Science.gov

Sample records for case history study

  1. Perspectives on Learning History: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Michele L.; Nist, Sherrie L.

    1997-01-01

    Generates a description of the elements that supported students' performance in a university history course. Concludes that students who were flexible in their belief systems about learning and history, perceptions of task, and strategic approaches were the ones who succeeded in the course. Notes that students who performed better in the course…

  2. A History and Case Study at a Selected Tribal College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oltrogge, Micheal P.

    2010-01-01

    "A History and Case Study at a Selected Tribal College" focuses on a tribally chartered two-year institution of higher education. The selected Tribal College serves Native American and non-Native American populations on two separate and distinct reservations and one urban location. This study surveys the history to answer basic foundational and…

  3. A Pedagogical Trebuchet: A Case Study in Experimental History and History Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brice, Lee L.; Catania, Steven

    2012-01-01

    A common problem history teachers face regardless of their field of specialization is how to help students find answers to the most difficult historical questions, those for which the sources are unavailable or inaccessible, and teach them to do so in a methodologically valid manner. This article presents a case study which shows how a project in…

  4. Case history

    SciTech Connect

    Garelick, B. )

    1988-01-01

    Recycling offers a means by which hazardous materials can be kept from entering the environment. In addition to its environmental benefits, the recycling of certain byproducts, sludges, and spent materials generated from industrial processes was viewed by some as a means for exclusion from regulation under RCRA. Under EPA's 19 May 1980 regulations, non-listed wastes that were recycled were not regulated. Consequently, many activities called recycling occurred but were viewed by EPA as analogous to land disposal or incineration rather than recycling. Ultimately, these issues served as an impetus to reconsider the recycling provisions of the RCRA regulations; in particular, EPA undertook an extensive rewrite of the definition of solid waste. This paper explores a case of a proposed modernization to USS-POSCO's steel finishing plant in Pittsburg, California, and how it has been affected by EPA's definition of solid waste. The modernization would include a closed-loop facility in which the spent pickle liquor would be processed, resulting in hydrochloric acid that would be reused in the pickling lines. The ferric oxide produced through this process would be removed and sold.

  5. The Path of History: Narrative Analysis of History Textbooks--A Case Study of Belgian History Textbooks (1945-2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanhulle, Bert

    2009-01-01

    The philosophical background of the subject history in secondary education has been mainly addressed through research based on "obvious" source types (curricula, discussions in committees or journals, ...). This article proposes a narrative method of analysing history textbooks in order to study the underlining historical philosophy of history…

  6. Doing Local History: A Case Study of New Brunswick, New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Michael P.; Crocco, Margaret Smith

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a methodology that teachers can use to incorporate themes and ideas related to local history in their classrooms. Using the city of New Brunswick, New Jersey as a case study, the article offers different approaches that allow local history to be connected to wider themes in American history. The focus here on a small,…

  7. An Oral History of Janet Emig's Case Study Subject "Lynn."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelms, Gerald

    During interviews conducted with Janet Emig, the true identity of "Lynn," the primary subject of Emig's influential 1971 monograph "The Composing Processes of Twelfth Graders," was determined. Discovery of Susan Gzech's true identity led to an interview which shed some interesting light on Emig's case study and on composition instruction as well.…

  8. Curriculum as natural history: A life-history case study of an alternative science learning program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windward, Rolfe

    The aim of this study is to further our understanding of the nexus between individual development and conceptions of science curriculum with particular emphasis upon root metaphors. The initial conceptual springboard is based upon the rather consistent conflation of selectionist (Darwinian) and developmental cosmologies in most scientific thinking about complex systems. A partial goal of this study then being the development of a visual metaphor that offers a more coherent heuristic of what it means to be a knowing individual within a changing ecosocial reality. This is a paradigmatic examination and it is conjectured that the root assumptions underlying the bulk of curriculum theory are unrealistic, that the appearance of stability in curriculum and practice is largely a byproduct of misclassification or even category error, and that reconceptualizing curriculum as a description of an adaptive system rather than a system-by-design will assist in unpacking a number of problems including the so-called theory-practice gap. The basic procedure is a life-history case study of seven participants--three female high school students, three male high school students, and their teacher--tracked between three learning contexts: the classroom, an extracurricular science "institute," and a virtual astronomy class. The biography of the researcher is incorporated both as a matter of methodology and as a matter of interventionist stance. It is concluded that the 'science institute' embodied a number of innovative features, including more equality among all participants, that also allowed masking-off of countervailing forces perceived as antithetical to its own development. Its organization was not stable but constituted a strongly expansive instrument in the individuation of all participants, allowing the students to more clearly visualize the multiple natures of science and themselves as individuals and scientists. It also allowed the teacher involved to leverage change in his

  9. The Mystery of the Blue Death: A Case Study in Epidemiology and the History of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muench, Susan Bandoni

    2009-01-01

    This case study introduces students to John Snow, considered to be one of the founders of both epidemiology and anesthesiology, and a remarkable figure in the history of science. Although historical case studies are often less popular with students than contemporary issues (Herreid 1998), a number of aspects of this case make it attractive to…

  10. JSTOR: A Case Study in the Recent History of Scholarly Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonfeld, Roger C.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To argue for the consideration from an historical perspective of technology-enabled changes in higher education. Design/methodology/approach: Uses examples from the author's history of JSTOR as a case study. Findings: That the case of JSTOR offers evidence that technology-enabled changes in higher education will have historical interest.…

  11. A Case History and Comparative Study of a Multiple Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boor, Myron

    The study of multiple personality is important because this disorder is severely disruptive to the individual and because further insights into other behavior disorders and the development of normal personality and behavioral functioning may emerge. A 26-year-old female experienced a conscious personality which determined the extent to which both…

  12. The Changing Nature of Church College Relations: A History and Case Study of Concordia University Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Kristi K.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a history and case study of Concordia University Texas (CTX). There has been a gap in the scholarly research literature regarding how and to what extent Concordia Texas mirrors the path of other denominational colleges and universities in terms of relationship to their founding church bodies. Therefore, the purpose of this…

  13. The Utilization of Local History in Teaching American Religious History: A Gilded Age and Progressive Era North Dakota Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Christopher Neal

    2013-01-01

    Teachers of college-level courses on American religious history generally leave out the importance of local and regional histories when telling the story of religion in America. The study of local history provides a fertile ground for understanding broad national trends in a local context. This dissertation focuses upon a little-studied religious…

  14. Teaching History with Comic Books: A Case Study of Violence, War, and the Graphic Novel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Alicia C.; Castro, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, the authors present a case study that demonstrates how graphic novels can be utilized in the history classroom. More specifically, they discuss the benefits (and challenges) of using comic books to teach undergraduates about war and violence. While much of their discussion focuses on the historical particularities of Uganda, their…

  15. History Places: A Case Study for Relational Database and Information Retrieval System Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendry, David G.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a project-based case study that was developed for students with diverse backgrounds and varied inclinations for engaging technical topics. The project, called History Places, requires that student teams develop a vision for a kind of digital library, propose a conceptual model, and use the model to derive a logical model and…

  16. The Development of Dalton's Atomic Theory as a Case Study in the History of Science: Reflections for Educators in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viana, Helio Elael Bonini; Porto, Paulo Alves

    2010-01-01

    The inclusion of the history of science in science curricula--and specially, in the curricula of science teachers--is a trend that has been followed in several countries. The reasons advanced for the study of the history of science are manifold. This paper presents a case study in the history of chemistry, on the early developments of John…

  17. A Descriptive Study of the Classroom Instruction Component of the ESEA Title VII Bilingual Education Program. Selected Case Histories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenas, Rene F.; Rudes, Blair A.

    Twenty-two case histories of bilingual education programs funded under Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act are presented as a companion volume to the technical report of the same study. The case histories were developed from site visits and surveys of administrators, teachers, and parents involved in the program. The program…

  18. Ten case history studies of energy efficiency improvements in pulp and paper mills. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The ten technologies chosen for case history development are: sonic sootblowing in boilers, boiler operation on oil-water emulsified fuel, energy efficient motors, computerized control of excess air for boilers, boiler control and load allocation, driving of waste-activated sludge by multiple effect evaporation, pre-drying of hog fuel, lime kiln computerization, heat wheel for process heat recovery, and organic Rankine bottoming cycle for thermomechanical pulping heat recovery. For each case study, there is given: the company name, employee contact, plant summary, a description of the energy consuming process and of the energy-saving action, an assessment of energy savings, and the decision process leading to the adoption of the measure. A data summary for discounted cash flow analysis is tabulated for each case. (LEW)

  19. Hierarchical benchmark case study for history matching, uncertainty quantification and reservoir characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, D.; Demyanov, V.; Tatum, D.; Christie, M.; Rojas, T.; Geiger, S.; Corbett, P.

    2013-01-01

    Benchmark problems have been generated to test a number of issues related to predicting reservoir behaviour (e.g. Floris et al., 2001, Christie and Blunt, 2001, Peters et al., 2010). However, such cases are usually focused on a particular aspect of the reservoir model (e.g. upscaling, property distribution, history matching, uncertainty prediction, etc.) and the other decisions in constructing the model are fixed by log values that are related to the distribution of cell properties away from the wells, fixed grids and structural features and fixed fluid properties. This is because all these features require an element of interpretation, from indirect measurements of the reservoir, noisy and incomplete data and judgments based on domain knowledge. Therefore, there is a need for a case study that would consider interpretational uncertainty integrated throughout the reservoir modelling workflow. In this benchmark study we require the modeller to make interpretational choices as well as to select the techniques applied to the case study, namely the geomodelling approach, history matching algorithm and/or uncertainty quantification technique. The interpretational choices will be around the following areas: Top structure interpretation from seismic and well picks. Fault location, dimensions and the connectivity of the network uncertainty. Facies modelling approach. Facies interpretations from well logs cutoffs. Petrophysical property prediction from the available well data. Grid resolution-choice between number of iterations and model resolution to capture the reservoir features adequately. A semi-synthetic study is based on real field data provided: production data, seismic sections to interpret the faults and top structures, wireline logs to identify facies correlations and saturation profile and porosity and permeability data and a host of other data. To make this problem useable in a manageable time period multiple hierarchically related gridded models were produced

  20. A Case Study of the In-Class Use of a Video Game for Teaching High School History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, William R.; Mong, Christopher J.; Harris, Constance A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the case of a sophomore high school history class where "Making History", a video game designed with educational purposes in mind, is used in the classroom to teach about World War II. Data was gathered using observation, focus group and individual interviews, and document analysis. The high school was a rural school located in…

  1. Surgical History and the Risk of Endometriosis: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xishi; Long, Qiqi; Guo, Sun-Wei

    2016-09-01

    Women tend to receive more surgical procedures than men. Our mouse study shows that surgical stress promotes the development of endometriosis. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that surgery increases the risk of endometriosis. We recruited 208 patients with ovarian endometrioma and 212 age-matched patients with ovarian teratoma and retrieved information on the history of any surgical procedures after menarche, grouped by laparotomy, laparoscopy, gynecologically related procedures, cesarean section, and surgeries performed on torso and extremities was recorded. We then evaluated the association, if any, between endometriosis and history of surgical procedures. Cases and controls were comparable with respect to age, marital status, education level, and occupation. Eleven (5.3%) cases had laparotomy before the index surgery while 4 (1.9%) controls did. Sixty-six (31.7%) cases had Cesarean section while 53 (25.0%) controls did. Multivariate analysis identified age, at the index surgery laparotomy, and cesarean section as 3 factors positively associated with the risk of endometriosis while parity was found to be negatively associated with the risk. Laparotomy was associated with increased risk of endometriosis (odds ratio [OR] = 3.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08-12.31), while cesarean section was associated with 2-fold increase in risk (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.31-3.55). Both laparotomy and cesarean section may increase the risk of endometriosis probably by activation of adrenergic signaling, thus facilitating angiogenesis and accelerating the growth of endometriotic lesions that are already in existence. This finding may have important ramifications for the perioperative management of patients with increased risk or recurrence risk of endometriosis. PMID:26919976

  2. The Development of Dalton's Atomic Theory as a Case Study in the History of Science: Reflections for Educators in Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viana, Hélio Elael Bonini; Porto, Paulo Alves

    2010-01-01

    The inclusion of the history of science in science curricula—and specially, in the curricula of science teachers—is a trend that has been followed in several countries. The reasons advanced for the study of the history of science are manifold. This paper presents a case study in the history of chemistry, on the early developments of John Dalton’s atomic theory. Based on the case study, several questions that are worth discussing in educational contexts are pointed out. It is argued that the kind of history of science that was made in the first decades of the twentieth century (encyclopaedic, continuist, essentially anachronistic) is not appropriate for the development of the competences that are expected from the students of sciences in the present. Science teaching for current days will benefit from the approach that may be termed the “new historiography of science”.

  3. Genome-wide association study reveals greater polygenic loading for schizophrenia in cases with a family history of illness.

    PubMed

    Bigdeli, Tim B; Ripke, Stephan; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin; Lee, Sang Hong; Wray, Naomi R; Gejman, Pablo V; Rietschel, Marcella; Cichon, Sven; St Clair, David; Corvin, Aiden; Kirov, George; McQuillin, Andrew; Gurling, Hugh; Rujescu, Dan; Andreassen, Ole A; Werge, Thomas; Blackwood, Douglas H R; Pato, Carlos N; Pato, Michele T; Malhotra, Anil K; O'Donovan, Michael C; Kendler, Kenneth S; Fanous, Ayman H

    2016-03-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of schizophrenia have yielded more than 100 common susceptibility variants, and strongly support a substantial polygenic contribution of a large number of small allelic effects. It has been hypothesized that familial schizophrenia is largely a consequence of inherited rather than environmental factors. We investigated the extent to which familiality of schizophrenia is associated with enrichment for common risk variants detectable in a large GWAS. We analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for cases reporting a family history of psychotic illness (N = 978), cases reporting no such family history (N = 4,503), and unscreened controls (N = 8,285) from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC1) study of schizophrenia. We used a multinomial logistic regression approach with model-fitting to detect allelic effects specific to either family history subgroup. We also considered a polygenic model, in which we tested whether family history positive subjects carried more schizophrenia risk alleles than family history negative subjects, on average. Several individual SNPs attained suggestive but not genome-wide significant association with either family history subgroup. Comparison of genome-wide polygenic risk scores based on GWAS summary statistics indicated a significant enrichment for SNP effects among family history positive compared to family history negative cases (Nagelkerke's R(2 ) = 0.0021; P = 0.00331; P-value threshold <0.4). Estimates of variability in disease liability attributable to the aggregate effect of genome-wide SNPs were significantly greater for family history positive compared to family history negative cases (0.32 and 0.22, respectively; P = 0.031). We found suggestive evidence of allelic effects detectable in large GWAS of schizophrenia that might be specific to particular family history subgroups. However, consideration of a polygenic risk score indicated a significant

  4. Case Study in History of Education during the 1970s: Published Stories of the Midwest History of Education Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Mark

    2005-01-01

    The rapid expansion of public schooling during the 1950s and 1960s increased the need for teachers and teacher training. Colleges accomplished this by having professors of education train other educators in foundations of education. This broke the connections between academic history, philosophy, and sociology and educational history, philosophy,…

  5. Cross-Border Collaboration in History among Nordic Students: A Case Study about Creating Innovative ICT Didactic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spante, Maria; Karlsen, Asgjerd Vea; Nortvig, Anne-Mette; Christiansen, Rene B.

    2014-01-01

    Gränsöverskridande Nordisk Undervisning/Utdanelse (GNU, meaning Cross-Border Nordic Education), the larger Nordic project, under which this case study was carried out, aims at developing innovative, cross-border teaching models in different subject domains in elementary school, including mathematics, language, science, social studies and history.…

  6. Four Aspects of Civic Education: Teaching the History and Geography of the Land of Israel as a Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Aviv

    2009-01-01

    At the center of this study stands the will to understand the use of the subjects of History and Geography as means of civic education. A new theoretical framework is offered, encompassing different aspects of civic education. With the use of this framework, the Israeli educational system was evaluated as a case study. (Contains 1 table, 1 figure,…

  7. Case history studies of energy conservation improvements in the dairy industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    Presented are ten case histories about energy-efficient technologies implemented by the dairy industry. For each case is presented: the name and location of the company, and its product line; energy consumption and costs at the plant before and after implementation of energy-conserving technology; the factors that prompted the investment; and product quality as a result of the new equipment. The measures presented are: refrigeration compressor replacement, turbulators in boiler tubes, stack exchange on boilers, reverse osmosis, six-effect evaporator, multi-effect evaporator with thermal vapor recompressor, spray dryer heat recovery, efficient compressor operations, mechanical vapor recompression evaporator, preheated spray dryer air with recoverable waste heat. (LEW)

  8. A Case Study of Co-Teaching in an Inclusive Secondary High-Stakes World History I Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Hover, Stephanie; Hicks, David; Sayeski, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide increasing support for students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms in high-stakes testing contexts, some schools have implemented co-teaching models. This qualitative case study explores how 1 special education teacher (Anna) and 1 general education history teacher (John) make sense of working together in an inclusive…

  9. Aerodynamic instability: A case history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenmann, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The identification, diagnosis, and final correction of complex machinery malfunctions typically require the correlation of many parameters such as mechanical construction, process influence, maintenance history, and vibration response characteristics. The progression is reviewed of field testing, diagnosis, and final correction of a specific machinery instability problem. The case history presented addresses a unique low frequency instability problem on a high pressure barrel compressor. The malfunction was eventually diagnosed as a fluidic mechanism that manifested as an aerodynamic disturbance to the rotor assembly.

  10. The Momotombo Geothermal Field, Nicaragua: Exploration and development case history study

    SciTech Connect

    1982-07-01

    This case history discusses the exploration methods used at the Momotombo Geothermal Field in western Nicaragua, and evaluates their contributions to the development of the geothermal field models. Subsequent reservoir engineering has not been synthesized or evaluated. A geothermal exploration program was started in Nicaragua in 1966 to discover and delineate potential geothermal reservoirs in western Nicaragua. Exploration began at the Momotombo field in 1970 using geological, geochemical, and geophysical methods. A regional study of thermal manifestations was undertaken and the area on the southern flank of Volcan Momotombo was chosen for more detailed investigation. Subsequent exploration by various consultants produced a number of geotechnical reports on the geology, geophysics, and geochemistry of the field as well as describing production well drilling. Geological investigations at Momotombo included photogeology, field mapping, binocular microscope examination of cuttings, and drillhole correlations. Among the geophysical techniques used to investigate the field sub-structure were: Schlumberger and electromagnetic soundings, dipole mapping and audio-magnetotelluric surveys, gravity and magnetic measurements, frequency domain soundings, self-potential surveys, and subsurface temperature determinations. The geochemical program analyzed the thermal fluids of the surface and in the wells. This report presents the description and results of exploration methods used during the investigative stages of the Momotombo Geothermal Field. A conceptual model of the geothermal field was drawn from the information available at each exploration phase. The exploration methods have been evaluated with respect to their contributions to the understanding of the field and their utilization in planning further development. Our principal finding is that data developed at each stage were not sufficiently integrated to guide further work at the field, causing inefficient use of

  11. Familial history of cancer and childhood acute leukemia: a French population-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Ripert, Mahaut; Menegaux, Florence; Perel, Yves; Méchinaud, Françoise; Plouvier, Emmanuel; Gandemer, Virginie; Lutz, Patrick; Vannier, Jean-Pierre; Lamagnére, Jean-Pierre; Margueritte, Geneviève; Boutard, Patrick; Robert, Alain; Armari-Alla, Corinne; Munzer, Martine; Millot, Frédéric; de Lumley, Lionel; Berthou, Christian; Rialland, Xavier; Pautard, Brigitte; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    Objective A case-control study was conducted to investigate the role of a familial history of cancer in the etiology of childhood acute leukemia (AL). Methods The history of cancer in the relatives of 472 cases was compared to that of 567 population-based controls. Recruitment was frequency matched on age, gender and region. The familial history of cancer in each child’s relatives was reported by the mother in response to a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Results A familial history of solid tumor in first- or second-degree relatives was associated with an increased risk of ALL (OR=1.6 [1.2–2.1]), while a familial history of hematopoietic malignancies in first- or second-degree relatives was associated with an increased risk of AML (OR=4.3 [1.4–13]). The ORs for the histories of cancer increased with the number of relatives with cancer (OR=1.5 [1.1–2.0] for one relative and OR=2.3 [1.3–3.8] for two relatives or more; ptrend<0.0001). Significant associations between childhood AL and familial history of genital cancers and brain tumor were also observed (OR=2.7 [1.2–5.8], OR=10.7 [1.3–86], respectively). Conclusion This study supports the hypothesis that a familial history of cancer may play a role in the etiology of childhood acute leukemia. It also evidences some specific associations that require further investigation. PMID:17923819

  12. Case history studies of energy conservation improvements in the meat industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    Presented are case histories for ten energy-efficient technologies implemented by the meat industry. For each case is presented: the name and location of the plant, name of plant employee contact with address and telephone number, energy consumption and costs at the plant before and after implementation of energy-conserving technology, description of the investment decision process, and changes in production or product quality as a result of the new equipment. The measures presented are: continuous rendering, high-pressure return on the boiler, heat recovery from condensate return and flash steam, continuous whole blood processing, preheating of process water with recovered refrigeration waste heat, continuous rendering of poultry scraps, electrical stimulation of beef, preheating and storing process water with recovered refrigeration waste heat, microcomputer control system, and housekeeping improvements. (LEW)

  13. Studying Ancient History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Robin

    1982-01-01

    Defends the value and relevance of the study of ancient history and classics in history curricula. The unique homogeneity of the classical period contributes to its instructional manageability. A year-long, secondary-level course on fifth-century Greece and Rome is described to illustrate effective approaches to teaching ancient history. (AM)

  14. Teaching Nineteenth Century Afro-American History: The Case Study Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotton, Barbara R.

    1979-01-01

    In this case study approach, teaching episodes designed using Richard Wade's thesis concerning slavery in the city are presented. Episodes include studies of Jacksonville, Florida, Savannah, Georgia, and New Orleans, Louisiana. (Author/RLV)

  15. Mining and Visualizing Family History Associations in the Electronic Health Record: A Case Study for Pediatric Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Elizabeth S.; Melton, Genevieve B.; Wasserman, Richard C.; Rosenau, Paul T.; Howard, Diantha B.; Sarkar, Indra Neil

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic childhood disease and has seen increasing prevalence worldwide. While there is existing evidence of familial and other risk factors for pediatric asthma, there is a need for further studies to explore and understand interactions among these risk factors. The goal of this study was to develop an approach for mining, visualizing, and evaluating association rules representing pairwise interactions among potential familial risk factors based on information documented as part of a patient’s family history in the electronic health record. As a case study, 10,260 structured family history entries for a cohort of 1,531 pediatric asthma patients were extracted and analyzed to generate family history associations at different levels of granularity. The preliminary results highlight the potential of this approach for validating known knowledge and suggesting opportunities for further investigation that may contribute to improving prediction of asthma risk in children. PMID:26958171

  16. Lifestyle, Family History, and Risk of Idiopathic Parkinson Disease: A Large Danish Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Kenborg, Line; Lassen, Christina F.; Ritz, Beate; Andersen, Klaus K.; Christensen, Jane; Schernhammer, Eva S.; Hansen, Johnni; Wermuth, Lene; Rod, Naja H.; Olsen, Jørgen H.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between Parkinson disease (PD) and smoking has been examined in several studies, but little is known about smoking in conjunction with other behaviors and a family history of PD. Using unconditional logistic regression analysis, we studied individual and joint associations of these factors with idiopathic PD among 1,808 Danish patients who were diagnosed in 1996–2009 and matched to 1,876 randomly selected population controls. Although there was a downward trend in duration of smoking, this was not observed for daily tobacco consumption. A moderate intake of caffeine (3.1–5 cups/day) was associated with a lower odds ratio for PD (0.45, 95% confidence interval: 0.34, 0.62), as was a moderate intake of alcohol (3.1–7 units/week) (odds ratio = 0.60, 95% confidence interval: 0.58, 0.84); a higher daily intake did not reduce the odds further. When these behaviors were studied in combination with smoking, the odds ratios were lower than those for each one alone. Compared with never smokers with no family history of PD, never smokers who did have a family history had an odds ratio of 2.81 (95% confidence interval: 1.91, 4.13); for smokers with a family history, the odds ratio was 1.60 (95% confidence interval: 1.15, 2.23). In conclusion, duration of smoking seems to be more important than intensity in the relationship between smoking and idiopathic PD. The finding of lower risk estimates for smoking in combination with caffeine or alcohol requires further confirmation. PMID:25925389

  17. Teaching Recent History in Countries that Have Experienced Human Rights Violations: Case Studies from Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toledo, Maria Isabel; Magendzo, Abraham; Gazmuri, Renato

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating recent history into the educational curricula of countries that have experienced human rights violations combines the complexities of teaching history, teaching recent history, and human rights education. Recent history makes a historical analysis of social reality and a historiographical analysis of the immediate. It is located…

  18. [Somatoform disorders in neurology visits: history and circumstances: retrospective study of 124 cases].

