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Sample records for carvao vegetal obtido

  1. Fermented Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter is organized into several sections. The first has information on the history of vegetable fermentation research in the US, dating back to the late 1880s. A overview of commercial cucumber and sauerkraut fermentation practices follows, focusing on the US market, although there is some me...

  2. Fermented Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wide variety of fermented foods of the world can be classified by the materials obtained from the fermentation, such as alcohol (beer, wine), organic acid such as lactic acid and acetic acid (vegetables, dairy), carbon dioxide (bread), and amino acids or peptides from protein (fish fermentations...

  3. Non-Starchy Vegetables

    MedlinePlus

    ... the non-starchy vegetables . Starchy vegetables like potatoes, corn and peas are included in the " Grains and ... or Chinese spinach Artichoke Artichoke hearts Asparagus Baby corn Bamboo shoots Beans (green, wax, Italian) Bean sprouts ...

  4. Fruits and vegetables (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, ...

  5. Natural vegetation inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrumpf, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    Unique characteristics of ERTS imagery can be used to inventory natural vegetation. While satellite images can seldom be interpreted and identified directly in terms of vegetation types, such types can be inferred by interpretation of physical terrain features and through an understanding of the ecology of the vegetation.

  6. THE VEGETATIVE MERISTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The vegetative shoot apical meristem is a highly organized yet dynamic structure. It is responsible for maintaining the proliferation of a population of undifferentiated stem cells through-out vegetative development, as well as for initiating lateral organs in stereotypical patterns. The vegetative...

  7. Vegetable oil fuel standards

    SciTech Connect

    Pryde, E.H.

    1982-01-01

    Suggested standards for vegetable oils and ester fuels, as well as ASTM specifications for No. 2 diesel oil are given. The following physical properties were discussed: cetane number, cloud point, distillation temperatures, flash point, pour point, turbidity, viscosity, free fatty acids, iodine value, phosphorus, and wax. It was apparent that vegetable oils and their esters cannot meet ASTM specifications D975 for No. 2 diesel oil for use in the diesel engine. Vegetable oil modification or engine design modification may make it possible eventually for vegetable oils to become suitable alternative fuels. Vegetable oils must be recognized as experimental fuels until modifications have been tested thoroughly and generally accepted. 1 table. (DP)

  8. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  9. Fruit and Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of fruit and vegetable products has dramatically increased by more than 30% over the last few decades in the U.S. It is also estimated that about 20% of all fruit and vegetables produced is lost each year due to spoilage. The focus of this chapter is to provide a general background on mi...

  10. POTENTIAL NATURAL VEGETATION COVERAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    "Potential natural vegetation is defined as the vegetation that would exist today if humans were removed from the scene and if the plant succession after their removal were telescoped into a single moment. The time compression eliminates the effects of future climatic fluc...

  11. Hillslope soils and vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amundson, Ronald; Heimsath, Arjun; Owen, Justine; Yoo, Kyungsoo; Dietrich, William E.

    2015-04-01

    Assessing how vegetation controls hillslope soil processes is a challenging problem, as few abiotic landscapes exist as observational controls. Here we identify five avenues to examine how actively eroding hillslope soils and processes would differ without vegetation, and we explore some potential feedbacks that may result in landscape resilience on vegetated hillslopes. The various approaches suggest that a plant-free world would be characterized by largely soil-free hillslopes, that plants may control the maximum thickness of soils on slopes, that vegetated landforms erode at rates about one order of magnitude faster than plant-free outcrops in comparable settings, and that vegetated hillslope soils generally maintain long residence times such that both N and P sufficiency for ecosystems is the norm. We conclude that quantitatively parameterizing biota within process-based hillslope models needs to be a priority in order to project how human activity may further impact the soil mantle.

  12. Vegetation against dune mobility.

    PubMed

    Durán, Orencio; Herrmann, Hans J

    2006-11-01

    Vegetation is the most common and most reliable stabilizer of loose soil or sand. This ancient technique is for the first time cast into a set of equations of motion describing the competition between aeolian sand transport and vegetation growth. Our set of equations is then applied to study quantitatively the transition between barchans and parabolic dunes driven by the dimensionless fixation index theta which is the ratio between the dune characteristic erosion rate and vegetation growth velocity. We find a fixation index theta(c) below which the dunes are stabilized, characterized by scaling laws. PMID:17155579

  13. Vegetable Production System (Veggie)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Howard G.; Smith, Trent M.

    2016-01-01

    The Vegetable Production System (Veggie) was developed by Orbital Technologies Corp. to be a simple, easily stowed, and high growth volume yet low resource facility capable of producing fresh vegetables on the International Space Station (ISS). In addition to growing vegetables in space, Veggie can support a variety of experiments designed to determine how plants respond to microgravity, provide real-time psychological benefits for the crew, and conduct outreach activities. Currently, Veggie provides the largest volume available for plant growth on the ISS.

  14. Vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Fifty contributions (presentations) involving more than one hundred people worldwide were given at the International Conference on Plant and Vegetable Oils as Fuels. The proceedings were in Fargo, North Dakota, from August 2-4, 1982. The conference helped to promote renewable fuels, bio-oils, from plant and vegetable oils. Separate abstracts were prepared for 44 items for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  15. Monitoring global vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.; Houston, A. G.; Heydorn, R. P.; Botkin, D. B.; Estes, J. E.; Strahler, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt is made to identify the need for, and the current capability of, a technology which could aid in monitoring the Earth's vegetation resource on a global scale. Vegetation is one of our most critical natural resources, and accurate timely information on its current status and temporal dynamics is essential to understand many basic and applied environmental interrelationships which exist on the small but complex planet Earth.

  16. Treatment of vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Bessler, T.R.

    1986-05-13

    A process is described for preparing an injectable vegetable oil selected from the group consisting of soybean oil and sunflower oil and mixtures thereof which comprise: (a) first treating the vegetable oil at a temperature of 80/sup 0/C to about 130/sup 0/C with an acid clay; (b) deodorizing the vegetable oil with steam at a temperature of 220/sup 0/C to about 280/sup 0/C and applying a vacuum to remove volatilized components; (c) treating the deodorized vegetable oil, at a temperature of from about 10/sup 0/C to about 60/sup 0/C, with an acid clay to reduce the content of a member selected from the group consisting of diglycerides, tocopherol components, and trilinolenin and mixtures thereof, wherein the acid clay is added in a weight ratio to the deoderized vegetable oil of from about 1:99 to about 1:1; and (d) thereafter conducting a particulate filtration to remove a substantial portion of the acid clay from the vegetable oil, wherein the filtration is accomplished with filters having a pore size of from about 0.1 to 0.45 microns, thereby obtaining the injectable oil.

  17. Products from vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Bagby, M.O.

    1995-12-01

    Vegetable oils serve various industrial applications such as plasticizers, emulsifiers, surfactants, plastics and resins. Research and development approaches may take advantage of natural properties of the oils. More often it is advantageous to modify those properties for specific applications. One example is the preparation of ink vehicles using vegetable oils in the absence of petroleum. They are cost competitive with petroleum-based inks with similar quality factors. Vegetable oils have potential as renewable sources of fuels for the diesel engine. However, several characteristics can restrict their use. These include poor cold-engine startup, misfire and for selected fuels, high pour point and cloud point temperatures. Other characteristics include incomplete combustion causing carbon buildup, lube oil dilution and degradation, and elevated NO{sub x} emissions. Precombustion and fuel quality data are presented as a tool for understanding and solving these operational and durability problems.

  18. Fermented and Acidified Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetables may be preserved by fermentation, direct acidification, or a combination of these along with pasteurization or refrigeration and selected additives to yield products with an extended shelf life and enhanced safety. Organic acids such as lactic, acetic, sorbic and benzoic acids along with ...

  19. Vegetable Soup Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Mary; Shepard, Ray

    Vegetable Soup is a new children's television series whose purpose is to counter the negative and destructive effects of racial isolation. This manual gives detailed instructions for discussion of activities that are presented during the television series such as: crafts, games, recipes, language activities, and children's questions. A list of…

  20. Vegetable oil as fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    A review is presented of various experiments undertaken over the past few years in the U.S. to test the performance of vegetable oils in diesel engines, mainly with a view to on-farm energy self-sufficiency. The USDA Northern Regional Research Center in Peoria, Illinois, is screening native U.S. plant species as potential fuel oil sources.

  1. Estimating the vegetation water content using a radar vegetation index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation water content is an important biophysical parameter. Here, the Radar Vegetation Index (RVI) based on polarimetric backscatter observations was evaluated for estimating vegetation water content. Analysis utilized a data set obtained by a ground-based multi-frequency polarimetric scatterome...

  2. Cruciferous Vegetables and Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... vegetables are part of the Brassica genus of plants. They include the following vegetables, among others: Arugula ... Jain MG, Hislop GT, Howe GR, Ghadirian P. Plant foods, antioxidants, and prostate cancer risk: findings from ...

  3. Refinement of microwave vegetation indices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous investigations have established the basis for a new type of vegetation index based on passive microwave satellite observations. These microwave vegetation indices (MVIs) have been qualitatively evaluated by examining global spatial and seasonal temporal features. Limited quantitative studie...

  4. Vegetable oil based grease formulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental concerns have brought forward vegetable oils as alternatives to more expensive synthetic lubricant base oils and less environmental friendly petroleum base stocks, in moderate operating conditions. Vegetable oils are becoming an obvious choice for potential replacement of petroleum ba...

  5. Vegetable oil fuels: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.

    1999-04-01

    Using vegetable oils as fuel alternatives has economic, environmental, and energy benefits for Turkey. The present work provides insight to the status of vegetable oil fuels in Turkey. A brief historical background of the issue, as well as an up to date review of the research carried out on vegetable oil fuels, is given and the future of their production and application is discussed.

  6. Fruit and vegetable allergy.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable allergies are the most prevalent food allergies in adolescents and adults. The identification of the allergens involved and the elucidation of their intrinsic properties and cross-reactivity patterns has helped in the understanding of the mechanisms of sensitisation and how the allergen profiles determine the different phenotypes. The most frequent yet contrasting fruit and vegetable allergies are pollen-food syndrome (PFS) and lipid transfer protein (LTP) syndrome. In PFS, fruit and vegetable allergies result from a primary sensitisation to labile pollen allergens, such as Bet v 1 or profilin, and the resulting phenotype is mainly mild, consisting of local oropharyngeal reactions. In contrast, LTP syndrome results from a primary sensitisation to LTPs, which are stable plant food allergens, inducing frequent systemic reactions and even anaphylaxis. Although much less prevalent, severe fruit allergies may be associated with latex (latex-fruit syndrome). Molecular diagnosis is essential in guiding the management and risk assessment of these patients. Current management strategies comprise avoidance and rescue medication, including adrenaline, for severe LTP allergies. Specific immunotherapy with pollen is not indicated to treat pollen-food syndrome, but sublingual immunotherapy with LTPs seems to be a promising therapy for LTP syndrome. PMID:26022876

  7. Fruits and vegetables dehydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ita, A.; Flores, G.; Franco, F.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different.

  8. Evolution of vegetated waterways design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1990, the USDA-ARS Hydraulic Engineering Research Unit (HERU) was recognized as a National Historic Landmark by ASABE for its groundbreaking work and development of vegetated waterways design procedures. In 2000, ASABE acknowledged the vegetated waterway design criteria as an Outstanding Achieve...

  9. Increasing vegetable consumption in adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have demonstrated that diets rich in vegetables may protect against many chronic diseases and overweight. Despite these benefits, consumption in children and adolescents is well below recommended levels. Finding methods to increase vegetable consumption in adolescents is important. Our objec...

  10. Recovery times of riparian vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesipa, R.; Camporeale, C.; Ridolfi, L.

    2016-04-01

    Riparian vegetation is a key element in a number of processes that determine the ecogeomorphological features of the river landscape. Depending on the river water stage fluctuations, vegetation biomass randomly switches between growth and degradation phases and exhibits relevant temporal variations. A full understanding of vegetation dynamics is therefore only possible if the hydrological stochastic forcing is considered. In this vein, we focus on the recovery time of vegetation, namely the typical time taken by vegetation to recover a well-developed state starting from a low biomass value (induced, for instance, by an intense flood). The analytical expression of the plot-dependent recovery time is given, the role of hydrological and biological parameters is discussed, and the impact of river-induced randomness is highlighted. Finally, the effect of man-induced hydrological changes (e.g., river damming or climate changes) is explored.

  11. Carboniferous coal swamp vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, T.L.; Peppers, R.A.; DiMichele, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Carboniferous Period was one of considerable change on the Earth. The volume explores these changes by using plant morphology and paleoecology to develop the relationship between plant evolution and the derived coal sources. Both are interrelated by the regional and stratigraphic trends in paleoecology and paleoclimatology. The book is divided into three sections dealing with geology, plant morphology including palynology, and paleoecology. In Section I, the paleogeography, geologic settings of major coal basins, coal resources, coal-ball origins and occurrences, and the sources of paleobotanical information are presented with biostratigraphic correlations of Europe and the United States. Section II emphasizes plant morphology as form and structure provide the means of identifying plants and, in turn, establishing development, size, habit, reproductive biology, environmental parameters, and evolutionary change. Quantitative abundances and stratigraphic ranges of plants and spores are compared and summarized. Lastly, Section III integrates coal-ball peats and coal-spore floras as complementary sources for the quantitative analyses of coal-swamp vegetation in relation to climate and coal. The local and regional swamp studies are interfaced and basinal geology and depositional interpretations in a stratigraphic succession.

  12. Dielectric properties of marsh vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochetkova, Tatiana D.; Suslyaev, Valentin I.; Shcheglova, Anna S.

    2015-10-01

    The present work is devoted to the measurement of the dielectric properties of mosses and lichens in the frequency range from 500 MHz to 18 GHz. Subjects of this research were three species of march vegetation - moss (Dicranum polysetum Michx), groundcedar (Diphasiastrum complanatum (L.) Holub) and lichen (Cladonia stellaris). Samples of vegetation were collected in Tomsk region, Western Siberia, Russia. Complex dielectric permittivity was measured in coaxial section by Agilent Technologies vector network analyzer E8363B. Green samples was measured for some moisture contents from 100% to 3-5 % during a natural drying. The measurements were performed at room temperature, which remained within 21 ÷ 23 ° C. The frequency dependence of the dielectric constant for the three species of marsh vegetation differ markedly. Different parts of the complex permittivity dependency on moisture were fitted by line for all frequency points. Two break point were observed corresponding to the transition of water in the vegetation in various phase states. The complex permittivity spectra of water in the vegetation allow determining the most likely corresponding dielectric model of water in the vegetation by the method of hypothesis testing. It is the Debye's model. Parameters of Debye's model were obtained by numerical methods for all of three states of water. This enables to calculate the dielectric constant of water at any frequency range from 500 MHz to 18 GHz and to find the parameters of the dielectric model of the vegetation.

  13. Monitoring vegetation phenology using MODIS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Xiayong; Friedl, Mark A.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Strahler, Alan H.; Hodges, John C.F.; Gao, Feng; Reed, Bradley C.; Huete, Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    Accurate measurements of regional to global scale vegetation dynamics (phenology) are required to improve models and understanding of inter-annual variability in terrestrial ecosystem carbon exchange and climate–biosphere interactions. Since the mid-1980s, satellite data have been used to study these processes. In this paper, a new methodology to monitor global vegetation phenology from time series of satellite data is presented. The method uses series of piecewise logistic functions, which are fit to remotely sensed vegetation index (VI) data, to represent intra-annual vegetation dynamics. Using this approach, transition dates for vegetation activity within annual time series of VI data can be determined from satellite data. The method allows vegetation dynamics to be monitored at large scales in a fashion that it is ecologically meaningful and does not require pre-smoothing of data or the use of user-defined thresholds. Preliminary results based on an annual time series of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data for the northeastern United States demonstrate that the method is able to monitor vegetation phenology with good success.

  14. Recovery times of riparian vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesipa, Riccardo; Camporeale, Carlo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Riparian vegetation is a key element in a number of processes that determine the eco-geomorphological features of the river landscape. Depending on the river water stage fluctuations, vegetation biomass randomly switches between growth and decay phases, and its biomass exhibits relevant temporal variations. A full understanding of vegetation dynamics is therefore only possible if the hydrological stochastic forcing is considered. In this vein, we focus on the recovery time of vegetation, namely the typical time taken by vegetation to recover a health state starting from a low biomass value (induced, for instance, by an intense flood). The minimalistic stochastic modeling approach is used for describing vegetation dynamics (i.e., the noise-driven alternation of growth and decay phases). The recovery time of biomass is then evaluated according to the theory of the mean first passage time in systems driven by dichotomous noise. The effect of the main hydrological and biological parameters on the vegetation recovery was studied, and the dynamics along the riparian transect was described in details. The effect of climate change and human interventions (e.g., river damming) was also investigated. We found that: (i) the oscillations of the river stage delay the recovery process (up to one order of magnitude, with respect to undisturbed conditions); (ii) hydrological/biological alterations (due to climate change, damming, exotic species invasion) modify the timescales of the recovery. The result provided can be a useful tool for the management of the river. They open the way to the estimation of: (i) the recovery time of vegetation after devastating floods, clear cutting or fires and; (ii) the timescale of the vegetation response to hydrological and biological alterations.

  15. Green vegetation, nonphotosynthetic vegetation, and soils in AVIRIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, D. A.; Smith, M. O.; Adams, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of distinguishing between green vegetation, nonphotosynthetic vegetation (NPV, such as dry grass, leaf litter, and woody material), and soils in imaging-spectrometer data is addressed by analyzing an image taken by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) over the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve (California) on September 20, 1989, using spectral mixture analysis. Over 98 percent of the spectral variation could be explained by linear mixtures of three endmembers, green vegetation, shade, and soil. NPV, which could not be distinguished from soil when included as an endmember, was discriminated by residual spectra that contained cellulose and lignin absorptions. Distinct communities of green vegetation were distinguished by (1) nonlinear mixing effect caused by transmission and scattering by green leaves, (2) variations in a derived canopy-shade spectrum, and (3) the fraction of NPV.

  16. Pesticides on fruits and vegetables

    MedlinePlus

    ... option, you may want to buy and serve organic produce. Organic growers do not use pesticides on their fruits ... To remove harmful bacteria, you must wash both organic and nonorganic fruits and vegetables.

  17. The Circumpolar Arctic vegetation map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, Donald A.; Raynolds, Martha K.; Daniels, F.J.A.; Einarsson, E.; Elvebakk, A.; Gould, W.A.; Katenin, A.E.; Kholod, S.S.; Markon, C.J.; Melnikov, E.S.; Moskalenko, N.G.; Talbot, S. S.; Yurtsev, B.A.; Bliss, L.C.; Edlund, S.A.; Zoltai, S.C.; Wilhelm, M.; Bay, C.; Gudjonsson, G.; Ananjeva, G.V.; Drozdov, D.S.; Konchenko, L.A.; Korostelev, Y.V.; Ponomareva, O.E.; Matveyeva, N.V.; Safranova, I.N.; Shelkunova, R.; Polezhaev, A.N.; Johansen, B.E.; Maier, H.A.; Murray, D.F.; Fleming, Michael D.; Trahan, N.G.; Charron, T.M.; Lauritzen, S.M.; Vairin, B.A.

    2005-01-01

    Question: What are the major vegetation units in the Arctic, what is their composition, and how are they distributed among major bioclimate subzones and countries? Location: The Arctic tundra region, north of the tree line. Methods: A photo-interpretive approach was used to delineate the vegetation onto an Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) base image. Mapping experts within nine Arctic regions prepared draft maps using geographic information technology (ArcInfo) of their portion of the Arctic, and these were later synthesized to make the final map. Area analysis of the map was done according to bioclimate subzones, and country. The integrated mapping procedures resulted in other maps of vegetation, topography, soils, landscapes, lake cover, substrate pH, and above-ground biomass. Results: The final map was published at 1:7 500 000 scale map. Within the Arctic (total area = 7.11 x 106 km 2), about 5.05 ?? 106 km2 is vegetated. The remainder is ice covered. The map legend generally portrays the zonal vegetation within each map polygon. About 26% of the vegetated area is erect shrublands, 18% peaty graminoid tundras, 13% mountain complexes, 12% barrens, 11% mineral graminoid tundras, 11% prostrate-shrub tundras, and 7% wetlands. Canada has by far the most terrain in the High Arctic mostly associated with abundant barren types and prostrate dwarf-shrub tundra, whereas Russia has the largest area in the Low Arctic, predominantly low-shrub tundra. Conclusions: The CAVM is the first vegetation map of an entire global biome at a comparable resolution. The consistent treatment of the vegetation across the circumpolar Arctic, abundant ancillary material, and digital database should promote the application to numerous land-use, and climate-change applications and will make updating the map relatively easy. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  18. Handling Procedures of Vegetable Crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; French, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is working towards future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit. The duration of these missions may be as long as 2.5 years and will likely include a stay on a lunar or planetary surface. The primary goal of the Advanced Food System in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious, and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. Vegetable crops can provide the crew with added nutrition and variety. These crops do not require any cooking or food processing prior to consumption. The vegetable crops, unlike prepackaged foods, will provide bright colors, textures (crispy), and fresh aromas. Ten vegetable crops have been identified for possible use in long duration missions. They are lettuce, spinach, carrot, tomato, green onion, radish, bell pepper, strawberries, fresh herbs, and cabbage. Whether these crops are grown on a transit vehicle (e.g., International Space Station) or on the lunar or planetary surface, it will be necessary to determine how to safely handle the vegetables while maintaining acceptability. Since hydrogen peroxide degrades into water and oxygen and is generally recognized as safe (GRAS), hydrogen peroxide has been recommended as the sanitizer. The objective of th is research is to determine the required effective concentration of hydrogen peroxide. In addition, it will be determined whether the use of hydrogen peroxide, although a viable sanitizer, adversely affects the quality of the vegetables. Vegetables will be dipped in 1 % hydrogen peroxide, 3% hydrogen peroxide, or 5% hydrogen peroxide. Treated produce and controls will be stored in plastic bags at 5 C for up to 14 days. Sensory, color, texture, and total plate count will be measured. The effect on several vegetables including lettuce, radish, tomato and strawberries has been completed. Although each vegetable reacts to hydrogen peroxide differently, the

  19. 18 CFR 1304.203 - Vegetation management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vegetation management...-Owned Residential Access Shoreland § 1304.203 Vegetation management. No vegetation management shall be approved on TVA-owned Residential Access Shoreland until a Vegetation Management Plan meeting...

  20. 18 CFR 1304.203 - Vegetation management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vegetation management...-Owned Residential Access Shoreland § 1304.203 Vegetation management. No vegetation management shall be approved on TVA-owned Residential Access Shoreland until a Vegetation Management Plan meeting...

  1. 18 CFR 1304.203 - Vegetation management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vegetation management...-Owned Residential Access Shoreland § 1304.203 Vegetation management. No vegetation management shall be approved on TVA-owned Residential Access Shoreland until a Vegetation Management Plan meeting...

  2. 18 CFR 1304.203 - Vegetation management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vegetation management...-Owned Residential Access Shoreland § 1304.203 Vegetation management. No vegetation management shall be approved on TVA-owned Residential Access Shoreland until a Vegetation Management Plan meeting...

  3. 18 CFR 1304.203 - Vegetation management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Vegetation management...-Owned Residential Access Shoreland § 1304.203 Vegetation management. No vegetation management shall be approved on TVA-owned Residential Access Shoreland until a Vegetation Management Plan meeting...

  4. Thermal properties for vegetation cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksyutina, D.; Motenko, R.

    2011-12-01

    Different samples of undisturbed vegetation cover were studied under laboratory conditions. Samples were collected from New Chara city, north of the Chita region. Vegetation cover in this area is represented by moss, lichen and tussock growth. Thermal properties were investigated by the I-st type regular mode method (a-calorimeter), the freezing temperature was studied by cryoscopic methods. The dry density of sampled specimens varies from 0.04 to 0.24 g/cm3, and humidity varies from 250 to 375 percent. The freezing temperature depends on moisture content and varies from -0.2 to 0 degrees centigrade. The vegetation cover had low thermal conductivities which varies from 0.05 to 0.46 W/(m*K) in unfrozen conditions, and from 0.07 to 1.14 W/(m*K) in frozen conditions, according to density and moisture content. Diffusivity of samples varies from 0.073*10-6 to 0.114*10-6 m2/s in thawed conditions, and from 0.174*10-6 to 0.584*10-6 m2/s in frozen conditions. The sod (bottom of vegetation cover) had relatively high thermal properties. Thermal properties of vegetation cover and peat (turf) were compared. The thermal conductivity of peat was much higher than thermal conductivity of vegetation cover. This data may be used for modeling of the thickness of the seasonally thawed layer and ground temperature variation. The knowledge of thermal properties of these samples allows us to view vegetation cover as a separate layer of geological section.

  5. Floodflow effects on riparian vegetation in Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, J.V.; Hjalmarson, H.W.

    1994-01-01

    A relation for estimating changes in the condition of riparian vegetation as a function of stream power was developed for stream channels in central Arizona. Flood and vegetation data were collected from 13 flows at 11 sites. Stream power was computed at cross sections and plotted against the average height of vegetation for each flow. The effect of the flow - no effect, little effect, laid over, or removed - on the riparian vegetation is related to stream power and vegetation height. As vegetation height increases, the magnitude of stream power needed to affect the vegetation also increases. Stream power of about 72 Newton-meters per second per meter squared is needed to lay over 1-meter-high vegetation, and stream power of about 580 Newton-meters per second per meter squared is needed to lay over 5.5-meter-high vegetation. This relation can be used to estimate vegetation conditions at the time of peak floodflow.

  6. Vegetable fuel potential. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Solly, R.K.

    1983-08-01

    The possible contribution to Defence fuels from vegetable sources is considered. Only two categories, ethyl alcohol from fermentation of carbohydrate material and vegetable oils directly from oil crops, can currently be produced with present technology in sufficient amounts to contribute to energy requirements. Liquid hydrocarbons from tree and shrub crops or microorganisms have not been produced in sufficient quantity to carry out even short-term engine trails. Ethyl alcohol is an effective gasoline extender for spark-ignition engines, but these are a minor part of Defence power units. Vegetable oils may be directly substituted for middle-distillate fuels, but a number of technical difficulties are outlined. Chemical reaction of the vegetable oils with ethyl alcohol produces a liquid fuel that has similar physical properties to petroleum distillate. Experimental and theoretical evidence suggests these vegetable-oil esters have better combustion properties in compression-ignition power units than petroleum distillate. Significant amounts could be produced in a strategic situation within a short lead time.

  7. Shortwave infrared detection of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goward, Samuel N.

    Shortwave infrared sensors were included on Thematic Mapper to observe vegetation reflected radiance patterns that are related to leaf water content. However, there was some uncertainty whether these measurements would increase the information content of multispectral measurements beyond that provided by visible and near infrared measurements. Analysis of field measurements for corn and soybeans observed throughout the growing season shows that shortwave infrared measurements enhance discrimination between these species, particularly in mid-season. Modeling the canopy reflectances shows that differential leaf absorptance can produce the observed pattern. Analysis of coincident aerial photography suggests that within canopy shadowing is also important. Too few studies of leaf optical properties have been conducted to permit generalization of the results to other vegetation species but the results do show that shortwave infrared measurements contribute new information about vegetation not previously available in visible and near infrared measurements.

  8. Reactive glass and vegetation patterns.

    PubMed

    Shnerb, N M; Sarah, P; Lavee, H; Solomon, S

    2003-01-24

    The formation of vegetation patterns in the arid and the semiarid climatic zones is studied. Threshold for the biomass of the perennial flora is shown to be a relevant factor, leading to a frozen disordered pattern in the arid zone. In this "glassy" state, vegetation appears as singular plant spots separated by irregular distances, and an indirect repulsive interaction among shrubs is induced by the competition for water. At higher precipitation rates, the diminishing of hydrological losses in the presence of flora becomes important and yields spatial attraction and clustering of biomass. Turing patterns with characteristic length scale emerge from the disordered structure due to this positive-feedback instability. PMID:12570527

  9. 'Vegetable' substitutes for diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-22

    Research programs in the US, Brazil, South Africa and the Philippines on efforts to find a vegetable oil substitute for diesel fuel are reported. A narrowing price gap with diesel fuel and a favourable energy balance improve the prospects for such fuels. Much of the current work is centered on blends, rather than the use of the pure oil.

  10. IMPACT OF OZONE ON VEGETATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Visible injury on vegetation is one of the earliest and most obvious manifestations of ozone injury. However, ozone effects are not limited to visible injury; impacts range from reduced plant growth, decreased yield, changes in crop quality and alterations in susceptibility to ab...

  11. BUFFERS AND VEGETATIVE FILTER STRIPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Buffers and filter strips are areas of permanent vegetation located within and between agricultural fields and the water courses to which they drain. These buffers are intended to intercept and slow runoff thereby providing water quality benefits. In addition, in many settings they are intended to...

  12. Spatial vegetation patterns and desertification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietkerk, M.; Kéfi, S.

    2009-04-01

    Arid ecosystems are amongst the most sensitive ecosystems to human pressure and climate change, and are liable to undergo desertification. This is a main concern because this may occur abruptly and irreversibly, with concomitant losses of ecological and economic resources. Such ecosystem shifts have been theoretically attributed to positive feedback and alternative stable ecosystem states. However, verifications and predictive power with respect to such ecosystem dynamics are lacking for spatially extensive ecosystems. Therefore, management and recovery strategies against desertification for arid ecosystems are difficult to achieve. Theoretical models predict that so-called regular vegetation patterns observed in large areas in arid ecosystems world-wide are a result of spatial self-organization, and the shapes of the patterns are associated with approaching desertification thresholds. Also, patch-size distribution of the vegetation in various arid ecosystems follows a power law, and consistent deviations from power laws occur if grazing pressure is high. Model analysis suggests that such deviations from power laws may be a warning signal for the onset of desertification, independent of the vegetation cover. So, spatial patterns of vegetation, not cover, can be used to assess the vulnerability of arid ecosystems to increased human pressure or ongoing climate change. Common ecological mechanisms that account for these patterns are scale-dependent feedback and local facilitation. Our results are relevant to identify areas that are vulnerable to desertification in the face of increased human pressure and ongoing global climate change, as well as for the restoration of areas that are already degraded.

  13. Vegetable Crop Pests. MEP 311.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantzes, James G.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of vegetable crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds, and diseases.…

  14. Vegetation Change Analysis User's Manual

    SciTech Connect

    D. J. Hansen; W. K. Ostler

    2002-10-01

    Approximately 70 percent of all U.S. military training lands are located in arid and semi-arid areas. Training activities in such areas frequently adversely affect vegetation, damaging plants and reducing the resilience of vegetation to recover once disturbed. Fugitive dust resulting from a loss of vegetation creates additional problems for human health, increasing accidents due to decreased visibility, and increasing maintenance costs for roads, vehicles, and equipment. Diagnostic techniques are needed to identify thresholds of sustainable military use. A cooperative effort among U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Department of Defense, and selected university scientists was undertaken to focus on developing new techniques for monitoring and mitigating military impacts in arid lands. This manual focuses on the development of new monitoring techniques that have been implemented at Fort Irwin, California. New mitigation techniques are described in a separate companion manual. This User's Manual is designed to address diagnostic capabilities needed to distinguish between various degrees of sustainable and nonsustainable impacts due to military training and testing and habitat-disturbing activities in desert ecosystems. Techniques described here focus on the use of high-resolution imagery and the application of image-processing techniques developed primarily for medical research. A discussion is provided about the measurement of plant biomass and shrub canopy cover in arid. lands using conventional methods. Both semiquantitative methods and quantitative methods are discussed and reference to current literature is provided. A background about the use of digital imagery to measure vegetation is presented.

  15. Grafting effects on vegetable quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable grafting began in the 1920s to control soil-borne disease. It is now a common practice in Asia, parts of Europe, and the Middle East. In Japan and Korea most of the cucurbits and tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) grown are grafted. This practice is rare in the U.S. and there have...

  16. GLOBAL ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM VEGETATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The book chapter discusses several aspects of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from vegetation. It begins with a section on emission measurements that includes a brief history of enclosure and above-canopy flux measurements as well as a discussion of existing d...

  17. Vegetable production after heavy rains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is not clear if extraordinary precipitation stored in the soil was able to support vegetable crops planted after rains events returned to normal levels. Cucumber and sweet corn were established from seed and non-pungent jalapeno peppers were established from 8-week old transplants on beds. Half...

  18. Serving vegetables first: A strategy to increase vegetable consumption in elementary school cafeterias.

    PubMed

    Elsbernd, S L; Reicks, M M; Mann, T L; Redden, J P; Mykerezi, E; Vickers, Z M

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable consumption in the United States is low despite the wealth of evidence that vegetables play an important role in reducing risk of various chronic diseases. Because eating patterns developed in childhood continue through adulthood, we need to form healthy eating habits in children. The objective of this study was to determine if offering vegetables before other meal components would increase the overall consumption of vegetables at school lunch. We served kindergarten through fifth-grade students a small portion (26-33 g) of a raw vegetable (red and yellow bell peppers) while they waited in line to receive the rest of their lunch meal. They then had the options to take more of the bell peppers, a different vegetable, or no vegetable from the lunch line. We measured the amount of each vegetable consumed by each child. Serving vegetables first greatly increased the number of students eating vegetables. On intervention days most of the vegetables consumed came from the vegetables-first portions. Total vegetable intake per student eating lunch was low because most students chose to not eat vegetables, but the intervention significantly increased this value. Serving vegetables first is a viable strategy to increase vegetable consumption in elementary schools. Long-term implementation of this strategy may have an important impact on healthy eating habits, vegetable consumption, and the health consequences of vegetable intake. PMID:26344812

  19. MODIS Vegetative Cover Conversion and Vegetation Continuous Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Mark; Townshend, John; Hansen, Matthew; DiMiceli, Charlene; Sohlberg, Robert; Wurster, Karl

    Land cover change occurs at various spatial and temporal scales. For example, large-scale mechanical removal of forests for agro-industrial activities contrasts with the small-scale clearing of subsistence farmers. Such dynamics vary in spatial extent and rate of land conversion. Such changes are attributable to both natural and anthropogenic factors. For example, lightning- or human-ignited fires burn millions of acres of land surface each year. Further, land cover conversion requires ­contrasting with the land cover modification. In the first instance, the dynamic represents extensive categorical change between two land cover types. Land cover modification mechanisms such as selective logging and woody encroachment depict changes within a given land cover type rather than a conversion from one land cover type to another. This chapter describes the production of two standard MODIS land products used to document changes in global land cover. The Vegetative Cover Conversion (VCC) product is designed primarily to serve as a global alarm for areas where land cover change occurs rapidly (Zhan et al. 2000). The Vegetation Continuous Fields (VCF) product is designed to continuously ­represent ground cover as a proportion of basic vegetation traits. Terra's launch in December 1999 afforded a new opportunity to observe the entire Earth every 1.2 days at 250-m spatial resolution. The MODIS instrument's appropriate spatial and ­temporal resolutions provide the opportunity to substantially improve the characterization of the land surface and changes occurring thereupon (Townshend et al. 1991).

  20. MODIFICATION OF VEGETABLE OILS FOR LUBRICANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils are recognized as rapidly biodegradable and are thus promising candidates as base fluids in environmental-friendly lubricants. Vegetable oils have excellent lubricity, but poor oxidation and low-temperature stability. This paper presents a series of structural modifications of veget...

  1. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive vegetable juice is prepared either...

  2. New Sulfide Derivatives of Vegetable Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils containing sulfide group were synthesized using a UV initiated thiol-ene reaction. The reaction involved addition of butyl thiol to the double bonds of the vegetable oil without the presence of a solvent. The effects of temperature, reaction time, type of vegetable oil, thiol to veg...

  3. BOUNDARY SHEAR STRESS ALONG VEGETATED STREAMBANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research is intended to improve our understanding of the role of riparian vegetation in stream morphology by evaluating the effects of vegetation on boundary shear stress, providing insight to the type and density of vegetation required for streambank stability. The resu...

  4. Remote sensing of vegetation and soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutt, J. B.; Auer, S. O.

    1977-01-01

    Microwave ellipsometry apparatus reflects circularly polarized train of microwaves from vegetation at predetermined angle of incidence to determine ratio of intensities of electric field components and their phase differences. Refractive index given by water content of vegetation and thickness of vegetation layer are computed from formula based on Maxwell's equations.

  5. Shortwave infrared detection of vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goward, S. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    The potential of short wave infrared (SWIR) measurements in vegetation discrimination is further substantiated through a discussion of field studies and an examination of the physical bases which cause SWIR measurements to vary with the vegetation type observed. The research reported herein supported the AGRISTARS program objective to incorporate TM measurements in the analysis of agricultural activity. Field measurements on corn and soybeans in Iowa were conducted, and the mean and variance of canopy reflectance were computed for each observation date. The Suits canopy reflectance model was used to evaluate possible explanations of the observed corn/soybeans reflectance patterns /39/. The SWIR measurements were shown to effectively discriminate corn and soybeans on the basis of leaf absorption properties.

  6. Hyperspectral remote sensing of vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Lyon, John G.; Huete, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Hyperspectral narrow-band (or imaging spectroscopy) spectral data are fast emerging as practical solutions in modeling and mapping vegetation. Recent research has demonstrated the advances in and merit of hyperspectral data in a range of applications including quantifying agricultural crops, modeling forest canopy biochemical properties, detecting crop stress and disease, mapping leaf chlorophyll content as it influences crop production, identifying plants affected by contaminants such as arsenic, demonstrating sensitivity to plant nitrogen content, classifying vegetation species and type, characterizing wetlands, and mapping invasive species. The need for significant improvements in quantifying, modeling, and mapping plant chemical, physical, and water properties is more critical than ever before to reduce uncertainties in our understanding of the Earth and to better sustain it. There is also a need for a synthesis of the vast knowledge spread throughout the literature from more than 40 years of research.

  7. Biomechanics of fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Peleg, K

    1985-01-01

    The scope of fruit and vegetable biomechanics is reviewed. Sources of mechanical injury to produce in harvesting, processing, storage, packaging and transportation are briefly described. A survey of produce handling and transportation environments was conducted, whereby an envelope model encompassing composite spectra of trucks, railroad, marine and cargo aircraft is presented. The protective quality, i.e. strength of shipping containers is quantified in static and dynamic loading such as encountered in storage, handling and transportation. Mechanical response of fruits and vegetables in quasistatic and dynamic loading are formulated by a nonlinear rheological model, whereby a time and deformation dependent relaxation modulus is defined. A realistic link is established between the model and real fruits and vegetables by test procedures for determination of the parameters in the governing nonlinear equations. Based on the nonlinear relaxation modulus, mechanical damage of fruits and vegetables is quantified for static compression, transients and vibration loading as well as for combined static and dynamic loading, by equations of contact circle diameter, bruise depth and contact pressure. Distribution of loads over a maximal number of contact points per fruit is linked to geometrical patterns of produce packs. The application of Shock Damage Boundary techniques for produce-package testing is described along with a case study comparing the protective qualities of two types of apple packs. Produce damage quantification by direct fruit inspection in terms of a 'Bruise Index' is described, including a practical example, comparing the protective qualities of three types of apple packs in shipping tests. Indirect methods of mechanical injury evaluation, based on weight loss and CO2 emission differences between bruised and wholesome fruits are also briefly discussed. PMID:4077855

  8. Diesel fuels from vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, A.W.; Bagby, M.O.; Freedman, B.

    1986-03-01

    Vegetable oils have heat contents approximately 90% that of diesel fuel and are potential alternate fuel candidates. A major obstacle deterring their use in the direct-injection diesel engine is their inherent high viscosities which are nearly 10 times that of diesel fuel. Solution to the viscosity problem has been approached in three ways: 1) microemulsification, 2) pyrolysis, and 3) transesterification. Microemulsification with short chain alcohols such as methanol and ethanol yields fuels that are clear, thermodynamically stable liquid systems with viscosities near the ASTM specified range for number2 diesel fuel. These micellar systems may be formulated ionically or nonionically. The alcohols are attractive from an economic as well as a renewable resource viewpoint. Methanol has an economic advantage over ethanol, and it can be derived from a large variety of base stocks. These include biomass, municipal waste, natural gas being flared at refineries and from coal. Pyrolysis of vegetable oils is another approach to lowering their viscosity. Soybean and safflower oils were thermally decomposed in both air and nitrogen to obtain fuels for the diesel engine. Using standard ASTM distillation conditions, yields of pyrolysis products were about 75%. GS-MS analysis of the distillates showed the presence of alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, and carboxylic acids with carbon numbers ranging from 4 to more than 20. Fuel properties of the thermal decomposition products were substantially improved as evaluated by lower viscosities and higher cetane numbers compared to the unpyrrolyzed vegetable oils. Simple esters from transesterification of vegetable oils perform well in engine tests, and thus show good promise as an alternative or emergency fuel for diesel engines.

  9. Vegetation forcing and convective motion

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, X.; Leach, M.J.; Raman, S.

    1995-04-01

    A large irrigated vegetation area in a semiarid or relatively dry location is a strong surface forcing of thermal circulations. Several observational studies have found that such thermally induced mesoscale circulation may contribute to the triggering and development of convective clouds. In the western United States, extensive areas of irrigated farmland are surrounded by hot, dry surfaces, such as a steppe. Substantial gradients of sensible heating in the horizontal direction lead to a {open_quotes}farm breeze{close_quotes} circulation from the cooler agricultural area to the warmer steppes found at Boardman, Oregon. These thermally forced circulations may trigger convection by the related convergence and updraft motion under favorable atmospheric conditions. The role of vegetative covering in convective motion is investigated using a mesoscale numerical model. Two- and three-dimensional simulations are described. The effects of atmospheric stability, moisture in the lower atmosphere, moisture in the upper atmosphere, and horizontal heating scale on thermally induced clouds are studied. The horizontal scale of inhomogeneity is also studied using the two-dimensional model. Finally, a realistic vegetation distribution similar to that of the Boardman Regional Flux Experiment is used in the three-dimensional simulations.

  10. [Review of dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs)].

    PubMed

    Che, Ming-Liang; Chen, Bao-Zhang; Wang, Ying; Guo, Xiang-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) is an important and efficient tool for study on the terrestrial carbon circle processes and vegetation dynamics. This paper reviewed the development history of DGVMs, introduced the basic structure of DGVMs, and the outlines of several world-widely used DGVMs, including CLM-DGVM, LPJ, IBIS and SEIB. The shortages of the description of dynamic vegetation mechanisms in the current DGVMs were proposed, including plant functional types (PFT) scheme, vegetation competition, disturbance, and phenology. Then the future research directions of DGVMs were pointed out, i. e. improving the PFT scheme, refining the vegetation dynamic mechanism, and implementing a model inter-comparison project. PMID:24765870

  11. Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables1

    PubMed Central

    Slavin, Joanne L.; Lloyd, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Fruits and vegetables also supply vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals that function as antioxidants, phytoestrogens, and antiinflammatory agents and through other protective mechanisms. In this review, we describe the existing dietary guidance on intake of fruits and vegetables. We also review attempts to characterize fruits and vegetables into groups based on similar chemical structures and functions. Differences among fruits and vegetables in nutrient composition are detailed. We summarize the epidemiological and clinical studies on the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Finally, we discuss the role of fiber in fruits and vegetables in disease prevention. PMID:22797986

  12. Health benefits of fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Joanne L; Lloyd, Beate

    2012-07-01

    Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Fruits and vegetables also supply vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals that function as antioxidants, phytoestrogens, and antiinflammatory agents and through other protective mechanisms. In this review, we describe the existing dietary guidance on intake of fruits and vegetables. We also review attempts to characterize fruits and vegetables into groups based on similar chemical structures and functions. Differences among fruits and vegetables in nutrient composition are detailed. We summarize the epidemiological and clinical studies on the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Finally, we discuss the role of fiber in fruits and vegetables in disease prevention. PMID:22797986

  13. Research in remote sensing of vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrumpf, Barry J.; Ripple, William J.; Isaacson, Dennis L.

    1988-01-01

    The research topics undertaken were primarily selected to further the understanding of fundamental relationships between electromagnetic energy measured from Earth orbiting satellites and terrestrial features, principally vegetation. Vegetation is an essential component in the soil formation process and the major factor in protecting and holding soil in place. Vegetation plays key roles in hydrological and nutrient cycles. Awareness of improvement or deterioration in the capacity of vegetation and the trends that those changes may indicate are, therefore, critical detections to make. A study of the relationships requires consideration of the various portions of the electromagnetic spectrum; characteristics of detector system; synergism that may be achieved by merging data from two or more detector systems or multiple dates of data; and vegetational characteristics. The vegetation of Oregon is sufficiently diverse as to provide ample opportunity to investigate the relationships suggested above several vegetation types.

  14. Microbiological Spoilage of Fruits and Vegetables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Margaret; Hankinson, Thomas R.; Zhuang, Hong; Breidt, Frederick

    Consumption of fruit and vegetable products has dramatically increased in the United States by more than 30% during the past few decades. It is also estimated that about 20% of all fruits and vegetables produced is lost each year due to spoilage. The focus of this chapter is to provide a general background on microbiological spoilage of fruit and vegetable products that are organized in three categories: fresh whole fruits and vegetables, fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, and fermented or acidified vegetable products. This chapter will address characteristics of spoilage microorganisms associated with each of these fruit and vegetable categories including spoilage mechanisms, spoilage defects, prevention and control of spoilage, and methods for detecting spoilage microorganisms.

  15. Estimating vegetation dryness to optimize fire risk assessment with spot vegetation satellite data in savanna ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbesselt, J.; Somers, B.; Lhermitte, S.; van Aardt, J.; Jonckheere, I.; Coppin, P.

    2005-10-01

    The lack of information on vegetation dryness prior to the use of fire as a management tool often leads to a significant deterioration of the savanna ecosystem. This paper therefore evaluated the capacity of SPOT VEGETATION time-series to monitor the vegetation dryness (i.e., vegetation moisture content per vegetation amount) in order to optimize fire risk assessment in the savanna ecosystem of Kruger National Park in South Africa. The integrated Relative Vegetation Index approach (iRVI) to quantify the amount of herbaceous biomass at the end of the rain season and the Accumulated Relative Normalized Difference vegetation index decrement (ARND) related to vegetation moisture content were selected. The iRVI and ARND related to vegetation amount and moisture content, respectively, were combined in order to monitor vegetation dryness and optimize fire risk assessment in the savanna ecosystems. In situ fire activity data was used to evaluate the significance of the iRVI and ARND to monitor vegetation dryness for fire risk assessment. Results from the binary logistic regression analysis confirmed that the assessment of fire risk was optimized by integration of both the vegetation quantity (iRVI) and vegetation moisture content (ARND) as statistically significant explanatory variables. Consequently, the integrated use of both iRVI and ARND to monitor vegetation dryness provides a more suitable tool for fire management and suppression compared to other traditional satellite-based fire risk assessment methods, only related to vegetation moisture content.

  16. Vegetation fire proneness in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Mário; Aranha, José; Amraoui, Malik

    2015-04-01

    Fire selectivity has been studied for vegetation classes in terms of fire frequency and fire size in a few European regions. This analysis is often performed along with other landscape variables such as topography, distance to roads and towns. These studies aims to assess the landscape sensitivity to forest fires in peri-urban areas and land cover changes, to define landscape management guidelines and policies based on the relationships between landscape and fires in the Mediterranean region. Therefore, the objectives of this study includes the: (i) analysis of the spatial and temporal variability statistics within Europe; and, (ii) the identification and characterization of the vegetated land cover classes affected by fires; and, (iii) to propose a fire proneness index. The datasets used in the present study comprises: Corine Land Cover (CLC) maps for 2000 and 2006 (CLC2000, CLC2006) and burned area (BA) perimeters, from 2000 to 2013 in Europe, provided by the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS). The CLC is a part of the European Commission programme to COoRdinate INformation on the Environment (Corine) and it provides consistent, reliable and comparable information on land cover across Europe. Both the CLC and EFFIS datasets were combined using geostatistics and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques to access the spatial and temporal evolution of the types of shrubs and forest affected by fires. Obtained results confirms the usefulness and efficiency of the land cover classification scheme and fire proneness index which allows to quantify and to compare the propensity of vegetation classes and countries to fire. As expected, differences between northern and southern Europe are notorious in what concern to land cover distribution, fire incidence and fire proneness of vegetation cover classes. This work was supported by national funds by FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, under the project PEst-OE/AGR/UI4033/2014 and by

  17. Vegetation Hydrodynamics - Recent Developments and Future Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nepf, H. M.

    2014-12-01

    For over a century vegetation has been removed from channels and coastal zones to facilitate navigation and development. In recent decades, however, we have recognized the ecologic and economic benefits of aquatic vegetation. It buffers against coastal eutrophication, damps waves and coastal storm surge, provides habitat, inhibits bank erosion, and provides significant carbon storage. The management of watersheds and coastal zones has turned from vegetation removal to restoration. In the past 20 years, the study of vegetation hydrodynamics has accelerated to meet the need to understand feedbacks between vegetation, flow and sediment transport. This presentation will describe key features of vegetation hydrodynamics, first at the meadow scale and then at the scale of individual patches, examining how vegetation density and meadow (or patch) morphology impact flow, with subsequent implications for sediment fate. Finally, the talk highlights differences in turbulence generation between bare and vegetated beds that may limit the transfer of open channel sediment transport models to vegetated channels, creating the future challenge of defining sediment transport models appropriate for vegetated regions.

  18. Teleconnection between ENSO and Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, F.

    Since 1980s strong ENSO disturbed weather environment economy and human lives worldwide Total impact of these events on society is estimated in billions of dollars and consequences include famine human health problems loss of life property damage and destruction of the environment Areas sensitive to ENSO have been identified in some world areas from climatic records and recently from 15-year satellite data This presentation examines teleconnection between ENSO and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide using 24-year satellite and in situ data records ENSO events were characterized by monthly sea surface temperature SST anomalies in the tropical Pacific They were collected from the improved SST analysis data set Reynolds and Smith 1994 Average anomalies were calculated for the region 5 r N - 5 r S and 170 r - 120 r E 3 4 area Terrestrial ecosystems were presented by the vegetation health condition indices VHI Kogan 1997 The VHIs derived from AVHRR-based NDVI and 10-11 Phi m thermal radiances were designed to monitor moisture and thermal impacts on vegetation health greenness and vigor Two types of responses were identified In boreal winter ecosystems of northern South America southern Africa and Southeast Asia experienced severe moisture and thermal stress during El Ni n o and favorable conditions during La Ni n a years In central South America and the Horn of Africa regions the response was opposite World ecosystems are less sensitive to SSTs during boreal summer except for the areas in northern Brazil

  19. Satellite remote sensing of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahr, Tobias; Peper, Eva; Schubert, Alexander; Warnach, Simon; Pöhler, Denis; Horbanski, Martin; Beirle, Steffen; Mies, Kornelia; Platt, Ulrich; Wagner, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) allows to determine the concentration of trace gases based on their specific absorptions cross-sections along a light path. Since 1995, this principle is employed successfully on satellite-based instruments like GOME, GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY for the global measurement of stratospheric and tropospheric trace gases like ozone and nitrogen oxides. Usually, spectral signatures from the ground, where a big part of the sunlight is reflected, are neglected in the evaluation. This can lead to errors in the trace gas determination. However, these structures offer the opportunity to identify surface properties of the earth and different types of vegetation. To analyse spectral reflectance properties, high resolved reflection spectra (FWHM 0.29 nm) from 95 plants were measured between 350 and 1050 nm. They can serve as a basis for the analysis of satellite data. Including different vegetation reference spectra, it is possible to determine groups of plants with similar optical properties. This allows to derive global maps of the spatio-temporal variation of plant distribution by satellite remote sensing. We present first results of this technique based on SCIAMACHY observations.

