Science.gov

Sample records for case-based biology lesson

  1. Effectiveness of a Case-Based System in Lesson Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saad, A.; Chung, P. W. H.; Dawson, C. W.

    2014-01-01

    Lesson planning imposes a significant burden on teachers as they need to prepare different lesson plans for different classes according to various constraints. SmartLP, a case-based lesson planning system, has been implemented as a means of assisting teachers in constructing quality lesson plans more quickly. SmartLP enables teachers to retrieve…

  2. Community College Biology Lesson Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manteuffel, Mary S., Comp.; Herrick, Kathie, Comp.

    This catalog contains lesson descriptions of the available biology lessons on PLATO IV, compiled to assist instructors in planning their curricula. Information is provided for 87 lessons in the following areas: introductory material on experimental tools and techniques; chemical basis of life; cellular structure and function; reproduction and…

  3. Community College Biology Lesson Catalogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrick, Kathie G.

    This catalog contains descriptions of the available biology lessons on PLATO IV, compiled to assist instructors in planning their curricula. Information is provided for 87 lessons in the following areas: experimental tools and techniques; chemical basis of life; cellular structure and function; bioenergetics - enzymes and cellular metabolism;…

  4. Promoting Systems Thinking through Biology Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riess, Werner; Mischo, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    This study's goal was to analyze various teaching approaches within the context of natural science lessons, especially in biology. The main focus of the paper lies on the effectiveness of different teaching methods in promoting systems thinking in the field of Education for Sustainable Development. The following methods were incorporated into the…

  5. The Construction of Biology Lessons: A Meta-Paradigmatic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jaime

    1991-01-01

    The views of Piaget, Ausubel, and Bruner have been used to present an integrated view of biology lesson construction and to assist teachers in the design and development of tools and strategies to improve their teaching. The structure of an integrated model for biology lesson construction and an example of a biolesson using the metaparadigmatic…

  6. Biology Education Research: Lessons and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Susan R.; Nielsen, Natalie R.; Schweingruber, Heidi A.

    2013-01-01

    Biologists have long been concerned about the quality of undergraduate biology education. Over time, however, biology faculty members have begun to study increasingly sophisticated questions about teaching and learning in the discipline. These scholars, often called biology education researchers, are part of a growing field of inquiry called…

  7. Structural biology computing: Lessons for the biomedical research sciences.

    PubMed

    Morin, Andrew; Sliz, Piotr

    2013-11-01

    The field of structural biology, whose aim is to elucidate the molecular and atomic structures of biological macromolecules, has long been at the forefront of biomedical sciences in adopting and developing computational research methods. Operating at the intersection between biophysics, biochemistry, and molecular biology, structural biology's growth into a foundational framework on which many concepts and findings of molecular biology are interpreted1 has depended largely on parallel advancements in computational tools and techniques. Without these computing advances, modern structural biology would likely have remained an exclusive pursuit practiced by few, and not become the widely practiced, foundational field it is today. As other areas of biomedical research increasingly embrace research computing techniques, the successes, failures and lessons of structural biology computing can serve as a useful guide to progress in other biomedically related research fields. PMID:23828134

  8. Understanding biological complexity: lessons from the past.

    PubMed

    Weiss, James N; Qu, Zhilin; Garfinkel, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Advances in molecular biology now permit complex biological systems to be tracked at an exquisite level of detail. The information flow is so great, however, that using intuition alone to draw connections is unrealistic. Thus, the need to integrate mathematical biology with experimental biology is greater than ever. To achieve this integration, obstacles that have traditionally prevented effective communication between theoreticians and experimentalists must be overcome, so that experimentalists learn the language of mathematics and dynamical modeling and theorists learn the language of biology. Fifty years ago Alan Hodgkin and Andrew Huxley published their quantitative model of the nerve action potential; in the same year, Alan Turing published his work on pattern formation in activator-inhibitor systems. These classic studies illustrate two ends of the spectrum in mathematical biology: the detailed model approach and the minimal model approach. When combined, they are highly synergistic in analyzing the mechanisms underlying the behavior of complex biological systems. Their effective integration will be essential for unraveling the physical basis of the mysteries of life. PMID:12522106

  9. The metaphysical lessons of synthetic biology and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Baertschi, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I examine some important metaphysical lessons that are often presented as derived from two new scientific disciplines: synthetic biology and neuroscience. I analyse four of them: the nature of life, the existence of a soul (the mind-body problem), personhood, and free will. Many caveats are in order, and each 'advance' or each case should be assessed for itself. I conclude that a main lesson can nevertheless be learned: in conjunction with modern science, neuroscience and synthetic biology allow us to enrich old metaphysical debates, to deepen and even renew them. In particular, it becomes less and less plausible to consider life, mind, person, and agency as non-natural or non-physical entities. PMID:26152897

  10. The Biological Relevance of Artificial Life: Lessons from Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, Silvano

    2000-01-01

    There is no fundamental reason why A-life couldn't simply be a branch of computer science that deals with algorithms that are inspired by, or emulate biological phenomena. However, if these are the limits we place on this field, we miss the opportunity to help advance Theoretical Biology and to contribute to a deeper understanding of the nature of life. The history of Artificial Intelligence provides a good example, in that early interest in the nature of cognition quickly was lost to the process of building tools, such as "expert systems" that, were certainly useful, but provided little insight in the nature of cognition. Based on this lesson, I will discuss criteria for increasing the biological relevance of A-life and the probability that this field may provide a theoretical foundation for Biology.

  11. Nature or Nurture? A Lesson Incorporating Students' Interests in a High-School Biology Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagay, Galit; Peleg, Ran; Laslo, Esti; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet

    2013-01-01

    We present a case study of a lesson that incorporates high school students' interests in heredity alongside the requirements of the curriculum. This was done by collecting students' questions in advance and inserting them in strategic places in the biology curriculum, thus creating a "shadow curriculum". The idea underlying the lesson plan is not…

  12. The Effect of Knowledge Linking Levels in Biology Lessons upon Students' Knowledge Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadouh, Julia; Liu, Ning; Sandmann, Angela; Neuhaus, Birgit J.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge structure is an important aspect for defining students' competency in biology learning, but how knowledge structure is influenced by the teaching process in naturalistic biology classroom settings has scarcely been empirically investigated. In this study, 49 biology lessons in the teaching unit "blood and circulatory…

  13. Developing Biology Lessons Aimed at Teaching for Understanding: A Domain-specific Heuristic for Student Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, Fred J. J. M.; Tigelaar, Dineke E. H.; Verloop, Nico

    2009-02-01

    Teaching for understanding requires teachers to organize thought-demanding activities which continually challenge students to apply and extend their prior knowledge. Research shows that student teachers often are unable to develop lessons in teaching for understanding. We explored how a domain-specific heuristic can assist student biology teachers in developing problem-posing lessons according to teaching for understanding. Worksheets of lesson plans were analyzed according to criteria for problem-posing lessons. Furthermore, student teachers’ perceptions of the design heuristic’s usefulness were categorized in a cyclical process. In general, the heuristic appeared helpful to most student teachers for designing problem-posing lessons satisfactory according to the criteria. Furthermore, teachers indicated that using the heuristic deepened their subject matter knowledge and their awareness of pupils’ prior knowledge.

  14. Interdisciplinary Lessons for the Teaching of Biology from the Practice of Evo-Devo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Alan C.

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary developmental biology (Evo-devo) is a vibrant area of contemporary life science that should be (and is) increasingly incorporated into teaching curricula. Although the inclusion of this content is important for biological pedagogy at multiple levels of instruction, there are also philosophical lessons that can be drawn from the…

  15. Developing Biology Lessons Aimed at Teaching for Understanding: A Domain-Specific Heuristic for Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Fred J. J. M.; Tigelaar, Dineke E. H.; Verloop, Nico

    2009-01-01

    Teaching for understanding requires teachers to organize thought-demanding activities which continually challenge students to apply and extend their prior knowledge. Research shows that student teachers often are unable to develop lessons in teaching for understanding. We explored how a domain-specific heuristic can assist student biology teachers…

  16. The Nature of Discourse throughout 5E Lessons in a Large Enrolment College Biology Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sickel, Aaron J.; Witzig, Stephen B.; Vanmali, Binaben H.; Abell, Sandra K.

    2013-04-01

    Large enrolment science courses play a significant role in educating undergraduate students. The discourse in these classes usually involves an instructor lecturing with little or no student participation, despite calls from current science education reform documents to elicit and utilize students' ideas in teaching. In this study, we used the 5E instructional model to develop and implement four lessons in a large enrolment introductory biology course with multiple opportunities for teacher-student and student-student interaction. Data consisted of video and audio recordings of whole-class and small-group discussions that took place throughout the study. We then used a science classroom discourse framework developed by Mortimer and Scott (2003) to characterize the discursive interactions in each 5E lesson phase. Analysis of the data resulted in two assertions. First, the purpose, communicative approach, patterns of discourse, and teaching interventions were unique to each 5E lesson phase. Second, the type of lesson topic influenced the content of the discourse. We discuss how the findings help characterize the discourse of each phase in a 5E college science lesson and propose a model to understand internalization through discursive interaction using this reform-based approach. We conclude with implications for facilitating discourse in college science lessons and future research. This study provides support for using the discourse framework to characterize discursive interaction in college science courses.

  17. Incorporating Climate Change Lessons Into the Biology, Chemistry and Physics Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    In this session, several climate change related activities will be demonstrated, that can be used in the Biology, Chemistry and Physics Classrooms. Ms. Nadeau's book "Climate Change at Earth's Poles: 50 Research-Based Lessons for Biology, Chemistry and Physics", will be available for purchase. This publication was inspired after the IPY Oslo Science Conference in 2010, and was presented at the IPY 2012 Science Conference in Montreal, and at the Science Teachers' Conference in Coimbra, Portugal in 2013. Ms. Nadeau is a Biology, Chemistry, and Physics teacher at Gloucester High School in Ottawa, Canada. Resource Book for Teachers

  18. Misconceptions of Synthetic Biology: Lessons from an Interdisciplinary Summer School

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verseux, Cyprien; Acevedo-Rocha, Carlos G.; Chizzolini, Fabio; Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, an international group of scholars from various fields analysed the "societal dimensions" of synthetic biology in an interdisciplinary summer school. Here, we report and discuss the biologists' observations on the general perception of synthetic biology by non-biologists who took part in this event. Most attendees mainly associated synthetic biology with contributions from the best-known public figures of the field, rarely mentioning other scientists. Media extrapolations of those contributions appeared to have created unrealistic expectations and irrelevant fears that were widely disconnected from the current research in synthetic biology. Another observation was that when debating developments in synthetic biology, semantics strongly mattered: depending on the terms used to present an application of synthetic biology, attendees reacted in radically different ways. For example, using the term "GMOs" (genetically modified organisms) rather than the term "genetic engineering" led to very different reactions. Stimulating debates also happened with participants having unanticipated points of view, for instance biocentrist ethicists who argued that engineered microbes should not be used for human purposes. Another communication challenge emerged from the connotations and inaccuracies surrounding the word "life", which impaired constructive debates, thus leading to misconceptions about the abilities of scientists to engineer or even create living organisms. Finally, it appeared that synthetic biologists tend to overestimate the knowledge of non-biologists, further affecting communication. The motivation and ability of synthetic biologists to communicate their work outside their research field needs to be fostered, notably towards policymakers who need a more accurate and technical understanding of the field to make informed decisions. Interdisciplinary events gathering scholars working in and around synthetic biology are an effective tool in addressing those

  19. Case Mining for Research Findings in a Case-based Reasoning System in the Biology of Aging.

    PubMed

    Bichindaritz, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Scientific literature has been quickly expanding as the availability of articles in electronic form has increased rapidly. For the scientific researcher and the practitioner alike, keeping track with the advancement of the research is an ongoing challenge, and for the most part, the mass of experience recorded in the scientific literature is largely untapped. In particular, novice scientists, non researchers, and students would benefit from a system proposing recommendations for the problems they are interested in resolving. This article presents the first stages of the Digital Knowledge Finder design, a case-based reasoning system to manage experience from the scientific literature. One of the main functionality of the system is to enable both to represent the experience in a declarative and searchable form, and to reason from it through reuse - the latter being a consequence of the former. This article focuses on research findings mining and results from an aging literature dataset. PMID:25488226

  20. Synthetic biology: lessons from the history of synthetic organic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Brian J; Lim, Wendell A

    2007-09-01

    The mid-nineteenth century saw the development of a radical new direction in chemistry: instead of simply analyzing existing molecules, chemists began to synthesize them--including molecules that did not exist in nature. The combination of this new synthetic approach with more traditional analytical approaches revolutionized chemistry, leading to a deep understanding of the fundamental principles of chemical structure and reactivity and to the emergence of the modern pharmaceutical and chemical industries. The history of synthetic chemistry offers a possible roadmap for the development and impact of synthetic biology, a nascent field in which the goal is to build novel biological systems. PMID:17710092

  1. The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum: Lessons in Biological Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth was one of the success stories in classical biological control. In the 1920s, the prickly pear cactus was a serious pest in Australia. The cactus moth was imported from its native habitat in South America and proved so successful in controlling cactus that it was mass reared and exp...

  2. Pupils' Perceptions of Three-Dimensional Structures in Biology Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell-Gebbett, Jean

    1984-01-01

    Investigated 11 to 15 year olds' abilities to understand three-dimensional structures (including sectional views of eggs, cells, stems, and fish) studies in biology. Results indicate two skills needed for success: abstracting sectional shapes and appreciating spatial relationships of internal parts. Gives examples of students "talking through"…

  3. Caenorhabditis elegans chemical biology: lessons from small molecules

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    How can we complement Caenorhabditis elegans genomics and proteomics with a comprehensive structural and functional annotation of its metabolome? Several lines of evidence indicate that small molecules of largely undetermined structure play important roles in C. elegans biology, including key pathw...

  4. Can Climate Change Enhance Biology Lessons? A Quasi-Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Martha C.; Hall, Stephanie; Li, Christine Jie

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a highly charged topic that some adults prefer to ignore. If the same holds true for secondary students, teachers could be challenged to teach about climate change. We structured one activity about the biological concepts of carbon cycle and carbon sequestration in two ways: with and without mention of climate change. Results…

  5. Lessons learned from the former Soviet biological warfare program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Debra A.

    The purpose of this doctoral project was to develop the most credible educational tool openly available to enhance the understanding and the application of biological weapons threat analysis. The theory governing the effectiveness of biological weapons was integrated from publications, lectures, and seminars primarily provided by Kenneth Alibek and William C. Patrick III, the world's foremost authorities on the topic. Both experts validated the accuracy of the theory compiled from their work and provided forewords. An exercise requiring analysis of four national intelligence estimates of the former Soviet biological warfare program was included in the form of educational case studies to enhance retention, experience, and confidence by providing a platform against which the reader can apply the newly learned theory. After studying the chapters on BW theory, the reader can compare his/her analysis of the national intelligence estimates against the analysis provided in the case studies by this researcher. This training aid will be a valuable tool for all who are concerned with the threat posed by biological weapons and are therefore seeking the most reliable source of information in order to better understand the true nature of the threat.

  6. Enterococcus infection biology: lessons from invertebrate host models.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Grace J; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2014-03-01

    The enterococci are commensals of the gastrointestinal tract of many metazoans, from insects to humans. While they normally do not cause disease in the intestine, they can become pathogenic when they infect sites outside of the gut. Recently, the enterococci have become important nosocomial pathogens, with the majority of human enterococcal infections caused by two species, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Studies using invertebrate infection models have revealed insights into the biology of enterococcal infections, as well as general principles underlying host innate immune defense. This review highlights recent findings on Enterococcus infection biology from two invertebrate infection models, the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella and the free-living bacteriovorous nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. PMID:24585051

  7. Enterococcus Infection Biology: Lessons from Invertebrate Host Models

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Grace J.; Ausubel, Frederick M.

    2015-01-01

    The enterococci are commensals of the gastrointestinal tract of many metazoans, from insects to humans. While they normally do not cause disease in the intestine, they can become pathogenic when they infect sites outside of the gut. Recently, the enterococci have become important nosocomial pathogens, with the majority of human enterococcal infections caused by two species, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Studies using invertebrate infection models have revealed insights into the biology of enterococcal infections, as well as general principles underlying host innate immune defense. This review highlights recent findings on Enterococcus infection biology from two invertebrate infection models, the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella and the free-living bacteriovorous nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. PMID:24585051

  8. Further understanding of fat biology: Lessons from a fat fly

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Joung-Woo

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is a leading risk factor for insulin resistance, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and cardiovascular complications, collectively referred to as metabolic diseases. Given the prevalence of obesity and its associated medical problems, new strategies are required to prevent or treat obesity and obesity-related metabolic effects. Here we summarize contributors of obesity, and molecular mechanisms controlling adipogenesis from studies in mammalian systems. We also discuss the possibilities of using Drosophila as a genetic model system to advance our understanding of players in fat biology. PMID:19887892

  9. Lessons learned about spaceflight and cell biology experiments.

    PubMed

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie

    2004-03-01

    Conducting cell biology experiments in microgravity can be among the most technically challenging events in a biologist's life. Conflicting events of spaceflight include waiting to get manifested, delays in manifest schedules, training astronauts to not shake your cultures and to add reagents slowly, as shaking or quick injection can activate signaling cascades and give you erroneous results. It is important to select good hardware that is reliable. Possible conflicting environments in flight include g-force and vibration of launch, exposure of cells to microgravity for extended periods until hardware is turned on, changes in cabin gases and cosmic radiation. One should have an on-board 1-g control centrifuge in order to eliminate environmental differences. Other obstacles include getting your funding in a timely manner (it is not uncommon for two to three years to pass between notification of grant approval for funding and actually getting funded). That said, it is important to note that microgravity research is worthwhile since all terrestrial life evolved in a gravity field and secrets of biological function may only be answered by removing the constant of gravity. Finally, spaceflight experiments are rewarding and worth your effort and patience. PMID:16145818

  10. Lessons learned about spaceflight and cell biology experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie

    2004-01-01

    Conducting cell biology experiments in microgravity can be among the most technically challenging events in a biologist's life. Conflicting events of spaceflight include waiting to get manifested, delays in manifest schedules, training astronauts to not shake your cultures and to add reagents slowly, as shaking or quick injection can activate signaling cascades and give you erroneous results. It is important to select good hardware that is reliable. Possible conflicting environments in flight include g-force and vibration of launch, exposure of cells to microgravity for extended periods until hardware is turned on, changes in cabin gases and cosmic radiation. One should have an on-board 1-g control centrifuge in order to eliminate environmental differences. Other obstacles include getting your funding in a timely manner (it is not uncommon for two to three years to pass between notification of grant approval for funding and actually getting funded). That said, it is important to note that microgravity research is worthwhile since all terrestrial life evolved in a gravity field and secrets of biological function may only be answered by removing the constant of gravity. Finally, spaceflight experiments are rewarding and worth your effort and patience.

  11. Lessons learned from quantitative dynamical modeling in systems biology.

    PubMed

    Raue, Andreas; Schilling, Marcel; Bachmann, Julie; Matteson, Andrew; Schelker, Max; Schelke, Max; Kaschek, Daniel; Hug, Sabine; Kreutz, Clemens; Harms, Brian D; Theis, Fabian J; Klingmüller, Ursula; Timmer, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Due to the high complexity of biological data it is difficult to disentangle cellular processes relying only on intuitive interpretation of measurements. A Systems Biology approach that combines quantitative experimental data with dynamic mathematical modeling promises to yield deeper insights into these processes. Nevertheless, with growing complexity and increasing amount of quantitative experimental data, building realistic and reliable mathematical models can become a challenging task: the quality of experimental data has to be assessed objectively, unknown model parameters need to be estimated from the experimental data, and numerical calculations need to be precise and efficient. Here, we discuss, compare and characterize the performance of computational methods throughout the process of quantitative dynamic modeling using two previously established examples, for which quantitative, dose- and time-resolved experimental data are available. In particular, we present an approach that allows to determine the quality of experimental data in an efficient, objective and automated manner. Using this approach data generated by different measurement techniques and even in single replicates can be reliably used for mathematical modeling. For the estimation of unknown model parameters, the performance of different optimization algorithms was compared systematically. Our results show that deterministic derivative-based optimization employing the sensitivity equations in combination with a multi-start strategy based on latin hypercube sampling outperforms the other methods by orders of magnitude in accuracy and speed. Finally, we investigated transformations that yield a more efficient parameterization of the model and therefore lead to a further enhancement in optimization performance. We provide a freely available open source software package that implements the algorithms and examples compared here. PMID:24098642

  12. The Development of Computational Biology in South Africa: Successes Achieved and Lessons Learnt

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Nicola J.; Christoffels, Alan; de Oliveira, Tulio; Gamieldien, Junaid; Hazelhurst, Scott; Joubert, Fourie; Kumuthini, Judit; Pillay, Ché S.; Snoep, Jacky L.; Tastan Bishop, Özlem; Tiffin, Nicki

    2016-01-01

    Bioinformatics is now a critical skill in many research and commercial environments as biological data are increasing in both size and complexity. South African researchers recognized this need in the mid-1990s and responded by working with the government as well as international bodies to develop initiatives to build bioinformatics capacity in the country. Significant injections of support from these bodies provided a springboard for the establishment of computational biology units at multiple universities throughout the country, which took on teaching, basic research and support roles. Several challenges were encountered, for example with unreliability of funding, lack of skills, and lack of infrastructure. However, the bioinformatics community worked together to overcome these, and South Africa is now arguably the leading country in bioinformatics on the African continent. Here we discuss how the discipline developed in the country, highlighting the challenges, successes, and lessons learnt. PMID:26845152

  13. The Development of Computational Biology in South Africa: Successes Achieved and Lessons Learnt.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Nicola J; Christoffels, Alan; de Oliveira, Tulio; Gamieldien, Junaid; Hazelhurst, Scott; Joubert, Fourie; Kumuthini, Judit; Pillay, Ché S; Snoep, Jacky L; Tastan Bishop, Özlem; Tiffin, Nicki

    2016-02-01

    Bioinformatics is now a critical skill in many research and commercial environments as biological data are increasing in both size and complexity. South African researchers recognized this need in the mid-1990s and responded by working with the government as well as international bodies to develop initiatives to build bioinformatics capacity in the country. Significant injections of support from these bodies provided a springboard for the establishment of computational biology units at multiple universities throughout the country, which took on teaching, basic research and support roles. Several challenges were encountered, for example with unreliability of funding, lack of skills, and lack of infrastructure. However, the bioinformatics community worked together to overcome these, and South Africa is now arguably the leading country in bioinformatics on the African continent. Here we discuss how the discipline developed in the country, highlighting the challenges, successes, and lessons learnt. PMID:26845152

  14. Interdisciplinary Lessons for the Teaching of Biology from the Practice of Evo-Devo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Alan C.

    2013-02-01

    Evolutionary developmental biology (Evo-devo) is a vibrant area of contemporary life science that should be (and is) increasingly incorporated into teaching curricula. Although the inclusion of this content is important for biological pedagogy at multiple levels of instruction, there are also philosophical lessons that can be drawn from the scientific practices found in Evo-devo. One feature of particular significance is the interdisciplinary nature of Evo-devo investigations and their resulting explanations. Instead of a single disciplinary approach being the most explanatory or fundamental, different methodologies from biological disciplines must be synthesized to generate empirically adequate explanations. Thus, Evo-devo points toward a non-reductionist epistemology in biology. I review three areas where these synthetic efforts become manifest as a result of Evo-devo's practices (form versus function reasoning styles; problem-structured investigations; idealizations related to studying model organisms), and then sketch some possible applications to teaching biology. These philosophical considerations provide resources for life science educators to address (and challenge) key aspects of the National Science Education Standards and Benchmarks for Scientific Literacy.

  15. From early lessons to new frontiers: the worm as a treasure trove of small RNA biology.

    PubMed

    Youngman, Elaine M; Claycomb, Julie M

    2014-01-01

    In the past 20 years, the tiny soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has provided critical insights into our understanding of the breadth of small RNA-mediated gene regulatory activities. The first microRNA was identified in C. elegans in 1993, and the understanding that dsRNA was the driving force behind RNA-mediated gene silencing came from experiments performed in C. elegans in 1998. Likewise, early genetic screens in C. elegans for factors involved in RNA interference pointed to conserved mechanisms for small RNA-mediated gene silencing pathways, placing the worm squarely among the founding fathers of a now extensive field of molecular biology. Today, the worm continues to be at the forefront of ground-breaking insight into small RNA-mediated biology. Recent studies have revealed with increasing mechanistic clarity that C. elegans possesses an extensive nuclear small RNA regulatory network that encompasses not only gene silencing but also gene activating roles. Further, a portrait is emerging whereby small RNA pathways play key roles in integrating responses to environmental stimuli and transmitting epigenetic information about such responses from one generation to the next. Here we discuss endogenous small RNA pathways in C. elegans and the insight worm biology has provided into the mechanisms employed by these pathways. We touch on the increasingly spectacular diversity of small RNA biogenesis and function, and discuss the relevance of lessons learned in the worm for human biology. PMID:25505902

  16. The Ross procedure at the crossroads: lessons from biology: is Dr Ross's dream concluded?

    PubMed

    Nappi, Francesco; Spadaccio, Cristiano; Al-Attar, Nawwar; Acar, Christophe

    2015-01-15

    The latest reports on the long-term outcome of Ross operation dropped a veil of uncertainty on the future of this life-saving procedure. The potential for pulmonary autograft dilation and failure in growing children led to resize the importance of this operation and favored the reappraisal of other techniques. Nevertheless, the idea of using the autologous pulmonary trunk to replace the diseased aortic valve remains an "evergreen" and techniques of reinforcement of the pulmonary autograft with synthetic materials have been developed. However, these strategies did not produce the expected benefits and the reasons underlying their failure need to be found in the fact that these materials do not respect tissue and cellular biology of a living and growing structure. A renovated attention should be paid to the biological processes occurring after our intervention and to the lessons that the nature wants to give us. Data on experimental approaches obeying to these warnings and respecting biological processes are increasingly available and we believe that this could be a key point to give an immediate future to the Ross procedure and to stimulate further research on the development of bio-artificial vascular substitutes. PMID:25464215

  17. Organizing Community-Based Data Standards: Lessons from Developing a Successful Open Standard in Systems Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hucka, M.

    2015-09-01

    In common with many fields, including astronomy, a vast number of software tools for computational modeling and simulation are available today in systems biology. This wealth of resources is a boon to researchers, but it also presents interoperability problems. Despite working with different software tools, researchers want to disseminate their work widely as well as reuse and extend the models of other researchers. This situation led in the year 2000 to an effort to create a tool-independent, machine-readable file format for representing models: SBML, the Systems Biology Markup Language. SBML has since become the de facto standard for its purpose. Its success and general approach has inspired and influenced other community-oriented standardization efforts in systems biology. Open standards are essential for the progress of science in all fields, but it is often difficult for academic researchers to organize successful community-based standards. I draw on personal experiences from the development of SBML and summarize some of the lessons learned, in the hope that this may be useful to other groups seeking to develop open standards in a community-oriented fashion.

  18. Data Integration for Dynamic and Sustainable Systems Biology Resources: Challenges and Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Gabbard, Joseph L.; Shukla, Maulik; Sobral, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Systems biology and infectious disease (host-pathogen-environment) research and development is becoming increasingly dependent on integrating data from diverse and dynamic sources. Maintaining integrated resources over long periods of time presents distinct challenges. This paper describes experiences and lessons learned from integrating data in two five-year projects focused on pathosystems biology: the Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC, http://patric.vbi.vt.edu/), with a goal of developing bioinformatics resources for the research and countermeasures development communities based on genomics data, and the Resource Center for Biodefense Proteomics Research (RCBPR, http://www.proteomicsresource.org/), with a goal of developing resources based on the experiment data such as microarray and proteomics data from diverse sources and technologies. Some challenges include integrating genomic sequence and experiment data, data synchronization, data quality control, and usability engineering. We present examples of a variety of data integration problems drawn from our experiences with PATRIC and RBPRC, as well as open research questions related to long term sustainability, and describe the next steps to meeting these challenges. Novel contributions of this work include (1) an approach for addressing discrepancies between experiment results and interpreted results and (2) expanding the range of data integration techniques to include usability engineering at the presentation level. PMID:20491070

  19. How Can We Improve Problem Solving in Undergraduate Biology? Applying Lessons from 30 Years of Physics Education Research

    PubMed Central

    Hoskinson, A.-M.; Caballero, M. D.; Knight, J. K.

    2013-01-01

    If students are to successfully grapple with authentic, complex biological problems as scientists and citizens, they need practice solving such problems during their undergraduate years. Physics education researchers have investigated student problem solving for the past three decades. Although physics and biology problems differ in structure and content, the instructional purposes align closely: explaining patterns and processes in the natural world and making predictions about physical and biological systems. In this paper, we discuss how research-supported approaches developed by physics education researchers can be adopted by biologists to enhance student problem-solving skills. First, we compare the problems that biology students are typically asked to solve with authentic, complex problems. We then describe the development of research-validated physics curricula emphasizing process skills in problem solving. We show that solving authentic, complex biology problems requires many of the same skills that practicing physicists and biologists use in representing problems, seeking relationships, making predictions, and verifying or checking solutions. We assert that acquiring these skills can help biology students become competent problem solvers. Finally, we propose how biology scholars can apply lessons from physics education in their classrooms and inspire new studies in biology education research. PMID:23737623

  20. The attitudinal and cognitive effects of interdisciplinary collaboration on elementary pre-service teachers development of biological science related lesson plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Jada Jamerson

    There is a need for STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education to be taught effectively in elementary schools. In order to achieve this, teacher preparation programs should graduate confident, content strong teachers to convey knowledge to elementary students. This study used interdisciplinary collaboration between the School of Education and the College of Liberal Arts through a Learning-by-Teaching method (LdL): Lernen durch Lernen in German. Pre-service teacher (PST) achievement levels of understanding science concepts based on pretest and posttest data, quality of lesson plans developed, and enjoyment of the class based on the collaboration with science students. The PSTs enrolled in two treatment sections of EDEL 404: Science in the Elementary Classroom collaborated with science students enrolled in BISC 327: Introductory Neuroscience to enhance their science skills and create case-based lesson plans on neurothology topics: echolocation, electrosensory reception, steroid hormones, and vocal learning. The PSTs enrolled in the single control section of EDEL 404 collaborated with fellow elementary education majors to develop lesson plans also based on the same selected topics. Qualitative interviews of education faculty, science faculty, and PSTs provided depth to the quantitative findings. Upon lesson plan completion, in-service teachers also graded the two best and two worst plans for the treatment and control sections and a science reviewer graded the plans for scientific accuracy. Statistical analyses were conducted for hypotheses, and one significant hypothesis found that PSTs who collaborated with science students had more positive science lesson plan writing attitudes than those who did not. Despite overall insignificant statistical analyses, all PSTs responded as more confident after collaboration. Additionally, interviews provided meaning and understanding to the insignificant statistical results as well as scientific accuracy of

  1. The Impact of a Novel Curriculum on Secondary Biology Teachers' Dispositions toward Using Authentic Data and Media in Their Human Impact and Ecology Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyner, Yael

    2013-01-01

    This study examines how the implementation of a novel curriculum, that emphasizes the use of published scientific data and media to learn about human impact and ecological function, influenced ninth-grade biology teacher (N - 36) dispositions toward using data and media in their ecology and human impact lesson plans. It explores how integration of…

  2. "What if We Were in a Test Tube?" Students' Gendered Meaning Making during a Biology Lesson about the Basic Facts of the Human Genitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlander, Auli Arvola

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores what happens in the encounters between presentations of "basic facts" about the human genitals and 15-year-old students during a biology lesson in a Swedish secondary school. In this paper, meaning making was approached as relational, context-dependent and continually transacted. For this reason the analysis was…

  3. The Impact of a Novel Curriculum on Secondary Biology Teachers' Dispositions Toward Using Authentic Data and Media in Their Human Impact and Ecology Lessons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyner, Yael

    2013-08-01

    This study examines how the implementation of a novel curriculum, that emphasizes the use of published scientific data and media to learn about human impact and ecological function, influenced ninth-grade biology teacher ( N-36) dispositions toward using data and media in their ecology and human impact lesson plans. It explores how integration of these elements shaped their lesson plans. Research questions addressed are 1. How do teachers' use of data and media change as a result of implementing this novel curriculum? 2. How do the integration of data and media influence teachers' lesson plans? Findings show that implementation positively affected teachers' dispositions toward using authentic data and real-world media about scientific research to explain how people impact ecological function. Teachers also demonstrated increased appreciation and capacity for using data and media for learning how humans disrupt ecological function. Importantly, prior to implementation, 42 % of teachers specifically reported not using data when teaching human impact. Additionally, content analysis of teachers' lesson plan reports shows that focusing lesson plans around data and media can support teachers in making human impact lessons more specific and that a data- and media-centered curriculum can assist teachers in moving away from discussions of the generalized effect of people on the environment to specific real-world examples of how humans impact ecological function.

  4. Biology Teachers Designing Context-Based Lessons for Their Classroom Practice--The Importance of Rules-of-Thumb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieringa, Nienke; Janssen, Fred J. J. M.; Van Driel, Jan H.

    2011-01-01

    In science education in the Netherlands new, context-based, curricula are being developed. As in any innovation, the outcome will largely depend on the teachers who design and implement lessons. Central to the study presented here is the idea that teachers, when designing lessons, use rules-of-thumb: notions of what a lesson should look like if…

  5. A Textbook History: Use of the Kaibab Lesson in Teaching Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Christian C.

    2000-01-01

    Recommends using the history of the Kaibab deer as an example to teach about how scientific ideas change. Provides information on the history of the Kaibab deer starting from 1980s. Discusses implications for teaching biology. (YDS)

  6. The biological functions of miRNAs: lessons from in vivo studies

    PubMed Central

    Vidigal, Joana A.; Ventura, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Despite their clear importance as a class of regulatory molecules, pinpointing the relevance of individual miRNAs has been challenging. Studies querying miRNA functions by overexpressing or silencing specific miRNAs have yielded data that are often at odds with those collected from loss-of-functions models. In addition, knockout studies suggest that many conserved miRNAs are dispensable for animal development or viability. In this review we discuss these observations in the context of our current knowledge of miRNA biology and review the evidence implicating miRNA-mediated gene regulation in the mechanisms that ensure biological robustness. PMID:25484347

  7. The biological functions of miRNAs: lessons from in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Vidigal, Joana A; Ventura, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Despite their clear importance as a class of regulatory molecules, pinpointing the relevance of individual miRNAs has been challenging. Studies querying miRNA functions by overexpressing or silencing specific miRNAs have yielded data that are often at odds with those collected from loss-of-functions models. In addition, knockout studies suggest that many conserved miRNAs are dispensable for animal development or viability. In this review, we discuss these observations in the context of our current knowledge of miRNA biology and review the evidence implicating miRNA-mediated gene regulation in the mechanisms that ensure biological robustness. PMID:25484347

  8. Designing and Evaluating a Context-Based Lesson Sequence Promoting Conceptual Coherence in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ummels, M. H. J.; Kamp, M. J. A.; de Kroon, H.; Boersma, K. Th.

    2015-01-01

    Context-based education, in which students deal with biological concepts in a meaningful way, is showing promise in promoting the development of students' conceptual coherence. However, literature gives little guidance about how this kind of education should be designed. Therefore, our study aims at designing and evaluating the practicability…

  9. Alien Biochemistries and Their Metabolic By-Products. Lessons from Synthetic Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, S.

    2014-03-01

    While the metabolisms of terran organisms are accessible for study and their byproducts are, for the most part, well known, the "diversity" of terran biology arises (as far as we know) from a single common ancestor, represents only a small fraction of possible chemical difersity, and may reflect only a fraction of the possible chemical diversity that might support Darwinian evolution [1]. This talk will consider laboratory experiments on origins [2] and synthetic biology [3], asking how they might inform us about alternative biochemistries, and whether we have any chance of observing remotely their by-products, recognizing the uncertanties in both our models for "weird life" and our models of abiotic processes in incompletely defined planetary environments.