    PubMed

    Dubas, F; Thomas-Antérion, C

    2012-12-01

    We report 124 cases of somatoform disorders, considering psychogenic disorders at the same level as neurological disorders. We noted any psychic, somatic or social condition (history taking) and facilitating circumstances. The patients were aged 16 to 84 years old; 71.7% were women. We observed pain (35.4%), psychogenic headache (25%), sensorimotor loss (27.4%), gait and psychogenic tremor (17.7%), cognitive disorders (11.8%), ocular symptoms (7.2%), and urogenital symptoms (2.4%). Delay to consultation ranged from a few days to 20 years. Psychiatric comorbidity was noted in 30.6% of the cases. In 55.6% of 124 cases, we observed a psychological background. It was a childhood trauma in 15.3% of these cases. In one-third of the 124 situations, we noted an underlying somatic or social condition. Facilitation conditions were frequently mixed. Somatic and/or psychological conditions were noted in one-third of the 124 cases and social conditions in half of them. The neurologist is faced with the challenge of naming the symptom (most often labelled a functional disorder) and of making the decision to stop or limit investigations. Visits by patients with psychogenic disorders make up a significant percentage of neurology speciality appointments. The neurologist should not limit the consultation to differentiating "real" symptoms from psychogenic somatoform disorders, but should also propose a straightforward compassionate approach for effective therapeutic care. By carefully listening to the patient's dialogue, the neurologist can help the patient give meaning to the symptoms, and progress towards improved well-being. PMID:23153685

  19. Bayesian History Matching of Complex Infectious Disease Models Using Emulation: A Tutorial and a Case Study on HIV in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Andrianakis, Ioannis; Vernon, Ian R.; McCreesh, Nicky; McKinley, Trevelyan J.; Oakley, Jeremy E.; Nsubuga, Rebecca N.; Goldstein, Michael; White, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in scientific computing have allowed the development of complex models that are being routinely applied to problems in disease epidemiology, public health and decision making. The utility of these models depends in part on how well they can reproduce empirical data. However, fitting such models to real world data is greatly hindered both by large numbers of input and output parameters, and by long run times, such that many modelling studies lack a formal calibration methodology. We present a novel method that has the potential to improve the calibration of complex infectious disease models (hereafter called simulators). We present this in the form of a tutorial and a case study where we history match a dynamic, event-driven, individual-based stochastic HIV simulator, using extensive demographic, behavioural and epidemiological data available from Uganda. The tutorial describes history matching and emulation. History matching is an iterative procedure that reduces the simulator's input space by identifying and discarding areas that are unlikely to provide a good match to the empirical data. History matching relies on the computational efficiency of a Bayesian representation of the simulator, known as an emulator. Emulators mimic the simulator's behaviour, but are often several orders of magnitude faster to evaluate. In the case study, we use a 22 input simulator, fitting its 18 outputs simultaneously. After 9 iterations of history matching, a non-implausible region of the simulator input space was identified that was times smaller than the original input space. Simulator evaluations made within this region were found to have a 65% probability of fitting all 18 outputs. History matching and emulation are useful additions to the toolbox of infectious disease modellers. Further research is required to explicitly address the stochastic nature of the simulator as well as to account for correlations between outputs. PMID:25569850

  20. Bayesian history matching of complex infectious disease models using emulation: a tutorial and a case study on HIV in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Andrianakis, Ioannis; Vernon, Ian R; McCreesh, Nicky; McKinley, Trevelyan J; Oakley, Jeremy E; Nsubuga, Rebecca N; Goldstein, Michael; White, Richard G

    2015-01-01

    Advances in scientific computing have allowed the development of complex models that are being routinely applied to problems in disease epidemiology, public health and decision making. The utility of these models depends in part on how well they can reproduce empirical data. However, fitting such models to real world data is greatly hindered both by large numbers of input and output parameters, and by long run times, such that many modelling studies lack a formal calibration methodology. We present a novel method that has the potential to improve the calibration of complex infectious disease models (hereafter called simulators). We present this in the form of a tutorial and a case study where we history match a dynamic, event-driven, individual-based stochastic HIV simulator, using extensive demographic, behavioural and epidemiological data available from Uganda. The tutorial describes history matching and emulation. History matching is an iterative procedure that reduces the simulator's input space by identifying and discarding areas that are unlikely to provide a good match to the empirical data. History matching relies on the computational efficiency of a Bayesian representation of the simulator, known as an emulator. Emulators mimic the simulator's behaviour, but are often several orders of magnitude faster to evaluate. In the case study, we use a 22 input simulator, fitting its 18 outputs simultaneously. After 9 iterations of history matching, a non-implausible region of the simulator input space was identified that was 10(11) times smaller than the original input space. Simulator evaluations made within this region were found to have a 65% probability of fitting all 18 outputs. History matching and emulation are useful additions to the toolbox of infectious disease modellers. Further research is required to explicitly address the stochastic nature of the simulator as well as to account for correlations between outputs. PMID:25569850

  1. Space-time analysis of testicular cancer clusters using residential histories: a case-control study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Chantel D; Nordsborg, Rikke B; Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Meliker, Jaymie R

    2015-01-01

    Though the etiology is largely unknown, testicular cancer incidence has seen recent significant increases in northern Europe and throughout many Western regions. The most common cancer in males under age 40, age period cohort models have posited exposures in the in utero environment or in early childhood as possible causes of increased risk of testicular cancer. Some of these factors may be tied to geography through being associated with behavioral, cultural, sociodemographic or built environment characteristics. If so, this could result in detectable geographic clusters of cases that could lead to hypotheses regarding environmental targets for intervention. Given a latency period between exposure to an environmental carcinogen and testicular cancer diagnosis, mobility histories are beneficial for spatial cluster analyses. Nearest-neighbor based Q-statistics allow for the incorporation of changes in residency in spatial disease cluster detection. Using these methods, a space-time cluster analysis was conducted on a population-wide case-control population selected from the Danish Cancer Registry with mobility histories since 1971 extracted from the Danish Civil Registration System. Cases (N=3297) were diagnosed between 1991 and 2003, and two sets of controls (N=3297 for each set) matched on sex and date of birth were included in the study. We also examined spatial patterns in maternal residential history for those cases and controls born in 1971 or later (N= 589 case-control pairs). Several small clusters were detected when aligning individuals by year prior to diagnosis, age at diagnosis and calendar year of diagnosis. However, the largest of these clusters contained only 2 statistically significant individuals at their center, and were not replicated in SaTScan spatial-only analyses which are less susceptible to multiple testing bias. We found little evidence of local clusters in residential histories of testicular cancer cases in this Danish population. PMID

  2. A "Great Roads" Approach to Teaching Modern World History and Latin American Regional Survey Courses: A Veracruz to Mexico City Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James Seay, Jr.; Sullivan-Gonzalez, Douglass

    2002-01-01

    Outlines an innovative way of teaching "World History Since 1500" at Samford University (Birmingham, Alabama) called the "great roads" approach, centered upon important roads in a country's history. Presents the "Veracruz to Mexico City corridor" case study used to teach a Latin American modern history course. (CMK)

  3. Craniotomy: the first case histories.

    PubMed

    Martin

    1999-07-01

    The oldest existing case histories of craniotomy are from the false Hippocratic writings, about 330 BC, and one is reconstructed about the death of Ptolemy VI in 145 BC. Greek surgeons had rational indications for trepanning, when the difficulties of the times are understood. All compound fractures were infected, so death from an extradural abscess was likely. Trepanning was intended to drain the extra dural space. Copyright 1999 Harcourt Publishers Ltd. PMID:10844769

  4. Improving hydrocarbon/water ratios in producing wells - An Indonesian case history study

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, F.O.; Marnoch, E.; Tanggu, P.S.

    1996-12-31

    Excessive water production is consistently burdening the oil industry, especially as lifting and facility costs rise and disposal of produced water becomes increasingly difficult, expensive and environmentally sensitive. A previously developed amphoteric polymer material (APM) (SPE Paper No. 14822) has been successfully applied in Indonesia. This product reduces volumes of produced water and very often increases hydrocarbon production by effectively reducing the permeability to water without significantly changing the formation permeability to hydrocarbons. This paper will review the mechanism, application and associated lab results by which the APM polymer reduces water cut with the primary emphasis on the Indonesian case histories and placement techniques. Results indicate that high permeability sandstone reservoirs, with water production problems, can benefit from APM treatments. The product can successfully and economically reduce water production with the added benefit of increased hydrocarbon production often noted. Laboratory and field results indicate good product application under high shear situations and at temperatures up to 275 {degrees}F. Careful candidate selection and good placement techniques, in conjunction with production logging to determine water location, are important to the success of APM jobs.

  5. A case study in connectomics: the history, mapping, and connectivity of the claustrum.

    PubMed

    Torgerson, Carinna M; Van Horn, John D

    2014-01-01

    The claustrum seems to have been waiting for the science of connectomics. Due to its tiny size, the structure has remained remarkably difficult to study until modern technological and mathematical advancements like graph theory, connectomics, diffusion tensor imaging, HARDI, and excitotoxic lesioning. That does not mean, however, that early methods allowed researchers to assess micro-connectomics. In fact, the claustrum is such an enigma that the only things known for certain about it are its histology, and that it is extraordinarily well connected. In this literature review, we provide background details on the claustrum and the history of its study in the human and in other animal species. By providing an explanation of the neuroimaging and histology methods have been undertaken to study the claustrum thus far-and the conclusions these studies have drawn-we illustrate this example of how the shift from micro-connectomics to macro-connectomics advances the field of neuroscience and improves our capacity to understand the brain. PMID:25426062

  6. A case study in connectomics: the history, mapping, and connectivity of the claustrum

    PubMed Central

    Torgerson, Carinna M.; Van Horn, John D.

    2014-01-01

    The claustrum seems to have been waiting for the science of connectomics. Due to its tiny size, the structure has remained remarkably difficult to study until modern technological and mathematical advancements like graph theory, connectomics, diffusion tensor imaging, HARDI, and excitotoxic lesioning. That does not mean, however, that early methods allowed researchers to assess micro-connectomics. In fact, the claustrum is such an enigma that the only things known for certain about it are its histology, and that it is extraordinarily well connected. In this literature review, we provide background details on the claustrum and the history of its study in the human and in other animal species. By providing an explanation of the neuroimaging and histology methods have been undertaken to study the claustrum thus far—and the conclusions these studies have drawn—we illustrate this example of how the shift from micro-connectomics to macro-connectomics advances the field of neuroscience and improves our capacity to understand the brain. PMID:25426062

  7. Learning about Self-Advocacy from Life History: A Case Study from the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traustadottir, Rannveig

    2006-01-01

    Many people with learning difficulties want to tell the stories of their life and have done so in collaboration with academic researchers. Life histories of people with learning difficulties are a good way to learn about self-advocacy. Life histories can tell us about how self-advocacy began and the support people need to be self-advocates. Tom…

  8. Teaching the Role of Religion in American History: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlinger, Mary Jessica

    1990-01-01

    Recounts how participation in various summer teacher workshops gave the author access to materials for use in teaching about the religious influences in U.S. history. Relates that the National Archives'"Primarily Teaching" workshop revealed primary source documents representing every period in U.S. history. Provides ways these historical documents…

  9. Towards a History of Moral Education: Some Fundamental Considerations and a Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruneau, William Arthur

    1975-01-01

    Presents definitions and understandings of moral education, surveys some historical techniques likely to yield starting points for work on a history of moral education, and examines John Locke's theory and practice of moral education. (Author/IRT)

  10. Case History Skill Assessment: Breadth versus Depth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haine, Charles L.; Gross, Leon J.

    1999-01-01

    Study investigated whether poor performance on the case history portion of the National Board of Examiners in Optometry clinical skills examination was due to candidates' failure to inquire about major issues or explore issues thoroughly. Data from tests administered to 1,266 candidates were analyzed. Results indicate candidates generally…

  11. History of chickenpox in glioma risk: a report from the glioma international case-control study (GICC).

    PubMed

    Amirian, E Susan; Scheurer, Michael E; Zhou, Renke; Wrensch, Margaret R; Armstrong, Georgina N; Lachance, Daniel; Olson, Sara H; Lau, Ching C; Claus, Elizabeth B; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Il'yasova, Dora; Schildkraut, Joellen; Ali-Osman, Francis; Sadetzki, Siegal; Jenkins, Robert B; Bernstein, Jonine L; Merrell, Ryan T; Davis, Faith G; Lai, Rose; Shete, Sanjay; Amos, Christopher I; Melin, Beatrice S; Bondy, Melissa L

    2016-06-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a neurotropic α-herpesvirus that causes chickenpox and establishes life-long latency in the cranial nerve and dorsal root ganglia of the host. To date, VZV is the only virus consistently reported to have an inverse association with glioma. The Glioma International Case-Control Study (GICC) is a large, multisite consortium with data on 4533 cases and 4171 controls collected across five countries. Here, we utilized the GICC data to confirm the previously reported associations between history of chickenpox and glioma risk in one of the largest studies to date on this topic. Using two-stage random-effects restricted maximum likelihood modeling, we found that a positive history of chickenpox was associated with a 21% lower glioma risk, adjusting for age and sex (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.65-0.96). Furthermore, the protective effect of chickenpox was stronger for high-grade gliomas. Our study provides additional evidence that the observed protective effect of chickenpox against glioma is unlikely to be coincidental. Future studies, including meta-analyses of the literature and investigations of the potential biological mechanism, are warranted. PMID:26972449

  12. Discovering History Through Artifacts. Case Study: Kingdom of Tigram II "The Great."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacobian, Mossik

    This student booklet, one in a series of seven instructional materials dealing with the history and culture of Armenian Americans, guides junior high school students through the process of discovering information about the past. The materials may be presented in four sessions. Session I introduces students to the concept of historiography through…

  13. Space-Time Clustering of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Using Residential Histories in a Danish Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Baastrup Nordsborg, Rikke; Meliker, Jaymie R.; Kjær Ersbøll, Annette; Jacquez, Geoffrey M.; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a frequent cancer and incidence rates have increased markedly during the second half of the 20th century; however, the few established risk factors cannot explain this rise and still little is known about the aetiology of NHL. Spatial analyses have been applied in an attempt to identify environmental risk factors, but most studies do not take human mobility into account. The aim of this study was to identify clustering of NHL in space and time in Denmark, using 33 years of residential addresses. We utilised the nation-wide Danish registers and unique personal identification number that all Danish citizens have to conduct a register-based case-control study of 3210 NHL cases and two independent control groups of 3210 each. Cases were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry and controls were matched by age and sex and randomly selected from the Civil Registration System. Residential addresses of cases and controls from 1971 to 2003 were collected from the Civil Registration System and geocoded. Data on pervious hospital diagnoses and operations were obtained from the National Patient Register. We applied the methods of the newly developed Q-statistics to identify space-time clustering of NHL. All analyses were conducted with each of the two control groups, and we adjusted for previous history of autoimmune disease, HIV/AIDS or organ transplantation. Some areas with statistically significant clustering were identified; however, results were not consistent across the two control groups; thus we interpret the results as chance findings. We found no evidence for clustering of NHL in space and time using 33 years of residential histories, suggesting that if the rise in incidence of NHL is a result of risk factors that vary across space and time, the spatio-temporal variation of such factors in Denmark is too small to be detected with the applied method. PMID:23560108

  14. Space-time clustering of non-hodgkin lymphoma using residential histories in a Danish case-control study.

    PubMed

    Baastrup Nordsborg, Rikke; Meliker, Jaymie R; Kjær Ersbøll, Annette; Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a frequent cancer and incidence rates have increased markedly during the second half of the 20(th) century; however, the few established risk factors cannot explain this rise and still little is known about the aetiology of NHL. Spatial analyses have been applied in an attempt to identify environmental risk factors, but most studies do not take human mobility into account. The aim of this study was to identify clustering of NHL in space and time in Denmark, using 33 years of residential addresses. We utilised the nation-wide Danish registers and unique personal identification number that all Danish citizens have to conduct a register-based case-control study of 3210 NHL cases and two independent control groups of 3210 each. Cases were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry and controls were matched by age and sex and randomly selected from the Civil Registration System. Residential addresses of cases and controls from 1971 to 2003 were collected from the Civil Registration System and geocoded. Data on pervious hospital diagnoses and operations were obtained from the National Patient Register. We applied the methods of the newly developed Q-statistics to identify space-time clustering of NHL. All analyses were conducted with each of the two control groups, and we adjusted for previous history of autoimmune disease, HIV/AIDS or organ transplantation. Some areas with statistically significant clustering were identified; however, results were not consistent across the two control groups; thus we interpret the results as chance findings. We found no evidence for clustering of NHL in space and time using 33 years of residential histories, suggesting that if the rise in incidence of NHL is a result of risk factors that vary across space and time, the spatio-temporal variation of such factors in Denmark is too small to be detected with the applied method. PMID:23560108

  15. Female fertility, obstetric and gynaecological history in coeliac disease. A case control study.

    PubMed

    Sher, K S; Mayberry, J F

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of infertility, abortions and perinatal mortality, age at menarche and menopause in coeliac disease (CD). It was a case control study in which patients and controls matched for age and sex were sent questionnaires about their fertility profile and other obstetric and gynaecological problems. All 80 patients and 70 controls replied but only 68 groups could be matched for this study. The mean age of menarche in patients was significantly older at 13.6 years than in controls at 12.7 years. The mean age at menopause in patients and controls were 47.6 and 50.1 years respectively. The study showed the mean number of children born to patients with CD was significantly less at 1.9 (SD +/- 0.9) compared to 2.5 (SD +/- 1.2) in controls. Before diagnosis the mean number of children born to patients was 1.4 and 1.8 in controls. After diagnosis and treatment, patients had 0.5 children (SD +/- 0.9) compared to 0.7 in controls (SD +/- 1.2). It seems likely that the overall difference in fertility is due to relative infertility prior to diagnosis and its correction by a gluten-free diet. Significantly more conceptions amongst women with CD (15%) ended in miscarriage prior to diagnosis than amongst controls (6%). After diagnosis and treatment the rate of miscarriage was similar at 7 and 12% respectively. There were 120 live babies and 7 stillbirths to patients compared with 161 live babies and 1 stillbirth to controls. In conclusion, this study shows that patients with CD are subfertile and have an increased incidence of stillbirths and perinatal deaths. PMID:8063029

  16. Exploring Gaps of Family History Documentation in EHR for Precision Medicine -A Case Study of Familial Hypercholesterolemia Ascertainment

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabi, Saeed; Wang, Yanshan; Ihrke, Donna; Liu, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    In the era of precision medicine, accurately identifying familial conditions is crucial for providing target treatment. However, it is challenging to identify familial conditions without detailed family history information. In this work, we studied the documentation of family history of premature cardiovascular disease and hypercholesterolemia. The information on patients’ family history of stroke within the Patient-provided information (PPI) forms was compared with the information gathered by clinicians in clinical notes. The agreement between PPI and clinical notes on absence of family history information in PPI was substantially higher compared to presence of family history. PMID:27570664

  17. A case study of systemic curricular reform: A forty-year history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubach, Timothy Alan

    What follows is a description of the development of a particular inquiry-based elementary school science curriculum program and how its theoretical underpinnings positively influenced a school district's (K-12) science program and also impacted district- and state-wide curriculum reform initiatives. The district's science program has evolved since the inception of the inquiry-based elementary school science curriculum reform forty years ago. Therefore, a historical case study, which incorporated grounded theory methodology, was used to convey the forty-year development of a science curriculum reform effort and its systemic influences. Data for this study were collected primarily through artifacts, such as technical and non-technical documents, and supported and augmented with interviews. Fifteen people comprised the interview consortium with professional responsibilities including (a) administrative roles, such as superintendents, assistant superintendents, principals, and curriculum consultants/coordinators; (b) classroom roles, such as elementary and secondary school teachers who taught science; (c) partnership roles, such as university faculty who collaborated with those in administrative and classroom positions within the district; and (d) the co-director of SCIS who worked with the SCIS trial center director. Data were analyzed and coded using the constant comparative method. The analysis of data uncovered five categories or levels in which the curriculum reform evolved throughout its duration. These themes are Initiation, Education, Implementation, Confirmation, and Continuation. These five categories lead to several working hypotheses that supported the sustaining and continuing of a K-12 science curriculum reform effort. These components are a committed visionary; a theory base of education; forums promoting the education of the theory base components; shared-decision making; a university-school partnership; a core group of committed educators and teachers

  18. Case Study Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the history of case study teaching, types of cases, and experimental data supporting their effectiveness. It also describes a model for comparing the efficacy of the various case study methods. (Contains 1 figure.)

  19. The Case for "Big History."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, David

    1991-01-01

    Urges an approach to the teaching of history that takes the largest possible perspective, crossing time as well as space. Discusses the problems and advantages of such an approach. Describes a course on "big" history that begins with time, creation myths, and astronomy, and moves on to paleontology and evolution. (DK)

  20. Teaching Traumatic History to Young Children: The Case of Holocaust Studies in Israeli Kindergartens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Yair; Golden, Deborah; Goldberg, Tsafrir

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the Israeli Ministry of Education initiated a mandatory nationwide curriculum for Jewish kindergarten children focusing on the study of the Holocaust. This initiative raises general questions regarding the inclusion of sensitive historical issues in curricula for young children. In this article, we use the new Holocaust curriculum as an…

  1. Just One of the Boys? A Life History Case Study of a Male Physical Education Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedgwood, Nikki

    2005-01-01

    Studies of physical education teacher training have already established that hegemonic forms of masculinity are reinforced and reproduced both in the hidden curriculum (Flintoff, 1997) and the informal student culture (Skelton, 1993). Given this, an important feminist concern is whether male PE teachers whose own masculine identities are anchored…

  2. Temporal Visualization for Legal Case Histories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Chanda; Allen, Robert B.; Plaisant, Catherine; Shneiderman, Ben

    1999-01-01

    Discusses visualization of legal information using a tool for temporal information called "LifeLines." Explores ways "LifeLines" could aid in viewing the links between original case and direct and indirect case histories. Uses the case of Apple Computer, Inc. versus Microsoft Corporation and Hewlett Packard Company to illustrate the prototype.…

  3. Lesson Study and History Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvorsen, Anne-Lise; Kesler Lund, Alisa

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the experiences of a group of fifth-grade teachers who used lesson study, a teacher-driven form of professional development, to teach history in a project supported by a Teaching American History Grant. The project addressed the following questions: What does a lesson study cycle for history education look like? What…

  4. Improving Capture of Vaccine History: Case Study from an Evaluation of 10-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Introduction in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Harris, Aaron M; Aol, George; Ouma, Dominic; Bigogo, Godfrey; Montgomery, Joel M; Whitney, Cynthia G; Breiman, Robert F; Kim, Lindsay

    2016-06-01

    With the accelerated introduction of new vaccines in low-income settings, understanding immunization program performance is critical. We sought to improve immunization history acquisition from Ministry of Health vaccination cards during a vaccine impact study of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumococcal carriage among young children in Kenya in 2012 and 2013. We captured immunization history in a low proportion of study participants in 2012 using vaccination cards. To overcome this challenge, we implemented a household-based reminder system in 2013 using community health workers (CHWs), and increased the retrieval of vaccine cards from 62% in 2012 to 89% in 2013 (P < 0.001). The home-based reminder system using CHWs is an example of an approach that improved immunization history data quality in a resource-poor setting. PMID:27139446

  5. Winnipegosis case history: Tableland Saskatchewan

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, N.E.; Martindale, W.

