-cell boundaries. Novel aspects of the algorithm included the computation of surface shape sensitivities for triangulations based on parametric-CAD models and the linearization of the coupling between the surface triangulation and the cut-cells. The objective of the present work is to extend our adjoint formulation to problems involving general shape changes. Central to this development is the computation of volume-mesh sensitivities to obtain a reliable approximation of the objective finction gradient. Motivated by the success of mesh-perturbation schemes commonly used in body-fitted unstructured formulations, we propose an approach based on a local linearization of a mesh-perturbation scheme similar to the spring analogy. This approach circumvents most of the difficulties that arise due to non-smooth changes in the cut-cell layer as the boundary shape evolves and provides a consistent approximation tot he exact gradient of the discretized abjective function. A detailed gradient accurace study is presented to verify our approach
System Wide Joint Position Sensor Fault Tolerance in Robot Systems Using Cartesian Accelerometers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aldridge, Hal A.; Juang, Jer-Nan
1997-01-01
Joint position sensors are necessary for most robot control systems. A single position sensor failure in a normal robot system can greatly degrade performance. This paper presents a method to obtain position information from Cartesian accelerometers without integration. Depending on the number and location of the accelerometers. the proposed system can tolerate the loss of multiple position sensors. A solution technique suitable for real-time implementation is presented. Simulations were conducted using 5 triaxial accelerometers to recover from the loss of up to 4 joint position sensors on a 7 degree of freedom robot moving in general three dimensional space. The simulations show good estimation performance using non-ideal accelerometer measurements.
Alj, Domenico; Caputo, Roberto; Umeton, Cesare
2014-11-01
We report on the realization of a liquid crystal (LC)-based optical diffraction grating showing a polar symmetry of the director alignment. This has been obtained as a natural evolution of the POLICRYPS technique, which enables the realization of highly efficient, switchable, planar diffraction gratings. Performances exhibited in the Cartesian geometry are extended to the polar one by exploiting the spherical aberration produced by simple optical elements. This enables producing the required highly stable polar pattern that allows fabricating a circular optical diffraction grating. Results are promising for their possible application in fields in which a rotational structure of the optical beam is needed. PMID:25361314
Parallel adaptive Cartesian upwind methods for shock-driven multiphysics simulation
Deiterding, Ralf
2011-01-01
The multiphysics fluid-structure interaction simulation of shock-loaded thin-walled structures requires the dynamic coupling of a shock-capturing flow solver to a solid mechanics solver for large deformations. By combining a Cartesian embedded boundary approach with dynamic mesh adaptation a generic software framework for such flow solvers has been constructed that allows easy exchange of the specific hydrodynamic finite volume upwind scheme and coupling to various explicit finite element solid dynamics solvers. The paper gives an overview of the computational approach and presents first simulations that couple the software to the general purpose solid dynamics code DYNA3D.
CAD-Based Aerodynamic Design of Complex Configurations using a Cartesian Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nemec, Marian; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Pulliam, Thomas H.
2003-01-01
A modular framework for aerodynamic optimization of complex geometries is developed. By working directly with a parametric CAD system, complex-geometry models are modified nnd tessellated in an automatic fashion. The use of a component-based Cartesian method significantly reduces the demands on the CAD system, and also provides for robust and efficient flowfield analysis. The optimization is controlled using either a genetic or quasi-Newton algorithm. Parallel efficiency of the framework is maintained even when subject to limited CAD resources by dynamically re-allocating the processors of the flow solver. Overall, the resulting framework can explore designs incorporating large shape modifications and changes in topology.
Efficient and Robust Cartesian Mesh Generation for Building-Cube Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishida, Takashi; Takahashi, Shun; Nakahashi, Kazuhiro
In this study, an efficient and robust Cartesian mesh generation method for Building-Cube Method (BCM) is proposed. It can handle “dirty” geometry data whose surface has cracks, overlaps, and reverse of triangle. BCM mesh generation is implemented by two procedures; cube generation and cell generation in each cube. The cell generation procedure in this study is managed in each cube individually, and parallelized by OpenMP. Efficiency of the parallelized BCM mesh generation is demonstrated for several three-dimensional test cases using a multi-core PC.
The Dirac-Hestenes Equation for Spherical Symmetric Potentials in the Spherical and Cartesian Gauges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
da Rocha, Roldão; Rodrigues, Waldyr A.
In this paper, using the apparatus of the Clifford bundle formalism, we show how straightforwardly solve in Minkowski space-time the Dirac-Hestenes equation — which is an appropriate representative in the Clifford bundle of differential forms of the usual Dirac equation — by separation of variables for the case of a potential having spherical symmetry in the Cartesian and spherical gauges. We show that, contrary to what is expected at a first sight, the solution of the Dirac-Hestenes equation in both gauges has exactly the same mathematical difficulty.
An analysis of natural convection film boiling from spheres using the spherical coordinate system
Tso, C.P.; Leong, K.C.; Tan, H.S.
1995-11-01
The problem of natural convection film boiling on a sphere was analyzed by solving the momentum and energy equations in spherical coordinates. These solutions were compared to the analytical model of Frederking and Clark based on the Cartesian coordinate system, empirical correlation of Frederking and Clark and recent experimental data of Tso et al. for boiling in various refrigerants and liquid nitrogen. For the average Nusselt number, good agreement with Frederking and Clark`s model was obtained. Results using spherical coordinates yield a limiting value of 2 for the average Nusselt number near a modified Rayleigh number of 1 which could not be extracted from Frederking and Clark`s model.
Elking, Dennis M
2016-08-15
New equations for torque and atomic force are derived for use in flexible molecule force fields with atomic multipoles. The expressions are based on Cartesian tensors with arbitrary multipole rank. The standard method for rotating Cartesian tensor multipoles and calculating torque is to first represent the tensor with n indexes and 3(n) redundant components. In this work, new expressions for directly rotating the unique (n + 1)(n + 2)/2 Cartesian tensor multipole components Θpqr are given by introducing Cartesian tensor rotation matrix elements X(R). A polynomial expression and a recursion relation for X(R) are derived. For comparison, the analogous rotation matrix for spherical tensor multipoles are the Wigner functions D(R). The expressions for X(R) are used to derive simple equations for torque and atomic force. The torque and atomic force equations are applied to the geometry optimization of small molecule crystal unit cells. In addition, a discussion of computational efficiency as a function of increasing multipole rank is given for Cartesian tensors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27349179
77 FR 71169 - Smart Grid Advisory Committee Meeting
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2012-11-29
... National Institute of Standards and Technology Smart Grid Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: National... Smart Grid Advisory Committee (SGAC or Committee), will meet in open session on Tuesday, December 18... recommendations from the Committee's report and to receive presentations on cybersecurity coordination and...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Jian; Li, Qi; Cheng, Jicheng
2005-10-01
This paper discusses the concept, key technologies and main application of Spatial Services Grid. The technologies of Grid computing and Webservice is playing a revolutionary role in studying the spatial information services. The concept of the SSG (Spatial Services Grid) is put forward based on the SIG (Spatial Information Grid) and OGSA (open grid service architecture). Firstly, the grid computing is reviewed and the key technologies of SIG and their main applications are reviewed. Secondly, the grid computing and three kinds of SIG (in broad sense)--SDG (spatial data grid), SIG (spatial information grid) and SSG (spatial services grid) and their relationships are proposed. Thirdly, the key technologies of the SSG (spatial services grid) is put forward. Finally, three representative applications of SSG (spatial services grid) are discussed. The first application is urban location based services gird, which is a typical spatial services grid and can be constructed on OGSA (Open Grid Services Architecture) and digital city platform. The second application is region sustainable development grid which is the key to the urban development. The third application is Region disaster and emergency management services grid.
Extending Diffusion Monte Carlo to Internal Coordinates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petit, Andrew S.; McCoy, Anne B.
2013-06-01
Diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) is a powerful technique for studying the properties of molecules and clusters that undergo large-amplitude, zero-point vibrational motions. However, the overall applicability of the method is limited by the need to work in Cartesian coordinates and therefore have available a full-dimensional potential energy surface (PES). As a result, the development of a reduced-dimensional DMC methodology has the potential to significantly extend the range of problems that DMC can address by allowing the calculations to be performed in the subset of coordinates that is physically relevant to the questions being asked, thereby eliminating the need for a full-dimensional PES. As a first step towards this goal, we describe here an internal coordinate extension of DMC that places no constraints on the choice of internal coordinates other than requiring them all to be independent. Using H_3^+ and its isotopologues as model systems, we demonstrate that the methodology is capable of successfully describing the ground state properties of highly fluxional molecules as well as, in conjunction with the fixed-node approximation, the ν=1 vibrationally excited states. The calculations of the fundamentals of H_3^+ and its isotopologues provided general insights into the properties of the nodal surfaces of vibrationally excited states. Specifically, we will demonstrate that analysis of ground state probability distributions can point to the set of coordinates that are less strongly coupled and therefore more suitable for use as nodal coordinates in the fixed-node approximation. In particular, we show that nodal surfaces defined in terms of the curvilinear normal mode coordinates are reasonable for the fundamentals of H_2D^+ and D_2H^+ despite both molecules being highly fluxional.
Systematic and Deterministic Graph-Minor Embedding of Cartesian Products of Complete Graphs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaribafiyan, Arman; Marchand, Dominic J. J.; Changiz Rezaei, Seyed Saeed
The limited connectivity of current and next-generation quantum annealers motivates the need for efficient graph-minor embedding methods. The overhead of the widely used heuristic techniques is quickly proving to be a significant bottleneck for real-world applications. To alleviate this obstacle, we propose a systematic deterministic embedding method that exploits the structures of both the input graph of the specific combinatorial optimization problem and the quantum annealer. We focus on the specific case of the Cartesian product of two complete graphs, a regular structure that occurs in many problems. We first divide the problem by embedding one of the factors of the Cartesian product in a repeatable unit. The resulting simplified problem consists of placing copies of this unit and connecting them together appropriately. Aside from the obvious speed and efficiency advantages of a systematic deterministic approach, the embeddings produced can be easily scaled for larger processors and show desirable properties with respect to the number of qubits used and the chain length distribution.
Overcoming high-field RF problems with non-magnetic Cartesian feedback transceivers.
Hoult, D I; Foreman, D; Kolansky, G; Kripiakevich, D
2008-03-01
In extending human MR to field strengths approaching 10 T, the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation at the proton Larmor frequency becomes less than human body size and conventional radio-frequency coil circumference. Consequently, radio-frequency magnetic fields are better generated by an array of small coils than by one large coil. In this article, the primary problem of array coil interactions during transmission is examined, and a standard proposed whereby secondary induced currents should be less than 1% of the primary coil current. The use of cancellation methods and of power amplifiers with high output impedance to reduce interactions is examined in the light of this standard and found wanting. Non-magnetic Cartesian feedback transceivers functioning at the magnet entrance are then proposed as a solution that both reduces instrumentation cost and increases the bandwidth over which the standard may be met. The compromises inherent in instrument design are detailed and examples given of the innovative circuitry used. It is shown experimentally that when connected to interacting coils, two Cartesian feedback instruments function stably in accord with theory and such that the proposed standard is typically attained over a bandwidth of 22 kHz during transmission (much greater during signal reception)-enough for all current MR protocols. PMID:18026763
Nonlinear and linear local cartesian relative motion state models for J2 pertubed elliptical orbits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Theron, A.; Kara-Zaitri, M.; Arzelier, D.; Louembet, C.
2009-10-01
Formulating a relative motion model between artificial satellites keeps a very actual interest in order to achieve devices adapted to autonomous rendezvous operating or formation flying control. Scanning the existing models field leads to distinguish them according to their nature -- linear or nonlinear -- the relative state variables -- local cartesian or curvilinear variables, relative orbital elements, classical or not -- the reference state variables -- inertial cartesian or spherical variables, orbital elements -- the pertubations taken into account -- drag, J2, ... -- and other assumptions as eccentricity of the reference satellite. The historical Clohessy-Wiltshire and Tschauner-Hempel models have been outclassed by improved linear models that include J2 pertubation [1, 2, 3] or drag [4] but do not take rigorously into account the perturbed dynamics of the reference local frame. As far as this fundamental point is concerned, Kechichian's nonlinear model [5] provides an interesting but complex formulation because of a non optimal derivation method. More over, it does not take full advantage of the Lagrange conditions [6] implied by orbital elements definition which allows simplifications without loss of generality. These elements are presented in this article to reach an improved relative motion nonlinear model under J2 perturbation assumption which results are validated by comparison with those produced by a nonlinear equinoctial propagator. A linear model is also proposed.
A Grid portal for Earth Observation community
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aloisio, G.; Cafaro, M.; Cartenì, G.; Epicoco, I.; Quarta, G.
2005-03-01
Earth Observation techniques offer many powerful instruments for Earth planet study, urban development planning, military intelligence helping and so on. Terabytes of EO and geospatial data about lands, oceans, glaciers, cities, etc. are continuously downloaded through remote-sensing infrastructures and stored into heterogeneous, distributed repositories usually belonging to different virtual organizations. A problem-solving environment can be a viable solution to handle, coordinate and share heterogeneous and distributed resources. Moreover, grid computing is an emerging technology to solve large-scale problems in dynamic, multi-institutional Virtual Organizations coordinated by sharing resources such as high-performance computers, observation devices, data and databases over high-speed networks, etc. In this paper we present the Italian Grid for Earth Observation (I-GEO) project, a pervasive environment based on grid technology to help the integration and processing of Earth Observation data, providing a tool to share and access data, applications and computational resources among several organizations.
Computer coordination of limb motion for a three-legged walking robot
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klein, C. A.; Patterson, M. R.
1980-01-01
Coordination of the limb motion of a vehicle which could perform assembly and maintenance operations on large structures in space is described. Manipulator kinematics and walking robots are described. The basic control scheme of the robot is described. The control of the individual arms are described. Arm velocities are generally described in Cartesian coordinates. Cartesian velocities are converted to joint velocities using the Jacobian matrix. The calculation of a trajectory for an arm given a sequence of points through which it is to pass is described. The free gait algorithm which controls the lifting and placing of legs for the robot is described. The generation of commanded velocities for the robot, and the implementation of those velocities by the algorithm are discussed. Suggestions for further work in the area of robot legged locomotion are presented.
Hybrid Grid Generation Using NW Grid
Jones-Oliveira, Janet B.; Oliveira, Joseph S.; Trease, Lynn L.; Trease, Harold E.; B.K. Soni, J. Hauser, J.F. Thompson, P.R. Eiseman
2000-09-01
We describe the development and use of a hybrid n-dimensional grid generation system called NWGRID. The Applied Mathematics Group at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing this tool to support the Laboratory's computational science efforts in chemistry, biology, engineering and environmental (subsurface and atmospheric) modeling. NWGRID is the grid generation system, which is designed for multi-scale, multi-material, multi-physics, time-dependent, 3-D, hybrid grids that are either statically adapted or evolved in time. NWGRID'S capabilities include static and dynamic grids, hybrid grids, managing colliding surfaces, and grid optimization[using reconnections, smoothing, and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) algorithms]. NWGRID'S data structure can manage an arbitrary number of grid objects, each with an arbitrary number of grid attributes. NWGRID uses surface geometry to build volumes by using combinations of Boolean operators and order relations. Point distributions can be input, generated using either ray shooting techniques or defined point-by-point. Connectivity matrices are then generated automatically for all variations of hybrid grids.
Phase-space distributions in quasi-polar coordinates and the fractional Fourier transform.
Alieva, T; Bastiaans, M J
2000-12-01
The ambiguity function and Cohen's class of bilinear phase-space distributions are represented in a quasipolar coordinate system instead of in a Cartesian system. Relationships between these distributions and the fractional Fourier transform are derived; in particular, derivatives of the ambiguity function are related to moments of the fractional power spectra. A simplification is achieved for the description of underspread signals, for optical beam characterization, and for the generation of signal-adaptive phase-space distributions. PMID:11140493
Parallel Grid Manipulations in Earth Science Calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sawyer, W.; Lucchesi, R.; daSilva, A.; Takacs, L. L.
1999-01-01
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Data Assimilation Office (DAO) at the Goddard Space Flight Center is moving its data assimilation system to massively parallel computing platforms. This parallel implementation of GEOS DAS will be used in the DAO's normal activities, which include reanalysis of data, and operational support for flight missions. Key components of GEOS DAS, including the gridpoint-based general circulation model and a data analysis system, are currently being parallelized. The parallelization of GEOS DAS is also one of the HPCC Grand Challenge Projects. The GEOS-DAS software employs several distinct grids. Some examples are: an observation grid- an unstructured grid of points at which observed or measured physical quantities from instruments or satellites are associated- a highly-structured latitude-longitude grid of points spanning the earth at given latitude-longitude coordinates at which prognostic quantities are determined, and a computational lat-lon grid in which the pole has been moved to a different location to avoid computational instabilities. Each of these grids has a different structure and number of constituent points. In spite of that, there are numerous interactions between the grids, e.g., values on one grid must be interpolated to another, or, in other cases, grids need to be redistributed on the underlying parallel platform. The DAO has designed a parallel integrated library for grid manipulations (PILGRIM) to support the needed grid interactions with maximum efficiency. It offers a flexible interface to generate new grids, define transformations between grids and apply them. Basic communication is currently MPI, however the interfaces defined here could conceivably be implemented with other message-passing libraries, e.g., Cray SHMEM, or with shared-memory constructs. The library is written in Fortran 90. First performance results indicate that even difficult problems, such as above-mentioned pole rotation- a
Comprehensive Smart Grid Planning in a Regulated Utility Environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turner, Matthew; Liao, Yuan; Du, Yan
2015-06-01
This paper presents the tools and exercises used during the Kentucky Smart Grid Roadmap Initiative in a collaborative electric grid planning process involving state regulators, public utilities, academic institutions, and private interest groups. The mandate of the initiative was to assess the existing condition of smart grid deployments in Kentucky, to enhance understanding of smart grid concepts by stakeholders, and to develop a roadmap for the deployment of smart grid technologies by the jurisdictional utilities of Kentucky. Through involvement of many important stakeholder groups, the resultant Smart Grid Deployment Roadmap proposes an aggressive yet achievable strategy and timetable designed to promote enhanced availability, security, efficiency, reliability, affordability, sustainability and safety of the electricity supply throughout the state while maintaining Kentucky's nationally competitive electricity rates. The models and methods developed for this exercise can be utilized as a systematic process for the planning of coordinated smart grid deployments.
Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago
2015-07-28
Parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. One example embodiment is a method for parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. The method includes a first act of dividing a grid into n distinct grid portions, where n is the number of processors available for populating the grid. The method also includes acts of dividing a plurality of objects into n distinct sets of objects, assigning a distinct set of objects to each processor such that each processor determines by which distinct grid portion(s) each object in its distinct set of objects is at least partially bounded, and assigning a distinct grid portion to each processor such that each processor populates its distinct grid portion with any objects that were previously determined to be at least partially bounded by its distinct grid portion.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kumar, D.
1980-01-01
The computer program AFTBDY generates a body fitted curvilinear coordinate system for a wedge curved after body. This wedge curved after body is being used in an experimental program. The coordinate system generated by AFTBDY is used to solve 3D compressible N.S. equations. The coordinate system in the physical plane is a cartesian x,y,z system, whereas, in the transformed plane a rectangular xi, eta, zeta system is used. The coordinate system generated is such that in the transformed plane coordinate spacing in the xi, eta, zeta direction is constant and equal to unity. The physical plane coordinate lines in the different regions are clustered heavily or sparsely depending on the regions where physical quantities to be solved for by the N.S. equations have high or low gradients. The coordinate distribution in the physical plane is such that x stays constant in eta and zeta direction, whereas, z stays constant in xi and eta direction. The desired distribution in x and z is input to the program. Consequently, only the y-coordinate is solved for by the program AFTBDY.
Visual SLAM Using Variance Grid Maps
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howard, Andrew B.; Marks, Tim K.