  10. The Benefits of Mouse Keeping—an Empirical Study on Students' Flow and Intrinsic Motivation in Biology Lessons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Annika; Klingenberg, Konstantin; Wilde, Matthias

    2016-02-01

    Contact with living animals is an exceptional possibility within biology education to facilitate an intense immersion into the study topic and even allow for a flow experience (Csikszentmihalyi 2000). Further, it might affect the perceptions of the students' basic needs for autonomy and competence and thereby their quality of motivation (Deci and Ryan 1985, 2002). Still, there is little empirical evidence about the duration of the exposure with living animals that is required. We investigated the students' flow experience, and the students' motivation, reported retrospectively in three different treatments: lessons involving short-term or long-term contact with living harvest mice and a control group without living animals. Our sample consisted of 156 fifth graders (10.76 years, SD = 0.513). The test instruments were adapted versions of the Flow Short Scale (FSS, Rheinberg et al. 2003) and of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI, Ryan 1982). As expected, the control group produced significantly lower scores for both FSS and IMI. In addition, we found a significant difference between students with short-term versus long-term contact. Whereas the flow experience was indistinguishable for all pupils who had contact with living animals, those with long-term experience reported significantly higher intrinsic motivation.

  11. Bacterial Exchange via Nanotubes: Lessons Learned from the History of Molecular Biology.

    PubMed

    Ficht, Thomas A

    2011-01-01

    DNA transfer between bacteria has a long and storied history. Starting shortly after the discovery by Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty that DNA was the genetic material, the exchange of DNA between bacteria confirmed that DNA transfer could stably change the phenotypic behavior of organisms. Continued effort along these lines led to the discovery of conjugation systems, bacteriophage transduction, bacterial genome mapping, and to some represents the birth of molecular biology. Recent findings by Dubey and Ben-Yehuda (2011) expand on these early results by suggesting that exchange between bacteria may occur continuously under certain growth conditions via nanotubes. These nanotubes have a structure similar to cell membranes and are sensitive to mild detergent treatment. Transfer of protein and plasmid DNA was demonstrated directly between neighboring and distant bacteria of the same and different genera. Transfer of RNA cannot be ruled out and the transfer of chromosomal DNA was not addressed. This work may reveal an important mechanism behind the spread of antibiotic resistance, however, much work remains to be done in order to confirm or refute the role of this mechanism in the dangerous spread of antibiotic resistance within the prokaryotic biosphere. The work of early molecular biology pioneers can be used as inspiration, if not as a direct template to guide future experimental confirmation. PMID:21927613

  12. A bottom-up characterization of transfer functions for synthetic biology designs: lessons from enzymology.

    PubMed

    Carbonell-Ballestero, Max; Duran-Nebreda, Salva; Montañez, Raúl; Solé, Ricard; Macía, Javier; Rodríguez-Caso, Carlos

    2014-12-16

    Within the field of synthetic biology, a rational design of genetic parts should include a causal understanding of their input-output responses-the so-called transfer function-and how to tune them. However, a commonly adopted strategy is to fit data to Hill-shaped curves without considering the underlying molecular mechanisms. Here we provide a novel mathematical formalization that allows prediction of the global behavior of a synthetic device by considering the actual information from the involved biological parts. This is achieved by adopting an enzymology-like framework, where transfer functions are described in terms of their input affinity constant and maximal response. As a proof of concept, we characterize a set of Lux homoserine-lactone-inducible genetic devices with different levels of Lux receptor and signal molecule. Our model fits the experimental results and predicts the impact of the receptor's ribosome-binding site strength, as a tunable parameter that affects gene expression. The evolutionary implications are outlined. PMID:25404136

  13. 60 YEARS OF NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY: Biology of human craniopharyngioma: lessons from mouse models.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Barbera, Juan Pedro

    2015-08-01

    Adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas (ACP) are clinically relevant tumours that are associated with high morbidity, poor quality of life and occasional mortality. Human and mouse studies have provided important insights into the biology of these aggressive tumours, and we are starting to understand why, how and when these tumours develop in humans. Mutations in β-catenin that result in the over-activation of the WNT/β-catenin signalling pathway are critical drivers of most, perhaps of all, human ACPs. Mouse studies have shown that only pituitary embryonic precursors or adult stem cells are able to generate tumours when targeted with oncogenic β-catenin, which suggests that the cell context is critical in order for mutant β-catenin to exert its oncogenic effect. Interestingly, mutant stem cells do not generate the bulk of the tumour cells; instead, they induce tumours in a paracrine manner. Combining basic studies in mice and humans will provide further insights into the biology of these neoplasms and will reveal pathogenic pathways that could be targeted with specific inhibitors for the benefit of patients. These benign tumours may additionally represent a unique model for investigating the early steps that lead to oncogenesis. PMID:25926515

  14. Decoding the stem cell quiescence cycle--lessons from yeast for regenerative biology.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Jyotsna; Laxman, Sunil

    2015-12-15

    In the past decade, major advances have occurred in the understanding of mammalian stem cell biology, but roadblocks (including gaps in our fundamental understanding) remain in translating this knowledge to regenerative medicine. Interestingly, a close analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae literature leads to an appreciation of how much yeast biology has contributed to the conceptual framework underpinning our understanding of stem cell behavior, to the point where such insights have been internalized into the realm of the known. This Opinion article focuses on one such example, the quiescent adult mammalian stem cell, and examines concepts underlying our understanding of quiescence that can be attributed to studies in yeast. We discuss the metabolic, signaling and gene regulatory events that control entry and exit into quiescence in yeast. These processes and events retain remarkable conservation and conceptual parallels in mammalian systems, and collectively suggest a regulated program beyond the cessation of cell division. We argue that studies in yeast will continue to not only reveal fundamental concepts in quiescence, but also leaven progress in regenerative medicine. PMID:26672015

  15. How sulphate-reducing microorganisms cope with stress: Lessons from systems biology

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, J.; He, Q.; Hemme, C.L.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Hillesland, K.; Zhou, A.; He, Z.; Nostrand, J.D. Van; Hazen, T.C.; Stahl, D.A.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.

    2011-04-01

    Sulphate-reducing microorganisms (SRMs) are a phylogenetically diverse group of anaerobes encompassing distinct physiologies with a broad ecological distribution. As SRMs have important roles in the biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and various metals, an understanding of how these organisms respond to environmental stresses is of fundamental and practical importance. In this Review, we highlight recent applications of systems biology tools in studying the stress responses of SRMs, particularly Desulfovibrio spp., at the cell, population, community and ecosystem levels. The syntrophic lifestyle of SRMs is also discussed, with a focus on system-level analyses of adaptive mechanisms. Such information is important for understanding the microbiology of the global sulphur cycle and for developing biotechnological applications of SRMs for environmental remediation, energy production, biocorrosion control, wastewater treatment and mineral recovery.

  16. Can stem cells really regenerate the human heart? Use your noggin, dickkopf! Lessons from developmental biology.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Paula

    2013-06-01

    The human heart is the first organ to develop and its development is fairly well characterised. In theory, the heart has the capacity to regenerate, as its cardiomyocytes may be capable of cell division and the adult heart contains a cardiac stem cell niche, presumably capable of differentiating into cardiomyocytes and other cardiac-associated cell types. However, as with most other organs, these mechanisms are not activated upon serious injury. Several experimental options to induce regeneration of the damaged heart tissue are available: activate the endogenous cardiomyocytes to divide, coax the endogenous population of stem cells to divide and differentiate, or add exogenous cell-based therapy to replace the lost cardiac tissue. This review is a summary of the recent research into all these avenues, discussing the reasons for the limited successes of clinical trials using stem cells after cardiac injury and explaining new advances in basic science. It concludes with a reiteration that chances of successful regeneration would be improved by understanding and implementing the basics of heart development and stem cell biology. PMID:24217168

  17. Biological therapies for the treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Lessons from the adult and pediatric experiences.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Matthew L; Gotte, Alisa C

    2008-06-01

    Biologics have advanced the therapy of adult and pediatric arthritis. They have been linked to rare serious adverse outcomes, but the actual risk of these events is controversial in adults, and largely unknown in pediatrics. Because of the paucity of safety and efficacy data in children, pediatric rheumatologists often rely on the adult literature. Herein, we reviewed the adult and pediatric literature on five classes of medicines: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors, anakinra, rituximab, abatacept, and tocilizumab. For efficacy, we reviewed randomized controlled studies in adults, but did include lesser qualities of evidence for pediatrics. For safety, we utilized prospective and retrospective studies, rarely including reports from other inflammatory conditions. The review included studies on rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis, as well as juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Overall, we found that the TNF inhibitors have generally been found safe and effective in adult and pediatric use, although risks of infections and other adverse events are discussed. Anakinra, rituximab, abatacept, and tocilizumab have also shown positive results in adult trials, but there is minimal pediatric data published with the exception of small studies involving the subgroup of children with systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis, in whom anakinra and tocilizumab may be effective therapies. PMID:19707357

  18. Case-based medical informatics

    PubMed Central

    Pantazi, Stefan V; Arocha, José F; Moehr, Jochen R

    2004-01-01

    Background The "applied" nature distinguishes applied sciences from theoretical sciences. To emphasize this distinction, we begin with a general, meta-level overview of the scientific endeavor. We introduce the knowledge spectrum and four interconnected modalities of knowledge. In addition to the traditional differentiation between implicit and explicit knowledge we outline the concepts of general and individual knowledge. We connect general knowledge with the "frame problem," a fundamental issue of artificial intelligence, and individual knowledge with another important paradigm of artificial intelligence, case-based reasoning, a method of individual knowledge processing that aims at solving new problems based on the solutions to similar past problems. We outline the fundamental differences between Medical Informatics and theoretical sciences and propose that Medical Informatics research should advance individual knowledge processing (case-based reasoning) and that natural language processing research is an important step towards this goal that may have ethical implications for patient-centered health medicine. Discussion We focus on fundamental aspects of decision-making, which connect human expertise with individual knowledge processing. We continue with a knowledge spectrum perspective on biomedical knowledge and conclude that case-based reasoning is the paradigm that can advance towards personalized healthcare and that can enable the education of patients and providers. We center the discussion on formal methods of knowledge representation around the frame problem. We propose a context-dependent view on the notion of "meaning" and advocate the need for case-based reasoning research and natural language processing. In the context of memory based knowledge processing, pattern recognition, comparison and analogy-making, we conclude that while humans seem to naturally support the case-based reasoning paradigm (memory of past experiences of problem-solving and

  19. Understanding Randomness and Its Impact on Student Learning: Lessons Learned from Building the Biology Concept Inventory (BCI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvin-Doxas, Kathy; Klymkowsky, Michael W.

    2008-01-01

    While researching student assumptions for the development of the Biology Concept Inventory (BCI; http://bioliteracy.net), we found that a wide class of student difficulties in molecular and evolutionary biology appears to be based on deep-seated, and often unaddressed, misconceptions about random processes. Data were based on more than 500…

  20. Transfer Effects of Adding Seductive Details to Case-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abercrombie, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The current research investigates the efficacy of the case-based instructional method for teacher education when seductive details (i.e. interesting but extraneous details) are included or removed. Aspiring teachers (n = 108) learned about principles of writing effective feedback in a text-based lesson without a description of a classroom case (C…

  1. Socorro ISD. Integrated Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Educational Development and Training Center.

    This packet contains 29 lesson plans for integrated academic and vocational education courses. Lesson plans for the following courses are included: algebra, health occupations education, English, biology, laboratory mathematics, and health care sciences. Some of the topics covered are as follows: statistics, vital signs, graphing, ethics, special…

  2. Understanding Randomness and its Impact on Student Learning: Lessons Learned from Building the Biology Concept Inventory (BCI)

    PubMed Central

    Garvin-Doxas, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    While researching student assumptions for the development of the Biology Concept Inventory (BCI; http://bioliteracy.net), we found that a wide class of student difficulties in molecular and evolutionary biology appears to be based on deep-seated, and often unaddressed, misconceptions about random processes. Data were based on more than 500 open-ended (primarily) college student responses, submitted online and analyzed through our Ed's Tools system, together with 28 thematic and think-aloud interviews with students, and the responses of students in introductory and advanced courses to questions on the BCI. Students believe that random processes are inefficient, whereas biological systems are very efficient. They are therefore quick to propose their own rational explanations for various processes, from diffusion to evolution. These rational explanations almost always make recourse to a driver, e.g., natural selection in evolution or concentration gradients in molecular biology, with the process taking place only when the driver is present, and ceasing when the driver is absent. For example, most students believe that diffusion only takes place when there is a concentration gradient, and that the mutational processes that change organisms occur only in response to natural selection pressures. An understanding that random processes take place all the time and can give rise to complex and often counterintuitive behaviors is almost totally absent. Even students who have had advanced or college physics, and can discuss diffusion correctly in that context, cannot make the transfer to biological processes, and passing through multiple conventional biology courses appears to have little effect on their underlying beliefs. PMID:18519614

  3. The Importance of Pupils' Interests and Out-of-School Experiences in Planning Biology Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uitto, Anna; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Meisalo, Veijo

    2008-01-01

    How to make learning more interesting is a basic challenge for school education. In this Finnish study, the international ROSE questionnaire was used to survey, during spring of 2003, the relationship between interest in biology and out-of-school experiences for 3626 ninth-grade pupils. Interest and experience factors were extracted by using the…

  4. Testing Models: A Key Aspect to Promote Teaching Activities Related to Models and Modelling in Biology Lessons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krell, Moritz; Krüger, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated biology teachers' (N = 148) understanding of models and modelling (MoMo), their model-related teaching activities and relations between the two. A framework which distinguishes five aspects of MoMo in science ("nature of models," "multiple models," "purpose of models," "testing…

  5. In-Class Use of Laptop Computers to Enhance Engagement within an Undergraduate Biology Curriculum: Findings and Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Kirsten; Smit, Julie; Higgs, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Laptop computers were provided for use in three biology classes with differing formats (a second year lecture course of 100 students, a third/fourth year lecture course of 50 students, and a second year course with greater than 250 students, in groups of 25 during the laboratory portion of the class) to assess their impact on student learning and…

  6. The Benefits of Mouse Keeping--An Empirical Study on Students' Flow and Intrinsic Motivation in Biology Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Annika; Klingenberg, Konstantin; Wilde, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Contact with living animals is an exceptional possibility within biology education to facilitate an intense immersion into the study topic and even allow for a flow experience (Csikszentmihalyi 2000). Further, it might affect the perceptions of the students' basic needs for autonomy and competence and thereby their quality of motivation (Deci and…

  7. Is Biology Boring? Student Attitudes toward Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Prokop, Matel; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2007-01-01

    The study examines the interests and attitudes of school students toward biology: through their interest in out-of-school activities and their attitude towards lessons as measured by interest, importance and difficulty. Biology lessons were relatively popular with the greatest preference found among students learning zoology. Girls showed…

  8. Rotating Biological Contractors (RBC's). Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zickefoose, Charles S.

    This two-lesson unit on rotating biological contactors (RBC's) is designed to be used with students who have had some experience in wastewater treatment and a basic understanding of biological treatment. The first lesson provides information on the concepts and components of RBC treatment systems. The second lesson focuses on design operation and…

  9. Understanding the limits of animal models as predictors of human biology: lessons learned from the sbv IMPROVER Species Translation Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Carole; Dulize, Rémi H. J.; Ivanov, Nikolai V.; Alexopoulos, Leonidas; Jeremy Rice, J.; Peitsch, Manuel C.; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Meyer, Pablo; Hoeng, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Inferring how humans respond to external cues such as drugs, chemicals, viruses or hormones is an essential question in biomedicine. Very often, however, this question cannot be addressed because it is not possible to perform experiments in humans. A reasonable alternative consists of generating responses in animal models and ‘translating’ those results to humans. The limitations of such translation, however, are far from clear, and systematic assessments of its actual potential are urgently needed. sbv IMPROVER (systems biology verification for Industrial Methodology for PROcess VErification in Research) was designed as a series of challenges to address translatability between humans and rodents. This collaborative crowd-sourcing initiative invited scientists from around the world to apply their own computational methodologies on a multilayer systems biology dataset composed of phosphoproteomics, transcriptomics and cytokine data derived from normal human and rat bronchial epithelial cells exposed in parallel to 52 different stimuli under identical conditions. Our aim was to understand the limits of species-to-species translatability at different levels of biological organization: signaling, transcriptional and release of secreted factors (such as cytokines). Participating teams submitted 49 different solutions across the sub-challenges, two-thirds of which were statistically significantly better than random. Additionally, similar computational methods were found to range widely in their performance within the same challenge, and no single method emerged as a clear winner across all sub-challenges. Finally, computational methods were able to effectively translate some specific stimuli and biological processes in the lung epithelial system, such as DNA synthesis, cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix, translation, immune/inflammation and growth factor/proliferation pathways, better than the expected response similarity between species. Contact

  10. ``What if we were in a test tube?'' Students' gendered meaning making during a biology lesson about the basic facts of the human genitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlander, Auli Arvola

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores what happens in the encounters between presentations of "basic facts" about the human genitals and 15-year-old students during a biology lesson in a Swedish secondary school. In this paper, meaning making was approached as relational, context-dependent and continually transacted. For this reason the analysis was conducted through a series of close readings of situations where students interacted with each other and the teacher in opening up gaps about alternative ways of discussing gender. Drawing on Foucault's theories about the inclusion and exclusion of knowledge and the subsequent work of Butler and other feminist researchers, the paper illuminates what gendered relations remain tacit in the conversation. It then illustrates possible ways in which these tacit gendered meanings could be made overt and discussed with the students when making meaning about the human genitals. The paper also shows how the ways in which human genitals are transacted in the science classroom have importance for what kind of learning is made available to the students.

  11. The human heart and the circulatory system as an interesting interdisciplinary topic in lessons of physics and biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volná, M.; Látal, F.; Kubínek, R.; Richterek, L.

    2014-01-01

    Many topics which are closely related can be found in the national curriculum of the Czech Republic for physics and biology. One of them is the heart and the circulatory system in the human body. This topic was examined cross curriculum, a teaching module was created and the topic was chosen for our research. The task was to determine if the students of bachelor study are aware of connections between physics and biology within this topic and whether we can help them effectively to describe the corresponding physics phenomena in the human body connected, for example, with a heart attack or with the measurement of blood pressure. In this paper, the heart and the circulatory system are presented as suitable topics for an interdisciplinary teaching module which includes both theoretical and experimental parts. The module was evaluated by a group of first-year undergraduate students of physics at the Faculty of Science, Palacký University. The acquired knowledge was compared with another control group through a test. The highest efficiency of the module was evaluated on the basis of questions that covered the calculation problems.

  12. Exploring Osmosis and Diffusion in Cells: A Guided-Inquiry Activity for Biology Classes, Developed through the Lesson-Study Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Lauren; Myerowitz, Lindsay; Sampson, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Guided inquiry is an instructional technique that requires students to answer a teacher-proposed research question, design an investigation, collect and analyze data, and then develop a conclusion (Bell, Smetana, and Binns 2005; NRC 2000). In this article, the authors describe a guided-inquiry lesson developed through the lesson-study process…

  13. It is an Experience, Not a Lesson: The Nature of High School Students' Experiences at a Biological Field Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, Marc E.

    The purpose of this case study was to describe the nature of high school students' experiences in the immersive four-day field experience at Stone Laboratory Biological Field Station including excursions to Kelley's Island and South Bass Island. Six tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grade students participated through interviews, photovoice, observations, and a survey. Pretrip semi-structured interviews were conducted to understand each participant student's relationship with science. Participants were given cameras to record their field trip experiences to relate what they found interesting, important, and exciting. Back at school after the field trip, the participants were asked to choose their five most meaningful photographs, and write a short essay to describe the significance of each image. A posttrip semi-structured interview explored each participant's experiences during the field trip. An unstructured interview was conducted to discuss each participant's full photograph gallery from the field trip. Interview transcripts were member checked with one minor wording change. Analysis consisted of open coding using apriori codes derived from the ecological framework and emergent codes derived from the data. Coding was duplicated through multiple readers. Significant findings included: 1) Prior experience, prior knowledge, and funds of knowledge added relevance and value to an experience, facilitating interest development; 2) Experiences appeared to be more meaningful when all the senses were stimulated; 3) Friends and peers were an essential part of a quality experience; 4) Quality experiences included a wow factor, or sudden awareness; 5) Teachers needed to be within the experience, not the focus of the experience, and needed to be available to answer questions, be enthusiastic when a discovery was made, and promote student reflection concerning their perceptions and discoveries; 6) A quality informal learning situation incorporated the cognitive/affective, physical

  14. The role of P-cadherin in skin biology and skin pathology: lessons from the hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Samuelov, Liat; Sprecher, Eli; Paus, Ralf

    2015-06-01

    Adherens junctions (AJs) are one of the major intercellular junctions in various epithelia including the epidermis and the follicular epithelium. AJs connect the cell surface to the actin cytoskeleton and comprise classic transmembrane cadherins, such as P-cadherin, armadillo family proteins, and actin microfilaments. Loss-of-function mutations in CDH3, which encodes P-cadherin, result in two allelic autosomal recessive disorders: hypotrichosis with juvenile macular dystrophy (HJMD) and ectodermal dysplasia, ectrodactyly, and macular dystrophy (EEM) syndromes. Both syndromes feature sparse hair heralding progressive macular dystrophy. EEM syndrome is characterized in addition by ectodermal and limb defects. Recent studies have demonstrated that, together with its involvement in cell-cell adhesion, P-cadherin plays a crucial role in regulating cell signaling, malignant transformation, and other major intercellular processes. Here, we review the roles of P-cadherin in skin and hair biology, with emphasize on human hair growth, cycling and pigmentation. PMID:25707507

  15. Lessons from the past and charting the future of marine natural products drug discovery and chemical biology

    PubMed Central

    Gerwick, William H.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Marine life forms are an important source of structurally-diverse and biologically-active secondary metabolites, several of which have inspired the development of new classes of therapeutic agents. These success stories have had to overcome difficulties inherent to natural products-derived drugs, such as adequate sourcing of the agent and issues related to structural complexity. Nevertheless, several marine-derived agents are now approved, most as `first-in-class' drugs, with 5 of 7 appearing in the past few years. Additionally, there is a rich pipeline of clinical and pre-clinical marine compounds to suggest their continued application in human medicine. Understanding of how these agents are biosynthetically assembled has accelerated in recent years, especially through interdisciplinary approaches, and innovative manipulations and re-engineering of some of these gene clusters are yielding novel agents of enhanced pharmaceutical properties compared with the natural product. PMID:22284357

  16. Lessons from the past and charting the future of marine natural products drug discovery and chemical biology.

    PubMed

    Gerwick, William H; Moore, Bradley S

    2012-01-27

    Marine life forms are an important source of structurally diverse and biologically active secondary metabolites, several of which have inspired the development of new classes of therapeutic agents. These success stories have had to overcome difficulties inherent to natural products-derived drugs, such as adequate sourcing of the agent and issues related to structural complexity. Nevertheless, several marine-derived agents are now approved, most as "first-in-class" drugs, with five of seven appearing in the past few years. Additionally, there is a rich pipeline of clinical and preclinical marine compounds to suggest their continued application in human medicine. Understanding of how these agents are biosynthetically assembled has accelerated in recent years, especially through interdisciplinary approaches, and innovative manipulations and re-engineering of some of these gene clusters are yielding novel agents of enhanced pharmaceutical properties compared with the natural product. PMID:22284357

  17. Systems biology and metabolic modelling unveils limitations to polyhydroxybutyrate accumulation in sugarcane leaves; lessons for C4 engineering.

    PubMed

    McQualter, Richard B; Bellasio, Chandra; Gebbie, Leigh K; Petrasovits, Lars A; Palfreyman, Robin W; Hodson, Mark P; Plan, Manuel R; Blackman, Deborah M; Brumbley, Stevens M; Nielsen, Lars K

    2016-02-01

    In planta production of the bioplastic polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is one important way in which plant biotechnology can address environmental problems and emerging issues related to peak oil. However, high biomass C4 plants such as maize, switch grass and sugarcane develop adverse phenotypes including stunting, chlorosis and reduced biomass as PHB levels in leaves increase. In this study, we explore limitations to PHB accumulation in sugarcane chloroplasts using a systems biology approach, coupled with a metabolic model of C4 photosynthesis. Decreased assimilation was evident in high PHB-producing sugarcane plants, which also showed a dramatic decrease in sucrose and starch content of leaves. A subtle decrease in the C/N ratio was found which was not associated with a decrease in total protein content. An increase in amino acids used for nitrogen recapture was also observed. Based on the accumulation of substrates of ATP-dependent reactions, we hypothesized ATP starvation in bundle sheath chloroplasts. This was supported by mRNA differential expression patterns. The disruption in ATP supply in bundle sheath cells appears to be linked to the physical presence of the PHB polymer which may disrupt photosynthesis by scattering photosynthetically active radiation and/or physically disrupting thylakoid membranes. PMID:26015295

  18. Auditory learning through active engagement with sound: biological impact of community music lessons in at-risk children

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Nina; Slater, Jessica; Thompson, Elaine C.; Hornickel, Jane; Strait, Dana L.; Nicol, Trent; White-Schwoch, Travis

    2014-01-01

    The young nervous system is primed for sensory learning, facilitating the acquisition of language and communication skills. Social and linguistic impoverishment can limit these learning opportunities, eventually leading to language-related challenges such as poor reading. Music training offers a promising auditory learning strategy by directing attention to meaningful acoustic elements of the soundscape. In light of evidence that music training improves auditory skills and their neural substrates, there are increasing efforts to enact community-based programs to provide music instruction to at-risk children. Harmony Project is a community foundation that has provided free music instruction to over 1000 children from Los Angeles gang-reduction zones over the past decade. We conducted an independent evaluation of biological effects of participating in Harmony Project by following a cohort of children for 1 year. Here we focus on a comparison between students who actively engaged with sound through instrumental music training vs. students who took music appreciation classes. All children began with an introductory music appreciation class, but midway through the year half of the children transitioned to the instrumental training. After the year of training, the children who actively engaged with sound through instrumental music training had faster and more robust neural processing of speech than the children who stayed in the music appreciation class, observed in neural responses to a speech sound /d/. The neurophysiological measures found to be enhanced in the instrumentally-trained children have been previously linked to reading ability, suggesting a gain in neural processes important for literacy stemming from active auditory learning. Despite intrinsic constraints on our study imposed by a community setting, these findings speak to the potential of active engagement with sound (i.e., music-making) to engender experience-dependent neuroplasticity and may inform the

  19. Auditory learning through active engagement with sound: biological impact of community music lessons in at-risk children.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Nina; Slater, Jessica; Thompson, Elaine C; Hornickel, Jane; Strait, Dana L; Nicol, Trent; White-Schwoch, Travis

    2014-01-01

    The young nervous system is primed for sensory learning, facilitating the acquisition of language and communication skills. Social and linguistic impoverishment can limit these learning opportunities, eventually leading to language-related challenges such as poor reading. Music training offers a promising auditory learning strategy by directing attention to meaningful acoustic elements of the soundscape. In light of evidence that music training improves auditory skills and their neural substrates, there are increasing efforts to enact community-based programs to provide music instruction to at-risk children. Harmony Project is a community foundation that has provided free music instruction to over 1000 children from Los Angeles gang-reduction zones over the past decade. We conducted an independent evaluation of biological effects of participating in Harmony Project by following a cohort of children for 1 year. Here we focus on a comparison between students who actively engaged with sound through instrumental music training vs. students who took music appreciation classes. All children began with an introductory music appreciation class, but midway through the year half of the children transitioned to the instrumental training. After the year of training, the children who actively engaged with sound through instrumental music training had faster and more robust neural processing of speech than the children who stayed in the music appreciation class, observed in neural responses to a speech sound /d/. The neurophysiological measures found to be enhanced in the instrumentally-trained children have been previously linked to reading ability, suggesting a gain in neural processes important for literacy stemming from active auditory learning. Despite intrinsic constraints on our study imposed by a community setting, these findings speak to the potential of active engagement with sound (i.e., music-making) to engender experience-dependent neuroplasticity and may inform the

  20. Biological controls on dissolution of diatom frustules during their descent to the deep ocean: Lessons learned from controlled laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passow, Uta; French, Megan A.; Robert, Maya

    2011-12-01

    The majority of opal produced by diatoms dissolves during their sedimentation to the seafloor, but spatial and temporal variability of dissolution rates are large. Controlled laboratory experiments using live phytoplankton or phyto-detritus may help identify the different processes, including those that are biologically mediated or physico-chemically driven, that impact the dissolution of frustules and the aforementioned variability. Results of eight bSiO 2 dissolution experiments, seven of which were conducted at low temperatures (<6 °C) are presented within the context of earlier similar studies, and different phases of dissolution dynamics characterized. TEP concentration, aggregation and the physiological status of the diatoms determined the period during which diatoms may maintain the protective membrane that surrounds their frustule and effectively reduces or completely inhibits (lag period) dissolution for some time. Once diatoms loose the capability to maintain their protective membrane, bacterial activity compromises it. Physico-chemical dissolution, which depends on frustule structure and abiotic environmental conditions, begins once the protective membrane is damaged. The ability of diatoms to maintain their membrane, the bacterial composition and activity governing its degradation, and the physico-chemical dissolution dynamics of exposed frustules are all impacted by temperature. In our experiments instantaneous dissolution rates were not dependant on bSiO 2 concentration at low temperatures, although such a relationship was observed under otherwise identical conditions at 15 °C, implying that biotic factors rather than physico-chemical processes initially dominated dissolution at polar temperatures. Since inhibition of bSiO 2 dissolution at low temperatures was inhibited to a greater extent than organic matter degradation, we postulate that it was not reduced bacterial activity but the enhanced ability of diatoms to maintain their membrane and thus

  1. Lesson on Demand. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Sue

    This lesson plan helps students understand the role consumer demand plays in the market system, i.e., how interactions in the marketplace help determine pricing. Students will participate in an activity that demonstrates the concepts of demand, demand schedule, demand curve, and the law of demand. The lesson plan provides student objectives;…

  2. Controversial Issues within Biology: Enriching Biology Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development and implementation of a senior high school biology lesson concerned with organ transplantation. Discusses the teacher's rationale and techniques for using controversial issues in science teaching. (Contains 18 references.) (Author/WRM)

  3. An Architecture for Case-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cifuentes, Laurent; Mercer, Rene; Alverez, Omar; Bettati, Riccardo

    2010-01-01

    We report on the design, development, implementation, and evaluation of a case-based instructional environment designed for learning network engineering skills for cybersecurity. We describe the societal problem addressed, the theory-based solution, and the preliminary testing and evaluation of that solution. We identify an architecture for…

  4. Collaborative Learning Utilizing Case-Based Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilvano, Nestor T.; Mathis, Karen M.; Schauer, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    Engaging students in discussion and creating high impact teaching and learning practices are a challenge in every classroom. Small group discussion and poster presentations were used to solve case-based problems to highlight issues for the learner and to allow each student to demonstrate understanding and application of theory to real life…

  5. CaseWorld™: Interactive, media rich, multidisciplinary case based learning.

    PubMed

    Gillham, David; Tucker, Katie; Parker, Steve; Wright, Victoria; Kargillis, Christina

    2015-11-01

    Nurse educators are challenged to keep up with highly specialised clinical practice, emerging research evidence, regulation requirements and rapidly changing information technology while teaching very large numbers of diverse students in a resource constrained environment. This complex setting provides the context for the CaseWorld project, which aims to simulate those aspects of clinical practice that can be represented by e-learning. This paper describes the development, implementation and evaluation of CaseWorld, a simulated learning environment that supports case based learning. CaseWorld provides nursing students with the opportunity to view unfolding authentic cases presented in a rich multimedia context. The first round of comprehensive summative evaluation of CaseWorld is discussed in the context of earlier formative evaluation, reference group input and strategies for integration of CaseWorld with subject content. This discussion highlights the unique approach taken in this project that involved simultaneous prototype development and large scale implementation, thereby necessitating strong emphasis on staff development, uptake and engagement. The lessons learned provide an interesting basis for further discussion of broad content sharing across disciplines and universities, and the contribution that local innovations can make to global education advancement. PMID:26522447

  6. Exploring Biotechnology Using Case-Based Multimedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergland, Mark; Lundeberg, Mary; Klyczek, Karen; Sweet, Jennifer; Emmons, Jean; Martin, Christine; Marsh, Katherine; Werner, Joy; Jarvis-Uetz, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    Today, teachers face more challenges than ever, and biology teachers face a special challenge. As technology continues to expand, biology teachers have a responsibility to keep students informed of technological and scientific advances. Biology teachers must also address ethical issues associated with these advances. In this paper, the authors…

  7. Deadly Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    1996-01-01

    In Fox River Grove, Illinois, 7 teenagers were killed the morning of October 25, 1995, when a 620-ton commuter train crashed into the rear end of their school bus. School, transportation, and safety officials have focused on three areas: train crossings and signals, bus-driver training, and school-bus construction. Lists 10 vital lessons for…

  8. Modeling Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    As teachers learn new pedagogical strategies, they crave explicit demonstrations that show them how the new strategies will work with their students in their classrooms. Successful instructional coaches, therefore, understand the importance of modeling lessons to help teachers develop a vision of effective instruction. The author, an experienced…

  9. Worldly Lesson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School Board Journal, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Reports on an elementary school in Tokyo, Japan; an apprenticeship program in Germany; and a magnet school in Evanston, Illinois. Suggests some lessons U.S educators might learn from these nations in the areas of national curriculum, length of school year, tracking, and school-to-work transition. (MLF)

  10. CABINS: Case-based interactive scheduler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyashita, Kazuo; Sycara, Katia

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the need for interactive factory schedule repair and improvement, and we identify case-based reasoning (CBR) as an appropriate methodology. Case-based reasoning is the problem solving paradigm that relies on a memory for past problem solving experiences (cases) to guide current problem solving. Cases similar to the current case are retrieved from the case memory, and similarities and differences of the current case to past cases are identified. Then a best case is selected, and its repair plan is adapted to fit the current problem description. If a repair solution fails, an explanation for the failure is stored along with the case in memory, so that the user can avoid repeating similar failures in the future. So far we have identified a number of repair strategies and tactics for factory scheduling and have implemented a part of our approach in a prototype system, called CABINS. As a future work, we are going to scale up CABINS to evaluate its usefulness in a real manufacturing environment.

  11. Endothelial Lessons.

    PubMed

    Vanhoutte, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    This essay focuses on nine important lessons learned during more than thirty years of endothelial research. They include: the danger of hiding behind a word, the confusion generated by abbreviations, the need to define the physiological role of the response studied, the local role of endothelium- dependent responses, the strength of pharmacological analyses, endothelial dysfunction as consequence and cause of disease, the importance of rigorous protocols, the primacy of in vivo studies and the importance of serendipity. PMID:26638800

  12. Swimming Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about his experience as an 11-year-old swimmer and shares the lessons he learned as a member of the swim team. In his experience as one of the slowest team members, he discovered that slow and steady does not win the race, and when the focus is only on achievement, one loses the value of failure. As an adult, he…

  13. Implementation of Case-Based Reasoning System for Knowledge Management of Power Plant Construction Projects in a Korean Company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Gil-Sang

    Recently, plant construction industries are enjoying a favorable business climate centering around developing countries and oil producing countries rich in oil money. This paper proposes a methodology of implementing corporation-wide case-based reasoning (CBR) system for effectively managing lessons learned knowledge like experiences and know-how obtained in performing power plant construction projects. Our methodology is consisted of 10 steps: user requirement analysis, information modeling, case modeling, case base design, similarity function design, user interface design, case base building, CBR module development, user interface development, integration test. Also, to illustrate the usability of proposed methodology, the practical CBR system is implemented for the plant construction business division of ’H’ company which has international competitiveness in the field of plant construction industry. At present, our CBR system is successfully utilizing as storing, sharing, and reusing the knowledge which is accumulated in performing power plant construction projects in the target enterprise.