    1988-02-01

    The geology and history of exploration in the Tableland area of southeast Saskatchewan will be reviewed in relation to a major Middle Devonian Winnipegosis oil discovery made in 1986 by Home Oil. Southern Saskatchewan is underlain by the northern third of the Williston basin. Although rich oil deposits have been found in the Devonian of the basin on the American side, dry holes have been the rule in Saskatchewan except for the Hummingbird Upper Devonian Birdbear discovery in 1966. The long history of failures in the Winnipegosis Formation had led to a general reluctance in the industry to drill deep wells especially with today's lower crude prices. Based on geology, seismic data, and modeling, Home Oil drilled Tableland 08-22-002-09W2M in february 1986 and encountered an oil-bearing Winnipegosis reef. This well has the highest production rate of any well in Saskatchewan and is the first commercially significant Winnipegosis well in a basinal setting within the Williston basin. A state-of-the-art pseudo 3-D processing of all the existing 2-D seismic data was performed to aid in choosing development well locations. As a result of this discovery, deep exploration plays in southeast Saskatchewan are now being pursued aggressively by many companies.

  6. Temperature histories in geothermal wells: Survey of rock thermomechanical properties and drilling, production, and injection case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, M. A.

    1981-07-01

    Thermal and mechanical properties for geothermal formations are tabulated for a range of temperatures and stress conditions. Data were obtained from the technical literature and direct contacts with industry. Heat capacity, conductivity, diffusivity and undisturbed geothermal profiles are presented. Mechanical properties include Youngs modulus and Poisson ratio. Two GEOTEMP thermal simulations of drilling, production and injection are reported. Actual drilling, production, and injection histories were simulated. Results are documented in the form of printed GEOTEMP output and plots of temperatures versus depth, radius, and time. Wellbore temperatures during drilling as a function of depth; bit temperatures over the drilling history; cement temperatures from setting to the end of drilling; and casing and formation temperatures during drilling, production, and injection are discussed.

  7. Coupled inverse and forward modelling to assess the range of acceptable thermal histories, a case study from SE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogné, N.; Gallagher, K.; Cobbold, P. R.

    2012-04-01

    We performed a new thermochronological study (fission track analysis and (U-Th)/He dating on apatite) in SE Brazil and integrate those data with inverse and forward modelling via QTQt software (Gallagher, 2012) to obtain thermal histories. The inversion results were used to characterize the general thermal histories and the associated uncertainties. For most of the samples we had a first phase of cooling during Late Cretaceous or Early Tertiary with subsequent reheating followed by Neogene cooling. The inverse modelling does not provide a unique solution and the associated uncertainties can be quite significant. Moreover the Tertiary parts of thermal histories were usually near the accepted resolution of the thermochronometric methods (~50-40°C). Therefore we performed deterministic forward modelling within the range of uncertainties to assess which solution is the most consistent with the data and independent geological information. These results are always conditional on the assumed kinetics for fission track annealing and diffusion of He, so we do not test the validity of that aspect. However, we can look at the range of predictions for the different forward models tested. This apporach implies that the reheating is required only for the samples around onshore Tertiary basins. For other samples we cannot conclude but geological information are against this hypothesis. However the Neogene cooling is required for all the samples.The combination of forward and inverse modelling allows us to better constrain the thermal histories for each sample in exploring the range of uncertainties and to reconcile a range of possible thermal histories with independent geological information. It also provides new information on the contrasting thermal evolution between different regions of the onshore SE Brazilian margin. Gallagher, K. 2012, Transdimensional Inverse thermal history modeling for quantitative thermochronology, Journal of Geophysical Research, in press.

  8. Family history of hormonal cancers and colorectal cancer risk: a case-control study conducted in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ji-Hyun; Cotterchio, Michelle; Gallinger, Steven; Knight, Julia A; Daftary, Darshana

    2009-08-15

    Aggregation of cancers among families with highly penetrant genetic mutations such as hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is well-described. However, there is a paucity of data regarding familial aggregation of hormonal cancers (cancers of the breast, endometrial, ovarian and prostate) and colorectal cancer (CRC) in the general population. We investigated the association between having a first-degree family history of breast, endometrial, ovarian, or prostate cancer and CRC risk. Population-based CRC cases and controls were recruited by the Ontario Familial Colorectal Cancer Registry (OFCCR). Logistic regression was conducted to obtain odds ratio (OR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). First-degree family history of breast cancer was associated with a modest, borderline statistically significant increased CRC risk (age-, sex-adjusted OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0, 1.5). The magnitude of CRC risk was greatest if more than one first-degree kin had breast cancer (age-, sex-adjusted OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.0, 2.0), as well as if the kin was diagnosed at >50 years of age (age-, sex-adjusted OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.8). Family history of ovarian cancer was associated with reduced CRC risk (multivariate-adjusted OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.3, 1.0). Although statistically significant increases in CRC risk were observed in the age-, sex-adjusted OR estimates for family history of endometrial and prostate cancers, the associations were no longer significant after multivariate-adjustment. In conclusion, individuals with a first-degree kin with breast cancer may have a modest increased risk for CRC compared to individuals without. PMID:19437533

  9. Social Studies: Local History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kressler, Joe, Comp.

    Elementary and secondary school teachers interested in developing a local history unit can adapt this fourth grade program created for three school districts in Cortland County, New York. Material is divided into 13 chapters. Chapter 1 charts the New York fourth grade curriculum by concept and content and outlines specific community study…

  10. Impacts of biogeographic history and marginal population genetics on species range limits: a case study of Liriodendron chinense

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Aihong; Dick, Christopher W.; Yao, Xiaohong; Huang, Hongwen

    2016-01-01

    Species ranges are influenced by past climate oscillations, geographical constraints, and adaptive potential to colonize novel habitats at range limits. This study used Liriodendron chinense, an important temperate Asian tree species, as a model system to evaluate the roles of biogeographic history and marginal population genetics in determining range limits. We examined the demographic history and genetic diversity of 29 L. chinense populations using both chloroplast and nuclear microsatellite loci. Significant phylogeographic structure was recovered with haplotype clusters coinciding with major mountain regions. Long-term demographical stability was suggested by mismatch distribution analyses, neutrality tests, and ecological niche models (ENM) and suggested the existence of LGM refuges within mountain regions. Differences in genetic diversity between central and marginal populations were not significant for either genomic region. However, asymmetrical gene flow was inferred from central populations to marginal populations, which could potentially limit range adaptation and expansion of L. chinense. PMID:27162176

  11. Impacts of biogeographic history and marginal population genetics on species range limits: a case study of Liriodendron chinense.

    PubMed

    Yang, Aihong; Dick, Christopher W; Yao, Xiaohong; Huang, Hongwen

    2016-01-01

    Species ranges are influenced by past climate oscillations, geographical constraints, and adaptive potential to colonize novel habitats at range limits. This study used Liriodendron chinense, an important temperate Asian tree species, as a model system to evaluate the roles of biogeographic history and marginal population genetics in determining range limits. We examined the demographic history and genetic diversity of 29 L. chinense populations using both chloroplast and nuclear microsatellite loci. Significant phylogeographic structure was recovered with haplotype clusters coinciding with major mountain regions. Long-term demographical stability was suggested by mismatch distribution analyses, neutrality tests, and ecological niche models (ENM) and suggested the existence of LGM refuges within mountain regions. Differences in genetic diversity between central and marginal populations were not significant for either genomic region. However, asymmetrical gene flow was inferred from central populations to marginal populations, which could potentially limit range adaptation and expansion of L. chinense. PMID:27162176

  12. Helicopter internal noise control: Three case histories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, B. D.; Cox, C. R.

    1978-01-01

    Case histories are described in which measurable improvements in the cabin noise environments of the Bell 214B, 206B, and 222 were realized. These case histories trace the noise control efforts followed in each vehicle. Among the design approaches considered, the addition of a fluid pulsation damper in a hydraulic system and the installation of elastomeric engine mounts are highlighted. It is concluded that substantial weight savings result when the major interior noise sources are controlled by design, both in altering the noise producing mechanism and interrupting the sound transmission paths.

  13. Case Studies Behavior Modification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wark, David M.

    The case histories of five students enrolled in a university course in how to study are reported. The students ranged in age from 18 to 35, included two males and three females, and varied in school experience from no college in one case and some college in two cases to college degrees in two cases. Students were initially taught to chart their…

  14. Case History: The Spelman College Endowment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonfund Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This white paper presents a case history of the Spelman College endowment and how good financial management and alternative strategies for the growth of the endowment has made Spelman's one of the largest among U.S. Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). How has Spelman College been able to grow its endowment funds to this level? A…

  15. Hazardous behavior of lithium batteries. Case histories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marincic, N.

    1983-01-01

    Case histories were described of hazardous behavior for three different cell sizes ranging in nominal capacity from 300 mAh to 12,000 Ah. Design characteristics and other facts believed to have been responsible for the cell explosions, are presented. Obvious facts are discussed as causes for hazardous behavior of lithium batteries in general and oxyhalide batteries in particular.

  16. The Image of the 1967 War in Israeli History Textbooks as Test Case: Studying an Active Past in a Protracted Regional Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yogev, Esther

    2012-01-01

    This article seeks to shed light on the dilemma facing history education in regions beset by a protracted, and as yet unresolved ethno-political conflict. The article will examine this issue by means of a unique test case that observes a dramatic war event in Israeli textbooks. The event in question is the Six-Day War of 1967 and the study of its…

  17. Gene flow and demographic history of the mangrove crab Neosarmatium meinerti: A case study from the western Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragionieri, Lapo; Cannicci, Stefano; Schubart, Christoph D.; Fratini, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Most marine organisms are characterized by at least one planktonic phase during their life history, potentially allowing interconnection of populations separated by several hundred kilometers. For many years, the idea that marine species are genetically homogenous throughout their range of distribution, due to passive larval transport, has been a paradigm. Nowadays, a growing number of studies underline the existence of boundaries in the marine realm and highlight how larval dispersal is a complex process depending on biotic as well as abiotic factors. Marine fragmented habitats, such as atolls, mangroves and estuaries, are optimal systems for investigating the marine dispersion process under a metapopulation approach, since populations can be geographically defined a priori as opposed to those occupying open marine environments. Within this frame, the present paper investigates the population genetic structure and the demographic history of the mangrove crab Neosarmatium meinerti within the western Indian Ocean by partial sequences of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I. A total of 167 specimens were sampled from six mangrove sites distributed along the East African coast, from Kenya to South Africa, also including a mangrove forest located on Mahé Island, Seychelles. A sharp genetic break between the mainland and the Seychelles is recorded, revealing the existence of two historically distinct groups that can be defined as independent evolutionary units. Gene flow along the East African coast appears to be high enough to form a single metapopulation, probably by means of stepping stone populations. Otherwise, this mainland metapopulation is currently under expansion through a gradual moving front from the subtropical toward the equatorial populations.

  18. Petrogenesis and geological history of a uranium source rock: a case study in northeastern Washington, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, R.A.; Burruss, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    A small (4 km2) drainage basin in northeastern Washington contains highly uraniferous groundwater and highly uraniferous peaty sediments of Holocene age. The U is derived from granitic bedrock that underlies the entire drainage basin and that contains 9-16 ppm U. This local bedrock was studied by petrographic, chemical and isotopic methods to determine conditions of its petrogenesis and post-emplacement history that may have contributed to its present high U content and source-rock capability. The original magma was derived by anatexis of Precambrian continental crust of probable mixed metaigneous and metasedimentary character. Mineral-melt partitioning controlled the enrichment of U in chemically evolved phases of the crystallizing melt. Following emplacement in the upper crust at ???100 Ma, the pluton interacted with meteoric-hydrothermal water at ambient temperatures >300??C. Locally intense fracturing promoted alteration, and fracturing and alteration probably continued during later regional uplift in the Eocene. Regional uplift was followed by low-temperature alteration and weathering in the middle to late Tertiary. The combined result of hydrothermal alteration and low-temperature alteration and weathering was the redistribution of U from primary mineral hosts such as allanite to new sites on fracture surfaces and in secondary minerals such as hematite. Zones of highly fractured and altered rock show the most obvious evidence of this process. A model is proposed in which high-angle fractures beneath the drainage basin were the sites of Tertiary supergene enrichments of U. Recent glacio-isostatic uplift has elevated these older enriched zones to shallow levels where they are now being leached by oxidizing groundwater. The chemistry, mineralogy, texture and geological history of this U source-rock suggest criteria for locating other granitic terrane that may contain uraniferous waters and associated young surficial U deposits. The details of U distribution and

  19. Reconstructing land use history from Landsat time-series. Case study of a swidden agriculture system in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutrieux, Loïc P.; Jakovac, Catarina C.; Latifah, Siti H.; Kooistra, Lammert

    2016-05-01

    We developed a method to reconstruct land use history from Landsat images time-series. The method uses a breakpoint detection framework derived from the econometrics field and applicable to time-series regression models. The Breaks For Additive Season and Trend (BFAST) framework is used for defining the time-series regression models which may contain trend and phenology, hence appropriately modelling vegetation intra and inter-annual dynamics. All available Landsat data are used for a selected study area, and the time-series are partitioned into segments delimited by breakpoints. Segments can be associated to land use regimes, while the breakpoints then correspond to shifts in land use regimes. In order to further characterize these shifts, we classified the unlabelled breakpoints returned by the algorithm into their corresponding processes. We used a Random Forest classifier, trained from a set of visually interpreted time-series profiles to infer the processes and assign labels to the breakpoints. The whole approach was applied to quantifying the number of cultivation cycles in a swidden agriculture system in Brazil (state of Amazonas). Number and frequency of cultivation cycles is of particular ecological relevance in these systems since they largely affect the capacity of the forest to regenerate after land abandonment. We applied the method to a Landsat time-series of Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI) spanning the 1984-2015 period and derived from it the number of cultivation cycles during that period at the individual field scale level. Agricultural fields boundaries used to apply the method were derived using a multi-temporal segmentation approach. We validated the number of cultivation cycles predicted by the method against in-situ information collected from farmers interviews, resulting in a Normalized Residual Mean Squared Error (NRMSE) of 0.25. Overall the method performed well, producing maps with coherent spatial patterns. We identified

  20. A Study on the Use of History in Middle School Mathematics: The Case of Connected Mathematics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haile, Tesfayohannes Kiflemariam

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation explores the use of history of mathematics in middle school mathematics. A rationale for the importance of the incorporation of historical dimensions (HD) of mathematics is provided through a review of the literature. The literature covers pedagogical, philosophical, psychological, and social issues and provides arguments for the…

  1. Rethinking low-temperature thermochronology data sampling strategies for quantification of denudation and relief histories: A case study in the French western Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valla, Pierre G.; van der Beek, Peter A.; Braun, Jean

    2011-07-01

    . Simulations with different model topography resolutions show that degrading the resolution for computational efficiency may result in a loss of quantitative information on denudation rates and relief history. In summary, we highlight that both thermochronological sampling strategies and the choice of thermal parameters or model topography resolution have a significant influence on predicted denudation and relief histories. Ideally, the sampling strategy should be designed using preliminary modeling of expected denudation and relief histories, and a sensitivity study on assumed thermal parameters and model resolution should be performed when modeling the data. Although our modeling is based on a particular case study of relief evolution in the French western Alps, we believe that these inferences have general relevance for thermochronological studies within mountain belts.

  2. Complex life histories of fishes revealed through natural information storage devices: case studies of diadromous events as recorded by otoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elfman, M.; Limburg, K. E.; Kristiansson, P.; Svedäng, H.; Westin, L.; Wickström, H.; Malmqvist, K.; Pallon, J.

    2000-03-01

    Diadromous fishes - species that move across salinity gradients as part of their life repertoire - form a major part of coastal and inland fisheries. Conventional mark-recapture techniques have long been used to track their movements, but give incomplete information at best. On the other hand, otoliths (ear-stones) of fishes can provide a complete record of major life history events, as reflected both in their microstructure and elemental composition. Strontium, which substitutes for calcium in the aragonite matrix of otoliths, is a powerful tracer of salinity histories in many migratory fishes. We measured Sr and Ca with a nuclear microprobe (PIXE) and show examples (eel, Anguilla anguilla; brown trout, Salmo trutta; American shad, Alosa sapidissima) of how the technique has solved several mysteries within fisheries biology.

  3. Effectiveness of Using Mobile Phone Image Capture for Collecting Secondary Data: A Case Study on Immunization History Data Among Children in Remote Areas of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Jandee, Kasemsak; Khamsiriwatchara, Amnat; Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Wongwit, Waranya; Wansatid, Peerawat

    2015-01-01

    Background Entering data onto paper-based forms, then digitizing them, is a traditional data-management method that might result in poor data quality, especially when the secondary data are incomplete, illegible, or missing. Transcription errors from source documents to case report forms (CRFs) are common, and subsequently the errors pass from the CRFs to the electronic database. Objective This study aimed to demonstrate the usefulness and to evaluate the effectiveness of mobile phone camera applications in capturing health-related data, aiming for data quality and completeness as compared to current routine practices exercised by government officials. Methods In this study, the concept of “data entry via phone image capture” (DEPIC) was introduced and developed to capture data directly from source documents. This case study was based on immunization history data recorded in a mother and child health (MCH) logbook. The MCH logbooks (kept by parents) were updated whenever parents brought their children to health care facilities for immunization. Traditionally, health providers are supposed to key in duplicate information of the immunization history of each child; both on the MCH logbook, which is returned to the parents, and on the individual immunization history card, which is kept at the health care unit to be subsequently entered into the electronic health care information system (HCIS). In this study, DEPIC utilized the photographic functionality of mobile phones to capture images of all immunization-history records on logbook pages and to transcribe these records directly into the database using a data-entry screen corresponding to logbook data records. DEPIC data were then compared with HCIS data-points for quality, completeness, and consistency. Results As a proof-of-concept, DEPIC captured immunization history records of 363 ethnic children living in remote areas from their MCH logbooks. Comparison of the 2 databases, DEPIC versus HCIS, revealed

  4. Case histories of temperature surveys in Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, B.S.

    1981-12-01

    Most crude produced in Kuwait is from naturally flowing wells. Casing, tubing, and cement in these wells remain unchanged after completion. This study discusses the major application of temperature surveys in indicating fluid movement both inside and behind the production string, hence locating any holes in the casing. Some significant cases of temperature anomalies are examined qualitatively, and suggestions are made for a more quantitative interpretation of temperature profiles. 9 refs.

  5. Role of thermal history in atomic dynamics of chalcogenide glass: A case study on Ge20Te80 glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Yashika; Kalra, Geetanjali; Murugavel, Sevi

    2016-05-01

    The non-existence of thermodynamic equilibrium in glasses, their thermal history plays a very crucial role in explaining the relaxation behavior in various time scales and its configurational states. More importantly, the associated relaxation behavior is related mainly to the structural phenomenon of the glasses. Here, we report the dependence of quenching rate on the variation of structural units. The local structures of these glasses are monitored by recording the Raman spectroscopy and related to the different configurational states. The observed variations in structural differences are reflected in the measured density of the corresponding glasses. The quenching rate dependent of the relative fractions of edge-shared and corner-shared GeTe4 tetrahedral units are shown to be consistent with the corresponding variations in the measured density values.

  6. Effects of Including Misidentified Sharks in Life History Analyses: A Case Study on the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Smart, Jonathan J; Chin, Andrew; Baje, Leontine; Green, Madeline E; Appleyard, Sharon A; Tobin, Andrew J; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; White, William T

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries observer programs are used around the world to collect crucial information and samples that inform fisheries management. However, observer error may misidentify similar-looking shark species. This raises questions about the level of error that species misidentifications could introduce to estimates of species' life history parameters. This study addressed these questions using the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos as a case study. Observer misidentification rates were quantified by validating species identifications using diagnostic photographs taken on board supplemented with DNA barcoding. Length-at-age and maturity ogive analyses were then estimated and compared with and without the misidentified individuals. Vertebrae were retained from a total of 155 sharks identified by observers as C. amblyrhynchos. However, 22 (14%) of these were sharks were misidentified by the observers and were subsequently re-identified based on photographs and/or DNA barcoding. Of the 22 individuals misidentified as C. amblyrhynchos, 16 (73%) were detected using photographs and a further 6 via genetic validation. If misidentified individuals had been included, substantial error would have been introduced to both the length-at-age and the maturity estimates. Thus validating the species identification, increased the accuracy of estimated life history parameters for C. amblyrhynchos. From the corrected sample a multi-model inference approach was used to estimate growth for C. amblyrhynchos using three candidate models. The model averaged length-at-age parameters for C. amblyrhynchos with the sexes combined were L∞ = 159 cm TL and L0 = 72 cm TL. Females mature at a greater length (l50 = 136 cm TL) and older age (A50 = 9.1 years) than males (l50 = 123 cm TL; A50 = 5.9 years). The inclusion of techniques to reduce misidentification in observer programs will improve the results of life history studies and ultimately improve management through the use of more accurate data

  7. Effects of Including Misidentified Sharks in Life History Analyses: A Case Study on the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos from Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Smart, Jonathan J.; Chin, Andrew; Baje, Leontine; Green, Madeline E.; Appleyard, Sharon A.; Tobin, Andrew J.; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.; White, William T.

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries observer programs are used around the world to collect crucial information and samples that inform fisheries management. However, observer error may misidentify similar-looking shark species. This raises questions about the level of error that species misidentifications could introduce to estimates of species’ life history parameters. This study addressed these questions using the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos as a case study. Observer misidentification rates were quantified by validating species identifications using diagnostic photographs taken on board supplemented with DNA barcoding. Length-at-age and maturity ogive analyses were then estimated and compared with and without the misidentified individuals. Vertebrae were retained from a total of 155 sharks identified by observers as C. amblyrhynchos. However, 22 (14%) of these were sharks were misidentified by the observers and were subsequently re-identified based on photographs and/or DNA barcoding. Of the 22 individuals misidentified as C. amblyrhynchos, 16 (73%) were detected using photographs and a further 6 via genetic validation. If misidentified individuals had been included, substantial error would have been introduced to both the length-at-age and the maturity estimates. Thus validating the species identification, increased the accuracy of estimated life history parameters for C. amblyrhynchos. From the corrected sample a multi-model inference approach was used to estimate growth for C. amblyrhynchos using three candidate models. The model averaged length-at-age parameters for C. amblyrhynchos with the sexes combined were  L¯∞ = 159 cm TL and  L¯0 = 72 cm TL. Females mature at a greater length (l50 = 136 cm TL) and older age (A50 = 9.1 years) than males (l50 = 123 cm TL; A50 = 5.9 years). The inclusion of techniques to reduce misidentification in observer programs will improve the results of life history studies and ultimately improve management through the use of more

  8. Disease History and Medication Use as Risk Factors for the Clinical Manifestation of Type 1 Diabetes in Children and Young Adults: An Explorative Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Fazeli Farsani, Soulmaz; Souverein, Patrick C.; van der Vorst, Marja M. J.; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K.; Knibbe, Catherijne A. J.; de Boer, Anthonius

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a highly variable asymptomatic period of beta cell destruction prior to the clinical presentation of type1 diabetes. It is not well known what triggers type 1 diabetes to become a clinically overt disease. This explorative study aimed to identify the association between disease history/medication use and the clinical manifestation of type 1 diabetes. Methodology/Principal Findings An explorative case control study was conducted in the Dutch PHARMO Record Linkage System. Cases (n  = 1,107) were younger than 25 years and had at least 2 insulin prescriptions between 1999 and 2009. For each case, up to 4 controls (without any prescription for the glucose lowering medications (n  = 4,424)) were matched by age and sex. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between disease history/medication use in the year prior to the diagnosis of type1 diabetes and clinical manifestation of this disease. Type1 diabetes was significantly associated with a history of mental disorder (odds ratio (OR) 8.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5–43.7), anemia (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.1–22.9), and disease of digestive system (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.2–5.5). The following drug exposures were significantly associated with the clinical manifestation of type 1 diabetes: “systemic hormonal preparations” (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1–2.6), medications for “blood and blood forming organs” (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.6), “alimentary tract and metabolism” (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1–1.6), and “anti-infectives for systemic use” (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.01–1.4). Conclusions Our explorative study demonstrated that in the year prior to the presentation of type1 diabetes in children and young adults, hospitalization for a diverse group of diseases and drug exposures were significantly more prevalent compared with age- and sex-matched diabetes-free controls. PMID:24498320

  9. Recovering our Histories: Studying Educational History through Stories and Memoirs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christou, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    History is an eminently human quest to recover human experiences and stories. Far from theoretical, the history of education can be seen as vital to the study and practice of teaching if anchored in the cultures and contexts of stories. In university Faculties of Education, the reading of stories and memoirs can lead to open-ended discussion in…

  10. The Nurse in the University: A History of University Education for South African Nurses: A Case Study of the University of the Witwatersrand

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Simonne

    2011-01-01

    This paper charts the history and debates surrounding the introduction of academic, university-based training of nurses in South Africa. This was a process that was drawn out over five decades, beginning in the late 1930s. For nurses, university training was an important part of a process of professionalization; however, for other members of the medical community, nursing was seen as being linked to women's service work. Using the case-study of the University of the Witwatersrand, one of South Africa's premier universities and the place in the country to offer a university-based nursing program, we argue that an historical understanding of the ways in which nursing education was integrated into the university system tells us a great deal about the professionalization of nursing. This paper also recognises, for the first time, the pioneers of this important process. PMID:21994840

  11. The impact of high-resolution biostratigraphy on reservoir prediction and basin history - A Barents Sea case study

    SciTech Connect

    Husmo, T. ); Hochuli, P. )

    1991-08-01

    The Hammerfest Basin is bounded by the Troms-Finnmark Platform to the south and the Loppa High to the north. Twenty-seven exploration wells have been drilled in the basin since 1980. The objective for most of these wells was Middle Jurassic fault blocks. Until recently little attention has been paid to the Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous synrift sequence. The first well drilled on Block 7120/10 tested a rotated Jurassic fault block. This well, together with two wells in an adjacent block, penetrated thin Lower Cretaceous sands near the distal pinch-outs of fault wedges. Seismic data indicated that a basinal wedge of equivalent age was present on Block 7120/10. High risk was put on the presence of sand in this basinal wedge, and a detailed biostratigraphic analysis was performed on wells along the basin margin in order to determine the timing of erosion on the margin and whether the Jurassic-Triassic coarse clastics were present in the provenance area. The analysis separated reworked from in-situ palynomorph assemblages in the synrift succession in the analyzed wells. A clear inverted stratigraphy was displayed by the reworked palynomorphs. Furthermore, a dramatic increase in reworked palynomorphs. Furthermore, a dramatic increase in reworked palynomorphs was observed in all wells at the onset of Valanginian. In particular the presence of Nannoceratopsis gracilis suggested that shallow marine Jurassic clastics were eroded at this time. Sand presence was predicted for the basinal wedge. The understanding of the basin history was also improved. Well 71Z0/10-2 drilled summer 1990 proved the success of the reservoir prediction and hence the usefulness of incorporating biostratigraphy in the assessment.