  20. Stereophotogrammetry in studies of riparian vegetation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hortobagyi, Borbala; Vautier, Franck; Corenblit, Dov; Steiger, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    Riparian vegetation responds to hydrogeomorphic disturbances and also controls sediment deposition and erosion. Spatio-temporal riparian vegetation dynamics within fluvial corridors have been quantified in many studies using aerial photographs and GIS. However, this approach does not allow the consideration of woody vegetation growth rates (i.e. vertical dimension) which are fundamental when studying feedbacks between the processes of fluvial landform construction and vegetation establishment and succession. We built 3D photogrammetric models of vegetation height based on aerial argentic and digital photographs from sites of the Allier and Garonne Rivers (France). The models were realized at two different spatial scales and with two different methods. The "large" scale corresponds to the reach of the river corridor on the Allier river (photograph taken in 2009) and the "small" scale to river bars of the Allier (photographs taken in 2002, 2009) and Garonne Rivers (photographs taken in 2000, 2002, 2006 and 2010). At the corridor scale, we generated vegetation height models using an automatic procedure. This method is fast but can only be used with digital photographs. At the bar scale, we constructed the models manually using a 3D visualization on the screen. This technique showed good results for digital and also argentic photographs but is very time-consuming. A diachronic study was performed in order to investigate vegetation succession by distinguishing three different classes according to the vegetation height: herbs (<1 m), shrubs (1-4 m) or trees (>4 m). Both methods, i.e. automatic and manual, were employed to study the evolution of the three vegetation classes and the recruitment of new vegetation patches. A comparison was conducted between the vegetation height given by models (automatic and manual) and the vegetation height measured in the field. The manually produced models (small scale) were of a precision of 0.5-1 m, allowing the quantification of woody

  1. Wetland vegetation establishment in L-Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Kroeger, S.R.

    1990-07-01

    Wetland vegetation was transplanted from PAR Pond to L-Lake between January and August, 1987. Approximately 100,000 individual plants representing over 40 species were transplanted along the southern shoreline. Three zones of vegetation were created: (1) submersed/floating-leaved, (2) emergent, (3) upper emergent/shrub. During the summers of 1987, 1988, 1989, the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory sampled the vegetation in 54 permanent transects located in planted (N=32) and unplanted areas (N=22). The 1989 vegetation data from L-Lake were compared to 1985 data from PAR Pond.

  2. White Vegetables: Glycemia and Satiety12

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, G. Harvey; Soeandy, Chesarahmia Dojo; Smith, Christopher E.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review is to discuss the effect of white vegetable consumption on glycemia, satiety, and food intake. White vegetables is a term used to refer to vegetables that are white or near white in color and include potatoes, cauliflowers, turnips, onions, parsnips, white corn, kohlrabi, and mushrooms (technically fungi but generally considered a vegetable). They vary greatly in their contribution to the energy and nutrient content of the diet and glycemia and satiety. As with other foods, the glycemic effect of many white vegetables has been measured. The results illustrate that interpretation of the semiquantitative comparative ratings of white vegetables as derived by the glycemic index must be context dependent. As illustrated by using the potato as an example, the glycemic index of white vegetables can be misleading if not interpreted in the context of the overall contribution that the white vegetable makes to the carbohydrate and nutrient composition of the diet and their functionality in satiety and metabolic control within usual meals. It is concluded that application of the glycemic index in isolation to judge the role of white vegetables in the diet and, specifically in the case of potato as consumed in ad libitum meals, has led to premature and possibly counterproductive dietary guidance. PMID:23674805

  3. Evaluation of a native vegetation masking technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinsler, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    A crop masking technique based on Ashburn's vegetative index (AVI) was used to evaluate native vegetation as an indicator of crop moisture condition. A mask of the range areas (native vegetation) was generated for each of thirteen Great Plains LANDSAT MSS sample segments. These masks were compared to the digitized ground truth and accuracies were computed. An analysis of the types of errors indicates a consistency in errors among the segments. The mask represents a simple quick-look technique for evaluating vegetative cover.

  4. Prevalent vegetation growth enhancement in urban environment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuqing; Liu, Shuguang; Zhou, Decheng

    2016-05-31

    Urbanization, a dominant global demographic trend, leads to various changes in environments (e.g., atmospheric CO2 increase, urban heat island). Cities experience global change decades ahead of other systems so that they are natural laboratories for studying responses of other nonurban biological ecosystems to future global change. However, the impacts of urbanization on vegetation growth are not well understood. Here, we developed a general conceptual framework for quantifying the impacts of urbanization on vegetation growth and applied it in 32 Chinese cities. Results indicated that vegetation growth, as surrogated by satellite-observed vegetation index, decreased along urban intensity across all cities. At the same time, vegetation growth was enhanced at 85% of the places along the intensity gradient, and the relative enhancement increased with urban intensity. This growth enhancement offset about 40% of direct loss of vegetation productivity caused by replacing productive vegetated surfaces with nonproductive impervious surfaces. In light of current and previous field studies, we conclude that vegetation growth enhancement is prevalent in urban settings. Urban environments do provide ideal natural laboratories to observe biological responses to environmental changes that are difficult to mimic in manipulative experiments. However, one should be careful in extrapolating the finding to nonurban environments because urban vegetation is usually intensively managed, and attribution of the responses to diverse driving forces will be challenging but must be pursued. PMID:27185955

  5. Airphoto assessment of changes in aquatic vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, B. L.; Philipson, W. R.; Russel, A. E.

    1977-01-01

    Large scale, multiyear, color and color infrared aerial photographs were used to evaluate changes in aquatic vegetation that have accompanied a reduction in phosphorus inputs to a phosphorus-limited, eutrophic lake in New York State. The study showed that the distribution of emergent, floating and submersed vegetation could be determined with little or no concurrent ground data; that various emergent and floating types could be separated and, with limited field checks, identified; and that different submersed types are generally not separable. Major vegetative types are characterized by spectral and nonspectral features, and a classification is developed for compiling time-sequential vegetation maps.

  6. Role of extreme events in vegetation dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extreme climatic events challenge the capacity of vegetation models, including Dynamic Global Vegetation Models, to predict changes in plant species dynamics at local and regional spatial scales and over time periods relevant to ecologists and managers. Extreme climatic events are defined as large,...

  7. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color...

  8. CLIMATE CHANGE AND ISOPRENE EMISSIONS FROM VEGETATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A global model was developed for estimating spatial and temporal patterns in the emission of isoprene from vegetation under the current climate and used to estimate emissions under doubled-CO2 climate scenarios. urrent emissions were estimated on the basis of vegetation type, fol...

  9. Exploring determinants of vegetable parenting practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to find out if food parenting practices show promise for positively influencing child dietary intake. However, it is unclear what factors motivate parents to engage in vegetable parenting practices. We developed a Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenting Practices (MG...

  10. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... coloring foods. (b) Uses and restrictions. Vegetable juice may be safely used for the coloring of...

  11. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... coloring foods. (b) Uses and restrictions. Vegetable juice may be safely used for the coloring of...

  12. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... coloring foods. (b) Uses and restrictions. Vegetable juice may be safely used for the coloring of...

  13. COASTAL SUBMERGED VEGETATION: AQUATIC HABITAT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic vegetation is one of the most widespread and important types of aquatic habitat, in part because of the exceptional productivity of the plants. Aquatic vegetation also strongly influences local physical and chemical habitat conditions of significance to fish and shellfis...

  14. Microbiological spoilage of fruits and vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of fruit and vegetable products has dramatically increased in the U.S. by more than 30% during the past few decades. It is also estimated that about 20% of all fruit and vegetables produced is lost each year due to spoilage. The focus of this chapter is to provide a general background on...

  15. Fuel properties of eleven vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, C.E.; Schwab, A.W.; Daugherty, M.J.; Pryde, E.H.; Keakin, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Eleven vegetable oils that can be grown as domestic field crops were identified for inclusion in a comparative study. Sample lots of each oil were subjected to ASTM tests appropriate for diesel fuels. The tests identified some problem areas with vegetable oil fuels. The oil samples were also characterized chemically and certain fuel properties were correlated to chemical composition. 10 refs.

  16. Weed Identification and Control in Vegetable Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferretti, Peter A., Comp.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University examines weed control and identification in vegetable crops. Contents include: (1) Types of weeds; (2) Reducing losses caused by weeds, general control methods and home garden weed control; (3) How herbicides are used; (4) Specific weeds in vegetable plantings; and…

  17. Fruit, vegetable, and grain processing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, R.M.; Soderquist, M.R.

    1980-06-01

    This is a literature review of fruit, vegetable and grain processing wastes. The factors affecting water usage and methods of conservation were examined. Various processes were investigated which included the pulp recovery from caustic peeled tomato skin, the dewatering of citrus, washing leafy vegetables with recycled process water and the potato processing industry.

  18. Cover crops in vegetable production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current vegetable production systems require an intensive amount Current vegetable production systems require an intensive amount of work and inputs, and if not properly managed could have detrimental effects on soil and the environment. Practices such as intensive tillage, increased herbicide use, ...

  19. VEGETATION AND POLLEN RELATIONSHIP IN EASTERN CANADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between the vegetation and modern pollen assemblages in eastern Canada is summarized and analyzed using isopoll maps, ordination, and cluster analysis. he major vegetation zones recognized in the region are the shrub tundra, forest tundra (divided into shrub and ...

  20. 30 CFR 779.19 - Vegetation information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... important habitat for fish and wildlife for those species of fish and wildlife identified under 30 CFR 780..., contain a map that delineates existing vegetative types and a description of the plant communities within... information adequate to predict the potential for reestablishing vegetation. (b) When a map or...

  1. Estimating wheat growth with radar vegetation indices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we computed the Radar Vegetation Index (RVI) using observations made with a ground based multi-frequency polarimetric scatterometer system over an entire wheat growth period. The temporal variations of the backscattering coefficients for L-, C-, and X-band, RVI, vegetation water conte...

  2. MODELING STREAM CHANNEL ADJUSTMENT TO WOODY VEGETATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    River restoration and bank stabilization programs often use vegetation for improving stream corridor habitat, aesthetic, and function. Yet no study has examined the use of managed vegetation plantings to transform a straight, degraded stream corridor into a more functional, aesthetically-pleasing m...

  3. Powdered hide model for vegetable tanning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdered hide samples for this initial study of vegetable tanning were prepared from hides that were dehaired by a typical sulfide or oxidative process, and carried through the delime/bate step of a tanning process. In this study, we report on interactions of the vegetable tannin, quebracho with th...

  4. Radar response of vegetation: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, Fawwaz T.; Dobson, M. Craig

    1993-01-01

    This document contains a number of viewgraphs on surface and vegetation backscattering. A classification of vegetation based on general scattering properties is presented. Radar scattering mechanisms are discussed, and backscattering and reflection coefficients for soil back scattering models are given. Radar response to vegetation is presented, with the objectives to discriminate and classify vegetation; to estimate biomass, leaf area index (LAI), and soil moisture; and to monitor changes, including deforestation and growth. Both theory and observation (laboratory, field, air SAR, and European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1) observations) are used to present backscatter coefficients and other data for various vegetation types. ERS-1 results include class statistics, comparison with theory, and biomass response and seasonal variation (LAI) for deciduous and coniferous forests.

  5. Predicting vegetation-stabilized dune morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barchyn, T.; Hugenholtz, C.

    2012-04-01

    The morphology of vegetation-stabilized dune fields on the North American Great Plains mostly comprises parabolic dunes; stabilized barchan and transverse dunes are rare. One notable exception is the Nebraska Sand Hills (NSH), where massive grass-covered barchan and transverse dunes bear proof of former desert-like conditions. We present a hypothesis from a numerical dune field model to explain the vegetation-stabilized morphology of dunes. The model incorporates a growth curve that preferentially grows vegetation in regions of sediment deposition with a sharp drop in growth at the peak depositional tolerance of vegetation, qualitatively matching biological response to erosion and deposition. Simulations on a range of pre-stabilization dune morphologies, from large closely-spaced transverse dunes to small dispersed barchans, indicate that the stabilized morphology is largely determined by the ratio of slipface deposition rate to peak depositional tolerance of vegetation. Conceptually, slipface deposition rate is related to dune height and celerity. By keeping depositional tolerance constant (representing a constant vegetation type and climate) the model shows that large slow-moving dunes have low slipface deposition rates and essentially 'freeze' in place once vegetation is introduced, retaining their pre-vegetation morphology. Small fast-moving dunes have higher slipface deposition rates and evolve into parabolic dunes. We hypothesize that, when barchan and transverse dunes are subjected to a stabilizing climate shift that increases vegetation growth rate, they retain their pre-stabilization morphology if deposition rates are below the depositional tolerance of stabilizing vegetation, otherwise they become parabolic dunes. This could explain why NSH dunes are stabilized in barchan and transverse morphologies while elsewhere on the Great Plains dune fields are dominated by smaller parabolic dunes.

  6. Urban Vegetation Cover and Vegetation Change in Accra, Ghana: Connection to Housing Quality

    PubMed Central

    Stow, Douglas A.; Weeks, John R.; Toure, Sory; Coulter, Lloyd L.; Lippitt, Christopher D.; Ashcroft, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The objectives are to (1) quantify, map, and analyze vegetation cover distributions and changes across Accra, Ghana, for 2002 and 2010; and (2) examine the statistical relationship between vegetation cover and a housing quality index (HQI) for 2000 at the neighborhood level. Pixel-level vegetation cover maps derived using threshold classification of 2002 and 2010 QuickBird normalized difference vegetation index images have very high overall accuracies and yield an estimate of 5.9 percent vegetation cover reduction over the study area between 2002 and 2010. A high degree of variance in vegetation cover for individual dates is explained by HQI at the neighborhood level, although minimal covariability between absolute or relative vegetation cover change and HQI for 2000 was observed. PMID:24293703

  7. Scaling Vegetation on Experimental Channel Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Breemen, D. M.; van de Lageweg, W. I.; van Dijk, W. M.; Kleinhans, M. G.

    2010-12-01

    There are strong feedbacks between river channels, floodplains and riparian and floodplain vegetation. We study the effect of experimental vegetation on channel pattern. Through linear bar theory it is known that channel width-depth ratio affects bar pattern and relatively narrow channels with strong banks are required for meandering. Riparian vegetation is able to alter the channel width-depth ratio and therefore the channel pattern through strengthening of the banks. Floodplain vegetation adds hydraulic resistance so the flow is more focused into the channels. However, determination of the underlying mechanisms and processes has remained scarce and qualitative and hence these effects are not yet fully understood. The objectives of this study are 1) to develop a controllable and scalable method to reproduce vegetation effect in experimental self-formed channels, and 2) to experimentally determine the effects of riparian vegetation on bank strength, channel pattern and meandering dynamics. Sprouts of three plant species were systematically subjected to different seeding densities and to various growing conditions, including light intensity, submergence and nutrient starvation. Denser seeding reduced sprout growth after about a week. Stronger light increased plant growth and plant strength. Nutrient starvation caused different branching intensity of the root system. Tens of small-scale bank erosion experiments and bank failure experiments (see Kleinhans et al., this conference) were performed to quantify the strength of banks reinforced by plant roots at the experimental scale, demonstrating that bank strength is strongly determined by seeding density, rooting density and depth relative to channel depth. To study pattern evolution and morphodynamics we used a 1.25x7.5 m flume with a constant discharge and sediment feed. The introduction of vegetation in experiments results in narrower and deeper channels. Higher vegetation density leads to static channels with

  8. Masking Vegetable Bitterness to Improve Palatability Depends on Vegetable Type and Taste Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of dark green vegetables falls short of recommendations, in part, because of unpleasant bitterness. A laboratory-based study of 37 adults was used to determine bitter and hedonic responses to vegetables (asparagus, Brussels sprouts, kale) with bitter masking agents (1.33 M sodium acetate, 10 and 32 mM sodium chloride, and 3.2 mM aspartame) and then characterized by taste phenotype and vegetable liking. In repeated-measures ANOVA, aspartame was most effective at suppressing bitterness and improving hedonic responses for all sampled vegetables. Among the sodium salts, 32 mM sodium chloride decreased bitterness for kale and sodium acetate reduced bitterness across all vegetables with a tendency to increase liking for Brussels sprouts, as release from mixture suppression increased perceived sweetness. Participants were nearly equally divided into three 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) phenotype groups. Those tasting the least PROP bitterness (non-tasters) reported least vegetable bitterness, and the additives produced little change in vegetable liking. Aspartame persisted as the most effective bitter blocker for the PROP tasters (medium, supertasters), improving vegetable liking for the medium tasters but too much sweetness for supertasters. The sodium salts showed some bitter blocking for PROP tasters, particularly sodium acetate, without significant gains in vegetable liking. Via a survey, adults characterized as low vegetable likers reported greater increase in vegetable liking with the maskers than did vegetable likers. These results suggest that bitter masking agents (mainly sweeteners) can suppress bitterness to increase acceptance if they are matched to perceived vegetable bitterness or to self-reported vegetable disliking. PMID:23682306

  9. 76 FR 37312 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee... Agriculture (USDA) Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee and a Request for Nominations. SUMMARY: The USDA intends to reestablish the Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee (Committee)....

  10. Microbiota on spoiled vegetables and their characterization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hwan; Kim, Jin-Beom; Kim, Mihyun; Roh, Eunjung; Jung, Kyusuk; Choi, Minseon; Oh, Changsik; Choi, Jaehyuk; Yun, Jongchul; Heu, Sunggi

    2013-08-01

    Spoilage causes vegetables to deteriorate and develop unpleasant characteristics. Approximately 30 % of fresh vegetables are lost to spoilage, mainly due to colonization by bacteria. In the present study, a total of 44 bacterial isolates were obtained from a number of spoiled vegetables. The isolates were identified and classified into 20 different species of 14 genera based on fatty acid composition, biochemical tests, and 16S rDNA sequence analyses. Pseudomonas spp. were the species most frequently isolated from the spoiled vegetables. To evaluate the spoilage ability of each species, a variety of fresh vegetables were treated with each isolate and their degree of maceration was observed. In addition, the production of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs), such as cellulase, xylanase, pectate lyase, and polygalacturonase, was compared among isolates to investigate their potential associations with spoilage. Strains that produce more PCWDEs cause spoilage on more diverse plants, and pectinase may be the most important enzyme among PCWDEs for vegetable spoilage. Most gram-negative spoilage bacteria produced acylated homoserine lactone, a quorum-sensing signal molecule, suggesting that it may be possible to use this compound effectively to prevent or slow down the spoilage of vegetables contaminated with diverse bacteria. PMID:23905790

  11. Vegetable Bitterness is Related to Calcium Content

    PubMed Central

    Tordoff, Michael G.; Sandell, Mari A.

    2009-01-01

    In the U.S. and Europe, most people do not consume the recommended amounts of either calcium or vegetables. We investigated whether there might be a connection; specifically, whether the taste of calcium in vegetables contributes to their bitterness and thus acceptability. We found a strong correlation between the calcium content of 24 vegetables, based on USDA Nutrient Database values, and bitterness, based on the average ratings of 35 people (r = 0.93). Correlations between the content of other nutrients and bitterness were lower and most were not statistically significant. To assess whether it is feasible that humans can detect calcium in vegetables we tested two animal models known to display a calcium appetite. Previous work indicates that calcium solutions are preferentially ingested by PWK/PhJ mice relative to C57BL/6J mice, and by rats deprived of dietary calcium relative to replete controls. In choice tests between collard greens, a high-calcium vegetable, and cabbage, a low-calcium vegetable, the calcium-favoring animals had higher preferences for collard greens than did controls. These observations raise the possibility that the taste of calcium contributes to the bitterness and thus acceptability of vegetables. PMID:19260165

  12. Why do cervids feed on aquatic vegetation?

    PubMed

    Ceacero, Francisco; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Miranda, María; García, Andrés J; Martínez, Alberto; Gallego, Laureano

    2014-03-01

    Consumption of aquatic plants is rare among cervids, despite the common occurrence of this form of vegetation. However, the paucity of literature reporting on this feeding behaviour suggests that Na (but also other minerals), protein, and the ubiquitous availability of aquatic vegetation may play a role in its consumption. We present results quantifying those factors that regulate the consumption of aquatic plants in the Iberian red deer. We focussed our study primarily on two questions: (i) what nutritional values are red deer seeking in the aquatic plants?; and (ii) why do red deer primarily use aquatic plants during the summer? A comparison of the seasonal variations in Na content between terrestrial vs. aquatic vegetation did not fully support the hypothesis that aquatic plants are being consumed more in summer because of any seasonal variation in Na availability. The Na content in the aquatic vegetation was adequate all the year-round; whereas, the Na content in the terrestrial vegetation was consistently deficient. However, a greater summer content of essential minerals and protein in the aquatic vegetation may be the cause for their consumption exclusively during the summer. We suggest that seasonal variations in the consumption of aquatic vegetation by cervids is primarily driven by temporal variations in the nutrient content, combined with seasonal variations in the physiological demands for these nutrients. PMID:24220797

  13. Vegetable bitterness is related to calcium content.

    PubMed

    Tordoff, Michael G; Sandell, Mari A

    2009-04-01

    In the U.S. and Europe, most people do not consume the recommended amounts of either calcium or vegetables. We investigated whether there might be a connection; specifically, whether the taste of calcium in vegetables contributes to their bitterness and thus acceptability. We found a strong correlation between the calcium content of 24 vegetables, based on USDA Nutrient Database values, and bitterness, based on the average ratings of 35 people (r = 0.93). Correlations between the content of other nutrients and bitterness were lower and most were not statistically significant. To assess whether it is feasible that humans can detect calcium in vegetables we tested two animal models known to display a calcium appetite. Previous work indicates that calcium solutions are preferentially ingested by PWK/PhJ mice relative to C57BL/6J mice, and by rats deprived of dietary calcium relative to replete controls. In choice tests between collard greens, a high-calcium vegetable, and cabbage, a low-calcium vegetable, the calcium-favoring animals had higher preferences for collard greens than did controls. These observations raise the possibility that the taste of calcium contributes to the bitterness and thus acceptability of vegetables. PMID:19260165

  14. FT Duplication Coordinates Reproductive and Vegetative Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Chuan-Yu; Adams, Joshua P.; Kim, Hyejin; No, Kyoungok; Ma, Caiping; Strauss, Steven; Drnevich, Jenny; Wickett, Norman; Vandervelde, Lindsay; Ellis, Jeffrey D.; Rice, Brandon; Gunter, Lee E; Tuskan, Gerald A; Brunner, Amy M.; Page, Grier P.; Carlson, John E.; DePamphilis, Claude; Luthe, Dawn S.; Yuceer, Cetin

    2011-01-01

    Annual plants grow vegetatively at early developmental stages and then transition to the reproductive stage, followed by senescence in the same year. In contrast, after successive years of vegetative growth at early ages, woody perennial shoot meristems begin repeated transitions between vegetative and reproductive growth at sexual maturity. However, it is unknown how these repeated transitions occur without a developmental conflict between vegetative and reproductive growth. We report that functionally diverged paralogs FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FT1) and FLOWERING LOCUS T2 (FT2), products of whole-genome duplication and homologs of Arabidopsis thaliana gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), coordinate the repeated cycles of vegetative and reproductive growth in woody perennial poplar (Populus spp.). Our manipulative physiological and genetic experiments coupled with field studies, expression profiling, and network analysis reveal that reproductive onset is determined by FT1 in response to winter temperatures, whereas vegetative growth and inhibition of bud set are promoted by FT2 in response to warm temperatures and long days in the growing season. The basis for functional differentiation between FT1 and FT2 appears to be expression pattern shifts, changes in proteins, and divergence in gene regulatory networks. Thus, temporal separation of reproductive onset and vegetative growth into different seasons via FT1 and FT2 provides seasonality and demonstrates the evolution of a complex perennial adaptive trait after genome duplication.

  15. Vegetation establishment in convectively accelerated streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouzy, B.; McLelland, S. J.; Molnar, P.; Camporeale, C.; Perona, P.

    2013-12-01

    We study the conditions for vegetation establishment within river reaches with converging boundaries. Common to many such rivers worldwide is the existence of a limiting front (e.g., Figure 1a) beyond which all the riverbed vegetation is uprooted by flooding events. There are however exceptions, which leads to an interesting ecomorphodynamic problem (existence and position of the front). We use a theoretical 1-D framework based on morphodynamic equations modified in order to account for the presence of vegetation (Perona et al., submitted), and obtain the link between the position of the vegetated front and river eco-hydraulic variables under steady and unsteady conditions. We apply our framework to a number of flume experiments (unsteady flow) where Avena sativa L. (common oat) seedlings grow subject to periodic flow disturbances within a convergent flume channel (Figure 1b). We find that depending on the outcome of the competition between hydrological and biological processes there is either a limiting spatial front within the convergent section beyond which vegetation cannot survive, or vegetation colonizes the entire riverbed. The existence and the position of the front depend on the ability for vegetation to take root efficiently and withstand uprooting by the flow of the convectively accelerated stream (Crouzy et al., in press). The active role of vegetation and of unit streampower in this particular ecomorphodynamic process are then discussed in relation to the conceptual model of Gurnell and Petts (2006), and under the light of our theoretical and experimental results. REFERENCES - Crouzy, B., K. Edmaier, N. Pasquale and P. Perona (in press). Impact of floods on the statistical distribution of riverbed vegetation. Geomorphology doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2012.09.013. - Gurnell A., Petts G. (2006). Trees as riparian engineers: The Tagliamento River, Italy. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 31: 1558--1574. - Perona, P., B. Crouzy, S. Mc Lelland, P. Molnar

  16. Parallel Vegetation Stripe Formation Through Hydrologic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yiwei; Stieglitz, Marc; Turk, Greg; Engel, Victor

    2010-05-01

    It has long been a challenge to theoretical ecologists to describe vegetation pattern formations such as the "tiger bush" stripes and "leopard bush" spots in Niger, and the regular maze patterns often observed in bogs in North America and Eurasia. To date, most of simulation models focus on reproducing the spot and labyrinthine patterns, and on the vegetation bands which form perpendicular to surface and groundwater flow directions. Various hypotheses have been invoked to explain the formation of vegetation patterns: selective grazing by herbivores, fire, and anisotropic environmental conditions such as slope. Recently, short distance facilitation and long distance competition between vegetation (a.k.a scale dependent feedback) has been proposed as a generic mechanism for vegetation pattern formation. In this paper, we test the generality of this mechanism by employing an existing, spatially explicit, advection-reaction-diffusion type model to describe the formation of regularly spaced vegetation bands, including those that are parallel to flow direction. Such vegetation patterns are, for example, characteristic of the ridge and slough habitat in the Florida Everglades and which are thought to have formed parallel to the prevailing surface water flow direction. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a simple model encompassing a nutrient accumulation mechanism along with biomass development and flow is used to demonstrate the formation of parallel stripes. We also explore the interactive effects of plant transpiration, slope and anisotropic hydraulic conductivity on the resulting vegetation pattern. Our results highlight the ability of the short distance facilitation and long distance competition mechanism to explain the formation of the different vegetation patterns beyond semi-arid regions. Therefore, we propose that the parallel stripes, like the other periodic patterns observed in both isotropic and anisotropic environments, are self-organized and form

  17. Special study on vegetative covers. [UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This report describes the findings of a special study on the use of vegetative covers to stabilize tailings piles for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The principal rationale for using plants would be to establish a dynamic system for controlling water balance. Specifically, vegetation would be used to intercept and transpire precipitation to the atmosphere, rather than allowing water to drain into the tailings and mobilize contaminants. This would facilitate compliance with groundwater standards proposed for the UMTRA Project by the Environmental Protection Agency. The goals of the study were to evaluate the feasibility of using vegetative covers on UMTRA Project piles, define the advantages and disadvantages of vegetative covers, and develop general guidelines for their use when such use seems reasonable. The principal method for the study was to analyze and apply to the UMTRA Project the results of research programs on vegetative covers at other US Department of Energy (DOE) waste management facilities. The study also relied upon observations made of existing stabilized piles at UMTRA Project sites where natural vegetation is growing on the rock-covered surfaces. Water balance and erosion models were also used to quantify the long-term performance of vegetative covers planned for the topslopes of stabilized piles at Grand Junction and Durango, Colorado, two UMTRA Project sites where the decision was made during the course of this special study to use vegetative covers. Elements in the design and construction of the vegetative covers at these two sites are discussed in the report, with explanations of the differing features that reflect differing environmental conditions. 28 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Simulation of wetlands forest vegetation dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phipps, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program, SWAMP, was designed to simulate the effects of flood frequency and depth to water table on southern wetlands forest vegetation dynamics. By incorporating these hydrologic characteristics into the model, forest vegetation and vegetation dynamics can be simulated. The model, based on data from the White River National Wildlife Refuge near De Witt, Arkansas, "grows" individual trees on a 20 x 20-m plot taking into account effects on the tree growth of flooding, depth to water table, shade tolerance, overtopping and crowding, and probability of death and reproduction. A potential application of the model is illustrated with simulations of tree fruit production following flood-control implementation and lumbering. ?? 1979.

  19. A Forest Vegetation Database for Western Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busing, Richard T.

    2004-01-01

    Data on forest vegetation in western Oregon were assembled for 2323 ecological survey plots. All data were from fixed-radius plots with the standardized design of the Current Vegetation Survey (CVS) initiated in the early 1990s. For each site, the database includes: 1) live tree density and basal area of common tree species, 2) total live tree density, basal area, estimated biomass, and estimated leaf area; 3) age of the oldest overstory tree examined, 4) geographic coordinates, 5) elevation, 6) interpolated climate variables, and 7) other site variables. The data are ideal for ecoregional analyses of existing vegetation.

  20. Radar polarization signatures of vegetated areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zyl, Jakob J.; Zebker, Howard A.

    1987-01-01

    A simple model is presented for the prediction of the full polarization signature of vegetation resembling tall grass. This polarization signature can be used to detect the presence of vegetation even in those cases in which the vegetation layers are comparatively thin. Also presented is a model which predicts the polarization dependence of different tree types. Attention is given to the cases of pine and deciduous forest model predictions; both types of forest can be expected to contain terms representing the scatter from the ground, as well as forward, double reflections from the ground and limbs/trunk.

  1. Vegetal Optimality and Macro-Scale Dynamic Vegetation - Scaling from Leaf to Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quebbeman, J.; Ramirez, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Macro-scale spatially distributed hydrologic models require extensive parameterization of both soil and vegetal properties. Proper parameterization of vegetation is critical for understanding vegetal response to hydro-climatic variability, as vegetation provides a key feedback to climate. A common practice for Dynamic Global Vegetation Models is to use plant functional types (PFTs), which limit vegetation to discrete classes. We present a physically based long-term macro-scale coupled vegetation and hydrology model capable of responding dynamically to climate variability, and parameterize it assuming vegetal optimality hypotheses. We hypothesize that canopy scale vegetation will adopt a strategy that maximizes the expected net assimilation, minus photosynthetic system construction and maintenance costs, over an annual basis. We perform stochastic multi-decadal simulations to estimate the expected fitness for a unique vegetal parameterization and water use strategy. As a result, optimal parameter sets are defined, which can be used instead of a PFT characterization of land cover. Estimates of evaporation, transpiration and gross primary production obtained using the optimal parameter sets over a range of climates are then compared against FLUXNET data.

  2. Probabilistic Evaluation of Anthropogenic Regulations In a Vegetated River Channel Using a Vegetation Dynamics Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Hitoshi

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation overgrowth in fluvial floodplains, gravel beds, and sand bars has been a serious engineering problem for riparian management in Japan. From the viewpoints of flood control and ecological conservation, it would be necessary to predict the vegetation dynamics accurately for long-term duration. In this research, we have developed a stochastic model for predicting the vegetation dynamics in fluvial floodplains with emphasis on the interaction with flood impacts. The model consists of the following four components: (i) long-term stochastic behavior of flow discharge, (ii) hydrodynamics in a channel with floodplain vegetation, (iii) variation of riverbed topography, and (iv) vegetation dynamics on floodplains. In the vegetation dynamics model, the flood discharge (i) is stochastically simulated using a filtered Poisson process, one of the conventional approaches in hydrological time-series generation. The component for vegetation dynamics (iv) includes the effects of tree growth, mortality by floods, and infant tree recruitment. Vegetation condition has been observed mainly before and after floods since 2008 at a field site located between 23-24 km from the river mouth in Kako River, Japan. The Kako River has the catchment area of 1,730 km2 and the main channel length of 96 km. This site is one of the vegetation overgrowth sites in the Kako River floodplains. The predominant tree species are willows and bamboos. In the field survey, the position, trunk diameter and height of each tree as well as the riverbed materials were measured after several flood events to investigate their impacts on the floodplain vegetation community. This presentation tries to examine effects of anthropogenic river regulations, i.e., thinning and cutting-down, in the vegetated channel in Kako River by using the vegetation dynamics model. Sensitivity of both the flood water level and the vegetation status in the channel is statistically evaluated in terms of the different cutting

  3. 21 CFR 139.125 - Vegetable macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.125 Vegetable macaroni products. (a) Vegetable macaroni products are...

  4. 21 CFR 139.125 - Vegetable macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.125 Vegetable macaroni products. (a) Vegetable macaroni products are...

  5. 21 CFR 139.125 - Vegetable macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.125 Vegetable macaroni products. (a) Vegetable macaroni products are...

  6. 21 CFR 139.125 - Vegetable macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.125 Vegetable macaroni products. (a) Vegetable macaroni products are...

  7. Modeling of microwave scattering from vegetated covered terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    General formulation of resonant backscattering from vegetation, mean field and Green's function in three media, and electromagnetic backscattering coefficients from a layer of vegetation are discussed.

  8. The use of new index for surface roughness of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konda, Asako; Yamamoto, Hirokazu; Kajiwara, Koji; Honda, Yoshiaki

    2005-01-01

    Propose of a new Vegetation Index is purposes. Ordinal vegetation Index can show intensity of vegetation on the ground. It can not show structure of vegetation surface or texture. Proposed vegetation index utilizes BRF property. It is generated from data from 2 orbit of satellite and be able to show structure of vegetation surface or texture. Principles of this index is coming from field observation using RC helicopter. Each vegetation canopy has different texture and roughness. New index, named BSI (Bi-directional reflectance Structure Index) shows difference of vegetation canopy. It is calculated by using the data of NOAA/AVHRR, ADEOS OCTS. ADEOS-II GLI can derive BSI.

  9. Monitoring East African vegetation using AVHRR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justice, C. O.; Holben, B. N.; Gwynne, M. D.

    1986-01-01

    NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer satellite data are applied to regional vegetation monitoring in East Africa. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data for a one-year period from May 1983 are used to examine the phenology of a range of vegetation types. The integrated NDVI data for the same period are compared with an ecoclimatic zone map of the region and show marked similarities. Particular emphasis is placed on quantifying the phenology of the Acacia Commiphora bushlands. Considerable variation was found in the phenology of the bushlands as determined by the satellite NDVI, and is explained through the high spatial variability in the distribution of rainfall and the resulting green-up of the vegetation. The relationship between rainfall and NDVI is further examined for selected meteorological stations existing within the bushland. A preliminary estimate is made of the length of growing season using an NDVI thresholding technique.

  10. Predicting vegetation-stabilized dune field morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barchyn, Thomas E.; Hugenholtz, Chris H.

    2012-09-01

    The morphology of vegetation-stabilized dune fields on the North American Great Plains (NAGP) mostly comprises parabolic dunes; stabilized barchan and transverse dunes are rare, with the exception of transverse and barchan mega-dunes in the Nebraska Sand Hills. We present a hypothesis from a numerical dune field model explaining the vegetation-stabilized morphology of dunes under unidirectional wind. Simulations with a range of initial dune morphologies (closely-spaced transverse to disperse barchans) indicate that stabilized morphology is determined by the ratio of slipface deposition rate to deposition tolerance of vegetation. Slipface deposition rate is related to dune height, flux, and celerity. With a fixed depositional tolerance, large, slow-moving dunes have low slipface deposition rates and ‘freeze’ in place once vegetation is introduced. Relatively small, fast dunes have high slipface deposition rates and evolve into parabolic dunes, often colliding during stabilization. Our hypothesis could explain differences in stabilized morphology across the NAGP and elsewhere.

  11. Bonneville - Hood River Vegetation Management Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1998-08-01

    To maintain the reliability of its electrical system, BPA, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, needs to expand the range of vegetation management options used to clear unwanted vegetation on about 20 miles of BPA transmission line right-of-way between Bonneville Dam and Hood River; Oregon, within the Columbia Gorge National Scenic Area (NSA). We propose to continue controlling undesirable vegetation using a program of Integrated Vegetation Management (IVM) which includes manual, biological and chemical treatment methods. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1257) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  12. 30 CFR 783.19 - Vegetation information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... identified under 30 CFR 784.21. ..., contain a map that delineates existing vegetative types and a description of the plant communities within...) When a map or aerial photograph is required, sufficient adjacent areas shall be included to...

  13. Global vegetation dynamics - Satellite observations over Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malingreau, J.-P.

    1986-01-01

    The weekly global vegetation index (GVI) derived from the NOAA AVHRR instrument has been analyzed for the 1982-1985 period over a wide range of vegetation formations of Asia. Temporal development curves of the index are presented for environments ranging from the desert of central Asia to the tropical forest of Borneo. The paper shows that, despite the coarse resolution of the GVI product, a large set of useful information on ecosystem dynamics and cropping practices can be consistently derived from time series of such data. In addition, it is shown that the impact of the 1982-1983 El Nino Southern Oscillation-related drought can be detected in the GVI data through an analysis of anomalies in the development of selected vegetation formations. The relevance of such analysis for global vegetation monitoring and change detection is then underlined.

  14. Selected Vegetables/Sun's Soup (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Selected Vegetables/Sun’s Soup along with other treatments. Randomized controlled trials , enrolling larger numbers of people, are ... treatments, or both. None of the trials were randomized or controlled . Randomized clinical trials give the highest ...

  15. New vegetable and fruit-vegetable juices treated by high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrovská, Dana; Ouhrabková, Jarmila; Rysová, Jana; Laknerová, Ivana; Fiedlerová, Vlasta; Holasová, Marie; Winterová, Renata; Průchová, Jiřina; Strohalm, Jan; Houška, Milan; Landfeld, Aleš; Erban, Vladimír; Eichlerová, Eva; Němečková, Irena; Kejmarová, Marie; Bočková, Pavlína

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this work was to find sensory suitable combinations of not commonly used vegetables, that is, cabbage, celeriac and parsnip, into mixed fruit-vegetable juices, two-species vegetable juices and vegetable juices with whey. These juices might have the potential to offer consumers new, interesting, tasty and nutritional products. Another interesting variation could be preparation of vegetable juices in combination with sweet whey. Nutritional and sensory evaluations were carried out using juices prepared in the laboratory. The total phenolic content, in addition to ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity, was determined. The developed juices with high nutritional value should increase very low fruit and vegetable consumption in the Czech population. The prepared juices were high pressure pasteurized (410 MPa). This technique retains the desired levels of important nutritional substances, while being destructive to live microbial cell structure. The germination of spores is suppressed by low pH value.

  16. Radar for Measuring Soil Moisture Under Vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moghaddam, Mahta; Moller, Delwyn; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

    2004-01-01

    A two-frequency, polarimetric, spaceborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) system has been proposed for measuring the moisture content of soil as a function of depth, even in the presence of overlying vegetation. These measurements are needed because data on soil moisture under vegetation canopies are not available now and are necessary for completing mathematical models of global energy and water balance with major implications for global variations in weather and climate.

  17. Fuel properties of eleven vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, C.E.; Schwab, A.W.; Daugherty, M.J.; Pryde, E.H.; Heakin, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Eleven vegetable oils that can be grown as domestic field crops were identified for inclusion in a comparative study of chemical and fuel properties. Sample lots of each oil were subjected to ASTM tests appropriate for diesel fuels. The tests identified some problem areas with vegetable oil fuels. The oil samples were also characterized chemically and certain fuel properties were correlated to chemical compositions. (Refs. 11).

  18. Vegetation modulated landscape evolution: Effects of vegetation on landscape processes, drainage density and topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bras, R. L.; Istanbulluoglu, E.

    2004-12-01

    Topography acts as a template for numerous landscape processes that includes hydrologic, ecologic and biologic phenomena. These processes not only interact with each other but also contribute to shaping the landscape as they influence geomorphic processes. We have investigated the effects of vegetation on known geomorphic relations, thresholds for channel initiation and landform evolution, using both analytical and numerical approaches. Vegetation is assumed to form a uniform ground cover. Runoff erosion is modeled based on power function of excess shear stress, in which shear stress efficiency is inversely proportional to vegetation cover. Plant effect on slope stability is represented by additional cohesion provided by plant roots. Vegetation cover is assumed to reduce sediment transport rates due to physical creep processes (rainsplash, dry ravel, and expansion and contraction of sediments) according to a negative exponential relationship. Vegetation grows as a function of both available cover and unoccupied space by plants, and is killed by geomorphic disturbances (runoff erosion and landsliding), and wildfires. Analytical results suggest that, in an equilibrium basin with a fixed vegetation cover, plants may cause a transition in the dominant erosion process at the channel head. A runoff erosion dominated landscape, under none or loose vegetation cover, may become landslide dominated under a denser vegetation cover. The sign of the predicted relationship between drainage density and vegetation cover depends on the relative influence of vegetation on different erosion phenomena. With model parameter values representative of the Oregon Coast Range (OCR), numerical experiments conducted using the CHILD model. Numerical experiments reveal the importance of vegetation disturbances on the landscape structure. Simulated landscapes resemble real-world catchments in the OCR when vegetation disturbances are considered.

  19. Vegetation-modulated landscape evolution: Effects of vegetation on landscape processes, drainage density, and topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istanbulluoglu, Erkan; Bras, Rafael L.

    2005-06-01

    Topography acts as a template for numerous landscape processes that include hydrologic, ecologic, and biologic phenomena. These processes not only interact with each other but also contribute to shaping the landscape as they influence geomorphic processes. We have investigated the effects of vegetation on thresholds for channel initiation and landform evolution using both analytical and numerical approaches. Vegetation is assumed to form a uniform ground cover. Runoff erosion is modeled based on a power function of excess shear stress, in which shear stress efficiency is inversely proportional to vegetation cover. This approach is validated using data. Plant effect on slope stability is represented by additional cohesion provided by plant roots. Vegetation cover is assumed to reduce sediment transport rates due to physical creep processes (rainsplash, dry ravel, and expansion and contraction of sediments) according to a negative exponential relationship. Vegetation grows as a function of both available cover and unoccupied space by plants and is killed by geomorphic disturbances (runoff erosion and landsliding) and wildfires. Analytical results suggest that in an equilibrium basin with a fixed vegetation cover, plants may cause a transition in the dominant erosion process at the channel head. A runoff erosion-dominated landscape, under none or poor vegetation cover, may become landslide dominated under a denser vegetation cover. The sign of the predicted relationship between drainage density and vegetation cover depends on the relative influence of vegetation on different erosion phenomena. With model parameter values representative of the Oregon Coast Range (OCR), numerical experiments conducted using the Channel Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD) model confirm the findings based on the analytical theory. A highly dissected fluvial landscape emerges when surface is assumed bare. When vegetation cover is modeled, landscape relief increases

  20. Modeling aeolian erosion in presence of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, S.; Bergametti, G.; Simoëns, S.

    2014-02-01

    Semiarid landscapes are characterized by vegetated surfaces. Understanding the impact of vegetation on aeolian soil erosion is important for reducing soil erosion or limiting crop damage through abrasion or burial. In the present study, a saltation model fully coupled with a large-eddy simulation airflow model is extended to vegetated landscapes. From this model, the sensitivity of sand erosion to different arrangements and type of plants (shrub versus tree) representative of semiarid landscapes is investigated and the wind erosion reduction induced by plants is quantified. We show that saltation processes over vegetated surfaces have a limited impact on the mean wind statistics, the momentum extracted from the flow by saltating particles being negligible compared to that extracted by plants. Simulated sand erosion patterns resulting from plant distribution, i.e., accumulation and erosion areas, appear qualitatively consistent with previous observations. It is shown that sand erosion reduction depends not only on vegetation cover but also on plant morphology and plant distribution relative to the mean wind direction. A simple shear stress partitioning approach applied in shrub cases gives similar trends of sand erosion reduction as the present model following wind direction and vegetation cover. However, the magnitude of the reduction appears significantly different from one approach to another. Although shrubs trap saltating particles, trees appear more efficient than shrubs to reduce sand erosion. This is explained by the large-scale sheltering effect of trees compared to the local shrub one.

  1. Estimation of vegetative mercury emissions in China.

    PubMed

    Quan, Jiannong; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Shim, Shang Gyoo

    2008-01-01

    Vegetative mercury emissions were estimated within the framework of Biogenic Emission Inventory System (BEIS3 V3.11). In this estimation, the 19 categories of U.S. Geological Survey landcover data were incorporated to generate the vegetation-specific mercury emissions in a 81-km Lambert Conformal model grid covering the total Chinese continent. The surface temperature and cloud-corrected solar radiation from a Mesoscale Meteorological model (MM5) were retrieved and used for calculating the diurnal variation. The implemented emission factors were either evaluated from the measured mercury flux data for forest, agriculture and water, or assumed for other land fields without available flux data. Annual simulations using the MM5 data were performed to investigate the seasonal emission variation. From the sensitivity analysis using two sets of emission factors, the vegetative mercury emissions in China domain were estimated to range from a lower limit of 79 x 10(3) kg/year to an upper limit of 177 x 10(3) kg/year. The modeled vegetative emissions were mainly generated from the eastern and southern China. Using the estimated data, it is shown that mercury emissions from vegetation are comparable to that from anthropogenic sources during summer. However, the vegetative emissions decrease greatly during winter, leaving anthropogenic sources as the major sources of emission. PMID:19143313

  2. Comprehensive Understanding for Vegetated Scene Radiance Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimes, D. S.; Deering, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    The improvement of our fundamental understanding of the dynamics of directional scattering properties of vegetation canopies through analysis of field data and model simulation data is discussed. Directional reflectance distributions spanning the entire existance hemisphere were measured in two field studies; one using a Mark III 3-band radiometer and one using rapid scanning bidirectional field instrument called PARABOLA. Surfaces measured included corn, soybeans, bare soils, grass lawn, orchard grass, alfalfa, cotton row crops, plowed field, annual grassland, stipa grass, hard wheat, salt plain shrubland, and irrigated wheat. Some structural and optical measurements were taken. Field data show unique reflectance distributions ranging from bare soil to complete vegetation canopies. Physical mechanisms causing these trends are proposed based on scattering properties of soil and vegetation. Soil exhibited a strong backscattering peak toward the Sun. Complete vegetation exhibited a bowl distribution with the minimum reflectance near nadir. Incomplete vegetation canopies show shifting of the minimum reflectance off of nadir in the forward scattering direction because both the scattering properties or the vegetation and soil are observed.

  3. Emergence of river dynamics through changing vegetation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oorschot, Mijke; Kleinhans, Maarten; Middelkoop, Hans; Geerling, Gertjan

    2016-04-01

    Riparian vegetation interacts with morphodynamic processes in rivers to create distinct habitat mosaics supporting a large biodiversity. The aim of our work is to quantitatively investigate the emergent patterns in vegetation and river morphology at the river reach scale by dynamically modelling the processes and their interactions. Here, we coupled an advanced morphodynamic model to a novel dynamic riparian vegetation model to study the interaction between vegetation and morphodynamics. Vegetation colonizes bare substrate within the seed dispersal window, passes several growth stages with different properties and can die through flooding, desiccation, uprooting, scour or burial. We have compared river morphology and vegetation patterns of scenarios without vegetation, with static vegetation that does not grow or die and several dynamic vegetation scenarios with a range of vegetation strategies and eco-engineering properties. Results show that dynamic vegetation has a decreased lateral migration of meander bends and maintains its active meandering behavior as opposed to the scenarios without vegetation and with static vegetation. Also the patterns in vegetation and fluvial morphology and the vegetation age distribution mostly resemble the natural situation when compared to aerial photos of the study area. We find that river dynamics, specifically sinuosity and sediment transport, are very sensitive to vegetation properties that determine vegetation density, settlement location and survival. Future work will include the effects of invasive species, addition of silt and the effect of various river management strategies.

  4. New views on changing Arctic vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Robert E.

    2012-03-01

    As climate changes, how will terrestrial vegetation respond? Because the fates of many biogeochemical, hydrological and economic cycles depend on vegetation, this question is fundamental to climate change science but extremely challenging to address. This is particularly true in the Arctic, where temperature change has been most acute globally (IPCC 2007) and where potential feedbacks to carbon, energy and hydrological cycles have important implications for the rest of the Earth system (Chapin et al 2000). It is well known that vegetation is tightly coupled to precipitation and temperature (Whittaker 1975), but predicting the response of vegetation to changes in climate involves much more than invoking the limitations of climate envelopes (Thuiller et al 2008). Models must also consider efficacy of dispersal, soil constraints, ecological interactions, possible CO2 fertilization impacts and the changing impact of other, more proximal anthropogenic effects such as pollution, disturbance, etc (Coops and Waring 2011, Lenihan et al 2008, Scheller and Mladenoff 2005). Given this complexity, a key test will be whether models can match empirical observations of changes that have already occurred. The challenge is finding empirical observations of change that are appropriate to test hypothesized impacts of climate change. As climate gradually changes across broad bioclimatic gradients, vegetation condition may change gradually as well. To capture these gradual trends, observations need at least three characteristics: (1) they must quantify a vegetation attribute that is expected to change, (2) they must measure that attribute in exactly the same way over long periods of time, and (3) they must sample diverse communities at geographic scales commensurate with the scale of expected climatic shifts. Observation networks meeting all three criteria are rare anywhere on the globe, but particularly so in remote areas. For this reason, satellite images have long been used as a

  5. Vegetation-Precipitation Interactions Drive Paleoenvironmental Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraticelli, C. M.; West, B. P.; Bohacs, K. M.; Patterson, P. E.; Heins, W. A.