  14. Modern Lesson Plans in Environmental Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotsonis, Helen Hoch; Baker, Bill

    This sourcebook, developed for teachers of ecology, biology, general science and hygiene, contains 27 lesson plans that have been organized into 5 units. The units are: The Dynamics of Pollution, Conservation and the Environment, Biological Controls and their Relationship to the Environment, Urban Ecology, and Environment and Health. The lesson…

  15. Lesson Learning at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberhettinger, David

    2011-01-01

    A lessons learned system is a hallmark of a mature engineering organization A formal lessons learned process can help assure that valuable lessons get written and published, that they are well-written, and that the essential information is "infused" into institutional practice. Requires high-level institutional commitment, and everyone's participation in gathering, disseminating, and using the lessons

  16. Lessons in American Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson Lindsay, Debra Kay

    2006-01-01

    "Lessons in American Music," by Debra Kay Robinson Lindsay, is a collection of lessons covering William Billings, Stephen Foster, Scott Joplin, and "The Star-Spangled Banner." This book is an all-in-one resource for teachers, offering lesson plans, activities, sheet music, and assessments. The set of lessons on William Billings will let your…

  17. Conveying the vision of science: Meta-lessons on inquiry found in a content analysis of two high school biology textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Patricia Mcmillan

    This descriptive study examined two high school biology textbooks for differences in opportunities for student inquiry as reported by Romey's Index of Student Involvement. The National Research Council's National Science Education Standards emphasizes the importance of students becoming "independent inquirers about the natural world." The systematic examination of student textbooks is an significant aspect in monitoring the state of science education in contemporary classrooms. Over 81% of text sampled in PRENTICE HALL Biology was categorized as fact, definition, or author's conclusion while 7% qualified as engaging students in inquiry. Biology: A Community Context had a more balanced distribution with 42% of sentences being categorized as fact, definition, or author's conclusion and 28% qualifying as engaging students in inquiry. Chi-square (chi2) statistics for the categories of non-inquiry/inquiry were significant, indicating that the two textbooks differ significantly as to their emphases on opportunities for inquiry. The investigation also compared two different sample sizes: the literature-recommended sample of 5% of text and a smaller 250-sentence sample. The frequency distribution across the 10 categories of non-inquiry/inquiry was very similar for the two sample sizes. PRENTICE HALL Biology fell below the recommended Index of Student Involvement range in both sampling techniques, while Biology: A Community Context fell in the recommended range for the Index of Student Involvement in both sampling techniques. This seems to indicate that the smaller sample size could be used appropriately to compare potential student textbooks by textbook adoption committees and curriculum planners. Biology textbooks that are judged to have relatively high amounts of inquiry are recommended for those who want to implement the national standards.

  18. Protein docking using case-based reasoning.

    PubMed

    Ghoorah, Anisah W; Devignes, Marie-Dominique; Smaïl-Tabbone, Malika; Ritchie, David W

    2013-12-01

    Protein docking algorithms aim to calculate the three-dimensional (3D) structure of a protein complex starting from its unbound components. Although ab initio docking algorithms are improving, there is a growing need to use homology modeling techniques to exploit the rapidly increasing volumes of structural information that now exist. However, most current homology modeling approaches involve finding a pair of complete single-chain structures in a homologous protein complex to use as a 3D template, despite the fact that protein complexes are often formed from one or more domain-domain interactions (DDIs). To model 3D protein complexes by domain-domain homology, we have developed a case-based reasoning approach called KBDOCK which systematically identifies and reuses domain family binding sites from our database of nonredundant DDIs. When tested on 54 protein complexes from the Protein Docking Benchmark, our approach provides a near-perfect way to model single-domain protein complexes when full-homology templates are available, and it extends our ability to model more difficult cases when only partial or incomplete templates exist. These promising early results highlight the need for a new and diverse docking benchmark set, specifically designed to assess homology docking approaches. PMID:24123156

  19. Biology 100-A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pensacola Junior Coll., FL.

    This publication is the course guide book for a one-semester, non-laboratory junior college course in biology. Included for each topic are lesson objectives, learning materials, and discussion ideas for seminar groups. Topics include the organization of life, heredity, reproduction, the meaning of biology to modern man, and homeostasis and…

  20. What Do Cells Really Look Like? An Inquiry into Students' Difficulties in Visualising a 3-D Biological Cell and Lessons for Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vijapurkar, Jyotsna; Kawalkar, Aisha; Nambiar, Priya

    2014-01-01

    In our explorations of students' concepts in an inquiry science classroom with grade 6 students from urban schools in India, we uncovered a variety of problems in their understanding of biological cells as structural and functional units of living organisms. In particular, we found not only that they visualised the cell as a two-dimensional…

  1. Implementation of an Education-Focused PhD Program in Anatomy and Cell Biology at Indiana University: Lessons Learned and Future Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brokaw, James J.; O'Loughlin, Valerie D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, the Indiana University School of Medicine, in collaboration with the School of Education, admitted its first student to a newly approved PhD program in Anatomy and Cell Biology focusing on educational research rather than biomedical research. The goal of the program is twofold: (1) to provide students with extensive training in all of the…

  2. Improving a Field School Curriculum Using Modularized Lessons and Authentic Case-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rea, Roy V.; Hodder, Dexter P.

    2007-01-01

    University course evaluations are replete with student comments expressing frustration with taking time out of work, paying money for, and putting energy into field education projects that lack authentic "real-world" problem-solving objectives. Here, we describe a model for field school education that borrows on pedagogical tools such as…

  3. What do Cells Really Look Like? An Inquiry into Students' Difficulties in Visualising a 3-D Biological Cell and Lessons for Pedagogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijapurkar, Jyotsna; Kawalkar, Aisha; Nambiar, Priya

    2014-04-01

    In our explorations of students' concepts in an inquiry science classroom with grade 6 students from urban schools in India, we uncovered a variety of problems in their understanding of biological cells as structural and functional units of living organisms. In particular, we found not only that they visualised the cell as a two-dimensional (2-D) structure, instead of a closed three-dimensional (3-D) functional unit, but that they had a strong resistance to changing their 2-D conception to a 3-D one. Based on analyses of students' oral as well as written descriptions of cells in the classroom, and of models they made of the cell, we were able to identify the causes of students' difficulties in correctly visualising the cell. These insights helped us design a pedagogy involving guided discussions and activities that challenges students' 2-D conceptions of the cell. The activities entail very simple, low-cost, easily doable techniques to help students visualise the cell and to understand that it would not be able to function if its structure were 2-D. We also present the results of our investigations of conceptions of grade 7 students and biology undergraduates, revealing that the incorrect 2-D mental model can persist right up to the college level if it is not explicitly addressed. The classroom interactions described in this study illustrate how students' ideas can be probed and addressed in the classroom using pedagogical action research.

  4. Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    The public health nurses’ scope of practice explicitly includes child protection within their role, which places them in a prime position to identify child protection concerns. This role compliments that of other professions and voluntary agenices who work with children. Public health nurses are in a privileged position as they form a relationship with the child’s parent(s)/guardian(s) and are able to see the child in its own environment, which many professionals cannot. Child protection in Ireland, while influenced by other countries, has progressed through a distinct pathway that streamlined protocols and procedures. However, despite the above serious failures have occurred in the Irish system, and inquiries over the past 20 years persistently present similar contributing factors, namely, the lack of standardized and comprehensive service responses. Moreover, poor practice is compounded by the lack of recognition of the various interactional processes taking place within and between the different agencies of child protection, leading to psychological barriers in communication. This article will explore the lessons learned for public health nurses practice in safeguarding children in the Republic of Ireland. PMID:27335944

  5. Case-based reasoning in design: An apologia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pulaski, Kirt

    1990-01-01

    Three positions are presented and defended: the process of generating solutions in problem solving is viewable as a design task; case-based reasoning is a strong method of problem solving; and a synergism exists between case-based reasoning and design problem solving.

  6. Case-Based Ethics Education in Physical Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venglar, Mollie; Theall, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Physical therapist students often think ethics content to be less relevant than other course material. The purpose of this study was to assess whether changing from lecture to case-based method, would impact ethics awareness and integration. In focus groups, students in the case-based course reported greater perceived value of the ethics content…

  7. A case-based assistant for clinical psychiatry expertise.

    PubMed Central

    Bichindaritz, I.

    1994-01-01

    Case-based reasoning is an artificial intelligence methodology for the processing of empirical knowledge. Recent case-based reasoning systems also use theoretic knowledge about the domain to constrain the case-based reasoning. The organization of the memory is the key issue in case-based reasoning. The case-based assistant presented here has two structures in memory: cases and concepts. These memory structures permit it to be as skilled in problem-solving tasks, such as diagnosis and treatment planning, as in interpretive tasks, such as clinical research. A prototype applied to clinical work about eating disorders in psychiatry, reasoning from the alimentary questionnaires of these patients, is presented as an example of the system abilities. PMID:7950011

  8. 8 Lessons Learned From Part D

    PubMed Central

    BUTCHER, LOLA

    2005-01-01

    Health plans designing pharmacy-benefit packages for Medicare beneficiaries found themselves in uncharted territory, especially with biologics. Along the way, though, many plans had common experiences. The lessons from those experiences can make or break a plan’s participation. PMID:23424322

  9. Assessment of fetal inflammatory syndrome by "classical" markers in the management of preterm labor: a possible lesson from metabolomics and system biology.

    PubMed

    Ferrazzi, Enrico; Muggiasca, Maria Luisa; Fabbri, Elisa; Fontana, Paola; Castoldi, Francesco; Lista, Gianluca; Primerano, Liviana; Livio, Stefania; Di Francesco, Stefania

    2012-10-01

    There exists a huge gap between protocols issued by scientific bodies and evidence derived by system biology studies on the multifactorial origin of threatened preterm delivery and their different associations with neonatal outcome. The objective of this prospective study was the analysis obstetrical and neonatal outcome in a cohort of pregnant patients treated for the risk of preterm delivery according to maternal and fetal assessment determined by amniotic fluid samples. Methods. Threatened preterm delivery and premature rupture of membranes between 24 + 1 and 32 + 6 weeks of gestation were treated by prolonged tocolytic regimens and if necessary by antibiotics for maternal infections when intra-amniotic inflammation (IAI) was excluded on the basis of negative white blood cell count in the amniotic fluid, or opposite, by delivery after a course of betamethasone and 48 hours maintenance tocolysis. Twenty-three cases were compared with 22 historical controls treated by the same teams according to the 48 hours treat and wait criteria. In addition to this, cases with normal and abnormal amniotic fluid white blood cell were compared. Results. Maternal and fetal conditions at admission were not significantly different between the study and control cohort for all maternal and fetal variables. Clinical indices were significantly improved as regard to latency from admission to delivery, number of newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care unit and length of stay in neonatal intensive care unit. Not any perinatal death or sepsis occurred in the study cohort. Overall, improved neonatal outcomes were observed in the study cohort. Composite major neonatal eventful outcomes occurred in 26% of cases vs. 50% in controls. The limited number of cases was not powered enough to reach a statistical significance for these variables. Continued tocolysis on demand and full regimen of mono or combined antibiotic regimen for maternal infection achieved significantly longer delay between

  10. Mobile Lessons: Lessons Based on Geo-Referenced Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Sylvain; Moulin, Claude; Sanna, Raffaella; Pintus, Antonio

    The term "mobile lessons" is coined for lessons held outside of "artificial" environments, such as classrooms. During these lessons, all actors are mobile and must move to do the required tasks. Themes tackled in such lessons may be as varied as geography, history, ecology, and linguistics. The use of mobile lessons is not a new teaching strategy,…

  11. Lessons on the Northwest Ordinance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    The purpose of this packet of six lessons is to make it easier for teachers to include substantial instruction about the Northwest Ordinance in their secondary school courses. Each lesson includes a lesson plan for teachers and a lesson for students to study. The lessons are concise and can be completed in one or two class meetings. Each lesson…

  12. Fuzzy case based reasoning in sports facilities unit cost estimating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zima, Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    This article presents an example of estimating costs in the early phase of the project using fuzzy case-based reasoning. The fragment of database containing descriptions and unit cost of sports facilities was shown. The formulas used in Case Based Reasoning method were presented, too. The article presents similarity measurement using a few formulas, including fuzzy similarity. The outcome of cost calculations based on CBR method was presented as a fuzzy number of unit cost of construction work.

  13. Lessons Learned in Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, J. C.; Ryan, R. S.; Schutzenhofer, L. A.

    2011-01-01

    This Contractor Report (CR) is a compilation of Lessons Learned in approximately 55 years of engineering experience by each James C. Blair, Robert S. Ryan, and Luke A. Schutzenhofer. The lessons are the basis of a course on Lessons Learned that has been taught at Marshall Space Flight Center. The lessons are drawn from NASA space projects and are characterized in terms of generic lessons learned from the project experience, which are further distilled into overarching principles that can be applied to future projects. Included are discussions of the overarching principles followed by a listing of the lessons associated with that principle. The lesson with sub-lessons are stated along with a listing of the project problems the lesson is drawn from, then each problem is illustrated and discussed, with conclusions drawn in terms of Lessons Learned. The purpose of this CR is to provide principles learned from past aerospace experience to help achieve greater success in future programs, and identify application of these principles to space systems design. The problems experienced provide insight into the engineering process and are examples of the subtleties one experiences performing engineering design, manufacturing, and operations.

  14. Apollo Lesson Sampler: Apollo 13 Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains a two-part case study of the Apollo 13 accident. The first lesson contains an overview of the electrical system hardware on the Apollo spacecraft, providing a context for the details of the oxygen tank explosion, and the failure chain reconstruction that led to the conditions present at the time of the accident. Given this background, the lesson then covers the tank explosion and immediate damage to the spacecraft, and the immediate response of Mission Control to what they saw. Part 2 of the lesson picks up shortly after the explosion of the oxygen tank on Apollo 13, and discusses how Mission Control gained insight to and understanding of the damage in the aftermath. Impacts to various spacecraft systems are presented, along with Mission Control's reactions and plans for in-flight recovery leading to a successful entry. Finally, post-flight vehicle changes are presented along with the lessons learned.

  15. A Guidebook for Teaching Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Harold J.; Hand, Marge

    This 10-chapter guidebook, designed to supplement a basic textbook in biology, provides lessons that demonstrate the application of biological principles and concepts. Chapter 1 is an introduction. Chapters 2 to 5, organized around the key concept of homeostasis, discuss the evolution of the external environment of earth compared to the internal…

  16. Soil Genesis and Development, Lesson 2 - Processes of Weathering

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weathering processes — which include physical, chemical, and biological — contribute to the development of soil. The learning objectives of the lesson are: 1) Define and distinguish physical, chemical, and biological weathering processes; and 2) Describe how rock and mineral properties and environm...

  17. The use of multiple models in case-based diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karamouzis, Stamos T.; Feyock, Stefan

    1993-01-01

    The work described in this paper has as its goal the integration of a number of reasoning techniques into a unified intelligent information system that will aid flight crews with malfunction diagnosis and prognostication. One of these approaches involves using the extensive archive of information contained in aircraft accident reports along with various models of the aircraft as the basis for case-based reasoning about malfunctions. Case-based reasoning draws conclusions on the basis of similarities between the present situation and prior experience. We maintain that the ability of a CBR program to reason about physical systems is significantly enhanced by the addition to the CBR program of various models. This paper describes the diagnostic concepts implemented in a prototypical case based reasoner that operates in the domain of in-flight fault diagnosis, the various models used in conjunction with the reasoner's CBR component, and results from a preliminary evaluation.

  18. Lesson Study: Beyond Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Catherine; Perry, Rebecca; Foster, David; Hurd, Jacqueline; Fisher, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The authors assert that lesson study--a collaborative, teacher-led approach to learning from practice--offers a deeper, broader, more sustainable method of improving teacher practice than one-on-one coaching does. In lesson study, teachers and coaches of all levels of experience can work together, each bringing his or her own professional…

  19. Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Kelley

    Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…

  20. Ohio Agriscience Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Robert D., II, Comp.; Waidelich, William D., Comp.

    This document, which is intended for Ohio agriculture teachers, contains lesson plans for an eight-unit competency-based course in agriscience. Each lesson plan contains some or all of the following items: (1) unit title; (2) competency/terminal performance objective; (3) competency builders/pupil performance objectives; (4) list of applied…

  1. A Lesson in Tolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnt, Marlene

    2004-01-01

    This article describes one classroom's experience integrating a three-part lesson that focused on tolerance. In the lesson, students examined works by American folk-art painter Edward Hicks, researched quotes about tolerance in society, and applied calligraphy skills to an original composition.

  2. The Odyssey. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Based on Homer's "Odyssey," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand literature originally presented in one genre can, with care, be adapted to another genre; and adapters of a literary work into drama must consider dialogue and stage directions. The main activity of the lesson involves students converting a scene…

  3. Don Quixote. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooks, Kristen

    Based on Miguel de Cervantes' novel "Don Quixote," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Quixote's misperceptions are understandable; writers often describe one object to sound as if it were something else; and metaphors help readers see with new eyes. The main activity of the lesson involves students…

  4. Mini Lessons from FDA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Drug Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Eight self-contained lessons present information about topics of current interest in the Food and Drug Administration. Multidisciplinary in nature, the lessons can be integrated into ongoing activities in elementary or secondary level reading, math, language arts, social studies, science, art, health, consumer education, and home economics. The…

  5. Lessons in Everyday Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boesch, Kit

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author presents and discusses some of the lessons she has learned in everyday leadership. It's the kind of leadership one learns when he or she doesn't expect it--and the kind of lessons one teaches when he or she doesn't even know he or she is doing it.

  6. Ben Franklin. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Based on Benjamin Franklin's "Poor Richard's Almanac," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Ben Franklin is known, among other things, for his wit and wisdom; that Franklin published an almanac for 25 years; and he scattered aphorisms throughout the almanac. The main activity in the lesson is for students…

  7. Soybean Production Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Keith R.

    These lesson plans for teaching soybean production in a secondary or postsecondary vocational agriculture class are organized in nine units and cover the following topics: raising soybeans, optimum tillage, fertilizer and lime, seed selection, pest management, planting, troubleshooting, double cropping, and harvesting. Each lesson plan contains…

  8. Automatic Dance Lesson Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yang; Leung, H.; Yue, Lihua; Deng, LiQun

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an automatic lesson generation system is presented which is suitable in a learning-by-mimicking scenario where the learning objects can be represented as multiattribute time series data. The dance is used as an example in this paper to illustrate the idea. Given a dance motion sequence as the input, the proposed lesson generation…

  9. Lessons of the Narragansetts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narraganset Tribal Education Project, Inc., Charleston, RI.

    The curriculum guide presents lesson plans and suggested activities for a six-week mini course for secondary students on the culture and history of the Narragansett Indians. It is part of the Narragansett Tribe Ethnic Heritage Program. An outline of the general format and content suggests a time allotment for each of the 12 lessons. The lessons…

  10. Collaborative Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum and Resource Center.

    This collection consists of 41 collaborative lesson plans developed by 99 Virginia teachers at 18 primarily High Schools that Work (HSTW) and tech prep sites. It is divided into three sections: career connection, community connection, and consumer connection. Two types of lesson descriptions which support HSTW key practices, and Virginia's Tech…

  11. Mathematics Lessons without ...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Kath; Hibbs, John

    2006-01-01

    In the Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) Easter conference, 2006, the authors presented a list of important aspects of mathematics lessons, recommended for students to have a positive attitude to mathematics and for teachers to acquire effective teaching. The following are discussed in detail: (1) Mathematics lessons without good…

  12. Environmental Awareness: Relating Current Issues to Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFina, Anthony

    1995-01-01

    Presents examples of incorporating environmental issues into lesson plans to raise the level of students' environmental awareness. Topics include: ecology, taxonomy, biochemistry, energy reactions, cell structure and function, genetics and development, and human biology. (JRH)

  13. How Does a Lesson Plan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This manual for secondary school teachers offers sample lesson plans that may be used to guide and stimulate experimentation and development of creative instructional units. Lesson plan components are defined, and various types of lessons and their significant characteristics are identified. These characteristic types of lessons are illustrated,…

  14. The Effects of Case-Based Team Learning on Students’ Learning, Self Regulation and Self Direction

    PubMed Central

    Rezaee, Rita; Mosalanejad, Leili

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The application of the best approaches to teach adults in medical education is important in the process of training learners to become and remain effective health care providers. This research aims at designing and integrating two approaches, namely team teaching and case study and tries to examine the consequences of these approaches on learning, self regulation and self direction of nursing students. Material & Methods: This is aquasi experimental study of 40 students who were taking a course on mental health. The lessons were designed by using two educational techniques: short case based study and team based learning. Data gathering was based on two valid and reliablequestionnaires: Self-Directed Readiness Scale (SDLRS) and the self-regulating questionnaire. Open ended questions were also designed for the evaluation of students’with points of view on educational methods. Results: The Results showed an increase in the students’ self directed learning based on their performance on the post-test. The results showed that the students’ self-directed learning increased after the intervention. The mean difference before and after intervention self management was statistically significant (p=0.0001). Also, self-regulated learning increased with the mean difference after intervention (p=0.001). Other results suggested that case based team learning can have significant effects on increasing students’ learning (p=0.003). Conclusion: This article may be of value to medical educators who wish to replace traditional learning with informal learning (student-centered-active learning), so as to enhance not only the students’ ’knowledge, but also the advancement of long- life learning skills. PMID:25946918

  15. Game-based versus traditional case-based learning

    PubMed Central

    Telner, Deanna; Bujas-Bobanovic, Maja; Chan, David; Chester, Bob; Marlow, Bernard; Meuser, James; Rothman, Arthur; Harvey, Bart

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate family physicians’ enjoyment of and knowledge gained from game-based learning, compared with traditional case-based learning, in a continuing medical education (CME) event on stroke prevention and management. DESIGN An equivalence trial to determine if game-based learning was as effective as case-based learning in terms of attained knowledge levels. Game questions and small group cases were developed. Participants were randomized to either a game-based or a case-based group and took part in the event. SETTING Ontario provincial family medicine conference. PARTICIPANTS Thirty-two family physicians and 3 senior family medicine residents attending the conference. INTERVENTION Participation in either a game-based or a case-based CME learning group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Scores on 40-item immediate and 3-month posttests of knowledge and a satisfaction survey. RESULTS Results from knowledge testing immediately after the event and 3 months later showed no significant difference in scoring between groups. Participants in the game-based group reported higher levels of satisfaction with the learning experience. CONCLUSION Games provide a novel way of organizing CME events. They might provide more group interaction and discussion, as well as improve recruitment to CME events. They might also provide a forum for interdisciplinary CME. Using games in future CME events appears to be a promising approach to facilitate participant learning. PMID:20841574

  16. Scaffolding Diagnostic Reasoning in Case-Based Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.

    1996-01-01

    Computer-delivered, case-based instruction can provide medical students with valuable clinical diagnostic experiences before encountering real patients. Diagnosis requires physicians to understand and use causal reasoning for prediction. Such reasoning may be scaffolded in the design of computerized learning environments. Scaffolding of causal…

  17. Student Engagement in Video Case Based Undergraduate Business Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pond, Keith

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a long term project using bespoke video case studies designed and produced as the basis (variously) for formative in-class and on-line forum activity and assessment of group coursework and via case based exam. The research sought to observe student engagement behaviours when faced with innovative teaching methods using:…

  18. A Case-Based Learning Model in Orthodontics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Francoise E.; Hendricson, William D.

    1994-01-01

    A case-based, student-centered instructional model designed to mimic orthodontic problem solving and decision making in dental general practice is described. Small groups of students analyze case data, then record and discuss their diagnoses and treatments. Students and instructors rated the seminars positively, and students reported improved…

  19. A Case-Based Pharmacy Environment: Cognitive Flexibility + Social Constructivism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Kevin M.

    The Internet Web Site on Virtual Clinical Applications and Disease Management is a hypermedia, case-based open learning environment that was designed to promote cognitive flexibility in college students at The University of Georgia College of Pharmacy. With a key objective of pharmacy education being patient problem-solving skills, this…

  20. Combining Adaptive Hypermedia with Project and Case-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papanikolaou, Kyparisia; Grigoriadou, Maria

    2009-01-01

    In this article we investigate the design of educational hypermedia based on constructivist learning theories. According to the principles of project and case-based learning we present the design rational of an Adaptive Educational Hypermedia system prototype named MyProject; learners working with MyProject undertake a project and the system…

  1. Use of Case-Based Learning in Dental Hygiene Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Dina Agnone; DeBiase, Christina B.; Gibson-Howell, Joan C.

    1998-01-01

    A survey investigated the extent of use of case-based learning in 141 dental hygiene programs. A majority of responding schools use the approach, most frequently in clinical dental hygiene, community dental health, and dental science courses. Proportion of instructional time was greatest in the content areas of special needs, ethics, medical…

  2. Case-Based Learning, Pedagogical Innovation, and Semantic Web Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Garcia, A.; Morris, S.; Tscholl, M.; Tracy, F.; Carmichael, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of Semantic Web technologies to support teaching and learning in a variety of higher education settings in which some form of case-based learning is the pedagogy of choice. It draws on the empirical work of a major three year research and development project in the United Kingdom: "Ensemble: Semantic Technologies…

  3. Massively parallel support for a case-based planning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kettler, Brian P.; Hendler, James A.; Anderson, William A.

    1993-01-01

    Case-based planning (CBP), a kind of case-based reasoning, is a technique in which previously generated plans (cases) are stored in memory and can be reused to solve similar planning problems in the future. CBP can save considerable time over generative planning, in which a new plan is produced from scratch. CBP thus offers a potential (heuristic) mechanism for handling intractable problems. One drawback of CBP systems has been the need for a highly structured memory to reduce retrieval times. This approach requires significant domain engineering and complex memory indexing schemes to make these planners efficient. In contrast, our CBP system, CaPER, uses a massively parallel frame-based AI language (PARKA) and can do extremely fast retrieval of complex cases from a large, unindexed memory. The ability to do fast, frequent retrievals has many advantages: indexing is unnecessary; very large case bases can be used; memory can be probed in numerous alternate ways; and queries can be made at several levels, allowing more specific retrieval of stored plans that better fit the target problem with less adaptation. In this paper we describe CaPER's case retrieval techniques and some experimental results showing its good performance, even on large case bases.

  4. Lessons on the Cold War. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Susan J.

    1994-01-01

    Contends that the end of the Cold War requires teachers to change their teaching methods and content. Presents six lessons, most with three individual student activities, that trace the Cold War from the pre-World War I era through the end of the Vietnam War. (CFR)

  5. Lessons for Introductory Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, John S.; Blackburn, Edward V.

    2000-07-01

    These twelve lessons, and an introductory lesson, are tutorials in basic topics of introductory chemistry. They are suitable for school use, individual study, or distance learning. They are particularly valuable as review material for students in more advanced courses who may have been away from the subject for some time. They contain a great variety of problems and exercises driven by random-number generators, so that the same problem never repeats exactly. The lessons are, for the most part, Socratic dialogues in which the student is required to answer questions and perform simulated experiments in order to discover chemical principles. They are organized in an intuitive chapter and page structure. One may move readily around each lesson. There are many on-screen facilities such as help, data tables, and a calculator.

  6. Spotting a Science Lesson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manch, Raimonde

    1989-01-01

    A hands-on science lesson which allows young students to apply stains in the classroom and then try to remove them is presented. Included are a list of materials, procedures, and a discussion of probable results. (CW)

  7. Music lessons enhance IQ.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2004-08-01

    The idea that music makes you smarter has received considerable attention from scholars and the media. The present report is the first to test this hypothesis directly with random assignment of a large sample of children (N = 144) to two different types of music lessons (keyboard or voice) or to control groups that received drama lessons or no lessons. IQ was measured before and after the lessons. Compared with children in the control groups, children in the music groups exhibited greater increases in full-scale IQ. The effect was relatively small, but it generalized across IQ subtests, index scores, and a standardized measure of academic achievement. Unexpectedly, children in the drama group exhibited substantial pre- to post-test improvements in adaptive social behavior that were not evident in the music groups. PMID:15270994

  8. Polychronometry in Lesson Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, William F.

    1976-01-01

    The Polychronometer, the design and mechanism of which is described, is suggested for use in any situation where time variables have to be measured as duration and frequency. Its use in language lesson analysis is discussed. (RM)

  9. Case-based reasoning to explain medical model exceptions.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Rainer; Vorobieva, Olga

    2008-01-01

    In medicine many exceptions occur. In medical practise and in knowledge-based systems too, it is necessary to consider them and to deal with them appropriately. In medical studies and in research exceptions shall be explained. We present a system that helps to explain cases that do not fit into a theoretical hypothesis. Our starting points are situations where neither a well-developed theory nor reliable knowledge nor a proper case base is available. So, instead of reliable theoretical knowledge and intelligent experience, we have just some theoretical hypothesis and a set of measurements. In this paper, we propose to combine CBR with a statistical model. We use CBR to explain those cases that do not fit the model. The case base has to be set up incrementally, it contains the exceptional cases, and their explanations are the solutions, which can be used to help to explain further exceptional cases. PMID:18487741

  10. Dental student perceptions of case-based educational effectiveness.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Carly T

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of a case-based education course on second-year dental students. It explored what impact the small-group environment had on the participants professionally, communicatively, and personally and also analyzed their performance evaluations of the facilitators. The study employed a pretest-posttest survey design. Students' professional development consistently showed a positive significant change as a result of the course, especially regarding perceived skills. The course was found to have impacted the students' confidence in their own team contribution, and their ability to discuss and present treatment plans also significantly increased. This study did not find evidence of influence on the students' personal benefit. The students reported perceiving that the facilitators' abilities were stronger at the beginning of the course, but then the ratings decreased over time. Overall, the case-based education course was found to have positively affected students' knowledge and skills acquisition as well as their communication skills. PMID:23740905

  11. Knowledge acquisition for case-based reasoning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riesbeck, Christopher K.

    1988-01-01

    Case-based reasoning (CBR) is a simple idea: solve new problems by adapting old solutions to similar problems. The CBR approach offers several potential advantages over rule-based reasoning: rules are not combined blindly in a search for solutions, solutions can be explained in terms of concrete examples, and performance can improve automatically as new problems are solved and added to the case library. Moving CBR for the university research environment to the real world requires smooth interfaces for getting knowledge from experts. Described are the basic elements of an interface for acquiring three basic bodies of knowledge that any case-based reasoner requires: the case library of problems and their solutions, the analysis rules that flesh out input problem specifications so that relevant cases can be retrieved, and the adaptation rules that adjust old solutions to fit new problems.

  12. Signal Analysis of Automotive Engine Spark Ignition System using Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) and Case-based Maintenance (CBM)

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.; Vong, C. M.; Wong, P. K.

    2010-05-21

    With the development of modern technology, modern vehicles adopt electronic control system for injection and ignition. In traditional way, whenever there is any malfunctioning in an automotive engine, an automotive mechanic usually performs a diagnosis in the ignition system of the engine to check any exceptional symptoms. In this paper, we present a case-based reasoning (CBR) approach to help solve human diagnosis problem. Nevertheless, one drawback of CBR system is that the case library will be expanded gradually after repeatedly running the system, which may cause inaccuracy and longer time for the CBR retrieval. To tackle this problem, case-based maintenance (CBM) framework is employed so that the case library of the CBR system will be compressed by clustering to produce a set of representative cases. As a result, the performance (in retrieval accuracy and time) of the whole CBR system can be improved.

  13. Modeling Atoms and Molecules: A New Lesson for Upper Elementary and Middle School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwaner, Terry D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes a study involving 86 fifth-grade science students to enhance their understandings of basic biological chemistry. Contains a lesson that allows students to build models of atoms and molecules. (ZWH)

  14. One Teacher, Two Lessons: The Lesson Study Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Naomi; Leikin, Roza

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze 2 lessons by 1 teacher that took place during a lesson study (LS) cycle for a team of elementary mathematics teachers. We analyze the data on 2 levels: macro-level analysis, dealing with lesson structure and setting; and micro-level analysis, zooming in on mathematical tasks and the quality of whole-class discussion. We…

  15. COSS Lesson Creation Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, R. Stephen

    1999-01-01

    COSS (Crew On-Orbit System Support) is changing. Designed as computer based in-flight refresher training, it is getting good reviews and the demands on the product can be expected to increase. Last year, the lessons were written using Authorware, which had a number of limitations. The most important one was that the navigation and the layout functions were both in one package that was not easy to learn. The lesson creator had to be good at both programming and design. There were also a number of other problems, as detailed in my report last year. This year the COSS unit made the switch to embrace modularity. The navigation function is handled by a player that was custom-written using Delphi. The layout pages are now standard HTML files that can be created using any number of products. This new system gives new flexibility and unties the process from one product (and one company). The player can be re-written by a programmer without affecting the lesson pages. It is also now possible for anybody with a word-processor to make part of the HTML lesson pages and to use many of the new commercially available tools that are being designed for web pages. This summer I created a computer-based training (CBT) lesson on the IBM ThinkPad 760 ED and 760XD laptop computers that should fly on the International Space Station. I also examined the COSS system, the new player and the other new software products.

  16. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of biology experiments. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher information…

  17. Lessons for Teaching Art Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Terry, Ed.; Clark, Gilbert, Ed.

    This collection of lessons is meant to be a practical guide to help teachers engage children in art criticism. The lessons generally follow a similar format. Most suggest an age group but may be modified for use with younger or older students. Several authors suggest variations and extensions for lessons that include studio activities. A broad…

  18. Fire Officer I Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    Lesson plans are provided for the Fire Officer I course. Material for each lesson is presented in this format: course title, lesson title, equipment required, training aids needed, and a content outline which details teaching points and related instructor references. These references, or suggested readings, are listed at the conclusion of each…

  19. Equity Lessons for Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia School District, PA. Office of Curriculum and Instruction.

    Elementary students will develop an awareness of the many facets of sex-role stereotyping through these 10 lessons. The broad concept areas of the individual lessons correspond to the general areas of a basic elementary social studies program. Foci of the lessons are reflected in their titles: (1) Self-Realization: Feelings and Expressions; (2)…

  20. Lesson Study with Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Mary T.; Hines, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Lesson study is a teacher-directed program for improving instruction. It focuses on improving students' learning by systematically refining the lessons used for instruction. In this article, the authors describe the use of lesson study with preservice secondary mathematics teachers to encourage collaborative reflection and professional…

  1. Petersburg National Battlefield Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This collection of eight lesson plans deals with the Petersburg (Virginia) U.S. Civil War battlefield. The lessons tell about slave life and plantation life in the U.S. south, and how the Civil War forever changed this structure. To do the lessons, students read primary source documents that tell the stories of three different soldiers who…

  2. Enhancing interprofessional student practice through a case-based model.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Mairead; O'Donnell, Marie; Warren, Alison; Taylor, Ann; Gowan, Olive

    2013-07-01

    Healthcare workers are increasingly being called upon to work collaboratively in practice to improve patient care and it seems imperative that interprofessional working should be mirrored in student education, especially during placements. This short report describes a qualitative evaluation of a client-centered, case-based model of interprofessional education (IPE) which aimed to improve interprofessional communication and team working skills for the students and therapists involved in practice placements. The IPE project implemented the meet, assess, goal set, plan, implement, evaluate (MAGPIE) framework for interprofessional case-based teaching (Queensland-Health (2008)) alongside the International Classification of Function, Disability and Health (ICF) (WHO, 2001). Three separate focus groups explored the experiences of the students, therapists and placement facilitators from the disciplines of occupational therapy, physiotherapy and speech and language therapy. Three themes emerged: IPE as a motivating experience, IPE enhancing the depth of learning and clarity of expectations. This report concluded that IPE in the clinical setting, using the client-centered MAGPIE model, provided a strong foundation for enhanced learning in practice education contexts. PMID:23398325

  3. An Instructional Seminar for Online Case-Based Discussions

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Jaclyn M.; Rohdieck, Stephanie V.; Khurma, Anand; Dasta, Joseph F.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To assess a training seminar developed to prepare pharmacy instructors to facilitate online discussions. Design A 2-part seminar was developed to train faculty members and teaching assistants to facilitate online case-based discussions. A preseminar survey instrument was distributed to potential attendees and a postseminar survey instrument was given to those who attended the seminar. Assessment Twenty (91%) instructors completed the preseminar survey instrument. Eleven of these instructors attended at least 1 session of the seminar and indicated that the didactic and/or application portions were either “helpful” or “very helpful.” These faculty members and teaching assistants also completed the postseminar survey instrument and conveyed a significant increase in level of comfort in their ability to facilitate online case-based discussions (p=0.004). The 3 most frequently perceived barriers to online teaching remained consistent despite training or teaching experience. Conclusions After attending a training seminar and/or facilitating an online case discussion, participants' comfort level in their ability to teach online increased. Further study of the impact of faculty development programs on teaching effectiveness and student satisfaction with online pharmacy education is warranted. PMID:17619642

  4. Activated Sludge. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boe, Owen K.; Klopping, Paul H.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a seven-lesson unit on activated sludge. Topic areas addressed in the lessons include: (1) activated sludge concepts and components (including aeration tanks, aeration systems, clarifiers, and sludge pumping systems); (2) activated sludge variations and modes; (3) biological nature of activated…

  5. Lessons learned bulletin. Number 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    During the past four years, the Department of Energy -- Savannah River Operations Office and the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program completed various activities ranging from waste site investigations to closure and post closure projects. Critiques for lessons learned regarding project activities are performed at the completion of each project milestone, and this critique interval allows for frequent recognition of lessons learned. In addition to project related lessons learned, ER also performs lessons learned critiques. T`he Savannah River Site (SRS) also obtains lessons learned information from general industry, commercial nuclear industry, naval nuclear programs, and other DOE sites within the complex. Procedures are approved to administer the lessons learned program, and a database is available to catalog applicable lessons learned regarding environmental remediation, restoration, and administrative activities. ER will continue to use this database as a source of information available to SRS personnel.