  12. Monitoring and repairing geothermal casing cement: a case history

    SciTech Connect

    Pettitt, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    A manmade geothermal reservoir has been created by drilling a deep hole into relatively impermeable hot rocks, creating a large surface area for heat transfer by hydraulic fracturing, then drilling a second hole to intersect the fracture to complete the closed circulation loop. A second generation system, presently being drilled, will entail creating multiple, parallel, vertical fractures between a pair of inclined boreholes. The original completion of injection Hole EE-1, consisting of a conventional high-temperature formulation of Class B portland cement, stabilized with 40% silica sand, did not withstand the cyclic stresses, and rapid deterioration of casing-to-cement and cement-to-formation bonds occurred, which allowed significant flow in the resulting microannulus. The performance history of the casing cement for the existing HDR EE-1 injection well, the subsequent remedial cementing program, the cement bond logs, and the radioactive isotope tracer injections tests, used to monitor the condition of the casing cement is described. (MHR)

  13. History Through Biography? A Conceptual Research Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Robert W.

    Social studies classroom teachers can enliven high school history courses and motivate students to learn about history by using dramatic or heroic biographies in teaching history. The biographical approach centers on study of the lives, beliefs, and surroundings of historical actors. This approach differs from the "great man" theory of history in…

  14. A Critical Case Study of Selected United States History Textbooks from a Tribal Critical Race Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and explain the portrayal of American Indians in U.S. textbooks selected for review in Hillsborough County, Florida's 2012 textbook adoption. The study identified which of the textbooks under consideration contained the greatest amount of information dedicated to American Indians. The study then…

  15. Assessing land-use history for reporting on cropland dynamics - A case study using the Land-Parcel Identification System in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Jesko; González, Ainhoa; Jones, Michael; O'Brien, Phillip; Stout, Jane C.; Green, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    In developed countries, cropland and grassland conversions and management can be a major factor in Land Use and Land Use Change (LULUC) related Greenhouse Gas (GHG) dynamics. Depending on land use, management and factors such as soil properties land can either act as source or sink for GHGs. Currently many countries depend on national statistics combined with socio-economic modelling to assess current land use as well as inter-annual changes. This potentially introduces a bias as it neither provides information on direct land- use change trajectories nor spatially explicit information to assess the environmental context. In order to improve reporting countries are shifting towards high resolution spatial datasets. In this case study, we used the Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS), a pan-European geographical database developed to assist farmers and authorities with agricultural subsidies, to analyse cropland dynamics in Ireland. The database offer high spatial resolution and is updated annually. Generally Ireland is considered grassland dominated with 90 % of its agricultural area under permanent grassland, and only a small area dedicated to cropland. However an in-depth analysis of the LPIS for the years 2000 to 2012 showed strong underlying dynamics. While the annual area reported as cropland remained relatively constant at 3752.3 ± 542.3 km2, the area of permanent cropland was only 1251.9 km2. Reversely, the area that was reported as cropland for at least one year during the timeframe was 7373.4 km2, revealing a significantly higher area with cropland history than annual statistics would suggest. Furthermore, the analysis showed that one quarter of the land converting from or to cropland will return to the previous land use within a year. To demonstrate potential policy impact, we assessed cropland/grassland dynamics from the 2008 to 2012 commitment period using (a) annual statistics, and (b) data including land use history derived from LPIS. Under

  16. Geothermal systems: Principles and case histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybach, L.; Muffler, L. J. P.

    The classification of geothermal systems is considered along with the geophysical and geochemical signatures of geothermal systems, aspects of conductive heat transfer and regional heat flow, and geothermal anomalies and their plate tectonic framework. An investigation of convective heat and mass transfer in hydrothermal systems is conducted, taking into account the mathematical modelling of hydrothermal systems, aspects of idealized convective heat and mass transport, plausible models of geothermal reservoirs, and preproduction models of hydrothermal systems. Attention is given to the prospecting for geothermal resources, the application of water geochemistry to geothermal exploration and reservoir engineering, heat extraction from geothermal reservoirs, questions of geothermal resource assessment, and environmental aspects of geothermal energy development. A description is presented of a number of case histories, taking into account the low enthalpy geothermal resource of the Pannonian Basin in Hungary, the Krafla geothermal field in Northeast Iceland, the geothermal system of the Jemez Mountains in New Mexico, and extraction-reinjection at the Ahuachapan geothermal field in El Salvador.

  17. Studying Russian and Soviet History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Abraham, Ed.

    These essays were written to assist teachers in the task of making Russian history intelligible to young U.S. students. In "An Approach to Russian History," Edward Keenan proposes that students need to gain a better understanding of how Russians perceive themselves and their history. In "Pre-Petrine Russia," Andrzej S. Kaminski focuses on the…

  18. Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Lois A., Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents two case studies using online surveys for evaluation. The authors begin with an example of a needs assessment survey designed to measure the amount of help new students at a university require in their first year. They then discuss the follow-up survey conducted by the same university to measure the effectiveness of the…

  19. Pitfalls of the Geographic Population Structure (GPS) Approach Applied to Human Genetic History: A Case Study of Ashkenazi Jews.

    PubMed

    Flegontov, Pavel; Kassian, Alexei; Thomas, Mark G; Fedchenko, Valentina; Changmai, Piya; Starostin, George

    2016-01-01

    In a recent interdisciplinary study, Das et al. have attempted to trace the homeland of Ashkenazi Jews and of their historical language, Yiddish (Das et al. 2016 Localizing Ashkenazic Jews to Primeval Villages in the Ancient Iranian Lands of Ashkenaz. Genome Biol Evol. 8:1132-1149). Das et al. applied the geographic population structure (GPS) method to autosomal genotyping data and inferred geographic coordinates of populations supposedly ancestral to Ashkenazi Jews, placing them in Eastern Turkey. They argued that this unexpected genetic result goes against the widely accepted notion of Ashkenazi origin in the Levant, and speculated that Yiddish was originally a Slavic language strongly influenced by Iranian and Turkic languages, and later remodeled completely under Germanic influence. In our view, there are major conceptual problems with both the genetic and linguistic parts of the work. We argue that GPS is a provenancing tool suited to inferring the geographic region where a modern and recently unadmixed genome is most likely to arise, but is hardly suitable for admixed populations and for tracing ancestry up to 1,000 years before present, as its authors have previously claimed. Moreover, all methods of historical linguistics concur that Yiddish is a Germanic language, with no reliable evidence for Slavic, Iranian, or Turkic substrata. PMID:27389685

  20. Pitfalls of the Geographic Population Structure (GPS) Approach Applied to Human Genetic History: A Case Study of Ashkenazi Jews

    PubMed Central

    Flegontov, Pavel; Kassian, Alexei; Thomas, Mark G.; Fedchenko, Valentina; Changmai, Piya; Starostin, George

    2016-01-01

    In a recent interdisciplinary study, Das et al. have attempted to trace the homeland of Ashkenazi Jews and of their historical language, Yiddish (Das et al. 2016. Localizing Ashkenazic Jews to Primeval Villages in the Ancient Iranian Lands of Ashkenaz. Genome Biol Evol. 8:1132–1149). Das et al. applied the geographic population structure (GPS) method to autosomal genotyping data and inferred geographic coordinates of populations supposedly ancestral to Ashkenazi Jews, placing them in Eastern Turkey. They argued that this unexpected genetic result goes against the widely accepted notion of Ashkenazi origin in the Levant, and speculated that Yiddish was originally a Slavic language strongly influenced by Iranian and Turkic languages, and later remodeled completely under Germanic influence. In our view, there are major conceptual problems with both the genetic and linguistic parts of the work. We argue that GPS is a provenancing tool suited to inferring the geographic region where a modern and recently unadmixed genome is most likely to arise, but is hardly suitable for admixed populations and for tracing ancestry up to 1,000 years before present, as its authors have previously claimed. Moreover, all methods of historical linguistics concur that Yiddish is a Germanic language, with no reliable evidence for Slavic, Iranian, or Turkic substrata. PMID:27389685

  1. Case Studies in Wilderness Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Melissa; Tarter, Shana Lee

    Five case studies explore issues in wilderness medicine, with emphasis on evacuation decision making. The cases describe medical problems encountered during wilderness trips involving college or high school students. In each case, the situation and facts of the case are outlined, including the patient's medical history and vital signs, and at…

  2. The Energy Crisis and the Media: Some Case Histories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmertz, Herbert

    The five case histories presented in this paper discuss the relations of the Mobil Oil Corporation with various news media since 1973, particularly the difficulties that the oil industry has faced in communicating with and through the news media. The case histories deal with the following topics; news stories about tankers allegedly waiting…

  3. Teaching Global History: A Social Studies Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    "Teaching Global History" challenges prospective and beginning social studies teachers to formulate their own views about what is important to know in global history and why. It explains how to organize the curriculum around broad social studies concepts and themes and student questions about humanity, history, and the contemporary world. All…

  4. U.S. Supreme Court Decisions. A Case Study Review for U.S. History and Government. A Student and Teacher Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskowitz, Douglas, Ed.; Scurti, Jason, Ed.

    This constitutional casebook is the outcome of the P.A.T.C.H. Law Program of the Northport-East Northport Union Free School District in New York. The casebook provides students and teachers in grades 7, 8, 11, and 12 with a summary review of the 22 cases mentioned in the New York State Regents' 11th grade "U.S. History and Government" syllabus and…

  5. Did the Social Studies Really Replace History in the Local Curriculum? The Case of Elyria, Ohio and the North Central States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallace, Thomas D.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous critics of the social studies have argued that the four-year pattern of chronological history courses in place in most U.S. schools was suddenly and pervasively replaced by interdisciplinary courses recommended by the NEA Committee on Social Studies report in 1916. In this historical study, the author challenges this view. By drawing upon…

  6. Rumination in adults: two case histories.

    PubMed

    Tamburrino, M B; Campbell, N B; Franco, K N; Evans, C L

    1995-01-01

    Rumination has been reported to be a relatively rare disorder of eating during infancy. Over the past decade, there appears to be a renewed interest in and recognition of adult rumination. Although some authors believe adult rumination is benign, others have begun to link it with both eating disorders and depressive symptoms. This paper presents two adult cases whose rumination was associated with anorexia and bulimia nervosa. More identification and study of adult rumination is needed to clarify its course and medical significance. PMID:7894448

  7. Case Histories of Landslide Impact: A Database-driven Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, Martin; Damm, Bodo

    2015-04-01

    Fundamental understanding of landslide risk requires in-depth knowledge of how landslides have impacted society in the past (e.g., Corominas et al., 2014). A key to obtain insights into the evolution of landslide risk at single facilities of critical infrastructures are case histories of landslide impact. The purpose of such historical analyses is to inform about the site-specific interactions between landslides and land-use activity. Case histories support correlating landslide events and associated damages with multiple control variables of landslide risk, including (i) previous construction works, (ii) hazard awareness, (iii) the type of structure or its material properties, and (iv) measures of post-disaster mitigation. It is a key advantage of case histories to provide an overview of the changes in the exposure and vulnerability of infrastructures over time. Their application helps to learn more about changing patterns in risk culture and the effectiveness of repair or prevention measures (e.g., Klose et al., 2014). Case histories of landslide impact are developed on the basis of information extracted from landslide databases. The use of path diagrams and illustrated flowcharts as data modeling techniques is aimed at structuring, condensing, and visualizing complex historical data sets on landslide activity and land-use. Much of the scientific potential of case histories simply depends on the quality of available database information. Landslide databases relying on a bottom-up approach characterized by targeted local data specification are optimally suited for historical impact analyses. Combined with systematic retrieval, extraction, and integration of data from multiple sources, landslide databases constitute a valuable tool for developing case histories that enable to open a whole new window on the study of landslide impacts (e.g., Damm and Klose, 2014). The present contribution introduces such a case history for a well-known landslide site at a heavily

  8. Palacios field: A 3-D case history

    SciTech Connect

    McWhorter, R.; Torguson, B.

    1994-12-31

    In late 1992, Mitchell Energy Corporation acquired a 7.75 sq mi (20.0 km{sup 2}) 3-D seismic survey over Palacios field. Matagorda County, Texas. The company shot the survey to help evaluate the field for further development by delineating the fault pattern of the producing Middle Oligocene Frio interval. They compare the mapping of the field before and after the 3-D survey. This comparison shows that the 3-D volume yields superior fault imaging and interpretability compared to the dense 2-D data set. The problems with the 2-D data set are improper imaging of small and oblique faults and insufficient coverage over a complex fault pattern. Whereas the 2-D data set validated a simple fault model, the 3-D volume revealed a more complex history of faulting that includes three different fault systems. This discovery enabled them to reconstruct the depositional and structural history of Palacios field.

  9. The Changing Role of the Academic Journal: The Coverage of Higher Education in "History of Education" as a Case Study, 1972-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Roy

    2012-01-01

    This article briefly reviews the coverage of higher education in the pages of this journal since its inception. It reflects on the changing role of the academic journal during this period, on some of the related changes which have taken place in academia itself as well as changing fashions in the study of history of education. Its central…

  10. Case history evaluation of methane-fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Lafrenz, D.J.; Glaub, J.C.; Jones, D.B.

    1981-01-01

    The results of an extensive case history evaluation of methane-fueled vehicles are presented. A questionnaire sent to fleet operators was designed to procure: general information regarding the fleet; information on the fuel and vehicle fuel system (source of methane, heating value of gas, and vehicle fuel tank capacity); vehicle fuel consumption and mileage information; cost information; and information regarding operational difficulties attributable to conversion for operation on methane. Twenty-eight responses were obtained, encompassing nearly 3,500 vehicles. Data from the study have been compiled into several comprehensive tables. The ranges of various parameters are discussed, as well as the operation difficulties that were reported. 13 refs.

  11. ANALYSIS OF CASE HISTORIES OF PERSONAL INDEX USE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JAHODA, G.; AND OTHERS

    CASE HISTORIES ARE SUMMARIZED FOR 12 RESEARCHERS IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING AT THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY, I.E., 6 CHEMISTS, 4 BIOLOGISTS, 1 ENGINEER, AND 1 METEOROLOGIST. OVER A 10-MONTH PERIOD, 258 HISTORIES WERE OBTAINED. THE DATA DO NOT PERMIT THE DETERMINATION WITH CERTAINTY THE TYPE OF SUBJECT INDEX MOST SUITABLE FOR A PARTICULAR TYPE OF…

  12. Life histories, salinity zones, and sublethal contributions of contaminants to pelagic fish declines illustrated with a case study of San Francisco Estuary, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Marjorie L.; Fleishman, Erica; Brown, Larry R.; Lehman, Peggy W.; Werner, Inge; Scholz, Nathaniel; Michelmore, Carys; Loworn, James R.; Johnson, Michael L.; Schlenk, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Human effects on estuaries are often associated with major decreases in abundance of aquatic species. However, remediation priorities are difficult to identify when declines result from multiple stressors with interacting sublethal effects. The San Francisco Estuary offers a useful case study of the potential role of contaminants in declines of organisms because the waters of its delta chronically violate legal water quality standards; however, direct effects of contaminants on fish species are rarely observed. Lack of direct lethality in the field has prevented consensus that contaminants may be one of the major drivers of coincident but unexplained declines of fishes with differing life histories and habitats (anadromous, brackish, and freshwater). Our review of available evidence indicates that examining the effects of contaminants and other stressors on specific life stages in different seasons and salinity zones of the estuary is critical to identifying how several interacting stressors could contribute to a general syndrome of declines. Moreover, warming water temperatures of the magnitude projected by climate models increase metabolic rates of ectotherms, and can hasten elimination of some contaminants. However, for other pollutants, concurrent increases in respiratory rate or food intake result in higher doses per unit time without changes in the contaminant concentrations in the water. Food limitation and energetic costs of osmoregulating under altered salinities further limit the amount of energy available to fish; this energy must be redirected from growth and reproduction toward pollutant avoidance, enzymatic detoxification, or elimination. Because all of these processes require energy, bioenergetics methods are promising for evaluating effects of sublethal contaminants in the presence of other stressors, and for informing remediation. Predictive models that evaluate the direct and indirect effects of contaminants will be possible when data become

  13. Life-history trait plasticity and its relationships with plant adaptation and insect fitness: a case study on the aphid Sitobion avenae.

    PubMed

    Dai, Peng; Shi, Xiaoqin; Liu, Deguang; Ge, Zhaohong; Wang, Da; Dai, Xinjia; Yi, Zhihao; Meng, Xiuxiang

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity has recently been considered a powerful means of adaptation, but its relationships with corresponding life-history characters and plant specialization levels of insects have been controversial. To address the issues, Sitobion avenae clones from three plants in two areas were compared. Varying amounts of life-history trait plasticity were found among S. avenae clones on barley, oat and wheat. In most cases, developmental durations and their corresponding plasticities were found to be independent, and fecundities and their plasticities were correlated characters instead. The developmental time of first instar nymphs for oat and wheat clones, but not for barley clones, was found to be independent from its plasticity, showing environment-specific effects. All correlations between environments were found to be positive, which could contribute to low plasticity in S. avenae. Negative correlations between trait plasticities and fitness of test clones suggest that lower plasticity could have higher adaptive value. Correlations between plasticity and specialization indices were identified for all clones, suggesting that plasticity might evolve as a by-product of adaptation to certain environments. The divergence patterns of life-history plasticities in S. avenae, as well as the relationships among plasticity, specialization and fitness, could have significant implications for evolutionary ecology of this aphid. PMID:27426961

  14. Life-history trait plasticity and its relationships with plant adaptation and insect fitness: a case study on the aphid Sitobion avenae

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Peng; Shi, Xiaoqin; Liu, Deguang; Ge, Zhaohong; Wang, Da; Dai, Xinjia; Yi, Zhihao; Meng, Xiuxiang

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity has recently been considered a powerful means of adaptation, but its relationships with corresponding life-history characters and plant specialization levels of insects have been controversial. To address the issues, Sitobion avenae clones from three plants in two areas were compared. Varying amounts of life-history trait plasticity were found among S. avenae clones on barley, oat and wheat. In most cases, developmental durations and their corresponding plasticities were found to be independent, and fecundities and their plasticities were correlated characters instead. The developmental time of first instar nymphs for oat and wheat clones, but not for barley clones, was found to be independent from its plasticity, showing environment-specific effects. All correlations between environments were found to be positive, which could contribute to low plasticity in S. avenae. Negative correlations between trait plasticities and fitness of test clones suggest that lower plasticity could have higher adaptive value. Correlations between plasticity and specialization indices were identified for all clones, suggesting that plasticity might evolve as a by-product of adaptation to certain environments. The divergence patterns of life-history plasticities in S. avenae, as well as the relationships among plasticity, specialization and fitness, could have significant implications for evolutionary ecology of this aphid. PMID:27426961

  15. Instructional Computing: Ten Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargan, Carol; Hunter, Beverly

    These case studies are written for educational institutions that wish to plan, extend, or improve their use of computers for learning and teaching. Each case study includes a brief description of each of the following: profile of the institution, history of the development of instructional computing, organization and management, student access to…

  16. Kabbalah: On Spatio-Temporal Database Visualization With Historical Events: A Case Study of History Flow of Chia-Yi Beimen Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, T. W.; Chiou, S. C.; Lee, J. H.

    2015-08-01

    This system is made for researchers who study pattern of city or spatial transformation by using computational way to interpret data logically. In order to make use of all historical data with GIS in system, an exact metadata is necessary and needed to build first. The Cubism project is aimed to presume how different historical data normalized to become information in spatio-temporal database. To make temporal map have higher capability with presentation of history context.

  17. Active strike-slip faulting history inferred from offsets of topographic features and basement rocks: a case study of the Arima Takatsuki Tectonic Line, southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Tadashi; Lin, Aiming

    2002-01-01

    Geological, geomorphological and geophysical data have been used to determine the total displacement, slip rates and age of formation of the Arima-Takatsuki Tectonic Line (ATTL) in southwest Japan. The ATTL is an ENE-WSW-trending dextral strike-slip fault zone that extends for about 60 km from northwest of the Rokko Mountains to southwest of the Kyoto Basin. The ATTL marks a distinct topographic boundary between mountainous regions and basin regions. Tectonic landforms typically associated with active strike-slip faults, such as systematically-deflected stream channels, offset ridges and fault scarps, are recognized along the ATTL. The Quaternary drainage system shows progressive displacement along the fault traces: the greater the magnitude of stream channel, the larger the amount of offset. The maximum dextral deflection of stream channels is 600-700 m. The field data and detailed topographic analyses, however, show that pre-Neogene basement rocks on both sides of the ATTL are displaced by about 16-18 km dextrally and pre-Mio-Pliocene elevated peneplains are also offset 16-17 km in dextral along the ATTL. This suggests that the ATTL formed in the period between the development of the pre-Mio-Pliocene peneplains and deflection of the Quaternary stream channels. The geological, geomorphological and geophysical evidence presented in this study indicates that (1) the ATTL formed after the mid-Miocene, (2) the ATTL has moved as a dextral strike-slip fault with minor vertical component since its formation to late Holocene and (3) the ATTL is presently active with dextral slip rates of 1-3 mm/year and a vertical component of >0.3 mm/year. The formation of the ATTL was probably related to the opening of the Japan Sea, which is the dominant tectonic event around Japan since mid-Miocene. The case study of the ATTL provides insight into understanding the tectonic history and relationship between tectonic landforms and structures in active strike-slip faults.

  18. Syn-orogenic extensional pulses within the contractional history of thrust wedges. The Val di Lima low-angle normal fault case study, Northern Apennines, Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemenzi, Luca; Molli, Giancarlo; Storti, Fabrizio; Muchez, Philippe; Swennen, Rudy; Torelli, Luigi

    2014-05-01

    overpressures locally influenced active deformation processes and favored shear localization. We propose that the folded low-angle extensional fault system indicates the occurrence of an extensional pulse that affected this sector of the thrust wedge during the orogenic contractional history. In particular, the fault system is considered to be the flat portion of a stair-case extensional fault system developed in the shallower portion of the thrust wedge to compensate for its supercritical taper produced by uplift of the internal zone due to deep-rooted thrusting. Important pulses of wedge extension, similar to the one described here, are likely to occur during the geological history of most thrust wedges, because their long-term evolution is characterized by complex interactions among tectonics, gravitational body forces, and (sub)surface processes. The systems of brittle extensional fault zones, resulting from such extensional pulses, affect fluid circulation through the upper crust by producing articulated networks of hydraulic conduits, barriers, or mixed conduit-barrier systems. In particular, as demonstrated by our results, the effects of extensional fault zones on fluid circulation is twofold: i) they provide effective fluid pathways allowing deep infiltration of surface-derived marine or meteoric water; ii) they can trigger fluid overpressuring, especially in the footwall of shallow-dipping fault segments. Eventually, fluid circulation can exert a strong influence on the mechanical behavior of thrust wedges either by reducing the effective normal stress at depth or triggering the formation of hydrous clay minerals lowering the frictional properties of fault zones.