2011-01-01
An algorithm denoted Gamma-SLAM performs further processing, in real time, of preprocessed digitized images acquired by a stereoscopic pair of electronic cameras aboard an off-road robotic ground vehicle to build accurate maps of the terrain and determine the location of the vehicle with respect to the maps. Part of the name of the algorithm reflects the fact that the process of building the maps and determining the location with respect to them is denoted simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). Most prior real-time SLAM algorithms have been limited in applicability to (1) systems equipped with scanning laser range finders as the primary sensors in (2) indoor environments (or relatively simply structured outdoor environments). The few prior vision-based SLAM algorithms have been feature-based and not suitable for real-time applications and, hence, not suitable for autonomous navigation on irregularly structured terrain. The Gamma-SLAM algorithm incorporates two key innovations: Visual odometry (in contradistinction to wheel odometry) is used to estimate the motion of the vehicle. An elevation variance map (in contradistinction to an occupancy or an elevation map) is used to represent the terrain. The Gamma-SLAM algorithm makes use of a Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF) from Bayesian estimation theory for maintaining a distribution over poses and maps. The core idea of the RBPF approach is that the SLAM problem can be factored into two parts: (1) finding the distribution over robot trajectories, and (2) finding the map conditioned on any given trajectory. The factorization involves the use of a particle filter in which each particle encodes both a possible trajectory and a map conditioned on that trajectory. The base estimate of the trajectory is derived from visual odometry, and the map conditioned on that trajectory is a Cartesian grid of elevation variances. In comparison with traditional occupancy or elevation grid maps, the grid elevation variance
Faster tomographic fan-beam back-projection using Cartesian axes pre-projection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davis, G. R.
1998-02-01
The convolution back-projection algorithm is the most common method for reconstructing images from complete sets of fan-beam projections. For each pixel and for every projection, the interception point on the detector array must be determined and a weighted value from the appropriate point on the filtered back projection added. Thus the number of operations required is of order n2p, where n is the number of points per projection, and p the number of projections. This can mean a considerable computation time, even with modern, fast computer workstations. The complexity of each pixel operation (weighting and geometric computations) is reduced if the projection is first pre-projected onto one or other of the Cartesian axes. This has been demonstrated to reduce the computational time by a factor of 2, with no loss of accuracy, when compared with a highly optimised implementation of the conventional fan-beam back-projection algorithm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, He
In this thesis, I present the results of studies of the structural properties and phase transition of a charge neutral FCC Lattice Gas with Yukawa Interaction and discuss a novel fast calculation algorithm---Accelerated Cartesian Expansion (ACE) method. In the first part of my thesis, I discuss the results of Monte Carlo simulations carried out to understand the finite temperature (phase transition) properties and the ground state structure of a Yukawa Lattice Gas (YLG) model. In this model the ions interact via the potential q iqjexp(-kappar> ij)/rij where qi,j are the charges of the ions located at the lattice sites i and j with position vectors R i and Rj; rij = Ri-Rj, kappa is a measure of the range of the interaction and is called the screening parameter. This model approximates an interesting quaternary system of great current thermoelectric interest called LAST-m, AgSbPbmTem+2. I have also developed rapid calculation methods for the potential energy calculation in a lattice gas system with periodic boundary condition bases on the Ewald summation method and coded the algorithm to compute the energies in MC simulation. Some of the interesting results of the MC simulations are: (i) how the nature and strength of the phase transition depend on the range of interaction (Yukawa screening parameter kappa) (ii) what is the degeneracy of the ground state for different values of the concentration of charges, and (iii) what is the nature of two-stage disordering transition seen for certain values of x. In addition, based on the analysis of the surface energy of different nano-clusters formed near the transition temperature, the solidification process and the rate of production of these nano-clusters have been studied. In the second part of my thesis, we have developed two methods for rapidly computing potentials of the form R-nu. Both these methods are founded on addition theorems based on Taylor expansions. Taylor's series has a couple of inherent advantages: (i) it
Courau, T.; Moustafa, S.; Plagne, L.; Poncot, A.
2013-07-01
As part of its activity, EDF R and D is developing a new nuclear core simulation code named COCAGNE. This code relies on DIABOLO, a Simplified PN (SPN) method to compute the neutron flux inside the core for eigenvalue calculations. In order to assess the accuracy of SPN calculations, we have developed DOMINO, a new 3D Cartesian SN solver. The parallel implementation of DOMINO is very efficient and allows to complete an eigenvalue calculation involving around 300 x 10{sup 9} degrees of freedom within a few hours on a single shared-memory supercomputing node. This computation corresponds to a 26-group S{sub 8} 3D PWR core model used to assess the SPN accuracy. At the pin level, the maximal error for the SP{sub 5} DIABOLO fission production rate is lower than 0.2% compared to the S{sub 8} DOMINO reference for this 3D PWR core model. (authors)
Numerical Simulation of Rolling-Airframes Using a Multi-Level Cartesian Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murman, Scott M.; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Berger, Marsha J.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
A supersonic rolling missile with two synchronous canard control surfaces is analyzed using an automated, inviscid, Cartesian method. Sequential-static and time-dependent dynamic simulations of the complete motion are computed for canard dither schedules for level flight, pitch, and yaw maneuver. The dynamic simulations are compared directly against both high-resolution viscous simulations and relevant experimental data, and are also utilized to compute dynamic stability derivatives. The results show that both the body roll rate and canard dither motion influence the roll-averaged forces and moments on the body. At the relatively, low roll rates analyzed in the current work these dynamic effects are modest, however the dynamic computations are effective in predicting the dynamic stability derivatives which can be significant for highly-maneuverable missiles.
Baczewski, Andrew David; Miller, Nicholas C.; Shanker, Balasubramaniam
2012-03-22
Here, the analysis of fields in periodic dielectric structures arise in numerous applications of recent interest, ranging from photonic bandgap structures and plasmonically active nanostructures to metamaterials. To achieve an accurate representation of the fields in these structures using numerical methods, dense spatial discretization is required. This, in turn, affects the cost of analysis, particularly for integral-equation-based methods, for which traditional iterative methods require Ο(Ν^{2}) operations, Ν being the number of spatial degrees of freedom. In this paper, we introduce a method for the rapid solution of volumetric electric field integral equations used in the analysis of doubly periodic dielectric structures. The crux of our method is the accelerated Cartesian expansion algorithm, which is used to evaluate the requisite potentials in Ο(Ν) cost. Results are provided that corroborate our claims of acceleration without compromising accuracy, as well as the application of our method to a number of compelling photonics applications.
Investigation of Radar Propagation in Buildings: A 10 Billion Element Cartesian-Mesh FETD Simulation
Stowell, M L; Fasenfest, B J; White, D A
2008-01-14
In this paper large scale full-wave simulations are performed to investigate radar wave propagation inside buildings. In principle, a radar system combined with sophisticated numerical methods for inverse problems can be used to determine the internal structure of a building. The composition of the walls (cinder block, re-bar) may effect the propagation of the radar waves in a complicated manner. In order to provide a benchmark solution of radar propagation in buildings, including the effects of typical cinder block and re-bar, we performed large scale full wave simulations using a Finite Element Time Domain (FETD) method. This particular FETD implementation is tuned for the special case of an orthogonal Cartesian mesh and hence resembles FDTD in accuracy and efficiency. The method was implemented on a general-purpose massively parallel computer. In this paper we briefly describe the radar propagation problem, the FETD implementation, and we present results of simulations that used over 10 billion elements.
Validation of Inlet and Exhaust Boundary Conditions for a Cartesian Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pandya, Shishir A.; Murman, Scott M.; Aftosmis, Michael J.
2004-01-01
Inlets and exhaust nozzles are often omitted in aerodynamic simulations of aircraft due to the complexities involved in the modeling of engine details and flow physics. However, the omission is often improper since inlet or plume flows may have a substantial effect on vehicle aerodynamics. A method for modeling the effect of inlets and exhaust plumes using boundary conditions within an inviscid Cartesian flow solver is presented. This approach couples with both CAD systems and legacy geometry to provide an automated tool suitable for parameter studies. The method is validated using two and three-dimensional test problems which are compared with both theoretical and experimental results. The numerical results demonstrate excellent agreement with theory and available data, even for extremely strong jets and very sensitive inlets.
Accelerated Cartesian expansions for the rapid solution of periodic multiscale problems
Baczewski, Andrew David; Dault, Daniel L.; Shanker, Balasubramaniam
2012-07-03
We present an algorithm for the fast and efficient solution of integral equations that arise in the analysis of scattering from periodic arrays of PEC objects, such as multiband frequency selective surfaces (FSS) or metamaterial structures. Our approach relies upon the method of Accelerated Cartesian Expansions (ACE) to rapidly evaluate the requisite potential integrals. ACE is analogous to FMM in that it can be used to accelerate the matrix vector product used in the solution of systems discretized using MoM. Here, ACE provides linear scaling in both CPU time and memory. Details regarding the implementation of this method within themore » context of periodic systems are provided, as well as results that establish error convergence and scalability. In addition, we also demonstrate the applicability of this algorithm by studying several exemplary electrically dense systems.« less
Accelerated Cartesian expansions for the rapid solution of periodic multiscale problems
Baczewski, Andrew David; Dault, Daniel L.; Shanker, Balasubramaniam
2012-07-03
We present an algorithm for the fast and efficient solution of integral equations that arise in the analysis of scattering from periodic arrays of PEC objects, such as multiband frequency selective surfaces (FSS) or metamaterial structures. Our approach relies upon the method of Accelerated Cartesian Expansions (ACE) to rapidly evaluate the requisite potential integrals. ACE is analogous to FMM in that it can be used to accelerate the matrix vector product used in the solution of systems discretized using MoM. Here, ACE provides linear scaling in both CPU time and memory. Details regarding the implementation of this method within the context of periodic systems are provided, as well as results that establish error convergence and scalability. In addition, we also demonstrate the applicability of this algorithm by studying several exemplary electrically dense systems.
A Parallel Cartesian Approach for External Aerodynamics of Vehicles with Complex Geometry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aftosmis, M. J.; Berger, M. J.; Adomavicius, G.
2001-01-01
This workshop paper presents the current status in the development of a new approach for the solution of the Euler equations on Cartesian meshes with embedded boundaries in three dimensions on distributed and shared memory architectures. The approach uses adaptively refined Cartesian hexahedra to fill the computational domain. Where these cells intersect the geometry, they are cut by the boundary into arbitrarily shaped polyhedra which receive special treatment by the solver. The presentation documents a newly developed multilevel upwind solver based on a flexible domain-decomposition strategy. One novel aspect of the work is its use of space-filling curves (SFC) for memory efficient on-the-fly parallelization, dynamic re-partitioning and automatic coarse mesh generation. Within each subdomain the approach employs a variety reordering techniques so that relevant data are on the same page in memory permitting high-performance on cache-based processors. Details of the on-the-fly SFC based partitioning are presented as are construction rules for the automatic coarse mesh generation. After describing the approach, the paper uses model problems and 3- D configurations to both verify and validate the solver. The model problems demonstrate that second-order accuracy is maintained despite the presence of the irregular cut-cells in the mesh. In addition, it examines both parallel efficiency and convergence behavior. These investigations demonstrate a parallel speed-up in excess of 28 on 32 processors of an SGI Origin 2000 system and confirm that mesh partitioning has no effect on convergence behavior.
Advancing Smart Grid Interoperability and Implementing NIST's Interoperability Roadmap
Basso,T.; DeBlasio, R.
2010-04-01
The IEEE American National Standards project P2030TM addressing smart grid interoperability and the IEEE 1547 series of standards addressing distributed resources interconnection with the grid have been identified in priority action plans in the Report to NIST on the Smart Grid Interoperability Standards Roadmap. This paper presents the status of the IEEE P2030 development, the IEEE 1547 series of standards publications and drafts, and provides insight on systems integration and grid infrastructure. The P2030 and 1547 series of standards are sponsored by IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 21.
Barnette, Daniel W.
2002-01-01
The present invention provides a method of grid generation that uses the geometry of the problem space and the governing relations to generate a grid. The method can generate a grid with minimized discretization errors, and with minimal user interaction. The method of the present invention comprises assigning grid cell locations so that, when the governing relations are discretized using the grid, at least some of the discretization errors are substantially zero. Conventional grid generation is driven by the problem space geometry; grid generation according to the present invention is driven by problem space geometry and by governing relations. The present invention accordingly can provide two significant benefits: more efficient and accurate modeling since discretization errors are minimized, and reduced cost grid generation since less human interaction is required.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2015-09-14
GridDyn is a part of power grid simulation toolkit. The code is designed using modern object oriented C++ methods utilizing C++11 and recent Boost libraries to ensure compatibility with multiple operating systems and environments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petersson, Anders; Rodgers, Arthur
2010-05-01
The finite difference method on a uniform Cartesian grid is a highly efficient and easy to implement technique for solving the elastic wave equation in seismic applications. However, the spacing in a uniform Cartesian grid is fixed throughout the computational domain, whereas the resolution requirements in realistic seismic simulations usually are higher near the surface than at depth. This can be seen from the well-known formula h ≤ L-P which relates the grid spacing h to the wave length L, and the required number of grid points per wavelength P for obtaining an accurate solution. The compressional and shear wave lengths in the earth generally increase with depth and are often a factor of ten larger below the Moho discontinuity (at about 30 km depth), than in sedimentary basins near the surface. A uniform grid must have a grid spacing based on the small wave lengths near the surface, which results in over-resolving the solution at depth. As a result, the number of points in a uniform grid is unnecessarily large. In the wave propagation project (WPP) code, we address the over-resolution-at-depth issue by generalizing our previously developed single grid finite difference scheme to work on a composite grid consisting of a set of structured rectangular grids of different spacings, with hanging nodes on the grid refinement interfaces. The computational domain in a regional seismic simulation often extends to depth 40-50 km. Hence, using a refinement ratio of two, we need about three grid refinements from the bottom of the computational domain to the surface, to keep the local grid size in approximate parity with the local wave lengths. The challenge of the composite grid approach is to find a stable and accurate method for coupling the solution across the grid refinement interface. Of particular importance is the treatment of the solution at the hanging nodes, i.e., the fine grid points which are located in between coarse grid points. WPP implements a new, energy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hinke, Thomas
2003-01-01
This presentation will describe what is meant by grids and then cover the current state of the IPG. This will include an overview of the middleware that is key to the operation of the grid. The presentation will then describe some of the future directions that are planned for the IPG. Finally the presentation will conclude with a brief overview of the Global Grid Forum, which is a key activity that will contribute to the successful availability of grid components.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chan, William M.; Rogers, Stuart E.; Nash, Steven M.; Buning, Pieter G.; Meakin, Robert
2005-01-01
Chimera Grid Tools (CGT) is a software package for performing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis utilizing the Chimera-overset-grid method. For modeling flows with viscosity about geometrically complex bodies in relative motion, the Chimera-overset-grid method is among the most computationally cost-effective methods for obtaining accurate aerodynamic results. CGT contains a large collection of tools for generating overset grids, preparing inputs for computer programs that solve equations of flow on the grids, and post-processing of flow-solution data. The tools in CGT include grid editing tools, surface-grid-generation tools, volume-grid-generation tools, utility scripts, configuration scripts, and tools for post-processing (including generation of animated images of flows and calculating forces and moments exerted on affected bodies). One of the tools, denoted OVERGRID, is a graphical user interface (GUI) that serves to visualize the grids and flow solutions and provides central access to many other tools. The GUI facilitates the generation of grids for a new flow-field configuration. Scripts that follow the grid generation process can then be constructed to mostly automate grid generation for similar configurations. CGT is designed for use in conjunction with a computer-aided-design program that provides the geometry description of the bodies, and a flow-solver program.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goodfriend, L.; Chow, F. K.; Vanella, M.; Balaras, E.
2013-12-01
Large-eddy simulation (LES) is a popular technique for studying the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) on small domains. ABL simulations often use structured nested grids to scale the solution from the mesoscale to local scales, but using LES on non-uniform grids generates additional errors. The grid refinement interfaces in nested grids can reflect resolved energy and create interpolation errors. This study investigates the use of explicit filtering and reconstruction to mitigate grid interface errors in LES of a neutral boundary layer. The domain is split in the streamwise direction into two equally sized structured grids, one fine and one coarse, with periodic boundaries in the streamwise and spanwise directions. This simply nested, idealized test case allows observation of the effects of the grid interfaces. Explicit filtering is found to reduce accumulation of resolved energy at the fine-to-coarse interface and improve the shape of coherent structures, compared to basic LES. Additional reconstruction of the subfilter velocity is shown to further the improvements of explicit filtering. These results inform the use of LES to simulate the ABL on block-structured non-uniform grids, from typical nested grids to more complex cartesian AMR grids for urban boundary layers.
Taft, Jeffrey D.
2016-01-01
The report describes work done on Grid Architecture under the auspices of the Department of Electricity Office of Electricity Delivery and Reliability in 2015. As described in the first Grid Architecture report, the primary purpose of this work is to provide stakeholder insight about grid issues so as to enable superior decision making on their part. Doing this requires the creation of various work products, including oft-times complex diagrams, analyses, and explanations. This report provides architectural insights into several important grid topics and also describes work done to advance the science of Grid Architecture as well.
Yocum, D.R.; Berman, E.; Canal, P.; Chadwick, K.; Hesselroth, T.; Garzoglio, G.; Levshina, T.; Sergeev, V.; Sfiligoi, I.; Sharma, N.; Timm, S.; /Fermilab
2007-05-01
As one of the founding members of the Open Science Grid Consortium (OSG), Fermilab enables coherent access to its production resources through the Grid infrastructure system called FermiGrid. This system successfully provides for centrally managed grid services, opportunistic resource access, development of OSG Interfaces for Fermilab, and an interface to the Fermilab dCache system. FermiGrid supports virtual organizations (VOs) including high energy physics experiments (USCMS, MINOS, D0, CDF, ILC), astrophysics experiments (SDSS, Auger, DES), biology experiments (GADU, Nanohub) and educational activities.
DSMC Grid Methodologies for Computing Low-Density, Hypersonic Flows About Reusable Launch Vehicles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilmoth, Richard G.; LeBeau, Gerald J.; Carlson, Ann B.
1996-01-01
Two different grid methodologies are studied for application to DSMC simulations about reusable launch vehicles. One method uses an unstructured, tetrahedral grid while the other uses a structured, variable-resolution Cartesian grid. The relative merits of each method are discussed in terms of accuracy, computational efficiency, and overall ease of use. Both methods are applied to the computation of a low-density, hypersonic flow about a winged single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle concept at conditions corresponding to an altitude of 120 km. Both methods are shown to give comparable results for both surface and flowfield quantities as well as for the overall aerodynamic behavior. For the conditions simulated, the flowfield about the vehicle is very rarefied but the DSMC simulations show significant departure from free-molecular predictions for the surface friction and heat transfer as well as certain aerodynamic quantities.
Noniterative three-dimensional grid generation using parabolic partial differential equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, T. A.
1985-01-01
A new algorithm for generating three-dimensional grids has been developed and implemented which numerically solves a parabolic partial differential equation (PDE). The solution procedure marches outward in two coordinate directions, and requires inversion of a scalar tridiagonal system in the third. Source terms have been introduced to control the spacing and angle of grid lines near the grid boundaries, and to control the outer boundary point distribution. The method has been found to generate grids about 100 times faster than comparable grids generated via solution of elliptic PDEs, and produces smooth grids for finite-difference flow calculations.
2007-11-15
The report provides an overview of what the Smart Grid is and what is being done to define and implement it. The electric industry is preparing to undergo a transition from a centralized, producer-controlled network to a decentralized, user-interactive one. Not only will the technology involved in the electric grid change, but the entire business model of the industry will change too. A major objective of the report is to identify the changes that the Smart Grid will bring about so that industry participants can be prepared to face them. A concise overview of the development of the Smart Grid is provided. It presents an understanding of what the Smart Grid is, what new business opportunities or risks might come about due to its introduction, and what activities are already taking place regarding defining or implementing the Smart Grid. This report will be of interest to the utility industry, energy service providers, aggregators, and regulators. It will also be of interest to home/building automation vendors, information technology vendors, academics, consultants, and analysts. The scope of the report includes an overview of the Smart Grid which identifies the main components of the Smart Grid, describes its characteristics, and describes how the Smart Grid differs from the current electric grid. The overview also identifies the key concepts involved in the transition to the Smart Grid and explains why a Smart Grid is needed by identifying the deficiencies of the current grid and the need for new investment. The report also looks at the impact of the Smart Grid, identifying other industries which have gone through a similar transition, identifying the overall benefits of the Smart Grid, and discussing the impact of the Smart Grid on industry participants. Furthermore, the report looks at current activities to implement the Smart Grid including utility projects, industry collaborations, and government initiatives. Finally, the report takes a look at key technology
Decentralized Service Allocation in a Broker Overlay Based Grid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azab, Abdulrahman; Meling, Hein
Grid computing is based on coordinated resource sharing in a dynamic environment of multi-institutional virtual organizations. Data exchanges, and service allocation, are challenging problems in the field of Grid computing. This is due to the decentralization of Grid systems. Building decentralized Grid systems with efficient resource management and software component mechanisms is a need for achieving the required efficiency and usability of Grid systems. In this work, a decentralized Grid system model is presented in which, the system is divided into virtual organizations each controlled by a broker. An overlay network of brokers is responsible for global resource management and managing allocation of services. Experimental results show that, the system achieves dependable performance with various loads of services, and broker failures.