  6. Lessons from a Lake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goethals, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Describes a study that included classroom lessons on hydroelectric power, the history and construction of a nearby lake, data recording, the use of field guides, and methods of counting natural populations. The study culminated in a field trip to the lake. (JRH)

  7. Courtside: Lesson Lost?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2004-01-01

    In this month's Courtside, the author will stray somewhat from his usual format of describing a single case. Instead, he will be presenting the details of two separate cases, both of which involve similar circumstances, rely on similar legal arguments, and have similar outcomes. Most important, both appear to carry the same lesson. The lessons…

  8. "Becky's Legacy": More Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Dale G.

    2005-01-01

    In this commentary on Werth's (this issue) article, the author attempts to continue the work of "meaning making" by describing 10 lessons that were evident to him, based on 25 years of experience as an end-of-life researcher and clinician. He highlights the impact of stress, the importance of communication, the idiosyncratic definition of a "good…

  9. Lessons from Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Kay

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author relates the lessons she learned from Hurricane Katrina. During the first few days after the hurricane, it took 2,500 volunteers per hour around the clock to do what needed to be done. That included medical volunteers; crisis counselors and mental health professionals; and volunteers to distribute water and snacks, serve…

  10. Lessons from the Heartland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Wisconsin--and, in particular, urban Milwaukee--has been at the forefront of a half-century of public education experiments, from desegregation and "school choice" to vouchers and charter schools. "Lessons from the Heartland: A Turbulent Half-Century of Public Education in an Iconic American City" by Barbara J. Miner, former managing editor of…

  11. Phagocytosis: history's lessons.

    PubMed

    Garg, Manish; Chandawarkar, Rajiv Y

    2013-01-01

    The assimilation of lessons from the past is an essential component of education for scientists of tomorrow. These lessons are not easy to find. History books on science are few and usually highly dramatized and biographies of scientists tend to exaggerate the pomp of scientific discovery. Both underplay the hard and laborious work that is integral to any scientific pursuit. Here we illustrate one such example. A century ago, the Nobel Prize in Medicine was awarded to two scientists: Ilya Metchnikoff, a Russian zoologist, for the discovery ofphagocytosis-a cell-mediated ingestion ofmicrobes; and Paul Ehrlich, a distinguished physician-scientist, for discovering a highly antigen-specific serum-derived antibody-based immune defense. These two diametrically opposing views of the host-pathogen interaction set the stage for a strife that led to seminal advancements in immunology. Mirrored in this journey are important lessons for scientists today--ubiquitously as applicable to modern scientific life as they were a century ago. This commentaryhighlights these lessons--a fitting centenary to a well-deserved recognition. PMID:23427369

  12. Lessons from Curitiba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, William S.

    1999-01-01

    Examines Curitiba's (Brazil) public education system, comparing it to those in the United States, how Curitiba promotes education, and the partnership between education and the city's sustainable goals. The lessons learned from this examination as to their applicability in educational design in the United States are discussed. (GR)

  13. Fitness Day. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Jeanne

    This lesson plan introduces students to the concept of supply and demand by appealing to bodily/kinesthetic intelligences. Students participate in a fitness class and then analyze the economic motives behind making an individual feel better after a fitness activity; i.e., analyzing how much an individual would pay for a drink and snack after a…

  14. Laserdisc Lessons for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwood, Suzanne

    1995-01-01

    Describes an inservice elementary school teachers' training program that used the HyperCard-based "Laser Disc Made Easy" software for creating lessons. Grade-level team activities are described; the ease of use is discussed; and advantages of editing capabilities are considered. (LRW)

  15. Six Lessons from Jena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holladay, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The racially charged prosecutions of six black teenagers in Jena, Louisiana, captured the nation's attention, with thousands of protesters descending on the town. The author reminds school professionals that the incident was triggered by nooses hanging from a schoolyard tree and presents six lessons: (1) don't ignore obvious signs of trouble; (2)…

  16. Courtside: A Damaging Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2004-01-01

    This case presents a costly lesson for teachers and for districts that include a liquidated, or stipulated, damages clause in their teacher employment contracts. Although the court enforced the clause in this case, in this well-reasoned recent decision and in most of the much older, canvassed case law from other jurisdictions, the answer to the…

  17. Research Administration: Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dummer, George H.

    1995-01-01

    The ways in which accountability issues have affected federal-university relationships, particularly in the area of academic research, are examined. Lessons university administrators have learned since issuance of Office of Management and Budget Circular A-21 in 1958, Congressional hearings on the operations of the National Institutes of Health…

  18. Newspaper Lesson Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Communication: Journalism Education Today (C:JET), 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides photocopy-ready lesson aids on story ideas, interviewing, inverted pyramid writing style, newswriting, sports/scavenger hunt, finding feature material, identifying feature leads, feature lead selection, evaluating feature leads, compiling survey material, cutlines, headlines, paste-up rules, advertising, final semester project, newspaper…

  19. Mississippi River. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchberg, Wendy

    Based on novels and books about the Mississippi River, this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that the Mississippi River has made its mark on America's geography, commerce, and literature; and that booktalks provide a summary, explains what kind of reader the book will appeal to, and may also contain a oral…

  20. Cooperative Science Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooperative Learning, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Offers several elementary level cooperative science lesson plans. The article includes a recipe for cooperative class learning, instructions for making a compost pile, directions for finding evidence of energy, experiments in math and science using oranges to test density, and discussions of buoyancy using eggs. (SM)

  1. A Lesson from Mangroves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the importance of interpretive programs in the Northern Territory of Australia. Describes the typical interpretive approach of local school science curricula, which serve 20,000 Aboriginal children. Addresses the curriculum framework, learning strategies, and process skill development, illustrating them through a lesson on mangroves. (TW)

  2. Recycling Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Environmental Resources, Harrisburg.

    This document contains lesson plans about recycling for teachers in grades K-12. Titles include: (1) "Waste--Where Does It Come From? Where Does It Go?" (2) "Litter Detectives," (3) "Classroom Paper Recycling," (4) "Recycling Survey," (5) "Disposal and Recycling Costs," (6) "Composting Project," (7) Used Motor Oil Recycling," (8) "Unwrapping…

  3. School Violence. Web Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constitutional Rights Foundation, Los Angeles, CA.

    In answer to the concerns about school violence in the United States (especially since the tragedy in 1999 at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado), this Internet curriculum offers lessons and resources that address the topic of school violence and its causes, as well as the search for solutions. The curriculum presents four world wide web…

  4. War Literature. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderquist, Alisa

    Based on Stephen Crane's poems about war and his novel "The Red Badge of Courage," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Crane examined war-related themes in prose and poetry; that close study of a poem for oral presentation helps readers see meaning or techniques not noted earlier; and that not all readers…

  5. Smart Consumer Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey Consortium for Consumer Education, Newark.

    Lesson plans are provided for use with different populations of pre-K through senior high school students in four different areas of consumer education. Eight units in advertising are included: A First Look at Ads (pre-K-Grade 3), Don't Judge a Book by Its Cover (Grades 1-3), Fatal Distraction (Junior High), Package Labeling (Junior High), Product…

  6. Diagnostic Lessons as Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Barbara J.

    Embedded in a sensitive instructional context rather than a stifling testing atmosphere, diagnostic lessons provide assessment that is reliable, practical, valid, and efficient. In this type of assessment, there are several determiners of instructional placement: (1) students' propensity to adapt strategies as a result of specified instruction,…

  7. Photosynthesis. Agricultural Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    This lesson plan is intended for use in conducting classes on photosynthesis. Presented first are an attention step/problem statement and a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about photosynthesis. The following topics are among those discussed: the photosynthesis process and its importance, the organisms that…

  8. DSCOVR Contamination Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graziani, Larissa

    2015-01-01

    The Triana observatory was built at NASA GSFC in the late 1990's, then placed into storage. After approximately ten years it was removed from storage and repurposed as the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR). This presentation outlines the contamination control program lessons learned during the integration, test and launch of DSCOVR.

  9. Chiller condition monitoring using topological case-based modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Tsutsui, Hiroaki; Kamimura, Kazuyuki

    1996-11-01

    To increase energy efficiency and economy, commercial building projects now often utilize centralized, shared sources of heat such as district heating and cooling (DHC) systems. To maintain efficiency, precise monitoring and scheduling of maintenance for chillers and heat pumps is essential. Low-performance operation results in energy loss, while unnecessary maintenance is expensive and wasteful. Plant supervisors are responsible for scheduling and supervising maintenance. Modeling systems that assist in analyzing system deterioration are of great benefit for these tasks. Topological case-based modeling (TCBM) (Tsutsui et al. 1993; Tsutsui 1995) is an effective tool for chiller performance deterioration monitoring. This paper describes TCBM and its application to this task using recorded historical performance data.

  10. A case-based reasoning view of thrombophilia risk.

    PubMed

    Vilhena, João; Vicente, Henrique; Martins, M Rosário; Grañeda, José M; Caldeira, Filomena; Gusmão, Rodrigo; Neves, João; Neves, José

    2016-08-01

    Thrombophilia stands for a genetic or an acquired tendency to hypercoagulable states that increase the risk of venous and arterial thromboses. Indeed, venous thromboembolism is often a chronic illness, mainly in deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, requiring lifelong prevention strategies. Therefore, it is crucial to identify the cause of the disease, the most appropriate treatment, the length of treatment or prevent a thrombotic recurrence. Thus, this work will focus on the development of a diagnosis decision support system in terms of a formal agenda built on a logic programming approach to knowledge representation and reasoning, complemented with a case-based approach to computing. The proposed model has been quite accurate in the assessment of thrombophilia predisposition risk, since the overall accuracy is higher than 90% and sensitivity ranging in the interval [86.5%, 88.1%]. The main strength of the proposed solution is the ability to deal explicitly with incomplete, unknown, or even self-contradictory information. PMID:27404848

  11. Early-stage mycosis fungoides variants: case-based review.

    PubMed

    Cho-Vega, Jeong Hee; Tschen, Jaime A; Duvic, Madeleine; Vega, Francisco

    2010-10-01

    Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most common type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The diagnosis of classic MF is based on a combination of clinical presentation, histopathology, and T-cell monoclonality detected by molecular studies. However, the diagnosis can be difficult in cases of early MF because of the subtle nature of histologic findings and, in cases of variants of MF, because of the unusual clinical and/or pathologic features. In this review, we presented the most frequent variants of MF at early stage including hypopigmented, folliculotropic, pagetoid reticulosis, unilesional, granulomatous, and ichthyosis forms. This case-based clinicopathologic review provides the notion that a comprehensive clinicopathologic correlation is of substantial importance to render the diagnosis of MF. In addition, we discuss the role of molecular studies, which are highly sensitive and recently more applicable to routinely processed skin biopsy specimens in the diagnosis of MF. PMID:20850703

  12. Case-based reasoning as a computer aid to diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floyd, Carey E., Jr.; Lo, Joseph Y.; Tourassi, Georgia D.

    1999-05-01

    A Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) system has been developed to predict the outcome of excisional biopsy from mammographic findings. CBR is implemented by comparing the current case to all previous cases and examining the outcomes for those previous cases that match the current case. Patients from breast screening who have suspicious findings on their diagnostic mammogram, are candidates for biopsy. The false positive rate for the decision to biopsy is currently between 66% and 90%. The CBR system is designed to support the decision to biopsy. The mammograms are read by clinicians using a standard reporting lexicon (BI- RADSTM). These findings are compared to a database of findings from cases with known outcomes (from biopsy). The fraction of similar cases that were malignant is returned. The clinician can then consider this result when making the decision regarding biopsy. The system was evaluated using round-robin sampling scheme and performed with a Receiver Operating Characteristic area of 0.77.

  13. Case-Based Capture and Reuse of Aerospace Design Rationale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leake, David B.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this project was to apply artificial intelligence techniques to facilitate capture and reuse of aerospace design rationale. The project combined case-based reasoning (CBR) and concept maps (CMaps) to develop methods for capturing, organizing, and interactively accessing records of experiences encapsulating the methods and rationale underlying expert aerospace design, in order to bring the captured knowledge to bear to support future reasoning. The project's results contribute both principles and methods for effective design-aiding systems that aid capture and access of useful design knowledge. The project has been guided by the tenets that design-aiding systems must: (1) Leverage a designer's knowledge, rather than attempting to replace it; (2) Be able to reflect different designers' differing conceptualizations of the design task, and to clarify those conceptualizations to others; (3) Include capabilities to capture information both by interactive knowledge modeling and during normal use; and (4) Integrate into normal designer tasks as naturally and unobtrusive as possible.

  14. The Effects of Lesson Study on Classroom Observations and Perceptions of Lesson Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Julia

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of lesson study on participants' classroom observations and perceptions of lesson effectiveness, by investigating the focus of their observations during a mathematics lesson and their ratings of the lesson's effectiveness, both preceding and subsequent to the lesson study experience. Prior to the lesson study,…

  15. Promoting the Use of Online Social Technology as a Case-Based Learning Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ractham, Peter; Chen, Charlie

    2013-01-01

    Social technology is proliferating and influencing different aspects of society. However, very few studies have examined the use of such a technology for a case-based learning pedagogy. This preliminary study investigates the use of social technology as a case-based learning tool to improve the effectiveness of case-based learning in the…

  16. Supporting Case-Based Learning in Information Security with Web-Based Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Wu; Yuan, Xiaohong; Yang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Case-based learning has been widely used in many disciplines. As an effective pedagogical method, case-based learning is also being used to support teaching and learning in the domain of information security. In this paper, we demonstrate case-based learning in information security by sharing our experiences in using a case study to teach security…

  17. Impact of e-AV Biology Website for Learning about Renewable Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugraini, Siti Hadiati; Choo, Koo Ah; Hin, Hew Soon; Hoon, Teoh Sian

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the design and development of a Website for Biology in senior high schools in Indonesia. The teaching media, namely e-AV Biology, was developed with the main features of video lessons and other features in supporting the students' learning process. Some video lessons describe the production process of Biofuel or Renewable…

  18. Lessons Learned in Engineering. Supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, James C.; Ryan, Robert S.; Schultzenhofer, Luke A.

    2011-01-01

    This Contractor Report (CR) is a compilation of Lessons Learned in approximately 55 years of engineering experience by each James C. Blair, Robert S. Ryan, and Luke A. Schutzenhofer. The lessons are the basis of a course on Lessons Learned that has been taught at Marshall Space Flight Center. The lessons are drawn from NASA space projects and are characterized in terms of generic lessons learned from the project experience, which are further distilled into overarching principles that can be applied to future projects. Included are discussions of the overarching principles followed by a listing of the lessons associated with that principle. The lesson with sub-lessons are stated along with a listing of the project problems the lesson is drawn from, then each problem is illustrated and discussed, with conclusions drawn in terms of Lessons Learned. The purpose of this CR is to provide principles learned from past aerospace experience to help achieve greater success in future programs, and identify application of these principles to space systems design. The problems experienced provide insight into the engineering process and are examples of the subtleties one experiences performing engineering design, manufacturing, and operations. The supplemental CD contains accompanying PowerPoint presentations.

  19. Jacques Ranciere's Lesson on the Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Samuel A.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the significance of Jacques Ranciere's work on pedagogy, and argues that to make sense of Ranciere's "lesson on the lesson" one must do more but also less than merely explicate Ranciere's texts. It steadfastly refuses to draw out the lessons of Ranciere's writings in the manner of a series of…

  20. Case-Based Capture and Reuse of Aerospace Design Rationale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leake, David B.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this project is to apply artificial intelligence techniques to facilitate capture and reuse of aerospace design rationale. The project applies case-based reasoning (CBR) and concept mapping (CMAP) tools to the task of capturing, organizing, and interactively accessing experiences or "cases" encapsulating the methods and rationale underlying expert aerospace design. As stipulated in the award, Indiana University and Ames personnel are collaborating on performance of research and determining the direction of research, to assure that the project focuses on high-value tasks. In the first five months of the project, we have made two visits to Ames Research Center to consult with our NASA collaborators, to learn about the advanced aerospace design tools being developed there, and to identify specific needs for intelligent design support. These meetings identified a number of task areas for applying CBR and concept mapping technology. We jointly selected a first task area to focus on: Acquiring the convergence criteria that experts use to guide the selection of useful data from a set of numerical simulations of high-lift systems. During the first funding period, we developed two software systems. First, we have adapted a CBR system developed at Indiana University into a prototype case-based reasoning shell to capture and retrieve information about design experiences, with the sample task of capturing and reusing experts' intuitive criteria for determining convergence (work conducted at Indiana University). Second, we have also adapted and refined existing concept mapping tools that will be used to clarify and capture the rationale underlying those experiences, to facilitate understanding of the expert's reasoning and guide future reuse of captured information (work conducted at the University of West Florida). The tools we have developed are designed to be the basis for a general framework for facilitating tasks within systems developed by the Advanced Design

  1. Rethinking biologics in lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Venuturupalli, S

    2016-09-01

    Lupus nephritis (LN) is a chronic and devastating complication of systemic lupus erythematosus. Despite advances in our understanding of LN and the availability of effective therapies, LN remains a difficult clinical problem, and progression to end stage renal disease remains a significant challenge. Though the advent of biologics has revolutionized the treatment of many rheumatological conditions, and several clinical trials of biologics have been conducted in LN, the promise of biologics remains unfulfilled. The experience gained from these initial clinical trials can help tailor approaches in future clinical trials, and the lessons learned can be applied to find a cure for this condition. PMID:27497255

  2. Telemedicine framework using case-based reasoning with evidences.

    PubMed

    Sene, A; Kamsu-Foguem, B; Rumeau, P

    2015-08-01

    Telemedicine is the medical practice of information exchanged from one location to another through electronic communications to improve the delivery of health care services. This research article describes a telemedicine framework with knowledge engineering using taxonomic reasoning of ontology modeling and semantic similarity. In addition to being a precious support in the procedure of medical decision-making, this framework can be used to strengthen significant collaborations and traceability that are important for the development of official deployment of telemedicine applications. Adequate mechanisms for information management with traceability of the reasoning process are also essential in the fields of epidemiology and public health. In this paper we enrich the case-based reasoning process by taking into account former evidence-based knowledge. We use the regular four steps approach and implement an additional (iii) step: (i) establish diagnosis, (ii) retrieve treatment, (iii) apply evidence, (iv) adaptation, (v) retain. Each step is performed using tools from knowledge engineering and information processing (natural language processing, ontology, indexation, algorithm, etc.). The case representation is done by the taxonomy component of a medical ontology model. The proposed approach is illustrated with an example from the oncology domain. Medical ontology allows a good and efficient modeling of the patient and his treatment. We are pointing up the role of evidences and specialist's opinions in effectiveness and safety of care. PMID:26001421

  3. Case-Based Multi-Sensor Intrusion Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Daniel G.; Long, Jidong

    2009-08-01

    Multi-sensor intrusion detection systems (IDSs) combine the alerts raised by individual IDSs and possibly other kinds of devices such as firewalls and antivirus software. A critical issue in building a multi-sensor IDS is alert-correlation, i.e., determining which alerts are caused by the same attack. This paper explores a novel approach to alert correlation using case-based reasoning (CBR). Each case in the CBR system's library contains a pattern of alerts raised by some known attack type, together with the identity of the attack. Then during run time, the alert streams gleaned from the sensors are compared with the patterns in the cases, and a match indicates that the attack described by that case has occurred. For this purpose the design of a fast and accurate matching algorithm is imperative. Two such algorithms were explored: (i) the well-known Hungarian algorithm, and (ii) an order-preserving matching of our own device. Tests were conducted using the DARPA Grand Challenge Problem attack simulator. These showed that the both matching algorithms are effective in detecting attacks; but the Hungarian algorithm is inefficient; whereas the order-preserving one is very efficient, in fact runs in linear time.

  4. Treatment of hypogonadotropic male hypogonadism: Case-based scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Crosnoe-Shipley, Lindsey E; Elkelany, Osama O; Rahnema, Cyrus D; Kim, Edward D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to review four case-based scenarios regarding the treatment of symptomatic hypogonadism in men. The article is designed as a review of published literature. We conducted a PubMed literature search for the time period of 1989-2014, concentrating on 26 studies investigating the efficacy of various therapeutic options on semen analysis, pregnancy outcomes, time to recovery of spermatogenesis, as well as serum and intratesticular testosterone levels. Our results demonstrated that exogenous testosterone suppresses intratesticular testosterone production, which is an absolute prerequisite for normal spermatogenesis. Cessation of exogenous testosterone should be recommended for men desiring to maintain their fertility. Therapies that protect the testis involve human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) therapy or selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), but may also include low dose hCG with exogenous testosterone. Off-label use of SERMs, such as clomiphene citrate, are effective for maintaining testosterone production long-term and offer the convenience of representing a safe, oral therapy. At present, routine use of aromatase inhibitors is not recommended based on a lack of long-term data. We concluded that exogenous testosterone supplementation decreases sperm production. It was determined that clomiphene citrate is a safe and effective therapy for men who desire to maintain fertility. Although less frequently used in the general population, hCG therapy with or without testosterone supplementation represents an alternative treatment. PMID:25949938

  5. Integrated teaching program using case-based learning

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Pankaj; Bhardwaj, Nikha; Mahdi, Farzana; Srivastava, J P; Gupta, Uma

    2015-01-01

    Background: At present, in a medical school, students are taught in different departments, subject-wise, without integration to interrelate or unify subjects and these results in compartmentalization of medical education, with no stress on case-based learning. Therefore, an effort was made to develop and adopt integrated teaching in order to have a better contextual knowledge among students. Methodology and Implementation: After the faculty orientation training, four “topic committees” with faculty members from different departments were constituted which decided and agreed on the content material to be taught, different methodologies to be used, along with the logical sequencing of the same for the purpose of implementation. Different teaching methodologies used, during the program, were didactic lectures, case stimulated sessions, clinical visits, laboratory work, and small group student's seminar. Results: After the implementation of program, the comparison between two batches as well as between topics taught with integrated learning program versus traditional method showed that students performed better in the topics, taught with integrated approach. Students rated “clinical visits” as very good methodology, followed by “case stimulated interactive sessions.” Students believed that they felt more actively involved, and their queries are better addressed with such interactive sessions. Conclusion: There is a very good perception of students toward integrated teaching. Students performed better if they are taught using this technique. Although majority of faculty found integrated teaching, as useful method of teaching, nevertheless extra work burden and interdepartmental coordination remained a challenging task. PMID:26380204

  6. MSFC Skylab lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Key lessons learned during the Skylab Program that could have impact on on-going and future programs are presented. They present early and sometimes subjective opinions; however, they give insights into key areas of concern. These experiences from a complex space program management and space flight serve as an early assessment to provide the most advantage to programs underway. References to other more detailed reports are provided.

  7. Lessons Learned from Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Planck Collaboration Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Planck's measurements of the microwave sky at seven frequencies spanning 30 to 353 GHz represent an important advance in our understanding of both the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation and the properties of astrophysical foregrounds. I will discuss the lessons learned from Planck for future experiments, particularly in the areas of foreground confusion and systematic errors that will set the ultimate limits to what can learned from CMB polarization.

  8. Lesson plans in surgical training.

    PubMed

    Lester, S E; Robson, A K R

    2007-06-01

    Lesson plans in surgery enable trainers and trainees to agree on goals that balance training needs with service commitments. Lesson plans are individualised to the trainee and encourage ownership of learning. They are based on SMART criteria and therefore have a sound educational footing. Most of the work in creating a lesson plan falls to the trainee. The total time for creation of each plan is approximately 20 min. Our use of lesson plans for surgical training has been met with favourable response from both trainer and trainees. PMID:17550516

  9. Studying Plant-Rhizobium Mutualism in the Biology Classroom: Connecting the Big Ideas in Biology through Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suwa, Tomomi; Williamson, Brad

    2014-01-01

    We present a guided-inquiry biology lesson, using the plant-rhizobium symbiosis as a model system. This system provides a rich environment for developing connections between the big ideas in biology as outlined in the College Board's new AP Biology Curriculum. Students gain experience with the practice of scientific investigation, from…

  10. Lessons from modENCODE.

    PubMed

    Brown, James B; Celniker, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    The modENCODE (Model Organism Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) Consortium aimed to map functional elements-including transcripts, chromatin marks, regulatory factor binding sites, and origins of DNA replication-in the model organisms Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. During its five-year span, the consortium conducted more than 2,000 genome-wide assays in developmentally staged animals, dissected tissues, and homogeneous cell lines. Analysis of these data sets provided foundational insights into genome, epigenome, and transcriptome structure and the evolutionary turnover of regulatory pathways. These studies facilitated a comparative analysis with similar data types produced by the ENCODE Consortium for human cells. Genome organization differs drastically in these distant species, and yet quantitative relationships among chromatin state, transcription, and cotranscriptional RNA processing are deeply conserved. Of the many biological discoveries of the modENCODE Consortium, we highlight insights that emerged from integrative studies. We focus on operational and scientific lessons that may aid future projects of similar scale or aims in other, emerging model systems. PMID:26133010

  11. Best Practice Lesson Plans: A Lesson Plan in Cognitive Restructuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayre, Gary W.

    2006-01-01

    This particular lesson was developed for Cognitive Skills I, a central course in cognitive restructuring at the Mt. Olive Correctional Center. In this lesson the author developed a series of classroom activities to allow students to examine and assess current beliefs they possess, and to understand how these beliefs--whether judged rational or…

  12. Masterwork Art Lesson: Kandinsky Watercolors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LiPira, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Presents an art lesson used with sixth-grade students which also can be used with other grade levels. Explains that the artwork of Wassily Kandinsky served as inspiration for this lesson. Explains that the students learned about abstract art and used watercolors to create their own paintings in the style of Kandinsky. (CMK)

  13. Mansfield ISD. Integrated Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Educational Development and Training Center.

    This packet contains 27 lesson plans for integrated academic and vocational education courses. Lesson plans for the following courses are included: horticulture, algebra, physical science, general mechanical repair, foods and nutrition, home economics, and microcomputer applications. Some of the topics covered are as follows: seed germination,…

  14. Greenville ISD. Integrated Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Educational Development and Training Center.

    This packet contains nine lesson plans for integrated academic and vocational education courses. Lesson plans for the following courses are included: industrial technology, automotive technology, English, mathematical applications, science, home economics, and mathematics. Some of the topics covered are as follows: mechanical drawing, automobile…

  15. What Lessons Can We Learn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, W. A.

    2012-01-01

    It has become commonplace to ask, whenever anything has gone wrong, what lessons can be learned from the experience. But the appearance of open-endedness in that question is misleading: not every answer that we could give to it is acceptable. There are, in the context of such a question, tacit constraints in what counts as a valid lesson to be…

  16. An Overview of Chanute Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klecka, Joseph A.

    A survey of current lesson development was considered essential to determine the quality and effectiveness of instructional material produced on the PLATO IV computer-assisted instruction system. The trial period lasted for several years. Both civilian and military personnel developed the lessons, in consultation with the Military Training Centers…

  17. Keiko, Killer Whale. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    This lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Keiko, the killer whale, lived for a long time in an aquarium and had to be taught to live independently; and that computer users can get updates on how Keiko is doing. The main activity of the lesson involves middle school students working in small groups to produce a…

  18. Archeology and Storytelling. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Sandy; Lamb, Jay

    This lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that both individual families and whole cultures learn about their pasts by collecting and analyzing stories and artifacts; and that not all archeological finds readily reveal their history to archeologists. The main activity in the lesson involves students in making an oral…

  19. Austin ISD. Integrated Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Educational Development and Training Center.

    This packet contains 14 lesson plans for integrated academic and vocational education courses. Lesson plans for the following courses are included: integrated physics and principles of technology; algebra and principles of technology; principles of technology, language arts, and economics; physics and industrial electronics; physics and…

  20. Lesson Study and History Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvorsen, Anne-Lise; Kesler Lund, Alisa

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the experiences of a group of fifth-grade teachers who used lesson study, a teacher-driven form of professional development, to teach history in a project supported by a Teaching American History Grant. The project addressed the following questions: What does a lesson study cycle for history education look like? What…

  1. A Lesson on Environmental Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhongzheng, Wang

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a first-hand account of teaching environmental protection in the Wushan Mountain area of China. Combining the knowledge in the textbook with social practice, the lessons focused on enabling the students to develop a sense of responsibility and duty through personal experiences. What began as a lesson in…

  2. Geometrical Analogies in Mathematics Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eid, Wolfram

    2007-01-01

    A typical form of thinking to approach problem solutions humanly is thinking in analogous structures. Therefore school, especially mathematical lessons should help to form and to develop corresponding heuristic abilities of the pupils. In the contribution, a summary of possibilities of mathematics lessons regarding this shall particularly be…

  3. Design for Life. Abortion. A Student's Lesson Plan [and] A Teacher's Lesson Plan [and] A Lawyer's Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Estelle; And Others

    One of a series of secondary level teaching units presenting case studies with pro and con analyses of particular legal problems, the document consists of a student's lesson plan, a teacher's lesson plan, and a lawyer's lesson plan for a unit on abortion. The lessons are designed to expose students to the Supreme Court's decision concerning…

  4. Towards a synergy framework across neuroscience and robotics: Lessons learned and open questions. Reply to comments on: "Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santello, Marco; Bianchi, Matteo; Gabiccini, Marco; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Salvietti, Gionata; Prattichizzo, Domenico; Ernst, Marc; Moscatelli, Alessandro; Jorntell, Henrik; Kappers, Astrid M. L.; Kyriakopoulos, Kostas; Schaeffer, Alin Abu; Castellini, Claudio; Bicchi, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    We would like to thank all commentators for their insightful commentaries. Thanks to their diverse and complementary expertise in neuroscience and robotics, the commentators have provided us with the opportunity to further discuss state-of-the-art and gaps in the integration of neuroscience and robotics reviewed in our article. We organized our reply in two sections that capture the main points of all commentaries [1-9]: (1) Advantages and limitations of the synergy approach in neuroscience and robotics, and (2) Learning and role of sensory feedback in biological and robotics synergies.

  5. Safeguards Culture: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2009-05-27

    Abstract: At the 2005 INMM/ESARDA Workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, I presented a paper entitled “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges.” That paper described a set of theoretical models that can be used as a basis for evaluating changes to safeguards culture. This paper builds on that theoretical discussion to address practical methods for influencing culture. It takes lessons from methods used to influence change in safety culture and security culture, and examines the applicability of these lessons to changing safeguards culture. Paper: At the 2005 INMM/ESARDA Workshop on “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges,” in Santa Fe, New Mexico, I presented a paper entitled “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges.” That paper, coauthored by Karyn R. Durbin and Andrew Van Duzer, described a set of theoretical models that can be used as a basis for evaluating changes to safeguards culture. This paper updates that theoretical discussion, and seeks to address practical methods for influencing culture. It takes lessons from methods used to influence change in safety culture and security culture, and examines the applicability of these lessons to changing safeguards culture. Implicit in this discussion is an understanding that improving a culture is not an end in itself, but is one method of improving the underlying discipline, that is safety, security, or safeguards. Culture can be defined as a way of life, or general customs and beliefs of a particular group of people at a particular time. There are internationally accepted definitions of safety culture and nuclear security culture. As yet, there is no official agreed upon definition of safeguards culture. At the end of the paper I will propose my definition. At the Santa Fe Workshop the summary by the Co-Chairs of Working Group 1, “The Further Evolution of Safeguards,” noted: “It is clear that ‘safeguards culture

  6. Shuttle Lesson Learned - Toxicology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    This is a script for a video about toxicology and the space shuttle. The first segment is deals with dust in the space vehicle. The next segment will be about archival samples. Then we'll look at real time on-board analyzers that give us a lot of capability in terms of monitoring for combustion products and the ability to monitor volatile organics on the station. Finally we will look at other issues that are about setting limits and dealing with ground based lessons that pertain to toxicology.

  7. A Singapore Case of Lesson Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Lu Pien; Yee, Lee Peng

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present a case study of six Singaporean elementary school teachers working in a Lesson Study team that prepared them for problem solving instruction. The Lesson Study process included preparing, observing, and critiquing mathematics lessons in the context of solving fractions tasks. By conducting Lesson Study, we anticipated…

  8. Geographic Alliance of Iowa. Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Kay E.; Howe-Ford, Nancy

    This collection of five lesson plans in geography can be adapted for use with K-12 students. Each lesson plan explains the lesson and provides basic instructions. The lesson plans are titled: "Teaching Geography Using Literature in K-University Classrooms" (Kay Weller); "Geography and a Mystery Novel" (Kay Weller); "Understanding Latitude and…

  9. Collaboratively Exploring the Use of a Video Case-Based Book as a Professional Development Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithenry, Dennis W.; Prouty, Jessica; Capobianco, Brenda M.

    2012-11-01

    Although the literature contains many examples of extensive professional development (PD) programs, most science teachers experience only a few hours of PD each year. To address this reality, alternative PD delivery tools need to be examined. Since the mid-1990s, video cases have emerged as a flexible form of PD where in-service teachers can repeatedly and vicariously view reform teaching practices enacted within the classroom context. Recently, PD developers have taken video cases to another level by embedding them into print and electronic books. In these video case-based books (VCBBs), the reader is iteratively prompted to watch a video case and read commentaries by the teacher featured in the video. In this study, we used collaborative action research (CAR) to explore what happened when a fourth-year biology teacher attempted to use a VCBB as a PD tool to enact the whole-class inquiry model (presented within the VCBB) into her curriculum. Specifically, we critically examined the extent to which the teacher was able to enact the model, the challenges she experienced, and the manner in which she utilized the VCBB. Our findings indicate that the teacher was able to use the VCBB, in conjunction with CAR, to make significant changes to her teaching practice. The results also point to the possibility of a new PD model where the VCBB provides a "vision" of reform teaching and the collaborative exploration of the VCBB as a PD tool affords the "space" needed to reach that vision.

  10. Case-Based Teacher Preparation for Teaching Controversial Topics in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muth, K. Denise; Polizzi, Nicholas C.; Glynn, Shawn M.