  19. Case Study: Testing with Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.

  20. Case histories of West Valley spent fuel shipments: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    In 1983, NRC/FC initiated a study on institutional issues related to spent fuel shipments originating at the former spent fuel processing facility in West Valley, New York. FC staff viewed the shipment campaigns as a one-time opportunity to document the institutional issues that may arise with a substantial increase in spent fuel shipping activity. NRC subsequently contracted with the Aerospace Corporation for the West Valley Study. This report contains a detailed description of the events which took place prior to and during the spent fuel shipments. The report also contains a discussion of the shipment issues that arose, and presents general findings. Most of the institutional issues discussed in the report do not fall under NRC's transportation authority. The case histories provide a reference to agencies and other institutions that may be involved in future spent fuel shipping campaigns. 130 refs., 7 figs., 19 tabs.

  1. Using Sources to Teach History for the Common Good: A Case of One Teacher's Purpose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gradwell, Jill M.

    2010-01-01

    The teacher who is the focus of this interpretive case study, uses primary sources regularly with her students in ambitious ways but does so less from the current reform efforts, recent history education scholarship, or the climate of accountability and more from her individual goals for history education, most significantly, to prepare her…

  2. P-T-D histories from quartz: A case study of the application of the TitaniQ thermobarometer to progressive fabric development in metapelites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, Kyle T.; Webb, Laura E.; Spear, Frank S.; Thomas, Jay B.

    2013-09-01

    This study investigates the ability of quartz to record segments of the pressure-temperature-deformation (P-T-D) path in poly-deformed metamorphic terranes and the associated application of the Ti-in-quartz thermobarometer (TitaniQ). Metapelites from the Strafford Dome (eastern Vermont) were selected for this study because they record progressive fabric development during prograde metamorphism and have well constrained P-T-D histories from previous work. Results of this investigation are in agreement with previous studies and demonstrate that quartz in these samples records additional distinct intervals of the P-T-D path. Six preserved quartz equilibration events include: (1) early prograde growth during burial; (2) kyanite-in quartz-producing reactions; (3) prenappe emplacement equilibration during isobaric heating; (4) precipitation of quartz in quartz-feldspar domains during crenulation cleavage development due to solution transfer; (5) quartz-producing (chlorite-out) reactions during heating postnappe emplacement; and (6) retrograde quartz overgrowths from an influx of siliceous fluids. Modeling quartz volume allows for the identification of quartz-producing reactions in P-T space; the same may be done for Ti-phases to better constrain activities during reequilibration events. An integration of cathodoluminescence imaging, microstructural and petrographic investigation, isochemical forward stability modeling, and thermobarometry allows identification and interpretation of zoning patterns in quartz to unravel histories that would otherwise not be obtainable.

  3. Educational Research--History of Education a Curious Case?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Joyce; Grosvenor, Ian

    2009-01-01

    The article begins with an exploration of the current state of history of education by drawing on published reviews of history of education, thematic analysis of journal content, and mapping of postgraduate study. It then highlights "moments of insecurity". These are characterised by a particular discourse that frames the future of the discipline…

  4. The history of the case report: a selective review

    PubMed Central

    Nissen, Trygve

    2014-01-01

    The clinical case report is a popular genre in medical writing. While authors and editors have debated the justification for the clinical case report, few have attempted to examine the long history of this genre in medical literature. By reviewing selected literature and presenting and discussing excerpts of clinical case reports from Egyptian antiquity to the 20th century, we illustrate the presence of the genre in medical science and how its form developed. Central features of the clinical case report in different time periods are discussed, including its main components, structure, style and author presence. PMID:25057387

  5. History of Pay Equity Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbezat, Debra A.

    2002-01-01

    Traces the evolution of salary-equity studies over time, and how the findings have changed with regard to pay differences by gender and race/ethnicity. Reviews the literature on salary equity for both faculty and nonfaculty academic employees. (EV)

  6. Cooperative Learning about Nature of Science with a Case from the History of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfensberger, Balz; Canella, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a predominantly qualitative classroom study on cooperative learning about nature of science (NOS) using a case from the history of science. The purpose of the research was to gain insight into how students worked with the historical case study during cooperative group work, how students and teachers assessed the teaching unit,…

  7. A Case-Study of One Teacher's Use of an Interactive Whiteboard System to Support Knowledge Co-Construction in the History Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaney, Rosemary; Chapman, Arthur; Hennessy, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Interactive whiteboards (IWBs) have rapidly become an integral feature of many classrooms across the UK and elsewhere, but debate continues regarding the pedagogical implications of their use. This article reports on an in-depth case-study from the wider T-MEDIA project (Teacher Mediation of Subject Learning with ICT: a Multimedia Approach). A key…

  8. Using Case Histories in Health Sciences Education- An Example: Leukemia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karni, Karen; And Others

    1976-01-01

    To provide an example of how case histories have been developed and used as one means to a team approach to health care in the course, "The Patient and Health Care Team," this paper describes one topic--leukemia--to show the interaction of health care professionals, as well as input from the family itself. (HD)

  9. The Case History Method of Testing Students in Gross Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruise, Leon J.

    1980-01-01

    The use of case histories to test a student's knowledge of the previous weeks' dissection in gross anatomy class is discussed. The test is seen as a way to integrate other basic sciences. An example of this type of test is provided. (MLW)

  10. Socio-Demographic, Clinical and Behavioral Characteristics Associated with a History of Suicide Attempts among Psychiatric Outpatients: A Case Control Study in a Northern Mexican City

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Arnaud-Gil, Carlos Alberto; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Molina-Espinoza, Luis Fernando; Rábago-Sánchez, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the epidemiology of suicide attempts among psychiatric outpatients in Mexico. This study was aimed to determine the socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics associated with suicide attempts in psychiatric outpatients in two public hospitals in Durango, Mexico. Methods: Two hundred seventy six psychiatric outpatients (154 suicide attempters and 122 patients without suicide attempt history) attended the two public hospitals in Durango City, Mexico were included in this study. Socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics were obtained retrospectively from all outpatients and compared in relation to the presence or absence of suicide attempt history. Results: Increased prevalence of suicide attempts was associated with mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use (F10-19) (P=0.01), schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders (F20-29) (P=0.02), mood (affective) disorders (F30-39) (P<0.001), and disorders of adult personality and behavior (F60-69) (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that suicide attempts were associated with young age (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.06-1.39; P=0.003), female gender (OR=2.98, 95% CI: 1.55-5.73; P=0.001), urban residence (OR=2.31, 95% CI: 1.17-4.57; P=0.01), memory impairment (OR=1.91, 95% CI: 1.07-3.40; P=0.02), alcohol consumption (OR=2.39, 95% CI: 1.21-4.70; P=0.01), and sexual promiscuity (OR=3.90, 95% CI: 1.74-8.77; P<0.001). Conclusions: We report the association of suicide attempts with socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics in psychiatric outpatients in Mexico. Results may be useful for an optimal planning of preventive measures against suicide attempts in psychiatric outpatients. PMID:24711751

  11. Using History to Teach Mathematics: The Case of Logarithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiotou, Evangelos N.

    2011-01-01

    Many authors have discussed the question why we should use the history of mathematics to mathematics education. For example, Fauvel (For Learn Math, 11(2): 3-6, 1991) mentions at least fifteen arguments for applying the history of mathematics in teaching and learning mathematics. Knowing how to introduce history into mathematics lessons is a more difficult step. We found, however, that only a limited number of articles contain instructions on how to use the material, as opposed to numerous general articles suggesting the use of the history of mathematics as a didactical tool. The present article focuses on converting the history of logarithms into material appropriate for teaching students of 11th grade, without any knowledge of calculus. History uncovers that logarithms were invented prior of the exponential function and shows that the logarithms are not an arbitrary product, as is the case when we leap straight in the definition given in all modern textbooks, but they are a response to a problem. We describe step by step the historical evolution of the concept, in a way appropriate for use in class, until the definition of the logarithm as area under the hyperbola. Next, we present the formal development of the theory and define the exponential function. The teaching sequence has been successfully undertaken in two high school classrooms.

  12. "The Sacred Spark of Wonder": Local Museums, Australian Curriculum History, and Pre-Service Primary Teacher Education: A Tasmanian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brett, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the intersections between museum learning in a distinctive Tasmanian setting, the possibilities of a new national History curriculum, and the evolving views and professional practices of pre-service primary teachers at one Australian university. Following a brief overview of the framework for local and Australian history that…

  13. "No Longer from Pyramids to the Empire State Building": Why Both Western Civilization and World Civilization Should Be Part of the History Major--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voeltz, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    In 2005, Peter Stearns wrote, "The ongoing debate between partisans of Western civilization surveys and fans of world history continues with no signs of any abatement." No one can deny that the rise of world history has been a phenomenon in American higher education over the past 30 years. Most high school students now take some version of a world…

  14. A case study of a precision fertilizer application task generation for wheat based on classified hyperspectral data from UAV combined with farm history data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaivosoja, Jere; Pesonen, Liisa; Kleemola, Jouko; Pölönen, Ilkka; Salo, Heikki; Honkavaara, Eija; Saari, Heikki; Mäkynen, Jussi; Rajala, Ari

    2013-10-01

    Different remote sensing methods for detecting variations in agricultural fields have been studied in last two decades. There are already existing systems for planning and applying e.g. nitrogen fertilizers to the cereal crop fields. However, there are disadvantages such as high costs, adaptability, reliability, resolution aspects and final products dissemination. With an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based airborne methods, data collection can be performed cost-efficiently with desired spatial and temporal resolutions, below clouds and under diverse weather conditions. A new Fabry-Perot interferometer based hyperspectral imaging technology implemented in an UAV has been introduced. In this research, we studied the possibilities of exploiting classified raster maps from hyperspectral data to produce a work task for a precision fertilizer application. The UAV flight campaign was performed in a wheat test field in Finland in the summer of 2012. Based on the campaign, we have classified raster maps estimating the biomass and nitrogen contents at approximately stage 34 in the Zadoks scale. We combined the classified maps with farm history data such as previous yield maps. Then we generalized the combined results and transformed it to a vectorized zonal task map suitable for farm machinery. We present the selected weights for each dataset in the processing chain and the resultant variable rate application (VRA) task. The additional fertilization according to the generated task was shown to be beneficial for the amount of yield. However, our study is indicating that there are still many uncertainties within the process chain.

  15. Case Study: Writing a Journal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes incorporating a journal article into the classroom by first converting it into a case study.

  16. Global, local and focused geographic clustering for case-control data with residential histories

    PubMed Central

    Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Kaufmann, Andy; Meliker, Jaymie; Goovaerts, Pierre; AvRuskin, Gillian; Nriagu, Jerome

    2005-01-01

    Background This paper introduces a new approach for evaluating clustering in case-control data that accounts for residential histories. Although many statistics have been proposed for assessing local, focused and global clustering in health outcomes, few, if any, exist for evaluating clusters when individuals are mobile. Methods Local, global and focused tests for residential histories are developed based on sets of matrices of nearest neighbor relationships that reflect the changing topology of cases and controls. Exposure traces are defined that account for the latency between exposure and disease manifestation, and that use exposure windows whose duration may vary. Several of the methods so derived are applied to evaluate clustering of residential histories in a case-control study of bladder cancer in south eastern Michigan. These data are still being collected and the analysis is conducted for demonstration purposes only. Results Statistically significant clustering of residential histories of cases was found but is likely due to delayed reporting of cases by one of the hospitals participating in the study. Conclusion Data with residential histories are preferable when causative exposures and disease latencies occur on a long enough time span that human mobility matters. To analyze such data, methods are needed that take residential histories into account. PMID:15784151

  17. Case-History Explorations of Scientifically Significant Earth-System Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, M. K.; Walker, C. S.; Mayhew, M. A.

    2007-12-01

    We are developing case histories of recent and ancient natural disasters to provide students a means of learning fundamental earth system science and applying their new understanding to mitigating disasters in the future. We distinguish case histories from case studies in that they investigate real problems that are likely to recur, as opposed to hypothetical but realistic problem scenarios. Students explore the scientific and societal conditions that caused or fueled a disaster; investigate whether the outcome might have been different under different conditions; explore how the disaster has shaped our scientific and societal understanding of such events; and propose appropriate responses and preparation measures for future events. Each case history allows for multiple directions of investigation by individuals or teams. The case histories incorporate actual datasets used by scientists to analyze the event, in addition to analysis tools such as GIS, Excel, and Google Earth. These classroom resources are appropriate for undergraduate earth system majors from first year to third year. We have completed and are field testing case histories for the 1994 M6.7 Northridge earthquake and the Super Tornado Outbreak of 1974, as well as other notable tornado outbreaks. Additionally, we are developing case histories for the 1700 Cascadia mega-tsunami and the 2005 Hurricane Katrina. Research studies of each of these events have resulted in significant changes to our understanding of the earth processes that caused them, and have spawned renewed interest in hazard mitigation. Each case history also incorporates the human element, presented from both a scientific and eyewitness perspective. Field testing includes evaluation of scientific accuracy, usability and pedagogical effectiveness, as described in the DLESE peer-review-system criteria (www.dlese-project.org/review_criteria.html) by field testers and external technical experts.

  18. Thermal evolution of Lower Paleozoic sedimentary successions from organic and inorganic studies: the case history of the Holy Cross Mountains (central Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trolese, Matteo; Stefano Celano, Antonio; Corrado, Sveva; Caricchi, Chiara; Schito, Andrea; Aldega, Luca

    2015-04-01

    The rapid increase in shale gas production in the USA has triggered a growing interest in unconventional resources in Eastern and Northern Europe. In this framework, the potential shale gas reserves in Poland are the most promising in Europe, extending from the Baltic Sea to the Ukraine border. In this area, the Baltic, Podlasie and Lublin basins have already become objective of shale gas exploration and the Holy Cross Mountains (HCM, Central Poland) represents the outcropping analog of the buried targeted Lower Paleozoic successions, providing a unique opportunity to study and assess source rock potential. In this work, we provide new thermal maturity data of Paleozoic rocks exposed in the HCM. A multi-method approach, coupling organic matter/graptolites (i.e., marine organoclasts) optical analysis and X-ray diffraction of clay-sized fraction of sediments, was applied to constrain the burial - thermal evolution of the sedimentary succession. The investigated area of the HCM includes two different tectonic blocks: the Łysogóry region to the North and the Kielce region to the South, separated by the Holy Cross Fault (HCF). lllite content in mixed layer illite-smectite determinations and vitrinite/graptolites reflectance measurements (Roeq%), performed on samples (Cambrian - Devonian) collected from both the regions, show a substantial difference between the two blocks in terms of thermal maturity and burial history. Roeq% values in the southern block range from 0.5% to 1.0%, with few exceptions, indicating early to mid-mature stage of hydrocarbon generation. Samples collected in the northern block show much higher values, mainly from 1.2% up to 1.7%, representative of the gas generation window. The I-S ordering type also shows relevant differences in the two blocks. In the southern block, mixed-layered clay minerals varies from R1 (short-range) to R3 (long-range), whereas R3 structures are recorded in the northern block. Vitrinite reflectance and mixed-layer I

  19. A Middle to Late Holocene avulsion history of the Euphrates river: a case study from Tell ed-Dēr, Iraq, Lower Mesopotamia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An Heyvaert, Vanessa Mary; Baeteman, Cecile

    2008-12-01

    Geoarchaeological research was performed to reconstruct the floodplain history in the surroundings of two ancient Mesopotamian cities: Tell ed-Dēr and Sippar. The mapping of the floodplain is based on facies analyses of the sedimentary succession of 225 hand-operated boreholes. The archaeological sites Tell ed-Dēr and Sippar are closely linked to a palaeochannelbelt of the Euphrates, located in the western part of the study area. Channel activity started at least in ca 3100 BC/5050 cal BP, until ca 1400-1000 BC/3350-2950 cal BP. The channel belt was part of an avulsion driven multiple Euphrates channel network that gradually became abandoned from the second half of the 2nd millennium BC. A second mapped Euphrates, Tigris or Joint Euphrates -Tigris palaeochannel belt became abandoned well before 3100 BC. Examples of natural processes as well as human interactions triggering avulsion are given. Moreover, textual, archaeological and geological data show clearly that flood-control techniques and the construction of large-scale dikes seemed to be a common practice.

  20. Case History as Minority Report in the Hippocratic Epidemics 1.

    PubMed

    Wee, John Z

    2016-01-01

    Instead of being self-evident depictions of sickness, ancient medical texts were narratives created from certain points of view and for intended purposes. As a guide for the physician travelling to an unfamiliar community of people, the treatise Airs, Waters, Places anticipated "communal" conditions resulting from seasonal changes, while admitting the possibility of "personal" sickness due to individual lifestyles. Even with its geographical situatedness, Epidemics 1 continued to prioritise population narratives, subsuming sickness within the experiences of the anonymous majority whenever possible. In both its constitutions and case histories, however, patients whose conditions deviated from majority expectations were identified for forensic purposes, so that case histories functioned as minority reports rather than exemplars of how sickness behaved. Such reports guarded against surprising deviations from the rules of prognosis, which could present a threat to the physician's credibility and livelihood as a consequence. PMID:26946676

  1. Methodology for lognormal modelling of malignant pleural mesothelioma survival time distributions: a study of 5580 case histories from Europe and USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mould, Richard F.; Lahanas, Michael; Asselain, Bernard; Brewster, David; Burgers, Sjaak A.; Damhuis, Ronald A. M.; DeRycke, Yann; Gennaro, Valerio; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila

    2004-09-01

    A truncated left-censored and right-censored lognormal model has been validated for representing pleural mesothelioma survival times in the range 5-200 weeks for data subsets grouped by age for males, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79 and 80+ years and for all ages combined for females. The cases available for study were from Europe and USA and totalled 5580. This is larger than any other pleural mesothelioma cohort accrued for study. The methodology describes the computation of reference baseline probabilities, 5-200 weeks, which can be used in clinical trials to assess results of future promising treatment methods. This study is an extension of previous lognormal modelling by Mould et al (2002 Phys. Med. Biol. 47 3893-924) to predict long-term cancer survival from short-term data where the proportion cured is denoted by C and the uncured proportion, which can be represented by a lognormal, by (1 - C). Pleural mesothelioma is a special case when C = 0.

  2. Toxic multinodular goitre. Personal case histories and literature review.

    PubMed

    Sturniolo, Gia; Gagliano, E; Tonante, A; Taranto, F; Vermiglio, F; Sturniolo, Gio

    2013-01-01

    The authors reviewed their own case histories of surgical thyreopathy over the last 20 years in order to establish how many multinodular goitre (MNG) patients developed hyperthyroidism during the follow-up period. In agreement with the findings reported in literature, the authors observed that 220 out of 1117 patients with MNG developed hyperthyroidism caused by the appearance of hyperfunctioning nodules after 6-18 years from the initial diagnosis of MNG. PMID:24629810

  3. Magma mixing, crustal contamination, contamination before chemical analysis or complex history? The case study from the Wołek Hill, SW Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Monika

    2015-04-01

    Wołek Hill is one of the smallest exposures from ca. 300 occurrences of Cenozoic volcanic rocks from SW Poland. The outcrop is located about 100 km SW from Wrocław and belongs to the Złotoryja Volcanic Field, which is one of the largest volcanic fields in the Polish part of the Central European Volcanic Province (Ladenberger et al. 2006). The volcanic body, which is about 20 m wide, cross-cuts older Permian volcanic rocks (trachyandesites and rhyolites) and is well exposed in an old abandoned quarry. The occurrence was studied in detail because of great amount of mantle and crustal xenoliths brought to the surface by magma. Wołek Hill is one of the two occurrences in SW Poland where amphibole crystals were recognized as results of modal metasomatism in lithospheric mantle (Nowak et al. 2012). The volcanic rock from Wołek Hill represents complex history, difficult to explain by simple model. The rock was classified as basanite (Nowak, 2012). Its texture is porphyritic to glomeroporphyritic, olivine (Ol) and clinopyroxene (Cpx) occurs as phenocrysts, Cpx is also the dominant phase in the groundmass. Wołek Hill basanite differs from other exposures in Złotoryja Volcanic Field by presence of xenocrysts of Ol and Cpx from mantle rocks and also quartz (Qrtz) and feldspars (Feld) xenocrysts from crustal rocks. Those xenocrysts with additional carbonate veins, probably related with post-volcanic processes, were a great difficulty during rock preparation for whole-rock and isotopic analyses. The complex history of Wołek Hill basanite is visible in its chemical content (slight increase of SiO2, positive Pb anomaly, 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd values), but also in its petrography (e.g. by three types of olivine phenocrysts Fo82-91 with differences in zonation patterns reflecting Fo content; the most abundant are phenocrysts with normal zoning, but also crystals with opposite zoning and oscillatory zoning were recognised). According to available data from the basanite

  4. Teaching Freedom of Speech through the Case Study Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Peter E.

    The use of case studies or case histories of Supreme Court cases concerning freedom of speech often provides the "real world" dimension that is too often lacking in the teaching of this area. The case study or case history is a coherent narrative of the historical events designed to illuminate the issues involved in a specific situation. Such…

  5. Identifying the History and Logic of Negative, Ambivalent, and Positive Responses to Literature: A Case-Study Analysis of Cultural Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thein, Amanda Haertling

    2009-01-01

    This paper begins with the assumption that the interpretive practices people acquire in social worlds often transfer to their stances toward and interpretations of worlds encountered in literature (Beach, Thein, & Parks, 2007). The goal of this paper is to identify the history and logic behind one student's negative, ambivalent, and positive…

  6. Predictive seismic modeling case history from the Niger delta

    SciTech Connect

    Idowu, A.O. )

    1993-09-01

    Seismic modeling techniques provide the mechanics for simulating the geology of the subsurface by depicting the impact of a propagating seismic wavefront on subsurface structures. In practice, seismic data have been used to map the geometry of events in the subsurface, mainly from reflection continuity and the character of reflection packages. In the Niger delta, recent developments in stratigraphic exploration has induced the examination of more subtle features of reflection, mainly polarity, amplitude, and waveform to define the limits of seismic resolution and hence predict the geometry of subsurface fluid and solid interfaces. The case history discussed here involved interpretative study for defining the fluid contents of prospective oil and gas leads as indicated by anomalous seismic events on a Niger delta field located in a water depth of 25 m. An appropriate source signal (5-35 Hertz minimum phase) is selected, and the wavelet is convolved with a practical geologic model to obtain a synthetic seismogram. By an interactive process involving slight modifications in the geologic model, a synthetic seismogram is ultimately derived that matches a field signal, thus providing a more accurate prediction of the geological formation under study. The technique was effect (as confirmed by later drilling) in appraising the fluid contents of the targeted pay zones encountered at gas/water, oil/water, and gas/oil/water contacts in the O field, located in the eastern offshore area of the Niger delta. The method further demonstrated that structural and stratigraphic modeling are effective tools for testing the mapability of a geologic concept and are able to evaluate the significance of reflectivity changes or anomalies on uncalibrated seismic data.