    2004-12-01

    In studies of climate effects on the sedimentary record, vegetation is often relegated to the role of proxy data. However, modern environmental distributions reflect strong feedbacks among vegetation communities, precipitation, and temperature that can reinforce secular climate changes. These feedbacks are strong enough to dry out tropical rainforests, green deserts, or warm high latitudes. Four distinct phases in the evolution of land plants have progressively altered the global distribution of precipitation and smoothed the climatic gradient between continent interiors and coastal margins. Each phase of land-plant evolution and its attendant climate effects have influenced sedimentary systems by modifying the relationship between climate and sediment yield. The phases are: 1) pre-Devonian, 2) Devonian-Cretaceous, 3) Cretaceous-Oligocene, 4) post-Oligocene. In the pre-Devonian, before widespread land-plant cover, precipitation patterns depended solely on latitude, the distribution of continents and oceans, and the consequent atmospheric circulation patterns. The known spatial distribution of evaporite deposits and the characteristics of fluvial systems at this time reflect how dissimilar this environment is to today. The Devonian-Cretaceous phase saw the rise and diversification of most major land-plant groups. However, these arid-intolerant floras were concentrated in high-humidity lowlands and coastal margins. Low-density vegetative cover in uplands and continental interiors was reinforced by a positive feedback among increased temperature, decreased moisture and decreased vegetation density. The climatic gradient from continental interior to coastal margin was at a maximum during this period. Continent-interior to coastal climatic gradients became less pronounced in the Cretaceous to Oligocene with the advent of arid-tolerant herbaceous angiosperms that increased the vegetative cover in dry uplands. A positive feedback among increased vegetative cover

  6. Post-fire vegetation recovery in Portugal based on spot/vegetation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, C.; Dacamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

    2010-04-01

    A procedure is presented that allows identifying large burned scars and the monitoring of vegetation recovery in the years following major fire episodes. The procedure relies on 10-day fields of Maximum Value Composites of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (MVC-NDVI), with a 1 km×1 km spatial resolution obtained from the VEGETATION instrument. The identification of fire scars during the extremely severe 2003 fire season is performed based on cluster analysis of NDVI anomalies that persist during the vegetative cycle of the year following the fire event. Two regions containing very large burned scars were selected, located in Central and Southwestern Portugal, respectively, and time series of MVC-NDVI analysed before the fire events took place and throughout the post-fire period. It is shown that post-fire vegetation dynamics in the two selected regions may be characterised based on maps of recovery rates as estimated by fitting a monoparametric model of vegetation recovery to MVC-NDVI data over each burned scar. Results indicated that the recovery process in the region located in Central Portugal is mostly related to fire damage rather than to vegetation density before 2003, whereas the latter seems to have a more prominent role than vegetation conditions after the fire episode, e.g. in the case of the region in Southwestern Portugal. These differences are consistent with the respective predominant types of vegetation. The burned area located in Central Portugal is dominated by Pinus Pinaster whose natural regeneration crucially depends on the destruction of seeds present on the soil surface during the fire, whereas the burned scar in Southwestern Portugal was populated by Eucalyptus that may quickly re-sprout from buds after fire. Besides its simplicity, the monoparametric model of vegetation recovery has the advantage of being easily adapted to other low-resolution satellite data, as well as to other types of vegetation indices.

  7. 7 CFR 1416.402 - Eligible fruit and vegetable producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. 1416.402... DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fruit and Vegetable Disaster Program § 1416.402 Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. (a) Producers of fruits and vegetables utilizing “plasticulture”, and “other than...

  8. 7 CFR 1416.402 - Eligible fruit and vegetable producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. 1416.402... DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fruit and Vegetable Disaster Program § 1416.402 Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. (a) Producers of fruits and vegetables utilizing “plasticulture”, and “other than...

  9. 7 CFR 1416.402 - Eligible fruit and vegetable producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. 1416.402... DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fruit and Vegetable Disaster Program § 1416.402 Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. (a) Producers of fruits and vegetables utilizing “plasticulture”, and “other than...

  10. 7 CFR 1416.402 - Eligible fruit and vegetable producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. 1416.402... DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fruit and Vegetable Disaster Program § 1416.402 Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. (a) Producers of fruits and vegetables utilizing “plasticulture”, and “other than...

  11. 7 CFR 1416.402 - Eligible fruit and vegetable producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. 1416.402... DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fruit and Vegetable Disaster Program § 1416.402 Eligible fruit and vegetable producers. (a) Producers of fruits and vegetables utilizing “plasticulture”, and “other than...

  12. Evapotranspiration estimation in heterogeneous urban vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagler, P. L.; Nouri, H.; Beecham, S.; Anderson, S.; Sutton, P.; Chavoshi, S.

    2015-12-01

    Finding a valid approach to measure the water requirements of mixed urban vegetation is a challenge. Evapotranspiration (ET) is the main component of a plant's water requirement. A better understanding of the ET of urban vegetation is essential for sustainable urbanisation. Increased implementation of green infrastructure will be informed by this work. Despite promising technologies and sophisticated facilities, ET estimation of urban vegetation remains insufficiently characterized. We reviewed the common field, laboratory and modelling techniques for ET estimation, mostly agriculture and forestry applications. We opted for 3 approaches of ET estimation: 1) an observational-based method using adjustment factors applied to reference ET, 2) a field-based method of Soil Water Balance (SWB) and 3) a Remote Sensing (RS)-based method. These approaches were applied to an experimental site to evaluate the most suitable ET estimation approach for an urban parkland. To determine in-situ ET, 2 lysimeters and 4 Neutron Moisture Meter probes were installed. Based on SWB principles, all input water (irrigation, precipitation and upward groundwater movements) and output water (ET, drainage, soil moisture and runoff) were measured monthly for 14 months. The observation based approach and the ground-based approach (SWB) were compared. Our predictions were compared to the actual irrigation rates (data provided by the City Council). Results suggest the observational-based method is the most appropriate urban ET estimation. We examined the capability of RS to estimate ET for urban vegetation. Image processing of 5 WorldView2 satellite images enabled modelling of the relationship between urban vegetation and vegetation indices derived from high resolution images. Our results indicate that an ETobservational-based -NDVI modelling approach is a reliable method of ET estimation for mixed urban vegetation. It also has the advantage of not depending on extensive field data collection.

  13. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  14. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  15. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  16. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  17. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  18. The Relationship of Salt Marsh Vegetation Lateral Obstruction to Vegetation Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemein, T.; Cox, D. T.; Albert, D.

    2013-12-01

    Vegetation in salt marshes attenuates wave energy while influencing sediment accretion and turbulence in the water column. Modeling the interaction of waves and vegetation has been typically approached through an empirical coefficient of drag variable that is calibrated for a given set of biologic conditions dependent upon stem density and diameter. This method oversimplifies the complexity of vegetation morphology while also requiring assumptions to be made about the vegetation itself (uniform stem diameters for all stems) and leads to large uncertainty in the drag coefficient. As an alternative to the uniform vegetation model, we focus on the variation of the lateral obstruction of vegetation. This measure of cover in the vertical plane over a given horizontal distance is useful for presenting and quantifying complex vegetation morphology from live, in situ, vegetation. We compare the lateral obstruction of two common Pacific Northwest estuarine species, threesquare bulrush (Schoenoplectus pungens), and Lyngbye's sedge (Carex lyngbyei), to their in situ morphologic characteristics (density, height, diameter, aboveground biomass) over varying horizontal distances. From this, the amount of lateral obstruction is used to determine an estimate of the morphologic characteristics of the species in other environments and vice versa, therefore providing a means of making more accurate comparisons between and among species. We anticipate that this method will improve the calibration of the coefficient of drag variable in wave attenuation equations by incorporating the vertical variation of plant density.

  19. Radar vegetation indices for estimating the vegetation water content of rice and soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation water content (VWC) is an important biophysical parameter and has a significant role in the retrieval of soil moisture using microwave remote sensing. In this study, the Radar Vegetation Index (RVI) was evaluated for estimating VWC. Analysis utilized a data set obtained using a ground-bas...

  20. Microwave Vegetation Indices for Short Vegetation Covers from Satellite Passive Microwave Sensor AMSR-E

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation indices are valuable in many fields of geosciences. Conventional, visible-near infrared, indices are often limited by the effects of atmosphere, background soil conditions, and saturation at high levels of vegetation. In this study, the theoretical basis for a new passive microwave vegeta...

  1. A pre-vegetated mat technique for the restoration of submersed aquatic vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boustany, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    Intro paragraph: Communities of submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) provide critical habitat for wintering waterfowl and many commercially important fish species. Submersed aquatic vegetation also helps minimize storm damage by reducing wave action and stabilizing sediments, and they improve water quality by sequestering nutrients and contaminants (Zieman and Zieman 1989).

  2. Ecogeomorphology of Sand Dunes Shaped by Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoar, H.

    2014-12-01

    Two dune types associated with vegetation are known: Parabolic and Vegetated Linear Dunes (VLDs), the latters are the dominant dune type in the world deserts. Parabolic dunes are formed in humid, sub-humid and semi-arid environments (rather than arid) where vegetation is nearby. VLDs are known today in semiarid and arid lands where the average yearly rainfall is ≥100 mm, enough to support sparse cover of vegetation. These two dune types are formed by unidirectional winds although they demonstrate a different form and have a distinct dynamics. Conceptual and mathematical models of dunes mobility and stability, based on three control parameters: wind power (DP), average annual precipitation (p), and the human impact parameter (μ) show that where human impact is negligible the effect of wind power (DP) on vegetative cover is substantial. The average yearly rainfall of 60-80 mm is the threshold of annual average rainfall for vegetation growth on dune sand. The model is shown to follow a hysteresis path, which explains the bistability of active and stabilized dunes under the same climatic conditions with respect to wind power. We have discerned formation of parabolic dunes from barchans and transverse dunes in the coastal plain of Israel where a decrease in human activity during the second half of the 20th century caused establishment of vegetation on the crest of the dunes, a process that changed the dynamics of these barchans and transverse dunes and led to a change in the shape of the windward slope from convex to concave. These dunes gradually became parabolic. It seems that VLDs in Australia or the Kalahari have always been vegetated to some degree, though the shrubs were sparser in colder periods when the aeolian erosion was sizeable. Those ancient conditions are characterized by higher wind power and lower rainfall that can reduce, but not completely destroy, the vegetation cover, leading to the formation of lee (shadow) dunes behind each shrub. Formation of

  3. Organochlorine (chlordecone) uptake by root vegetables.

    PubMed

    Florence, Clostre; Philippe, Letourmy; Magalie, Lesueur-Jannoyer

    2015-01-01

    Chlordecone, an organochlorine insecticide, continues to pollute soils in the French West Indies. The main source of human exposure to this pollutant is food. Root vegetables, which are staple foods in tropical regions, can be highly contaminated and are thus a very effective lever for action to reduce consumer exposure. We analyzed chlordecone contamination in three root vegetables, yam, dasheen and sweet potato, which are among the main sources of chlordecone exposure in food in the French West Indies. All soil types do not have the same potential for the contamination of root vegetables, allophanic andosols being two to ten times less contaminating than non-allophanic nitisols and ferralsols. This difference was only partially explained by the higher OC content in allophanic soils. Dasheen corms were shown to accumulate more chlordecone than yam and sweet potato tubers. The physiological nature of the root vegetable may explain this difference. Our results are in good agreement with the hypothesis that chlordecone uptake by root vegetables is based on passive and diffusive processes and limited by transport and dilution during growth. PMID:25043888

  4. Linking models and data on vegetation structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtt, G. C.; Fisk, J.; Thomas, R. Q.; Dubayah, R.; Moorcroft, P. R.; Shugart, H. H.

    2010-06-01

    For more than a century, scientists have recognized the importance of vegetation structure in understanding forest dynamics. Now future satellite missions such as Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice (DESDynI) hold the potential to provide unprecedented global data on vegetation structure needed to reduce uncertainties in terrestrial carbon dynamics. Here, we briefly review the uses of data on vegetation structure in ecosystem models, develop and analyze theoretical models to quantify model-data requirements, and describe recent progress using a mechanistic modeling approach utilizing a formal scaling method and data on vegetation structure to improve model predictions. Generally, both limited sampling and coarse resolution averaging lead to model initialization error, which in turn is propagated in subsequent model prediction uncertainty and error. In cases with representative sampling, sufficient resolution, and linear dynamics, errors in initialization tend to compensate at larger spatial scales. However, with inadequate sampling, overly coarse resolution data or models, and nonlinear dynamics, errors in initialization lead to prediction error. A robust model-data framework will require both models and data on vegetation structure sufficient to resolve important environmental gradients and tree-level heterogeneity in forest structure globally.

  5. Urban vegetation for reducing heat related mortality.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Wang, Xiaoming; Thatcher, Marcus; Barnett, Guy; Kachenko, Anthony; Prince, Robert

    2014-09-01

    The potential benefit of urban vegetation in reducing heat related mortality in the city of Melbourne, Australia is investigated using a two-scale modelling approach. A meso-scale urban climate model was used to quantify the effects of ten urban vegetation schemes on the current climate in 2009 and future climates in 2030 and 2050. The indoor thermal performance of five residential buildings was then simulated using a building simulation tool with the local meso-climates associated with various urban vegetation schemes. Simulation results suggest that average seasonal summer temperatures can be reduced in the range of around 0.5 and 2 °C if the city were replaced by vegetated suburbs and parklands, respectively. With the limited buildings and local meso-climates investigated in this study, around 5-28% and 37-99% reduction in heat related mortality rate have been estimated by doubling the city's vegetation coverage and transforming the city into parklands respectively. PMID:24857047

  6. Heat Waves, Urban Vegetation, and Air Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churkina, G.; Grote, R.; Butler, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Fast-track programs to plant millions of trees in cities around the world aim at the reduction of summer temperatures, increase carbon storage, storm water control, provision of space for recreation, as well as poverty alleviation. Although these multiple benefits speak positively for urban greening programs, the programs do not take into account how close human and natural systems are coupled in urban areas. Elevated temperatures together with anthropogenic emissions of air and water pollutants distinguish the urban system. Urban and sub-urban vegetation responds to ambient changes and reacts with pollutants. Neglecting the existence of this coupling may lead to unforeseen drawbacks of urban greening programs. The potential for emissions from urban vegetation combined with anthropogenic emissions to produce ozone has long been recognized. This potential increases under rising temperatures. Here we investigate how global change induced heat waves affect emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from urban vegetation and corresponding ground-level ozone levels. We also quantify other ecosystem services provided by urban vegetation (e.g., cooling and carbon storage) and their sensitivity to climate change. In this study we use Weather Research and Forecasting Model with coupled atmospheric chemistry (WRF-CHEM) to quantify these feedbacks in Berlin, Germany during the heat waves in 2003 and 2006. We highlight the importance of the vegetation for urban areas under changing climate and discuss associated tradeoffs.

  7. Resilience and recovery of Kalahari duneland vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattachan, A.; D'Odorico, P.; Dintwe, K.; Okin, G. S.; Collins, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    Many dune fields around the world have undergone alternating periods of mobilization and stabilization in response to changes in wind power and rainfall. In modern times disturbances associated with land use are believed to be a dominant factor contributing to the activation of stabilized vegetated dunes in drylands, while the reduction in human activities such as grazing and farming may lead to stabilization of once active dune fields. It is not clear if reduction of human activities is the only necessary factor for the recovery of vegetation and stabilization of dunes. In this study, we concentrate on the Kalahari region of Southern Africa and investigate the resilience of duneland vegetation that is currently undergoing conditions of incipient degradation with dunes becoming active in overgrazed areas close to boreholes and villages. Using field observation and soil seed bank experiments, we show that palatable perennial grass cover is reduced while the seedbank is depleted on grazed dunefields. Conversely, the interdunes generally exhibit relatively rich seed banks. Soils from grazed and ungrazed sites exhibit plant available nutrient contents that are not significantly different; therefore, soil nutrients are likely not a major factor limiting the recovery of perennial vegetation in this region. It is observed that the perennial grasses reestablish on the recovery dunes after grazers have been excluded. Therefore, changes in grass cover and grass community composition, seed bank depletion, and decline in soil nutrient content can be used as indicators of imminent regime shifts from vegetated to bare dune.

  8. Use of spectral channels and vegetation indices from satellite VEGETATION time series for the Post-Fire vegetation recovery estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coluzzi, Rosa; Lasaponara, Rosa; Montesano, Tiziana; Lanorte, Antonio; de Santis, Fortunato

    2010-05-01

    Satellite data can help monitoring the dynamics of vegetation in burned and unburned areas. Several methods can be used to perform such kind of analysis. This paper is focused on the use of different satellite-based parameters for fire recovery monitoring. In particular, time series of single spectral channels and vegetation indices from SPOT-VEGETATION have investigated. The test areas is the Mediterranean ecosystems of Southern Italy. For this study we considered: 1) the most widely used index to follow the process of recovery after fire: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) obtained from the visible (Red) and near infrared (NIR) by using the following formula NDVI = (NIR_Red)/(NIR + Red), 2) moisture index MSI obtained from the near infrared and Mir for characterization of leaf and canopy water content. 3) NDWI obtained from the near infrared and Mir as in the case of MSI, but with the normalization (as the NDVI) to reduce the atmospheric effects. All analysis for this work was performed on ten-daily normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) image composites (S10) from the SPOT- VEGETATION (VGT) sensor. The final data set consisted of 279 ten-daily, 1 km resolution NDVI S1O composites for the period 1 April 1998 to 31 December 2005 with additional surface reflectance values in the blue (B; 0.43-0.47,um), red (R; 0.61-0.68,um), near-infrared (NIR; 0.78-0.89,um) and shortwave-infrared (SWIR; 1.58-1.75,um) spectral bands, and information on the viewing geometry and pixel status. Preprocessing of the data was performed by the Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek (VITO) in the framework of the Global Vegetation Monitoring (GLOVEG) preprocessing chain. It consisted of the Simplified Method for Atmospheric Correction (SMAC) and compositing at ten-day intervals based on the Maximum Value Compositing (MVC) criterion. All the satellite time series were analysed using the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) to estimate post fire vegetation recovery

  9. Thermal Performance of Vegetative Roofing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Desjarlais, Andre Omer; Zaltash, Abdolreza; Atchley, Jerald Allen; Ennis, Mike J

    2010-01-01

    Vegetative roofing, otherwise known as green or garden roofing, has seen tremendous growth in the last decade in the United States. The numerous benefits that green roofs provide have helped to fuel their resurgence in industrial and urban settings. There are many environmental and economical benefits that can be realized by incorporating a vegetative roof into the design of a building. These include storm-water retention, energy conservation, reduction in the urban heat island effect, increased longevity of the roofing membrane, the ability of plants to create biodiversity and filter air contaminants, and beautification of the surroundings by incorporating green space. The vegetative roof research project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was initiated to quantify the thermal performance of various vegetative roofing systems relative to black and white roofs. Single Ply Roofing Institute (SPRI) continued its long-term commitment to cooperative research with ORNL in this project. Low-slope roof systems for this study were constructed and instrumented for continuous monitoring in the mixed climate of East Tennessee. This report summarizes the results of the annual cooling and heating loads per unit area of three vegetative roofing systems with side-by-side comparison to black and white roofing systems as well as a test section with just the growing media without plants. Results showed vegetative roofs reduced heat gain (reduced cooling loads) compared to the white control system due to the thermal mass, extra insulation, and evapo-transpiration associated with the vegetative roofing systems. The 4-inch and tray systems reduced the heat gain by approximately 61%, while the reduction with the 8-inch vegetative roof was found to be approximately 67%. The vegetative roofing systems were more effective in reducing heat gain than in reducing heat losses (heating loads). The reduction in heat losses for the 4-inch and tray systems were found to be approximately 40

  10. Microwave emission and scattering from vegetated terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibley, T. G.

    1973-01-01

    Models are developed for the apparent temperature and backscattering coefficient of vegetated terrain to illustrate the effects of vegetation on the sensitivity of these parameters to variations of soil moisture. Three types of terrain are simulated for both the passive and the active case: a uniform canopy over a smooth surface, plant rows on a smooth surface, and plant rows on a rough surface. In each case the canopy is defined by its overall dimensions and by its electric permittivity, which is determined from Weiner model for dielectric mixture. Emission and scattering from both the soil and the canopy are considered, but atmospheric effects are neglected. Calculated data indicate that the sensitivity of the apparent temperature and backscattering coefficient to variations of soil moisture, decreases as the amount of vegetation increases. It is shown that the same effect results from increasing signal frequency or angle of incidence.

  11. Evaluating models of climate and forest vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, James S.

    1992-01-01

    Understanding how the biosphere may respond to increasing trace gas concentrations in the atmosphere requires models that contain vegetation responses to regional climate. Most of the processes ecologists study in forests, including trophic interactions, nutrient cycling, and disturbance regimes, and vital components of the world economy, such as forest products and agriculture, will be influenced in potentially unexpected ways by changing climate. These vegetation changes affect climate in the following ways: changing C, N, and S pools; trace gases; albedo; and water balance. The complexity of the indirect interactions among variables that depend on climate, together with the range of different space/time scales that best describe these processes, make the problems of modeling and prediction enormously difficult. These problems of predicting vegetation response to climate warming and potential ways of testing model predictions are the subjects of this chapter.

  12. Arizona Vegetation Resource Inventory (AVRI) accuracy assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szajgin, John; Pettinger, L.R.; Linden, D.S.; Ohlen, D.O.

    1982-01-01

    A quantitative accuracy assessment was performed for the vegetation classification map produced as part of the Arizona Vegetation Resource Inventory (AVRI) project. This project was a cooperative effort between the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center. The objective of the accuracy assessment was to estimate (with a precision of ?10 percent at the 90 percent confidence level) the comission error in each of the eight level II hierarchical vegetation cover types. A stratified two-phase (double) cluster sample was used. Phase I consisted of 160 photointerpreted plots representing clusters of Landsat pixels, and phase II consisted of ground data collection at 80 of the phase I cluster sites. Ground data were used to refine the phase I error estimates by means of a linear regression model. The classified image was stratified by assigning each 15-pixel cluster to the stratum corresponding to the dominant cover type within each cluster. This method is known as stratified plurality sampling. Overall error was estimated to be 36 percent with a standard error of 2 percent. Estimated error for individual vegetation classes ranged from a low of 10 percent ?6 percent for evergreen woodland to 81 percent ?7 percent for cropland and pasture. Total cost of the accuracy assessment was $106,950 for the one-million-hectare study area. The combination of the stratified plurality sampling (SPS) method of sample allocation with double sampling provided the desired estimates within the required precision levels. The overall accuracy results confirmed that highly accurate digital classification of vegetation is difficult to perform in semiarid environments, due largely to the sparse vegetation cover. Nevertheless, these techniques show promise for providing more accurate information than is presently available for many BLM-administered lands.

  13. Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach

    SciTech Connect

    FOGWELL, T.W.

    2003-07-11

    During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford Reach is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the Reach by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY2002

  14. Vegetative states--an integrative approach.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Elad; Kim, Yoon-Hang; Maizes, Victoria

    2005-01-01

    The integrative approach to vegetative state remains a challenge. In this article we have presented the evidence for conventional and alternative therapies that can be applied to this condition. Some are intended to support the patient and prevent complications; others enhance the ability of relatives to interact with their loved ones; while others are intended to shorten the vegetative state period. The approaches we reviewed were based on availability of data on MEDLINE and/or their potential to broaden our conceptual approach to vegetative state. Some approaches highlighted within the article including nutritional support, acupuncture, and homeopathy, seem to have a reasonable risk/benefit ratio. Yet, the complexity of vegetative state makes it challenging to recommend an integrative protocol. Rather we recommend an individualized approach, based on patient co-morbidities, caregiver and health professional preferences, and availability of therapists. Other approaches, including herbal medicine, mind-body therapies, intercessory prayer, energy medicine, and shamanism were not included due to the lack of available information and evidence. We acknowledge that a lack of evidence for efficacy is not equivalent to evidence for a lack of efficacy. Further research is critically needed to advance our treatment approach to this challenging state. Vegetative state is a condition that continues to humble the medical world. What we do not know eclipses that which we know. The critical question of what the vegetative state patient experiences continues to mystify us. Our philosophical stance insists that we treat the patient as one who is aware. Simultaneously we struggle with what, if anything, we can successfully do to "reawaken" the patient. PMID:15712763

  15. Straight Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel?

    SciTech Connect

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel, a renewable fuel produced from animal fats or vegetable oils, is popular among many vehicle owners and fleet managers seeking to reduce emissions and support U.S. energy security. Questions sometimes arise about the viability of fueling vehicles with straight vegetable oil (SVO), or waste oils from cooking and other processes, without intermediate processing. But SVO and waste oils differ from biodiesel (and conventional diesel) in some important ways and are generally not considered acceptable vehicle fuels for large-scale or long-term use.

  16. Mapping diverse vegetation with multichannel radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, J. P.; Wickland, D. E.; Ocampo, A.; Sharitz, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne-SAR, SIR-A, Seasat SAR, and Landsat TM images of the Savannah River Plant, a gently sloping area of South Carolina covered with diverse vegetation, are presented and briefly characterized. Preliminary results indicate that multiple-polarization images constructed from the airborne-SAR data give some indication of forest density and understory growth but do not permit discrimination between evergreen and deciduous forests. Heat-tolerant vegetation growing on sand bars in streams bearing thermal effluents from nuclear reactors on the site is found to have a distinguishing polarization signature.

  17. Remote sensing of vegetation and soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, J. A.; Shin, R. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Progress in the investigation of problems related to the remote sensing of vegetation and soil moisture is reported. Specific topics addressed include: (1) microwave scattering from periodic surfaces using a rigorous modal technique; (2) combined random rough surface and volume scattering effects; (3) the anisotropic effects of vegetation structures; (4) the application of the strong fluctuation theory to the the study of electromagnetic wave scattering from a layer of random discrete scatterers; and (5) the investigation of the scattering of a plane wave obliquely incident on a half space of densely distributed spherical dielectric scatterers using a quantum mechanical potential approach.

  18. Parallel Vegetation Stripe Formation Through Hydrologic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Y.; Stieglitz, M.; Engel, V.; Turk, G.

    2009-12-01

    Vegetation in many parts of the world display intriguing patterns: from the regularly spaced stripes on hillsides to the irregular mosaics. However, it has long been a challenge to describe how these patterns develop. Recently, there have been successes in describing pattern development mathematically. The Klausmeir model (Klausmeir., 1999), which simulates vegetation stripes perpendicular to flow field, consists of two partial differential equations that describe plant and surface water dynamics on a gently sloping landscape. More recently, Rietkerk et al (2004) proposed a simple 2D advection-diffusion model which differs from earlier models in that it includes for hydraulic head interactions. The Rietkerk model simulates plant-water and plant-nutrient dynamics and generates vegetation patterns of reasonable scales: 'maze patterns' on flat ground and stripes perpendicular to flow on slopes. However, to date none of these theoretical studies have been able to simulate the development of regularly spaced vegetation stripes parallel to flow direction. Such vegetation patterns are, for example, characteristic of the ridge and slough system (S&R) in the Everglades. We employ the Rietkerk model to describe for the first time to our knowledge, the formation of parallel stripes from hydrologic interactions. To simulate the perpendicular stripes, Rietkerk et al only allowed for the local advection of water and nutrient in one direction. To simulate parallel stripes, we retain the basic equations of the Rietkerk model but allow for constant advection of water and nutrient in one direction to simulate slope conditions, with evapotranspiration driven advection of water and nutrient perpendicular to the downhill flow direction. In this model, the relatively higher rates of evapotranspiration on the vegetation patches compared to the non-vegetated areas create hydraulic gradients, which then drive the convergence of dissolved nutrients from the downhill flow to the growing

  19. Determination of fat in vegetable foods.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, I; Merin, U; Popel, G; Bernstein, S

    1985-01-01

    The fat in vegetable foods--tree nuts, peanuts, sunflower seeds, avocado, and olives--can be determined volumetrically by acid digestion of the material and separation of the fat. The assay can be performed conveniently by using the equipment developed for fat determination of milk (Gerber method). The results agree well with those obtained by Soxhlet extraction. The advantages of using the Gerber method for vegetable foods are simplicity, speed, low operation cost, and elimination of the use of inflammable solvents. PMID:4086447

  20. Early Pliocene vegetation distribution in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, S.; Warny, S.; Suc, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Early Pliocene corresponds to a global warm climate documented by marine & terrestrial records. Reconstruction of climatic parameters, based on terrestrial proxies, indicate at European mid-latitudes a MAT higher of about 1-5°C than today and MAP higher of about 400-1000 mm. This global warm situation was interrupted between 4.7 - 4.5 Ma by a cooling event related to small fluctuations of the Antarctic ice-sheet that modify the floristic assemblages. according to pollen recors, the Northern Mediterranean area is characterized by dominance of arboreal pollen, suggesting a dense forest cover, on contrary to the Southern Mediterranean where herbs were prevalent, signifying a widespread development of open vegetation during the early Pliocene. Such a contrast in landscape between the North and the South of the Mediterranean is to be related to the latitudinal gradient in humidity. In the North Mediterranean area, the vegetation organization was also closely linked to the relief. Coastal plains were inhabited by Taxodiaceae swamps replaced in some places by marshes. With respect to the geographic position, several plant ecosystems can distinguished: (1) salt marshes, along the Atlantic coastline (zone A); (2) marshes mostly made of Cyperaceae evidenced on the Mediterranean coastline. Such juxtaposed assemblages resemble the modern vegetation of the Mississippi Delta and Florida. Peculiar vegetation assemblages characterize the Mediterranean coastal plains. In the southeastern Mediterranean region (Zone B), the open vegetation was composed by herbs including subdesertic elements. Mediterranean xerophytes are only numerically represented in the area of Tarragona and Sicily, their assemblage resemble the modern thermo-mediterranean formation. Close to the mountains (Zone C) vegetation is organized according to an altitudinal gradient. The low altitude vegetation was composed by Taxodiaceae (Sequoia) while Cathaya and Cedrus dominated the mid-altitude belt. Abies and

  1. Estimating vegetation biomass using synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baronti, Stefano; Luciani, S.; Paloscia, Simonetta; Schiavon, G.; Sigismondi, S.; Solimini, Domenico

    1994-12-01

    A significant experiment for evaluating the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) in monitoring soil and vegetation parameters is being carried out on an agricultural area located in Central Italy. The site has been imaged in 1991 by NASA/JPL AIRSAR during the MAC-91 Campaign and subsequently by ESA/ERS-1 and NASDA JERS-1 in 1992. The sensitivity to vegetation biomass of backscattering coefficient measured by ERS-1 and JERS-1 radars is discussed and compared with the best results achieved using the multifrequency polarimetric AIRSAR data.

  2. Comparison of Topographic Effects between the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, B.; Yang, W.; Chen, J.; Onda, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Vegetation indices play an important role in monitoring variations in vegetation. The Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) proposed by the MODIS Land Discipline Group and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) are both global-based vegetation indices aimed at providing consistent spatial and temporal information regarding global vegetation. However, many environmental factors such as atmospheric conditions and soil background may produce errors in these indices. The topographic effect is another very important factor, especially when the indices are used in areas of rough terrain. In this paper, we analyzed differences in the topographic effect between the EVI and the NDVI based on a non-Lambertian model and using two airborne-based images with a spatial resolution of 1.5m acquired from a mountainous area covered by a homogeneous Japanese cypress plantation. The results indicate that the soil adjustment factor "L" in the EVI makes it more sensitive to topographic conditions than is the NDVI. Based on these results, we strongly recommend that the topographic effect be removed from the EVI--as well as from other vegetation indices that similarly include a term without a band ratio format (e.g., the PVI and SAVI)--when these indices are used in conjunction with a high spatial resolution image of an area of rough terrain, where the topographic effect on the vegetarian indices having only a band ratio format (e.g., the NDVI) can usually be ignored.

  3. Pesticide residues in imported, organic, and "suspect" fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Winter, Carl K

    2012-05-01

    Consumers are frequently urged to avoid imported foods as well as specific fruits and vegetables due to health concerns from pesticide residues and are often encouraged to choose organic fruits and vegetables rather than conventional forms. Studies have demonstrated that while organic fruits and vegetables have lower levels of pesticide residues than do conventional fruits and vegetables, pesticide residues are still frequently detected on organic fruits and vegetables; typical dietary consumer exposure to pesticide residues from conventional fruits and vegetables does not appear to be of health significance. Similarly, research does not demonstrate that imported fruits and vegetables pose greater risks from pesticide residues than do domestic fruits and vegetables or that specific fruits and vegetables singled out as being the most highly contaminated by pesticides should be avoided in their conventional forms. PMID:22335627

  4. [Effects of road construction on regional vegetation types].

    PubMed

    Liu, Shi-Liang; Liu, Qi; Wang, Cong; Yang, Jue-Jie; Deng, Li

    2013-05-01

    As a regional artificial disturbance component, road exerts great effects on vegetation types, and plays a substantial role in defining vegetation distribution to a certain extent. Aiming at the tropical rainforest degradation and artificial forest expansion in Yunnan Province of Southwest China, this paper analyzed the effects of road network extension on regional vegetation types. In the Province, different classes of roads had different effects on the vegetation types, but no obvious regularity was observed in the effects on the patch areas of different vegetation types due to the great variations of road length and affected distance. However, the vegetation patch number was more affected by lower class roads because of their wide distribution. As for different vegetation types, the vegetations on cultivated land were most affected by roads, followed by Castanopsis hystrix and Schima wallichii forests. Road network formation contributed most to the vegetation fragmentation, and there existed significant correlations between the human disturbance factors including village- and road distributions. PMID:24015533

  5. Comparison modeling for alpine vegetation distribution in an arid area.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jihua; Lai, Liming; Guan, Tianyu; Cai, Wetao; Gao, Nannan; Zhang, Xiaolong; Yang, Dawen; Cong, Zhentao; Zheng, Yuanrun

    2016-07-01

    Mapping and modeling vegetation distribution are fundamental topics in vegetation ecology. With the rise of powerful new statistical techniques and GIS tools, the development of predictive vegetation distribution models has increased rapidly. However, modeling alpine vegetation with high accuracy in arid areas is still a challenge because of the complexity and heterogeneity of the environment. Here, we used a set of 70 variables from ASTER GDEM, WorldClim, and Landsat-8 OLI (land surface albedo and spectral vegetation indices) data with decision tree (DT), maximum likelihood classification (MLC), and random forest (RF) models to discriminate the eight vegetation groups and 19 vegetation formations in the upper reaches of the Heihe River Basin in the Qilian Mountains, northwest China. The combination of variables clearly discriminated vegetation groups but failed to discriminate vegetation formations. Different variable combinations performed differently in each type of model, but the most consistently important parameter in alpine vegetation modeling was elevation. The best RF model was more accurate for vegetation modeling compared with the DT and MLC models for this alpine region, with an overall accuracy of 75 % and a kappa coefficient of 0.64 verified against field point data and an overall accuracy of 65 % and a kappa of 0.52 verified against vegetation map data. The accuracy of regional vegetation modeling differed depending on the variable combinations and models, resulting in different classifications for specific vegetation groups. PMID:27307276

  6. Adolescent Dietary Fiber, Vegetable Fat, Vegetable Protein, and Nut Intakes and Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Colditz, Graham A.; Cotterchio, Michelle; Boucher, Beatrice A.; Kreiger, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The importance of early-life exposures in breast cancer development is increasingly recognized. However, limited research has evaluated the relationship between adolescent diet and subsequent risk of breast cancer and reported inconsistent results. This population-based case-control study investigated the associations of dietary fiber, vegetable protein, vegetable fat, and nuts consumed during adolescence with adult breast cancer risk. Methods Women, ages 25–74 years, who were diagnosed with first primary breast cancer between 2002 and 2003 were identified using the Ontario Cancer Registry. Controls were identified through random digit dialing and age-frequency matched to cases. Diet at ages 10–15 was assessed with a 55-item food frequency questionnaire among 2,865 cases and 3,299 controls. Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Inverse associations were found between intakes of dietary fiber, vegetable protein, vegetable fat, and nuts during adolescence and breast cancer risk, which persisted after controlling for adult intakes. The ORs (95% CI) for the highest versus the lowest quintile of intake were 0.66 (0.55 to 0.78; Ptrend<0.0001) for fiber, 0.80 (0.68 to 0.95; Ptrend=0.01) for vegetable protein, 0.74 (0.63 to 0.87; Ptrend=0.002) for vegetable fat, 0.76 (0.61 to 0.95 for ≥1 serving/day versus <1 serving/month intake; Ptrend=0.04) for nuts. The reduced risk for adolescent intakes of fiber, vegetable protein and nuts was largely limited to postmenopausal women (Pinteraction≤0.05). Conclusions Dietary fiber, vegetable protein, vegetable fat, and nuts consumed during adolescence were associated with reduced breast cancer risk. PMID:24737167

  7. CRMS vegetation analytical team framework: Methods for collection, development, and use of vegetation response variables

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cretini, Kari F.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Krauss, Ken W.; Steyer, Gregory D.

    2011-01-01

    This document identifies the main objectives of the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) vegetation analytical team, which are to provide (1) collection and development methods for vegetation response variables and (2) the ways in which these response variables will be used to evaluate restoration project effectiveness. The vegetation parameters (that is, response variables) collected in CRMS and other coastal restoration projects funded under the Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act (CWPPRA) are identified, and the field collection methods for these parameters are summarized. Existing knowledge on community and plant responses to changes in environmental drivers (for example, flooding and salinity) from published literature and from the CRMS and CWPPRA monitoring dataset are used to develop a suite of indices to assess wetland condition in coastal Louisiana. Two indices, the floristic quality index (FQI) and a productivity index, are described for herbaceous and forested vegetation. The FQI for herbaceous vegetation is tested with a long-term dataset from a CWPPRA marsh creation project. Example graphics for this index are provided and discussed. The other indices, an FQI for forest vegetation (that is, trees and shrubs) and productivity indices for herbaceous and forest vegetation, are proposed but not tested. New response variables may be added or current response variables removed as data become available and as our understanding of restoration success indicators develops. Once indices are fully developed, each will be used by the vegetation analytical team to assess and evaluate CRMS/CWPPRA project and program effectiveness. The vegetation analytical teams plan to summarize their results in the form of written reports and/or graphics and present these items to CRMS Federal and State sponsors, restoration project managers, landowners, and other data users for their input.

  8. 30 CFR 779.19 - Vegetation information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... important habitat for fish and wildlife for those species of fish and wildlife identified under 30 CFR 780... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vegetation information. 779.19 Section 779.19... SURFACE MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR INFORMATION ON ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES §...

  9. 30 CFR 783.19 - Vegetation information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... identified under 30 CFR 784.21. ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vegetation information. 783.19 Section 783.19... UNDERGROUND MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR INFORMATION ON ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES §...

  10. Fruit and vegetable films and uses thereof

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present invention is directed to monolayer, bilayer, and multilayer films made from fruit, vegetable or a combination thereof, which films have the thinness, strength, flexibility and crispness to serve as alternates or substitutes for seaweed-based films such as nori, while providing nutrition ...

  11. Growing Vegetables. People on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes farm operations and some activities in the lives of six vegetable farmers throughout the United States. The booklet visits the tomato growing of Carl Schneider and his partners and the lettuce growing farm of Norman Martella, both in California. It then includes brief accounts of…

  12. Reflectance of vegetation, soil, and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L.; Gausman, H. W.; Leamer, R. W.; Richardson, A. J.; Gerbermann, A. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Iron deficient and normal grain sorghum plants were sufficiently different spectrally in ERTS-1 band 5 CCT data to detect chlorotic sorghum areas 2.8 acres (1.1 hectares) or larger in size in computer printouts of the MSS data. The ratio of band 5 to band 7 or band 7 minus band 5 relates to vegetation ground cover conditions and helps to select training samples representative of differing vegetation maturity or vigor classes and to estimate ground cover or green vegetation density in the absence of ground information. The four plant parameters; leaf area index, plant population, plant cover, and plant height explained 87 to 93% of the variability in band 6 digital counts and from 59 to 90% of the variation in bands 4 and 5. A ground area 2244 acres in size was classified on a pixel by pixel basis using simultaneously acquired aircraft support and ERTS-1 data. Overall recognition for vegetables, immature crops and mixed shrubs, and bare soil categories was 64.5% for aircraft and 59.6% for spacecraft data, respectively. Overall recognition results on a per field basis were 61.8% for aircraft and 62.8% for ERTS-1 data.

  13. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franklin, S.B.; Faber-Langendoen, D.; Jennings, M.; Keeler-Wolf, T.; Loucks, O.; Peet, R.; Roberts, D.; McKerrow, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Vegetation Subcommittee, the Ecological Society of America Panel on Vegetation Classification, and NatureServe have worked together to develop the United States National Vegetation Classification (USNVC). The current standard was accepted in 2008 and fosters consistency across Federal agencies and non-federal partners for the description of each vegetation concept and its hierarchical classification. The USNVC is structured as a dynamic standard, where changes to types at any level may be proposed at any time as new information comes in. But, because much information already exists from previous work, the NVC partners first established methods for screening existing types to determine their acceptability with respect to the 2008 standard. Current efforts include a screening process to assign confidence to Association and Group level descriptions, and a review of the upper three levels of the classification. For the upper levels especially, the expectation is that the review process includes international scientists. Immediate future efforts include the review of remaining levels and the development of a proposal review process.

  14. 30 CFR 779.19 - Vegetation information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... important habitat for fish and wildlife for those species of fish and wildlife identified under 30 CFR 780... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vegetation information. 779.19 Section 779.19... SURFACE MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR INFORMATION ON ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES §...

  15. Organic vegetable weed control research in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Lane Agriculture Research Center is operated by Oklahoma State University and the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Located in southeastern Oklahoma, 13 resident scientists work cooperatively to develop production practices for organic vegetable production. On...

  16. Improving vegetable oil properties for lubrication methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inherent problems of vegetable oils, such as poor oxidation and low-temperature properties, can be improved by attaching functional groups at the sites of unsaturation through chemical modifications. In this article, you will see how functionalization helps overcome these disadvantages....

  17. 40 CFR 230.43 - Vegetated shallows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vegetated shallows. 230.43 Section 230.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential Impacts on Special Aquatic Sites § 230.43...

  18. Dimensions of vegetable parenting practices among preschoolers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the factor structure of 31 effective and ineffective vegetable parenting practices used by parents of preschool children based on three theoretically proposed factors: responsiveness, control, and structure. The methods employed included both corrected it...

  19. Vegetation management 1994 fiscal year end report

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.M.

    1995-02-01

    This year-end report evaluates vegetation management operations on the Hanford reservation conducted during fiscal year (FY) 1994 and proposed control methods to be used in FY 1995 and following years. The 1995 control methods proposed are based on an evaluation of past and current ALARA principles, employee safety, environmental impacts, applicable regulations, site esthetics, and other site-specific factors.

  20. Toward a comprehensive landscape vegetation monitoring framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Robert; Hughes, Joseph; Neeti, Neeti; Larrue, Tara; Gregory, Matthew; Roberts, Heather; Ohmann, Janet; Kane, Van; Kane, Jonathan; Hooper, Sam; Nelson, Peder; Cohen, Warren; Yang, Zhiqiang

    2016-04-01

    Blossoming Earth observation resources provide great opportunity to better understand land vegetation dynamics, but also require new techniques and frameworks to exploit their potential. Here, I describe several parallel projects that leverage time-series Landsat imagery to describe vegetation dynamics at regional and continental scales. At the core of these projects are the LandTrendr algorithms, which distill time-series earth observation data into periods of consistent long or short-duration dynamics. In one approach, we built an integrated, empirical framework to blend these algorithmically-processed time-series data with field data and lidar data to ascribe yearly change in forest biomass across the US states of Washington, Oregon, and California. In a separate project, we expanded from forest-only monitoring to full landscape land cover monitoring over the same regional scale, including both categorical class labels and continuous-field estimates. In these and other projects, we apply machine-learning approaches to ascribe all changes in vegetation to driving processes such as harvest, fire, urbanization, etc., allowing full description of both disturbance and recovery processes and drivers. Finally, we are moving toward extension of these same techniques to continental and eventually global scales using Google Earth Engine. Taken together, these approaches provide one framework for describing and understanding processes of change in vegetation communities at broad scales.

  1. The response of vegetation to geochemical conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouat, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    An understanding of the factors of vegetation response to changes in the geochemistry of the environment may give exploration geologists and other researchers an additional and effective tool for rock type discrimination. The factors of vegetation response can be grouped into three principal categories: structural or morphological factors, taxonomic factors which include indicator flora as well as vegetation assemblages, and spectral factors which represent the manner in which the vegetation interacts with electromagnetic radiation. The response of these factors over areas of anomalous mineralization is often unique and may be due to nutrient deficiencies and/or imbalances, toxicity and stress caused by anomalous mineral concentrations in the soil, low water retention, and plant competition. The successful use of geobotanical techniques results from the integration of the geobotanical observations with other techniques. The use of remote sensing in such a program must be predicated on those factors which can be discriminated within the constraints of the spatial, spectral, radiometric, and temporal resolutions of the sensing system and with appropriate analytical techniques.

  2. Energy accounting for eleven vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, C.E.; Daugherty, M.J.

    1982-09-01

    Energy inputs and outputs were comparatively analyzed for 11 vegetable oil fuels. Three-year average prices and production quantities were also compared. All nonirrigated oil crops had favorable energy ratios. Soybean, peanut and sunflower oils were the most promising as domestic fuel sources. Rapeseed oil would also be promising if significant domestic production can be established.

  3. When vegetation change alters ecosystem water availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The combined effects of vegetation and climate change on biosphere-atmosphere water vapor (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) exchanges are expected to vary depending, in part, on how biotic activity is controlled by and alters water availability. This is particularly important when a change in ecosystem...

  4. Modified vegetable oils-based lubricant emulsions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lubricants made from vegetable oils represent only a small section of the market today. Recent legislation, however, in both the United States and Europe, could begin to brighten their prospects due to their eco-friendly and biodegradable character, unlike petroleum oil-based products. In order to u...

  5. SUBMERGED AQUATIC VEGETATION GARDENING MX974861

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Gardening project will acquire the seed/seedlings of SAVs for planting, will create an SAV gardening guide; and will create SAV plots at volunteers waterfront properties. Volunteers will gather data on plant size and spacing. Water quality test ...

  6. Pressure viscosity coefficient of vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The elastohydrodynamic (EHD) pressure viscosity coefficient (PVC) of ten vegetable oils from commodity and new crops, and two petroleum-based oils, polyalphaolefin (PAO) and hexadecane, were investigated. PVC was measured using three different methods: the So and Klaus (S-K) procedure from oil visco...

  7. Coatings for minimally processed fruits and vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fresh-cut fruit and vegetables are gaining increasing popularity and market share. Techniques to enhance stability of fresh cut produce are reviewed. Among these techniques, edibles coatings can provide protection against dehydration, microbial decay and decrease events related to physiological sene...

  8. SAN PEDRO VEGETATION MAP VECTOR DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set is a digital vegetation map of the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area and Babocomari River. The map was produced by manual interpretation of true-color, stereo aerial photography flown in November 2000. Standard U.S. Geological Survey Digital Orthophoto...

  9. SAN PEDRO VEGETATION MAP GRID DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set is a digital vegetation map of the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area and Babocomari River. The map was produced by manual interpretation of true-color, stereo aerial photography flown in November 2000. Standard U.S. Geological Survey Digital Orthophoto...

  10. 30 CFR 783.19 - Vegetation information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... identified under 30 CFR 784.21. ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vegetation information. 783.19 Section 783.19... UNDERGROUND MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR INFORMATION ON ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES §...

  11. 1976 Commercial Vegetable Pest Control Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNab, A. A.; And Others

    This guide contains pest control information for commercial vegetable production. It was prepared for agricultural supply dealers, extension agents, fieldmen, and growers. It gives general precautions, information on seed treatment, growing disease-free seedlings and transplants, general soil insect control, general weed control, and spraying…

  12. Vegetation response to western juniper slash treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The expansion of piñon-juniper woodlands the past 100 years in the western United States has resulted in large scale efforts to remove trees and recover sagebrush steppe rangelands. It is important to evaluate vegetation response in order to develop best management practices for controlling expandi...

  13. METHANE PHYTOREMEDIATION BY VEGETATIVE LANDFILL COVER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill gas, consisting of methane and other gases, is produced from organic compounds degrading in landfills, contributes to global climate change, is toxic to various types of vegetation, and may pose a combustion hazard at higher concentrations. New landfills are required to ...

  14. 40 CFR 230.43 - Vegetated shallows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vegetated shallows. 230.43 Section 230.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential Impacts on Special Aquatic Sites § 230.43...

  15. Shifting mosaics: vegetation of Suisun Marsh

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wetland vegetation varies considerably along the estuarine continuum from San Francisco Bay to the Delta. The estuarine flora of Suisun Marsh is distinctive and supports a number of rare and endangered plant species, that are threatened by alien plant invasions. Conservation and management of Suisun...

  16. SUBMERSED AQUATIC VEGETATION MAPPING USING HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) beds are an important resources for aquatic life and
    wildfowl in the Potomac River and Chesapeake Bay region. SAV habitat is threatened in part by nitrogen loadings from human activities. Monitoring and assessing this resource using field bas...

  17. TECHNOLOGY AND PRACTICE FOR IRRIGATION IN VEGETABLES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the reduction of per capita water supply throughout the world there will be need to use both good and degraded water supplies for production of a wide variety of crops including vegetables and forages. This chapter describes the technical considerations for selection of appropriate irrigation s...

  18. Lubricant Properties of Modified Vegetable Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lubricants made from vegetable oils represent a small section of the market today, but recent legislation in both the United States and Europe could begin to brighten their prospects due to their eco-friendly and biodegradable character unlike petroleum oil based products. In order to understand th...

  19. The Vegetable Group. The Food Guide Pyramid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Helen

    This booklet for young children is part of a series that supports national science standards related to physical health and nutrition, describing and illustrating the importance of using the Food Guide Pyramid and eating plenty of vegetables. Colorful photographs support early readers in understanding the text. The repetition of words and phrases…

  20. Pop! Go the Fruits and Vegetables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Eleanor

    1974-01-01

    Sparked by a filmstrip on Pop Art and its influence on contemporary sculpture, an eleventh year Art class at Clara Barton Vocational High School decided to create "larger than life" three-dimensional objects inspired by natural patterns and forms of fruits and vegetables. (Author)

  1. 40 CFR 230.43 - Vegetated shallows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vegetated shallows. 230.43 Section 230.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b... water circulation patterns; (2) releasing nutrients that increase undesirable algal populations;...

  2. LIVESTOCK FEEDLOT RUNOFF CONTROL BY VEGETATIVE FILTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vegetative filters were installed to treat runoff from two beef feedlots, one dairy lot, and one swine feedlot in central Illinois. Two configurations were used-channelized flow and overland flow. Runoff underwent settling for partial solids removal and was then applied directly ...

  3. Microwave dielectric behavior of vegetation material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrayes, Mohamed A.; Ulaby, Fawwaz T.

    1987-01-01

    The microwave dielectric behavior of vegetation was examined through the development of theoretical models involving dielectric dispersion by both bound and free water and supported by extensive dielectric measurements conducted over a wide range of conditions. The experimental data were acquired using an open-ended coaxial probe that was developed for sensing the dielectric constant of thin layers of materials, such as leaves, from measurements of the complex reflection coefficient using a network analyzer. The probe system was successfully used to record the spectral variation of the dielectric constant over a wide frequency range extending from 0.5 to 20.4 GHz at numerous temperatures between -40 to +40 C. The vegetation samples were measured over a wide range of moisture conditions. To model the dielectric spectrum of the bound water component of the water included in vegetation, dielectric measurements were made for several sucrose-water solutions as analogs for the situation in vegetation. The results were used in conjunction with the experimental data for leaves to determine some of the constant coefficients in the theoretical models. Two models, both of which provide good fit to the data, are proposed.

  4. Vegetables, Soups, Sauces, Gravies and Beverages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on vegetables, soups, sauces, gravies, and beverages is designed to increase Marine Corps cooks' effectiveness as food handlers, using the proper techniques in the preparation of these items. Introductory materials include specific information for…

  5. 40 CFR 230.43 - Vegetated shallows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Vegetated shallows. 230.43 Section 230.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential Impacts...