Spectral Topography Generation for Arbitrary Grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oh, T. J.
2015-12-01
A new topography generation tool utilizing spectral transformation technique for both structured and unstructured grids is presented. For the source global digital elevation data, the NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 15 arc-second dataset (gap-filling by Jonathan de Ferranti) is used and for land/water mask source, the NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 30 arc-second land water mask dataset v5 is used. The original source data is coarsened to a intermediate global 2 minute lat-lon mesh. Then, spectral transformation to the wave space and inverse transformation with wavenumber truncation is performed for isotropic topography smoothness control. Target grid topography mapping is done by bivariate cubic spline interpolation from the truncated 2 minute lat-lon topography. Gibbs phenomenon in the water region can be removed by overwriting ocean masked target coordinate grids with interpolated values from the intermediate 2 minute grid. Finally, a weak smoothing operator is applied on the target grid to minimize the land/water surface height discontinuity that might have been introduced by the Gibbs oscillation removal procedure. Overall, the new topography generation approach provides spectrally-derived, smooth topography with isotropic resolution and minimum damping, enabling realistic topography forcing in the numerical model. Topography is generated for the cubed-sphere grid and tested on the KIAPS Integrated Model (KIM).
Grid quality improvement by a grid adaptation technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, K. D.; Henderson, T. L.; Choo, Y. K.
1991-01-01
A grid adaptation technique is presented which improves grid quality. The method begins with an assessment of grid quality by defining an appropriate grid quality measure. Then, undesirable grid properties are eliminated by a grid-quality-adaptive grid generation procedure. The same concept has been used for geometry-adaptive and solution-adaptive grid generation. The difference lies in the definition of the grid control sources; here, they are extracted from the distribution of a particular grid property. Several examples are presented to demonstrate the versatility and effectiveness of the method.
Navigation in Grid Space with the NAS Grid Benchmarks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frumkin, Michael; Hood, Robert; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
We present a navigational tool for computational grids. The navigational process is based on measuring the grid characteristics with the NAS Grid Benchmarks (NGB) and using the measurements to assign tasks of a grid application to the grid machines. The tool allows the user to explore the grid space and to navigate the execution at a grid application to minimize its turnaround time. We introduce the notion of gridscape as a user view of the grid and show how it can be me assured by NGB, Then we demonstrate how the gridscape can be used with two different schedulers to navigate a grid application through a rudimentary grid.
Reentry-Vehicle Shape Optimization Using a Cartesian Adjoint Method and CAD Geometry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nemec, Marian; Aftosmis, Michael J.
2006-01-01
A DJOINT solutions of the governing flow equations are becoming increasingly important for the development of efficient analysis and optimization algorithms. A well-known use of the adjoint method is gradient-based shape. Given an objective function that defines some measure of performance, such as the lift and drag functionals, its gradient is computed at a cost that is essentially independent of the number of design variables (e.g., geometric parameters that control the shape). Classic aerodynamic applications of gradient-based optimization include the design of cruise configurations for transonic and supersonic flow, as well as the design of high-lift systems. are perhaps the most promising approach for addressing the issues of flow solution automation for aerodynamic design problems. In these methods, the discretization of the wetted surface is decoupled from that of the volume mesh. This not only enables fast and robust mesh generation for geometry of arbitrary complexity, but also facilitates access to geometry modeling and manipulation using parametric computer-aided design (CAD). In previous work on Cartesian adjoint solvers, Melvin et al. developed an adjoint formulation for the TRANAIR code, which is based on the full-potential equation with viscous corrections. More recently, Dadone and Grossman presented an adjoint formulation for the two-dimensional Euler equations using a ghost-cell method to enforce the wall boundary conditions. In Refs. 18 and 19, we presented an accurate and efficient algorithm for the solution of the adjoint Euler equations discretized on Cartesian meshes with embedded, cut-cell boundaries. Novel aspects of the algorithm were the computation of surface shape sensitivities for triangulations based on parametric-CAD models and the linearization of the coupling between the surface triangulation and the cut-cells. The accuracy of the gradient computation was verified using several three-dimensional test cases, which included design
Grid enabled Service Support Environment - SSE Grid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goor, Erwin; Paepen, Martine
2010-05-01
The SSEGrid project is an ESA/ESRIN project which started in 2009 and is executed by two Belgian companies, Spacebel and VITO, and one Dutch company, Dutch Space. The main project objectives are the introduction of a Grid-based processing on demand infrastructure at the Image Processing Centre for earth observation products at VITO and the inclusion of Grid processing services in the Service Support Environment (SSE) at ESRIN. The Grid-based processing on demand infrastructure is meant to support a Grid processing on demand model for Principal Investigators (PI) and allow the design and execution of multi-sensor applications with geographically spread data while minimising the transfer of huge volumes of data. In the first scenario, 'support a Grid processing on demand model for Principal Investigators', we aim to provide processing power close to the EO-data at the processing and archiving centres. We will allow a PI (non-Grid expert user) to upload his own algorithm, as a process, and his own auxiliary data from the SSE Portal and use them in an earth observation workflow on the SSEGrid Infrastructure. The PI can design and submit workflows using his own processes, processes made available by VITO/ESRIN and possibly processes from other users that are available on the Grid. These activities must be user-friendly and not requiring detailed knowledge about the underlying Grid middleware. In the second scenario we aim to design, implement and demonstrate a methodology to set up an earth observation processing facility, which uses large volumes of data from various geographically spread sensors. The aim is to provide solutions for problems that we face today, like wasting bandwidth by copying large volumes of data to one location. We will avoid this by processing the data where they are. The multi-mission Grid-based processing on demand infrastructure will allow developing and executing complex and massive multi-sensor data (re-)processing applications more
Time-Accurate Computation of Viscous Flow Around Deforming Bodies Using Overset Grids
Fast, P; Henshaw, W D
2001-04-02
Dynamically evolving boundaries and deforming bodies interacting with a flow are commonly encountered in fluid dynamics. However, the numerical simulation of flows with dynamic boundaries is difficult with current methods. We propose a new method for studying such problems. The key idea is to use the overset grid method with a thin, body-fitted grid near the deforming boundary, while using fixed Cartesian grids to cover most of the computational domain. Our approach combines the strengths of earlier moving overset grid methods for rigid body motion, and unstructured grid methods for Aow-structure interactions. Large scale deformation of the flow boundaries can be handled without a global regridding, and in a computationally efficient way. In terms of computational cost, even a full overset grid regridding is significantly cheaper than a full regridding of an unstructured grid for the same domain, especially in three dimensions. Numerical studies are used to verify accuracy and convergence of our flow solver. As a computational example, we consider two-dimensional incompressible flow past a flexible filament with prescribed dynamics.
Securing smart grid technology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaitanya Krishna, E.; Kosaleswara Reddy, T.; Reddy, M. YogaTeja; Reddy G. M., Sreerama; Madhusudhan, E.; AlMuhteb, Sulaiman
2013-03-01
In the developing countries electrical energy is very important for its all-round improvement by saving thousands of dollars and investing them in other sector for development. For Growing needs of power existing hierarchical, centrally controlled grid of the 20th Century is not sufficient. To produce and utilize effective power supply for industries or people we should have Smarter Electrical grids that address the challenges of the existing power grid. The Smart grid can be considered as a modern electric power grid infrastructure for enhanced efficiency and reliability through automated control, high-power converters, modern communications infrastructure along with modern IT services, sensing and metering technologies, and modern energy management techniques based on the optimization of demand, energy and network availability and so on. The main objective of this paper is to provide a contemporary look at the current state of the art in smart grid communications as well as critical issues on smart grid technologies primarily in terms of information and communication technology (ICT) issues like security, efficiency to communications layer field. In this paper we propose new model for security in Smart Grid Technology that contains Security Module(SM) along with DEM which will enhance security in Grid. It is expected that this paper will provide a better understanding of the technologies, potential advantages and research challenges of the smart grid and provoke interest among the research community to further explore this promising research area.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jo, Jung Hyun; Park, In Kwan; Choe, Nammi; Choi, Mansoo
2011-03-01
Two semi-analytic solutions for a perturbed two-body problem known as Lagrange planetary equations (LPE) were compared to a numerical integration of the equation of motion with same perturbation force. To avoid the critical conditions inherited from the configuration of LPE, non-singular orbital elements (EOE) had been introduced. In this study, two types of orbital elements, classical Keplerian orbital elements (COE) and EOE were used for the solution of the LPE. The effectiveness of EOE and the discrepancy between EOE and COE were investigated by using several near critical conditions. The near one revolution, one day, and seven days evolutions of each orbital element described in LPE with COE and EOE were analyzed by comparing it with the directly converted orbital elements from the numerically integrated state vector in Cartesian coordinate. As a result, LPE with EOE has an advantage in long term calculation over LPE with COE in case of relatively small eccentricity.
Omar, Mohamed A
2014-01-01
Initial transient oscillations inhibited in the dynamic simulations responses of multibody systems can lead to inaccurate results, unrealistic load prediction, or simulation failure. These transients could result from incompatible initial conditions, initial constraints violation, and inadequate kinematic assembly. Performing static equilibrium analysis before the dynamic simulation can eliminate these transients and lead to stable simulation. Most exiting multibody formulations determine the static equilibrium position by minimizing the system potential energy. This paper presents a new general purpose approach for solving the static equilibrium in large-scale articulated multibody. The proposed approach introduces an energy drainage mechanism based on Baumgarte constraint stabilization approach to determine the static equilibrium position. The spatial algebra operator is used to express the kinematic and dynamic equations of the closed-loop multibody system. The proposed multibody system formulation utilizes the joint coordinates and modal elastic coordinates as the system generalized coordinates. The recursive nonlinear equations of motion are formulated using the Cartesian coordinates and the joint coordinates to form an augmented set of differential algebraic equations. Then system connectivity matrix is derived from the system topological relations and used to project the Cartesian quantities into the joint subspace leading to minimum set of differential equations. PMID:25045732
Static Analysis of Large-Scale Multibody System Using Joint Coordinates and Spatial Algebra Operator
Omar, Mohamed A.
2014-01-01
Initial transient oscillations inhibited in the dynamic simulations responses of multibody systems can lead to inaccurate results, unrealistic load prediction, or simulation failure. These transients could result from incompatible initial conditions, initial constraints violation, and inadequate kinematic assembly. Performing static equilibrium analysis before the dynamic simulation can eliminate these transients and lead to stable simulation. Most exiting multibody formulations determine the static equilibrium position by minimizing the system potential energy. This paper presents a new general purpose approach for solving the static equilibrium in large-scale articulated multibody. The proposed approach introduces an energy drainage mechanism based on Baumgarte constraint stabilization approach to determine the static equilibrium position. The spatial algebra operator is used to express the kinematic and dynamic equations of the closed-loop multibody system. The proposed multibody system formulation utilizes the joint coordinates and modal elastic coordinates as the system generalized coordinates. The recursive nonlinear equations of motion are formulated using the Cartesian coordinates and the joint coordinates to form an augmented set of differential algebraic equations. Then system connectivity matrix is derived from the system topological relations and used to project the Cartesian quantities into the joint subspace leading to minimum set of differential equations. PMID:25045732
Miliordos, Evangelos; Xantheas, Sotiris S.
2013-08-15
We propose a general procedure for the numerical calculation of the harmonic vibrational frequencies that is based on internal coordinates and Wilson’s GF methodology via double differentiation of the energy. The internal coordinates are defined as the geometrical parameters of a Z-matrix structure, thus avoiding issues related to their redundancy. Linear arrangements of atoms are described using a dummy atom of infinite mass. The procedure has been automated in FORTRAN90 and its main advantage lies in the nontrivial reduction of the number of single-point energy calculations needed for the construction of the Hessian matrix when compared to the corresponding number using double differentiation in Cartesian coordinates. For molecules of C_{1} symmetry the computational savings in the energy calculations amount to 36N – 30, where N is the number of atoms, with additional savings when symmetry is present. Typical applications for small and medium size molecules in their minimum and transition state geometries as well as hydrogen bonded clusters (water dimer and trimer) are presented. Finally, in all cases the frequencies based on internal coordinates differ on average by <1 cm^{–1} from those obtained from Cartesian coordinates.
Mathews, K.A.; Brennan, C.R.
1995-12-31
The exponential characteristic method is one of a family of nonlinear spatial quadratures which are positive and at least second order accurate. The authors initially developed the method in slab geometry, where it gave accurate results for deep penetration problems using coarse meshes. Characteristic methods are restricted to Cartesian geometries, so they next tested it with rectangular cells, where it was again a strong performer. Here the authors extend the method to unstructured grids of arbitrarily shaped and oriented triangles and report on its performance.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Young, David P.; Melvin, Robin G.; Bieterman, Michael B.; Johnson, Forrester T.; Samant, Satish S.
1991-01-01
The present FEM technique addresses both linear and nonlinear boundary value problems encountered in computational physics by handling general three-dimensional regions, boundary conditions, and material properties. The box finite elements used are defined by a Cartesian grid independent of the boundary definition, and local refinements proceed by dividing a given box element into eight subelements. Discretization employs trilinear approximations on the box elements; special element stiffness matrices are included for boxes cut by any boundary surface. Illustrative results are presented for representative aerodynamics problems involving up to 400,000 elements.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Constantinescu, G.S.; Lele, S. K.
2000-01-01
using these schemes is especially sensitive to the type of equation treatment at the singularity axis. The objective of this work is to develop a generally applicable numerical method for treating the singularities present at the polar axis, which is particularly suitable for highly accurate finite-differences schemes (e.g., Pade schemes) on non-staggered grids. The main idea is to reinterpret the regularity conditions developed in the context of pseudo-spectral methods. A set of exact equations at the singularity axis is derived using the appropriate series expansions for the variables in the original set of equations. The present treatment of the equations preserves the same level of accuracy as for the interior scheme. We also want to point out the wider utility of the method, proposed here in the context of compressible flow equations, as its extension for incompressible flows or for any other set of equations that are solved on a non-staggered mesh in cylindrical coordinates with finite-differences schemes of various level of accuracy is straightforward. The robustness and accuracy of the proposed technique is assessed by comparing results from simulations of laminar forced-jets and turbulent compressible jets using LES with similar calculations in which the equations are solved in Cartesian coordinates at the polar axis, or in which the singularity is removed by employing a staggered mesh in the radial direction without a mesh point at r = 0.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yasui, R. K.; Berman, P. A. (Inventor)
1976-01-01
A grid pattern is described for a solar cell of the type which includes a semiconductive layer doped to a first polarity and a top counter-doped layer. The grid pattern comprises a plurality of concentric conductive grids of selected geometric shapes which are centered about the center of the exposed active surface of the counter-doped layer. Connected to the grids is one or more conductors which extend to the cell's periphery. For the pattern area, the grids and conductors are arranged in the pattern to minimize the maximum distance which any injected majority carriers have to travel to reach any of the grids or conductors. The pattern has a multiaxes symmetry with respect to the cell center to minimize the maximum temperature differentials between points on the cell surface and to provide a more uniform temperature distribution across the cell face.
Progress Towards a Cartesian Cut-Cell Method for Viscous Compressible Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berger, Marsha; Aftosmis, Michael J.
2012-01-01
We present preliminary development of an approach for simulating high Reynolds number steady compressible flow in two space dimensions using a Cartesian cut-cell finite volume method. We consider both laminar and turbulent flow with both low and high cell Reynolds numbers near the wall. The approach solves the full Navier-Stokes equations in all cells, and uses a wall model to address the resolution requirements near boundaries and to mitigate mesh irregularities in cut cells. We present a quadratic wall model for low cell Reynolds numbers. At high cell Reynolds numbers, the quadratic is replaced with a newly developed analytic wall model stemming from solution of a limiting form of the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model which features a forward evaluation for flow velocity and exactly matches characteristics of the SA turbulence model in the field. We develop multigrid operators which attain convergence rates similar to inviscid multigrid. Investigations focus on preliminary verification and validation of the method. Flows over flat plates and compressible airfoils show good agreement with both theoretical results and experimental data. Mesh convergence studies on sub- and transonic airfoil flows show convergence of surface pressures with wall spacings as large as approx.0.1% chord. With the current analytic wall model, one or two additional refinements near the wall are required to obtain mesh converged values of skin friction.
Baczewski, Andrew David; Miller, Nicholas C.; Shanker, Balasubramaniam
2012-03-22
Here, the analysis of fields in periodic dielectric structures arise in numerous applications of recent interest, ranging from photonic bandgap structures and plasmonically active nanostructures to metamaterials. To achieve an accurate representation of the fields in these structures using numerical methods, dense spatial discretization is required. This, in turn, affects the cost of analysis, particularly for integral-equation-based methods, for which traditional iterative methods require Ο(Ν2) operations, Ν being the number of spatial degrees of freedom. In this paper, we introduce a method for the rapid solution of volumetric electric field integral equations used in the analysis of doubly periodic dielectricmore » structures. The crux of our method is the accelerated Cartesian expansion algorithm, which is used to evaluate the requisite potentials in Ο(Ν) cost. Results are provided that corroborate our claims of acceleration without compromising accuracy, as well as the application of our method to a number of compelling photonics applications.« less
Viability of Bioprinted Cellular Constructs Using a Three Dispenser Cartesian Printer
Dennis, SG.; Trusk, T.; Richards, D.; Jia, J.; Tan, Y.; Mei, Y.; Fann, S.; Markwald, R.; Yost, M.
2016-01-01
Tissue engineering has centralized its focus on the construction of replacements for non-functional or damaged tissue. The utilization of three-dimensional bioprinting in tissue engineering has generated new methods for the printing of cells and matrix to fabricate biomimetic tissue constructs. The solid freeform fabrication (SFF) method developed for three-dimensional bioprinting uses an additive manufacturing approach by depositing droplets of cells and hydrogels in a layer-by-layer fashion. Bioprinting fabrication is dependent on the specific placement of biological materials into three-dimensional architectures, and the printed constructs should closely mimic the complex organization of cells and extracellular matrices in native tissue. This paper highlights the use of the Palmetto Printer, a Cartesian bioprinter, as well as the process of producing spatially organized, viable constructs while simultaneously allowing control of environmental factors. This methodology utilizes computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing to produce these specific and complex geometries. Finally, this approach allows for the reproducible production of fabricated constructs optimized by controllable printing parameters. PMID:26436877
Viability of Bioprinted Cellular Constructs Using a Three Dispenser Cartesian Printer.
Dennis, Sarah Grace; Trusk, Thomas; Richards, Dylan; Jia, Jia; Tan, Yu; Mei, Ying; Fann, Stephen; Markwald, Roger; Yost, Michael
2015-01-01
Tissue engineering has centralized its focus on the construction of replacements for non-functional or damaged tissue. The utilization of three-dimensional bioprinting in tissue engineering has generated new methods for the printing of cells and matrix to fabricate biomimetic tissue constructs. The solid freeform fabrication (SFF) method developed for three-dimensional bioprinting uses an additive manufacturing approach by depositing droplets of cells and hydrogels in a layer-by-layer fashion. Bioprinting fabrication is dependent on the specific placement of biological materials into three-dimensional architectures, and the printed constructs should closely mimic the complex organization of cells and extracellular matrices in native tissue. This paper highlights the use of the Palmetto Printer, a Cartesian bioprinter, as well as the process of producing spatially organized, viable constructs while simultaneously allowing control of environmental factors. This methodology utilizes computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing to produce these specific and complex geometries. Finally, this approach allows for the reproducible production of fabricated constructs optimized by controllable printing parameters. PMID:26436877
On the Use of CAD and Cartesian Methods for Aerodynamic Optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nemec, M.; Aftosmis, M. J.; Pulliam, T. H.
2004-01-01
The objective for this paper is to present the development of an optimization capability for Curt3D, a Cartesian inviscid-flow analysis package. We present the construction of a new optimization framework and we focus on the following issues: 1) Component-based geometry parameterization approach using parametric-CAD models and CAPRI. A novel geometry server is introduced that addresses the issue of parallel efficiency while only sparingly consuming CAD resources; 2) The use of genetic and gradient-based algorithms for three-dimensional aerodynamic design problems. The influence of noise on the optimization methods is studied. Our goal is to create a responsive and automated framework that efficiently identifies design modifications that result in substantial performance improvements. In addition, we examine the architectural issues associated with the deployment of a CAD-based approach in a heterogeneous parallel computing environment that contains both CAD workstations and dedicated compute engines. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the framework for a design problem that features topology changes and complex geometry.