  7. Case Studies for Effective Business Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlister-Kizzier, Donna

    This book is designed as a resource for educators who teach business content in a variety of instructional settings. It contains case studies representing all functional areas of business, including corporate training, for grades 7 through graduate education. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the case study method. The history of the case method,…

  8. A case history: from traumatic repetition towards psychic representability.

    PubMed

    Bichi, Estela L

    2008-06-01

    This paper is devoted principally to a case history concerning an analytic process extending over a period of almost ten years. The patient is B, who consulted the author after a traumatic episode. Although that was her reason for commencing treatment, a history of previous traumatogenic situations, including a rape during her adolescence, subsequently came to light. The author describes three stages of the treatment, reflected in three different settings in accordance with the work done by both patient and analyst in enabling B to own and work through her infantile and adult traumatic experiences. The process of transformation of traumatic traces lacking psychic representation, which was undertaken by both members of the analytic couple from the beginning of the treatment, was eventually approached in a particular way on the basis of their respective creative capacities, which facilitated the patient's psychic progress towards representability and the possibility of working through the experiences of the past. Much of the challenge of this case involved the analyst's capacity to maintain and at the same time consolidate her analytic posture within her internal setting, while doing her best to overcome any possible misfit (Balint, 1968) between her own technique and the specific complexities of the individual patient. The account illustrates the alternation of phases, at the beginning of the analysis, of remembering and interpretation on the one hand and of the representational void and construction on the other. In the case history proper and in her detailed summing up, the author refers to the place of the analyst during the analytic process, the involvement of her psychic functioning, and the importance of her capacity to work on and make use of her countertransference and self-analytic introspection, with a view to neutralizing any influence that aspects of her 'real person' might have had on the analytic field and on the complex processes taking place within

  9. Vertebral Angiosarcoma. Case Study.

    PubMed

    Guzik, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Bone angiosarcomas, especially vertebral angiosarcomas, are very rare. There are no studies based on large clinical samples in the literature, and only a few single case reports can be found. The symptoms of the disease are not specific. It is usually detected incidentally or at a late stage when pathological vertebral fractures or neurological complications occur. Diagnostic imaging and history help to recognize the tumour behind the symptoms, but do not allow accurate clinical diagnosis. The basis for a diagnosis is the histopathological examination supported by immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays. The case of a 26-year-old woman with an angiosarcoma involving the eighth thoracic vertebra we report reflects diagnostic problems adversely affecting the efficacy and accuracy of treatment offered to patients. The patient underwent three surgeries of the spine, including two biopsies. A needle biopsy did not provide sufficient information for the diagnosis. An open excisional biopsy, which at the same time temporarily reduced neurological deficits in the patient, was the only chance to obtain an accurate diagnosis. The third surgery was posterior decompression of the spinal cord due to the rapidly escalating paraparesis. It was not until 8 weeks later that the final diagnosis was established. At that time, the patient could not be qualified for any supplementary treatment. The patient died in hospital 6 months after the onset of disease. PMID:26468177

  10. Design aspects of zeppelin operations from case histories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiersperger, W. P.

    1975-01-01

    Some widely held beliefs concerning the practicability of rigid airships in air carrier operations are discussed. It is shown by a review of past operational experience, and some basic aerostatic theory, their actual record and the reasons for their demise. Problems of atmospheric density and temperature variations, meteorological factors, aerodynamic stability and control, and mooring difficulties are discussed and related to actual case histories. Structural and flight efficiencies are compared to airplane efficiencies for airplanes contemporary with the zeppelin as well as modern designs. The difficulty of supporting new, commercial airship developments on an economic basis is made clear.

  11. The Gemini Data Handling System: A Case History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudet, Séverin; Hill, Norman R.; Dunn, Jennifer; Jaeger, Shannon; Cockayne, Steve

    The Gemini Data Handling System, developed by the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre for the Gemini 8m Telescopes Project, provides the data handling infrastructure for the Observatory Control System and the instrument control systems. An overview of the preliminary design was presented at ADASS '95. In August 1998, the DHS passed its acceptance tests and was released operationally to Gemini North in Hawai'i. This paper will present a case history of the project: how the requirements changed, how the design evolved to its final form, the approaches taken, the tools used, and the problems encountered.

  12. Case histories in the great power of steady misrepresentation.

    PubMed

    Todd, J T; Morris, E K

    1992-11-01

    The widespread misrepresentation of behaviorism in the scientific and popular literature has caused its contributions to the understanding of behavior to be systematically ignored or denied. This misrepresentation is manifested, in large part, as a form of academic folklore that codifies erroneous accounts of behaviorism's assumptions, findings, and goals. This article examines three representative "case histories" of the academic folklore about behaviorism: its alleged environmentalism, totalitarian aims, and intellectual intolerance. Because academic folklore has been highly resistant to the corrective efforts of behaviorists, explicit strategies are suggested for identifying and correcting folklore and for promoting more effective interdisciplinary communication. PMID:1482006

  13. Case history - installation of high volume pumping equipment in Talco Field, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The work presents a case history study of Exxon's high volume artificial lift program at Talco Field in Franklin and Titus Counties, Texas. The field produces heavy crude oil from the Paluxy sandstone at an approximate depth of 4200 ft. Discussion includes (1) screening parameters used to optimized selection of high volume artificial lift equipment; (2) representative production flowstreams to quantify the additional recovery expected; (3) analysis of incremental expenses and costs associated with electric submersible pumps and large capacity beam pumping units; and (4) case production histories and operational problems encountered.

  14. Annual variation of spawning Cutthroat Trout in a small Western USA stream: A case study with implications for the conservation of potamodromous trout life history diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, Stephen; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Roper, Brett B.; Budy, Phaedra

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the variability in the spatial and temporal distribution of spawning potamodromous trout despite decades of research directed at salmonid spawning ecology and the increased awareness that conserving life history diversity should be a focus of management. We monitored a population of fluvial–resident Bonneville Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii utah in a tributary to the Logan River, Utah, from 2006 to 2012 to gain insight into the distribution and timing of spawning and what factors may influence these spawning activities. We monitored Bonneville Cutthroat Trout using redd surveys with multiple observers and georeferenced redd locations. We documented an extended spawning period that lasted from late April to mid-July. The onset, median, and end of spawning was best predicted by the mean maximum water temperature during the first 13 weeks of the year (F = 130. 4, df = 5, R2 = 0.96, P < 0.0001) with spawning beginning and ending earlier in years that had warmer water temperatures prior to spawning. The distribution of redds was clumped each year and the relative density of redds was greater in a reach dominated by dams constructed by beavers Castor canadensis. Both dam failure and construction appeared to be responsible for creating new spawning habitat that was quickly occupied, demonstrating rapid temporal response to local habitat changes. Bonneville Cutthroat Trout appeared to establish and defend a redd for up to 2 d, and spawning most often occurred between similar-sized individuals. Spawning surveys for potamodromous trout are an underutilized tool that could be used to better understand the distribution and timing of spawning as well as determine the size and trends of the reproducing portion of populations of management concern. Without efforts to document the diversity of this important aspect of potamodromous trout life history, prioritization of conservation will be problematic.

  15. Annual variation of spawning cutthroat trout in a small western USA stream: a case study with implications for the conservation of potamodromous trout life history diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, Stephen; Al-Chokhachy, Robert; Roper, Brett B.; Budy, Phaedra

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the variability in the spatial and temporal distribution of spawning potamodromous trout despite decades of research directed at salmonid spawning ecology and the increased awareness that conserving life history diversity should be a focus of management. We monitored a population of fluvial–resident Bonneville Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii utah in a tributary to the Logan River, Utah, from 2006 to 2012 to gain insight into the distribution and timing of spawning and what factors may influence these spawning activities. We monitored Bonneville Cutthroat Trout using redd surveys with multiple observers and georeferenced redd locations. We documented an extended spawning period that lasted from late April to mid-July. The onset, median, and end of spawning was best predicted by the mean maximum water temperature during the first 13 weeks of the year (F = 130. 4, df = 5, R2 = 0.96, P < 0.0001) with spawning beginning and ending earlier in years that had warmer water temperatures prior to spawning. The distribution of redds was clumped each year and the relative density of redds was greater in a reach dominated by dams constructed by beavers Castor canadensis. Both dam failure and construction appeared to be responsible for creating new spawning habitat that was quickly occupied, demonstrating rapid temporal response to local habitat changes. Bonneville Cutthroat Trout appeared to establish and defend a redd for up to 2 d, and spawning most often occurred between similar-sized individuals. Spawning surveys for potamodromous trout are an underutilized tool that could be used to better understand the distribution and timing of spawning as well as determine the size and trends of the reproducing portion of populations of management concern. Without efforts to document the diversity of this important aspect of potamodromous trout life history, prioritization of conservation will be problematic.

  16. INFLUENCE OF EXPOSURE HISTORY ON VITELLOGENIN INDUCTION IN MEDAKA: A CASE OF "ESTROGEN MEMORY"?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Influence of Exposure History on Vitellogenin Induction in Medaka: a Case of "Estrogen Memory"? (Abstract). Mar. Environ. Res. 50(1-5):196.

    In this study, we exposed female medaka to aqueous solutions of o,p'-DDT until tissues residues reached approximately 100 g/g. Male...

  17. Quantitative Morphologic Analysis of Boulder Shape and Surface Texture to Infer Environmental History: A Case Study of Rock Breakdown at the Ephrata Fan, Channeled Scabland, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Viles, Heather A.; Bourke, Mary C.

    2008-01-01

    Boulder morphology reflects both lithology and climate and is dictated by the combined effects of erosion, transport, and weathering. At present, morphologic information at the boulder scale is underutilized as a recorder of environmental processes, partly because of the lack of a systematic quantitative parameter set for reporting and comparing data sets. We develop such a parameter set, incorporating a range of measures of boulder form and surface texture. We use standard shape metrics measured in the field and fractal and morphometric classification methods borrowed from landscape analysis and applied to laser-scanned molds. The parameter set was pilot tested on three populations of basalt boulders with distinct breakdown histories in the Channeled Scabland, Washington: (1) basalt outcrop talus; (2) flood-transported boulders recently excavated from a quarry; and (3) flood-transported boulders, extensively weathered in situ on the Ephrata Fan surface. Size and shape data were found to distinguish between flood-transported and untransported boulders. Size and edge angles (approximately 120 degrees) of flood-transported boulders suggest removal by preferential fracturing along preexisting columnar joints, and curvature data indicate rounding relative to outcrop boulders. Surface textural data show that boulders which have been exposed at the surface are significantly rougher than those buried by fan sediments. Past signatures diagnostic of flood transport still persist on surface boulders, despite ongoing overprinting by processes in the present breakdown environment through roughening and fracturing in situ. Further use of this quantitative boulder parameter set at other terrestrial and planetary sites will aid in cataloging and understanding morphologic signatures of environmental processes.

  18. The volcanic history ofVolcán Alcedo, Galápagos Archipelago: a case study of rhyolitic oceanic volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, Dennis J.; Howard, Keith A.; Jellinek, A. Mark; Rayder, Scott

    1994-01-01

    Volca??n Alcedo is one of the seven western Gala??pagos shields and is the only active Gala??pagos volcano known to have erupted rhyolite as well as basalt. The volcano stands 4 km above the sea floor and has a subaerial volume of 200 km3, nearly all of which is basalt. As Volca??n Alcedo grew, it built an elongate domal shield, which was partly truncated during repeated caldera-collapse and partial-filling episodes. An outward-dipping sequence of basalt flows at least 250 m thick forms the steepest (to 33??) flanks of the volcano and is not tilted; thus a constructional origin for the steep upper flanks is favored. About 1 km3 of rhyolite erupted late in the volcano's history from at least three vents and in 2-5 episodes. The most explosive of these produced a tephra blanket that covers the eastern half of the volcano. Homogeneous rhyolitic pumice is overlain by dacite-rhyolite commingled pumice, with no stratigraphic break. The tephra is notable for its low density and coarse grain size. The calculated height of the eruption plume is 23-30 km, and the intensity is estimated to have been 1.2x108 kg/s. Rhyolitic lavas vented from the floor of the caldera and from fissures along the rim overlie the tephra of the plinian phase. The age of the rhyolitic eruptions is ???120 ka, on the basis of K-Ar ages. Between ten and 20 basaltic lava flows are younger than the rhyolites. Recent faulting resulted in a moat around part of the caldera floor. Alcedo most resently erupted sometime between 1946 and 1960 from its southern flank. Alcedo maintains an active, transient hydrothermal system. Acoustic and seismic activity in 1991 is attributed to the disruption of the hydrothermal system by a regional-scale earthquake. ?? 1994 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Quantitative morphologic analysis of boulder shape and surface texture to infer environmental history: A case study of rock breakdown at the Ephrata Fan, Channeled Scabland, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Viles, Heather A.; Bourke, Mary C.

    2008-05-01

    Boulder morphology reflects both lithology and climate and is dictated by the combined effects of erosion, transport, and weathering. At present, morphologic information at the boulder scale is underutilized as a recorder of environmental processes, partly because of the lack of a systematic quantitative parameter set for reporting and comparing data sets. We develop such a parameter set, incorporating a range of measures of boulder form and surface texture. We use standard shape metrics measured in the field and fractal and morphometric classification methods borrowed from landscape analysis and applied to laser-scanned molds. The parameter set was pilot tested on three populations of basalt boulders with distinct breakdown histories in the Channeled Scabland, Washington: (1) basalt outcrop talus; (2) flood-transported boulders recently excavated from a quarry; and (3) flood-transported boulders, extensively weathered in situ on the Ephrata Fan surface. Size and shape data were found to distinguish between flood-transported and untransported boulders. Size and edge angles (~120°) of flood-transported boulders suggest removal by preferential fracturing along preexisting columnar joints, and curvature data indicate rounding relative to outcrop boulders. Surface textural data show that boulders which have been exposed at the surface are significantly rougher than those buried by fan sediments. Past signatures diagnostic of flood transport still persist on surface boulders, despite ongoing overprinting by processes in the present breakdown environment through roughening and fracturing in situ. Further use of this quantitative boulder parameter set at other terrestrial and planetary sites will aid in cataloging and understanding morphologic signatures of environmental processes.

  20. Termination: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Ahron L

    2015-12-01

    In this article I posit and examine certain criteria and qualities for ending an analysis. The case study describes the end phase of a four-year psychoanalysis in which the patient's decision to move to another area forced the end of his analysis. We continued to explore and work through his core neurotic conflicts that included issues of competitive rivalry, dominance and submission, control, and anxiety about birth and death. A shift in the transference from me as a negative father to me as a supportive but competitive older brother was also examined in the context of ending treatment as well as other aspects of the transference. In addition, we analyzed the meaning of his ending treatment based on an extra-analytic circumstance. In discussing this phase of treatment, the definition and history of the term "termination" and its connotations are reviewed. Various criteria for completing an analysis are examined, and technical observations about this phase of treatment are investigated. It was found that while a significant shift in the transference occurred in this phase of the patient's analysis, conflicts related to the transference were not "resolved" in the classical sense. Terminating treatment was considered as a practical matter in which the patient's autonomy and sense of choice were respected and analyzed. PMID:26583444

  1. Family history of cancer, personal history of medical conditions and risk of oral cavity cancer in France: the ICARE study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of family history of cancer and personal history of other medical conditions in the aetiology of the oral cavity cancer in France. Methods We used data from 689 cases of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and 3481 controls included in a population-based case–control study, the ICARE study. Odds-ratios (ORs) associated with family history of cancer and personal medical conditions and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression and were adjusted for age, gender, area of residence, education, body mass index, tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking. Results Personal history of oral candidiasis was related to a significantly increased risk of oral cavity cancer (OR 5.0, 95% CI 2.1-12.1). History of head and neck cancers among the first-degree relatives was associated with an OR of 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-2.8). The risk increased with the number of first-degree relatives with head and neck cancer. Conclusion A family history of head and neck cancer is a marker of an increased risk of oral cavity cancer and should be taken into account to target prevention efforts and screening. Further studies are needed to clarify the association between oral cavity cancer and personal history of candidiasis. PMID:24286495

  2. A Content Analysis Study about the Usage of History of Mathematics in Textbooks in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eren, Mehmet; Bulut, Mehmet; Bulut, Neslihan

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate how history of mathematics was integrated to some mathematics textbooks in Turkey. On this account, four different textbooks with different grade levels were chosen. In total, 42 cases were detected and studied by three researchers. Results indicated that the usage of history of mathematics was materialized…

  3. Case histories of EVA encapsulant discoloration in fielded modules

    SciTech Connect

    Agro, S.; Galica, J.; Holley, W.H.; Yorgensen, R.S. )

    1994-06-30

    A survey of case histories of EVA-based encapsulant discoloration in fielded modules in the U. S. reveals that the problem is limited to areas of the West and Southwest that have comparatively high solar insolation and ambient temperature. There have been no reported cases of discolored EVA encapsulant from modules fielded in the Northeast, Central U. S., or Western Europe. The absence of hard data regarding module operating temperatures, solar insolation, onset of discoloration, and quantitative information regarding the degree of discoloration has made correlation between various fabrication, placement, and operating conditions and incidence of discoloration difficult it not impossible. However, the degree of discoloration does appear to correlate with increasing average daily direct normal solar radiation and approximate maximum module operating temperature, as estimated from maximum ambient temperatures. It is clear that the discoloration problem is not limited to the modules of any one manufacturer, however, the rate and degree of discoloration do appear to vary from company to company. Also, discoloration is not limited to EVA encapsulant sheet from any one supplier.

  4. Growth and resilience of pioneering nonprofit human service organizations: a cross-case analysis of organizational histories.

    PubMed

    Kimberlin, Sara E; Schwartz, Sara L; Austin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of organizational history is important for recognizing patterns in effective management and understanding how organizations respond to internal and external challenges. This cross-case analysis of 12 histories of pioneering nonprofit human service organizations contributes an important longitudinal perspective on organizational history, complementing the cross-sectional case studies that dominate the existing research on nonprofit organizations. The literature on organizational growth, including lifecycle models and growth management, is reviewed, along with the literature on organizational resilience. Based on analysis of the 12 organizational histories, a conceptual model is presented that synthesizes key factors in the areas of leadership, internal operations, and external relations that influence organizational growth and resilience to enable nonprofit organizations to survive and thrive over time. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal examples from the organizational histories illustrate the conceptual map. The paper concludes with a discussion of directions for future research on nonprofit organizational history. PMID:21416428

  5. Oral cavity rare lesions: 15 years case histories

    PubMed Central

    BARTULI, F.N.; LUCIANI, F.; CARDONI, G.; MUZZI, F.; CADDEO, F.; OTTRIA, L.; ARCURI, C.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives. Oral cavity rare diseases include a various group of uncommon morbid conditions. For this reason they are often called “orphan diseases”, as they are not interesting for research and the description of their natural history is not easy. The aim of our study is to analyze the prevalence and the distribution of oral cavity rare diseases in order to increase their knowledge and allow a fast therapeutic approach. Methods and material. 3144 patients took part to our study, they were choosen according to specific criteria and included in a experimental program; they all were prepared for oral biopsy surgery at Fatebenefratelli Hospital - Tor Vergata University of Rome. Following the results of the histological diagnosis, patients have been grouped. Results. From 1996 to 2010, we observed 1635 men and 1509 women, average age was 53 years, higher for women (55y.) and lower for men (52y.). Conclusions. Nevertheless the low level of accordance and the difficulty in description of natural history of diseases reported in literature, we can conclude that, according to our study the onset of rare diseases shows a percentage of appearing statistically significant. PMID:23277869

  6. Graeco-Roman case histories and their influence on Medieval Islamic clinical accounts.

    PubMed

    Alvarez Millan, C

    1999-04-01

    The medieval Islamic medical tradition was the direct heir of Classical and Hellenistic medicine thanks to an unprecedented movement of translation into Arabic, commentaries and systematizations of Greek scientific texts. In the process of assimilation, not only theoretical principles, but also literary models of presenting medical knowledge were adopted, amongst them the case history. Since the clinical account can be used as a tool for medical instruction as well as an instrument for professional self-promotion, this study seeks to investigate which purpose most motivated Islamic physicians, and to demonstrate the extent to which they were influenced by the stylistic patterns which served them as a model. This article comprises an analysis of the context, literary devices and purpose of case histories of the Epidemics, Rufus of Ephesos and Galen, and compares them with those by the tenth-century Islamic physician Abu Bakr Muhammad b. Zakariya al-Razi. Author of the largest number of case histories preserved within the medieval Islamic medical literature, al-Razi's clinical records constitute an instrument with which to study and expand medical knowledge as well as providing useful material for students' medical training. Although al-Razi fused elements from the sources which served him as a model, he did not emulate Galen's use of the clinical history to assert himself in order to gain authority and prestige, but remained faithful to the Hippocratic essence. PMID:11623808

  7. A history of the working group to address Los Alamos community health concerns - A case study of community involvement and risk communication

    SciTech Connect

    Harry Otway; Jon Johnson

    2000-01-01

    In May 1991, at a Department of Energy (DOE) public hearing at Los Alamos, New Mexico, a local artist claimed there had been a recent brain tumor cluster in a small Los Alamos neighborhood. He suggested the cause was radiation from past operations of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Data from the Laboratory's extensive environmental monitoring program gave no reason to believe this charge to be true but also could not prove it false. These allegations, reported in the local and regional media, alarmed the community and revealed an unsuspected lack of trust in the Laboratory. Having no immediate and definitive response, the Laboratory offered to collaborate with the community to address this concern. The Los Alamos community accepted this offer and a joint Community-Laboratory Working Group met for the first time 29 days later. The working group set as its primary goal the search for possible carcinogens in the local environment. Meanwhile, the DOE announced its intention to fund the New Mexico Department of Health to perform a separate and independent epidemiological study of all Los Alamos cancer rates. In early 1994, after commissioning 17 environmental studies and meeting 34 times, the working group decided that the public health concerns had been resolved to the satisfaction of the community and voted to disband. This paper tells the story of the artist and the working group, and how the media covered their story. It summarizes the environmental studies directed by the working group and briefly reviews the main findings of the epidemiology study. An epilogue records the present-day recollections of some of the key players in this environmental drama.

  8. Historical Literacy: The Case for History in American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Paul, Ed.

    The Bradley Commission on History in Schools was created in 1987 specifically in response to the widespread concern over the inadequacy, both in quantity and in quality, of the history taught in elementary and secondary school classrooms. This book explores the conditions that contribute to, or impede, the effective teaching of history in schools.…

  9. Using History to Teach Mathematics: The Case of Logarithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panagiotou, Evangelos N.

    2011-01-01

    Many authors have discussed the question "why" we should use the history of mathematics to mathematics education. For example, Fauvel ("For Learn Math," 11(2): 3-6, 1991) mentions at least fifteen arguments for applying the history of mathematics in teaching and learning mathematics. Knowing "how" to introduce history into mathematics lessons is a…

  10. Progressive hemifacial atrophy. A natural history study.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, M T; Spencer, M A

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe two very different natural history courses in 2 patients with hemifacial atrophy. Progressive hemifacial atrophy (Parry-Romberg syndrome, Romberg syndrome, PHA) is characterized by slowly progressive atrophy, frequently involving only one side of the face, primarily affecting the subcutaneous tissue and fat. The onset usually occurs during the first 2 decades of life. The cause and pathophysiology are unknown. Ophthalmic involvement is common, with progressive enophthalmos a frequent finding. Pupillary disturbances, heterochromia, uveitis, pigmentary disturbances of the ocular fundus, and restrictive strabismus have also been reported. Neurologic findings may be present, but the natural history and progression of ocular findings are often not described in the literature. METHODS: We studied the records and present findings of 2 patients with progressive hemifacial atrophy who were observed in our institution over a 10-year period. RESULTS: Both patients showed progression of ophthalmic findings, primarily on the affected side. One patient has had chronic uveitis with secondary cataract and glaucoma, in addition to retinal pigmentary changes. She also had a third-nerve paresis of the contralateral eye and mild seizure activity. The other patient had mild uveitis, some progression of unilateral retinal pigmentary changes, and a significant increase in hyperopia in the affected eye, in addition to hypotony at age 19 without a clear cause, but with secondary retinal and refractive changes. CONCLUSION: Ocular manifestations of progressive hemifacial atrophy are varied, but can progress from mild visual impairment to blindness. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3A FIGURE 3B FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:8719679

  11. The case study approach

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The case study approach allows in-depth, multi-faceted explorations of complex issues in their real-life settings. The value of the case study approach is well recognised in the fields of business, law and policy, but somewhat less so in health services research. Based on our experiences of conducting several health-related case studies, we reflect on the different types of case study design, the specific research questions this approach can help answer, the data sources that tend to be used, and the particular advantages and disadvantages of employing this methodological approach. The paper concludes with key pointers to aid those designing and appraising proposals for conducting case study research, and a checklist to help readers assess the quality of case study reports. PMID:21707982

  12. Interpreting the paleozoogeography and sea level history of thermally anomalous marine terrace faunas: a case study from the the Last Interglacial Complex of San Clemente Island, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Groves, Lindsey T.; Schumann, R. Randall

    2014-01-01

    Marine invertebrate faunas with mixtures of extralimital southern and extralimital northern faunal elements, called thermally anomalous faunas, have been recognized for more than a century in the Quaternary marine terrace record of the Pacific Coast of North America. Although many mechanisms have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, no single explanation seems to be applicable to all localities where thermally anomalous faunas have been observed. Here, we describe one such thermally anomalous fossil fauna that was studied on the second emergent marine terrace at Eel Point on San Clemente Island. The Eel Point terrace complex is a composite feature, consisting of a narrow upper bench (terrace 2a) and a broader lower bench (terrace 2b). Terrace 2b, previously dated from ~128 ka to ~114 ka, was thought to date solely to marine isotope stage (MIS) 5.5, representing the peak of the last interglacial period. Nevertheless, the fauna contains an extralimital northern species and several northward-ranging species, as well as an extralimital southern species and several southward-ranging species. Similar faunas with thermally anomalous elements have also been reported from San Nicolas Island, Point Loma (San Diego County), and Cayucos (San Luis Obispo County), California. U-series dating of corals at those localities shows that the thermally anomalous faunas may be the result of mixing of fossils from both the ~100-ka (cool-water) and the ~120-ka (warm-water) sea level high stands. Submergence, erosion, and fossil mixing of the ~120-ka terraces by the ~100-ka high-sea stand may have been possible due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) effects on North America, which could have resulted in a higher-than-present local sea level stand at ~100 ka. The terrace elevation spacing on San Clemente Island is very similar to that on San Nicolas Island, and we hypothesize that a similar mixing took place on San Clemente Island. Existing fossil records from older terraces

  13. Waldorf History: Case Study of Institutional Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberman, Ida

    This paper asserts that the century-old educational reform movement known as "Waldorf" is an instance of the tremendous potential that semiotic representation holds for school reform. It proposes that Waldorf's staying power is hidden in the reform's semiotic supports: its symbols, motifs, and rituals. Rather than presenting Waldorf's official…

  14. Using ILI pigs to establish pipeline corrosion rates -- Case histories

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W.H.