  6. Rapid vegetative propagation method for carob

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many fruit species are propagated by vegetative methods such as budding, grafting, cutting, suckering, layering etc. to avoid heterozygosity. Carob trees (Ceratonia siliqua L.) are of highly economical value and it is among the most difficult-to-propagate fruit species. In this study, air-layering p...

  7. VEGETATION COVERAGE FOR OREGON AND IDAHO

    EPA Science Inventory

    OR data acquired from Landsat images, generally during July 1988. ID data acquired from vegetation maps from various agencies at various scales, then visually edited using Landsat scenes to correct for changes due to agricultural expansion and timber harvest activities. Scale: ...

  8. Linking Models and Data on Vegetation Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtt, G. C.; Fisk, J.; Thomas, R.; Dubayah, R.; Moorcroft, P.; Shugart, H.

    2008-12-01

    Forested ecosystems consist of a dynamic mosaic of patches on the landscape at different stages of recovery from disturbances. Recent studies have addressed this heterogeneity by combining remotely sensed measurements of vegetation structure, and advanced ecological models that track the dynamics of vegetation structure, to produce accurate estimates of both carbon stocks and fluxes at a set of important study sites. Now future satellite missions such as DESDYNI hold the potential to provide key data on vegetation structure needed to reduce uncertainties in terrestrial carbon dynamics globally. Here, we developed and analyzed a set of models to quantify the effects of limited sampling and/or coarse resolution averaging of structure measurements on model predictions. Generally, both limited sampling and coarse resolution averaging caused model initialization error, and led to subsequent prediction uncertainty and error. In cases with representative sampling, sufficient resolution, and linear dynamics, errors in initialization tended to compensate at larger scales. However, with inadequate sampling, overly coarse resolution data, and non-linear dynamics, errors in initialization led to bias. This study provides a generalized framework for assessing the tradeoffs between the quantity and quality of data on vegetation structure, and the science from models which depend on it.

  9. A MODIS-based vegetation index climatology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our motivation here is to provide information for the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite soil moisture retrieval algorithms (launch in 2014). Vegetation attenuates the signal and the algorithms must correct for this effect. One approach is to use data that describes the canopy water ...

  10. 40 CFR 230.43 - Vegetated shallows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vegetated shallows. 230.43 Section 230.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential Impacts on Special Aquatic Sites § 230.43...

  11. Submersed Aquatic Vegetation Modeling Output Online

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yin, Yao; Rogala, Jim; Sullivan, John; Rohweder, Jason J.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction The ability to predict the distribution of submersed aquatic vegetation in the Upper Mississippi River on the basis of physical or chemical variables is useful to resource managers. Wildlife managers have a keen interest in advanced estimates of food quantity such as American wildcelery (Vallisneria americana) population status to give out more informed advisories to hunters before the fall hunting season. Predictions for distribution of submerged aquatic vegetation beds can potentially increase hunter observance of voluntary avoidance zones where foraging birds are left alone to feed undisturbed. In years when submersed aquatic vegetation is predicted to be scarce in important wildlife habitats, managers can get the message out to hunters well before the hunting season (Jim Nissen, Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge, La Crosse District Manager, La Crosse, Wisconsin, personal communication). We developed a statistical model to predict the probability of occurrence of submersed aquatic vegetation in Pool 8 of the Upper Mississippi River on the basis of a few hydrological, physical, and geomorphic variables. Our model takes into consideration flow velocity, wind fetch, bathymetry, growing-season daily water level, and light extinction coefficient in the river (fig. 1) and calculates the probability of submersed aquatic vegetation existence in Pool 8 in individual 5- x 5-m grid cells. The model was calibrated using the data collected in 1998 (516 sites), 1999 (595 sites), and 2000 (649 sites) using a stratified random sampling protocol (Yin and others, 2000b). To validate the model, we chose the data from the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) transect sampling in backwater areas (Rogers and Owens 1995; Yin and others, 2000a) and ran the model for each 5- x 5-m grid cell in every growing season from 1991 to 2001. We tallied all the cells and came up with an annual average percent frequency of submersed aquatic vegetation

  12. Climate Change Impacts on Turkish Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, Matthew; Dönmez, Cenk; Çilek, Ahmet; Akif Erdogan, Mehmet; Buontempo, Carlo; Hickler, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean has been identified as a potentially vulnerable hotspot under climate change. In Turkey, climate change projections consistently predict large temperature rises over the 21st century. With 9% of GDP and 25% of employment coming from agriculture, climate change has the potential to significantly affect both the Turkish economy and living standards. Relatively little work has been undertaken to estimate the effects and risks of climate change in Turkey, and many European studies cover do not include the whole of Turkey in their domain and so are of limited use for policy-makers. The Dynamic Global Vegetation Model LPJ-GUESS was parametrised to represent Turkish vegetation. Climate forcings were derived by interpolating meteorological data from over 600 stations from 1975-2010 to a 1km resolution. Soil depth and soil texture data from field measurements were also interpolated to a 1km grid. The model was benchmarked against vegetation type and remotely sensed biomass and tree cover data. Future climate conditions were calculated using the outputs from a set of regional model simulations. In particular the HadRM3P regional climate model was used to downscale five members of a perturbed physics ensemble of global climate projections obtained using HadCM3 general circulation model and the SRES A1B scenario. A delta change factor approach was then used in conjunction with the observed climate data to assess the impact on vegetation structure and ecological processes to the year 2100 using LPJ-GUESS. The resulting changes to productivity, vegetation structure and hydrology are discussed. Eventually these results will be combined with complementary studies concerning wildfire and erosion to produce a risk map for informing policy-makers.

  13. Add More Vegetables to Your Day: 10 Tips to Help You Eat More Vegetables

    MedlinePlus

    ... the game Cut up a batch of bell peppers, carrots, or broccoli. Pre-package them to use ... vegetables such as black beans, sliced red bell peppers, shredded radishes, chopped red cabbage, carrots, or watercress. ...

  14. Add More Vegetables to Your Day: 10 Tips to Help You Eat More Vegetables

    MedlinePlus

    ... Department of Agriculture 10 tips Nutrition Education Series add more vegetables to your day 10 tips to ... microwave for a quick-and-easy dish to add to any meal. Steam green beans, carrots, or ...

  15. The relationship between phytomass, NDVI and vegetation communities on Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, Bernt; Tømmervik, Hans

    2014-04-01

    Several studies have shown a close relationship between vegetation fertility and different vegetation indices extracted from satellite data. The vegetation fertility in Arctic is at overall scales highly related to temperature. At lower scales surface material, snow cover, hydrology and anthropogenic effects (geese, reindeer) are determinant in constituting the different vegetation communities. The extent and occurrence of different vegetation communities are expressed in vegetation maps. On Svalbard a vegetation map covering the entire archipelago has recently been developed. The map is differentiated into 18 map units showing large areas of non- and sparsely vegetated ground. The most favorable vegetation is seen as productive marshes and moss tundra communities in the lowland. Various mathematical combinations of spectral channels in satellite images have been applied as sensitive indicators of the presence and condition of green vegetation. Today the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is mostly used to display this information. NDVI is an indicator of the density of chlorophyll in leaf tissue calculated from the red and near infrared bands: NDVI = (NIR - RED)/(NIR + RED). NDVI gives values between -1 and +1 where vegetated areas in general yield high positive values, while non-vegetated ground is found on the negative side.

  16. Turbulent flow statistics of vegetative channel with seepage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, Thokchom Bebina; Kumar, Bimlesh

    2015-12-01

    The present study is carried out for studying the impact of submerged, flexible vegetation in a channel where downward seepage occurs. Laboratory experiments on artificial vegetation of two different heights, 8 cm and 6 cm, were conducted for no-seepage, 10% seepage and 15% seepage cases. Vegetation height is an important parameter in influencing the flow characteristics in a vegetated channel, where velocity is reduced near the top of the vegetation. Results show that velocity measured at upstream vegetation section is always higher than the downstream section even with the application of downward seepage. The maximum value of Reynolds stress occurs near the top of the vegetation. When the flow enters the vegetation section, the local effect of the presence of vegetation on sediment transport is more at the upstream vegetation section and then decreases which is shown by higher Reynolds stress at the upstream as compared to downstream vegetation section highlighting the importance of vegetation in providing as an erosion control. The maximum Reynolds stress at no seepage is increased by a percentage of 17% for 10% seepage and average of 30.5% for 15% seepage. The turbulence intensities at no seepage are increased by an average value of 15% for 10% seepage and 25% for 15% seepage. The reduction of Reynolds stress and turbulent intensities along the longitudinal direction implies the importance of using vegetation as a river restoration measure providing considerable stability to channels. Third order moments highlight that downward seepage increases the streamwise flux and decreases the upward flux.

  17. [Patulin in foods of vegetable origin. 2. Several kinds of fruit and vegetables and fruit and vegetable products (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Frank, H K; Orth, R; Figge, A

    1977-02-25

    Patulin was found in fruit with spontaneous brown rot (bananas, pineapples, grapes, peaches, apricots) as well as in moldy compots and in sallow-thorn juice. Fruit, vegetables and fruit and vegetable product were artificially infected with Penicillium expansum, P. urticae and Byssochlamys nivea; patulin was subsequently found in peaches, apricots, greengages, bananas, strawberries, honeydew melons, tomatoes, red and green paprika, cucumbers and carrots; in several kinds of compot, in tomato juice and tomato pulp --but not in ketchup. The influence of the temperature on growth and toxin production is different in the various fungal strains; in the temperature range of 5 degrees C to 25 degrees C, however, the possibility of patulin synthesis must nearly always be expected. PMID:857490

  18. Topographic Influence on Vegetation Distribution: A Distributed Hydrologic Model with Vegetation Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bras, R. L.; Ivanov, V. Y.; Vivoni, E. R.

    2005-12-01

    Vegetation can adaptively evolve and respond following seasonal and inter-annual cycles of climate and water redistribution in the system. As a result, it is commonly observed that in semi-arid regions vegetation follows particular patterns, apparently related to topography. In this paper we discuss how vegetation responds to topographically mediated photosyntetically active radiation and soil moisture in a semi-arid climate characteristic of New Mexico. The analysis is done with a new version of the spatially distributed hydrologic model: tRIBS. The latest evolution of the model couples the physics of the principal water and energy processes over the river basin to the basic plant biochemistry. The end result is a fully dynamic representation of vegetation that responds to and influences the spatially variable hydrology. Using the new modeling framework we construct a set of numerical experiments that examine linkages between the catchment geomorphologic structure and patterns of vegetation productivity. The results stress the importance of proper accounting of dynamic vegetation in understanding the water and energy cycles over the basin.

  19. Evaluating Vegetation in the National Wetland Condition Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vegetation is a key biotic indicator of wetland ecological condition and forms a critical element of the USEPA 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment. Data describing plant species composition and abundance, vegetation structure, and ground surface characteristics were colle...

  20. MICROSITE AND HERBACEOUS VEGETATION HETEROGENEITY AFTER BURNING ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA STEPPE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Woody vegetation can create distinct subcanopy and interspace microsites, which often results in resource islands in subcanopies compared to interspaces. This heterogeneity in soil resources contributes to herbaceous vegetation heterogeneity in plant communities. However, information detailing the...

  1. VEGETATION CHARACTERIZATION OF THREE CONTRASTING RIPARIAN SITES, WILLAMETTE VALLEY, OR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much of the native riparian vegetation of the Willamette Valley, Oregon, has been replaced with agricultural crops or invasive non-native plant species. Detailed information about current Willamette Valley riparian vegetation is generally lacking. Plant species composition data...

  2. "Eat Fresh Vegetables, Fruit, and Whole Grain Products"

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Diverticulitis "Eat fresh vegetables, fruit, and whole grain products." Past Issues / Winter 2010 ... diverticulitis. I once again eat fresh vegetables and fruit and whole grain products. My two episodes of ...

  3. Predicting gender differences in liking for vegetables and preference for a variety of vegetables among 11-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Lehto, Elviira; Ray, Carola; Haukkala, Ari; Yngve, Agneta; Thorsdottir, Inga; Roos, Eva

    2015-12-01

    We studied the factors that predict liking for vegetables and preference for a variety of vegetables among schoolchildren. Additionally, we examined if there were gender differences in the predictors that explain the hypothesized higher scores in liking vegetables and preferences among girls. The data from the PRO GREENS project included 424 Finnish children (response rate 77%) aged 11 to 12. The children completed validated measures about social and environmental factors related to their liking for vegetables and preferences both at baseline 2009 and follow-up 2010. The associations were examined with regression and mediation analyses. The strongest predictors of both girls' and boys' liking and preferences were higher levels of eating vegetables together with the family, previous vegetable intake and a lower level of perceived barriers. Liking was additionally predicted by a lower level of parental demand that their child should eat vegetables. Girls reported higher levels of liking and preferences in the follow-up. This gender difference was mainly explained by girls' lower level of perceived barriers related to vegetable intake and girls' higher previous vegetable intake. Interventions that aim to increase the low vegetable intake among boys by increasing their liking for vegetables and preference for a variety of vegetables could benefit from targeting perceived barriers, namely boys' perception and values concerning the consumption of vegetables. PMID:26206174

  4. Analysis of root reinforcement of vegetated riprap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tron, Stefania; Raymond, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Riprap is a traditional engineering solution used to protect riverbanks against erosion on developed riparian corridors. However, the traditional riprap does not provide adequate fish and wildlife habitat within the riparian zone, which is normally provided by naturally vegetated stream banks. An innovative approach, which mitigates this issue and at the same time provides stream bank erosion control, is the vegetated riprap technique. This solution, which combines rocks and native vegetation in the form of live cuttings, has been designed and implemented by Terra Erosion Control Ltd for the past 7 years. The aim of this work was to study the effect of the vegetation, in particular the root system, on the stability of the riprap. This analysis was carried out in the late spring of 2013 on the vegetated riprap installation located along the Columbia River riverbank, adjacent to the Teck Metals Ltd. smelter in Trail, British Columbia, Canada. An excavation perpendicular to the river was performed in order to investigate the root system development within the vegetated riprap structure. This excavation exposed one of the Salix bebbiana cuttings installed in 2006. The cutting was 2.3 m long and was set with an inclination of 35° with respect to the horizontal plane: the first 0.3 m was exposed, 1 m was buried within the riprap rocks (which had an average diameter of 30 cm) and the remaining 1.0 m was in the soil matrix below the rocks. The diameter of the roots growing along the cutting were measured in order to obtain the root density at various depths and tensile strength tests were carried out on the Salix bebbiana roots with diameters of up to 9 mm. The aim was to quantitatively estimate the additional cohesion given by the roots. The additional root cohesion was more effective in the deeper soil layer where the soil matrix predominates. In the upper soil layer, where the particle size is significantly higher, roots do not increase the cohesion but act as a

  5. Densitometry of ERTS-1 imagery to access vegetation change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashley, M. D.; Rea, J.

    1974-01-01

    Density measurements of ERTS-1 multispectral scanner (MSS) imagery can be used to evaluate phenological changes in vegetation. It was found that the density ratios for MSS bands 5 and 7 best characterize vegetation change. The ratio increases with vegetative progression and decreases with vegetative recession. The use of a densitometer aperture as small as 0.4 mm does not adversely affect the accuracy of readings on forest sites.

  6. A Comparison of Interactively Coupled Paleoclimate-Vegetation Models With the Vegetation Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, P.; Pollard, D.; Barron, E.

    2001-05-01

    Climate-vegetation interactions are a key ingredient in understanding Earth system history. Vegetation models used to explore past climate and past vegetation distributions are largely based on modern plant-climate relationships. This study explores the application of four such models, each built upon different assumptions and parameters, and determines how well each model reproduces past records. In addition, this approach enables an exploration of the potential influence of vegetation on paleoclimates. The four vegetation models (the BIOME 3.5 model of Haxeltine and Prentice (1996), the simple dynamic vegetation model of Cosgrove (1998), the EVE model of Bergengren et al. (2001) and the IBIS model of Foley et al. (1996)) were run interactively with a general circulation model (GCM) of the atmosphere for four time periods. The GCM utilized is GENESIS 2.0, designed for paleoclimate studies. The four time periods for which all four vegetation models are employed are the Early Miocene, Oxygen Isotope Stage Three (warm and cool phases) between 30,000 and 42,000 years ago, and the Last Glacial Maximum. Differences between parameterizations include differences in the number of vegetation types in each model, the inclusion in some models of the influence of atmospheric CO2 levels on the growth of C3 versus C4 vegetation and on stomatal conductance, and whether the models focus on the equilibrium or dynamic state of ecosystems. Preliminary results indicate only small differences in globally-averaged mean annual temperature and precipitation values, suggesting that all models have almost the same effect on the climate. There are differences, however, in how accurately each model reproduces the paleorecord. For example, in the Miocene simulations, when compared to the data of Wolfe (1985), the SDVM model underpredicts the presence of deciduous vegetation in North America, while the EVE model underpredicts the presence of coniferous forest in Eurasia. In the Last Glacial

  7. Mapping small-scale vegetation changes in Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turcotte, Kevin M.; Lulla, Kemlesh; Venugopal, Gopalan

    1993-01-01

    This research attempts to map small-scale vegetation changes in Mexico. Forty-eight weeks of coarse resolution Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a digitized climax vegetation map, land cover samples from space shuttle photographs and actual vegetation samples were used as inputs. Principal components analyses and a clustering algorithm were applied to the NDVI data to generate a single layer that was stratified by the climax vegetation zones map. The purpose is to create a new layer that differentiates climax vegetation (hypothesized potential vegetation) from non-climax vegetation land covers. One of the keys to developing a present-day vegetation map was differentiating intrazone land covers based on the stratification; as great as 75% of the sampled land cover types differed from the climax vegetation. The present-day vegetation map achieved 80% classification accuracy when calculated from available ground reference data. About 55% of the temperate zones and 37% of the tropical zones were found to contain original climax vegetation. Most changes coincide with areas of major agricultural activity.

  8. 21 CFR 139.125 - Vegetable macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vegetable macaroni products. 139.125 Section 139.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... and Noodle Products § 139.125 Vegetable macaroni products. (a) Vegetable macaroni products are...

  9. 21 CFR 139.160 - Vegetable noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vegetable noodle products. 139.160 Section 139.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Noodle Products § 139.160 Vegetable noodle products. (a) Vegetable noodle products are the class of...

  10. 21 CFR 139.160 - Vegetable noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vegetable noodle products. 139.160 Section 139.160... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.160 Vegetable noodle products. (a) Vegetable noodle products are the class of...

  11. 21 CFR 139.160 - Vegetable noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vegetable noodle products. 139.160 Section 139.160... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.160 Vegetable noodle products. (a) Vegetable noodle products are the class of...

  12. 21 CFR 139.160 - Vegetable noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vegetable noodle products. 139.160 Section 139.160... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.160 Vegetable noodle products. (a) Vegetable noodle products are the class of...

  13. 21 CFR 139.160 - Vegetable noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vegetable noodle products. 139.160 Section 139.160... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.160 Vegetable noodle products. (a) Vegetable noodle products are the class of...

  14. Food Stamp Recipients Eat More Vegetables after Viewing Nutrition Videos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joy, Amy Block; Feldman, Nancy; Fujii, Mary Lavender; Garcia, Linda; Hudes, Mark; Mitchell, Rita; Bunch, Sybille; Metz, Diane

    1999-01-01

    A study in three California counties found that food stamp recipients who viewed a videotape promoting vegetables had increased their knowledge of vegetables and greatly increased their consumption of potatoes and raw vegetables two to six weeks later. The feasibility of using videotaped nutrition instruction with low-income adults is discussed.…

  15. Family members' influence on family meal vegetable choices

    PubMed Central

    Wenrich, Tionni R.; Brown, J. Lynne; Miller-Day, Michelle; Kelley, Kevin J.; Lengerich, Eugene J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Characterize the process of family vegetable selection (especially cruciferous, deep orange, and dark green leafy vegetables); demonstrate the usefulness of Exchange Theory (how family norms and past experiences interact with rewards and costs) for interpreting the data. Design Eight focus groups, two with each segment (men/women vegetable-likers/dislikers based on a screening form). Participants completed a vegetable intake form. Setting Rural Appalachian Pennsylvania. Participants 61 low-income, married/cohabiting men (n=28) and women (n=33). Analysis Thematic analysis within Exchange Theory framework for qualitative data. Descriptive analysis, t-tests and chi-square tests for quantitative data. Results Exchange Theory proved useful for understanding that regardless of sex or vegetable-liker/disliker status, meal preparers see more costs than rewards to serving vegetables. Past experience plus expectations of food preparer role and of deference to family member preferences supported a family norm of serving only vegetables acceptable to everyone. Emphasized vegetables are largely ignored due to unfamiliarity; family norms prevented experimentation and learning through exposure. Conclusions and Implications Interventions to increase vegetable consumption of this audience could 1) alter family norms about vegetables served, 2) change perceptions of past experiences, 3) reduce social and personal costs of serving vegetables and 4) increase tangible and social rewards of serving vegetables. PMID:20452288

  16. Parent outcome expectancies for purchasing fruit and vegetables: a validation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To validate four scales – outcome expectancies for purchasing fruit and for purchasing vegetables, and comparative outcome expectancies for purchasing fresh fruit and for purchasing fresh vegetables versus other forms of fruit and vegetables (F&V). Design: Survey instruments were administ...

  17. Sensitivity analysis of vegetation-induced flow steering in channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bywater-Reyes, S.; Wilcox, A. C.; Lightbody, A.; Stella, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Morphodynamic feedbacks result in alternating bars within channels, and the resulting convective accelerations dictate the cross-stream force balance of channels and in turn influence morphology. Pioneer woody riparian trees recruit on river bars and may steer flow and alter this force balance. This study uses two-dimensional hydraulic modeling to test the sensitivity of the flow field to riparian vegetation at the reach scale. We use two test systems with different width-to-depth ratios, substrate sizes, and vegetation structure: the gravel-bed Bitterroot River, MT and the sand-bed Santa Maria River, AZ. We model vegetation explicitly as a drag force by spatially specifying vegetation density, height, and drag coefficient, across varying hydraulic (e.g., discharge, eddy viscosity) conditions and compare velocity vectors between runs. We test variations in vegetation configurations, including the present-day configuration of vegetation in our field systems (extracted from LiDAR), removal of vegetation (e.g., from floods or management actions), and expansion of vegetation. Preliminary model runs suggest that the sensitivity of convective accelerations to vegetation reflects a balance between the extent and density of vegetation inundated and other sources of channel roughness. This research quantifies how vegetation alters hydraulics at the reach scale, a fundamental step to understanding vegetation-morphodynamic interactions.

  18. 19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. 10.56 Section 10.56 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils,...

  19. 21 CFR 180.30 - Brominated vegetable oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brominated vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Brominated vegetable oil. The food additive brominated vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance...

  20. 21 CFR 180.30 - Brominated vegetable oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brominated vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Brominated vegetable oil. The food additive brominated vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance...

  1. 19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. 10.56 Section... Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. (a) Olive, palm-kernel, rapeseed, sunflower, and sesame oil shall be classifiable under subheadings 1509.10.20, 1509.10.40, 1509.90.20, 1509.90.40,...

  2. 19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. 10.56 Section 10.56 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils,...

  3. 19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. 10.56 Section... Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. (a) Olive, palm-kernel, rapeseed, sunflower, and sesame oil shall be classifiable under subheadings 1509.10.20, 1509.10.40, 1509.90.20, 1509.90.40,...

  4. 21 CFR 180.30 - Brominated vegetable oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Brominated vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30... Requirements for Certain Food Additives § 180.30 Brominated vegetable oil. The food additive brominated vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The...

  5. 19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. 10.56 Section... Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. (a) Olive, palm-kernel, rapeseed, sunflower, and sesame oil shall be classifiable under subheadings 1509.10.20, 1509.10.40, 1509.90.20, 1509.90.40,...

  6. 21 CFR 180.30 - Brominated vegetable oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brominated vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Brominated vegetable oil. The food additive brominated vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance...

  7. Modeling low-height vegetation with airborne LiDAR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low-height vegetation, common in semiarid regions, is difficult to characterize with LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) due to similarities, in time and space, of the point returns of vegetation and ground. Other complications may occur due to the low-height vegetation structural characteristics a...

  8. Optical sensing of vegetation water content: A synthesis study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation Water Content (VWC) plays an important role in parameterizing the vegetation influence on microwave soil moisture retrieval. During the past decade, researchers have developed relationships between VWC and vegetation indices available from satellite optical sensors in order to create larg...

  9. State Indicator Report on Fruits and Vegetables, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "State Indicator Report on Fruits and Vegetables, 2009" provides for the first time information on fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and policy and environmental support within each state. Fruits and vegetables, as part of a healthy diet, are important for optimal child growth, weight management, and chronic disease prevention. Supporting…

  10. 75 FR 8038 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... interested parties that the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) will hold a Fruit and Vegetable Industry...) established the Committee to examine the full spectrum of issues faced by the fruit and vegetable industry...

  11. 76 FR 5779 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... interested parties that the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) will hold a Fruit and Vegetable Industry...) established the Committee to examine the full spectrum of issues faced by the fruit and vegetable industry...

  12. 75 FR 47535 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... interested parties that the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) will hold a Fruit and Vegetable Industry...) established the Committee to examine the full spectrum of issues faced by the fruit and vegetable industry...

  13. Monitoring tropical vegetation succession with LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, V. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    The shadowing problem, which is endemic to the use of LANDSAT in tropical areas, and the ability to model changes over space and through time are problems to be addressed when monitoring tropical vegetation succession. Application of a trend surface analysis model to major land cover classes in a mountainous region of the Phillipines shows that the spatial modeling of radiance values can provide a useful approach to tropical rain forest succession monitoring. Results indicate shadowing effects may be due primarily to local variations in the spectral responses. These variations can be compensated for through the decomposition of the spatial variation in both elevation and MSS data. Using the model to estimate both elevation and spectral terrain surface as a posteriori inputs in the classification process leads to improved classification accuracy for vegetation of cover of this type. Spatial patterns depicted by the MSS data reflect the measurement of responses to spatial processes acting at several scales.

  14. Vegetation survey of PEN Branch wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    A survey was conducted of vegetation along Pen Branch Creek at Savannah River Site (SRS) in support of K-Reactor restart. Plants were identified to species by overstory, understory, shrub, and groundcover strata. Abundance was also characterized and richness and diversity calculated. Based on woody species basal area, the Pen Branch delta was the most impacted, followed by the sections between the reactor and the delta. Species richness for shrub and groundcover strata were also lowest in the delta. No endangered plant species were found. Three upland pine areas were also sampled. In support of K Reactor restart, this report summarizes a study of the wetland vegetation along Pen Branch. Reactor effluent enters Indian Grove Branch and then flows into Pen Branch and the Pen Branch Delta.

  15. Vegetable oils as fuel alternatives - symposium overview

    SciTech Connect

    Pryde, E.H.

    1984-10-01

    Several encouraging statements can be made about the use of vegetable oil products as fuel as a result of the information presented in these symposium papers. Vegetable oil ester fuels have the greatest promise, but further engine endurance tests will be required. These can be carried out best by the engine manufacturers. Microemulsions appear to have promise, but more research and engine testing will be necessary before performance equivalent to the ester fuels can be developed. Such research effort can be justified because microemulsification is a rather uncomplicated physical process and might be adaptable to on-farm operations, which would be doubtful for the more involved transesterfication process. Although some answers have been provided by this symposium, others are still not available; engine testing is continuing throughout the world particularly in those countries that do not have access to petroleum. 9 references.

  16. A new thermal vegetation canopy model

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhengzhi; Dong Gouquan )

    1992-10-01

    A three-layer thermal vegetation canopy model applicable to forest canopies was developed and tested by field experiments. The model is based on energy budget equations that describe the interactions between short and long wave radiation, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux within three horizontally infinite canopy layers. Particularly it concerns the wind, air temperature, and water vapor pressure profiles in the canopy, which were never considered in earlier models. In solving the nonlinear energy budget equations, a new method was adopted resulting in great reduction of the model computer time. The calculated results of the model are in good agreement with observed data, which shows that the new model is able to simulate exactly the variation of canopy temperature with vegetation structure and environmental conditions. 11 refs.

  17. Seasonal vegetation differences from ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashley, M. D.; Rea, J.

    1975-01-01

    Knowledge of the times when crop and forest vegetation experience seasonally related changes in development is important in understanding growth and yield relationships. This article describes how densitometry of earth resources technology satellite (ERTS-1) multispectral scanner (MSS) imagery can be used to identify such phenological events. Adjustments for instrument calibration, aperture size, gray-scale differences between overpasses, and normalization of changing solar elevation are considered in detail. Seasonal vegetation differences can be identified by densitometry of band 5 (0.6-0.7 microns) and band 7 (0.8-1.1 microns) MSS imagery. Band-to-band ratios of the densities depicted the changes more graphically than the individual band readings.

  18. Feedbacks and landscape-level vegetation dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bowman, David M J S; Perry, George L W; Marston, J B

    2015-05-01

    Alternative stable-state theory (ASS) is widely accepted as explaining landscape-level vegetation dynamics, such as switches between forest and grassland. This theory argues that webs of feedbacks stabilise vegetation composition and structure, and that abrupt state shifts can occur if stabilising feedbacks are weakened. However, it is difficult to identify stabilising feedback loops and the disturbance thresholds beyond which state changes occur. Here, we argue that doing this requires a synthetic approach blending observation, experimentation, simulation, conceptual models, and narratives. Using forest boundaries and large mammal extinctions, we illustrate how a multifaceted research program can advance understanding of feedback-driven ecosystem change. Our integrative approach has applicability to other complex macroecological systems controlled by numerous feedbacks where controlled experimentation is impossible. PMID:25837918

  19. Checking various vegetation indices for estimating vegetation in arid regions and Presented a model (Case Study:Sadough- Yazd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalantari, Saeideh; Zehtabian, Gholamreza; Azarnivand, Hossein; Ahmadi, Hassan

    2013-04-01

    Vegetation is one of the natural recourses components and achieve Quantitative information of them have a major role in the management of land. Using satellite images is one of the new techniques in the field of qualitative and quantitative studies of the vegetation .Studies show that the use of spectral vegetation indices and ratios may serve as a useful approach in this area, especially in the desert zoon. In this study, using Landsat TM imagery sensors, to calculate different vegetation indices and their ability checking vegetation in arid regions. After multivariate regression analysis between the actual values and parameters, and validation of models optimal model was selected. The results showed that the index of ARVI with the corresponding coefficients is better results in estimating the amount of vegetation in arid regions. Keywords: vegetation, satellite images, vegetation index, arid region, Saduq

  20. Analysis of Post-Fire Vegetation Recovery in the Mediterranean Basin using MODIS Derived Vegetation Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawtree, Daniel; San Miguel, Jesus; Sedano, Fernando; Kempeneers, Pieter

    2010-05-01

    The Mediterranean basin region is highly susceptible to wildfire, with approximately 60,000 individual fires and half a million ha of natural vegetation burnt per year. Of particular concern in this region is the impact of repeated wildfires on the ability of natural lands to return to a pre-fire state, and of the possibility of desertification of semi-arid areas. Given these concerns, understanding the temporal patterns of vegetation recovery is important for the management of environmental resources in the region. A valuable tool for evaluating these recovery patterns are vegetation indices derived from remote sensing data. Previous research on post-fire vegetation recovery conducted in this region has found significant variability in recovery times across different study sites. It is unclear what the primary variables are affecting the differences in the rates of recovery, and if any geographic patterns of behavior exist across the Mediterranean basin. This research has primarily been conducted using indices derived from Landsat imagery. However, no extensive analysis of vegetation regeneration for large regions has been published, and assessment of vegetation recovery on the basis of medium-spatial resolution imagery such as that of MODIS has not yet been analyzed. This study examines the temporal pattern of vegetation recovery in a number of fire sites in the Mediterranean basin, using data derived from MODIS 16 -day composite vegetation indices. The intent is to develop a more complete picture of the temporal sequence of vegetation recovery, and to evaluate what additional factors impact variations in the recovery sequence. In addition, this study evaluates the utility of using MODIS derived vegetation indices for regeneration studies, and compares the findings to earlier studies which rely on Landsat data. Wildfires occurring between the years 2000 and 2004 were considered as potential study sites for this research. Using the EFFIS dataset, all wildfires

  1. The hot spot of vegetation canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myneni, Ranga B.; Kanemasu, Edward T.

    1988-01-01

    A conventional radiometer is used to identify the hot spot (the peak in reflected radiation in the retrosolar direction) of vegetation. A multiwavelength-band radiometer collected radiances on fully grown dense wheat and maize canopies on several clear sunny days. It is noted that the hot spot is difficult to detect in the near IR wavelengths because the shadows are much darker. In general, the retrosolar brightness is found to be higher for smaller sun polar angles than for larger angles.

  2. Prevalence of Salmonella in vegetables from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Quiroz-Santiago, Carolina; Rodas-Suárez, Oscar R; Carlos R, Vázquez; Fernández, Francisco J; Quiñones-Ramírez, Elsa Irma; Vázquez-Salinas, Carlos

    2009-06-01

    The present study is an overview of the role of vegetables as a transmission vehicle of Salmonella in Mexico. One hundred samples of each of 17 different vegetables were analyzed during a period of 18 months. Salmonella was isolated from 98 samples. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was isolated from the highest percentage of samples with typeable Salmonella isolates (23.9%), followed by S. enterica subsp. arizonae and Salmonella Choleraesuis each from 16.9%, Salmonella Gallinarum from 11.1%, Salmonella Anatum and S. enterica subsp. houtenae each from 9.7%, Salmonella Agona and Salmonella Edinburg each from 4.22%, Salmonella Enteritidis and S. enterica subsp. salamae each from 2.81%, and Salmonella Bongor, Salmonella Pullorum, Salmonella Typhi, and Salmonella C1 flagellar b each from 1.4%. Of the isolated bacteria, 27.6% were nontypeable strains. Salmonella was isolated from 12% of parsley samples, 11% of cilantro samples, 9% of broccoli samples, 9% of cauliflower samples, 9% of "papaloquelite" (Porophyllum ruderale) samples, 9% of purslane (Portulaca oleracea) samples, 7% of long lettuce samples, 7% of spinach samples, 7% of watercress samples, 6% of Chinese parsley samples, 4% of beet samples, 3% of celery samples, 3% of Romaine lettuce samples, 1% of cabbage samples, and 1% of potato samples. The presence of Salmonella Typhi in parsley is noteworthy. No Salmonella isolates were obtained from zucchini and onion. These results indicate that raw or minimally processed vegetables can be contaminated with Salmonella, leading to direct infection of consumers or cross-contamination of other foodstuffs. These contaminated vegetables can represent a severe health risk for the Mexican consumer. PMID:19610340

  3. Screening emissions of high oleic vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This article describes tests of a high oleic safflower oil for use as a fuel in diesel engines. Test included looking at the following: costs with reformulated diesel fuels or other benefits; reduction of particulate emissions by at least 14 percent; reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions; use without causing engine deposits and other problems. Results are given on emissions of high oleic vegetable oils, and commercial opportunities are discussed briefly.

  4. Contemporary Changes in Vegetation of Polar Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olech, Maria; Węgrzyn, Michał; Lisowska, Maja; Słaby, Agnieszka; Angiel, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    Rapid climate changes which have been observed over the recent years in both polar regions of the Earth, directly or indirectly affect vegetation dynamics. This article presents the main directions of the changes taking place in the recent years in tundra communities of both polar regions, based on original research carried out in the Arctic in Spitsbergen and in the maritime Antarctic on King George Island.

  5. Button botany: plasmodesmata in vegetable ivory.

    PubMed

    Witztum, Allan; Wayne, Randy

    2012-07-01

    The hard endosperm of species of the palm genus Phytelephas (elephant plant), known as vegetable ivory, was used in the manufacture of buttons in the nineteenth century, the early twentieth century, and again in more recent times. Here, we show that the pathways for intercellular communication, including the cytoplasm in opposite pits and the plasmodesmata that traverse the cell wall, can be visualized in century-old inexpensive buttons that are readily available in antique shops. PMID:21887607

  6. How to deal with radiologically contaminated vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.; Murphy, C.E.; Lamar, R.T.; Larson, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    This report describes the findings from a literature review conducted as part of a Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development Biomass Remediation Task. The principal objective of this project is to develop a process or group of processes to treat radiologically contaminated vegetation in a manner that minimizes handling, processing, and treatment costs. Contaminated, woody vegetation growing on waste sites at SRS poses a problem to waste site closure technologies that are being considered for these sites. It is feared that large sections of woody vegetation (logs) can not be buried in waste sites where isolation of waste is accomplished by capping the site. Logs or large piles of woody debris have the potential of decaying and leaving voids under the cap. This could lead to cap failure and entrance of water into the waste. Large solid objects could also interfere with treatments like in situ mixing of soil with grout or other materials to encapsulate the contaminated sediments and soils in the waste sites. Optimal disposal of the wood includes considerations of volume reduction, treatment of the radioactive residue resulting from volume reduction, or confinement without volume reduction. Volume reduction consists primarily of removing the carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen in the wood, leaving an ash that would contain most of the contamination. The only contaminant that would be released by volume reduction would by small amounts of the radioactive isotope of hydrogen, tritium. The following sections will describe the waste sites at SRS which contain contaminated vegetation and are potential candidates for the technology developed under this proposal. The description will provide a context for the magnitude of the problem and the logistics of the alternative solutions that are evaluated later in the review. 76 refs.

  7. Intensive Site 1 Vegetation Plot Photos 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Norby, Richard; Sloan, Victoria

    2015-04-02

    Photographs were taken on 24th June, 15th July and 17th August 2012, using a Canon Ixus 70 7.1 megapixel digital camera. Photographs were taken during the recording of weekly soil moisture, temperature and thaw depth measurements (Sloan et al., 2014), over a time period spanning approximately 6 hours on each day. Photographs were taken from positions where matted trail allowed access to vegetation plots.

  8. Preliminary assessment of soil moisture over vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, T. N.

    1986-01-01

    Modeling of surface energy fluxes was combined with in-situ measurement of surface parameters, specifically the surface sensible heat flux and the substrate soil moisture. A vegetation component was incorporated in the atmospheric/substrate model and subsequently showed that fluxes over vegetation can be very much different than those over bare soil for a given surface-air temperature difference. The temperature signatures measured by a satellite or airborne radiometer should be interpreted in conjunction with surface measurements of modeled parameters. Paradoxically, analyses of the large-scale distribution of soil moisture availability shows that there is a very high correlation between antecedent precipitation and inferred surface moisture availability, even when no specific vegetation parameterization is used in the boundary layer model. Preparatory work was begun in streamlining the present boundary layer model, developing better algorithms for relating surface temperatures to substrate moisture, preparing for participation in the French HAPEX experiment, and analyzing aircraft microwave and radiometric surface temperature data for the 1983 French Beauce experiments.

  9. Does prescribed fire benefit wetland vegetation?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, C.; Bounds, D.L.; Ruby, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of fire on wetland vegetation in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States are poorly known, despite the historical use of fire by federal, state, and private landowners in the Chesapeake Bay Region. Prescribed fire is widely used by land managers to promote vegetation that is beneficial to migratory waterfowl, muskrats, and other native wildlife and to reduce competition from less desirable plant species. We compared vegetative response to two fire rotations, annual burns and 3-year burns, and two control sites, Control 1 and Control 2. We tested the effects of fire within six tidal marsh wetlands at Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge and Fishing Bay Wildlife Management Area in Maryland. We examined changes in total live biomass (all species), total stem density, litter, and changes in live biomass and stem density of four dominant wetland plant species (11 variables). Our results suggest that annual prescribed fires will decrease the accumulation of litter, increase the biomass and stem densities of some wetland plants generally considered less desirable for wildlife, and have little or no effect on other wetland plants previously thought to benefit from fire. ?? 2011 US Government.

  10. Reflectance of vegetation, soil, and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The ability to read the 24-channel MSS CCT tapes, select specified agricultural land use areas from the CCT, and perform multivariate statistical and pattern recognition analyses has been demonstrated. The 5 optimum channels chosen for classifying an agricultural scene were, in the order of their selection the far red visible, short reflective IR, visible blue, thermal infrared, and ultraviolet portions of the electromagnetic spectrum, respectively. Although chosen by a training set containing only vegetal categories, the optimum 4 channels discriminated pavement, water, bare soil, and building roofs, as well as the vegetal categories. Among the vegetal categories, sugar cane and cotton had distinctive signatures that distinguished them from grass and citrus. Acreages estimated spectrally by the computer for the test scene were acceptably close to acreages estimated from aerial photographs for cotton, sugar cane, and water. Many nonfarmable land resolution elements representing drainage ditch, field road, and highway right-of-way as well as farm headquarters area fell into the grass, bare soil plus weeds, and citrus categories and lessened the accuracy of the farmable acreage estimates in these categories. The expertise developed using the 24-channel data will be applied to the ERTS-1 data.

  11. Oxalates in some Indian green leafy vegetables.

    PubMed

    Radek, M; Savage, G P

    2008-05-01

    The soluble and total oxalate contents of 11 leafy vegetables grown in India were determined. Spinach, purple and green amaranth and colocasia contained high levels of total oxalates, which ranged from 5,138.0 +/- 37.6 mg/100 g dry matter up to 12,576.1 +/- 107.9 mg/100 g dry matter. Seven other leafy vegetables (curry, drumstick, shepu, fenugreek, coriander, radish and onion stalks) contained only insoluble oxalate, which ranged from 209.0 +/- 5.0 mg/100 g dry matter to 2,774.9 +/-18.4 mg/100 g dry matter. In vitro digestion of the samples showed that the gastric available oxalate was 10% lower than the values obtained from acid extraction and that intestinal available oxalate was 20% lower than the values obtained following hot water extraction. The percentage calcium bound in the insoluble oxalate fraction of the dried leafy vegetables ranged from 3.3% to 86.7% of the total calcium. Addition of four different sources of calcium (low fat milk, whole milk, calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate) resulted in a range of 32-100% reductions of intestinal available oxalate in the mixture. PMID:18335334

  12. Reflectance of vegetation, soil, and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The Kubelka-Munk model, a regression model, and a combination of these models were used to extract plant, soil, and shadow reflectance components of vegetated surfaces. The combination model was superior to the others; it explained 86% of the variation in band 5 reflectance of corn and sorghum, and 90% of the variation in band 6 reflectance of cotton. A fractional shadow term substantially increased the proportion of the digital count sum of squares explained when plant parameters alone explained 85% or less of the variation. Overall recognition of 94 agricultural fields using simultaneously acquired aircraft and spacecraft MSS data was 61.8 and 62.8%, respectively; recognition of vegetable fields larger than 10 acres and taller than 25 cm, rose to 88.9 and 100% for aircraft and spacecraft, respectively. Agriculture and rangeland, were well discriminated for the entire county but level 2 categories of vegetables, citrus, and idle cropland, except for citrus, were not.

  13. Effects of Shoreline Dynamics on Saltmarsh Vegetation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shailesh; Goff, Joshua; Moody, Ryan M; McDonald, Ashley; Byron, Dorothy; Heck, Kenneth L; Powers, Sean P; Ferraro, Carl; Cebrian, Just

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of shoreline dynamics on fringing vegetation density at mid- and low-marsh elevations at a high-energy site in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Particularly, we selected eight unprotected shoreline stretches (75 m each) at a historically eroding site and measured their inter-annual lateral movement rate using the DSAS method for three consecutive years. We observed high inter-annual variability of shoreline movement within the selected stretches. Specifically, shorelines retrograded (eroded) in year 1 and year 3, whereas, in year 2, shorelines advanced seaward. Despite shoreline advancement in year 2, an overall net erosion was recorded during the survey period. Additionally, vegetation density generally declined at both elevations during the survey period; however, probably due to their immediate proximity with lateral erosion agents (e.g., waves, currents), marsh grasses at low-elevation exhibited abrupt reduction in density, more so than grasses at mid elevation. Finally, contrary to our hypothesis, despite shoreline advancement, vegetation density did not increase correspondingly in year 2 probably due to a lag in response from biota. More studies in other coastal systems may advance our knowledge of marsh edge systems; however, we consider our results could be beneficial to resource managers in preparing protection plans for coastal wetlands against chronic stressors such as lateral erosion. PMID:27442515

  14. Effects of Shoreline Dynamics on Saltmarsh Vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shailesh; Goff, Joshua; Moody, Ryan M.; McDonald, Ashley; Byron, Dorothy; Heck, Kenneth L.; Powers, Sean P.; Ferraro, Carl; Cebrian, Just

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of shoreline dynamics on fringing vegetation density at mid- and low-marsh elevations at a high-energy site in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Particularly, we selected eight unprotected shoreline stretches (75 m each) at a historically eroding site and measured their inter-annual lateral movement rate using the DSAS method for three consecutive years. We observed high inter-annual variability of shoreline movement within the selected stretches. Specifically, shorelines retrograded (eroded) in year 1 and year 3, whereas, in year 2, shorelines advanced seaward. Despite shoreline advancement in year 2, an overall net erosion was recorded during the survey period. Additionally, vegetation density generally declined at both elevations during the survey period; however, probably due to their immediate proximity with lateral erosion agents (e.g., waves, currents), marsh grasses at low-elevation exhibited abrupt reduction in density, more so than grasses at mid elevation. Finally, contrary to our hypothesis, despite shoreline advancement, vegetation density did not increase correspondingly in year 2 probably due to a lag in response from biota. More studies in other coastal systems may advance our knowledge of marsh edge systems; however, we consider our results could be beneficial to resource managers in preparing protection plans for coastal wetlands against chronic stressors such as lateral erosion. PMID:27442515

  15. Behavior of glucosinolates in pickling cruciferous vegetables.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Chise; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Sasaki, Keisuke; Murata, Takashi; Yoshida, Mitsuru

    2006-12-13

    Crucifer species, which include widely consumed vegetables, contain glucosinolates as secondary metabolites. Cruciferous vegetables are consumed in Japan in salt-preserved or pickled form as well as cooked and raw fresh vegetables. In this study, changes in contents of glucosinolates during the pickling process were investigated. 4-Methylthio-3-butenyl glucosinolate, a major glucosinolate in the root of Japanese radish, daikon (Raphanus sativus L.), was detected in pickled products with a short maturation period but not in those with a long maturation period. As a model pickling experiment, fresh watercress (Nasturtium officinale) and blanched watercress were soaked in 3% NaCl solution for 7 days. The results showed that the ratio of indole glucosinolates to total glucosinolates increased during the pickling process, whereas total glucosinolates decreased. Myrosinase digestion of glucosinolates in nozawana (Brassica rapa L.) indicated that indole glucosinolates, especially 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, were relatively resistant to the enzyme. The effect of pickling on glucosinolate content and the possible mechanism are discussed in view of degradation by myrosinase and synthetic reaction in response to salt stress or compression during the pickling process. PMID:17147429

  16. Effects of experimental protocol on global vegetation model accuracy: a comparison of simulated and observed vegetation patterns for Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tang, Guoping; Shafer, Sarah L.; Barlein, Patrick J.; Holman, Justin O.

    2009-01-01

    Prognostic vegetation models have been widely used to study the interactions between environmental change and biological systems. This study examines the sensitivity of vegetation model simulations to: (i) the selection of input climatologies representing different time periods and their associated atmospheric CO2 concentrations, (ii) the choice of observed vegetation data for evaluating the model results, and (iii) the methods used to compare simulated and observed vegetation. We use vegetation simulated for Asia by the equilibrium vegetation model BIOME4 as a typical example of vegetation model output. BIOME4 was run using 19 different climatologies and their associated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The Kappa statistic, Fuzzy Kappa statistic and a newly developed map-comparison method, the Nomad index, were used to quantify the agreement between the biomes simulated under each scenario and the observed vegetation from three different global land- and tree-cover data sets: the global Potential Natural Vegetation data set (PNV), the Global Land Cover Characteristics data set (GLCC), and the Global Land Cover Facility data set (GLCF). The results indicate that the 30-year mean climatology (and its associated atmospheric CO2 concentration) for the time period immediately preceding the collection date of the observed vegetation data produce the most accurate vegetation simulations when compared with all three observed vegetation data sets. The study also indicates that the BIOME4-simulated vegetation for Asia more closely matches the PNV data than the other two observed vegetation data sets. Given the same observed data, the accuracy assessments of the BIOME4 simulations made using the Kappa, Fuzzy Kappa and Nomad index map-comparison methods agree well when the compared vegetation types consist of a large number of spatially continuous grid cells. The results of this analysis can assist model users in designing experimental protocols for simulating vegetation.

  17. The use of a commercial vegetable juice as a practical means to increase vegetable intake: A randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recommendations for daily dietary vegetable intake were increased in the 2005 USDA Dietary Guidelines, as consumption of a diet rich in vegetables has been associated with lower risk of certain chronic health disorders including cardiovascular disease. However, vegetable consumption in the United St...

  18. Vegetable Purée: A Pilot Study to Increase Vegetable Consumption among School Lunch Participants in US Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vale, Angela; Schumacher, Julie Raeder; Cullen, Robert W.; Gam, Hae Jin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Recent US Department of Agriculture regulations increased the amount and variety of vegetables required for school lunches. Vegetables are the most wasted components of lunch while entrées are selected and consumed by the majority of children. This study examined how adding vegetable purée to an elementary school lunch entrée…

  19. The MODIS Vegetation Canopy Water Content product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustin, S. L.; Riano, D.; Trombetti, M.

    2008-12-01

    Vegetation water stress drives wildfire behavior and risk, having important implications for biogeochemical cycling in natural ecosystems, agriculture, and forestry. Water stress limits plant transpiration and carbon gain. The regulation of photosynthesis creates close linkages between the carbon, water, and energy cycles and through metabolism to the nitrogen cycle. We generated systematic weekly CWC estimated for the USA from 2000-2006. MODIS measures the sunlit reflectance of the vegetation in the visible, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared. Radiative transfer models, such as PROSPECT-SAILH, determine how sunlight interacts with plant and soil materials. These models can be applied over a range of scales and ecosystem types. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were used to optimize the inversion of these models to determine vegetation water content. We carried out multi-scale validation of the product using field data, airborne and satellite cross-calibration. An Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) of the product is under evaluation by NASA. The CWC product inputs are 1) The MODIS Terra/Aqua surface reflectance product (MOD09A1/MYD09A1) 2) The MODIS land cover map product (MOD12Q1) reclassified to grassland, shrub-land and forest canopies; 3) An ANN trained with PROSPECT-SAILH; 4) A calibration file for each land cover type. The output is an ENVI file with the CWC values. The code is written in Matlab environment and is being adapted to read not only the 8 day MODIS composites, but also daily surface reflectance data. We plan to incorporate the cloud and snow mask and generate as output a geotiff file. Vegetation water content estimates will help predicting linkages between biogeochemical cycles, which will enable further understanding of feedbacks to atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. It will also serve to estimate primary productivity of the biosphere; monitor/assess natural vegetation health related to drought, pollution or diseases

  20. Vegetation Interaction Enhances Interdecadal Climate Variability in the Sahel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeng, Ning; Neelin, J. David; Lau, William K.-M.

    1999-01-01

    The role of naturally varying vegetation in influencing the climate variability in the Sahel is explored in a coupled atmosphere-land-vegetation model. The Sahel rainfall variability is influenced by sea surface temperature (SST) variations in the oceans. Land-surface feedback is found to increase this variability both on interannual and interdecadal time scales. Interactive vegetation enhances the interdecadal variation significantly, but can reduce year to year variability due to a phase lag introduced by the relatively slow vegetation adjustment time. Variations in vegetation accompany the changes in rainfall, in particular, the multi-decadal drying trend from the 1950s to the 80s.

