Sample records for caspase-2 mediated apoptotic

  1. Caspase-2 promotes cytoskeleton protein degradation during apoptotic cell death

    PubMed Central

    Vakifahmetoglu-Norberg, H; Norberg, E; Perdomo, A B; Olsson, M; Ciccosanti, F; Orrenius, S; Fimia, G M; Piacentini, M; Zhivotovsky, B

    2013-01-01

    The caspase family of proteases cleaves large number of proteins resulting in major morphological and biochemical changes during apoptosis. Yet, only a few of these proteins have been reported to selectively cleaved by caspase-2. Numerous observations link caspase-2 to the disruption of the cytoskeleton, although it remains elusive whether any of the cytoskeleton proteins serve as bona fide substrates for caspase-2. Here, we undertook an unbiased proteomic approach to address this question. By differential proteome analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we identified four cytoskeleton proteins that were degraded upon treatment with active recombinant caspase-2 in vitro. These proteins were degraded in a caspase-2-dependent manner during apoptosis induced by DNA damage, cytoskeleton disruption or endoplasmic reticulum stress. Hence, degradation of these cytoskeleton proteins was blunted by siRNA targeting of caspase-2 and when caspase-2 activity was pharmacologically inhibited. However, none of these proteins was cleaved directly by caspase-2. Instead, we provide evidence that in cells exposed to apoptotic stimuli, caspase-2 probed these proteins for proteasomal degradation. Taken together, our results depict a new role for caspase-2 in the regulation of the level of cytoskeleton proteins during apoptosis. PMID:24309927

  2. Caspase-2 promotes cytoskeleton protein degradation during apoptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Vakifahmetoglu-Norberg, H; Norberg, E; Perdomo, A B; Olsson, M; Ciccosanti, F; Orrenius, S; Fimia, G M; Piacentini, M; Zhivotovsky, B

    2013-01-01

    The caspase family of proteases cleaves large number of proteins resulting in major morphological and biochemical changes during apoptosis. Yet, only a few of these proteins have been reported to selectively cleaved by caspase-2. Numerous observations link caspase-2 to the disruption of the cytoskeleton, although it remains elusive whether any of the cytoskeleton proteins serve as bona fide substrates for caspase-2. Here, we undertook an unbiased proteomic approach to address this question. By differential proteome analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we identified four cytoskeleton proteins that were degraded upon treatment with active recombinant caspase-2 in vitro. These proteins were degraded in a caspase-2-dependent manner during apoptosis induced by DNA damage, cytoskeleton disruption or endoplasmic reticulum stress. Hence, degradation of these cytoskeleton proteins was blunted by siRNA targeting of caspase-2 and when caspase-2 activity was pharmacologically inhibited. However, none of these proteins was cleaved directly by caspase-2. Instead, we provide evidence that in cells exposed to apoptotic stimuli, caspase-2 probed these proteins for proteasomal degradation. Taken together, our results depict a new role for caspase-2 in the regulation of the level of cytoskeleton proteins during apoptosis. PMID:24309927

  3. ARC protects rat cardiomyocytes against oxidative stress through inhibition of caspase-2 mediated mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Qiang; Herman, Brian

    2006-10-01

    Apoptosis repressor with a CARD domain (ARC) has been demonstrated to protect heart cells against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which ARC protects heart cells against oxidative stress. We monitored the extent of apoptosis and activity of multiple components of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in rat cardiac myoblast cell line H9c2 with either reduced or increased expression of ARC during oxidative stress. Overexpression of ARC-inhibited oxidative stress-induced caspase-2/3 activation, cytochrome c release, and translocation of Bax to mitochondria. Furthermore, phosphorylation of ARC at threonine 149 was found to be critical to its function. ARC containing a T149A mutation failed to translocate to mitochondria, did not inhibit caspase-2 activation, and had a dominant negative effect against the protective effect of endogenous ARC during oxidative stress. In addition, wild-type ARC but not the T149A mutant inhibited cell death induced by overexpression of caspase-2. Using a yeast two-hybrid (YTH) screening approach and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP), we found that protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) interacted with ARC and that PP2C mediated-dephosphorylation of ARC inhibited its anti-apoptotic activity. Eliminating either the N-terminal CARD domain or the C-terminal P/E domain also abolished the anti-apoptotic function of ARC, suggesting that full-length ARC is required for its apoptotic inhibition. These results indicate that ARC plays an important role in protection of H9c2 cells against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by phosphorylation-dependent suppression of the mitochondria-mediated intrinsic pathway, partially initiated through the activation of caspase-2. PMID:16639714

  4. Metabolic control of oocyte apoptosis mediated by 14-3-3?-regulated dephosphorylation of caspase-2

    PubMed Central

    Nutt, Leta K.; Buchakjian, Marisa R.; Gan, Eugene; Darbandi, Rashid; Yoon, Sook-Young; Wu, Judy Q.; Miyamoto, Yuko J.; Gibbon, Jennifer A.; Andersen, Josh L.; Freel, Christopher D.; Tang, Wanli; He, Changli; Kurokawa, Manabu; Wang, Yongjun; Margolis, Seth S.; Fissore, Rafael A.; Kornbluth, Sally

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Xenopus oocyte death is partly controlled by the apoptotic initiator, caspase-2. We reported previously that oocyte nutrient depletion activates caspase-2 upstream of mitochondrial cytochrome c release. Conversely, nutrient-replete oocytes inhibit caspase-2 via S135 phosphorylation catalyzed by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. We now show that caspase-2 phosphorylated at S135 binds 14-3-3?, thus preventing caspase-2 dephosphorylation. Moreover, we determined that S135 dephosphorylation is catalyzed by protein phosphatase-1, which directly binds caspase-2. Although caspase-2 dephosphorylation is responsive to metabolism, neither PP1 activity nor binding is metabolically regulated. Rather, release of 14-3-3? from caspase-2 is controlled by metabolism and allows for caspase-2 dephosphorylation. Accordingly, a caspase-2 mutant unable to bind 14-3-3? is highly susceptible to dephosphorylation. Although this mechanism was initially established in Xenopus, we now demonstrate similar control of murine caspase-2 by phosphorylation and 14-3-3 binding in mouse eggs. These findings provide an unexpected evolutionary link between 14-3-3 and metabolism in oocyte death. PMID:19531356

  5. Attenuation of the ELAV1-like protein HuR sensitizes adenocarcinoma cells to the intrinsic apoptotic pathway by increasing the translation of caspase-2L

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, C; Doller, A; Imre, G; Badawi, A; Schmid, T; Schulz, S; Steinmeyer, N; Pfeilschifter, J; Rajalingam, K; Eberhardt, W

    2014-01-01

    Caspase-2 represents the most conserved member of the caspase family, which exhibits features of both initiator and effector caspases. Using ribonucleoprotein (RNP)-immunoprecipitation assay, we identified the proapoptotic caspase-2L encoding mRNA as a novel target of the ubiquitous RNA-binding protein HuR in DLD-1 colon carcinoma cells. Unexpectedly, crosslinking-RNP and RNA probe pull-down experiments revealed that HuR binds exclusively to the caspase-2-5? untranslated region (UTR) despite that the 3? UTR of the mRNA bears several adenylate- and uridylate-rich elements representing the prototypical HuR binding sites. By using RNAi-mediated loss-of-function approach, we observed that HuR regulates the mRNA and in turn the protein levels of caspase-2 in a negative manner. Silencing of HuR did not affect the stability of caspase-2 mRNA but resulted in an increased redistribution of caspase-2 transcripts from RNP particles to translational active polysomes implicating that HuR exerts a direct repressive effect on caspase-2 translation. Consistently, in vitro translation of a luciferase reporter gene under the control of an upstream caspase-2-5?UTR was strongly impaired after the addition of recombinant HuR, whereas translation of caspase-2 coding region without the 5?UTR is not affected by HuR confirming the functional role of the caspase-2-5?UTR. Functionally, an elevation in caspase-2 level by HuR knockdown correlated with an increased sensitivity of cells to apoptosis induced by staurosporine- and pore-forming toxins as implicated by their significant accumulation in the sub G1 phase and an increase in caspase-2, -3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage, respectively. Importantly, HuR knockdown cells remained insensitive toward STS-induced apoptosis if cells were additionally transfected with caspase-2-specific siRNAs. Collectively, our findings support the hypothesis that HuR by acting as an endogenous inhibitor of caspase-2-driven apoptosis may essentially contribute to the antiapoptotic program of adenocarcinoma cells by HuR. PMID:25010987

  6. Caspase-2-Mediated Cleavage of Mdm2 Creates a p53-Induced Positive Feedback Loop

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Trudy G.

    Caspase-2 is an evolutionarily conserved caspase, yet its biological function and cleavage targets are poorly understood. Caspase-2 is activated by the p53 target gene product PIDD (also known as LRDD) in a complex called ...

  7. Additive effects of nicotine and high-fat diet on hepatocellular apoptosis in mice: Involvement of caspase 2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase-mediated intrinsic pathway signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ivey, R.; Desai, M.; Green, K.; Sinha-Hikim, I.; Friedman, T. C.; Sinha-Hikim, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease and may contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The health risk associated with smoking is exaggerated by obesity and is the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We recently demonstrated that combined treatment with nicotine and a high-fat diet (HFD) triggers greater oxidative stress, activates hepatocellular apoptosis, and exacerbates HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Given that hepatocellular apoptosis plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD, using this model of exacerbated hepatic steatosis, we elucidated the signal transduction pathways involved in HFD plus nicotine-induced liver cell death. Adult C57BL6 male mice were fed a normal chow diet or HFD with 60% of calories derived from fat and received twice daily IP injections of 0.75 mg/kg BW of nicotine or saline for 10 weeks. High resolution light microscopy revealed markedly higher lipid accumulation in hepatocytes from mice received HFD plus nicotine, compared to mice on HFD alone. Addition of nicotine to HFD further resulted in an increase in the incidence of hepatocellular apoptosis and was associated with activation of caspase 2, induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and perturbation of the BAX/BCL-2 ratio. Together, our data indicate the involvement of caspase 2 and iNOS –mediated apoptotic signaling in nicotine plus HFD-induced hepatocellular apoptosis. Targeting the caspase 2-mediated death pathway may have a protective role in development and progression of NAFLD. PMID:24830635

  8. Caspase-2: the orphan caspase

    PubMed Central

    Bouchier-Hayes, L; Green, D R

    2012-01-01

    Despite an abundance of literature on the role of caspase-2 in apoptosis, there exists much controversy about this protease making it difficult to place caspase-2 correctly in the apoptotic cascade, and hence its role in apoptosis remains unclear. The identification of the PIDDosome as a signaling platform for caspase-2 activation prompted intense investigation into the true role of this orphan caspase. What has emerged is the idea that caspase-2 may not be mandatory for apoptosis and that activation of this caspase in response to some forms of stress has other effects on the cell such as regulation of cell cycle progression. This idea is particularly relevent to the discovery that caspase-2 may act as a tumor suppressor. Here, we discuss the proposed mechanisms through which caspase-2 signals, in particular those involving PIDD, and their impact on cellular fate. PMID:22075987

  9. Caspase-2 is essential for c-Jun transcriptional activation and Bim induction in neuron death.

    PubMed

    Jean, Ying Y; Ribe, Elena M; Pero, Maria Elena; Moskalenko, Marina; Iqbal, Zarah; Marks, Lianna J; Greene, Lloyd A; Troy, Carol M

    2013-10-01

    Neuronal apoptotic death generally requires de novo transcription, and activation of the transcription factor c-Jun has been shown to be necessary in multiple neuronal death paradigms. Caspase-2 has been implicated in death of neuronal and non-neuronal cells, but its relationship to transcriptional activation has not been clearly elucidated. In the present study, using two different neuronal apoptotic paradigms, ?-amyloid treatment and NGF (nerve growth factor) withdrawal, we examined the hierarchical role of caspase-2 activation in the transcriptional control of neuron death. Both paradigms induce rapid activation of caspase-2 as well as activation of the transcription factor c-Jun and subsequent induction of the pro-apoptotic BH3 (Bcl-homology domain 3)-only protein Bim (Bcl-2-interacting mediator of cell death). Caspase-2 activation is dependent on the adaptor protein RAIDD {RIP (receptor-interacting protein)-associated ICH-1 [ICE (interleukin-1?-converting enzyme)/CED-3 (cell-death determining 3) homologue 1] protein with a death domain}, and both caspase-2 and RAIDD are required for c-Jun activation and Bim induction. The present study thus shows that rapid caspase-2 activation is essential for c-Jun activation and Bim induction in neurons subjected to apoptotic stimuli. This places caspase-2 at an apical position in the apoptotic cascade and demonstrates for the first time that caspase-2 can regulate transcription. PMID:23815625

  10. Metabolic control of oocyte apoptosis mediated by 14-3-3zeta-regulated dephosphorylation of caspase-2.

    PubMed

    Nutt, Leta K; Buchakjian, Marisa R; Gan, Eugene; Darbandi, Rashid; Yoon, Sook-Young; Wu, Judy Q; Miyamoto, Yuko J; Gibbons, Jennifer A; Gibbon, Jennifer A; Andersen, Josh L; Freel, Christopher D; Tang, Wanli; He, Changli; Kurokawa, Manabu; Wang, Yongjun; Margolis, Seth S; Fissore, Rafael A; Kornbluth, Sally

    2009-06-01

    Xenopus oocyte death is partly controlled by the apoptotic initiator caspase-2 (C2). We reported previously that oocyte nutrient depletion activates C2 upstream of mitochondrial cytochrome c release. Conversely, nutrient-replete oocytes inhibit C2 via S135 phosphorylation catalyzed by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. We now show that C2 phosphorylated at S135 binds 14-3-3zeta, thus preventing C2 dephosphorylation. Moreover, we determined that S135 dephosphorylation is catalyzed by protein phosphatase-1 (PP1), which directly binds C2. Although C2 dephosphorylation is responsive to metabolism, neither PP1 activity nor binding is metabolically regulated. Rather, release of 14-3-3zeta from C2 is controlled by metabolism and allows for C2 dephosphorylation. Accordingly, a C2 mutant unable to bind 14-3-3zeta is highly susceptible to dephosphorylation. Although this mechanism was initially established in Xenopus, we now demonstrate similar control of murine C2 by phosphorylation and 14-3-3 binding in mouse eggs. These findings provide an unexpected evolutionary link between 14-3-3 and metabolism in oocyte death. PMID:19531356

  11. Divergent Modulation of Neuronal Differentiation by Caspase2 and -9

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppa Pistritto; Veruska Papaleo; Pilar Sanchez; Claudia Ceci; Maria Luisa Barbaccia

    2012-01-01

    Human Ntera2\\/cl.D1 (NT2) cells treated with retinoic acid (RA) differentiate towards a well characterized neuronal phenotype sharing many features with human fetal neurons. In view of the emerging role of caspases in murine stem cell\\/neural precursor differentiation, caspases activity was evaluated during RA differentiation. Caspase-2, -3 and -9 activity was transiently and selectively increased in differentiating and non-apoptotic NT2-cells. SiRNA-mediated

  12. Caspase2 redux

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CM Troy; ML Shelanski

    2003-01-01

    It has been difficult to assign caspase-2 to the effector or initiator caspase groups. It bears sequence homology to initiators (caspase-9 and CED-3), but its cleavage specificity is closer to the effectors (caspase-3 and -7). Interest in caspase-2 was dampened by the lack of a dramatic phenotype in the caspase-2 null mouse. Studies have been inhibited by the lack of

  13. Caspase-2 impacts lung tumorigenesis and chemotherapy response in vivo.

    PubMed

    Terry, M R; Arya, R; Mukhopadhyay, A; Berrett, K C; Clair, P M; Witt, B; Salama, M E; Bhutkar, A; Oliver, T G

    2015-04-01

    Caspase-2 is an atypical caspase that regulates apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and genome maintenance, although the mechanisms are not well understood. Caspase-2 has also been implicated in chemotherapy response in lung cancer, but this function has not been addressed in vivo. Here we show that Caspase-2 functions as a tumor suppressor in Kras-driven lung cancer in vivo. Loss of Caspase-2 leads to enhanced tumor proliferation and progression. Despite being more histologically advanced, Caspase-2-deficient tumors are sensitive to chemotherapy and exhibit a significant reduction in tumor volume following repeated treatment. However, Caspase-2-deficient tumors rapidly rebound from chemotherapy with enhanced proliferation, ultimately hindering long-term therapeutic benefit. In response to DNA damage, Caspase-2 cleaves and inhibits Mdm2 and thereby promotes the stability of the tumor-suppressor p53. Caspase-2 expression levels are significantly reduced in human lung tumors with wild-type p53, in agreement with the model whereby Caspase-2 functions through Mdm2/p53 regulation. Consistently, p53 target genes including p21, cyclin G1 and Msh2 are reduced in Caspase-2-deficient tumors. Finally, we show that phosphorylation of p53-induced protein with a death domain 1 leads to Caspase-2-mediated cleavage of Mdm2, directly impacting p53 levels, activity and chemotherapy response. Together, these studies elucidate a Caspase-2-p53 signaling network that impacts lung tumorigenesis and chemotherapy response in vivo. PMID:25301067

  14. Caspase-2 impacts lung tumorigenesis and chemotherapy response in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Terry, M R; Arya, R; Mukhopadhyay, A; Berrett, K C; Clair, P M; Witt, B; Salama, M E; Bhutkar, A; Oliver, T G

    2015-01-01

    Caspase-2 is an atypical caspase that regulates apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and genome maintenance, although the mechanisms are not well understood. Caspase-2 has also been implicated in chemotherapy response in lung cancer, but this function has not been addressed in vivo. Here we show that Caspase-2 functions as a tumor suppressor in Kras-driven lung cancer in vivo. Loss of Caspase-2 leads to enhanced tumor proliferation and progression. Despite being more histologically advanced, Caspase-2-deficient tumors are sensitive to chemotherapy and exhibit a significant reduction in tumor volume following repeated treatment. However, Caspase-2-deficient tumors rapidly rebound from chemotherapy with enhanced proliferation, ultimately hindering long-term therapeutic benefit. In response to DNA damage, Caspase-2 cleaves and inhibits Mdm2 and thereby promotes the stability of the tumor-suppressor p53. Caspase-2 expression levels are significantly reduced in human lung tumors with wild-type p53, in agreement with the model whereby Caspase-2 functions through Mdm2/p53 regulation. Consistently, p53 target genes including p21, cyclin G1 and Msh2 are reduced in Caspase-2-deficient tumors. Finally, we show that phosphorylation of p53-induced protein with a death domain 1 leads to Caspase-2-mediated cleavage of Mdm2, directly impacting p53 levels, activity and chemotherapy response. Together, these studies elucidate a Caspase-2-p53 signaling network that impacts lung tumorigenesis and chemotherapy response in vivo. PMID:25301067

  15. The role of caspase-2 in stress-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Bouchier-Hayes, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Caspase-2 is the most evolutionarily conserved of all the caspases, yet it has a poorly defined role in apoptotic pathways. This is mainly due to a dearth of techniques to determine the activation status of caspase-2 and the lack of an abnormal phenotype in caspase-2 deficient mice. Nevertheless, emerging evidence suggests that caspase-2 may have important functions in a number of stress-induced cell death pathways, in cell cycle maintenance and regulation of tumour progression. This review discusses recent advances that have been made to help elucidate the true role of this elusive caspase and the potential contribution of caspase-2 to the pathology of human diseases including cancer. PMID:20158568

  16. Natural Indoles, Indole-3-Carbinol (I3C) and 3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM), Attenuate Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B-Mediated Liver Injury by Downregulating miR-31 Expression and Promoting Caspase-2-Mediated Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Busbee, Philip B; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is a potent superantigen capable of inducing inflammation characterized by robust immune cell activation and proinflammatory cytokine release. Exposure to SEB can result in food poisoning as well as fatal conditions such as toxic shock syndrome. In the current study, we investigated the effect of natural indoles including indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) on SEB-mediated liver injury. Injection of SEB into D-galactosamine-sensitized female C57BL/6 mice resulted in liver injury as indicated by an increase in enzyme aspartate transaminase (AST) levels, induction of inflammatory cytokines, and massive infiltration of immune cells into the liver. Administration of I3C and DIM (40mg/kg), by intraperitonal injection, attenuated SEB-induced acute liver injury, as evidenced by decrease in AST levels, inflammatory cytokines and cellular infiltration in the liver. I3C and DIM triggered apoptosis in SEB-activated T cells primarily through activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. In addition, inhibitor studies involving caspases revealed that I3C and DIM-mediated apoptosis in these activated cells was dependent on caspase-2 but independent of caspase-8, 9 and 3. In addition, I3C and DIM caused a decrease in Bcl-2 expression. Both compounds also down-regulated miR-31, which directly targets caspase-2 and influences apoptosis in SEB-activated cells. Our data demonstrate for the first time that indoles can effectively suppress acute hepatic inflammation caused by SEB and that this may be mediated by decreased expression of miR-31 and consequent caspase-2-dependent apoptosis in T cells. PMID:25706292

  17. Natural Indoles, Indole-3-Carbinol (I3C) and 3,3’-Diindolylmethane (DIM), Attenuate Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B-Mediated Liver Injury by Downregulating miR-31 Expression and Promoting Caspase-2-Mediated Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Busbee, Philip B.; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is a potent superantigen capable of inducing inflammation characterized by robust immune cell activation and proinflammatory cytokine release. Exposure to SEB can result in food poisoning as well as fatal conditions such as toxic shock syndrome. In the current study, we investigated the effect of natural indoles including indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and 3,3’-diindolylmethane (DIM) on SEB-mediated liver injury. Injection of SEB into D-galactosamine-sensitized female C57BL/6 mice resulted in liver injury as indicated by an increase in enzyme aspartate transaminase (AST) levels, induction of inflammatory cytokines, and massive infiltration of immune cells into the liver. Administration of I3C and DIM (40mg/kg), by intraperitonal injection, attenuated SEB-induced acute liver injury, as evidenced by decrease in AST levels, inflammatory cytokines and cellular infiltration in the liver. I3C and DIM triggered apoptosis in SEB-activated T cells primarily through activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. In addition, inhibitor studies involving caspases revealed that I3C and DIM-mediated apoptosis in these activated cells was dependent on caspase-2 but independent of caspase-8, 9 and 3. In addition, I3C and DIM caused a decrease in Bcl-2 expression. Both compounds also down-regulated miR-31, which directly targets caspase-2 and influences apoptosis in SEB-activated cells. Our data demonstrate for the first time that indoles can effectively suppress acute hepatic inflammation caused by SEB and that this may be mediated by decreased expression of miR-31 and consequent caspase-2-dependent apoptosis in T cells. PMID:25706292

  18. Analysis of the minimal specificity of caspase-2 and identification of Ac-VDTTD-AFC as a caspase-2-selective peptide substrate

    PubMed Central

    Kitevska, Tanja; Roberts, Sarah J.; Pantaki-Eimany, Delara; Boyd, Sarah E.; Scott, Fiona L.; Hawkins, Christine J.

    2014-01-01

    Caspase-2 is an evolutionarily conserved but enigmatic protease whose biological role remains poorly understood. To date, research into the functions of caspase-2 has been hampered by an absence of reagents that can distinguish its activity from that of the downstream apoptotic caspase, caspase-3. Identification of protein substrates of caspase-2 that are efficiently cleaved within cells may also provide clues to the role of this protease. We used a yeast-based transcriptional reporter system to define the minimal substrate specificity of caspase-2. The resulting profile enabled the identification of candidate novel caspase-2 substrates. Caspase-2 cleaved one of these proteins, the cancer-associated transcription factor Runx1, although with relatively low efficiency. A fluorogenic peptide was derived from the sequence most efficiently cleaved in the context of the transcriptional reporter. This peptide, Ac-VDTTD-AFC, was efficiently cleaved by purified caspase-2 and auto-activating caspase-2 in mammalian cells, and exhibited better selectivity for caspase-2 relative to caspase-3 than reagents that are currently available. We suggest that this reagent, used in parallel with the traditional caspase-3 substrate Ac-DEVD-AFC, will enable researchers to monitor caspase-2 activity in cell lysates and may assist in the determination of stimuli that activate caspase-2 in vivo. PMID:24527765

  19. Doxorubicin Requires the Sequential Activation of Caspase2, Protein Kinase C?, and c-Jun NH2-terminal Kinase to Induce Apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theocharis Panaretakis; Edward Laane; Katja Pokrovskaja; Ann-Charlotte Bjorklund; Aristidis Moustakas; Boris Zhivotovsky; Mats Heyman; Maria C. Shoshan; Dan Grander

    2005-01-01

    Here, we identified caspase-2, protein kinase C (PKC), and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) as key components of the doxorubicin-induced apoptotic cascade. Using cells stably transfected with an antisense construct for caspase-2 (AS2) as well as a chemical caspase-2 inhibitor, we demonstrate that caspase-2 is required in doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. We also identified PKC as a novel caspase-2 substrate. PKC was cleaved\\/activated

  20. Caspase-2: Vestigial Remnant or Master Regulator?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Carol M. Troy (Departments of Pathology and Neurology; Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons REV)

    2008-09-23

    Caspase-2, the second mammalian caspase to be identified and the most evolutionarily conserved caspase, has eluded classification. The lack of a profound phenotype in the caspase-2–deficient mouse resulted in decreased interest in caspase-2 for many years. However, advances in the field, including the identification of a potential activation complex and the development of methods to detect active caspase-2, now illuminate our understanding of the function of this caspase. These studies suggest that caspase-2 induces death through two pathways. First, caspase-2 induces cell death independently of the mitochondrial pathway, in a manner similar to that of ced-3, a caspase in Caenorhabditis elegans. Second, caspase-2 also induces cell death upstream of the mitochondrial pathway. The choice of pathway may depend on the type of death stimulus. The placing of caspase-2 upstream and independent of mitochondrial dysfunction provides a potentially new therapeutic target for aberrant cell death.

  1. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Mediated Activation of p38 MAPK, Caspase-2 and Caspase-8 Leads to Abrin-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Ritu; Karande, Anjali A.

    2014-01-01

    Abrin from Abrus precatorius plant is a potent protein synthesis inhibitor and induces apoptosis in cells. However, the relationship between inhibition of protein synthesis and apoptosis is not well understood. Inhibition of protein synthesis by abrin can lead to accumulation of unfolded protein in the endoplasmic reticulum causing ER stress. The observation of phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2? and upregulation of CHOP (CAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein), important players involved in ER stress signaling by abrin, suggested activation of ER stress in the cells. ER stress is also known to induce apoptosis via stress kinases such as p38 MAPK and JNK. Activation of both the pathways was observed upon abrin treatment and found to be upstream of the activation of caspases. Moreover, abrin-induced apoptosis was found to be dependent on p38 MAPK but not JNK. We also observed that abrin induced the activation of caspase-2 and caspase-8 and triggered Bid cleavage leading to mitochondrial membrane potential loss and thus connecting the signaling events from ER stress to mitochondrial death machinery. PMID:24664279

  2. Ocular neuroprotection by siRNA targeting caspase-2

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Z; Kalinski, H; Berry, M; Almasieh, M; Ashush, H; Slager, N; Brafman, A; Spivak, I; Prasad, N; Mett, I; Shalom, E; Alpert, E; Di Polo, A; Feinstein, E; Logan, A

    2011-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss after optic nerve damage is a hallmark of certain human ophthalmic diseases including ischemic optic neuropathy (ION) and glaucoma. In a rat model of optic nerve transection, in which 80% of RGCs are eliminated within 14 days, caspase-2 was found to be expressed and cleaved (activated) predominantly in RGC. Inhibition of caspase-2 expression by a chemically modified synthetic short interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) delivered by intravitreal administration significantly enhanced RGC survival over a period of at least 30 days. This exogenously delivered siRNA could be found in RGC and other types of retinal cells, persisted inside the retina for at least 1 month and mediated sequence-specific RNA interference without inducing an interferon response. Our results indicate that RGC apoptosis induced by optic nerve injury involves activation of caspase-2, and that synthetic siRNAs designed to inhibit expression of caspase-2 represent potential neuroprotective agents for intervention in human diseases involving RGC loss. PMID:21677688

  3. Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 mediates the enhancement of apoptotic cell clearance by glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Lauber, K; Keppeler, H; Munoz, L E; Koppe, U; Schröder, K; Yamaguchi, H; Krönke, G; Uderhardt, S; Wesselborg, S; Belka, C; Nagata, S; Herrmann, M

    2013-09-01

    The phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells is essential to prevent chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. The phosphatidylserine-binding protein milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a major opsonin for apoptotic cells, and MFG-E8(-/-) mice spontaneously develop a lupus-like disease. Similar to human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the murine disease is associated with an impaired clearance of apoptotic cells. SLE is routinely treated with glucocorticoids (GCs), whose anti-inflammatory effects are consentaneously attributed to the transrepression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here, we show that the GC-mediated transactivation of MFG-E8 expression and the concomitantly enhanced elimination of apoptotic cells constitute a novel aspect in this context. Patients with chronic inflammation receiving high-dose prednisone therapy displayed substantially increased MFG-E8 mRNA levels in circulating monocytes. MFG-E8 induction was dependent on the GC receptor and several GC response elements within the MFG-E8 promoter. Most intriguingly, the inhibition of MFG-E8 induction by RNA interference or genetic knockout strongly reduced or completely abolished the phagocytosis-enhancing effect of GCs in vitro and in vivo. Thus, MFG-E8-dependent promotion of apoptotic cell clearance is a novel anti-inflammatory facet of GC treatment and renders MFG-E8 a prospective target for future therapeutic interventions in SLE. PMID:23832117

  4. BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway is associated with human cancer development

    PubMed Central

    STICKLES, XIAOMANG B; MARCHION, DOUGLAS C; BICAKU, ELONA; SAWAH, ENTIDHAR AL; ABBASI, FOROUGH; XIONG, YIN; ZGHEIB, NADIM BOU; BOAC, BERNADETTE M; ORR, BRIAN C; JUDSON, PATRICIA L; BERRY, AMY; HAKAM, ARDESHIR; WENHAM, ROBERT M; APTE, SACHIN M; BERGLUND, ANDERS E; LANCASTER, JOHNATHAN M

    2015-01-01

    The malignant transformation of normal cells is caused in part by aberrant gene expression disrupting the regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, senescence and DNA repair. Evidence suggests that the Bcl-2 antagonist of cell death (BAD)-mediated apoptotic pathway influences cancer chemoresistance. In the present study, we explored the role of the BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway in the development and progression of cancer. Using principal component analysis to derive a numeric score representing pathway expression, we evaluated clinico-genomic datasets (n=427) from corresponding normal, pre-invasive and invasive cancers of different types, such as ovarian, endometrial, breast and colon cancers in order to determine the associations between the BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway and cancer development. Immunofluorescence was used to compare the expression levels of phosphorylated BAD [pBAD (serine-112, -136 and -155)] in immortalized normal and invasive ovarian, colon and breast cancer cells. The expression of the BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway phosphatase, PP2C, was evaluated by RT-qPCR in the normal and ovarian cancer tissue samples. The growth-promoting effects of pBAD protein levels in the immortalized normal and cancer cells were assessed using siRNA depletion experiments with MTS assays. The expression of the BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway was associated with the development and/or progression of ovarian (n=106, p<0.001), breast (n=185, p<0.0008; n=61, p=0.04), colon (n=22, p<0.001) and endometrial (n=33, p<0.001) cancers, as well as with ovarian endometriosis (n=20, p<0.001). Higher pBAD protein levels were observed in the cancer cells compared to the immortalized normal cells, whereas PP2C gene expression was lower in the cancer compared to the ovarian tumor tissue samples (n=76, p<0.001). The increased pBAD protein levels after the depletion of PP2C conferred a growth advantage to the immortalized normal and cancer cells. The BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway is thus associated with the development of human cancers likely influenced by the protein levels of pBAD. PMID:25653146

  5. BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway is associated with human cancer development.

    PubMed

    Stickles, Xiaomang B; Marchion, Douglas C; Bicaku, Elona; Al Sawah, Entidhar; Abbasi, Forough; Xiong, Yin; Bou Zgheib, Nadim; Boac, Bernadette M; Orr, Brian C; Judson, Patricia L; Berry, Amy; Hakam, Ardeshir; Wenham, Robert M; Apte, Sachin M; Berglund, Anders E; Lancaster, Johnathan M

    2015-04-01

    The malignant transformation of normal cells is caused in part by aberrant gene expression disrupting the regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, senescence and DNA repair. Evidence suggests that the Bcl-2 antagonist of cell death (BAD)-mediated apoptotic pathway influences cancer chemoresistance. In the present study, we explored the role of the BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway in the development and progression of cancer. Using principal component analysis to derive a numeric score representing pathway expression, we evaluated clinico-genomic datasets (n=427) from corresponding normal, pre-invasive and invasive cancers of different types, such as ovarian, endometrial, breast and colon cancers in order to determine the associations between the BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway and cancer development. Immunofluorescence was used to compare the expression levels of phosphorylated BAD [pBAD (serine-112, -136 and -155)] in immortalized normal and invasive ovarian, colon and breast cancer cells. The expression of the BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway phosphatase, PP2C, was evaluated by RT-qPCR in the normal and ovarian cancer tissue samples. The growth-promoting effects of pBAD protein levels in the immortalized normal and cancer cells were assessed using siRNA depletion experiments with MTS assays. The expression of the BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway was associated with the development and/or progression of ovarian (n=106, p<0.001), breast (n=185, p<0.0008; n=61, p=0.04), colon (n=22, p<0.001) and endometrial (n=33, p<0.001) cancers, as well as with ovarian endometriosis (n=20, p<0.001). Higher pBAD protein levels were observed in the cancer cells compared to the immortalized normal cells, whereas PP2C gene expression was lower in the cancer compared to the ovarian tumor tissue samples (n=76, p<0.001). The increased pBAD protein levels after the depletion of PP2C conferred a growth advantage to the immortalized normal and cancer cells. The BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway is thus associated with the development of human cancers likely influenced by the protein levels of pBAD. PMID:25653146

  6. Caspase-2 is required for dendritic spine and behavioral alterations in J20 APP transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Pozueta, Julio; Lefort, Roger; Ribe, Elena M.; Troy, Carol M.; Aran-cio, Ottavio; Shelanski, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Caspases play critical roles in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. Here we show that caspase-2 is required for the cognitive decline seen in hAPP transgenic mice (J20). The age-related changes in behavior and dendritic spine density observed in these mice are absent when they lack caspase-2, in spite of similar levels of A? deposition and inflammation. A similar degree of protection is observed in cultured hippocampal neurons lacking caspase-2, which are immune to the synaptotoxic effects of A?. Our studies suggest that caspase-2 is a critical mediator in the activation of the RhoA/ROCK-II signaling pathway, leading to the collapse of dendritic spines. We propose that this is controlled by an inactive caspase-2/RhoA/ROCK-II complex localized in dendrites, which dissociates in the presence of A?, allowing for their activation and entry in the spine. These findings directly implicate caspase-2 as key driver of synaptic dysfunction in AD and offer novel therapeutic targets. PMID:23748737

  7. Receptor-mediated control of regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and apoptotic volume decrease (AVD)

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Yasunobu; Maeno, Emi; Shimizu, Takahiro; Dezaki, Katsuya; Wang, Jun; Morishima, Shigeru

    2001-01-01

    A fundamental property of animal cells is the ability to regulate their own cell volume. Even under hypotonic stress imposed by either decreased extracellular or increased intracellular osmolarity, the cells can re-adjust their volume after transient osmotic swelling by a mechanism known as regulatory volume decrease (RVD). In most cell types, RVD is accomplished mainly by KCl efflux induced by parallel activation of K+ and Cl? channels. We have studied the molecular mechanism of RVD in a human epithelial cell line (Intestine 407). Osmotic swelling results in a significant increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and thereby activates intermediate-conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ (IK) channels. Osmotic swelling also induces ATP release from the cells to the extracellular compartment. Released ATP stimulates purinergic ATP (P2Y2) receptors, thereby inducing phospholipase C-mediated Ca2+ mobilization. Thus, RVD is facilitated by stimulation of P2Y2 receptors due to augmentation of IK channels. In contrast, stimulation of another G protein-coupled Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaR) enhances the activity of volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying Cl? channels, thereby facilitating RVD. Therefore, it is possible that Ca2+ efflux stimulated by swelling-induced and P2Y2 receptor-mediated intracellular Ca2+ mobilization activates the CaR, thereby secondarily upregulating the volume-regulatory Cl? conductance. On the other hand, the initial process towards apoptotic cell death is coupled to normotonic cell shrinkage, called apoptotic volume decrease (AVD). Stimulation of death receptors, such as TNF? receptor and Fas, induces AVD and thereafter biochemical apoptotic events in human lymphoid (U937), human epithelial (HeLa), mouse neuroblastoma × rat glioma hybrid (NG108-15) and rat phaeochromocytoma (PC12) cells. In those cells exhibiting AVD, facilitation of RVD is always observed. Both AVD induction and RVD facilitation as well as succeeding apoptotic events can be abolished by prior treatment with a blocker of volume-regulatory K+ or Cl? channels, suggesting that AVD is caused by normotonic activation of ion channels that are normally involved in RVD under hypotonic conditions. Therefore, it is likely that G protein-coupled receptors involved in RVD regulation and death receptors triggering AVD may share common downstream signals which should give us key clues to the detailed mechanisms of volume regulation and survival of animal cells. In this Topical Review, we look at the physiological ionic mechanisms of cell volume regulation and cell death-associated volume changes from the facet of receptor-mediated cellular processes. PMID:11283221

  8. Orai1 and STIM1 mediate SOCE and contribute to apoptotic resistance of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kondratska, Kateryna; Kondratskyi, Artem; Yassine, Maya; Lemonnier, Loic; Lepage, Gilbert; Morabito, Angela; Skryma, Roman; Prevarskaya, Natalia

    2014-10-01

    The store-operated calcium channels (SOCs) represent one of the major calcium-entry pathways in non-excitable cells. SOCs and in particular their major components ORAI1 and STIM1 have been shown to be implicated in a number of physiological and pathological processes such as apoptosis, proliferation and invasion. Here we demonstrate that ORAI1 and STIM1 mediate store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines. We show that both ORAI1 and STIM1 play pro-survival anti-apoptotic role in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines, as siRNA-mediated knockdown of ORAI1 and/or STIM1 increases apoptosis induced by chemotherapy drugs 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or gemcitabine. We also demonstrate that both 5-FU and gemcitabine treatments increase SOCE in Panc1 pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line via upregulation of ORAI1 and STIM1. Altogether our results reveal the novel calcium-dependent mechanism of action of the chemotherapy drugs 5-FU and gemcitabine and emphasize the anti-apoptotic role of ORAI1 and STIM1 in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium signaling in health and disease. Guest Editors: Geert Bultynck, Jacques Haiech, Claus W. Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, and Marc Moreau. PMID:24583265

  9. MRP- and BCL-2-mediated drug resistance in human SCLC: effects of apoptotic sphingolipids in vitro.

    PubMed

    Khodadadian, M; Leroux, M E; Auzenne, E; Ghosh, S C; Farquhar, D; Evans, R; Spohn, W; Zou, Y; Klostergaard, J

    2009-10-01

    Multidrug-resistance-associated protein (MRP) and BCL-2 contribute to drug resistance expressed in SCLC. To establish whether MRP-mediated drug resistance affects sphingolipid (SL)-induced apoptosis in SCLC, we first examined the human SCLC cell line, UMCC-1, and its MRP over-expressing, drug-resistant subline, UMCC-1/VP. Despite significantly decreased sensitivity to doxorubicin (Dox) and to the etoposide, VP-16, the drug-selected line was essentially equally as sensitive to treatment with exogenous ceramide (Cer), sphingosine (Sp) or dimethyl-sphingosine (DMSP) as the parental line. Next, we observed that high BCL-2-expressing human H69 SCLC cells, that were approximately 160-fold more sensitive to Dox than their combined BCL-2 and MRP-over-expressing (H69AR) counterparts, were only approximately 5-fold more resistant to DMSP. Time-lapse fluorescence microscopy of either UMCC cell line treated with DMSP-Coumarin revealed comparable extents and kinetics of SL uptake, further ruling out MRP-mediated effects on drug uptake. DMSP potentiated the cytotoxic activity of VP-16 and Taxol, but not Dox, in drug-resistant UMCC-1/VP cells. However, this sensitization did not appear to involve DMSP-mediated effects on the function of MRP in drug export; nor did DMSP strongly shift the balance of pro-apoptotic Sps and anti-apoptotic Sp-1-Ps in these cells. We conclude that SL-induced apoptosis markedly overcomes or bypasses MRP-mediated drug resistance relevant to SCLC and may suggest a novel therapeutic approach to chemotherapy for these tumors. PMID:19195736

  10. Abnormal Sperm Parameters in Humans Are Indicative of an Abortive Apoptotic Mechanism Linked to the Fas-Mediated Pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denny Sakkas; Ewa Mariethoz; Justin C. St. John

    1999-01-01

    The life cycle of many cell types can hinge on the presence of death factors that can control programmed cell death. The Fas-mediated apoptotic pathway has been implicated in controlling apoptosis during spermatogenesis in a number of mammalian species. In the human, the presence of nuclear DNA damage in ejaculated spermatozoa has pointed to a possible role for apoptosis during

  11. p53 Protein-mediated regulation of phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) is crucial for the apoptotic response upon serine starvation.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yang; Wang, Shang-Jui; Jiang, Le; Zheng, Bin; Gu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Although p53 is frequently mutated in human cancers, about 80% of human melanomas retain wild-type p53. Here we report that PHGDH, the key metabolic enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step of the serine biosynthesis pathway, is a target of p53 in human melanoma cells. p53 suppresses PHGDH expression and inhibits de novo serine biosynthesis. Notably, upon serine starvation, p53-mediated cell death is enhanced dramatically in response to Nutlin-3 treatment. Moreover, PHGDH has been found recently to be amplified frequently in human melanomas. We found that PHGDH overexpression significantly suppresses the apoptotic response, whereas RNAi-mediated knockdown of endogenous PHGDH promotes apoptosis under the same treatment. These results demonstrate an important role of p53 in regulating the serine biosynthesis pathway through suppressing PHGDH expression and reveal serine deprivation as a novel approach to sensitize p53-mediated apoptotic responses in human melanoma cells. PMID:25404730

  12. Lipid rafts and raft-mediated supramolecular entities in the regulation of CD95 death receptor apoptotic signaling.

    PubMed

    Gajate, Consuelo; Mollinedo, Faustino

    2015-05-01

    Membrane lipid rafts are highly ordered membrane domains enriched in cholesterol, sphingolipids and gangliosides that have the property to segregate and concentrate proteins. Lipid and protein composition of lipid rafts differs from that of the surrounding membrane, thus providing sorting platforms and hubs for signal transduction molecules, including CD95 death receptor-mediated signaling. CD95 can be recruited to rafts in a reversible way through S-palmitoylation following activation of cells with its physiological cognate ligand as well as with a wide variety of inducers, including several antitumor drugs through ligand-independent intracellular mechanisms. CD95 translocation to rafts can be modulated pharmacologically, thus becoming a target for the treatment of apoptosis-defective diseases, such as cancer. CD95-mediated signaling largely depends on protein-protein interactions, and the recruitment and concentration of CD95 and distinct downstream apoptotic molecules in membrane raft domains, forming raft-based supramolecular entities that act as hubs for apoptotic signaling molecules, favors the generation and amplification of apoptotic signals. Efficient CD95-mediated apoptosis involves CD95 and raft internalization, as well as the involvement of different subcellular organelles. In this review, we briefly summarize and discuss the involvement of lipid rafts in the regulation of CD95-mediated apoptosis that may provide a new avenue for cancer therapy. PMID:25702154

  13. Lyn-mediated procaspase 8 dimerization blocks apoptotic signaling in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zonta, Francesca; Pagano, Mario Angelo; Trentin, Livio; Tibaldi, Elena; Frezzato, Federica; Gattazzo, Cristina; Martini, Veronica; Trimarco, Valentina; Mazzorana, Marco; Bordin, Luciana; Semenzato, Gianpietro; Brunati, Anna Maria

    2014-02-01

    Lyn, a member of the group of tyrosine kinases named the Src family kinases (SFKs), is overexpressed, associated with an aberrant multiprotein complex and constitutively active in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) cells, resulting in a high level of tyrosine phosphorylation and contributing to their resistance to apoptosis. By using biochemical and bioinformatics tools, we identified procaspase-8 (procasp8), the caspase-8 zymogen, as a cytosolic target for Lyn in B-CLL cells, the phosphorylation of which at Tyr380 promotes the formation of an inactive procasp8 homodimer. This complex remains segregated in the cytosol and appears to be crucial in mediating the antiapoptotic function of Lyn in this disease. The significance of the Lyn-procasp8 axis in impairing apoptosis in B-CLL cells was further confirmed by pharmacological and genetic inhibition of procasp8, which drastically reduced the apoptosis induced by the SFK inhibitors PP2 and dasatinib. Our data highlight that Lyn's dysregulated expression, activity, and localization in B-CLLs support resistance to cell demise by inhibiting an early player of apoptotic signaling, and potentially broaden the perspectives of developing new strategies for the treatment of this disease. PMID:24352878

  14. Mapping the initial DNA breaks in apoptotic Jurkat cells using ligation-mediated PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q Y Liu; M Ribecco-Lutkiewicz; C Carson; L Testolin; D Bergeron; T Kohwi-Shigematsu; P R Walker; M Sikorska

    2003-01-01

    Apoptotic DNA degradation could be initiated by the accumulation of single-strand (ss) breaks in vulnerable chromatin regions, such as base unpairing regions (BURs), which might be preferentially targeted for degradation by both proteases and nucleases. We tested this hypothesis in anti-Fas-treated apoptotic Jurkat cells. Several nuclear proteins known for their association with both MARs and the nuclear matrix, that is,

  15. Hepatocyte growth factor-mediated attraction of mesenchymal stem cells for apoptotic neuronal and cardiomyocytic cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastian Vogel; Thorsten Trapp; Verena Börger; Corinna Peters; Dalila Lakbir; Dagmar Dilloo; Rüdiger V. Sorg

    2010-01-01

    Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) home to injured tissues and have regenerative capacity. In this study,\\u000a we have investigated in vitro the influence of apoptotic and necrotic cell death, thus distinct types of tissue damage, on\\u000a MSC migration. Concordant with an increased overall motility, MSC migrated towards apoptotic, but not vital or necrotic neuronal\\u000a and cardiac cells. Hepatocyte

  16. Sphingolipid-mediated Inhibition of Apoptotic Cell Clearance by Alveolar Macrophages*

    PubMed Central

    Petrusca, Daniela N.; Gu, Yuan; Adamowicz, Jeremy J.; Rush, Natalia I.; Hubbard, Walter C.; Smith, Patricia A.; Berdyshev, Evgeni V.; Birukov, Konstantin G.; Lee, Chao-Hung; Tuder, Rubin M.; Twigg, Homer L.; Vandivier, R. William; Petrache, Irina

    2010-01-01

    A decreased clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) by alveolar macrophages (AM) may contribute to inflammation in emphysema. The up-regulation of ceramides in response to cigarette smoking (CS) has been linked to AM accumulation and increased detection of apoptotic alveolar epithelial and endothelial cells in lung parenchyma. We hypothesized that ceramides inhibit the AM phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Release of endogenous ceramides via sphingomyelinase or exogenous ceramide treatments dose-dependently impaired apoptotic Jurkat cell phagocytosis by primary rat or human AM, irrespective of the molecular species of ceramide. Similarly, in vivo augmentation of lung ceramides via intratracheal instillation in rats significantly decreased the engulfment of instilled target apoptotic thymocytes by resident AM. The mechanism of ceramide-induced efferocytosis impairment was dependent on generation of sphingosine via ceramidase. Sphingosine treatment recapitulated the effects of ceramide, dose-dependently inhibiting apoptotic cell clearance. The effect of ceramide on efferocytosis was associated with decreased membrane ruffle formation and attenuated Rac1 plasma membrane recruitment. Constitutively active Rac1 overexpression rescued AM efferocytosis against the effects of ceramide. CS exposure significantly increased AM ceramides and recapitulated the effect of ceramides on Rac1 membrane recruitment in a sphingosine-dependent manner. Importantly, CS profoundly inhibited AM efferocytosis via ceramide-dependent sphingosine production. These results suggest that excessive lung ceramides may amplify lung injury in emphysema by causing both apoptosis of structural cells and inhibition of their clearance by AM. PMID:20956540

  17. A novel anti-proliferative role of HMGA2 in induction of apoptosis through caspase 2 in primary human fibroblast cells

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xi; Tian, Baoqing; Ma, Wenlong; Zhang, Na; Qiao, Yuehua; Li, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Baiqu; Lu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The HMGA2 (high-mobility group AT-hook) protein has previously been shown as an oncoprotein, whereas ectopic expression of HMGA2 is found to induce growth arrest in primary cells. The precise mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain to be unravelled. In the present study, we determined that HMGA2 was able to induce apoptosis in WI38 primary human cells. We show that WI38 cells expressing high level of HMGA2 were arrested at G2/M phase and exhibited apoptotic nuclear phenotypes. Meanwhile, the cleaved caspase 3 (cysteine aspartic acid-specific protease 3) was detected 8 days after HMGA2 overexpression. Flow cytometric analysis confirmed that the ratio of cells undergoing apoptosis increased dramatically. Concurrently, other major apoptotic markers were also detected, including the up-regulation of p53, Bax and cleaved caspase 9, down-regulation of Bcl-2; as well as release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. We further demonstrate that the shRNA (small-hairpin RNA)-mediated Apaf1 (apoptotic protease activating factor 1) silencing partially rescued the HMGA2-induced apoptosis, which was accompanied by the decrease of cleaved caspase-3 level and a decline of cell death ratio. Our results also reveal that ?H2A was accumulated in nuclei during the HMGA2-induced apoptosis along with the up-regulation of cleaved caspase 2, suggesting that the HMGA2-induced apoptosis was dependent on the pathway of DNA damage. Overall, the present study unravelled a novel function of HMGA2 in induction of apoptosis in human primary cell lines, and provided clues for clarification of the mechanistic action of HMGA2 in addition to its function as an oncoprotein. PMID:25300915

  18. Reactive oxygen species are key mediators of the nitric oxide apoptotic pathway in anterior pituitary cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leticia I. Machiavelli; Ariel H. Poliandri; Fernanda A. Quinteros; Jimena P. Cabilla; Beatriz H. Duvilanski

    2007-01-01

    We previously showed that long-term exposure of anterior pituitary cells to nitric oxide (NO) induces apoptosis. The intracellular signals underlying this effect remained unclear. In this study, we searched for possible mechanisms involved in the early stages of the NO apoptotic cascade. Caspase 3 was activated by NO with no apparent disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. NO caused a rapid

  19. A Biotin Switch-Based Proteomics Approach Identifies 14-3-3? as a Target of Sirt1 in the Metabolic Regulation of Caspase-2

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Joshua L.; Thompson, J. Will; Lindblom, Kelly R.; Johnson, Erika S.; Yang, Chih-Sheng; Lilley, Lauren R.; Freel, Christopher D.; Moseley, M. Arthur; Kornbluth, Sally

    2011-01-01

    While lysine acetylation in the nucleus is well characterized, comparatively little is known about its significance in cytoplasmic signaling. Here we show that inhibition of the Sirt1 deacetylase, which is primarily cytoplasmic in cancer cell lines, sensitizes these cells to caspase-2-dependent death. To identify relevant Sirt1 substrates, we developed a novel proteomics strategy, enabling the identification of a range of putative substrates, including 14-3-3?, a known direct regulator of caspase-2. We show here that inhibition of Sirtuin activity accelerates caspase activation and overrides caspase-2 suppression by nutrient abundance. Furthermore, 14-3-3? is acetylated prior to caspase activation, and supplementation of Xenopus egg extract with glucose-6-phosphate, which promotes caspase-2/14-3-3? binding, enhances 14-3-3?-directed Sirtuin activity. Conversely, inhibiting Sirtuin activity promotes 14-3-3? dissociation from caspase-2 in both egg extract and human cell lines. These data reveal a role for Sirt1 in modulating apoptotic sensitivity, in response to metabolic changes, by antagonizing 14-3-3? acetylation. PMID:21884983

  20. A biotin switch-based proteomics approach identifies 14-3-3? as a target of Sirt1 in the metabolic regulation of caspase-2.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Joshua L; Thompson, J Will; Lindblom, Kelly R; Johnson, Erika S; Yang, Chih-Sheng; Lilley, Lauren R; Freel, Christopher D; Moseley, M Arthur; Kornbluth, Sally