    1999-07-01

    Corrosion is a major concern for the oil and gas industry. Pipelines are subject to internal and external agents that can cause corrosion affecting their safety, integrity, and profitability. Corrosion causes metal losses that may hamper the supply of energy and could lead to substantial damage to the ecology. Restoring pipelines to safe operating condition is the main goal of in-line inspection (ILI) using state-of-the-art Smart Pigs. These tools travel through the full length of pipelines gathering detailed information that is used for the assessment of both the internal and the external surfaces of the line. Ultrasound ILI tools perform direct measurements of the remaining wall thickness of the pipe. The analysis of an ultrasound ILI run determines the residual strength of the pipeline at the time of the inspection. On the other hand, the comparison of successive ultrasound runs establishes patterns of individual defect growth. Under this light the interpretation of the data leads to an assessment of the dynamics of the corrosion phenomena occurring in pipelines. Case histories are presented in this paper in order to illustrate how ultrasound ILI data are being used today to establish courses of action in corrective, preventive, and predictive maintenance of pipelines.

  15. Planning and design for barrier pillar recovery: Three case histories

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, D.A.

    1995-11-01

    Barrier pillars created during mine development provide additional reserves during mine closure and can be the sole access to reserves previously abandoned because of mining height or out of seam dilution limitations. The safe and successful mining of barrier pillars requires a thorough knowledge of the magnitude and distribution of the vertical stress field in addition to the strength and physical properties of the coal, immediate roof, and immediate floor strata. Quantifying the vertical stress field is complicated by the combination of the overburden stress, abutment stresses transferred onto the barrier pillar from adjacent gob areas, and in multiple seam mining, stresses transferred from abandoned subjacent mines. These variables make the extraction and development of barrier pillar reserves a site specific consideration. Three case histories are presented in which barrier pillar development and extraction provides: (1) an access point and the means to ventilate a large area of low seam reserves left by a prior operator after developing only the thicker area of a multiple split reserve, (2) the means to increase total recovery of a deep, thick seam longwall reserve, and (3) opportunities for the development and retreat mining of a two mile long barrier pillar in thick seam reserves.

  16. Understanding a Pakistani Science Teacher's Practice through a Life History Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halai, Nelofer

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the single case life history study was to understand a female science teacher's conceptions of the nature of science as explicit in her practice. While this paper highlights these understandings, an additional purpose is to give a detailed account of the process of creating a life history account through more than 13 in-depth…

  17. Lesson Two: Terra Australis. Australian Studies High School Series. History Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, John

    This lesson, one of four stand-alone lessons that examine Australia as an aspect of world history, points out that Australia's unique geographic characteristics and history serve as a useful case study of key global concepts. The lesson focuses on exploration and control of trade routes during the Age of Discovery. The lesson has two parts. In…

  18. Secular vs. Sacred History: The Case of the World History Chart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, F. K.

    1989-01-01

    Evaluates the accuracy and usefulness of "The World History Chart: A Chronology of World History According to R. H. Carling." Claims it presents a narrow, sacred interpretation of certain periods of world chronology representing the unorthodox view of one small religious group, the Mormons. (LS)

  19. [Qualitative case study].

    PubMed

    Debout, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    The qualitative case study is a research method which enables a complex phenomenon to be explored through the identification of different factors interacting with each other. The case observed is a real situation. In the field of nursing science, it may be a clinical decision-making process. The study thereby enables the patient or health professional experience to be conceptualised. PMID:27338694

  20. SETDA Case Studies 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Educational Technology Directors Association, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The State Educational Technology Directors Association (SETDA) published a series of case studies from 28 states to showcase examples of how ARRA EETT ("American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Enhancing Education Through Technology") grant funds have impacted teaching and learning. SETDA collected data for the case studies through a variety…

  1. History and Imagination: Reenactments for Elementary Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ronald Vaughan

    2012-01-01

    In "History and Imagination," elementary school social studies teachers will learn how to help their students break down the walls of their schools, more personally engage with history, and define democratic citizenship. By collaborating together in meaningful investigations into the past and reenacting history, students will become experts who…

  2. Community mental health nursing and early intervention in dementia: developing practice through a single case history.

    PubMed

    Keady, John; Woods, Bob; Hahn, Sue; Hill, Jim

    2004-09-01

    People Nursing in association with Journal of Clinical Nursing 13, 6b, 57-67 Community mental health nursing and early intervention in dementia: developing practice through a single case history This paper reports on a single case history taken from the 'Dementia Action Research and Education' project, a 15-month primary care intervention study that was undertaken in North Wales in the early part of 2000. The study sought to address the meaning, context and diversity of early intervention in dementia care and employed a community mental health nurse and a psychiatric social worker to undertake early and psychosocial interventions with older people with dementia (aged 75 years and over) and their families. The workers tape-recorded, documented and analysed their interventions with 27 older people with dementia and their families over the 15-month duration of the study. Clinical supervision was also undertaken during the intervention phase. One case history is presented in this paper to illustrate the work of the community mental health nurse and to identify areas of practice development. Greater role transparency, collaborative working and improvement in educational preparation for practice are called for. PMID:15724820

  3. New Histories for a New State: A Study of History Textbook Content in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terra, Luke

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the changing content of history textbooks in Northern Ireland, drawing on a sample of 15 textbooks published from 1968 to 2010. Findings from the content and narrative analysis indicated that following the introduction of the Northern Ireland Curriculum in 1991, history textbooks shifted from a narrative to source-driven…

  4. Case-control geographic clustering for residential histories accounting for risk factors and covariates

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Background Methods for analyzing space-time variation in risk in case-control studies typically ignore residential mobility. We develop an approach for analyzing case-control data for mobile individuals and apply it to study bladder cancer in 11 counties in southeastern Michigan. At this time data collection is incomplete and no inferences should be drawn – we analyze these data to demonstrate the novel methods. Global, local and focused clustering of residential histories for 219 cases and 437 controls is quantified using time-dependent nearest neighbor relationships. Business address histories for 268 industries that release known or suspected bladder cancer carcinogens are analyzed. A logistic model accounting for smoking, gender, age, race and education specifies the probability of being a case, and is incorporated into the cluster randomization procedures. Sensitivity of clustering to definition of the proximity metric is assessed for 1 to 75 k nearest neighbors. Results Global clustering is partly explained by the covariates but remains statistically significant at 12 of the 14 levels of k considered. After accounting for the covariates 26 Local clusters are found in Lapeer, Ingham, Oakland and Jackson counties, with the clusters in Ingham and Oakland counties appearing in 1950 and persisting to the present. Statistically significant focused clusters are found about the business address histories of 22 industries located in Oakland (19 clusters), Ingham (2) and Jackson (1) counties. Clusters in central and southeastern Oakland County appear in the 1930's and persist to the present day. Conclusion These methods provide a systematic approach for evaluating a series of increasingly realistic alternative hypotheses regarding the sources of excess risk. So long as selection of cases and controls is population-based and not geographically biased, these tools can provide insights into geographic risk factors that were not specifically assessed in the case

  5. "America's Histories" Revisited: The Case of "Tell Them They Lie."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalter, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Euro-American historians have not allowed Native American scholars to participate as intellectual equals in academic debates concerning Native history. A comparison of received histories of Sequoyah and the emergence of the Cherokee syllabary and Traveller Bird's 1971 "Tell Them They Lie" reveals that Traveller Bird's argument is at least as…

  6. Return to flight status after cardiac rehabilitation: three case histories.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, J

    2001-01-01

    A pilot's license to operate aircraft is not valid unless it is accompanied by a medical certificate. This certificate is revoked if a pilot is diagnosed with a cardiovascular illness. After a lengthy waiting period, the medical certificate may be reinstated if the pilot meets rigid standards. For many pilots, participation in a cardiac rehabilitation program is essential to achieve the minimal functional capacity in exercise testing (10.0 metabolic equivalents), document tolerance of medications, and achieve successful rehabilitation. Our staff has assisted 11 pilots in their quest to resume commercial or recreational flying after heart surgery, pacemaker implantation, or angioplasty. This article summarizes the case histories of three pilots who returned to fight status, in three Federal Aviation Administration categories (FAA), after a cardiac illness. The principle goals of our rehabilitation program for pilots are: (1) to achieve the highest possible outcome of the rehabilitation process; (2) to establish a safe and effective independent exercise program; (3) to obtain measures of compliance and success with the independent exercise program; (4) to document tolerance of medications and ensure that medications are acceptable to the FAA; (5) to document stability of the serum glucose in diabetic patients engaged in rigorous, prolonged exercise; and (6) prepare the patient for performance of a treadmill test in which 100% predicted maximum heart rate is achieved without symptoms of cardiovascular distress. An inherent effect of pursuing these goals is dramatic risk factor modification including improved blood pressure and lipid status and reduced body mass index. After resumption of flying, none of our pilot-patients have experienced cardiac symptoms during flight, nor have they required emergency department visits or hospitalization for any reason. PMID:11591042

  7. Education and Work Councils: Four Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prager, Audrey; And Others

    This collection of four case studies represents the conclusion of a two-phase study of a federal program to sponsor education and work councils. Following an outline of the history and concept of education and work councils as well as the findings of a study of such councils, the importance of council collaboration with selected sectors is…

  8. Energy conservation in the textile industry: 10 case histories

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Presented are ten case studies of energy conserving technologies that have been implemented by the textile industry. For each case is given: the name and location of the plant and an employee contact, description of products, energy consumption and costs in years before and after the energy conserving technology was implemented, energy savings since the energy conserving technology was implemented, description of investment decision-making process, and description of any institutional and environmental considerations. Measures included are: tandem preparation line, dyebath reuse, bump-and-run (dyebath temperature drifts for the last 85% of the hold time), foam finishing, wastewater heat recovery, wastewater chlorination and reuse, oven exhaust air counterflow, boiler economizer, wood-fired boiler, and solar industrial process heat. Several other energy conserving technologies that were not studied are briefly summarized. (LEW)

  9. Failures in Hybrid Microcircuits During Environmental Testing. History Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    This purpose of this viewgraph presentation is to discuss failures in hermetic hybrids observed at the GSFC PA Lab during environmental stress testing. The cases discussed are: Case I. Substrate metallization failures during Thermal cycling (TC). Case II. Flex lid-induced failure. Case Ill. Hermeticity failures during TC. Case IV. Die metallization cracking during TC. and how many test cycles and parts is necessary? Case V. Wire Bond failures after life test. Case VI. Failures caused by Au/In IMC growth.

  10. Social Studies; Grade 11: American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    This syllabus, revised in 1967, presents a thematic approach to history instruction with emphasis on concept development and relevant understandings. Five major topics focus on these areas: (1) American People (Immigration and Reaction to Immigrants, American Culture Patterns, Population, Civil Rights; (2) Government and Politics (Constitutional…

  11. Studies in the History of Business Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, George H., Ed.; Hildebrandt, Herbert W., Ed.

    Because written communication has nearly always been the medium for transmitting information in the business world, these essays are a step toward providing a seminal statement on the history and practice of business writing. The essays in this volume are: "Business Writing and the Spread of Literacy in Late Medieval England" (Malcolm Richardson);…

  12. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  13. MULTIPLE CONTAMINANTS CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation provides information taken from the arsenic demonstration program projects that have treatment systems removing multiply contaminants from drinking water. The case studies sited in the presentation consist of projects that have arsenic along with either nitrate, ...

  14. Laos case study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Peuan Mit is a Lao organization working to address the needs of children and youth living and working on the streets. This case study outlines how a trusted and strong relationship with local police provides mutual benefit. PMID:22769869

  15. History of Science and Instructional Design: The Case of Electromagnetism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seroglou, Fanny; Koumaras, Panagiotis; Tselfes, Vassilis

    1998-01-01

    Addresses two research questions pertaining to the search for students' potential alternate conceptions within the history of science and the possibility of helping students overcome these misconceptions through historical experiments. Contains 19 references. (DDR)

  16. Valeriu Bologa's studies on the history of science.

    PubMed

    Bârsu, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    History of science is a vast and complex domain, comprising many sub-domains, such as: the history of medicine, history of chemistry, history of physics etc. Different specialists in these sub-domains, trying to reach the general and integrative understanding of the history of science, succeeded only after they acquired a rich scientific experience in their fields of activity. One of the scientists who had interesting papers on the history of science was Valeriu Bologa (1892-1971). He was the first Romanian professor of history of medicine. Our paper presents some milestones regarding his preoccupations on the history of science. The aim of our study is to prove that, although he was primarily a historian of medicine, he surpassed this framework, proving to be a skillful historian of science. The topics of his works on the history of science included: the value of the unity of science, the ethical aspects of science during centuries, the interferences between the history of science and the history of medicine etc. PMID:27547069

  17. Valeriu Bologa’s studies on the history of science

    PubMed Central

    BÂRSU, CRISTIAN

    2016-01-01

    History of science is a vast and complex domain, comprising many sub-domains, such as: the history of medicine, history of chemistry, history of physics etc. Different specialists in these sub-domains, trying to reach the general and integrative understanding of the history of science, succeeded only after they acquired a rich scientific experience in their fields of activity. One of the scientists who had interesting papers on the history of science was Valeriu Bologa (1892–1971). He was the first Romanian professor of history of medicine. Our paper presents some milestones regarding his preoccupations on the history of science. The aim of our study is to prove that, although he was primarily a historian of medicine, he surpassed this framework, proving to be a skillful historian of science. The topics of his works on the history of science included: the value of the unity of science, the ethical aspects of science during centuries, the interferences between the history of science and the history of medicine etc. PMID:27547069

  18. Artificial neural network modeling and cluster analysis for organic facies and burial history estimation using well log data: A case study of the South Pars Gas Field, Persian Gulf, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, Bahram; Najjari, Saeid; Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi, Ali

    2012-08-01

    Intelligent and statistical techniques were used to extract the hidden organic facies from well log responses in the Giant South Pars Gas Field, Persian Gulf, Iran. Kazhdomi Formation of Mid-Cretaceous and Kangan-Dalan Formations of Permo-Triassic Data were used for this purpose. Initially GR, SGR, CGR, THOR, POTA, NPHI and DT logs were applied to model the relationship between wireline logs and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The correlation coefficient (R2) between the measured and ANN predicted TOC equals to 89%. The performance of the model is measured by the Mean Squared Error function, which does not exceed 0.0073. Using Cluster Analysis technique and creating a binary hierarchical cluster tree the constructed TOC column of each formation was clustered into 5 organic facies according to their geochemical similarity. Later a second model with the accuracy of 84% was created by ANN to determine the specified clusters (facies) directly from well logs for quick cluster recognition in other wells of the studied field. Each created facies was correlated to its appropriate burial history curve. Hence each and every facies of a formation could be scrutinized separately and directly from its well logs, demonstrating the time and depth of oil or gas generation. Therefore potential production zone of Kazhdomi probable source rock and Kangan- Dalan reservoir formation could be identified while well logging operations (especially in LWD cases) were in progress. This could reduce uncertainty and save plenty of time and cost for oil industries and aid in the successful implementation of exploration and exploitation plans.

  19. Notable American Women: The Case of United States History Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetreault, Mary Kay

    1984-01-01

    A content analysis of secondary U.S. history textbooks revealed that texts do include discussions of women. However, the emphasis is usually on female contributions that are an extension of women's nurturing role within the family or that are supportive of male activities. Eleanor Roosevelt is the most featured woman. (RM)

  20. Longitudinal Analysis of Teacher Education: The Case of History Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martell, Christopher Charles

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, learning history has traditionally been rooted in a transmission-oriented view of teaching and learning. From this perspective, teachers transfer their historical knowledge to their students. Alternatively, this dissertation positions itself within constructivist theories of teaching and learning, where learning is a process…

  1. NATO in History and Civics Textbooks: The West German Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritzsche, K. Peter

    1990-01-01

    When analyzing the degree to which a balanced presentation of NATO is achieved in West German history and civics textbooks, two standards may be used: first, inclusion of information on NATO's formation, aims, strategies and achievements; and, second, inclusion of the criticisms that have been leveled at NATO from various points of view. This…

  2. A forme fruste of Marfan's syndrome: case history.

    PubMed

    Lamers, R J; Janevski, B K

    1990-10-01

    A thirty nine year old woman presented with multiple aneurysms and dissections of the arterial system secondary to cystic medial necrosis is presented. After assessment of the family history a diagnosis of a forme fruste of Marfan's syndrome was made. Preoperative consideration of this rare diagnosis is important for treatment and surgical management. PMID:2221468

  3. Assessment in History: The Case for "Decoding" the Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, David

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author suggests some principles to be considered when attempting to assess learning in history courses. He has found it most effective to pursue these goals within the framework of the Decoding the Disciplines process. This approach, developed in the Indiana University Freshman Learning Project, suggests that faculty seeking…

  4. History and Philosophy of Science through Models: The Case of Chemical Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justi, Rosária; Gilbert, John K.

    The case for a greater role for the history and philosophy of science in science education is reviewed. It is argued that such a role can only be realised if it is based on both a credible analytical approach to the history and philosophy of science and if the evolution of a sufficient number of major themes in science is known in suitable detail. Adopting Lakatos' Theory of Scientific Research Programmes as the analytical approach, it is proposed that the development, use, and replacement, of specific models forms the core of such programmes.Chemical kinetics was selected as an exemplar major topic in chemistry. Eight models which have played a central role in the evolution of the study of chemical kinetics were identified by an analysis of the literature. The implications that these models have for the teaching and learning of chemistry today are discussed.

  5. Performance of cancer cluster Q-statistics for case-control residential histories

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Chantel D.; Jacquez, Geoffrey M.; Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Ward, Mary H.; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R.

    2012-01-01

    Few investigations of health event clustering have evaluated residential mobility, though causative exposures for chronic diseases such as cancer often occur long before diagnosis. Recently developed Q-statistics incorporate human mobility into disease cluster investigations by quantifying space- and time-dependent nearest neighbor relationships. Using residential histories from two cancer case-control studies, we created simulated clusters to examine Q-statistic performance. Results suggest the intersection of cases with significant clustering over their life course, Qi, with cases who are constituents of significant local clusters at given times, Qit, yielded the best performance, which improved with increasing cluster size. Upon comparison, a larger proportion of true positives were detected with Kulldorf’s spatial scan method if the time of clustering was provided. We recommend using Q-statistics to identify when and where clustering may have occurred, followed by the scan method to localize the candidate clusters. Future work should investigate the generalizability of these findings. PMID:23149326

  6. Geothermal Case Studies

    DOE Data Explorer

    Young, Katherine

    2014-09-30

    database.) In fiscal year 2015, NREL is working with universities to populate additional case studies on OpenEI. The goal is to provide a large enough dataset to start conducting analyses of exploration programs to identify correlations between successful exploration plans for areas with similar geologic occurrence models.

  7. Case Studies in Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeakes, Samuel J.

    1989-01-01

    A case study writing exercise used in a course on parasitology was found to be a powerful learning experience for students because it involved discipline-based technical writing and terminology, brought the students in as evaluators, applied current learning, caused interaction among all students, and simulated real professional activities. (MSE)

  8. The History of Education and the Study of Educational Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sungaila, Helen

    2008-01-01

    The nexus between the fields of the administration and history of education is obvious. Can the contribution of the study of the history of education "to the development of educational administration as a discipline"--that is, as "an area of academic and theoretical research"--safely be taken for granted? Such a question, of course, is of little…

  9. Repackaging the Past: Commodification, Consumerism and the Study of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Paul; Coles, Janet

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we argue against the over-simplistic accusation that the media "dumb down" the study of history. Instead, we critically examine the contemporary presentation of history on British television within a framework of analysis of commodification and consumption. We argue that central to the debate is the idea that whilst television…

  10. National Pride and Students' Attitudes towards History: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Rhys; McGlynn, Catherine; Mycock, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Recent debates about "Britishness" have drawn increasing attention to the inculcation of national values within the school history curriculum. To date, however, few studies have explored young people's attitudes towards history or how these are related to their sources of national pride and shame. This paper draws on a survey of over 400…

  11. Mature vs. Active Deep-Seated Landslides: A Comparison Through Two Case Histories in the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delle Piane, Luca; Perello, Paolo; Baietto, Alessandro; Giorza, Alessandra; Musso, Alessia; Gabriele, Piercarlo; Baster, Ira

    2016-06-01

    Two case histories are presented, concerning the still poorly known alpine deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSD) located nearby Lanzada (central Italian Alps), and Sarre (north-western Italian Alps). The Lanzada DSD is a constantly monitored, juvenile, and active phenomenon, partly affecting an existing hydropower plant. Its well-developed landforms allow a precise field characterization of the instability-affected area. The Sarre DSD is a mature, strongly remodeled phenomenon, where the only hazard factor is represented by secondary instability processes at the base of the slope. In this case, the remodeling imposed the adoption of complementary analytical techniques to support the field work. The two presented studies had to be adapted to external factors, namely (a) available information, (b) geological and geomorphological setting, and (c) final scope of the work. The Lanzada case essentially relied upon accurate field work; the Sarre case was mostly based on digital image and DTM processing. In both cases a sound field structural analysis formed the necessary background to understand the mechanisms leading to instability. A back-analysis of the differences between the study methods adopted in the two cases is finally presented, leading to suggestions for further investigations and design.