    2007-01-01

    Many middle school teachers are not prepared to develop units and lesson plans on controversial topics. In addition, many are not prepared to respond effectively when controversial topics arise unexpectedly during routine lessons. This is a significant problem because controversial topics are arising with increasing frequency in middle school…

  11. Learning tumor diagnostics and medical image processing via the WWW--the case-based radiological textbook ODITEB.

    PubMed

    Horsch, A; Balbach, T; Melnitzki, S; Knauth, J

    2000-09-01

    New Internet technologies offer excellent chances to build high-quality on-line learning media for the education in medicine. Especially, the teaching of diagnostics with medical imaging as well as medical image processing can be supported by the excellent visualization and interaction capabilities. In cooperation with three radiological departments at German universities in Munich, Erlangen and Würzburg, the case-based open distributed Internet text book (ODITEB) for tumor diagnosis of the GI-tract, liver, pancreas and thorax has been developed at the Institut für Medizinische Statistik und Epidemiologie (IMSE) of the Technische Universität München. It offers a big collection of clinical tumor cases located on servers at the provider sites Munich, Erlangen and Würzburg, visualization and interaction similar to a real CT or MRI console, original DICOM data, X-rays and endoscopic and endosonographic videos, and expert-guided tours through the cases. In a first evaluation in summer 1998, 32 medical students graded the application with 1.9 ('good') on a scale from 1 ('very good') to 5 ('very bad'). The textbook supports German language, an English version is in preparation. In a second part, it contains lessons in medical image processing for students of medical informatics. An ODITEB release 2 with several improvements will be finished until February 2000. The use of the textbook is free of cost. PMID:10978908

  12. Biological Threats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thunderstorms & Lightning Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Main Content Biological Threats Biological agents are organisms or toxins that ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may ...

  13. GPS lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heflin, Michael B.

    2003-01-01

    Global geodesy has improved dramatically over the past decade starting with the GPS for IERS and Geodynamics demonstration campaign in 1991 (GIG 91). At the time it took over a week of CPU time to process a network solution based on 21 global receivers and orbit overlaps were in the 40 cm range. Today it is possible to process a network solution based on 80 global receivers in less then one day of CPU time and orbit overlaps are in the 4 cm range. Special methods are under development for efficient processing of increasingly large regional networks which may contain hundreds or thousands of GPS receivers. Along the way there have been many lessons learned about GPS satellites, receivers, monuments, antennas, radomes, analysis, reference frames, error sources, and interpretation. A wide range of scientific disciplines have been impacted including studies of plate motion, post-glacial rebound, seasonal loading, deformation in plate boundary zones, coseismic displacements due to major earthquakes, postseiemic relaxation, and interseismic strain accumulation related to assessment of seismic hazards. Lessons learned will be presented in the context of new dense networks such as the Plate Boundary Observation (PBO).

  14. A Case-Based, Problem-Based Learning Approach to Prepare Master of Public Health Candidates for the Complexities of Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Winskell, Kate; McFarland, Deborah A.; del Rio, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Global health is a dynamic, emerging, and interdisciplinary field. To address current and emerging global health challenges, we need a public health workforce with adaptable and collaborative problem-solving skills. In the 2013–2014 academic year, the Hubert Department of Global Health at the Rollins School of Public Health–Emory University launched an innovative required core course for its first-year Master of Public Health students in the global health track. The course uses a case-based, problem-based learning approach to develop global health competencies. Small teams of students propose solutions to these problems by identifying learning issues and critically analyzing and synthesizing new information. We describe the course structure and logistics used to apply this approach in the context of a large class and share lessons learned. PMID:25706029

  15. A case-based, problem-based learning approach to prepare master of public health candidates for the complexities of global health.

    PubMed

    Leon, Juan S; Winskell, Kate; McFarland, Deborah A; del Rio, Carlos

    2015-03-01

    Global health is a dynamic, emerging, and interdisciplinary field. To address current and emerging global health challenges, we need a public health workforce with adaptable and collaborative problem-solving skills. In the 2013-2014 academic year, the Hubert Department of Global Health at the Rollins School of Public Health-Emory University launched an innovative required core course for its first-year Master of Public Health students in the global health track. The course uses a case-based, problem-based learning approach to develop global health competencies. Small teams of students propose solutions to these problems by identifying learning issues and critically analyzing and synthesizing new information. We describe the course structure and logistics used to apply this approach in the context of a large class and share lessons learned. PMID:25706029

  16. St. Louis FUSRAP Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Eberlin, J.; Williams, D.; Mueller, D.

    2003-02-26

    The purpose of this paper is to present lessons learned from fours years' experience conducting Remedial Investigation and Remedial Action activities at the St. Louis Downtown Site (SLDS) under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Many FUSRAP sites are experiencing challenges conducting Remedial Actions within forecasted volume and budget estimates. The St. Louis FUSRAP lessons learned provide insight to options for cost effective remediation at FUSRAP sites. The lessons learned are focused on project planning (budget and schedule), investigation, design, and construction.

  17. [The French lessons of anatomy].

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Alain

    2003-01-01

    The "Lessons of Anatomy" can be considered as a step of Medicine to Art. For several centuries the exhibition of a corpse's dissection was printed on the title-page of published works. Since the seventeenth century, the "Lessons of Anatomy" became a picture on the title-page in order to highlight the well-known names of the european anatomists. The study is limited to the French Lessons of Anatomy found in books or pictures after the invention of printing. PMID:14626253

  18. Reinforcing Constructivist Teaching in Advanced Level Biochemistry through the Introduction of Case-Based Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartfield, Perry J.

    2010-01-01

    In the process of curriculum development, I have integrated a constructivist teaching strategy into an advanced-level biochemistry teaching unit. Specifically, I have introduced case-based learning activities into the teaching/learning framework. These case-based learning activities were designed to develop problem-solving skills, consolidate…

  19. Case-based reasoning for space applications: Utilization of prior experience in knowledge-based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, James A.

    1987-01-01

    The goal is to explain Case-Based Reasoning as a vehicle to establish knowledge-based systems based on experimental reasoning for possible space applications. This goal will be accomplished through an examination of reasoning based on prior experience in a sample domain, and also through a presentation of proposed space applications which could utilize Case-Based Reasoning techniques.

  20. Examining Preservice Teachers' Decision Behaviors and Individual Differences in Three Online Case-Based Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cevik, Yasemin Demiraslan; Andre, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the impact of three types of case-based methods (case-based reasoning, worked example, and faded worked example) on preservice teachers' (n = 71) interaction with decision tasks and whether decision related measures (task difficulty, mental effort, decision making performance) were associated with the differences in student…

  1. Designing Multimedia Case-Based Instruction Accommodating Students' Diverse Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Ikseon; Lee, Sang Joon; Jung, Jong Won

    2008-01-01

    Although many benefits of case-based instruction with multimedia have been reported, there are few empirical studies of how the benefits of multimedia case-based instructions (MCBIs) are mediated by students' individual differences, such as their learning styles. Understanding the relationships between students' learning styles and the learning…

  2. Case-Based Methodology as an Instructional Strategy for Understanding Diversity: Preservice Teachers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Malcolm B.; Lee, Seungyoun; Tippins, Deborah J.

    2006-01-01

    Case-based pedagogy focuses on teachers' problem solving, decision making, reflective practices and their own personalized theory about teaching and learning. Research has shown that case-based pedagogy enables teachers to improve their actions in teaching and learning from multiple perspectives, reflective thinking, active participation and…

  3. Enhancing Students' Approaches to Learning: The Added Value of Gradually Implementing Case-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeten, Marlies; Dochy, Filip; Struyven, Katrien

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown the difficulty of enhancing students' approaches to learning, in particular the deep approach, through student-centred teaching methods such as problem- and case-based learning. This study investigates whether mixed instructional methods combining case-based learning and lectures have the power to enhance students'…

  4. Effects of a Case-Based Reasoning System on Student Performance in a Java Programming Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Cecil

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a case-based reasoning tool would improve a student's understanding of the complex concepts in a Java programming course. Subjects for the study were randomly assigned from two sections of an introductory Java programming course. Posttests were used to measure the effects of the case-based reasoning…

  5. The Design and Development of a Multimedia Case-Based Environment on Parental Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roushias, Christos; Barton, Angela Calabrese; Drake, Corey

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the rationale and principles that guided the design and development of PARENTS, a multimedia case-based environment. Following a development research approach, the tenets of constructivist learning, and the advantages of case-based instruction, we developed a multimedia program in which we utilized and…

  6. Examining Preservice Teachers' Classroom Management Decisions in Three Case-Based Teaching Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demiraslan-Çevik, Yasemin; Andre, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed at comparing the impact of three types of case-based approaches (worked example, faded work example, and case-based reasoning) on preservice teachers' decision making and reasoning skills related to realistic classroom management situations. Participants in this study received a short-term implementation of one of these three…

  7. Pagan Biology at the Halloween Hop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lock, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Send your pupils into the autumn term half-term holiday with a task that requires them to explore more about the biology associated with Halloween. This article offers a fun approach, with a pub quiz format based on bats, skeletons, pumpkins and witches, that is suitable for lessons following the end-of-topic test, for STEM clubs or for PTA…

  8. Biology for Schools. Selected Teaching Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Alana J.

    The teaching materials listed in this annotated bibliography emphasize an observational and hands-on approach to awakening student interest in the world of biology. The sources that are for teachers and students, can be used to create lessons, prepare units, or develop concepts to stimulate learning. Books on science fairs and projects are…

  9. Higher Education ERP: Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Dave; Orgill, Ken

    2001-01-01

    Shares experiences and lessons learned by chief information officers of large universities about enterprise resource planning (ERP). Specifically, provides a framework for approaching an ERP that could save universities millions of dollars. (EV)

  10. Lesson "Balance in Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapanova, V.

    2012-04-01

    Lesson "Balance in Nature" This simulation game-lesson (Balance in Nature) gives an opportunity for the students to show creativity, work independently, and to create models and ideas. It creates future-oriented thought connected to their experience, allowing them to propose solutions for global problems and personal responsibility for their activities. The class is divided in two teams. Each team chooses questions. 1. Question: Pollution in the environment. 2. Question: Care for nature and climate. The teams work on the chosen tasks. They make drafts, notes and formulate their solutions on small pieces of paper, explaining the impact on nature and society. They express their points of view using many different opinions. This generates alternative thoughts and results in creative solutions. With the new knowledge and positive behaviour defined, everybody realizes that they can do something positive towards nature and climate problems and the importance of individuals for solving global problems is evident. Our main goal is to recover the ecological balance, and everybody explains his or her own well-grounded opinions. In this work process the students obtain knowledge, skills and more responsible behaviour. This process, based on his or her own experience, dialogue and teamwork, helps the participant's self-development. Making the model "human↔ nature" expresses how human activities impact the natural Earth and how these impacts in turn affect society. Taking personal responsibility, we can reduce global warming and help the Earth. By helping nature we help ourselves. Teacher: Veselina Boycheva-Chapanova " Saint Patriarch Evtimii" Scholl Str. "Ivan Vazov"-19 Plovdiv Bulgaria

  11. Animal Experimentation: Bringing Ethical Issues into Biology Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    2000-01-01

    There are many possibilities for the use of controversial issues such as animal experimentation in biology classrooms. Outlines a series of three lessons that asked senior biology students to consider the issue of animal experimentation from three perspectives. (Author/LM)

  12. Teaching Biology at a Distance: Pleasures, Pitfalls, and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacQueen, Hilary; Thomas, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    The Open University (OU) has a long and distinguished history of teaching biology at a distance by a supported open learning model. This article examines some of the challenges in delivering biology via distance teaching, explores some of the lessons learned, and discusses the opportunities and hazards of new teaching technologies that the OU has…

  13. Microplastics: addressing ecological risk through lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Syberg, Kristian; Khan, Farhan R; Selck, Henriette; Palmqvist, Annemette; Banta, Gary T; Daley, Jennifer; Sano, Larissa; Duhaime, Melissa B

    2015-05-01

    Plastic litter is an environmental problem of great concern. Despite the magnitude of the plastic pollution in our water bodies, only limited scientific understanding is available about the risk to the environment, particularly for microplastics. The apparent magnitude of the problem calls for quickly developing sound scientific guidance on the ecological risks of microplastics. The authors suggest that future research into microplastics risks should be guided by lessons learned from the more advanced and better understood areas of (eco) toxicology of engineered nanoparticles and mixture toxicity. Relevant examples of advances in these two fields are provided to help accelerate the scientific learning curve within the relatively unexplored area of microplastics risk assessment. Finally, the authors advocate an expansion of the "vector effect" hypothesis with regard to microplastics risk to help focus research of microplastics environmental risk at different levels of biological and environmental organization. PMID:25655822

  14. Gene therapy oversight: lessons for nanobiotechnology.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Susan M; Gupta, Rishi; Kohlhepp, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Oversight of human gene transfer research ("gene therapy") presents an important model with potential application to oversight of nanobiology research on human participants. Gene therapy oversight adds centralized federal review at the National Institutes of Health's Office of Biotechnology Activities and its Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee to standard oversight of human subjects research at the researcher's institution (by the Institutional Review Board and, for some research, the Institutional Biosafety Committee) and at the federal level by the Office for Human Research Protections. The Food and Drug Administration's Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research oversees human gene transfer research in parallel, including approval of protocols and regulation of products. This article traces the evolution of this dual oversight system; describes how the system is already addressing nanobiotechnology in gene transfer: evaluates gene therapy oversight based on public opinion, the literature, and preliminary expert elicitation; and offers lessons of the gene therapy oversight experience for oversight of nanobiotechnology. PMID:20122108

  15. Teaching Nature in Cities and Towns. Urban Outdoor Biology and Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogl, Sonia Wolff; Vogl, Robert L.

    Developed to assist teachers in the teaching of outdoor biology and ecology, this guide contains lessons that can be conducted in an urban environment for elementary level students. Each lesson begins with thought-provoking introductory questions which lead into the actual activity, and concludes with discussion questions and suggestions for…

  16. The Viking biology results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Harold P.

    1989-01-01

    A brief review of the purposes and the results from the Viking Biology experiments is presented, in the expectation that the lessons learned from this mission will be useful in planning future approaches to the biological exploration of Mars. Since so little was then known about potential micro-environments on Mars, three different experiments were included in the Viking mission, each one based on different assumptions about what Martian organisms might be like. In addition to the Viking Biology Instrument (VBI), important corollary information was obtained from the Viking lander imaging system and from the molecular analysis experiments that were conducted using the gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GCMS) instrument. No biological objects were noted by the lander imaging instrument. The GCMS did not detect any organic compounds. A description of the tests conducted by the Gas Exchange Experiment, the Labeled Release experiment, and the Pyrolytic Release experiment is given. Results are discussed. Taken as a whole, the Viking data yielded no unequivocal evidence for a Martian biota at either landing site. The results also revealed the presence of one or more reactive oxidants in the surface material and these need to be further characterized, as does the range of micro-environments, before embarking upon future searches for extant life on Mars.

  17. Practical Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Biological Education, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Provided are six ideas for lessons and projects which could be done in secondary school science classes. Topics include alcohol; the relationship between water availability and water loss in plant growth; the effects of acids on teeth; woodlice clustering; the ecology of frogs; and human blood pressure and heart rate. (CW)

  18. Designing and Adapting Tasks in Lesson Planning: A Critical Process of Lesson Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujii, Toshiakira

    2016-01-01

    There is no doubt that a lesson plan is a necessary product of Lesson Study. However, the collaborative work among teachers that goes into creating that lesson plan is largely under-appreciated by non-Japanese adopters of Lesson Study, possibly because the effort involved is invisible to outsiders, with our attention going to its most visible…

  19. Effectiveness of Case-Based Learning Instruction on Epistemological Beliefs and Attitudes Toward Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çam, Aylin; Geban, Ömer

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of case-based learning instruction over traditionally designed chemistry instruction on eleventh grade students' epistemological beliefs and their attitudes toward chemistry as a school subject. The subjects of this study consisted of 63 eleventh grade students from two intact classes of an urban high school instructed with same teacher. Each teaching method was randomly assigned to one class. The experimental group received case-based learning and the control group received traditional instruction. At the experimental group, life cases were presented with small group format; at the control group, lecturing and discussion was carried out. The results showed that there was a significant difference between the experimental and control group with respect to their epistemological beliefs and attitudes toward chemistry as a school subject in favor of case-based learning method group. Thus, case base learning is helpful for development of students' epistemological beliefs and attitudes toward chemistry.

  20. EDSN Development Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chartres, James; Sanchez, Hugo S.; Hanson, John

    2014-01-01

    The Edison Demonstration of Smallsat Networks (EDSN) is a technology demonstration mission that provides a proof of concept for a constellation or swarm of satellites performing coordinated activities. Networked swarms of small spacecraft will open new horizons in astronomy, Earth observations and solar physics. Their range of applications include the formation of synthetic aperture radars for Earth sensing systems, large aperture observatories for next generation telescopes and the collection of spatially distributed measurements of time varying systems, probing the Earths magnetosphere, Earth-Sun interactions and the Earths geopotential. EDSN is a swarm of eight 1.5U Cubesats with crosslink, downlink and science collection capabilities developed by the NASA Ames Research Center under the Small Spacecraft Technology Program (SSTP) within the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD). This paper describes the concept of operations of the mission and planned scientific measurements. The development of the 8 satellites for EDSN necessitated the fabrication of prototypes, Flatsats and a total of 16 satellites to support the concurrent engineering and rapid development. This paper has a specific focus on the development, integration and testing of a large number of units including the lessons learned throughout the project development.

  1. Lessons from dragonfly flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. Jane

    2005-11-01

    I will describe two lessons we learned from analyzing dragonfly flight using computers and table-top experiments. Part I: The role of drag in insect flight. Airplanes and helicopters are airborne via aerodynamic lift, not drag. However, it is not a priori clear that insects use only lift to fly. We find that dragonfly uses mainly drag to hover, which explains an anomalous factor of four in previous estimates of dragonfly lift coefficients, where drag was assumed to be negligible. Moreover, we show that the use of drag for flight is efficient at insect size. This suggests a re-consideration of the hovering efficiency of flapping flight, which is no longer described by the lift to drag ratio. Part II. Fore-hind wing interaction in dragonfly flight. A distinctive feature of dragonflies is their use of two pairs of wings which are driven by separate direct muscles. Dragonflies can actively modulate the phase delay between fore-hind wings during different maneuver. We compute the Navier-Stokes equation around two wings following the motion measured from our tethered dragonfly experiments, and find an explanation of the advantage of counter-stroking during hovering.

  2. Lessons from the Trenches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubchenco, J.

    2006-12-01

    One of the most important roles of science is to inform the discussions and decisions of individuals and institutions. In a world that is changing rapidly, information is urgently needed to help citizens and leaders understand what's happening, what's causing changes, what the implications are and what are the likely consequences of various options. Most everyone agrees that decisions should be informed (not dictated) by scientific information, but achieving that goal has proven a challenge. Decision-makers need to have access to scientific information that is understandable, relevant, useable, current and credible. However, the science is complex, nuanced and difficult to communicate simply. Most scientists are ill equipped to speak in language that is non-technical. Many academic scientists are wary of talking to the press. Academia does not generally reward time spent doing outreach. As a consequence, others step into the breach and communicate their version of `the science.' All too often this means that vested interests spin, distort or cherry-pick information. The result is that decisions are made without good scientific knowledge and science is seen increasingly as a weapon, not as useful knowledge. The presentation will focus on how one program, the Aldo Leopold Leadership Program is training academic environmental scientists to be better communicators of their science to non-scientists. Lessons learned and suggestions for revolutionizing the communication of scientific information will be offered.

  3. IPN Unit Bank Biology--A New Type of Biology Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, G.; Kattmann, U.

    1976-01-01

    Described is a biology curriculum being developed in West Germany, which utilizes units of 10 to 15 lessons that may be placed in different positions within the overall curriculum. Ten units have been published for grades 5 through 8. Units for grade 3 to 13 are in development. (SL)

  4. An Intelligent Case-Based Help Desk Providing Web-Based Support for EOSDIS Customers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Christine M.; Thurman, David A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a project that extends the concept of help desk automation by offering World Wide Web access to a case-based help desk. It explores the use of case-based reasoning and cognitive engineering models to create an 'intelligent' help desk system, one that learns. It discusses the AutoHelp architecture for such a help desk and summarizes the technologies used to create a help desk for NASA data users.

  5. Case-Based Reasoning to Help Educators Design with Web 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Verily; Kou, Xiaojing

    2014-01-01

    This study proposes the use of case-based reasoning to help educators design with Web 2.0. Principles for designing a web-enhanced case-based activity (CBA) were used to design an online professional development course for a group of 16 in-service educators. The Learning in Context model was used as a scaffold to help participants in their design…

  6. Constellation Program Lessons Learned. Volume 2; Detailed Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer; Neubek, Deborah J.; Thomas, L. Dale

    2011-01-01

    These lessons learned are part of a suite of hardware, software, test results, designs, knowledge base, and documentation that comprises the legacy of the Constellation Program. The context, summary information, and lessons learned are presented in a factual format, as known and described at the time. While our opinions might be discernable in the context, we have avoided all but factually sustainable statements. Statements should not be viewed as being either positive or negative; their value lies in what we did and what we learned that is worthy of passing on. The lessons include both "dos" and "don ts." In many cases, one person s "do" can be viewed as another person s "don t"; therefore, we have attempted to capture both perspectives when applicable and useful. While Volume I summarizes the views of those who managed the program, this Volume II encompasses the views at the working level, describing how the program challenges manifested in day-to-day activities. Here we see themes that were perhaps hinted at, but not completely addressed, in Volume I: unintended consequences of policies that worked well at higher levels but lacked proper implementation at the working level; long-term effects of the "generation gap" in human space flight development, the need to demonstrate early successes at the expense of thorough planning, and the consequences of problems and challenges not yet addressed because other problems and challenges were more immediate or manifest. Not all lessons learned have the benefit of being operationally vetted, since the program was cancelled shortly after Preliminary Design Review. We avoid making statements about operational consequences (with the exception of testing and test flights that did occur), but we do attempt to provide insight into how operational thinking influenced design and testing. The lessons have been formatted with a description, along with supporting information, a succinct statement of the lesson learned, and

  7. Biological Technicians

    MedlinePlus

    ... Biological technicians typically need a bachelor’s degree in biology or a closely related field. It is important ... Biological technicians typically need a bachelor’s degree in biology or a closely related field. It is important ...

  8. Revisiting the Great Lessons. Spotlight: Cosmic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chattin-McNichols, John

    2002-01-01

    Considers the role of the Great Lessons--formation of the universe, evolution of life, evolution of humans, and discovery of language and mathematics--in the Montessori elementary curriculum. Discusses how the Great Lessons guide and organize the curriculum, as well as the timing of the lessons across the 6-12 age span. (JPB)

  9. Hiligaynon Lessons. PALI Language Texts: Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motus, Cecile L.

    A collection of 54 lessons in Hiligaynon, one of the major languages of the Philippines, is divided into 12 units, each lesson intended for about 4 to 5 hours of classroom instruction. A brief grammar summary introduces each unit. A structural content note begins each lesson within the units, followed by microdialogues (two to four lines)…

  10. Legacy: Challenging Lessons in Civics and Citizenship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Julia P., Ed.

    This is a collection of lesson plans on civic education designed for all levels of gifted students and written by teachers from across the U.S. The 25 teachers submitting lessons to the compilation are a part of the LEGACY (Linking Educators and the Gifted with Attorneys for Civics: Yes!) project. The lessons involve students in the study of the…

  11. Tape Lessons to Accompany Intermediate Nepali Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verma, Manindra K.

    These tape lessons follow the sequence of the intermediate Nepali Reader. There are 12 lessons each containing various types of exercises designed to increase listening, speaking, and reading skills. Each lesson contains the following types of exercises: (1) listening comprehension; (2) question answering; (3) repetition; and (4) multiple choice…

  12. The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson. Web Lesson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constitutional Rights Foundation, Los Angeles, CA.

    This lesson presents the historical background of Abraham Lincoln's selection of Andrew Johnson as his running mate in the election of 1864. The lesson considers the climate in the U.S. Congress after President Lincoln's assassination. The details of the impeachment and trial of President Andrew Johnson are given. The lesson presents three…

  13. Lessons from 30 Years of Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McComas, David C.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation takes a brief historical look at flight software over the past 30 years, extracts lessons learned and shows how many of the lessons learned are embodied in the Flight Software product line called the core Flight System (cFS). It also captures the lessons learned from developing and applying the cFS.

  14. More than Tolerance for Engineering Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Andrea; Herfat, Safa; Truesdell, Pam; Miller, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Described herein is a science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (STEM) secondary lesson created by graduate engineering student Safa Herfat, with modifications by her co-authors. The lessons learned from this case study are explored through an explanation of tolerance, a description of the lesson, the results obtained, and participant…

  15. Psychological Aspects of Aging. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Barbara

    This lesson plan is designed for a 50-minute class to teach adult caretakers of the aged about the psychological aspects of aging. The lesson is part of a course for caregivers in residential facilities and in home care. The lesson plan contains references, a list of equipment needed, objectives, information on how to set up the classroom, and the…

  16. Lesson Study for Professional Development and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Robyn; Stacey, Kaye

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that "lesson study" may be adapted from its primary use as a professional development strategy for use as a research strategy, especially to identify principles of good lesson design. We report on a project undertaken in two Australian secondary schools where lesson study research was used to investigate the design of…

  17. Improving Teaching through Lesson Study Debriefing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groth, Randall E.

    2011-01-01

    The lesson study model of professional development that originated in Japan is becoming increasingly popular in the United States. At its core, lesson study is a means of bringing teachers together to carry out the process of planning a lesson, implementing and observing it, and then examining it during a debriefing session. The debriefing…

  18. Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Caulfield, R.

    2012-07-12

    The purpose of lessons learned is to identify insight gained during a project – successes or failures – that can be applied on future projects. Lessons learned can contribute to the overall success of a project by building on approaches that have worked well and avoiding previous mistakes. Below are examples of lessons learned during ERDF’s ARRA-funded expansion project.

  19. Lesson Plan Design for Facilitating Differentiated Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Pamela Hudson; Fleming, Louise Conn

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the role of lesson plan design in helping teacher candidates to meet diverse learning needs. The authors studied student teachers who had been taught to use a differential lesson plan to see if they were differentiating in their planning, assessment, and instruction. They concluded that, indeed, lesson plan design does…

  20. "Model Your Genes the Mathematical Way"--A Mathematical Biology Workshop for Secondary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Ana Margarida; Vera-Licona, Paola; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a mathematical biology workshop given to secondary school teachers of the Danville area in Virginia, USA. The goal of the workshop was to enable teams of teachers with biology and mathematics expertise to incorporate lesson plans in mathematical modelling into the curriculum. The biological focus of the activities is the…

  1. Activities for Students: Biology as a Source for Algebra Equations--The Heart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horak, Virginia M.

    2005-01-01

    The high school course that integrated first year algebra with an introductory environmental biology/anatomy and physiology course, in order to solve algebra problems is discussed. Lessons and activities for the course were taken by identifying the areas where mathematics and biology content intervenes may help students understand biology concepts…

  2. Six Classroom Exercises to Teach Natural Selection to Undergraduate Biology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalinowski, Steven T.; Leonard, Mary J.; Andrews, Tessa M.; Litt, Andrea R.

    2013-01-01

    Students in introductory biology courses frequently have misconceptions regarding natural selection. In this paper, we describe six activities that biology instructors can use to teach undergraduate students in introductory biology courses how natural selection causes evolution. These activities begin with a lesson introducing students to natural…

  3. Lessons learned from RTG programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinstrom, Robert M.; Cockfield, Robert D.

    1998-01-01

    During the Cassini Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) program, the heritage RTG design was reviewed and modified to incorporate lessons learned. Design changes were made both to resolve problems as they occurred and to correct difficulties noted in earlier missions. Topics addressed in this paper included problems experienced previously at the launch facility in attaching the pressure relief device to the generators, and the open circuit conditions that occurred at times in the resistance temperature device wiring harness. Also discussed is a problem caused by mistakes in software configuration management. How lessons learned refined the RTG design and integration with the spacecraft are discussed and the adopted solutions are described.

  4. Several CASE Lessons Can Improve Students' Control of Variables Reasoning Scheme Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babai, Reuven; Levit-Dori, Tamar

    2009-01-01

    This study addressed one aspect of scientific reasoning, the control of variables reasoning scheme. We explored whether a short intervention aimed at accelerating this reasoning scheme by CASE lessons would improve students' ability to apply this scheme in problems related to the biology curriculum. About 120 students from grade nine were assessed…

  5. Implementing Innovative Technologies through Lesson Plans: What Kind of Support Do Teachers Prefer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Noortje; Lazonder, Ard W.

    2015-01-01

    Lesson plans are a potentially powerful means to facilitate teachers' use of technology in the classroom. This study investigated which supplementary information is preferred by teachers when integrating a new technology into the classroom. Forty-six high school biology teachers (23 pre-service and 23 in-service) received a technology-infused…

  6. Developing Graduate Students' Knowledge of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium through Lesson Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotger, Sharon; Barry, Deborah; Wiles, Jason; Benevento, Elizabeth; Brzozowski, Frances; Hurtado-Gonzales, Jorge; Jacobs, Nicole; Royse, Ellen; Sen, Debjeet; Snyder, Julia; Stokes, Robert; Wisner, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Existing research on the development of graduate students' teaching competency focuses on the need for their learning opportunities to be contextualized to their specific content area and course structure. A group of graduate teaching assistants collaborated with a biology professor and a science educator in a Japanese Lesson Study to directly…

  7. A Review of Case-Based Learning Practices in an Online MBA Program: A Program-Level Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Seung-hee; Lee, Jieun; Liu, Xiaojing; Bonk, Curt J.; Magjuka, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how a case-based learning approach was used and facilitated in online business education. Perceptions of students and instructors regarding the practices of case-based learning in online environments are explored in terms of instructional design, facilitation, and technology support. This study finds case-based learning to be a…

  8. Collaborative Lesson Research: Maximizing the Impact of Lesson Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Akihiko; McDougal, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    New common standards for mathematics were adopted by most of the states in the US by 2010. Achieving these standards, however, is a challenge, since they require significant changes in how mathematics is taught. Lesson study ("jugyou kenkyuu") is a form of professional development that has been credited for supporting profound changes in…

  9. Ensuring Lessons Teach the Curriculum with a Lesson Plan Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craft, Heddi; Bland, Paul D.

    2004-01-01

    The Curriculum Leadership Institute (CLI) and classroom teachers working in conjunction with Emporia State University in Emporia, Kansas, developed the Lesson Plan Resource system. The CLI is a not-for-profit school consulting and publishing firm, also based in Emporia, Kansas, whose curriculum development model is used in over 1,000 schools in…

  10. [Economics] Introductory Lesson (Begin Day One). Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Roland

    This introductory lesson on teaching economics concepts contains sections on the following: purpose; objectives; time; materials needed; and step-by-step classroom procedures. The focus is on the economic problem of scarcity and opportunity costs. Attached is an original skit, "There's no such thing as a free lunch," and a chart that outlines some…

  11. Applying pharmaceutical lessons: learning lessons from the past.

    PubMed

    Spilker, B

    1998-06-01

    Systematic evaluation of a project, product or other successes, and failures, is an important method for improving the performance of a company, as well as that of an individual. One should evaluate and determine if lessons learned can be applied to the systems and procedures being used in the company. Even if the company does not have to adjust its strategies, procedures, portfolio or systems as a result of lessons it has learned, there may be pointers to communicate to staff. It is easy for many aspects of a system to become outdated, particularly in an organization that is growing or changing rapidly. It is therefore generally appropriate to evaluate the company's regulatory compliance, toxicology compliance, clinical auditing practices and other appropriate systems on an annual or biannual basis. Most lessons of success or failure are specific to a single situation because of the combination of people, drug, competition, priorities and many other factors involved, and cannot be extrapolated to other situations. Some general lessons and principles are presented that will facilitate drug discovery, development and marketing. PMID:15616644

  12. Lessons learned from radiation oncology clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei-Fei; Okunieff, Paul; Bernhard, Eric J; Stone, Helen B; Yoo, Stephen; Coleman, C Norman; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Brown, Martin; Buatti, John; Guha, Chandan

    2013-11-15

    A workshop entitled "Lessons Learned from Radiation Oncology Trials" was held on December 7-8, 2011, in Bethesda, MD, to present and discuss some of the recently conducted radiation oncology clinical trials with a focus on those that failed to refute the null hypothesis. The objectives of this workshop were to summarize and examine the questions that these trials provoked, to assess the quality and limitations of the preclinical data that supported the hypotheses underlying these trials, and to consider possible solutions to these challenges for the design of future clinical trials. Several themes emerged from the discussions: (i) opportunities to learn from null-hypothesis trials through tissue and imaging studies; (ii) value of preclinical data supporting the design of combinatorial therapies; (iii) significance of validated biomarkers; (iv) necessity of quality assurance in radiotherapy delivery; (v) conduct of sufficiently powered studies to address the central hypotheses; and (vi) importance of publishing results of the trials regardless of the outcome. The fact that well-designed hypothesis-driven clinical trials produce null or negative results is expected given the limitations of trial design and complexities of cancer biology. It is important to understand the reasons underlying such null results, however, to effectively merge the technologic innovations with the rapidly evolving biology for maximal patient benefit through the design of future clinical trials. PMID:24043463

  13. Lessons learned related to packaging and transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Wallen, C.

    1995-12-31

    The use of lessons learned as a tool for learning from past experiences is well established, especially by many organizations within the nuclear industry. Every person has, at some time, used the principles of lessons learned to adopt good work practices based on their own experiences or the experiences of others. Lessons learned can also help to avoid the recurrence of adverse practices, which is often an area that most lessons-learned programs tend to focus on. This paper will discuss how lessons learned relate to packaging and transportation issues and events experienced at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. It will also discuss the role performed by the Office of Nuclear and Facility Safety`s Office of Operating Experience Analysis and Feedback in disseminating lessons learned and operating experience feedback to the DOE complex. The central concept of lessons learned is that any organization should be able to learn from its own experiences and events. In addition, organizations should implement methodologies to scan external environments for lessons learned, to analyze and determine the relevance of lessons learned, and to bring about the necessary changes learned from these experiences. With increased concerns toward facility safety, the importance of utilizing the lessons-learned principles and the establishment of lessons-learned programs can not be overstated.

  14. Bacterial epidemiology and biology - lessons from genome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing has ushered in a new era of microbial genomics, enabling the detailed historical and geographical tracing of bacteria. This is helping to shape our understanding of bacterial evolution. PMID:22027015

  15. Engineering Lessons Learned and Systems Engineering Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Garcia, Danny; Vaughan, William W.

    2005-01-01

    Systems Engineering is fundamental to good engineering, which in turn depends on the integration and application of engineering lessons learned. Thus, good Systems Engineering also depends on systems engineering lessons learned from within the aerospace industry being documented and applied. About ten percent of the engineering lessons learned documented in the NASA Lessons Learned Information System are directly related to Systems Engineering. A key issue associated with lessons learned datasets is the communication and incorporation of this information into engineering processes. As part of the NASA Technical Standards Program activities, engineering lessons learned datasets have been identified from a number of sources. These are being searched and screened for those having a relation to Technical Standards. This paper will address some of these Systems Engineering Lessons Learned and how they are being related to Technical Standards within the NASA Technical Standards Program, including linking to the Agency's Interactive Engineering Discipline Training Courses and the life cycle for a flight vehicle development program.

  16. Unified modeling language and design of a case-based retrieval system in medical imaging.

    PubMed

    LeBozec, C; Jaulent, M C; Zapletal, E; Degoulet, P

    1998-01-01

    One goal of artificial intelligence research into case-based reasoning (CBR) systems is to develop approaches for designing useful and practical interactive case-based environments. Explaining each step of the design of the case-base and of the retrieval process is critical for the application of case-based systems to the real world. We describe herein our approach to the design of IDEM--Images and Diagnosis from Examples in Medicine--a medical image case-based retrieval system for pathologists. Our approach is based on the expressiveness of an object-oriented modeling language standard: the Unified Modeling Language (UML). We created a set of diagrams in UML notation illustrating the steps of the CBR methodology we used. The key aspect of this approach was selecting the relevant objects of the system according to user requirements and making visualization of cases and of the components of the case retrieval process. Further evaluation of the expressiveness of the design document is required but UML seems to be a promising formalism, improving the communication between the developers and users. PMID:9929346

  17. Unified modeling language and design of a case-based retrieval system in medical imaging.

    PubMed Central

    LeBozec, C.; Jaulent, M. C.; Zapletal, E.; Degoulet, P.