Development of a new two-dimensional Cartesian geometry nodal multigroup discrete-ordinates method
Pevey, R.E.
1982-07-01
The purpose of this work is the development and testing of a new family of methods for calculating the spatial dependence of the neutron density in nuclear systems described in two-dimensional Cartesian geometry. The energy and angular dependence of the neutron density is approximated using the multigroup and discrete ordinates techniques, respectively. The resulting FORTRAN computer code is designed to handle an arbitrary number of spatial, energy, and angle subdivisions. Any degree of scattering anisotropy can be handled by the code for either external source or fission systems. The basic approach is to (1) approximate the spatial variation of the neutron source across each spatial subdivision as an expansion in terms of a user-supplied set of exponential basis functions; (2) solve analytically for the resulting neutron density inside each region; and (3) approximate this density in the basis function space in order to calculate the next iteration flux-dependent source terms. In the general case the calculation is iterative due to neutron sources which depend on the neutron density itself, such as scattering interactions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Moonil; Weikle, Robert M., II; Hacker, Jonathan B.; Delisio, Michael P.; Rutledge, David B.; Rosenberg, James J.; Smith, R. P.
1991-01-01
A 50-MESFET grid amplifier is reported that has a gain of 11 dB at 3.3 GHz. The grid isolates the input from the output by using vertical polarization for the input beam and horizontal polarization for the transmitted output beam. The grid unit cell is a two-MESFET differential amplifier. A simple calibration procedure allows the gain to be calculated from a relative power measurement. This grid is a hybrid circuit, but the structure is suitable for fabrication as a monolithic wafer-scale integrated circuit, particularly at millimeter wavelengths.
Challenges facing production grids
Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab
2007-06-01
Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.
Başar, Erol; Güntekin, Bahar
2007-04-01
The Cartesian System is a fundamental conceptual and analytical framework related and interwoven with the concept and applications of Newtonian Dynamics. In order to analyze quantum processes physicist moved to a Probabilistic Cartesian System in which the causality principle became a probabilistic one. This means the trajectories of particles (obeying quantum rules) can be described only with the concept of cloudy wave packets. The approach to the brain-body-mind problem requires more than the prerequisite of modern physics and quantum dynamics. In the analysis of the brain-body-mind construct we have to include uncertain causalities and consequently multiple uncertain causalities. These multiple causalities originate from (1) nonlinear properties of the vegetative system (e.g. irregularities in biochemical transmitters, cardiac output, turbulences in the vascular system, respiratory apnea, nonlinear oscillatory interactions in peristalsis); (2) nonlinear behavior of the neuronal electricity (e.g. chaotic behavior measured by EEG), (3) genetic modulations, and (4) additional to these physiological entities nonlinear properties of physical processes in the body. The brain shows deterministic chaos with a correlation dimension of approx. D(2)=6, the smooth muscles approx. D(2)=3. According to these facts we propose a hyper-probabilistic approach or a hyper-probabilistic Cartesian System to describe and analyze the processes in the brain-body-mind system. If we add aspects as our sentiments, emotions and creativity to this construct, better said to this already hyper-probabilistic construct, this "New Cartesian System" is more than hyper-probabilistic, it is a nebulous system, we can predict the future only in a nebulous way; however, despite this chain of reasoning we can still provide predictions on brain-body-mind incorporations. We tentatively assume that the processes or mechanisms of the brain-body-mind system can be analyzed and predicted similar to the
Incompressible and anelastic flow simulations on numerically generated grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sharman, R. D.; Keller, T. L.; Wurtele, M. G.
1988-01-01
In the numerical simulation of incompressible and anelastic flows, it is necessary to solve an elliptic equation at each time step. When the boundaries of such flows are nonrectangular, it may be advantageous to solve the equations on a new, numerically generated coordinate grid, in which the property of orthogonality has been preserved. Flow equations in general curvilinear coordinates maintaining the conservative form are given for both anelastic models using the momentum equations, and for incompressible models, using the vorticity equation. The general problem of grid-generation in two dimensions is presented, and a quasi-conformal transformation technique is discussed in detail. Some examples of grids generated by this technique are exhibited. Three examples of the flow of a stratified fluid over obstacles are presented, in which the grid-generation permits some new results to be obtained.
On Efficient Parallel Implementation of Moving Body Overset Grid Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wissink, Andrew M.; Meakin, Robert L.; Warmbrodt, William (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
An investigation into the parallel performance of moving-body overset grid methods will be presented. Parallel versions of the OVERFLOW flow solver, DCF3D domain connectivity software, and SIXDO six-degree-of-freedom routine are coupled with an automatic load balance routine and tested for 3D Navier-Stokes calculations on the IBM SP2. The primary source of parallel inefficiency in moving and problems are the domain connectivity costs with DCF 3D. Although this algorithm constitutes a relatively low fraction of the total solution cost (e.g. 10-20%) in calculations on serial machines, the consequently cause a significant degradation in the overall parallel performance. The paper will highlight some approaches for improving the scalability of DCF3D. The paper will present results of a proposed new load balancing scheme that seeks more equal distribution of the inter-grid boundary points in order to more evenly load balance the donor search costs associated with DCF3D. Some preliminary results will also be given from a new solution-adaption algorithm coupled with OVERFLOW which incorporates overset cartesian grids with various levels of refinement. The measured parallel performance from a descending delta-wing configuration and a generic store-separation from a wing/pylon case will be presented.
New iterative gridding algorithm using conjugate gradient method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Xuguang; Thedens, Daniel
2004-05-01
Non-uniformly sampled data in MRI applications must be interpolated onto a regular Cartesian grid to perform fast image reconstruction using FFT. The conventional method for this is gridding, which requires a density compensation function (DCF). The calculation of DCF may be time-consuming, ambiguously defined, and may not be always reusable due to changes in k-space trajectories. A recently proposed reconstruction method that eliminates the requirement of DCF is block uniform resampling (BURS) which uses singular value decomposition (SVD). However, the SVD is still computationally intensive. In this work, we present a modified BURS algorithm using conjugate gradient method (CGM) in place of direct SVD calculation. Calculation of a block of grid point values in each iteration further reduces the computational load. The new method reduces the calculation complexity while maintaining a high-quality reconstruction result. For an n-by-n matrix, the time complexity per iteration is reduced from O(n*n*n) in SVD to O(n*n) in CGM. The time can be further reduced when we stop the iteration in CGM earlier according to the norm of the residual vector. Using this method, the quality of the reconstructed image improves compared to regularized BURS. The reduced time complexity and improved reconstruction result make the new algorithm promising in dealing with large-sized images and 3D images.
SAGE - MULTIDIMENSIONAL SELF-ADAPTIVE GRID CODE
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davies, C. B.
1994-01-01
SAGE, Self Adaptive Grid codE, is a flexible tool for adapting and restructuring both 2D and 3D grids. Solution-adaptive grid methods are useful tools for efficient and accurate flow predictions. In supersonic and hypersonic flows, strong gradient regions such as shocks, contact discontinuities, shear layers, etc., require careful distribution of grid points to minimize grid error and produce accurate flow-field predictions. SAGE helps the user obtain more accurate solutions by intelligently redistributing (i.e. adapting) the original grid points based on an initial or interim flow-field solution. The user then computes a new solution using the adapted grid as input to the flow solver. The adaptive-grid methodology poses the problem in an algebraic, unidirectional manner for multi-dimensional adaptations. The procedure is analogous to applying tension and torsion spring forces proportional to the local flow gradient at every grid point and finding the equilibrium position of the resulting system of grid points. The multi-dimensional problem of grid adaption is split into a series of one-dimensional problems along the computational coordinate lines. The reduced one dimensional problem then requires a tridiagonal solver to find the location of grid points along a coordinate line. Multi-directional adaption is achieved by the sequential application of the method in each coordinate direction. The tension forces direct the redistribution of points to the strong gradient region. To maintain smoothness and a measure of orthogonality of grid lines, torsional forces are introduced that relate information between the family of lines adjacent to one another. The smoothness and orthogonality constraints are direction-dependent, since they relate only the coordinate lines that are being adapted to the neighboring lines that have already been adapted. Therefore the solutions are non-unique and depend on the order and direction of adaption. Non-uniqueness of the adapted grid is
Calculation of Water Entry Problem for Free-falling Bodies Using a Developed Cartesian Cut Cell Mesh
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wenhua, Wang; Yanying, Wang
2010-05-01
This paper describes the development of free surface capturing method on Cartesian cut cell mesh to water entry problem for free-falling bodies with body-fluid interaction. The incompressible Euler equations for a variable density fluid system are presented as governing equations and the free surface is treated as a contact discontinuity by using free surface capturing method. In order to be convenient for dealing with the problem with moving body boundary, the Cartesian cut cell technique is adopted for generating the boundary-fitted mesh around body edge by cutting solid regions out of a background Cartesian mesh. Based on this mesh system, governing equations are discretized by finite volume method, and at each cell edge inviscid flux is evaluated by means of Roe's approximate Riemann solver. Furthermore, for unsteady calculation in time domain, a time accurate solution is achieved by a dual time-stepping technique with artificial compressibility method. For the body-fluid interaction, the projection method of momentum equations and exact Riemann solution are applied in the calculation of fluid pressure on the solid boundary. Finally, the method is validated by test case of water entry for free-falling bodies.
Liu, Yangfan; Bolton, J Stuart
2016-08-01
The (Cartesian) multipole series, i.e., the series comprising monopole, dipoles, quadrupoles, etc., can be used, as an alternative to the spherical or cylindrical wave series, in representing sound fields in a wide range of problems, such as source radiation, sound scattering, etc. The proofs of the completeness of the spherical and cylindrical wave series in these problems are classical results, and it is also generally agreed that the Cartesian multipole series spans the same space as the spherical waves: a rigorous mathematical proof of that statement has, however, not been presented. In the present work, such a proof of the completeness of the Cartesian multipole series, both in two and three dimensions, is given, and the linear dependence relations among different orders of multipoles are discussed, which then allows one to easily extract a basis from the multipole series. In particular, it is concluded that the multipoles comprising the two highest orders in the series form a basis of the whole series, since the multipoles of all the lower source orders can be expressed as a linear combination of that basis. PMID:27586772
Shooshtary, S; Solbach, K
2015-08-01
A 7 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system with parallel transmission (pTx) for 32 near-magnet Cartesian feedback loop power amplifiers (PA) with output power of 1kW is under construction at Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Variation of load impedance due to mutual coupling of neighborhood coils in the array may lead to instability of the Cartesian feedback loop amplifier. MRI safety requires unconditional stability of the PAs at any load. In order to avoid instability in the pTx system, conditions and limits of stability have to be investigated for every possible excitation mode for the coil array. In this work, an efficient method of stability check for an array of two transmit channels (Tx) with Cartesian feedback loop amplifier and a selective excitation mode for the coil array is proposed which allows extension of stability investigations to a large pTx array with any arbitrary excitation mode for the coil array. PMID:26736573
Mukherjee, Sudipto; Rizzo, Robert C.
2014-01-01
Scoring functions are a critically important component of computer-aided screening methods for the identification of lead compounds during early stages of drug discovery. Here, we present a new multi-grid implementation of the footprint similarity (FPS) scoring function that was recently developed in our laboratory which has proven useful for identification of compounds which bind to a protein on a per-residue basis in a way that resembles a known reference. The grid-based FPS method is much faster than its Cartesian-space counterpart which makes it computationally tractable for on-the-fly docking, virtual screening, or de novo design. In this work, we establish that: (i) relatively few grids can be used to accurately approximate Cartesian space footprint similarity, (ii) the method yields improved success over the standard DOCK energy function for pose identification across a large test set of experimental co-crystal structures, for crossdocking, and for database enrichment, and (iii) grid-based FPS scoring can be used to tailor construction of new molecules to have specific properties, as demonstrated in a series of test cases targeting the viral protein HIVgp41. The method will be made available in the program DOCK6. PMID:23436713
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ives, David
1995-01-01
This paper presents a highly automated hexahedral grid generator based on extensive geometrical and solid modeling operations developed in response to a vision of a designer-driven one day turnaround CFD process which implies a designer-driven one hour grid generation process.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Simco, Greg
2002-01-01
Discussion of the Internet 2 Initiative, which is based on collaboration among universities, businesses, and government, focuses on the Access Grid, a Computational Grid that includes interactive multimedia within high-speed networks to provide resources to enable remote collaboration among the research community. (Author/LRW)
Humphrey, Marty; Thompson, Mary R.; Jackson, Keith R.
2005-08-14
Securing a Grid environment presents a distinctive set of challenges. This paper groups the activities that need to be secured into four categories: naming and authentication; secure communication; trust, policy, and authorization; and enforcement of access control. It examines the current state of the art in securing these processes and introduces new technologies that promise to meet the security requirements of Grids more completely.
Moore, Reagan W.; Studham, Ronald S.; Rajasekar, Arcot; Watson, Chip; Stockinger, Heinz; Kunszt, Peter; Charlie Catlett and Ian Foster
2002-02-27
Data grids link distributed, heterogeneous storage resources into a coherent data management system. From a user perspective, the data grid provides a uniform name space across the underlying storage systems, while supporting retrieval and storage of files. In the high energy physics community, at least six data grids have been implemented for the storage and distribution of experimental data. Data grids are also being used to support projects as diverse as digital libraries (National Library of Medicine Visible Embryo project), federation of multiple astronomy sky surveys (NSF National Virtual Observatory project), and integration of distributed data sets (Long Term Ecological Reserve). Data grids also form the core interoperability mechanisms for creating persistent archives, in which data collections are migrated to new technologies over time. The ability to provide a uniform name space across multiple administration domains is becoming a critical component of national-scale, collaborative projects.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swartz, R.
2002-01-01
The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is fundamentally a one-dimensional instrument with a 15-degree field-of-regard. Mission objectives require a global reference grid of thousands of well-understood stars with positions known to 4 microarcseconds which will be used to establish the instrument baseline vector during scientific observations. This accuracy will be achieved by frequently observing a set of stars throughout the mission and performing a global fit of the observations to determine position, proper motion and parallax for each star. Each star will be observed approximately 200 times with about 6.5 stars per single instrument field on the sky. We describe the nature of the reference grid, the candidate objects, and the results of simulations demonstrating grid performance, including estimates of the grid robustness when including effects such as instrument drift and possible contamination of the grid star sample by undetected binaries.
Approximate solutions of non-linear circular orbit relative motion in curvilinear coordinates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bombardelli, Claudio; Gonzalo, Juan Luis; Roa, Javier
2016-07-01
A compact, time-explicit, approximate solution of the highly non-linear relative motion in curvilinear coordinates is provided under the assumption of circular orbit for the chief spacecraft. The rather compact, three-dimensional solution is obtained by algebraic manipulation of the individual Keplerian motions in curvilinear, rather than Cartesian coordinates, and provides analytical expressions for the secular, constant and periodic terms of each coordinate as a function of the initial relative motion conditions or relative orbital elements. Numerical test cases are conducted to show that the approximate solution can be effectively employed to extend the classical linear Clohessy-Wiltshire solution to include non-linear relative motion without significant loss of accuracy up to a limit of 0.4-0.45 in eccentricity and 40-45° in relative inclination for the follower. A very simple, quadratic extension of the classical Clohessy-Wiltshire solution in curvilinear coordinates is also presented.
Absolute flatness testing of skip-flat interferometry by matrix analysis in polar coordinates.
Han, Zhi-Gang; Yin, Lu; Chen, Lei; Zhu, Ri-Hong
2016-03-20
A new method utilizing matrix analysis in polar coordinates has been presented for absolute testing of skip-flat interferometry. The retrieval of the absolute profile mainly includes three steps: (1) transform the wavefront maps of the two cavity measurements into data in polar coordinates; (2) retrieve the profile of the reflective flat in polar coordinates by matrix analysis; and (3) transform the profile of the reflective flat back into data in Cartesian coordinates and retrieve the profile of the sample. Simulation of synthetic surface data has been provided, showing the capability of the approach to achieve an accuracy of the order of 0.01 nm RMS. The absolute profile can be retrieved by a set of closed mathematical formulas without polynomial fitting of wavefront maps or the iterative evaluation of an error function, making the new method more efficient for absolute testing. PMID:27140578
Flexible Residential Smart Grid Simulation Framework
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiang, Wang
Different scheduling and coordination algorithms controlling household appliances' operations can potentially lead to energy consumption reduction and/or load balancing in conjunction with different electricity pricing methods used in smart grid programs. In order to easily implement different algorithms and evaluate their efficiency against other ideas, a flexible simulation framework is desirable in both research and business fields. However, such a platform is currently lacking or underdeveloped. In this thesis, we provide a simulation framework to focus on demand side residential energy consumption coordination in response to different pricing methods. This simulation framework, equipped with an appliance consumption library using realistic values, aims to closely represent the average usage of different types of appliances. The simulation results of traditional usage yield close matching values compared to surveyed real life consumption records. Several sample coordination algorithms, pricing schemes, and communication scenarios are also implemented to illustrate the use of the simulation framework.
Algebraic grid generation about wing-fuselage bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, R. E.
1986-01-01
An algebraic procedure for the generation of boundary-fitted grids about wing-fuselage configurations is presented. A wing-fuselage configuration is specified by cross sections and mathematically represented by Coons' patches. A configuration is divided into sections so that several grid blocks that either adjoin each other or partially overlap each other can be generated. Each grid has six exterior surfaces that map into a computational cube. Grids are first determined on the six boundary surfaces and then in the interior. Grid curves that are on the surface of the configuration are derived from the intersection of planes with the Coons' patch definition. Single-valued functions relating approximate arc lengths along the grid curves to a computational coordinate define the distribution of grid points. The two-boundary technique and transfinite interpolation are used to determine the boundary surface grids that are not on the configuration, and transfinite interpolation with linear blending functions is used to determine the interior grid.
A conservative approach for flow field calculations on multiple grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kathong, Monchai; Tiwari, Surendra N.
1988-01-01
In the computation of flow fields about complex configurations, it is very difficult to construct body-fitted coordinate systems. An alternative approach is to use several grids at once, each of which is generated independently. This procedure is called the multiple grids or zonal grids approach and its applications are investigated in this study. The method follows the conservative approach and provides conservation of fluxes at grid interfaces. The Euler equations are solved numerically on such grids for various configurations. The numerical scheme used is the finite-volume technique with a three-state Runge-Kutta time integration. The code is vectorized and programmed to run on the CDC VPS-32 computer. Some steady state solutions of the Euler equations are presented and discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goodfriend, Lauren; Katopodes Chow, Fotini; Vanella, Marcos; Balaras, Elias
2013-11-01
Many realistic flows, such as the urban boundary layer, are too expensive to simulate directly. Large-eddy simulation (LES) and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) reduce the computational cost of turbulence modeling by restricting resolved length scales, but combining these techniques generates additional errors. The grid refinement interfaces in AMR grids can reflect resolved energy and create interpolation errors. This study investigates the use of explicit filtering and reconstruction to mitigate grid interface errors in LES of a pressure gradient forced boundary layer. The domain is split in the streamwise direction into two equally sized structured grids, one fine and one coarse, with periodic boundaries in the streamwise and spanwise directions. This simple test case allows observation of the effects of the grid interfaces. Explicit filtering is found to reduce accumulation of resolved energy at the fine-to-coarse interface and improve the shape of coherent structures, compared to basic LES. Reconstruction of the subfilter velocity is shown to further the improvements of explicit filtering. These results inform the use of LES on block-structured non-uniform grids, such as nested grids in local atmospheric models or on more complex Cartesian AMR grids.
Optimization Of A Computational Grid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pearce, Daniel G.
1993-01-01
In improved method of generation of computational grid, grid-generation process decoupled from definition of geometry. Not necessary to redefine boundary. Instead, continuous boundaries in physical domain specified, and then grid points in computational domain mapped onto continuous boundaries.
Which coordinate system for modelling path integration?
Vickerstaff, Robert J; Cheung, Allen
2010-03-21
Path integration is a navigation strategy widely observed in nature where an animal maintains a running estimate, called the home vector, of its location during an excursion. Evidence suggests it is both ancient and ubiquitous in nature, and has been studied for over a century. In that time, canonical and neural network models have flourished, based on a wide range of assumptions, justifications and supporting data. Despite the importance of the phenomenon, consensus and unifying principles appear lacking. A fundamental issue is the neural representation of space needed for biological path integration. This paper presents a scheme to classify path integration systems on the basis of the way the home vector records and updates the spatial relationship between the animal and its home location. Four extended classes of coordinate systems are used to unify and review both canonical and neural network models of path integration, from the arthropod and mammalian literature. This scheme demonstrates analytical equivalence between models which may otherwise appear unrelated, and distinguishes between models which may superficially appear similar. A thorough analysis is carried out of the equational forms of important facets of path integration including updating, steering, searching and systematic errors, using each of the four coordinate systems. The type of available directional cue, namely allothetic or idiothetic, is also considered. It is shown that on balance, the class of home vectors which includes the geocentric Cartesian coordinate system, appears to be the most robust for biological systems. A key conclusion is that deducing computational structure from behavioural data alone will be difficult or impossible, at least in the absence of an analysis of random errors. Consequently it is likely that further theoretical insights into path integration will require an in-depth study of the effect of noise on the four classes of home vectors. PMID:19962387
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hollman, David S.; Schaefer, Henry F.