    2011-09-01

    While lysine acetylation in the nucleus is well characterized, comparatively little is known about its significance in cytoplasmic signaling. Here we show that inhibition of the Sirt1 deacetylase, which is primarily cytoplasmic in cancer cell lines, sensitizes these cells to caspase-2-dependent death. To identify relevant Sirt1 substrates, we developed a proteomics strategy, enabling the identification of a range of putative substrates, including 14-3-3?, a known direct regulator of caspase-2. We show here that inhibition of Sirtuin activity accelerates caspase activation and overrides caspase-2 suppression by nutrient abundance. Furthermore, 14-3-3? is acetylated prior to caspase activation, and supplementation of Xenopus egg extract with glucose-6-phosphate, which promotes caspase-2/14-3-3? binding, enhances 14-3-3?-directed Sirtuin activity. Conversely, inhibiting Sirtuin activity promotes14-3-3? dissociation from caspase-2 in both egg extract and human cultured cells. These data reveal a role for Sirt1 in modulating apoptotic sensitivity, in response to metabolic changes, by antagonizing 14-3-3? acetylation. PMID:21884983

  1. Lysosome Biogenesis Mediated by vps-18 Affects Apoptotic Cell Degradation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Hui; Chen, Didi; Fang, Zhou; Xu, Jing; Sun, Xiaojuan; Song, Song; Liu, Jiajia

    2009-01-01

    Appropriate clearance of apoptotic cells (cell corpses) is an important step of programmed cell death. Although genetic and biochemical studies have identified several genes that regulate the engulfment of cell corpses, how these are degraded after being internalized in engulfing cell remains elusive. Here, we show that VPS-18, the Caenorhabditis elegans homologue of yeast Vps18p, is critical to cell corpse degradation. VPS-18 is expressed and functions in engulfing cells. Deletion of vps-18 leads to significant accumulation of cell corpses that are not degraded properly. Furthermore, vps-18 mutation causes strong defects in the biogenesis of endosomes and lysosomes, thus affecting endosomal/lysosomal protein degradation. Importantly, we demonstrate that phagosomes containing internalized cell corpses are unable to fuse with lysosomes in vps-18 mutants. Our findings thus provide direct evidence for the important role of endosomal/lysosomal degradation in proper clearance of apoptotic cells during programmed cell death. PMID:18923146

  2. Mizoribine-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway in human T-Cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. W. Seo; H. K. Lee; S. J. N. Choi; B. J. So; S. K. Kim; S. Y. Chung

    2005-01-01

    Mizoribine (MZR), an inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, which depletes cellular guanadine triphosphate, is an immunosuppressive drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanism by which MZR exerts cytotoxic effects on human Jurkat T cells. Our study showed that MZR-induced apoptotic death of human Jurkat T cells is dose-dependent and time-dependent, as revealed by chromatin condensation and

  3. Puma is an essential mediator of p53-dependent and -independent apoptotic pathways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Jeffers; Evan Parganas; Youngsoo Lee; Chunying Yang; JinLing Wang; Jennifer Brennan; Kirsteen H. MacLean; Jiawen Han; Thomas Chittenden; James N. Ihle; Peter J. McKinnon; John L. Cleveland; Gerard P. Zambetti

    2003-01-01

    Puma encodes a BH3-only protein that is induced by the p53 tumor suppressor and other apoptotic stimuli. To assess its physiological role in apoptosis, we generated Puma knockout mice by gene targeting. Here we report that Puma is essential for hematopoietic cell death triggered by ionizing radiation (IR), deregulated c-Myc expression, and cytokine withdrawal. Puma is also required for IR-induced

  4. Reactive oxygen species are key mediators of the nitric oxide apoptotic pathway in anterior pituitary cells.

    PubMed

    Machiavelli, Leticia I; Poliandri, Ariel H; Quinteros, Fernanda A; Cabilla, Jimena P; Duvilanski, Beatriz H

    2007-03-01

    We previously showed that long-term exposure of anterior pituitary cells to nitric oxide (NO) induces apoptosis. The intracellular signals underlying this effect remained unclear. In this study, we searched for possible mechanisms involved in the early stages of the NO apoptotic cascade. Caspase 3 was activated by NO with no apparent disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. NO caused a rapid increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and this increase seems to be dependent of mitochondrial electron transport chain. The antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine avoided ROS increase, prevented the NO-induced caspase 3 activation, and reduced the NO apoptotic effect. Catalase was inactivated by NO, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) were not modified at first, but increased at later times of NO exposure. The increase of GSH level is important for the scavenging of the NO-induced ROS overproduction. Our results indicate that ROS have an essential role as a trigger of the NO apoptotic cascade in anterior pituitary cells. The permanent inhibition of catalase may strengthen the oxidative damage induced by NO. GPx activity and GSH level augment in response to the oxidative damage, though this increase seems not to be enough to rescue the cells from the NO effect. PMID:16996755

  5. Hsp72 mediates TAp73? anti-apoptotic effects in small cell lung carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Nyman, Ulrika; Muppani, Naveen Reddy; Zhivotovsky, Boris; Joseph, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The transcription factor p73, a member of the p53 family of proteins, is involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Due to alternative promoters and carboxy-terminal splicing, the P73 gene gives rise to a range of different isoforms. Interestingly, a particular increase in expression of the TAp73? isoform has been reported in various tumours. In addition, TAp73? has been shown to inhibit Bax activation and mitochondrial dysfunctions and thereby to confer small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) cells resistance to drug-induced apoptosis. However, the precise mechanism by which TAp73? exerts its pro-survival effect is yet unclear. Here we report that TAp73?, but not TAp73?, regulates the expression of inducible Hsp72/HSPA1A. Hsp72 proved to be required for the survival effects of TAp73? as antisense knockdown of Hsp72 resulted in an abolishment of the anti-apoptotic effect of TAp73? in SCLC cells upon Etoposide treatment. Importantly, depletion of Hsp72 allowed activation of Bax, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and lysosomal membrane permeabilization in SCLC cells even in the presence of TAp73?. Finally, we revealed that TAp73? counteracts the anti-apoptotic effect of TAp73? by preventing Hsp72 induction. Our results thus provide additional evidence for the potential oncogenic role of TAp73?, and extend the understanding of the mechanism for its anti-apoptotic effect. PMID:20807285

  6. Cracking the Cytotoxicity Code: Apoptotic Induction of 10-Acetylirciformonin B is Mediated through ROS Generation and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Huei-Chuan; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Juan, Yung-Shun; Chang, Chao-Yuan; Su, Jui-Hsin; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Shih, Shou-Ping; Chen, Huei-Mei; Wu, Yang-Chang; Lu, Mei-Chin

    2014-01-01

    A marine furanoterpenoid derivative, 10-acetylirciformonin B (10AB), was found to inhibit the proliferation of leukemia, hepatoma, and colon cancer cell lines, with selective and significant potency against leukemia cells. It induced DNA damage and apoptosis in leukemia HL 60 cells. To fully understand the mechanism behind the 10AB apoptotic induction against HL 60 cells, we extended our previous findings and further explored the precise molecular targets of 10AB. We found that the use of 10AB increased apoptosis by 8.9%–87.6% and caused disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by 15.2%–95.2% in a dose-dependent manner, as demonstrated by annexin-V/PI and JC-1 staining assays, respectively. Moreover, our findings indicated that the pretreatment of HL 60 cells with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, diminished MMP disruption and apoptosis induced by 10AB, suggesting that ROS overproduction plays a crucial rule in the cytotoxic activity of 10AB. The results of a cell-free system assay indicated that 10AB could act as a topoisomerase catalytic inhibitor through the inhibition of topoisomerase II?. On the protein level, the expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL and Bcl-2, caspase inhibitors XIAP and survivin, as well as hexokinase II were inhibited by the use of 10AB. On the other hand, the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax was increased after 10AB treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that 10AB-induced apoptosis is mediated through the overproduction of ROS and the disruption of mitochondrial metabolism. PMID:24857964

  7. Cracking the cytotoxicity code: apoptotic induction of 10-acetylirciformonin B is mediated through ROS generation and mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Shih, Huei-Chuan; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Juan, Yung-Shun; Chang, Chao-Yuan; Su, Jui-Hsin; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Shih, Shou-Ping; Chen, Huei-Mei; Wu, Yang-Chang; Lu, Mei-Chin

    2014-05-01

    A marine furanoterpenoid derivative, 10-acetylirciformonin B (10AB), was found to inhibit the proliferation of leukemia, hepatoma, and colon cancer cell lines, with selective and significant potency against leukemia cells. It induced DNA damage and apoptosis in leukemia HL 60 cells. To fully understand the mechanism behind the 10AB apoptotic induction against HL 60 cells, we extended our previous findings and further explored the precise molecular targets of 10AB. We found that the use of 10AB increased apoptosis by 8.9%-87.6% and caused disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by 15.2%-95.2% in a dose-dependent manner, as demonstrated by annexin-V/PI and JC-1 staining assays, respectively. Moreover, our findings indicated that the pretreatment of HL 60 cells with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, diminished MMP disruption and apoptosis induced by 10AB, suggesting that ROS overproduction plays a crucial rule in the cytotoxic activity of 10AB. The results of a cell-free system assay indicated that 10AB could act as a topoisomerase catalytic inhibitor through the inhibition of topoisomerase II?. On the protein level, the expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL and Bcl-2, caspase inhibitors XIAP and survivin, as well as hexokinase II were inhibited by the use of 10AB. On the other hand, the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax was increased after 10AB treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that 10AB-induced apoptosis is mediated through the overproduction of ROS and the disruption of mitochondrial metabolism. PMID:24857964

  8. Phagocytic receptor signaling regulates clathrin and epsin-mediated cytoskeletal remodeling during apoptotic cell engulfment in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qian; He, Bin; Lu, Nan; Conradt, Barbara; Grant, Barth D.; Zhou, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    The engulfment and subsequent degradation of apoptotic cells by phagocytes is an evolutionarily conserved process that efficiently removes dying cells from animal bodies during development. Here, we report that clathrin heavy chain (CHC-1), a membrane coat protein well known for its role in receptor-mediated endocytosis, and its adaptor epsin (EPN-1) play crucial roles in removing apoptotic cells in Caenorhabditis elegans. Inactivating epn-1 or chc-1 disrupts engulfment by impairing actin polymerization. This defect is partially suppressed by inactivating UNC-60, a cofilin ortholog and actin server/depolymerization protein, further indicating that EPN-1 and CHC-1 regulate actin assembly during pseudopod extension. CHC-1 is enriched on extending pseudopods together with EPN-1, in an EPN-1-dependent manner. Epistasis analysis places epn-1 and chc-1 in the same cell-corpse engulfment pathway as ced-1, ced-6 and dyn-1. CED-1 signaling is necessary for the pseudopod enrichment of EPN-1 and CHC-1. CED-1, CED-6 and DYN-1, like EPN-1 and CHC-1, are essential for the assembly and stability of F-actin underneath pseudopods. We propose that in response to CED-1 signaling, CHC-1 is recruited to the phagocytic cup through EPN-1 and acts as a scaffold protein to organize actin remodeling. Our work reveals novel roles of clathrin and epsin in apoptotic-cell internalization, suggests a Hip1/R-independent mechanism linking clathrin to actin assembly, and ties the CED-1 pathway to cytoskeleton remodeling. PMID:23861060

  9. Regulation of Apoptotic Mediators Reveals Dynamic Responses to Thermal Stress in the Reef Building Coral Acropora millepora

    PubMed Central

    Pernice, Mathieu; Dunn, Simon R.; Miard, Thomas; Dufour, Sylvie; Dove, Sophie; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2011-01-01

    Background Mass coral bleaching is increasing in scale and frequency across the world's coral reefs and is being driven primarily by increased levels of thermal stress arising from global warming. In order to understand the impacts of projected climate change upon corals reefs, it is important to elucidate the underlying cellular mechanisms that operate during coral bleaching and subsequent mortality. In this respect, increased apoptotic cell death activity is an important cellular process that is associated with the breakdown of the mutualistic symbiosis between the cnidarian host and their dinoflagellate symbionts. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study reports the impacts of different stressors (colchicine and heat stress) on three phases of apoptosis: (i) the potential initiation by differential expression of Bcl-2 members, (ii) the execution of apoptotic events by activation of caspase 3-like proteases and (iii) and finally, the cell disposal indicated by DNA fragmentation in the reef building coral Acropora millepora. In corals incubated with colchicine, an increase in caspase 3-like activity and DNA fragmentation was associated with a relative down-regulation of Bcl-2, suggesting that the initiation of apoptosis may be mediated by the suppression of an anti-apoptotic mechanism. In contrast, in the early steps of heat stress, the induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis was related to a relative up-regulation of Bcl-2 consecutively followed by a delayed decrease in apoptosis activity. Conclusions/Significance In the light of these results, we propose a model of heat stress in coral hosts whereby increasing temperatures engage activation of caspase 3-dependent apoptosis in cells designated for termination, but also the onset of a delayed protective response involving overexpression of Bcl-2 in surviving cells. This mitigating response to thermal stress could conceivably be an important regulatory mechanism for cell survival in corals exposed to sudden environmental changes. PMID:21283671

  10. PUMA mediates the apoptotic response to p53 in colorectal cancer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Yu; Zhenghe Wang; Kenneth W. Kinzler; Bert Vogelstein; Lin Zhang

    2003-01-01

    Although several genes that might mediate p53-induced apoptosis have been proposed, none have previously been shown to play an essential role in this process through a rigorous gene disruption approach. We used a gene-targeting approach to evaluate p53-mediated death in human colorectal cancer cells. Expression of p53 in these cells induces growth arrest through transcriptional activation of the cyclin-dependent kinase

  11. Gene delivery of the elastase inhibitor elafin protects macrophages from neutrophil elastase-mediated impairment of apoptotic cell recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter A. Henriksen; Andrew Devitt; Yuri Kotelevtsev; Jean-Michel Sallenave

    2004-01-01

    The resolution of inflammation is dependent on recognition and phagocytic removal of apoptotic cells by macrophages. Receptors for apoptotic cells are sensitive to degradation by human neutrophil elastase (HNE). We show in the present study that HNE cleaves macrophage cell surface CD14 and in so doing, reduces phagocytic recognition of apoptotic lymphocytic cells (Mutu 1). Using an improved method of

  12. p85? recruitment by the CD300f phosphatidylserine receptor mediates apoptotic cell clearance required for autoimmunity suppression

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Linjie; Choi, Seung-Chul; Murakami, Yousuke; Allen, Joselyn; Morse, Herbert C.; Qi, Chen-Feng; Krzewski, Konrad; Coligan, John E

    2014-01-01

    Apoptotic cell (AC) clearance is essential for immune homeostasis. Here we show that mouse CD300f (CLM-1) recognizes outer membrane-exposed phosphatidylserine, and regulates the phagocytosis of ACs. CD300f accumulates in phagocytic cups at AC contact sites. Phosphorylation within CD300f cytoplasmic tail tyrosine-based motifs initiates signals that positively or negatively regulate AC phagocytosis. Y276 phosphorylation is necessary for enhanced CD300f-mediated phagocytosis through the recruitment of the p85? regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K). CD300f-PI3K association leads to activation of downstream Rac/Cdc42 GTPase and mediates changes of F-actin that drive AC engulfment. Importantly, primary macrophages from CD300f-deficient mice have impaired phagocytosis of ACs. The biological consequence of CD300f deficiency is predisposition to autoimmune disease development, as Fc?RIIB-deficient mice develop a systemic lupus erythematosus-like disease at a markedly accelerated rate if CD300f is absent. In this report we identify the mechanism and role of CD300f in AC phagocytosis and maintenance of immune homeostasis. PMID:24477292

  13. p85? recruitment by the CD300f phosphatidylserine receptor mediates apoptotic cell clearance required for autoimmunity suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Linjie; Choi, Seung-Chul; Murakami, Yousuke; Allen, Joselyn; Morse, Herbert C., III; Qi, Chen-Feng; Krzewski, Konrad; Coligan, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Apoptotic cell (AC) clearance is essential for immune homeostasis. Here we show that mouse CD300f (CLM-1) recognizes outer membrane-exposed phosphatidylserine, and regulates the phagocytosis of ACs. CD300f accumulates in phagocytic cups at AC contact sites. Phosphorylation within CD300f cytoplasmic tail tyrosine-based motifs initiates signals that positively or negatively regulate AC phagocytosis. Y276 phosphorylation is necessary for enhanced CD300f-mediated phagocytosis through the recruitment of the p85? regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K). CD300f-PI3K association leads to activation of downstream Rac/Cdc42 GTPase and mediates changes of F-actin that drive AC engulfment. Importantly, primary macrophages from CD300f-deficient mice have impaired phagocytosis of ACs. The biological consequence of CD300f deficiency is predisposition to autoimmune disease development, as Fc?RIIB-deficient mice develop a systemic lupus erythematosus-like disease at a markedly accelerated rate if CD300f is absent. In this report we identify the mechanism and role of CD300f in AC phagocytosis and maintenance of immune homeostasis.

  14. EFF-1-mediated regenerative axonal fusion requires components of the apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Brent; Coakley, Sean; Giordano-Santini, Rosina; Linton, Casey; Lee, Eui Seung; Nakagawa, Akihisa; Xue, Ding; Hilliard, Massimo A

    2015-01-01

    Functional regeneration after nervous system injury requires transected axons to reconnect with their original target tissue. Axonal fusion, a spontaneous regenerative mechanism identified in several species, provides an efficient means of achieving target reconnection as a regrowing axon is able to contact and fuse with its own separated axon fragment, thereby re-establishing the original axonal tract. Here we report a molecular characterization of this process in Caenorhabditis elegans, revealing dynamic changes in the subcellular localization of the EFF-1 fusogen after axotomy, and establishing phosphatidylserine (PS) and the PS receptor (PSR-1) as critical components for axonal fusion. PSR-1 functions cell-autonomously in the regrowing neuron and, instead of acting in its canonical signalling pathway, acts in a parallel phagocytic pathway that includes the transthyretin protein TTR-52, as well as CED-7, NRF-5 and CED-6 (refs 9, 10, 11, 12). We show that TTR-52 binds to PS exposed on the injured axon, and can restore fusion several hours after injury. We propose that PS functions as a 'save-me' signal for the distal fragment, allowing conserved apoptotic cell clearance molecules to function in re-establishing axonal integrity during regeneration of the nervous system. PMID:25567286

  15. Heat Stress Induces Apoptosis through a Ca2+-Mediated Mitochondrial Apoptotic Pathway in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhifeng; Geng, Yan; Liu, Yunsong; Tong, Huasheng; Tang, Youqing; Qiu, Junmin; Su, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Background Heat stress can be acutely cytotoxic, and heat stress-induced apoptosis is a prominent pathological feature of heat-related illnesses, although the precise mechanisms by which heat stress triggers apoptosis are poorly defined. Methods The percentages of viability and cell death were assessed by WST-1 and LDH release assays. Apoptosis was assayed by DNA fragmentation and caspase activity. Expression of cleaved PARP, Apaf-1, phospho-PERK, Phospho-eIF2a, ATF4, XBP-1s, ATF6, GRP78, phospho-IP3R, RYR and SERCA was estimated by Western blot. The effect of calcium overload was determined using flow cytometric analysis with the fluorescent probe Fluo-3/AM. The generation of ROS (O2?, H2O2, NO) was labeled by confocal laser scanning microscopy images of fluorescently and flow cytometry. Results In this study, we found that heat stress in HUVEC cells activated initiators of three major unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling transduction pathways: PERK-eIF2a-ATF4, IRE1-XBP-1S and ATF6 to protect against ER stress, although activation declined over time following cessation of heat stress. Furthermore, we show that intense heat stress may induce apoptosis in HUVEC cells through the calcium-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, as indicated by elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+, expression of Apaf-1, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, PARP cleavage, and ultimately nucleosomal DNA fragmentation; Reactive oxygen species (ROS) appear to act upstream in this process. In addition, we provide evidence that IP3R upregulation may promote influx of Ca2+ into the cytoplasm after heat stress. Conclusion Our findings describe a novel mechanism for heat stress-induced apoptosis in HUVEC cells: following elevation of cytoplasm Ca2+, activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway via the IP3R upregulation, with ROS acting as an upstream regulator of the process. PMID:25549352

  16. The ER Stress-Mediated Mitochondrial Apoptotic Pathway and MAPKs Modulate Tachypacing-Induced Apoptosis in HL-1 Atrial Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jiaojiao; Jiang, Qi; Ding, Xiangwei; Xu, Wenhua; Wang, Dao W.; Chen, Minglong

    2015-01-01

    Background and Object Cell apoptosis is a contributing factor in the initiation, progression and relapse of atrial fibrillation (AF), a life-threatening illness accompanied with stroke and heart failure. However, the regulatory cascade of apoptosis is intricate and remains unidentified, especially in the setting of AF. The aim of this study was to explore the roles of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, mitochondrial apoptotic pathway (MAP), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and their cross-talking in tachypacing-induced apoptosis. Methods and Results HL-1 cells were cultured in the presence of tachypacing for 24 h to simulate atrial tachycardia remodeling. Results showed that tachypacing reduced cell viability measured by the cell counting kit-8, dissipated mitochondrial membrane potential detected by JC-1 staining and resulted in approximately 50% apoptosis examined by Hoechst staining and annexin V/propidium iodide staining. In addition, the proteins involved in ER stress, MAP and MAPKs were universally up-regulated or activated via phosphorylation, as confirmed by western blotting; and reversely silencing of ER stress, caspase-3 (the ultimate executor of MAP) and MAPKs with specific inhibitors prior to pacing partially alleviated apoptosis. An inhibitor of ER stress was applied to further investigate the responses of mitochondria and MAPKs to ER stress, and results indicated that suppression of ER stress comprehensively but incompletely attenuated the activation of MAP and MAPKs aroused by tachypacing, with the exception of ERK1/2, one branch of MAPKs. Conclusions Our study suggested tachypacing-induced apoptosis is regulated by ER stress-mediated MAP and MAPKs. Thus, the above three components are all promising anti-apoptotic targets in AF patients and ER stress appears to play a dominant role due to its comprehensive effects. PMID:25689866

  17. Reduced IRE1? mediates apoptotic cell death by disrupting calcium homeostasis via the InsP3 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Son, S M; Byun, J; Roh, S-E; Kim, S J; Mook-Jung, I

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is not only a home for folding and posttranslational modifications of secretory proteins but also a reservoir for intracellular Ca2+. Perturbation of ER homeostasis contributes to the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson diseases. One key regulator that underlies cell survival and Ca2+ homeostasis during ER stress responses is inositol-requiring enzyme 1? (IRE1?). Despite extensive studies on this ER membrane-associated protein, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which excessive ER stress triggers cell death and Ca2+ dysregulation via the IRE1?-dependent signaling pathway. In this study, we show that inactivation of IRE1? by RNA interference increases cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in SH-SY5Y cells, leading to cell death. This dysregulation is caused by an accelerated ER-to-cytosolic efflux of Ca2+ through the InsP3 receptor (InsP3R). The Ca2+ efflux in IRE1?-deficient cells correlates with dissociation of the Ca2+-binding InsP3R inhibitor CIB1 and increased complex formation of CIB1 with the pro-apoptotic kinase ASK1, which otherwise remains inactivated in the IRE1?–TRAF2–ASK1 complex. The increased cytosolic concentration of Ca2+ induces mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), in particular superoxide, resulting in severe mitochondrial abnormalities, such as fragmentation and depolarization of membrane potential. These Ca2+ dysregulation-induced mitochondrial abnormalities and cell death in IRE1?-deficient cells can be blocked by depleting ROS or inhibiting Ca2+ influx into the mitochondria. These results demonstrate the importance of IRE1? in Ca2+ homeostasis and cell survival during ER stress and reveal a previously unknown Ca2+-mediated cell death signaling between the IRE1?–InsP3R pathway in the ER and the redox-dependent apoptotic pathway in the mitochondrion. PMID:24743743

  18. The role of lysosomes in BDE 47-mediated activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Jian; Lu, Chengquan; Zhu, Chunyan; Qian, Bo; Li, Zhenwei; Liu, Chang; Shao, Jing; Yan, Jinsong

    2015-04-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a group of widely used flame retardants. The rising presence of PBDEs in human tissues has received considerable concerns with regard to potential health risks. While the mitochondrial-apoptotic pathway has been suggested in PBDEs-induced apoptosis, the role of lysosomes is yet to be understood. In the present study, HepG2 cells were exposed to BDE 47 at various concentrations and durations to establish the causal and temporal relationships among various cellular events, such as cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), apoptosis, and expression of cytochrome C and caspase 3. The involvement of lysosomes was simultaneously studied by evaluating lysosomal membrane permeability (LMP) and changes in the expression of cathepsin B, a lysosome hydrolase. In addition, a cathepsin B inhibitor (10 ?M CA-074) was used to determine the involvement of lysosomes and potential interactions between lysosomes and mitochondria. Our results showed that ROS production was an initial response of HepG2 to BDE 47 exposure, followed by a decreased MMP; a loss of MMP caused additional ROS generation which acted to induce LMP; an increased LMP resulted in a release of cathepsin B which aggravated the loss of MMP leading to release of cytochrome C and caspase 3 and subsequent apoptosis. Pretreatment with CA-074 did not abolish the initial ROS generation, however, all downstream events were dramatically alleviated. Taken together, our data indicate that lysosomes might be involved in BDE 47-mediated mitochondrial-apoptotic pathway in HepG2 cells, possibly through feedback interactions between mitochondria and lysosomes. PMID:25479806

  19. Vinexin-? exacerbates cardiac dysfunction post-myocardial infarction via mediating apoptotic and inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoxiong; Wan, Nian; Zhang, Xiao-Jing; Zhao, Yichao; Zhang, Yan; Hu, Gangying; Wan, Fengwei; Zhang, Rui; Zhu, Xueyong; Xia, Hao; Li, Hongliang

    2015-06-01

    Vinexin-? is one of the adaptor proteins that are primarily involved in signal transduction and cytoskeletal organization under various pathological conditions, including cardiac hypertrophy. However, the role of Vinexin-? in myocardial infarction (MI) remains unknown. In this study, dramatically up-regulated Vinexin-? expression was observed in both ischaemic human hearts and infarcted animal hearts. To explore the potential involvement of Vinexin-? in MI further, we induced MI injury in global Vinexin-?-knockout mice and wild-type (WT) controls as well as in mice with cardiac-specific over-expression of the human Vinexin-? gene-transgenic (TG) and -non-transgenic (NTG) littermates. Compared with that observed in WT controls, Vinexin-? deficiency significantly decreased MI-induced infarct size, concomitant with an improved cardiac function, leading to an increase in the survival rate. The myocardial apoptosis in the border zone was dramatically reduced by Vinexin-? deficiency, resulting from the altered expression of apoptotic factors. Furthermore, Vinexin-? depletion mitigated the inflammatory response, as evidenced by reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, decreased expression of cytokines and the inactivation of NF-?B (nuclear factor ?B) signalling. In contrast, Vinexin-?-TG mice were much more susceptible to MI injury compared with NTG controls. Further mechanism analyses suggested that Vinexin-? exerted detrimental effects largely dependent on blocking AKT signalling. The effects and mechanisms of Vinexin-? on MI observed in vivo were further confirmed by our in vitro assays. When collected, these data demonstrate for the first time that Vinexin-? increases MI-induced mortality and worsens cardiac dysfunction through aggravation of myocardial apoptosis and inflammatory response. PMID:25658191

  20. Cyclooxygenase 2-mediated apoptotic and inflammatory responses in photodynamic therapy treated breast adenocarcinoma cells and xenografts.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiaxing; Wei, Yanchun; Chen, Qun; Xing, Da

    2014-05-01

    Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) is an inducible enzyme that contributes to the generation of chronic inflammation and the development of cancer, and promotes neoplastic transformation, in response to chemical carcinogens and environmental stresses. In this study, we demonstrated that a sublethal dose photodynamic therapy (PDT) led to inflammatory response mediated by the induction of COX-2 and release of Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reduced COX-2 expression and PGE2 release induced by PDT. The elevated COX-2 level and PGE2 release following PDT were inhibited by NADPH oxidase inhibitor and NF-?B inhibitor. Inhibition of COX-2 attenuated the levels of PGE2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) following PDT in treated tumors, and also decreased the expression of proinflammatory mediators interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). In addition, PDT led to an appreciable accumulation of pSer15-p53/COX-2 complexes, and this association of complexes was partially inhibited by SB203580, an inhibitor of p38. Blockage of COX-2 expression by siRNA enhanced the transcriptional activity of p53, and facilitated PDT-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and cleavage of caspase 3, probably due to the elevated Noxa expression disrupting the interaction of Mcl-1/Bax. Together, this study highlights the important roles of COX-2 in PDT-induced apoptosis and inflammation and the specific COX-2-mediated responses to PDT initiated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) involving the regulation of the multiple signaling pathways. These results indicate the inflammatory mediator COX-2 as a potential therapeutic target for improving PDT efficacy. PMID:24792472

  1. Soy Isoflavones Genistein and Daidzein Exert Anti-Apoptotic Actions via a Selective ER-mediated Mechanism in Neurons following HIV-1 Tat1–86 Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Sheila M.; Aksenova, Marina V.; Aksenov, Michael Y.; Mactutus, Charles F.; Booze, Rosemarie M.

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV-1 viral protein Tat partially mediates the neural dysfunction and neuronal cell death associated with HIV-1 induced neurodegeneration and neurocognitive disorders. Soy isoflavones provide protection against various neurotoxic insults to maintain neuronal function and thus help preserve neurocognitive capacity. Methodology/Principal Findings We demonstrate in primary cortical cell cultures that 17?-estradiol or isoflavones (genistein or daidzein) attenuate Tat1–86-induced expression of apoptotic proteins and subsequent cell death. Exposure of cultured neurons to the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780 abolished the anti-apoptotic actions of isoflavones. Use of ER? or ER? specific antagonists determined the involvement of both ER isoforms in genistein and daidzein inhibition of caspase activity; ER? selectively mediated downregulation of mitochondrial pro-apoptotic protein Bax. The findings suggest soy isoflavones effectively diminished HIV-1 Tat-induced apoptotic signaling. Conclusions/Significance Collectively, our results suggest that soy isoflavones represent an adjunctive therapeutic option with combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) to preserve neuronal functioning and sustain neurocognitive abilities of HIV-1 infected persons. PMID:22629415

  2. CREB mediates the insulinotropic and anti-apoptotic effects of GLP-1 signaling in adult mouse ?-cells

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Soona; Le Lay, John; Everett, Logan J.; Gupta, Rana; Rafiq, Kiran; Kaestner, Klaus H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) plays a major role in pancreatic ?-cell function and survival by increasing cytoplasmic cAMP levels, which are thought to affect transcription through activation of the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor CREB. Here, we test CREB function in the adult ?-cell through inducible gene deletion. Methods We employed cell type-specific and inducible gene ablation to determine CREB function in pancreatic ?-cells in mice. Results By ablating CREB acutely in mature ?-cells in tamoxifen-treated CrebloxP/loxP;Pdx1-CreERT2 mice, we show that CREB has little impact on ?-cell turnover, in contrast to what had been postulated previously. Rather, CREB is required for GLP-1 to elicit its full effects on stimulating glucose-induced insulin secretion and protection from cytokine-induced apoptosis. Mechanistically, we find that CREB regulates expression of the pro-apoptotic gene p21 (Cdkn1a) in ?-cells, thus demonstrating that CREB is essential to mediating this critical aspect of GLP-1 receptor signaling. Conclusions In sum, our studies using conditional gene deletion put into question current notions about the importance of CREB in regulating ?-cell function and mass. However, we reveal an important role for CREB in the ?-cell response to GLP-1 receptor signaling, further validating CREB as a therapeutic target for diabetes. PMID:25379405

  3. F-box protein Fbxl18 mediates polyubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation of the pro-apoptotic SCF subunit Fbxl7.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Lear, T; Zhao, Y; Zhao, J; Zou, C; Chen, B B; Mallampalli, R K

    2015-01-01

    Fbxl7, a subunit of the SCF (Skp-Cul1-F-box protein) complex induces mitotic arrest in cells; however, molecular factors that control its cellular abundance remain largely unknown. Here, we identified that an orphan F-box protein, Fbxl18, targets Fbxl7 for its polyubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. Lys 109 within Fbxl7 is an essential acceptor site for ubiquitin conjugation by Fbxl18. An FQ motif within Fbxl7 serves as a molecular recognition site for Fbxl18 interaction. Ectopically expressed Fbxl7 induces apoptosis in Hela cells, an effect profoundly accentuated after cellular depletion of Fbxl18 protein or expression of Fbxl7 plasmids encoding mutations at either Lys 109 or within the FQ motif. Ectopic expression of Fbxl18 plasmid-limited apoptosis caused by overexpressed Fbxl7 plasmid. Thus, Fbxl18 regulates apoptosis by mediating ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of the pro-apoptotic protein Fbxl7 that may impact cellular processes involved in cell cycle progression. PMID:25654763

  4. Metformin reduces cisplatin-mediated apoptotic death of cancer cells through AMPK-independent activation of Akt.

    PubMed

    Janjetovic, Kristina; Vucicevic, Ljubica; Misirkic, Maja; Vilimanovich, Urosh; Tovilovic, Gordana; Zogovic, Nevena; Nikolic, Zoran; Jovanovic, Svetlana; Bumbasirevic, Vladimir; Trajkovic, Vladimir; Harhaji-Trajkovic, Ljubica

    2011-01-25

    Metformin is an antidiabetic drug with anticancer properties, which mainly acts through induction of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In the present study we investigated the influence of metformin on the in vitro anticancer activity of the well-known chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin. Cell viability was determined by MTT and LDH release assay, oxidative stress and apoptosis (caspase activation, DNA fragmentation, and phosphatidylserine exposure) were assessed by flow cytometry, while activation of AMPK and Akt was analyzed by immunoblotting. Although metformin reduced the number of tumour cells when applied alone, it surprisingly antagonized the cytotoxicity of cisplatin towards U251 human glioma, C6 rat glioma, SHSY5Y human neuroblastoma, L929 mouse fibrosarcoma and HL-60 human leukemia cell lines. Only in B16 mouse melanoma cells metformin augmented the cytotoxicity of cisplatin. In U251 glioma cells metformin suppressed cisplatin-induced apoptotic cell death through inhibition of oxidative stress and caspase activation. The observed cytoprotection was apparently AMPK-independent, as metformin did not further increase cisplatin-induced AMPK activation in U251 cells and other pharmacological AMPK activators failed to block cisplatin-mediated apoptosis. On the other hand, metformin induced Akt activation in cisplatin-treated cells and Akt inhibitor 10-DEBC hydrochloride or phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt inhibitor LY294002 abolished metformin-mediated antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects. In conclusion, the antidiabetic drug metformin reduces cisplatin in vitro anticancer activity through AMPK-independent upregulation of Akt survival pathway. These data warrant caution when considering metformin for treatment of diabetic cancer patients receiving cisplatin or as a potential adjuvant in cisplatin-based chemotherapeutic regimens. PMID:21114978

  5. Paracrine Apoptotic Effect of p53 Mediated by Tumor Suppressor Par-4

    PubMed Central

    Burikhanov, Ravshan; Shrestha-Bhattarai, Tripti; Hebbar, Nikhil; Qiu, Shirley; Zhao, Yanming; Zambetti, Gerard P.; Rangnekar, Vivek M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The guardian of the genome, p53, is often mutated in cancer and may contribute to therapeutic resistance. As p53 is intact and functional in normal tissues, we harnessed its potential to inhibit the growth of p53-deficient cancer cells. Specific activation of p53 in normal fibroblasts selectively induced apoptosis in p53-deficient cancer cells. This paracrine effect was mediated by p53-dependent secretion of the tumor suppressor Par-4. Accordingly, activation of p53 in normal mice, but not in p53?/? or Par-4?/? mice, caused systemic elevation of Par-4 that induced apoptosis of p53-deficient tumor cells. Mechanistically, p53 induced Par-4 secretion by suppressing the expression of UACA, which sequesters Par-4. Thus, normal cells can be empowered by p53 activation to induce Par-4 secretion for inhibition of therapy-resistant tumors. PMID:24412360

  6. Mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated Fas apoptotic signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Goillot, Evelyne; Raingeaud, Joel; Ranger, Ann; Tepper, Robert I.; Davis, Roger. J.; Harlow, Ed; Sanchez, Irma

    1997-01-01

    Ligation of the cell surface receptor Fas/APO-1 (CD95) by its specific ligand or by anti-Fas antibodies rapidly induces apoptosis in susceptible cells. To characterize the molecular events involved in Fas-induced apoptosis, we examined the contribution of two subgroups of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family, the Jun kinases or stress-activated protein kinases (JNKs/SAPKs) and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), in a Fas-sensitive neuroblastoma cell line. Here we show that both JNK and ERK protein kinases were activated upon Fas crosslinking through a Ras-dependent mechanism. Interference with either the JNK or ERK pathway by ectopic expression of dominant-interfering mutant proteins blocked Fas-mediated apoptosis. ERK activation was transient and associated with induced expression of the Fas receptor. In contrast, JNK activation was sustained and correlated with the onset of apoptosis. These data indicate that the ERK and the JNK groups of MAP kinases cooperate in the induction of cell death by Fas. Inhibition of Fas killing by an interleukin 1?-converting enzyme (ICE)-like protease inhibitor peptide did not modify Fas-induced JNK activation upon Fas ligation. In contrast, changes in Bcl-2 level due to expression of sense and antisense vectors influenced the sensitivity to Fas killing and Fas-induced JNK activation. PMID:9096388

  7. Curcumin induces apoptosis through the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway in HT-29 cells*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin-bo; Qi, Li-li; Zheng, Shui-di; Wu, Tian-xing

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of curcumin on release of cytochrome c and expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, Bad, Bcl-xL, caspase-3, poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), and survivin of HT-29 cells. Methods: HT-29 cells were treated with curcumin (0~80 ?mol/L) for 24 h. The release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria and the apoptosis-related proteins Bax, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bad, caspase-3, PARP, and survivin were determined by Western blot analysis and their mRNA expressions by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: Curcumin significantly induced the growth inhibition and apoptosis of HT-29 cells. A decrease in expressions of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and survivin was observed after exposure to 10~80 ?mol/L curcumin, while the levels of Bax and Bad increased in the curcumin-treated cells. Curcumin also induced the release of cytochrome c, the activation of caspase-3, and the cleavage of PARP in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: These data suggest that curcumin induced the HT-29 cell apoptosis possibly via the mitochondria-mediated pathway. PMID:19235267

  8. Caspase-2 is involved in cell death induction by taxanes in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We studied the role of caspase-2 in apoptosis induction by taxanes (paclitaxel, novel taxane SB-T-1216) in breast cancer cells using SK-BR-3 (nonfunctional p53, functional caspase-3) and MCF-7 (functional p53, nonfunctional caspase-3) cell lines. Results Both taxanes induced apoptosis in SK-BR-3 as well as MCF-7 cells. Caspase-2 activity in SK-BR-3 cells increased approximately 15-fold within 48 h after the application of both taxanes at the death-inducing concentration (100 nM). In MCF-7 cells, caspase-2 activity increased approximately 11-fold within 60 h after the application of taxanes (300 nM). Caspase-2 activation was confirmed by decreasing levels of procaspase-2, increasing levels of cleaved caspase-2 and the cleavage of caspase-2 substrate golgin-160. The inhibition of caspase-2 expression using siRNA increased the number of surviving cells more than 2-fold in MCF-7 cells, and at least 4-fold in SK-BR-3 cells, 96 h after the application of death-inducing concentration of taxanes. The inhibition of caspase-2 expression also resulted in decreased cleavage of initiator caspases (caspase-8, caspase-9) as well as executioner caspases (caspase-3, caspase-7) in both cell lines after the application of taxanes. In control cells, caspase-2 seemed to be mainly localized in the nucleus. After the application of taxanes, it was released from the nucleus to the cytosol, due to the long-term disintegration of the nuclear envelope, in both cell lines. Taxane application led to some formation of PIDDosome complex in both cell lines within 24 h after the application. After taxane application, p21WAF1/CIP1 expression was only induced in MCF-7 cells with functional p53. However, taxane application did not result in a significant increase of PIDD expression in either SK-BR-3 or MCF-7 cells. The inhibition of RAIDD expression using siRNA did not affect the number of surviving SK-BR-3 and MCF-7 cells after taxane application at all. Conclusion Caspase-2 is required, at least partially, for apoptosis induction by taxanes in tested breast cancer cells. We suggest that caspase-2 plays the role of an apical caspase in these cells. Caspase-2 seems to be activated via other mechanism than PIDDosome formation. It follows the release of caspase-2 from the nucleus to the cytosol. PMID:23672670

  9. Efficacious gene silencing in serum and significant apoptotic activity induction by survivin downregulation mediated by new cationic gemini tocopheryl lipids.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Krishan; Maiti, Bappa; Kondaiah, Paturu; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2015-02-01

    Nonviral gene delivery offers cationic liposomes as promising instruments for the delivery of double-stranded RNA (ds RNA) molecules for successful sequence-specific gene silencing (RNA interference). The efficient delivery of siRNA (small interfering RNA) to cells while avoiding unexpected side effects is an important prerequisite for the exploitation of the power of this excellent tool. We present here six new tocopherol based cationic gemini lipids, which induce substantial gene knockdown without any obvious cytotoxicity. All the efficient coliposomal formulations derived from each of these geminis and a helper lipid, dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE), were well characterized using physical methods such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Zeta potential measurements were conducted to estimate the surface charge of these formulations. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the optimized coliposomal formulations could transfect anti-GFP siRNA efficiently in three different GFP expressing cell lines, viz., HEK 293T, HeLa, and Caco-2, significantly better than a potent commercial standard Lipofectamine 2000 (L2K) both in the absence and in the presence of serum (FBS). Notably, the knockdown activity of coliposomes of gemini lipids was not affected even in the presence of serum (10% and 50% FBS) while it dropped down for L2K significantly. Observations under a fluorescence microscope, RT-PCR, and Western blot analysis substantiated the flow cytometry results. The efficient cellular entry of labeled siRNA in GFP expressing cells as evidenced from confocal microscopy put forward these gemini lipids among the potent lipidic carriers for siRNA. The efficient transfection capabilities were also profiled in a more relevant fashion while performing siRNA transfections against survivin (an anti-apoptotic protein) which induced substantial apoptosis. Furthermore, the survivin downregulation improved the therapeutic efficacy levels of an anticancer drug, doxorubicin, significantly. In short, the new tocopherol based gemini lipids appear to be highly promising for achieving siRNA mediated gene knockdown in various cell lines. PMID:25438085

  10. Apoptotic-like Leishmania exploit the host´s autophagy machinery to reduce T-cell-mediated parasite elimination.

    PubMed

    Crauwels, Peter; Bohn, Rebecca; Thomas, Meike; Gottwalt, Stefan; Jäckel, Florian; Krämer, Susi; Bank, Elena; Tenzer, Stefan; Walther, Paul; Bastian, Max; Zandbergen, Ger van

    2015-02-01

    Apoptosis is a well-defined cellular process in which a cell dies, characterized by cell shrinkage and DNA fragmentation. In parasites like Leishmania, the process of apoptosis-like cell death has been described. Moreover upon infection, the apoptotic-like population is essential for disease development, in part by silencing host phagocytes. Nevertheless, the exact mechanism of how apoptosis in unicellular organisms may support infectivity remains unclear. Therefore we investigated the fate of apoptotic-like Leishmania parasites in human host macrophages. Our data showed-in contrast to viable parasites-that apoptotic-like parasites enter an LC3(+), autophagy-like compartment. The compartment was found to consist of a single lipid bilayer, typical for LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP). As LAP can provoke anti-inflammatory responses and autophagy modulates antigen presentation, we analyzed how the presence of apoptotic-like parasites affected the adaptive immune response. Macrophages infected with viable Leishmania induced proliferation of CD4(+) T-cells, leading to a reduced intracellular parasite survival. Remarkably, the presence of apoptotic-like parasites in the inoculum significantly reduced T-cell proliferation. Chemical induction of autophagy in human monocyte-derived macrophage (hMDM), infected with viable parasites only, had an even stronger proliferation-reducing effect, indicating that host cell autophagy and not parasite viability limits the T-cell response and enhances parasite survival. Concluding, our data suggest that apoptotic-like Leishmania hijack the host cells´ autophagy machinery to reduce T-cell proliferation. Furthermore, the overall population survival is guaranteed, explaining the benefit of apoptosis-like cell death in a single-celled parasite and defining the host autophagy pathway as a potential therapeutic target in treating Leishmaniasis. PMID:25801301

  11. The BH4 Domain of Anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL, but Not That of the Related Bcl-2, Limits the Voltage-dependent Anion Channel 1 (VDAC1)-mediated Transfer of Pro-apoptotic Ca2+ Signals to Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Giovanni; Decrock, Elke; Arbel, Nir; van Vliet, Alexander R; La Rovere, Rita M; De Smedt, Humbert; Parys, Jan B; Agostinis, Patrizia; Leybaert, Luc; Shoshan-Barmatz, Varda; Bultynck, Geert

    2015-04-01

    Excessive Ca(2+) fluxes from the endoplasmic reticulum to the mitochondria result in apoptotic cell death. Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL proteins exert part of their anti-apoptotic function by directly targeting Ca(2+)-transport systems, like the endoplasmic reticulum-localized inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and the voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) at the outer mitochondrial membranes. We previously demonstrated that the Bcl-2 homology 4 (BH4) domain of Bcl-2 protects against Ca(2+)-dependent apoptosis by binding and inhibiting IP3Rs, although the BH4 domain of Bcl-XL was protective independently of binding IP3Rs. Here, we report that in contrast to the BH4 domain of Bcl-2, the BH4 domain of Bcl-XL binds and inhibits VDAC1. In intact cells, delivery of the BH4-Bcl-XL peptide via electroporation limits agonist-induced mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and protects against staurosporine-induced apoptosis, in line with the results obtained with VDAC1(-/-) cells. Moreover, the delivery of the N-terminal domain of VDAC1 as a synthetic peptide (VDAC1-NP) abolishes the ability of BH4-Bcl-XL to suppress mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and to protect against apoptosis. Importantly, VDAC1-NP did not affect the ability of BH4-Bcl-2 to suppress agonist-induced Ca(2+) release in the cytosol or to prevent apoptosis, as done instead by an IP3R-derived peptide. In conclusion, our data indicate that the BH4 domain of Bcl-XL, but not that of Bcl-2, selectively targets VDAC1 and inhibits apoptosis by decreasing VDAC1-mediated Ca(2+) uptake into the mitochondria. PMID:25681439

  12. Regulation of CRADD-caspase 2 cascade by histone deacetylase 1 in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qi; Tang, Wanfen; Sun, Jie; Feng, Lifeng; Jin, Hongchuan; Wang, Xian

    2014-01-01

    CRADD, also referred as RAIDD, is an adaptor protein that could interact with both caspase 2 and RIP that can promote apoptosis once activated. HDAC inhibitors are promising anti-cancer agents by inducing apoptosis of various cancer cells. In this study, we found that CRADD was induced by TSA (trichostatin A) to activate caspase 2-dependent apoptosis. CRADD was downregulated in gastric cancer and the restoration of its expression suppressed the viability of gastric cancer cells. HDAC1 was responsible for its downregulation in gastric cancer since HDAC1 siRNA upregulated CRADD expression and HDAC1 directly bound to the promoter of CRADD. Therefore, the high expression of HDAC1 can downregulate CRADD to confer gastric cancer cells the resistance to caspase 2-dependent apoptosis. HDAC inhibitors, potential anti-cancer drugs under investigation, can promote caspase 2-dependent apoptosis by inducing the expression of CRADD. PMID:25360218

  13. Regulation of CRADD-caspase 2 cascade by histone deacetylase 1 in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qi; Tang, Wanfen; Sun, Jie; Feng, Lifeng; Jin, Hongchuan; Wang, Xian

    2014-01-01

    CRADD, also referred as RAIDD, is an adaptor protein that could interact with both caspase 2 and RIP that can promote apoptosis once activated. HDAC inhibitors are promising anti-cancer agents by inducing apoptosis of various cancer cells. In this study, we found that CRADD was induced by TSA (trichostatin A) to activate caspase 2-dependent apoptosis. CRADD was downregulated in gastric cancer and the restoration of its expression suppressed the viability of gastric cancer cells. HDAC1 was responsible for its downregulation in gastric cancer since HDAC1 siRNA upregulated CRADD expression and HDAC1 directly bound to the promoter of CRADD. Therefore, the high expression of HDAC1 can downregulate CRADD to confer gastric cancer cells the resistance to caspase 2-dependent apoptosis. HDAC inhibitors, potential anti-cancer drugs under investigation, can promote caspase 2-dependent apoptosis by inducing the expression of CRADD. PMID:25360218

  14. Tip60 HAT Activity Mediates APP Induced Lethality and Apoptotic Cell Death in the CNS of a Drosophila Alzheimer's Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Pirooznia, Sheila K.; Chiu, Kellie; Koduri, Sravanthi; Elefant, Felice

    2012-01-01

    Histone acetylation of chromatin promotes dynamic transcriptional responses in neurons that influence neuroplasticity critical for cognitive ability. It has been demonstrated that Tip60 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity is involved in the transcriptional regulation of genes enriched for neuronal function as well as the control of synaptic plasticity. Accordingly, Tip60 has been implicated in the neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer's disease (AD) via transcriptional regulatory complex formation with the AD linked amyloid precursor protein (APP) intracellular domain (AICD). As such, inappropriate complex formation may contribute to AD-linked neurodegeneration by misregulation of target genes involved in neurogenesis; however, a direct and causative epigenetic based role for Tip60 HAT activity in this process during neuronal development in vivo remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that nervous system specific loss of Tip60 HAT activity enhances APP mediated lethality and neuronal apoptotic cell death in the central nervous system (CNS) of a transgenic AD fly model while remarkably, overexpression of Tip60 diminishes these defects. Notably, all of these effects are dependent upon the C-terminus of APP that is required for transcriptional regulatory complex formation with Tip60. Importantly, we show that the expression of certain AD linked Tip60 gene targets critical for regulating apoptotic pathways are modified in the presence of APP. Our results are the first to demonstrate a functional interaction between Tip60 and APP in mediating nervous system development and apoptotic neuronal cell death in the CNS of an AD fly model in vivo, and support a novel neuroprotective role for Tip60 HAT activity in AD neurodegenerative pathology. PMID:22848598

  15. Biliverdin reductase/bilirubin mediates the anti-apoptotic effect of hypoxia in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells through ERK1/2 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Shasha [Department of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Harbin Medical, University (Daqing), Daqing 163319 (China); Wang, Shuang [Department of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Harbin Medical, University (Daqing), Daqing 163319 (China); Biopharmaceutical Key Laboratory of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin 150081 (China); Ma, Jun; Yao, Lan; Xing, Hao; Zhang, Lei; Liao, Lin [Department of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Harbin Medical, University (Daqing), Daqing 163319 (China); Zhu, Daling, E-mail: dalingz@yahoo.com [Department of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Harbin Medical, University (Daqing), Daqing 163319 (China); Biopharmaceutical Key Laboratory of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin 150081 (China)

    2013-08-01

    Inhibition of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC) apoptosis induced by hypoxia plays an important role in pulmonary arterial remodeling leading to aggravate hypoxic pulmonary arterial hypertension. However, the mechanisms of hypoxia acting on PASMC apoptosis remain exclusive. Biliverdin reductase (BVR) has many essential biologic roles in physiological and pathological processes. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether the hypoxia-induced inhibition on PASMC apoptosis is mediated by BVR. In the present work, we found BVR majorly localized in PASMCs and was up-regulated in levels of protein and mRNA by hypoxia. Then we studied the contribution of BVR to anti-apoptotic response of hypoxia in PASMCs. Our results showed that siBVR, blocking generation of bilirubin, reversed the effect of hypoxia on enhancing cell survival and apoptotic protein (Bcl-2, procasepase-9, procasepase-3) expression, preventing nuclear shrinkage, DNA fragmentation and mitochondrial depolarization in starved PASMCs, which were recovered by exogenous bilirubin. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of bilirubin on PASMC apoptosis under hypoxic condition was blocked by the inhibitor of ERK1/2 pathway. Taken together, our data indicate that BVR contributes to the inhibitory process of hypoxia on PASMC apoptosis, which is mediated by bilirubin through ERK1/2 pathway. Highlights: • BVR expresses in PASMC and is up-regulated by hypoxia in protein and mRNA levels. • BVR/bilirubin contribute to the inhibitive process of hypoxia on PASMC apoptosis. • Bilirubin protects PASMC from apoptosis under hypoxia via ERK1/2 pathway.