  1. Remote sensing of vegetation and soil using microwave ellipsometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, S. O.; Schutt, J. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method is described of determining vegetation height and water content of vegetation from the intensity and state of elliptical polarization of a reflected train of microwaves. The method comprises the steps of reflecting a circularly polarized train of microwaves from vegetation at a predetermined angle of incidence and detecting the reflected train of microwaves. The ratio of the intensities of the electric field vector components is determined, the phase difference of the components is measured, and the refractive index and thickness of the layer of vegetation are computed from a formula. The refractive index is given essentially by the water content of the vegetation.

  2. Effects of Vegetation Removal and Subsequent Re-vegetation on Warm Ice Rich Permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjella, K.

    2005-12-01

    Continued polar climate change will impact existing infrastructure built on warm permafrost, and will also affect the design of future infrastructure on frozen ground. Determining the role that vegetation plays on the stabilization and possible aggrading of permafrost will be a key component for future project design. In 1946, a study was conducted by Kenneth Linell at the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) Permafrost Experiment Station in Fairbanks, Alaska on warm, ice rich permafrost to determine the rate at which subsurface thawing proceeded following the removal of the insulating vegetation. Three one acre plots were chosen and the boreal vegetation was removed to varying degrees. Thaw depth of the permafrost was then observed through 1972, and results were published for the 2nd International Conference on Permafrost, in 1973. Permafrost boundaries have not been measured at the site for some time, and in areas where vegetation has returned, it is unknown whether permafrost degradation has continued, abated, or aggraded. We will examine the current depth to permafrost in the `Linell Plots' and the extent of the active layer. DC resistivity will be used to obtain a macro scale picture of the depth to permafrost over the plots. Micro scale ground truthing by soil borings will then be performed to confirm the geophysical survey and yield useful soil classifications. This information will add knowledge to the understanding of the role that vegetation plays in permafrost dynamics over time.

  3. Assessing vegetation response to drought in the northern Great Plains using vegetation and drought indices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ji, Lei; Peters, Albert J.

    2003-01-01

    The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) has been widely used to monitor moisture-related vegetation condition. The relationship between vegetation vigor and moisture availability, however, is complex and has not been adequately studied with satellite sensor data. To better understand this relationship, an analysis was conducted on time series of monthly NDVI (1989–2000) during the growing season in the north and central U.S. Great Plains. The NDVI was correlated to the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), a multiple-time scale meteorological-drought index based on precipitation. The 3-month SPI was found to have the best correlation with the NDVI, indicating lag and cumulative effects of precipitation on vegetation, but the correlation between NDVI and SPI varies significantly between months. The highest correlations occurred during the middle of the growing season, and lower correlations were noted at the beginning and end of the growing season in most of the area. A regression model with seasonal dummy variables reveals that the relationship between the NDVI and SPI is significant in both grasslands and croplands, if this seasonal effect is taken into account. Spatially, the best NDVI–SPI relationship occurred in areas with low soil water-holding capacity. Our most important finding is that NDVI is an effective indicator of vegetation-moisture condition, but seasonal timing should be taken into consideration when monitoring drought with the NDVI.

  4. European vegetation during Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntley, Brian; Alfano, Mary J. o.; Allen, Judy R. M.; Pollard, Dave; Tzedakis, Polychronis C.; de Beaulieu, Jacques-Louis; Grüger, Eberhard; Watts, Bill

    2003-03-01

    European vegetation during representative "warm" and "cold" intervals of stage-3 was inferred from pollen analytical data. The inferred vegetation differs in character and spatial pattern from that of both fully glacial and fully interglacial conditions and exhibits contrasts between warm and cold intervals, consistent with other evidence for stage-3 palaeoenvironmental fluctuations. European vegetation thus appears to have been an integral component of millennial environmental fluctuations during stage-3; vegetation responded to this scale of environmental change and through feedback mechanisms may have had effects upon the environment. The pollen-inferred vegetation was compared with vegetation simulated using the BIOME 3.5 vegetation model for climatic conditions simulated using a regional climate model (RegCM2) nested within a coupled global climate and vegetation model (GENESIS-BIOME). Despite some discrepancies in detail, both approaches capture the principal features of the present vegetation of Europe. The simulated vegetation for stage-3 differs markedly from that inferred from pollen analytical data, implying substantial discrepancy between the simulated climate and that actually prevailing. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the simulated climate is too warm and probably has too short a winter season. These discrepancies may reflect incorrect specification of sea surface temperature or sea-ice conditions and may be exacerbated by vegetation-climate feedback in the coupled global model.

  5. Sensory evaluation of a novel vegetable in school age children.

    PubMed

    Coulthard, Helen; Palfreyman, Zoe; Morizet, David

    2016-05-01

    A behavioural sensory task was undertaken to further understanding into whether children's sensory evaluation of a new vegetable is associated with tasting and food neophobia scores. A sample of ninety-five children, aged 7-11 years, was recruited from a primary school in inner city Birmingham, UK. They were asked to rate the sight, smell and feel of a familiar vegetable (carrot) and an unfamiliar vegetable (celeriac) in a randomised order to control for order effects. They were then asked to try the each vegetable, and rate its taste. It was found that children rated the sensory characteristics of the familiar vegetable more positively than the novel vegetable across all sensory domains (p < 0.05). Refusing to try the novel vegetable was associated with food neophobia scores and olfactory ratings. The ratings of the taste of the novel vegetable were associated with olfactory and tactile ratings. In addition there was a clear developmental shift in the sample with younger children being more likely to rate the novel vegetable as 'looking strange' and older children rating the novel vegetable as 'smelling strange'. This research strengthens the idea that sensory information is important in children deciding to try, and their hedonic evaluation of the taste of a new vegetable. PMID:26809143

  6. Experiments of Flow Field Influenced by Vegetation Distribution on Floodplain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jin-Fu; Wang, Shun-Chang; Chen, Su-Chin

    2015-04-01

    The vegetation on floodplain can block river flow, raise flood level, and scour riverbed downstream the vegetation region. However, it can also protect the dike, reduce flood velocity, and increase the stability of channel. This experiment analyzed the relationship between vegetation distribution and flow field. We designed three vegetation arrangement pattern of unilateral vegetation, unilateral interval vegetation and no vegetation, respectively. The unilateral vegetation was defined as a 4.9 m length and 0.5 m width with vegetative area in one side of the experiment flume. The unilateral interval vegetation was defined as the same dimension of vegetative area but inserted 2 gaps with 1 m interval, and the vegetative area was separated into 3 blocks. The model of a single plant was assembled with stem and frond. The stem was a woody cylinder with 10 cm height and 2.2 cm in diameter. The other part was plastic frond with 10 cm in height. The flume was 20 m length, 1 m width and 0.7 m height with 2 kinds of bed slopes in 0.001 and 0.002, and 3 different discharges in 0.2 m3/s, 0.145 m3/s and 0.0855 m3/s. The velocity was measured by 2-D electromagnetic velocimeter (ACM2-R2). In addition, water depth was measured by Vernier calipers. The velocity distribution showed that the current were divided into two parts. In the part of inside vegetation area, water level uplifted when flow entering the vegetation area, and it declined until the current leaving vegetation area. Compared with the current in the other half part of flume, the magnitudes of uplift were about 50% in both case of unilateral vegetation and unilateral interval vegetation. Downstream the vegetation area edge, the water level dropped immediately and violently. The water depth was shallower than that in the other half non-vegetation part, and the decline magnitude were 48% and 39% in cases of unilateral vegetation and unilateral interval vegetation, respectively. To explain this phenomenon, we measured

  7. On the evaluation of vegetation resilience in Southern Italy by using satellite VEGETATION, MODIS, TM time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coluzzi, C.; Didonna, I.

    2009-04-01

    Satellite technologies can be profitably used for investigating the dynamics of vegetation re-growth after disturbance at different temporal and spatial scales. Nevertheless, disturbance -induced dynamical processes are very difficult to study since they affect the complex soil-surface-atmosphere system, due to the existence of feedback mechanisms involving human activity, ecological patterns and different subsystems of climate. The remote sensing of vegetation has been traditionally carried out by using vegetation indices, which are quantitative measures, based on vegetation spectral properties, that attempt to measure biomass or vegetative vigor. The vegetation indices operate by contrasting intense chlorophyll pigment absorption in the red against the high reflectance of leaf mesophyll in the near infrared. The simplest form of vegetation index is simply a ratio between two digital values from these two spectral bands. The most widely used index is the well-known normalized difference vegetation index NDVI = [NIR-R]/ [NIR+R]. The normalization of the NDVI reduces the effects of variations caused by atmospheric contaminations. High values of the vegetation index identify pixels covered by substantial proportions of healthy vegetation. NDVI is indicative of plant photosynthetic activity and has been found to be related to the green leaf area index and the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation. Therefore variations in NDVI values become indicative of variations in vegetation composition and dynamics. In this study, we analyze the mutiscale satellite temporal series ( 1998 to 2008) of NDVI and other vegetation indices from SPOT VEGETATION and Landsat TM data acquired for some significant test areas affetced and unaffected (Southern Italy) by different type of environmenta diturbances (drought, salinity, pollution, etc). Our objective is to characterize quantitatively the resilient effect of vegetation cover at different temporal and

  8. On the evaluation of vegetation resilience in Southern Italy by using VEGETATION, MODIS, TM satellite time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didonna, I.; Coluzzi, R.

    2009-04-01

    Satellite technologies can be profitably used for investigating the dynamics of vegetation re-growth after disturbance at different temporal and spatial scales. Nevertheless, disturbance -induced dynamical processes are very difficult to study since they affect the complex soil-surface-atmosphere system, due to the existence of feedback mechanisms involving human activity, ecological patterns and different subsystems of climate. The remote sensing of vegetation has been traditionally carried out by using vegetation indices, which are quantitative measures, based on vegetation spectral properties, that attempt to measure biomass or vegetative vigor. The vegetation indices operate by contrasting intense chlorophyll pigment absorption in the red against the high reflectance of leaf mesophyll in the near infrared. The simplest form of vegetation index is simply a ratio between two digital values from these two spectral bands. The most widely used index is the well-known normalized difference vegetation index NDVI = [NIR-R]/ [NIR+R]. The normalization of the NDVI reduces the effects of variations caused by atmospheric contaminations. High values of the vegetation index identify pixels covered by substantial proportions of healthy vegetation. NDVI is indicative of plant photosynthetic activity and has been found to be related to the green leaf area index and the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation. Variations in NDVI values become indicative of variations in vegetation composition and dynamics. In this study, we analyze the mutiscale satellite temporal series ( 2000 to 2008) of NDVI and other vegetation indices from SPOT VEGETATION, MODIS and Landsat TM data acquired for some significant test areas affetced and unaffected (Southern Italy) by different types of environmental diturbances (drought, salinity, pollution, etc). Our objective was to characterize quantitatively the resilient effect of vegetation cover at differen temporal and

  9. Vegetation Description, Rare Plant Inventory, and Vegetation Monitoring for Craig Mountain, Idaho.

    SciTech Connect

    Mancuso, Michael; Moseley, Robert

    1994-12-01

    The Craig Mountain Wildlife Mitigation Area was purchased by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as partial mitigation for wildlife losses incurred with the inundation of Dworshak Reservoir on the North Fork Clearwater River. Upon completion of the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) process, it is proposed that title to mitigation lands will be given to the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG). Craig Mountain is located at the northern end of the Hells Canyon Ecosystem. It encompasses the plateau and steep canyon slopes extending from the confluence of the Snake and Salmon rivers, northward to near Waha, south of Lewiston, Idaho. The forested summit of Craig Mountain is characterized by gently rolling terrain. The highlands dramatically break into the canyons of the Snake and Salmon rivers at approximately the 4,700 foot contour. The highly dissected canyons are dominated by grassland slopes containing a mosaic of shrubfield, riparian, and woodland habitats. During the 1993 and 1994 field seasons, wildlife, habitat/vegetation, timber, and other resources were systematically inventoried at Craig Mountain to provide Fish and Game managers with information needed to draft an ecologically-based management plan. The results of the habitat/vegetation portion of the inventory are contained in this report. The responsibilities for the Craig Mountain project included: (1) vegetation data collection, and vegetation classification, to help produce a GIS-generated Craig Mountain vegetation map, (2) to determine the distribution and abundance of rare plants populations and make recommendations concerning their management, and (3) to establish a vegetation monitoring program to evaluate the effects of Fish and Game management actions, and to assess progress towards meeting habitat mitigation goals.

  10. Riparian vegetation and water yield: A synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salemi, Luiz Felippe; Groppo, Juliano Daniel; Trevisan, Rodrigo; Marcos de Moraes, Jorge; de Paula Lima, Walter; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio

    2012-08-01

    SummaryForested riparian zones perform numerous ecosystem functions, including the following: storing and fixing carbon; serving as wildlife habitats and ecological corridors; stabilizing streambanks; providing shade, organic matter, and food for streams and their biota; retaining sediments and filtering chemicals applied on cultivated/agricultural sites on upslope regions of the catchments. In this paper, we report a synthesis of a different feature of this type of vegetation, which is its effect on water yield. By synthesizing results from studies that used (i) the nested catchment and (ii) the paired catchment approaches, we show that riparian forests decrease water yield on a daily to annual basis. In terms of the treated area increases on average were 1.32 ± 0.85 mm day-1 and 483 ± 309 mm yr-1, respectively; n = 9. Similarly, riparian forest plantation or regeneration promoted reduced water yield (on average 1.25 ± 0.34 mm day-1 and 456 ± 125 mm yr-1 on daily and annual basis, respectively, when prorated to the catchment area subjected to treatment; n = 5). Although there are substantially fewer paired catchment studies assessing the effect of this vegetation type compared to classical paired catchment studies that manipulate the entire vegetation of small catchments, our results indicate the same trend. Despite the occurrence of many current restoration programs, measurements of the effect on water yield under natural forest restoration conditions are still lacking. We hope that presenting these gaps will encourage the scientific community to enhance the number of observations in these situations as well as produce more data from tropical regions.

  11. Sample-Based Vegetation Distribution Information Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chanchan; Yang, Gang; Yang, Meng

    2015-01-01

    In constructing and visualizing a virtual three-dimensional forest scene, we must first obtain the vegetation distribution, namely, the location of each plant in the forest. Because the forest contains a large number of plants, the distribution of each plant is difficult to obtain from actual measurement methods. Random approaches are used as common solutions to simulate a forest distribution but fail to reflect the specific biological arrangements among types of plants. Observations show that plants in the forest tend to generate particular distribution patterns due to growth competition and specific habitats. This pattern, which represents a local feature in the distribution and occurs repeatedly in the forest, is in line with the "locality" and "static" characteristics in the "texture data", making it possible to use a sample-based texture synthesis strategy to build the distribution. We propose a vegetation distribution data generation method that uses sample-based vector pattern synthesis. A sample forest stand is obtained first and recorded as a two-dimensional vector-element distribution pattern. Next, the large-scale vegetation distribution pattern is synthesized automatically using the proposed vector pattern synthesis algorithm. The synthesized distribution pattern resembles the sample pattern in the distribution features. The vector pattern synthesis algorithm proposed in this paper adopts a neighborhood comparison technique based on histogram matching, which makes it efficient and easy to implement. Experiments show that the distribution pattern synthesized with this method can sufficiently preserve the features of the sample distribution pattern, making our method meaningful for constructing realistic forest scenes. PMID:26252952

  12. Steady nonuniform shallow flow within emergent vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei-Jie; Huai, Wen-Xin; Thompson, Sally; Katul, Gabriel G.

    2015-12-01

    Surface flow redistribution on flat ground from crusted bare soil to vegetated patches following intense rainfall events elevates plant available water above that provided by rainfall. The significance of this surface water redistribution to sustaining vegetation in arid and semiarid regions is undisputed. What is disputed is the quantity and spatial distribution of the redistributed water. In ecohydrological models, such nonuniform flows are described using the Saint-Venant equation (SVE) subject to a Manning roughness coefficient closure. To explore these assumptions in the most idealized setting, flume experiments were conducted using rigid cylinders representing rigid vegetation with varying density. Flow was induced along the streamwise x direction by adjusting the free water surface height H(x) between the upstream and downstream boundaries mimicking the nonuniformity encountered in nature. In natural settings, such H(x) variations arise due to contrasts in infiltration capacity and ponded depths during storms. The measured H(x) values in the flume were interpreted using the SVE augmented with progressively elaborate approximations to the roughness representation. The simplest approximation employs a friction factor derived from a drag coefficient (Cd) for isolated cylinders in a locally (but not globally) uniform flow and upscaled using the rod density that was varied across experiments. Comparison between measured and modeled H(x) suggested that such a "naive" approach overpredicts H(x). Blockage was then incorporated into the SVE model calculations but resulted in underestimation of H(x). Biases in modeled H(x) suggest that Cd must be varying in x beyond what a local or bulk Reynolds number predicts. Inferred Cd(x) from the flume experiments exhibited a near-parabolic shape most peaked in the densest canopy cases. The outcome of such Cd(x) variations is then summarized in a bulk resistance formulation that may be beneficial to modeling runon

  13. Sample-Based Vegetation Distribution Information Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chanchan; Yang, Gang; Yang, Meng

    2015-01-01

    In constructing and visualizing a virtual three-dimensional forest scene, we must first obtain the vegetation distribution, namely, the location of each plant in the forest. Because the forest contains a large number of plants, the distribution of each plant is difficult to obtain from actual measurement methods. Random approaches are used as common solutions to simulate a forest distribution but fail to reflect the specific biological arrangements among types of plants. Observations show that plants in the forest tend to generate particular distribution patterns due to growth competition and specific habitats. This pattern, which represents a local feature in the distribution and occurs repeatedly in the forest, is in line with the “locality” and “static” characteristics in the “texture data”, making it possible to use a sample-based texture synthesis strategy to build the distribution. We propose a vegetation distribution data generation method that uses sample-based vector pattern synthesis. A sample forest stand is obtained first and recorded as a two-dimensional vector-element distribution pattern. Next, the large-scale vegetation distribution pattern is synthesized automatically using the proposed vector pattern synthesis algorithm. The synthesized distribution pattern resembles the sample pattern in the distribution features. The vector pattern synthesis algorithm proposed in this paper adopts a neighborhood comparison technique based on histogram matching, which makes it efficient and easy to implement. Experiments show that the distribution pattern synthesized with this method can sufficiently preserve the features of the sample distribution pattern, making our method meaningful for constructing realistic forest scenes. PMID:26252952

  14. Thermal stabilized vegetable oil extended diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, W.M.; Lachowicz, D.R.

    1986-03-11

    A middle distillate fuel composition is described comprising: (a) a major portion of a middle distillate containing a hydrocarbon boiling in the middle distillate boiling range; (b) an extending portion of a vegetable oil; and (c) an effective thermal-stabilizing amount of a nitrogen-containing polymer prepared by reacting an ethylene/propylene copolymer with maleic anhydride, thereby forming a succinic anhydride, reacting the succinic anhydride, with an alcohol, thereby forming a succinate ester while leaving a portion of the succinic anhydride unreacted, and, reacting the succinate ester and the unreacted succinic anhydride with dimethylaminopropylamine, thereby forming a nitrogen-containing polymer.

  15. How vegetation patterning affects sediment dynamics in complex landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baartman, Jantiene; Temme, Arnaud; Saco, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Semi-arid ecosystems are often spatially self-organized in typical patterns of vegetation bands with high plant cover interspersed with bare soil areas, also known as 'tigerbush'. Tigerbush dynamics have been studied using model simulations on flat synthetic landscapes, although in some cases straight slopes were used. The feedbacks between vegetation and more realistic and complex landscapes have not been studied yet, even though these landscapes are much more prevalent. Hence, our objective was to determine the effect of landform variation on vegetation patterning and sediment dynamics. We linked two existing models that simulate (a) plant growth, death and dispersal of vegetation, and (b) erosion and sedimentation. The model was calibrated on a straight planar hillslope and then applied to (i) a set of synthetic but more complex topographies and (ii) three real-world landscapes. Furthermore, sediment dynamics were evaluated by comparing simulated sediment output with and without vegetation dynamics. Results show banded vegetation patterning on all synthetic topographies, always perpendicular to the slope gradient. For real topographies, banded vegetation was simulated in the relatively flat, rolling landscape and in the dissected landscape when slopes were gentle. In the steep dissected landscape and the alluvial fan, vegetation was simulated to grow in local depressions where moisture is present whereas hilltops were bare. Including vegetation dynamics resulted in significantly less simulated erosion and relatively more deposition compared to simulations with uniformly distributed vegetation.

  16. An immersed structure approach for fluid-vegetation interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattis, Steven A.; Dawson, Clint N.; Kees, Christopher E.; Farthing, Matthew W.

    2015-06-01

    We present an immersed structure approach for modeling the interaction between surface flows and vegetation. Fluid flow and rigid and flexible vegetative obstacles are coupled through a local drag relation that conserves momentum. In the presented method, separate meshes are used for the fluid domain and vegetative obstacles. Taking techniques from immersed boundary finite element methods, the effects of the fluid on the vegetative structures and vice versa are calculated using integral transforms. Using a simple elastic structure model we incorporate bending and moving vegetative obstacles. We model flexible vegetation as thin, elastic, inextensible cantilever beams. Using the immersed structure approach, a fully coupled fluid-vegetation interaction model is developed assuming dynamic fluid flow and quasi-static bending. This relatively computationally inexpensive model allows for thousands of vegetative obstacles to be included in a simulation without requiring an extremely refined fluid mesh. The method is validated with comparisons to mean velocity profiles and bent vegetation heights from experiments that are reproduced computationally. We test the method on several channel flow setups. We calculate the bulk drag coefficient in these flow scenarios and analyze their trends with changing model parameters including stem population density and flow Reynolds number. Bulk drag models are the primary method of incorporating small-scale drag from individual plants into a value that can be used in larger-scale models. Upscaled bulk drag quantities from this method may be utilized in larger-scale simulations of flow through vegetation regions.

  17. Can landscape memory affect vegetation recovery in drylands?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baartman, Jantiene; Garcia Mayor, Angeles; Temme, Arnaud; Rietkerk, Max

    2016-04-01

    Dryland ecosystems are water-limited and therefore vegetation typically forms banded or patchy patterns with high vegetation cover, interspersed with bare soil areas. In these systems, a runoff-runon system is often observed with bare areas acting as sources and vegetation patches acting as sinks of water, sediment and other transported substances. These fragile ecosystems are easily disturbed by overgrazing, removing above-ground vegetation. To avoid desertification, vegetation recovery after a disturbance is crucial. This poster discusses the potential of 'landscape memory' to affect the vegetation recovery potential. Landscape memory, originating in geomorphology, is the concept that a landscape is the result of its past history, which it 'remembers' through imprints left in the landscape. For example, a past heavy rainstorm may leave an erosion gully. These imprints affect the landscape's contemporary functioning, for example through faster removal of water from the landscape. In dryland ecosystems vegetation is known to affect the soil properties of the soil they grow in, e.g. increasing porosity, infiltration, organic matter content and soil structure. After a disturbance of the banded ecosystem, e.g. by overgrazing, this pattern of soil properties - favourable for regrowth, stays in the landscape. However, removal of the above-ground vegetation also leads to longer runoff pathways and increased rill and gully erosion, which may hamper vegetation regrowth. I hypothesize that vegetation recovery after a disturbance, depends on the balance between these two contrasting types of landscape memory (i.e. favourable soil properties and erosion rills/gullies).

  18. Modeling the Impact of Vegetation Structure on Canopy Radiative Transfer for a Global Vegetation Dynamic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni-Meister, W.; Kiang, N.; Yang, W.

    2007-12-01

    The transmission of light through plant canopies results in vertical profiles of light intensity that affect the photosynthetic activity and gas exchange of plants, their competition for light, and the canopy energy balance. The accurate representation of the canopy light profile is then important for predicting ecological dynamics. The study presents a simple canopy radiative transfer scheme to characterize the impact of the horizontal and vertical vegetation structure heterogeneity on light profiles. Actual vertical foliage profile and a clumping factor which are functions of tree geometry, size and density and foliage density are used to characterize the vertical and horizontal vegetation structure heterogeneity. The simple scheme is evaluated using the ground and airborne lidar data collected in deciduous and coniferous forests and was also compared with the more complex Geometric Optical and Radiative Transfer (GORT) model and the two-stream scheme currently being used to describe light interactions with vegetation canopy in most GCMs. The simple modeled PAR profiles match well with the ground data, lidar and full GORT model prediction, it performs much better than the simple Beer's&plaw used in two stream scheme. This scheme will have the same computation cost as the current scheme being used in GCMs, but provides better photosynthesis, radiative fluxes and surface albedo estimates, thus is suitable for a global vegetation dynamic model embedded in GCMs.

  19. Evaluating the dependence of vegetation on climate in an improved dynamic global vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiaodong

    2010-09-01

    The capability of an improved Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (DGVM) in reproducing the impact of climate on the terrestrial ecosystem is evaluated. The new model incorporates the Community Land Model-DGVM (CLM3.0-DGVM) with a submodel for temperate and boreal shrubs, as well as other revisions such as the “two-leaf” scheme for photosynthesis and the definition of fractional coverage of plant functional types (PFTs). Results show that the revised model may correctly reproduce the global distribution of temperate and boreal shrubs, and improves the model performance with more realistic distribution of different vegetation types. The revised model also correctly reproduces the zonal distributions of vegetation types. In reproducing the dependence of the vegetation distribution on climate conditions, the model shows that the dominant regions for trees, grasses, shrubs, and bare soil are clearly separated by a climate index derived from mean annual precipitation and temperature, in good agreement with the CLM4 surface data. The dominant plant functional type mapping to a two dimensional parameter space of mean annual temperature and precipitation also qualitatively agrees with the results from observations and theoretical ecology studies.

  20. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Commercial Vegetable Crops and Greenhouse Vegetables. Circular 897.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of pests by commercial vegetable farmers. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests of cabbage and related crops, beans, cucumbers and other vine crops, tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, corn, and onions. (CS)

  1. MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and vegetation phenology dynamics in the Inner Mongolia grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Z.; Kawamura, K.; Ishikawa, N.; Goto, M.; Wulan, T.; Alateng, D.; Yin, T.; Ito, Y.

    2015-11-01

    The Inner Mongolia grassland, one of the most important grazing regions in China, has long been threatened by land degradation and desertification, mainly due to overgrazing. To understand vegetation responses over the last decade, this study evaluated trends in vegetation cover and phenology dynamics in the Inner Mongolia grassland by applying a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time series obtained by the Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) during 2002-2014. The results showed that the cumulative annual NDVI increased to over 77.10 % in the permanent grassland region (2002-2014). The mean value of the total change showed that the start of season (SOS) date and the peak vegetation productivity date of the season (POS) had advanced by 5.79 and 2.43 days, respectively. The end of season (EOS) was delayed by 5.07 days. These changes lengthened the season by 10.86 days. Our results also confirmed that grassland changes are closely related to spring precipitation and increasing temperature at the early growing period because of global warming. Overall, productivity in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region tends to increase, but in some grassland areas with grazing, land degradation is ongoing.

  2. Thiol-ene Reaction of Vegetable Oils with Butanethiol: Sulfide Derivatized Vegetable Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils and their FA, renewable raw materials, are firmly established components in many industrial products, and their use continues to be of interest to many researchers. The development of new approaches to functionalize fatty ester compounds and to derive novel oleochemicals with unique ...

  3. Experimental characterization of vegetation uprooting by flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmaier, K.; Crouzy, B.; Perona, P.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate vegetation uprooting by flow for Avena sativa seedlings with stem-to-sediment size ratio close to unity and vanishing obstacle-induced scouring. By inducing parallel riverbed erosion within an experimental flume, we measure the time-to-uprooting in relation to root anchoring and flow drag forces. We link the erosion rate to the uprooting timescales for seedlings with varying mean root length. We show that the process of continuous erosion leading to uprooting resembles that of mechanical fatigue where system collapsing occurs after a given exposure time. By this analogy, we also highlight the nonlinear role of the residual root anchoring versus the flow drag acting on the canopy when uprooting occurs. As a generalization, we propose a framework to extend our results to time-dependent erosion rates, which typically occur for real river hydrographs. Finally, we discuss how the characteristic timescale of plant uprooting by flow erosion suggests that vegetation survival is conditioned by multiple erosion events and their interarrival time.

  4. Canopy reflectance modelling of semiarid vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, Janet

    1994-01-01

    Three different types of remote sensing algorithms for estimating vegetation amount and other land surface biophysical parameters were tested for semiarid environments. These included statistical linear models, the Li-Strahler geometric-optical canopy model, and linear spectral mixture analysis. The two study areas were the National Science Foundation's Jornada Long Term Ecological Research site near Las Cruces, NM, in the northern Chihuahuan desert, and the HAPEX-Sahel site near Niamey, Niger, in West Africa, comprising semiarid rangeland and subtropical crop land. The statistical approach (simple and multiple regression) resulted in high correlations between SPOT satellite spectral reflectance and shrub and grass cover, although these correlations varied with the spatial scale of aggregation of the measurements. The Li-Strahler model produced estimated of shrub size and density for both study sites with large standard errors. In the Jornada, the estimates were accurate enough to be useful for characterizing structural differences among three shrub strata. In Niger, the range of shrub cover and size in short-fallow shrublands is so low that the necessity of spatially distributed estimation of shrub size and density is questionable. Spectral mixture analysis of multiscale, multitemporal, multispectral radiometer data and imagery for Niger showed a positive relationship between fractions of spectral endmembers and surface parameters of interest including soil cover, vegetation cover, and leaf area index.

  5. Introducing tropical lianas in a vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbeeck, Hans; De Deurwaerder, Hannes; Brugnera, Manfredo di Procia e.; Krshna Moorthy Paravathi, Sruthi; Pausenberger, Nancy; Roels, Jana; kearsley, elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Tropical forests are essential components of the earth system and play a critical role for land surface feedbacks to climate change. These forests are currently experiencing large-scale structural changes, including the increase of liana abundance and biomass. This liana proliferation might have large impacts on the carbon cycle of tropical forests. However no single global vegetation model currently accounts for lianas. The TREECLIMBERS project (ERC starting grant) aims to introduce for the first time lianas into a vegetation model. The project attempts to reach this challenging goal by performing a global meta-analysis on liana data and by collecting new data in South American forests. Those new and existing datasets form the basis of a new liana plant functional type (PFT) that will be included in the Ecosystem Demography model (ED2). This presentation will show an overview of the current progress of the TREECLIMBERS project. Liana inventory data collected in French Guiana along a forest disturbance gradient show the relation between liana abundance and disturbance. Xylem water isotope analysis indicates that trees and lianas can rely on different soil water resources. New modelling concepts for liana PFTs will be presented and in-situ leaf gas exchange and sap flow data are used to parameterize water and carbon fluxes for this new PFT. Finally ongoing terrestrial LiDAR observations of liana infested forest will be highlighted.

  6. Orbital scale vegetation change in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, Lydie

    2011-12-01

    Palynological records of Middle and Late Pleistocene marine sediments off African shores is reviewed in order to reveal long-term patterns of vegetation change during climate cycles. Whether the transport of pollen and spores from the source areas on the continent to the ocean floor is mainly by wind or predominantly by rivers depends on the region. Despite the differences in transportation, accumulation rates in the marine sediments decline exponentially with distance to the shore. The marine sediments provide well-dated records presenting the vegetation history of the main biomes of western and southern Africa. The extent of different biomes varied with the climate changes of the glacial interglacial cycle. The Mediterranean forest area expanded during interglacials, the northern Saharan desert during glacials, and the semi-desert area in between during the transitions. In the sub-Saharan mountains ericaceous scrubland spread mainly during glacials and the mountainous forest area often increased during intermediate periods. Savannahs extended or shifted to lower latitudes during glacials. While the representation of the tropical rain forest fluctuated with summer insolation and precession, that of the subtropical biomes showed more obliquity variability or followed the pattern of glacial and interglacials.

  7. Classification of vegetation types in military region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Miguel; Silva, Jose Silvestre; Bioucas-Dias, Jose

    2015-10-01

    In decision-making process regarding planning and execution of military operations, the terrain is a determining factor. Aerial photographs are a source of vital information for the success of an operation in hostile region, namely when the cartographic information behind enemy lines is scarce or non-existent. The objective of present work is the development of a tool capable of processing aerial photos. The methodology implemented starts with feature extraction, followed by the application of an automatic selector of features. The next step, using the k-fold cross validation technique, estimates the input parameters for the following classifiers: Sparse Multinomial Logist Regression (SMLR), K Nearest Neighbor (KNN), Linear Classifier using Principal Component Expansion on the Joint Data (PCLDC) and Multi-Class Support Vector Machine (MSVM). These classifiers were used in two different studies with distinct objectives: discrimination of vegetation's density and identification of vegetation's main components. It was found that the best classifier on the first approach is the Sparse Logistic Multinomial Regression (SMLR). On the second approach, the implemented methodology applied to high resolution images showed that the better performance was achieved by KNN classifier and PCLDC. Comparing the two approaches there is a multiscale issue, in which for different resolutions, the best solution to the problem requires different classifiers and the extraction of different features.

  8. Carbon Dioxide and Vegetation Water Use

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, J.T.; Peterson, A.G.; Hoylman, A.M.; Luo, Y.; Sims, D.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Coleman, J.S.; Ross, P.D.; Cheng, W.

    1996-12-01

    Evapo-transpiration from vegetation, as well as patterns of precipitation are expected to change as the concentration of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere continues to rise (f). Water modulates the rates of many biogeochemical processes, and it has been estimated that water directly limits plant productivity over two-thirds of the earth's land surface (2). Water quality and availability are increasingly important practical issues as demands by both agricultural and urban users continue to increase. In a recent Perspective article (3) Farquhar stated that transpiration (water loss) from terrestrial vegetation will decline by 40 to 50% as the CO{sub 2} concentration in the atmosphere approaches twice present levels. He suggested that ''the impending saving of water would be a welcome result of the rising atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration.'' We can confirm that large reductions in transpiration are expected by terrestrial physiological ecologists. Examining 35 recent articles that discussed the issue of water use while synthesizing research on ecosystem impacts of doubling atmospheric CO{sub 2} (including reviews and crop/natural ecosystem models), we found that 31 articles suggest that reductions in water use of between 25 and 50% are to be expected.

  9. Final vegetative cover for closed waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.; Salvo, S.K.

    1993-01-22

    Low-level, hazardous, and mixed waste disposal sites normally require some form of plant material to prevent erosion of the final closure cap. Waste disposal sites are closed and capped in a complex scientific manner to minimize water infiltration and percolation into and through the waste material. Turf type grasses are currently being used as an interim vegetative cover for most sites. This coverage allows for required monitoring of the closure cap for settlement and maintenance activities. The purpose of this five year study was to evaluate plant materials for use on wastes sites after the post-closure care period that are quickly and easily established and economically maintained, retard water infiltration, provide maximum year-round evapotranspiration, are ecologically acceptable and do not harm the closure cap. The results of the study suggest that two species of bamboo (Phyllostachys (P.) bissetii and P. rubromarginata) can be utilized to provide long lived, low maintenance, climax vegetation for the waste sites after surveillance and maintenance requirements have ceased.

  10. Vegetation and carbon cycle dynamics in Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachmayani, R.; Prange, M.; Schulz, M.

    2009-04-01

    Holocene climate has been relatively well investigated with global climate models. Ruddiman suggested that the growth of atmospheric carbon dioxide during the Holocene recorded in the Taylor Dome ice core is a result of profound human impact on climate due to slash-and-burn agricultural practice during the Neolithic period. A series of numerical time slice experiments using the comprehensive global climate model CCSM3 (Community Climate System Model, version 3) has been carried out to study orbitally driven climate variability during the Holocene. The importance of biogeophysical feedbacks between vegetation and climate as well as the role of terrestrial carbon storage in atmospheric carbon dioxide dynamics will be analyzed. The results will be compared to other climate models in order to address some aspects of the Ruddiman hypothesis on exceptional long-term atmospheric carbon dioxide increase during the Holocene. To this end, the land model component of CCSM3 has been improved. The improvements lead to a better simulation of global forest cover and net primary production. Key words Climate, CCSM3, Holocene, Vegetation

  11. Improving the Projections of Vegetation Biogeography by Integrating Climate Envelope Models and Dynamic Global Vegetation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, M. J.; Kim, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing changes in vegetation is increasingly important for conservation planning in the face of climate change. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) are important tools for assessing such changes. DGVMs have been applied at regional scales to create projections of range expansions and contractions of plant functional types. Many DGVMs use a number of algorithms to determine the biogeography of plant functional types. One such DGVM, MC2, uses a series of decision trees based on bioclimatic thresholds while others, such as LPJ, use constraining emergent properties with a limited set of bioclimatic threshold-based rules. Although both approaches have been used widely, we demonstrate that these biogeography outputs perform poorly at continental scales when compared to existing potential vegetation maps. Specifically, we found that with MC2, the algorithm for determining leaf physiognomy is too simplistic to capture arid and semi-arid vegetation in much of the western U.S., as well as is the algorithm for determining the broadleaf and needleleaf mix in the Southeast. With LPJ, we found that the bioclimatic thresholds used to allow seedling establishment are too broad and fail to capture regional-scale biogeography of the plant functional types. In response, we demonstrate a new approach to determining the biogeography of plant functional types by integrating the climatic thresholds produced for individual tree species by a series of climate envelope models with the biogeography algorithms of MC2 and LPJ. Using this approach, we find that MC2 and LPJ perform considerably better when compared to potential vegetation maps.

  12. Estimating fractional vegetation cover (FVC) using satellite vegetation indices and digital photo image in Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.

    2015-12-01

    Fractional vegetation cover (FVC) is a useful index of monitoring land cover dynamics and land surface energy partitioning into sensible and latent heats from satellite because it can be estimated by using satellite-based spectral vegetation indices (VI), such as NDVI and EVI. The relationship between FVC and vegetation indices is however variable depending on regional vegetation types and background soil types across different regions. In particular, arid and semi-arid region shows substantial uncertainty in the VI-FVC relations because of sparse vegetation cover and hence, important roles of local soil type in land-surface spectral reflectance. In this study, VI-FVC relations were investigated for arid and semi-arid regions of Mongolia. The FVC data was prepared from digital-camera image interpretation sheets taken at 160 sites in our field excursions from 2012 to 2014. In comparisons with visual inspections, the camera-based FVC showed good linear relations (r = 0.97, p < 0.001) with 6.83% of RMSE. Three satellite-based VIs were prepared, i.e. MODIS NDVI, EVI, and SAVI, which applied to produce linear regression models of FVC. The model parameters (i.e. slope and intercept) was obtained through iterated calculation process. Among the 160 sites, 120 sites were arbitrarily extracted to produce regression model and the remaining 40 sites were used for model validation. This iterated process were repeated 1,000,000 times and then, statistics were derived as averages of model (slope and interception) and validation (Pearson correlation coefficient and RMSE). In results, the regression models generally showed good agreements in model validations over r = 0.8 (p < 0.001). This study discussed problems in long-term FVC retrieval for the arid and semi-arid regions of Mongolia.

  13. Climate Change Implications to Vegetation Production in Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neigh, Christopher S.R.

    2008-01-01

    Investigation of long-term meteorological satellite data revealed statistically significant vegetation response to climate drivers of temperature, precipitation and solar radiation with exclusion of fire disturbance in Alaska. Abiotic trends were correlated to satellite remote sensing observations of normalized difference vegetation index to understand biophysical processes that could impact ecosystem carbon storage. Warming resulted in disparate trajectories for vegetation growth due to precipitation and photosynthetically active radiation variation. Interior spruce forest low lands in late summer through winter had precipitation deficit which resulted in extensive fire disturbance and browning of undisturbed vegetation with reduced post-fire recovery while Northern slope moist alpine tundra had increased production due to warmer-wetter conditions during the late 1990s and early 2000s. Coupled investigation of Alaska s vegetation response to warming climate found spatially dynamic abiotic processes with vegetation browning not a result from increased fire disturbance.

  14. A Coupled Vegetation-Crust Model for Patchy Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinast, Shai; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Meron, Ehud

    2016-03-01

    A new model for patchy landscapes in drylands is introduced. The model captures the dynamics of biogenic soil crusts and their mutual interactions with vegetation growth. The model is used to identify spatially uniform and spatially periodic solutions that represent different vegetation-crust states, and map them along the rainfall gradient. The results are consistent extensions of the vegetation states found in earlier models. A significant difference between the current and earlier models of patchy landscapes is found in the bistability range of vegetated and unvegetated states; the incorporation of crust dynamics shifts the onset of vegetation patterns to a higher precipitation value and increases the biomass amplitude. These results can shed new light on the involvement of biogenic crusts in desertification processes that involve vegetation loss.

  15. An objective methodology for potential vegetation reconstruction constrained by climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levavasseur, G.; Vrac, M.; Roche, D. M.; Paillard, D.; Guiot, J.

    2013-05-01

    Reconstructions of modern Potential Natural Vegetation (PNV) are widely used in climate modelling and vegetation survey as a starting point for studies (historical changes of land-use, past or future vegetation distribution modelling, etc.). A PNV distribution is often related to vegetation models, which are based on empirical relationships between vegetation (or pollen data in paleoecological studies) and climate. Vegetation models are used to directly simulate a PNV distribution or to correct vegetation types derived from remotely-sensed observations in human-impacted regions. Consequently, these methods are quite subjective and include biases from models. This article proposes a new approach to build a high-resolution PNV map using a statistical model. As vegetation is a nominal variable, our method consists in applying a multinomial logistic regression (MLR). MLR build statistical relationships between BIOME 6000 data covering Europe and several climatological variables from the Climate Research Unit (CRU). The PNV reconstructed by MLR appears similar to those reconstructed from remotely-sensed data or simulated by a vegetation model (BIOME 4) except in southern Europe with the establishment of warm-temperate forests. MLR produces a realistic PNV distribution, which is the closest to BIOME 6000 data and provides the vegetation distribution in each grid-cell of our map. Moreover, MLR allows us to compute an uncertainty index that appears as a convenient tool to highlight the regions lacking some data toimprove the PNV distribution. The MLR method does not suffer any dynamic biases or subjective corrections and is a fast and objective alternative to the other methods. MLR provides an independent reference for vegetation models that is entirely based on vegetation and climatological data.

  16. Multi-discipline resource inventory of soils, vegetation and geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonson, G. H. (Principal Investigator); Paine, D. P.; Lawrence, R. D.; Norgren, J. A.; Pyott, W. Y.; Herzog, J. H.; Murray, R. J.; Rogers, R.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Computer classification of natural vegetation, in the vicinity of Big Summit Prairie, Crook County, Oregon was carried out using MSS digital data. Impure training sets, representing eleven vegetation types plus water, were selected from within the area to be classified. Close correlations were visually observed between vegetation types mapped from the large scale photographs and the computer classification of the ERTS data (Frame 1021-18151, 13 August 1972).

  17. Stochastic Evaluation of Riparian Vegetation Dynamics in River Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, H.; Kimura, R.; Toshimori, N.

    2013-12-01

    Vegetation overgrowth in sand bars and floodplains has been a serious problem for river management in Japan. From the viewpoints of flood control and ecological conservation, it would be necessary to accurately predict the vegetation dynamics for a long period of time. In this study, we have developed a stochastic model for predicting the dynamics of trees in floodplains with emphasis on the interaction with flood impacts. The model consists of the following four processes in coupling ecohydrology with biogeomorphology: (i) stochastic behavior of flow discharge, (ii) hydrodynamics in a channel with vegetation, (iii) variation of riverbed topography and (iv) vegetation dynamics on the floodplain. In the model, the flood discharge is stochastically simulated using a Poisson process, one of the conventional approaches in hydrological time-series generation. The model for vegetation dynamics includes the effects of tree growth, mortality by flood impacts, and infant tree invasion. To determine the model parameters, vegetation conditions have been observed mainly before and after flood impacts since 2008 at a field site located between 23.2-24.0 km from the river mouth in Kako River, Japan. This site is one of the vegetation overgrowth locations in Kako River floodplains, where the predominant tree species are willows and bamboos. In this presentation, sensitivity of the vegetation overgrowth tendency is investigated in Kako River channels. Through the Monte Carlo simulation for several cross sections in Kako River, responses of the vegetated channels are stochastically evaluated in terms of the changes of discharge magnitude and channel geomorphology. The expectation and standard deviation of vegetation areal ratio are compared in the different channel cross sections for different river discharges and relative floodplain heights. The result shows that the vegetation status changes sensitively in the channels with larger discharge and insensitive in the lower floodplain

  18. Incineration of Low Level Radioactive Vegetation for Waste Volume Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, N.P.S.; Rucker, G.G.; Looper, M.G.

    1995-03-01

    The DOE changing mission at Savannah River Site (SRS) are to increase activities for Waste Management and Environmental Restoration. There are a number of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) locations that are contaminated with radioactivity and support dense vegetation, and are targeted for remediation. Two such locations have been studied for non-time critical removal actions under the National Contingency Plan (NCP). Both of these sites support about 23 plant species. Surveys of the vegetation show that radiation emanates mainly from vines, shrubs, and trees and range from 20,000 to 200,000 d/m beta gamma. Planning for removal and disposal of low-level radioactive vegetation was done with two principal goals: to process contaminated vegetation for optimum volume reduction and waste minimization, and for the protection of human health and environment. Four alternatives were identified as candidates for vegetation removal and disposal: chipping the vegetation and packing in carbon steel boxes (lined with synthetic commercial liners) and disposal at the Solid Waste Disposal Facility at SRS; composting the vegetation; burning the vegetation in the field; and incinerating the vegetation. One alternative `incineration` was considered viable choice for waste minimization, safe handling, and the protection of the environment and human health. Advantages and disadvantages of all four alternatives considered have been evaluated. For waste minimization and ultimate disposal of radioactive vegetation incineration is the preferred option. Advantages of incineration are that volume reduction is achieved and low-level radioactive waste are stabilized. For incineration and final disposal vegetation will be chipped and packed in card board boxes and discharged to the rotary kiln of the incinerator. The slow rotation and longer resident time in the kiln will ensure complete combustion of the vegetative material.

  19. Seepage basin radionuclide transport in sediments and vegetation. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Jerome, K.M.

    1993-12-31

    Radionuclide concentrations were measured in soil and vegetation growing adjacent to and in the Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins as part of the plan for closure of the basin system. The results of the measurements provide some information about the mobility of the radionuclides introduced into the basins. {sup 90}Sr is the most mobile of the radionuclides in soil. Its high mobility and high relative uptake by vegetation cause {sup 90}Sr to be distributed throughout the basin system. {sup 137}Cs is not as mobile in the basin soil, limiting its uptake by vegetation growing on the edge of the seepage basins; however, it is readily taken up by the vegetation growing in the basins. Soil mobility and vegetation uptake is relatively low for all of the transuranic radionuclides. For the most part these radionuclides remain near the surface of the basin soils where they were absorbed from the waste-water. The relative role of soil mobility and vegetation uptake on the distribution of radionuclide at the basins was futher evaluated by comparing the vegetation concentration ratio and the half-depth of penetration of the radionuclides in the basin soil. The results suggest that vegetation processes dominate in determining the concentration of {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs in the vegetation. The influences of soil and vegetation are more balanced for {sup 90}Sr. The other radionuclides exhibit both low soil mobility and low vegetation uptake. The lack of soil mobility is seen in the lower concentrations found in vegetation growing on the edge of the basin compared to those growing in the basin.

  20. Oscillations in a simple climate-vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rombouts, J.; Ghil, M.

    2015-05-01

    We formulate and analyze a simple dynamical systems model for climate-vegetation interaction. The planet we consider consists of a large ocean and a land surface on which vegetation can grow. The temperature affects vegetation growth on land and the amount of sea ice on the ocean. Conversely, vegetation and sea ice change the albedo of the planet, which in turn changes its energy balance and hence the temperature evolution. Our highly idealized, conceptual model is governed by two nonlinear, coupled ordinary differential equations, one for global temperature, the other for vegetation cover. The model exhibits either bistability between a vegetated and a desert state or oscillatory behavior. The oscillations arise through a Hopf bifurcation off the vegetated state, when the death rate of vegetation is low enough. These oscillations are anharmonic and exhibit a sawtooth shape that is characteristic of relaxation oscillations, as well as suggestive of the sharp deglaciations of the Quaternary. Our model's behavior can be compared, on the one hand, with the bistability of even simpler, Daisyworld-style climate-vegetation models. On the other hand, it can be integrated into the hierarchy of models trying to simulate and explain oscillatory behavior in the climate system. Rigorous mathematical results are obtained that link the nature of the feedbacks with the nature and the stability of the solutions. The relevance of model results to climate variability on various timescales is discussed.

  1. Vegetable oil or diesel fuel-a flexible option

    SciTech Connect

    Suda, K.J.

    1984-01-01

    Vegetable oils provide diesel engine performance similar to that obtained with diesel fuel, and this has been documented in many prior publications. Because they are potentially interchangeable with diesel fuel, interest has focused on vegetable oils as short-range alternate fuels. However, engine durability when burning vegetable oils may be adversely affected depending on the type of combustion system employed. Laboratory and field experimental tests have identified the prechamber engine as having the greatest short-range potential for using vegetable oil fuels.

  2. Chemical interaction of polyethylene matrix with vegetable fillers in biocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantyukhov, Petr; Monakhova, Tatiana; Popov, Anatoly; Zykova, Anna

    2016-05-01

    The paper studies the diffusion of low molecular weight components from vegetable fillers into polyethylene matrix during the preparation of biocomposites. In order to identify the diffusible substances a model experiment used where the hexadecane acted as a model of polyethylene. It was determined that polyphenolic compounds and chlorophyll penetrate from vegetable fillers to hexadecane to the maximum extent. There was found a correlation between the amount of polyphenolic compounds diffusible from the fillers to hexadecane and thermal oxidation kinetics of real biocomposites based on polyethylene and vegetable fillers. Thus, it has been assumed the diffusion of polyphenols and chlorophyll from vegetable fillers into polyethylene matrix during the preparation of biocomposites.

  3. Inventory of native vegetation and related resources from space photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulton, C. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Mouat, D. A.

    1970-01-01

    The application of space and high flight photography to vegetational resources in Arizona is discussed. Ecologically based vegetation-landform and land use maps are prepared. The use of material from the Apollo 9 flight and high flight aerial photography are discussed. Land uses that result in a conversion or strong modification of the natural vegetation are presented. The vegetation-landform units have an ecological basis and are meaningful from a land use point of view because they identify areas with unique potentials or limitations for use or development under various land uses. Examples of these relationships are given.