2012-10-01
In recent years, internal coordinates have become the preferred means of expressing potential energy surfaces. The ability to transform quantities from chemically significant internal coordinates to primitive Cartesian coordinates and spectroscopically relevant normal coordinates is thus critical to the further development of computational chemistry. In the present work, general nth order formulas are presented for the Cartesian derivatives of the five most commonly used internal coordinates—bond stretching, bond angle, torsion, out-of-plane angle, and linear bending. To compose such formulas in a reasonably understandable fashion, a new notation is developed that is a generalization of that which has been used previously for similar purposes. The notation developed leads to easily programmable and reasonably understandable arbitrary order formulas, yet it is powerful enough to express the arbitrary order B tensor of a general, N-point internal coordinate, as is done herein. The techniques employed in the derivation of such formulas are relatively straightforward, and could presumably be applied to a number of other internal coordinates as needed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk
2015-01-01
Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haupt, A.; Gellrich, A.; Kemp, Y.; Leffhalm, K.; Ozerov, D.; Wegner, P.
2012-12-01
DESY is one of the world-wide leading centers for research with particle accelerators, synchrotron light and astroparticles. DESY participates in LHC as a Tier-2 center, supports on-going analyzes of HERA data, is a leading partner for ILC, and runs the National Analysis Facility (NAF) for LHC and ILC in the framework of the Helmholtz Alliance, Physics at the Terascale. For the research with synchrotron light major new facilities are operated and built (FLASH, PETRA-III, and XFEL). DESY furthermore acts as Data-Tier1 centre for the Neutrino detector IceCube. Established within the EGI-project DESY operates a grid infrastructure which supports a number of virtual Organizations (VO), incl. ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb. Furthermore, DESY hosts some of HEP and non-HEP VOs, such as the HERA experiments and ILC as well as photon science communities. The support of the new astroparticle physics VOs IceCube and CTA is currently set up. As the global structure of the grid offers huge resources which are perfect for batch-like computing, DESY has set up the National Analysis Facility (NAF) which complements the grid to allow German HEP users for efficient data analysis. The grid infrastructure and the NAF use the same physics data which is distributed via the grid. We call the conjunction of grid and NAF the DESY Grid Centre. In the contribution to CHEP2012 we will in depth discuss the conceptional and operational aspects of our multi-VO and multi-community Grid Centre and present the system setup. We will in particular focus on the interplay of Grid and NAF and present experiences of the operations.
Trends in life science grid: from computing grid to knowledge grid
Konagaya, Akihiko
2006-01-01
Background Grid computing has great potential to become a standard cyberinfrastructure for life sciences which often require high-performance computing and large data handling which exceeds the computing capacity of a single institution. Results This survey reviews the latest grid technologies from the viewpoints of computing grid, data grid and knowledge grid. Computing grid technologies have been matured enough to solve high-throughput real-world life scientific problems. Data grid technologies are strong candidates for realizing "resourceome" for bioinformatics. Knowledge grids should be designed not only from sharing explicit knowledge on computers but also from community formulation for sharing tacit knowledge among a community. Conclusion Extending the concept of grid from computing grid to knowledge grid, it is possible to make use of a grid as not only sharable computing resources, but also as time and place in which people work together, create knowledge, and share knowledge and experiences in a community. PMID:17254294
Parallel grid library for rapid and flexible simulation development
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Honkonen, I.; von Alfthan, S.; Sandroos, A.; Janhunen, P.; Palmroth, M.
2013-04-01
We present an easy to use and flexible grid library for developing highly scalable parallel simulations. The distributed cartesian cell-refinable grid (dccrg) supports adaptive mesh refinement and allows an arbitrary C++ class to be used as cell data. The amount of data in grid cells can vary both in space and time allowing dccrg to be used in very different types of simulations, for example in fluid and particle codes. Dccrg transfers the data between neighboring cells on different processes transparently and asynchronously allowing one to overlap computation and communication. This enables excellent scalability at least up to 32 k cores in magnetohydrodynamic tests depending on the problem and hardware. In the version of dccrg presented here part of the mesh metadata is replicated between MPI processes reducing the scalability of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to between 200 and 600 processes. Dccrg is free software that anyone can use, study and modify and is available at https://gitorious.org/dccrg. Users are also kindly requested to cite this work when publishing results obtained with dccrg. Catalogue identifier: AEOM_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOM_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU Lesser General Public License version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 54975 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 974015 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++. Computer: PC, cluster, supercomputer. Operating system: POSIX. The code has been parallelized using MPI and tested with 1-32768 processes RAM: 10 MB-10 GB per process Classification: 4.12, 4.14, 6.5, 19.3, 19.10, 20. External routines: MPI-2 [1], boost [2], Zoltan [3], sfc++ [4] Nature of problem: Grid library supporting arbitrary data in grid cells, parallel adaptive mesh refinement, transparent remote neighbor data updates and
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Constantinescu, George S.; Lele, S. K.
2001-01-01
Numerical methods for solving the flow equations in cylindrical or spherical coordinates should be able to capture the behavior of the exact solution near the regions where the particular form of the governing equations is singular. In this work we focus on the treatment of these numerical singularities for finite-differences methods by reinterpreting the regularity conditions developed in the context of pseudo-spectral methods. A generally applicable numerical method for treating the singularities present at the polar axis, when nonaxisymmetric flows are solved in cylindrical, coordinates using highly accurate finite differences schemes (e.g., Pade schemes) on non-staggered grids, is presented. Governing equations for the flow at the polar axis are derived using series expansions near r=0. The only information needed to calculate the coefficients in these equations are the values of the flow variables and their radial derivatives at the previous iteration (or time) level. These derivatives, which are multi-valued at the polar axis, are calculated without dropping the accuracy of the numerical method using a mapping of the flow domain from (0,R)*(0,2pi) to (-R,R)*(0,pi), where R is the radius of the computational domain. This allows the radial derivatives to be evaluated using high-order differencing schemes (e.g., compact schemes) at points located on the polar axis. The proposed technique is illustrated by results from simulations of laminar-forced jets and turbulent compressible jets using large eddy simulation (LES) methods. In term of the general robustness of the numerical method and smoothness of the solution close to the polar axis, the present results compare very favorably to similar calculations in which the equations are solved in Cartesian coordinates at the polar axis, or in which the singularity is removed by employing a staggered mesh in the radial direction without a mesh point at r=0, following the method proposed recently by Mohseni and Colonius
Grid Computing Education Support
Steven Crumb
2008-01-15
The GGF Student Scholar program enabled GGF the opportunity to bring over sixty qualified graduate and under-graduate students with interests in grid technologies to its three annual events over the three-year program.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vaziri, Arsi
2004-01-01
This viewgraph presentation provides information on the development of a portal to provide secure and distributed grid computing for Payload Operations Integrated Center and Mission Control Center ground services.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Massimino, P.; Costa, A.
2008-08-01
Image Data Language is a software for data analysis, visualization and cross-platform application development. The potentiality of IDL is well-known in the academic scientific world, especially in the astronomical environment where thousands of procedures are developed by using IDL. The typical use of IDL is the interactive mode but it is also possible to run IDL programs that do not require any interaction with the user, submitting them in batch or background modality. Through the interactive mode the user immediately receives images or other data produced in the running phase of the program; in batch or background mode, the user will have to wait for the end of the program, sometime for many hours or days to obtain images or data that IDL produced as output: in fact in Grid environment it is possible to access to or retrieve data only after completion of the program. The work that we present gives flexibility to IDL procedures submitted to the Grid computer infrastructure. For this purpose we have developed an IDL Grid Web Portal to allow the user to access the Grid and to submit IDL programs granting a full job control and the access to images and data generated during the running phase, without waiting for their completion. We have used the PHP technology and we have given the same level of security that Grid normally offers to its users. In this way, when the user notices that the intermediate program results are not those expected, he can stop the job, change the parameters to better satisfy the computational algorithm and resubmit the program, without consuming the CPU time and other Grid resources. The IDL Grid Web Portal allows you to obtain IDL generated images, graphics and data tables by using a normal browser. All conversations from the user and the Grid resources occur via Web, as well as authentication phases. The IDL user has not to change the program source much because the Portal will automatically introduce the appropriate modification before
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnston, William E.; Ziobarth, John (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
We have presented the essence of experience gained in building two production Grids, and provided some of the global context for this work. As the reader might imagine, there were a lot of false starts, refinements to the approaches and to the software, and several substantial integration projects (SRB and Condor integrated with Globus) to get where we are today. However, the point of this paper is to try and make it substantially easier for others to get to the point where Information Power Grids (IPG) and the DOE Science Grids are today. This is what is needed in order to move us toward the vision of a common cyber infrastructure for science. The author would also like to remind the readers that this paper primarily represents the actual experiences that resulted from specific architectural and software choices during the design and implementation of these two Grids. The choices made were dictated by the criteria laid out in section 1. There is a lot more Grid software available today that there was four years ago, and various of these packages are being integrated into IPG and the DOE Grids. However, the foundation choices of Globus, SRB, and Condor would not be significantly different today than they were four years ago. Nonetheless, if the GGF is successful in its work - and we have every reason to believe that it will be - then in a few years we will see that the 28 functions provided by these packages will be defined in terms of protocols and MIS, and there will be several robust implementations available for each of the basic components, especially the Grid Common Services. The impact of the emerging Web Grid Services work is not yet clear. It will likely have a substantial impact on building higher level services, however it is the opinion of the author that this will in no way obviate the need for the Grid Common Services. These are the foundation of Grids, and the focus of almost all of the operational and persistent infrastructure aspects of Grids.
Fenimore, E.E.
1980-08-22
A hexagonally shaped quasi-random no-two-holes touching grid collimator. The quasi-random array grid collimator eliminates contamination from small angle off-axis rays by using a no-two-holes-touching pattern which simultaneously provides for a self-supporting array increasng throughput by elimination of a substrate. The presentation invention also provides maximum throughput using hexagonally shaped holes in a hexagonal lattice pattern for diffraction limited applications. Mosaicking is also disclosed for reducing fabrication effort.
Using Grid Benchmarks for Dynamic Scheduling of Grid Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frumkin, Michael; Hood, Robert
2003-01-01
Navigation or dynamic scheduling of applications on computational grids can be improved through the use of an application-specific characterization of grid resources. Current grid information systems provide a description of the resources, but do not contain any application-specific information. We define a GridScape as dynamic state of the grid resources. We measure the dynamic performance of these resources using the grid benchmarks. Then we use the GridScape for automatic assignment of the tasks of a grid application to grid resources. The scalability of the system is achieved by limiting the navigation overhead to a few percent of the application resource requirements. Our task submission and assignment protocol guarantees that the navigation system does not cause grid congestion. On a synthetic data mining application we demonstrate that Gridscape-based task assignment reduces the application tunaround time.
Exploring Hypersonic, Unstructured-Grid Issues through Structured Grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mazaheri, Ali R.; Kleb, Bill
2007-01-01
Pure-tetrahedral unstructured grids have been shown to produce asymmetric heat transfer rates for symmetric problems. Meanwhile, two-dimensional structured grids produce symmetric solutions and as documented here, introducing a spanwise degree of freedom to these structured grids also yields symmetric solutions. The effects of grid skewness and other perturbations of structured-grids are investigated to uncover possible mechanisms behind the unstructured-grid solution asymmetries. By using controlled experiments around a known, good solution, the effects of particular grid pathologies are uncovered. These structured-grid experiments reveal that similar solution degradation occurs as for unstructured grids, especially for heat transfer rates. Non-smooth grids within the boundary layer is also shown to produce large local errors in heat flux but do not affect surface pressures.
On the use of a high order overlapping grid method for coupling in CFD/CAA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Desquesnes, G.; Terracol, M.; Manoha, E.; Sagaut, P.
2006-12-01
This paper presents a theoretical analysis and two applications of a high-order overlapping grid method for coupling Cartesian and curvilinear grids, developed in order to simulate aerodynamic noise. First, the overlapping grid method based on Lagrange interpolating polynomials is described and a theoretical analysis of the interpolation operator is then carried out. It shows that the interpolation generates spurious modes that depend on the wavenumbers of the signal. Besides it also gives the optimal conditions in which interpolation can be applied. Then an application to the simulation of the aeroacoustic noise generated by the vortex shedding behind a cylinder is presented. During this simulation, it appears that interpolation can create some spurious acoustic modes in regions where hydrodynamic fluctuations are significant, as predicted by the theoretical analysis. It is shown that these spurious modes disappear when a refined Cartesian grid is used (26 points per wavelength of the vortex shedding were found to be adequate in this study). At last, the simulation of the aerodynamic noise of a three element high-lift wing profile has then been carried out. For this application, the main acoustic source at the slat trailing edge is represented analytically. The propagation of the generated acoustic wave is simulated with a mean flow at rest and with a steady turbulent mean flow computed by RANS. The first application allows us to assess the method by comparing the results to a reference solution. The second one shows that the influence of a non-uniform mean flow on the directivity of an acoustic source can be observed in complex geometries. This application therefore shows that the proposed coupling method is well adapted to complex geometries that are usually met in industrial applications.
Grid generation strategies for turbomachinery configurations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, K. D.; Henderson, T. L.
1991-01-01
Turbomachinery flow fields involve unique grid generation issues due to their geometrical and physical characteristics. Several strategic approaches are discussed to generate quality grids. The grid quality is further enhanced through blending and adapting. Grid blending smooths the grids locally through averaging and diffusion operators. Grid adaptation redistributes the grid points based on a grid quality assessment. These methods are demonstrated with several examples.
GRIDS: Grid-Scale Rampable Intermittent Dispatchable Storage
2010-09-01
GRIDS Project: The 12 projects that comprise ARPA-E’s GRIDS Project, short for “Grid-Scale Rampable Intermittent Dispatchable Storage,” are developing storage technologies that can store renewable energy for use at any location on the grid at an investment cost less than $100 per kilowatt hour. Flexible, large-scale storage would create a stronger and more robust electric grid by enabling renewables to contribute to reliable power generation.
Reference installation for the German grid initiative D-Grid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buehler, W.; Dulov, O.; Garcia, A.; Jejkal, T.; Jrad, F.; Marten, H.; Mol, X.; Nilsen, D.; Schneider, O.
2010-04-01
The D-Grid reference installation is a test platform for the German grid initiative. The main task is to create the grid prototype for software and hardware components needed in the D-Grid community. For each grid-related task field different alternative middleware is included. With respect to changing demands from the community, new versions of the reference installation are released every six months.
Arc Length Based Grid Distribution For Surface and Volume Grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mastin, C. Wayne
1996-01-01
Techniques are presented for distributing grid points on parametric surfaces and in volumes according to a specified distribution of arc length. Interpolation techniques are introduced which permit a given distribution of grid points on the edges of a three-dimensional grid block to be propagated through the surface and volume grids. Examples demonstrate how these methods can be used to improve the quality of grids generated by transfinite interpolation.
... will seem to be continually on the go—running, kicking, climbing, jumping. His attention span, which was ... his coordination. In the months ahead, your child’s running will become smoother and more coordinated. He’ll ...
Unstructured Grids on NURBS Surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Samareh-Abolhassani, Jamshid
1993-01-01
A simple and efficient computational method is presented for unstructured surface grid generation. This method is built upon an advancing front technique combined with grid projection. The projection technique is based on a Newton-Raphson method. This combined approach has been successfully implemented for structured and unstructured grids. In this paper, the implementation for unstructured grid is discussed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tennant, Roy
2005-01-01
In the article, the author talks about the benefits of grid networks. In speaking of grid networks the author is referring to both networks of computers and networks of humans connected together in a grid topology. Examples are provided of how grid networks are beneficial today and the ways in which they have been used.
Smart Grid Integration Laboratory
Troxell, Wade
2011-12-22
The initial federal funding for the Colorado State University Smart Grid Integration Laboratory is through a Congressionally Directed Project (CDP), DE-OE0000070 Smart Grid Integration Laboratory. The original program requested in three one-year increments for staff acquisition, curriculum development, and instrumentation all which will benefit the Laboratory. This report focuses on the initial phase of staff acquisition which was directed and administered by DOE NETL/ West Virginia under Project Officer Tom George. Using this CDP funding, we have developed the leadership and intellectual capacity for the SGIC. This was accomplished by investing (hiring) a core team of Smart Grid Systems engineering faculty focused on education, research, and innovation of a secure and smart grid infrastructure. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory will be housed with the separately funded Integrid Laboratory as part of CSU's overall Smart Grid Integration Center (SGIC). The period of performance of this grant was 10/1/2009 to 9/30/2011 which included one no cost extension due to time delays in faculty hiring. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory's focus is to build foundations to help graduate and undergraduates acquire systems engineering knowledge; conduct innovative research; and team externally with grid smart organizations. Using the results of the separately funded Smart Grid Workforce Education Workshop (May 2009) sponsored by the City of Fort Collins, Northern Colorado Clean Energy Cluster, Colorado State University Continuing Education, Spirae, and Siemens has been used to guide the hiring of faculty, program curriculum and education plan. This project develops faculty leaders with the intellectual capacity to inspire its students to become leaders that substantially contribute to the development and maintenance of Smart Grid infrastructure through topics such as: (1) Distributed energy systems modeling and control; (2) Energy and power conversion; (3) Simulation of
An optimal and efficient new gridding algorithm using singular value decomposition.
Rosenfeld, D
1998-07-01
The problem of handling data that falls on a nonequally spaced grid occurs in numerous fields of science, ranging from radio-astronomy to medical imaging. In MRI, this condition arises when sampling under time-varying gradients in sequences such as echo-planar imaging (EPI), spiral scans, or radial scans. The technique currently being used to interpolate the nonuniform samples onto a Cartesian grid is called the gridding algorithm. In this paper, a new method for uniform resampling is presented that is both optimal and efficient. It is first shown that the resampling problem can be formulated as a problem of solving a set of linear equations Ax = b, where x and b are vectors of the uniform and nonuniform samples, respectively, and A is a matrix of the sinc interpolation coefficients. In a procedure called Uniform Re-Sampling (URS), this set of equations is given an optimal solution using the pseudoinverse matrix which is computed using singular value decomposition (SVD). In large problems, this solution is neither practical nor computationally efficient. Another method is presented, called the Block Uniform Re-Sampling (BURS) algorithm, which decomposes the problem into solving a small set of linear equations for each uniform grid point. These equations are a subset of the original equations Ax = b and are once again solved using SVD. The final result is both optimal and computationally efficient. The results of the new method are compared with those obtained using the conventional gridding algorithm via simulations. PMID:9660548
PDEs on moving surfaces via the closest point method and a modified grid based particle method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petras, A.; Ruuth, S. J.
2016-05-01
Partial differential equations (PDEs) on surfaces arise in a wide range of applications. The closest point method (Ruuth and Merriman (2008) [20]) is a recent embedding method that has been used to solve a variety of PDEs on smooth surfaces using a closest point representation of the surface and standard Cartesian grid methods in the embedding space. The original closest point method (CPM) was designed for problems posed on static surfaces, however the solution of PDEs on moving surfaces is of considerable interest as well. Here we propose solving PDEs on moving surfaces using a combination of the CPM and a modification of the grid based particle method (Leung and Zhao (2009) [12]). The grid based particle method (GBPM) represents and tracks surfaces using meshless particles and an Eulerian reference grid. Our modification of the GBPM introduces a reconstruction step into the original method to ensure that all the grid points within a computational tube surrounding the surface are active. We present a number of examples to illustrate the numerical convergence properties of our combined method. Experiments for advection-diffusion equations that are strongly coupled to the velocity of the surface are also presented.
The Managerial Grid; Key Orientations for Achieving Production through People.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blake, Robert R; Mouton, Jane S.