    1998-01-01

    One goal of artificial intelligence research into case-based reasoning (CBR) systems is to develop approaches for designing useful and practical interactive case-based environments. Explaining each step of the design of the case-base and of the retrieval process is critical for the application of case-based systems to the real world. We describe herein our approach to the design of IDEM--Images and Diagnosis from Examples in Medicine--a medical image case-based retrieval system for pathologists. Our approach is based on the expressiveness of an object-oriented modeling language standard: the Unified Modeling Language (UML). We created a set of diagrams in UML notation illustrating the steps of the CBR methodology we used. The key aspect of this approach was selecting the relevant objects of the system according to user requirements and making visualization of cases and of the components of the case retrieval process. Further evaluation of the expressiveness of the design document is required but UML seems to be a promising formalism, improving the communication between the developers and users. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9929346

  18. Lessons Learned for Improving Spacecraft Ground Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Michael; Henderson, Gena; Stambolian, Damon

    2013-01-01

    NASA policy requires each Program or Project to develop a plan for how they will address Lessons Learned. Projects have the flexibility to determine how best to promote and implement lessons learned. A large project might budget for a lessons learned position to coordinate elicitation, documentation and archival of the project lessons. The lessons learned process crosses all NASA Centers and includes the contactor community. o The Office of The Chief Engineer at NASA Headquarters in Washington D.C., is the overall process owner, and field locations manage the local implementation. One tool used to transfer knowledge between program and projects is the Lessons Learned Information System (LLIS). Most lessons come from NASA in partnership with support contractors. A search for lessons that might impact a new design is often performed by a contractor team member. Knowledge is not found with only one person, one project team, or one organization. Sometimes, another project team, or person, knows something that can help your project or your task. Knowledge sharing is an everyday activity at the Kennedy Space Center through storytelling, Kennedy Engineering Academy presentations and through searching the Lessons Learned Information system. o Project teams search the lessons repository to ensure the best possible results are delivered. o The ideas from the past are not always directly applicable but usually spark new ideas and innovations. Teams have a great responsibility to collect and disseminate these lessons so that they are shared with future generations of space systems designers. o Leaders should set a goal for themselves to host a set numbers of lesson learned events each year and do more to promote multiple methods of lessons learned activities. o High performing employees are expected to share their lessons, however formal knowledge sharing presentation are not the norm for many employees.

  19. EMU Lessons Learned Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Kevin M., Jr.; Crocker, Lori; Cupples, J. Scott

    2011-01-01

    As manned space exploration takes on the task of traveling beyond low Earth orbit, many problems arise that must be solved in order to make the journey possible. One major task is protecting humans from the harsh space environment. The current method of protecting astronauts during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) is through use of the specially designed Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). As more rigorous EVA conditions need to be endured at new destinations, the suit will need to be tailored and improved in order to accommodate the astronaut. The Objective behind the EMU Lessons Learned Database(LLD) is to be able to create a tool which will assist in the development of next-generation EMUs, along with maintenance and improvement of the current EMU, by compiling data from Failure Investigation and Analysis Reports (FIARs) which have information on past suit failures. FIARs use a system of codes that give more information on the aspects of the failure, but if one is unfamiliar with the EMU they will be unable to decipher the information. A goal of the EMU LLD is to not only compile the information, but to present it in a user-friendly, organized, searchable database accessible to all familiarity levels with the EMU; both newcomers and veterans alike. The EMU LLD originally started as an Excel database, which allowed easy navigation and analysis of the data through pivot charts. Creating an entry requires access to the Problem Reporting And Corrective Action database (PRACA), which contains the original FIAR data for all hardware. FIAR data are then transferred to, defined, and formatted in the LLD. Work is being done to create a web-based version of the LLD in order to increase accessibility to all of Johnson Space Center (JSC), which includes converting entries from Excel to the HTML format. FIARs related to the EMU have been completed in the Excel version, and now focus has shifted to expanding FIAR data in the LLD to include EVA tools and support hardware such as

  20. Biological Filters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemetson, S. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. The review is concerned with biological filters, and it covers: (1) trickling filters; (2) rotating biological contractors; and (3) miscellaneous reactors. A list of 14 references is also presented. (HM)

  1. Biological Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Z Index Contact Us FAQs What's New Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... and Health Topics A-Z Index What's New Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and ...

  2. Constellation Lessons Learned Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, L. Dale; Neubek, Deb

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the lessons learned from the Constellation Program (CxP) and identified several factors that contributed to the inability of the CxP to meet the cost and schedule commitments. The review includes a significant section on the context in which the CxP operated since new programs are likely to experience the same constraints.

  3. Senior to Senior: Living Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    Senior to Senior: Living Lessons is a program created to provide meaningful horticulture therapy activities for community minority elders (60 years of age and older) and senior college students (20 years of age and older) from an Historically Black University. The program's objectives were to promote positive intergenerational relationships and to…

  4. Dr. King's Dream. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

    This lesson plan teaches students about the life and work of Martin Luther King, Jr. Students listen to a brief biography, view photographs of the March on Washington, hear a portion of King's "I Have a Dream" speech, and discuss what King's words mean to them. Finally, they will create picture books about their own dreams of freedom for Americans…

  5. Plant Tissues. Agricultural Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    This lesson plan is intended for use in conducting classes on plant tissues. Presented first are an attention step and a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about plant tissues and the effect of water and minerals on them. The following topics are among those discussed: reasons why water is important to plants,…

  6. NASA Materials Related Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Danny; Gill, Paul S.; Vaughan, William W.

    2003-01-01

    Lessons Learned have been the basis for our accomplishments throughout the ages. They have been passed down from father to son, mother to daughter, teacher to pupil, and older to younger worker. Lessons Learned have also been the basis for the nation s accomplishments for more than 200 years. Both government and industry have long recognized the need to systematically document and utilize the knowledge gained from past experiences in order to avoid the repetition of failures and mishaps. Through the knowledge captured and recorded in Lessons Learned from more than 80 years of flight in the Earth s atmosphere, NASA s materials researchers are constantly working to develop stronger, lighter, and more durable materials that can withstand the challenges of space. The Agency s talented materials engineers and scientists continue to build on that rich tradition by using the knowledge and wisdom gained from past experiences to create futuristic materials and technologies that will be used in the next generation of advanced spacecraft and satellites that may one day enable mankind to land men on another planet or explore our nearest star. These same materials may also have application here on Earth to make commercial aircraft more economical to build and fly. With the explosion in technical accomplishments over the last decade, the ability to capture knowledge and have the capability to rapidly communicate this knowledge at lightning speed throughout an organization like NASA has become critical. Use of Lessons Learned is a principal component of an organizational culture committed to continuous improvement.

  7. NASA Materials Related Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Danny; Gill, Paul S.; Vaughan, William W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Lessons Learned have been the basis for our accomplishments throughout the ages. They have been passed down from father to son, mother to daughter, teacher to pupil, and older to younger worker. Lessons Learned have also been the basis for the nation's accomplishments for more than 200 years. Both government and industry have long recognized the need to systematically document and utilize the knowledge gained from past experiences in order to avoid the repetition of failures and mishaps. Through the knowledge captured and recorded in Lessons Learned from more than 80 years of flight in the Earth's atmosphere, NASA's materials researchers are constantly working to develop stronger, lighter, and more durable materials that can withstand the challenges of space. The Agency's talented materials engineers and scientists continue to build on that rich tradition by using the knowledge and wisdom gained from past experiences to create futurist materials and technologies that will be used in the next generation of advanced spacecraft and satellites that may one day enable mankind to land men on another planet or explore our nearest star. These same materials may also have application here on Earth to make commercial aircraft more economical to build and fly. With the explosion in technical accomplishments over the last decade, the ability to capture knowledge and have the capability to rapidly communicate this knowledge at lightning speed throughout an organization like NASA has become critical. Use of Lessons Learned is a principal component of an organizational culture committed to continuous improvement.

  8. "Pride and Prejudice". [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderquist, Alisa

    Based on Jane Austen's novel "Pride and Prejudice," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that classics are those pieces of literature that continue to be popular long after they were written; classics tend to have universal themes; and Austen's writing has been updated and dramatized and, most likely, will…

  9. A Lesson in Number Pattern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Rodney

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a guided investigation into the spacial relationships between the centres of the squares in a Fibonacci tiling. It is essentially a lesson in number pattern, but includes work with surds, coordinate geometry, and some elementary use of complex numbers. The investigation could be presented to students in a number of ways…

  10. A Lesson Learned through Gaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovalik, Ludovic M.; Kovalik, Doina L.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an educational card game the objective of which is to raise students' awareness of the need for clarity, structure, and organization in all everyday activities of humans. Although the game as such was played in freshman composition, therefore addressing the immediate needs of that particular class, the lesson learned through…

  11. "The Scarlet Letter". [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Based on Nathaniel Hawthorne's novel "The Scarlet Letter," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that the ending of a novel does not resolve all of the questions that may occur to readers; and that readers may imagine characters living out their lives beyond the ending the author gave to a novel. The main…

  12. In Old Pompeii. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    In this Web-based interdisciplinary lesson (involving social studies, geography, history, and language arts) students take a virtual field trip to the ruins of Pompeii to learn about everyday life in Roman times, then create a travelogue to attract visitors to the site and write an account of their field trip modeled on a description of Pompeii…

  13. Evaluating Eyewitness Reports [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This lesson offers students experience in making historical meaning from eyewitness accounts that present a range of different perspectives. Students begin with a case study in working with alternative reports of a single event: the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. First, they compare two newspaper reports on the fire, then two memoirs of the fire…

  14. Multimedia Principle in Teaching Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kari Jabbour, Khayrazad

    2012-01-01

    Multimedia learning principle occurs when we create mental representations from combining text and relevant graphics into lessons. This article discusses the learning advantages that result from adding multimedia learning principle into instructions; and how to select graphics that support learning. There is a balance that instructional designers…

  15. Earth's Caretakers: Native American Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyberg, Lisa M., Ed.

    Written by Native American teachers and by teachers of Native Americans, this book presents examples of ways to learn respect for the Earth and its people. The hope is that students will learn to walk softly upon the Earth and to respect all living things. Lessons and activities engage elementary and middle school students in a four-step…

  16. Gallery of ESOL Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Assistance Center, New York, NY.

    This collection of lesson plans for teaching English as a Second Language includes the following: "You Scratched Me!" which has students examine verbs in three forms (base, past, and progressive) together with questions, accelerating the memorization and understanding of verb forms and tenses; "Getting Acquainted/Inferential Thinking," which…

  17. Salem Witch Trials. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maupin, Lara

    Based on Arthur Miller' play "The Crucible," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that in 17th-century New England, people were persecuted for allegedly practicing witchcraft; students of this period have looked into the allegations and offer alternatives to witchcraft to explain the people's behavior; and…

  18. Moby-Dick. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderquist, Alisa

    Based on Herman Melville's novel "Moby-Dick," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that the novel is grounded in facts that Melville acquired in his own experiences at sea; New England was the center of a prospering whaling industry in the 19th century; and journal keeping was not uncommon among 19th-century…

  19. Lessons Learned from Safety Events

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Steven C.; Fassbender, Linda L.

    2012-11-01

    The Hydrogen Incident Reporting and Lessons Learned website (www.h2incidents.org) was launched in 2006 as a database-driven resource for sharing lessons learned from hydrogen-related safety events to raise safety awareness and encourage knowledge-sharing. The development of this database, its first uses and subsequent enhancements have been described at the Second and Third International Conferences on Hydrogen Safety. [1,2] Since 2009, continuing work has not only highlighted the value of safety lessons learned, but enhanced how the database provides access to another safety knowledge tool, Hydrogen Safety Best Practices (http://h2bestpractices.org). Collaborations with the International Energy Agency (IEA) Hydrogen Implementing Agreement (HIA) Task 19 – Hydrogen Safety and others have enabled the database to capture safety event learnings from around the world. This paper updates recent progress, highlights the new “Lessons Learned Corner” as one means for knowledge-sharing and examines the broader potential for collecting, analyzing and using safety event information.

  20. Lessons learned in crisis management.

    PubMed

    Olson, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This paper will explore lessons learned following a series of natural and man-made disasters affecting the Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company and/or its subsidiaries. The company employs a team of certified continuity professionals who are charged with overseeing resilience on behalf of the enterprise and leading recovery activities wherever and whenever necessary. PMID:24578026

  1. The Revolutionary War. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchberg, Wendy

    Based on James Lincoln Collier and Christopher Collier's novel "My Brother Sam Is Dead," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that one way to learn about the past is to read historical novels; and that some people take one side or another in a war or other conflict, and some find themselves caught in the…

  2. Plant ID. Agricultural Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    This lesson plan is intended for use in conducting classes on plant identification. Presented first are a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about the scientific classification of plants. The following topics are among those discussed: main types of plants; categories of vascular plants; gymnosperms and…

  3. Small Business. Lesson Plan Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicke, Thomas S.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that requires students to use their research and analytical skills in studying the social and economic importance of small business. Activities include interviewing local business owners and producing a written summary, developing a survey showing and explaining area land use, and researching opposition to Wal-Mart stores.…

  4. Charismatic Leaders: A Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Robert W.

    1983-01-01

    Focusing upon Franklin D. Roosevelt and Adolf Hitler, these lessons for high school students in U.S. or world history courses deal with what charismatic leadership is, what circumstances and personality factors generate charismatic movements, and the role, results, and dangers of charismatic leadership. (RM)

  5. Writing Lessons with Gavin Curtis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Danling; Lamme, Linda

    2002-01-01

    Discusses a literature-inspired model of teaching writing and two scenarios of reading and writing connections in the classroom. Presents several reading and writing lessons drawn from the children's book "The Bat Boy and His Violin" by Gavin Curtis. Discusses Curtis' craft and demonstrates how to use this book to teach writing. Includes brief…

  6. Community-Based Inquiry Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Youngjin; Ahlswede, Donna; Clausen, Christina; Herbig, Laura; Oliver, J. Steve

    2010-01-01

    The National Science Education Standards suggest that students work as real scientists in the classroom (NRC 1996; 2000). To accomplish this task, the authors developed community-based inquiry lessons (CBILs) that provide students with the opportunity to solve problems as a class, based on the concept of whole-class inquiry (WCI) presented by…

  7. Energy Management Lesson Plans for Vocational Agriculture Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedges, Lowell E., Ed.; Miller, Larry E., Ed.

    This notebook provides vocational agricultural teachers with 10 detailed lesson plans on the major topic of energy management in agriculture. The lesson plans present information about energy and the need to manage it wisely, using a problem-solving approach. Each lesson plan follows this format: lesson topic, lesson performance objectives,…

  8. Transforming XML-based electronic patient records for use in medical case based reasoning systems.

    PubMed

    Abidi, S S; Manickam, S

    2000-01-01

    Electronic patient records (EPR) can be regarded as an implicit source of clinical behaviour and problem-solving knowledge, systematically compiled by clinicians. We present an approach, together with its computational implementation, to pro-actively transform XML-based EPR into specialised Clinical Cases (CC) in the realm of Medical Case Base Systems. The 'correct' transformation of EPR to CC involves structural, terminological and conceptual standardisation, which is achieved by a confluence of techniques and resources, such as XML, UMLS (meta-thesaurus) and medical knowledge ontologies. We present below the functional architecture of a Medical Case-Base Reasoning Info-Structure (MCRIS) that features two distinct, yet related, functionalities: (1) a generic medical case-based reasoning system for decision-support activities; and (2) an EPR-CC transformation system to transform typical EPR's to CC. PMID:11187645

  9. 3 EXPOSE Missions - overview and lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbow, E.; Willnekcer, R.; Reitz, G.; Aman, A.; Bman, B.; Cman, C.

    2011-10-01

    The International Space Station ISS provides a variety of external research platforms for experiments aiming at the utilization of space parameters like vacuum, temperature oscillation and in particular extraterrestrial short wavelength UV and ionizing radiation which cannot be simulated accurately in the laboratory. Three Missions, two past and one upcoming, will be presented. A family of astrobiological experimental ESA facilities called "EXPOSE" were and will be accommodated on these outside exposure platforms: on one of the external balconies of the European Columbus Module (EXPOSE-E) and on the URM-D platform on the Russian Zvezda Module (EXPOSE-R and EXPOSE-R2). Exobiological and radiation experiments, exposing chemical, biological and dosimetric samples to the harsh space environment are - and will be - accommodated on these facilities to increase our knowledge on the origin, evolution and distribution of life, on Earth and possibly beyond. The biological experiments investigate resistance and adaptation of organisms like bacteria, Achaea, fungi, lichens, plant seeds and small animals like mosquito larvae to extreme environmental conditions and underlying mechanisms like DNA repair. The organic chemical experiments analyse chemical reactions triggered by the extraterrestrial environment, especially short wavelength UV radiation, to better understand prebiotic chemistry. The facility is optimized to allow exposure of biological specimen and material samples under a variety of conditions, using optical filter systems. Environmental parameters like temperature and radiation are regularly recorded and down linked by telemetry. Two long term missions named according to their facility - EXPOSE-E and EXPOSE-R - are completed and a third mission is planned and currently prepared. Operations of all three missions including sample accommodation are performed by DLR. An overview of the two completed missions will be given including lessons learned as well as an outlook

  10. Design of Composite Structures Using Knowledge-Based and Case Based Reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambright, Jonathan Paul

    1996-01-01

    A method of using knowledge based and case based reasoning to assist designers during conceptual design tasks of composite structures was proposed. The cooperative use of heuristics, procedural knowledge, and previous similar design cases suggests a potential reduction in design cycle time and ultimately product lead time. The hypothesis of this work is that the design process of composite structures can be improved by using Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) and Knowledge-Based (KB) reasoning in the early design stages. The technique of using knowledge-based and case-based reasoning facilitates the gathering of disparate information into one location that is easily and readily available. The method suggests that the inclusion of downstream life-cycle issues into the conceptual design phase reduces potential of defective, and sub-optimal composite structures. Three industry experts were interviewed extensively. The experts provided design rules, previous design cases, and test problems. A Knowledge Based Reasoning system was developed using the CLIPS (C Language Interpretive Procedural System) environment and a Case Based Reasoning System was developed using the Design Memory Utility For Sharing Experiences (MUSE) xviii environment. A Design Characteristic State (DCS) was used to document the design specifications, constraints, and problem areas using attribute-value pair relationships. The DCS provided consistent design information between the knowledge base and case base. Results indicated that the use of knowledge based and case based reasoning provided a robust design environment for composite structures. The knowledge base provided design guidance from well defined rules and procedural knowledge. The case base provided suggestions on design and manufacturing techniques based on previous similar designs and warnings of potential problems and pitfalls. The case base complemented the knowledge base and extended the problem solving capability beyond the existence of

  11. [Biological weapons].

    PubMed

    Kerwat, K; Becker, S; Wulf, H; Densow, D

    2010-08-01

    Biological weapons are weapons of mass destruction that use pathogens (bacteria, viruses) or the toxins produced by them to target living organisms or to contaminate non-living substances. In the past, biological warfare has been repeatedly used. Anthrax, plague and smallpox are regarded as the most dangerous biological weapons by various institutions. Nowadays it seems quite unlikely that biological warfare will be employed in any military campaigns. However, the possibility remains that biological weapons may be used in acts of bioterrorism. In addition all diseases caused by biological weapons may also occur naturally or as a result of a laboratory accident. Risk assessment with regard to biological danger often proves to be difficult. In this context, an early identification of a potentially dangerous situation through experts is essential to limit the degree of damage. PMID:20717866

  12. Video 3 of 8: Lesson Plan Feature on the Website

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Lesson Plan page provides lessons, activities and units. A search engine allows you to search by national standard, data or topics. These lesson plans engage students in science, technology, en...

  13. Some Lesson Plans for Economic Geography in the Elementary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockledge, Ann

    1991-01-01

    Provides three sample lessons for teaching elementary school children about economic geography. Includes lessons dealing with natural resources, economic activity, and forests. Provides lesson objectives, focus, and instructional strategies. Offers a list of suggested readings from recent trade books. (SG)

  14. Investigative Cases and Student Outcomes in an Upper-Division Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory Course at a Minority-serving Institution

    PubMed Central

    Fulop, Rebecca M.; Márquez-Magaña, Leticia; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2008-01-01

    Active-learning strategies are increasingly being integrated into college-level science courses to make material more accessible to all students and to improve learning outcomes. One active-learning pedagogy, case-based learning (CBL), was developed as a way to both enhance engagement in the material and to accommodate diverse learning styles. Yet, adoption of CBL approaches in undergraduate biology courses has been piecemeal, in part because of the perceived investment of time required. Furthermore, few CBL lesson plans have been developed specifically for upper-division laboratory courses. Here, we describe four cases that we developed and implemented for a senior cell and molecular biology laboratory course at San Francisco State University, a minority-serving institution. To evaluate the effectiveness of these modules, we used both written and verbal assessments to gauge learning outcomes and attitudinal responses of students over two semesters. Students responded positively to the new approach and seemed to meet the learning goals for the course. Most said they would take a course using CBL again. These case modules are readily adaptable to a variety of classroom settings. PMID:19047425

  15. Investigative cases and student outcomes in an upper-division cell and molecular biology laboratory course at a minority-serving institution.

    PubMed

    Knight, Jonathan D; Fulop, Rebecca M; Márquez-Magaña, Leticia; Tanner, Kimberly D

    2008-01-01

    Active-learning strategies are increasingly being integrated into college-level science courses to make material more accessible to all students and to improve learning outcomes. One active-learning pedagogy, case-based learning (CBL), was developed as a way to both enhance engagement in the material and to accommodate diverse learning styles. Yet, adoption of CBL approaches in undergraduate biology courses has been piecemeal, in part because of the perceived investment of time required. Furthermore, few CBL lesson plans have been developed specifically for upper-division laboratory courses. Here, we describe four cases that we developed and implemented for a senior cell and molecular biology laboratory course at San Francisco State University, a minority-serving institution. To evaluate the effectiveness of these modules, we used both written and verbal assessments to gauge learning outcomes and attitudinal responses of students over two semesters. Students responded positively to the new approach and seemed to meet the learning goals for the course. Most said they would take a course using CBL again. These case modules are readily adaptable to a variety of classroom settings. PMID:19047425

  16. Is Case-Based Instruction Effective in Enhancing High School Students' Motivation toward Chemistry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalcinkaya, Eylem; Boz, Yezdan; Erdur-Baker, Ozgur

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of case-based learning (CBL) over traditionally designed chemistry instruction (TDCI) on 10th grade students' perceived motivation about chemistry as a school subject. Two classes were randomly selected from a high school. One class was assigned to be an experimental group and the other…

  17. Overcoming rule-based rigidity and connectionist limitations through massively-parallel case-based reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnden, John; Srinivas, Kankanahalli

    1990-01-01

    Symbol manipulation as used in traditional Artificial Intelligence has been criticized by neural net researchers for being excessively inflexible and sequential. On the other hand, the application of neural net techniques to the types of high-level cognitive processing studied in traditional artificial intelligence presents major problems as well. A promising way out of this impasse is to build neural net models that accomplish massively parallel case-based reasoning. Case-based reasoning, which has received much attention recently, is essentially the same as analogy-based reasoning, and avoids many of the problems leveled at traditional artificial intelligence. Further problems are avoided by doing many strands of case-based reasoning in parallel, and by implementing the whole system as a neural net. In addition, such a system provides an approach to some aspects of the problems of noise, uncertainty and novelty in reasoning systems. The current neural net system (Conposit), which performs standard rule-based reasoning, is being modified into a massively parallel case-based reasoning version.

  18. Modeling vs. Coaching of Argumentation in a Case-Based Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Tiancheng; And Others

    The major purposes of this study are: (1) to investigate and compare the effectiveness of two instructional strategies, modeling and coaching on helping students to articulate and support their decisions in a case-based learning environment; (2) to compare the effectiveness of modeling and coaching on helping students address essential criteria in…

  19. Accelerating the Use of Weblogs as an Alternative Method to Deliver Case-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Charlie; Wu, Jiinpo; Yang, Samuel C.

    2008-01-01

    Weblog technology is an alternative medium to deliver the case-based method of learning business concepts. The social nature of this technology can potentially promote active learning and enhance analytical ability of students. The present research investigates the primary factors contributing to the adoption of Weblog technology by students to…

  20. Pre-Service Teacher Perspectives of Case-Based Learning in Physical Education Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Michael A.; Richards, K. Andrew R.; Gaudreault, Karen Lux; Templin, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Case-based learning (CBL) is a constructivist pedagogy in which students read hypothetical accounts of real world situations and consider how they would respond if facing similar challenges. In physical education teacher education, research has shown that CBL has the potential to promote critical thinking, contribute to students' cognitive growth…

  1. Achievement and Attitude Evaluation of a Case-Based Chemistry Curriculum for Nursing Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorl, Yehudit J.

    1994-01-01

    A case-based chemistry curriculum for nurses was developed and evaluated in Israel. Achievement and student attitude results for 194 academic nursing students (4 year) and 212 nonacademic students (3 year), further divided by intensive or regular teaching mode, support the effectiveness of the curriculum and its favorable reception by students.…

  2. Effectiveness of Case-Based Learning Instruction on Epistemological Beliefs and Attitudes toward Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cam, Aylin; Geban, Omer

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of case-based learning instruction over traditionally designed chemistry instruction on eleventh grade students' epistemological beliefs and their attitudes toward chemistry as a school subject. The subjects of this study consisted of 63 eleventh grade students from two intact classes…

  3. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on the checklist...

  4. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on the checklist...

  5. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... particular occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on...

  6. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... particular occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on...

  7. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... particular occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on...

  8. Applying Case-Based Reasoning in Knowledge Management to Support Organizational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Feng-Kwei

    2006-01-01

    Research and practice in human performance technology (HPT) has recently accelerated the search for innovative approaches to supplement or replace traditional training interventions for improving organizational performance. This article examines a knowledge management framework built upon the theories and techniques of case-based reasoning (CBR)…

  9. A Method of Developing and Introducing Case-Based Learning to a Preclinical Veterinary Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowther, Emma; Baillie, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Case-based learning (CBL) has been introduced as part of a major review of the veterinary curriculum at the University of Bristol. The initial aim was to improve integration between all first year subjects, i.e., basic science disciplines (anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry), animal management, and professional studies, while highlighting the…

  10. A Case-Based Approach Increases Student Learning Outcomes and Comprehension of Cellular Respiration Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rybarczyk, Brian J.; Baines, Antonio T.; McVey, Mitch; Thompson, Joseph T.; Wilkins, Heather

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated student learning outcomes using a case-based approach focused on cellular respiration. Students who used the case study, relative to students who did not use the case study, exhibited a significantly greater learning gain, and demonstrated use of higher-order thinking skills. Preliminary data indicate that after engaging…

  11. Teaching for Engagement: Part 1--Constructivist Principles, Case-Based Teaching, and Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Bill

    2015-01-01

    In the Winter, 2015, issue of the "College Quarterly," Donovan McFarlane provided some guidelines for the use of case studies in college teaching based in part on his own experience and in part on the published literature. This was not the first time that case-based teaching was the focus of work in the "College Quarterly."…

  12. Case-Based Instruction in Early Childhood Teacher Preparation: Does It Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florez, Ida Rose

    2011-01-01

    Case analysis is often used in early childhood teacher education as a constructivist method for developing students' professional skills and knowledge. Although case-based instruction is popular, the professional literature contains little empirical evidence that it effectively helps students develop professional knowledge. Indeed, some empirical…

  13. Effects of the Case-Based Instruction Method on the Experience of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amiri Farahani, Leila; Heidari, Tooba

    2014-01-01

    This semi-experimental study was conducted with twenty-seven midwifery students who were randomly allocated to either case-based instruction or lecture-based instruction groups. The selected subjects -- foetal intrapartum assessment, foetal antepartum assessment, ABO and Rh blood group system mismatch -- were presented in four ninety-minute…

  14. Designing an Online Case-Based Library for Technology Integration in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebebci, Mustafa Tevfik; Kucuk, Sirin; Celik, Ismail; Akturk, A. Oguz; Sahin, Ismail; Eren, Fetah

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce an interactive online case-study library website developed in a national project. The design goal of the website is to provide interactive, enhanced, case-based and online educational resource for educators through the purpose and within the scope of a national project. The ADDIE instructional design model…

  15. Introducing Case-Based Peer-Assisted Learning in a Professional Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Yvonne; Brack, Charlotte; Benson, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes students' experience of participating in a case-based peer-assisted learning (PAL) program in order to examine whether the approach is pedagogically effective and likely to contribute to students' professional development. It presents the findings of a study which examined the integration of PAL and case-based…

  16. Participation in Science Practices while Working in a Multimedia Case-Based Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hosun; Lundeberg, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how two female students participated in science practices as they worked in a multimedia case-based environment: interpreting simulated results, reading and writing multiple texts, role-playing, and Internet conferencing. Using discourse analysis, the following data were analyzed: students' published…

  17. Case-Based Long-Term Professional Development of Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dori, Yehudit J.; Herscovitz, Orit

    2005-01-01

    Reform efforts are often unsuccessful because they failed to understand that teachers play a key role in making educational reforms successful. This paper describes a long-term teacher professional development (PD) program aimed at educating and training teachers to teach interdisciplinary topics using case-based method in science. The research…

  18. Web-Enhanced Case-Based Activity in Teacher Education: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyeonjin; Hannafin, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent work in case-based reasoning (CBR) reinforces the importance of situated learning, expert cases, and authentic tasks and activities for novice learners. As novices engage CBR environments, they apprentice in the experts' practices while developing the understanding, knowledge and skill of a given community. This study examined how…

  19. Increasing Interest, Confidence and Understanding of Ethical Issues in Science through Case-Based Instructional Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundeberg, Mary A.; Bergland, Mark; Klyczek, Karen; Mogen, Kim; Johnson, Doug; Harmes, Nina

    Software designed to promote the use of open-ended investigations in science education was evaluated in a study of whether using case-based simulation enhances students' understanding of ethical issues and data interpretation in science. The software was a DNA gel electrophoresis simulation that enabled students to conduct simulated genetic tests.…

  20. Holy COW: Scaffolding Case Based Conferencing on the Web with Preservice Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonk, Curtis J.; Angeli, Charoula; Malikowski, Steve R.; Supplee, Lauren

    2001-01-01

    This study on the effects of scaffolding electronic case-based learning on preservice teacher education explored the use of an asynchronous computer conferencing tool called COW (Conferencing on the Web) to determine whether open-ended learning environments that encouraged critical thinking could foster a greater degree of course connections and…

  1. Case-based reasoning: The marriage of knowledge base and data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pulaski, Kirt; Casadaban, Cyprian

    1988-01-01

    The coupling of data and knowledge has a synergistic effect when building an intelligent data base. The goal is to integrate the data and knowledge almost to the point of indistinguishability, permitting them to be used interchangeably. Examples given in this paper suggest that Case-Based Reasoning is a more integrated way to link data and knowledge than pure rule-based reasoning.

  2. Using Web 2.0 Tools to Facilitate Case-Based Instruction: Considering the Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, Adrie A.; Ertmer, Peggy A.

    2016-01-01

    Case-based instruction (CBI) offers a promising method for promoting problem-solving skills in learners. However, during CBI, the instructor shoulders major responsibility for shaping the learning that takes place. Research indicates that the facilitation techniques used during case discussions influence what gets covered, and to what extent,…

  3. The Role of a Computerised Case-Based Testing Procedure in Practice Performance Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuwirth, L.; Gorter, S.; Van der Heijde, D.; Rethans, J. J.; Brauer, J.; Houben, H.; Van der Linden, S.; Van der Vleuten, C.; Scherpbier, A.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: For postgraduate training of doctors there is a need for valid and reliable instruments to assess their daily performance. Various instruments have been suggested, some of which use incognito simulated patients (SPs). These methods are resource intensive. Computerised Case-based testing (CCT) is logistically simpler and may still…

  4. Case-Based, Problem-Based Learning: Information Literacy for the Real World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carder, Linda; Willingham, Patricia; Bibb, David

    2001-01-01

    Describes case-based, problem-based learning (CBPBL), a student-centered approach that uses tightly focused minicases to help students demonstrate their ability to identify their information needs. Topics include the role of the instructor; uses of CBPBL; librarian as facilitator or liaison for a CBPBL session; examples of minicases for library…

  5. Building a Case-Based Curriculum to Enhance the Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Mathematics Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Carne

    1991-01-01

    Researchers studied how a cognitive flexibility and knowledge transfer theory framed the design of a case-based curriculum for mathematics teacher education. The paper includes a sample mathematics teaching case and analyzes four discussions based on the case. The analysis shows the potential of subject-specific cases for enhancing mathematics…

  6. Experiences of Pre-Service Teachers in Case Based Discussion Groups in Blended Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalelioglu, Filiz; Akbaba Altun, Sadegul

    2012-01-01

    Blended learning can facilitate many opportunities about usage of online discussion for different purposes. As a tool in blended learning, online discussions widen the walls of classroom discussions in a virtual manner. Especially, in teacher education programs case based discussions are very helpful for pre-service teachers to practice real-life…

  7. The Lesson Plan of the Month, 1992-1993. 10 Lesson Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    As part of a series of lesson plans compiled by Phi Alpha Delta, this collection presents a lesson plan on current issues for each month of the school year. Intended for high school and middle school with adaptations for elementary school, the lessons cover the Americans with Disabilities Act in relation to accommodations for students with…

  8. The Lesson Plan of the Month. Series 3. 10 Lesson Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Fraternity International, Granada Hills, CA. Public Service Center.

    Focusing on current topics germane to law-related education (LRE), this guide features ten LRE lessons. As part of a series of lesson plans compiled by Phi Alpha Delta, this collection presents a lesson plan on current issues for each month of the school year. Intended for high school and middle school with adaptations for elementary school, the…

  9. Japanese 12-Week Course. Volume II, Lessons 16-27. Volume III, Lessons 28-41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Educational Systems Development Center.

    These two volumes contain Lesson Units 16-41 in the Defense Language Institute's 12-week course in Japanese. (See AL 002 223 for Volume I, Lessons Units 1-15 and AL 002 225 for Volume IV, Lesson Units 42-55 and Volume V, Glossary.) (AMM)

  10. Lessons learned from RTG programs

    SciTech Connect

    Reinstrom, R.M.; Cockfield, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    During the Cassini Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) program, the heritage RTG design was reviewed and modified to incorporate lessons learned. Design changes were made both to resolve problems as they occurred and to correct difficulties noted in earlier missions. Topics addressed in this paper included problems experienced previously at the launch facility in attaching the pressure relief device to the generators, and the open circuit conditions that occurred at times in the resistance temperature device wiring harness. Also discussed is a problem caused by mistakes in software configuration management. How lessons learned refined the RTG design and integration with the spacecraft are discussed and the adopted solutions are described. {copyright} {ital 1998 Lockheed Martin Missles and Space, reproduced with permission.}

  11. System safety management lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Piatt, J.A.

    1989-05-01

    The Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research, Development and Acquisition directed the Army Safety Center to provide an audit of the causes of accidents and safety of use restrictions on recently fielded systems by tracking residual hazards back through the acquisition process. The objective was to develop ''lessons learned'' that could be applied to the acquisition process to minimize mishaps in fielded systems. System safety management lessons learned are defined as Army practices or policies, derived from past successes and failures, that are expected to be effective in eliminating or reducing specific systemic causes of residual hazards. They are broadly applicable and supportive of the Army structure and acquisition objectives. 29 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Special lessons learned from Iraq.