  4. Ascorbic acid contents of Pakistani fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M Perwaiz; Kazim, Syed Faraz; Mehboobali, Naseema

    2006-10-01

    Fresh fruits and vegetables are good sources of vitamin C which is known for its antioxidant and immune-enhancing effects. The objective of this study was to determine ascorbic acid (vitamin C) contents of regularly consumed fruits and vegetables available in Pakistani markets. Most commonly used fresh fruits and vegetables were homogenized in 5% trichloroacetic acid, and ascorbic acid contents in the extracts were determined using a spectrophotometric method. Banana, custard apple, orange, lemon, guava and papaya were found to be very rich in ascorbic acid. Among vegetables, capsicum (green sweet pepper), cauliflower, bittergourd, roundgourd, beetroot, spinach, cabbage and radish contained high concentrations of ascorbic acid. Chikoo, grapes, pear, apricot, peach, carrot, cucumber, lettuce and "kakri" were found to be poor sources of ascorbic acid. Several Pakistani fruits and vegetables (pear, melon, onion, sweet green pepper, spinach, cucumber) had ascorbic acid values similar to those reported by US Department of Agriculture in these fruits and vegetables in USA. However, wide differences in vitamin C contents were also observed in certain other fruits and vegetables from these two countries. This indicates that regional varieties of fruits and vegetables could vary in their ascorbic acid contents. Since subclinical deficiency of vitamin C appears to be quite common in developing countries like Pakistan, there is a need to develop awareness among masses to consume fresh fruits and vegetables with high contents of vitamin C. PMID:17105704

  5. Mapping urban vegetation cover using WorldView-2 imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavayas, François; Ramos, Yuddy; Boyer, André

    2012-06-01

    There are clear indications that densification of built-up areas within cities and new developments in their outskirts, in conjunction with urban population activities, are at the origin of climate changes at the local level and have a direct impact on air and water quality. Densification of the vegetation cover is often mentioned as one of the most important means to mitigate the impacts of climate changes and to improve the quality of the urban environment. Decision making on vegetation cover densification presupposes that urban planners and managers know exactly the actual situation in terms of vegetation location, types and biomass. However, in many cities, inventories of vegetation cover are usually absent. This study examines the feasibility of an automatic system for vegetation cover inventory and mapping in urban areas based on WorldView-2 imagery. The city of Laval, Canada, was chosen as the experimental site. The principal conclusions are as follows: a) conversion of digital counts to ground reflectances is a crucial step in order to fully exploit the potential of WV-2 multispectral images for mapping vegetation cover and recognizing vegetation classes; b) the combined use of NDVIs computed using the three infrared available bands and the red band provides an accurate means of differentiating vegetation cover from other land covers; and c) it is possible to separate trees from other vegetation types and to identify tree species even in dense urban areas using spectral signature characteristics and segmentation algorithms.

  6. Study on Cryptosporidium contamination in vegetable farms around Tehran.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar-Bahadori, Sh; Mostoophi, A; Shemshadi, B

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, an increase in the number of cases of food-borne illnesses linked to fresh vegetables has been reported. One of the causative agents of these infections is Cryptosporidium and it appears that one route of transmission to humans is food-borne, so fruits and vegetables have important roles. The goal of this study was to determine the level of Cryptosporidium contamination in vegetable farms around Tehran, Iran. A total of 496 samples from 115 vegetable farms in different regions around Tehran (Capital city of Iran) were collected and different types of vegetables were investigated for the parasite in June and July, 2012. A sediment concentration method followed by modified Ziehl-Neelsen's acid-fast staining was used to determine the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Our findings revealed that 6.6% of studied samples were contaminated with Cryptosporidium species. The highest rate of contamination was reported in Bagher Abad (South of Tehran) (11.1%), and green onions were more commonly contaminated (14.8%) than any other vegetables tested. Furthermore, when waste water was used to irrigate vegetable farms, the contamination rate was (33.3%). Statistical analysis showed a correlation between contamination with Cryptosporidium spp. and studied risk factors including: different regions around Tehran, type of vegetables, and type of water used for farm irrigation. Therefore, vegetables may provide a route by which Cryptosporidium can be transmitted to humans, and control strategies should be considered. PMID:23959484

  7. Simulation of SAR backscatter for forest vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prajapati, Richa; Kumar, Shashi; Agrawal, Shefali

    2016-05-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is one of the most recent imaging technology to study the forest parameters. The invincible characteristics of microwave acquisition in cloudy regions and night imaging makes it a powerful tool to study dense forest regions. A coherent combination of radar polarimetry and interferometry (PolInSAR) enhances the accuracy of retrieved biophysical parameters. This paper attempts to address the issue of estimation of forest structural information caused due to instability of radar platforms through simulation of SAR image. The Terai Central Forest region situated at Haldwani area in Uttarakhand state of India was chosen as the study area. The system characteristics of PolInSAR dataset of Radarsat-2 SAR sensor was used for simulation process. Geometric and system specifications like platform altitude, center frequency, mean incidence angle, azimuth and range resolution were taken from metadata. From the field data it was observed that average tree height and forest stand density were 25 m and 300 stems/ha respectively. The obtained simulated results were compared with the sensor acquired master and slave intensity images. It was analyzed that for co-polarized horizontal component (HH), the mean values of simulated and real master image had a difference of 0.3645 with standard deviation of 0.63. Cross-polarized (HV) channel showed better results with mean difference of 0.06 and standard deviation of 0.1 while co-polarized vertical component (VV) did not show similar values. In case of HV polarization, mean variation between simulated and real slave images was found to be the least. Since cross-polarized channel is more sensitive to vegetation feature therefore better simulated results were obtained for this channel. Further the simulated images were processed using PolInSAR inversion modelling approach using three different techniques DEM differencing, Coherence Amplitude Inversion and Random Volume over Ground Inversion. DEM differencing

  8. Increasing portion sizes of fruits and vegetables in an elementary school lunch program can increase fruit and vegetable consumption.

    PubMed

    Miller, Nicole; Reicks, Marla; Redden, Joseph P; Mann, Traci; Mykerezi, Elton; Vickers, Zata

    2015-08-01

    Increasing portion size can increase children's consumption of food. The goal of this study was to determine whether increasing the portion sizes of fruits and vegetables in an elementary school cafeteria environment would increase children's consumption of them. We measured each child's consumption of the fruit and vegetables served in a cafeteria line on a control day (normal cafeteria procedures) and on two intervention days. When we increased the portion size of 3 of the 4 fruits and vegetables by about 50%, children who took those foods increased their consumption of them. Although this was an effective strategy for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among students who took those foods, many children chose not to take any fruits or vegetables. Further efforts are needed to increase children's selection and consumption of fruits and vegetables in an environment of competing foods of higher palatability. PMID:25958117

  9. Test of Multi-spectral Vegetation Index for Floating and Canopy-forming Submerged Vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun Jung; Kirui, Philemon; Natarajan, Harene

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing of terrestrial vegetation has been successful thanks to the unique spectral characteristics of green vegetation, low reflectance in red and high reflectance in Near-InfraRed (NIR). These spectral characteristics were used to develop vegetation indices, including Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). However, the NIR absorption by water and light scattering from suspended particles reduces the practical application of such indices in aquatic vegetation studies, especially for the Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) that grows below water surface. We experimentally tested if NDVI can be used to depict canopies of aquatic plants in shallow waters. A 100-gallon-outdoor tank was lined with black pond liners, a black panel or SAV shoots were mounted on the bottom, and filled with water up to 0.5 m. We used a GER 1500 spectroradiometer to collect spectral data over floating waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and also over the tanks that contain SAV and black panel at varying water depths. The measured upwelling radiance was converted to % reflectance; and we integrated the hyperspectral reflectance to match the Red and NIR bands of three satellite sensors: Landsat 7 ETM, SPOT 5 HRG, and ASTER. NDVI values ranged 0.6–0.65 when the SAV canopy was at the water level, then they decreased linearly (slope of 0.013 NDVI/meter) with water depth increases in clear water. When corrected for water attenuation using the data obtained from the black panel, the NDVI values significantly increased at all depths that we tested (0.1 – 0.5 m). Our results suggest the conventional NDVI: (1) can be used to depict SAV canopies at water surface; (2) is not a good indicator for SAV that is adapted to live underwater or other aquatic plants that are submerged during flooding even at shallow waters (0.3 m); and (3) the index values can significantly improve if information on spectral reflectance attenuation caused by water volume increases is collected simultaneously

  10. Viscosity of Common Seed and Vegetable Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wes Fountain, C.; Jennings, Jeanne; McKie, Cheryl K.; Oakman, Patrice; Fetterolf, Monty L.

    1997-02-01

    Viscosity experiments using Ostwald-type gravity flow viscometers are not new to the physical chemistry laboratory. Several physical chemistry laboratory texts (1 - 3) contain at least one experiment studying polymer solutions or other well-defined systems. Several recently published articles (4 - 8) indicated the continued interest in using viscosity measurements in the teaching lab to illustrate molecular interpretation of bulk phenomena. Most of these discussions and teaching experiments are designed around an extensive theory of viscous flow and models of molecular shape that allow a full data interpretation to be attempted. This approach to viscosity experiments may not be appropriate for all teaching situations (e.g., high schools, general chemistry labs, and nonmajor physical chemistry labs). A viscosity experiment is presented here that is designed around common seed and vegetable oils. With the importance of viscosity to foodstuffs (9) and the importance of fatty acids to nutrition (10), an experiment using these common, recognizable oils has broad appeal.

  11. Averaging procedures for flow within vegetation canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raupach, M. R.; Shaw, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    Most one-dimensional models of flow within vegetation canopies are based on horizontally averaged flow variables. This paper formalizes the horizontal averaging operation. Two averaging schemes are considered: pure horizontal averaging at a single instant, and time averaging followed by horizontal averaging. These schemes produce different forms for the mean and turbulent kinetic energy balances, and especially for the ‘wake production’ term describing the transfer of energy from large-scale motion to wake turbulence by form drag. The differences are primarily due to the appearance, in the covariances produced by the second scheme, of dispersive components arising from the spatial correlation of time-averaged flow variables. The two schemes are shown to coincide if these dispersive fluxes vanish.

  12. Base catalytic transesterification of vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Mainali, Kalidas

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable economic and industrial growth requires safe, sustainable resources of energy. Biofuel is becoming increasingly important as an alternative fuel for the diesel engine. The use of non-edible vegetable oils for biofuel production is significant because of the increasing demand for edible oils as food. With the recent debate of food versus fuel, some non-edible oils like soapnut and Jatropha (Jatropha curcus. L) are being investigated as possible sources of biofuel. Recent research has focused on the application of heterogeneous catalysis. This review considers catalytic transesterification and the possibility of heterogeneous base catalysts. The process of transesterification, and the effect of parameters, mechanism and kinetics are reviewed. Although chromatography (GC and HPLC) are the analytical methods most often used for biofuel characterization, other techniques and some improvements to analytical methods are discussed. PMID:22574385

  13. Transesterification of vegetable oils for fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Kusy, P.F.

    1982-01-01

    A continuous procedure was developed and tested, in a stepwise manner, for the transesterification of soybean and sunflower oils using ethanol. Good yields of ethyl soyate and sunflowerate were achieved, and the products made agreed very closely with those made by a direct esterification of the acids of vegetable oils and ethanol. The viscosity of the esters was considerably less than that of the oils and more nearly like that of diesel fuel. Because the ethyl soyate and sunflowerate have many components which solidify at relatively high temperatures, cloud points of the fuels are about 8 to 12/sup 0/C, which indicates they would not be readily usable at or below that temperature without dilution with No. 1 or No. 2 diesel fuel and/or the addition of additives. 3 figures, 7 tables.

  14. Vegetative propagation of Cecropia obtusifolia (Cecropiaceae).

    PubMed

    LaPierre, L M

    2001-01-01

    Cecropia is a relatively well-known and well-studied genus in the Neotropics. Methods for the successful propagation of C. obtusifolia Bertoloni, 1840 from cuttings and air layering are described, and the results of an experiment to test the effect of two auxins, naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and indole butyric acid (IBA), on adventitious root production in cuttings are presented. In general, C. obtusifolia cuttings respond well to adventitious root production (58.3% of cuttings survived to root), but air layering was the better method (93% of cuttings survived to root). The concentration of auxins used resulted in an overall significantly lower quality of roots produced compared with cuttings without auxin treatment. Future experiments using Cecropia could benefit from the use of isogenic plants produced by vegetative propagation. PMID:12189829

  15. The Ionomic Study of Vegetable Crops.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Toshihiro; Maejima, Eriko; Yoshimura, Tomoko; Urayama, Masaru; Yamauchi, Aiko; Owadano, Masako; Okada, Ryosuke; Osaki, Mitsuru; Kanayama, Yoshinori; Shinano, Takuro

    2016-01-01

    Soil contains various essential and nonessential elements, all of which can be absorbed by plants. Plant ionomics is the study of the accumulation of these elements (the ionome) in plants. The ionomic profile of a plant is affected by various factors, including species, variety, organ, and environment. In this study, we cultivated various vegetable crop species and cultivars under the same field conditions and analyzed the level of accumulation of each element in the edible and nonedible parts using ionomic techniques. The concentration of each element in the edible parts differed between species, which could be partly explained by differences in the types of edible organs (root, leaf, seed, and fruit). For example, the calcium concentration was lower in seeds and fruit than in other organs because of the higher dependency of calcium accumulation on xylem transfer. The concentration of several essential microelements and nonessential elements in the edible parts also varied greatly between cultivars of the same species, knowledge of which will help in the breeding of vegetables that are biofortified or contain lower concentrations of toxic elements. Comparison of the ionomes of the fruit and leaves of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and eggplant (S. melongena) indicated that cadmium and boron had higher levels of accumulation in eggplant fruit, likely because of their effective transport in the phloem. We also found that homologous elements that have been reported to share the same uptake/transport system often showed significant correlation only in a few families and that the slopes of these relationships differed between families. Therefore, these differences in the characteristics of mineral accumulation are likely to affect the ionomic profiles of different families. PMID:27478901

  16. When vegetation change alters ecosystem water availability.

    PubMed

    Scott, Russell L; Huxman, Travis E; Barron-Gafford, Greg A; Darrel Jenerette, G; Young, Jessica M; Hamerlynck, Erik P

    2014-07-01

    The combined effects of vegetation and climate change on biosphere-atmosphere water vapor (H2 O) and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) exchanges are expected to vary depending, in part, on how biotic activity is controlled by and alters water availability. This is particularly important when a change in ecosystem composition alters the fractional covers of bare soil, grass, and woody plants so as to influence the accessibility of shallower vs. deeper soil water pools. To study this, we compared 5 years of eddy covariance measurements of H2 O and CO2 fluxes over a riparian grassland, shrubland, and woodland. In comparison with the surrounding upland region, groundwater access at the riparian sites increased net carbon uptake (NEP) and evapotranspiration (ET), which were sustained over more of the year. Among the sites, the grassland used less of the stable groundwater resource, and increasing woody plant density decoupled NEP and ET from incident precipitation (P), resulting in greater exchange rates that were less variable year to year. Despite similar gross patterns, how groundwater accessibility affected NEP was more complex than ET. The grassland had higher respiration (Reco ) costs. Thus, while it had similar ET and gross carbon uptake (GEP) to the shrubland, grassland NEP was substantially less. Also, grassland carbon fluxes were more variable due to occasional flooding at the site, which both stimulated and inhibited NEP depending upon phenology. Woodland NEP was large, but surprisingly similar to the less mature, sparse shrubland, even while having much greater GEP. Woodland Reco was greater than the shrubland and responded strongly and positively to P, which resulted in a surprising negative NEP response to P. This is likely due to the large accumulation of carbon aboveground and in the surface soil. These long-term observations support the strong role that water accessibility can play when determining the consequences of ecosystem vegetation change. PMID:24777485

  17. The Ionomic Study of Vegetable Crops

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Toshihiro; Maejima, Eriko; Yoshimura, Tomoko; Urayama, Masaru; Yamauchi, Aiko; Owadano, Masako; Okada, Ryosuke; Osaki, Mitsuru; Kanayama, Yoshinori; Shinano, Takuro

    2016-01-01

    Soil contains various essential and nonessential elements, all of which can be absorbed by plants. Plant ionomics is the study of the accumulation of these elements (the ionome) in plants. The ionomic profile of a plant is affected by various factors, including species, variety, organ, and environment. In this study, we cultivated various vegetable crop species and cultivars under the same field conditions and analyzed the level of accumulation of each element in the edible and nonedible parts using ionomic techniques. The concentration of each element in the edible parts differed between species, which could be partly explained by differences in the types of edible organs (root, leaf, seed, and fruit). For example, the calcium concentration was lower in seeds and fruit than in other organs because of the higher dependency of calcium accumulation on xylem transfer. The concentration of several essential microelements and nonessential elements in the edible parts also varied greatly between cultivars of the same species, knowledge of which will help in the breeding of vegetables that are biofortified or contain lower concentrations of toxic elements. Comparison of the ionomes of the fruit and leaves of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and eggplant (S. melongena) indicated that cadmium and boron had higher levels of accumulation in eggplant fruit, likely because of their effective transport in the phloem. We also found that homologous elements that have been reported to share the same uptake/transport system often showed significant correlation only in a few families and that the slopes of these relationships differed between families. Therefore, these differences in the characteristics of mineral accumulation are likely to affect the ionomic profiles of different families. PMID:27478901

  18. Cadmium accumulation in leaves of leafy vegetables.

    PubMed

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Morra, Luigi; Zaccardelli, Massimo; Alfani, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Leafy vegetables have a relatively high potential for Cd uptake and translocation, and are thus considered Cd accumulators. For this reason, leaves and roots of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and endive (Cichorium endivia L.) plants, grown on different agricultural soils in Campania region (southern Italy), subjected to different fertilisation treatments (unfertilisation, compost amendment and mineral fertilisation), were analysed for Cd concentrations. Moreover, to clarify if the highest concentrations found are linked to older and inedible or to younger and edible leaves, external and internal endive leaves were separately analysed. All the leafy vegetables analysed showed on average 2-fold higher Cd concentrations in leaves than in roots. Leaf Cd concentrations in both lettuce and endive plants significantly differed among fertilisation treatments, with values highest in the plants grown on mineral fertilised soils. Apart from the soil fertilisation treatments, however, Cd leaf concentrations were often higher (up to 4-fold) than the threshold deduced by the EU 420/2011 Regulation, although the plants grew on unpolluted soils. Anyway, external leaves of endive plants showed significantly higher concentrations than internal leaves (in some cases the values were 3-fold higher), partly reassuring on the consumption of the younger leaves. Moreover, this study points out two major drawbacks in the Italian and European regulatory frameworks: (1) metal concentration (as total and/or available fraction) limits in agricultural soils are lacking; (2) metal concentration thresholds (currently existing only for Cd and Pb in crops) reported in the EU 420/2011 Regulation, expressed on the fresh weight basis rather than on the dry weight basis, appear not suitable. PMID:26004982

  19. Incorporating vegetation to build a comprehensive urban carbon budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutyra, L.; Hardiman, B. S.; Wang, J.; Gately, C.; Getson, J. M.; Friedl, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Efforts to accurately monitor, report, and verify anthropogenic CO2 emissions using atmospheric measurements require reliable partitioning of anthropogenic and biogenic sources/sinks. Anthropogenic emissions peak during the daytime, coincident with biogenic drawdown of CO2. In contrast, net biogenic respiration emissions peak at night when anthropogenic emissions are lower. This temporal aliasing of fluxes requires careful accounting of both biogenic and anthropogenic fluxes for accurate source attribution. Relative to non-urban ecosystems, vegetation in urban areas is subject to longer growing seasons, reduced competition, greater nitrogen availability, and unique management practices. Ecosystem models and vegetation maps often omit urban areas despite potentially extensive vegetation coverage. For example, in Massachusetts (MA), models assume no biological flux over as much as 40% of land area. To improve our understanding of the role of vegetation in the urban carbon cycle, we combine a new, comprehensive inventory of anthropogenic emissions, the Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model modified to incorporate altered urban growing conditions such as impervious surface area (ISA) and urban heat island, and an improved map of urban vegetation at 30m resolution. All fluxes are estimated at an hourly time scale for a 1km2 resolution grid extending across MA. We combined Landsat-derived estimates of canopy coverage and EVI of vegetation with ground surveys of tree growth and mortality to improve estimates of aboveground biomass and biogenic flux rates in urban ecosystems. Modeled biogenic fluxes vary significantly between sites along a gradient of urban density from downtown Boston to the heavily vegetated Harvard Forest in western MA. Our vegetation map demonstrates that vegetation in urban ecosystems may contain up to ~300 Tg of C. Net biogenic C fluxes in urban areas are small relative to anthropogenic emissions but exhibit substantial temporal aliasing

  20. Water Control on Vegetation Growth Pattern in Eurasia from GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, G.; Velicogna, I.; Kimball, J. S.; Kim, Y.

    2014-12-01

    High latitude ecosystem productivity is constrained by cold temperature and moisture limitations to plant growth, while these environmental restrictions may be changing with global warming. Satellite data driven assessments indicate that over the past three decades, rapid warming in the northern high latitudes has resulted in earlier and longer potential growing seasons and widespread greening, due to general relaxation of cold temperature constraints to vegetation productivity. However, warming may have also increased water stress limitations to growth. In this study, we use GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) derived total water storage (TWS), 2-m air temperature (T) from ERA-interim reanalysis, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data from MODIS (Collection 5) and satellite data driven vegetation gross primary productivity (GPP) estimates as surrogates for vegetation growth, for the period August 2002-December 2013 to evaluate terrestrial water supply controls to vegetation growth changes over the three major river basins of northern Eurasia. We find that during the analyzed period, the apparent growth response follows regional vegetation, moisture and temperature gradients and is spatially complex. In the drier southwest characterized by grassland, vegetation growth is mainly controlled by TWS availability. In the central region, dominated by cold temperature and water limited boreal forest, T is the main control on vegetation growth. In the Lena basin, where vegetation includes both boreal forest and water limited grassland, both T and TWS impact vegetation growth. We suggest that GRACE TWS estimates provide reliable observational constraints on water availability to vegetation that supplement sparse soil moisture observations and satellite precipitation estimates with unknown bias.

  1. Vegetable Oil from Leaves and Stems: Vegetative Production of Oil in a C4 Crop

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: Arcadia Biosciences, in collaboration with the University of California-Davis, is developing plants that produce vegetable oil in their leaves and stems. Ordinarily, these oils are produced in seeds, but Arcadia Biosciences is turning parts of the plant that are not usually harvested into a source of concentrated energy. Vegetable oil is a concentrated source of energy that plants naturally produce and is easily separated after harvest. Arcadia Biosciences will isolate traits that control oil production in seeds and transfer them into leaves and stems so that all parts of the plants are oil-rich at harvest time. After demonstrating these traits in a fast-growing model plant, Arcadia Biosciences will incorporate them into a variety of dedicated biofuel crops that can be grown on land not typically suited for food production

  2. Analysis of the dynamics of African vegetation using the normalized difference vegetation index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townshend, J. R. G.; Justice, C. O.

    1986-01-01

    Images at a resolution of 8 km are currently being generated for the whole of Africa, displaying the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). These images have undergone a process of temporal compositing to reduce the effects of cloud cover and atmospheric variation. When the NDVI is plotted against time, different cover types are shown to have characteristic profiles corresponding closely with their phenology. The resultant pattern of NDVI values displayed on the images is analyzed in terms of the cover types present and local variations in rainfall. Comparison between images for 1983 and 1984 overall showed considerable similarities, but significant differences were observed in the northward extent of the greening wave in the Sahel, the greening up of the Kalahari Desert and East African communities. It is concluded that vegetation monitoring using NDVI images needs to be associated with scene stratification according to cover type.

  3. Trend change detection in vegetation greenness time series: Contrasting methodologies, data sets and global vegetation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forkel, Matthias; Carvalhais, Nuno; Verbesselt, Jan; Mahecha, Miguel; Neigh, Christopher; Thonicke, Kirsten; Reichstein, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Newly developed satellite datasets and time series analysis methods allow the quantification of changes in vegetation greenness. However, the estimation of trends and trend changes depend often on the applied time series analysis method and the used satellite dataset. Thus, the environmental plausibility of the estimated trends and trend breakpoints is often questionable. We compared four trend and trend change detection methods to assess their performance. We applied the methods to NDVI and FAPAR time series from global satellite datasets and from global vegetation models. We generated surrogate time series with known trends and breakpoints and applied the methods to re-detect the known trends and trend changes. Our results demonstrate that the performance of methods decrease with increasing inter-annual variability of the time series. An overestimation of breakpoints in NDVI time series can result in wrong or even opposite trend estimates. Trend slope estimates based on annual aggregated time series or based on a seasonal-trend model show better performances than methods that remove the seasonal cycle of the time series. The application of the trend change detection methods to real time series allows assessing the multi-method ensemble of trend estimates. Nevertheless, the interpretation of the environmental plausibility of these trend estimates is challenging. For example, some methods suggest a weakening of greening trends in the Tundra after the early 2000s while other methods suggest an ongoing greening. Comparison with vegetation model simulations suggest that this weakening is not an artefact of the satellite dataset or of the applied trend change detection method but might be caused by real changes in environmental conditions. Our results demonstrate the need for a critical appraisal of trend change detection methods. All methods require a careful assessment of the environmental plausibility of detected trend changes in vegetation greenness time series.

  4. Predicting Vegetation Patterning across Climate, Soil, and Topographic Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axelsson, C.; Hanan, N. P.

    2014-12-01

    Vegetation communities in water-limited systems sometimes form periodic patterns, e.g. banded, spotted and labyrinthine distributions of woody and herbaceous plants. Pattern formation is commonly linked to competition and facilitation among plants, and variation in runoff and infiltration capacity in the landscape. Based on previous studies, we expect that climate, soil type, and slope to a large degree influence the type of vegetation pattern found at a specific site. We have analyzed to what extent vegetation patterns on the African continent can be predicted based on available climatic, topographic, and soil data. Our focus is not restricted to periodic patterns in drylands, but encompasses a range of tropical ecosystems from arid to humid. Vegetation patterns observed in remote sensing data can be informative regarding the underlying ecological processes that shape the landscape, not only in strikingly periodic vegetation but also in savannas with randomly located or dispersed vegetation. We use high-resolution multispectral and panchromatic remote sensing data classified into woody, herbaceous, and bare ground components. From these images we extract spatial statistical metrics that define type and degree of vegetation patterning. We then relate variables from climate, soil and topographic datasets to the observed patterns in order to determine how well we can predict vegetation patterning and which climatic and edaphic variables are most informative. We discuss the results and the possible sources of uncertainty in the relationships.

  5. Modeling Feedbacks Between Water and Vegetation in the Climate System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James R.; Russell, Gary L.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Not only is water essential for life on earth, but life itself affects the global hydrologic cycle and consequently the climate of the planet. Whether the global feedbacks between life and the hydrologic cycle tend to stabilize the climate system about some equilibrium level is difficult to assess. We use a global climate model to examine how the presence of vegetation can affect the hydrologic cycle in a particular region. A control for the present climate is compared with a model experiment in which the Sahara Desert is replaced by vegetation in the form of trees and shrubs common to the Sahel region. A second model experiment is designed to identify the separate roles of two different effects of vegetation, namely the modified albedo and the presence of roots that can extract moisture from deeper soil layers. The results show that the presence of vegetation leads to increases in precipitation and soil moisture in western Sahara. In eastern Sahara, the changes are less clear. The increase in soil moisture is greater when the desert albedo is replaced by the vegetation albedo than when both the vegetation albedo and roots are added. The effect of roots is to withdraw water from deeper layers during the dry season. One implication of this study is that the insertion of vegetation into the Sahara modifies the hydrologic cycle so that the vegetation is more likely to persist than initially.

  6. 21 CFR 139.165 - Enriched vegetable noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched vegetable noodle products. 139.165 Section 139.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.165 Enriched vegetable noodle products. (a) Each of the noodle...

  7. 21 CFR 139.135 - Enriched vegetable macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched vegetable macaroni products. 139.135 Section 139.135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.135 Enriched vegetable macaroni products. (a) Each of the...

  8. Family Members' Influence on Family Meal Vegetable Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenrich, Tionni R.; Brown, J. Lynne; Miller-Day, Michelle; Kelley, Kevin J.; Lengerich, Eugene J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Characterize the process of family vegetable selection (especially cruciferous, deep orange, and dark green leafy vegetables); demonstrate the usefulness of Exchange Theory (how family norms and experiences interact with rewards and costs) for interpreting the data. Design: Eight focus groups, 2 with each segment (men/women vegetable…

  9. Microbial community diversity in agroforestry and grass vegetative filter strips

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetative filter strips (VFS) have long been promoted as a soil conservation practice that yields many additional environmental benefits. Most previous studies have focused primarily on the role of vegetation and/or soil physical properties in these ecosystem services. Few studies have investigated...

  10. Influence of vegetation in mitigation of methyl parathion runoff.

    PubMed

    Moore, M T; Bennett, E R; Cooper, C M; Smith, S; Farris, J L; Drouillard, K G; Schulz, R

    2006-07-01

    A pesticide runoff event was simulated on two 10 m x 50 m constructed wetlands (one non-vegetated, one vegetated) to evaluate the fate of methyl parathion (MeP) (Penncap-M). Water, sediment, and plant samples were collected at five sites downstream of the inflow for 120 d. Semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed at each wetland outflow to determine exiting pesticide load. MeP was detected in water at all locations of the non-vegetated wetland (50 m), 30 min post-exposure. MeP was detected 20 m from the vegetated wetland inflow 30 min post-exposure, while after 10d it was detected only at 10 m. MeP was measured only in SPMDs deployed in non-vegetated wetland cells, suggesting detectable levels were not present near the vegetated wetland outflow. Furthermore, mass balance calculations indicated vegetated wetlands were more effective in reducing aqueous loadings of MeP introduced into the wetland systems. This demonstrates the importance of vegetation as sorption sites for pesticides in constructed wetlands. PMID:16314013

  11. 21 CFR 139.165 - Enriched vegetable noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enriched vegetable noodle products. 139.165... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.165 Enriched vegetable noodle products. (a) Each of the noodle...

  12. 21 CFR 139.165 - Enriched vegetable noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched vegetable noodle products. 139.165... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.165 Enriched vegetable noodle products. (a) Each of the noodle...

  13. 21 CFR 139.165 - Enriched vegetable noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched vegetable noodle products. 139.165... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.165 Enriched vegetable noodle products. (a) Each of the noodle...

  14. 21 CFR 139.165 - Enriched vegetable noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched vegetable noodle products. 139.165... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.165 Enriched vegetable noodle products. (a) Each of the noodle...

  15. One-pot synthesis of chemically modified vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils are promising candidates as substitutes for petroleum-base oils in lubricants applications, such as total loss lubrication, military applications and outdoor activities. Although vegetable oils have some advantages, they also have poor oxidation and low temperature stability. One of...

  16. Nutsedge-vegetable crop interactions in mulched systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the lack of effective control, purple nutsedge and yellow nutsedge are considered the most troublesome weeds of vegetable crops in the Southeast US. It is important to evaluate whether nutsedge control is necessary for economical vegetable crop production. There are several compelling reason...

  17. 43 CFR 9239.1 - Timber and other vegetative resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Timber and other vegetative resources. 9239.1 Section 9239.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF....1 Timber and other vegetative resources....

  18. Vegetation-terrain feature relationships in southeast Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrumpf, B. J. (Principal Investigator); Mouat, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. Studies of relationships of vegetation distribution to geomorphic characteristics of the landscape and of plant phenological patterns to vegetation identification of satellite imagery indicate that there exists positive relationships between certain plant species and certain terrain features. Not all species were found to exhibit positive relationships with all terrain feature variables, but enough positive relationships seem to exist to indicate that terrain feature variable-vegetation relationship studies have a definite place in plant ecological investigations. Even more importantly, the vegetation groups examined appeared to be successfully discriminated by the terrain feature variables. This would seem to indicate that spatial interpretations of vegetation groups may be possible. While vegetational distributions aren't determined by terrain feature differences, terrain features do mirror factors which directly influence vegetational response and hence distribution. As a result, those environmental features which can be readily and rapidly ascertained on relatively small-scale imagery may prove to be valuable indicators of vegetation distribution.

  19. Assessing mesquite-grass vegetation condition from Landsat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDaniel, Kirk C.; Haas, Robert H.

    1982-01-01

    Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) band values, band ratios, and vegetation index models were compared with selected rangeland vegetation parameters collected at six test sites within the honey mesquitellotebushlmixed grass association in north-central Texas. The comparisons at four dates showed that two vegetation index models, TV16 and GVI, are highly correlated (P = 0.01) with green yield, green cover, and plant moisture content. The green vegetation index (GVZ) developed by Kauth and Thomas (1976), was highly correlated and superior to other models in relationship to wet green yield, dry green yield, and cured vegetation cover. TV16, developed by Rouse et al. (1974), was more highly correlated with green vegetation cover and vegetation moisture content. Both TV16 and GVI are superior to other models in their relationship with green cover. None of the Landsat MSS parameters tested was significantly correlated with dry total yield, percent bare ground, or moisture of the soil measured at the surface or at a 20 cm depth. I t is concluded that Landsat MSS data are sensitive to seasonal changes in vegetation growth conditions and inherent ecological differences within a relatively unqorm vegetationlsoil system.

  20. Remote Sensing of Vegetation Water Content using Shortwave Infrared Reflectance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation water content is an important biophysical parameter for estimation of soil moisture from microwave radiometers. The Soil Moisture Experiments in 2004 (SMEX04) and 2005 (SMEX05) had an objective of developing and testing algorithms for a vegetation water content (VWC) data product using sh...

  1. Assessment of Vegetation Stress Using Reflectance or Fluorescence Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, P. K. E.; Middleton, E. M.; McMurtrey, J. E.; Corp, L. A.; Chappelle, E. W.

    2007-01-01

    Current methods for large-scale vegetation monitoring rely on multispectral remote sensing, which has serious limitation for the detection of vegetation stress. To contribute to the establishment of a generalized spectral approach for vegetation stress detection, this study compares the ability of high-spectral resolution reflectance (R) and fluorescence (F) foliar measurements to detect vegetation changes associated with common environmental factors affecting plant growth and productivity. To obtain a spectral dataset from a broad range of species and stress conditions, plant material from three experiments was examined, including (i) corn, nitrogen (N) deficiency/excess; (ii) soybean, elevated carbon dioxide, and ozone levels; and (iii) red maple, augmented ultraviolet irradiation. Fluorescence and R spectra (400-800 nm) were measured on the same foliar samples in conjunction with photosynthetic pigments, carbon, and N content For separation of a wide range of treatment levels, hyperspectral (5-10 nm) R indices were superior compared with F or broadband R indices, with the derivative parameters optimal results. For the detection of changes in vegetation physiology, hyperspectral indices can provide a significant improvement over broadband indices. The relationship of treatment levels to R was linear, whereas that to F was curvilinear. Using reflectance measurements, it was not possible to identify the unstressed vegetation condition, which was accomplished in all three experiments using F indices. Large-scale monitoring of vegetation condition and the detection of vegetation stress could be improved by using hyperspectral R and F information, a possible strategy for future remote sensing missions.

  2. Friction and wear behavior of thioether hydroxy vegetable oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work describes the tribochemical evaluation of vegetable oil based antiwear additive obtained through chemical modification. The sulfur was incorporated using a chemical reaction of epoxidized vegetable oil and common thiols, resulting in formation of a hydroxy thioether derivative of vegetabl...

  3. First-Grade Gardeners More Likely To Taste Vegetables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jennifer L.; Neustadter, Ann; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2001-01-01

    A study assessed the effectiveness of garden-enhanced nutrition education programs in improving nutrition knowledge and dietary patterns of 97 first-grade students at 2 California schools. Students who grew vegetables in their school gardens were more willing to taste certain vegetables, an essential step in improving a child's food preferences.…

  4. Vegetable soybean tolerance to bentazon, fomesafen, imazamox, linuron, and sulfentrazone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poor weed control, resulting from limited herbicide availability and undeveloped integrated weed management systems, is a major hurdle to production of vegetable soybean in the U.S. Vegetable soybean, the same species as grain-type soybean, has few registered herbicides due to unknown crop tolerance...

  5. Whole grain gluten-free vegetable spicy snacks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four kinds of spicy snacks (gluten-free, whole grains with fresh vegetables, low in fat, sugar and salt) were evaluated. Acceptance of spicy snacks tested were Carrot-Garlic 77%, Broccoli-Garlic 68%, Spinach-Garlic 61% and Red Onion 53%. This is the first report of spicy gluten-free, 50% vegetable...

  6. A model of goal directed vegetable parenting practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to explore factors underlying parents' motivations to use vegetable parenting practices (VPP) using the Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenting Practices (MGDVPP) (an adaptation of the Model of Goal Directed Behavior) as the theoretical basis for qualitative interviews. ...

  7. U.S. Fruit and Vegetable Processing Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Katharine C.; And Others

    Because of shifts in consumer tastes and preferences, demographics, technology, government regulation, and the expanding interdependence of world markets, the United States fruit and vegetable processing industries must operate in a constantly changing and uncertain economic environment. U.S. per capita use of processed fruits and vegetables is…

  8. Vegetative endocarditis in a scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah).

    PubMed

    Chai, N

    1999-12-01

    Streptococcus uberis was cultured from vegetative endocarditis lesions in a scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah) from the Parc de la Haute Touche, France. This is the first reported single isolation of S. uberis from an oryx with vegetative endocarditis leading to fatal congestive heart failure. PMID:10749451

  9. Retrieval of wheat growth parameters with radar vegetation indices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Radar Vegetation Index (RVI) has a low sensitivity to changes in environmental conditions and has the potential as a tool to monitor the vegetation growth. In this study, we expand on previous research by investigating the radar response over a wheat canopy. RVI was computed using observations m...

  10. Landscape Level Analyses of Vegetation Cover in Northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botting, T.; Hollister, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    Many International Tundra Experiment (ITEX) studies have been conducted to identify vegetation changes due to warming. However, knowledge gaps remain. For example, most of these studies are conducted at the plot level, not the landscape level, potentially masking larger scale impacts of climate change. An Arctic Systems Science (ARCSS) grid was established in Atqasuk, Alaska and Barrow, Alaska in the mid 1990's. In 2010, approximately 100 untreated vegetation plots were implemented at each grid site. These vegetation plots are 1 meter squared, spaced 100 meters apart, and span 1 kilometer squared. Each vegetation plot represents 100 square meters along the grid. This project will focus on how vegetation cover has changed at the landscape level, using the point frame method, from 2010 to 2013. Preliminary data analysis indicates that in Atqasuk, graminoids, deciduous shrubs, and evergreen shrubs show increased cover, while little change has occurred with bryophytes, forbs and lichens. In Barrow, graminoids, lichens and forbs have shown an increase in cover, while little change has occurred with bryophytes and deciduous shrubs. At both sites, graminoids represent the greatest increase in cover of all growth forms analyzed. This study will be the foundation for later work, with the purpose of predicting what ARCSS grid vegetation community compositions will be in the future. These expectations will be based on anticipated warming data from ITEX passively warmed vegetation plots. This will be the first time that ITEX vegetation warming research is applied to landscape level research in Barrow and Atqasuk.

  11. Modified atmosphere packaging for fresh fruits and vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) for fresh fruits and vegetables has been successfully used in practices for decades. However, based on the review of published studies in this area, the research on MAP for fresh fruits and vegetables was still very active in the last few years. These suggest th...

  12. Effects of sand fences on coastal dune vegetation distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grafals-Soto, Rosana

    2012-04-01

    Sand fences are important human adjustments modifying the morphology of developed shores. The effects of sand fences on sediment transport and deposition in their initial stages have been well studied, but little is known about the effect of deteriorated sand fences that have become partially buried low scale barriers within the dune, potentially benefiting vegetation growth by protecting it from onshore stress. Data on vegetation, topography and fence characteristics were gathered at three dune sites in Ocean City, New Jersey on September 2007 and March 2008 to evaluate the effect of fences within the dune on vegetation distribution. Variables include: distance landward of dune toe, degree of sheltering from onshore stressors, net change in surface elevation (deposition or erosion), vegetation diversity and density, presence of remnant fence, and distance landward of fence. Results for the studied environment reveal that 1) vegetation diversity or density does not increase near remnant fences because most remnants are lower than average vegetation height and can not provide shelter; but 2) vegetation distribution is related to topographic variables, such as degree of sheltering, that are most likely the result of sand accretion caused by fence deployment. Fence deployment that prioritizes the creation of topographically diverse dunes within a restricted space may increase the diversity and density of the vegetation, and the resilience and value of developed dunes. Managers should consider the benefits of using sand fences on appropriately wide beaches to create a protective dune that is also diverse, functional and better able to adapt to change.

  13. Assessing vegetation change temporally and spatially in southeastern Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, D. M.; Skirvin, S. M.; Holifield Collins, C. D.; Moran, M. S.; Biedenbender, S. H.; Kidwell, M. R.; Weltz, M. A.; Diaz-Gutierrez, A.

    2008-05-01

    Vegetation species cover and photographic data have been collected at multiple grass- and shrub-dominated sites in 1967, 1994, 1999, and 2005 at the U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW) in southeastern Arizona. This study combines these measurements with meteorological and edaphic information, as well as historic repeat photography from the late 1880s onward and recent satellite imagery to assess vegetation change at WGEW. The results of classification and ordination of repeated transect data showed that WGEW had two main vegetation structural types, shrub dominated and grass dominated. Spatial distribution was closely linked to soil type and variations in annual and August precipitation. Other than the recent appearance of Eragrostis lehmanniana (Lehmann lovegrass) at limited sites in WGEW, little recruitment has taken place in either shrub or grass vegetation types. Effects of recent drought on both vegetation types were apparent in both transect data and enhanced vegetation index data derived from satellite imagery. Historic photos and a better understanding of WGEW geology and geomorphology supported the hypothesis that the shift from grass- to shrub-dominated vegetation occurred substantially before 1967, with considerable spatial variability. This work reaffirmed the value of maintaining long-term data sets for use in assessments of vegetation change.

  14. Remote Sensing of Vegetation Water Content using Shortwave Infrared Reflectances

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation water content is an important biophysical parameter for estimation of soil moisture from microwave radiometers. The Soil Moisture Experiments in 2004 (SMEX04) and 2005 (SMEX05) had an objective of developing and testing algorithms for a vegetation water content data product using shortwav...

  15. SSR diversity of vegetable soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edamame [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a type of soybean selected for fresh or frozen vegetable use at an immature stage. Since edamame has a similar protein content, milder flavor, nuttier texture, and is easier to cook when compared to grain soybean, it is being promoted as a new vegetable for global...

  16. Few Associations between Income and Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middaugh, Amanda L.; Fisk, Paul S.; Brunt, Ardith; Rhee, Yeong S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between income and the consumption of fruits and vegetables using the poverty income ratio (PIR). Design: Association between PIR and intake of fruits and vegetables combined. The PIR was divided into 5 groups ranging from less than poverty threshold (PT) to greater than or equal to 400% PT. Participants:…

  17. Localised pattern formation in a model for dryland vegetation.

    PubMed

    Dawes, J H P; Williams, J L M

    2016-07-01

    We analyse the model for vegetation growth in a semi-arid landscape proposed by von Hardenberg et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 87:198101, 2001), which consists of two parabolic partial differential equations that describe the evolution in space and time of the water content of the soil and the level of vegetation. This model is a generalisation of one proposed by Klausmeier but it contains additional terms that capture additional physical effects. By considering the limit in which the diffusion of water in the soil is much faster than the spread of vegetation, we reduce the system to an asymptotically simpler parabolic-elliptic system of equations that describes small amplitude instabilities of the uniform vegetated state. We carry out a thorough weakly nonlinear analysis to investigate bifurcations and pattern formation in the reduced model. We find that the pattern forming instabilities are subcritical except in a small region of parameter space. In the original model at large amplitude there are localised solutions, organised by homoclinic snaking curves. The resulting bifurcation structure is well known from other models for pattern forming systems. Taken together our results describe how the von Hardenberg model displays a sequence of (often hysteretic) transitions from a non-vegetated state, to localised patches of vegetation that exist with uniform low-level vegetation, to periodic patterns, to higher-level uniform vegetation as the precipitation parameter increases. PMID:26454759

  18. Validation of microwave vegetation indices using field experiment data sets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation indices are valuable in many fields of geosciences. Conventional, visible-near infrared, indices are often limited by the effects of atmosphere, background soil conditions, and saturation at high levels of vegetation. A recent study established the theoretical basis for a new type of inde...

  19. Microwave vegetation indices derived from satellite microwave radiometers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation indices are valuable in many fields of geosciences. Conventional, visible-near infrared, indices are often limited by the effects of atmosphere, background soil conditions, and saturation at high levels of vegetation. In this study, the theoretical basis for a new type of passive microwav...

  20. Seasonal patterns of vegetative indices over cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing offers potential to precision agriculture applications in terms of providing both temporal and spatial information. There have been applications of the vegetative indices based on reflectance in the visible and near-infrared of which the normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) i...

  1. Monitoring vegetation dynamics with SPOT-VEGETATION NDVI time-series data in Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Hongxiu; Sun, Zhandong; Xu, Yongming

    2009-09-01

    Desertification in the arid and semiarid regions directly influences the density and growth status of vegetation, NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) has been widely used to monitor vegetation changes. This study analyzed the spatial patters of vegetation activity and its temporal variability in Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China since 1998 to 2007 with NDVI data derived from SPOT4 Vegetation. The coefficient of variation (CoV) of the NDVI was used as a parameter to characterize the change of vegetation and to compare the amount of variation in different sets of sample data. The method of quantifying changes in CoV values for each pixel was based on linear regression. The slope of linear regression was acted as the criterion for the change direction: pixels with a negative slope are considered to represent ground area with decreasing amounts of vegetation, vice versa. In this paper, We calculated (1) the inter-annual CoV based on the yearly ONDVI, the sum of the monthly NDVI in the growing season (from April to October), for each pixel between 1998-2007 to reveal the spatial patterns of vegetation activity, (2) the intra-annual CoV based on monthly NDVI by MVC to reflect vegetation seasonal dynamics, (3) the slope (") of the intra-annual CoV regression line for each pixel to identify the overall long-term trend of vegetation dynamics. This experiment demonstrated the feasibility of applying the CoV and its regression analysis based on long term SPOT-VGT NDVI time-series data for vegetation dynamics monitoring.

  2. A Novel Approach to Modeling Vegetation Distributions and Analyzing Vegetation Sensitivity Through Trait-Climate Relationships In China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Peng, C.; Zhu, Q.; Wang, H.

    2015-12-01

    There is increasing evidence that current DGVMs have suffered insufficient realism and hard to improve, particularly because they are built on plant functional type (PFT)-climate schemes. It is urgent to develop new approaches, like plant trait-based methods (FTs), to replace of PFT schemes when predicting the distribution of vegetation and investigating the vegetation sensitivity. In this research, we proposed a novel approach to modeling vegetation distributions and analyzing the vegetation sensitivity through trait-climate relationship in China. First, we aggregated data on three key FTs, including leaf mass per area (LMA), area-based leaf nitrogen (Narea), and mass-based leaf nitrogen (Nmass), from the available literatures. In addition, one structural trait of plant communities, leaf area index (LAI), was extracted from MODIS products across China. Second, we derived and developed trait-climate relationships and used different trait combinations in a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) to model vegetation distribution. Finally, the GMM trained by the LMA-Nmass-LAI combination was applied to investigate the climate sensitivity of vegetation. The results demonstrated the following: (1) all four traits captured well the relationships between climate variables and traits, as well as effectively predicted vegetation distribution and helped analyzing environmental sensitivity; (2) the LMA-Nmass-LAI combination yielded an accuracy of 72.05% for simulating vegetation distribution, providing more detailed parameter information regarding community structures and ecosystem function, and was therefore selected for training GMMs; and (3) a sensitivity analysis indicated that increasing temperatures shifted the boundaries of most vegetation northward and westward. Because the forests in these regions are well adapted to growth under rainy conditions, increasing precipitation is predicted to expand the boundaries of forests compared with the baseline vegetation distribution

  3. Sensing Vegetation Growth and Senescence with Reflected GPS Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, S. G.; Small, E. E.; Larson, K. M.; Rocco, M.

    2012-12-01

    We have developed a new technique to estimate vegetation growth and senescence using reflected GPS signals (multipath) measured by geodetic-quality GPS stations. The sensing footprint is ~1000 m2, larger than that provided by typical in situ observations but smaller than that from space-based products. Because GPS satellites transmit L-band signals, the vegetation estimates derived from GPS reflections are a measure of vegetation water content, not greenness as is the case for optical remote sensing methods. We present results based on two distinct attributes of the multipath signal: (1) signal attenuation observed as the amplitude of the signal-to-noise (SNR) interference pattern; and (2) diffuse scattering measured via an operational GPS noise statistic, MP1rms. We have compared GPS multipath to biweekly measurements of biomass, vegetation height, and water content at ten test sites that span a range of vegetation characteristics. Vegetation height and water content are inversely correlated with amplitude of the SNR signal. The reflected signal is completely suppressed when vegetation water content exceeds 3 kg m-2, for example at peak growth at irrigated corn and alfalfa sites. We have also examined GPS data from hundreds of sites in NSF's Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) network to more completely evaluate this method. These sites are located in the western U.S. where grasses and shrubs are dominant. The operational MP1rms statistic, a measure of multipath scattering, exhibits a clear seasonal cycle as expected for vegetation growth and senescence. MP1rms is inversely correlated with Normalized Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI) at most PBO sites: there is more scattering of L-band signals at times when vegetation is greener. The MP1rms variations lag NDVI by approximately three weeks, consistent with the idea that green-up precedes plant growth. We measured biomass, vegetation water content, and height at 25 PBO sites in Western California. Field sampling was

  4. Role of vegetation on erosion processes: experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Termini, Donatella

    2014-05-01

    Investigations on soil-system ecology are ever more oriented toward quantitative information based on the study of the linkages between physical processes and ecological response in rivers. As it is known, in presence of vegetation, the hydrodynamics characteristics of flow are principally determined by the mutual interrelation between the flow velocity field and the hydraulic behavior (completely submerged or emergent) of the vegetation elements. Much effort has been made toward identifying the theoretical law to interpret the vertical profile of flow longitudinal velocity in vegetated channels. Many theoretical and experimental studies in laboratory channels have been carried out and especially the case of submerged flexible vegetation has been examined (Termini, 2012). The effects of vegetation on flow velocity are significant and of crucial importance for stabilizing sediments and reducing erosion. Vegetation has a complex effect on walls roughness and the study of the hydrodynamic conditions of flow is difficult. Although most studies based on the "boundary layer" scheme so that the hydrodynamic conditions inside and above the vegetated layer are considered separately, some authors (Ghisalberti and Nepft, 2002; Carollo et al., 2008) claim that the "mixing layer" scheme is more appropriate to define the velocity profile both inside and outside the vegetated layer. Experimental program has been recently carried out in two laboratory flumes constructed at the laboratory of Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, Aerospaziale, dei Materiali - University of Palermo (Italy) with real and flexible vegetation on the bed. In this paper, attention is paid to the influence of vegetation on the erosion processes both on the bed and on the channel banks. The structure of the detailed flow velocity field is analyzed and compared with that obtained in absence of vegetation. Attention is then devoted to the analysis of soil erosion mechanism. Carollo F.G., Ferro V

  5. The impact of flood variables on riparian vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzubakova, Katarina; Molnar, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The riparian vegetation of Alpine rivers often grows in temporally dynamic riverine environments which are characterized by pronounced meteorological and hydrological fluctuations and high resource competition. Within these relatively rough conditions, riparian vegetation fulfils essential ecosystem functions such as water retention, biomass production and habitat to endangered species. The identification of relevant flood attributes impacting riparian vegetation is crucial for a better understanding of the vegetation dynamics in the riverine ecosystem. Hence, in this contribution we aim to quantify the ecological effects of flood attributes on riparian vegetation and to analyze the spatial coherence of flood-vegetation interaction patterns. We analyzed a 500 m long and 300-400 m wide study reach located on the Maggia River in southern Switzerland. Altogether five floods between 2008 and 2011 with return periods ranging from 1.4 to 20.1 years were studied. To assess the significance of the flood attributes, we compared post-flood to pre-flood vegetation vigour to flood intensity. Pre- and post-flood vegetation vigour was represented by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) which was computed from images recorded by high resolution ground-based cameras. Flood intensity was expressed in space in the study reach by six flood attributes (inundation duration, maximum depth, maximum and total velocity, maximum and total shear stress) which were simulated by the 2D hydrodynamic model BASEMENT (VAW, ETH Zurich). We considered three floodplain units separately (main bar, secondary bar, transitional zone). Based on our results, pre-flood vegetation vigour largely determined vegetation reaction to the less intense floods (R = 0.59-0.96). However for larger floods with a strong erosive effect, its contribution was significantly lower (R = 0.59-0.68). Using multivariate regression analysis we show that pre-flood vegetation vigour and maximum velocity proved to be

  6. Adaptive cycles of floodplain vegetation response to flooding and drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapa, R.; Thoms, M. C.; Parsons, M.; Reid, M.