The Managerial Grid arranges a concern for production on the horizontal axis and a concern for people on the vertical axis of a coordinate system: 1,1 shows minimum concern for production and people; 9,1 shows major production emphasis and minimum human considerations; 1,9 shows maximum concern for friendly working conditions and minimum…
Balius, Trent E; Allen, William J; Mukherjee, Sudipto; Rizzo, Robert C
2013-05-30
Scoring functions are a critically important component of computer-aided screening methods for the identification of lead compounds during early stages of drug discovery. Here, we present a new multigrid implementation of the footprint similarity (FPS) scoring function that was recently developed in our laboratory which has proven useful for identification of compounds which bind to a protein on a per-residue basis in a way that resembles a known reference. The grid-based FPS method is much faster than its Cartesian-space counterpart, which makes it computationally tractable for on-the-fly docking, virtual screening, or de novo design. In this work, we establish that: (i) relatively few grids can be used to accurately approximate Cartesian space footprint similarity, (ii) the method yields improved success over the standard DOCK energy function for pose identification across a large test set of experimental co-crystal structures, for crossdocking, and for database enrichment, and (iii) grid-based FPS scoring can be used to tailor construction of new molecules to have specific properties, as demonstrated in a series of test cases targeting the viral protein HIVgp41. The method is available in the program DOCK6. PMID:23436713
Processing Coordination Ambiguity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Engelhardt, Paul E.; Ferreira, Fernanda
2010-01-01
We examined temporarily ambiguous coordination structures such as "put the butter in the bowl and the pan on the towel." Minimal Attachment predicts that the ambiguous noun phrase "the pan" will be interpreted as a noun-phrase coordination structure because it is syntactically simpler than clausal coordination. Constraint-based theories assume…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nothnagel, A.
2013-01-01
We present the IVS analysis coordination issues of 2012. The IVS Analysis Coordinator is responsible for generating and disseminating the official IVS products. This requires consistency of the input data by strict adherence to models and conventions. The term of the current IVS Analysis Coordinator will end on February 28, 2013.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Yi; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Miller, William H.
2004-02-01
The quantum instanton approximation for thermal rate constants of chemical reactions [Miller, Zhao, Ceotto, and Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 1329 (2003)], which is modeled after the earlier semiclassical instanton approach, is applied to the hydrogen abstraction reaction from methane by a hydrogen atom, H+CH4→H2+CH3, using a modified and recalibrated version of the Jordan-Gilbert potential surface. The quantum instanton rate is evaluated using path integral Monte Carlo approaches based on the recently proposed implementation schemes [Yamamoto and Miller, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 3086 (2004)]. The calculations were carried out using the Cartesian coordinates of all the atoms (thus involving 18 degrees of freedom), thereby taking explicit account of rotational effects of the whole system and also allowing the equivalent treatment of the four methane hydrogens. To achieve such a treatment, we present extended forms of the path integral estimators for relevant quantities that may be used for general N-atom systems with any generalized reaction coordinates. The quantum instanton rates thus obtained for the temperature range T=200-2000 K show good agreement with available experimental data, which gives support to the accuracy of the underlying potential surface used.
Zhao, Yi; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Miller, William H
2004-02-15
The quantum instanton approximation for thermal rate constants of chemical reactions [Miller, Zhao, Ceotto, and Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 1329 (2003)], which is modeled after the earlier semiclassical instanton approach, is applied to the hydrogen abstraction reaction from methane by a hydrogen atom, H + CH4 --> H2 + CH3, using a modified and recalibrated version of the Jordan-Gilbert potential surface. The quantum instanton rate is evaluated using path integral Monte Carlo approaches based on the recently proposed implementation schemes [Yamamoto and Miller, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 3086 (2004)]. The calculations were carried out using the Cartesian coordinates of all the atoms (thus involving 18 degrees of freedom), thereby taking explicit account of rotational effects of the whole system and also allowing the equivalent treatment of the four methane hydrogens. To achieve such a treatment, we present extended forms of the path integral estimators for relevant quantities that may be used for general N-atom systems with any generalized reaction coordinates. The quantum instanton rates thus obtained for the temperature range T = 200-2000 K show good agreement with available experimental data, which gives support to the accuracy of the underlying potential surface used. PMID:15268462
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2011-08-30
GridLAB-D is a new power system simulation tool that provides valuable information to users who design and operate electric power transmission and distribution systems, and to utilities that wish to take advantage of the latest smart grid technology. This special release of GridLAB-D was developed to study the proposed Smart Grid technology that is used by Battelle Memorial Institute in the AEP gridSMART demonstration project in Northeast Columbus, Ohio.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Most, Sebastian; Nowak, Wolfgang; Bijeljic, Branko
2016-04-01
For understanding non-Fickian transport in porous media, thorough understanding of pore-scale processes is required. When using particle methods as research instruments, we need a detailed understanding of the dependence and memory between subsequent increments in particle motion. We are especially interested in the dependence and memory of the spatial increments (size and direction) at consecutive time steps. Understanding the increment statistics is crucial for the upscaling that always becomes essential for transport simulations at larger scales. Upscaling means averaging over a (representative elementary) volume to save limited computational resources. However, this averaging means a loss of detail and therefore dispersion models should compensate for this loss. Formulating an appropriate dispersion model requires a detailed understanding of the dependencies and memory effects in the transport process. Particle-based simulations for transport in porous media are usually conducted and analyzed in a Cartesian coordinate system. We will show that, for understanding the process physically and representing the process statistically, it is more appropriate to switch to a spherical coordinate system that moves with each particle. Increment statistics in a Cartesian coordinate system usually reveal that a large displacement in longitudinal direction triggers a large displacement in transverse direction as fast flow channels are not perfectly aligned with the Cartesian axis along the main flow direction. We can overcome this inherent link, typical for the Cartesian description by using the absolute displacements together with the direction of the particle movement, where the direction is determined by the angles azimuth and elevation. This can be understood as a Lagrangian spherical process description. The root of the dependence of the transport process is in the complex pore geometry. For some time past, high-resolution micro-CT scans of pore space geometry became the
Hermann, M.R.; Fleck J.A. Jr.
1988-12-15
A spectral method previously developed for solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation in Cartesian coordinates is generalized to spherical polar coordinates. The solution is implemented by repeated application of a unitary evolution operator in symmetrically split form. The wave function is expanded as a Fourier series in the radial coordinate and in terms of Legendre functions in the polar angle. The use of appropriate quadrature sets makes the expansion exact for band-limited functions. The method is appropriate for solving explicitly time-dependent problems, or for determining stationary states by a spectral method. The accuracy of the method is established by computing the Stark shift and lifetime of the 1s state in hydrogen, the low-lying energy levels for hydrogen in a uniform magnetic field, and the 2p-nd dipole transition spectrum for hydrogen.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Slater, John W.; Liou, Meng-Sing; Hindman, Richard G.
1994-01-01
An approach is presented for the generation of two-dimensional, structured, dynamic grids. The grid motion may be due to the motion of the boundaries of the computational domain or to the adaptation of the grid to the transient, physical solution. A time-dependent grid is computed through the time integration of the grid speeds which are computed from a system of grid speed equations. The grid speed equations are derived from the time-differentiation of the grid equations so as to ensure that the dynamic grid maintains the desired qualities of the static grid. The grid equations are the Euler-Lagrange equations derived from a variational statement for the grid. The dynamic grid method is demonstrated for a model problem involving boundary motion, an inviscid flow in a converging-diverging nozzle during startup, and a viscous flow over a flat plate with an impinging shock wave. It is shown that the approach is more accurate for transient flows than an approach in which the grid speeds are computed using a finite difference with respect to time of the grid. However, the approach requires significantly more computational effort.
Complex Volume Grid Generation Through the Use of Grid Reusability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alter, Stephen J.
1997-01-01
This paper presents a set of surface and volume grid generation techniques which reuse existing surface and volume grids. These methods use combinations of data manipulations to reduce grid generation time, improve grid characteristics, and increase the capabilities of existing domain discretization software. The manipulation techniques utilize physical and computational domains to produce basis function on which to operate and modify grid character and smooth grids using Trans-Finite Interpolation, a vector interpolation method and parametric re-mapping technique. With these new techniques, inviscid grids can be converted to viscous grids, multiple zone grid adaption can be performed to improve CFD solver efficiency, and topological changes to improve modeling of flow fields can be done simply and quickly. Examples of these capabilities are illustrated as applied to various configurations.
Hambrick, J.
2012-01-01
Although implementing Smart Grid projects at the distribution level provides many advantages and opportunities for advanced operation and control, a number of significant challenges must be overcome to maintain the high level of safety and reliability that the modern grid must provide. For example, while distributed generation (DG) promises to provide opportunities to increase reliability and efficiency and may provide grid support services such as volt/var control, the presence of DG can impact distribution operation and protection schemes. Additionally, the intermittent nature of many DG energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) can present a number of challenges to voltage regulation, etc. This presentation provides an overview a number of Smart Grid projects being performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) along with utility, industry, and academic partners. These projects include modeling and analysis of high penetration PV scenarios (with and without energy storage), development and testing of interconnection and microgrid equipment, as well as the development and implementation of advanced instrumentation and data acquisition used to analyze the impacts of intermittent renewable resources. Additionally, standards development associated with DG interconnection and analysis as well as Smart Grid interoperability will be discussed.
Movement Coordination during Conversation
Latif, Nida; Barbosa, Adriano V.; Vatiokiotis-Bateson, Eric; Castelhano, Monica S.; Munhall, K. G.
2014-01-01
Behavioral coordination and synchrony contribute to a common biological mechanism that maintains communication, cooperation and bonding within many social species, such as primates and birds. Similarly, human language and social systems may also be attuned to coordination to facilitate communication and the formation of relationships. Gross similarities in movement patterns and convergence in the acoustic properties of speech have already been demonstrated between interacting individuals. In the present studies, we investigated how coordinated movements contribute to observers’ perception of affiliation (friends vs. strangers) between two conversing individuals. We used novel computational methods to quantify motor coordination and demonstrated that individuals familiar with each other coordinated their movements more frequently. Observers used coordination to judge affiliation between conversing pairs but only when the perceptual stimuli were restricted to head and face regions. These results suggest that observed movement coordination in humans might contribute to perceptual decisions based on availability of information to perceivers. PMID:25119189
An Adaptive Unstructured Grid Method by Grid Subdivision, Local Remeshing, and Grid Movement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z.
1999-01-01
An unstructured grid adaptation technique has been developed and successfully applied to several three dimensional inviscid flow test cases. The approach is based on a combination of grid subdivision, local remeshing, and grid movement. For solution adaptive grids, the surface triangulation is locally refined by grid subdivision, and the tetrahedral grid in the field is partially remeshed at locations of dominant flow features. A grid redistribution strategy is employed for geometric adaptation of volume grids to moving or deforming surfaces. The method is automatic and fast and is designed for modular coupling with different solvers. Several steady state test cases with different inviscid flow features were tested for grid/solution adaptation. In all cases, the dominant flow features, such as shocks and vortices, were accurately and efficiently predicted with the present approach. A new and robust method of moving tetrahedral "viscous" grids is also presented and demonstrated on a three-dimensional example.
Dynamic fisheye grids for binary black hole simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zilhão, Miguel; Noble, Scott C.
2014-03-01
We present a new warped gridding scheme adapted to simulating gas dynamics in binary black hole spacetimes. The grid concentrates grid points in the vicinity of each black hole to resolve the smaller scale structures there, and rarefies grid points away from each black hole to keep the overall problem size at a practical level. In this respect, our system can be thought of as a ‘double’ version of the fisheye coordinate system, used before in numerical relativity codes for evolving binary black holes. The gridding scheme is constructed as a mapping between a uniform coordinate system—in which the equations of motion are solved—to the distorted system representing the spatial locations of our grid points. Since we are motivated to eventually use this system for circumbinary disc calculations, we demonstrate how the distorted system can be constructed to asymptote to the typical spherical polar coordinate system, amenable to efficiently simulating orbiting gas flows about central objects with little numerical diffusion. We discuss its implementation in the Harm3d code, tailored to evolve the magnetohydrodynamics equations in curved spacetimes. We evaluate the performance of the system’s implementation in Harm3d with a series of tests, such as the advected magnetic field loop test, magnetized Bondi accretion, and evolutions of hydrodynamic discs about a single black hole and about a binary black hole. Like we have done with Harm3d, this gridding scheme can be implemented in other unigrid codes as a (possibly) simpler alternative to adaptive mesh refinement.
Information Power Grid Posters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vaziri, Arsi
2003-01-01
This document is a summary of the accomplishments of the Information Power Grid (IPG). Grids are an emerging technology that provide seamless and uniform access to the geographically dispersed, computational, data storage, networking, instruments, and software resources needed for solving large-scale scientific and engineering problems. The goal of the NASA IPG is to use NASA's remotely located computing and data system resources to build distributed systems that can address problems that are too large or complex for a single site. The accomplishments outlined in this poster presentation are: access to distributed data, IPG heterogeneous computing, integration of large-scale computing node into distributed environment, remote access to high data rate instruments,and exploratory grid environment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Govoni, P.
2009-12-01
Since the beginning of the millennium, High Energy Physics research institutions like CERN and INFN pioneered several projects aimed at exploiting the synergy among computing power, storage and network resources, and creating an infrastructure of distributed computing on a worldwide scale. In the year 2000, after the Monarch project [ http://monarc.web.cern.ch/MONARC/], DataGrid started [ http://eu-datagrid.web.cern.ch/eu-datagrid/] aimed at providing High Energy Physics with the computing power needed for the LHC enterprise. This program evolved into the EU DataGrid project, that implemented the first actual prototype of a Grid middleware running on a testbed environment. The next step consisted in the application to the LHC experiments, with the LCG project [ http://lcg.web.cern.ch/LCG/], in turn followed by the EGEE [ http://www.eu-egee.org/] and EGEE II programs.
Interactive surface grid generation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luh, Raymond Ching-Chung; Pierce, Lawrence E.; Yip, David
1991-01-01
This paper describes a surface grid generation tool called S3D. It is the result of integrating a robust and widely applicable interpolation technique with the latest in workstation technology. Employing the use of a highly efficient and user-friendly graphical interface, S3D permits real-time interactive analyses of surface geometry data and facilitates the construction of surface grids for a wide range of applications in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The design objectives are for S3D to be stand-alone and easy to use so that CFD analysts can take a hands-on approach toward most if not all of their surface grid generation needs. Representative examples of S3D applications are presented in describing the various elements involved in the process.
Density-conserving shape factors for particle simulations in cylindrical and spherical coordinates
Ruyten, W.M. )
1993-04-01
It is shown that, in cylindrical and spherical coordinates, particle-to- grid weighting based on conventional particle-in-cell (PIC) and cloud-in-cell (CIC) shape factors results in non-uniform grid densities even for uniform particle distributions. Instead, alternative, density-conserving weighting schemes are discussed, including modified PIC and CIC weighting. 10 refs., 5 figs.
Grid Data Management and Customer Demands at MeteoSwiss
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rigo, G.; Lukasczyk, Ch.
2010-09-01
near-real-time datasets to build up trust in the product in different applications. The implementation of a new method called RSOI for the daily production allowed to bring the daily precipitation field up to the expectations of customers. The main use of the grids were near-realtime and past event analysis in areas scarcely covered with stations, and inputs for forecast tools and models. Critical success factors of the product were speed of delivery and at the same time accuracy, temporal and spatial resolution, and configuration (coordinate system, projection). To date, grids of archived precipitation data since 1961 and daily/monthly precipitation gridsets with 4h-delivery lag of Switzerland or subareas are available.
Integrating Renewable Electricity on the Grid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crabtree, George; Misewich, Jim; Ambrosio, Ron; Clay, Kathryn; DeMartini, Paul; James, Revis; Lauby, Mark; Mohta, Vivek; Moura, John; Sauer, Peter; Slakey, Francis; Lieberman, Jodi; Tai, Humayun
2011-11-01
patchwork of conventional transmission lines would create an interstate highway system for electricity that moves large amounts of renewable electric power efficiently over long distances from source to load. Research and development is needed to identify the technical challenges associated with DC superconducting transmission and how it can be most effectively deployed. The challenge of variability can be met (i) by switching conventional generation capacity in or out in response to sophisticated forecasts of weather and power generation, (ii) by large scale energy storage in heat, pumped hydroelectric, compressed air or stationary batteries designed for the grid, or (iii) by national balancing of regional generation deficits and excesses using long distance transmission. Each of these solutions to variability has merit and each requires significant research and development to understand its capacity, performance, cost and effectiveness. The challenge of variability is likely to be met by a combination of these three solutions; the interactions among them and the appropriate mix needs to be explored. The long distances from renewable sources to demand centers span many of the grid's physical, ownership and regulatory boundaries. This introduces a new feature to grid structure and operation: national and regional coordination. The grid is historically a patchwork of local generation resources and load centers that has been built, operated and regulated to meet local needs. Although it is capable of sharing power across moderate distances, the arrangements for doing so are cumbersome and inefficient. The advent of renewable electricity with its enormous potential and inherent regional and national character presents an opportunity to examine the local structure of the grid and establish coordinating principles that will not only enable effective renewable integration but also simplify and codify the grid's increasingly regional and national character.
Gravity inversion in spherical coordinates using tesseroids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uieda, Leonardo; Barbosa, Valeria C. F.
2014-05-01
Satellite observations of the gravity field have provided geophysicists with exceptionally dense and uniform coverage of data over vast areas. This enables regional or global scale high resolution geophysical investigations. Techniques like forward modeling and inversion of gravity anomalies are routinely used to investigate large geologic structures, such as large igneous provinces, suture zones, intracratonic basins, and the Moho. Accurately modeling such large structures requires taking the sphericity of the Earth into account. A reasonable approximation is to assume a spherical Earth and use spherical coordinates. In recent years, efforts have been made to advance forward modeling in spherical coordinates using tesseroids, particularly with respect to speed and accuracy. Conversely, traditional space domain inverse modeling methods have not yet been adapted to use spherical coordinates and tesseroids. In the literature there are a range of inversion methods that have been developed for Cartesian coordinates and right rectangular prisms. These include methods for estimating the relief of an interface, like the Moho or the basement of a sedimentary basin. Another category includes methods to estimate the density distribution in a medium. The latter apply many algorithms to solve the inverse problem, ranging from analytic solutions to random search methods as well as systematic search methods. We present an adaptation for tesseroids of the systematic search method of "planting anomalous densities". This method can be used to estimate the geometry of geologic structures. As prior information, it requires knowledge of the approximate densities and positions of the structures. The main advantage of this method is its computational efficiency, requiring little computer memory and processing time. We demonstrate the shortcomings and capabilities of this approach using applications to synthetic and field data. Performing the inversion of gravity and gravity gradient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ziebarth, John P.; Meyer, Doug
1992-01-01
The coordination is examined of necessary resources, facilities, and special personnel to provide technical integration activities in the area of computational fluid dynamics applied to propulsion technology. Involved is the coordination of CFD activities between government, industry, and universities. Current geometry modeling, grid generation, and graphical methods are established to use in the analysis of CFD design methodologies.
Moving Overlapping Grids with Adaptive Mesh Refinement for High-Speed Reactive and Non-reactive Flow
Henshaw, W D; Schwendeman, D W
2005-08-30
We consider the solution of the reactive and non-reactive Euler equations on two-dimensional domains that evolve in time. The domains are discretized using moving overlapping grids. In a typical grid construction, boundary-fitted grids are used to represent moving boundaries, and these grids overlap with stationary background Cartesian grids. Block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is used to resolve fine-scale features in the flow such as shocks and detonations. Refinement grids are added to base-level grids according to an estimate of the error, and these refinement grids move with their corresponding base-level grids. The numerical approximation of the governing equations takes place in the parameter space of each component grid which is defined by a mapping from (fixed) parameter space to (moving) physical space. The mapped equations are solved numerically using a second-order extension of Godunov's method. The stiff source term in the reactive case is handled using a Runge-Kutta error-control scheme. We consider cases when the boundaries move according to a prescribed function of time and when the boundaries of embedded bodies move according to the surface stress exerted by the fluid. In the latter case, the Newton-Euler equations describe the motion of the center of mass of the each body and the rotation about it, and these equations are integrated numerically using a second-order predictor-corrector scheme. Numerical boundary conditions at slip walls are described, and numerical results are presented for both reactive and non-reactive flows in order to demonstrate the use and accuracy of the numerical approach.
Essential Grid Workflow Monitoring Elements
Gunter, Daniel K.; Jackson, Keith R.; Konerding, David E.; Lee,Jason R.; Tierney, Brian L.
2005-07-01
Troubleshooting Grid workflows is difficult. A typicalworkflow involves a large number of components networks, middleware,hosts, etc. that can fail. Even when monitoring data from all thesecomponents is accessible, it is hard to tell whether failures andanomalies in these components are related toa given workflow. For theGrid to be truly usable, much of this uncertainty must be elim- inated.We propose two new Grid monitoring elements, Grid workflow identifiersand consistent component lifecycle events, that will make Gridtroubleshooting easier, and thus make Grids more usable, by simplifyingthe correlation of Grid monitoring data with a particular Gridworkflow.