  16. T cell/transmembrane, Ig, and mucin-3 allelic variants differentially recognize phosphatidylserine and mediate phagocytosis of apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    DeKruyff, Rosemarie H; Bu, Xia; Ballesteros, Angela; Santiago, César; Chim, Yee-Ling E; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Karisola, Piia; Pichavant, Muriel; Kaplan, Gerardo G; Umetsu, Dale T; Freeman, Gordon J; Casasnovas, José M

    2010-02-15

    T cell/transmembrane, Ig, and mucin (TIM) proteins, identified using a congenic mouse model of asthma, critically regulate innate and adaptive immunity. TIM-1 and TIM-4 are receptors for phosphatidylserine (PtdSer), exposed on the surfaces of apoptotic cells. Herein, we show with structural and biological studies that TIM-3 is also a receptor for PtdSer that binds in a pocket on the N-terminal IgV domain in coordination with a calcium ion. The TIM-3/PtdSer structure is similar to that of TIM-4/PtdSer, reflecting a conserved PtdSer binding mode by TIM family members. Fibroblastic cells expressing mouse or human TIM-3 bound and phagocytosed apoptotic cells, with the BALB/c allelic variant of mouse TIM-3 showing a higher capacity than the congenic C.D2 Es-Hba-allelic variant. These functional differences were due to structural differences in the BC loop of the IgV domain of the TIM-3 polymorphic variants. In contrast to fibroblastic cells, T or B cells expressing TIM-3 formed conjugates with but failed to engulf apoptotic cells. Together these findings indicate that TIM-3-expressing cells can respond to apoptotic cells, but the consequence of TIM-3 engagement of PtdSer depends on the polymorphic variants of and type of cell expressing TIM-3. These findings establish a new paradigm for TIM proteins as PtdSer receptors and unify the function of the TIM gene family, which has been associated with asthma and autoimmunity and shown to modulate peripheral tolerance. PMID:20083673

  17. Enhancement in efferocytosis of oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced apoptotic RAW264.7 cells through Sirt1-mediated autophagy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baoxin; Zhang, Buchun; Guo, Rong; Li, Shuang; Xu, Yawei

    2014-03-01

    Macrophages play a key role in atherosclerotic plaque formation and rupture. These phagocytic cells are important in the scavenging of modified lipoproteins, unwanted or dead cells and cellular debris through efferocytosis. Sirtuin1 (Sirt1), a member of the conserved sirtuin family and a key regulator in the progression of atherosclerosis exerts protective effects by regulating autophagy, a well-known survival mechanism. Inhibition of autophagy may also result in defective efferocytosis. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Sirt1 on the efferocytosis of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced apoptotic RAW264.7 cells through upregulation of autophagy. The apoptotic cells were incubated with high and low concentrations of Sirt1 activator resveratrol (RSV) and Sirt1 inhibitor nicotinamide (NAM) as well as autophagy inhibitor 3-methyl-adenine (3-MA) + low concentration RSV. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry (FCM) of annexin-V/propidium iodide (AV/PI) dual staining. Total proteins were extracted and protein levels were detected through western blot analysis. The ox-LDL uptake and efferocytosis of apoptotic RAW264.7 cells were detected by oil red O staining and calculation of the phagocytic index of apoptotic RAW264.7 cells. The expression of Sirt1 and autophagy marker proteins was simultaneously increased with the stimulation of low concentration RSV (all P<0.05) and decreased in low and high NAM groups (all P<0.05), compared with the control group. Efferocytosis was highest in the low concentration RSV group (P<0.001) and relatively lower in the low and high concentration NAM groups (both P<0.05) compared with the control group, which was similar to the change in the expression of Sirt1 and autophagy marker proteins. The results showed that the efferocytosis of apoptotic RAW264.7 cells was significantly improved with the upregulation of Sirt1?mediated autophagy. Therefore, Sirt1 may serve as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:24378473

  18. Enhancement in efferocytosis of oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced apoptotic RAW264.7 cells through Sirt1-mediated autophagy

    PubMed Central

    LIU, BAOXIN; ZHANG, BUCHUN; GUO, RONG; LI, SHUANG; XU, YAWEI

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages play a key role in atherosclerotic plaque formation and rupture. These phagocytic cells are important in the scavenging of modified lipoproteins, unwanted or dead cells and cellular debris through efferocytosis. Sirtuin1 (Sirt1), a member of the conserved sirtuin family and a key regulator in the progression of atherosclerosis exerts protective effects by regulating autophagy, a well-known survival mechanism. Inhibition of autophagy may also result in defective efferocytosis. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Sirt1 on the efferocytosis of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced apoptotic RAW264.7 cells through upregulation of autophagy. The apoptotic cells were incubated with high and low concentrations of Sirt1 activator resveratrol (RSV) and Sirt1 inhibitor nicotinamide (NAM) as well as autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) + low concentration RSV. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry (FCM) of annexin-V/propidium iodide (AV/PI) dual staining. Total proteins were extracted and protein levels were detected through western blot analysis. The ox-LDL uptake and efferocytosis of apoptotic RAW264.7 cells were detected by oil red O staining and calculation of the phagocytic index of apoptotic RAW264.7 cells. The expression of Sirt1 and autophagy marker proteins was simultaneously increased with the stimulation of low concentration RSV (all P<0.05) and decreased in low and high NAM groups (all P<0.05), compared with the control group. Efferocytosis was highest in the low concentration RSV group (P<0.001) and relatively lower in the low and high concentration NAM groups (both P<0.05) compared with the control group, which was similar to the change in the expression of Sirt1 and autophagy marker proteins. The results showed that the efferocytosis of apoptotic RAW264.7 cells was significantly improved with the upregulation of Sirt1-mediated autophagy. Therefore, Sirt1 may serve as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:24378473

  19. Pronounced transcriptional regulation of apoptotic and TNF-NF-kappa-B signaling genes during the course of thymoquinone mediated apoptosis in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Sakalar, Cagri; Yuruk, Merve; Kaya, Tugba; Aytekin, Metin; Kuk, Salih; Canatan, Halit

    2013-11-01

    Thymoquinone (TQ) is the active ingredient extracted from the essential oil of Nigella sativa. A number of studies implicated TQ as an antitumor agent. In this study, cytotoxic effects of the oil of N. sativa and TQ were evaluated on human cervical cancer cell line, HeLa cells. IC50 value was ~0.125 ?l/ml for N. sativa oil preparations and 12.5 ?M for TQ. TQ strongly inhibited wound healing at all concentrations ranging from 12.5 to 100 ?M in a scratch wound healing assay. Additionally, induction of apoptosis by TQ was assessed by Giemsa staining and TQ was found to induce apoptosis in cancer cells especially at concentrations of 50 and 100 ?M. TQ-mediated transcriptional regulation of 84 genes involved in apoptosis was studied using a PCR array. At low dose (12.5 ?M), TQ was found to induce expression of four pro-apoptotic genes: BIK (~22.7-fold), FASL (~2.9-fold), BCL2L10 (~2.1-fold), and CASP1 (~2-fold). TQ was also found to reduce the expression of an anti-apoptotic gene implicated in NF-kappa-B signaling and cancer: RELA (~8-fold). At high dose (100 ?M), TQ mediated the expression of 21 genes implicated directly in apoptosis (6 genes), TNF signaling (10 genes), and NF-kappa-B signaling (3 genes) such as BIK, BID, TNFRSF10A, TNFRSF10B, TNF, TRAF3, RELA, and RELB. In conclusion, this study implicates the role of TQ in the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation and migration. At the same time, our results strongly suggest that TQ intervenes with TNF and NF-kappa-B signaling during TQ-mediated induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. PMID:23943306

  20. Arylpiperazine-mediated activation of Akt protects SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells from 6-hydroxydopamine-induced apoptotic and autophagic death.

    PubMed

    Tovilovic, Gordana; Zogovic, Nevena; Soskic, Vukic; Schrattenholz, Andre; Kostic-Rajacic, Sladjana; Misirkic-Marjanovic, Maja; Janjetovic, Kristina; Vucicevic, Ljubica; Arsikin, Katarina; Harhaji-Trajkovic, Ljubica; Trajkovic, Vladimir

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the ability of 19 recently synthesized arylpiperazine compounds to protect human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells from the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). The compound with the most potent neuroprotective action was N-{3-[2-(4-phenyl-piperazin-1-yl)-ethyl]-phenyl}-picolinamide (6b), which reduced 6-OHDA-induced apoptotic death through stabilization of mitochondrial membrane and subsequent prevention of superoxide production, caspase activation and DNA fragmentation. 6-OHDA-triggered autophagic response was also reduced by 6b, which prevented inactivation of the main autophagy repressor mTOR, upregulation of proautophagic beclin-1, conversion of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-I to autophagosome-associated LC3-II, as well as intracytoplasmic acidification induced by 6-OHDA. The inhibition of autophagy using LC3? gene silencing or pharmacological autophagy blockers 3-methyladenine or bafilomycin A1, mimicked the cytoprotective effect of 6b. While the treatment with 6b had no effect on the phosphorylation of proapoptotic MAP kinases ERK and JNK, it markedly increased the phosphorylation of the prosurvival kinase Akt in 6-OHDA-treated cells. Akt inhibitor DEBC or RNA interference-mediated Akt silencing reduced the ability of 6b to block 6-OHDA-triggered apoptotic and autophagic responses, thus confirming their dependency on Akt activation. The cytoprotective effect of 6b was also observed in 6-OHDA-treated neuronal PC12 cells, but not in SH-SY5Y or PC12 cells exposed to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, indicating that the observed neuroprotection was dependent on the cytotoxic stimulus. Because of the ability to prevent 6-OHDA induced apoptotic/autophagic cell death through activation of Akt, the investigated arylpiperazines could be potential candidates for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23643751

  1. Mangiferin Attenuates Diabetic Nephropathy by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress Mediated Signaling Cascade, TNF? Related and Mitochondrial Dependent Apoptotic Pathways in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Pabitra Bikash; Sinha, Krishnendu; Sil, Parames C.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy in hyperglycemic conditions. It has already been reported that mangiferin, a natural C-glucosyl xanthone and polyhydroxy polyphenol compound protects kidneys from diabetic nephropathy. However, little is known about the mechanism of its beneficial action in this pathophysiology. The present study, therefore, examines the detailed mechanism of the beneficial action of mangiferin on STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy in Wister rats as the working model. A significant increase in plasma glucose level, kidney to body weight ratio, glomerular hypertrophy and hydropic changes as well as enhanced nephrotoxicity related markers (BUN, plasma creatinine, uric acid and urinary albumin) were observed in the experimental animals. Furthermore, increased oxidative stress related parameters, increased ROS production and decreased the intracellular antioxidant defenses were detected in the kidney. Studies on the oxidative stress mediated signaling cascades in diabetic nephropathy demonstrated that PKC isoforms (PKC?, PKC? and PKC?), MAPKs (p38, JNK and ERK1/2), transcription factor (NF-?B) and TGF-?1 pathways were involved in this pathophysiology. Besides, TNF? was released in this hyperglycemic condition, which in turn activated caspase 8, cleaved Bid to tBid and finally the mitochorndia-dependent apoptotic pathway. In addition, oxidative stress also disturbed the proapoptotic-antiapoptotic (Bax and Bcl-2) balance and activated mitochorndia-dependent apoptosis via caspase 9, caspase 3 and PARP cleavage. Mangiferin treatment, post to hyperglycemia, successfully inhibited all of these changes and protected the cells from apoptotic death. PMID:25233093

  2. Selenium (sodium selenite) causes cytotoxicity and apoptotic mediated cell death in PLHC-1 fish cell line through DNA and mitochondrial membrane potential damage.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Vellaisamy; Tomblin, Justin; Yeager Armistead, Mindy; Murray, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Elevated concentration of selenium poses a toxic threat to organisms inhabiting aquatic ecosystems influenced by excessive inputs from anthropogenic sources. Selenium is also an essential micronutrient in living things, particularly in fish, and provides antioxidant properties to tissues. Whole fish and hepatocytes in primary culture show selenite toxicity above threshold levels. The present study was designed to investigate the process by which selenite exposure causes cellular toxicity and apoptotic and necrotic cell death in fish hepatoma cell line PLHC-1. PLHC-1 cells were exposed to various selenite concentrations (1, 10, 50 and 100 ?M) for 10, 20 and 40 h intervals. The 24h inhibitory concentration 50 (IC??) of selenite in PLHC-1 cell line was found to be 237 ?M. Flow cytometery data showed that selenite exposed cells promote apoptotic and necrotic mediated cell death when selenite concentrations were ?10 ?M compared to control. Selenite exposure was associated with a significant increase of caspase-3 activities suggesting the induction of apoptosis. Selenite exposure at high levels (?10 ?M) and longer exposure times (?20 h) induces mitochondrial membrane potential damage (??(m)), DNA damage and elevated production of ROS which could be associated with cell death. PMID:23158585

  3. Caspase-2 Maintains Bone Homeostasis by Inducing Apoptosis of Oxidatively-Damaged Osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ramaswamy; Callaway, Danielle; Vanegas, Difernando; Bendele, Michelle; Lopez-Cruzan, Marisa; Horn, Diane; Guda, Teja; Fajardo, Roberto; Abboud-Werner, Sherry; Herman, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a silent disease, characterized by a porous bone micro-structure that enhances risk for fractures and associated disabilities. Senile, or age-related osteoporosis (SO), affects both men and women, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying senile osteoporosis are not fully known. Recent studies implicate the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased oxidative stress as key factors in SO. Herein, we show that loss of caspase-2, a cysteine aspartate protease involved in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, results in total body and femoral bone loss in aged mice (20% decrease in bone mineral density), and an increase in bone fragility (30% decrease in fracture strength). Importantly, we demonstrate that genetic ablation or selective inhibition of caspase-2 using zVDVAD-fmk results in increased numbers of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and enhanced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity. Conversely, transfection of osteoclast precursors with wild type caspase-2 but not an enzymatic mutant, results in a decrease in TRAP activity. We demonstrate that caspase-2 expression is induced in osteoclasts treated with oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide and that loss of caspase-2 enhances resistance to oxidants, as measured by TRAP activity, and decreases oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of osteoclasts. Moreover, oxidative stress, quantified by assessment of the lipid peroxidation marker, 4-HNE, is increased in Casp2-/- bone, perhaps due to a decrease in antioxidant enzymes such as SOD2. Taken together, our data point to a critical and novel role for caspase-2 in maintaining bone homeostasis by modulating ROS levels and osteoclast apoptosis during conditions of enhanced oxidative stress that occur during aging. PMID:24691516

  4. Rac1 signaling protects monocytic AML cells expressing the MLL-AF9 oncogene from caspase-mediated apoptotic death.

    PubMed

    Hinterleitner, C; Huelsenbeck, J; Henninger, C; Wartlick, F; Schorr, A; Kaina, B; Fritz, G

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the relevance of signaling mechanisms regulated by the Ras-homologous GTPase Rac1 for survival of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells harbouring the MLL-AF9 oncogene due to t(9;11)(p21;q23) translocation. Monocytic MLL-AF9 expressing cells (MM6, THP-1) were hypersensitive to both small-molecule inhibitors targeting Rac1 (EHT 1864, NSC 23766) (IC50EHT ~12.5 ?M) and lipid lowering drugs (lovastatin, atorvastatin) (IC50Lova ~7.5 ?M) as compared to acute myelocytic leukemia (NOMO-1, HL60) and T cell leukemia (Jurkat) cells (IC50EHT >30 ?M; IC50Lova >25 ?M). Hypersensitivity of monocytic cells following Rac1 inhibition resulted from caspase-driven apoptosis as shown by profound activation of caspase-8,-9,-7,-3 and substantial (~90 %) decrease in protein expression of pro-survival factors (survivin, XIAP, p-Akt). Apoptotic death was preceded by S139-posphorylation of histone H2AX (?H2AX), a prototypical surrogate marker of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Taken together, abrogation of Rac1 signaling causes DSBs in acute monocytic leukemia cells harbouring the MLL-AF9 oncogene, which, together with downregulation of survivin, XIAP and p-Akt, results in massive induction of caspase-driven apoptotic death. Apparently, Rac1 signaling is required for maintaining genetic stability and maintaining survival in specific subtypes of AML. Hence, targeting of Rac1 is considered a promising novel strategy to induce lethality in MLL-AF9 expressing AML. PMID:23624644

  5. Tumor-suppressing Function of Caspase-2 Requires Catalytic Site Cys-320 and Site Ser-139 in Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Keqin; Lu, Jing; Porollo, Aleksey; Du, Chunying

    2012-01-01

    The multifunctional caspase-2 protein is involved in apoptosis, NF-?B regulation, and tumor suppression in mice. However, the mechanisms of caspase-2 responsible for tumor suppression remain unclear. Here we identified two sites of caspase-2, the catalytic Cys-320 site and the Ser-139 site, to be important for suppression of cellular transformation and tumorigenesis. Using SV40- and K-Ras-transformed caspase-2 KO mouse embryonic fibroblast cells reconstituted with expression of wild-type, catalytic dead (C320A), or Ser-139 (S139A) mutant caspase-2, we demonstrated that similar to caspase-2 deficiency, when Cys-320 and Ser-139 were mutated, caspase-2 lost its ability to inhibit cellular transformation and tumorigenesis. These mutant cells exhibited enhanced cell proliferation, elevated clonogenic activity, accelerated anchorage-independent growth, and transformation and were highly tumorigenic, rapidly producing large tumors in athymic nude mice. Investigation into the underlying mechanism showed that these two residues are needed for caspase-2 to suppress NF-?B activity, promote apoptosis, and sustain the G2/M checkpoint following DNA damage induction. In addition, tumors in nude mice derived from the two mutant cell lines had higher constitutive NF-?B activity and elevated expression of NF-?B targets of antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-xL, XIAP, and cIAP2. A reduction in caspase-2 mRNA was associated with multiple types of cancers in patients. Together, these observations suggest the combined functions of caspase-2 in suppressing NF-?B activation, promoting apoptosis, and sustaining G2/M checkpoint contribute to caspase-2 tumor-suppressing function and that caspase-2 may also impact tumor suppression in humans. These findings provide insight into tumor suppression at the cross-roads of apoptosis, cell cycle checkpoint, and NF-?B pathways. PMID:22396545

  6. Chromatin Collapse during Caspase-dependent Apoptotic Cell Death Requires DNA Fragmentation Factor, 40-kDa Subunit-/Caspase-activated Deoxyribonuclease-mediated 3?-OH Single-strand DNA Breaks*

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias-Guimarais, Victoria; Gil-Guiñon, Estel; Sánchez-Osuna, María; Casanelles, Elisenda; García-Belinchón, Mercè; Comella, Joan X.; Yuste, Victor J.

    2013-01-01

    Apoptotic nuclear morphology and oligonucleosomal double-strand DNA fragments (also known as DNA ladder) are considered the hallmarks of apoptotic cell death. From a classic point of view, these two processes occur concomitantly. Once activated, DNA fragmentation factor, 40-kDa subunit (DFF40)/caspase-activated DNase (CAD) endonuclease hydrolyzes the DNA into oligonucleosomal-size pieces, facilitating the chromatin package. However, the dogma that the apoptotic nuclear morphology depends on DNA fragmentation has been questioned. Here, we use different cellular models, including MEF CAD?/? cells, to unravel the mechanism by which DFF40/CAD influences chromatin condensation and nuclear collapse during apoptosis. Upon apoptotic insult, SK-N-AS cells display caspase-dependent apoptotic nuclear alterations in the absence of internucleosomal DNA degradation. The overexpression of a wild-type form of DFF40/CAD endonuclease, but not of different catalytic-null mutants, restores the cellular ability to degrade the chromatin into oligonucleosomal-length fragments. We show that apoptotic nuclear collapse requires a 3?-OH endonucleolytic activity even though the internucleosomal DNA degradation is impaired. Moreover, alkaline unwinding electrophoresis and In Situ End-Labeling (ISEL)/In Situ Nick Translation (ISNT) assays reveal that the apoptotic DNA damage observed in the DNA ladder-deficient SK-N-AS cells is characterized by the presence of single-strand nicks/breaks. Apoptotic single-strand breaks can be impaired by DFF40/CAD knockdown, abrogating nuclear collapse and disassembly. In conclusion, the highest order of chromatin compaction observed in the later steps of caspase-dependent apoptosis relies on DFF40/CAD-mediated DNA damage by generating 3?-OH ends in single-strand rather than double-strand DNA nicks/breaks. PMID:23430749

  7. LBH589, a deacetylase inhibitor, induces apoptosis in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma cells via activation of a novel RAIDD-caspase-2 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, H; Yamada, Y; Tsukasaki, K; Mori, N; Tsuruda, K; Sasaki, D; Usui, T; Osaka, A; Atogami, S; Ishikawa, C; Machijima, Y; Sawada, S; Hayashi, T; Miyazaki, Y; Kamihira, S

    2011-01-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), an aggressive neoplasm etiologically associated with human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1), is resistant to treatment. In this study, we examined the effects of a new inhibitor of deacetylase enzymes, LBH589, on ATLL cells. LBH589 effectively induced apoptosis in ATLL-related cell lines and primary ATLL cells and reduced the size of tumors inoculated in SCID mice. Analyses, including with a DNA microarray, revealed that neither death receptors nor p53 pathways contributed to the apoptosis. Instead, LBH589 activated an intrinsic pathway through the activation of caspase-2. Furthermore, small interfering RNA experiments targeting caspase-2, caspase-9, RAIDD, p53-induced protein with a death domain (PIDD) and RIPK1 (RIP) indicated that activation of RAIDD is crucial and an event initiating this pathway. In addition, LBH589 caused a marked decrease in levels of factors involved in ATLL cell proliferation and invasion such as CCR4, IL-2R and HTLV-1 HBZ-SI, a spliced form of the HTLV-1 basic zipper factor HBZ. In conclusion, we showed that LBH589 is a strong inducer of apoptosis in ATLL cells and uncovered a novel apoptotic pathway initiated by activation of RAIDD. PMID:21242994

  8. Charge Profile Analysis Reveals That Activation of Pro-apoptotic Regulators Bax and Bak Relies on Charge Transfer Mediated Allosteric Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Ionescu, Crina-Maria; Svobodová Va?eková, Radka; Prehn, Jochen H. M.; Huber, Heinrich J.; Ko?a, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    The pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bak are essential for executing programmed cell death (apoptosis), yet the mechanism of their activation is not properly understood at the structural level. For the first time in cell death research, we calculated intra-protein charge transfer in order to study the structural alterations and their functional consequences during Bax activation. Using an electronegativity equalization model, we investigated the changes in the Bax charge profile upon activation by a functional peptide of its natural activator protein, Bim. We found that charge reorganizations upon activator binding mediate the exposure of the functional sites of Bax, rendering Bax active. The affinity of the Bax C-domain for its binding groove is decreased due to the Arg94-mediated abrogation of the Ser184-Asp98 interaction. We further identified a network of charge reorganizations that confirms previous speculations of allosteric sensing, whereby the activation information is conveyed from the activation site, through the hydrophobic core of Bax, to the well-distanced functional sites of Bax. The network was mediated by a hub of three residues on helix 5 of the hydrophobic core of Bax. Sequence and structural alignment revealed that this hub was conserved in the Bak amino acid sequence, and in the 3D structure of folded Bak. Our results suggest that allostery mediated by charge transfer is responsible for the activation of both Bax and Bak, and that this might be a prototypical mechanism for a fast activation of proteins during signal transduction. Our method can be applied to any protein or protein complex in order to map the progress of allosteric changes through the proteins' structure. PMID:22719244

  9. Mimulone-Induced Autophagy through p53-Mediated AMPK/mTOR Pathway Increases Caspase-Mediated Apoptotic Cell Death in A549 Human Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Won; Park, Mi-Hyun; Moon, Hyung-In; Park, Shin-Ji; Baik, Ji-Sue; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Lee, Young-Choon

    2014-01-01

    Anticancer properties and mechanisms of mimulone (MML), C-geranylflavonoid isolated from the Paulownia tomentosa fruits, were firstly elucidated in this study. MML prevented cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent way and triggered apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Furthermore, MML-treated cells displayed autophagic features, such as the formation of autophagic vacuoles, a primary morphological feature of autophagy, and the accumulation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) puncta, another typical maker of autophagy, as determined by FITC-conjugated immunostaining and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining, respectively. The expression levels of LC3-I and LC3-II, specific markers of autophagy, were also augmented by MML treatment. Autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA), pharmacological autophagy inhibitor, and shRNA knockdown of Beclin-1 reduced apoptotic cell death induced by MML. Autophagic flux was not significantly affected by MML treatment and lysosomal inhibitor, chloroquine (CQ) suppressed MML-induced autophagy and apoptosis. MML-induced autophagy was promoted by decreases in p53 and p-mTOR levels and increase of p-AMPK. Moreover, inhibition of p53 transactivation by pifithrin-? (PFT-?) and knockdown of p53 enhanced induction of autophagy and finally promoted apoptotic cell death. Overall, the results demonstrate that autophagy contributes to the cytotoxicity of MML in cancer cells harboring wild-type p53. This study strongly suggests that MML is a potential candidate for an anticancer agent targeting both autophagy and apoptotic cell death in human lung cancer. Moreover, co-treatment of MML and p53 inhibitor would be more effective in human lung cancer therapy. PMID:25490748

  10. Mimulone-induced autophagy through p53-mediated AMPK/mTOR pathway increases caspase-mediated apoptotic cell death in A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    An, Hyun-Kyu; Kim, Kyoung-Sook; Lee, Ji-Won; Park, Mi-Hyun; Moon, Hyung-In; Park, Shin-Ji; Baik, Ji-Sue; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Lee, Young-Choon

    2014-01-01

    Anticancer properties and mechanisms of mimulone (MML), C-geranylflavonoid isolated from the Paulownia tomentosa fruits, were firstly elucidated in this study. MML prevented cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent way and triggered apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Furthermore, MML-treated cells displayed autophagic features, such as the formation of autophagic vacuoles, a primary morphological feature of autophagy, and the accumulation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) puncta, another typical maker of autophagy, as determined by FITC-conjugated immunostaining and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining, respectively. The expression levels of LC3-I and LC3-II, specific markers of autophagy, were also augmented by MML treatment. Autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA), pharmacological autophagy inhibitor, and shRNA knockdown of Beclin-1 reduced apoptotic cell death induced by MML. Autophagic flux was not significantly affected by MML treatment and lysosomal inhibitor, chloroquine (CQ) suppressed MML-induced autophagy and apoptosis. MML-induced autophagy was promoted by decreases in p53 and p-mTOR levels and increase of p-AMPK. Moreover, inhibition of p53 transactivation by pifithrin-? (PFT-?) and knockdown of p53 enhanced induction of autophagy and finally promoted apoptotic cell death. Overall, the results demonstrate that autophagy contributes to the cytotoxicity of MML in cancer cells harboring wild-type p53. This study strongly suggests that MML is a potential candidate for an anticancer agent targeting both autophagy and apoptotic cell death in human lung cancer. Moreover, co-treatment of MML and p53 inhibitor would be more effective in human lung cancer therapy. PMID:25490748

  11. Nitric oxide mediates coral bleaching through an apoptotic-like cell death pathway: evidence from a model sea anemone-dinoflagellate symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Thomas D; Bradley, Benjamin J; Davy, Simon K

    2013-12-01

    Coral bleaching (involving the loss of symbiotic algae from the cnidarian host) is a major threat to coral reefs and appears to be mediated at the cellular level by nitric oxide (NO). In this study, we examined the specific role of NO in bleaching using the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella, a model system for the study of corals. Exposure of A. pulchella to high-temperature shock (26-33°C over <1 h) or an NO donor (S-nitrosoglutathione) resulted in significant increases in host caspase-like enzyme activity. These responses were reflected in the intensities of bleaching, which were significantly higher in heat- or NO-treated specimens than in controls maintained in seawater at 26°C. Notably, the inhibition of caspase-like activity prevented bleaching even in the presence of an NO donor or at elevated temperature. The additional use of an NO scavenger controlled for effects mediated by agents other than NO. We also exposed A. pulchella to a more ecologically relevant treatment (an increase from 26 to 33°C over 6-7 d). Again, host NO synthesis correlated with the activation of caspase-like enzyme activity. Therefore, we conclude that NO's involvement in cnidarian bleaching arises through the regulation of host apoptotic pathways. PMID:23934282

  12. Induction of the Intrinsic Apoptotic Pathway by 3-Deazaadenosine Is Mediated by BAX Activation in HL-60 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun-Young; Ko, Kyoung-Won; Kang, Won-Kyung; Choe, Yun-Jeong; Kim, Yoon-Hyoung; Kim, In-Kyung; Kim, Jin

    2010-01-01

    3-Deazaadenosine (DZA), a potent inhibitor of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase, was previously proposed to induce intrinsic apoptosis in human leukemic cells. In the present study, we analyzed the mechanism underlying the DZA-induced intrinsic apoptotic pathway. DZA activated typical caspase-dependent apoptosis in HL-60 cells, as demonstrated by an accumulation of hypo-diploidic cells, the processing of multiple procaspases and an inhibitory effect of z-VAD-Fmk on this cell death. During DZA-induced apoptosis, cytochrome c (cyt c) was released into the cytosol. This was neither prevented by z-VAD-Fmk and nor was it associated with the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m). Prior to the release of cyt c, BAX was translocated from the cytosol to mitochondria and underwent oligomerization. Finally, the overexpression of BCL-XL protected HL-60 cells from apoptosis by blocking both the cyt c release and BAX oligomerization. Collectively, these findings suggest that DZA may activate intrinsic apoptosis by stimulating BAX activation and thereby the release of cyt c. PMID:21311682

  13. Involvement of Bcl-xL degradation and mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic pathway in pyrrolizidine alkaloids-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Ji Lili [Key Laboratory of Standardization of Chinese Medicines of Ministry of Education, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203 (China); Shanghai R and D Centre for Standardization of Traditional Chinese Medicines, Shanghai 201203 (China); Chen Ying [Key Laboratory of Standardization of Chinese Medicines of Ministry of Education, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203 (China); Department of Pharmacognosy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210038, Jiangsu (China); Liu Tianyu [Key Laboratory of Standardization of Chinese Medicines of Ministry of Education, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203 (China); Wang Zhengtao [Key Laboratory of Standardization of Chinese Medicines of Ministry of Education, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203 (China); Shanghai R and D Centre for Standardization of Traditional Chinese Medicines, Shanghai 201203 (China); Department of Pharmacognosy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210038, Jiangsu (China)], E-mail: wangzht@hotmail.com

    2008-09-15

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are natural hepatotoxins with worldwide distribution in more than 6000 high plants including medicinal herbs or teas. The aim of this study is to investigate the signal pathway involved in PAs-induced hepatotoxicity. Our results showed that clivorine, isolated from Ligularia hodgsonii Hook, decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis in L-02 cells and mouse hepatocytes. Western-blot results showed that clivorine induced caspase-3/-9 activation, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c and decreased anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL in a time (8-48 h)- and concentration (1-100 {mu}M)-dependent manner. Furthermore, inhibitors of pan-caspase, caspase-3 and caspase-9 significantly inhibited clivorine-induced apoptosis and rescued clivorine-decreased cell viability. Polyubiquitination of Bcl-xL was detected after incubation with 100 {mu}M clivorine for 40 h in the presence of proteasome specific inhibitor MG132, indicating possible degradation of Bcl-xL protein. Furthermore, pretreatment with MG132 or calpain inhibitor I for 2 h significantly enhanced clivorine-decreased Bcl-xL level and cell viability. All the other tested PAs such as senecionine, isoline and monocrotaline decreased mouse hepatocytes viability in a concentration-dependent manner. Clivorine (10 {mu}M) induced caspase-3 activation and decreased Bcl-xL was also confirmed in mouse hepatocytes. Meanwhile, another PA senecionine isolated from Senecio vulgaris L also induced apoptosis, caspase-3 activation and decreased Bcl-xL in mouse hepatocytes. In conclusion, our results suggest that PAs may share the same hepatotoxic signal pathway, which involves degradation of Bcl-xL protein and thus leading to the activation of mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic pathway.

  14. Loss of Caspase-9 Reveals Its Essential Role for Caspase-2 Activation and Mitochondrial Membrane Depolarization

    PubMed Central

    Samraj, Ajoy K.; Sohn, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Caspase-9 plays an important role in apoptosis induced by genotoxic stress. Irradiation and anticancer drugs trigger mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, resulting in cytochrome c release and caspase-9 activation. Two highly contentious issues, however, remain: It is unclear whether the loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential ??M contributes to cytochrome c release and whether caspases are involved. Moreover, an unresolved question is whether caspase-2 functions as an initiator in genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis. In the present study, we have identified a mutant Jurkat T-cell line that is deficient in caspase-9 and resistant to apoptosis. Anticancer drugs, however, could activate proapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins and cytochrome c release, similarly as in caspase-9–proficient cells. Interestingly, despite these alterations, the cells retained ??M. Furthermore, processing and enzyme activity of caspase-2 were not observed in the absence of caspase-9. Reconstitution of caspase-9 expression restored not only apoptosis but also the loss of ??M and caspase-2 activity. Thus, we provide genetic evidence that caspase-9 is indispensable for drug-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. Moreover, loss of ??M can be functionally separated from cytochrome c release. Caspase-9 is not only required for ??M loss but also for caspase-2 activation, suggesting that these two events are downstream of the apoptosome. PMID:17079734

  15. Induction of Apoptosis at Different Oxygen Tensions: Evidence That Oxygen Radicals Do Not Mediate Apoptotic Signaling1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth J. Muschel; Eric J. Bernhard; Luis Garza; W. Gillies McKenna; Cameron J. Koch

    1995-01-01

    Apoptosis has been hypothesized to be mediated through the induction offree radicals via oxidative pathways Furthermore, It has been proposed that Bd-2 acts to inhibit apoptosisinducedby a wide varietyof stimuli by preventing the production of oxygen-derived free radicals. Since the gen eration of oxygen free radicals Is dependent upon oxygen concentration, this hypothesis would lead to the prediction that the

  16. Regulation of anti-apoptotic signaling by Kruppel-like factors 4 and 5 mediates lapatinib resistance in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, M K; Sharma, S B; Lin, C-C; McLaughlin, S L; Vanderbilt, D B; Ammer, A G; Salkeni, M A; Stoilov, P; Agazie, Y M; Creighton, C J; Ruppert, J M

    2015-01-01

    The Kruppel-like transcription factors (KLFs) 4 and 5 (KLF4/5) are coexpressed in mouse embryonic stem cells, where they function redundantly to maintain pluripotency. In mammary carcinoma, KLF4/5 can each impact the malignant phenotype, but potential linkages to drug resistance remain unclear. In primary human breast cancers, we observed a positive correlation between KLF4/5 transcript abundance, particularly in the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-enriched subtype. Furthermore, KLF4/5 protein was rapidly upregulated in human breast cancer cells following treatment with the HER2/epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor, lapatinib. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between these factors in the primary tumors of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs). In particular, the levels of both factors were enriched in the basal-like tumors of the C3(1) TAg (SV40 large T antigen transgenic mice under control of the C3(1)/prostatein promoter) GEMM. Using tumor cells derived from this model as well as human breast cancer cells, suppression of KLF4 and/or KLF5 sensitized HER2-overexpressing cells to lapatinib. Indicating cooperativity, greater effects were observed when both genes were depleted. KLF4/5-deficient cells had reduced basal mRNA and protein levels of the anti-apoptotic factors myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL1) and B-cell lymphoma-extra large (BCL-XL). Moreover, MCL1 was upregulated by lapatinib in a KLF4/5-dependent manner, and enforced expression of MCL1 in KLF4/5-deficient cells restored drug resistance. In addition, combined suppression of KLF4/5 in cultured tumor cells additively inhibited anchorage-independent growth, resistance to anoikis and tumor formation in immunocompromised mice. Consistent with their cooperative role in drug resistance and other malignant properties, KLF4/5 levels selectively stratified human HER2-enriched breast cancer by distant metastasis-free survival. These results identify KLF4 and KLF5 as cooperating protumorigenic factors and critical participants in resistance to lapatinib, furthering the rationale for combining anti-MCL1/BCL-XL inhibitors with conventional HER2-targeted therapies. PMID:25789974

  17. Regulation of anti-apoptotic signaling by Kruppel-like factors 4 and 5 mediates lapatinib resistance in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Farrugia, M K; Sharma, S B; Lin, C-C; McLaughlin, S L; Vanderbilt, D B; Ammer, A G; Salkeni, M A; Stoilov, P; Agazie, Y M; Creighton, C J; Ruppert, J M

    2015-01-01

    The Kruppel-like transcription factors (KLFs) 4 and 5 (KLF4/5) are coexpressed in mouse embryonic stem cells, where they function redundantly to maintain pluripotency. In mammary carcinoma, KLF4/5 can each impact the malignant phenotype, but potential linkages to drug resistance remain unclear. In primary human breast cancers, we observed a positive correlation between KLF4/5 transcript abundance, particularly in the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-enriched subtype. Furthermore, KLF4/5 protein was rapidly upregulated in human breast cancer cells following treatment with the HER2/epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor, lapatinib. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between these factors in the primary tumors of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs). In particular, the levels of both factors were enriched in the basal-like tumors of the C3(1) TAg (SV40 large T antigen transgenic mice under control of the C3(1)/prostatein promoter) GEMM. Using tumor cells derived from this model as well as human breast cancer cells, suppression of KLF4 and/or KLF5 sensitized HER2-overexpressing cells to lapatinib. Indicating cooperativity, greater effects were observed when both genes were depleted. KLF4/5-deficient cells had reduced basal mRNA and protein levels of the anti-apoptotic factors myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL1) and B-cell lymphoma-extra large (BCL-XL). Moreover, MCL1 was upregulated by lapatinib in a KLF4/5-dependent manner, and enforced expression of MCL1 in KLF4/5-deficient cells restored drug resistance. In addition, combined suppression of KLF4/5 in cultured tumor cells additively inhibited anchorage-independent growth, resistance to anoikis and tumor formation in immunocompromised mice. Consistent with their cooperative role in drug resistance and other malignant properties, KLF4/5 levels selectively stratified human HER2-enriched breast cancer by distant metastasis-free survival. These results identify KLF4 and KLF5 as cooperating protumorigenic factors and critical participants in resistance to lapatinib, furthering the rationale for combining anti-MCL1/BCL-XL inhibitors with conventional HER2-targeted therapies. PMID:25789974

  18. Catalpol Inhibited the Proliferation of T24 Human Bladder Cancer Cells by Inducing Apoptosis Through the Blockade of Akt-Mediated Anti-apoptotic Signaling.

    PubMed

    Jin, Di; Cao, Ming; Mu, Xin; Yang, Guoliang; Xue, Wei; Huang, Yiran; Chen, Haige

    2014-11-12

    Catalpol is an iridoid glucoside extracted from the traditional Chinese medicinal plant called Rehmannia glutinosa, and it is reported to possess a variety of pharmacological activities. The goal of this research was to explore the effect of catalpol on the human bladder cancer cells T24. The cells were treated for different durations with various concentrations of catalpol. Then the viability, mobility, and invasiveness of the cells were determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Catalpol was found to significantly suppress the proliferation, migration, and invasiveness of T24 bladder cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The results also revealed that catalpol promoted apoptosis and caused the cell-cycle arrest at G2/M phase. Furthermore, the catalpol-mediated apoptosis was found to involve the modulation of PI3K/Akt pathway and inhibit the expression of anti-apoptotic B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) family proteins. Also, the expressions of Bcl-2 proapoptotic effectors, Bcl-2-associated X protein, and Bcl-2 associated death promoter were up-regulated in the cells treated with catalpol. The enzymes involved in the ultimate process of apoptosis, active caspase-3 and poly ADP ribose polymerase were elevated, and the latter was observed to be cleaved, indicating that catalpol-accelerated cell apoptosis involved a caspase-dependent pathway. These results suggest that catalpol might serve to be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of human bladder cancer. PMID:25388838

  19. Runt-related transcription factor 2 attenuates the transcriptional activity as well as DNA damage-mediated induction of pro-apoptotic TAp73 to regulate chemosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, Toshinori; Sugimoto, Hirokazu; Nakamura, Mizuyo; Hiraoka, Kiriko; Yoda, Hiroyuki; Sang, Meixiang; Fujiwara, Kyoko; Nagase, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    Although runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) is known to be an essential key transcription factor for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation, RUNX2 also plays a pivotal role in the regulation of p53-dependent DNA damage response. In the present study, we report that, in addition to p53, RUNX2 downregulates pro-apoptotic TAp73 during DNA damage-dependent cell death. Upon adriamycin (ADR) exposure, human osteosarcoma-derived U2OS cells underwent cell death in association with an upregulation of TAp73 and various p53/TAp73-target gene products together with RUNX2. Small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of p73 resulted in a marked reduction in ADR-induced p53/TAp73-target gene expression, suggesting that TAp73 is responsible for the ADR-dependent DNA damage response. Immunoprecipitation and transient transfection experiments demonstrated that RUNX2 forms a complex with TAp73 and impairs its transcriptional activity. Notably, knockdown of RUNX2 stimulated ADR-induced cell death accompanied by a massive induction of TAp73 expression, indicating that RUNX2 downregulates TAp73 expression. Consistent with this notion, the overexpression of RUNX2 suppressed ADR-dependent cell death, which was associated with a remarkable downregulation of TAp73 and p53/TAp73-target gene expression. Collectively, our present findings strongly suggest that RUNX2 attenuates the transcriptional activity and ADR-mediated induction of TAp73, and may provide novel insights into understanding the molecular basis behind the development and/or maintenance of chemoresistance. Thus, we propose that the silencing of RUNX2 might be an attractive strategy for improving the chemosensitivity of malignant cancers. Structured digital abstract p73andRUNX2colocalizefluorescence microscopy(View interaction) RUNX2physically interactswithp73byanti bait coip(1,2) PMID:25331851

  20. Effect of cilostazol pretreatment on the PARP/AIF-mediated apoptotic pathway in rat cerebral ischemia-reperfusion models.

    PubMed

    Ba, Xiao-Hong; Cai, Li-Ping; Han, Wei

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the expression of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus and to explore whether cilostazol pretreatment exerts a protective effect on the brain through the PARP/AIF-mediated pathway in a rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. Rats were randomly divided into three groups: Sham-surgery, ischemia-reperfusion and cilostazol (n=45 rats/group). Rat models of middle cerebral artery occlusion were prepared using a thread occlusion method. Rats in the cilostazol group were administered 30 mg/kg intragastric cilostazol 6 and 2 h before brain ischemia, respectively. Following reperfusion, samples were collected at different time-points (6, 24 and 72 h) and each group was further subdivided into three subgroups (n=15 rats/subgroup). Apoptosis was measured using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling method. The protein expression levels of AIF and PARP were detected using western blot analysis and the expression levels of AIF mRNA were determined using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. AIF nuclear translocation occurred following local cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Apoptosis, levels of AIF and PARP protein expression and levels of AIF mRNA expression were significantly increased in the ischemia-reperfusion group compared with the sham-surgery group (P<0.05). However, apoptosis and the expression levels of AIF protein, PARP protein and AIF mRNA at different time-points were significantly decreased in the cilostazol group compared with the ischemia-reperfusion group (P<0.05). In conclusion, cilostazol has a protective effect on rat cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, and acts by inhibiting nerve cell apoptosis by preventing the excessive activation of PARP and AIF nuclear translocation. PMID:24940413

  1. Two-Step Engulfment of Apoptotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Toda, Satoshi; Hanayama, Rikinari

    2012-01-01

    Apoptotic cells expose phosphatidylserine on their surface as an “eat me” signal, and macrophages respond by engulfing them. Although several molecules that specifically bind phosphatidylserine have been identified, the molecular mechanism that triggers engulfment remains elusive. Here, using a mouse pro-B cell line, Ba/F3, that grows in suspension, we reconstituted the engulfment of apoptotic cells. The parental Ba/F3 cells did not engulf apoptotic cells. Ba/F3 transformants expressing T cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule 4 (Tim4), a type I membrane protein that specifically binds phosphatidylserine, efficiently bound apoptotic cells in a phosphatidylserine-dependent manner but did not engulf them. However, Ba/F3 transformants expressing both Tim4 and the integrin ?v?3 complex bound to and engulfed apoptotic cells in the presence of milk fat globule epidermal growth factor factor VIII (MFG-E8), a secreted protein that can bind phosphatidylserine and integrin ?v?3. These results indicate that the engulfment of apoptotic cells proceeds in two steps: Tim4 tethers apoptotic cells, and the integrin ?v?3 complex mediates engulfment in coordination with MFG-E8. A similar two-step engulfment of apoptotic cells was observed with mouse resident peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, the Tim4/integrin-mediated engulfment by the Ba/F3 cells was enhanced in cells expressing Rac1 and Rab5, suggesting that this system well reproduces the engulfment of apoptotic cells by macrophages. PMID:22037761

  2. Differential regulation of caspase-2 in MPP(+)-induced apoptosis in primary cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hsin-I; Chang, Hsin-Hou; Sun, Der-Shan

    2015-03-01

    Parkinson?s disease (PD), among the most common neurodegenerative diseases worldwide for which there is no cure, is characterized as progressive dopaminergic neuron loss in the substantia nigra through an unknown mechanism. Administering 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) causes neuronal cell death and Parkinsonism in humans. Commonly used in animal models of PD, MPTP can metabolize to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)); however, the detailed mechanism through which MPP(+) causes neuronal cell death remains undetermined. Previous reports have indicated those knockout mice with Bcl-2 associated protein X (Bax) or caspase-2, two mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization inducers, are resistant to MPTP administration, suggesting that mitochondria are involved in MPP(+)-triggered apoptosis. Our previous study showed that MPP(+)-triggered apoptosis can be distinguished from spontaneous apoptosis of primary cortical neurons. In the present study, we verified the involvement of mitochondria in MPP(+)-induced and spontaneous apoptosis in cortical neurons through confocal microscope analysis. We demonstrated that caspase-2 activation is specific to MPP(+)-induced apoptosis and occurs before Bax translocation to the mitochondria. Caspase-2 activation is one of the few early molecular events identified in PD models. PMID:25645943

  3. 17?-ESTRADIOL MEDIATED PROTECTION AGAINST VASCULAR LEAK FOLLOWING HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK: ROLE OF ESTROGEN RECEPTORS AND APOPTOTIC SIGNALING

    PubMed Central

    Childs, Ed W.; Tharakan, Binu; Hunter, Felicia A.; Smythe, W. Roy

    2010-01-01

    Vascular hyperpermeability is a clinical complication associated with hemorrhagic shock (HS) and occurs mainly due to the disruption of the adherens junctional complex. The objective of this study was to understand the role of 17?-estradiol in HS-induced hyperpermeability particularly focusing on estrogen receptors. In male Sprague-Dawley rats, HS was induced by withdrawing blood to reduce the mean arterial pressure (MAP) to 40 mmHg for 1 hour followed by 1 hour of resuscitation. to 90 mmHg. The study groups were; 17?-estradiol, tamoxifen, fulvestrant plus 17?-estradiol, propyl pyrazole triol plus 17?-estradiol, and diarylpropionitrite plus 17?-estradiol. Intravital microscopy was utilized to study changes in mesenteric post-capillary venules. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species formation was studied in vivo utilizing dihydrorhodamine 123. The mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) was studied using the fluorescent cationic probe JC- 1. The mesenteric microvasculature was analyzed for cytochrome c levels by ELISA and caspase-3 activity by a fluorometric assay. Our results demonstrated that 17?-estradiol attenuated HS-induced hyperpermeability. Fulvestrant reversed this protective effect (p<0.05). Tamoxifen 5 mg/kg attenuated HS-induced hyperpermeability where as 10 mg/kg induced permeability (p<0.05). Both ? and ? estrogen receptor agonists inhibited HS-induced hyperpermeability (p<0.05). 17?-Estradiol decreased HS-induced ROS formation and restored MTP. 17?-Estradiol decreased both cytosolic cytochrome c level and activation of caspase-3 (p<0.05). These findings suggest that 17?-estradiol protects the microvasculature following HS and that this protection may be mediated through the ? and ? estrogen receptors. PMID:20160663

  4. 17beta-estradiol mediated protection against vascular leak after hemorrhagic shock: role of estrogen receptors and apoptotic signaling.

    PubMed

    Childs, Ed W; Tharakan, Binu; Hunter, Felicia A; Smythe, W Roy

    2010-09-01

    Vascular hyperpermeability is a clinical complication associated with hemorrhagic shock (HS) and occurs mainly because of the disruption of the adherens junctional complex. The objective of this study was to understand the role of 17beta-estradiol in HS-induced hyperpermeability particularly focusing on estrogen receptors. In male Sprague-Dawley rats, HS was induced by withdrawing blood to reduce the mean arterial pressure to 40 mmHg for 1 hour followed by 1 hour of resuscitation to 90 mmHg. The study groups were 17beta-estradiol, tamoxifen, fulvestrant plus 17beta-estradiol, propyl pyrazole triol plus 17beta-estradiol, and diarylpropionitrile plus 17beta-estradiol. Intravital microscopy was used to study changes in mesenteric postcapillary venules. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species formation was studied in vivo using dihydrorhodamine 123. The mitochondrial transmembrane potential was studied using the fluorescent cationic probe 5,5',6,6'tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'tetraethylbenzimidazolyl carbocyanine iodide (JC-1). The mesenteric microvasculature was analyzed for cytochrome c levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and caspase-3 activity by a fluorometric assay. Our results demonstrated that 17beta-estradiol attenuated HS-induced hyperpermeability. Fulvestrant reversed this protective effect (P < 0.05). Tamoxifen 5 mg/kg attenuated HS-induced hyperpermeability, whereas 10 mg/kg induced permeability (P < 0.05). Both alpha and beta estrogen receptor agonists inhibited HS-induced hyperpermeability (P < 0.05). 17beta-Estradiol decreased HS-induced reactive oxygen species formation and restored mitochondrial transmembrane potential. 17beta-Estradiol decreased both cytosolic cytochrome c level and activation of caspase-3 (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that 17beta-estradiol protects the microvasculature after HS, and that this protection may be mediated through the alpha and beta estrogen receptors. PMID:20160663

  5. Role of the Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor in Mediating Impaired Efferocytosis of Anti-SSA/Ro Bound Apoptotic Cardiocytes: Implications in the Pathogenesis of Congenital Heart Block

    PubMed Central

    Briassouli, P; Komissarova, EV; Clancy, RM; Buyon, JP

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Binding of maternal anti-Ro/La antibodies to cognate antigen expressed on apoptotic cardiocytes decreases clearance by healthy cardiocytes, which may contribute to the development of autoimmune associated congenital heart block and fatal cardiomyopathy. Objective Given recent evidence implicating the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) as a “don’t eat me” signal during efferocytosis, experiments addressed whether surface bound anti-Ro antibodies inhibit apoptotic cell removal via an effect on the expression/function of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator protease (uPA)/uPAR system. Methods and Results As assessed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, uPAR colocalizes and interacts with Ro60 on the surface of apoptotic human fetal cardiocytes. Blocking of uPAR enhances phagocytosis of apoptotic cardiocytes by healthy cardiocytes and reverses the anti-Ro60 dependent impaired clearance of apoptotic cardiocytes. Binding of anti-Ro60 antibodies to apoptotic cardiocytes results in increased uPAR expression as well as enhanced uPA activity. The binding of anti-Ro60 did not alter other surface molecules involved in cell recognition (calreticulin, CD31 or CD47). Conclusions These data suggest that increased uPAR expression and uPA activity induced by anti-Ro60 binding to the apoptotic fetal cardiocyte provide a molecular basis by which these antibodies inhibit efferocytosis and ultimately lead to scar of the fetal conduction system and working myocardium. PMID:20558828

  6. Polypyrimidine Track-binding Protein Binding Downstream of Caspase-2 Alternative Exon 9 Represses Its Inclusion*

    PubMed Central

    Côté, Jocelyn; Dupuis, Sophie; Wu, Jane Y.