    PubMed

    Sebesta, James

    2006-06-01

    Operation Iraqi Freedom is the largest casualty-producing conflict this nation's military has faced since Vietnam. Medical departments from the three services have done an extraordinary job reacting to the ever-changing landscape of modern warfare and the devastating injuries produced. From the revamping of prehospital care to new applications of damage-control surgery, challenges have erupted, lessons have been learned, and lives are being saved. PMID:16781278

  13. Test Planning Approach and Lessons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Douglas A.; Brown, Kendall K.

    2004-01-01

    As NASA began technology risk reduction activities and planning for the next generation launch vehicle under the Space Launch Initiative (SLI), now the Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) Program, a review of past large liquid rocket engine development programs was performed. The intent of the review was to identify any significant lessons from the development testing programs that could be applied to current and future engine development programs. Because the primary prototype engine in design at the time of this study was the Boeing-Rocketdyne RS-84, the study was slightly biased towards LOX/RP-1 liquid propellant engines. However, the significant lessons identified are universal. It is anticipated that these lessons will serve as a reference for test planning in the Engine Systems Group at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Towards the end of F-1 and J-2 engine development testing, NASA/MSFC asked Rocketdyne to review those test programs. The result was a document titled, Study to Accelerate Development by Test of a Rocket Engine (R-8099). The "intent (of this study) is to apply this thinking and learning to more efficiently develop rocket engines to high reliability with improved cost effectivenes" Additionally, several other engine programs were reviewed - such as SSME, NSTS, STME, MC-1, and RS-83- to support or refute the R-8099. R-8099 revealed two primary lessons for test planning, which were supported by the other engine development programs. First, engine development programs can benefit from arranging the test program for engine system testing as early as feasible. The best test for determining environments is at the system level, the closest to the operational flight environment. Secondly, the component testing, which tends to be elaborate, should instead be geared towards reducing risk to enable system test. Technical risk can be reduced at the component level, but the design can only be truly verified and validated after engine system testing.

  14. Systems Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H S.

    2006-06-01

    The biology revolution over the last 50 years has been driven by the ascendancy of molecular biology. This was enthusiastically embraced by most biologists because it took us into increasingly familiar territory. It took mysterious processes, such as the replication of genetic material and assigned them parts that could be readily understood by the human mind. When we think of ''molecular machines'' as being the underlying basis of life, we are using a paradigm derived from everyday experience. However, the price that we paid was a relentless drive towards reductionism and the attendant balkanization of biology. Now along comes ''systems biology'' that promises us a solution to the problem of ''knowing more and more about less and less''. Unlike molecular biology, systems biology appears to be taking us into unfamiliar intellectual territory, such as statistics, mathematics and computer modeling. Not surprisingly, systems biology has met with widespread skepticism and resistance. Why do we need systems biology anyway and how does this new area of research promise to change the face of biology in the next couple of decades?

  15. Lessons learned and unlearned in periodontal microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Teles, Ricardo; Teles, Flavia; Frias-Lopez, Jorge; Paster, Bruce; Haffajee, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are initiated by bacterial species living in polymicrobial biofilms at or below the gingival margin and progress largely as a result of the inflammation initiated by specific subgingival species. In the past few decades, efforts to understand the microbiota of periodontal diseases have led to an exponential increase in information about biofilms associated with periodontal health and disease. In fact, the oral microbiota is one of the best characterized microbiomes that colonize the human body. Despite this increased knowledge, one has to ask if our fundamental concepts of the etiology and pathogenesis of periodontal diseases have really changed. In this chapter we will review how our comprehension of the structure and function of the subgingival microbiota evolved over the years in search of lessons learned and unlearned in periodontal microbiology. More specifically, this review focuses on: 1) how the data obtained through molecular techniques has impacted our knowledge of the etiology of periodontal infections; 2) the potential role of viruses in the etiopathogenesis of periodontal diseases; 3) how concepts of microbial ecology have expanded our understanding of host microbial interactions that might lead to periodontal diseases; 4) the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases; and 5) the impact of these evolving concepts on treatment and preventive approaches to periodontal infections. We will conclude by reviewing how novel systems biology approaches promise to unravel new details of the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases and, hopefully, lead to a better understanding of periodontal disease mechanisms. PMID:23574465

  16. Autism-lessons from the X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Marco, Elysa J; Skuse, David H

    2006-12-01

    Recognized cases of autism spectrum disorders are on the rise. It is unclear whether this increase is attributable to secular trends in biological susceptibility, or to a change in diagnostic practices and recognition. One hint concerning etiological influences is the universally reported male excess (in the range of 4:1 to 10:1). Evidence suggests that genetic influences from the X chromosome play a crucial role in engendering this male vulnerability. In this review, we discuss three categories of genetic disease that highlight the importance of X-linked genes in the manifestation of an autistic phenotype: aneuploides (Turner syndrome and Klinefelter syndrome), trinucleotide expansions (Fragile X syndrome) and nucleotide mutations (Rett Syndrome, Neuroligins 3 & 4, and SLC6A8). The lessons from these diseases include an understanding of autistic features as a broad phenotype rather than as a single clinical entity, the role of multiple genes either alone or in concert with the manifestation of autistic features, and the role of epigenetic factors such as imprinting and X-inactivation in the expression of disease severity. Better understanding of the clinical phenotypes of social cognition and the molecular neurogenetics of X-linked gene disorders will certainly provide additional tools for understanding autism in the years to come. PMID:18985105

  17. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    PubMed

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms. PMID:26205204

  18. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents experiments, demonstrations, activities and ideas relating to various fields of biology to be used in biology courses in secondary schools. Among those experiments presented are demonstrating the early stages of ferns and mosses and simple culture methods for fern prothalli. (HM)

  19. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including chi-square tests on a microcomputer, an integrated biology game, microscope slides of leaf stomata, culturing soil nematodes, technique for watering locust egg-laying tubes, hazards of biological chemicals (such as benzene, benzidene, calchicine,…

  20. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including use of dwarf cichlids (fishes) in secondary school biology, teaching edge effects on stomatal diffusion, computer program on effects of selection on gene frequencies, biological oxidation/reduction reactions, short cuts with Drosophila, computer program…

  1. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, exercises, demonstrations, and information on a variety of biology topics including labeling systems, biological indicators of stream pollution, growth of lichens, reproductive capacity of bulbous buttercups, a straw balance to measure transpiration, interaction of fungi, osmosis, and nitrogen fixation and crop production. (DC)

  2. Facultative Lagoons. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lorri

    This instructor's guide contains materials needed to teach a two-lesson unit on the structure and components of facultative lagoons, the biological theory of their operation, and factors affecting their operation. Control testing recommendations, maintenance guidelines, and troubleshooting hints are also provided. These materials include: (1) an…

  3. Teaching Biology around Themes: Teach Proteins and DNA Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offner, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Proposes as a unifying theme for high school biology the question of "how chromosomes determine what we are." Describes a sequence of lessons in which students learn about proteins, enzymes, and amino acids. Includes three dry laboratory exercises to demonstrate the DNA sequences for sickle cell anemia and cystic fibrosis. (MDH)

  4. Criteria for High Quality Biology Teaching: An Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasci, Guntay

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the process under which biology lessons are taught in terms of teaching quality criteria (TQC). Teaching quality is defined as the properties of efficient teaching and is considered to be the criteria used to measure teaching quality both in general and specific to a field. The data were collected through classroom…

  5. Pennsylvania's Energy Curriculum for the Secondary Grades: Biological Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    Described are about two dozen laboratory experiments, demonstrations and class discussions intended to supplement secondary school biology curricula with energy-related learning activities. Concepts examined in these materials include photosynthesis, energy from biomass, feeding relationships, pyrolysis, and respiration. Lessons contain notes to…

  6. How Biology Teachers Can Respond to Intelligent Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Teachers of biology and related subjects are increasingly meeting objections from students and their parents to the teaching of evolution and the exclusion of what is called the theory of Intelligent Design. This paper attempts to draw together arguments and evidence which may be used by such teachers. Four lessons are drawn from the 1982…

  7. Enterobacter aerogenes Needle Stick Leads to Improved Biological Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Johanson, Richard E.

    2004-08-01

    A laboratory worker who received a needle stick from a contaminated needle while working with a culture containing Enterobactor aerogenes developed a laboratory acquired infection. Although this organism has been shown to cause community and nosocomial infections, there have been no documented cases of a laboratory acquired infections. Lessons learned from the event led to corrective actions which included modification of lab procedures, development of a biological inventory tracking and risk identification system and the establishment of an effective biological safety program.

  8. Using computer aided case based reasoning to support clinical reasoning in community occupational therapy.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Bruce; Robertson, David; Wiratunga, Nirmalie; Craw, Susan; Mitchell, Dawn; Stewart, Elaine

    2007-08-01

    Community occupational therapists have long been involved in the provision of environmental control systems. Diverse electronic technologies with the potential to improve the health and quality of life of selected clients have developed rapidly in recent years. Occupational therapists employ clinical reasoning in order to determine the most appropriate technology to meet the needs of individual clients. This paper describes a number of the drivers that may increase the adoption of information and communication technologies in the occupational therapy profession. It outlines case based reasoning as understood in the domains of expert systems and knowledge management and presents the preliminary results of an ongoing investigation into the potential of a prototype computer aided case based reasoning tool to support the clinical reasoning of community occupational therapists in the process of assisting clients to choose home electronic assistive or smart house technology. PMID:17576021

  9. Case-based Reasoning for Automotive Engine Performance Tune-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vong, C. M.; Huang, H.; Wong, P. K.

    2010-05-01

    The automotive engine performance tune-up is greatly affected by the calibration of its electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU calibration is traditionally done by trial-and-error method. This traditional method consumes a large amount of time and money because of a large number of dynamometer tests. To resolve this problem, case based reasoning (CBR) is employed, so that an existing and effective ECU setup can be adapted to fit another similar class of engines. The adaptation procedure is done through a more sophisticated step called case-based adaptation (CBA) [1, 2]. CBA is an effective knowledge management tool, which can interactively learn the expert adaptation knowledge. The paper briefly reviews the methodologies of CBR and CBA. Then the application to ECU calibration is described via a case study. With CBR and CBA, the efficiency of calibrating an ECU can be enhanced. A prototype system has also been developed to verify the usefulness of CBR in ECU calibration.

  10. Clinical diagnosis support system based on case based fuzzy cognitive maps and semantic web.

    PubMed

    Douali, Nassim; De Roo, Jos; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2012-01-01

    Incorrect or improper diagnostic tests uses have important implications for health outcomes and costs. Clinical Decision Support Systems purports to optimize the use of diagnostic tests in clinical practice. The computerized medical reasoning should not only focus on existing medical knowledge but also on physician's previous experiences and new knowledge. Such medical knowledge is vague and defines uncertain relationships between facts and diagnosis, in this paper, Case Based Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (CBFCM) are proposed as an evolution of Fuzzy Cognitive Maps. They allow more complete representation of knowledge since case-based fuzzy rules are introduced to improve diagnosis decision. We have developed a framework for interacting with patient's data and formalizing knowledge from Guidelines in the domain of Urinary Tract Infection. The conducted study allowed us to test cognitive approaches for implementing Guidelines with Semantic Web tools. The advantage of this approach is to enable the sharing and reuse of knowledge from Guidelines, physicians experiences and simplify maintenance. PMID:22874199

  11. Case-based Reasoning for Automotive Engine Performance Tune-up

    SciTech Connect

    Vong, C. M.; Huang, H.; Wong, P. K.

    2010-05-21

    The automotive engine performance tune-up is greatly affected by the calibration of its electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU calibration is traditionally done by trial-and-error method. This traditional method consumes a large amount of time and money because of a large number of dynamometer tests. To resolve this problem, case based reasoning (CBR) is employed, so that an existing and effective ECU setup can be adapted to fit another similar class of engines. The adaptation procedure is done through a more sophisticated step called case-based adaptation (CBA)[1, 2]. CBA is an effective knowledge management tool, which can interactively learn the expert adaptation knowledge. The paper briefly reviews the methodologies of CBR and CBA. Then the application to ECU calibration is described via a case study. With CBR and CBA, the efficiency of calibrating an ECU can be enhanced. A prototype system has also been developed to verify the usefulness of CBR in ECU calibration.

  12. Lesson Plans: The Census of Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD.

    This publication contains four lesson plans to assist teachers in instructing their students about the census of agriculture and its uses. Designed primarily for vocational agricultural classes, the lesson plans may also have applications in math, social studies, and journalism or writing classes. Teachers do not need specialized knowledge about…

  13. Population Education in Health: Some Sample Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This manual for home economics teachers contains eight sample lessons on health issues related to population growth. Among the topics treated are nutrition, family health, communicable diseases, causes of high mortality, and community health services. Lessons are designed for lower primary through high school students. A scope and sequence chart…

  14. Geotech Institute Lesson Plans, June 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ.-Purdue Univ., Indianapolis. Geography Educators' Network of Indiana.

    The geography lesson plans in this collection were developed by Indiana junior high and high school teachers. There are ten lessons: (1) "Absolute Location Using GPS Technology" (Attachment 1 Powerpoint Presentation); (2) "Can You Find Me Now? Can You Find Me Now? Can You Find Me Now?" (Worksheet); (3) "Can You Give Me Directions to the Game"; (4)…

  15. How Does Lesson Study Improve Mathematics Instruction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a theoretical model of lesson study's impact on instruction, through intervening impact on teachers' knowledge, beliefs and dispositions, teachers' learning community, and curriculum. It also describes four different types of lesson study in Japan, pointing out their synergies in producing a system where local teachers…

  16. Authoring a CAI Lesson in Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ries, Carol P.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A nutrition lesson on vegetarianism (focusing on vegetarian types, complementary protein, special-care nutrients, and diet planning) that uses a pre-developed plan which concentrates on lesson content and design has been developed. Initial planning and procedures involved in developing the unit (selecting teaching modes, text writing, formatting,…

  17. On the Oregon Trail. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    In this lesson, students work with primary documents and latter-day photographs to recapture the experience of traveling on the Oregon Trail. The learning objectives of the lesson are: (1) to learn about the pioneer experience on the Oregon Trail; (2) to evaluate a historical re-enactment in light of documentary evidence; and (3) to synthesize…

  18. Gender Differences in Science-Lesson Behaviours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacker, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the interactions of high school girls and boys during coeducational science lessons. Analyses of the audiovideo recordings of 144 lessons taught by 12 male teachers indicate that girls were more likely to initiate classroom discourse. Findings did not support the hypothesis that gender disparity in science achievement in favor of boys…

  19. Lesson Planning with the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Linda A.; McDuffie, Amy Roth; Tate, Cathie

    2014-01-01

    Planning a lesson can be similar to planning a road trip--a metaphor the authors use to describe how they applied research and theory to their lesson planning process. A map and mode of transportation, the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) and textbooks as resources, can lead to desired destinations, such as students engaging in…

  20. Star of the Republic Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    The Star of the Republic Museum (Washington, Texas), the Historical Museum of the Texas Republic, has created lesson plans to enhance student understanding of Texas state history. Regardless of the opportunity to visit the museum, the lessons can enrich the classroom experience by making objects from the museum accessible to students. The…

  1. Properties of Attention during Reading Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imai, Mutsumi; And Others

    A study investigated the attention of 116 children in 6 second- and third-grade classrooms while they participated in 4 lessons involving progressively more difficult stories. Analysis of videotapes of the lessons revealed that the likelihood of a lapse of attention was highest during the first 15 seconds of attention episodes. Lapses in attention…

  2. High Crimes and Misdemeanors. Web Lesson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constitutional Rights Foundation, Los Angeles, CA.

    This lesson presents an overview of the U. S. Constitution's provision of impeachment as the method for removing the president, vice president, federal judges, and other federal officials from office. The lesson outlines and discusses the impeachment process. It also offers historical background on the framing of the Constitution and on Presidents…

  3. Teaching Emergent Readers: Collaborative Library Lesson Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauerteig, Judy

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to give media specialists, teachers and/or teacher helpers and parents a guide to using beginning chapter books to encourage first and second graders to read independently. The book contains in-depth lesson plans for 35 early chapter books. Each lesson contains bibliographic information plus setting, characters, plot,…

  4. Japanese Lesson Study Comes to California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jetter, Madeleine; Hancock, Gwen

    2012-01-01

    Japanese lesson study--Jugyou kenkyuu--which is a cornerstone of Project DELTA (Developing Educators Learning to Teach Algebraically), adds a new twist: the teachers take turns publicly teaching the collaboratively planned lessons with their own students for the rest of the team to observe and then analyze, based on the students' learning. Lesson…

  5. Lesson Plans in Law-Related Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Library Commission, Salt Lake City.

    This handbook contains lesson plans to help elementary teachers integrate legal and values education into their reading, language arts, and social studies programs. The teacher-developed lessons are also intended to help students develop critical thinking and decision-making skills. The handbooks begins with brief descriptions of the various…

  6. Vietnamese Americans: Lessons in American History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Tolerance, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Teaching Tolerance is pleased to announce a new partnership with the Orange County Asian and Pacific Islander Community Alliance in the online release of its interdisciplinary curriculum, "Vietnamese Americans: Lessons in American History." The curriculum guide-- complete with timelines, maps and primary sources--offers eight lesson plans,…

  7. HELP (Handbook of Effective Lesson Plans).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellman, Linda; Namde, Joyce Winchel

    This handbook is a collection of lesson plans for teachers of adults studying English as a Second Language, designed to complement and supplement the instructors' own teaching strategies. The handbook covers all skill areas as well as a wide range of topics for experienced and inexperienced teachers. Each lesson plan follows a specific format,…

  8. Engineering Lessons Learned and Systems Engineering Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Garcia, Danny; Vaughan, William W.

    2005-01-01

    Systems Engineering is fundamental to good engineering, which in turn depends on the integration and application of engineering lessons learned and technical standards. Thus, good Systems Engineering also depends on systems engineering lessons learned from within the aerospace industry being documented and applied. About ten percent of the engineering lessons learned documented in the NASA Lessons Learned Information System are directly related to Systems Engineering. A key issue associated with lessons learned datasets is the communication and incorporation of this information into engineering processes. Systems Engineering has been defined (EINIS-632) as "an interdisciplinary approach encompassing the entire technical effort to evolve and verify an integrated and life-cycle balanced set of system people, product, and process solutions that satisfy customer needs". Designing reliable space-based systems has always been a goal for NASA, and many painful lessons have been learned along the way. One of the continuing functions of a system engineer is to compile development and operations "lessons learned" documents and ensure their integration into future systems development activities. They can produce insights and information for risk identification identification and characterization. on a new project. Lessons learned files from previous projects are especially valuable in risk

  9. A Lesson on Homophobia and Teasing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfarb, Eva S.

    2006-01-01

    Homophobia and gay-related teasing are already present among young children. This lesson introduces the term "prejudice" and places the concept of homophobia within the context of bullying and teasing with which 8-11 year olds are already familiar. The lesson builds empathy as children think about and discuss how they have felt when they have been…

  10. Reading and Questioning in Content Area Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armbruster, Bonnie B.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Determines how science and social studies textbooks were used by teachers and students in 12 fourth grade lessons and what kinds of questions the teachers asked during the lessons. Finds that students do not get much practice reading informational text, and instruction often fails to promote conceptual understanding and meaningful learning from…

  11. Lessons Learned from the Parents Matter! Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Nicholas; Miller, Kim S.; Jackson, Leslie C.; Lindner, Gretchen K.; Hunt, Regina G.; Robinson, A. Doris; Goldsby, W. Dean; Armistead, Lisa P.

    2004-01-01

    We present a discussion of some of the lessons the investigators learned during the development and implementation phases of the Parents Matter! Program (PMP). Lessons were learned that are relevant to various groups involved in large scale, multi-site, community-based intervention studies: investigators, community leaders, community members,…

  12. Supercharging Lessons with a Virtual Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Jefferson; Vincent, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The authors describes their experiences incorporating the virtual lab into a simple circuit lesson during an energy unit in a sixth-grade class. The lesson included a hands-on group experiment using wire, batteries, and light bulbs to make a circuit and an online simulation, using a virtual lab. Class discussions, student inquiries, and the study…

  13. Money Simulation (Mini Economy). Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Roland

    This lesson plan, a simulation which can be a semester-long activity, illustrates numerous economic concepts to students of all abilities. The lesson's system has been used successfully for the past five years in English as a Second Language, regular, and Advanced Placement classes. The "system" has proven to be enjoyable, motivating, effective,…

  14. Professor's Page: Do Demonstration Lessons Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Doug

    2011-01-01

    As part of a large research and professional development project funded by the Catholic Education Office Melbourne (CEOM), called "Contemporary Teaching and Learning of Mathematics," the ACU team has been leading demonstration lessons. There is certainly not universal agreement on the worth of demonstration lessons in the mathematics education…

  15. Planning Physical Education Lessons as Teaching "Episodes"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatoupis, Constantine

    2016-01-01

    An "episode" is a unit of time within which teachers and students are working on the same objective and are engaged in the same teaching/learning style. The duration of each episode, as well as the number of them in a single lesson, may vary. Additionally, the multiple episodes of a lesson may have similar objectives, offer similar…

  16. The Legend of Sleepy Hollow. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

    Noting that Washington Irving's classic tale of the Headless Horseman has lately become a Halloween favorite, this lesson plan helps students explore the artistry that helped make Irving the United States' first literary master, and ponders the mystery of what happened to Ichabod Crane. Its 4 lessons seek to make students able to: (1) summarize…

  17. Yup'ik Phrase and Conversational Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Anna W.; Jacobson, Steven A., Ed.

    This guide to conversational language in Yup'ik Eskimo is designed to accompany audiotape recordings (not included here). It contains the phrases and sentences used in 30 lessons. A brief introduction comments on the format of the text. Lessons are on these topics: Yup'ik phonology and common brief expressions; exclamations; greetings and…

  18. ESOL Workplace Photos and Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zavez, Joan; And Others

    This teaching guide contains nine lesson plans for teaching job-related English for speakers of other languages (ESOL) to employees at Barber Foods in Maine. The lessons cover the following topics: (1) rotation directions; (2) protective clothing (level 2 and level 2/3); (3) talking to supervisors; (4) accident prevention; (5) machinery…

  19. Web-based computational chemistry education with CHARMMing I: Lessons and tutorial.

    PubMed

    Miller, Benjamin T; Singh, Rishi P; Schalk, Vinushka; Pevzner, Yuri; Sun, Jingjun; Miller, Carrie S; Boresch, Stefan; Ichiye, Toshiko; Brooks, Bernard R; Woodcock, H Lee

    2014-07-01

    This article describes the development, implementation, and use of web-based "lessons" to introduce students and other newcomers to computer simulations of biological macromolecules. These lessons, i.e., interactive step-by-step instructions for performing common molecular simulation tasks, are integrated into the collaboratively developed CHARMM INterface and Graphics (CHARMMing) web user interface (http://www.charmming.org). Several lessons have already been developed with new ones easily added via a provided Python script. In addition to CHARMMing's new lessons functionality, web-based graphical capabilities have been overhauled and are fully compatible with modern mobile web browsers (e.g., phones and tablets), allowing easy integration of these advanced simulation techniques into coursework. Finally, one of the primary objections to web-based systems like CHARMMing has been that "point and click" simulation set-up does little to teach the user about the underlying physics, biology, and computational methods being applied. In response to this criticism, we have developed a freely available tutorial to bridge the gap between graphical simulation setup and the technical knowledge necessary to perform simulations without user interface assistance. PMID:25057988

  20. Biological post

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, B. Suresh; Kumar, Senthil; Mohan Kumar, N. S.; Karunakaran, J. V.

    2015-01-01

    Anterior tooth fracture as a result of traumatic injuries, is frequently encountered in endodontic practice. Proper reconstruction of extensively damaged teeth can be achieved through the fragment reattachment procedure known as “biological restoration.” This case report refers to the esthetics and functional recovery of extensively damaged maxillary central incisor through the preparation and adhesive cementation of “biological post” in a young patient. Biological post obtained through extracted teeth from another individual–represent a low-cost option and alternative technique for the morphofunctional recovery of extensively damaged anterior teeth. PMID:26538952

  1. BIOLOGICAL WARFARE

    PubMed Central

    Beeston, John

    1953-01-01

    The use of biological agents as controlled weapons of war is practical although uncertain. Three types of agents are feasible, including pathogenic organisms and biological pests, toxins, and synthetic hormones regulating plant growth. These agents may be chosen for selective effects varying from prolonged incipient illness to death of plants, man and domestic animals. For specific preventive and control measures required to combat these situations, there must be careful and detailed planning. The nucleus of such a program is available within the existing framework of public health activities. Additional research and expansion of established activities in time of attack are necessary parts of biological warfare defense. PMID:13059641

  2. Lactate in the emergency department: a case-based critical reflection.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Rob

    2016-09-01

    Serum lactate levels are frequently measured in patients with undifferentiated conditions in emergency departments. This article uses a case-based reflection to critically analyse the role of lactate measurement in these patients. It examines the rationale for testing, and the potential causes of raised levels, to remind clinicians that this diagnostic intervention must be taken in the context of patients' clinical presentations and not in isolation. PMID:27615347

  3. Baby Boy Jones Interactive Case-Based Learning Activity: A Web-Delivered Teaching Strategy.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, Lisa M; Carmona, Elenice Valentim; Paper, Bruce; Solis, Linda; Taylor, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    Faced with limited resources, nurse educators are challenged with transforming nursing education while preparing enough qualified nurses to meet future demand; therefore, innovative approaches to teaching are needed. In this article, we describe the development of an innovative teaching activity. Baby Boy Jones is a Web-delivered, case-based learning activity focused on neonatal infection. It was created using e-learning authoring software and delivered through a learning management system. PMID:25581435

  4. The role of professional knowledge in case-based reasoning in practical ethics.

    PubMed

    Pinkus, Rosa Lynn; Gloeckner, Claire; Fortunato, Angela

    2015-06-01

    The use of case-based reasoning in teaching professional ethics has come of age. The fields of medicine, engineering, and business all have incorporated ethics case studies into leading textbooks and journal articles, as well as undergraduate and graduate professional ethics courses. The most recent guidelines from the National Institutes of Health recognize case studies and face-to-face discussion as best practices to be included in training programs for the Responsible Conduct of Research. While there is a general consensus that case studies play a central role in the teaching of professional ethics, there is still much to be learned regarding how professionals learn ethics using case-based reasoning. Cases take many forms, and there are a variety of ways to write them and use them in teaching. This paper reports the results of a study designed to investigate one of the issues in teaching case-based ethics: the role of one's professional knowledge in learning methods of moral reasoning. Using a novel assessment instrument, we compared case studies written and analyzed by three groups of students whom we classified as: (1) Experts in a research domain in bioengineering. (2) Novices in a research domain in bioengineering. (3) The non-research group--students using an engineering domain in which they were interested but had no in-depth knowledge. This study demonstrates that a student's level of understanding of a professional knowledge domain plays a significant role in learning moral reasoning skills. PMID:25820218

  5. Education Research: A case-based bioethics curriculum for neurology residents

    PubMed Central

    Willey, Joshua Z.; Prager, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2012, the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) updated and expanded its ethics curriculum into Practical Ethics in Clinical Neurology, a case-based ethics curriculum for neurologists. Methods: We piloted a case-based bioethics curriculum for neurology residents using the framework and topics recommended by the AAN, matched to clinical cases drawn from Columbia's neurologic services. Our primary outcome was residents' ability to analyze and manage ethically complex cases as measured on precurriculum and postcurriculum multiple-choice quizzes. Secondary outcomes included precurriculum and postcurriculum self-assessed comfort in discussing and managing ethically complex cases, as well as attendance at ethics discussion sessions as compared to attendance at other didactic sessions. Results: Resident performance on quizzes improved from 75.8% to 86.7% (p = 0.02). Comfort in discussing ethically complex cases improved from 6.4 to 7.4 on a 10-point scale (p = 0.03). Comfort in managing such cases trended toward improvement but did not reach statistical significance. Attendance was significantly better at ethics discussions (73.5%) than at other didactic sessions (61.7%, p = 0.04). Conclusion: Our formal case-based ethics curriculum for neurology residents, based on core topics drawn from the AAN's published curricula, was successfully piloted. Our study showed a statistically significant improvement in residents' ability to analyze and manage ethically complex cases as measured by multiple-choice tests and self-assessments. PMID:25825469

  6. Exploring the relation between online case-based discussions and learning outcomes in dental education.

    PubMed

    Koole, Sebastiaan; Vervaeke, Stijn; Cosyn, Jan; De Bruyn, Hugo

    2014-11-01

    Online case-based discussions, parallel to theoretical dental education, have been highly valued by students and supervisors. This study investigated the relation between variables of online group discussions and learning outcomes. At Ghent University in Belgium, undergraduate dental students (years two and three) are required to participate in online case-based discussion groups (five students/group) in conjunction with two theoretical courses on basic periodontics and related therapy. Each week, a patient case is discussed under supervision of a periodontist, who authored the case and performed the treatment. Each case includes treatment history and demand, intra- and extraoral images, and full diagnostic information with periodontal and radiographic status. For this retrospective study, data were obtained for all 252 students in forty-three discussion groups between 2009 and 2012. Spearman's rank correlations were calculated to investigate the relation among group dynamics (number of group posts and views), individual student contributions (number of individual posts, newly introduced elements, questions, and reactions to other posts), supervisors' interventions (number of posts and posed questions), and learning outcomes (examination result). The results showed that learning outcomes were significantly related to the number of student posts (Spearman's rho (ρ)=0.19), newly introduced elements (ρ=0.21), reactions to other posts (ρ=0.14), number of supervisors' interventions (ρ=0.12), and supervisors' questions (ρ=0.20). These results suggest that individual student contributions during online case-based discussions and the provided supervision were related to learning outcomes. PMID:25362697

  7. Case based teaching at the bed side versus in classroom for undergraduates and residents of pediatrics

    PubMed Central

    SHAHRIARI, MAHDI

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Bedside teaching is defined as teaching in the presence of a patient, it is a vital component of medical education. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two methods of case based teaching (at the bedside and in the classroom) in the teaching hospitals (for both undergraduates and residents of pediatrics). Methods: Thirty undergraduates and twenty pediatric residents were asked to study a topic of their curriculum from their text then pretest was taken from learners in the two levels; then either lecture with power point or case presentation or bed side discussion were conducted. One week later post- test was taken, and then evaluation of these three methods was done by a questionnaire from learners. Results: The majority of under-graduates and all of pediatric residents had evaluated case based teaching superior to bedside teaching and these two methods superior to lecture method. Conclusions: They believed that in the case based teaching they are more relaxed and have more self-esteem than at the bedside of the patients. Clinician teacher must involve participants and learners in the process of bedside teaching, by preparing a comfortable situation and by using available technology. PMID:25512935

  8. Easy Growth Experiment on Peas Stimulates Interest in Biology for 10-11 Year Old Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Birgitta

    2007-01-01

    How do we support the enthusiasm children show for biology in school? Unfortunately, lack of exciting practical work and boring biology lessons seem to make science less popular. As a senior lecturer in plant physiology at Karlstad University I have simplified experiments intended for students at university and then tested them on 10-11 year old…

  9. Learning Biology and Mathematics Outdoors: Effects and Attitudes in a Swedish High School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagerstam, Emilia; Blom, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    This research suggests that learning biology in an outdoor environment has a positive cognitive and affective impact on 13-15-year-old, Swedish high school pupils. Eighty-five pupils in four classes participated in a quasi-experimental design. Half the pupils, taking a biology course in ecology or diversity of life, had several lessons outdoors…

  10. Biology Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Ten ideas that have been tried out by the authors in schools are presented for biology teachers. The areas covered include genetics, dispersal of seeds, habituation in earthworms, respiration, sensory neurons, fats and oils. A reading list is provided. (PS)

  11. Biology Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Some helpful ideas are proposed for use by biology teachers. Topics included are Food Webs,'' Key to Identification of Families,'' Viruses,'' Sieve Tube,'' Woodlice,'' Ecology of Oak Leaf Roller Moth,'' and Model Making.'' (PS)

  12. Bottle Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CSTA Journal, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Provides hands-on biology activities using plastic bottles that allow students to become engaged in asking questions, creating experiments, testing hypotheses, and generating answers. Activities explore terrestrial and aquatic systems. (MKR)

  13. Biology Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Twelve new experiments in biology are described by teachers for use in classrooms. Broad areas covered include enzyme action, growth regulation, microscopy, respiration, germination, plant succession, leaf structure and blood structure. Explanations are detailed. (PS)

  14. Case-Based Instruction: Improving Students' Conceptual Understanding through Cases in a Mechanical Engineering Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadav, Aman; Vinh, Megan; Shaver, Gregory M.; Meckl, Peter; Firebaugh, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been a push within engineering curricula to adopt more learner-centered pedagogies, such as case-based instruction. Case-based instruction has been hypothesized to make the curriculum more relevant and motivating for students by pushing them to integrate the concepts they have learned with other experiences. The current study…

  15. Examining the Influence of Seductive Details in Case-Based Instruction on Pre-Service Teachers' Learning and Learning Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abercrombie, Sara

    2011-01-01

    The case-based instructional method uses fictionalized or actual narratives as instructional tools to support learning, decision-making, and improved transfer to practical settings. Educational theorists and researchers specializing in case-based instruction have suggested that cases can be made more realistic, engaging, and challenging, thus…

  16. Do Expert Clinical Teachers Have a Shared Understanding of What Constitutes a Competent Reasoning Performance in Case-Based Teaching?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, Geneviève; Lajoie, Susanne P.

    2014-01-01

    To explore the assessment challenge related to case based learning we study how experienced clinical teachers--i.e., those who regularly teach and assess case-based learning--conceptualize the notion of competent reasoning performance for specific teaching cases. Through an in-depth qualitative case study of five expert teachers, we investigate…

  17. Do Undergraduate Paramedic Students Embrace Case Based Learning Using a Blended Teaching Approach? A 3-Year Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Brett

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a descriptive longitudinal study which aimed to identify student paramedic perceptions of case based learning used in the clinical curriculum of the Bachelor of Emergency Health (BEH) degree at Monash University, Victoria, Australia. Case based learning and its integration within clinical curriculum is an…

  18. Practical lessons in remote connectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Kouroubali, A.; Starren, J.; Barrows, R. C.; Clayton, P. D.

    1997-01-01

    Community Health Information Networks (CHINs) require the ability to provide computer network connections to many remote sites. During the implementation of the Washington Heights and Inwood Community Health Management Information System (WHICHIS) at the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center (CPMC), a number of remote connectivity issues have been encountered. Both technical and non-technical issues were significant during the installation. We developed a work-flow model for this process which may be helpful to any health care institution attempting to provide seamless remote connectivity. This model is presented and implementation lessons are discussed. PMID:9357643

  19. Southwest Airlines: lessons in loyalty.

    PubMed

    D'Aurizio, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Southwest Airlines continues to garner accolades in the areas of customer service, workforce management, and profitability. Since both the health care and airlines industries deal with a service rather than a product, the customer experience depends on the people who deliver that experience. Employees' commitment or "loyalty" to their customers, their employer, and their work translates into millions of dollars of revenue. What employee wants to work for "the worst employer in town?" Nine loyalty lessons from Southwest can be carried over to the health care setting for the benefit of employees and patients. PMID:19330974

  20. Case-Based Lessons: A Quantitative Study of How Case Studies Impact Teacher Efficacy for the Application of Principles of Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Kathrine Pamela

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to provide a response to the following question: Does the use of video case studies focused on motivation increase undergraduates' sense of efficacy for applying principles of motivation? I examined the proposed research question using quantitative methods over the course of two 10-week quarters.…

  1. Differentiated Phonics Lessons Effect on Fluency and School Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Margaret Quinlan

    2011-01-01

    This mixed-methods study investigates the effect of differentiated phonics lessons on reading fluency and examines the effect of these lessons on student and teacher perceptions of school culture. The study examines quantitative data on the effectiveness of the skill lessons. The qualitative findings examine the impact of the lessons on the…

  2. Lesson Study: The Core of Japanese Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Catherine

    This paper describes research lessons, which form the core of a larger process called lesson study within Japanese elementary science faculty development. Research lessons are actual classroom lessons with students which are: observed by others; planned for a long time, usually collaboratively; designed to bring to life particular goals of…

  3. A Relevant Lesson: Hitler Goes to the Mall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerwin, David

    2003-01-01

    A "Motivation" eliciting the "Aim" of each lesson initiates each lesson in the orthodox "developmental lesson-plan" that has dominated classroom instruction in NYC public schools for at least the past half-century. An action-research study of 38 lesson-plans (over 5 each from 5 teachers) drawn from student-teaching courses at the author's…

  4. Implementing US Department of Energy lessons learned programs. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The DOE Lessons Learned Handbook is a two-volume publication developed to supplement the DOE Lessons Learned Standard (DOE-STD-7501-95) with information that will organizations in developing or improving their lessons learned programs. Volume 1 includes greater detail than the Standard in areas such as identification and documentation of lessons learned; it also contains sections on specific processes such as training and performance measurement. Volume 2 (this document) contains examples of program documents developed by existing lessons learned programs as well as communications material, functional categories, transmittal documents, sources of professional and industry lessons learned, and frequently asked questions about the Lessons Learned List Service.