  12. Natural history and information overload: The case of Linnaeus

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Wille, Staffan; Charmantier, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Natural History can be seen as a discipline paradigmatically engaged in ‘data-driven research.’ Historians of early modern science have begun to emphasize its crucial role in the Scientific Revolution, and some observers of present day genomics see it as engaged in a return to natural history practices. A key concept that was developed to understand the dynamics of early modern natural history is that of ‘information overload.’ Taxonomic systems, rules of nomenclature, and technical terminologies were developed in botany and zoology to catch up with the ever increasing amount of information on hitherto unknown plant and animal species. In our contribution, we want to expand on this concept. After all, the same people who complain about information overload are usually the ones who contribute to it most significantly. In order to understand this complex relationship, we will turn to the annotation practices of the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778). The very tools that Linnaeus developed to contain and reduce information overload, as we aim to demonstrate, facilitated a veritable information explosion that led to the emergence of a new research object in botany: the so-called ‘natural’ system. PMID:22326068

  13. Spirit possession in South Asia, dissociation or hysteria? Part 2: Case histories.

    PubMed

    Castillo, R J

    1994-06-01

    Psychoanalytic theory appears flawed in the way it has been traditionally applied in anthropological studies of spirit possession in South Asia. It is suggested that pathological spirit possession in South Asia has a similar etiology to multiple personality disorder in North America, which is caused by spontaneous trance reactions to extreme situations in the environment, particularly child abuse. Reanalyses of previously published case histories of spirit possession illnesses in South Asia are presented from the perspective of dissociation theory, highlighting possible etiology not considered relevant in earlier psychoanalytic theories. PMID:7924398

  14. The Unheralded History of the Lemon Grove Desegregation Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madrid, E. Michael

    2008-01-01

    In 1931, the Southern California community of Lemon Grove served as the unlikely stage for a dramatic and significant civil rights court case. A group of Mexican and Mexican-American parents and their children won a major victory in the battle against school segregation and the notion of separate but equal facilities. The case, now commonly…

  15. A Course on Humanistic Creativity in Later Life: Literature Review, Case Histories, and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuessel, Frank; Van Stewart, Arthur; Cedeno, Aristofanes

    2001-01-01

    Presents case histories of late-life creativity in literature (May Sarton), painting (Marcel Duchamp), music (Leos Janacek), dance (Martha Graham), and theatre (Jessica Tandy). Offers suggestions for a course on humanistic creativity in later life. (Contains 74 references.) (SK)

  16. A Posterior Lingual Sulcoplasty in Implant Therapy: A Case History Report.

    PubMed

    Perri de Carvalho, Paulo Sergio; Janjacomo, Luiz Antonio; Ponzoni, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    This case history report describes the deepening of a patient's posterior mandibular lingual sulcus in combination with an acrylic resin guiding device fixed to an osseointegrated dental implant to maintain the patency of the new sulcular depth. PMID:26929959

  17. Discovery and geology of the Desert Peak geothermal field: a case history. Bulletin 97

    SciTech Connect

    Benoit, W.R.; Hiner, J.E.; Forest, R.T.

    1982-09-01

    A case history of the exploration, development (through 1980), and geology of the Desert Peak geothermal field is presented. Sections on geochemistry, geophysics, and temperature-gradient drilling are included.

  18. Teaching History with Museums: Strategies for K-12 Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Alan; Stoddard, Jeremy; Woodward, Walter W.

    2011-01-01

    "Teaching History with Museums" provides an introduction and overview of the rich pedagogical power of museums. In this comprehensive textbook, the authors show how museums offer a sophisticated understanding of the past and develop habits of mind in ways that are not easily duplicated in the classroom. Using engaging cases to illustrate…

  19. RISK ANALYSIS: CASE HISTORY OF PUCCINIA JACEAE ON YELLOW STARTHISTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Risk analysis has five components: Risk awareness, Risk perception, Risk assessment, Risk management, and Risk communication. Using the case with the foreign plant pathogen, Puccinia jaceae, under evaluation for biological control of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis, YST), approaches and...

  20. Atrial fibrillation case study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah; Wilson, Tracey

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the irregular heart rhythm caused by atrial fibrillation (AF). A brief overview of the pathophysiology will be provided. A case study is discussed to highlight the treatment and management of AF. The care provision describes common signs and symptoms and also the treatment and management of AF within the maternity care setting. The importance of maintaining the mother-baby dyad is highlighted. For the purpose of maintaining confidentiality the woman will be referred to as Shama. PMID:27044188

  1. The Rainbow and the Achromatic Telescope: Two Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, M. Eugene

    1988-01-01

    Presented are two case studies on the perspective of the history of science. Provided are the contributions of 12 famous scientists with their historical illustrations and diagrams. Five conclusions are drawn from these studies. (YP)

  2. Social Studies Secondary Curriculum Guide on Far Eastern History. World History Series, Bulletin No. 256.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perialas, Stephen

    This secondary level curriculum guide provides a program and identifies materials for the study of the history and culture of China and Japan. The purpose of the course is to provide exercises that require students to research, question, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate historical data. Each lesson contains behavior and content objectives,…

  3. The history of scatter hoarding studies

    PubMed Central

    Brodin, Anders

    2010-01-01

    In this review, I will present an overview of the development of the field of scatter hoarding studies. Scatter hoarding is a conspicuous behaviour and it has been observed by humans for a long time. Apart from an exceptional experimental study already published in 1720, it started with observational field studies of scatter hoarding birds in the 1940s. Driven by a general interest in birds, several ornithologists made large-scale studies of hoarding behaviour in species such as nutcrackers and boreal titmice. Scatter hoarding birds seem to remember caching locations accurately, and it was shown in the 1960s that successful retrieval is dependent on a specific part of the brain, the hippocampus. The study of scatter hoarding, spatial memory and the hippocampus has since then developed into a study system for evolutionary studies of spatial memory. In 1978, a game theoretical paper started the era of modern studies by establishing that a recovery advantage is necessary for individual hoarders for the evolution of a hoarding strategy. The same year, a combined theoretical and empirical study on scatter hoarding squirrels investigated how caches should be spaced out in order to minimize cache loss, a phenomenon sometimes called optimal cache density theory. Since then, the scatter hoarding paradigm has branched into a number of different fields: (i) theoretical and empirical studies of the evolution of hoarding, (ii) field studies with modern sampling methods, (iii) studies of the precise nature of the caching memory, (iv) a variety of studies of caching memory and its relationship to the hippocampus. Scatter hoarding has also been the subject of studies of (v) coevolution between scatter hoarding animals and the plants that are dispersed by these. PMID:20156813

  4. Enhancing Moral and Ethical Judgment through the Use of Case Histories: An Ethics Course for Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mc Danel de García, Mary Anne

    2013-01-01

    This article refers to an action research project involving pre-service teachers. The purpose of this study was to determine if specific learning outcomes could be successfully employed as objectives for an ethics course for preservice teacher preparation. Real life case histories were used by students to identify and reflect upon moral and…

  5. Mr. Stinson's Vietnam: Moral Ambiguity in the History Classroom. Teaching Cases in Cross-Cultural Education, No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wineburg, Samuel S.; Kleinfeld, Judith, Ed.

    This document proposes a case study approach to U.S. history instruction. The method which the document suggests arises from an actual class discussion of the My Lai massacre that occurred during the Vietnam War. A sample class discussion concerns the setting of standards to guide national and international affairs and the particular standards…

  6. Case notes, case histories, and the patient's experience of insanity at Gartnavel Royal Asylum, Glasgow, in the nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Andrews, J

    1998-08-01

    This article is concerned primarily with questions as to how and why case notes were produced and utilized, and how they may (or may not) be used by historians. More specifically, it discusses how the Glasgow Royal Asylum's case notes may be deployed to access patients' experiences of madness and confinement. The deficiencies and biases of the case record are also explored. So too is the relationship of case notes with other asylum based records, including reception order questionnaires, with a separate section on patient writings as part of the case history corpus. This leads into an analysis of how the Asylum's case notes became case histories and for what purposes. These subjects are related to changes and continuities in medical ideologies about insanity, social attitudes to the insane and the nature of medical practice in asylums. Some fundamental shifts in emphasis in the use of the case note and case history occurred in this period. These shifts were associated with an increased emphasis on organic interpretations of mental disease and on clinical approaches to insanity; with the medicalization of asylum records and the wider discourse on insanity, and with declining deference to the public at large in the presentation of cases. The survey concludes by analysing the changing place of patient testimony within the case record. PMID:11620430

  7. History and Applications of Dust Devil Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Balme, Matthew R.; Gu, Zhaolin; Kahanpää, Henrik; Klose, Martina; Kurgansky, Michael V.; Patel, Manish R.; Reiss, Dennis; Rossi, Angelo Pio; Spiga, Aymeric; Takemi, Tetsuya; Wei, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Studies of dust devils, and their impact on society, are reviewed. Dust devils have been noted since antiquity, and have been documented in many countries, as well as on the planet Mars. As time-variable vortex entities, they have become a cultural motif. Three major stimuli of dust devil research are identified, nuclear testing, terrestrial climate studies, and perhaps most significantly, Mars research. Dust devils present an occasional safety hazard to light structures and have caused several deaths.

  8. Making Meaning of Constructivism: A Longitudinal Study of Beginning History Teachers' Beliefs and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martell, Christopher C.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal interpretative case study examined the constructivist beliefs and related practices of four secondary history teachers from their teacher preparation through their first year in the classroom. The results of this study showed that issues of historical content knowledge and classroom control were major barriers for the…

  9. Building a Constructivist Practice: A Longitudinal Study of Beginning History Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martell, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal interpretative case study examined the constructivist beliefs and related practices of four secondary history teachers from their teacher preparation through their first year in the classroom. The results of this study showed that issues of classroom control were major barriers for the implementation of constructivist-oriented…

  10. Studies in the history of astronomy. Number 19, 1987

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurshtein, A. A.

    Papers are presented on such topics as the history of the exploration of Venus, the history of the discovery of the relic radiation, Copernicus' star catalog, Euler's contribution to potential theory in connection with the theory of the earth's figure, the role of astrology in ancient culture, and the history of the study of astronomical refraction. Attention is also given to astronomy in Kazakhstan during the Second World War, the contribution of Arago to the development of astrophysics instrumentation, and the work on astronomy written by Kirik of Novgorod in the year 1136.

  11. The history of pharmacy studies in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Kujundzić, N; Inić, S

    2014-02-01

    The first study of pharmacy on Croatian territory was founded in the early 19th century (1806-1813). Vicencio Dandolo (1758-1819), a pharmacist from Venice who was Napoleon's governor of Dalmatia, established a lyceum in Zadar in 1806. It included education for pharmacists. The Lyceum (later the Central School) was closed in 1811. The founding of the modern University of Zagreb (1874) and its Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences (1876) created the conditions for the development of university education for pharmacists. The study of pharmacy was introduced at the University of Zagreb in 1882 through the efforts of the Croatian-Slavonian Pharmaceutical Association and the professors of the Faculty of Philosophy. The study went through a series of reforms. The most significant one came with the introduction of the four-year study of pharmacy and the establishment of the Pharmacy Department of the Faculty of Philosophy (1928). The independent Faculty of Pharmacy (today's Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry) was founded at the University of Zagreb in 1942. Since 1989, it has had two separate studies (Pharmacy and Medical Biochemistry). PMID:24640607

  12. History of migration studies in biological anthropology.

    PubMed

    Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas; Little, Michael A

    2004-01-01

    The earliest studies of human biological factors in migration in which a clear research design was employed date back to the early 20th century in the United States. Maurice Fishberg's study of Jewish migrants, published in 1905, antedated the classic study of Franz Boas initiated in 1908. There have been two main approaches. The first approach examined the impact of migration in relation to changing environment and the importance of environmental plasticity. For example, Fishberg reported that migrants had offspring different in stature from themselves and with differences thought to be due to improvements in the environment, although some selection of genetically determined traits was suggested. Subsequently, a number of research designs have been used, ranging from Boas's simple design of sedente (nonmigrant) adults and children compared with first- and second-generation migrants; Shapiro's extension of this study in Japanese migrants to Hawai'i; Goldstein's four-fold comparison of Mexican sedentes and their offspring in Mexico, and migrants to the USA and their offspring in the USA; and Lasker's extension of Goldstein's Mexican study by including comparison of sedentes with returning emigrants. More sophisticated designs were used by Harrison and Baker in examining altitude effects and changes in subsistence and lifestyle during the 1960s through to the 1980s. The second approach has focused on the effect of migration on gene flow. For example, the clinal variation of ABO blood groups in Europe and Australia is generally purported to result from past migration, although increasing random migration for blood groups is likely to eliminate clinal variation. Migration has usually been considered from a spatial (geographic) perspective, but more recent studies have also investigated the impact of social or occupational movement (social mobility) alone, or in combination with geographic migration, and tested whether such movements are selective or random for a number

  13. A Family History Study of Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaziuddin, Mohammad

    2005-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) is a childhood-onset disorder often described as a mild variant of autism. Although classified as a distinct disorder in the DSM-IV, its overlap with autism continues to be a matter of ongoing debate. While the family genetic origins of autism are well established, few studies have investigated this topic in AS using current…

  14. Cherokee History: An Analysis of Recent Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Walter L.

    1979-01-01

    Comments on recent studies on the Cherokee Nation which emphasize the profound differences of traditional Cherokee culture from White society, the deep factionalism that has plagued the Cherokees since the emergence of a mixed-blood group, and the remarkable persistence of native values and social forms despite two centuries of acculturation. (NEC)

  15. Current Soviet Studies in American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubovitsky, Gennady

    1992-01-01

    Discusses U.S. studies at Russian universities. Includes the status of the field, difficulties in obtaining sources, communist interpretation of U.S. social problems resulting in methodological isolationism, and low quality of scholarship. Warns against a shift in attitude that idealizes the Western experience. Argues that changes in mentality…

  16. Familial appearance of congenital penile curvature – case history of two brothers

    PubMed Central

    Matuszewski, Marcin; Krajka, Kazimierz; Rębała, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    The true prevalence of congenital penile curvature (CPC) is difficult to determine. Some study reports suggests that this problem may occur in as many as 10% of the male population [1]. However, a literature search of the Medline database revealed no reference concerning familial appearance of congenital penile curvature. For that reason we would like to present our case series. Two brothers aged 25 and 26 respectively were admitted to the department of urology due to congenital penile curvature. Each patient was assessed by a history, physical examination, auto-photography of the erect penis, and a thorough sexual history. Concomitant anomalies of penile layers were absent in both cases. The Yachia [2] and Essed-Schroeder [3] corporoplasty technique were applied respectively. In follow-up both brothers reported straight erections. A survey of the fetal penis at different stages of development shows some degree of curvature in a considerable number of embryos [4]. Penile curvature may thus be considered almost physiological in embryos between 35 and 45 mm in length. Thus, it has also been proposed that penile curvature is secondary to an arrest in normal penile development [5]. Therefore, some form of congenital local androgen deficiency may be responsible for inherited penile curvature. PMID:24579033

  17. Case history--installation of high volume pumping equipment in Talco Field, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, J.D.; Etheridge, K.T.; Wilson, R.H.

    1982-09-01

    The paper presents a case history study of Exxon's high volume artificial lift program at Talco Field in Franklin and Titus Counties, Texas. The field, discovered in 1936, produces heavy crude oil from the Paluxy Sandstone at an approximate depth of 4200 feet. All wells required artificial lift installation soon after the field was discovered due to rapid salt water breakthrough. Primary recovery efficiency is expected to be only about 35 percent of the original oil in place, attributed to reservoir heterogeneity and the adverse water-oil mobility ratio. Through installation of high volume artificial lift equipment, current data indicate that significant additional recovery benefits may be realized. The paper details the practical experience Exxon has gained since the first high volume electric submersible pump was installed at Talco in 1974. Included are screening parameters used to optimize the selection of particular high volume artificial lift equipment. Also included are representative production flowstreams to quantify the additional recovery expected of typical electric submersible pump and large capacity beam pumping unit installations. An analysis of the incremental expenses and costs associated with electric submersible pumps and large capacity beam pumping units is presented. Also discussed are case production histories and operational problems encountered with actual installations.

  18. Reasoning with case histories of process knowledge for efficient process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bharwani, Seraj S.; Walls, Joe T.; Jackson, Michael E.

    1988-01-01

    The significance of compiling case histories of empirical process knowledge and the role of such histories in improving the efficiency of manufacturing process development is discussed in this paper. Methods of representing important investigations as cases and using the information from such cases to eliminate redundancy of empirical investigations in analogous process development situations are also discussed. A system is proposed that uses such methods to capture the problem-solving framework of the application domain. A conceptual design of the system is presented and discussed.

  19. Conducting and Reporting Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtman, Merilyn; Taylor, Satomi Izumi

    Issues and elements of case study research are explored and illustrated with the example of a case study of a kindergarten in a suburb of Tokyo (Japan). Case study research is a type of qualitative research that concentrates on a single unit or entity, with boundaries established by the researcher. The case is an example drawn from a larger class,…

  20. Assessing Disease Risk in Genome-wide Association Studies Using Family History

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arpita; Hartge, Patricia; Purdue, Mark P.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Amundadottir, Laufey; Wang, Zhaoming; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Wacholder, Sholom

    2012-01-01

    We show how to use reports of cancer in family members to discover additional genetic associations or confirm previous findings in genome-wide association (GWA) studies conducted in case-control, cohort, or cross-sectional studies. Our novel family-history-based approach allows economical association studies for multiple cancers, without genotyping of relatives (as required in family studies), follow-up of participants (as required in cohort studies), or oversampling of specific cancer cases, (as required in case-control studies). We empirically evaluate the performance of the proposed family-history-based approach in studying associations with prostate and ovarian cancers, using data from GWA studies previously conducted within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. The family-history-based method may be particularly useful for investigating genetic susceptibility to rare diseases, for which accruing cases may be very difficult, by using disease information from non-genotyped relatives of participants in multiple case-control and cohort studies designed primarily for other purposes. PMID:22575968

  1. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). Case report and family history.

    PubMed

    Ries, F; Ferster, A; Rieux-Laucat, F; Biwer, A; Dicato, M

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a rare disease caused by defective lymphocyte apoptosis and is characterized by non-malignant lymphoproliferation, hepatosplenomegaly, autoimmune manifestations and increased risk of both Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Most forms of the disease are due to germ line mutations of the FAS gene and manifest during the first years of life with fluctuating lymphadenopathies, hemolysis, immune thrombocytopenia. During the second decade of life disease manifestations improve spontaneously but autoimmune problems still occur and there is an increased risk of lymphoproliferative malignancy. We describe a typical case of ALPS in a now 44 year old man, followed since the age of 2 for disease manifestations that were unclear at the beginning. PMID:20882745

  2. PREDICT : A CASE STUDY.

    SciTech Connect

    Kerscher, W. J. III; Booker, J. M.; Meyer, Mary A.

    2001-01-01

    Delphi Automotive Systems and the Los Alamos National Laboratory worked together to develop PREDICT, a new methodology to characterize the reliability of a new product during its development program. Rather than conducting testing after hardware has been built, and developing statistical confidence bands around the results, this updating approach starts with an early reliability estimate characterized by large uncertainty, and then proceeds to reduce the uncertainty by folding in fresh information in a Bayesian framework. A considerable amount of knowledge is available at the beginning of a program in the form of expert judgment which helps to provide the initial estimate. This estimate is then continually updated as substantial and varied information becomes available during the course of the development program. This paper presents a case study of the application of PREDICT, with the objective of further describing the methodology. PREDICT has been honored with an R&D 100 Award presented by R&D Magazine.

  3. Life history, diversity and distribution: A study of Japanese pteridophytes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guo, Q.; Kato, Masako; Ricklefs, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    Many studies address the relationships between diversity or distribution and attributes of the physical environment. However, how these relationships are connected to variation in life history is poorly understood. This is particularly true in the case of pteridophytes. Japanese ferns and their allies comprise one of the best-known pteridophyte floras in the world. We analyzed ca 600 species of Japanese pteridophytes for which there is detailed information on distribution, reproduction, and chromosome number. Species richness was greatest in groups with a single reproductive mode (sexual, followed by apogamous), but distribution was greatest in species groups with multiple reproductive modes: sexual plus either sterile (irregular in meiosis) or apogamous. Geographical ranges varied greatly among species with small chromosome numbers but were uniformly small among species having high chromosome numbers. Seasonally green (mostly summer green) species had significantly larger distribution ranges than evergreen species. Endemic species had higher proportions of apogamy and sterility than non-endemic species. Seasonally green species had significantly larger distributional ranges, and a smaller proportion of species with apogamous reproduction, than evergreen species. There was no clear relationship between distribution and spore size, either among endemic species, non-endemic species, or all species combined. There was no relationship between spore size and chromosome number when all species were combined. However, positive relationships were detected within three of the nine largest genera, suggesting potential phylogenetic effects. We concluded that habitat availability, rather than dispersability, may be the limiting factor for the distribution of pteridophytes in Japan.

  4. [Electrical burns in children. 3 years of case histories].

    PubMed

    Caneira, E; Serafim, Z; Duarte, R; Leal, M J

    1996-01-01

    The Burn Unit of Dona Estefânia Hospital admitted a total of 454 patients from January 1992 to January 1995, 24 of these patients suffered from electric shock. Of these 24 patients 3 suffered burns in the mouth, 15 in one or both hands and 6 multiple burns. In 19 patients the burns were up to 1%. A description is made of 5 cases, male children between the ages of 9 and 13 years, which were deemed severe. The incidents occurred outdoors with different voltages and in activities considered of ludic or experimental nature: two on the roof of a house, two with railway cables and one with an electrical cable in a port zone. The burnt areas vary between 4% and 70%, all of them 2nd and 3rd degree, with hospitalization lasting from 36 to 116 days. In addition to early and coordinated medical and rehabilitative treatment, according to individual needs, a description is also made of the cutaneous sequelae (deforming cicatrices, bridles), neurologic and psychologic sequelae, with emphasis on a patient who underwent amputation of the lower left leg and 4th and 5th ranges of the right foot. It was concluded that measures should be taken in education and legislation to prevent these accidents. Relevance is given to the need for a multidisciplinary team and specialized center for the treatment of these patients. PMID:9254529

  5. Knowledge discovery from case histories of corrosion problems

    SciTech Connect

    Roberge, P.R.; Tullmin, M.A.A.; Trethewey, K.R.

    1997-12-01

    A successful failure analysis organization has to provide the fastest possible turn around time on incoming contract work. A common problem experienced by less experienced failure analysis staff is to identify the actual cause(s) of a failure, rather than merely the mechanism of failure, and to make recommendations for avoiding future failures. Such recommendations are often the ultimate client need and the most important component of an investigation. The proficiency and confidence levels of staff in meeting this challenge should improve considerably with the aid of advice gained from previous cases. Even with a solid client base, it is relatively difficult to provide failure analysis services on a profitable basis. The costs of employing the expert and support staff have to be covered, together with capital invested in sophisticated laboratory equipment (such as scanning electron microscopes), running costs and overheads, Even a slight improvement in the efficiency of performing any of the steps of a failure analysis process thus has the potential to make a positive difference. The value of Knowledge Discovery (KD) for knowledge reuse should also be considered in the context of staff turnover, retirements or retrenchments of experienced senior personnel, the promotion of senior technical personnel to managerial positions and staff on leave.

  6. Self-Concept of Pregnant Adolescents: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkes, Barbara Halpren; Crocitto, John A.

    1987-01-01

    Used case study approach to assess self-concepts of pregnant adolescents regarding life history, personality traits, and development. Results revealed common themes of historic background and personality traits: no intact families, lack of trust in family members, history of drug and alcohol abuse, permissive sexual attitudes and early sexual…

  7. Family History and Functional Outcome in Korean Stroke Patients: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee Jung; Kim, Tae Uk; Hyun, Jung Keun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of family history of stroke with functional outcomes in stroke patients in Korea. Methods A case-control study was conducted. A total of 170 patients who were admitted to a rehabilitation unit were included. Risk factors for stroke such as age, sex, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, smoking, high blood cholesterol and homocysteine level, obesity, and family history of stroke were taken into account. Stroke subtypes were the following: large vessel infarct, small vessel infarct, embolic infarct, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intracranial hemorrhage. Stroke severity as assessed with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), functional outcomes using the Korean version of the Modified Barthel index (K-MBI), Functional Independence Measurement (FIM), and cognitive function using the Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) were assessed at admission and discharge. Results Subjects with a family history of stroke were more likely to have an ischemic stroke (90.7%) than were those without a family history (70.9%). The K-MBI, FIM, NIHSS, and K-MMSE scores did not show significant differences between patients with or without family history. Conclusion Family history of stroke was significantly associated with ischemic stroke, but not with functional outcomes. Other prognostic factors of stroke were not distributed differently between patients included in this study with or without a family history of stroke. PMID:26798613

  8. Institutional and Disciplinary History in a Cultural Studies Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Philip E., II

    Educators of graduate students of English who are simultaneously teaching undergraduate composition courses should focus on how the study of institutional history might shed light on contemporary praxis. The Cultural and Critical Studies Ph.D. Program in the University of Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania) English Department combines an innovative approach…

  9. Toward Systematic Study of the History and Foundations of Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, James R.; Stahl, Norman A.

    2012-01-01

    This study of a literacy course begins with methodological approaches useful in the historical study of the literacy profession, its practices, beliefs, and participants. A model course is presented via "moments" in the history of literacy. Results from implementations of the model course are also presented.

  10. Apollo 13 Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Brenda Lindley

    2011-01-01

    The dramatic journey of the crippled Apollo 13 vehicle has been heavily documented and popularized. Many people know there was an explosion in the service module which caused the vehicle to lose its oxygen supply. Less well known is the set of circumstances which led to the explosion. This paper examines the manufacturing, processing and testing history of oxygen tank #2, detailing the additive effects which caused the oxygen to ignite and to overpressure the tank.