    2007-01-01

    We have been using the caspase-2 pre-mRNA as a model system to study the importance of alternative splicing in the regulation of programmed cell death. Inclusion or skipping of a cassette-type exon in the 3? portion of this pre-mRNA leads to the production of isoforms with antagonistic activity in apoptosis. We previously identified a negative regulatory element (In100) located in the intron downstream of alternative exon 9. The upstream portion of this element harbors a decoy 3? acceptor site that engages in nonproductive commitment complex interactions with the 5? splice site of exon 9. This in turn confers a competitive advantage to the exon-skipping splicing pattern. Further characterization of the In100 element reveals a second, functionally distinct, domain located downstream from the decoy 3? acceptor site. This downstream domain harbors several polypyrimidine track-binding protein (PTB)-binding sites. We show that PTB binding to these sites correlates with the negative effect on exon 9 inclusion. Finally, we show that both domains of the In100 element can function independently to repress exon 9 inclusion, although PTB binding in the vicinity of the decoy 3? splice site can modulate its activity. Our results thus reveal a complex composite element that regulates caspase-2 exon 9 alternative splicing through a novel mechanism. PMID:11116151

  7. A Novel Herbal Medicine, KIOM-C, Induces Autophagic and Apoptotic Cell Death Mediated by Activation of JNK and Reactive Oxygen Species in HT1080 Human Fibrosarcoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Aeyung; Im, Minju; Yim, Nam-Hui; Kim, Taesoo; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2014-01-01

    KIOM-C was recently demonstrated to have anti-metastatic activity in highly malignant cancer cells via suppression of NF-?B-mediated MMP-9 activity. In addition, it was reported to be effective for clearance of the influenza virus by increasing production of anti-viral cytokines, such as TNF-? and IFN-?, and efficacious in the treatment of pigs suffering from porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD). In this study, we investigated whether KIOM-C induces cancer cell death and elucidated the underlying anti-cancer mechanisms. In addition, we examined whether KIOM-C oral administration suppresses in vivo tumor growth of HT1080 cells in athymic nude mice. We initially found that KIOM-C at concentrations of 500 and 1000 µg/ml caused dose- and time-dependent cell death in cancer cells, but not normal hepatocytes, to approximately 50% of control levels. At the early stage of KIOM-C treatment (12 h), cells were arrested in G1 phase, which was accompanied by up-regulation of p21 and p27, down-regulation of cyclin D1, and subsequent increases in apoptotic and autophagic cells. Following KIOM-C treatment, the extent of caspase-3 activation, PARP cleavage, Beclin-1 expression, and LC3-II conversion was remarkably up-regulated, but p62 expression was down-regulated. Phosphorylation of AMPK, ULK, JNK, c-jun, and p53 was increased significantly in response to KIOM-C treatment. The levels of intracellular ROS and CHOP expression were also increased. In particular, the JNK-specific inhibitor SP600125 blocked KIOM-C-induced ROS generation and CHOP expression almost completely, which consequently almost completely rescued cell death, indicating that JNK activation plays a critical role in KIOM-C-induced cell death. Furthermore, daily oral administration of 85 and 170 mg/kg KIOM-C efficiently suppressed the tumorigenic growth of HT1080 cells, without systemic toxicity. These results collectively suggest that KIOM-C efficiently induces cancer cell death by both autophagy and apoptosis via activation of JNK signaling pathways, and KIOM-C represents a safe and potent herbal therapy for treating malignancies. PMID:24878898

  8. The mitochondrial cyclophilin D/p53 complexation mediates doxorubicin-induced non-apoptotic death of A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jia-Huan; Shi, Zhi-Feng; Xu, Hui

    2014-04-01

    Doxorubicin has displayed significant cytotoxic effects against the lung cancer cells; however, the underlying mechanisms remain inconclusive. In the current study, we provided evidence to show that mitochondrial p53 and cyclophilin D (Cyp-D) complexation is required for doxorubicin-induced death of lung cancer A549 cells. Doxorubicin induced both apoptotic and non-apoptotic death of A549 cells. Cyclosporine A (CsA), the Cyp-D inhibitor, and Cyp-D silencing were prevented doxorubicin-induced non-apoptotic death of A549 cells, while cells overexpressing Cyp-D were hyper-sensitive to doxorubicin. In A549 cells, doxorubicin-activated p53, the latter translocated to mitochondria and physically interacted with Cyp-D. The p53/Cyp-D mitochondrial complexation was prevented by CsA or Cyp-D silencing, or by p53 inhibitor pifithrin-?. Significantly, doxorubicin-induced anti-tumor ability in vivo was also compromised by CsA, or when Cyp-D was silenced. Together, these data suggested that Dox-induced non-apoptotic death of A549 cells requires mitochondrial Cyp-D-p53 complexation. PMID:24343341

  9. Assessment of in-utero venlafaxine induced, ROS-mediated, apoptotic neurodegeneration in fetal neocortex and neurobehavioral sequelae in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manish; Singh, K P; Shukla, Shubha; Dikshit, Madhu

    2015-02-01

    Venlafaxine (VEN), a serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor is being used as a drug of choice for treating clinical depression even during pregnancy. It is an important therapeutic option in the treatment of perinatal depression, but the effects of VEN on fetus and the newborn are uncertain. Therefore, present study was undertaken to investigate the safety of in-utero exposure to VEN in terms of developmental neurotoxicity and neurodegenerative potential by using prenatal rat model. The selected doses of VEN (25, 40 and 50mg/kg) were administered to pregnant rats from GD 5 to 19 through oral gavage. The fetal brains were dissected and processed for histopathological measurements of neocortical thickness that showed significant reduction. Considering vulnerability of immature brain to free radical injury, VEN exposed neocortices were tested for reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels which were significantly increased. As ROS play important role in the initiation of apoptotic mechanisms, we explored for in situ detection of apoptosis by confocal microscopy that showed enhanced apoptosis including chromatin condensation which was further reconfirmed by electron microscopy. Substantially increased levels of pro-apoptotic protein Bax and decreased levels of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 as shown by western blotting also supported the increased neuro-apoptotic degeneration. For further correlation of these findings, prenatally VEN exposed young-adult rat offspring were assessed for open field exploratory behavior that showed increased anxiety-like and stereotypic responses indicating disturbed neurobehavioral pattern. The study concludes that prenatal VEN exposure may primarily enhance ROS generation that plays a key role in regulating release of proapoptotic factors from mitochondria and thereby enhancing apoptotic neurodegeneration that affect proliferation, migration and differentiation of cells, resulting in neuronal deficits manifested as long term neurobehavioral impairments. PMID:25450524

  10. Taurine protects HK-2 cells from oxidized LDL-induced cytotoxicity via the ROS-mediated mitochondrial and p53-related apoptotic pathways.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Yu; Shen, Chao-Yu; Kang, Chao-Kai; Sher, Yuh-Pyng; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Chang, Chia-Che; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2014-09-15

    Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) induces a pro-oxidative environment and promotes apoptosis, causing the progression of renal diseases in humans. Taurine is a semi-essential amino acid in mammals and has been shown to be a potent endogenous antioxidant. The kidney plays a pivotal role in maintaining the balance of taurine. However, the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of taurine against oxLDL-induced injury in renal epithelial cells have not been clarified. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effects of taurine on human proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells exposed to oxLDL and explored the related mechanisms. We observed that oxLDL increased the contents of ROS and of malondialdehyde (MDA), which is a lipid peroxidation by-product that acts as an indicator of the cellular oxidation status. In addition, oxLDL induced cell death and apoptosis in HK-2 cells. Pretreatment with taurine at 100 ?M significantly attenuated the oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity. We determined that oxLDL triggered the phosphorylation of ERK and, in turn, the activation of p53 and other apoptosis-related events, including calcium accumulation, destabilization of the mitochondrial permeability and disruption of the balance between pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. The malfunctions induced by oxLDL were effectively blocked by taurine. Thus, our results suggested that taurine exhibits potential therapeutic activity by preventing oxLDL-induced nephrotoxicity. The inhibition of oxLDL-induced epithelial apoptosis by taurine was at least partially due to its anti-oxidant activity and its ability to modulate the ERK and p53 apoptotic pathways. PMID:25018059

  11. ROS-mediated apoptotic cell death in prostate cancer LNCaP cells induced by biosurfactant stabilized CdS quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Singh, Braj R; Singh, Brahma N; Khan, W; Singh, H B; Naqvi, A H

    2012-08-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots (QDs) have raised great attention because of their superior optical properties and wide utilization in biological and biomedical studies. However, little is known about the cell death mechanisms of CdS QDs in human cancer cells. This study was designed to investigate the possible mechanisms of apoptosis induced by biosurfactant stabilized CdS QDs (denoted as "bsCdS QDs") in human prostate cancer LNCaP cells. It was also noteworthy that apoptosis correlated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial damage, oxidative stress and chromatin condensation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Results also showed involvement of caspases, Bcl-2 family proteins, heat shock protein 70, and a cell-cycle checkpoint protein p53 in apoptosis induction by bsCdS QDs in LNCaP cells. Moreover, pro-apoptotic protein Bax was upregulated and the anti-apoptotic proteins, survivin and NF-?B were downregulated in bsCdS QDs exposed cells. Protection of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) against ROS clearly suggested the implication of ROS in hyper-activation of apoptosis and cell death. It is encouraging to conclude that biologically stabilized CdS QDs bear the potential of its applications in biomedicine, such as tumor therapy specifically by inducing caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death of human prostate cancer LNCaP cells. PMID:22594971

  12. Proteome analysis of nuclear matrix proteins during apoptotic chromatin condensation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Gerner; J Gotzmann; U Fröhwein; C Schamberger; A Ellinger; G Sauermann

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear matrix (NM) is considered a proteinaceous scaffold spatially organizing the interphase nucleus, the integrity of which is affected during apoptosis. Caspase-mediated degradation of NM proteins, such as nuclear lamins, precedes apoptotic chromatin condensation (ACC). Nevertheless, other NM proteins remain unaffected, which most likely maintain a remaining nuclear structure devoid of chromatin. We, therefore, screened various types of apoptotic

  13. Estrogen receptor ? mediates the effects of notoginsenoside R1 on endotoxin-induced inflammatory and apoptotic responses in H9c2 cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Lei; Zhou, Xing-Lu; Liu, Yan-Song; Wang, Yi-Min; Ma, Fei; Guo, Bao-Liang; Yan, Zhao-Qi; Zhang, Qing-Yuan

    2015-07-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERs) are important for preventing endotoxin?induced myocardial dysfunction. Therefore, plant?derived phytoestrogens, which target ERs may also affect endotoxin?induced toxicity in cardiomyocytes. Our previous study revealed that notoginsenoside?R1 (NG?R1), a predominant phytoestrogen from Panax notoginseng, protects against cardiac dysfunction. However, the effects of NG?R1 on cardiomyocytes and the precise cellular/molecular mechanisms underlying its action remain to be elucidated. In the present study, pretreatment with NG?R1 suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)?induced degradation of inhibitor of nuclear factor??B (NF??B) ?, the activation of NF??B and caspase?3, and the subsequent myocardial inflammatory and apoptotic responses in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. An increase in the mRNA and protein expression of ER? was also observed in the NG?R1?treated cardiomyocytes. However, the expression pattern of ER? remained unaltered. Furthermore, the cardioprotective properties of NG?R1 against LPS?induced apoptosis and the inflammatory response in cardiomyocytes were attenuated by ICI 182780, a non?selective ER? antagonist, and methyl?piperidino?pyrazole, a selective ER? antagonist. These findings suggested that NG?R1 reduced endotoxin?induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the inflammatory response via the activation of ER?. Therefore, NG?R1 exerted direct anti?inflammatory and anti?apoptotic effects on the cardiomyocytes, representing a potent agent for the treatment of myocardial inflammation during septic shock. PMID:25738436

  14. Inactivation of Akt by arsenic trioxide induces cell death via mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic signaling in SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan-Hui; Zhang, Hao-Peng; Yang, Shu-Meng; Yang, Yue; Ma, Yu-Yan; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Yang, Yan-Mei

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has been recognized as a potential chemotherapeutic agent, yet the details concerning its mechanism of action in solid cancers remain undetermined. The present study assessed the role of Akt in the cell death induced by As2O3. The MTT assay showed that As2O3 suppressed the proliferation of SGC-7901 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Characteristic apoptotic changes were observed in the As2O3?treated cells by Hoechst 33342 staining, and FACS analysis showed that As2O3 caused dose-dependent apoptotic cell death. As2O3 activated caspase-3 and -9, and PARP cleavage in a dose-dependent manner. Compromised mitochondrial membrane potential and an increased protein level of Bax indicated involvement of mitochondia. As2O3 decreased the levels of p-Akt (Ser473), p-Akt (Thr308) and p-GSK-3? (Ser9), suggesting that As2O3 inactivated Akt kinase. In addition, LY294002 (a PI3 kinase inhibitor) augmented the apoptosis induced by As2O3. These results demonstrated that inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling was involved in As2O3-induced apoptosis of gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. PMID:24482137

  15. Pheophorbide a-mediated photodynamic therapy induces apoptotic cell death in murine oral squamous cell carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Mee-Young; Kwon, Seong-Min; Kim, Yong-Chul; Ahn, Sang-Gun; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2012-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with several photosensitizers is a promising modality for the treatment of cancer. In this study, the therapeutic effect of PDT using the synthetic photosensitizer pheophorbide a (Pa-PDT) was examined in AT-84 murine oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. The MTT assay revealed that Pa-PDT induced cell growth inhibition in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Pa-PDT treatment significantly induced intracellular ROS generation, which is critical for cell death induced by Pa-PDT. Cell cycle analysis showed the increased sub-G1 proportion of cells in Pa-PDT-treated cells. Induction of apoptotic cell death was confirmed by DAPI staining and the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) on Pa-PDT-treated cells. The changes in apoptosis-related molecules were next examined using western blotting. Cytochrome c release and cleavage of caspase-3 and PAPR were observed in AT-84 cells, whereas Bcl-2 protein levels were decreased. To determine the therapeutic effect of Pa-PDT in vivo, a murine OSCC animal model was used. Treatment of mice with Pa-PDT significantly inhibited tumor growth, especially PDT with Pa intravenous administration (i.v. Pa-PDT), and increased proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) levels and TUNEL-stained apoptotic cells compared to vehicle-treated controls. The data demonstrate that the in vitro effects of Pa-PDT on the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis correlate to the anticancer activity of Pa-PDT in vivo. Our findings suggest the therapeutic potential of Pa-PDT in OSCC. PMID:22470106

  16. Solution Structure of the RAIDD CARD and Model for CARD\\/CARD Interaction in Caspase2 and Caspase9 Recruitment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J Chou; Hiroshi Matsuo; Hanjun Duan; Gerhard Wagner

    1998-01-01

    Apoptosis requires recruitment of caspases by receptor-associated adaptors through homophilic interactions between the CARDs (ca spase r ecruitment d omains) of adaptor proteins and prodomains of caspases. We have solved the CARD structure of the RAIDD adaptor protein that recruits ICH-1\\/caspase-2. It consists of six tightly packed helices arranged in a topology homologous to the Fas death domain. The surface

  17. Apoptotic cells subjected to cold/warming exposure disorganize apoptotic microtubule network and undergo secondary necrosis.

    PubMed

    Oropesa-Ávila, Manuel; Fernández-Vega, Alejandro; de la Mata, Mario; Garrido-Maraver, Juan; Cotán, David; Paz, Marina Villanueva; Pavón, Ana Delgado; Cordero, Mario D; Alcocer-Gómez, Elizabet; de Lavera, Isabel; Lema, Rafael; Zaderenko, Ana Paula; Sánchez-Alcázar, José A

    2014-09-01

    Apoptotic microtubule network (AMN) is organized during apoptosis, forming a cortical structure beneath the plasma membrane which plays a critical role in preserving cell morphology and plasma membrane integrity. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of cold/warming exposure on apoptotic microtubules and plasma membrane integrity during the execution phase of apoptosis. We demonstrated in camptothecin-induced apoptotic H460 cells that cold/warming exposure disorganized apoptotic microtubules and allowed the access of active caspases to the cellular cortex and the cleavage of essential proteins in the preservation of plasma membrane permeability. Cleavage of cellular cortex and plasma membrane proteins, such as ?-spectrin, paxilin, focal adhesion kinase and calcium ATPase pump (PMCA-4) involved in cell calcium extrusion resulted in increased plasma permeability and calcium overload leading apoptotic cells to secondary necrosis. The essential role of caspase-mediated cleavage in this process was demonstrated because the addition of the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD during cold/warming exposure that induces AMN depolymerization avoided the cleavage of cortical and plasma membrane proteins and prevented apoptotic cells to undergo secondary necrosis. Likewise, apoptotic microtubules stabilization by taxol during cold/warming exposure also prevented cellular cortex and plasma membrane protein cleavage and secondary necrosis. Furthermore, microtubules stabilization or caspase inhibition during cold/warming exposure was also critical for proper phosphatidylserine externalization and apoptotic cell clearance by macrophages. These results indicate that cold/warming exposure of apoptotic cells induces secondary necrosis which can be prevented by both, microtubule stabilization or caspase inhibition. PMID:25027509

  18. In the absence of cellular poly (A) binding protein, the glycolytic enzyme GAPDH translocated to the cell nucleus and activated the GAPDH mediated apoptotic pathway by enhancing acetylation and serine 46 phosphorylation of p53

    SciTech Connect

    Thangima Zannat, Mst.; Bhattacharjee, Rumpa B. [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)] [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Bag, Jnanankur, E-mail: jbag@uoguelph.ca [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)] [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2011-06-03

    Highlights: {yields} PABP knock down and cell apoptosis. {yields} Nuclear translocation of GAPDH in PABP depleted cells. {yields} Role of p53 in apoptosis of PABP depleted cells. {yields} Bax translocation and cytochrome C release and caspase 3 activation following PABP depletion. {yields} Association of p53 with Bcl2 and Bax. -- Abstract: The cytoplasmic poly (A) binding protein (PABP) interacts with 3' poly (A) tract of eukaryotic mRNA and is important for both translation and stability of mRNA. Previously, we have shown that depletion of PABP by siRNA prevents protein synthesis and consequently leads to cell death through apoptosis. In the present investigation, we studied the mechanism of cell apoptosis. We show that in the absence of PABP, the glycolytic enzyme GAPDH translocated to the cell nucleus and activated the GAPDH mediated apoptotic pathway by enhancing acetylation and serine 46 phosphorylation of p53. As a result, p53 translocated to the mitochondria to initiate Bax mediated apoptosis.

  19. Pro-apoptotic and migration-suppressing potential of EGCG, and the involvement of AMPK in the p53-mediated modulation of VEGF and MMP-9 expression.

    PubMed

    Park, Song Yi; Jung, Chang Hee; Song, Bokyung; Park, Ock Jin; Kim, Young-Min

    2013-11-01

    The present study investigated the regulatory mechanisms by which epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) exerts vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-, p53- and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-associated pro-apoptotic and migration-suppressing effects on colon cancer cells. EGCG decreased the expression levels of VEGF and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9. EGCG treatment induced apoptosis in the presence of wild-type and mutant p53, indicating that a p53-independent pathway may contribute to EGCG-induced apoptosis in these cells. EGCG showed migration-suppressing effects, suggesting that this activity may also have p53-dependent and -independent components. The interaction between p53 and VEGF in the EGCG-treated cells was investigated using pifithrin-?. Notably, the suppression of p53 activity blocked the ability of EGCG to inhibit VEGF and MMP-9 in the cells expressing wild-type p53, but not mutant p53, indicating that the effects of EGCG on VEGF may be p53-dependent or -independent. Finally, although AMPK and VEGF did not appear to co-localize, the results indicated that AMPK controls VEGF in EGCG-treated cells regardless of the p53 status. PMID:24179522

  20. Folate Deficiency Triggers an Oxidative-Nitrosative Stress-Mediated Apoptotic Cell Death and Impedes Insulin Biosynthesis in RINm5F Pancreatic Islet ?–Cells: Relevant to the Pathogenesis of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Huei; Chen, Chia-Hui; Mau, Shin-Yi; Ho, Chun-Te; Chang, Pey-Jium; Liu, Tsan-Zon; Chen, Ching-Hsein

    2013-01-01

    It has been postulated that folic acid (folate) deficiency (FD) may be a risk factor for the pathogenesis of a variety of oxidative stress-triggered chronic degenerative diseases including diabetes, however, the direct evidence to lend support to this hypothesis is scanty. For this reason, we set out to study if FD can trigger the apoptotic events in an insulin-producing pancreatic RINm5F islet ? cells. When these cells were cultivated under FD condition, a time-dependent growth impediment was observed and the demise of these cells was demonstrated to be apoptotic in nature proceeding through a mitochondria-dependent pathway. In addition to evoke oxidative stress, FD condition could also trigger nitrosative stress through a NF-?B-dependent iNOS-mediated overproduction of nitric oxide (NO). The latter compound could then trigger depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium (Ca2+) store leading to cytosolic Ca2+ overload and caused ER stress as evidence by the activation of CHOP expression. Furthermore, FD-induced apoptosis of RINm5F cells was found to be correlated with a time-dependent depletion of intracellular gluthathione (GSH) and a severe down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression. Along the same vein, we also demonstrated that FD could severely impede RINm5F cells to synthesize insulin and their abilities to secret insulin in response to glucose stimulation were appreciably hampered. Even more importantly, we found that folate replenishment could not restore the ability of RINm5F cells to resynthesize insulin. Taken together, our data provide strong evidence to support the hypothesis that FD is a legitimate risk factor for the pathogenesis of diabetes. PMID:24223745

  1. Apoptotic and anti-angiogenic effects of benzimidazole compounds: relationship with oxidative stress mediated ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat hind limb.

    PubMed

    Algul, Oztekin; Karabulut, Alper; Canacankatan, Necmiye; Gorur, Ay?egul; Sucu, Nehir; Vezir, Ozden

    2012-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced injury is a pathophysiological process consisting of a complex cascade characterized by an increase in reactive oxygen species production, pro-inflammatory cytokine release, and activated endothelial cells leading to cell damage and death. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of substituted 2-benzylbenzimidazole derivatives, 2-(3-methoxybenzyl)benzimidazole (BB3) and 2-(4-methoxybenzyl)benzimidazole (BB4), on I/R-induced changes in the markers of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and angiogenesis in rats. BB3 and BB4 were synthesized with microwave irradiation and conventional Phillips methods. I/R was performed by occlusion of femoral artery. Catalase activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels as well as caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities were measured in muscle tissues as an index for oxidative stress and apoptosis, respectively. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels as an index for angiogenesis were also measured in the muscle tissues and sera. I/R decreased GSH levels, increased catalase activity and VEGF levels, and did not change caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities compared to control groups. BB3 and BB4 caused a further decrease in GSH levels and increased caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities in I/R group. These compounds caused a further increase in catalase activity and prevented the increase in VEGF levels induced by I/R. These data suggest that BB3 and BB4 exhibit apoptotic and anti-angiogenic activity with pro-oxidative effects resulting in oxidative stress in pathophysiological process of I/R-induced hind limb injury in rats. PMID:23173574

  2. Transcriptomic Analysis Unveils Correlations between Regulative Apoptotic Caspases and Genes of Cholesterol Homeostasis in Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Picco, Raffaella; Tomasella, Andrea; Fogolari, Federico; Brancolini, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Regulative circuits controlling expression of genes involved in the same biological processes are frequently interconnected. These circuits operate to coordinate the expression of multiple genes and also to compensate dysfunctions in specific elements of the network. Caspases are cysteine-proteases with key roles in the execution phase of apoptosis. Silencing of caspase-2 expression in cultured glioblastoma cells allows the up-regulation of a limited number of genes, among which some are related to cholesterol homeostasis. Lysosomal Acid Lipase A (LIPA) was up-regulated in two different cell lines in response to caspase-2 down-regulation and cells silenced for caspase-2 exhibit reduced cholesterol staining in the lipid droplets. We expanded this observation by large-scale analysis of mRNA expression. All caspases were analyzed in terms of co-expression in comparison with 166 genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. In the brain, hierarchical clustering has revealed that the expression of regulative apoptotic caspases (CASP2, CASP8 CASP9, CASP10) and of the inflammatory CASP1 is linked to several genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. These correlations resulted in altered GBM (Glioblastoma Multiforme), in particular for CASP1. We have also demonstrated that these correlations are tissue specific being reduced (CASP9 and CASP10) or different (CASP2) in the liver. For some caspases (CASP1, CASP6 and CASP7) these correlations could be related to brain aging. PMID:25330190

  3. Volume-sensitive Chloride Channels Involved in Apoptotic Volume Decrease and Cell Death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Okada; T. Shimizu; E. Maeno; S. Tanabe; X. Wang; N. Takahashi

    2006-01-01

    Apoptosis is an essential process in organ development, tissue homeostasis, somatic cell turnover, and the pathogenesis of\\u000a degenerative diseases. Apoptotic cell death occurs in response to a variety of stimuli in physiological and pathological circumstances.\\u000a Efflux of K+ and Cl? leads to apoptotic volume decrease (AVD) of the cell. Both mitochondrion-mediated intrinsic, and death receptor-mediated\\u000a extrinsic, apoptotic stimuli have been

  4. Apoptotic Signaling in Mouse Odontogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Svandova, Eva; Tucker, Abigail S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Apoptosis is an important morphogenetic event in embryogenesis as well as during postnatal life. In the last 2 decades, apoptosis in tooth development (odontogenesis) has been investigated with gradually increasing focus on the mechanisms and signaling pathways involved. The molecular machinery responsible for apoptosis exhibits a high degree of conservation but also organ and tissue specific patterns. This review aims to discuss recent knowledge about apoptotic signaling networks during odontogenesis, concentrating on the mouse, which is often used as a model organism for human dentistry. Apoptosis accompanies the entire development of the tooth and corresponding remodeling of the surrounding bony tissue. It is most evident in its role in the elimination of signaling centers within developing teeth, removal of vestigal tooth germs, and in odontoblast and ameloblast organization during tooth mineralization. Dental apoptosis is caspase dependent and proceeds via mitochondrial mediated cell death with possible amplification by Fas-FasL signaling modulated by Bcl-2 family members. PMID:22204278

  5. Induction of apoptosis and apoptotic mediators in balb\\/C splenic lymphocytes by dietary n?3 and n?6 fatty acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. P. Reddy Avula; A. K. Zaman; R. Lawrence; G. Fernandes

    1999-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of diatery n?6 and n?3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on anti-CD3\\u000a and anti-Fas antibody-induced apoptosis and its mediators in mouse spleen cells. Nutritionally adequate semipurified diets\\u000a containing either 5% w\\/w corn oil (n?6 PUFA) or fish oil (n?3 PUFA) were fed to weanling female Balb\\/C mice, and 24 wk later\\u000a mice

  6. Evidence for Apoptotic Cell Death in Alzheimer's Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georgeann Smale; Nancy R. Nichols; Daniel R. Brady; Caleb E. Finch; Walter E. Horton

    1995-01-01

    We provide evidence for apoptosis in Alzheimer's disease using the in situ labeling technique TUNEL (terminal transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling), The technique specifically detects apoptotic cells by utilizing terminal transferase to incorporate biotinylated nucleotides into the fragmented DNA of apoptotic cells. The labeled cells are visualized by reaction with avidin peroxidase and a suitable substrate. Sections from the hippocampus

  7. ATP-dependent Steps in Apoptotic Signal Transduction1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yutaka Eguchi; Anu Srinivasan; Kevin J. Tomaselli; Shigeomi Shimizu; Yoshihide Tsujimoto

    1999-01-01

    Apoptotic changes of the nucleus induced by Fas (Apo1\\/CD95) stimu- lation are completely blocked by reducing intracellular ATP level. In this study, we examined the ATP-dependent step(s) of Fas-mediated apoptotic signal transduction using two cell lines. In SKW6.4 (type I) cells charac- terized by rapid formation of the death-inducing signaling complex on Fas treatment, the activation of caspases 8, 9,

  8. An NF-?B p65-cIAP2 Link is Necessary for Mediating Apoptotic Resistance to TNF-? in Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xueyan; Laver, Travis; DeVos, Annelies; Twitty, George; DeVos, Marijke; Benveniste, Etty N.; Nozell, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are diffusively infiltrative and remain among the deadliest of all cancers. NF-?B is a transcription factor that mediates cell growth, migration and invasion, angiogenesis and resistance to apoptosis. Normally, the activity of NF-?B is tightly regulated by numerous mechanisms. However, in many cancers, NF-?B is constitutively activated and may function as a tumor promoter. Herein, we show that in gliomas, NF-?B is constitutively activated and the levels of cIAP2, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Survivin are elevated. These genes are regulated by NF-?B and can inhibit apoptosis. To understand the potential role of NF-?B p65 in suppressing apoptosis, we generated human glioma cell lines that inducibly express shRNA molecules specific for p65. We demonstrate that in the absence of p65, TNF-? induced cIAP2 expression is significantly reduced while the levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Survivin are not affected. These data suggest that of these genes, only cIAP2 is a direct target of p65. Using RT-PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we have confirmed that cIAP2 is a transcriptional target of NF-?B p65. As a consequence of reduced p65 and cIAP2 levels, we demonstrate that the levels of RIP poly-ubiquitination are reduced, and that p65-deficient glioma cells are more sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of TNF-? than glioma cells expressing p65. Specifically, in the presence of TNF-?, glioma cells lacking p65 showed cellular proliferation defects and underwent apoptosis. Moreover, glioma cells were similarly sensitized to the effects of TNF-? if the levels of cIAP2 were reduced through lentivirus shRNA expression. These data suggest that NF-?B and/or cIAP2 may be therapeutically relevant targets for the treatment of malignant gliomas. PMID:21279667

  9. A sustained deficiency of mitochondrial respiratory complex III induces an apoptotic cell death through the p53-mediated inhibition of pro-survival activities of the activating transcription factor 4.

    PubMed

    Evstafieva, A G; Garaeva, A A; Khutornenko, A A; Klepikova, A V; Logacheva, M D; Penin, A A; Novakovsky, G E; Kovaleva, I E; Chumakov, P M

    2014-01-01

    Generation of energy in mitochondria is subjected to physiological regulation at many levels, and its malfunction may result in mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with different environmental influences or certain genetic conditions, and can be artificially induced by inhibitors acting at different steps of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC). We found that a short-term (5?h) inhibition of ETC complex III with myxothiazol results in the phosphorylation of translation initiation factor eIF2? and upregulation of mRNA for the activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and several ATF4-regulated genes. The changes are characteristic for the adaptive integrated stress response (ISR), which is known to be triggered by unfolded proteins, nutrient and metabolic deficiency, and mitochondrial dysfunctions. However, after a prolonged incubation with myxothiazol (13-17?h), levels of ATF4 mRNA and ATF4-regulated transcripts were found substantially suppressed. The suppression was dependent on the p53 response, which is triggered by the impairment of the complex III-dependent de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines by mitochondrial dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. The initial adaptive induction of ATF4/ISR acted to promote viability of cells by attenuating apoptosis. In contrast, the induction of p53 upon a sustained inhibition of ETC complex III produced a pro-apoptotic effect, which was additionally stimulated by the p53-mediated abrogation of the pro-survival activities of the ISR. Interestingly, a sustained inhibition of ETC complex I by piericidine did not induce the p53 response and stably maintained the pro-survival activation of ATF4/ISR. We conclude that a downregulation of mitochondrial ETC generally induces adaptive pro-survival responses, which are specifically abrogated by the suicidal p53 response triggered by the genetic risks of the pyrimidine nucleotide deficiency. PMID:25375376

  10. A sustained deficiency of mitochondrial respiratory complex III induces an apoptotic cell death through the p53-mediated inhibition of pro-survival activities of the activating transcription factor 4

    PubMed Central

    Evstafieva, A G; Garaeva, A A; Khutornenko, A A; Klepikova, A V; Logacheva, M D; Penin, A A; Novakovsky, G E; Kovaleva, I E; Chumakov, P M

    2014-01-01

    Generation of energy in mitochondria is subjected to physiological regulation at many levels, and its malfunction may result in mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with different environmental influences or certain genetic conditions, and can be artificially induced by inhibitors acting at different steps of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC). We found that a short-term (5?h) inhibition of ETC complex III with myxothiazol results in the phosphorylation of translation initiation factor eIF2? and upregulation of mRNA for the activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and several ATF4-regulated genes. The changes are characteristic for the adaptive integrated stress response (ISR), which is known to be triggered by unfolded proteins, nutrient and metabolic deficiency, and mitochondrial dysfunctions. However, after a prolonged incubation with myxothiazol (13–17?h), levels of ATF4 mRNA and ATF4-regulated transcripts were found substantially suppressed. The suppression was dependent on the p53 response, which is triggered by the impairment of the complex III-dependent de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines by mitochondrial dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. The initial adaptive induction of ATF4/ISR acted to promote viability of cells by attenuating apoptosis. In contrast, the induction of p53 upon a sustained inhibition of ETC complex III produced a pro-apoptotic effect, which was additionally stimulated by the p53-mediated abrogation of the pro-survival activities of the ISR. Interestingly, a sustained inhibition of ETC complex I by piericidine did not induce the p53 response and stably maintained the pro-survival activation of ATF4/ISR. We conclude that a downregulation of mitochondrial ETC generally induces adaptive pro-survival responses, which are specifically abrogated by the suicidal p53 response triggered by the genetic risks of the pyrimidine nucleotide deficiency. PMID:25375376

  11. The Anti-Apoptotic and Cardioprotective Effects of Salvianolic Acid A on Rat Cardiomyocytes following Ischemia/Reperfusion by DUSP-Mediated Regulation of the ERK1/2/JNK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiuping; Zhu, Shasha; Liu, Yang; Pan, Defeng; Chen, Xiaohu; Li, Dongye

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of salvianolic acid A (SAA) pretreatment on the myocardium during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and to illuminate the interrelationships among dual specificity protein phosphatase (DUSP) 2/4/16, ERK1/2 and JNK pathways during myocardial I/R, with the ultimate goal of elucidating how SAA exerts cardioprotection against I/R injury (IRI). Wistar rats were divided into the following six groups: control group (CON), I/R group, SAA+I/R group, ERK1/2 inhibitor PD098059+I/R group (PD+I/R), PD+SAA+I/R group, and JNK inhibitor SP600125+I/R group (SP+I/R). The cardioprotective effects of SAA on the myocardium during I/R were investigated with a Langendorff device. Heart rate (HR), left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), maximum rate of ventricular pressure rise and fall (±dp/dtmax), myocardial infarction areas (MIA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and cardiomyocytes apoptosis were monitored. To determine the crosstalk betwee JNK and ERK1/2 via DUSP2/4/16 with SAA pretreatment, siRNA-DUSP2/4/16 were performed. The expression levels of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase 3, p-JNK, p-ERK1/2 and DUSP2/4/16 in cardiomyocytes were assayed by Western blot. Our results showed that LDH, MIA and cell apoptosis were decreased, and various parameters of heart function were improved by SAA pretreatment and SP application. In the I/R group, the expression levels of p-ERK1/2 and DUSP4/16 were not significantly different compared with the CON group, however, the protein expression levels of p-ERK1/2, Bcl-2 and DUSP4/16 were higher, while p-JNK, Bax, caspase 3 and DUSP2 levels were reduced among the SAA+I/R, PD+SAA+I/R and SP+I/R groups. The above indices were not significantly different between the SAA+I/R and SP+I/R groups. Compared with the SAA+I/R group, p-ERK1/2 was increased and p-JNK was decreased in the SAA+si-DUSP2+I/R, however, p-ERK was downregulated and p-JNK was upregulated in SAA+si-DUSP4+I/R group. SAA exerts an anti-apoptotic role against myocardial IRI by inhibiting DUSP2-mediated JNK dephosphorylation and activating DUSP4/16-mediated ERK1/2 phosphorylation. PMID:25019380

  12. Topological Transitions in Mitochondrial Membranes controlled by Apoptotic Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwee Lai, Ghee; Sanders, Lori K.; Mishra, Abhijit; Schmidt, Nathan W.; Wong, Gerard C. L.; Ivashyna, Olena; Schlesinger, Paul H.

    2010-03-01

    The Bcl-2 family comprises pro-apoptotic proteins, capable of permeabilizing the mitochondrial membrane, and anti-apoptotic members interacting in an antagonistic fashion to regulate programmed cell death (apoptosis). They offer potential therapeutic targets to re-engage cellular suicide in tumor cells but the extensive network of implicated protein-protein interactions has impeded full understanding of the decision pathway. We show, using synchrotron x-ray diffraction, that pro-apoptotic proteins interact with mitochondrial-like model membranes to generate saddle-splay (negative Gaussian) curvature topologically required for pore formation, while anti-apoptotic proteins can deactivate curvature generation by molecules drastically different from Bcl-2 family members and offer evidence for membrane-curvature mediated interactions general enough to affect very disparate systems.

  13. Renal tubular injury induced by hyperoxaluria: evaluation of apoptotic changes.

    PubMed

    Sarica, K; Yagci, F; Bakir, K; Erbagci, A; Erturhan, S; Uçak, R

    2001-02-01

    In order to evaluate the injurious effect of hyperoxaluria on renal tubular epithelium, as judged by apoptotic changes in the renal parenchyma, we performed an experimental study in 20 rabbits. In the experimental group animals (n = 10) severe hyperoxaluria was induced by continuous ethylene glycol (EG; 0.75%). Histologic alterations, including crystal formation, together with apoptotic changes were evaluated after 7 and 28 days. Control group animals (n = 10) received normal distilled drinking water. Following 7- and 28-day periods, tissue sections obtained from kidneys were examined histopathologically under light microscopy for the presence and the degree of crystal deposition in the tubular lumen. Apoptotic changes in renal tubular cells were examined using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP in situ nick and labeling (TUNEL) method during the same follow-up period. Crystal deposition was evident in the tubular lumen of tissue sections obtained during the 7-day examination period. During the 28-day examination period, however, these findings were found to be either limited or to have disappeared. In relation to apoptotic changes, the percentage of positive nuclei stained using the TUNEL method was from 11 to 20% in the experimental group and 5.6% in the control group. Our findings indicate that both calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals and hyperoxaluria itself may be injurious to renal tubular cells, as indicated by apoptotic changes. These changes may be responsible for the pathologic course of urolithiasis. PMID:11310213

  14. MECHANISMS OF MITOCHONDRIA-MEDIATED APOPTOSIS INDUCED BY CYTOTOXIC STRESS

    E-print Network

    Shelton, Shary Nicole

    2010-06-04

    Defects within the apoptotic pathway are thought to contribute to tumorigenesis and therapeutic resistance. Although most cytotoxic anti-cancer drugs are thought to activate the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway, the precise mechanistic...

  15. Anti-C1q autoantibodies from active lupus nephritis patients could inhibit the clearance of apoptotic cells and complement classical pathway activation mediated by C1q in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yun; Yang, Xiao-Wei; Song, Yan; Yu, Feng; Zhao, Ming-Hui

    2014-12-01

    Anti-C1q antibodies are prevalent in patients with active lupus nephritis and were found to be closely associated with renal involvement and predictive for a flare of nephritis. However, the pathogenesis of anti-C1q antibodies involved in human lupus nephritis remains unclear. C1q, which plays a key role in apoptotic cell and immune complex removal, is a very important functional molecule in the pathogenesis of SLE. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of anti-C1q autoantibodies from active lupus nephritis patients on the bio-functions of C1q in vitro. We purified IgG autoantibodies against C1q from lupus nephritis patients, and found that they could recognize C1q bound on early apoptotic cells at 30 ?g/ml, and could significantly decrease the phagocytosis by macrophages of early apoptotic cells opsonized by 50 ?g/ml C1q in comparison with normal IgG. Levels of circulating immune complexes of the ten patients were measured by a circulating immune complexes (CIC)-C1q Enzyme Immunoassay Kit. Anti-C1q autoantibodies affinity purified by microtiter plates could significantly inhibit the deposition of C3c on CIC-C1q in a dose dependent manner in comparison with IgG from 10 healthy blood donors. The binding of opsonized immune complexes to RBCs was significantly inhibited by anti-C1q autoantibodies purified by microtiter plates in a dose dependent manner. Our observations suggest that serum anti-C1q autoantibodies from active lupus nephritis patients could interfere with some biological function of C1q in vitro. PMID:25092568

  16. Pro-apoptotic and pro-autophagic effects of the Aurora kinase A inhibitor alisertib (MLN8237) on human osteosarcoma U-2 OS and MG-63 cells through the activation of mitochondria-mediated pathway and inhibition of p38 MAPK/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Ning-Kui; Wang, Zi-Li; Pan, Shu-Ting; Ding, Hui-Qiang; Au, Giang HT; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Xiao, Guozhi; Yang, Yin-Xue; Zhang, Xueji; Yang, Tianxin; Chen, Xiao-Wu; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common malignant bone tumor occurring mostly in children and adolescents between 10 and 20 years of age with poor response to current therapeutics. Alisertib (ALS, MLN8237) is a selective Aurora kinase A inhibitor that displays anticancer effects on several types of cancer. However, the role of ALS in the treatment of OS remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects of ALS on the cell growth, apoptosis, autophagy, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the underlying mechanisms in two human OS cell lines U-2 OS and MG-63. The results showed that ALS had potent growth inhibitory, pro-apoptotic, pro-autophagic, and EMT inhibitory effects on U-2 OS and MG-63 cells. ALS remarkably induced G2/M arrest and down-regulated the expression levels of cyclin-dependent kinases 1 and 2 and cyclin B1 in both U-2 OS and MG-63 cells. ALS markedly induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis with a significant increase in the expression of key pro-apoptotic proteins and a decrease in main anti-apoptotic proteins. Furthermore, ALS promoted autophagic cell death via the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling pathways, and activation of 5?-AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. Inducers or inhibitors of apoptosis or autophagy simultaneously altered ALS-induced apoptotic and autophagic death in both U-2 OS and MG-63 cells, suggesting a crosstalk between these two primary modes of programmed cell death. Moreover, ALS suppressed EMT-like phenotypes with a marked increase in the expression of E-cadherin but a decrease in N-cadherin in U-2 OS and MG-63 cells. ALS treatment also induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation but inhibited the expression levels of sirtuin 1 and nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in both cell lines. Taken together, these findings show that ALS promotes apoptosis and autophagy but inhibits EMT via PI3K/Akt/mTOR, p38 MAPK, and AMPK signaling pathways with involvement of ROS- and sirtuin 1-associated pathways in U-2 OS and MG-63 cells. ALS is a promising anticancer agent in OS treatment and further studies are needed to confirm its efficacy and safety in OS chemotherapy. PMID:25792811

  17. Apoptotic Cell Death in Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuanyuan; Nakagawara, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is one of the most common malignant solid tumors in childhood, which derives from the sympathoadrenal lineage of the neural crest and exhibits extremely heterogeneous biological and clinical behaviors. The infant patients frequently undergo spontaneous regression even with metastatic disease, whereas the patients of more than one year of age who suffer from disseminated disease have a poor outcome despite intensive multimodal treatment. Spontaneous regression in favorable NBs has been proposed to be triggered by nerve growth factor (NGF) deficiency in the tumor with NGF dependency for survival, while aggressive NBs have defective apoptotic machinery which enables the tumor cells to evade apoptosis and confers the resistance to treatment. This paper reviews the molecules and pathways that have been recently identified to be involved in apoptotic cell death in NB and discusses their potential prospects for developing more effective therapeutic strategies against aggressive NB. PMID:24709709

  18. Opsonization of Apoptotic Cells by Autologous iC3b Facilitates Clearance by Immature Dendritic Cells, Down-regulates DR and CD86, and Up-regulates CC Chemokine Receptor 7

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inna Verbovetski; Hila Bychkov; Uriel Trahtemberg; Itzhak Shapira; Mara Hareuveni; Ofira Ben-Tal; Ina Kutikov; Oranit Gill; Dror Mevorach

    Immature dendritic cells (iDCs) do not mature after uptake of apoptotic cells and may play a role in the induction of peripheral tolerance to self antigens derived from apoptotic material. The integrins, ? v ? 3, ? v ? 5, and the scavenger receptor, CD36, have been shown to mediate uptake of apoptotic cells by iDCs. However, it is not

  19. The neurotoxicity of 5-S-cysteinyldopamine is mediated by the early activation of ERK1/2 followed by the subsequent activation of ASK1/JNK1/2 pro-apoptotic signalling.

    PubMed

    Vauzour, David; Pinto, John T; Cooper, Arthur J L; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2014-10-01

    Parkinson's disease is characterized by the progressive and selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. It has been postulated that endogenously formed CysDA (5-S-cysteinyldopamine) and its metabolites may be, in part, responsible for this selective neuronal loss, although the mechanisms by which they contribute to such neurotoxicity are not understood. Exposure of neurons in culture to CysDA caused cell injury, apparent 12-48 h post-exposure. A portion of the neuronal death induced by CysDA was preceded by a rapid uptake and intracellular oxidation of CysDA, leading to an acute and transient activation of ERK2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 2) and caspase 8. The oxidation of CysDA also induced the activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 via its de-phosphorylation at Ser967, the phosphorylation of JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) and c-Jun (Ser73) as well as the activation of p38, caspase 3, caspase 8, caspase 7 and caspase 9. Concurrently, the inhibition of complex I by the dihydrobenzothiazine DHBT-1 [7-(2-aminoethyl)-3,4-dihydro-5-hydroxy-2H-1,4-benzothiazine-3-carboxylic acid], formed from the intracellular oxidation of CysDA, induces complex I inhibition and the subsequent release of cytochrome c which further potentiates pro-apoptotic mechanisms. Our data suggest a novel comprehensive mechanism for CysDA that may hold relevance for the selective neuronal loss observed in Parkinson's disease. PMID:24938188

  20. Actin-myosin–based contraction is responsible for apoptotic nuclear disintegration

    PubMed Central

    Croft, Daniel R.; Coleman, Mathew L.; Li, Shuixing; Robertson, David; Sullivan, Teresa; Stewart, Colin L.; Olson, Michael F.