    2016-02-01

    Flooding is a key driver of floodplain vegetation productivity. Adaptive cycles provide a model for examining the productivity of semi-arid floodplain vegetation in response to hydrology. We examined the response of vegetation productivity (measured as NDVI) through a hypothesised adaptive cycle to determine whether the cycle repeats over time and how it is affected by differently sized flood events. The area of floodplain inundation was associated with an adaptive cycle that repeated in four flood events through the following phases: wetting (exploitation phase), wet (conservation phase), drying (release phase) and dry (reorganisation phase). Vegetation productivity responses corresponded to these phases. The area and quality of floodplain vegetation productivity followed the hypothesised pattern of higher-quality vegetation vigour in the wetting and wet phases, lower vigour in the drying phase and lowest vigour in the dry phase. There were more transitions between NDVI classes in the wet phase, which was dominated by two-way transitions. Overall, the wetting, wet and drying phases were dominated by smaller-probability class changes, whereas in the dry phase, higher-probability class changes were more prominent. Although the four flood events exhibited an adaptive cycle the duration of the adaptive-cycle phases, and the nature of vegetation productivity response, differed with the character of the flood event. Vegetation response in two of the adaptive-cycle phases - the release and reorganisation phases - were as hypothesised, but in the exploitation and conservation phases, changes in vegetation productivity were more dynamic. The character of vegetation response through the adaptive cycle also indicates that semi-arid floodplain vegetation productivity is more vulnerable to changing state during the conservation and release phases and not during the exploitation and reorganisation phases as resilience theory suggests. Overall, the adaptive cycle represents a

  7. Vegetation change detection based on image fusion technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yonghong; Liu, Yueyan; Yu, Hui; Li, Deren

    2005-10-01

    The change detection of land use and land cover has always been the focus of remotely sensed study and application. Based on techniques of image fusion, a new approach of detecting vegetation change according to vector of brightness index (BI) and perpendicular vegetation index (PVI) extracted from multi-temporal remotely sensed imagery is proposed. The procedure is introduced. Firstly, the Landsat eTM+ imagery is geometrically corrected and registered. Secondly, band 2,3,4 and panchromatic images of Landsat eTM+ are fused by a trous wavelet fusion, and bands 1,2,3 of SPOT are registered to the fused images. Thirdly, brightness index and perpendicular vegetation index are respectively extracted from SPOT images and fused images. Finally, change vectors are obtained and used to detect vegetation change. The testing results show that the approach of detecting vegetation change is very efficient.

  8. Salt marsh vegetation promotes efficient tidal channel networks

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, William S.; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Tidal channel networks mediate the exchange of water, nutrients and sediment between an estuary and marshes. Biology feeds back into channel morphodynamics through the influence of vegetation on both flow and the cohesive strength of channel banks. Determining how vegetation affects channel networks is essential in understanding the biological functioning of intertidal ecosystems and their ecosystem services. However, the processes that control the formation of an efficient tidal channel network remain unclear. Here we compare the channel networks of vegetated salt marshes in Massachusetts and the Venice Lagoon to unvegetated systems in the arid environments of the Gulf of California and Yemen. We find that the unvegetated systems are dissected by less efficient channel networks than the vegetated salt marshes. These differences in network geometry reflect differences in the branching and meandering of the channels in the network, characteristics that are related to the density of vegetation on the marsh. PMID:27430165

  9. Patterns of vegetation in the Owens Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ustin, S. L.; Rock, B. N.; Woodward, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Spectral characteristics of semi-arid shrub communities were examined using Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data collected in the tree mode on 23 May 1985. Mesic sites with relatively high vegetation density and distinct zonation patterns exhibited greater spectral signature variations than sites with more xeric shrub communities. Spectral signature patterns were not directly related to vegetation density or physiognomy, although spatial maps derived from an 8-channel maximum likelihood classification were supported by photo-interpreted surface features. In AIS data, the principal detected effect of shrub vegetation on the alluvial fans is to lower reflectance across the spectrum. These results are similar to those reported during a period of minimal physiological activity in autumn, indicating that shadows cast by vegetation canopies are an important element of soil-vegetation interaction under conditions of relatively low canopy cover.

  10. Advances in remote sensing for vegetation dynamics and agricultural management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Puma, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Spaceborne remote sensing has led to great advances in the global monitoring of vegetation. For example, the NASA Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) group has developed widely used datasets from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensors as well as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) map imagery and normalized difference vegetation index datasets. These data are valuable for analyzing vegetation trends and variability at the regional and global levels. Numerous studies have investigated such trends and variability for both natural vegetation (e.g., re-greening of the Sahel, shifts in the Eurasian boreal forest, Amazonian drought sensitivity) and crops (e.g., impacts of extremes on agricultural production). Here, a critical overview is presented on recent developments and opportunities in the use of remote sensing for monitoring vegetation and crop dynamics.

  11. Salt marsh vegetation promotes efficient tidal channel networks.

    PubMed

    Kearney, William S; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Tidal channel networks mediate the exchange of water, nutrients and sediment between an estuary and marshes. Biology feeds back into channel morphodynamics through the influence of vegetation on both flow and the cohesive strength of channel banks. Determining how vegetation affects channel networks is essential in understanding the biological functioning of intertidal ecosystems and their ecosystem services. However, the processes that control the formation of an efficient tidal channel network remain unclear. Here we compare the channel networks of vegetated salt marshes in Massachusetts and the Venice Lagoon to unvegetated systems in the arid environments of the Gulf of California and Yemen. We find that the unvegetated systems are dissected by less efficient channel networks than the vegetated salt marshes. These differences in network geometry reflect differences in the branching and meandering of the channels in the network, characteristics that are related to the density of vegetation on the marsh. PMID:27430165

  12. Advances in Remote Sensing for Vegetation Dynamics and Agricultural Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Compton; Puma, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Spaceborne remote sensing has led to great advances in the global monitoring of vegetation. For example, the NASA Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) group has developed widely used datasets from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensors as well as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) map imagery and normalized difference vegetation index datasets. These data are valuable for analyzing vegetation trends and variability at the regional and global levels. Numerous studies have investigated such trends and variability for both natural vegetation (e.g., re-greening of the Sahel, shifts in the Eurasian boreal forest, Amazonian drought sensitivity) and crops (e.g., impacts of extremes on agricultural production). Here, a critical overview is presented on recent developments and opportunities in the use of remote sensing for monitoring vegetation and crop dynamics.

  13. Rendering Future Vegetation Change across Large Regions of the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sant'Anna Dias, Felipe; Gu, Yuting; Agarwalla, Yashika; Cheng, Yiwei; Patil, Sopan; Stieglitz, Marc; Turk, Greg

    2015-04-01

    We use two Machine Learning techniques, Decision Trees (DT) and Neural Networks (NN), to provide classified images and photorealistic renderings of future vegetation cover at three large regions in the US. The training data used to generate current vegetation cover include Landsat surface reflectance images, USGS Land Cover maps, 50 years of mean annual temperature and precipitation for the period 1950 - 2000, elevation, aspect and slope data. Present vegetation cover was generated on a 100m grid. Future vegetation cover for the period 2061- 2080 was predicted using the 1 km resolution bias corrected data from the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies Global Climate Model E simulation. The three test regions encompass a wide range of climatic gradients, topographic variation, and vegetation cover. The central Oregon site covers 19,182 square km and includes the Ochoco and Malheur National Forest. Vegetation cover is 50% evergreen forest and 50% shrubs and scrubland. The northwest Washington site covers 14,182 square km. Vegetation cover is 60% evergreen forest, 14% scrubs, 7% grassland, and 7% barren land. The remainder of the area includes deciduous forest, perennial snow cover, and wetlands. The third site, the Jemez mountain region of north central New Mexico, covers 5,500 square km. Vegetation cover is 47% evergreen forest, 31% shrubs, 13% grasses, and 3% deciduous forest. The remainder of the area includes developed and cultivated areas and wetlands. Using the above mentioned data sets we first trained our DT and NN models to reproduce current vegetation. The land cover classified images were compared directly to the USGS land cover data. The photorealistic generated vegetation images were compared directly to the remotely sensed surface reflectance maps. For all three sites, similarity between generated and observed vegetation cover was quite remarkable. The three trained models were then used to explore what the equilibrium vegetation would look like for

  14. The vegetation of Yucca Mountain: Description and ecology

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-29

    Vegetation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was monitored over a six-year period, from 1989 through 1994. Yucca Mountain is located at the northern limit of the Mojave Desert and is the only location being studied as a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste. Site characterization consists of a series of multidisciplinary, scientific investigations designed to provide detailed information necessary to assess the suitability of the Yucca Mountain Site as a repository. This vegetation description establishes a baseline for determining the ecological impact of site characterization activities; it porvides input for site characterization research and modeling; and it clarifies vegetation community dynamics and relationships to the physical environment. A companion study will describe the impact of site characterization of vegetation. Cover, density, production, and species composition of vascular plants were monitored at 48 Ecological Study Plots (ESPs) stratified in four vegetation associations. Precipitation, soil moisture, and maximum and minimum temperatures also were measured at each study plot.

  15. Grassland birds orient nests relative to nearby vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoekman, S.T.; Ball, I.J.; Fondell, T.E.

    2002-01-01

    We studied orientation of nest sites relative to nearby vegetation for dabbling ducks (Cinnamon Teal, Anas cyanoptera; Blue-winged Teal, A. discors; Gadwall, A. strepera; Mallard, A. platyrhynchos; and Northern Shoveler, A. clypeata) and Short-eared Owls (Asio flammeus) in ungrazed grassland habitat during 1995-1997 in westcentral Montana. We estimated an index of vegetation height and density in intercardinal directions (NE, SE, SW, NW) immediately around nests. All species oriented nests with the least vegetation to the southeast and the most vegetation to either the southwest or northwest. Furthermore, maximum vegetation around nests shifted from the southwest to the northwest with increasing nest initiation date, apparently as a response of individuals tracking seasonal change in the afternoon solar path. Thus, nests were relatively exposed to solar insolation during cool morning hours but were shaded from intense insolation in the afternoon throughout the breeding season. We suggest that nest microhabitat was selected in part to moderate the thermal environment.

  16. Vegetable-oil-based polymers as future polymeric biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Miao, Shida; Wang, Ping; Su, Zhiguo; Zhang, Songping

    2014-04-01

    Vegetable oils are one of the most important classes of bio-resources for producing polymeric materials. The main components of vegetable oils are triglycerides - esters of glycerol with three fatty acids. Several highly reactive sites including double bonds, allylic positions and the ester groups are present in triglycerides from which a great variety of polymers with different structures and functionalities can be prepared. Vegetable-oil-based polyurethane, polyester, polyether and polyolefin are the four most important classes of polymers, many of which have excellent biocompatibilities and unique properties including shape memory. In view of these characteristics, vegetable-oil-based polymers play an important role in biomaterials and have attracted increasing attention from the polymer community. Here we comprehensively review recent developments in the preparation of vegetable-oil-based polyurethane, polyester, polyether and polyolefin, all of which have potential applications as biomaterials. PMID:24012607

  17. Effect of vegetation on rock and soil type discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegal, B. S.; Goetz, A. F. H.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of naturally occurring vegetation on the spectral reflectance of earth materials in the wavelength region of 0.45 to 2.4 microns is determined by computer averaging of in situ acquired spectral data. The amount and type of vegetation and the spectral reflectance of the ground are considered. Low albedo materials may be altered beyond recognition with only ten per cent green vegetation cover. Dead or dry vegetation does not greatly alter the shape of the spectral reflectance curve and only changes the albedo with minimum wavelength dependency. With increasing amounts of vegetation the Landsat MSS band ratios 4/6, 4/7, 5/6, and 5/7 are significantly decreased whereas MSS ratios 4/5 and 6/7 remain entirely constant.

  18. Antibiotic uptake by vegetable crops from manure-applied soils.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong Hee; Gupta, Satish; Rosen, Carl; Fritz, Vincent; Singh, Ashok; Chander, Yogesh; Murray, Helene; Rohwer, Charlie

    2013-10-23

    This study quantified the uptake of five antibiotics (chlortetracycline, monensin, sulfamethazine, tylosin, and virginiamycin) by 11 vegetable crops in two different soils that were fertilized with raw versus composted turkey and hog manures or inorganic fertilizer. Almost all vegetables showed some uptake of antibiotics from manure treatments. However, statistical testing showed that except for a few isolated treatments the concentrations of all antibiotics in vegetable tissues were generally less than the limits of quantification. Further testing of the significant treatments showed that antibiotic concentrations in vegetables from many of these treatments were not significantly different than the corresponding concentrations from the fertilizer treatment (matrix effect). All five antibiotic concentrations in the studied vegetables were <10 μg kg(-1). On the basis of the standards for maximum residue levels in animal tissues and suggested maximum daily intake based on body weight, this concentration would not pose any health risk unless one is allergic to that particular antibiotic. PMID:24106840

  19. The influence of vegetation on turbulence and bed load transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, E. M.; Schmeeckle, M. W.

    2013-09-01

    is ubiquitous in river channels and floodplains and alters mean flow conditions and turbulence. However, the effects of vegetation patches on near-bed turbulence, bed load transport rates, and sedimentation are not well understood. To elucidate the influence of emergent vegetation on local and patch-averaged bed load transport, we conducted a set of experiments in which we varied the mean flow velocity (U), total boundary shear stress (τ), or vegetation density between runs. We measured 2D velocity fields using Particle Imaging Velocimetry and bed load fluxes using high-speed video. Simulated rigid vegetation caused bed load fluxes to vary spatially by an order of magnitude, causing distinct scour zones adjacent to, and depositional bed forms between stems. These local patterns of sedimentation could impact recruitment and survival of other plants. Large bed load fluxes were collocated with high near-bed turbulence intensities that were three to four times larger than spatially averaged values. Higher vegetation densities increased the importance of inward and outward interactions, particularly downstream of vegetation. At the patch scale, greater stem densities caused either an increase or decrease in run-averaged bed load fluxes, depending on whether U or τ was held constant between runs. This implies that sedimentation in vegetation patches is not only a function of bed grain size, sediment supply, and vegetation density and species, but whether vegetation significantly impacts mean and local flow properties, which could depend on vegetation location. Commonly used bed load transport equations did not accurately predict average sediment fluxes in our experiments unless they accounted for the spatial variability in the near-bed Reynolds stress.

  20. Single-Photon LIDAR for Vegetation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosette, J.; Field, C.; Nelson, R. F.; Decola, P.; Cook, B. D.; Degnan, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    Lidar is now an established and recognised technology which has been widely applied to assist forest inventory, monitoring and management. Small footprint lidar systems produce dense 'point clouds' from intercepted surfaces which, after classification of ground and vegetation returns, can be related to important forest biophysical parameters such as biomass or carbon. Within the context of NASA's Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) initiative (NASA, 2010), the prototype 100 beam, single-photon, scanning lidar, developed by Sigma Space Corporation, USA, is tested to assess the potential of this sensor for vegetation analysis. This emerging lidar technology is currently generally operated at green wavelengths (532 nm) and, like more conventional discrete return NIR lidar sensors, produces point clouds of intercepted surfaces. However, the high pulse repetition rate (20 kHz) and multibeam approach produces an unprecedented measurement rate (up to 2 Million pixels per second) and a correspondingly high point density. Furthermore, the single photon sensitivity enables the technique to be more easily extended to high altitudes and therefore larger swath widths. Additionally, CW diode laser pumping and a low laser pulse energy (6 μJ at 532 nm) favour an extended laser lifetime while the much lower energy per beamlet (~50nJ) ensures eye safety despite operating at a visible wavelength. Furthermore, the short laser pulse duration (0.7ns) allows the surface to be located with high vertical precision. Although the 532 nm green wavelength lies near the peak of the solar output, the spatial and temporal coherence of the surface returns, combined with stringent instrument specifications (small detector field of view and narrow optical band-pass filter), allow solid surfaces to be distinguished from the solar background during daylight operations. However, for extended volumetric scatterers such as tree canopies, some amount of solar noise is likely to be mixed in with valid biomass

  1. Sesquiterpene emissions from vegetation: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duhl, T. R.; Helmig, D.; Guenther, A.

    2008-05-01

    This literature review summarizes the environmental controls governing biogenic sesquiterpene (SQT) emissions and presents a compendium of numerous SQT-emitting plant species as well as the quantities and ratios of SQT species they have been observed to emit. The results of many enclosure-based studies indicate that temporal SQT emission variations appear to be dominated mainly by ambient temperatures although other factors contribute (e.g., seasonal variations). This implies that SQT emissions have increased significance at certain times of the year, especially in late spring to mid-summer. The strong temperature dependency of SQT emissions also creates the distinct possibility of increasing SQT emissions in a warmer climate. Disturbances to vegetation (from herbivores and possibly violent weather events) are clearly also important in controlling short-term SQT emissions bursts, though the relative contribution of disturbance-induced emissions is not known. Based on the biogenic SQT emissions studies reviewed here, SQT emission rates among numerous species have been observed to cover a wide range of values, and exhibit substantial variability between individuals and across species, as well as at different environmental and phenological states. These emission rates span several orders of magnitude (10s-1000s of ng gDW-1 h-1). Many of the higher rates were reported by early SQT studies, which may have included artificially-elevated SQT emission rates due to higher-than-ambient enclosure temperatures and disturbances to enclosed vegetation prior to and during sample collection. When predicting landscape-level SQT fluxes, modelers must consider the numerous sources of variability driving observed SQT emissions. Characterizations of landscape and global SQT fluxes are highly uncertain given differences and uncertainties in experimental protocols and measurements, the high variability in observed emission rates from different species, the selection of species that have

  2. Sesquiterpene emissions from vegetation: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duhl, T. R.; Helmig, D.; Guenther, A.

    2007-11-01

    This literature review summarizes the environmental controls governing biogenic sesquiterpene (SQT) emissions and presents a compendium of numerous SQT-emitting plant species as well as the quantities and ratios of SQT species they have been observed to emit. The results of many enclosure-based studies indicate that temporal SQT emission variations appear to be dominated mainly by ambient temperatures although other factors contribute (e.g. seasonal variations). This implies that SQT emissions have increased significance at certain times of the year, especially in late spring to mid-summer. The strong temperature dependency of SQT emissions also creates the distinct possibility of increasing SQT emissions in a warmer climate. Disturbances to vegetation (from herbivores and possibly violent weather events) are clearly also important in controlling short-term SQT emissions bursts, though the relative contribution of disturbance-induced emissions is not known. Based on the biogenic SQT emission studies reviewed here, SQT emission rates among numerous species have been observed to cover a wide range of values, and exhibit substantial variability between individuals and across species, as well as at different environmental and phenological states. These emission rates span several orders of magnitude (10s-1000s of ng gDW-1 h-1). Many of the higher rates were reported by early SQT studies, which may have included artificially-elevated SQT emission rates due to higher-than-ambient enclosure temperatures and disturbances to enclosed vegetation prior to and during sample collection. When predicting landscape-level SQT fluxes, modelers must consider the numerous sources of variability driving observed SQT emissions. Characterizations of landscape and global SQT fluxes are highly uncertain given differences and uncertainties in experimental protocols and measurements, the high variability in observed emission rates from different species, the selection of species that have

  3. Remote Sensing Techniques for Monitoring Aquatic Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Alfonso

    Hydrilla is an important submerged aquatic vegetation because it has a large capacity to absorb pollutants and it is an indicator of the eutrophic status of a waterbody. Monitoring and restoration of submerged aquatic vegetation is key for the preservation and restoration of the Chesapeake Bay. Remote sensing techniques have been used for assessing wetlands and non-invasive aquatic species, but there is limited studies of hydrilla monitoring combined with space-borne, airborne and in-situ remote sensing measurements for detecting and mapping hydrilla infestation. The first objective of this research was to establish a database of hydrilla spectral signatures from an experimental tank and from a field setting using a handheld spectrometer. The spectral signatures collected will be used to identify the optimal spectral and spatial characteristics that are required to identify and classify the distribution of hydrilla canopies in water bodies. The second objective is to process and analyze two hyperspectral images from a space-borne (Hyperion) and airborne (AISA) sensors with ENVI for detecting and mapping the infestation of hydrilla vertillicata in a coastal estuary in Chesapeake Bay. The third objective was to validate the satellite and airborne hyperspectral images with the spectral signatures collected with the in-situ field measurements. In addition, the Hyperion and AISA imaging results were compared with ground surveys and aerial photos collected by the Maryland Department of Natural Resources and the Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences for verifying the extent and the location of the hydrilla canopies. The hyperspectral analysis of both sensors provided for a dual results, one is the identification and classification of hydrilla from hyperspectral imaging sensors and secondly the identification of algae blooms in very productive waters. A hydrilla spectral signature database was established and housed in GMU's EastFIRE Lab of Environmental Science and

  4. Vegetation zones shift in changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belda, Michal; Halenka, Tomas; Kalvova, Jaroslava; Holtanova, Eva

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of climate patterns can be performed for each climate variable separately or the data can be aggregated using e.g. some kind of climate classification. These classifications usually correspond to vegetation distribution in the sense that each climate type is dominated by one vegetation zone or eco-region. In case of the Köppen-Trewartha classification it is integrated assessment of temperature and precipitation together with their annual cycle as well. This way climate classifications also represent a convenient tool for the assessment and validation of climate models and for the analysis of simulated future climate changes. The Köppen-Trewartha classification is used on full CMIP5 family of more than 40 GCM simulations and CRU dataset for comparison. This evaluation provides insight on the GCM performance and errors for simulations of the 20th century climate. Common regions are identified, such as Australia or Amazonia, where many state-of-the-art models perform inadequately. Furthermore, the analysis of the CMIP5 ensemble for RCP 4.5 and 8.5 is performed to assess the climate change for future. There are significant changes for some types in most models e.g. increase of savanna and decrease of tundra for the future climate. For some types significant shifts in latitude can be seen when studying their geographical location in selected continental areas, e.g. toward higher latitudes for boreal climate. For Europe, EuroCORDEX results for both 0.11 and 0.44 degree resolution are validated using Köppen-Trewartha types in comparison to E-OBS based classification. ERA-Interim driven simulations are compared to both present conditions of CMIP5 models as well as their downscaling by EuroCORDEX RCMs. Finally, the climate change signal assessment is provided using the individual climate types. In addition to the changes assessed similarly as for GCMs analysis in terms of the area of individual types, in the continental scale some shifts of boundaries

  5. Modelling vegetation dynamics for Alpine meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Chiesa, Stefano; Bertoldi, Giacomo; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Rist, Armin; Niedrist, Georg; Albertson, John D.; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2010-05-01

    Regional climate scenarios predict a temperature increase and a summer precipitation decrease for the European Alps. This is expected to lead to longer vegetation periods, but also to drought stress in Alpine meadows ecosystems. It is therefore uncertain if the predicted climatic changes will lead to an increase or decrease of biomass production in these grassland ecosystems. Understanding plant growth requires to consider the complex interactions between soil, atmosphere and climate via its physiological properties, in particular LAI, stomatal resistance, rooting depth, albedo, surface roughness and effects on soil moisture. Vegetation Dynamic Models (VDM) coupled with hydrological models take into account these interactions in order to study and estimate biomass production quantitatively. In this contribution, the VDM previously developed by Montaldo et al. (2005) for semi-arid environments is extended to Alpine meadows in the Stubai Valley (Eastern Austria) which are typically not subjected to water and nutrient stresses, but undergoing low temperature limitations. The aim is to assess the model robustness. Moreover, the effects of mowing practice during the season were taken into consideration. The VDM has then been implemented in the distributed hydrological model GEOtop (Rigon et al., 2006). The VDM performed well in the considered case study. The validation and calibration of the model is presented and then the effects of increased temperature and decreased precipitation are investigated numerically. In order to evaluate in the field the effects of climatic change on Alpine grassland biomass production, the inner Alpine continental Mazia Valley (South Tyrol, Italy) has been chosen in 2009 for Long-Term Ecological Research. These climatic changes will be simulated by manipulations along an altitudinal gradient comprising measuring stations at about 1000 m, 1500 m and 2000 m a.s.l.. Meadow monoliths will be transplanted downslope to simulate temperature

  6. Space Radar Image of Raco Vegetation Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a vegetation map of the Raco, Michigan area produced from data acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard space shuttle Endeavour. The radar image, taken on April 9, 1994, has been used by science team members at the University of Michigan to produce detailed map of land cover. This image is centered at 46.4 degrees north latitude and 84.9 degrees west longitude. The imaged area is approximately 24 by 32 kilometers (15 by 20 miles). The Raco airport, which is a decommissioned military base, is easily identified by its triangular runway structure. An edge of Lake Superior, approximately 44 kilometers (27 miles) west of Sault Sainte Marie, appears in the top right of the image. In this land cover map each 30- by 30-meter (98- by 98-foot) spot is identified as either a water surface, bare ground, short vegetation, deciduous forest, lowland conifers or upland conifers. Different types of ground cover have different effects on Earth's chemical, water and energy cycles. By cataloguing ground cover in an area, scientists expect to better understand the processes of these cycles in a specific area. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio

  7. A novel approach for modelling vegetation distributions and analysing vegetation sensitivity through trait-climate relationships in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yanzheng; Zhu, Qiuan; Peng, Changhui; Wang, Han; Xue, Wei; Lin, Guanghui; Wen, Zhongming; Chang, Jie; Wang, Meng; Liu, Guobin; Li, Shiqing

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that current dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) have suffered from insufficient realism and are difficult to improve, particularly because they are built on plant functional type (PFT) schemes. Therefore, new approaches, such as plant trait-based methods, are urgently needed to replace PFT schemes when predicting the distribution of vegetation and investigating vegetation sensitivity. As an important direction towards constructing next-generation DGVMs based on plant functional traits, we propose a novel approach for modelling vegetation distributions and analysing vegetation sensitivity through trait-climate relationships in China. The results demonstrated that a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) trained with a LMA-Nmass-LAI data combination yielded an accuracy of 72.82% in simulating vegetation distribution, providing more detailed parameter information regarding community structures and ecosystem functions. The new approach also performed well in analyses of vegetation sensitivity to different climatic scenarios. Although the trait-climate relationship is not the only candidate useful for predicting vegetation distributions and analysing climatic sensitivity, it sheds new light on the development of next-generation trait-based DGVMs. PMID:27052108

  8. A novel approach for modelling vegetation distributions and analysing vegetation sensitivity through trait-climate relationships in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yanzheng; Zhu, Qiuan; Peng, Changhui; Wang, Han; Xue, Wei; Lin, Guanghui; Wen, Zhongming; Chang, Jie; Wang, Meng; Liu, Guobin; Li, Shiqing

    2016-04-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that current dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) have suffered from insufficient realism and are difficult to improve, particularly because they are built on plant functional type (PFT) schemes. Therefore, new approaches, such as plant trait-based methods, are urgently needed to replace PFT schemes when predicting the distribution of vegetation and investigating vegetation sensitivity. As an important direction towards constructing next-generation DGVMs based on plant functional traits, we propose a novel approach for modelling vegetation distributions and analysing vegetation sensitivity through trait-climate relationships in China. The results demonstrated that a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) trained with a LMA-Nmass-LAI data combination yielded an accuracy of 72.82% in simulating vegetation distribution, providing more detailed parameter information regarding community structures and ecosystem functions. The new approach also performed well in analyses of vegetation sensitivity to different climatic scenarios. Although the trait-climate relationship is not the only candidate useful for predicting vegetation distributions and analysing climatic sensitivity, it sheds new light on the development of next-generation trait-based DGVMs.

  9. Differences in fruit and vegetable exposure and preferences among adolescents receiving free fruit and vegetable snacks at school

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low fruit and vegetable (FV) intakes are associated with excess body weight. The United States Department of Agriculture sponsors a Free Fruit and Vegetable Program in schools whereby students receive free FV snacks daily. This study assessed whether the program improved student exposure to and pref...

  10. Fish and Amphibian Use of Vegetated and Non-vegetated Intermittent Channels in the Upper Willamette Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intermittent agricultural drainages found in the lowlands of the upper Willamette Basin provide habitat characteristics that may be preferred by native species of fish and amphibians. Vegetated substrates and lack of vegetation growing in the channels are the most common habitat differences amongst ...

  11. A novel approach for modelling vegetation distributions and analysing vegetation sensitivity through trait-climate relationships in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanzheng; Zhu, Qiuan; Peng, Changhui; Wang, Han; Xue, Wei; Lin, Guanghui; Wen, Zhongming; Chang, Jie; Wang, Meng; Liu, Guobin; Li, Shiqing

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that current dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) have suffered from insufficient realism and are difficult to improve, particularly because they are built on plant functional type (PFT) schemes. Therefore, new approaches, such as plant trait-based methods, are urgently needed to replace PFT schemes when predicting the distribution of vegetation and investigating vegetation sensitivity. As an important direction towards constructing next-generation DGVMs based on plant functional traits, we propose a novel approach for modelling vegetation distributions and analysing vegetation sensitivity through trait-climate relationships in China. The results demonstrated that a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) trained with a LMA-Nmass-LAI data combination yielded an accuracy of 72.82% in simulating vegetation distribution, providing more detailed parameter information regarding community structures and ecosystem functions. The new approach also performed well in analyses of vegetation sensitivity to different climatic scenarios. Although the trait-climate relationship is not the only candidate useful for predicting vegetation distributions and analysing climatic sensitivity, it sheds new light on the development of next-generation trait-based DGVMs. PMID:27052108

  12. Effect of flexible vegetation on localized erosion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Termini, Donatella

    2013-04-01

    The knowledge of the hydraulic characteristics of flow over vegetation is very important to support the management of fluvial processes. The effects of vegetation on flow velocity are significant and of crucial importance for stabilizing sediments and reducing erosion along the channel. But, because of the temporal changing of roughness due to natural vegetative growth, the response of vegetation to the flow can change in time. Thus, vegetation has a complex effect on walls roughness and the study of the hydrodynamic conditions of flow is difficult. Many theoretical and experimental investigations have been performed in order to analyze both the mean flow and turbulence structure of open-channel flow (Nezu and Rodi 1986; Ghisalberti and Nepf, 2002). Recent experimental runs carried out in laboratory channels with flexible vegetation, realized by using artificial filaments (Kutija and Hong 1996; Ikeda and Kanazawa 1996), investigated some peculiar characteristics of flow turbulence structure and revealed the generation of periodic organized vortices whose center is located slightly above the top of the vegetation layer. Ghisalberti and Nepf (2002) confirmed the formation of such vortices, highlighting that, in the case of flexible vegetation, the vortex-driven oscillation of velocity drives coherent vegetation waving, producing a spatially and temporally variable drag force. In this paper, attention is paid to the influence of vegetation on the erosion processes both on the bed and on the channel banks. Experiments were carried out both in a straight channel and in a meandering channel, both constructed at the Department of Civil, Environmental, Aerospatial and of Materials (DICAM) - University of Palermo (Italy). The formation of turbulence structures inside the vegetated layer is verified, providing some insight into the mechanisms of sediment transport. Nezu, I. & Rodi, W. 1986. Open-channel flow measurements with a Laser Doppler Anemometer. Journal of Hydraulic

  13. Retrieving pace in vegetation growth using precipitation and soil moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohoulande Djebou, D. C.; Singh, V. P.

    2013-12-01

    The complexity of interactions between the biophysical components of the watershed increases the challenge of understanding water budget. Hence, the perspicacity of the continuum soil-vegetation-atmosphere's functionality still remains crucial for science. This study targeted the Texas Gulf watershed and evaluated the behavior of vegetation covers by coupling precipitation and soil moisture patterns. Growing season's Normalized Differential Vegetation Index NDVI for deciduous forest and grassland were used over a 23 year period as well as precipitation and soil moisture data. The role of time scales on vegetation dynamics analysis was appraised using both entropy rescaling and correlation analysis. This resulted in that soil moisture at 5 cm and 25cm are potentially more efficient to use for vegetation dynamics monitoring at finer time scale compared to precipitation. Albeit soil moisture at 5 cm and 25 cm series are highly correlated (R2>0.64), it appeared that 5 cm soil moisture series can better explain the variability of vegetation growth. A logarithmic transformation of soil moisture and precipitation data increased correlation with NDVI for the different time scales considered. Based on a monthly time scale we came out with a relationship between vegetation index and the couple soil moisture and precipitation [NDVI=a*Log(% soil moisture)+b*Log(Precipitation)+c] with R2>0.25 for each vegetation type. Further, we proposed to assess vegetation green-up using logistic regression model and transinformation entropy using the couple soil moisture and precipitation as independent variables and vegetation growth metrics (NDVI, NDVI ratio, NDVI slope) as the dependent variable. The study is still ongoing and the results will surely contribute to the knowledge in large scale vegetation monitoring. Keywords: Precipitation, soil moisture, vegetation growth, entropy Time scale, Logarithmic transformation and correlation between soil moisture and NDVI, precipitation and

  14. A microwave scattering model for layered vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karam, Mostafa A.; Fung, Adrian K.; Lang, Roger H.; Chauhan, Narinder S.

    1992-01-01

    A microwave scattering model was developed for layered vegetation based on an iterative solution of the radiative transfer equation up to the second order to account for multiple scattering within the canopy and between the ground and the canopy. The model is designed to operate over a wide frequency range for both deciduous and coniferous forest and to account for the branch size distribution, leaf orientation distribution, and branch orientation distribution for each size. The canopy is modeled as a two-layered medium above a rough interface. The upper layer is the crown containing leaves, stems, and branches. The lower layer is the trunk region modeled as randomly positioned cylinders with a preferred orientation distribution above an irregular soil surface. Comparisons of this model with measurements from deciduous and coniferous forests show good agreements at several frequencies for both like and cross polarizations. Major features of the model needed to realize the agreement include allowance for: (1) branch size distribution, (2) second-order effects, and (3) tree component models valid over a wide range of frequencies.

  15. Comprehensive Understanding for Vegetated Scene Radiance Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimes, D. S.; Deering, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    Directional reflectance distributions spanning the entire existent hemisphere were measured in two field studies; one using a Mark III 3-band radiometer and one using the rapid scanning bidirectional field instrument called PARABOLA. Surfaces measured included corn, soybeans, bare soils, grass lawn, orchard grass, alfalfa, cotton row crops, plowed field, annual grassland, stipa grass, hard wheat, salt plain shrubland, and irrigated wheat. Analysis of field data showed unique reflectance distributions ranging from bare soil to complete vegetation canopies. Physical mechanisms causing these trends were proposed. A 3-D model was developed and is unique in that it predicts: (1) the directional spectral reflectance factors as a function of the sensor's azimuth and zenith angles and the sensor's position above the canopy; (2) the spectral absorption as a function of location within the scene; and (3) the directional spectral radiance as a function of the sensor's location within the scene. Initial verification of the model as applied to a soybean row crop showed that the simulated directional data corresponded relatively well in gross trends to the measured data. The model was expanded to include the anisotropic scattering properties of leaves as a function of the leaf orientation distribution in both the zenith and azimuth angle modes.

  16. White Light Emission from Vegetable Extracts.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vikram; Mishra, Ashok K

    2015-01-01

    A mixture of extracts from two common vegetables, red pomegranate and turmeric, when photoexcited at 380 nm, produced almost pure white light emission (WLE) with Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity index (0.35, 0.33) in acidic ethanol. It was also possible to obtain WLE in polyvinyl alcohol film (0.32, 0.25), and in gelatin gel (0.26, 0.33) using the same extract mixture. The colour temperature of the WLE was conveniently tunable by simply adjusting the concentrations of the component emitters. The primary emitting pigments responsible for contributing to WLE were polyphenols and anthocyanins from pomegranate, and curcumin from turmeric. It was observed that a cascade of Forster resonance energy transfer involving polyphenolics, curcumin and anthocyanins played a crucial role in obtaining a CIE index close to pure white light. The optimized methods of extraction of the two primary emitting pigments from their corresponding plant sources are simple, cheap and fairly green. PMID:26083264

  17. Vegetable Oil: Nutritional and Industrial Perspective.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Aruna; Sharma, Aarti; Upadhyaya, Kailash C

    2016-06-01

    Oils of plant origin have been predominantly used for food-based applications. Plant oils not only represent a non-polluting renewable resource but also provide a wide diversity in fatty acids (FAs) composition with diverse applications. Besides being edible, they are now increasingly being used in industrial applications such as paints, lubricants, soaps, biofuels etc. In addition, plants can be engineered to produce fatty acids which are nutritionally beneficial to human health. Thus these oils have potential to 1) substitute ever increasing demand of non -renewable petroleum sources for industrial application and 2) also spare the marine life by providing an alternative source to nutritionally and medically important long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids or 'Fish oil'. The biochemical pathways producing storage oils in plants have been extensively characterized, but the factors regulating fatty acid synthesis and controlling total oil content in oilseed crops are still poorly understood. Thus understanding of plant lipid metabolism is fundamental to its manipulation and increased production. This review on oils discusses fatty acids of nutritional and industrial importance, and approaches for achieving future designer vegetable oil for both edible and non-edible uses. The review will discuss the success and bottlenecks in efficient production of novel FAs in non-native plants using genetic engineering as a tool. PMID:27252590

  18. Optimization of lamp spectrum for vegetable growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prikupets, L. B.; Tikhomirov, A. A.

    1994-01-01

    An increase in the demand for and production of vegetables in the winter, mainly in northern and Siberian regions, inevitably leads to mass building of structures for growing plants under completely artificial conditions. An industrial lighting technology is required whose main parameters (spectrum, irradiance, photoperiod) should be assigned carefully and should uniquely determine, along with other important characteristics of the artificial climate, the productivity of the plant-production facility. The most widespread crops grown in our country under indoor conditions are cucumber and tomato plants, which account for more than 98% of the area in greenhouses. These plants are good prospects for growing completely under intense artificial lighting conditions (photocultures). Optimization of the main parameters of optical radiation when growing these plants is the most important task of achieving their profitable production. At present, considerable experience has been gained in studying the dependence of productivity of cucumber and tomato communities on irradiation conditions. Fundamental studies of the Agrophysical Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Timiryazev Agricultural Academy, and other institutes create a good basis for a detailed study of the given problem. Commercial sources of radiation substantially differing in spectral characteristics in the region of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were used in the studies.

  19. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are extensive and well developed. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Estimates from SPOT HRV, remote sensing satellite data indicated that as much as 120 hectares of emergent wetlands vegetation may have been present along the Par Pond shoreline by early October, 1995. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  20. Global nutrient limitation in terrestrial vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Joshua B.; Badgley, Grayson; Blyth, Eleanor

    2012-09-01

    Most vegetation is limited in productivity by nutrient availability, but the magnitude of limitation globally is not known. Nutrient limitation is directly relevant not only to ecology and agriculture, but also to the global carbon cycle by regulating how much atmospheric CO2the terrestrial biosphere can sequester. We attempt to identify total nutrient limitation in terrestrial plant productivity globally using ecophysiological theory and new developments in remote sensing for evapotranspiration and plant productivity. Our map of nutrient limitation qualitatively reproduces known regional nutrient gradients (e.g., across Amazonia), highlights differences in nutrient addition to croplands (e.g., between "developed" and "developing" countries), identifies the role of nutrients on the distribution of major biomes (e.g., tree line migration in boreal North America), and compares similarly to a ground-based test along the Long Substrate Age Gradient in Hawaii, U.S.A. (e.g., foliar and soil nutrients, litter decomposition). Nonetheless, challenges in representing light and water use efficiencies, disturbance, and comparison to ground data with multiple interacting nutrients provide avenues for further progress on refining such a global map. Global average reduction in terrestrial plant productivity was within 16-28%, depending on treatment of disturbance; these values can be compared to global carbon cycle model estimates of carbon uptake reduction with nutrient cycle inclusion.

  1. White Light Emission from Vegetable Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vikram; Mishra, Ashok K.

    2015-01-01

    A mixture of extracts from two common vegetables, red pomegranate and turmeric, when photoexcited at 380 nm, produced almost pure white light emission (WLE) with Commission Internationale d’Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity index (0.35, 0.33) in acidic ethanol. It was also possible to obtain WLE in polyvinyl alcohol film (0.32, 0.25), and in gelatin gel (0.26, 0.33) using the same extract mixture. The colour temperature of the WLE was conveniently tunable by simply adjusting the concentrations of the component emitters. The primary emitting pigments responsible for contributing to WLE were polyphenols and anthocyanins from pomegranate, and curcumin from turmeric. It was observed that a cascade of Forster resonance energy transfer involving polyphenolics, curcumin and anthocyanins played a crucial role in obtaining a CIE index close to pure white light. The optimized methods of extraction of the two primary emitting pigments from their corresponding plant sources are simple, cheap and fairly green. PMID:26083264

  2. Phytochemical phenolics in organically grown vegetables.

    PubMed

    Young, Janice E; Zhao, Xin; Carey, Edward E; Welti, Ruth; Yang, Shie-Shien; Wang, Weiqun

    2005-12-01

    Fruit and vegetable intake is inversely correlated with risks for several chronic diseases in humans. Phytochemicals, and in particular, phenolic compounds, present in plant foods may be partly responsible for these health benefits through a variety of mechanisms. Since environmental factors play a role in a plant's production of secondary metabolites, it was hypothesized that an organic agricultural production system would increase phenolic levels. Cultivars of leaf lettuce, collards, and pac choi were grown either on organically certified plots or on adjacent conventional plots. Nine prominent phenolic agents were quantified by HPLC, including phenolic acids (e. g. caffeic acid and gallic acid) and aglycone or glycoside flavonoids (e. g. apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin, and quercetin). Statistically, we did not find significant higher levels of phenolic agents in lettuce and collard samples grown organically. The total phenolic content of organic pac choi samples as measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, however, was significantly higher than conventional samples (p < 0.01), and seemed to be associated with a greater attack the plants in organic plots by flea beetles. These results indicated that although organic production method alone did not enhance biosynthesis of phytochemicals in lettuce and collards, the organic system provided an increased opportunity for insect attack, resulting in a higher level of total phenolic agents in pac choi. PMID:16302198

  3. Pyrethroid insecticide residues on vegetable crops.

    PubMed

    Ripley, B D; Ritcey, G M; Harris, C R; Denommé, M A; Brown, P D

    2001-08-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides were applied on various vegetable crops as foliar treatments to determine dissipation rates. On Chinese broccoli (Guy Lon), Chinese mustard (Pak Choi) and Chinese cabbage (Kasumi, napa), fenvalerate was persistent with residues of 0.10, 0.14 and 0.11 mg kg-1, respectively, by day 21. Cypermethrin residues on head lettuce were below 0.1 mg kg-1 by day 10 but on the leafier romaine and endive varieties it was more persistent and required 14-19 days to dissipate below this concentration. After three applications, residues of cypermethrin in harvested carrots and of permethrin in eggplant were not detected on the day of application. On asparagus, deltamethrin and cypermethrin residues declined to less than 0.1 mg kg-1 by days 1 and 2, respectively; permethrin was more persistent, requiring more than 2 days to decline to less than 0.1 mg kg-1. Deltamethrin on dry (cooking) and Spanish onions was not detected on the day of application. On tomatoes, the concentration of permethrin was 0.093 mg kg-1 on the day of application and declined to about 0.05 mg kg-1 after 2-4 days. In general, permethrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin residues declined to acceptable concentrations within an acceptable pre-harvest interval. Fenvalerate may be too persistent on these speciality crops unless a maximum residue limit > 0.1 mg kg-1 is permitted. PMID:11517721

  4. White Light Emission from Vegetable Extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vikram; Mishra, Ashok K.

    2015-06-01

    A mixture of extracts from two common vegetables, red pomegranate and turmeric, when photoexcited at 380 nm, produced almost pure white light emission (WLE) with Commission Internationale d’Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity index (0.35, 0.33) in acidic ethanol. It was also possible to obtain WLE in polyvinyl alcohol film (0.32, 0.25), and in gelatin gel (0.26, 0.33) using the same extract mixture. The colour temperature of the WLE was conveniently tunable by simply adjusting the concentrations of the component emitters. The primary emitting pigments responsible for contributing to WLE were polyphenols and anthocyanins from pomegranate, and curcumin from turmeric. It was observed that a cascade of Forster resonance energy transfer involving polyphenolics, curcumin and anthocyanins played a crucial role in obtaining a CIE index close to pure white light. The optimized methods of extraction of the two primary emitting pigments from their corresponding plant sources are simple, cheap and fairly green.

  5. Classification and Taxonomy of Vegetable Macergens

    PubMed Central

    Aremu, Bukola R.; Babalola, Olubukola O.

    2015-01-01

    Macergens are bacteria capable of releasing pectic enzymes (pectolytic bacteria). These enzymatic actions result in the separation of plant tissues leading to total plant destruction. This can be attributed to soft rot diseases in vegetables. These macergens primarily belong to the genus Erwinia and to a range of opportunistic pathogens namely: the Xanthomonas spp., Pseudomonas spp., Clostridium spp., Cytophaga spp., and Bacillus spp. They consist of taxa that displayed considerable heterogeneity and intermingled with members of other genera belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae. They have been classified based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic which obviously not necessary in the taxonomy of all bacterial genera for defining bacterial species and describing new ones These taxonomic markers have been used traditionally as a simple technique for identification of bacterial isolates. The most important fields of taxonomy are supposed to be based on clear, reliable and worldwide applicable criteria. Hence, this review clarifies the taxonomy of the macergens to the species level and revealed that their taxonomy is beyond complete. For discovery of additional species, further research with the use modern molecular methods like phylogenomics need to be done. This can precisely define classification of macergens resulting in occasional, but significant changes in previous taxonomic schemes of these macergens. PMID:26640465

  6. Lysimeter study of vegetative uptake from saltstone

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1990-06-08

    At the Savannah River Site, liquid, low-level nuclear waste will be disposed of by incorporating the waste in concrete, a wasteform called saltstone. Saltstone monoliths will then be buried in the earth. To study the potential uptake of radionuclides by trees and other plants growing in the soil in the area containing buried saltstone, a lysimeter study has been in progress since 1984. Thirty two lysimeters were designed, constructed, and filled with soil. Saltstone samples, containing the liquid, low-level supernate from the tank 50 in-tank precipitation demonstration, were buried in some of the lysimeters. Other lysimeters, not containing saltstone, were used as controls. Crops, grass, and trees were planted in the lysimeters and sampled periodically to determine radionuclide concentrations. Water samples were also collected from the lysimeter sumps and analyzed for radionuclide content. This report documents the results of vegetative and lysimeter sump water measurements from the beginning of the project in November of 1984 through September of 1989. 6 refs., 22 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Application of remote sensing technology in the study of vegetation: Example of vegetation of zhejiang province in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHU, MengRu

    2015-04-01

    Application of remote sensing technology in the study of vegetation: Example of vegetation of zhejiang province in China Remote sensing technology , is one of the pillars of the space information technology in the 21st century ,play an important role in the study of vegetation. Vegetation coverage as an important parameter reflecting surface information, has been an important research topic in the field of vegetation remote sensing. Administrative region in zhejiang Province as the study area, use of microwave remote sensing and hyperspectral remote sensing technology, combined with the related data, to survey the area of forest resources in zhejiang Province, establishes an index system of sustainable forest resources management ability in zhejiang, and to evaluate its ability. Remote Sensing is developed in the 1960 s of the earth observation technology, comprehensive instruments refers to the application, not contact with the object detection phase, the target characteristics of electromagnetic waves recorded from a distance, through the analysis, reveals the characteristics of the object properties and changes of comprehensive detection technology. Investigation of vegetation is an important application field of remote sensing investigation. Vegetation is an important factor of environment, and also is one of the best sign to reflect the regional ecological environment, at the same times is the interpretation of soil, hydrological elements such as logo, individual or prospecting indicator plant. Vegetation imaging and interpretation of research results for environmental monitoring, biodiversity conservation, agriculture, forestry and other relevant departments to provide information services.Microwave remote sensing hyperspectral remote sensing technology and application in the research of vegetation is an important direction of remote sensing technology in the future. This paper introduces the principle of microwave remote sensing and hyperspectral remote

  8. 77 FR 25164 - Revision to Transmission Vegetation Management Reliability Standard; Notice Inviting Comments on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Revision to Transmission Vegetation Management Reliability Standard; Notice... Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on ``Applicability of the `Gallet Equation' to the Vegetation... technical questions raised by the Minimum Vegetation Clearance Distances as proposed in the North...

  9. Analysis of Vegetation and Atmospheric Correction Indices for Landsat Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Tasha R.; Desai, M.

    1997-01-01

    Vegetation and Atmospheric Indices are mathematical combinations of remote sensing bands which are useful in distinguishing the various values of the spectral reflectance. In this paper we study how the applications of various atmospherically corrected indices and vegetation indices can aide in retrieving the amount of surface reflectance from a remotely sensed image. Specifically, this paper studies and compares three vegetation indices and one atmospherically resistant index. These indices include the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), the Green Vegetation Index (GVI), and the Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index (ARVI), respectively. The algorithms attempt to estimate the optical characteristics of Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery. It will be shown that the NDVI algorithm followed by the ARVI correcting algorithm provided significant improvements in the tonal qualities of the retrieved images. The results are presented on 1987 TM images over the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and are compared with a set of United States Geological Survey (U.S.G.S) maps.

  10. Spatial and spectral resolution necessary for remotely sensed vegetation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, B. N.

    1982-01-01

    An outline is presented of the required spatial and spectral resolution needed for accurate vegetation discrimination and mapping studies as well as for determination of state of health (i.e., detection of stress symptoms) of actively growing vegetation. Good success was achieved in vegetation discrimination and mapping of a heterogeneous forest cover in the ridge and valley portion of the Appalachians using multispectral data acquired with a spatial resolution of 15 m (IFOV). A sensor system delivering 10 to 15 m spatial resolution is needed for both vegetation mapping and detection of stress symptoms. Based on the vegetation discrimination and mapping exercises conducted at the Lost River site, accurate products (vegetation maps) are produced using broad-band spectral data ranging from the .500 to 2.500 micron portion of the spectrum. In order of decreasing utility for vegetation discrimination, the four most valuable TM simulator VNIR bands are: 6 (1.55 to 1.75 microns), 3 (0.63 to 0.69 microns), 5 (1.00 to 1.30 microns) and 4 (0.76 to 0.90 microns).