Distributed Accounting on the Grid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thigpen, William; Hacker, Thomas J.; McGinnis, Laura F.; Athey, Brian D.
2001-01-01
By the late 1990s, the Internet was adequately equipped to move vast amounts of data between HPC (High Performance Computing) systems, and efforts were initiated to link together the national infrastructure of high performance computational and data storage resources together into a general computational utility 'grid', analogous to the national electrical power grid infrastructure. The purpose of the Computational grid is to provide dependable, consistent, pervasive, and inexpensive access to computational resources for the computing community in the form of a computing utility. This paper presents a fully distributed view of Grid usage accounting and a methodology for allocating Grid computational resources for use on a Grid computing system.
A priori grid quality estimation for high-order finite differencing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fattah, Ryu; Angland, David; Zhang, Xin
2016-06-01
Structured grids using the finite differencing method contain two sources of grid-induced truncation errors. The first is dependent on the solution field. The second is related only to the metrics of the grid transformation. The accuracy of the grid transformation metrics is affected by the inverse metrics, which are spatial derivatives of the grid in the generalised coordinates. The truncation errors contained in the inverse metrics are generated by the spatial schemes. Fourier analysis shows that the dispersion errors, by spatial schemes, have similarities to the transfer function of spatial filters. This similarity is exploited to define a grid quality metric that can be used to identify areas in the mesh that are likely to generate significant grid-induced errors. An inviscid vortex convection benchmark case is used to quantify the correlation between the grid quality metric and the solution accuracy, for three common geometric features found in grids: abrupt changes in the grid metrics, skewness, and grid stretching. A strong correlation is obtained, provided that the grid transformation errors are the most significant sources of error.
Marshall Space Flight Center surface modeling and grid generation applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Robert W.; Benjamin, Theodore G.; Cornelison, Joni W.
1995-01-01
The Solid Rocket Motors (SRM) used by NASA to propel the Space Shuttle employ gimballing nozzles as a means for vehicular guidance during launch and ascent. Gimballing a nozzle renders the pressure field of the exhaust gases nonaxisymmetric. This has two effects: (1) it exerts a torque and side load on the nozzle; and (2) the exhaust gases flow circumferentially in the aft-dome region, thermally loading the flexible boot, case-to-nozzle joint, and casing insulation. The use of CFD models to simulate such flows is imperative in order to assess SRM design. The grids for these problems were constructed by obtaining information from drawings and tabulated coordinates. The 2D axisymmetric grids were designed and generated using the EZ-Surf and GEN2D surface and grid generation codes. These 2D grids were solved using codes such as FDNS, GASP, and MINT. These axisymmetric grids were rotated around the center-line to form 3D nongimballed grids. These were then gimballed around the pivot point and the gaps or overlaps resurfaced to obtain the final domains, which contained approximately 366,000 grid points. The 2D solutions were then rotated and manipulated as appropriate for geometry and used as initial guesses in the final solution. The analyses were used in answering questions about flight criteria.
The BioGRID Interaction Database: 2011 update.
Stark, Chris; Breitkreutz, Bobby-Joe; Chatr-Aryamontri, Andrew; Boucher, Lorrie; Oughtred, Rose; Livstone, Michael S; Nixon, Julie; Van Auken, Kimberly; Wang, Xiaodong; Shi, Xiaoqi; Reguly, Teresa; Rust, Jennifer M; Winter, Andrew; Dolinski, Kara; Tyers, Mike
2011-01-01
The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID) is a public database that archives and disseminates genetic and protein interaction data from model organisms and humans (http://www.thebiogrid.org). BioGRID currently holds 347,966 interactions (170,162 genetic, 177,804 protein) curated from both high-throughput data sets and individual focused studies, as derived from over 23,000 publications in the primary literature. Complete coverage of the entire literature is maintained for budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana), and efforts to expand curation across multiple metazoan species are underway. The BioGRID houses 48,831 human protein interactions that have been curated from 10,247 publications. Current curation drives are focused on particular areas of biology to enable insights into conserved networks and pathways that are relevant to human health. The BioGRID 3.0 web interface contains new search and display features that enable rapid queries across multiple data types and sources. An automated Interaction Management System (IMS) is used to prioritize, coordinate and track curation across international sites and projects. BioGRID provides interaction data to several model organism databases, resources such as Entrez-Gene and other interaction meta-databases. The entire BioGRID 3.0 data collection may be downloaded in multiple file formats, including PSI MI XML. Source code for BioGRID 3.0 is freely available without any restrictions. PMID:21071413
The BioGRID interaction database: 2015 update.
Chatr-Aryamontri, Andrew; Breitkreutz, Bobby-Joe; Oughtred, Rose; Boucher, Lorrie; Heinicke, Sven; Chen, Daici; Stark, Chris; Breitkreutz, Ashton; Kolas, Nadine; O'Donnell, Lara; Reguly, Teresa; Nixon, Julie; Ramage, Lindsay; Winter, Andrew; Sellam, Adnane; Chang, Christie; Hirschman, Jodi; Theesfeld, Chandra; Rust, Jennifer; Livstone, Michael S; Dolinski, Kara; Tyers, Mike
2015-01-01
The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID: http://thebiogrid.org) is an open access database that houses genetic and protein interactions curated from the primary biomedical literature for all major model organism species and humans. As of September 2014, the BioGRID contains 749,912 interactions as drawn from 43,149 publications that represent 30 model organisms. This interaction count represents a 50% increase compared to our previous 2013 BioGRID update. BioGRID data are freely distributed through partner model organism databases and meta-databases and are directly downloadable in a variety of formats. In addition to general curation of the published literature for the major model species, BioGRID undertakes themed curation projects in areas of particular relevance for biomedical sciences, such as the ubiquitin-proteasome system and various human disease-associated interaction networks. BioGRID curation is coordinated through an Interaction Management System (IMS) that facilitates the compilation interaction records through structured evidence codes, phenotype ontologies, and gene annotation. The BioGRID architecture has been improved in order to support a broader range of interaction and post-translational modification types, to allow the representation of more complex multi-gene/protein interactions, to account for cellular phenotypes through structured ontologies, to expedite curation through semi-automated text-mining approaches, and to enhance curation quality control. PMID:25428363
The anatomy of the grid : enabling scalable virtual organizations.
Foster, I.; Kesselman, C.; Tuecke, S.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of Southern California
2001-10-01
'Grid' computing has emerged as an important new field, distinguished from conventional distributed computing by its focus on large-scale resource sharing, innovative applications, and, in some cases, high performance orientation. In this article, the authors define this new field. First, they review the 'Grid problem,' which is defined as flexible, secure, coordinated resource sharing among dynamic collections of individuals, institutions, and resources -- what is referred to as virtual organizations. In such settings, unique authentication, authorization, resource access, resource discovery, and other challenges are encountered. It is this class of problem that is addressed by Grid technologies. Next, the authors present an extensible and open Grid architecture, in which protocols, services, application programming interfaces, and software development kits are categorized according to their roles in enabling resource sharing. The authors describe requirements that they believe any such mechanisms must satisfy and discuss the importance of defining a compact set of intergrid protocols to enable interoperability among different Grid systems. Finally, the authors discuss how Grid technologies relate to other contemporary technologies, including enterprise integration, application service provider, storage service provider, and peer-to-peer computing. They maintain that Grid concepts and technologies complement and have much to contribute to these other approaches.
Marshall Space Flight Center surface modeling and grid generation applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, Robert W.; Benjamin, Theodore G.; Cornelison, Joni W.
1995-03-01
The Solid Rocket Motors (SRM) used by NASA to propel the Space Shuttle employ gimballing nozzles as a means for vehicular guidance during launch and ascent. Gimballing a nozzle renders the pressure field of the exhaust gases nonaxisymmetric. This has two effects: (1) it exerts a torque and side load on the nozzle; and (2) the exhaust gases flow circumferentially in the aft-dome region, thermally loading the flexible boot, case-to-nozzle joint, and casing insulation. The use of CFD models to simulate such flows is imperative in order to assess SRM design. The grids for these problems were constructed by obtaining information from drawings and tabulated coordinates. The 2D axisymmetric grids were designed and generated using the EZ-Surf and GEN2D surface and grid generation codes. These 2D grids were solved using codes such as FDNS, GASP, and MINT. These axisymmetric grids were rotated around the center-line to form 3D nongimballed grids. These were then gimballed around the pivot point and the gaps or overlaps resurfaced to obtain the final domains, which contained approximately 366,000 grid points. The 2D solutions were then rotated and manipulated as appropriate for geometry and used as initial guesses in the final solution. The analyses were used in answering questions about flight criteria.
Architecture and grid application of cluster computing system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lv, Yi; Yu, Shuiqin; Mao, Youju
2004-11-01
Recently, people pay more attention to the grid technology. It can not only connect all kinds of resources in the network, but also put them into a super transparent computing environment for customers to realize mete-computing which can share computing resources. Traditional parallel computing system, such as SMP(Symmetrical multiprocessor) and MPP(massively parallel processor), use multi-processors to raise computing speed in a close coupling way, so the flexible and scalable performance of the system are limited, as a result of it, the system can't meet the requirement of the grid technology. In this paper, the architecture of cluster computing system applied in grid nodes is introduced. It mainly includes the following aspects. First, the network architecture of cluster computing system in grid nodes is analyzed and designed. Second, how to realize distributing computing (including coordinating computing and sharing computing) of cluster computing system in grid nodes to construct virtual node computers is discussed. Last, communication among grid nodes is analyzed. In other words, it discusses how to realize single reflection to let all the service requirements from customers be met through sending to the grid nodes.
Enabling Campus Grids with Open Science Grid Technology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weitzel, Derek; Bockelman, Brian; Fraser, Dan; Pordes, Ruth; Swanson, David
2011-12-01
The Open Science Grid is a recognized key component of the US national cyber-infrastructure enabling scientific discovery through advanced high throughput computing. The principles and techniques that underlie the Open Science Grid can also be applied to Campus Grids since many of the requirements are the same, even if the implementation technologies differ. We find five requirements for a campus grid: trust relationships, job submission, resource independence, accounting, and data management. The Holland Computing Center's campus grid at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln was designed to fulfill the requirements of a campus grid. A bridging daemon was designed to bring non-Condor clusters into a grid managed by Condor. Condor features which make it possible to bridge Condor sites into a multi-campus grid have been exploited at the Holland Computing Center as well.
Generalized harmonic spatial coordinates and hyperbolic shift conditions
Alcubierre, Miguel; Corichi, Alejandro; Nunez, Dario; Salgado, Marcelo; Gonzalez, Jose A.; Reimann, Bernd
2005-12-15
We propose a generalization of the condition for harmonic spatial coordinates analogous to the generalization of the harmonic time slices introduced by Bona et al., and closely related to dynamic shift conditions recently proposed by Lindblom and Scheel, and Bona and Palenzuela. These generalized harmonic spatial coordinates imply a condition for the shift vector that has the form of an evolution equation for the shift components. We find that in order to decouple the slicing condition from the evolution equation for the shift it is necessary to use a rescaled shift vector. The initial form of the generalized harmonic shift condition is not spatially covariant, but we propose a simple way to make it fully covariant so that it can be used in coordinate systems other than Cartesian. We also analyze the effect of the shift condition proposed here on the hyperbolicity of the evolution equations of general relativity in 1+1 dimensions and 3+1 spherical symmetry, and study the possible development of blowups. Finally, we perform a series of numerical experiments to illustrate the behavior of this shift condition.
Basal ganglia outputs map instantaneous position coordinates during behavior.
Barter, Joseph W; Li, Suellen; Sukharnikova, Tatyana; Rossi, Mark A; Bartholomew, Ryan A; Yin, Henry H
2015-02-11
The basal ganglia (BG) are implicated in many movement disorders, yet how they contribute to movement remains unclear. Using wireless in vivo recording, we measured BG output from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in mice while monitoring their movements with video tracking. The firing rate of most nigral neurons reflected Cartesian coordinates (either x- or y-coordinates) of the animal's head position during movement. The firing rates of SNr neurons are either positively or negatively correlated with the coordinates. Using an egocentric reference frame, four types of neurons can be classified: each type increases firing during movement in a particular direction (left, right, up, down), and decreases firing during movement in the opposite direction. Given the high correlation between the firing rate and the x and y components of the position vector, the movement trajectory can be reconstructed from neural activity. Our results therefore demonstrate a quantitative and continuous relationship between BG output and behavior. Thus, a steady BG output signal from the SNr (i.e., constant firing rate) is associated with the lack of overt movement, when a stable posture is maintained by structures downstream of the BG. Any change in SNr firing rate is associated with a change in position (i.e., movement). We hypothesize that the SNr output quantitatively determines the direction, velocity, and amplitude of voluntary movements. By changing the reference signals to downstream position control systems, the BG can produce transitions in body configurations and initiate actions. PMID:25673860
Basal Ganglia Outputs Map Instantaneous Position Coordinates during Behavior
Barter, Joseph W.; Li, Suellen; Sukharnikova, Tatyana; Rossi, Mark A.; Bartholomew, Ryan A.
2015-01-01
The basal ganglia (BG) are implicated in many movement disorders, yet how they contribute to movement remains unclear. Using wireless in vivo recording, we measured BG output from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in mice while monitoring their movements with video tracking. The firing rate of most nigral neurons reflected Cartesian coordinates (either x- or y-coordinates) of the animal's head position during movement. The firing rates of SNr neurons are either positively or negatively correlated with the coordinates. Using an egocentric reference frame, four types of neurons can be classified: each type increases firing during movement in a particular direction (left, right, up, down), and decreases firing during movement in the opposite direction. Given the high correlation between the firing rate and the x and y components of the position vector, the movement trajectory can be reconstructed from neural activity. Our results therefore demonstrate a quantitative and continuous relationship between BG output and behavior. Thus, a steady BG output signal from the SNr (i.e., constant firing rate) is associated with the lack of overt movement, when a stable posture is maintained by structures downstream of the BG. Any change in SNr firing rate is associated with a change in position (i.e., movement). We hypothesize that the SNr output quantitatively determines the direction, velocity, and amplitude of voluntary movements. By changing the reference signals to downstream position control systems, the BG can produce transitions in body configurations and initiate actions. PMID:25673860
Modeling groundwater flow by lattice Boltzmann method in curvilinear coordinates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Budinski, Ljubomir; Fabian, Julius; Stipic, Matija
2015-07-01
In order to promote the use of the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for the simulation of isotropic groundwater flow in a confined aquifer with arbitrary geometry, Poisson's equation was transformed into a curvilinear coordinate system. With the metric function between the physical and the computational domain established, Poisson's equation written in Cartesian coordinates was transformed in curvilinear coordinates. Following, the appropriate equilibrium function for the D2Q9 square lattice has been defined. The resulting curvilinear formulation of the LBM for groundwater flow is capable of modeling flow in domains of complex geometry with the opportunity of local refining/coarsening of the computational mesh corresponding to the complexity of the flow pattern and the required accuracy. Since the proposed form of the LBM uses the transformed equation of flow implemented in the equilibrium function, finding a solution does not require supplementary procedures along the curvilinear boundaries, nor in the zones requiring mesh density adjustments. Thus, the basic concept of the LBM is completely maintained. The improvement of the proposed LBM over the previously published classical methods is completely verified by three examples with analytical solutions. The results demonstrate the advantages of the proposed curvilinear LBM in modeling groundwater flow in complex flow domains.
Changing from computing grid to knowledge grid in life-science grid.
Talukdar, Veera; Konar, Amit; Datta, Ayan; Choudhury, Anamika Roy
2009-09-01
Grid computing has a great potential to become a standard cyber infrastructure for life sciences that often require high-performance computing and large data handling, which exceeds the computing capacity of a single institution. Grid computer applies the resources of many computers in a network to a single problem at the same time. It is useful to scientific problems that require a great number of computer processing cycles or access to a large amount of data.As biologists,we are constantly discovering millions of genes and genome features, which are assembled in a library and distributed on computers around the world.This means that new, innovative methods must be developed that exploit the re-sources available for extensive calculations - for example grid computing.This survey reviews the latest grid technologies from the viewpoints of computing grid, data grid and knowledge grid. Computing grid technologies have been matured enough to solve high-throughput real-world life scientific problems. Data grid technologies are strong candidates for realizing a "resourceome" for bioinformatics. Knowledge grids should be designed not only from sharing explicit knowledge on computers but also from community formulation for sharing tacit knowledge among a community. By extending the concept of grid from computing grid to knowledge grid, it is possible to make use of a grid as not only sharable computing resources, but also as time and place in which people work together, create knowledge, and share knowledge and experiences in a community. PMID:19579217
Bloyd, Cary N.
2012-03-01
This brief paper describes the activities of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Smart Grid Initiative (ASGI) which is being led by the U.S. and developed by the APEC Energy Working Group. In the paper, I describe the origin of the initiative and briefly mention the four major elements of the initiative along with existing APEC projects which support it.
Rokach, Joshua Z.
2010-10-15
The country has progressed in a relatively short time from rotary dial phones to computers, cell phones, and iPads. With proper planning and orderly policy implementation, the same will happen with the Smart Grid. Here are some suggestions on how to proceed. (author)
Rabari, Anil; Fadipe, Oloruntomi
2014-03-31
NSTAR Electric & Gas Corporation (“the Company”, or “NSTAR”) developed and implemented a Smart Grid pilot program beginning in 2010 to demonstrate the viability of leveraging existing automated meter reading (“AMR”) deployments to provide much of the Smart Grid functionality of advanced metering infrastructure (“AMI”), but without the large capital investment that AMI rollouts typically entail. In particular, a central objective of the Smart Energy Pilot was to enable residential dynamic pricing (time-of-use “TOU” and critical peak rates and rebates) and two-way direct load control (“DLC”) by continually capturing AMR meter data transmissions and communicating through customer-sited broadband connections in conjunction with a standardsbased home area network (“HAN”). The pilot was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (“DOE”) through the Smart Grid Demonstration program. NSTAR was very pleased to not only receive the funding support from DOE, but the guidance and support of the DOE throughout the pilot. NSTAR is also pleased to report to the DOE that it was able to execute and deliver a successful pilot on time and on budget. NSTAR looks for future opportunities to work with the DOE and others in future smart grid projects.
An overset grid method for global geomagnetic induction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weiss, Chester J.
2014-07-01
A new finite difference solution to the global geomagnetic induction problem is developed and tested, based on a modified Lorenz gauge of the magnetic vector and electric scalar potentials and implementing a novel, overset `Yin-Yang' grid that avoids unnecessary mesh refinement at the geographic poles. Previously used in whole-earth mantle convection models, the overset grid is built from a pair of partially overlapping mid-latitude latitude-longitude (lat/lon) grids, one of which is rotated with respect to the other for complete coverage of the sphere. Because of this symmetry, only one set of finite difference templates is required for global discretization of the governing Maxwell equations, a redundancy that is exploited for computational efficiency and multithreaded parallelization. Comparisons between solutions obtained by the proposed method show excellent agreement with those obtained by independent integral equation methods for 1-D, 2-D and 3-D problem geometries. The computational footprint of the method is minimized through a (non-symmetric) matrix-free BiCG-STAB iterative solver which computes finite difference matrix coefficients `on the fly' as needed, rather than pulling stored values from memory. Scaling of the matrix-free BiCG-STAB algorithm with problem size shows behaviour similar to that seen with the (symmetric) QMR algorithm used in the Cartesian case from which the present algorithm is based. The proposed method may therefore provide a competitive addition to the existing body of global-scale geomagnetic induction modelling algorithms, allowing for resource-efficient forward modelling as the kernel for large-scale computing such as inversion of geomagnetic response functions, computational hypothesis testing and parametric studies of mantle geodynamics and physiochemical state.
Grid generation research at OSU
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nakamura, S.
1992-01-01
In the last two years, effort was concentrated on: (1) surface modeling; (2) surface grid generation; and (3) 3-D flow space grid generation. The surface modeling shares the same objectives as the surface modeling in computer aided design (CAD), so software available in CAD can in principle be used for solid modeling. Unfortunately, however, the CAD software cannot be easily used in practice for grid generation purposes, because they are not designed to provide appropriate data base for grid generation. Therefore, we started developing a generalized surface modeling software from scratch, that provides the data base for the surface grid generation. Generating surface grid is an important step in generating a 3-D space for flow space. To generate a surface grid on a given surface representation, we developed a unique algorithm that works on any non-smooth surfaces. Once the surface grid is generated, a 3-D space can be generated. For this purpose, we also developed a new algorithm, which is a hybrid of the hyperbolic and the elliptic grid generation methods. With this hybrid method, orthogonality of the grid near the solid boundary can be easily achieved without introducing empirical fudge factors. Work to develop 2-D and 3-D grids for turbomachinery blade geometries was performed, and as an extension of this research we are planning to develop an adaptive grid procedure with an interactive grid environment.