    2005-01-01

    Membrane blebbing during the apoptotic execution phase results from caspase-mediated cleavage and activation of ROCK I. Here, we show that ROCK activity, myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, MLC ATPase activity, and an intact actin cytoskeleton, but not microtubular cytoskeleton, are required for disruption of nuclear integrity during apoptosis. Inhibition of ROCK or MLC ATPase activity, which protect apoptotic nuclear integrity, does not affect caspase-mediated degradation of nuclear proteins such as lamins A, B1, or C. The conditional activation of ROCK I was sufficient to tear apart nuclei in lamin A/C null fibroblasts, but not in wild-type fibroblasts. Thus, apoptotic nuclear disintegration requires actin-myosin contractile force and lamin proteolysis, making apoptosis analogous to, but distinct from, mitosis where nuclear disintegration results from microtubule-based forces and from lamin phosphorylation and depolymerization. PMID:15657395

  1. The apoptotic perspective of autism.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hongen; Alberts, Ian; Li, Xiaohong

    2014-08-01

    Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction, deficits in verbal and non-verbal communication, and repetitive behavior and restricted interests. The normal brain development during fetal brain development and the first year of life is critical to the behaviors and cognitions in adulthood. Programmed cell death (apoptosis) is an important mechanism that determines the size and shape of the brain and regulates the proper wiring of developing neuronal networks. Pathological activation of apoptotic death pathways under pathological conditions may lead to neuroanatomic abnormalities and possibly to developmental disabilities. It has been demonstrated a possible association between neural cell death and autism. Here, the abnormal apoptosis found in autism from postmortem and animal studies was reviewed and the possible mechanism was discussed. PMID:24798024

  2. P90RSK and Nrf2 Activation via MEK1/2-ERK1/2 Pathways Mediated by Notoginsenoside R2 to Prevent 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Apoptotic Death in SH-SY5Y Cells

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiang-Bao; Sun, Gui-Bo; Sun, Xiao-Bo

    2013-01-01

    6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is known to contribute to neuronal death in Parkinson's disease. In this study, we found that the preincubation of SH-SY5Y cells for 24?h with 20??M notoginsenoside R2 (NGR2), which is a newly isolated notoginsenoside from Panax notoginseng, showed neuroprotective effects against 6-OHDA-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. NGR2 incubation successively resulted in the activation of P90RSK, inactivation of BAD, and inhibition of 6-OHDA-induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization, thus preventing the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. NGR2 incubation also led to the activation of Nrf2 and subsequent activity enhancement of phase II detoxifying enzymes, thus suppressing 6-OHDA-induced oxidative stress, and these effects could be removed by Nrf2 siRNA. We also found that the upstream activators of P90RSK and Nrf2 were the MEK1/2–ERK1/2 pathways but not the JNK, P38, or PI3K/Akt pathways. Interestingly, NGR2 incubation could also activate MEK1/2 and ERK1/2. Most importantly, NGR2-mediated P90RSK and Nrf2 activation, respective downstream target activation, and neuroprotection were reversed by the genetic silencing of MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 by using siRNA and PD98059 application. These results suggested that the neuroprotection elicited by NGR2 against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity was associated with NGR2-mediated P90RSK and Nrf2 activation through MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathways. PMID:24159358

  3. Intravenous apoptotic spleen cell infusion induces a TGF-beta-dependent regulatory T-cell expansion

    PubMed Central

    Kleinclauss, François M.; Perruche, Sylvain; Masson, Emeline; De Carvalho Bittencourt, Marcelo; Biichle, Sabeha; Remy-Martin, Jean-Paul; Ferrand, Christophe; Martin, Mael; Bittard, Hugues; Chalopin, Jean-Marc; Seilles, Estelle; Tiberghien, Pierre; Saas, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Apoptotic leukocytes are endowed with immunomodulatory properties that can be used to enhance hematopoietic engraftment and prevent graft-versus-host disease. This apoptotic cell-induced tolerogenic effect is mediated by host macrophages and not recipient dendritic cells or donor phagocytes present in the bone marrow graft as evidenced by selective cell depletion and trafficking experiments. Furthermore, apoptotic cell infusion is associated with TGF-?-dependent donor CD4+CD25+ T cell expansion. Such cells have a regulatory phenotype (CD62Lhigh and intracellular CTLA-4+), express high levels of Foxp3 mRNA and exert ex vivo suppressive activity through a cell-to-cell contact mechanism. In vivo CD25 depletion after apoptotic cell infusion prevents the apoptotic spleen cell-induced beneficial effects on engraftment and graft-versus-host disease occurrence. This highlights the role of regulatory T cells in the tolerogenic effect of apoptotic spleen cell infusion. This novel association between apoptosis and regulatory T cell expansion may also contribute to preventing deleterious auto-immune responses during normal turnover. PMID:15962005

  4. EPO Mediates Neurotrophic, Neuroprotective, Anti-Oxidant, and Anti-Apoptotic Effects via Downregulation of miR-451 and miR-885-5p in SH-SY5Y Neuron-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Alural, Begum; Duran, Gizem Ayna; Tufekci, Kemal Ugur; Allmer, Jens; Onkal, Zeynep; Tunali, Dogan; Genc, Kursad; Genc, Sermin

    2014-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is a neuroprotective cytokine, which has been applied in several animal models presenting neurological disorders. One of the proposed modes of action resulting in neuroprotection is post-transcriptional gene expression regulation. This directly brings to mind microRNAs (miRNAs), which are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. It has not yet been evaluated whether miRNAs participate in the biological effects of EPO or whether it, inversely, modulates specific miRNAs in neuronal cells. In this study, we employed miRNA and mRNA arrays to identify how EPO exerts its biological function. Notably, miR-451 and miR-885-5p are downregulated in EPO-treated SH-SY5Y neuronal-like cells. Accordingly, target prediction and transcriptome analysis of cells treated with EPO revealed an alteration of the expression of genes involved in apoptosis, cell survival, proliferation, and migration. Low expression of miRNAs in SH-SY5Y was correlated with high expression of their target genes, vascular endothelial growth factor A, matrix metallo peptidase 9 (MMP9), cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), erythropoietin receptor, Mini chromosome maintenance complex 5 (MCM5), B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2), and Galanin (GAL). Cell viability, apoptosis, proliferation, and migration assays were carried out for functional analysis after transfection with miRNA mimics, which inhibited some biological actions of EPO such as neuroprotection, anti-oxidation, anti-apoptosis, and migratory effects. In this study, we report for the first time that EPO downregulates the expression of miRNAs (miR-451 and miR-885-5p) in SH-SY5Y neuronal-like cells. The correlation between the over-expression of miRNAs and the decrease in EPO-mediated biological effects suggests that miR-451 and miR-885-5p may play a key role in the mediation of biological function. PMID:25324845

  5. Endothelial-derived thrombospondin-1 promotes macrophage recruitment and apoptotic cell clearance

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Torsten; Woywodt, Alexander; Klose, Johannes; Wyss, Kristin; Beese, Michaela; Erdbruegger, Uta; Grossheim, Marieke; Haller, Hermann; Haubitz, Marion

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Rapid apoptotic cell engulfment is crucial for prevention of inflammation and autoimmune diseases and is conducted by special immunocompetent cells like macrophages or immature dendritic cells. We recently demonstrated that endothelial cells (ECs) also participate in apoptotic cell clearance. However, in contrast to conventional phagocytes they respond with an inflammatory phenotype. To further confirm these pro-inflammatory responses human ECs were exposed to apoptotic murine ECs and changes in thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) expression and in activation of intracellular signalling cascades were determined by real-time qPCR, immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. Human primary macrophages or monocytic lymphoma cells (U937) were incubated with conditioned supernatant of human ECs exposed to apoptotic cells and changes in activation, migration and phagocytosis were monitored. Finally, plasma levels of TSP-1 in patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody(ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) were determined by ELISA. We provided evidence that apoptotic cells induce enhanced expression of TSP-1 in human ECs and that this increase in TSP-1 is mediated by the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) ERK1 and 2 and their upstream regulators MEK and B-Raf. We also showed that plasma TSP-1 levels are increased in patients with AAV. Finally, we showed that conditioned supernatant of ECs exposed to apoptotic cells induces pro-inflammatory responses in monocytes or U937 cells and demonstrated that increased TSP-1 expression enhances migration and facilitates engulfment of apoptotic cells by monocyte-derived macrophages or U937 cells. These findings suggest that under pathological conditions with high numbers of uncleared dying cells in the circulation endothelial-derived elevated TSP-1 level may serve as an attraction signal for phagocytes promoting enhanced recognition and clearance of apoptotic cells. PMID:19508384

  6. Ras Homolog Enriched in Brain (Rheb) Enhances Apoptotic Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Karassek, Sascha; Berghaus, Carsten; Schwarten, Melanie; Goemans, Christoph G.; Ohse, Nadine; Kock, Gerd; Jockers, Katharina; Neumann, Sebastian; Gottfried, Sebastian; Herrmann, Christian; Heumann, Rolf; Stoll, Raphael

    2010-01-01

    Rheb is a homolog of Ras GTPase that regulates cell growth, proliferation, and regeneration via mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Because of the well established potential of activated Ras to promote survival, we sought to investigate the ability of Rheb signaling to phenocopy Ras. We found that overexpression of lipid-anchored Rheb enhanced the apoptotic effects induced by UV light, TNF?, or tunicamycin in an mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1)-dependent manner. Knocking down endogenous Rheb or applying rapamycin led to partial protection, identifying Rheb as a mediator of cell death. Ras and c-Raf kinase opposed the apoptotic effects induced by UV light or TNF? but did not prevent Rheb-mediated apoptosis. To gain structural insight into the signaling mechanisms, we determined the structure of Rheb-GDP by NMR. The complex adopts the typical canonical fold of RasGTPases and displays the characteristic GDP-dependent picosecond to nanosecond backbone dynamics of the switch I and switch II regions. NMR revealed Ras effector-like binding of activated Rheb to the c-Raf-Ras-binding domain (RBD), but the affinity was 1000-fold lower than the Ras/RBD interaction, suggesting a lack of functional interaction. shRNA-mediated knockdown of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK-1) strongly reduced UV or TNF?-induced apoptosis and suppressed enhancement by Rheb overexpression. In conclusion, Rheb-mTOR activation not only promotes normal cell growth but also enhances apoptosis in response to diverse toxic stimuli via an ASK-1-mediated mechanism. Pharmacological regulation of the Rheb/mTORC1 pathway using rapamycin should take the presence of cellular stress into consideration, as this may have clinical implications. PMID:20685651

  7. PARP Inhibition Restores Extrinsic Apoptotic Sensitivity in Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Karpel-Massler, Georg; Pareja, Fresia; Aimé, Pascaline; Shu, Chang; Chau, Lily; Westhoff, Mike-Andrew; Halatsch, Marc-Eric; Crary, John F.; Canoll, Peter; Siegelin, Markus D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Resistance to apoptosis is a paramount issue in the treatment of Glioblastoma (GBM). We show that targeting PARP by the small molecule inhibitors, Olaparib (AZD-2281) or PJ34, reduces proliferation and lowers the apoptotic threshold of GBM cells in vitro and in vivo. Methods The sensitizing effects of PARP inhibition on TRAIL-mediated apoptosis and potential toxicity were analyzed using viability assays and flow cytometry in established GBM cell lines, low-passage neurospheres and astrocytes in vitro. Molecular analyses included western blots and gene silencing. In vivo, effects on tumor growth were examined in a murine subcutaneous xenograft model. Results The combination treatment of PARP inhibitors and TRAIL led to an increased cell death with activation of caspases and inhibition of formation of neurospheres when compared to single-agent treatment. Mechanistically, pharmacological PARP inhibition elicited a nuclear stress response with up-regulation of down-stream DNA-stress response proteins, e.g., CCAAT enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) homology protein (CHOP). Furthermore, Olaparib and PJ34 increased protein levels of DR5 in a concentration and time-dependent manner. In turn, siRNA-mediated suppression of DR5 mitigated the effects of TRAIL/PARP inhibitor-mediated apoptosis. In addition, suppression of PARP-1 levels enhanced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in malignant glioma cells. Treatment of human astrocytes with the combination of TRAIL/PARP inhibitors did not cause toxicity. Finally, the combination treatment of TRAIL and PJ34 significantly reduced tumor growth in vivo when compared to treatment with each agent alone. Conclusions PARP inhibition represents a promising avenue to overcome apoptotic resistance in GBM. PMID:25531448

  8. The role of intrinsic apoptotic signaling in hemorrhagic shock-induced microvascular endothelial cell barrier dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Devendra A; Tharakan, Binu; Hunter, Felicia A; Childs, Ed W

    2014-11-01

    Hemorrhagic shock leads to endothelial cell barrier dysfunction resulting in microvascular hyperpermeability. Hemorrhagic shock-induced microvascular hyperpermeability is associated with worse clinical outcomes in patients with traumatic injuries. The results from our laboratory have illustrated a possible pathophysiological mechanism showing involvement of mitochondria-mediated "intrinsic" apoptotic signaling in regulating hemorrhagic shock-induced microvascular hyperpermeability. Hemorrhagic shock results in overexpression of Bcl-2 family of pro-apoptotic protein, BAK, in the microvascular endothelial cells. The increase in BAK initiates "intrinsic" apoptotic signaling cascade with the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c in the cytoplasm and activation of downstream effector caspase-3, leading to loss of endothelial cell barrier integrity. Thus, this review article offers a brief overview of important findings from our past and present research work along with new leads for future research. The summary of our research work will provide information leading to different avenues in developing novel strategies against microvascular hyperpermeability following hemorrhagic shock. PMID:25277298

  9. Functional, morphological, and apoptotic alterations in skeletal muscle of ARC deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Andrew S; Smith, Ian C; Gamu, Daniel; Donath, Stefan; Tupling, A Russell; Quadrilatero, Joe

    2015-03-01

    Apoptotic signaling plays an important role in the development and maintenance of healthy skeletal muscle. However, dysregulation of apoptotic signals in skeletal muscle is associated with atrophy and loss of function. Apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC) is a potent anti-apoptotic protein that is highly expressed in skeletal muscle; however, its role in this tissue has yet to be elucidated. To investigate whether ARC deficiency has morphological, functional, and apoptotic consequences, skeletal muscle from 18 week-old wild-type and ARC knockout (KO) mice was studied. In red muscle (soleus), we found lower maximum tetanic force, as well as a shift towards a greater proportion of type II fibers in ARC KO mice. Furthermore, the soleus of ARC KO mice exhibited lower total, as well as fiber type-specific cross sectional area in type I and IIA fibers. Interestingly, these changes in ARC KO mice corresponded with increased DNA fragmentation, albeit independent of caspase or calpain activation. However, cytosolic fractions of red muscle from ARC KO mice had higher apoptosis inducing factor content, suggesting increased mitochondrial-mediated, caspase-independent apoptotic signaling. This was confirmed in isolated mitochondrial preparations, as mitochondria from skeletal muscle of ARC KO mice were more susceptible to calcium stress. Interestingly, white muscle from ARC KO mice showed no signs of altered apoptotic signaling or detrimental morphological differences. Results from this study suggest that even under basal conditions ARC influences muscle apoptotic signaling, phenotype, and function, particularly in slow and/or oxidative muscle. PMID:25596718

  10. Anti-apoptotic effects of osteopontin through the up-regulation of Mcl-1 in gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted phosphoprotein expressed by neoplastic cells involved in the malignant potential and aggressive phenotypes of human malignancies, including gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Our previous study showed that OPN can promote tumor cell proliferation in GISTs. In this series, we further aim to investigate the effect of OPN on apoptosis in GISTs. Methods The expression of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins in response to OPN was evaluated. In vitro effects of OPN against apoptosis in GIST were also assessed. GIST specimens were also used for analyzing protein expression of specific apoptosis-related molecules and their clinicopathologic significance. Results Up-regulation of ?-catenin and anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 with concomitant suppression of apoptotic proteins in response to OPN was noted. A significant anti-apoptotic effect of OPN on imatinib-induced apoptosis was identified. Furthermore, Mcl-1 overexpression was significantly associated with OPN and ?-catenin expression in tumor tissues, as well as worse survival clinically. Conclusions Our study identifies anti-apoptotic effects of OPN that, through ?-catenin-mediated Mcl-1 up-regulation, significantly antagonized imatinib-induced apoptosis in GISTs. These results provide a potential rationale for therapeutic strategies targeting both OPN and Mcl-1 of the same anti-apoptotic signaling pathway, which may account for resistance to imatinib in GISTs. PMID:24947165

  11. Ulinastatin inhibits oxidant-induced endothelial hyperpermeability and apoptotic signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guicheng; Li, Tao; Li, Yunfeng; Cai, Shumin; Zhang, Zhiming; Zeng, Zhenhua; Wang, Xingmin; Gao, Youguang; Li, Yunfeng; Chen, Zhongqing

    2014-01-01

    Oxidants are important signaling molecules known to increase endothelial permeability. Studies implicate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the intrinsic apoptotic signaling cascades as mediators of vascular hyperpermeability. Here we report the protective effects of ulinastatin, a serine protease inhibitor with antiapoptotic properties, against oxidant-induced endothelial monolayer hyperpermeability. HUVECs were respectively pretreated with 10,000 and 50,000 u/l ulinastatin, followed by stimulation of 0.6 mM H2O2. Monolayer permeability was determined by transendothelial electrical resistance (TER); Mitochondrial release of cytochrome c was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; Caspase-3 activity was measured by fluorometric assay; Adherens junction protein ?-catenin was detected by immunofluorescense staining; Ratio of cell apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin-V/PI double stain assay; Mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) was determined with JC-1; Intracellular ATP content was assayed by a commercial kit; Bax and Bcl-2 expression were estimated by western blotting; Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was measured by DCFH-DA. H2O2 exposure resulted in endothelial hyperpermeability and ROS formation (P < 0.05). The activation of mitochondrial intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway was evidenced from BAX up-regulation, Bcl-2 down-regulation, mitochondrial depolarization, an increase in cytochrome c release, and activation of caspase-3 (P < 0.05). UTI (50,000 u/l) attenuated endothelial hyperpermeability, ROS formation, mitochondrial dysfunction, cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-3, and disruption of cell adherens junctions (P < 0.05). Together, these results demonstrate that UTI provides protection against vascular hyperpermeability by modulating the intrinsic apoptotic signaling. PMID:25550770

  12. IRAS is an anti-apoptotic protein.

    PubMed

    Dontenwill, Monique; Piletz, John E; Chen, Michael; Baldwin, James; Pascal, Geraldine; Ronde, Philippe; Dupuy, Laurence; Greney, Hugues; Takeda, Ken; Bousquetd, Pascal

    2003-12-01

    Active cell death, also known as apoptosis, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of diseases such as cancer, heart failure and neurodegenerative disorders. We report the anti-apoptotic function of IRAS, which was previously shown to bind imidazoline ligands. The amino acid sequence of human IRAS (hIRAS) is unrelated to known proteins, except for rat IRAS and a mouse homologue named nischarin, which binds the alpha5 integrin subunit of the fibronectin receptor. When stably transfected into PC12 cells, hIRAS localizes to the cytosol as a 167 kDa immunoreactive protein. Clonal PC12 cell lines expressing hIRAS displayed normal serum growth responses. However, hIRAS expression led to prolonged cell survival against known apoptotic stimuli: serum starvation or thapsigargin or staurosporine treatments. The apoptotic population of hIRAS-expressing cells was significantly reduced, and this protection was achieved by a decrease in caspase-3 activity, phosphatidylserine translocation, and nuclear fragmentation. Similar protective effect was obtained in COS7 cells transiently transfected with hIRAS. A partial activation of the PI3 kinase pathway is possibly implicated in the anti-apoptotic effect of IRAS. Thus, IRAS appears to represent a previously unknown anti-apoptotic protein involved in the regulation of cell survival. PMID:15028619

  13. A stapled BIM peptide overcomes apoptotic resistance in hematologic cancers

    PubMed Central

    LaBelle, James L.; Katz, Samuel G.; Bird, Gregory H.; Gavathiotis, Evripidis; Stewart, Michelle L.; Lawrence, Chelsea; Fisher, Jill K.; Godes, Marina; Pitter, Kenneth; Kung, Andrew L.; Walensky, Loren D.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cells subvert the natural balance between cellular life and death, achieving immortality through pathologic enforcement of survival pathways and blockade of cell death mechanisms. Pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins are frequently disarmed in relapsed and refractory cancer through genetic deletion or interaction-based neutralization by overexpressed antiapoptotic proteins, resulting in resistance to chemotherapy and radiation treatments. New pharmacologic strategies are urgently needed to overcome these formidable apoptotic blockades. We harnessed the natural killing activity of BCL-2–interacting mediator of cell death (BIM), which contains one of the most potent BH3 death domains of the BCL-2 protein family, to restore BH3-dependent cell death in resistant hematologic cancers. A hydrocarbon-stapled peptide modeled after the BIM BH3 helix broadly targeted BCL-2 family proteins with high affinity, blocked inhibitory antiapoptotic interactions, directly triggered proapoptotic activity, and induced dose-responsive and BH3 sequence–specific cell death of hematologic cancer cells. The therapeutic potential of stapled BIM BH3 was highlighted by the selective activation of cell death in the aberrant lymphoid infiltrates of mice reconstituted with BIM-deficient bone marrow and in a human AML xenograft model. Thus, we found that broad and multimodal targeting of the BCL-2 family pathway can overcome pathologic barriers to cell death. PMID:22622039

  14. A stapled BIM peptide overcomes apoptotic resistance in hematologic cancers.

    PubMed

    LaBelle, James L; Katz, Samuel G; Bird, Gregory H; Gavathiotis, Evripidis; Stewart, Michelle L; Lawrence, Chelsea; Fisher, Jill K; Godes, Marina; Pitter, Kenneth; Kung, Andrew L; Walensky, Loren D

    2012-06-01

    Cancer cells subvert the natural balance between cellular life and death, achieving immortality through pathologic enforcement of survival pathways and blockade of cell death mechanisms. Pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins are frequently disarmed in relapsed and refractory cancer through genetic deletion or interaction-based neutralization by overexpressed antiapoptotic proteins, resulting in resistance to chemotherapy and radiation treatments. New pharmacologic strategies are urgently needed to overcome these formidable apoptotic blockades. We harnessed the natural killing activity of BCL-2-interacting mediator of cell death (BIM), which contains one of the most potent BH3 death domains of the BCL-2 protein family, to restore BH3-dependent cell death in resistant hematologic cancers. A hydrocarbon-stapled peptide modeled after the BIM BH3 helix broadly targeted BCL-2 family proteins with high affinity, blocked inhibitory antiapoptotic interactions, directly triggered proapoptotic activity, and induced dose-responsive and BH3 sequence-specific cell death of hematologic cancer cells. The therapeutic potential of stapled BIM BH3 was highlighted by the selective activation of cell death in the aberrant lymphoid infiltrates of mice reconstituted with BIM-deficient bone marrow and in a human AML xenograft model. Thus, we found that broad and multimodal targeting of the BCL-2 family pathway can overcome pathologic barriers to cell death. PMID:22622039

  15. Delivery of Intracellular-acting Biologics in Pro-Apoptotic Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongmei; Nelson, Chris E.; Evans, Brian C.; Duvall, Craig L.

    2013-01-01

    The recent elucidation of molecular regulators of apoptosis and their roles in cellular oncogenesis has motivated the development of biomacromolecular anticancer therapeutics that can activate intracellular apoptotic signaling pathways. Pharmaceutical scientists have employed a variety of classes of biologics toward this goal, including antisense oligodeoxynucleotides, small interfering RNA, proteins, antibodies, and peptides. However, stability in the in vivo environment, tumor-specific biodistribution, cell internalization, and localization to the intracellular microenvironment where the targeted molecule is localized pose significant challenges that limit the ability to directly apply intracellular-acting, pro-apoptotic biologics for therapeutic use. Thus, approaches to improve the pharmaceutical properties of therapeutic biomacromolecules are of great significance and have included chemically modifying the bioactive molecule itself or formulation with auxiliary compounds. Recently, promising advances in delivery of pro-apoptotic biomacromolecular agents have been made using tools such as peptide “stapling”, cell penetrating peptides, fusogenic peptides, liposomes, nanoparticles, smart polymers, and synergistic combinations of these components. This review will discuss the molecular mediators of cellular apoptosis, the respective mechanisms by which these mediators are dysregulated in cellular oncogenesis, the history and development of both nucleic-acid and amino-acid based drugs, and techniques to achieve intracellular delivery of these biologics. Finally, recent applications where pro-apoptotic functionality has been achieved through delivery of intracellular-acting biomacromolecular drugs will be highlighted. PMID:21348831

  16. A fluorescent nanosensor for apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Quinti, Luisa; Weissleder, Ralph; Tung, Ching-Hsuan

    2006-03-01

    A biocompatible surface-functionalized nanoparticle was designed to sense phosphatidylserine exposed on apoptotic cells. We conjugated synthetic artificial phosphatidylserine binding ligands in a multivalent fashion onto magnetofluorescent nanoparticles. Our results show that (1) the synthetic nanoparticles bind to apoptotic cells, (2) there is excellent correlation with annexin V staining by microscopy, and (3) FACS analysis with nanoparticles allows the measurement of therapeutic apoptosis induction. The described nanomaterials should be useful for a variety of biomedical applications including in vivo imaging of apoptosis. PMID:16522048

  17. Structure activity analysis of the pro-apoptotic, antitumor effect of nitrostyrene adducts and related compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvia Kaap; Iris Quentin; Dereje Tamiru; Mohammed Shaheen; Kurt Eger; Hans Jürgen Steinfelder

    2003-01-01

    In the present study, we outlined the part of the molecule mediating the prominent pro-apoptotic effect of the Michael adduct of ascorbic acid with p-chloro-nitrostyrene, a new synthetic phosphatase inhibitor. The nitrostyrene (NS) moiety was identified as the structure essential for apoptosis induction. NS and its ascorbic acid adducts displayed lc50 values of 10–25?M with no significant reduction of potency

  18. Persistent Chlamydia trachomatis Infections Resist Apoptotic Stimuli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DEBORAH DEAN; VIRGINIA C. POWERS

    2001-01-01

    Microbial modulation of apoptosis has added a new dimension of understanding to the dynamic interaction between the human host and its microbial invaders. Persistent infection can be a by-product of inhibition of apoptosis and may significantly impact the pathogenesis of diseases caused by organisms such as Chlamydia trachomatis. We compared apoptotic responses among HeLa 229 cells acutely and persistently infected

  19. Apoptotic DNA Degradation into Oligonucleosomal Fragments, but Not Apoptotic Nuclear Morphology, Relies on a Cytosolic Pool of DFF40/CAD Endonuclease*

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias-Guimarais, Victoria; Gil-Guiñon, Estel; Gabernet, Gisela; García-Belinchón, Mercè; Sánchez-Osuna, María; Casanelles, Elisenda; Comella, Joan X.; Yuste, Victor J.

    2012-01-01

    Apoptotic cell death is characterized by nuclear fragmentation and oligonucleosomal DNA degradation, mediated by the caspase-dependent specific activation of DFF40/CAD endonuclease. Here, we describe how, upon apoptotic stimuli, SK-N-AS human neuroblastoma-derived cells show apoptotic nuclear morphology without displaying concomitant internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Cytotoxicity afforded after staurosporine treatment is comparable with that obtained in SH-SY5Y cells, which exhibit a complete apoptotic phenotype. SK-N-AS cell death is a caspase-dependent process that can be impaired by the pan-caspase inhibitor q-VD-OPh. The endogenous inhibitor of DFF40/CAD, ICAD, is correctly processed, and dff40/cad cDNA sequence does not reveal mutations altering its amino acid composition. Biochemical approaches show that both SH-SY5Y and SK-N-AS resting cells express comparable levels of DFF40/CAD. However, the endonuclease is poorly expressed in the cytosolic fraction of healthy SK-N-AS cells. Despite this differential subcellular distribution of DFF40/CAD, we find no differences in the subcellular localization of both pro-caspase-3 and ICAD between the analyzed cell lines. After staurosporine treatment, the preferential processing of ICAD in the cytosolic fraction allows the translocation of DFF40/CAD from this fraction to a chromatin-enriched one. Therefore, the low levels of cytosolic DFF40/CAD detected in SK-N-AS cells determine the absence of DNA laddering after staurosporine treatment. In these cells DFF40/CAD cytosolic levels can be restored by the overexpression of their own endonuclease, which is sufficient to make them proficient at degrading their chromatin into oligonucleosome-size fragments after staurosporine treatment. Altogether, the cytosolic levels of DFF40/CAD are determinants in achieving a complete apoptotic phenotype, including oligonucleosomal DNA degradation. PMID:22253444

  20. Tributyltin induces apoptotic signaling in hepatocytes through pathways involving the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Grondin, Melanie [Departement de Chimie, Centre de Recherche en Toxicologie de l'environnement (TOXEN), Universite du Quebec a Montreal, CP 8888, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3P8 (Canada); Marion, Michel [Departement de Chimie, Centre de Recherche en Toxicologie de l'environnement (TOXEN), Universite du Quebec a Montreal, CP 8888, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3P8 (Canada); Denizeau, Francine [Departement de Chimie, Centre de Recherche en Toxicologie de l'environnement (TOXEN), Universite du Quebec a Montreal, CP 8888, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3P8 (Canada); Averill-Bates, Diana A. [Departement des Sciences Biologiques, Centre de Recherche en Toxicologie de l'environnement (TOXEN), Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: averill.diana@uqam.ca

    2007-07-01

    Tri-n-butyltin is a widespread environmental toxicant, which accumulates in the liver. This study investigates whether tri-n-butyltin induces pro-apoptotic signaling in rat liver hepatocytes through pathways involving the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Tri-n-butyltin activated the endoplasmic reticulum pathway of apoptosis, which was demonstrated by the activation of the protease calpain, its translocation to the plasma membrane, followed by cleavage of the calpain substrates, cytoskeletal protein vinculin, and caspase-12. Caspase-12 is localized to the cytoplasmic side of the endoplasmic reticulum and is involved in apoptosis mediated by the endoplasmic reticulum. Tri-n-butyltin also caused translocation of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bad from the cytosol to mitochondria, as well as changes in mitochondrial membrane permeability, events which can activate the mitochondrial death pathway. Tri-n-butyltin induced downstream apoptotic events in rat hepatocytes at the nuclear level, detected by chromatin condensation and by confocal microscopy using acridine orange. We investigated whether the tri-n-butyltin-induced pro-apoptotic events in hepatocytes could be linked to perturbation of intracellular calcium homeostasis, using confocal microscopy. Tri-n-butyltin caused changes in intracellular calcium distribution, which were similar to those induced by thapsigargin. Calcium was released from a subcellular compartment, which is likely to be the endoplasmic reticulum, into the cytosol. Cytosolic acidification, which is known to trigger apoptosis, also occurred and involved the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3} {sup -} exchanger. Pro-apoptotic events in hepatocytes were inhibited by the calcium chelator, Bapta-AM, and by a calpain inhibitor, which suggests that changes in intracellular calcium homeostasis are involved in tri-n-butyltin-induced apoptotic signaling in rat hepatocytes.

  1. Stabilization of apoptotic cells: generation of zombie cells.

    PubMed

    Oropesa-Ávila, M; Andrade-Talavera, Y; Garrido-Maraver, J; Cordero, M D; de la Mata, M; Cotán, D; Paz, M V; Pavón, A D; Alcocer-Gómez, E; de Lavera, I; Lema, R; Zaderenko, A P; Rodríguez-Moreno, A; Sánchez-Alcázar, J A

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis is characterized by degradation of cell components but plasma membrane remains intact. Apoptotic microtubule network (AMN) is organized during apoptosis forming a cortical structure beneath plasma membrane that maintains plasma membrane integrity. Apoptotic cells are also characterized by high reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that can be potentially harmful for the cell. The aim of this study was to develop a method that allows stabilizing apoptotic cells for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. By using a cocktail composed of taxol (a microtubule stabilizer), Zn(2+) (a caspase inhibitor) and coenzyme Q10 (a lipid antioxidant), we were able to stabilize H460 apoptotic cells in cell cultures for at least 72?h, preventing secondary necrosis. Stabilized apoptotic cells maintain many apoptotic cell characteristics such as the presence of apoptotic microtubules, plasma membrane integrity, low intracellular calcium levels and mitochondrial polarization. Apoptotic cell stabilization may open new avenues in apoptosis detection and therapy. PMID:25118929

  2. Molecular mechanisms of leptin and pro-apoptotic signals induced by menadione in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Al-Suhaimi, Ebtesam

    2014-12-01

    Apoptosis is a significant physiological function in the cell. P(53) is known as tumor suppressor cellular factor, executive caspases are also the most involved pathway for apoptosis. Menadione (VK3) has apoptotic action on many harmful cells, but the molecular role of adipokines is not studied enough in this regard, so the ability of menadione to modify the adipokine (leptin hormone), caspase-3 and P(53) signals to induce its apoptotic action on HepG2 cells was studied. The study revealed that menadione has anti-viability and apoptotic effect at sub-G1 phase of HepG2 cell cycle. Its cytotoxic effect is mediated by molecular mechanisms included: inhibiting leptin expression and level, activating caspase-3 pathway and up-regulating the expression of P(53). Menadione exerts its apoptotic mechanisms in a concentration and time dependent way through ROS generation. In addition to the known apoptotic pathways, the results indicate that suppressing leptin pathway is a significant mechanism for menadione apoptotic effect which made it as a potential therapeutic vitamin in preventing hepatocyte survival and proliferation. PMID:25473367

  3. Recognition-dependent Signaling Events in Response to Apoptotic Targets Inhibit Epithelial Cell Viability by Multiple Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vimal A.; Feng, Lanfei; Lee, Daniel J.; Massenburg, Donald; Pattabiraman, Goutham; Antoni, Angelika; Schwartz, John H.; Lieberthal, Wilfred; Rauch, Joyce; Ucker, David S.; Levine, Jerrold S.

    2012-01-01

    Apoptosis allows for the removal of damaged, aged, and/or excess cells without harm to surrounding tissue. To accomplish this, cells undergoing apoptosis acquire new activities that enable them to modulate the fate and function of nearby cells. We have shown that receptor-mediated recognition of apoptotic versus necrotic target cells by viable kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC) modulates the activity of several signaling pathways critically involved in regulation of proliferation and survival. Generally, apoptotic and necrotic targets have opposite effects with apoptotic targets inhibiting and necrotic targets stimulating the activity of these pathways. Here we explore the consequences of these signaling differences. We show that recognition of apoptotic targets induces a profound decrease in PTEC viability through increased responder cell death and decreased proliferation. In contrast, necrotic targets promote viability through decreased death and increased proliferation. Both target types mediate their effects through a network of Akt-dependent and -independent events. Apoptotic targets modulate Akt-dependent viability in part through a reduction in cellular ?-catenin and decreased inactivation of Bad. In contrast, Akt-independent modulation of viability occurs through activation of caspase-8, suggesting that death receptor-dependent pathways are involved. Apoptotic targets also activate p38, which partially protects responders from target-induced death. The response of epithelial cells varies depending on their tissue origin. Some cell lines, like PTEC, demonstrate decreased viability, whereas others (e.g. breast-derived) show increased viability. By acting as sentinels of environmental change, apoptotic targets allow neighboring cells, especially non-migratory epithelial cells, to monitor and potentially adapt to local stresses. PMID:22396534

  4. p53 activation mediates polyglutamine-expanded ataxin-3 upregulation of Bax expression in cerebellar and pontine nuclei neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    An-Hsun Chou; An-Chi Lin; Kue-Yi Hong; Su-Huei Hu; Ying-Ling Chen; Ju-Yu Chen; Hung-Li Wang

    2011-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by polyglutamine-expanded ataxin-3. SCA3 neurodegeneration is found in the pontine nuclei and cerebellum. Polyglutamine-expanded ataxin-3-Q79 caused apoptotic death of cerebellar and pontine nuclei neurons by upregulating mRNA expression of pro-apoptotic Bax and activating mitochondria-mediated apoptotic cascade. Following various cellular stresses, transcription factor p53 promotes apoptotic neuronal death by

  5. Modulation of Apoptotic Pathways of Macrophages by Surface-Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuanqin; Zhang, Honggang; Wang, Yange; Chen, Min; Ye, Shefang; Hou, Zhenqing; Ren, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical applications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) often involve improving their hydrophilicity and dispersion in biological media by modifying them through noncovalent or covalent functionalization. However, the potential adverse effects of surface-functionalized CNTs have not been well characterized. In this study, we functionalized multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) via carboxylation, to produce MWCNTs-COOH, and via poly (ethylene glycol) linking, to produce MWCNTs-PEG. We used these functionalized MWCNTs to study the effect of surface functionalization on MWCNTs-induced toxicity to macrophages, and elucidate the underlying mechanisms of action. Our results revealed that MWCNTs-PEG were less cytotoxic and were associated with less apoptotic cell death of macrophages than MWCNTs-COOH. Additionally, MWCNTs-PEG induced less generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) involving less activation of NADPH oxidase compared with MWCNTs-COOH, as evidenced by membrane translocation of p47phox and p67phox in macrophages. The less cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of MWCNTs-PEG compared with MWCNTs-COOH resulted from the lower cellular uptake of MWCNTs-PEG, which resulted in less activation of oxidative stress-responsive pathways, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-?B. These results demonstrate that surface functionalization of CNTs may alter ROS-mediated cytotoxic and apoptotic response by modulating apoptotic signaling pathways. Our study thus provides new insights into the molecular basis for the surface properties affecting CNTs toxicity. PMID:23755279

  6. The regulatory E2 proteins of human genital papillomaviruses are pro-apoptotic.

    PubMed

    Blachon, S; Demeret, C

    2003-08-01

    Cervical carcinomas are frequently associated with infection by human papillomaviruses (HPVs). These viruses encode two oncogenes E6 and E7, which promote cell proliferation and immortalization. The viral E2 protein represses transcription of the E6/E7 oncogenes and activates viral DNA replication together with the viral E1 helicase. The E2 protein is specifically inactivated in HPV18-associated carcinoma, suggesting that it may prevent carcinogenic progression. Indeed, E2 was shown to exhibit a strong anti-proliferative action when ectopically expressed in cervical carcinoma cells, as it induces both G1 cell cycle arrest and cell death by apoptosis. While the cell cycle arrest is due to E2-mediated transcriptional repression of the viral oncogenes, the induction of apoptosis appears to be an autonomous function of E2. The amino-terminal transactivation domain (TAD) of the E2 protein is required for its pro-apoptotic activity, but transcriptional transactivation is not involved. E2 induces apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway, involving the initiator caspase 8. In addition, E2 is cleaved by caspases during apoptosis, providing an example of an apoptotic inducer, which is itself a target for caspase cleavage. The cleaved E2 protein exhibits an enhanced apoptotic activity, suggesting that it may participate in an amplification loop. This article reviews our current knowledge of the pro-apoptotic activity of the oncogenic papillomavirus E2 proteins, and discusses the implications for the viral vegetative cycle. PMID:14585548

  7. Multiple pathways regulating the anti-apoptotic protein clusterin in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ranney, Melissa K.; Ahmed, Ikhlas S.A.; Potts, Kelly R.; Craven, Rolf J.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer chemotherapy inhibits tumor growth, in part, by triggering apoptosis, and anti-apoptotic proteins reduce the effectiveness of chemotherapy. Clusterin, a chaperone-like protein that binds to apoptotic and DNA repair proteins, is induced by chemotherapy and promotes tumor cell survival. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) such as sodium butyrate and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) are pharmacological agents that induce differentiation and apoptosis in cancer cells by altering chromatin structure, and we have found that combinations of chemotherapeutic drugs such as doxorubicin and HDIs efficiently induce apoptosis, even though they paradoxically induce high levels of clusterin. The hyper-expressed form of clusterin localizes to mitochondria, inhibits cytochrome c release, and is inhibited by the proteasome. When HDIs are used as single agents, clusterin suppresses cytochrome c release and apoptosis. However, doxorubicin/HDI-induced apoptosis is not inhibited by clusterin, and clusterin-resistant apoptosis corresponds with markers of the extrinsic/receptor-mediated apoptotic pathway. Thus, chemotherapy-HDI combinations are capable of overcoming an innate anti-apoptotic pathway of tumor cells, suggesting that chemotherapy-HDI combinations have potential for treating advanced stage breast cancer. PMID:17689225

  8. Apoptotic regulation of epithelial cellular extrusion

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Daniel; Rosenblatt, Jody

    2015-01-01

    Cellular extrusion is a mechanism that removes dying cells from epithelial tissues to prevent compromising their barrier function. Extrusion occurs in all observed epithelia in vivo and can be modeled in vitro by inducing apoptosis in cultured epithelial monolayers. We established that actin and myosin form a ring that contracts in the surrounding cells that drives cellular extrusion. It is not clear, however, if all apoptotic pathways lead to extrusion and how apoptosis and extrusion are molecularly linked. Here, we find that both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways activate cellular extrusion. The contraction force that drives cellular extrusion requires caspase activity. Further, necrosis does not trigger the cellular extrusion response, but instead necrotic cells are removed from epithelia by a passive, stochastic movement of epithelial cells. PMID:21399977

  9. Ebola Virus Does Not Block Apoptotic Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Olejnik, Judith; Alonso, Jesus; Schmidt, Kristina M.; Yan, Zhen; Wang, Wei; Marzi, Andrea; Ebihara, Hideki; Yang, Jinghua; Patterson, Jean L.; Ryabchikova, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Since viruses rely on functional cellular machinery for efficient propagation, apoptosis is an important mechanism to fight viral infections. In this study, we sought to determine the mechanism of cell death caused by Ebola virus (EBOV) infection by assaying for multiple stages of apoptosis and hallmarks of necrosis. Our data indicate that EBOV does not induce apoptosis in infected cells but rather leads to a nonapoptotic form of cell death. Ultrastructural analysis confirmed necrotic cell death of EBOV-infected cells. To investigate if EBOV blocks the induction of apoptosis, infected cells were treated with different apoptosis-inducing agents. Surprisingly, EBOV-infected cells remained sensitive to apoptosis induced by external stimuli. Neither receptor- nor mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis signaling was inhibited in EBOV infection. Although double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-induced activation of protein kinase R (PKR) was blocked in EBOV-infected cells, induction of apoptosis mediated by dsRNA was not suppressed. When EBOV-infected cells were treated with dsRNA-dependent caspase recruiter (dsCARE), an antiviral protein that selectively induces apoptosis in cells containing dsRNA, virus titers were strongly reduced. These data show that the inability of EBOV to block apoptotic pathways may open up new strategies toward the development of antiviral therapeutics. PMID:23468487

  10. Apoptosis and apoptotic mimicry: the Leishmania connection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    João Luiz M. Wanderley; Marcello A. Barcinski

    2010-01-01

    Different death-styles have been described in unicellular organisms. In most cases they evolve with phenotypic features similar\\u000a to apoptotic death of animal cells, such as phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation, and loss\\u000a of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, hinting that similar mechanisms operate in both situations. However, the biochemical\\u000a pathways underlying death in unicellular organisms are still unclear. Host recognition of

  11. The Apoptotic Pathway as a Therapeutic Target in Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Wesche-Soldato, Doreen E.; Swan, Ryan Z.; Chung, Chun-Shiang; Ayala, Alfred

    2006-01-01

    Recent research has yielded many interesting and potentially important therapeutic targets in sepsis. Specifically, the effects of antagonistic anti-cytokine therapies (tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-?], interleukin-1 [IL-1]) and anti-endotoxin strategies utilizing antibodies against endotoxin or endotoxin receptor/carrier molecules (anti-CD14 or anti-LPS-binding protein) have been studied. Unfortunately, these approaches often failed clinically, and in many cases, the efficacy of these treatments was dependent on the severity of sepsis. Recently, clinical trials using insulin to lock blood glucose levels and activated protein C treatment have showed that while they provided some survival benefit, their efficacy does not appear to be predicated solely upon anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we will review work done in animal models of polymicrobial sepsis and clinical findings that support the hypothesis that apoptosis in the immune system is a pathologic event in sepsis that can be a therapeutic target. In this respect, experimental studies looking at the septic animal suggest that loss of lymphocytes during sepsis may be due to dysregulated apoptosis and that this appears to be brought on by a variety of mediators effecting ‘intrinsic’ as well as ‘extrinsic’ cell death pathways. From a therapeutic perspective this has provided a number of novel targets for clinically successful current, as well as future therapies, such as caspases (caspase inhibition/protease inhibition), pro-apoptotic protein-expression (via administration and/or over-expression of Bcl-2) and the death receptor family Fas-FasL (via. FasFP [fas fusion protein] and the application of siRNA against a number pro-apoptotic factors). PMID:17430119

  12. Tumor necrosis factor-?-induced microvascular endothelial cell hyperpermeability: role of intrinsic apoptotic signaling.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Devendra A; Wilson, Rickesha L; Tharakan, Binu; Stagg, Hayden W; Hunter, Felicia A; Childs, Ed W

    2014-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), a pro-apoptotic cytokine, is involved in vascular hyperpermeability, tissue edema, and inflammation. We hypothesized that TNF-? induces microvascular hyperpermeability through the mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway. Rat lung microvascular endothelial cells grown on Transwell inserts, chamber slides, or dishes were treated with recombinant TNF-? (10 ng/ml) in the presence or absence of a caspase-3 inhibitor, Z-DEVD-FMK (100 ?M). Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-albumin (5 mg/ml) was used as a marker of monolayer permeability. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined using dihydrorhodamine 123 and mitochondrial transmembrane potential using JC-1. The adherens junction integrity and actin cytoskeletal organization were studied using ?-catenin immunofluorescence and rhodamine phalloidin, respectively. Caspase-3 activity was measured fluorometrically. The pretreatment with Z-DEVD-FMK (100 ?M) attenuated TNF-?-induced (10 ng/ml) disruption of the adherens junctions, actin stress fiber formation, increased caspase-3 activity, and monolayer hyperpermeability (p < 0.05). TNF-? (10 ng/ml) treatment resulted in increased mitochondrial ROS formation and decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Intrinsic apoptotic signaling-mediated caspase-3 activation plays an important role in regulating TNF-?-induced endothelial cell hyperpermeability. PMID:25392259

  13. Novel Link of Anti-apoptotic ATF3 with Pro-apoptotic CTMP in the Ischemic Brain.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Yu; Chen, Jin-Jer; Wu, Jui-Sheng; Tsai, Hsin-Da; Lin, Heng; Yan, Yu-Ting; Hsu, Chung Y; Ho, Yuan-Soon; Lin, Teng-Nan

    2015-04-01

    Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a stress-induced transcription factor with diverse functions under disease states in multiple cell types. ATF3 has neuroprotective action against cerebral ischemia, which may involve caspase 3. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying ATF3 regulation of apoptosis are largely unknown. Here, we used gain- and loss-of-function and rescue approaches to demonstrate ATF3 attenuating hypoxic neuronal apoptosis. As well, the protective effect of ATF3 was mediated by downregulation of carboxyl-terminal modulator protein (CTMP), a pro-apoptotic factor that inhibits the anti-apoptotic Akt/PKB cascade. ATF3 (1) downregulated the mRNA and protein levels of CTMP; (2) its temporal expression pattern was reciprocal to that of CTMP; and (3) nuclear localization suggested that ATF3 may regulate CTMP transcription following hypoxic insult. Reporter assays demonstrated that ATF3 suppressed CTMP transcription, whereas ATF3 fusion with VP16, converting ATF3 to transcriptional activator, boosted CTMP transcription. By contrast, NF-?B increased CTMP transcription, and degradation-resistant I?B? decreased CTMP transcription. ChIP assays further confirmed that binding of ATF3 to the ATF/CREB site hindered NF-?B binding to the CTMP promoter, which repressed CTMP expression. Furthermore, CTMP siRNA treatment reduced hypoxic neuronal apoptosis by increasing p-Akt (Ser473) levels and leaving the upstream ATF3 level unchanged. We have identified an endogenous neuroprotective ATF3?CTMP signal cascade that may be a therapeutic target for reducing ischemic brain injury. PMID:24771044

  14. Bax Regulates Production of Superoxide in Both Apoptotic and Nonapoptotic Neurons: Role of Caspases

    PubMed Central

    Kirkland, Rebecca A.; Saavedra, Geraldine M.; Cummings, Brian S.; Franklin, James L.

    2010-01-01

    A Bax- and, apparently, mitochondria-dependent increase in superoxide (O2.?) and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs in apoptotic superior cervical ganglion (SCG) and cerebellar granule (CG) neurons. Here we show that Bax also lies upstream of ROS produced in nonapoptotic neurons and present evidence that caspases partially mediate the pro-oxidant effect of Bax. We used the O2.?-sensitive dye MitoSOX to monitor O2.? in neurons expressing different levels of Bax and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2). Basal and apoptotic O2.? levels in both SCG and CG neurons were reduced in SOD2 wild-type (wt) cells having lower Bax concentrations. Apoptotic and nonapoptotic neurons from Bax-wt/SOD2-null but not Bax-null/SOD2-null mice had increased O2.? levels. A caspase inhibitor inhibited O2.? in both apoptotic and nonapoptotic SCG neurons. O2.? production increased when wt, but not Bax-null SCG neurons were permeabilized and treated with active caspase 3. There was no apoptosis and little increase in O2.? in SCG neurons from caspase 3-null mice exposed to an apoptotic stimulus. O2.? levels in nonapoptotic caspase 3-null SCG neurons were lower than in wt cells but not as low as in caspase inhibitor-treated cells. These data indicate that Bax lies upstream of most O2.? produced in neurons, that caspase 3 is required for increased O2.? production during neuronal apoptosis, that caspase 3 is partially involved in O2.? production in nonapoptotic neurons, and that other caspases may also be involved in Bax-dependent O2.? production in nonapoptotic cells. PMID:21123558

  15. Mangiferin Has an Additive Effect on the Apoptotic Properties of Hesperidin in Cyclopia sp. Tea Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Bartoszewski, Rafal; Hering, Anna; Marsza??, Marcin; Stefanowicz Hajduk, Justyna; Bartoszewska, Sylwia; Kapoor, Niren; Kochan, Kinga; Ochocka, Renata

    2014-01-01

    A variety of biological pro-health activities have been reported for mangiferin and hesperidin, two major phenolic compounds of Honeybush (Cyclopia sp.) tea extracts. Given their increasing popularity, there is a need for understanding the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of these compounds. In this study, we used real-time cytotoxicity cellular analysis of the Cyclopia sp. extracts on HeLa cells and found that the higher hesperidin content in non-fermented "green" extracts correlated with their higher cytotoxicity compared to the fermented extracts. We also found that mangiferin had a modulatory effect on the apoptotic effects of hesperidin. Quantitative PCR analysis of hesperidin-induced changes in apoptotic gene expression profile indicated that two death receptor pathway members, TRADD and TRAMP, were up regulated. The results of this study suggest that hesperidin mediates apoptosis in HeLa cells through extrinsic pathway for programmed cell death. PMID:24633329

  16. MicroRNAs control the apoptotic threshold in primed pluripotent stem cells through regulation of BIM

    PubMed Central

    Pernaute, Barbara; Spruce, Thomas; Smith, Kimberley M.; Sánchez-Nieto, Juan Miguel; Manzanares, Miguel; Cobb, Bradley

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian primed pluripotent stem cells have been shown to be highly susceptible to cell death stimuli due to their low apoptotic threshold, but how this threshold is regulated remains largely unknown. Here we identify microRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation as a key mechanism controlling apoptosis in the post-implantation epiblast. Moreover, we found that three miRNA families, miR-20, miR-92, and miR-302, control the mitochondrial apoptotic machinery by fine-tuning the levels of expression of the proapoptotic protein BIM. These families therefore represent an essential buffer needed to maintain cell survival in stem cells that are primed for not only differentiation but also cell death. PMID:25184675

  17. Tumor suppressor BLU enhances pro-apoptotic activity of sMEK1 through physical interaction.

    PubMed

    Dong, Seung Myung; Byun, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Boh-Ram; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Trink, Barry; Rho, Seung Bae

    2012-06-01

    BLU is a tumor suppressor that acts as a transcriptional regulator through the association with cellular components. However, the working mechanism of BLU in cellular functions was not understood. We found that BLU directly interacts with sMEK1, a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 4. Furthermore, we determined the binding domains that are required for interaction between BLU and sMEK1. The N-terminal of BLU was observed to interact with the C-terminal of sMEK1. Binding activity was confirmed by the BLU-dependent increase of sMEK1 expression, as well as by the induced apoptotic activity. Also, expression of BLU and sMEK1 was down-regulated in ovarian and cervical patients, and was hypermethylated. These findings indicate that BLU can mediate the pro-apoptotic activity through the induction of sMEK1. PMID:22349239

  18. Leptin Is an Anti-Apoptotic Effector in Placental Cells Involving p53 Downregulation

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Ayelén Rayen; Maymó, Julieta Lorena; Ibarbalz, Federico Matías; Pérez, Antonio Pérez; Maskin, Bernardo; Faletti, Alicia Graciela; Margalet, Víctor Sánchez; Varone, Cecilia Laura

    2014-01-01

    Leptin, a peripheral signal synthetized by the adipocyte to regulate energy metabolism, can also be produced by placenta, where it may work as an autocrine hormone. We have previously demonstrated that leptin promotes proliferation and survival of trophoblastic cells. In the present work, we aimed to study the molecular mechanisms that mediate the survival effect of leptin in placenta. We used the human placenta choriocarcinoma BeWo and first trimester Swan-71 cell lines, as well as human placental explants. We tested the late phase of apoptosis, triggered by serum deprivation, by studying the activation of Caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation. Recombinant human leptin added to BeWo cell line and human placental explants, showed a decrease on Caspase-3 activation. These effects were dose dependent. Maximal effect was achieved at 250 ng leptin/ml. Moreover, inhibition of endogenous leptin expression with 2 µM of an antisense oligonucleotide, reversed Caspase-3 diminution. We also found that the cleavage of Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase-1 (PARP-1) was diminished in the presence of leptin. We analyzed the presence of low DNA fragments, products from apoptotic DNA cleavage. Placental explants cultivated in the absence of serum in the culture media increased the apoptotic cleavage of DNA and this effect was prevented by the addition of 100 ng leptin/ml. Taken together these results reinforce the survival effect exerted by leptin on placental cells. To improve the understanding of leptin mechanism in regulating the process of apoptosis we determined the expression of different intermediaries in the apoptosis cascade. We found that under serum deprivation conditions, leptin increased the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 protein expression, while downregulated the pro-apoptotic BAX and BID proteins expression in Swan-71 cells and placental explants. In both models leptin augmented BCL-2/BAX ratio. Moreover we have demonstrated that p53, one of the key cell cycle-signaling proteins, is downregulated in the presence of leptin under serum deprivation. On the other hand, we determined that leptin reduced the phosphorylation of Ser-46 p53 that plays a pivotal role for apoptotic signaling by p53. Our data suggest that the observed anti-apoptotic effect of leptin in placenta is in part mediated by the p53 pathway. In conclusion, we provide evidence that demonstrates that leptin is a trophic factor for trophoblastic cells. PMID:24922063

  19. Protective effects of melittin on transforming growth factor-{beta}1 injury to hepatocytes via anti-apoptotic mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Woo-Ram; Park, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Kyung-Hyun [Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yoon-Yub [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sang-Mi [Department of Agricultural Biology, National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kwan-kyu, E-mail: kkpark@cu.ac.kr [Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Melittin is a cationic, hemolytic peptide that is the main toxic component in the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Melittin has multiple effects, including anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-inflammatory, in various cell types. However, the anti-apoptotic mechanisms of melittin have not been fully elucidated in hepatocytes. Apoptosis contributes to liver inflammation and fibrosis. Knowledge of the apoptotic mechanisms is important to develop new and effective therapies for treatment of cirrhosis, portal hypertension, liver cancer, and other liver diseases. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effect of melittin on transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta}1-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes. TGF-{beta}1-treated hepatocytes were exposed to low doses (0.5 and 1 {mu}g/mL) and high dose (2 {mu}g/mL) of melittin. The low doses significantly protected these cells from DNA damage in TGF-{beta}1-induced apoptosis compared to the high dose. Also, melittin suppressed TGF-{beta}1-induced apoptotic activation of the Bcl-2 family and caspase family of proteins, which resulted in the inhibition of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. These results demonstrate that TGF-{beta}1 induces hepatocyte apoptosis and that an optimal dose of melittin exerts anti-apoptotic effects against TGF-{beta}1-induced injury to hepatocytes via the mitochondrial pathway. These results suggest that an optimal dose of melittin can serve to protect cells against TGF-{beta}1-mediated injury. - Highlights: > We investigated the anti-apoptotic effect of melittin on TGF-{beta}1-induced hepatocyte. > TGF-{beta}1 induces hepatocyte apoptosis. > TGF-{beta}1-treated hepatocytes were exposed to low doses and high dose of melittin. > Optimal dose of melittin exerts anti-apoptotic effects to hepatocytes.

  20. Effect of Transient Maternal Hypotension on Apoptotic Cell Death in Foetal Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Özyürek, Hamit; Bayrak, Sibel; Pehlivano?lu, Bilge; Atilla, Pergin; Balkanc?, Zeynep Dicle; Çakar, Nur; Anlar, Banu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Intrauterine perfusion insufficiency induced by transient maternal hypotension has been reported to be associated with foetal brain malformations. However, the effects of maternal hypotension on apoptotic processes in the foetal brain have not been investigated experimentally during the intrauterine period. Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of transient maternal hypotension on apoptotic cell death in the intrauterine foetal brain. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Three-month-old female Wistar albino rats were allocated into four groups (n=5 each). The impact of hypoxic/ischemic injury induced by transient maternal hypotension on the 15th day of pregnancy (late gestation) in rats was investigated at 48 (H17 group) or 96 hours (H19 group) after the insult. Control groups underwent the same procedure except for induction of hypotension (C17 and H17 groups). Brain sections of one randomly selected foetus from each pregnant rat were histopathologically evaluated for hypoxic/ischemic injury in the metencephalon, diencephalon, and telencephalon by terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling and active cysteine-dependent aspartate-directed protease-3 (caspase-3) positivity for cell death. Results: The number of terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (+) cells in all the areas examined was comparable in both hypotension and control groups. The H17 group had active caspase-3 (+) cells in the metencephalon and telencephalon, sparing diencephalon, whereas the C19 and H19 groups had active caspase-3 (+) cells in all three regions. The number of active caspase-3 (+) cells in the telencephalon in the H19 group was higher compared with the metencephalon and diencephalon and compared with H17 group (p<0.05). Conclusion: Our results suggest that prenatal hypoxic/ischemic injury triggers apoptotic mechanisms. Therefore, blockade of apoptotic pathways, considering the time pattern of the insult, may constitute a potential neuroprotective approach for the detrimental effects of prenatal hypoperfusion. PMID:25207175

  1. Apoptotic cell clearance: basic biology and therapeutic potential

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Ivan K. H.; Lucas, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    Prompt removal of apoptotic cells by phagocytes is important for maintaining tissue homeostasis. The molecular and cellular events that underpin apoptotic cell recognition and uptake, and the subsequent biological responses are increasingly better defined. The detection and disposal of apoptotic cells generally promote an anti-inflammatory response at the tissue level, as well as immunological tolerance. Consequently, defects in apoptotic cell clearance have been linked with a variety of inflammatory diseases and autoimmunity. Conversely, under certain conditions such as killing tumour cells by specific cell death inducers, the recognition of apoptotic tumour cells can promote an immunogenic response and anti-tumour immunity. Here, we review the current understanding of the complex process of apoptotic cell clearance in physiology and pathology, and discuss how this knowledge could be harnessed for new therapeutic strategies. PMID:24481336

  2. Protective effects of melittin on transforming growth factor-?1 injury to hepatocytes via anti-apoptotic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo-Ram; Park, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Yoon-Yub; Han, Sang-Mi; Park, Kwan-kyu

    2011-10-15

    Melittin is a cationic, hemolytic peptide that is the main toxic component in the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Melittin has multiple effects, including anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-inflammatory, in various cell types. However, the anti-apoptotic mechanisms of melittin have not been fully elucidated in hepatocytes. Apoptosis contributes to liver inflammation and fibrosis. Knowledge of the apoptotic mechanisms is important to develop new and effective therapies for treatment of cirrhosis, portal hypertension, liver cancer, and other liver diseases. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effect of melittin on transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes. TGF-?1-treated hepatocytes were exposed to low doses (0.5 and 1 ?g/mL) and high dose (2 ?g/mL) of melittin. The low doses significantly protected these cells from DNA damage in TGF-?1-induced apoptosis compared to the high dose. Also, melittin suppressed TGF-?1-induced apoptotic activation of the Bcl-2 family and caspase family of proteins, which resulted in the inhibition of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. These results demonstrate that TGF-?1 induces hepatocyte apoptosis and that an optimal dose of melittin exerts anti-apoptotic effects against TGF-?1-induced injury to hepatocytes via the mitochondrial pathway. These results suggest that an optimal dose of melittin can serve to protect cells against TGF-?1-mediated injury. PMID:21871910

  3. Opsonization of apoptotic neutrophils by anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) leads to enhanced uptake by macrophages and increased release of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?)