  11. Late-quaternary vegetational dynamics and community stability reconsidered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delcourt, Paul A.; Delcourt, Hazel R.

    1983-03-01

    Defining the spatial and temporal limits of vegetational processes such as migration and invasion of established communities is a prerequisite to evaluating the degree of stability in plant communities through the late Quaternary. The interpretation of changes in boundaries of major vegetation types over the past 20,000 yr offers a complementary view to that provided by migration maps for particular plant taxa. North of approximately 43°N in eastern North America, continual vegetational disequilibrium has resulted from climatic change, soil development, and species migrations during postglacial times. Between 33° and 39°N, stable full-glacial vegetation was replaced by a relatively unstable vegetation during late-glacial climatic amelioration; stable interglacial vegetation developed there after about 9000 yr B.P. Late-Quaternary vegetation has been in dynamic equilibrium, with a relatively constant flora, south of 33°N on upland interfluves along the northern Gulf Coastal Plain, peninsular Florida, and west-central Mexico.

  12. Monitoring vegetation growth and morphodynamic effects after stream restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Luna, Andrés; Crosato, Alessandra; Anders, Niels; Hoitink, Ton; Keesstra, Saskia; Uijttewaal, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation processes are widely recognized as a key component on the ecological and morphological development of river channels. Moreover, plants reduce flow velocities and bed-shear stresses by increasing the local hydraulic roughness and thus increasing water levels. Therefore, monitoring the vegetation development is an important activity in river management not only for protecting ecological services, but also in flood risk reduction; especially in times of a changing climate. This paper presents the analysis the effects of riparian vegetation growth on the morphology of a lowland restored stream located in The Netherlands, the Lunterse beek. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) was used to obtain aerial imagery at different time steps which was the basis for generating land cover maps with semi-automated image classification. In addition hydrological series and multi-temporal high-resolution bathymetric data allowed analysing river bed morphology and the relevance of seasonality. The UAV campaigns were found a crucial step to ease the vegetation mapping and monitoring. The morphological change observed in this stream, represented by the channel-width adjustment and the cross sectional evolution, is slowed down once vegetation is stablished on the stream. Results of this work show that the vegetation root system assert a strong control on soil stabilization, even during the winter season when the plants biomass is highly reduced. Seasonal variations in plant development appear important only during the first stages of establishment, when vegetation has a low density and, more importantly, a root system that is not fully developed yet.

  13. Vegetation shifts observed in arctic tundra 17 years after fire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrett, Kirsten; Rocha, Adrian V.; van de Weg, Martine Janet; Shaver, Gaius

    2012-01-01

    With anticipated climate change, tundra fires are expected to occur more frequently in the future, but data on the long-term effects of fire on tundra vegetation composition are scarce. This study addresses changes in vegetation structure that have persisted for 17 years after a tundra fire on the North Slope of Alaska. Fire-related shifts in vegetation composition were assessed from remote-sensing imagery and ground observations of the burn scar and an adjacent control site. Early-season remotely sensed imagery from the burn scar exhibits a low vegetation index compared with the control site, whereas the late-season signal is slightly higher. The range and maximum vegetation index are greater in the burn scar, although the mean annual values do not differ among the sites. Ground observations revealed a greater abundance of moss in the unburned site, which may account for the high early growing season normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) anomaly relative to the burn. The abundance of graminoid species and an absence of Betula nana in the post-fire tundra sites may also be responsible for the spectral differences observed in the remotely sensed imagery. The partial replacement of tundra by graminoid-dominated ecosystems has been predicted by the ALFRESCO model of disturbance, climate and vegetation succession.

  14. [Vegetation change in Shenzhen City based on NDVI change classification].

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Jing; Zeng, Hui; Wel, Jian-Bing

    2008-05-01

    Based on the TM images of 1988 and 2003 as well as the land-use change survey data in 2004, the vegetation change in Shenzhen City was assessed by a NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) change classification method, and the impacts from natural and social constraining factors were analyzed. The results showed that as a whole, the rapid urbanization in 1988-2003 had less impact on the vegetation cover in the City, but in its plain areas with low altitude, the vegetation cover degraded more obviously. The main causes of the localized ecological degradation were the invasion of built-ups to woods and orchards, land transformation from woods to orchards at the altitude of above 100 m, and low percentage of green land in some built-ups areas. In the future, the protection and construction of vegetation in Shenzhen should focus on strengthening the protection and restoration of remnant woods, trying to avoid the built-ups' expansion to woods and orchards where are better vegetation-covered, rectifying the unreasonable orchard constructions at the altitude of above 100 m, and consolidating the greenbelt construction inside the built-ups. It was considered that the NDVI change classification method could work well in efficiently uncovering the trend of macroscale vegetation change, and avoiding the effect of random noise in data. PMID:18655594

  15. Association between pollen hypersensitivity and edible vegetable allergy: a review.

    PubMed

    Caballero, T; Martín-Esteban, M

    1998-01-01

    Over the last three decades several authors have described the existence of an association between sensitivity to different pollens and sensitivity to diverse edible vegetables. An association between ragweed pollinosis and hypersensitivity to Cucurbitaceae vegetables (e.g., watermelon, melon, cucumber) and banana has been reported. Other authors have found a relationship between birch pollinosis and sensitization to hazelnut, apple, carrot, potato, kiwi and other vegetables. Additionally, several papers have shown the association between mugwort pollinosis and sensitization to celery, carrot, spices, nuts, mustard and Leguminoseae vegetables. Later, some studies showed association between grass pollinosis and sensitization to tomato, potato, green- pea, peanut, watermelon, melon, apple, orange and kiwi. Finally, an association between sensitization to plantain pollen and melon hypersensitivity was also described. The association between pollinosis and edible vegetable sensitization has been explained by the combination of different hypotheses, such as the following: 1) presence of lectins in edible vegetables; 2) existence of IgE to carbohydrates of the glycoproteins (cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants); and, 3) existence of common allergens between pollens and edible vegetables. Up to now three allergens have been identified as responsible for cross-reactivity in these associations: profilin, a 14 kd protein that regulates actin; Bet v 1, the 18 kd birch pollen allergen; and a 60-69 kd allergen. It is important to study in depth these associated sensitizations and the common allergens responsible for them in order to improve diagnostic methods and treatment of these syndromes. PMID:9555613

  16. Responses of vegetation growth to climate change in china

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Zhou, T.

    2015-04-01

    Global warming-related climate changes have significantly impacted the growth of terrestrial vegetation. Quantifying the spatiotemporal characteristic of the vegetation's response to climate is crucial for assessing the potential impacts of climate change on vegetation. In this study, we employed the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) that was calculated for various time scales (1 to 12 months) from monthly records of mean temperature and precipitation totals using 511 meteorological stations in China to study the response of vegetation types to droughts. We separated the NDVI into 12 time series (one per month) and also used the SPEI of 12 droughts time scales to make the correlation. The results showed that the differences exist in various vegetation types. For needle-leaved forest, broadleaf forest and shrubland, they responded to droughts at long time scales (9 to 12 months). For grassland, meadow and cultivated vegetation, they responded to droughts at short time scales (1 to 5months). The positive correlations were mostly found in arid and sub-arid environments where soil water was a primary constraining factor for plant growth, and the negative correlations always existed in humid environments where temperature and radiation played significant roles in vegetation growth. Further spatial analysis indicated that the positive correlations were primarily found in northern China, especially in northwestern China, which is a region that always has water deficit, and the negative correlations were found in southern China, especially in southeastern China, that is a region has water surplus most of the year. The disclosed patterns of spatiotemporal responses to droughts are important for studying the impact of climate change to vegetation growth.

  17. Monitoring temporal Vegetation changes in Lao tropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phompila, Chittana; Lewis, Megan; Clarke, Kenneth; Ostendorf, Bertram

    2014-06-01

    Studies on changes in vegetation are essential for understanding the interaction between humans and the environment. These studies provide key information for land use assessment, terrestrial ecosystem monitoring, carbon flux modelling and impacts of global climate change. The primary purpose of this study was to detect temporal vegetation changes in tropical forests in the southern part of Lao PDR from 2001-2012. The study investigated the annual vegetation phenological response of dominant land cover types across the study area and relationships to seasonal precipitation and temperature. Improved understanding of intra-annual patterns of vegetation variation was useful to detect longer term changes in vegetation. The breaks for additive season and trend (BFAST) approach was implemented to detect changes in these land cover types throughout the 2001-2012 period. We used the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) (MOD13Q1 products) and monthly rainfall and temperature data obtained from the Meteorology and Hydrology Department, Ministry of Agriculture-Forestry, published by Lao National Statistical Centre in this research. EVI well documented the annual seasonal growth of vegetation and clearly distinguished the characteristic phenology of four different land use types; native forest, plantation, agriculture and mixed wooded/cleared area. Native forests maintained high EVI throughout the year, while plantations, wooded/cleared areas and agriculture showed greater inter-annual variation, with minimum EVI at the end of the dry season in April and maximum EVI in September-October, around two months after the wet season peak in rainfall. The BFAST analysis detected abrupt temporal changes in vegetation in the tropical forests, especially in a large conversion of mixed wooded/cleared area into plantation. Within the study area from 2001-2012 there has been an overall decreasing trend of vegetation cover for

  18. Revisiting "Vegetables" to combat modern epidemic of imbalanced glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ashok Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Vegetables have been part of human food since prehistoric times and are considered nutritionally necessary and good for health. Vegetables are rich natural resource of biological antioxidants and possess capabilities of maintaining glucose homeostasis. When taken before starch-rich diet, juice also of vegetables such as ridge gourd, bottle gourd, ash gourd, chayote and juice of leaves of vegetables such as radish, Indian Dill, ajwain, tropical green amaranth, and bladder dock are reported to arrest significantly the rise in postprandial blood glucose level. Juice of vegetables such as ash gourd, squash gourd, and tropical green amaranth leaves are observed to tone-down sweet-beverages such as sucrose, fructose, and glucose-induced postprandial glycemic excursion. On the other hand, juice of egg-plant and juice of leaves of Ceylon spinach, Joyweed, and palak are reported to augment starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion; and juice of leaves of Ceylon spinach, Joyweed, and radish supplement to the glucose-induced postprandial glycemia. Vegetables possess multifaceted antihyperglycemic activities such as inhibition of pancreatic α-amylase and intestinal α-glucosidase, inhibition of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1β in liver and skeletal muscles, and insulin mimetic and secretagogue activities. Furthermore, they are also reported to influence polyol pathway in favor of reducing development of oxidative stress, and consequently the development of diabetic complications. In the wake of emergence of modern maladaptive diet-induced hyperglycemic epidemic therefore, vegetables may offer cost-effective dietary regimen to control diet-induced glycemic over load and future development of diabetes mellitus. However, for vegetables have been reported to do both, mitigate as well as supplement to the diet-induced postprandial glycemic load, care is required in selection of vegetables when considered as medicament. PMID:24991093

  19. Sensitivity analysis of channel-bend hydraulics influenced by vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bywater-Reyes, S.; Manners, R.; McDonald, R.; Wilcox, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Alternating bars influence hydraulics by changing the force balance of channels as part of a morphodynamic feedback loop that dictates channel geometry. Pioneer woody riparian trees recruit on river bars and may steer flow, alter cross-stream and downstream force balances, and ultimately change channel morphology. Quantifying the influence of vegetation on stream hydraulics is difficult, and researchers increasingly rely on two-dimensional hydraulic models. In many cases, channel characteristics (channel drag and lateral eddy viscosity) and vegetation characteristics (density, frontal area, and drag coefficient) are uncertain. This study uses a beta version of FaSTMECH that models vegetation explicitly as a drag force to test the sensitivity of channel-bend hydraulics to riparian vegetation. We use a simplified, scale model of a meandering river with bars and conduct a global sensitivity analysis that ranks the influence of specified channel characteristics (channel drag and lateral eddy viscosity) against vegetation characteristics (density, frontal area, and drag coefficient) on cross-stream hydraulics. The primary influence on cross-stream velocity and shear stress is channel drag (i.e., bed roughness), followed by the near-equal influence of all vegetation parameters and lateral eddy viscosity. To test the implication of the sensitivity indices on bend hydraulics, we hold calibrated channel characteristics constant for a wandering gravel-bed river with bars (Bitterroot River, MT), and vary vegetation parameters on a bar. For a dense vegetation scenario, we find flow to be steered away from the bar, and velocity and shear stress to be reduced within the thalweg. This provides insight into how the morphodynamic evolution of vegetated bars differs from unvegetated bars.

  20. Does stream flow structure woody riparian vegetation in subtropical catchments?

    PubMed

    James, Cassandra S; Mackay, Stephen J; Arthington, Angela H; Capon, Samantha J; Barnes, Anna; Pearson, Ben

    2016-08-01

    The primary objective of this study was to test the relevance of hydrological classification and class differences to the characteristics of woody riparian vegetation in a subtropical landscape in Queensland, Australia. We followed classification procedures of the environmental flow framework ELOHA - Ecological Limits of Hydrologic Alteration. Riparian surveys at 44 sites distributed across five flow classes recorded 191 woody riparian species and 15, 500 individuals. There were differences among flow classes for riparian species richness, total abundance, and abundance of regenerating native trees and shrubs. There were also significant class differences in the occurrence of three common tree species, and 21 indicator species (mostly native taxa) further distinguished the vegetation characteristics of each flow class. We investigated the influence of key drivers of riparian vegetation structure (climate, depth to water table, stream-specific power, substrate type, degree of hydrologic alteration, and land use) on riparian vegetation. Patterns were explained largely by climate, particularly annual rainfall and temperature. Strong covarying drivers (hydrology and climate) prevented us from isolating the independent influences of these drivers on riparian assemblage structure. The prevalence of species considered typically rheophytic in some flow classes implies a more substantial role for flow in these classes but needs further testing. No relationships were found between land use and riparian vegetation composition and structure. This study demonstrates the relevance of flow classification to the structure of riparian vegetation in a subtropical landscape, and the influence of covarying drivers on riparian patterns. Management of environmental flows to influence riparian vegetation assemblages would likely have most potential in sites dominated by rheophytic species where hydrological influences override other controls. In contrast, where vegetation assemblages are

  1. A Comparison of Potential Temperature Variance Budgets over Vegetated and Non-Vegetated Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hang, C.; Nadeau, D.; Jensen, D. D.; Pardyjak, E.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decades, researchers have achieved a fundamental understanding of the budgets of turbulent variables over simplified and (more recently) complex terrain. However, potential temperature variance budgets, parameterized in most meteorological models, are still poorly understood even under relatively idealized conditions. Although each term of the potential temperature variance budget has been studied over different stabilities and surfaces, a detailed understanding of turbulent heat transport over different types of surfaces is still missing. The objectives of this study are thus: 1) to quantify the significant terms in the potential temperature variance budget equation; 2) to show the variability of the budget terms as a function of height and stability; 3) to model the potential temperature variance decay in the late-afternoon and early-evening periods. To do this, we rely on near-surface turbulence observations collected within the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) program, which was designed to better understand the physics governing processes in mountainous terrain. As part of MATERHORN, large field campaigns were conducted in October 2012 and May 2013 in western Utah. Here, we contrast two field sites: a desert playa (dry lakebed), characterized by a flat surface devoid of vegetation, and a vegetated site, characterized by a low-elevation valley floor covered with greasewood vegetation. As expected, preliminary data analysis reveals that the production and molecular dissipation terms play important roles in the variance budget, however the turbulent transport term is also significant during certain time periods at lower levels (i.e., below 5 m). Our results also show that all three terms decrease with increasing height below 10 m and remain almost constant between 10 m to 25 m, which indicates an extremely shallow surface layer (i.e. 10 m). Further, at all heights and times an imbalance between production and

  2. The Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS): An Airborne Laser Altimeter for Mapping Vegetation and Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, J.; Rabine, David L.

    1998-01-01

    The Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) is an airborne laser altimeter designed to quickly and extensively map surface topography as well as the relative heights of other reflecting surfaces within the laser footprint. Since 1997, this instrument has primarily been used as the airborne simulator for the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mission, a spaceborne mission designed to measure tree height, vertical structure and ground topography (including sub-canopy topography). LVIS is capable of operating from 500 m to 10 km above ground level with footprint sizes from 1 to 60 m. Laser footprints can be randomly spaced within the 7 degree telescope field-of-view, constrained only by the operating frequency of the ND:YAG Q-switched laser (500 Hz). A significant innovation of the LVIS altimeter is that all ranging, waveform recording, and range gating are performed using a single digitizer, clock base, and detector. A portion of the outgoing laser pulse is fiber-optically fed into the detector used to collect the return signal and this entire time history of the outgoing and return pulses is digitized at 500 Msamp/sec. The ground return is then located using software digital signal processing, even in the presence of visibly opaque clouds. The surface height distribution of all reflecting surfaces within the laser footprint can be determined, for example, tree height and ground elevation. To date, the LVIS system has been used to monitor topographic change at Long Valley caldera, CA, as part of NASA's Topography and Surface Change program, and to map tree structure and sub-canopy topography at the La Selva Biological Research Station in Costa Rica, as part of the pre-launch calibration activities for the VCL mission. We present results that show the laser altimeter consistently and accurately maps surface topography, including sub-canopy topography, and vegetation height and structure. These results confirm the measurement concept of VCL and highlight the benefits of

  3. Precipitation controls on vegetation phenology in a temperate broadleaf forest estimated from MODIS vegetation index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, T.; Song, C.; Bolstad, P.; Band, L. E.

    2010-12-01

    Forest canopy phenology is an important control of annual water and carbon budgets, and has been shown to respond to regional interannual climate variation. In steep terrain, there are complex spatial variations in phenology in response to well expressed topographic influences on microclimate, community composition, and available soil moisture. We investigate interannual variation in topography-mediated controls on vegetation phenology in a humid temperate broadleaf forest. Moderate-resolution imaging spectro-radiometer (MODIS) vegetation indices are used to derive local patterns of topography-mediated vegetation phenology using a simple post-processing analysis and a non-linear model fitting. Extracted phenological signals show reasonable correlations in terms of both inter-annual variation and inter-site differences with two continuous FPAR measurements from walk-up towers. Combined effects of temperature and orographic precipitation show distinct quadratic responses of senescence timing along elevation gradient, also associated with forest community types. Interannual variation of these quadratic responses is quite related to the amount of precipitation and available soil water (precipitation - potential evapotranspiration) from late summer to fall, which clearly shows precipitation controls on senescence phenology even in a humid temperate broadleaf forest. Normalized plant water stress from continuous soil moisture measurements with TDR sensors also directly supports water stress related controls on senescence phenology. This study also suggests that temperature increases may have less uniform effect on senescence especially in low elevation regions where water availability is also a critical factor for senescence timing. Temperature increases instead may exacerbate plant water stress due to potential evapotranspiration increases, which may increase the degree of dependence of senescence phenology on water availability within the study site. The earlier

  4. Longleaf Pine Ground-Layer Vegetation in Francis Marion National Forest: Reintroduction, Restoration, and Vegetation Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Glitzenstein, J.; Streng, D.; Wade, D.

    2001-01-01

    Study represents significant progress in understanding of compositional gradients in longleaf pine plant communities of Central South Carolina. Study shows the importance of water table depths as a controlling variable with vegetation patterns in the field and similar effects in a garden experiment. Grass planting study suggests that observed field distributions of dormant pine savannah grasses derive from complex interactive effects of fire history, hydrology and light environments. Use of regional longleaf data set to identify candidate species for introduction also appears to be a pioneering effort.

  5. Case Study for EOSDIS Support to MEaSUREs: the Vegetation Index and Vegetation Phenology ESDRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkerson, C.; Meyer, D.; Didan, K.

    2009-12-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Observation System (EOS) Project (USGS-EOS) managed at the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center is a Co-Investigator on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Cooperative Agreement (CA) #NNX08AT05A. The MEaSUREs CA entitled “Vegetation Phenology and Vegetation Index Products from Multiple Long Term Satellite Data Records” is led by Principal Investigator (PI) Dr. Kamel Didan at the University of Arizona. The goal of the MEaSUREs solicitation is to develop Earth System Data Records (ESDR) which, following evaluation by a NASA Earth Science Data System Working Group (ESDSWG), may be approved as standard NASA Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) holdings. USGS-EOS is providing services in the five-year interim to prepare the Vegetation Index and Vegetation Phenology (VIP) ESDRs for transition into the Land Processes DAAC if approved at the end of the term. Pursuing pre-approval support of ESDRs encourages their proper support, usage, and promotes community consensus for these products. USGS-EOS service to the VIP ESDRs includes distribution, user services, outreach support, and metrics reporting. During initial VIP development, USGS-EOS has prototyped a distribution system, the MEaSUREs VIP Client, based on web service functions executing on-demand reformatting, reprojection, and subsetting of native data for delivery as applications-ready products. The client is available as a beta operational access tool for the remainder of the five-year project term. A User Support Model is in place to define the levels of service available through the USGS-EOS to the MEaSUREs VIP community, for the purpose of building product knowledge, client expertise, and familiarity with the user base. USGS-EOS participates in PI-led user workshops by contributing presentation materials that facilitate the promotion

  6. Classification of wetlands vegetation using small scale color infrared imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. S. L.

    1975-01-01

    A classification system for Chesapeake Bay wetlands was derived from the correlation of film density classes and actual vegetation classes. The data processing programs used were developed by the Laboratory for the Applications of Remote Sensing. These programs were tested for their value in classifying natural vegetation, using digitized data from small scale aerial photography. Existing imagery and the vegetation map of Farm Creek Marsh were used to determine the optimal number of classes, and to aid in determining if the computer maps were a believable product.

  7. Vegetative effects of Stroop-test solving and cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Suter, T W; Bättig, K

    1982-01-01

    The vegetative effects of cigarette smoking were investigated in 28 male smokers required to answer STROOP stimuli and in 16 smokers tested under yoked conditions. The smoking effects were considerably more pronounced in the yoked group than in the task solving groups. Psychophysiological reactivity to solving the STROOP task only tented to be influenced by smoking. A possible role for the reinforcing effects of smoking in this type of experiment can therefore be seen more in the vegetative activation preparatory to coping with the task than in the modulation of the task-induced vegetative responses. PMID:7183087

  8. Toxic metals in imported fruits and vegetables marketed in Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Husain, A.; Baroon, Z.; Al-Khalafawi, M.

    1995-12-31

    The concentration of lead, cadmium, and mercury in 134 samples of imported fruits and vegetables marketed in Kuwait were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer with a graphite furnace and the cold vapor technique. Results obtained showed that the concentration of these metal ions in most cases did not exceed the maximum permissible concentration of metals in fresh fruits and vegetables as restricted by some countries. Only a few samples of fruits and vegetables contained levels of mercury, cadmium, and lead which exceeded these maximum permissible levels.

  9. Soil, water, and vegetation conditions in south Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L.; Gausman, H. W.; Leamer, R. W.; Richardson, A. J.; Everitt, J. H.; Gerbermann, A. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The best wavelengths in the 0.4 to 2.5 micron interval were determined for detecting lead toxicity and ozone damage, distinguishing succulent from woody species, and detecting silverleaf sunflower. A perpendicular vegetation index, a measure of the distance from the soil background line, in MSS 5 and MSS 7 data space, of pixels containing vegetation was developed and tested as an indicator of vegetation development and crop vigor. A table lookup procedure was devised that permits rapid identification of soil background and green biomass or phenological development in LANDSAT scenes without the need for training data.

  10. Vegetation dynamics in a large braided river (Tagliamento River, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barban, M.; Monegato, G.; Surian, N.; Ziliani, L.

    2012-04-01

    Vegetation has often a crucial role on braided river dynamics in humid environments. The aim of this work is to investigate island dynamics and, specifically, the controls of such dynamics. We started exploring the relation between islands dynamics and flow regime, testing the hypothesis if islands erosion is associated with floods of specific magnitude. Besides geological (e.g. groundwater depth) and geomorphological (e.g. channel confinement and evolutionary trajectory of channel morphology) controls were taken into account to explain vegetation dynamics. The study was conducted on a 14 km reach of the Tagliamento River (northeastern Italy). Changes in channel morphology and vegetation cover were analyzed over a time period of 25 years, from 1986 to 2011, using 8 sets of aerial photographs (1986, 1993, 1997, 1999, 2003, 2005, 2009, 2011). Ten types of fluvial features were digitized within the fluvial corridor which includes the active channel, floodplain and recent terraces. Vegetation was distinguished in three categories according to its height and tree canopy: herbaceous vegetation and shrubs, shrubs and trees of low-medium height, high trees. The extent of the last two categories, that is extent of vegetated patches where trees are dominant, ranged between 4% (in 2005) and 11% (in 1986) of the whole active channel. Preliminary analyses were focused on the dynamics of such vegetation patches, considering the extent of vegetated areas that were eroded and flow regime for each sub-period (e.g. 1986-1993). Erosion of vegetation occurred during all sub-periods but with different magnitude. Three sub-periods were characterized by less intense erosion (annual rates of erosion varying between 4% and 5%) while during the other four sub-periods annual erosion rates were in the range 11% - 15%. Correlations of those erosion rates with flow regime (i.e. cumulative discharges above a defined threshold) suggest that vegetation erosion is strictly connected to occurrence

  11. Discrete Random Media Techniques for Microwave Modeling of Vegetated Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing of agricultural crops and forested regions is studied. Long term goals of the research involve modeling vegetation so that radar signatures can be used to infer the parameters which characterize the vegetation and underlying ground. Vegetation is modeled by discrete scatterers viz, leaves, stems, branches and trunks. These are replaced by glossy dielectric discs and cylinders. Rough surfaces are represented by their mean and spectral characteristics. Average scattered power is then calculated by employing discrete random media methodology such as the distorted Born approximation or transport theory. Both coherent and incoherent multiple scattering techniques are explored. Once direct methods are developed, inversion techniques can be investigated.

  12. Sand Bed Morphodynamics under Standing Waves and Vegetated Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, B. J.; Garcia, M. H.

    2010-12-01

    Littoral processes such as sediment transport, wave attenuation, and boundary layer development are governed by the presence of bathymetric features, which include large-scale sand bars upon which smaller-scale sand ripples are superimposed, as well as the presence of submarine vegetation. Numerous studies on sand ripples and bars have aided to elucidate the dynamics in oscillatory flows; however, the effect of vegetation on the system is less understood. Recent laboratory studies have focused on quantifying wave attenuation by emergent vegetation as a natural method to mitigate storm surges. The emergent vegetation, while promising for coastal protection, alters sediment transport rates directly by the physical presence of the plants near the bed and indirectly from reduction in near-bed shear stresses due to attenuated wave energy. The experimental work herein focuses on the area near the deeply submerged vegetated canopy limit (current work has a ratio of mean still water depth to plant height, H/h, = 7.9) to minimize the effect on the surface waves and discern the direct impact vegetation has on sand bed morphodynamics. Experiments were conducted in the large wave tank (49-m long by 1.83-m wide by 1.22-m deep) in the Ven Te Chow Hydrosystems Laboratory at the University of Illinois in which a high reflection wave forcing was used over a uniform sand bed with a 0.25-mm median sediment diameter in which staggered and uniform arrangements of idealized vegetation (i.e., 6.35-mm diameter rigid wooden cylinders) were positioned along the bed (e.g., at predetermined sand bar troughs and over an entire sand bar). The resulting bathymetric evolution from the vegetated case experiments were compared to the base case of no vegetation using two optical methods: a high-resolution laser displacement sensor for three-dimensional surveys and digitized profiles via high-definition panoramic images of the entire test section. The experimental findings illustrate the profound

  13. An experimental study of flow around submerged grass vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Julia; Mandre, Shreyas; Singh, Ravi

    2014-11-01

    Mixing of fluids through submerged vegetation caused by tidal currents facilitate various environmental and ecological transport processes. This fluid-vegetation interaction is believed to result from a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability from an inflection point in the flow profile. Recent studies suggest that flow in presence of grass can also become unstable due to shear instability of flow above the grass. We devise a two-dimensional lab scale analog of the fluid-vegetation interaction using ABS plastic filaments immersed in a soap film. We employ PIV of the surrounding flow to gain an understanding of the role of instabilities in the flow.

  14. Three examples of applied remote sensing of vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, J. W., Jr.; Benton, A. R., Jr.; Toler, R. W.; Haas, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    Cause studies in which remote sensing techniques were adapted to assist in the solution of particular problem situations in Texas involving vegetation are described. In each case, the final sensing technique developed for operational use by the concerned organizations employed photographic sensors which were optimized through studies of the spectral reflectance characteristics of the vegetation species and background conditions unique to the problem being considered. The three examples described are: (1) Assisting Aquatic Plant Monitoring and Control; (2) Improving Vegetation Utilization in Urban Planning; and (3) Enforcing the Quarantine of Diseased Crops.

  15. Regression models for vegetation radar-backscattering and radiometric emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eom, H. J.

    1986-01-01

    Simple regression estimation of radar backscatter and radiometric emission from vegetative terrain is proposed, based on the exact radiative transfer models. A vegetative canopy is modeled as a Rayleigh scattering layer above an irregular Kirchhoff surface. The rms errors between the exact and the estimated ones are found to be less than 5 percent for emission, and 1 dB for the backscattering case, in most practical uses. The proposed formulas are useful in quickly estimating backscattering and emission from the vegetative terrain.

  16. Plant community composition and vegetation height, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sloan, Victoria; Norby, Richard; Siegrist, Julia; Iversen, Colleen; Brooks, Jonathan; Liebig, Jennifer; Wood, Sarah

    2014-04-25

    This dataset contains i) the results of field surveys of plant community composition and vegetation height made between 17th and 29th July 2012 in 48, 1 x 1 m plots located in areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska and ii) results of a mapping exercise undertaken in August 2013 using two perpendicular transects across each polygon containing vegetation plots to determine the boundaries of vegetation communities described in 2012.

  17. Fisher-Shannon information plane analysis of SPOT/VEGETATION Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series to characterize vegetation recovery after fire disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanorte, Antonio; Lasaponara, Rosa; Lovallo, Michele; Telesca, Luciano

    2014-02-01

    The time dynamics of SPOT-VEGETATION Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series are analyzed by using the statistical approach of the Fisher-Shannon (FS) information plane to assess and monitor vegetation recovery after fire disturbance. Fisher-Shannon information plane analysis allows us to gain insight into the complex structure of a time series to quantify its degree of organization and order. The analysis was carried out using 10-day Maximum Value Composites of NDVI (MVC-NDVI) with a 1 km × 1 km spatial resolution. The investigation was performed on two test sites located in Galizia (North Spain) and Peloponnese (South Greece), selected for the vast fires which occurred during the summer of 2006 and 2007 and for their different vegetation covers made up mainly of low shrubland in Galizia test site and evergreen forest in Peloponnese. Time series of MVC-NDVI have been analyzed before and after the occurrence of the fire events. Results obtained for both the investigated areas clearly pointed out that the dynamics of the pixel time series before the occurrence of the fire is characterized by a larger degree of disorder and uncertainty; while the pixel time series after the occurrence of the fire are featured by a higher degree of organization and order. In particular, regarding the Peloponneso fire, such discrimination is more evident than in the Galizia fire. This suggests a clear possibility to discriminate the different post-fire behaviors and dynamics exhibited by the different vegetation covers.

  18. Vegetation study in support of the design and optimization of vegetative soil covers, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Peace, Gerald L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM inc., Albuquerque, NM); Knight, Paul J. (Marron and Associates, Albuquerque, NM); Ashton, Thomas S. (Marron and Associates, Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-11-01

    A vegetation study was conducted in Technical Area 3 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico in 2003 to assist in the design and optimization of vegetative soil covers for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste landfills at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico and Kirtland Air Force Base. The objective of the study was to obtain site-specific, vegetative input parameters for the one-dimensional code UNSAT-H and to identify suitable, diverse native plant species for use on vegetative soil covers that will persist indefinitely as a climax ecological community with little or no maintenance. The identification and selection of appropriate native plant species is critical to the proper design and long-term performance of vegetative soil covers. Major emphasis was placed on the acquisition of representative, site-specific vegetation data. Vegetative input parameters measured in the field during this study include root depth, root length density, and percent bare area. Site-specific leaf area index was not obtained in the area because there was no suitable platform to measure leaf area during the 2003 growing season due to severe drought that has persisted in New Mexico since 1999. Regional LAI data was obtained from two unique desert biomes in New Mexico, Sevilletta Wildlife Refuge and Jornada Research Station.

  19. Acute toxicology of components of vegetation smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Dost, F.N. )

    1991-01-01

    Only in recent times, systematic attention has been paid to the occupational health of forest firefighters and workers who manage prescribed fire. Two parts of the effort to learn the impact on worker health are medical observation of those workers, and study of occupational hygiene. It is also necessary to learn what components of smoke are most likely to affect firefighters, and to learn something of the manner in which those substances might compromise health; this review is a step toward that end. The number of possible products of vegetation combustion is almost limitless, and every fuel and condition of burning produces a unique pattern. Nonetheless, it is possible and practical to select a limited number of products that are most likely to be involved in the acute toxicity of smoke. Two products that are almost certainly important are formaldehyde and acrolein. Both appear to occur in all smoke. The toxicology of both is well studied; in particular both are powerful mucosal irritants. Estimates of exposure suggest strongly that concentrations are high enough in smoke to contribute some or all of the irritant activity. There seems to be a reasonable prospect that free radical precursors with half-lives in the tens of minutes are produced when cellulosic materials burn. If so, they will reach the respiratory tract, and liberate free radicals that react immediately on or in pulmonary cells. Ozone is not produced in the fire, but the various hydrocarbons of smoke are substrates for reactions that eventually produce ozone, and that production may continue for miles down-plume. Some measured plume concentrations approach the threshold for human health effects. The effects of the best known component, the particulate material, are unknown in isolation from all of the other substances in smoke. 122 refs.

  20. The vegetational history of the Balkans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, K. J.

    The vegetational history of the Balkans from the last glacial through to present features a dynamic system not subject to immigration of additional taxa. Many temperate taxa appear to have survived in this region during the last glacial in low but persistent populations. Evidence suggests that a greater diversity of taxa existed in the mid to high altitude sites probably where the climate was more humid. At the lateglacial/Holocene transition many tree taxa expanded simultaneously with no evidence of the time-transgressive appearance of taxa which is taken to be indicative of differential immigration in northern Europe. Expansion of temperate woodland was at least 1000 years earlier than in northern Europe suggesting that this was the minimum time for migration of temperate trees into northern Europe. Changes in the composition of the early Holocene woodland included expansion of Pistacia between 9000 and 8000 14C BP, a change in the forest dominants between 8000 and 7000 14C BP, and the appearance and increase of Carpinus orient./Ostrya, Abies. Carpinus betulus and Fagus between 7500 and 5000 14C BP. Since all types were present in the region from the lateglacial, it is suggested that factors other than migration are responsible for their population increase. These factors are considered and include climate, soil development, establishment time and anthropogenic disturbance. Development of the present day landscape started at approximately 4500 14C BP with the onset of anthropogenic disturbance. Clearance resulted in the increase of open ground herbaceous types with grasses, Cerealia-type and Plantago lanceolata. New trees also to become established included Juglans, Olea, Castanea and Platanus. At least two of these types ( Juglans and Castanea) were present in the Balkans during the lateglacial suggesting that although some types were imported by the Greeks/Romans others may have expanded in situ as a result of a favourable niche being created by anthropogenic

  1. Quantifying landscape resilience using vegetation indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eddy, I. M. S.; Gergel, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Landscape resilience refers to the ability of systems to adapt to and recover from disturbance. In pastoral landscapes, degradation can be measured in terms of increased desertification and/or shrub encroachment. In many countries across Central Asia, the use and resilience of pastoral systems has changed markedly over the past 25 years, influenced by centralized Soviet governance, private property rights and recently, communal resource governance. In Kyrgyzstan, recent governance reforms were in response to the increasing degradation of pastures attributed to livestock overgrazing. Our goal is to examine and map the landscape-level factors that influence overgrazing throughout successive governance periods. Here, we map and examine some of the spatial factors influencing landscape resilience in agro-pastoral systems in the Kyrgyzstan Republic where pastures occupy >50% of the country's area. We ask three questions: 1) which mechanisms of pasture degradation (desertification vs. shrub encroachment), are detectable using remote sensing vegetation indices?; 2) Are these degraded pastures associated with landscape features that influence herder mobility and accessibility (e.g., terrain, distance to other pastures)?; and 3) Have these patterns changed through successive governance periods? Using a chronosequence of Landsat imagery (1999-2014), NDVI and other VIs were used to identify trends in pasture condition during the growing season. Least-cost path distances as well as graph theoretic indices were derived from topographic factors to assess landscape connectivity (from villages to pastures and among pastures). Fieldwork was used to assess the feasibility and accuracy of this approach using the most recent imagery. Previous research concluded that low herder mobility hindered pasture use, thus we expect the distance from pasture to village to be an important predictor of pasture condition. This research will quantify the magnitude of pastoral degradation and test

  2. BOREAS TE-6 Multiband Vegetation Imager Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Kucharik, Christopher J.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-6 team collected data in support of its efforts to examine the influence of vegetation and climate on the major carbon fluxes in boreal tree species. A newly developed ground-based canopy imaging system called an MVI was tested and used by the BOREAS TE-06 team to collect measurements of the canopy crap fraction (sky fraction), canopy gap-size distribution (size and frequency of gaps between foliage in canopy), branch architecture, and leaf angle distribution (fraction of leaf area in specific leaf inclination classes assuming azimuthal symmetry). Measurements of the canopy gap-size distribution are used to derive canopy clumping indices that can be used to adjust indirect LAI measurements made in nonrandom forests. These clumping factors will also help to describe the radiation penetration in clumped canopies more accurately by allowing for simple adjustments to Beer's law. Measurements of the above quantities were obtained at BOREAS NSA-OJP site in IFC-2 in 1994, at the SSA-OA in July 1995, and at the SSA-OBS and SSA-OA sites in IFC-2 in 1996. Modeling studies were also performed to further validate MVI measurements and to gain a more complete understanding of boreal forest canopy architecture. By using MVI measurements and Monte Carlo simulations, clumping indices as a function of zenith angle were derived for the three main boreal species studied during BOREAS. The analyzed data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distrobuted Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  3. New vegetation type map of India prepared using satellite remote sensing: Comparison with global vegetation maps and utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, P. S.; Behera, M. D.; Murthy, M. S. R.; Roy, Arijit; Singh, Sarnam; Kushwaha, S. P. S.; Jha, C. S.; Sudhakar, S.; Joshi, P. K.; Reddy, Ch. Sudhakar; Gupta, Stutee; Pujar, Girish; Dutt, C. B. S.; Srivastava, V. K.; Porwal, M. C.; Tripathi, Poonam; Singh, J. S.; Chitale, Vishwas; Skidmore, A. K.; Rajshekhar, G.; Kushwaha, Deepak; Karnatak, Harish; Saran, Sameer; Giriraj, A.; Padalia, Hitendra; Kale, Manish; Nandy, Subrato; Jeganathan, C.; Singh, C. P.; Biradar, C. M.; Pattanaik, Chiranjibi; Singh, D. K.; Devagiri, G. M.; Talukdar, Gautam; Panigrahy, Rabindra K.; Singh, Harnam; Sharma, J. R.; Haridasan, K.; Trivedi, Shivam; Singh, K. P.; Kannan, L.; Daniel, M.; Misra, M. K.; Niphadkar, Madhura; Nagabhatla, Nidhi; Prasad, Nupoor; Tripathi, O. P.; Prasad, P. Rama Chandra; Dash, Pushpa; Qureshi, Qamer; Tripathi, S. K.; Ramesh, B. R.; Gowda, Balakrishnan; Tomar, Sanjay; Romshoo, Shakil; Giriraj, Shilpa; Ravan, Shirish A.; Behera, Soumit Kumar; Paul, Subrato; Das, Ashesh Kumar; Ranganath, B. K.; Singh, T. P.; Sahu, T. R.; Shankar, Uma; Menon, A. R. R.; Srivastava, Gaurav; Neeti; Sharma, Subrat; Mohapatra, U. B.; Peddi, Ashok; Rashid, Humayun; Salroo, Irfan; Krishna, P. Hari; Hajra, P. K.; Vergheese, A. O.; Matin, Shafique; Chaudhary, Swapnil A.; Ghosh, Sonali; Lakshmi, Udaya; Rawat, Deepshikha; Ambastha, Kalpana; Malik, Akhtar H.; Devi, B. S. S.; Gowda, Balakrishna; Sharma, K. C.; Mukharjee, Prashant; Sharma, Ajay; Davidar, Priya; Raju, R. R. Venkata; Katewa, S. S.; Kant, Shashi; Raju, Vatsavaya S.; Uniyal, B. P.; Debnath, Bijan; Rout, D. K.; Thapa, Rajesh; Joseph, Shijo; Chhetri, Pradeep; Ramachandran, Reshma M.

    2015-07-01

    A seamless vegetation type map of India (scale 1: 50,000) prepared using medium-resolution IRS LISS-III images is presented. The map was created using an on-screen visual interpretation technique and has an accuracy of 90%, as assessed using 15,565 ground control points. India has hitherto been using potential vegetation/forest type map prepared by Champion and Seth in 1968. We characterized and mapped further the vegetation type distribution in the country in terms of occurrence and distribution, area occupancy, percentage of protected area (PA) covered by each vegetation type, range of elevation, mean annual temperature and precipitation over the past 100 years. A remote sensing-amenable hierarchical classification scheme that accommodates natural and semi-natural systems was conceptualized, and the natural vegetation was classified into forests, scrub/shrub lands and grasslands on the basis of extent of vegetation cover. We discuss the distribution and potential utility of the vegetation type map in a broad range of ecological, climatic and conservation applications from global, national and local perspectives. We used 15,565 ground control points to assess the accuracy of products available globally (i.e., GlobCover, Holdridge's life zone map and potential natural vegetation (PNV) maps). Hence we recommend that the map prepared herein be used widely. This vegetation type map is the most comprehensive one developed for India so far. It was prepared using 23.5 m seasonal satellite remote sensing data, field samples and information relating to the biogeography, climate and soil. The digital map is now available through a web portal (http://bis.iirs.gov.in).

  4. Discoloration of indigo carmine using aqueous extracts from vegetables and vegetable residues as enzyme sources.

    PubMed

    Solís, A; Perea, F; Solís, M; Manjarrez, N; Pérez, H I; Cassani, J

    2013-01-01

    Several vegetables and vegetable residues were used as sources of enzymes capable to discolor indigo carmine (IC), completely or partially. Complete discoloration was achieved with aqueous extracts of green pea seeds and peels of green pea, cucumber, and kohlrabi, as well as spring onion leaves. The source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), pH, time, and aeration is fundamental for the discoloration process catalyzed by PPO. The PPO present in the aqueous extract of green pea seeds was able to degrade 3,000 ppm of IC at a pH of 7.6 and magnetic stirring at 1,800 rpm in about 36 h. In addition, at 1,800 rpm and a pH of 7.6, this extract discolored 300 ppm of IC in 1:40 h; in the presence of 10% NaCl, the discoloration was complete in 5:50 h, whereas it was completed in 4:30 h with 5% NaCl and 2% laundry soap. PMID:24151588

  5. Discoloration of Indigo Carmine Using Aqueous Extracts from Vegetables and Vegetable Residues as Enzyme Sources

    PubMed Central

    Solís, A.; Perea, F.; Solís, M.; Manjarrez, N.; Pérez, H. I.; Cassani, J.

    2013-01-01

    Several vegetables and vegetable residues were used as sources of enzymes capable to discolor indigo carmine (IC), completely or partially. Complete discoloration was achieved with aqueous extracts of green pea seeds and peels of green pea, cucumber, and kohlrabi, as well as spring onion leaves. The source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), pH, time, and aeration is fundamental for the discoloration process catalyzed by PPO. The PPO present in the aqueous extract of green pea seeds was able to degrade 3,000 ppm of IC at a pH of 7.6 and magnetic stirring at 1,800 rpm in about 36 h. In addition, at 1,800 rpm and a pH of 7.6, this extract discolored 300 ppm of IC in 1:40 h; in the presence of 10% NaCl, the discoloration was complete in 5:50 h, whereas it was completed in 4:30 h with 5% NaCl and 2% laundry soap. PMID:24151588

  6. Response of avian communities to herbicide-induced vegetation changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, M.L.; Meslow, E.C.

    1984-01-01

    The relationships between avian communities and herbicide modification of vegetation were analyzed on early-growth clear-cuts in western Oregon that had received phenoxy herbicide treatment 1 or 4 years previously. For both 1 and 4 years post-spray, vegetation development was greater in the third height interval (> 3.0 m) on untreated sites. All measures of vegetative diversity on untreated sites exceeded those on treated sites. Overall density and diversity of birds were similar between treated and untreated sites. Several bird species altered their foraging behavior on treated sites, i.e., birds using deciduous trees increased use of shrubs on treated sites. The primary effect of herbicide application was a reduction in the complexity of vegetation, a condition due primarity to the removal of deciduous trees. Small patches of deciduous trees scattered in clear-cuts treated with phenoxy herbicides can maintain an avian community similar to that on untreated sites.

  7. Grafting for control of meloidogyne spp. in fruiting vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regulatory restraints on the use of soil fumigants have increased the need for sustainable nematode management approaches. Nematode resistant vegetable varieties with desirable horticultural characteristics are limited. Technology enabling the grafting of desirable scion varieties onto resistant ro...

  8. Sensitivity and rapidity of vegetational response to abrupt climate change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peteet, D.

    2000-01-01

    Rapid climate change characterizes numerous terrestrial sediment records during and since the last glaciation. Vegetational response is best expressed in terrestrial records near ecotones, where sensitivity to climate change is greatest, and response times are as short as decades.

  9. Capillary trapping of buoyant particles within regions of emergent vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peruzzo, Paolo; Defina, Andrea; Nepf, Heidi

    2012-07-01

    The seeds of many aquatic plants are buoyant and thus transported at the water surface, where they are subject to surface tension that may enhance their retention within emergent vegetation. Specifically, seeds may be trapped by surface tension (i.e., by the Cheerios effect) at the surface-piercing interface of the vegetation. In this work we develop a physical model that predicts this mechanism of seed trapping, advancing the model proposed by Defina and Peruzzo (2010) that describes the propagation of floating particles through emergent vegetation. The emergent vegetation is simulated as an array of cylinders, randomly arranged, with the mean gap between cylinders far greater than the particle size, which prevents the trapping of particles between pairs of cylinders, referred to as net trapping. Laboratory experiments are used to guide and validate the model. The model also has good agreement with experimental data available in the literature for real seeds and more complex plant morphology.

  10. Floating particle trapping and diffusion in vegetated open channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defina, Andrea; Peruzzo, Paolo

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we present early results of laboratory experiments to investigate the transport and diffusion of floating particles (e.g., buoyant seeds) in open channel flow with emergent vegetation. The experiments are aimed at providing a better understanding of the relevant particle-vegetation interaction mechanisms responsible for the observed diffusion processes. Qualitative observational data are then used to set up a stochastic model for floating particle transport and diffusion. Quantitative observations, such as the distribution of distances travelled by a particle before it is permanently captured by a plant and the arrival-time distributions at prescribed cross sections along the vegetated test section, are instead used to calibrate and validate the model. The comparison between theoretical predictions and experimental results is quite satisfactory and suggests that the observed relevant aspects of the particle-vegetation interaction processes are properly described in the model.

  11. Statistical modelling of a new global potential vegetation distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levavasseur, G.; Vrac, M.; Roche, D. M.; Paillard, D.

    2012-12-01

    The potential natural vegetation (PNV) distribution is required for several studies in environmental sciences. Most of the available databases are quite subjective or depend on vegetation models. We have built a new high-resolution world-wide PNV map using a objective statistical methodology based on multinomial logistic models. Our method appears as a fast and robust alternative in vegetation modelling, independent of any vegetation model. In comparison with other databases, our method provides a realistic PNV distribution in agreement with respect to BIOME 6000 data. Among several advantages, the use of probabilities allows us to estimate the uncertainty, bringing some confidence in the modelled PNV, or to highlight the regions needing some data to improve the PNV modelling. Despite our PNV map being highly dependent on the distribution of data points, it is easily updatable as soon as additional data are available and provides very useful additional information for further applications.

  12. Control of helminth contamination of raw vegetables by washing.

    PubMed

    Avcioğlu, Hamza; Soykan, Emel; Tarakci, Umit

    2011-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the control of helminth egg contamination of raw vegetables by washing. A total of 199 unwashed and 199 washed lettuce, parsley, carrots, dill, rocket, and green-peppers, provided by a catering service in Bursa, Turkey, between March and June 2009, were subjected to helminth egg count under light microscopy. Helminth eggs were detected in six (3.0%) unwashed samples and not in any washed samples (p<0.01). Ascaris lumbricoides and Toxocara spp. were detected in four (2.0%) and two (1.0%) unwashed vegetables, respectively, mostly among leafy vegetables such as lettuce and parsley. Our data confirm that washing procedures before consumption of raw vegetables regardless of the providers' sanitation should be performed to avoid transmission of helminths. PMID:20569015

  13. Reducing whiteflies on cucumber using intercropping with less preferred vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of four less preferred vegetables – celery, asparagus lettuce, Malabar spinach, and edible amaranth – were investigated for suppression of two biotypes of sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. (Cucurbitaceae). Int...

  14. 21 CFR 139.135 - Enriched vegetable macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.135 Enriched vegetable macaroni products. (a) Each of the...

  15. 21 CFR 139.135 - Enriched vegetable macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.135 Enriched vegetable macaroni products. (a) Each of the...

  16. 21 CFR 139.135 - Enriched vegetable macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.135 Enriched vegetable macaroni products. (a) Each of the...

  17. 21 CFR 139.135 - Enriched vegetable macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.135 Enriched vegetable macaroni products. (a) Each of the...

  18. Selected Vegetables/Sun's Soup (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of selected vegetables/Sun's soup as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  19. Calculations of radar backscattering coefficient of vegetation-covered soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mo, T.; Schmugge, T. J.; Jackson, T. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    A model for simulating the measured backscattering coefficient of vegetation-covered soil surfaces includes both coherent and incoherent components of the backscattered radar pulses from a rough sil surface. The effect of vegetation canopy scattering is also incorporated into the model by making the radar pulse subject to two-way attenuation and volume scattering when it passes through the vegetation layer. Model results agree well with the measured angular distributions of the radar backscattering coefficient for HH polarization at the 1.6 GHz and 4.75 GHz frequencies over grass-covered fields. It was found that the coherent scattering component is very important at angles near nadir, while the vegetation volume scattering is dominant at incident angles 30 degrees.

  20. Monitoring vegetation using Nimbus-7 scanning mutichannel microwave radiometer's data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.; Tucker, C. J.; Golus, R. E.; Newcomb, W. W.

    1987-01-01

    Field studies and radiative transfer model calculations have shown that brightness temperature at high microwave frequencies is strongly affected by vegetation. The daytime observations for six consecutive years (1979 to 1984) over the Sahara, Senegalese Sahel, Burkina Fasso (Upper Volta), and U.S. Southern Great Plains at 37 GHz frequency of the Sanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on board the Nimbus-7 satellite are analyzed, and a high correlation with the normalized difference vegetation index derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on board the NOAA-7 satellite is found. The SMMR data appear to provide a valuable new long-term global data set for monitoring vegetation. In particular, the differing responses of vegetation (for example, annual grasses versus woody plants) to drought and the stability of the desert/steppe boundary of northern Africa might be studied using the time series data.