  5. Historical problem areas: Lessons learned for expendable and reusable vehicle propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fester, Dale A.

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: expendable launch vehicle lessons learned, upper stage/transfer vehicle lessons learned, shuttle systems - reuse, and reusable system issues and lessons learned.

  6. Alternative Energy Lessons in Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, Julie

    2010-05-01

    In Scotland the new science curriculum for pupils aged 12 to 15 shall include the following outcomes: "Using my knowledge and understanding, I can express an informed view on a national or global environmental issue;" "I have participated in constructing a model to harness a renewable source of energy and can investigate how to optimise the output;" and "I can discuss why it is important to me and to the future of the world that alternatives to fossil fuels are developed." There will be an emphasis on creating lessons that will nurture responsible citizens, improve pupil engagement and allow students to develop their team working skills. To help teachers plan lessons to address this, the Scottish Schools Equipment Research Centre and Edinburgh University made teaching materials on four renewable energy resources. This poster describes how their suggested activities on solar cells, wind turbines, hydroelectric power stations and wave power were used in science lessons with twelve year old students. After an initial class discussion based on issues related to climate change and diminishing fossil fuel supplies, a workshop activity was carried out in three stages. The students were issued with a fact sheet about one of four imaginary islands (Skisdale, Cloudy Island, Surfsville and Sun City) and they were asked to work in teams to choose the most suitable method of generating electricity for their island. Issues such as costs, where it will be sited and environmental implications were considered. They were then asked to conduct practical activities by constructing and testing models for these forms of renewable energy. To conclude, they presented their proposal to the rest of the class with reasoned explanations. The kits used in the lessons can be purchased from Anderson Scientific (sales@andersonscientific.co.uk). The solar cells were simply connected to a voltmeter. The wind and hydroelectric groups used the same basic equipment. This was made using a small water

  7. Biological Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Within the framework of global biogeochemical cycles and ocean productivity, there are two areas that will be of particular interest to biological oceanography in the 1990s. The first is the mapping in space time of the biomass and productivity of phytoplankton in the world ocean. The second area is the coupling of biological and physical processes as it affects the distribution and growth rate of phytoplankton biomass. Certainly other areas will be of interest to biological oceanographers, but these two areas are amenable to observations from satellites. Temporal and spatial variability is a regular feature of marine ecosystems. The temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton biomass and productivity which is ubiquitous at all time and space scales in the ocean must be characterized. Remote sensing from satellites addresses these problems with global observations of mesocale (2 to 20 days, 10 to 200 km) features over a long period of time.

  8. Biological preconcentrator

    DOEpatents

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Huber, Dale L.

    2008-09-09

    A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

  9. What Is Inside A Lesson Learned?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheer, S.

    2009-04-01

    The learning of lessons is something that is inherent to normal human behavior. All kind of human interaction experiences critical inspection after a severe or even disastrous event has occurred. Particular inspections have been undertaken in the field of natural disasters. Hence human risk management can continuously be improved according to lessons learned from previous disasters or with the outcome of experience shared with other stakeholders in that field. This paper shows the results of a lessons learned project over the past years: the NEDIES (Natural and Environmental Information Exchange System) deals with lessons learned during the classical risk management phases of prevention, preparedness and response At first glance a lesson is just pure text. Basically it mirrors what has been experienced within a certain context. Having a closer look at a lesson one finds out that a lesson refers to a specific emergency-triggering situation. A situation is more than a simple reference to a hazard: a "rapidly rising lake level" could have more meaning than "a flood". In order to take out positive information it is advisable not only to list up all potential benefits that could be drawn from a lesson; the explicit mentioning of benefits could be helpful in order to prepare further actions beforehand. Moreover one should also consider possible actions to take if that particular situation of the lesson exhibits again or elsewhere. In the case of rapidly rising lake level an a-priori prioritization of response actions could be done. The description of the situation is linked with other characteristics of the lesson; local issues as well as historical considerations can play a role. A flood in a densely populated town can produce different implications than a flood in the countryside. The benefits of the lesson and actions proposed could be linked with experiences made in the past. Other issues concern people involved: the addressees. Typical addressees are local decision

  10. Lessons learned for improving spacecraft ground operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Michael; Stambolian, Damon; Henderson, Gena

    NASA has a unique history in processing the Space Shuttle fleet for launches. Some of this experience has been captured in the NASA Lessons Learned Information System (LLIS). This tool provides a convenient way for design engineers to review lessons from the past to prevent problems from reoccurring and incorporate positive lessons in new designs. At the Kennedy Space Center, the LLIS is being used to design ground support equipment for the next generation of launch and crewed vehicles. This paper describes the LLIS process and offers some examples.

  11. Lessons Learned for Improving Spacecraft Ground Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Michael A.; Stambolian, Damon B.; Henderson, Gena M.

    2012-01-01

    NASA has a unique history in processing the Space Shuttle fleet for launches. Some of this experience has been captured in the NASA Lessons Learned Information System (LLIS). This tool provides a convenient way for design engineers to review lessons from the past to prevent problems from reoccurring and incorporate positive lessons in new designs. At the Kennedy Space Center, the LLIS is being used to design ground support equipment for the next generation of launch and crewed vehicles. This paper describes the LLIS process and offers some examples.

  12. Biological rhythms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halberg, F.

    1975-01-01

    An overview is given of basic features of biological rhythms. The classification of periodic behavior of physical and psychological characteristics as circadian, circannual, diurnal, and ultradian is discussed, and the notion of relativistic time as it applies in biology is examined. Special attention is given to circadian rhythms which are dependent on the adrenocortical cycle. The need for adequate understanding of circadian variations in the basic physiological indicators of an individual (heart rate, body temperature, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, etc.) to ensure the effectiveness of prophylactic and therapeutic measures is stressed.

  13. Case-based classification alternatives to ontologies for automated web service discovery and integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladner, Roy; Warner, Elizabeth; Petry, Fred; Gupta, Kalyan Moy; Moore, Philip; Aha, David W.; Shaw, Kevin

    2006-05-01

    Web Services are becoming the standard technology used to share data for many Navy and other DoD operations. Since Web Services technologies provide for discoverable, self-describing services that conform to common standards, this paradigm holds the promise of an automated capability to obtain and integrate data. However, automated integration of applications to access and retrieve data from heterogeneous sources in a distributed system such as the Internet poses many difficulties. Assimilation of data from Web-based sources means that differences in schema and terminology prevent simple querying and retrieval of data. Thus, machine understanding of the Web Services interface is necessary for automated selection and invocation of the correct service. Service availability is also an issue that needs to be resolved. There have been many advances on ontologies to help resolve these difficulties to support the goal of sharing knowledge for various domains of interest. In this paper we examine the use of case-based classification as an alternative/supplement to using ontologies for resolving several questions related to knowledge sharing. While ontologies encompass a formal definition of a domain of interest, case-based reasoning is a problem solving methodology that retrieves and reuses decisions from stored cases to solve new problems, and case-based classification involves applying this methodology to classification tasks. Our approach generalizes well in sparse data, which characterizes our Web Services application. We present our study as it relates to our work on development of the Advanced MetOc Broker, whose objective is the automated application integration of meteorological and oceanographic (MetOc) Web Services.

  14. ALOHA Cabled Observatory: Continuing lessons and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, B. M.; Lukas, R.

    2012-12-01

    Since June 2011, the ALOHA Cabled Observatory (ACO) is providing 1 kW power, 100 Mbs network communications and PPS timing to a seafloor node and instruments at 4728 m water depth 100 km north of Oahu. Station ALOHA is the field site of the Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) program that has investigated physical and biogeochemical variability of the water column near-monthly since 1988. The abyssal near bottom acoustic Doppler profiler data are showing stronger than expected internal tide flows and turbulence 20-80 m above bottom. In this oligotrophic environment, the video camera has detected significant biological activity. Acoustic data collected on two hydrophones clearly show very high call density of baleen whales during September-May and sperm whale choruses spread throughout the year. Recent Navy exercises provided examples of anthropogenic sounds. We are also monitoring in real time an acoustic "heartbeat" signal from the nearby HOT Profiler mooring (M. Alford et al.). ACO operation over the last year continues to provide valuable lessons. Several failures occurred at or during deployment, including two ground faults that have isolated two CTDs, a fluorometer, and an acoustic modem from the system. Two independent LED light systems failed after 4 and 6 weeks. Most recently, the pressure sensor has failed perhaps due to loss of vacuum in the quartz crystal chamber. The one remaining conductivity/temperature sensor is episodically, but strongly, affected by thermal plume signatures from the nearby power supply. Understanding the reasons for these failures and limitations will be necessary to improve the methodologies for sustained long-term abyssal measurements. This will be well worth the effort, as suggested by the surprisingly rich video, ADCP, and acoustic data sets.

  15. Case-Based Learning: A Formal Approach to Generate Health Case Studies from Electronic Healthcare Records.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Fabrizio L; Consorti, Fabrizio; Gentile, Manuel; Messineo, Linda; La Guardia, Dario; Arrigo, Marco; Allegra, Mario

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing social pressure to train medical students with a level of competency sufficient to face clinical practice already at the end of their curriculum. The case-based learning (CBL) is an efficient teaching method to prepare students for clinical practice through the use of real or realistic clinical cases. In this regard, the Electronic Healthcare Record (EHR) could be a good source of real patient stories that can be transformed into educative cases. In this paper a formal approach to generate Health Case Studies from EHR is defined. PMID:27071887

  16. Problem- and Case-Based Learning in Science: An Introduction to Distinctions, Values, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Allchin, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Case-based learning and problem-based learning have demonstrated great promise in reforming science education. Yet an instructor, in newly considering this suite of interrelated pedagogical strategies, faces a number of important instructional choices. Different features and their related values and learning outcomes are profiled here, including: the level of student autonomy; instructional focus on content, skills development, or nature-of-science understanding; the role of history, or known outcomes; scope, clarity, and authenticity of problems provided to students; extent of collaboration; complexity, in terms of number of interpretive perspectives; and, perhaps most importantly, the role of applying versus generating knowledge. PMID:24006385

  17. Problem- and case-based learning in science: an introduction to distinctions, values, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Allchin, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Case-based learning and problem-based learning have demonstrated great promise in reforming science education. Yet an instructor, in newly considering this suite of interrelated pedagogical strategies, faces a number of important instructional choices. Different features and their related values and learning outcomes are profiled here, including: the level of student autonomy; instructional focus on content, skills development, or nature-of-science understanding; the role of history, or known outcomes; scope, clarity, and authenticity of problems provided to students; extent of collaboration; complexity, in terms of number of interpretive perspectives; and, perhaps most importantly, the role of applying versus generating knowledge. PMID:24006385

  18. A fuzzy case based reasoning tool for model based approach to rocket engine health monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krovvidy, Srinivas; Nolan, Adam; Hu, Yong-Lin; Wee, William G.

    1992-01-01

    In this system we develop a fuzzy case based reasoner that can build a case representation for several past anomalies detected, and we develop case retrieval methods that can be used to index a relevant case when a new problem (case) is presented using fuzzy sets. The choice of fuzzy sets is justified by the uncertain data. The new problem can be solved using knowledge of the model along with the old cases. This system can then be used to generalize the knowledge from previous cases and use this generalization to refine the existing model definition. This in turn can help to detect failures using the model based algorithms.

  19. Systems biology: the reincarnation of systems theory applied in biology?

    PubMed

    Wolkenhauer, O

    2001-09-01

    With the availability of quantitative data on the transcriptome and proteome level, there is an increasing interest in formal mathematical models of gene expression and regulation. International conferences, research institutes and research groups concerned with systems biology have appeared in recent years and systems theory, the study of organisation and behaviour per se, is indeed a natural conceptual framework for such a task. This is, however, not the first time that systems theory has been applied in modelling cellular processes. Notably in the 1960s systems theory and biology enjoyed considerable interest among eminent scientists, mathematicians and engineers. Why did these early attempts vanish from research agendas? Here we shall review the domain of systems theory, its application to biology and the lessons that can be learned from the work of Robert Rosen. Rosen emerged from the early developments in the 1960s as a main critic but also developed a new alternative perspective to living systems, a concept that deserves a fresh look in the post-genome era of bioinformatics. PMID:11589586

  20. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Describes equipment, activities, and experiments useful in biology and environmental education instruction, including, among others, sampling in ecology using an overhead projector, the slide finder as an aid to microscopy, teaching kidney function, and teaching wildlife conservation-sand dune systems. (SK)

  1. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents information on the teaching of nutrition (including new information relating to many current O-level syllabi) and part 16 of a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Also includes a note on using earthworms as a source of material for teaching meiosis. (JN)

  2. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents content information and/or laboratory procedures and experiments on different biology topics including small-scale cultivation of watercress and its use in water-culture experiments, microbiology of the phylloplane, use of mouthbrooders in science class, and the gene. (DC)

  3. Scaffolded biology.

    PubMed

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology. PMID:27287514

  4. Cancer Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominiecki, Mary E.

    2004-01-01

    University of Colorado's Virtual Student Fellowship available at and developed by Bakemeier, Richard F. This website is designed to give students applying for a fellowship an overview of basic topics in biology and how they are used by cancer researchers to develop new treatments.

  5. Biology Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes nine biology experiments, including osmosis, genetics; oxygen content of blood, enzymes in bean seedlings, preparation of bird skins, vascularization in bean seedlings, a game called "sequences" (applied to review situations), crossword puzzle for human respiration, and physiology of the woodlouse. (CS)

  6. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Organized by topic is a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Described are experiments for measuring rate of water uptake in a shoot; questions to aid students in designing experiments; rise of overhead projection to demonstrate osmosis and blood cell counting; and microbial manufacture of vinegar. (CS)

  7. Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  8. (Biological dosimetry)

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.J.

    1990-12-17

    The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

  9. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Outlines a variety of laboratory procedures, techniques, and materials including construction of a survey frame for field biology, a simple tidal system, isolation and applications of plant protoplasts, tropisms, teaching lung structure, and a key to statistical methods for biologists. (DS)

  10. Bottle Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jager, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Describes activities which utilize plastic drink bottles and are designed to foster the development of a wide range of biological and ecological concepts. Includes instructions for making a model compost column and presents a model that illustrates open versus closed ecosystems. (DDR)

  11. Sverdrup's Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowan, J.

    2002-12-01

    Sverdrup's contribution to Biological Oceanography were more than merely substantial, they were of fundamental importance. His plan for the training of graduate students at Scripps did not recognize the traditional division of the basic disciplines into separate categories of physics, chemistry, biology and geology. He insisted that Oceanography was a multi-disciplinary subject and that all entering students should study all four subjects. Today this is not very unusual but it was in the early 50s when I took those courses. We biologists carried away from those courses an appreciation of the importance of both spatial and temporal scale. It was of clear relevance to problems of oceanic population and community biology. But there was still more to his biology. He is responsible for a very simple, but very elegant model of the regulation of oceanic primary productivity. The elements of this model are found today in the ten or so highly derivative models. He also published a map predicting global ocean productivity based on the ideas in the model plus some wonderfully intuitive thinking. This map does not differ strongly from those glorious false color ones being published today.

  12. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including water relation exercise on auxin-treated artichoke tuber tissue; aerobic respiration in yeast; an improved potometer; use of mobiles in biological classification, and experiments on powdery mildews and banana polyphenol oxidase. Includes reading lists…

  13. Lessons for (and from) America.

    PubMed

    Klein, Rudolf

    2003-01-01

    Drawing lessons from international experience for health care reform in the United States requires striking a difficult balance between historical determinism and free will, between cynical pessimism and naïve optimism. The key to this puzzle may lie in a paradox: the United States is the most successful exporter of public health policy ideas and instruments yet has failed to build an effective health care system. General ideas (like notions about the role of competition) and microinstruments (like diagnosis-related groups) travel better than do health care systems. Ideas can be adapted to local circumstances, and instruments may easily fit into preexisting systems. Importing systems from countries with different histories and institutions would require a tectonic shift in the American political landscape. PMID:12511387

  14. Team Collaboration: Lessons Learned Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arterberrie, Rhonda Y.; Eubanks, Steven W.; Kay, Dennis R.; Prahst, Stephen E.; Wenner, David P.

    2005-01-01

    An Agency team collaboration pilot was conducted from July 2002 until June 2003 and then extended for an additional year. The objective of the pilot was to assess the value of collaboration tools and adoption processes as applied to NASA teams. In an effort to share knowledge and experiences, the lessons that have been learned thus far are documented in this report. Overall, the pilot has been successful. An entire system has been piloted - tools, adoption, and support. The pilot consisted of two collaboration tools, a team space and a virtual team meeting capability. Of the two tools that were evaluated, the team meeting tool has been more widely accepted. Though the team space tool has been met with a lesser degree of acceptance, the need for such a tool in the NASA environment has been evidenced. Both adoption techniques and support were carefully developed and implemented in a way that has been well received by the pilot participant community.

  15. Lessons from the Georgia floods.

    PubMed Central

    Clinton, J J; Hagebak, B R; Sirmons, J G; Brennan, J A

    1995-01-01

    In July 1994, tropical storm Alberto brought heavy rains to parts of Alabama, Florida, and Georgia. In South Georgia, rivers rose 44 feet above flood stage, muddy water covered 10,000 square miles, and 31 lives were lost. In implementing the Health and Medical Services portion of the FEMA Federal Response Plan, the Public Health Service learned lessons from this experience that can be applied to planning for other natural disasters. Continuous reassessment to assure the best utilization of resources in rapidly changing conditions, cross-training in the content of emergency plans at all levels, and on-going face-to-face liaison among response managers will improve response efforts. Populations with special medical needs must become part of any response design. The effects that any response activity may have on the community as a whole should be carefully considered before action is taken. Images p685-a p687-a PMID:8570818

  16. Drug discovery: lessons from evolution

    PubMed Central

    Warren, John

    2011-01-01

    A common view within the pharmaceutical industry is that there is a problem with drug discovery and we should do something about it. There is much sympathy for this from academics, regulators and politicians. In this article I propose that lessons learnt from evolution help identify those factors that favour successful drug discovery. This personal view is influenced by a decade spent reviewing drug development programmes submitted for European regulatory approval. During the prolonged gestation of a new medicine few candidate molecules survive. This process of elimination of many variants and the survival of so few has much in common with evolution, an analogy that encourages discussion of the forces that favour, and those that hinder, successful drug discovery. Imagining a world without vaccines, anaesthetics, contraception and anti-infectives reveals how medicines revolutionized humanity. How to manipulate conditions that favour such discoveries is worth consideration. PMID:21395642

  17. Psychiatric lessons learned in Kandahar.

    PubMed

    Jetly, Rakesh

    2011-12-01

    Not since the Korean War have the Canadian Forces engaged in combat missions like those in Afghanistan. Combat, asymmetric warfare, violent insurgency and the constant threat of improvised explosive devices all contribute to the psychological stressors experienced by Canadian soldiers. Mental health teams deployed with the soldiers and provided assessment, treatment and education. Lessons learned included refuting the myth that all psychological disorders would be related to trauma; confirming that most patients do well after exposure to trauma; confirming that treating disorders in a war zone requires flexible and creative adaptation of civilian treatment guidelines; and confirming that in a combat mission mental health practice is not limited to the clinical setting. PMID:22099328

  18. Video 7 of 8: Lesson Presentation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Review of the lesson: How to use LAS; how to use the overlay graph; how to interpret the data; and how to find locations in the United States. Students from Mr. Bradshaw's class discuss their findi...

  19. Lessons learned in organizing for performance

    SciTech Connect

    Long, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    Lessons learned from the Three Mile Island accident are described. The effectiveness of the General Public Utilities Corporation in the decontamination/support issues and restart of the three mile unit-1 reactor, is discussed.

  20. Population Education: Lessons for a Changing World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Pamela

    1996-01-01

    Considers the global effects of a rapidly growing population combined with dwindling natural resources and how these issues might be addressed in the classroom. Includes a population education lesson plan, guiding principles, list of resources, and suggested activities. (MJP)

  1. Beyond the Guidelines: Practical lessons for monitoring.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, L H; Smart, A

    1993-07-01

    A series of workshops have provided extensive feedback on a recently published manual, Monitoring Guidelines to Evaluate Effects of Forestry Activities on Streams in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska (Guidelines) (MacDonald et al., 1991). These workshops and other discussions have led to the identification of fourteen additional 'lessons' for monitoring. These lessons are concepts which either were not incorporated into the Guidelines, were not sufficiently emphasized, or which are needed to put the Guidelines in context. The topics include: monitoring as a continuum; defining objectives and hypotheses; peer review; uncertainty and risk; upslope vs. instream monitoring; photo sequences; scale considerations; data storage, data interpretation, and data base management; 'activities monitoring'; and personal commitment as a critical component in monitoring projects. Many of these lessons might appear self-evident, but our experience indicates that they are often ignored. Like the Guidelines, these lessons are widely applicable and should be explicitly recognized when formulating and conducting monitoring projects. PMID:24220836

  2. Video 8 of 8: Other Available Lessons

    NASA Video Gallery

    Two other lessons are March of the Polar Bears and Scientist Tracking Network. In the March of the Polar Bears, the students track the polar bears by looking at sea ice and surface temperature data...

  3. Lessons Learned from Laparoscopic Gastric Banding.

    PubMed

    Broadbent

    1993-11-01

    The author reviews 27 laparoscopic gastric banding operations, of which 19 cases were completed. Of the 27 operations, eight were revisions of earlier laparoscopic banding. The lessons learned from these cases are highlighted. PMID:10757955

  4. Daisy Shooting Education. 10 Lesson Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narcheaur, Mary Elizabeth; And Others

    This instructor's manual is a ten lesson curriculum designed to instruct young shooters in the skills of proper gun handling and marksmanship. Gunology (knowledge of guns and ammunition) and rules for air rifle competition are also discussed. (CJ)

  5. Experimental Garden Plots for Botany Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorodnicheva, V. V.; Vasil'eva, E. I.

    1976-01-01

    Discussion of the botany lessons used at two schools points out the need for fifth and sixth grade students to be taught the principles of plant life through observations made at an experimental garden plot at the school. (ND)

  6. Lovable Lessons from the Creature Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffer, William

    1975-01-01

    Article suggested that if teachers are adequate to the task, all manner of lessons can be drawn from pets. These run the gamut from math to language skills to social sciences to sex education. (Author/RK)

  7. An indexing system of corrosion failures for case-based reasoning

    SciTech Connect

    Roberge, P.R.; Trethewey, K.R.

    1996-10-01

    The difficulties associated with the committal of human expert knowledge to computers for the development of more effective knowledge-based systems have raised the possibility of mimicking the process of reasoning from previous experiences. Experts are known to make proficient decisions based more upon analogy with similar events and situations than the kind of sequential mechanisms used in many algorithmic approaches. For many years, both law and business schools have used cases as the foundation for knowledge in their respective disciplines. Computer reasoning by analogy, a technique known as Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) has met with tangible success in such diverse human decision-making applications as banking, autoclave loading, tactical decision-making, and foreign trade negotiations. Failure analysts and corrosion engineers also reason by analogy when faced with new situations or problems. The CBR approach is particularly valuable in cases containing ill-structured problems, uncertainty, ambiguity, and missing data. Dynamic environments can also be tackled, or when there are shifting, ill-defined and competing objectives. Cases where there are action feedback loops, multiple human involvement, and multiple and potentially changing organizational goals and norms can also be tackled. This paper describes a method of indexing case histories for use in a case-based reasoning system in support of failure analysis.

  8. Assessment of case-based integrated learning as a part of dental curriculum reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadershahi, Nader A.

    There has been a growing call for change in the management of dental education programs, and, in response to this call, the faculty and staff at the University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry developed the Pacific Dental Helix Curriculum management model. The first major component of this curriculum was the development of the Integrated Clinical Science Strand of the Helix focused on multidisciplinary and case-based andragogies. The mixed method research design was used to identify common aspects of Case-Based Learning and multi-disciplinary teaching through a qualitative analysis of curricular materials and to analyze their impact on selected student outcomes of pre and post-change through statistical analysis. The outcomes chosen for the quantitative portion were surrogate measures of National Board Scores and grade point averages to represent knowledge and skills. The overall analysis of the quantitative data shows negligible impact on the outcomes being measured. We know from the literature that active learning models motivate and engage students at a higher level in their learning and better prepare them to solve problems creatively versus a traditional educational model, so it is significant to see that there were no decreases in performance with a move to a more engaging curriculum. This study offers foundational information for future curriculum design, pedagogy, and assessment.

  9. Retrieval with Clustering in a Case-Based Reasoning System for Radiotherapy Treatment Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khussainova, Gulmira; Petrovic, Sanja; Jagannathan, Rupa

    2015-05-01

    Radiotherapy treatment planning aims to deliver a sufficient radiation dose to cancerous tumour cells while sparing healthy organs in the tumour surrounding area. This is a trial and error process highly dependent on the medical staff's experience and knowledge. Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) is an artificial intelligence tool that uses past experiences to solve new problems. A CBR system has been developed to facilitate radiotherapy treatment planning for brain cancer. Given a new patient case the existing CBR system retrieves a similar case from an archive of successfully treated patient cases with the suggested treatment plan. The next step requires adaptation of the retrieved treatment plan to meet the specific demands of the new case. The CBR system was tested by medical physicists for the new patient cases. It was discovered that some of the retrieved cases were not suitable and could not be adapted for the new cases. This motivated us to revise the retrieval mechanism of the existing CBR system by adding a clustering stage that clusters cases based on their tumour positions. A number of well-known clustering methods were investigated and employed in the retrieval mechanism. Results using real world brain cancer patient cases have shown that the success rate of the new CBR retrieval is higher than that of the original system.

  10. CaseWorld: Authentic Case-Based Learning Simulating Healthcare Practice.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Katie; Parker, Steve; Gillham, David; Wright, Victoria; Cornell, Jackie

    2015-10-01

    Health educators in Australia are challenged by the need to provide clinically relevant education to large numbers of students across a wide range of specialties. This situation is compounded by changed student demographics, new technologies in both the workplace and university, and decreased access to clinical placement opportunities for students. This article describes an innovative response addressing nurse education priorities and implemented in the School of Nursing at Flinders University South Australia, involving the development of CaseWorld, a prototype virtual case-based learning environment. CaseWorld implementation was unique because large-scale innovation occurred as part of routine curriculum development. This was challenging as there was limited opportunity for prototype evaluation before student use, thus necessitating a flexible implementation process. The outcome was the development of scripted unfolding cases that provide students with low-fidelity simulation enhanced by multimedia. Students engage with cases based on real patient experiences, which are modified to protect confidentiality. These authentic cases provide the basis for the development of critical-thinking and decision-making skills as students problem solve issues and identify priorities for nursing care, explain the pathophysiology, and respond to simulated patient complaints. CaseWorld was modified in response to evaluation data from surveys and focus groups, and the revised version is discussed in terms of its implementation in nursing and planned use across multiple health sciences disciplines. PMID:26176635

  11. Case-based pedagogy as a context for collaborative inquiry in the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arellano, Elvira L.; Barcenal, Tessie L.; Bilbao, Purita P.; Castellano, Merilin A.; Nichols, Sharon; Tippins, Deborah J.

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential for using case-based pedagogy as a context for collaborative inquiry into the teaching and learning of elementary science. The context for this study was the elementary science teacher preparation program at West Visayas State University on the the island of Panay in Iloilo City, the Philippines. In this context, triple linguistic conventions involving the interactions of the local Ilonggo dialect, the national language of Philipino (predominantly Tagalog) and English create unique challenges for science teachers. Participants in the study included six elementary student teachers, their respective critic teachers and a research team composed of four Filipino and two U.S. science teacher educators. Two teacher-generated case narratives serve as the centerpiece for deliberation, around which we highlight key tensions that reflect both the struggles and positive aspects of teacher learning that took place. Theoretical perspectives drawn from assumptions underlying the use of case-based pedagogy and scholarship surrounding the community metaphor as a referent for science education curriculum inquiry influenced our understanding of tensions at the intersection of re-presentation of science, authority of knowledge, and professional practice, at the intersection of not shared language, explicit moral codes, and indigenization, and at the intersection of identity and dilemmas in science teaching. Implications of this study are discussed with respect to the building of science teacher learning communities in both local and global contexts of reform.

  12. Logistics Lessons Learned in NASA Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, William A.; DeWeck, Olivier; Laufer, Deanna; Shull, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration sets out a number of goals, involving both strategic and tactical objectives. These include returning the Space Shuttle to flight, completing the International Space Station, and conducting human expeditions to the Moon by 2020. Each of these goals has profound logistics implications. In the consideration of these objectives,a need for a study on NASA logistics lessons learned was recognized. The study endeavors to identify both needs for space exploration and challenges in the development of past logistics architectures, as well as in the design of space systems. This study may also be appropriately applied as guidance in the development of an integrated logistics architecture for future human missions to the Moon and Mars. This report first summarizes current logistics practices for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and the International Space Station (ISS) and examines the practices of manifesting, stowage, inventory tracking, waste disposal, and return logistics. The key findings of this examination are that while the current practices do have many positive aspects, there are also several shortcomings. These shortcomings include a high-level of excess complexity, redundancy of information/lack of a common database, and a large human-in-the-loop component. Later sections of this report describe the methodology and results of our work to systematically gather logistics lessons learned from past and current human spaceflight programs as well as validating these lessons through a survey of the opinions of current space logisticians. To consider the perspectives on logistics lessons, we searched several sources within NASA, including organizations with direct and indirect connections with the system flow in mission planning. We utilized crew debriefs, the John Commonsense lessons repository for the JSC Mission Operations Directorate, and the Skylab Lessons Learned. Additionally, we searched the public version of the Lessons Learned

  13. Water in Biological and Chemical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagchi, Biman

    2013-11-01

    Part I. Bulk Water: 1. Uniqueness of water; 2. Anomalies of water; 3. Dynamics of water: molecular motions and hydrogen bond breaking kinetics; 4. Inherent structures of liquid water; 5. pH of water; Part II. Water in Biology: Dynamical View and Function: 6. Biological water; 7. Explicit role of water in biological functions; 8. Hydration of proteins; 9. Can we understand protein hydration layer: lessons from computer simulations; 10. Water in and around DNA and RNA; 11. Role of water in protein-DNA interaction; 12. Water surrounding lipid bilayers; 13. Water in Darwin's world; Part III. Water in Complex Chemical Systems: 14. Hydrophilic effects; 15. Hydrophobic effects; 16. Aqueous binary mixtures: amphiphilic effect; 17. Water in and around micelles, reverse micelles and microemulsions; 18. Water in carbon nanotubes; Part IV. Bulk Water: Advanced Topics: 19. Entropy of water; 20. Freezing of water into ice; 21. Supercritical water; 22. Microscopic approaches to understand water anomalies.

  14. Preparing synthetic biology for the world

    PubMed Central

    Moe-Behrens, Gerd H. G.; Davis, Rene; Haynes, Karmella A.

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic Biology promises low-cost, exponentially scalable products and global health solutions in the form of self-replicating organisms, or “living devices.” As these promises are realized, proof-of-concept systems will gradually migrate from tightly regulated laboratory or industrial environments into private spaces as, for instance, probiotic health products, food, and even do-it-yourself bioengineered systems. What additional steps, if any, should be taken before releasing engineered self-replicating organisms into a broader user space? In this review, we explain how studies of genetically modified organisms lay groundwork for the future landscape of biosafety. Early in the design process, biological engineers are anticipating potential hazards and developing innovative tools to mitigate risk. Here, we survey lessons learned, ongoing efforts to engineer intrinsic biocontainment, and how different stakeholders in synthetic biology can act to accomplish best practices for biosafety. PMID:23355834

  15. Prop Demonstrations in Biology Lectures Facilitate Student Learning and Performance†

    PubMed Central

    Tamari, Farshad; Bonney, Kevin M.; Polizzotto, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Science students can benefit from visual aids. In biology lectures, visual aids are usually limited to tables, figures, and PowerPoint presentations. In this IRB-approved study, we examined the effectiveness of the use of five prop demonstrations, three of which are at the intersection of biology and chemistry, in three community college biology courses. We hypothesized that students’ performance on test questions is enhanced by the use of prop demonstrations. Consistent with our hypothesis, we showed that students learn more effectively and perform better on questions that relate to demonstrations than on questions related to lessons that do not have a demonstration component. PMID:25949751

  16. Prop demonstrations in biology lectures facilitate student learning and performance.

    PubMed

    Tamari, Farshad; Bonney, Kevin M; Polizzotto, Kristin

    2015-05-01

    Science students can benefit from visual aids. In biology lectures, visual aids are usually limited to tables, figures, and PowerPoint presentations. In this IRB-approved study, we examined the effectiveness of the use of five prop demonstrations, three of which are at the intersection of biology and chemistry, in three community college biology courses. We hypothesized that students' performance on test questions is enhanced by the use of prop demonstrations. Consistent with our hypothesis, we showed that students learn more effectively and perform better on questions that relate to demonstrations than on questions related to lessons that do not have a demonstration component. PMID:25949751

  17. Spare the Rod: Due Process re School Discipline. Second Edition. A Student's Lesson Plan [and] A Teacher's Lesson Plan [and] A Lawyer's Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Estelle; And Others

    One of a series of secondary level teaching units presenting case studies with pro and con analyses of particular legal problems, the document presents a student's lesson plan, a teacher's lesson plan, and a lawyer's lesson plan designed to expose students to the concept of procedural due process with particular reference to the Supreme Court's…

  18. Finders Keepers: Property Rights of a Finder. A Student's Lesson Plan [and] A Teacher's Lesson Plan [and] A Lawyer's Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Estelle; And Others

    One of a series of secondary level teaching units presenting case studies with pro and con analyses of particular legal problems, the document presents a student's lesson plan, a teacher's lesson plan, and a lawyer's lesson plan designed to expose students to the basic concepts of "ownership" of personal property and how courts decide in favor of…

  19. With Interest It Comes To...Unconscionable Clauses in Sales Contracts. A Student's Lesson Plan [and] A Teacher's Lesson Plan [and] A Lawyer's Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Estelle; And Others

    One of a series of secondary level teaching units presenting case studies with pro and con analysis of particular legal problems, the document presents a student's lesson plan, a teacher's lesson plan, and a lawyer's lesson plan on unconscionable clauses in sales contracts. The unit acquaints students with the operation of sales contracts and…

  20. Acid in the environment: lessons learned and future prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Visgilio, Gerald R.; Whitelaw, Diana M.

    2007-07-01

    This book is the result of a conference held biannually at the Goodwin-Niering Center for Conservation Biology and Environmental Studies at Connecticut College. It uses an interdisciplinary approach to focus on important ecological impacts of acid deposition, the transboundary nature of the pollutants that cause acid rain, and domestic and international policies designed to reduce the emission of these pollutants. The book combines research findings and the policy analyses of experts from different academic disciplines with the positions advanced by representatives of various nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). The sixteen papers are arranged in four parts entitled: ecological impacts of acid deposition; acid emissions energy and policy; sulfur dioxide and the market; and lessons learned and future prospects.