    PubMed Central

    Moosig, F; Csernok, E; Kumanovics, G; Gross, W L

    2000-01-01

    Since proteinase 3 (PR3)-ANCA interact with PR3 on the surface of apoptotic polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and ingestion of apoptotic PMN is known to modulate macrophage inflammatory reactions, we raised the question whether PR3-ANCA-opsonized apoptotic PMN influence the uptake by macrophages and their state of activation. We therefor analysed the effects of PR3-ANCA-opsonized apoptotic PMN on the uptake process by enzymatic assay. We further investigated the production of TNF-?, IL-10, IL-12 and the secretion of lipid inflammatory mediators (TxB2, leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)) by human monocyte-derived macrophages using FACS and ELISA methods. We show that PMN-opsonization by PR3-ANCA substantially enhances phagocytosis by macrophages and thereby triggers the production of TNF-? and TxB2. These in vitro findings indicate that PR3-ANCA opsonization of apoptotic PMN might be an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), prompting macrophages to produce proinflammatory mediators. These mediators, mainly TNF-?, might prime further PMN leading to perpetuation of the known priming-dependent mechanisms of ANCA action. PMID:11122261

  4. Computational modeling of apoptotic signaling pathways induced by cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Apoptosis is an essential property of all higher organisms that involves extremely complex signaling pathways. Mathematical modeling provides a rigorous integrative approach for analyzing and understanding such intricate biological systems. Results Here, we constructed a large-scale, literature-based model of apoptosis pathways responding to an external stimulus, cisplatin. Our model includes the key elements of three apoptotic pathways induced by cisplatin: death receptor-mediated, mitochondrial, and endoplasmic reticulum-stress pathways. We showed that cisplatin-induced apoptosis had dose- and time-dependent characteristics, and the level of apoptosis was saturated at higher concentrations of cisplatin. Simulated results demonstrated that the effect of the mitochondrial pathway on apoptosis was the strongest of the three pathways. The cross-talk effect among pathways accounted for approximately 25% of the total apoptosis level. Conclusions Using this model, we revealed a novel mechanism by which cisplatin induces dose-dependent cell death. Our finding that the level of apoptosis was affected by not only cisplatin concentration, but also by cross talk among pathways provides in silico evidence for a functional impact of system-level characteristics of signaling pathways on apoptosis. PMID:22967854

  5. Phytochemical profile and apoptotic activity of Onopordum cynarocephalum.

    PubMed

    Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Russo, Alessandra; Cardile, Venera; Caggia, Silvia; Apostolides Arnold, Nelly; Mari, Angela; Piacente, Sonia; Rosselli, Sergio; Senatore, Felice; Bruno, Maurizio

    2012-10-01

    A phytochemical investigation of acetone and chloroform extracts of the aerial parts of Onopordum cynarocephalum Boiss. et Blanche was carried out. It led to the isolation of two new sesquiterpenes, the elemane aldehyde (2) and the eudesmane (11), together with 15 known compounds: two lignans (1 and 15) and 13 sesquiterpenes (3-10, 12-14, 16, 17). The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses, especially 1D and 2D?NMR spectra. The anti-growth effect against three human melanoma cell lines, M14, A375, and A2058, of the different extracts and compounds of O. cynarocephalum was also investigated. Among them, the chloroform extract exhibited the strongest biological activity, while the most active compounds were the lignan arctigenin (1), and the sesquiterpenes, compounds 3, 5, and 6 belonging to the elemane type, and 7 belonging to the eudesmane type. Our data also demonstrate that acetone and chloroform extracts induce, in the A375 cell line, apoptotic cell death that could be related to an overall action of the compounds present, but in particular to the lignans arctigenin (1) and the sesquiterpenes compounds 3-8 and 16. In fact, these molecules were able to induce a high DNA fragmentation, correlated to a significant increase of the caspase-3 enzyme activity. Furthermore, apoptosis appears to be mediated, at least in part, via PTEN activity and the inhibition of Hsp70 expression. PMID:22965548

  6. Genes of the Mitochondrial Apoptotic Pathway in Mytilus galloprovincialis

    PubMed Central

    Figueras, Antonio; Novoa, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Bivalves play vital roles in marine, brackish, freshwater and terrestrial habitats. In recent years, these ecosystems have become affected through anthropogenic activities. The ecological success of marine bivalves is based on the ability to modify their physiological functions in response to environmental changes. One of the most important mechanisms involved in adaptive responses to environmental and biological stresses is apoptosis, which has been scarcely studied in mollusks, although the final consequence of this process, DNA fragmentation, has been frequently used for pollution monitoring. Environmental stressors induce apoptosis in molluscan cells via an intrinsic pathway. Many of the proteins involved in vertebrate apoptosis have been recognized in model invertebrates; however, this process might not be universally conserved. Mytilus galloprovincialis is presented here as a new model to study the linkage between molecular mechanisms that mediate apoptosis and marine bivalve ecological adaptations. Therefore, it is strictly necessary to identify the key elements involved in bivalve apoptosis. In the present study, six mitochondrial apoptotic-related genes were characterized, and their gene expression profiles following UV irradiation were evaluated. This is the first step for the development of potential biomarkers to assess the biological responses of marine organisms to stress. The results confirmed that apoptosis and, more specifically, the expression of the genes involved in this process can be used to assess the biological responses of marine organisms to stress. PMID:23626691

  7. TRAIL-based tumor sensitizing galactoxyloglucan, a novel entity for targeting apoptotic machinery.

    PubMed

    Aravind, S R; Joseph, Manu M; George, Suraj K; Dileep, K V; Varghese, Sheeja; Rose-James, Alphy; Balaram, Prabha; Sadasivan, C; Sreelekha, T T

    2015-02-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is an attractive target for cancer therapy due to its ability to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells, without causing significant toxicity in normal tissues. We previously reported that galactoxyloglucan (PST001) possesses significant antitumor and immunomodulatory properties. However, the exact mechanism in mediating this anticancer effect is unknown. This study, for the first time, indicated that PST001 sensitizes non-small cell lung cancer (A549) and nasopharyngeal (KB) cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. In vitro studies suggested that PST001 induced apoptosis primarily via death receptors and predominantly activated caspases belonging to the extrinsic apoptotic cascade. Microarray profiling of PST001 treated A549 and KB cells showed the suppression of survivin (BIRC5) and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, as well as increased cytochrome C. TaqMan low density array analysis of A549 cells also confirmed that the induction of apoptosis by the polysaccharide occurred through the TRAIL-DR4/DR5 pathways. This was finally confirmed by in silico analysis, which revealed that PST001 binds to TRAIL-DR4/DR5 complexes more strongly than TNF and Fas ligand-receptor complexes. In summary, our results suggest the potential of PST001 to be developed as an anticancer agent that not only preserves innate biological activity of TRAIL, but also sensitizes cancer cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. PMID:25541375

  8. U937 Apoptotic Cell Death by Nitric Oxide: Bcl2 Downregulation and Caspase Activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian Brockhaus; Bernhard Brüne

    1998-01-01

    Upon treatment with NO-releasing compounds such asS-nitrosoglutathione or spermine NO, human myeloid leukemia U937 cells undergo apoptosis. Early NO-mediated signals comprise activation of a Z-A-DCB (benzoyloxycarbonyl-Asp-CH2OC(O)-2,6-dichlorobenzene)-sensitive, caspase-3 like cysteine protease that cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (U1 snRNP), and the fluorogenic substrateN-acetyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin. In association with these early apoptotic alterations p21 (WAF1\\/Cip1) is upregulated, but NO affected

  9. Gingerol sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death of glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Kim, Dong-Wook; Jung, Chang-Hwa; Lee, Yong J.; Park, Daeho

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal and aggressive astrocytoma of primary brain tumors in adults. Although there are many clinical trials to induce the cell death of glioblastoma cells, most glioblastoma cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Here, we showed that gingerol as a major component of ginger can induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of glioblastoma. Gingerol increased death receptor (DR) 5 levels in a p53-dependent manner. Furthermore, gingerol decreased the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins (survivin, c-FLIP, Bcl-2, and XIAP) and increased pro-apoptotic protein, Bax and truncate Bid, by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS).We also found that the sensitizing effects of gingerol in TRAIL-induced cell death were blocked by scavenging ROS or overexpressing anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2). Therefore, we showed the functions of gingerol as a sensitizing agent to induce cell death of TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma cells. This study gives rise to the possibility of applying gingerol as an anti-tumor agent that can be used for the purpose of combination treatment with TRAIL in TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma tumor therapy. PMID:25034532

  10. Selective involvement of BH3-only proteins and differential targets of Noxa in diverse apoptotic pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Lopez, H; George, N M; Liu, X; Pang, X; Luo, X

    2011-05-01

    The BH3-only proteins of the Bcl-2 family are known to mediate mitochondrial dysfunction during apoptosis. However, the identity of the critical BH3-only proteins and the mechanism of their action following treatment by diverse apoptotic stimuli remain to be fully resolved. We therefore used RNAi to screen the entire Bcl-2 family for their involvement in three major apoptotic pathways in HeLa cells. We found that Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 are major inhibitors of apoptosis induced by TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and proteasome inhibition. Among the 10 BH3-only proteins, Bid and Noxa were found to be critically involved in TRAIL-induced apoptosis, in which Noxa participates by constitutively binding to Mcl-1. Bim and Noxa were found to be necessary for ER stress-induced apoptosis, in which Noxa assisted Bim function by sequestering Mcl-1 and binding to Bcl-xL. As a critical BH3-only protein, Noxa was strongly upregulated and became associated with both Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL during apoptosis induced by proteasome inhibition. In addition, we found that Noxa became 'Mcl-1 free' following treatment by ER stress and proteasome inhibition, but not after TRAIL treatment. These results defined the critical Bcl-2 network during apoptosis and suggested that Noxa participated in triggering mitochondrial dysfunction in multiple apoptotic pathways through distinct mechanisms. PMID:21113147

  11. Hazardous effects of sanguinarine on maturation of mouse oocytes, fertilization, and fetal development through apoptotic processes.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wen-Hsiung

    2014-02-21

    Previously, we reported that sanguinarine, a phytoalexin with antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic effects, is a risk factor for normal embryonic development that triggers apoptotic processes in the inner cell mass of mouse blastocysts, causing decreased embryonic development and cell viability. In the current study, we investigated the deleterious effects of sanguinarine on mouse oocyte maturation, in vitro fertilization (IVF), and subsequent pre- and postimplantation development both in vitro and in vivo. Notably, sanguinarine significantly impaired mouse oocyte maturation, decreased IVF rates, and inhibited subsequent embryonic development in vitro. Preincubation of oocytes with sanguinarine during in vitro maturation induced an increase in postimplantation embryo resorption and a decrease in mouse fetal weight. In an in vivo animal model, 1 to 5 ?M sanguinarine, provided in drinking water, caused a decrease in oocyte maturation and IVF, and led to deleterious effects on early embryonic development. Importantly, preincubation of oocytes with a caspase-3-specific inhibitor effectively blocked sanguinarine-triggered deleterious effects, clearly implying that embryonic injury induced by sanguinarine is mediated by a caspase-dependent apoptotic mechanism. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2014. PMID:24677673

  12. Suppression of FVIII Inhibitor Formation in Hemophilic Mice by Delivery of Transgene Modified Apoptotic Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Su, Rui-Jun; Epp, Angela; Latchman, Yvette; Bolgiano, Doug; Pipe, Steven W; Josephson, Neil C

    2009-01-01

    The development of inhibitory antibodies to factor VIII (FVIII) is currently the most significant complication of FVIII replacement therapy in the management of patients with severe hemophilia A. Immune tolerance protocols for the eradication of inhibitors require daily delivery of intravenous FVIII for at least 6 months and are unsuccessful in 20–40% of treated patients. We hypothesize that tolerance can be induced more efficiently and reliably by delivery of FVIII antigen within autologous apoptotic cells (ACs). In this study, we demonstrated suppression of the T cell and inhibitor responses to FVIII by infusion of FVIII expression vector modified apoptotic syngeneic fibroblasts in both naive and preimmunized hemophilia A mice. ACs without FVIII antigen exerted modest generalized immune suppression mediated by anti-inflammatory signals. However, FVIII expressing apoptotic syngeneic fibroblasts produced much stronger antigen-specific immune suppression. Mice treated with these fibroblasts generated CD4+ T cells that suppressed the immune response to FVIII after adoptive transfer into naive recipients and antigen-specific CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) that inhibited the proliferation of FVIII responsive effector T cells in vitro. These preclinical results demonstrate the potential for using FVIII vector modified autologous ACs to treat high-titer inhibitors in patients with hemophilia A. PMID:19755963

  13. Innate and adaptive immune response to apoptotic cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YuFeng Peng; David A. Martin; Justin Kenkel; Kang Zhang; Carol Anne Ogden; Keith B. Elkon

    2007-01-01

    The immune system is constantly exposed to dying cells, most of which arise during central tolerance and from effete circulating immune cells. Under homeostatic conditions, phagocytes (predominantly macrophages and dendritic cells) belonging to the innate immune system, rapidly ingest cells and their debris. Apoptotic cell removal requires recognition of altered self on the apoptotic membrane, a process which is facilitated

  14. Structure and apoptotic function of p73

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Mi-Kyung; Ha, Ji-Hyang; Lee, Min-Sung; Chi, Seung-Wook

    2015-01-01

    p73 is a structural and functional homologue of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. Like p53, p73 induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest and transactivates p53-responsive genes, conferring its tumor suppressive activity. In addition, p73 has unique roles in neuronal development and differentiation. The importance of p73-induced apoptosis lies in its capability to substitute the pro-apoptotic activity of p53 in various human cancer cells in which p53 is mutated or inactive. Despite the great importance of p73-induced apoptosis in cancer therapy, little is known about the molecular basis of p73-induced apoptosis. In this review, we discuss the p73 structures reported to date, detailed structural comparisons between p73 and p53, and current understanding of the transcription-dependent and -independent mechanisms of p73-induced apoptosis. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(2): 81-90] PMID:25441426

  15. Assessing expression of apoptotic markers using large cohort tissue microarrays.

    PubMed

    Pick, Elah; McCarthy, Mary M; Kluger, Harriet M

    2008-01-01

    Apoptotic markers include proteins from the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. These cascades include both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic elements. The expression levels of these elements can be assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and can indicate general trends in prov-ersus anti-apoptotic tendencies of the cells. IHC is particularly useful when studying large cohorts of paraffin-embedded specimens. Advances in tissue microarray (TMA) technology have facilitated evaluation of large cohorts of specimens, as cores from hundreds of patients can be represented on a single glass slide and stained in a uniform fashion. In this chapter, we discuss construction and staining methods of TMAs and present examples of assessment of apoptotic marker expression in malignant and benign cells using a novel method of automated, quantitative analysis of in situ protein expression. PMID:18175814

  16. The Apoptotic Response to Pneumolysin Is Toll-Like Receptor 4 Dependent and Protects against Pneumococcal Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amit Srivastava; Philipp Henneke; Alberto Visintin; Sarah C. Morse; Victoria Martin; Claire Watkins; James C. Paton; Michael R. Wessels; Douglas T. Golenbock; Richard Malley

    2005-01-01

    Pneumolysin, the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin of Streptococcus pneumoniae, induces inflammatory and apoptotic events in mammalian cells. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) confers resistance to pneumococcal infection via its interaction with pneumolysin, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be identified. In the present study, we found that pneumolysin-induced apoptosis is also mediated by TLR4 and confers protection against invasive disease. The interaction between

  17. (-)-Deprenyl inhibits thermal injury-induced apoptotic signaling and hyperpermeability in microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Whaley, J Greg; Tharakan, Binu; Smith, Benjamin; Hunter, Felicia A; Childs, Ed W

    2009-01-01

    Burn injury is associated with a significant leak of intravascular fluid into the interstitial space, requiring large amounts of volume resuscitation. Activation of the intrinsic (mitochondrial) apoptotic pathway has been associated with vascular hyperpermeability. We hypothesized that vascular hyperpermeability following burns is also mediated via this pathway. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether (-)-deprenyl, a drug with antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties, could attenuate burn induced-apoptotic signaling and hyperpermeability. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to sham or experimental groups. The experimental rats underwent a 30 to 40% TBSA full-thickness burn. Serum was collected from all rats at 180 minutes postburn. Rat lung microvascular endothelial cell monolayers were exposed to the sham or burn serum; permeability was determined by fluorescein isothiocyanate-tagged albumin flux. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species formation was measured with dihydrorhodamine 123. The change in mitochondrial membrane potential was determined with JC-1. Cytosolic cytochrome c was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A group of cells in each series was pretreated with (-)-deprenyl (1 microM). Monolayer permeability increased significantly (P<.05) when treated with burn serum. (-)-Deprenyl significantly attenuated the hyperpermeability induced by burn serum (P<.05). Burn serum increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species levels and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential; these effects were markedly reduced by (-)-deprenyl. Cytochrome c release was increased by treatment with burn serum (P<.05), and this effect was significantly inhibited by (-)-deprenyl (P<.05). Burn serum induces hyperpemeability and activates intrinsic apoptotic signaling in microvascular endothelial cells. (-)-Deprenyl, an antioxidant and antiapoptotic drug, modulates intrinsic apoptotic signaling and attenuates burn-induced hyperpermeability. PMID:19826263

  18. 20-hydroxyecdysone upregulates apoptotic genes and induces apoptosis in the Bombyx fat body.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ling; Liu, Shumin; Liu, Hanhan; Li, Sheng

    2012-04-01

    During insect metamorphosis, obsolete larval tissues are removed by programed cell death (PCD), mainly apoptosis and autophagy, which is directed by the molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and the 20E-triggered transcriptional cascade. Here, we investigated how 20E regulates apoptosis at the transcriptional level in the fat body of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. As detected by TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL), apoptosis weakly occurred during the fourth larval molting, decreased to undetected levels during the early fifth instar, and gradually increased from day 4 of fifth instar to the wandering stage to the prepupal stage. Meanwhile, as determined by quantitative real-time PCR, eight genes involved in apoptosis, including Apaf-1, Nedd2 like1, Nedd2 like2, ICE1, ICE3, ICE5, Arp, and IAP, were highly expressed during molting and pupation, when the 20E titer is high. Injection of 20E into day 2 of fifth instar larvae significantly induced apoptosis and upregulated apoptotic genes after 6 h of treatment, and in vitro treatment of larval fat body tissues with 20E upregulated all the eight apoptotic genes. Moreover, RNAi knockdown of USP, a component of the 20E receptor complex EcR-USP, at the early-wandering stage reduced apoptosis and downregulated apoptotic genes after 24 h of treatment. Taken together, we infer that 20E upregulates apoptotic genes and thus induces apoptosis in the Bombyx fat body during larval molting and the larval-pupal transition. PMID:22517444

  19. Expression of animal CED-9 anti-apoptotic gene in tobacco modifies plasma membrane ion fluxes in response to salinity and oxidative stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apoptosis, one form of programmed cell death (PCD), plays an important role in mediating plant adaptive responses to the environment. Recent studies suggest that expression of animal anti-apoptotic genes in transgenic plants may be an efficient way of enhancing stress resistance in economically impo...

  20. Apoptosis and apoptotic mimicry in Leishmania: an evolutionary perspective

    PubMed Central

    El-Hani, Charbel N.; Borges, Valéria M.; Wanderley, João L. M.; Barcinski, Marcello A.

    2012-01-01

    Apoptotic death and apoptotic mimicry are defined respectively as a non-accidental death and as the mimicking of an apoptotic-cell phenotype, usually by phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure. In the case of the murine infection by Leishmania spp, apoptotic death has been described in promastigotes and apoptotic mimicry in amastigotes. In both situations they are important events of the experimental murine infection by this parasite. In the present review we discuss what features we need to consider if we want to establish if a behavior shown by Leishmania is altruistic or not: does the behavior increases the fitness of organisms other than the one showing it? Does this behavior have a cost for the actor? If we manage to show that a given behavior is costly for the actor and beneficial for the recipient of the action, we will be able to establish it as altruistic. From this perspective, we can argue that apoptotic-like death and apoptotic mimicry are both altruistic with the latter representing a weaker altruistic behavior than the former. PMID:22912937

  1. Mannose-binding lectin is required for the effective clearance of apoptotic cells by adipose tissue macrophages during obesity.

    PubMed

    Stienstra, Rinke; Dijk, Wieneke; van Beek, Lianne; Jansen, Henry; Heemskerk, Mattijs; Houtkooper, Riekelt H; Denis, Simone; van Harmelen, Vanessa; Willems van Dijk, Ko; Tack, Cees J; Kersten, Sander

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is accompanied by the presence of chronic low-grade inflammation manifested by infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a soluble mediator of innate immunity, promotes phagocytosis and alters macrophage function. To assess the function of MBL in the development of obesity, we studied wild-type and MBL(-/-) mice rendered obese using a high-fat diet (HFD). Whereas no gross morphological differences were observed in liver, an HFD provoked distinct changes in the adipose tissue morphology of MBL(-/-) mice. In parallel with increased adipocyte size, MBL(-/-) mice displayed an increased influx of macrophages into adipose tissue. Macrophages were polarized toward an alternatively activated phenotype known to modulate apoptotic cell clearance. MBL deficiency also significantly increased the number of apoptotic cells in adipose tissue. Consistent with these observations, recombinant MBL enhanced phagocytic capacity of the stromal vascular fraction isolated from adipose tissue and modulated uptake of apoptotic adipocytes by macrophages. Despite changes in macrophage abundance and polarity, the absence of MBL did not affect systemic insulin resistance. Finally, in humans, lower levels of circulating MBL were accompanied by enhanced macrophage influx in subcutaneous adipose tissue. We propose a novel role for MBL in the recognition and clearance of apoptotic adipocytes during obesity. PMID:25008177

  2. DAPK1-p53 interaction converges necrotic and apoptotic pathways of ischemic neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Pei, Lei; Shang, You; Jin, Huijuan; Wang, Shan; Wei, Na; Yan, Honglin; Wu, Yan; Yao, Chengye; Wang, Xiaoxi; Zhu, Ling-Qiang; Lu, Youming

    2014-05-01

    Necrosis and apoptosis are two distinct types of mechanisms that mediate ischemic injury. But a signaling point of convergence between them has yet to be identified. Here, we show that activated death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1), phosphorylates p53 at serine-23 (pS(23)) via a direct binding of DAPK1 death domain (DAPK1DD) to the DNA binding motif of p53 (p53DM). We uncover that the pS(23) acts as a functional version of p53 and mediates necrotic and apoptotic neuronal death; in the nucleus, pS(23) induces the expression of proapoptotic genes, such as Bax, whereas in the mitochondrial matrix, pS(23) triggers necrosis via interaction with cyclophilin D (CypD) in cultured cortical neurons from mice. Deletion of DAPK1DD (DAPK1(DD?)) or application of Tat-p53DM that interrupts DAPK1-p53 interaction blocks these dual pathways of pS(23) actions in mouse cortical neurons. Thus, the DAPK1-p53 interaction is a signaling point of convergence of necrotic and apoptotic pathways and is a desirable target for the treatment of ischemic insults. PMID:24806680

  3. PKC? is an anti-apoptotic kinase that predicts poor prognosis in breast and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zurgil, Udi; Ben-Ari, Assaf; Rotem-Dai, Noa; Karp, Galia; Krasnitsky, Ella; Frost, Sigal A; Livneh, Etta

    2014-12-01

    The successful treatment of cancer in a disseminated stage using chemotherapy is limited by the occurrence of drug resistance, often mediated by anti-apoptotic mechanisms. Thus the challenge is to pinpoint the underlying key factors and to develop therapies for their direct targeting. Protein kinase C (PKC) enzymes are promising candidates, as some PKCs were shown to be involved in regulation of apoptosis. Our studies and others have shown that PKC? is an anti-apoptotic kinase, able to confer protection on tumour cells against stress and chemotherapy. We have demonstrated that PKC? shuttles between the cytoplasm and the nucleus and that upon DNA damage is tethered at the nuclear membrane. The C1b domain mediates translocation of PKC? to the nuclear envelope and, similar to the full-length protein, could also confer protection against cell death. Furthermore, its localization in cell and nuclear membranes in breast cancer biopsies of neoadjuvant-treated breast cancer patients was an indicator for poor survival and a predictor for the effectiveness of treatment. PKC? is also a novel biomarker for poor prognosis in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Thus PKC? presents a potential target for therapy where inhibition of its activity and/or translocation to membranes could interfere with the resistance to chemotherapy. PMID:25399563

  4. Bax and other pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno Antonsson

    2001-01-01

    Two major intracellular apoptosis signaling cascades have been characterized, the mitochondrial pathway and the death receptor pathway. The mitochondrial pathway is regulated by members of the Bcl-2 protein family. The members of this family can be subdivided into anti- and pro-apoptotic proteins. The pro-apoptotic members are further divided into two groups, the multidomain and the 'BH3 domain only' proteins. When

  5. Comparison of automated haematology analysers for detection of apoptotic lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Taga, K; Sawaya, M; Yoshida, M; Kaneko, M; Okada, M; Taniho, M

    2002-06-01

    Automated haematology analysers can rapidly provide accurate blood cell counts and white blood cell differentials. In this study, we evaluated four different haematology analysers for the detection of apoptotic lymphocytes in peripheral blood: MAXM A/L Retic, H*2, Cell-Dyn 3500 and NE-8000. With the MAXM A/L Retic haematology analyser, the apoptotic lymphocyte cluster appeared below the original lymphocyte cluster on the volume/DF1, and to the right under the original lymphocyte cluster on the volume/DF2 scattergrams. With the H*2 haematology analyser, the apoptotic polymorphonuclear lymphocytes produced a higher lobularity index on the BASO channel. With the Cell-Dyn 3500 haematology analyser, the apoptotic lymphocyte cluster appeared to the right side of the original lymphocyte cluster on the 0D/10D scattergram and to the left side of the polymorphonuclear cluster on the 90D/10D scattergram. With the NE-8000 haematology analyser, the apoptotic lymphocyte cluster was not distinguishable. Thus, apoptotic lymphocytes are readily detected on scattergrams generated by selected haematology analysers. PMID:12067276

  6. Apoptotic Cells Induce NF-?B and Inflammasome Negative Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Grau, Amir; Tabib, Adi; Grau, Inna; Reiner, Inna; Mevorach, Dror

    2015-01-01

    As they undergo phagocytosis, most early apoptotic cells negatively regulate proinflammatory signaling and were suggested as a major mechanism in the resolution of inflammation. The dextran sulfate sodium model is generally viewed as an epithelial damage model suited to investigate innate immune responses. Macrophages primed with LPS and subsequently exposed to DSS secrete high levels of IL-1? in an NLRP3-, ASC-, and caspase-1-dependent manner. The aim of this research was to test the therapeutic effect of a single dose of apoptotic cells in a DSS-colitis model and to explore possible mechanisms. Primary peritoneal macrophages, the DSS mice model, and Nlrp3-deficient mice, were used to assess the effect apoptotic cells on colitis. Immunohistochemistry, flow-cytometer, and western blots helped to explore the effect and mechanisms. Using a variety of NLRP3 triggering mechanisms, we show that apoptotic cells negatively regulate NF-?B and NLRP3 activation in primary peritoneal macrophages, at pre- and post-transcription levels, via inhibition of reactive oxygen species, lysosomal stabilization, and blocking K+ efflux. This property of apoptotic cells is demonstrated in a dramatic clinical, histological, and immunological amelioration of DSS colitis in Balb/c and B6 mice following a single administration of apoptotic cells. PMID:25822487

  7. Apoptotic cell death in rat epididymis following epichlorohydrin treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, I-C; Kim, K-H; Kim, S-H; Baek, H-S; Moon, C; Kim, S-H; Yun, W-K; Nam, K-H; Kim, H-C; Kim, J-C

    2013-06-01

    Epichlorohydrin (ECH) is an antifertility agent that acts both as an epididymal toxicant and an agent capable of directly affecting sperm motility. This study identified the time course of apoptotic cell death in rat epididymides after ECH treatment. Rats were administrated with a single oral dose of ECH (50 mg/kg). ECH-induced apoptotic changes were evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and its related mechanism was confirmed by Western blot analysis and colorimetric assay. The TUNEL assay showed that the number of apoptotic cells increased at 8 h, reached a maximum level at 12 h, and then decreased progressively. The Western blot analysis demonstrated no significant changes in proapoptotic Bcl-2-associated X (Bax) and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression during the time course of the study. However, phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38 MAPK) and phospho-c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (p-JNK) expression increased at 8-24 h. Caspase-3 and caspase-8 activities also increased at 8-48 h and 12-48 h, respectively, in the same manner as p-p38 MAPK and p-JNK expression. These results indicate that ECH induced apoptotic changes in rat epididymides and that the apoptotic cell death may be related more to the MAPK pathway than to the mitochondrial pathway. PMID:23386780

  8. Apoptotic Cells Induce NF-?B and Inflammasome Negative Signaling.

    PubMed

    Grau, Amir; Tabib, Adi; Grau, Inna; Reiner, Inna; Mevorach, Dror

    2015-01-01

    As they undergo phagocytosis, most early apoptotic cells negatively regulate proinflammatory signaling and were suggested as a major mechanism in the resolution of inflammation. The dextran sulfate sodium model is generally viewed as an epithelial damage model suited to investigate innate immune responses. Macrophages primed with LPS and subsequently exposed to DSS secrete high levels of IL-1? in an NLRP3-, ASC-, and caspase-1-dependent manner. The aim of this research was to test the therapeutic effect of a single dose of apoptotic cells in a DSS-colitis model and to explore possible mechanisms. Primary peritoneal macrophages, the DSS mice model, and Nlrp3-deficient mice, were used to assess the effect apoptotic cells on colitis. Immunohistochemistry, flow-cytometer, and western blots helped to explore the effect and mechanisms. Using a variety of NLRP3 triggering mechanisms, we show that apoptotic cells negatively regulate NF-?B and NLRP3 activation in primary peritoneal macrophages, at pre- and post-transcription levels, via inhibition of reactive oxygen species, lysosomal stabilization, and blocking K+ efflux. This property of apoptotic cells is demonstrated in a dramatic clinical, histological, and immunological amelioration of DSS colitis in Balb/c and B6 mice following a single administration of apoptotic cells. PMID:25822487

  9. Three sorting nexins drive the degradation of apoptotic cells in response to PtdIns(3)P signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Nan; Shen, Qian; Mahoney, Timothy R.; Liu, Xianghua; Zhou, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Apoptotic cells are swiftly engulfed by phagocytes and degraded inside phagosomes. Phagosome maturation requires phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PtdIns(3)P], yet how PtdIns(3)P triggers phagosome maturation remains largely unknown. Through a genome-wide PtdIns(3)P effector screen in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified LST-4/SNX9, SNX-1, and SNX-6, three BAR domain-containing sorting nexins, that act in two parallel pathways to drive PtdIns(3)P-mediated degradation of apoptotic cells. We found that these proteins were enriched on phagosomal surfaces through association with PtdIns(3)P and through specific protein–protein interaction, and they promoted the fusion of early endosomes and lysosomes to phagosomes, events essential for phagosome maturation. Specifically, LST-4 interacts with DYN-1 (dynamin), an essential phagosome maturation initiator, to strengthen DYN-1’s association to phagosomal surfaces, and facilitates the maintenance of the RAB-7 GTPase on phagosomal surfaces. Furthermore, both LST-4 and SNX-1 promote the extension of phagosomal tubules to facilitate the docking and fusion of intracellular vesicles. Our findings identify the critical and differential functions of two groups of sorting nexins in phagosome maturation and reveal a signaling cascade initiated by phagocytic receptor CED-1, mediated by PtdIns(3)P, and executed through these sorting nexins to degrade apoptotic cells. PMID:21148288

  10. Apoptotic response of malignant rhabdoid tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Nocentini, Silvano

    2003-01-01

    Background Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are extremely aggressive and resist current radio- and chemotherapic treatments. To gain insight into the dysfunctions of MRT cells, the apoptotic response of a model cell line, MON, was analyzed after exposure to several genotoxic and non-genotoxic agents employed separately or in association. Results Fluorescence microscopy of chromatin morphology and electrophoretic analysis of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation revealed that MON cells were, comparatively to HeLa cells, resistant to apoptosis after treatment with etoposide, cisplatin (CisPt) or X-rays, but underwent some degree of apoptosis after ultraviolet (UV) C irradiation. Concomitant treatment of MON cells with X-rays or vinblastine and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor wortmannin resulted in synergistic induction of apoptosis. Western blot analysis showed that the p53 protein was upregulated in MON cells after exposure to all the different agents tested, singly or in combination. In treated cells, the p53 downstream effectors p21WAF1/CIP1, Mdm2 and Bax were induced with some inconsistency with regard to the accumulation of p53. Poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage, indicative of ongoing apoptosis, occurred in UVC-irradiated cells and, especially, in cells treated with combinations of X-rays or vinblastine with wortmannin. However, there was moderate or no PARP cleavage in cells treated with CisPt, X-rays, vinblastine or wortmannin singly or with the combinations X-rays plus CisPt or vinblastine and CisPt plus vinblastine or wortmannin. The synergistic effect on the induction of apoptosis exerted by some agent combinations corresponded with synergy in respect of MON cell growth inhibition. Conclusion These results suggest abnormalities in the p53 pathway and apoptosis control in MRT cells. The Ras/PI3-K/AKT signaling pathway might also be deregulated in these cells by generating an excess of survival factors. These dysfunctions might contribute to the resistance of MRTs to current antineoplastic treatments and could warrant consideration in the search of new therapeutic approaches. PMID:12904267

  11. Surface code--biophysical signals for apoptotic cell clearance.

    PubMed

    Biermann, Mona; Maueröder, Christian; Brauner, Jan M; Chaurio, Ricardo; Janko, Christina; Herrmann, Martin; Muñoz, Luis E

    2013-12-01

    Apoptotic cell death and the clearance of dying cells play an important and physiological role in embryonic development and normal tissue turnover. In contrast to necrosis, apoptosis proceeds in an anti-inflammatory manner. It is orchestrated by the timed release and/or exposure of so-called 'find-me', 'eat me' and 'tolerate me' signals. Mononuclear phagocytes are attracted by various 'find-me' signals, including proteins, nucleotides, and phospholipids released by the dying cell, whereas the involvement of granulocytes is prevented via 'stay away' signals. The exposure of anionic phospholipids like phosphatidylserine (PS) by apoptotic cells on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane is one of the main 'eat me' signals. PS is recognized by a number of innate receptors as well as by soluble bridging molecules on the surface of phagocytes. Importantly, phagocytes are able to discriminate between viable and apoptotic cells both exposing PS. Due to cytoskeleton remodeling PS has a higher lateral mobility on the surfaces of apoptotic cells thereby promoting receptor clustering on the phagocyte. PS not only plays an important role in the engulfment process, but also acts as 'tolerate me' signal inducing the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines by phagocytes. An efficient and fast clearance of apoptotic cells is required to prevent secondary necrosis and leakage of intracellular danger signals into the surrounding tissue. Failure or prolongation of the clearance process leads to the release of intracellular antigens into the periphery provoking inflammation and development of systemic inflammatory autoimmune disease like systemic lupus erythematosus. Here we review the current findings concerning apoptosis-inducing pathways, important players of apoptotic cell recognition and clearance as well as the role of membrane remodeling in the engulfment of apoptotic cells by phagocytes. PMID:24305041

  12. Surface code—biophysical signals for apoptotic cell clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biermann, Mona; Maueröder, Christian; Brauner, Jan M.; Chaurio, Ricardo; Janko, Christina; Herrmann, Martin; Muñoz, Luis E.

    2013-12-01

    Apoptotic cell death and the clearance of dying cells play an important and physiological role in embryonic development and normal tissue turnover. In contrast to necrosis, apoptosis proceeds in an anti-inflammatory manner. It is orchestrated by the timed release and/or exposure of so-called ‘find-me’, ‘eat me’ and ‘tolerate me’ signals. Mononuclear phagocytes are attracted by various ‘find-me’ signals, including proteins, nucleotides, and phospholipids released by the dying cell, whereas the involvement of granulocytes is prevented via ‘stay away’ signals. The exposure of anionic phospholipids like phosphatidylserine (PS) by apoptotic cells on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane is one of the main ‘eat me’ signals. PS is recognized by a number of innate receptors as well as by soluble bridging molecules on the surface of phagocytes. Importantly, phagocytes are able to discriminate between viable and apoptotic cells both exposing PS. Due to cytoskeleton remodeling PS has a higher lateral mobility on the surfaces of apoptotic cells thereby promoting receptor clustering on the phagocyte. PS not only plays an important role in the engulfment process, but also acts as ‘tolerate me’ signal inducing the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines by phagocytes. An efficient and fast clearance of apoptotic cells is required to prevent secondary necrosis and leakage of intracellular danger signals into the surrounding tissue. Failure or prolongation of the clearance process leads to the release of intracellular antigens into the periphery provoking inflammation and development of systemic inflammatory autoimmune disease like systemic lupus erythematosus. Here we review the current findings concerning apoptosis-inducing pathways, important players of apoptotic cell recognition and clearance as well as the role of membrane remodeling in the engulfment of apoptotic cells by phagocytes.

  13. Rapid reuptake of granzyme B leads to emperitosis: an apoptotic cell-in-cell death of immune killer cells inside tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; He, M-f; Chen, Y-h; Wang, M-y; Yu, X-M; Bai, J; Zhu, H-y; Wang, Y-y; Zhao, H; Mei, Q; Nie, J; Ma, J; Wang, J-f; Wen, Q; Ma, L; Wang, Y; Wang, X-n

    2013-01-01

    A cell-in-cell process refers to the invasion of one living cell into another homotypic or heterotypic cell. Different from non-apoptotic death processes of internalized cells termed entosis or cannibalism, we previously reported an apoptotic cell-in-cell death occurring during heterotypic cell-in-cell formation. In this study, we further demonstrated that the apoptotic cell-in-cell death occurred only in internalized immune killer cells expressing granzyme B (GzmB). Vacuole wrapping around the internalized cells inside the target cells was the common hallmark during the early stage of all cell-in-cell processes, which resulted in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent mitochondrial injury of encapsulated killer or non-cytotoxic immune cells. However, internalized killer cells mediated rapid bubbling of the vacuoles with the subsequent degranulation of GzmB inside the vacuole of the target cells and underwent the reuptake of GzmB by killer cells themselves. The confinement of GzmB inside the vacuole surpassed the lysosome-mediated cell death occurring in heterotypic or homotypic entosis processes, resulting in a GzmB-triggered caspase-dependent apoptotic cell-in-cell death of internalized killer cells. On the contrary, internalized killer cells from GzmB-deficient mice underwent a typical non-apoptotic entotic cell-in-cell death similar to that of non-cytotoxic immune cells or tumor cells. Our results thus demonstrated the critical involvement of immune cells with cytotoxic property in apoptotic cell-in-cell death, which we termed as emperitosis taken from emperipolesis and apoptosis. Whereas entosis or cannibalism may serve as a feed-on mechanism to exacerbate and nourish tumor cells, emperitosis of immune killer cells inside tumor cells may serve as an in-cell danger sensation model to prevent the killing of target cells from inside, implying a unique mechanism for tumor cells to escape from immune surveillance. PMID:24113190

  14. Role of Prooxidants and Antioxidants in the Anti-Inflammatory and Apoptotic Effects of Curcumin (Diferuloylmethane)

    PubMed Central

    Sandur, Santosh K.; Ichikawa, Haruyo; Pandey, Manoj K.; Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B.; Sung, Bokyung; Sethi, Gautam; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2009-01-01

    Extensive research within last half a century has indicated that curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a yellow pigment in curry powder, exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and proapoptotic activities. Whether anti-inflammatory and proapoptotic activities assigned to curcumin, are mediated through its antioxidant mechanism was investigated. We found that TNF-mediated NF-?B activation was inhibited by curcumin; and glutathione reversed the inhibition. Similarly, suppression of TNF-induced AKT activation by curcumin, was also abrogated by glutathione. The reducing agent also counteracted the inhibitory effect of curcumin on TNF-induced NF-?B regulated antiapoptotic (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, IAP1), proliferative (cyclin D1) and proinflammatory (COX-2, iNOS and MMP-9) gene products. The suppression of TNF-induced AP-1 activation by curcumin was also reversed by glutathione. Also, the direct proapoptotic effects of curcumin were inhibited by glutathione and potentiated by depletion of intracellular glutathione by buthionine sulfoximine. Moreover, curcumin induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and modulated the intracellular GSH levels. Quenchers of hydroxyl radicals, however, were ineffective in inhibiting curcumin mediated NF-?B suppression. Further, N-acetylcysteine partially reversed the effect of curcumin. Based on these results we conclude that curcumin mediate its apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities through modulation of the redox status of the cell. PMID:17640567

  15. Neuroprotection with metformin and thymoquinone against ethanol-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration in prenatal rat cortical neurons

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to ethanol during early development triggers severe neuronal death by activating multiple stress pathways and causes neurological disorders, such as fetal alcohol effects or fetal alcohol syndrome. This study investigated the effect of ethanol on intracellular events that predispose developing neurons for apoptosis via calcium-mediated signaling. Although the underlying molecular mechanisms of ethanol neurotoxicity are not completely determined, mitochondrial dysfunction, altered calcium homeostasis and apoptosis-related proteins have been implicated in ethanol neurotoxicity. The present study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective mechanisms of metformin (Met) and thymoquinone (TQ) during ethanol toxicity in rat prenatal cortical neurons at gestational day (GD) 17.5. Results We found that Met and TQ, separately and synergistically, increased cell viability after ethanol (100 mM) exposure for 12 hours and attenuated the elevation of cytosolic free calcium [Ca2+]c. Furthermore, Met and TQ maintained normal physiological mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??M), which is typically lowered by ethanol exposure. Increased cytosolic free [Ca2+]c and lowered mitochondrial transmembrane potential after ethanol exposure significantly decreased the expression of a key anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2), increased expression of Bax, and stimulated the release of cytochrome-c from mitochondria. Met and TQ treatment inhibited the apoptotic cascade by increasing Bcl-2 expression. These compounds also repressed the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 and reduced the cleavage of PARP-1. Morphological conformation of cell death was assessed by TUNEL, Fluoro-Jade-B, and PI staining. These staining methods demonstrated more cell death after ethanol treatment, while Met, TQ or Met plus TQ prevented ethanol-induced apoptotic cell death. Conclusion These findings suggested that Met and TQ are strong protective agents against ethanol-induced neuronal apoptosis in primary rat cortical neurons. The collective data demonstrated that Met and TQ have the potential to ameliorate ethanol neurotoxicity and revealed a possible protective target mechanism for the damaging effects of ethanol during early brain development. PMID:22260211

  16. Induction of discrete apoptotic pathways by bromo-substituted indirubin derivatives in invasive breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolaou, Katerina A. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus)] [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus); Liapis, Vasilis; Evdokiou, Andreas [Department of Surgery, Basil Hetzel Institute, Adelaide University, Adelaide (Australia)] [Department of Surgery, Basil Hetzel Institute, Adelaide University, Adelaide (Australia); Constantinou, Constantina [St. George's University of London Medical School at the University of Nicosia, Nicosia (Cyprus)] [St. George's University of London Medical School at the University of Nicosia, Nicosia (Cyprus); Magiatis, Prokopios; Skaltsounis, Alex L. [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Athens, Athens (Greece)] [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Koumas, Laura; Costeas, Paul A. [Center for Study of Hematological Malignancies, Nicosia (Cyprus)] [Center for Study of Hematological Malignancies, Nicosia (Cyprus); Constantinou, Andreas I., E-mail: andreasc@ucy.ac.cy [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of 6BIO and 7BIO are evaluated against five breast cancer cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 6BIO induces a caspase dependent apoptotic effect via the intrinsic pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 7BIO promotes G{sub 2}/M cells cycle arrest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 7BIO triggers a caspase-8 mediated apoptotic pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 7BIO triggers and a caspase independent pathway. -- Abstract: Indirubin derivatives gained interest in recent years for their anticancer and antimetastatic properties. The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the anticancer properties of the two novel bromo-substituted derivatives 6-bromoindirubin-3 Prime -oxime (6BIO) and 7-bromoindirubin-3 Prime -oxime (7BIO) in five different breast cancer cell lines. Cell viability assays identified that 6BIO and 7BIO are most effective in preventing the proliferation of the MDA-MB-231-TXSA breast cancer cell line from a total of five breast cancer cell lined examined. In addition it was found that the two compounds induce apoptosis via different mechanisms. 6BIO induces caspase-dependent programmed cell death through the intrinsic (mitochondrial) caspase-9 pathway. 7BIO up-regulates p21 and promotes G{sub 2}/M cell cycle arrest which is subsequently followed by the activation of two different apoptotic pathways: (a) a pathway that involves the upregulation of DR4/DR5 and activation of caspase-8 and (b) a caspase independent pathway. In conclusion, this study provides important insights regarding the molecular pathways leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by two indirubin derivatives that can find clinical applications in targeted cancer therapeutics.