Asymptotes in Polar Coordinates.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fay, Temple H.
1986-01-01
An old way to determine asymptotes for curves described in polar coordinates is presented. Practice in solving trigonometric equations, in differentiation, and in calculating limits is involved. (MNS)
Basso, T.; DeBlasio, R.
2012-04-01
The IEEE American National Standards smart grid publications and standards development projects IEEE 2030, which addresses smart grid interoperability, and IEEE 1547TM, which addresses distributed resources interconnection with the grid, have made substantial progress since 2009. The IEEE 2030TM and 1547 standards series focus on systems-level aspects and cover many of the technical integration issues involved in a mature smart grid. The status and highlights of these two IEEE series of standards, which are sponsored by IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 21 (SCC21), are provided in this paper.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Hsiang-Hsu; Yen, David C. C.; Taam, Ronald E.
2015-11-01
Investigating the evolution of disk galaxies and the dynamics of proto-stellar disks can involve the use of both a hydrodynamical and a Poisson solver. These systems are usually approximated as infinitesimally thin disks using two-dimensional Cartesian or polar coordinates. In Cartesian coordinates, the calculations of the hydrodynamics and self-gravitational forces are relatively straightforward for attaining second-order accuracy. However, in polar coordinates, a second-order calculation of self-gravitational forces is required for matching the second-order accuracy of hydrodynamical schemes. We present a direct algorithm for calculating self-gravitational forces with second-order accuracy without artificial boundary conditions. The Poisson integral in polar coordinates is expressed in a convolution form and the corresponding numerical complexity is nearly linear using a fast Fourier transform. Examples with analytic solutions are used to verify that the truncated error of this algorithm is of second order. The kernel integral around the singularity is applied to modify the particle method. The use of a softening length is avoided and the accuracy of the particle method is significantly improved.
A High-Order Accurate Parallel Solver for Maxwell's Equations on Overlapping Grids
Henshaw, W D
2005-09-23
A scheme for the solution of the time dependent Maxwell's equations on composite overlapping grids is described. The method uses high-order accurate approximations in space and time for Maxwell's equations written as a second-order vector wave equation. High-order accurate symmetric difference approximations to the generalized Laplace operator are constructed for curvilinear component grids. The modified equation approach is used to develop high-order accurate approximations that only use three time levels and have the same time-stepping restriction as the second-order scheme. Discrete boundary conditions for perfect electrical conductors and for material interfaces are developed and analyzed. The implementation is optimized for component grids that are Cartesian, resulting in a fast and efficient method. The solver runs on parallel machines with each component grid distributed across one or more processors. Numerical results in two- and three-dimensions are presented for the fourth-order accurate version of the method. These results demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the approach.
Current Grid operation and future role of the Grid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smirnova, O.
2012-12-01
Grid-like technologies and approaches became an integral part of HEP experiments. Some other scientific communities also use similar technologies for data-intensive computations. The distinct feature of Grid computing is the ability to federate heterogeneous resources of different ownership into a seamless infrastructure, accessible via a single log-on. Like other infrastructures of similar nature, Grid functioning requires not only technologically sound basis, but also reliable operation procedures, monitoring and accounting. The two aspects, technological and operational, are closely related: weaker is the technology, more burden is on operations, and other way around. As of today, Grid technologies are still evolving: at CERN alone, every LHC experiment uses an own Grid-like system. This inevitably creates a heavy load on operations. Infrastructure maintenance, monitoring and incident response are done on several levels, from local system administrators to large international organisations, involving massive human effort worldwide. The necessity to commit substantial resources is one of the obstacles faced by smaller research communities when moving computing to the Grid. Moreover, most current Grid solutions were developed under significant influence of HEP use cases, and thus need additional effort to adapt them to other applications. Reluctance of many non-HEP researchers to use Grid negatively affects the outlook for national Grid organisations, which strive to provide multi-science services. We started from the situation where Grid organisations were fused with HEP laboratories and national HEP research programmes; we hope to move towards the world where Grid will ultimately reach the status of generic public computing and storage service provider and permanent national and international Grid infrastructures will be established. How far will we be able to advance along this path, depends on us. If no standardisation and convergence efforts will take place
Gillies, Val; Harden, Angela; Johnson, Katherine; Reavey, Paula; Strange, Vicki; Willig, Carla
2004-03-01
The research presented in this paper uses memory work as a method to explore six women's collective constructions of two embodied practices, sweating and pain. The paper identifies limitations in the ways in which social constructionist research has theorized the relationship between discourse and materiality, and it proposes an approach to the study of embodiment which enjoins, rather than bridges, the discursive and the non-discursive. The paper presents an analysis of 25 memories of sweating and pain which suggests that Cartesian dualism is central to the women's accounts of their experiences. However, such dualism does not operate as a stable organizing principle. Rather, it offers two strategies for the performance of a split between mind and body. The paper traces the ways in which dualism can be both functional and restrictive, and explores the tensions between these two forms. The paper concludes by identifiying opportunities and limitations associated with memory work as a method for studying embodiment. PMID:15035700
Cartesian-Hyperspherical Hartree-Fock method for numerical observation of stabilized Langmuir states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalinski, Matt
2005-05-01
Based on the fact that hyperspherical radial dynamics of the Helium atom can be slow comparing to other coordinates we formulate adiabatic Hartree-Fock equations for the Hydrogen atom in both circularly polarized and the magnetic fields for the Langmuir states both in the circularly polarized and magnetic fields. The time-dependent Hartree-Fock equations are solved as functions of the effective parameter z (approximately the hyperspherical radius of the suspected configuration) and then the time-averaged energy is minimized to obtained the electron equilibrium in third spatial direction. The transverse part of the wave function is then found by solving two-dimensional Schr"odinger equation with the effective potential found from the minimalization.
Spectral methods on arbitrary grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carpenter, Mark H.; Gottlieb, David
1995-01-01
Stable and spectrally accurate numerical methods are constructed on arbitrary grids for partial differential equations. These new methods are equivalent to conventional spectral methods but do not rely on specific grid distributions. Specifically, we show how to implement Legendre Galerkin, Legendre collocation, and Laguerre Galerkin methodology on arbitrary grids.
Ion Engine Grid Gap Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Soulas, Gerge C.; Frandina, Michael M.
2004-01-01
A simple technique for measuring the grid gap of an ion engine s ion optics during startup and steady-state operation was demonstrated with beam extraction. The grid gap at the center of the ion optics assembly was measured with a long distance microscope that was focused onto an alumina pin that protruded through the center accelerator grid aperture and was mechanically attached to the screen grid. This measurement technique was successfully applied to a 30 cm titanium ion optics assembly mounted onto an NSTAR engineering model ion engine. The grid gap and each grid s movement during startup from room temperature to both full and low power were measured. The grid gaps with and without beam extraction were found to be significantly different. The grid gaps at the ion optics center were both significantly smaller than the cold grid gap and different at the two power levels examined. To avoid issues associated with a small grid gap during thruster startup with titanium ion optics, a simple method was to operate the thruster initially without beam extraction to heat the ion optics. Another possible method is to apply high voltage to the grids prior to igniting the discharge because power deposition to the grids from the plasma is lower with beam extraction than without. Further testing would be required to confirm this approach.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Varlet, Manuel; Marin, Ludovic; Lagarde, Julien; Bardy, Benoit G.
2011-01-01
The goal of the current study was to investigate whether a visual coupling between two people can produce spontaneous interpersonal postural coordination and change their intrapersonal postural coordination involved in the control of stance. We examined the front-to-back head displacements of participants and the angular motion of their hip and…
IVS Technology Coordinator Report
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitney, Alan
2013-01-01
This report of the Technology Coordinator includes the following: 1) continued work to implement the new VLBI2010 system, 2) the 1st International VLBI Technology Workshop, 3) a VLBI Digital- Backend Intercomparison Workshop, 4) DiFX software correlator development for geodetic VLBI, 5) a review of progress towards global VLBI standards, and 6) a welcome to new IVS Technology Coordinator Bill Petrachenko.
Gorman, Jamie C; Amazeen, Polemnia G; Cooke, Nancy J
2010-07-01
Team coordination consists of both the dynamics of team member interaction and the environmental dynamics to which a team is subjected. Focusing on dynamics, an approach is developed that contrasts with traditional aggregate-static concepts of team coordination as characterized by the shared mental model approach. A team coordination order parameter was developed to capture momentary fluctuations in coordination. Team coordination was observed in three-person uninhabited air vehicle teams across two experimental sessions. The dynamics of the order parameter were observed under changes of a team familiarity control parameter. Team members returned for the second session to either the same (Intact) or different (Mixed) team. 'Roadblock' perturbations, or novel changes in the task environment, were introduced in order to probe the stability of team coordination. Nonlinear dynamic methods revealed differences that a traditional approach did not: Intact and Mixed team coordination dynamics looked very different; Mixed teams were more stable than Intact teams and explored the space of solutions without the need for correction. Stability was positively correlated with the number of roadblock perturbations that were overcome successfully. The novel and non-intuitive contribution of a dynamical analysis was that Mixed teams, who did not have a long history working together, were more adaptive. Team coordination dynamics carries new implications for traditional problems such as training adaptive teams. PMID:20587302
2014-05-01
Any complex operation requires a system for management. In most societies, disaster management is the responsibility of the government. Coordination and control is a system that provides the oversight for all of the disaster management functions. The roles and responsibilities of a coordination and control centre include: (1) planning; (2) maintenance of inventories; (3) activation of the disaster response plan; (4) application of indicators of function; (5) surveillance; (6) information management; (7) coordination of activities of the BSFs; (8) decision-making; (9) priority setting; (10) defining overarching goal and objectives for interventions; (11) applying indicators of effectiveness; (12) applying indicators of benefit and impact; (13) exercising authority; (14) managing resources; (15) initiating actions; (16) preventing influx of unneeded resources; (17) defining progress; (18) providing information; (19) liasing with responding organisations; and (20) providing quality assurance. Coordination and control is impossible without communications. To accomplish coordination and control, three factors must be present: (1) mandate; (2) power and authority; and (3) available resources. Coordination and control is responsible for the evaluation of the effectiveness and benefits/impacts of all interventions. Coordination and control centres (CCCs) are organised hierarchically from the on-scene CCCs (incident command) to local provincial to national CCCs. Currently, no comprehensive regional and international CCCs have been universally endorsed. Systems such as the incident command system, the unified command system, and the hospital incident command system are described as are the humanitarian reform movement and the importance of coordination and control in disaster planning and preparedness. PMID:24785803
Hamilton, Scott; Hamilton, Trevor J
2015-01-01
A fundamental discussion in lower-level undergraduate neuroscience and psychology courses is Descartes's "radical" or "mind-body" dualism. According to Descartes, our thinking mind, the res cogitans, is separate from the body as physical matter or substance, the res extensa. Since the transmission of sensory stimuli from the body to the mind is a physical capacity shared with animals, it can be confused, misled, or uncertain (e.g., bodily senses imply that ice and water are different substances). True certainty thus arises from within the mind and its capacity to doubt physical stimuli. Since this doubting mind is a thinking thing that is distinct from bodily stimuli, truth and certainty are reached through the doubting mind as cogito ergo sum, or the certainty of itself as it thinks: hence Descartes's famous maxim, I think, therefore I am. However, in the last century of Western philosophy, with nervous system investigation, and with recent advances in neuroscience, the potential avenues to explore student's understanding of the epistemology and effects of Cartesian mind-body dualism has expanded. This article further explores this expansion, highlighting pedagogical practices and tools instructors can use to enhance a psychology student's understanding of Cartesian dualistic epistemology, in order to think more critically about its implicit assumptions and effects on learning. It does so in two ways: first, by offering instructors an alternative philosophical perspective to dualistic thinking: a mind-body holism that is antithetical to the assumed binaries of dualistic epistemology. Second, it supplements this philosophical argument with a practical component: simple mind-body illusions that instructors may use to demonstrate contrary epistemologies to students. Combining these short philosophical and neuroscience arguments thereby acts as a pedagogical tool to open new conceptual spaces within which learning may occur. PMID:26321981
Hamilton, Scott; Hamilton, Trevor J.
2015-01-01
A fundamental discussion in lower-level undergraduate neuroscience and psychology courses is Descartes’s “radical” or “mind-body” dualism. According to Descartes, our thinking mind, the res cogitans, is separate from the body as physical matter or substance, the res extensa. Since the transmission of sensory stimuli from the body to the mind is a physical capacity shared with animals, it can be confused, misled, or uncertain (e.g., bodily senses imply that ice and water are different substances). True certainty thus arises from within the mind and its capacity to doubt physical stimuli. Since this doubting mind is a thinking thing that is distinct from bodily stimuli, truth and certainty are reached through the doubting mind as cogito ergo sum, or the certainty of itself as it thinks: hence Descartes’s famous maxim, I think, therefore I am. However, in the last century of Western philosophy, with nervous system investigation, and with recent advances in neuroscience, the potential avenues to explore student’s understanding of the epistemology and effects of Cartesian mind-body dualism has expanded. This article further explores this expansion, highlighting pedagogical practices and tools instructors can use to enhance a psychology student’s understanding of Cartesian dualistic epistemology, in order to think more critically about its implicit assumptions and effects on learning. It does so in two ways: first, by offering instructors an alternative philosophical perspective to dualistic thinking: a mind-body holism that is antithetical to the assumed binaries of dualistic epistemology. Second, it supplements this philosophical argument with a practical component: simple mind-body illusions that instructors may use to demonstrate contrary epistemologies to students. Combining these short philosophical and neuroscience arguments thereby acts as a pedagogical tool to open new conceptual spaces within which learning may occur. PMID:26321981
Data location-aware job scheduling in the grid. Application to the GridWay metascheduler
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delgado Peris, Antonio; Hernandez, Jose; Huedo, Eduardo; Llorente, Ignacio M.
2010-04-01
Grid infrastructures constitute nowadays the core of the computing facilities of the biggest LHC experiments. These experiments produce and manage petabytes of data per year and run thousands of computing jobs every day to process that data. It is the duty of metaschedulers to allocate the tasks to the most appropriate resources at the proper time. Our work reviews the policies that have been proposed for the scheduling of grid jobs in the context of very data-intensive applications. We indicate some of the practical problems that such models will face and describe what we consider essential characteristics of an optimum scheduling system: aim to minimise not only job turnaround time but also data replication, flexibility to support different virtual organisation requirements and capability to coordinate the tasks of data placement and job allocation while keeping their execution decoupled. These ideas have guided the development of an enhanced prototype for GridWay, a general purpose metascheduler, part of the Globus Toolkit and member of the EGEE's RESPECT program. Current GridWay's scheduling algorithm is unaware of data location. Our prototype makes it possible for job requests to set data needs not only as absolute requirements but also as functions for resource ranking. As our tests show, this makes it more flexible than currently used resource brokers to implement different data-aware scheduling algorithms.
Grid integrated distributed PV (GridPV).
Reno, Matthew J.; Coogan, Kyle
2013-08-01
This manual provides the documentation of the MATLAB toolbox of functions for using OpenDSS to simulate the impact of solar energy on the distribution system. The majority of the functions are useful for interfacing OpenDSS and MATLAB, and they are of generic use for commanding OpenDSS from MATLAB and retrieving information from simulations. A set of functions is also included for modeling PV plant output and setting up the PV plant in the OpenDSS simulation. The toolbox contains functions for modeling the OpenDSS distribution feeder on satellite images with GPS coordinates. Finally, example simulations functions are included to show potential uses of the toolbox functions. Each function in the toolbox is documented with the function use syntax, full description, function input list, function output list, example use, and example output.
Cloud Computing for the Grid: GridControl: A Software Platform to Support the Smart Grid
2012-02-08
GENI Project: Cornell University is creating a new software platform for grid operators called GridControl that will utilize cloud computing to more efficiently control the grid. In a cloud computing system, there are minimal hardware and software demands on users. The user can tap into a network of computers that is housed elsewhere (the cloud) and the network runs computer applications for the user. The user only needs interface software to access all of the cloud’s data resources, which can be as simple as a web browser. Cloud computing can reduce costs, facilitate innovation through sharing, empower users, and improve the overall reliability of a dispersed system. Cornell’s GridControl will focus on 4 elements: delivering the state of the grid to users quickly and reliably; building networked, scalable grid-control software; tailoring services to emerging smart grid uses; and simulating smart grid behavior under various conditions.
Smart Grid Demonstration Project
Miller, Craig; Carroll, Paul; Bell, Abigail
2015-03-11
The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and
Gridded electron reversal ionizer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chutjian, Ara (Inventor)
1993-01-01
A gridded electron reversal ionizer forms a three dimensional cloud of zero or near-zero energy electrons in a cavity within a filament structure surrounding a central electrode having holes through which the sample gas, at reduced pressure, enters an elongated reversal volume. The resultant negative ion stream is applied to a mass analyzer. The reduced electron and ion space-charge limitations of this configuration enhances detection sensitivity for material to be detected by electron attachment, such as narcotic and explosive vapors. Positive ions may be generated by generating electrons having a higher energy, sufficient to ionize the target gas and pulsing the grid negative to stop the electron flow and pulsing the extraction aperture positive to draw out the positive ions.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-01-07
... Energy Regulatory Commission Atlantic Grid Operations A LLC, Atlantic Grid Operations B LLC, Atlantic Grid Operations C LLC, Atlantic Grid Operations D LLC and Atlantic Grid Operations E LLC; Notice of... (Commission) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207, and Order No. 679,\\1\\ Atlantic Grid Operations...
Coordination sequences and coordination waves in matter
Rau, V. G. Pugaev, A. A.; Rau, T. F.
2006-01-15
A possible way of partitioning a space into polycubes (n-dimensional modifications of Golomb polyominoes, which are generally nonconvex) is used as a basic model of ordered matter structure. It is suggested that layer-by-layer growth of a structure, occurring along the geodetics of the digraph of a net defined by the local rules of bonding of polycubes, justifies the phenomenological laws of shaping (self-similarity during the growth, independence of the polyhedron shape on the 'seed,' the symmetry of the growth polyhedron, etc.). Specific results of the analysis of number sequences of the increase in coordination circles for planar periodic partitions of model and real crystal structures, as well as the preliminary results of investigation of standing coordination topological waves, revealed for the first time in computer experiments, are reported.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stocker, Erich Franz
2007-01-01
NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) has many products that contain instantaneous or gridded rain rates often among many other parameters. However, these products because of their completeness can often seem intimidating to users just desiring surface rain rates. For example one of the gridded monthly products contains well over 200 parameters. It is clear that if only rain rates are desired, this many parameters might prove intimidating. In addition, for many good reasons these products are archived and currently distributed in HDF format. This also can be an inhibiting factor in using TRMM rain rates. To provide a simple format and isolate just the rain rates from the many other parameters, the TRMM product created a series of gridded products in ASCII text format. This paper describes the various text rain rate products produced. It provides detailed information about parameters and how they are calculated. It also gives detailed format information. These products are used in a number of applications with the TRMM processing system. The products are produced from the swath instantaneous rain rates and contain information from the three major TRMM instruments: radar, radiometer, and combined. They are simple to use, human readable, and small for downloading.
Wireless Communications in Smart Grid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bojkovic, Zoran; Bakmaz, Bojan
Communication networks play a crucial role in smart grid, as the intelligence of this complex system is built based on information exchange across the power grid. Wireless communications and networking are among the most economical ways to build the essential part of the scalable communication infrastructure for smart grid. In particular, wireless networks will be deployed widely in the smart grid for automatic meter reading, remote system and customer site monitoring, as well as equipment fault diagnosing. With an increasing interest from both the academic and industrial communities, this chapter systematically investigates recent advances in wireless communication technology for the smart grid.
Grid generation for turbomachinery problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steinhoff, J.; Reddy, K. C.
1986-01-01
The development of a computer code to generate numerical grids for complex internal flow systems such as the fluid flow inside the space shuttle main engine is outlined. The blending technique for generating a grid for stator-rotor combination at a particular radial section is examined. The computer programs which generate these grids are listed in the Appendices. These codes are capable of generating grids at different cross sections and thus providng three dimensional stator-rotor grids for the turbomachinery of the space shuttle main engine.