  17. Apoptotic and Autophagic Effects of Sesbania grandiflora Flowers in Human Leukemic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Biswajit; Chowdhury, Chinmay; Das, Padma

    2013-01-01

    Background Identification of cytotoxic compounds that induce apoptosis has been the mainstay of anti-cancer therapeutics for several decades. In recent years, focus has shifted to inducing multiple modes of cell death coupled with reduced systemic toxicity. The plant Sesbania grandiflora is widely used in Indian traditional medicine for the treatment of a broad spectrum of diseases. This encouraged us to investigate into the anti-proliferative effect of a fraction (F2) isolated from S. grandiflora flowers in cancer cells and delineate the underlying involvement of apoptotic and autophagic pathways. Principal Findings Using MTT based cell viability assay, we evaluated the cytotoxic potential of fraction F2. It was the most effective on U937 cells (IC50?18.6 µg/ml). Inhibition of growth involved enhancement of Annexin V positivity. This was associated with elevated reactive oxygen species generation, measured by flow cytometry and reduced oxygen consumption – both effects being abrogated by anti-oxidant NAC. This caused stimulation of pro-apoptotic proteins and concomitant inhibition of anti-apoptotic protein expressions inducing mitochondrial depolarization, as measured by flow cytometry and release of cytochrome c. Interestingly, even with these molecular features of apoptosis, F2 was able to alter Atg protein levels and induce LC3 processing. This was accompanied by formation of autophagic vacuoles as revealed by fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy – confirming the occurrence of autophagy. Eventually, F2 triggered caspase cascade – executioners of programmed cell death and AIF translocation to nuclei. This culminated in cleavage of the DNA repair enzyme, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase that caused DNA damage as proved by staining with Hoechst 33258 leading to cell death. Conclusions The findings suggest fraction F2 triggers pro-oxidant activity and mediates its cytotoxicity in leukemic cells via apoptosis and autophagy. Thus, it merits consideration and further investigation as a therapeutic option for the treatment of leukemia. PMID:23967233

  18. Incoming human cytomegalovirus pp65 (UL83) contained in apoptotic infected fibroblasts is cross-presented to CD8(+) T cells by dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Arrode, G; Boccaccio, C; Lulé, J; Allart, S; Moinard, N; Abastado, J P; Alam, A; Davrinche, C

    2000-11-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is well controlled mainly by cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocytes (CTL) directed against the matrix protein pp65 despite the numerous immune escape mechanisms developed by the virus. Dendritic cells (DCs) are key antigen-presenting cells for the generation of an immune response which have the capacity to acquire antigens via endocytosis of apoptotic cells and thus present peptides to major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted T cells. We examined whether this mechanism could contribute to the activation of anti-pp65 CTL. In this study, we show that infection by HCMV AD169 induced sensitization of MRC5 fibroblasts to tumor necrosis factor alpha-mediated apoptosis very early after virus inoculation and that pp65 contained in apoptotic cells came from the delivery of the matrix protein into the cell. We observed that immature DCs derived from peripheral monocytes were not permissive to HCMV AD169 infection but were able to internalize pp65-positive apoptotic infected MRC5 cells. We then demonstrated that following exposure to these apoptotic bodies, DCs could activate HLA-A2- or HLA-B35-restricted anti-pp65 CTL, suggesting that they acquired and processed properly fibroblast-derived pp65. Together, our data suggest that cross-presentation of incoming pp65 contained in apoptotic cells may provide a quick and efficient way to prime anti-HCMV CD8(+) T cells. PMID:11024130

  19. High molecular weight kininogen binds phosphatidylserine and opsonizes urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-mediated efferocytosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Aizhen; Dai, Jihong; Xie, Zhanli; Colman, Robert W; Wu, Qingyu; Birge, Raymond B; Wu, Yi

    2014-05-01

    Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) is essential for regulation of immune responses and tissue homeostasis and is mediated by phagocytic receptors. In this study, we found that urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) plays an important role in internalization of apoptotic cells and also characterized the underlying mechanisms. In a flow cytometry-based phagocytic assay, uPAR-deficient macrophages displayed significant defect in internalization but not tethering of apoptotic cells. When uPAR-deficient mice were challenged with apoptotic cells, they exhibited pronounced splenomegaly resulting from accumulation of abundant apoptotic cells in spleen. Overexpression of uPAR in HEK-293 cells enhanced efferocytosis, which was inhibited by Annexin V and phosphatidylserine (PS) liposome, suggesting that uPAR-mediated efferocytosis is dependent on PS. In serum lacking high m.w. kininogen (HK), a uPAR ligand, uPAR-mediated efferocytosis was significantly attenuated, which was rescued by replenishment of HK. As detected by flow cytometry, HK selectively bound to apoptotic cells, but not viable cells. In purified systems, HK was specifically associated with PS liposome. HK binding to apoptotic cells induced its rapid cleavage to the two-chain form of HK (HKa) and bradykinin. Both the H chain and L chain of HKa were associated with PS liposome and apoptotic cells. HKa has higher binding affinity than HK to uPAR. Overexpression of Rac1/N17 cDNA inhibited uPAR-mediated efferocytosis. HK plus PS liposome stimulated a complex formation of CrkII with p130Cas and Dock-180 and Rac1 activation in uPAR-293 cells, but not in control HEK-293 cells. Thus, uPAR mediates efferocytosis through HK interaction with PS on apoptotic cells and activation of the Rac1 pathway. PMID:24688027

  20. Paeoniflorin, a natural neuroprotective agent, modulates multiple anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic pathways in differentiated PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Wong, Hei Kiu; Feng, Yi-Bin; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

    2013-05-01

    Numerous studies have shown robust neuroprotective effects of paeoniflorin (PF), a natural compound derived from the herbal medicine Paeony radix. In the present study, we determined associations of PF neuroprotection with its modulation of various apoptotic and anti-apoptotic pathways. PF (50-400 ?M) pretreatment significantly improved viability of differentiated PC12 cells exposed to methyl-4-phenylpyridine ion (MPP(+)), a neurotoxin, and inhibited over-release of lactate dehydrogenase, a biomarker of neuronal cell death. PF also ameliorated MPP(+)-induced nuclear and mitochondrial apoptotic alteration and intracellular calcium overload. PF treatment reversed MPP(+) suppression of activity of B cell lymphoma-extra large, which is a mitochondrial membrane molecule that protects cells from DNA damage-induced apoptosis, and strikingly inhibited the enhanced level of cleaved poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase, which is involved in the process of apoptosis. PF alone and coadministration with MPP(+) enhanced phospho activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases, Akt, and its downstream element glycogen synthase kinase-3, but the effects were completely abolished in the presence of their blockers PD98059 and LY294002. The presence of the blockers also diminished the potency of PF in improving viability of MPP(+)-exposed cells. These results indicate that neuroprotective effects of PF are related to its modulation of multiple anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic pathways, including blockade of intracellular calcium overload, prevention of mitochondrial membrane integrity, inhibition of pro-apoptotic molecules, and up-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins associated with cell survival and proliferation. The study provides evidence supporting PF as a potential therapeutic agent used for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and neural injury. PMID:23436209

  1. Selective apoptotic effect of Zelkova serrata twig extract on mouth epidermoid carcinoma through p53 activation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hoe-Jin; Jang, Young-Joo

    2012-01-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death plays an essential role in chemotherapy-induced tumor cell killing, and inducers of apoptosis are commonly used in cancer therapy. Treatment with Zelkova serrata extracts was performed in human gingival fibroblast (HGF), mouth epidermoid carcinoma cell (KB), lower gingival squamous cancer cell (YD38) and tongue mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells (YD15). We observed that extract prepared from Zelkova serrata twig selectively inhibited proliferation of various oral cancer cells, but not normal gingival fibroblasts, in a dose-dependent manner. Caspase-8-mediated apoptosis was induced by treatment with the extract only in mouth epidermoid carcinoma and not in other types of cancer cells, including lower gingival squamous cell carcinoma. The selective apoptotic effect of Zelkova serrata twig extract in mouth epidermoid carcinoma was dependent on normal p53 status. Apoptosis was not remarkably induced by treatment with the extract in either lower gingival squamous or tongue mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells, both of which contain abnormalities of p53. Upon treatment with Zelkova serrata twig extract, mouth epidermoid carcinoma cells accumulated in S phase by activation of p21. These data indicate that Zelkova serrata twig extract exerted a cancer type-specific, p53-dependent apoptotic effect and disturbed the cell cycle, which suggests that herbal medicine could be a treatment for specific types of cancers. PMID:22498930

  2. Hazardous Effects of Curcumin on Mouse Embryonic Development through a Mitochondria-Dependent Apoptotic Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chia-Chi; Hsieh, Ming-Shu; Hsuuw, Yan-Der; Huang, Fu-Jen; Chan, Wen-Hsiung

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined the cytotoxic effects of curcumin, the yellow pigment of Curcuma longa, on the blastocyst stage of mouse embryos, subsequent embryonic attachment, and outgrowth in vitro and in vivo implantation by embryo transfer. Mouse blastocysts were incubated in medium with or without curcumin (6, 12 or 24 ?M) for 24 h. Cell proliferation and growth were investigated using dual differential staining, apoptosis was analyzed with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL), and implantation and post-implantation development of embryos were measured by in vitro development analysis and in vivo embryo transfer, respectively. Blastocysts treated with 24 ?M curcumin displayed significantly increased apoptosis and decreased total cell number. Interestingly, we observed no marked differences in the implantation success rates between curcumin-pretreated and control blastocysts during in vitro embryonic development through implantation with a fibronectin-coated culture dish. However, in vitro treatment with 24 ?M curcumin was associated with decreased implantation rate and increased resorption of postimplantation embryos in mouse uterus, as well as decreased fetal weight in the embryo transfer assay. Our results collectively indicate that in vitro exposure to curcumin triggers apoptosis and retards early postimplantation development after transfer to host mice. In addition, curcumin induces apoptotic injury effects on mouse blastocysts through ROS generation, and further promotes mitochondria-dependent apoptotic signaling processes to impair sequent embryonic development. PMID:21152277

  3. Maturation-dependent apoptotic cell death of oligodendrocytes in myelin-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Grinspan, J B; Coulalaglou, M; Beesley, J S; Carpio, D F; Scherer, S S

    1998-12-01

    Mutations in the proteolipid protein gene (PLP/plp), which encodes the major intrinsic membrane protein in central nervous system (CNS) myelin, cause inherited dysmyelination in mammals. One of these mutants, the myelin-deficient (md) rat, has severe dysmyelination that is associated with oligodendrocyte cell death. Using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay, which labels apoptotic cells, we find that cell death is increased in multiple white matter tracts of md rats. The tracts that myelinate the earliest show the earliest increase in cell death, and cell death persists for at least 22 days, the lifespan of these mutant animals. In all tracts, and at all developmental ages examined, apoptotic cells expressed the markers of mature oligodendrocytes, such as myelin basic protein, myelin-associated glycoprotein, and the Rip antigen, but not chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, a marker of oligodendrocyte precursors. Mature oligodendrocytes fail to accumulate in md brain because they die before they fully mature. PMID:9843153

  4. Apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects of all-trans retinoic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Zamora, Monica [Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona Diagonal 645, E-08028-Barcelona (Spain); Ortega, Juan Alberto [Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona Diagonal 645, E-08028-Barcelona (Spain); Alana, Lide [Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona Diagonal 645, E-08028-Barcelona (Spain); Vinas, Octavi [Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona Diagonal 645, E-08028-Barcelona (Spain); Mampel, Teresa [Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona Diagonal 645, E-08028-Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: tmampel@ub.edu

    2006-06-10

    We examined the apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) in HeLa cells. Our results demonstrated that HeLa cells were more sensitive to the anti-proliferative effects of atRA than to its apoptotic effects. Furthermore, we demonstrated that caspase inhibition attenuates cell death but does not alter the atRA-dependent reduction in cell proliferation, which suggests that atRA-induced apoptosis is independent of the arrest in cell proliferation. To check whether ANT proteins mediated these atRA effects, we transiently transfected cells with expression vectors encoding for individual ANT (adenine nucleotide translocase 1-3). Our results revealed that ANT1 and ANT3 over-expressing HeLa cells increased their atRA sensitivity. Thus, our results not only demonstrate the different functional activities of ANT isoforms, but also contribute to a better understanding of the properties of atRA as an anti-tumoral agent used in cancer therapy.

  5. Identification of a Novel Anti-apoptotic E3 Ubiquitin Ligase That Ubiquitinates Antagonists of Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins SMAC, HtrA2, and ARTS*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-bin; Kim, So Youn; Kim, Byeong Mo; Lee, Hunjin; Kim, Insook; Yun, Jeanho; Jo, Yejin; Oh, Taeheun; Jo, Yongsam; Chae, Hee-Don; Shin, Deug Y.

    2013-01-01

    Identification of new anti-apoptotic genes is important for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying apoptosis and tumorigenesis. The present study identified a novel anti-apoptotic gene named AREL1, which encodes a HECT (homologous to E6-AP carboxyl terminus) family E3 ubiquitin ligase. AREL1 interacted with and ubiquitinated IAP antagonists such as SMAC, HtrA2, and ARTS. However, AREL1 was cytosolic and did not localize to nuclei or mitochondria. The interactions between AREL1 and the IAP antagonists were specific for apoptosis-stimulated cells, in which the IAP antagonists were released into the cytosol from mitochondria. Furthermore, the ubiquitination and degradation of SMAC, HtrA2, and ARTS were significantly enhanced in AREL1-expressing cells following apoptotic stimulation, indicating that AREL1 binds to and ubiquitinates cytosolic but not mitochondria-associated forms of IAP antagonists. Furthermore, the anti-apoptotic role of AREL1-mediated degradation of SMAC, HtrA2, and ARTS was shown by simultaneous knockdown of three IAP antagonists, which caused the inhibition of caspase-3 cleavage, XIAP degradation, and induction of apoptosis. Therefore, the present study suggests that AREL1-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of cytosolic forms of three IAP antagonists plays an important role in the regulation of apoptosis. PMID:23479728

  6. Die another way--non-apoptotic mechanisms of cell death.

    PubMed

    Tait, Stephen W G; Ichim, Gabriel; Green, Douglas R

    2014-05-15

    Regulated, programmed cell death is crucial for all multicellular organisms. Cell death is essential in many processes, including tissue sculpting during embryogenesis, development of the immune system and destruction of damaged cells. The best-studied form of programmed cell death is apoptosis, a process that requires activation of caspase proteases. Recently it has been appreciated that various non-apoptotic forms of cell death also exist, such as necroptosis and pyroptosis. These non-apoptotic cell death modalities can be either triggered independently of apoptosis or are engaged should apoptosis fail to execute. In this Commentary, we discuss several regulated non-apoptotic forms of cell death including necroptosis, autophagic cell death, pyroptosis and caspase-independent cell death. We outline what we know about their mechanism, potential roles in vivo and define outstanding questions. Finally, we review data arguing that the means by which a cell dies actually matters, focusing our discussion on inflammatory aspects of cell death. PMID:24833670

  7. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor interacts with HBx and inhibits its apoptotic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Shimeng [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, No.27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Lin Ruxian [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, No.27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Zhou Zhe [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, No.27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Wen Siyuan [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, No.27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Lin Li [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, No.27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Chen Suhong [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, No.27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Shan Yajun [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, No.27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Cong Yuwen [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, No.27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Wang Shengqi [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, No.27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China)]. E-mail: sqwang@nic.bmi.ac.cn

    2006-04-07

    HBx, a transcriptional transactivating protein of hepatitis B virus (HBV), is required for viral infection and has been implicated in virus-mediated liver oncogenesis. However, the precise molecular mechanism remains largely elusive. We used the yeast two-hybrid system to identify that HBx interacts with MIF directly. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is implicated in the regulation of inflammation, cell growth, and even tumor formation. The interaction between HBx and MIF was verified with co-immunoprecipitation, GST pull-down, and cellular colocalization. The expression of MIF was up-regulated in HBV particle producing cell 2.2.15 compared with HepG2 cell. Both HBx and MIF cause HepG2 cell G /G{sub 1} phase arrest, proliferation inhibition, and apoptosis. However, MIF can counteract the apoptotic effect of HBx. These results may provide evidence to explain the link between HBV infection and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  8. Novel oncolytic adenovirus sensitizes renal cell carcinoma cells to radiotherapy via mitochondrial apoptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ren-Fu; Li, Yue-Yan; Li, Lian-Tao; Cheng, Qian; Jiang, Guan; Zheng, Jun-Nian

    2015-03-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is the most frequent kidney malignancy and patients with metastatic disease have a poor prognosis. Suppressed apoptosis and marked invasiveness are distinctive features of renal cell carcinoma. In the present study, a dual?regulated oncolytic adenovirus expressing the interluekin (IL)?24 gene (Ki67?ZD55?IL?24) was constructed utilizing the Ki67 promoter to replace the native viral promoter of the E1A gene. Whether the combination of Ki67?ZD55?IL?24?mediated gene virotherapy and radiotherapy produced increased cytotoxicity in renal cell carcinoma cells via mitochondrial apoptotic cell death was investigated. The data indicated that this novel strategy has the potential to be further developed into an effective approach to treat renal cell carcinoma. The results showed that the combination of Ki67?ZD55?IL?24 and radiotherapy significantly enhanced anti?tumour activity via increasing the induction of apoptosis in melanoma cells compared with the other agents. PMID:25411768

  9. Distinct lipid effects on tBid and Bim activation of membrane permeabilization by pro-apoptotic Bax.

    PubMed

    Shamas-Din, Aisha; Bindner, Scott; Chi, Xiaoke; Leber, Brian; Andrews, David W; Fradin, Cécile

    2015-05-01

    After exposure to stressful stimuli, apoptotic signals can be relayed to mitochondria by pro-apoptotic activator proteins, tBid (truncated Bid/p15) and Bim (Bcl-2 interacting mediator), which activate Bax (Bcl-2 associated X protein) and or Bak (Bcl-2 antagonist/killer) to induce mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) permeabilization (MOMP). These protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions are critical for apoptosis regulation, since MOMP irreversibly leads to cell death. Whereas the distinct roles of tBid and Bim as sensors of different types of stress are well recognized, it is not known whether the molecular mechanisms whereby they initiate MOMP are the same. In the present study, we compare membrane permeabilization by Bax activated by either cBid [cleaved Bid (p7 and p15)] or Bim and we examine the role of membrane lipids in the recruitment and activation of these three Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) pro-apoptotic proteins. We employ fluorescently-labelled proteins and liposomes to quantify the effects of specific lipids on each of the well-characterized steps in Bax-mediated membrane permeabilization. We show that high levels of cholesterol in the membrane inhibit permeabilization by categorically identifying the recruitment of Bax by the activators and Bax insertion in the membrane as the steps being hindered by cholesterol. Furthermore, we show that binding of both cBid and Bim to membranes is facilitated by electrostatic interactions with anionic phospholipids. However, whereas Bim does not require any particular anionic lipids, the conformational change in tBid depends on cardiolipin (CL). This suggests that CL can activate tBid in a similar manner to Mtch2 (mitochondrial carrier homologue 2). Thus, lipids modify multiple aspects of Bax-mediated membrane permeabilization. PMID:25714678

  10. Levels of pro-apoptotic regulator Bad and anti-apoptotic regulator Bcl-xL determine the type of the apoptotic logic gate

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Apoptosis is a tightly regulated process: cellular survive-or-die decisions cannot be accidental and must be unambiguous. Since the suicide program may be initiated in response to numerous stress stimuli, signals transmitted through a number of checkpoints have to be eventually integrated. Results In order to analyze possible mechanisms of the integration of multiple pro-apoptotic signals, we constructed a simple model of the Bcl-2 family regulatory module. The module collects upstream signals and processes them into life-or-death decisions by employing interactions between proteins from three subgroups of the Bcl-2 family: pro-apoptotic multidomain effectors, pro-survival multidomain restrainers, and pro-apoptotic single domain BH3-only proteins. Although the model is based on ordinary differential equations (ODEs), it demonstrates that the Bcl-2 family module behaves akin to a Boolean logic gate of the type dependent on levels of BH3-only proteins (represented by Bad) and restrainers (represented by Bcl-xL). A low level of pro-apoptotic Bad or a high level of pro-survival Bcl-xL implies gate AND, which allows for the initiation of apoptosis only when two stress stimuli are simultaneously present: the rise of the p53 killer level and dephosphorylation of kinase Akt. In turn, a high level of Bad or a low level of Bcl-xL implies gate OR, for which any of these stimuli suffices for apoptosis. Conclusions Our study sheds light on possible signal integration mechanisms in cells, and spans a bridge between modeling approaches based on ODEs and on Boolean logic. In the proposed scheme, logic gates switching results from the change of relative abundances of interacting proteins in response to signals and involves system bistability. Consequently, the regulatory system may process two analogous inputs into a digital survive-or-die decision. PMID:23883471

  11. The role of p53 in an apoptotic process caused by an oral malodorous compound in periodontal tissues: a review.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Izumi; Yaegaki, Ken; Calenic, Bogdan; Ii, Hisataka; Ishkitiev, Nikolay; Imai, Toshio

    2012-03-01

    Oral malodor is caused by volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) composed mainly of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and methyl mercaptan. In particular, H(2)S is an important compound, since it is a major component of physiologic halitosis. The toxicity of VSCs is similar to that of hydrogen cyanide, and is well investigated. The role of VSCs in reducing collagen in human gingival fibroblasts is one of the main sources of their toxicity to human oral tissues. It has been reported recently that H(2)S may cause apoptosis in several periodontal tissues. In human gingival fibroblasts, H(2)S inhibits not only cytochrome c oxidase activity but also superoxide dismutase activity. The levels of reactive oxygen species are markedly increased, which causes the release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm, resulting in caspase-9 activation; finally, the executor caspase, caspase-3, is activated. This pathway is commonly observed in cells from all periodontal tissues. Moreover, p53, an apoptotic factor, and phosphorlylated p53, which is the activated form, are increased by H(2)S in keratinocyte stem cells and osteoblasts. H(2)S also increases the expression of Bax, a primary response gene playing an important role in p53-mediated apoptosis, but maintains a lower expression of Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic factor, in osteoblasts. It is concluded that the Bax apoptotic pathway and the mitochondrial pathway are activated by H(2)S. PMID:22368256

  12. Pro-apoptotic Bax is the major and Bak an auxiliary effector in cytokine deprivation-induced mast cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Karlberg, M; Ekoff, M; Labi, V; Strasser, A; Huang, D; Nilsson, G

    2010-01-01

    The process of apoptosis in immune cells like mast cells is essential to regain homeostasis after an inflammatory response. The intrinsic pathway of apoptosis is ultimately controlled by the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members Bax and Bak, which upon activation oligomerize to cause increased permeabilization of the mitochondria outer membrane leading to cell death. We examined the role of Bax and Bak in cytokine deprivation-induced apoptosis in mast cells using connective tissue-like mast cells and mucosal-like mast cells derived from bax?/?, bak?/? and bax?/?bak?/? mice. Although both Bax and Bak were expressed at readily detectable protein levels, we found a major role for Bax in mediating mast cell apoptosis induced by cytokine deprivation. We analyzed cell viability by propidium iodide exclusion and flow cytometry after deprivation of vital cytokines for each mast cell population. Upon cytokine withdrawal, bak?/? mast cells died at a similar rate as wild type, whereas bax?/? and bax?/?bak?/? mast cells were partially or completely resistant to apoptosis, respectively. The total resistance seen in bax?/?bak?/? mast cells is comparable with mast cells deficient of both pro-apoptotic Bim and Puma or mast cells overexpressing anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. These results show that Bax has a predominant and Bak a minor role in cytokine deprivation-induced apoptosis in both connective tissue-like and mucosal-like mast cells. PMID:21364649

  13. Caffeine Induces Cell Death via Activation of Apoptotic Signal and Inactivation of Survival Signal in Human Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Pin-Zhen; Lai, Ching-Yu; Chan, Wen-Hsiung

    2008-01-01

    Caffeine consumption is a risk factor for osteoporosis, but the precise regulatory mechanisms are currently unknown. Here, we show that cell viability decreases in osteoblasts treated with caffeine in a dose-dependent manner. This cell death is attributed primarily to apoptosis and to a smaller extent, necrosis. Moreover, caffeine directly stimulates intracellular oxidative stress. Our data support caffeine-induced apoptosis in osteoblasts via a mitochondria-dependent pathway. The apoptotic biochemical changes were effectively prevented upon pretreatment with ROS scavengers, indicating that ROS plays a critical role as an upstream controller in the caffeine-induced apoptotic cascade. Additionally, p21-activated protein kinase 2 (PAK2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were activated in caffeine-treated osteoblasts. Experiments further found that PAK2 activity is required for caffeine-induced JNK activation and apoptosis. Importantly, our data also show that caffeine triggers cell death via inactivation of the survival signal, including the ERK- and Akt-mediated anti-apoptotic pathways. Finally, exposure of rats to dietary water containing 10~20 ?M caffeine led to bone mineral density loss. These results demonstrate for the first time that caffeine triggers apoptosis in osteoblasts via activation of mitochondria-dependent cell death signaling and inactivation of the survival signal, and causes bone mineral density loss in vivo. PMID:19325779

  14. The Apaf-1-binding protein Aven is cleaved by Cathepsin D to unleash its anti-apoptotic potential.

    PubMed

    Melzer, I M; Fernández, S B M; Bösser, S; Lohrig, K; Lewandrowski, U; Wolters, D; Kehrloesser, S; Brezniceanu, M-L; Theos, A C; Irusta, P M; Impens, F; Gevaert, K; Zörnig, M

    2012-09-01

    The anti-apoptotic molecule Aven was originally identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen for Bcl-x(L)-interacting proteins and has also been found to bind Apaf-1, thereby interfering with Apaf-1 self-association during apoptosome assembly. Aven is expressed in a wide variety of adult tissues and cell lines, and there is increasing evidence that its overexpression correlates with tumorigenesis, particularly in acute leukemias. The mechanism by which the anti-apoptotic activity of Aven is regulated remains poorly understood. Here we shed light on this issue by demonstrating that proteolytic removal of an inhibitory N-terminal Aven domain is necessary to activate the anti-apoptotic potential of the molecule. Furthermore, we identify Cathepsin D (CathD) as the protease responsible for Aven cleavage. On the basis of our results, we propose a model of Aven activation by which its N-terminal inhibitory domain is removed by CathD-mediated proteolysis, thereby unleashing its cytoprotective function. PMID:22388353

  15. Apoptin T108 phosphorylation is not required for its tumor-specific nuclear localization but partially affects its apoptotic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.-H. [Faculty of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Kaohsiung Medical University, No. 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Cheng, C.-M. [Faculty of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Kaohsiung Medical University, No. 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chang, Y.-F. [Faculty of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Kaohsiung Medical University, No. 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Wang, T.-Y. [Faculty of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Kaohsiung Medical University, No. 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Yuo, C.-Y. [Faculty of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Kaohsiung Medical University, No. 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); E-mail: m815006@kmu.edu.tw

    2007-03-09

    Apoptin, a chicken anemia virus-encoded protein, induces apoptosis in human tumor cells but not in normal cells. In addition, Apoptin also exhibits tumor-specific nuclear localization and tumor-specific phosphorylation on threonine 108 (T108). Here, we studied the effects of T108 phosphorylation on the tumor-specific nuclear localization and apoptotic activity of Apoptin. We first showed that a hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged Apoptin, but not the green fluorescent protein-fused Apoptin used in many previous studies, exhibited the same intracellular distribution pattern as native Apoptin. We then made and analyzed an HA-Apoptin mutant with its T108 phosphorylation site abolished. We found that Apoptin T108 phosphorylation is not required for its tumor-specific nuclear localization and abolishing the T108 phosphorylation of Apoptin does affect its apoptotic activity in tumor cells but only partially. Our results support the previous finding that Apoptin contains two distinct apoptosis domains located separately at the N- and C-terminal regions and suggest that the T108 phosphorylation may only be required for the apoptotic activity mediated through the C-terminal apoptosis domain.

  16. Hyperoside protects primary rat cortical neurons from neurotoxicity induced by amyloid ?-protein via the PI3K\\/Akt\\/Bad\\/Bcl XL-regulated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ke-Wu Zeng; Xue-Mei Wang; Hyeonseok Ko; Hak Cheol Kwon; Jin Wook Cha; Hyun Ok Yang

    Amyloid ?-protein (A?), which is deposited in neurons as neurofibrillary tangles, is known to exert cytotoxic effects by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction. Additionally, the PI3K\\/Akt-mediated interaction between Bad and BclXL plays an important role in maintaining mitochondrial integrity. However, the application of therapeutic drugs, especially natural products in Alzheimer's disease therapy via PI3K\\/Akt\\/Bad\\/BclXL-regulated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway has not aroused extensive attention.

  17. Expression of animal CED9 anti-apoptotic gene in tobacco modifies plasma membrane ion fluxes in response to salinity and oxidative stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergey Shabala; Tracey A. Cuin; Luke Prismall; Lev G. Nemchinov

    2007-01-01

    Apoptosis, one form of programmed cell death (PCD), plays an important role in mediating plant adaptive responses to the environment.\\u000a Recent studies suggest that expression of animal anti-apoptotic genes in transgenic plants may significantly improve a plant’s\\u000a ability to tolerate a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses. The underlying cellular mechanisms of this process remain unexplored.\\u000a In this study, we

  18. The anti-apoptotic protein BAG3 is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer and induced by heat stress in pancreatic cancer cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Quan Liao; Fumiaki Ozawa; Helmut Friess; Arthur Zimmermann; Shinichi Takayama; John C. Reed; Jörg Kleeff; Markus W. Büchler

    2001-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer cells are usually resistant to apoptosis mediated by intrinsic or extrinsic factors. BAG-3 (Bis, CAIR), which was identified as a BAG-1-related protein, is a novel modulator of cellular anti-apoptotic activity that functions through its interaction with Bcl-2. In this study we analyzed BAG-3 expression in human pancreatic cancer tissues and cell lines. BAG-3 mRNA was expressed at moderate

  19. Epithelial morphogenesis: apoptotic forces drive cell shape changes.

    PubMed

    Kiehart, Daniel P

    2015-03-01

    Studying how cells produce and transmit forces that drive morphogenesis is critical to understanding organismal development. A new paper by Monier et al. (2015) identifies an apicobasal actomyosin cable that characterizes apoptotic cells and contributes force(s) for cell sheet bending. PMID:25758861

  20. A receptor for phosphatidylserine-specific clearance of apoptotic cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valerie A. Fadok; Donna L. Bratton; David M. Rose; Alan Pearson; R. Alan B. Ezekewitz; Peter M. Henson

    2000-01-01

    The culmination of apoptosis in vivo is phagocytosis of cellular corpses. During apoptosis, the asymmetry of plasma membrane phospholipids is lost, which exposes phosphatidylserine externally. The phagocytosis of apoptotic cells can be inhibited stereospecifically by phosphatidylserine and its structural analogues, but not by other anionic phospholipids, suggesting that phosphatidylserine is specifically recognized. Using phage display, we have cloned a gene

  1. Innate and Adaptive Immune Response to Apoptotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Peng, YuFeng; Martin, David A; Kenkel, Justin; Zhang, Kang; Ogden, Carol Anne; Elkon, Keith B.

    2007-01-01

    The immune system is constantly exposed to dying cells, most of which arise during central tolerance and from effete circulating immune cells. Under homeostatic conditions, phagocytes (predominantly macrophages and dendritic cells) belonging to the innate immune system, rapidly ingest cells and their debris. Apoptotic cell removal requires recognition of altered self on the apoptotic membrane, a process which is facilitated by natural antibodies and serum opsonins. Recognition, may be site and context specific. Uptake and ingestion of apoptotic cells promotes an immunosuppressive environment that avoids inflammatory responses to self antigens. However, it does not preclude a T cell response and it is likely that constant exposure to self antigen, particularly by immature dendritic cells, leads to T cell tolerance. Tolerance occurs by several different mechanisms including anergy and deletion (for CD8+ T cells) and induction of T regulatory cells (for CD4+ T cells). Failed apoptotic cell clearance promotes immune responses to self antigens, especially when the cellular contents are leaked from the cell (necrosis). Inflammatory responses may be induced by nucleic acid stimulation of toll like receptors and other immune sensors, specific intracellular proteins and non protein (uric acid) stimulation of inflammasomes. PMID:17888627

  2. Ethanol-Induced Apoptotic Neurodegeneration and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chrysanthy Ikonomidou; Petra Bittigau; Masahiko J. Ishimaru; David F. Wozniak; Christian Koch; Kerstin Genz; Madelon T. Price; Vanya Stefovska; Friederike Hörster; Tanya Tenkova; Krikor Dikranian; John W. Olney

    2000-01-01

    The deleterious effects of ethanol on the developing human brain are poorly understood. Here it is reported that ethanol, acting by a dual mechanism [blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors and excessive activation of GABAA receptors], triggers widespread apoptotic neurodegeneration in the developing rat forebrain. Vulnerability coincides with the period of synaptogenesis, which in humans extends from the sixth month

  3. No death without life: vital functions of apoptotic effectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Galluzzi; N Joza; E Tasdemir; M C Maiuri; M Hengartner; J M Abrams; N Tavernarakis; J Penninger; F Madeo; G Kroemer

    2008-01-01

    As a result of the genetic experiments performed in Caenorhabditis elegans, it has been tacitly assumed that the core proteins of the ‘apoptotic machinery’ (CED-3, -4, -9 and EGL-1) would be solely involved in cell death regulation\\/execution and would not exert any functions outside of the cell death realm. However, multiple studies indicate that the mammalian orthologs of these C.

  4. Apoptotic Cells Protect Mice against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Shock1

    E-print Network

    Fan, Jianqing

    be recognized and cleared by M in a CD14/throm- bospondin/vitronectin receptor-dependent manner, accompanied in responsive cells, particularly in monocytes, macrophages (M ),3 and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs re- sponse (17). Voll et al. reported that the presence of apoptotic cells during monocyte activation

  5. Cytostatic and apoptotic actions of TGF-? in homeostasis and cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter M. Siegel; Joan Massagué

    2003-01-01

    The cytostatic and apoptotic functions of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) help restrain the growth of mammalian tissues; loss of these effects leads to hyperproliferative disorders and is common in cancer. However, tumour cells that are relieved from TGF-? growth constraints might then overproduce this cytokine to create a local immunosuppressive environment that fosters tumour growth and exacerbates the invasive and

  6. Apoptotic Osteocytes Regulate Osteoclast Precursor Recruitment and Differentiation In Vitro

    E-print Network

    You, Lidan

    Apoptotic Osteocytes Regulate Osteoclast Precursor Recruitment and Differentiation In Vitro Saja A, Toronto, ON, Canada ABSTRACT Fatigue loading causes a spatial distribution of osteocyte apoptosis co-localized with bone resorption spaces peaking around microdamage sites. Since osteocytes have been shown to regulate

  7. Apoptotic Cell Death of Human Interstitial Cells of Cajal

    PubMed Central

    De Giorgio, Roberto; Faussone Pellegrini, Maria Simonetta; Garrity-Park, Megan M.; Miller, Steven M.; Schmalz, Philip F.; Young-Fadok, Tonia M.; Larson, David W.; Dozois, Eric J.; Camilleri, Michael; Stanghellini, Vincenzo; Szurszewski, Joseph H.; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2008-01-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are specialized mesenchyme-derived cells that regulate contractility and excitability of many smooth muscles with loss of ICC seen in a variety of gut motility disorders. Maintenance of ICC numbers is tightly regulated, with several factors known to regulate proliferation. In contrast, the fate of ICC is not established. The aim of this study was to investigate whether apoptosis plays a role in the regulation of ICC numbers in the normal colon. ICC were identified by immunolabeling for the c-Kit receptor tyrosine kinase and by electron microscopy. Apoptosis was detected in colon tissue by immunolabeling for activated caspase-3, terminal dUTP nucleotide end labeling, and ultrastructural changes in the cells. Apoptotic ICC were identified and counted in double labeled tissue sections. Apoptotic ICC were identified in all layers of the colonic muscle. In the muscularis propria 1.5 ± 0.2% of ICC were positive for activated caspase-3 and in the circular muscle layer 2.1 ± 0.9% of ICC were positive for TUNEL. Apoptotic ICC were identified by electron microscopy. Apoptotic cell death is ongoing in ICC. The level of apoptosis in ICC in healthy colon indicates that these cells must be continually regenerated to maintain intact networks. PMID:18798796

  8. Monitoring circulating apoptotic cells by in-vivo flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xunbin; Tan, Yuan; Chen, Yun; Zhang, Li; Li, Yan; Liu, Guangda; Wu, Bin; Wang, Chen

    2008-02-01

    Chemotherapies currently constitute one main venue of cancer treatment. For a large number of adult and elderly patients, however, treatment options are poor. These patients may suffer from disease that is resistant to conventional chemotherapy or may not be candidates for curative therapies because of advanced age or poor medical conditions. To control disease in these patients, new therapies must be developed that are selectively targeted to unique characteristics of tumor cell growth and metastasis. A reliable early evaluation and prediction of response to the chemotherapy is critical to its success. Chemotherapies induce apoptosis in tumor cells and a portion of such apoptotic cancer cells may be present in the circulation. However, the fate of circulating tumor cells is difficult to assess with conventional methods that require blood sampling. We report the in situ measurement of circulating apoptotic cells in live animals using in vivo flow cytometry, a novel method that enables real-time detection and quantification of circulating cells without blood extraction. Apoptotic cells are rapidly cleared from the circulation with a half-life of ~10 minutes. Real-time monitoring of circulating apoptotic cells can be useful for detecting early changes in disease processes, as well as for monitoring response to therapeutic intervention.

  9. Up-regulation of fas and fasL pro-apoptotic genes expression in type 1 diabetes patients after autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, G L V; Malmegrim, K C R; Ferreira, A F; Tognon, R; Kashima, S; Couri, C E B; Covas, D T; Voltarelli, J C; de Castro, F A

    2012-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by T cell-mediated destruction of pancreatic ? cells, resulting in insulin deficiency and hyperglycaemia. Recent studies have described that apoptosis impairment during central and peripheral tolerance is involved in T1D pathogenesis. In this study, the apoptosis-related gene expression in T1D patients was evaluated before and after treatment with high-dose immunosuppression followed by autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HDI-AHSCT). We also correlated gene expression results with clinical response to HDI-AHSCT. We observed a decreased expression of bad, bax and fasL pro-apoptotic genes and an increased expression of a1, bcl-xL and cIAP-2 anti-apoptotic genes in patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) compared to controls. After HDI-AHSCT, we found an up-regulation of fas and fasL and a down-regulation of anti-apoptotic bcl-xL genes expression in post-HDI-AHSCT periods compared to pre-transplantation. Additionally, the levels of bad, bax, bok, fasL, bcl-xL and cIAP-1 genes expression were found similar to controls 2 years after HDI-AHSCT. Furthermore, over-expression of pro-apoptotic noxa at 540 days post-HDI-AHSCT correlated positively with insulin-free patients and conversely with glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies (GAD65) autoantibody levels. Taken together, the results suggest that apoptosis-related genes deregulation in patients' PBMCs might be involved in breakdown of immune tolerance and consequently contribute to T1D pathogenesis. Furthermore, HDI-AHSCT modulated the expression of some apoptotic genes towards the levels similar to controls. Possibly, the expression of these apoptotic molecules could be applied as biomarkers of clinical remission of T1D patients treated with HDI-AHSCT therapy. PMID:22519592

  10. Cardioprotective activity of urocortin by preventing caspase-independent, non-apoptotic death in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes exposed to ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Takatani-Nakase, Tomoka, E-mail: nakase@mukogawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mukogawa Women's University, 11-68, Koshien, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8179 (Japan)] [Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mukogawa Women's University, 11-68, Koshien, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8179 (Japan); Takahashi, Koichi, E-mail: koichi@mukogawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mukogawa Women's University, 11-68, Koshien, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8179 (Japan)] [Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mukogawa Women's University, 11-68, Koshien, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8179 (Japan)

    2010-11-12

    Research highlights: {yields} Ischemia induces high level of iPLA{sub 2} resulting in caspase-independent myocyte death. {yields} Urocortin causes iPLA{sub 2} down-regulation leading to avoidance of non-apoptotic death. {yields} The survival-promoting effect of urocortin is abrogated by CRH receptor antagonist. -- Abstract: Caspase-independent, non-apoptotic cell death in ischemic heart disease is considered to be one of the important therapeutic targets, however, the detailed mechanisms of this cell death process are not clear. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of non-apoptotic cell death in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes during ischemia, and the cardioprotection by preventing the mechanisms. We found that ischemia caused elevation of the phospholipase A{sub 2} (iPLA{sub 2}) expression in the myocytes, leading to distinctive non-apoptotic nuclear shrinkage, and cell death. Moreover, we investigated whether the potent cardioprotective corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), urocortin, which had been less focused on non-apoptotic cell death, inhibits the ischemic myocyte death. Ischemia-augmented nuclear shrinkage of the myocytes was suppressed by the pretreatment of {approx}10 nM urocortin before the cells were exposed to ischemia. Urocortin could significantly suppress the expression and activity of iPLA{sub 2}, resulting in preventing the ischemia-induced cell death. The survival-promoting effect of urocortin was abrogated by the CRH receptor antagonist astressin. These findings provide the first evidence linking the targets of the urocortin-mediated cardioprotection to the suppression of the caspase-independent, non-apoptotic death in cardiac myocytes exposed to ischemia.

  11. F-box protein 10, an NF-?B-dependent anti-apoptotic protein, regulates TRAIL-induced apoptosis through modulating c-Fos/c-FLIP pathway.

    PubMed

    Ge, R; Wang, Z; Zeng, Q; Xu, X; Olumi, A F

    2011-07-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces selective apoptotic death of human cancer cells while sparing normal human cells. Although TRAIL holds great promise as a potential anticancer agent, some tumors develop resistance to TRAIL. Previously, we have shown that the activator protein 1 (AP-1) family member, c-Fos, is an important modulator of apoptosis. Although F- box protein 10 (FBXL10) has been implicated to regulate an AP-1 family protein, c-Jun, its role in mediating apoptotic pathways has not been previously investigated. Here, we report that FBXL10 is a transcriptional repressor of c-Fos and a target gene of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B)-p65 in human cancers. We demonstrate that FBXL10 is an important anti-apoptotic molecule, which directly binds and represses c-Fos promoter in order for cancer cells to resist TRAIL-induced apoptosis. FBXL10 indirectly regulates c-FLIP(L) levels via c-Fos-dependent pathways. Silencing of FBXL10 sensitizes resistant cells to TRAIL, while, overexpression of FBXL10 represses TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Moreover, our results indicate that expression of FBXL10 functions via an NF-?B-dependent pathway, and TRAIL or proteasome inhibitors downregulate FBXL10 via inhibiting NF-?B signaling. Taken together, we find a novel functional role for FBXL10 as an anti-apoptotic molecule, and describe a new apoptotic-related pathway that involves NF-?B/FBXL10/c-Fos/c-FLIP. Therefore, silencing FBXL10 can help overcome resistant cancer cells for pro-apoptotic therapies. PMID:21252908

  12. Prostaglandin D2 synthase: Apoptotic factor in alzheimer plasma, inducer of reactive oxygen species, inflammatory cytokines and dialysis dementia

    PubMed Central

    Maesaka, John K.; Sodam, Bali; Palaia, Thomas; Ragolia, Louis; Batuman, Vecihi; Miyawaki, Nobuyuki; Shastry, Shubha; Youmans, Steven; El-Sabban, Marwan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokines have all been implicated in the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Objectives: The present study identifies the apoptotic factor that was responsible for the fourfold increase in apoptotic rates that we previously noted when pig proximal tubule, LLC-PK1, cells were exposed to AD plasma as compared to plasma from normal controls and multi-infarct dementia. Patients and Methods: The apoptotic factor was isolated from AD urine and identified as lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase (L-PGDS). L-PGDS was found to be the major apoptotic factor in AD plasma as determined by inhibition of apoptosis approximating control levels by the cyclo-oxygenase (COX) 2 inhibitor, NS398, and the antibody to L-PGDS. Blood levels of L-PGDS, however, were not elevated in AD. We now demonstrate a receptor-mediated uptake of L-PGDS in PC12 neuronal cells that was time, dose and temperature-dependent and was saturable by competition with cold L-PGDS and albumin. Further proof of this endocytosis was provided by an electron microscopic study of gold labeled L-PGDS and immunofluorescence with Alexa-labeled L-PGDS. Results: The recombinant L-PGDS and wild type (WT) L-PGDS increased ROS but only the WTL-PGDS increased IL6 and TNF?, suggesting that differences in glycosylation of L-PGDS in AD was responsible for this discrepancy. Conclusions: These data collectively suggest that L-PGDS might play an important role in the development of dementia in patients on dialysis and of AD. PMID:24475446

  13. The Host Defense Peptide LL-37 Selectively Permeabilizes Apoptotic Leukocytes?

    PubMed Central

    Björstad, Åse; Askarieh, Galia; Brown, Kelly L.; Christenson, Karin; Forsman, Huamei; Önnheim, Karin; Li, Hsin-Ni; Teneberg, Susann; Maier, Olaf; Hoekstra, Dick; Dahlgren, Claes; Davidson, Donald J.; Bylund, Johan

    2009-01-01

    LL-37 is a cationic host defense peptide that is highly expressed during acute inflammation and that kills bacteria by poorly defined mechanisms, resulting in permeabilization of microbial membranes. High concentrations of LL-37 have also been reported to have cytotoxic effects against eukaryotic cells, but the peptide is clearly capable of differentiating between membranes with different compositions (eukaryotic versus bacterial membranes). Eukaryotic cells such as leukocytes change their membrane composition during apoptotic cell death, when they are turned into nonfunctional but structurally intact entities. We tested whether LL-37 exerted specific activity on apoptotic cells and found that the peptide selectively permeabilized the membranes of apoptotic human leukocytes, leaving viable cells unaffected. This activity was seemingly analogous to the direct microbicidal effect of LL-37, in that it was rapid, independent of known surface receptors and/or active cell signaling, and inhibitable by serum components such as high-density lipoprotein. A similar selective permeabilization of apoptotic cells was recorded for both NK cells and neutrophils. In the latter cell type, LL-37 permeabilized both the plasma and granule membranes, resulting in the release of both lactate dehydrogenase and myeloperoxidase. Apoptosis is a way for inflammatory cells to die silently and minimize collateral tissue damage by retaining tissue-damaging and proinflammatory substances within intact membranes. Permeabilization of apoptotic leukocytes by LL-37, accompanied by the leakage of cytoplasmic as well as intragranular molecules, may thus shift the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory signals and in this way be of importance for the termination of acute inflammation. PMID:19075071

  14. The peculiar apoptotic behavior of skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Salucci, Sara; Burattini, Sabrina; Baldassarri, Valentina; Battistelli, Michela; Canonico, Barbara; Valmori, Aurelio; Papa, Stefano; Falcieri, Elisabetta

    2013-08-01

    Apoptosis plays an active role in maintaining skeletal muscle homeostasis. Its deregulation is involved in several skeletal muscle disorders such as dystrophies, myopathies, disuse and sarcopenia. The aim of this work was to study in vitro the apoptotic behavior induced by etoposide, staurosporine and hydrogen peroxide in the C2C12 skeletal muscle cell line, comparing myoblast vs myotube sensitivity, investigated by means of morphological and cytofluorimetric analyses. Myotubes appeared more resistant than myoblasts to apoptotic induction. In myoblasts treated with etoposide, nuclei with chromatin condensation were observed, in the presence of a diffuse DNA fragmentation, as shown by confocal microscopy. The latter also appeared in myotubes, where apoptotic and normal nuclei coexisted inside the same syncytium. After staurosporine treatment, myobalsts evidenced late apoptotic features and a high number of TUNEL-positive nuclei. Secondary necrosis appeared in myotubes, where myonuclei with cleaved DNA again coexisted with normal myonuclei. After H?O? exposure, myotubes, differently from myoblasts, showed a poor sensitivity to cell death. Intriguingly, autophagic granules appeared abundantly in myotubes after each treatment. In myotubes, mitochondria were better preserved than in myoblasts since those which were damaged were probably degraded through autophagic processes. These findings demonstrate a scarce sensitivity of myotubes to apoptotic stimuli due to acquisition of an apoptosis-resistant phenotype during differentiation. The presence of nuclear-dependent "territorial" death domains in the syncytium could explain a slower death of myotubes compared to mononucleated cells. In addition, autophagy could preserve and protect muscle cell integrity against chemical stimuli, making C2C12 cells, in particular myotubes, more resistant to apoptosis induction. PMID:23400589

  15. Functional antagonism between pro-apoptotic BIM and anti-apoptotic BCL-XL in MYC-induced lymphomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Delbridge, A R D; Grabow, S; Bouillet, P; Adams, J M; Strasser, A

    2015-04-01

    Genomic analyses revealed that many cancers have acquired abnormalities in their expression of pro- or anti-apoptotic members of the BCL-2 protein family. It is, however, unknown whether changes in pro- or anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members have similar impact on tumorigenesis or whether changes in one subgroup have disproportionate impact. We compared the consequences of concomitant loss of anti-apoptotic Bclx and pro-apoptotic Bim on MYC-induced lymphomagenesis. Whereas only loss of both Bclx alleles markedly forestalled tumorigenesis, loss of a single Bim allele overcame this blockade. Conversely, loss of even a single Bim allele sufficed to substantially accelerate lymphomagenesis, and only loss of both but not loss of a single allele of Bclx could attenuate this acceleration. The evidence that modest (two-fold) monoallelic changes in the expression of at least some BH3-only proteins can profoundly impact tumorigenesis suggests that such aberrations, imposed by epigenetic or genetic changes, may expedite tumorigenesis more effectively than elevated expression of pro-survival BCL-2 family members. These findings further our understanding of the mechanisms of lymphomagenesis and possibly also cancer therapy. PMID:24858047

  16. Apoptotic mechanism of MCF-7 breast cells in vivo and in vitro induced by photodynamic therapy with C-phycocyanin.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Chu, Xianming; Gao, Meihua; Li, Wuxiu

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pro-apoptotic mechanism of C-phycocyanin (C-PC)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) in a murine tumor model and cultured MCF-7 cells. The mice were divided into four groups: control, He-Ne laser radiation, C-PC treatment, and C-PC treatment + He-Ne laser radiation. The effects of C-PC and/or laser on immune organs, immunocyte proliferation, tumor genesis, and apoptosis-related proteins expressions were investigated by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, MTT, electron microscope, western blot, and immunofluorescence assay. The results showed that He-Ne laser treatment alone showed marginal effects. In C-PC-treated mice, the weight of immune organs, proliferation of immunocytes, and expression of pro-apoptotic Fas protein were increased, whereas the tumor weight and the expressions of anti-apoptotic proteins (NF-kappaB and P53) and CD44 mRNA were comparatively decreased. In vitro, C-PC was able to inhibit MCF-7 cell proliferation and cause ultrastructural changes including microvilli loss, formation of membrane blebs, and chromatin condensation. Moreover, C-PC treatment could activate caspase-9 expression, induce cytochrome c release, and downregulate Bcl-2 expression. When combined with He-Ne laser irradiation, the effects of C-PC treatment were further enhanced. Facilitating the apoptosis signals transduction and finally leading to the apoptosis of MCF-7 cells may be the mechanism of the anti-tumor activities of C-PC-mediated PDT. PMID:20043050

  17. RGDechi-hCit: ?v?3 Selective Pro-Apoptotic Peptide as Potential Carrier for Drug Delivery into Melanoma Metastatic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Del Gatto, Annarita; Di Gaetano, Sonia; Guarnieri, Daniela; Saviano, Michele; Zaccaro, Laura

    2014-01-01

    ?v?3 integrin is an important tumor marker widely expressed on the surface of cancer cells. Recently, we reported some biological features of RGDechi-hCit, an ?v?3 selective peptide antagonist. In the present work, we mainly investigated the pro-apoptotic activity of the molecule and its ability to penetrate the membrane of WM266 cells, human malignant melanoma cells expressing high levels of ?v?3 integrin. For the first time we demonstrated the pro-apoptotic effect and the ability of RGDechi-hCit to enter into cell overexpressing ?v?3 integrin mainly by clathrin- and caveolin-mediated endocytosis. Furthermore, we deepened and confirmed the selectivity, anti-adhesion, and anti-proliferative features of the peptide. Altogether these experiments give insight into the biological behavior of RGDechi-hCit and have important implications for the employment of the peptide as a new selective carrier to deliver drugs into the cell and as a therapeutic and diagnostic tool for metastatic melanoma. Moreover, since the peptide shows a pro-apoptotic effect, a great perspective could be the development of a new class of selective systems containing RGDechi-hCit and pro-apoptotic molecules or other therapeutic agents to attain a synergic action. PMID:25248000

  18. CNB-001, a novel pyrazole derivative mitigates motor impairments associated with neurodegeneration via suppression of neuroinflammatory and apoptotic response in experimental Parkinson's disease mice.

    PubMed

    Jayaraj, Richard L; Elangovan, Namasivayam; Dhanalakshmi, Chinnasamy; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the progressive degeneration via apoptosis of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons associated with inflammation, resulting in behavioral anomalies. Therefore, an anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory regimen may be useful in treatment of PD. CNB-001, a novel pyrazole derivative of curcumin and cyclohexyl bisphenol A has superior biological properties than its parental compounds. The present study utilizes a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of PD to investigate anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mediated neuroprotection of CNB-001. The administration of MPTP (30 mg/kg for four successive days) significantly induced motor impairments as determined by behavioral studies (narrow beam test, catalepsy and akinesia), lowered dopamine levels and up-regulated the expressions of the inflammatory and apoptotic markers (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1?, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, glial fibrillary acidic protein, cyclooxygenase-2 and Bax). Moreover, MPTP treatment attenuated Bcl-2 and nigrostriatal dopamine transporter expression and also increased total nitrite and citrulline levels in comparison to the control group. However, co-treatment with CNB-001 significantly attenuated motor impairments and pathological changes caused by MPTP administration. Collectively, our results demonstrate that CNB-001 is neuroprotective through its anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. Thus, CNB-001 has potential to be further developed as a therapeutic candidate for treatment of PD. PMID:24995576

  19. SorCS2 regulates dopaminergic wiring and is processed into an apoptotic two-chain receptor in peripheral glia.

    PubMed

    Glerup, Simon; Olsen, Ditte; Vaegter, Christian B; Gustafsen, Camilla; Sjoegaard, Susanne S; Hermey, Guido; Kjolby, Mads; Molgaard, Simon; Ulrichsen, Maj; Boggild, Simon; Skeldal, Sune; Fjorback, Anja N; Nyengaard, Jens R; Jacobsen, Jan; Bender, Dirk; Bjarkam, Carsten R; Sørensen, Esben S; Füchtbauer, Ernst-Martin; Eichele, Gregor; Madsen, Peder; Willnow, Thomas E; Petersen, Claus M; Nykjaer, Anders

    2014-06-01

    Balancing trophic and apoptotic cues is critical for development and regeneration of neuronal circuits. Here we identify SorCS2 as a proneurotrophin (proNT) receptor, mediating both trophic and apoptotic signals in conjunction with p75(NTR). CNS neurons, but not glia, express SorCS2 as a single-chain protein that is essential for proBDNF-induced growth cone collapse in developing dopaminergic processes. SorCS2- or p75(NTR)-deficient in mice caused reduced dopamine levels and metabolism and dopaminergic hyperinnervation of the frontal cortex. Accordingly, both knockout models displayed a paradoxical behavioral response to amphetamine reminiscent of ADHD. Contrary, in PNS glia, but not in neurons, proteolytic processing produced a two-chain SorCS2 isoform that mediated proNT-dependent Schwann cell apoptosis. Sciatic nerve injury triggered generation of two-chain SorCS2 in p75(NTR)-positive dying Schwann cells, with apoptosis being profoundly attenuated in Sorcs2(-/-) mice. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that two-chain processing of SorCS2 enables neurons and glia to respond differently to proneurotrophins. PMID:24908487

  20. Cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic activities of cynaropicrin, a sesquiterpene lactone, on the viability of leukocyte cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae Youl; Kim, Ae Ra; Jung, Jee H; Chun, Taehoon; Rhee, Man Hee; Yoo, Eun Sook

    2004-05-25

    Cynaropicrin, a sesquiterpene lactone from Saussurea lappa, has been reported to possess immunomodulatory effects on cytokine release, nitric oxide production and immunosuppressive effects. In this study, we have examined cytotoxic effect of cynaropicrin against several types of cell lines such as macrophages, eosinophils, fibroblasts and lymphocytes. Cynaropicrin potently inhibited the proliferation of leukocyte cancer cell lines, such as U937, Eol-1 and Jurkat T cells, but some other cells such as Chang liver cells and human fibroblast cell lines were not strongly suppressed by cynaropicrin treatment. The cytotoxic effect of cynaropicrin was due to inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase, according to flow-cytometric, DNA fragmentation and morphological analyses using U937 cells. Evidence that combination treatment with l-cysteine and N-acetyl-l-cysteine, reactive oxygen species scavengers, or rottlerin (1-[6-[(3-acetyl-2,4,6-trihydroxy-5-methylphenyl)methyl]-5,7-dihydroxy-2, 2-dimethyl-2H-1-benzopyran-8-yl]-3-phenyl-2-propen-1-one), a specific protein kinase (PK) Cdelta inhibitor, abolished cynaropicrin-mediated cytotoxicity and morphological change, and that cynaropicrin-induced proteolytic cleavage of PKCdelta suggests that reactive oxygen species and PKCdelta may play an important role in mediating pro-apoptotic activity by cynaropicrin. Taken together, these results indicate that cynaropicrin may be a potential anticancer agent against some leukocyte cancer cells such as lymphoma or leukemia, through pro-apoptotic activity. PMID:15178350

  1. Hypoxic Switch in Mitochondrial Myeloid Cell Leukemia Factor-1/Mtd Apoptotic Rheostat Contributes to Human Trophoblast Cell Death in Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Soleymanlou, Nima; Jurisicova, Andrea; Wu, Yuanhong; Chijiiwa, Mari; Ray, Jocelyn E.; Detmar, Jacqui; Todros, Tullia; Zamudio, Stacy; Post, Martin; Caniggia, Isabella

    2007-01-01

    Preeclampsia, a disorder of pregnancy, is characterized by increased trophoblast cell death and altered trophoblast-mediated remodeling of myometrial spiral arteries resulting in reduced uteroplacental perfusion. Mitochondria-associated Bcl-2 family members are important regulators of programed cell death. The mechanism whereby hypoxia alters the mitochondrial apoptotic rheostat is essential to our understanding of placental disease. Herein, myeloid cell leukemia factor-1 (Mcl-1) isoform expression was examined in physiological/pathological models of placental hypoxia. Preeclamptic placentae were characterized by caspase-dependent cleavage of death-suppressing Mcl-1L and switch toward cell death-inducing Mcl-1S. In vitro, Mcl-1L cleavage was induced by hypoxia-reoxygenation in villous explants, whereas Mcl-1L overexpression under hypoxia-reoxygenation rescued trophoblast cells from undergoing apoptosis. Cleavage was mediated by caspase-3/-7 because pharmacological caspase inhibition prevented this process. Altitude-induced chronic hypoxia was characterized by expression of Mcl-1L; resulting in a reduction of apoptotic markers (cleaved caspase-3/-8 and p85 poly-ADP-ribose polymerase). Moreover, in both physiological (explants and high altitude) and pathological (preeclampsia) placental hypoxia, decreased trophoblast syncytin expression was observed. Hence, although both pathological and physiological placental hypoxia are associated with slowed trophoblast differentiation, trophoblast apoptosis is only up-regulated in preeclampsia, because of a hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced switch in generation of proapoptotic Mcl-1 isoforms. PMID:17600131

  2. Stress-induced apoptosis is not mediated by endolysosomal ceramide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BRUNO SEGUI; CHRISTINE BEZOMBES; EMMANUELLE URO-COSTE; JEFFREY A. MEDIN; NATHALIE ANDRIEU-ABADIE; NATHALIE AUGE ´; ANNE BROUCHET; GUY LAURENT; ROBERT SALVAYRE; JEAN-PIERRE JAFFREZOU; THIERRY LEVADE

    A major lipid-signaling pathway in mammalian cells implicates the generation of cer- amide from the ubiquitous sphingolipid sphingo- myelin (SM). Hydrolysis of SM by a sphingomyeli- nase present in acidic compartments has been reported to mediate, via the production of cer- amide, the apoptotic cell death triggered by stress- inducing agents. In the present study, we investi- gated whether the

  3. Alteration of TEAD1 Expression Levels Confers Apoptotic Resistance through the Transcriptional Up-Regulation of Livin

    PubMed Central

    Landin Malt, André; Cagliero, Julie; Legent, Kevin; Silber, Joël; Zider, Alain; Flagiello, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    Background TEA domain (TEAD) proteins are highly conserved transcription factors involved in embryonic development and differentiation of various tissues. More recently, emerging evidences for a contribution of these proteins towards apoptosis and cell proliferation regulation have also been proposed. These effects appear to be mediated by the interaction between TEAD and its co-activator Yes-Associated Protein (YAP), the downstream effector of the Hippo tumour suppressor pathway. Methodology/Principal Findings We further investigated the mechanisms underlying TEAD-mediated apoptosis regulation and showed that overexpression or RNAi-mediated silencing of the TEAD1 protein is sufficient to protect mammalian cell lines from induced apoptosis, suggesting a proapoptotic function for TEAD1 and a non physiological cytoprotective effect for overexpressed TEAD1. Moreover we show that the apoptotic resistance conferred by altered TEAD1 expression is mediated by the transcriptional up-regulation of Livin, a member of the Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (IAP) family. In addition, we show that overexpression of a repressive form of TEAD1 can induce Livin up-regulation, indicating that the effect of TEAD1 on Livin expression is indirect and favoring a model in which TEAD1 activates a repressor of Livin by interacting with a limiting cofactor that gets titrated upon TEAD1 up-regulation. Interestingly, we show that overexpression of a mutated form of TEAD1 (Y421H) implicated in Sveinsson's chorioretinal atrophy that strongly reduces its interaction with YAP as well as its activation, can induce Livin expression and protect cells from induced apoptosis, suggesting that YAP is not the cofactor involved in this process. Conclusions/Significance Taken together our data reveal a new, Livin-dependent, apoptotic role for TEAD1 in mammals and provide mechanistic insight downstream of TEAD1 deregulation in cancers. PMID:23029054

  4. HGF receptor associates with the anti-apoptotic protein BAG-1 and prevents cell death.

    PubMed Central

    Bardelli, A; Longati, P; Albero, D; Goruppi, S; Schneider, C; Ponzetto, C; Comoglio, P M

    1996-01-01

    The mechanisms by which apoptosis is prevented by survival factors are largely unknown. Using an interaction cloning approach, we identified a protein that binds to the intracellular domain of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor. This protein was identified as BAG-1, a recently characterized Bcl-2 functional partner, which prolongs cell survival through unknown mechanisms. Overexpression of BAG-1 in liver progenitor cells enhances protection from apoptosis by HGF. Association of the receptor with BAG-1 occurs in intact cells, is mediated by the C-terminal region of BAG-1 and is independent from tyrosine phosphorylation of the receptor. Formation of the complex is increased rapidly following induction of apoptosis. BAG-1 also enhances platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-mediated protection from apoptosis and associates with the PDGF receptor. Microinjection or transient expression of BAG-1 deletion mutants shows that both the N- and the C-terminal domains are required for protection from apoptosis. The finding of a link between growth factor receptors and the anti-apoptotic machinery fills a gap in the understanding of the molecular events regulating programmed cell death. Images PMID:8947043

  5. Neural precursor cells possess multiple p53-dependent apoptotic pathways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R S Akhtar; Y Geng; B J Klocke; K A Roth; KA Roth

    2006-01-01

    Neural precursor cells (NPCs) are markedly sensitive to apoptotic insults. p53-dependent transcriptional activation of proapoptotic genes has been hypothesized to regulate NPC death in response to DNA damage. Recent studies of non-NPCs have also indicated that p53 may directly interact with Bcl-2 molecules and thereby regulate death independently of transcription. The contribution of transcription-independent p53 activation in NPC death has

  6. Apoptotic Death of Cancer Stem Cells for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    He, Ying-Chun; Zhou, Fang-Liang; Shen, Yi; Liao, Duan-Fang; Cao, Deliang

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play crucial roles in tumor progression, chemo- and radiotherapy resistance, and recurrence. Recent studies on CSCs have advanced understanding of molecular oncology and development of novel therapeutic strategies. This review article updates the hypothesis and paradigm of CSCs with a focus on major signaling pathways and effectors that regulate CSC apoptosis. Selective CSC apoptotic inducers are introduced and their therapeutic potentials are discussed. These include synthetic and natural compounds, antibodies and recombinant proteins, and oligonucleotides. PMID:24823879

  7. Cancer Vaccine Composed of Oligonucleotides Conjugated to Apoptotic Tumor Cells

    Cancer.gov

    NCI Scientists have discovered that conjugating CpG ODNs to apoptotic tumor cells to improve vaccine activity by ensuring that the ODN remains associated with the tumor antigen so that both are internalized by professional antigen presenting cells. The strategy eliminates the need to define specific tumor-associated antigens, substituting instead the entire tumor cell (which in the absence of CpG ODN is poorly immunogenic).

  8. Cyclin B1/Cdk1 Phosphorylation of Mitochondrial p53 Induces Anti-Apoptotic Response

    PubMed Central

    Nantajit, Danupon; Fan, Ming; Duru, Nadire; Wen, Yunfei; Reed, John C.; Li, Jian Jian

    2010-01-01

    The pro-apoptotic function of p53 has been well defined in preventing genomic instability and cell transformation. However, the intriguing fact that p53 contributes to a pro-survival advantage of tumor cells under DNA damage conditions raises a critical question in radiation therapy for the 50% human cancers with intact p53 function. Herein, we reveal an anti-apoptotic role of mitochondrial p53 regulated by the cell cycle complex cyclin B1/Cdk1 in irradiated human colon cancer HCT116 cells with p53+/+ status. Steady-state levels of p53 and cyclin B1/Cdk1 were identified in the mitochondria of many human and mouse cells, and their mitochondrial influx was significantly enhanced by radiation. The mitochondrial kinase activity of cyclin B1/Cdk1 was found to specifically phosphorylate p53 at Ser-315 residue, leading to enhanced mitochondrial ATP production and reduced mitochondrial apoptosis. The improved mitochondrial function can be blocked by transfection of mutant p53 Ser-315-Ala, or by siRNA knockdown of cyclin B1 and Cdk1 genes. Enforced translocation of cyclin B1 and Cdk1 into mitochondria with a mitochondrial-targeting-peptide increased levels of Ser-315 phosphorylation on mitochondrial p53, improved ATP production and decreased apoptosis by sequestering p53 from binding to Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Furthermore, reconstitution of wild-type p53 in p53-deficient HCT116 p53?/? cells resulted in an increased mitochondrial ATP production and suppression of apoptosis. Such phenomena were absent in the p53-deficient HCT116 p53?/? cells reconstituted with the mutant p53. These results demonstrate a unique anti-apoptotic function of mitochondrial p53 regulated by cyclin B1/Cdk1-mediated Ser-315 phosphorylation in p53-wild-type tumor cells, which may provide insights for improving the efficacy of anti-cancer therapy, especially for tumors that retain p53. PMID:20808790

  9. Apoptotic HPV Positive Cancer Cells Exhibit Transforming Properties

    PubMed Central

    Gaiffe, Emilie; Prétet, Jean-Luc; Launay, Sophie; Jacquin, Elise; Saunier, Maëlle; Hetzel, Geneviève; Oudet, Pierre; Mougin, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that DNA can be transferred from dying engineered cells to neighboring cells through the phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies, which leads to cellular transformation. Here, we provide evidence of an uptake of apoptotic-derived cervical cancer cells by human mesenchymal cells. Interestingly, HeLa (HPV 18+) or Ca Ski (HPV16+) cells, harboring integrated high-risk HPV DNA but not C-33 A cells (HPV-), were able to transform the recipient cells. Human primary fibroblasts engulfed the apoptotic bodies effectively within 30 minutes after co-cultivation. This mechanism is active and involves the actin cytoskeleton. In situ hybridization of transformed fibroblasts revealed the presence of HPV DNA in the nucleus of a subset of phagocytosing cells. These cells expressed the HPV16/18 E6 gene, which contributes to the disruption of the p53/p21 pathway, and the cells exhibited a tumorigenic phenotype, including an increased proliferation rate, polyploidy and anchorage independence growth. Such horizontal transfer of viral oncogenes to surrounding cells that lack receptors for HPV could facilitate the persistence of the virus, the main risk factor for cervical cancer development. This process might contribute to HPV-associated disease progression in vivo. PMID:22574222

  10. Effect of PDT-treated apoptotic cells on macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sheng; Xing, Da; Zhou, Fei-fan; Chen, Wei R.

    2009-02-01

    Recently, the long-term immunological effects of photodynamic therapy have attracted much attention. PDT induced immune response was mainly initiated through necrotic cells and apoptotic cells, as well as immune cells such as macrophages. Nitric oxide (NO) as an important regulatory factor in signal transfer between cells has been wildly studied for generation, development, and metastasis of tumors. NO synthase is a key enzyme in nitric oxide synthesis. However, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is usually activated under pathological conditions, such as stress and cancer, which can produce high levels of nitric oxide and contribute to tumor cytotoxicity. In addition, increased NO production by iNOS has been associated with the host immune response and cell apoptosis, which play an important role in many carcinogenesis and anti-carcinoma mechanisms. This study focuses on the NO production in macrophages, induced by mouse breast carcinoma apoptotic cells treated by PDT in vitro, and on the effects of immune response induced by apoptotic cells in tumor cells growth.

  11. The study of the Oxytropis kansuensis-induced apoptotic pathway in the cerebrum of SD rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Locoweeds cause significant livestock poisoning and economic loss all over the world. Animals can develop locoism, a chronic neurological disease, after grazing on locoweeds. Oxytropis kansuensis is a variety of locoweed that contains swainsonine as its main toxic ingredient. The purpose of this study was to investigate the apoptotic pathway induced in the cerebrum by swainsonine. Results Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (experimental groups I, II, III and a control group) and 6 SD rats of each group were feed in 3 cages separately. Rats were penned as groups and fed with feeds containing 15% (SW content 0.03‰), 30% (SW content 0.06‰), or 45% (SW content 0.09‰) O. kansuensis for experimental groups I, II, and III, respectively, or complete feed in the case of the control group. One hundred and nineteen days after poisoning, and all rats showed neurological disorders at different degrees, which were considered to be successful established a chronic poisoning model of O. kansuensis. rats were sacrificed and the expression of Fas, FasL, Bcl-2, Bax as well as cleaved caspase-3, -8 and -9 proteins in brain tissues were detected by Western blot. The results showed that SW treatment up-regulated Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) (P?mediated, caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways in the brain tissue of SD rats. PMID:24148892

  12. Complex Human Glucocorticoid Receptor dim Mutations Define Glucocorticoid Induced Apoptotic Resistance in Bone Cells

    PubMed Central

    Scoltock, Alyson B.; Hamel, Brant L.; Yudt, Matthew R.; Cidlowski, John A.

    2012-01-01

    A mutation in the D-loop of the second zinc finger of the DNA-binding domain of the human glucocorticoid receptor (hGR), A458T (GRdim), has been suggested to be essential for dimerization and DNA binding of the GR, and genetically altered GRdim mice survive, whereas murine GR knockout mice die. Interestingly, thymocytes isolated from the GRdim mice were reported to be resistant to glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis. To further evaluate the dim mutations in glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis, we stably expressed either the hGRdim (A458T) or the hGRdim4 (A458T, R460D, D462C, and N454D) mutant receptors in human osteosarcoma (U-2 OS) cells that are devoid of hGR and unresponsive to glucocorticoids. We analyzed these cell lines by comparison with a stable expression hGR? U-2 OS cell line, which undergoes apoptosis after glucocorticoid treatment. Transient reporter gene assays with glucocorticoid response element-driven vectors revealed that the hGRdim mutation had diminished steroid responsiveness and cells carrying the hGRdim4 mutation were unresponsive to steroid, whereas glucocorticoid-induced nuclear factor ?B repression was unaffected by either mutation. Interestingly, both the hGRdim and hGRdim4 receptors readily formed dimers as measured by immunoprecipitation. Examination of GR-mediated apoptosis showed that hGRdim cells were only partially resistant to apoptosis, whereas hGRdim4 cells were completely resistant to glucocorticoid-induced cell death despite remaining sensitive to other apoptotic stimuli. Global gene expression analysis revealed that hGRdim4 cells widely regulated gene expression but differentially regulated apoptotic mRNA when compared with cells expressing wild-type hGR?. These studies challenge conclusions drawn from previous studies of GR dim mutants. PMID:22174376

  13. Heterogeneity in Apoptotic Responses of Microvascular Endothelial Cells to Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Grinnell, Katie; Duong, Huetran; Newton, Julie; Rounds, Sharon; Choudhary, Gaurav; Harrington, Elizabeth O.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to disease and can alter endothelial cell (EC) function. EC from different vascular beds are heterogeneous in structure and function, thus we assessed the apoptotic responses of EC from lung and heart to oxidative stress. Since protein kinase C? (PKC?) is activated by oxidative stress and is an important modulator of apoptosis, experiments assessed the level of apoptosis in fixed lung and heart sections of PKC? wild-type (PKC?+/+) and null (PKC??/?) mice housed under normoxia (21% O2) or hyperoxia (~95% O2). We noted a significantly greater number of TUNEL-positive cells in lungs of hyperoxic PKC?+/+ mice, compared to matched hearts or normoxic organs. We found that 33% of apoptotic cells identified in hyperoxic lungs of PKC?+/+ mice were EC, compared to 7% EC in hyperoxic hearts. We further noted that EC apoptosis was significantly reduced in lungs of PKC??/? hyperoxic mice, compared to lungs of PKC?+/+ hyperoxic mice. In vitro, both hyperoxia and H2O2 promoted apoptosis in EC isolated from microvasculature of lung (LMVEC), but not from the heart (HMVEC). H2O2 treatment significantly increased p38 activity in LMVEC, but not in HMVEC. Inhibition of p38 attenuated H2O2-induced LMVEC apoptosis. Baseline expression of total PKC? protein, as well as the caspase-mediated, catalytically active PKC? cleavage fragment, was higher in LMVEC, compared to HMVEC. PKC? inhibition significantly attenuated H2O2-induced LMVEC p38 activation.. Conversely, overexpression of wild-type PKC? or the catalytically-active PKC? cleavage product greatly increased H2O2-induced HMVEC caspase and p38 activation. We propose that enhanced susceptibility of lung EC to oxidant-induced apoptosis is due to increased PKC??p38 signaling, and we describe a PKC?-centric pathway which dictates the differential response of EC from distinct vascular beds to oxidative stress. PMID:21732361

  14. Islet ?-Cells Deficient in Bcl-xL Develop but Are Abnormally Sensitive to Apoptotic Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Carrington, Emma M.; McKenzie, Mark D.; Jansen, Elisa; Myers, Michelle; Fynch, Stacey; Kos, Cameron; Strasser, Andreas; Kay, Thomas W.; Scott, Clare L.; Allison, Janette

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Bcl-xL is an antiapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins and a potent regulator of cell death. We investigated the importance of Bcl-xL for ?-cells by deleting the Bcl-x gene specifically in ?-cells and analyzing their survival in vivo and in culture. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Islets with ?-cells lacking the Bcl-x gene were assessed in vivo by histology and by treatment of mice with low-dose streptozotocin (STZ). Islets were isolated by collagenase digestion and treated in culture with the apoptosis inducers staurosporine, thapsigargin, ?-irradiation, proinflammatory cytokines, or Fas ligand. Cell death was assessed by flow cytometric analysis of subgenomic DNA. RESULTS Bcl-xL–deficient ?-cells developed but were abnormally sensitive to apoptosis induced in vivo by low-dose STZ. Although a small proportion of ?-cells still expressed Bcl-xL, these did not have a survival advantage over their Bcl-xL–deficient neighbors. Islets appeared normal after collagenase isolation and whole-islet culture. They were, however, abnormally sensitive in culture to a number of different apoptotic stimuli including cytotoxic drugs, proinflammatory cytokines, and Fas ligand. CONCLUSIONS Bcl-xL expression in ?-cells is dispensible during islet development in the mouse. Bcl-xL is, however, an important regulator of ?-cell death under conditions of synchronous stress. Bcl-xL expression at physiological levels may partially protect ?-cells from apoptotic stimuli, including apoptosis because of mediators implicated in type 1 diabetes and death or degeneration of transplanted islets. PMID:19581414

  15. Usage of whey protein may cause liver damage via inflammatory and apoptotic responses.

    PubMed

    Gürgen, Sg; Yücel, At; Karaku?, Aç; Ceçen, D; Ozen, G; Koçtürk, S

    2014-10-28

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the long- and short-term inflammatory and apoptotic effects of whey protein on the livers of non-exercising rats. Thirty rats were divided into three groups namely (1) control group, (2) short-term whey (WS) protein diet (252 g/kg for 5 days), and (3) long-term whey (WL) protein diet (252 g/kg for 4 weeks). Interleukin 1? (IL-1?), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), and cytokeratin 18 (CK-18-M30) were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemical methods. Apoptosis was evaluated using the terminal transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) method. Hepatotoxicity was evaluated by quanitation of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Based on the biochemical levels and immunohistochemical results, the highest level of IL-1? was identified in the WL group (p < 0.01). The IL-6 and TNF-? results were slightly lower in the WS group than in the control group and were highest in the WL group (p < 0.01). The CK-18-M30 and TUNEL results were highest in the WS group and exhibited medium intensity in the WL group (p < 0.01). AST results were statistically significant for all groups, while our ALT groups were particularly significant between the WL and control groups (p < 0.01). The results showed that when whey protein is used in an uninformed manner and without exercising, adverse effects on the liver may occur by increasing the apoptotic signal in the short term and increasing inflammatory markers and hepatotoxicity in the long term. PMID:25352651

  16. Regulation of Apoptotic Pathways by Stylophora pistillata (Anthozoa, Pocilloporidae) to Survive Thermal Stress and Bleaching

    PubMed Central

    Kvitt, Hagit; Rosenfeld, Hanna; Zandbank, Keren; Tchernov, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Elevated seawater temperatures are associated with coral bleaching events and related mortality. Nevertheless, some coral species are able to survive bleaching and recover. The apoptotic responses associated to this ability were studied over 3 years in the coral Stylophora pistillata from the Gulf of Eilat subjected to long term thermal stress. These include caspase activity and the expression profiles of the S. pistillata caspase and Bcl-2 genes (StyCasp and StyBcl-2-like) cloned in this study. In corals exposed to thermal stress (32 or 34°C), caspase activity and the expression levels of the StyBcl-2-like gene increased over time (6–48 h) and declined to basal levels within 72 h of thermal stress. Distinct transcript levels were obtained for the StyCasp gene, with stimulated expression from 6 to 48 h of 34°C thermal stress, coinciding with the onset of bleaching. Increased cell death was detected in situ only between 6 to 48 h of stress and was limited to the gastroderm. The bleached corals survived up to one month at 32°C, and recovered back symbionts when placed at 24°C. These results point to a two-stage response in corals that withstand thermal stress: (i) the onset of apoptosis, accompanied by rapid activation of anti-oxidant/anti-apoptotic mediators that block the progression of apoptosis to other cells and (ii) acclimatization of the coral to the chronic thermal stress alongside the completion of symbiosis breakdown. Accordingly, the coral's ability to rapidly curb apoptosis appears to be the most important trait affecting the coral's thermotolerance and survival. PMID:22194880

  17. Rybp interacts with Hippi and enhances Hippi-mediated apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sasha E. Stanton; Jennifer K. Blanck; Joseph Locker; Nicole Schreiber-Agus

    2007-01-01

    Rybp (DEDAF) has been shown to interact with DED-containing proteins and to encode pro-apoptotic functions. Here we characterize\\u000a a novel interaction between Rybp and Hippi, a protein implicated in neuronal apoptosis as well as in the pathogenesis of Huntington’s\\u000a disease. Rybp can synergize with Hippi to enhance Caspase 8-mediated apoptosis and also appears to be essential for Hippi-mediated\\u000a apoptosis. Moreover,

  18. Hepatitis E Virus ORF2 Protein Activates the Pro-Apoptotic Gene CHOP and Anti-Apoptotic Heat Shock Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lijo John; Saijo Thomas; Ottmar Herchenröder; Brigitte M. Pützer; Stephan Schaefer; Dong-Yan Jin

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundHepatitis E virus (HEV) is a non-enveloped plus-strand RNA virus that causes acute hepatitis. The capsid protein open reading frame 2 (ORF2) is known to induce endoplasmic reticulum stress in ORF2 expressing cells.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsIn this study we found that HEV ORF2 activates the expression of the pro-apoptotic gene C\\/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). ORF2 stimulates the CHOP promoter mainly through AARE

  19. Quercetin Sensitizes Fluconazole-Resistant Candida albicans To Induce Apoptotic Cell Death by Modulating Quorum Sensing.

    PubMed

    Singh, B N; Upreti, D K; Singh, B R; Pandey, G; Verma, S; Roy, S; Naqvi, A H; Rawat, A K S

    2015-04-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) regulates group behaviors of Candida albicans such as biofilm, hyphal growth, and virulence factors. The sesquiterpene alcohol farnesol, a QS molecule produced by C. albicans, is known to regulate the expression of virulence weapons of this fungus. Fluconazole (FCZ) is a broad-spectrum antifungal drug that is used for the treatment of C. albicans infections. While FCZ can be cytotoxic at high concentrations, our results show that at much lower concentrations, quercetin (QC), a dietary flavonoid isolated from an edible lichen (Usnea longissima), can be implemented as a sensitizing agent for FCZ-resistant C. albicans NBC099, enhancing the efficacy of FCZ. QC enhanced FCZ-mediated cell killing of NBC099 and also induced cell death. These experiments indicated that the combined application of both drugs was FCZ dose dependent rather than QC dose dependent. In addition, we found that QC strongly suppressed the production of virulence weapons-biofilm formation, hyphal development, phospholipase, proteinase, esterase, and hemolytic activity. Treatment with QC also increased FCZ-mediated cell death in NBC099 biofilms. Interestingly, we also found that QC enhances the anticandidal activity of FCZ by inducing apoptotic cell death. We have also established that this sensitization is reliant on the farnesol response generated by QC. Molecular docking studies also support this conclusion and suggest that QC can form hydrogen bonds with Gln969, Thr1105, Ser1108, Arg1109, Asn1110, and Gly1061 in the ATP binding pocket of adenylate cyclase. Thus, this QS-mediated combined sensitizer (QC)-anticandidal agent (FCZ) strategy may be a novel way to enhance the efficacy of FCZ-based therapy of C. albicans infections. PMID:25645848

  20. Resveratrol protects astrocytes against traumatic brain injury through inhibiting apoptotic and autophagic cell death

    PubMed Central

    Lin, C-J; Chen, T-H; Yang, L-Y; Shih, C-M

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is often caused by accidents that damage the brain. TBI can induce glutamate excitotoxicity and lead to neuronal and glial cell death. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of cell death during the secondary damage caused by TBI in vivo and in vitro, as well as the protective effect of resveratrol (RV). Here we report that glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) activation and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 processing were induced in rat brains exposed to TBI. In the in vitro TBI model, apoptotic and autophagic cell death were induced through glutamate-mediated GSK-3? activation in normal CTX TNA2 astrocytes. The GSK-3? inhibitor SB216763 or transfection of GSK-3? small-interfering RNA increases cell survival. By contrast, overexpression of GSK-3? enhanced glutamate excitotoxicity. Administration of RV reduced cell death in CTX TNA2 astrocytes by suppressing reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated GSK-3? activation, the mechanism by which RV also exerted protective effects in vivo. Mitochondrial damages, including the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) and mitochondrial depolarization, were induced by glutamate through the ROS/GSK-3? pathway. Moreover, cyclosporine A, an MPTP inhibitor, suppressed mitochondrial damage and the percentages of cells undergoing autophagy and apoptosis and thereby increased cell survival. Taken together, our results demonstrated that cell death occurring after TBI is induced through the ROS/GSK-3?/mitochondria signaling pathway and that administration of RV can increase cell survival by suppressing GSK-3?-mediated autophagy and apoptosis. Therefore, the results indicated that resveratrol may serve as a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of TBI. PMID:24675465

  1. Activation of Infiltrating Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes and Lymphoma Cell Apoptotic Rates in Gastric MALT Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Guidoboni, Massimo; Doglioni, Claudio; Laurino, Licia; Boiocchi, Mauro; Dolcetti, Riccardo

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we have characterized infiltrating T lymphocytes from 13 low-grade and 17 high-grade primary gastric MALT lymphomas by immunohistochemistry, with particular regard to the presence, activation, and topographic distribution of cytotoxic effectors. Although the prevalence of CD4+ and CD8+ cells was similar in low- and high-grade lymphomas, higher numbers of TIA-1+ cytotoxic effectors were found in this latter group of cases (11.6 versus 7.8%; P = 0.004). Activation of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) was significantly more pronounced in high- than in low-grade lymphomas, as shown by immunostaining for perforin (8.7 versus 4.0%; P = 0.001) and granzyme-B (GrB) (8.7% versus 3.0%; P < 0.0001). Of note, CD20/GrB double labeling showed that high-grade lymphomas carried a markedly higher content (about ninefold) of activated CTLs relative to the number of CD20+ lymphoma B cells (0.081 ± 0.076 versus 0.009 ± 0.011; P < 0.0001). Moreover, high-grade lymphomas showed significantly increased apoptotic rates compared to low-grade cases (5.3 and 1.1% of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells, respectively; P < 0.0001). In the whole series, the percentage of GrB+ cells and the GrB+/CD20+ ratio showed a strong linear correlation with the number of TUNEL-labeled cells. These findings, together with the frequent colocalization of CTLs and TUNEL+ neoplastic cells, suggested that apoptotic death of lymphoma cells may be due at least in part to the killing by cytotoxic effectors. Our results are consistent with the occurrence of host antitumor cell-mediated immune responses in gastric MALT lymphomas. Moreover, the finding of stronger cytotoxic responses in high- than in low-grade cases is of potential usefulness in the design of more effective therapeutic strategies for the management of these disorders. PMID:10487840

  2. Role of pro-oxidants and antioxidants in the anti-inflammatory and apoptotic effects of curcumin (diferuloylmethane).

    PubMed

    Sandur, Santosh K; Ichikawa, Haruyo; Pandey, Manoj K; Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B; Sung, Bokyung; Sethi, Gautam; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2007-08-15

    Extensive research within the past half-century has indicated that curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a yellow pigment in curry powder, exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and proapoptotic activities. We investigated whether the anti-inflammatory and proapoptotic activities assigned to curcumin are mediated through its prooxidant/antioxidant mechanism. We found that TNF-mediated NF-kappaB activation was inhibited by curcumin; and glutathione reversed the inhibition. Similarly, suppression of TNF-induced AKT activation by curcumin was also abrogated by glutathione. The reducing agent also counteracted the inhibitory effects of curcumin on TNF-induced NF-kappaB-regulated antiapoptotic (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, IAP1), proliferative (cyclin D1), and proinflammatory (COX-2, iNOS, and MMP-9) gene products. The suppression of TNF-induced AP-1 activation by curcumin was also reversed by glutathione. Also, the direct proapoptotic effects of curcumin were inhibited by glutathione and potentiated by depletion of intracellular glutathione by buthionine sulfoximine. Moreover, curcumin induced the production of reactive oxygen species and modulated intracellular GSH levels. Quenchers of hydroxyl radicals, however, were ineffective in inhibiting curcumin-mediated NF-kappaB suppression. Further, N-acetylcysteine partially reversed the effect of curcumin. Based on these results we conclude that curcumin mediates its apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities through modulation of the redox status of the cell. PMID:17640567

  3. PEGylated apoptotic protein-loaded PLGA microspheres for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Hyeong Jun; Kim, Insoo; Choi, Ji Su; Lee, Eun Seong; Shin, Beom Soo; Youn, Yu Seok

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the antitumor potential of poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres (PLGA MSs) containing polyethylene glycol (PEG)-conjugated (PEGylated) tumor necrosis factor–related apoptosis-inducing ligand (PEG-TRAIL). PEG-TRAIL PLGA MSs were prepared by using a water-in-oil-in-water double-emulsion method, and the apoptotic activities of supernatants released from the PLGA MSs at days 1, 3, and 7 were examined. The antitumor effect caused by PEG-TRAIL PLGA MSs was evaluated in pancreatic Mia Paca-2 cell-xenografted mice. PEG-TRAIL PLGA MS was found to be spherical and 14.4±1.06 ?m in size, and its encapsulation efficiency was significantly greater than that of TRAIL MS (85.7%±4.1% vs 43.3%±10.9%, respectively). The PLGA MS gradually released PEG-TRAIL for 14 days, and the released PEG-TRAIL was shown to have clear apoptotic activity in Mia Paca-2 cells, whereas TRAIL released after 1 day had a negligible activity. Finally, PEG-TRAIL PLGA MS displayed remarkably greater antitumor efficacy than blank or TRAIL PLGA MS in Mia Paca-2 cell-xenografted mice in terms of tumor volume and weight, apparently due to increased stability and well-retained apoptotic activity of PEG-TRAIL in PLGA MS. We believe that this PLGA MS system, combined with PEG-TRAIL, should be considered a promising candidate for treating pancreatic cancer. PMID:25632232

  4. Apoptosis induced by desmethyl-lasiodiplodin is associated with upregulation of apoptotic genes and downregulation of monocyte chemotactic protein-3.

    PubMed

    Hazalin, Nurul Aqmar M N; Lim, Siong Meng; Cole, Anthony L J; Majeed, Abu Bakar A; Ramasamy, Kalavathy

    2013-09-01

    There is growing interest in the discovery of bioactive metabolites from endophytes as an alternative source of therapeutics. Identification of their therapeutic targets is essential in understanding the underlying mechanisms and enhancing the resultant therapeutic effects. As such, bioactive compounds produced by endophytic fungi from plants at the National Park, Pahang, Malaysia, were investigated. Five known compounds were identified using LC-UV-MS-NMR and they include trichodermol, 7-epi-brefeldin A, (3R,4S)-4-hydroxymellein, desmethyl-lasiodiplodin and cytochalasin D. The present study went on to investigate the potential anticancer effects of these compounds and the corresponding molecular mechanisms of the lead compound against human breast adenocarcinoma, MCF-7. For the preliminary screening, the cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects of these compounds against MCF-7 were examined. The compounds were also tested against noncarcinogenic hepatocytes (WRL68). The differential cytotoxicity was then determined using the MTT assay. Desmethyl-lasiodiplodin was found to suppress the growth of MCF-7, yielding an inhibitory concentration (IC50) that was seven-fold lower than that of the normal cells. The cytotoxic effect of desmethyl-lasiodiplodin was accompanied by apoptosis. Subsequent analysis demonstrated increased expression levels of caspase 3, c-myc and p53. Further, desmethyl-lasiodiplodin resulted in inhibition of monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-3, a cytokine involved in cell survival and metastasis. Hence, this study proposed that desmethyl-lasiodiplodin inhibited growth and survival of MCF-7 through the induction of apoptosis. This anticancer effect is mediated, in part, by upregulation of apoptotic genes and downregulation of MCP-3. As desmethyl-lasiodiplodin elicited minimal impact against normal hepatocytes, our findings also imply its potential use as a specific apoptotic agent in breast cancer treatment. PMID:23764760

  5. Allograft tolerance induced by donor apoptotic lymphocytes requires phagocytosis in the recipient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, E.; Gao, Y.; Chen, J.; Roberts, A. I.; Wang, X.; Chen, Z.; Shi, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Cell death through apoptosis plays a critical role in regulating cellular homeostasis. Whether the disposal of apoptotic cells through phagocytosis can actively induce immune tolerance in vivo, however, remains controversial. Here, we report in a rat model that without using immunosuppressants, transfusion of apoptotic splenocytes from the donor strain prior to transplant dramatically prolonged survival of heart allografts. Histological analysis verified that rejection signs were significantly ameliorated. Splenocytes from rats transfused with donor apoptotic cells showed a dramatically decreased response to donor lymphocyte stimulation. Most importantly, blockade of phagocytosis in vivo, either with gadolinium chloride to disrupt phagocyte function or with annexin V to block binding of exposed phosphotidylserine to its receptor on phagocytes, abolished the beneficial effect of transfused apoptotic cells on heart allograft survival. Our results demonstrate that donor apoptotic cells promote specific allograft acceptance and that phagocytosis of apoptotic cells in vivo plays a crucial role in maintaining immune tolerance.

  6. Role for the Class A Macrophage Scavenger Receptor in the Phagocytosis of Apoptotic Thymocytes in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nick Platt; Hiroshi Suzuki; Yukiko Kurihara; Tatsuhiko Kodama; Siamon Gordon

    1996-01-01

    Numerous immature thymocytes undergo apoptosis and are rapidly engulfed by phagocytic thymic macrophages. The macrophage surface receptors involved in apoptotic thymocyte recognition are unknown. We have examined the role of the class A macrophage scavenger receptor (SR-A) in the engulfment of apoptotic thymocytes. Uptake of steroid-treated apoptotic thymocytes by thymic and inflammatory-elicited SR-A positive macrophages is partially inhibited by an

  7. Botrytis cinerea BcNma is involved in apoptotic cell death but not in stress adaptation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alin Finkelshtein; Neta Shlezinger; Olga Bunis; Amir Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Apoptotic-like programmed cell death (PCD) occurs naturally in fungi during development and might also be induced by external conditions. Candidate apoptotic genes have been characterized in several model fungal species but not in plant pathogenic fungi. Here we report on the isolation and characterization of BcNMA, an orthologue of the human pro-apoptotic gene HtrA2 from the plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea.

  8. Death associated proteins (DAPs): from gene identification to the analysis of their apoptotic and tumor suppressive functions.

    PubMed

    Levy-Strumpf, N; Kimchi, A

    1998-12-24

    The process of apoptosis (programmed cell death) has become the subject of intensive and extensive research over the past few years. Various approaches are being used to identify and study genes which function as positive mediators of apoptosis. Here, we address a novel approach of gene cloning aimed at isolating intracellular death promoting genes by utilizing a functional screen. This method, called TKO, was based on transfection of cells with an anti-sense cDNA library, followed by the selection of transfectants which survived in the continuous presence of a killing cytokine-interferon-gamma. It led to the identification of five novel apoptotic genes and to the finding that a known protease-cathepsin D, is actively recruited to the death process. The five novel apoptotic genes (named DAP genes for: Death Associated Proteins) code for proteins which display a diverse spectrum of biochemical activities. The list comprises a novel type of calcium/calmodulin-regulated kinase which carries ankyrin repeats and a death domain (DAP-kinase), a nucleotide-binding protein (DAP-3), a small proline-rich cytoplasmic protein (DAP-1), and a novel homolog of the eIF4G translation initiation factor (DAP-5). Extensive studies proved that these genes are critical for mediating cell death initiated by interferon-gamma, and in some of the tested cases also cell death induced by Fas/APO-1, TNF-alpha, and a detachment from extracellular matrix. Moreover, one of these genes, DAP-kinase, was recently found to display strong tumor suppressive activities, coupling the control of apoptosis to metastasis. The advantage of functional approaches of gene cloning is that they select the relevant rate limiting genes along the death pathways in a complete unbiased manner. As a consequence, novel targets and unpredicted mechanisms emerged. A few examples illustrating this important point will be discussed. One relates to the calcium/calmodulin-dependent DAP-kinase, which is localized to the actin microfilaments. It was found that the correct localization of DAP-kinase to the microfilament network was critical for the execution of the apoptotic process, and more specifically for the disruption of the stress fibers--a typical hallmark of apoptosis. Another important breakthrough step in our understanding of apoptotic processes relates to the identification and analysis of the DAP-5 gene. The structure/ function features of this novel translation regulator resemble the proteolytically cleaved eIF4G which appears in cells upon infection with some RNA viruses and which directs cap-independent translation. Thus, the rescue of DAP-5 highlighted the importance of regulation of protein translation in certain apoptotic systems. Finally, the isolation of cathespin D by our method suggests that lysosomal proteases are recruited during apoptosis, in addition to the well known caspase family of proteases, and that a unique pattern of regulation affecting the processing of this protease takes place. The major challenge now is to analyse how these diverse DAP gene activities constitute biochemical pathway(s) leading to programmed cell death, and what is their functional position with respect to other known positive mediators and suppressors of apoptosis such as the Bcl2 and caspase family members. PMID:9916995

  9. Chromatin-independent binding of serum amyloid P component to apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Familian, A; Zwart, B; Huisman, H G; Rensink, I; Roem, D; Hordijk, P L; Aarden, L A; Hack, C E

    2001-07-15

    Human serum amyloid P component (SAP) is a glycoprotein structurally belonging to the pentraxin family of proteins, which has a characteristic pentameric organization. Mice with a targeted deletion of the SAP gene develop antinuclear Abs, which was interpreted as evidence for a role of SAP in controlling the degradation of chromatin. However, in vitro SAP also can bind to phosphatidylethanolamine, a phospholipid which in normal cells is located mainly in the inner leaflet of the cell membrane, to be translocated to the outer leaflet of the cell membrane during a membrane flip-flop. We hypothesized that SAP, because of its specificity for phosphatidylethanolamine, may bind to apoptotic cells independent of its nuclear binding. Calcium-dependent binding of SAP to early, nonpermeable apoptotic Jurkat, SKW, and Raji cells was indeed observed. Experiments with flip-flopped erythrocytes confirmed that SAP bound to early apoptotic cells via exposed phosphatidylethanolamine. Binding of SAP was stronger to late, permeable apoptotic cells. Experiments with enucleated neutrophils, with DNase/RNase treatment of late apoptotic Jurkat cells, and competition experiments with histones suggested that binding of SAP to late apoptotic cells was largely independent of chromatin. Confocal laser microscopic studies indeed suggested that SAP bound to these apoptotic cells mainly via the blebs. Thus, this study shows that SAP binds to apoptotic cells already at an early stage, which raises the possibility that SAP is involved in dealing with apoptotic cells in vivo. PMID:11441067

  10. Vitronectin inhibits efferocytosis through interactions with apoptotic cells as well as with macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Hong-Beom; Tadie, Jean-Marc; Jiang, Shaoning; Park, Dae Won; Bell, Celeste P; Thompson, Lawrence C.; Peterson, Cynthia B.; Thannickal, Victor J.; Abraham, Edward; Zmijewski, Jaroslaw W.

    2013-01-01

    Effective removal of apoptotic cells, particularly apoptotic neutrophils, is essential for the successful resolution of acute inflammatory conditions. In the present experiments, we found that whereas interaction between vitronectin and integrins diminished the ability of macrophages to ingest apoptotic cells, interaction between vitronectin with urokinase type Plasminogen Activator receptor (uPAR) on the surface of apoptotic cells also had equally important inhibitory effects on efferocytosis. Pre-incubation of vitronectin with Plasminogen Activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) eliminated its ability to inhibit phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Similar, incubation of apoptotic cells with soluble uPAR or antibodies to uPAR significantly diminished efferocytosis. In the setting of LPS-induced ALI, enhanced efferocytosis and decreased numbers of neutrophils was found in bronchoalveolar lavage obtained from vitronectin deficient (vtn?/?) mice compared to wild type (vtn+/+) mice. Furthermore, there was increased clearance of apoptotic vtn?/? as compared to vtn+/+ neutrophils after introduction into the lungs of vtn?/? mice. Incubation of apoptotic vtn?/? neutrophils with purified vitronectin prior to intratracheal instillation decreased efferocytosis in vivo. These findings demonstrate that the inhibitory effects of vitronectin on efferocytosis involve interactions with both the engulfing phagocyte as well as the apoptotic target cell. PMID:23345331

  11. Tumor-targeting novel manganese complex induces ROS-mediated apoptotic and autophagic cancer cell death

    PubMed Central

    LIU, JIA; GUO, WENJIE; LI, JING; LI, XIANG; GENG, JI; CHEN, QIUYUN; GAO, JING

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the antitumor activity of the novel manganese (II) compound, Adpa-Mn {[(Adpa)Mn(Cl)(H2O)] (Adpa=bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amino-2-propionic acid)}, and its possible mechanisms of action were investigated. In vitro, the growth inhibitory effects of Adpa-Mn (with IC50 values lower than 15 ?M) on tumor cell lines were examined by MTT assay. We found that this compound was more selective against cancer cells than the popular chemotherapeutic reagent, cisplatin. We then found that Adpa-Mn achieved its selectivity against cancer cells through the transferrin (Tf)-transferrin receptor (TfR) system, which is highly expressed in tumor cells. Furthermore, Adpa-Mn induced both apoptosis and autophagy, as indicated by chromatin condensation, the activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), Annexin V/prop-idium iodide staining, an enhanced fluorescence intensity of monodansylcadaverine (MDC), as well as the elevated expression of the autophagy-related protein, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3). In addition, Adpa-Mn induced the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and its anticancer effects were significantly reduced following pre-treatment with the antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine, indicating that ROS triggered cell death. In vivo, the induction of apoptosis and autophagy in tumor tissue was confirmed following treatment with Adpa-Mn, which contributed to its significant antitumor activity against hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep-A cell) xenografts at 10 mg/kg. Taken together, these data suggest the possible use of Adpa-Mn as a novel anticancer drug. PMID:25604962

  12. Adiponectin mediates antiproliferative and apoptotic responses in human MCF7 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dieudonne, Marie-Noelle [Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, UPRES-EA 2493, Faculte de Medecine Paris-Ile de France Ouest, Universite Versailles-St Quentin, Centre Hospitalier de Poissy, 78303 Poissy Cedex (France); Bussiere, Marianne [Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, UPRES-EA 2493, Faculte de Medecine Paris-Ile de France Ouest, Universite Versailles-St Quentin, Centre Hospitalier de Poissy, 78303 Poissy Cedex (France); Dos Santos, Esther [Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, UPRES-EA 2493, Faculte de Medecine Paris-Ile de France Ouest, Universite Versailles-St Quentin, Centre Hospitalier de Poissy, 78303 Poissy Cedex (France); Leneveu, Marie-Christine [Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, UPRES-EA 2493, Faculte de Medecine Paris-Ile de France Ouest, Universite Versailles-St Quentin, Centre Hospitalier de Poissy, 78303 Poissy Cedex (France); Giudicelli, Yves [Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, UPRES-EA 2493, Faculte de Medecine Paris-Ile de France Ouest, Universite Versailles-St Quentin, Centre Hospitalier de Poissy, 78303 Poissy Cedex (France)]. E-mail: biochip@wanadoo.fr; Pecquery, Rene [Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, UPRES-EA 2493, Faculte de Medecine Paris-Ile de France Ouest, Universite Versailles-St Quentin, Centre Hospitalier de Poissy, 78303 Poissy Cedex (France)

    2006-06-23

    It is well established that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer and that blood levels of adiponectin, a hormone mainly secreted by white adipocytes, are inversely correlated with the body fat mass. As adiponectin elicits anti-proliferative effects in some cell types, we tested the hypothesis that adiponectin could influence human breast cancer MCF-7 cell growth. Here we show that MCF-7 cells express adiponectin receptors and respond to human recombinant adiponectin by reducing their growth, AMPkinase activation, and p42/p44 MAPkinase inactivation. Further, we demonstrate that the anti-proliferative effect of adiponectin involves activation of cell apoptosis and inhibition of cell cycle. These findings suggest that adiponectin could act in vivo as a paracrine/endocrine growth inhibitor towards mammary epithelial cells. Moreover, adipose adiponectin production being strongly reduced in obesity, this study may help to explain why obesity is a risk factor of developing breast cancers.

  13. Tumor-targeting novel manganese complex induces ROS-mediated apoptotic and autophagic cancer cell death.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Guo, Wenjie; Li, Jing; Li, Xiang; Geng, Ji; Chen, Qiuyun; Gao, Jing

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the antitumor activity of the novel manganese (II) compound, Adpa-Mn {[(Adpa)Mn(Cl)(H2O)] (Adpa=bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amino-2-propionic acid)}, and its possible mechanisms of action were investigated. In vitro, the growth inhibitory effects of Adpa-Mn (with IC50 values lower than 15 µM) on tumor cell lines were examined by MTT assay. We found that this compound was more selective against cancer cells than the popular chemotherapeutic reagent, cisplatin. We then found that Adpa-Mn achieved its selectivity against cancer cells through the transferrin (Tf)-transferrin receptor (TfR) system, which is highly expressed in tumor cells. Furthermore, Adpa-Mn induced both apoptosis and autophagy, as indicated by chromatin condensation, the activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, an enhanced fluorescence intensity of monodansylcadaverine (MDC), as well as the elevated expression of the autophagy-related protein, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3). In addition, Adpa-Mn induced the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and its anticancer effects were significantly reduced following pre-treatment with the antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine, indicating that ROS triggered cell death. In vivo, the induction of apoptosis and autophagy in tumor tissue was confirmed following treatment with Adpa-Mn, which contributed to its significant antitumor activity against hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep-A cell) xenografts at 10 mg/kg. Taken together, these data suggest the possible use of Adpa-Mn as a novel anticancer drug. PMID:25604962

  14. Effects of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark oil on testicular antioxidant values, apoptotic germ cell and sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Yüce, A; Türk, G; Çeriba?i, S; Sönmez, M; Çiftçi, M; Güvenç, M

    2013-08-01

    Cinnamon and its contents have multifactorial properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic. Male infertility is one of the major health problems in life. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term cinnamon bark oil (CBO) ingestion on testicular antioxidant values, apoptotic germ cell and sperm quality of adult rats. Twelve male healthy Wistar rats were divided into two groups, each group containing six rats. While olive oil was given to control group, 100 mg kg(-1)  CBO was administered to the other group by gavage daily for 10 weeks. Body and reproductive organ weights, sperm characteristics, testicular lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities, and testicular apoptosis via terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) method were examined. A significant decrease in malondialdehyde level and marked increases in reduced glutathione level, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were observed in rats treated with CBO compared with the control group. CBO consumption provided a significant increase in weights of testes and epididymides, epididymal sperm concentration, sperm motility and diameter of seminiferous tubules when compared with the control group. However, CBO consumption tended to decrease the abnormal sperm rate and apoptotic germ cell count, but it did not reach statistical significance. It is concluded that CBO has improvement effect on testicular oxidant-antioxidant balance and sperm quality, and its consumption may be useful for asthenozoospermic men. PMID:22862806

  15. Induction of TGF-?1 Synthesis by Macrophages in Response to Apoptotic Cells Requires Activation of the Scavenger Receptor CD36

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Weipeng; Frasch, S. Courtney; Thomas, Stacey M.; Bratton, Donna L.; Henson, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objective Phosphatidylserine (PS) exposed on apoptotic cells has been shown to stimulate production of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) and promote anti-inflammatory responses. However, the PS receptor(s) responsible for this induction has not been clearly determined. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, using RAWT?RII cells in which a truncated dominant negative TGF-? receptor II was stably transfected in order to avoid auto-feedback induction of TGF-?, we show that TGF-?1 synthesis is initiated via activation of the scavenger receptor, CD36. The response requires exposure of PS on the apoptotic cell surface and was absent in macrophages lacking CD36. Direct activation of CD36 with an anti-CD36 antibody initiated TGF-?1 production, and signaling pathways involving both Lyn kinase and ERK1/2 were shown to participate in CD36-driven TGF-?1 expression. Conclusion/Significance Since CD36 has been previously implicated in activation of secreted latent TGF-?, the present study indicates its role in the multiple steps to generation of this important biological mediator. PMID:23936544

  16. High-Content Analysis of Pro-Apoptotic EphA4 Dependence Receptor Functions using Small Molecule Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Nelersa, Claudiu M.; Barreras, Henry; Runko, Erik; Ricard, Jerome; Shi, Yan; Bixby, John L.; Lemmon, Vance P.; Liebl, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Small molecule compounds (SMCs) can provide an inexpensive and selective approach to modifying biological responses. High-content analysis (HCA) of SMC libraries can help identify candidate molecules that inhibit or activate cellular responses. In particular, regulation of cell death has important implications for many pathological conditions. Dependence receptors are a new classification of pro-apoptotic membrane receptors that, unlike classic death receptors, initiate apoptotic signals in the absence of their ligands. EphA4 has recently been identified as a dependence receptor that may have important functions in conditions as disparate as cancer biology and CNS injury and disease. To screen potential candidate SMCs that inhibit or activate EphA4-induced cell death, HCA of a SMC library was performed using stable EphA4-expressing NIH3T3 cells. Our results describe a high-content method for screening dependence receptor-signaling pathways, and demonstrate that several candidate SMCs can inhibit EphA4-mediated cell death. PMID:22492230

  17. PIAS3 activates the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in non-small cell lung cancer cells independent of p53 status

    PubMed Central

    Dabir, Snehal; Kluge, Amy; McColl, Karen; Liu, Yu; Lam, Minh; Halmos, Balazs; Wildey, Gary; Dowlati, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3) is an endogenous inhibitor of STAT3 that negatively regulates STAT3 transcriptional activity and cell growth and demonstrates limited expression in the majority of human squamous cell carcinomas of the lung. In the present study we sought to determine if PIAS3 inhibits cell growth in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines by inducing apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that over-expression of PIAS3 promotes mitochondrial depolarization, leading to cytochrome c release, caspase 9 and 3 activation and PARP cleavage. This intrinsic pathway activation was associated with decreased Bcl-xL expression and increased Noxa expression and was independent of p53 status. Furthermore, PIAS3 inhibition of STAT3 activity was also p53 independent. Microarray experiments were performed to discover STAT3-independent mediators of PIAS3-induced apoptosis by comparing the apoptotic gene expression signature induced by PIAS3 over-expression with that induced by STAT3 siRNA. The results showed that a subset of apoptotic genes was uniquely expressed only after PIAS3 expression. Thus, PIAS3 may represent a promising lung cancer therapeutic target because of its p53-independent efficacy as well as its potential to synergize with Bcl-2 targeted inhibitors. PMID:23959540

  18. No death without life: vital functions of apoptotic effectors

    PubMed Central

    Galluzzi, L; Joza, N; Tasdemir, E; Maiuri, MC; Hengartner, M; Abrams, JM; Tavernarakis, N; Penninger, J; Madeo, F; Kroemer, G

    2010-01-01

    As a result of the genetic experiments performed in Caenorhabditis elegans, it has been tacitly assumed that the core proteins of the ‘apoptotic machinery’ (CED-3, -4, -9 and EGL-1) would be solely involved in cell death regulation/execution and would not exert any functions outside of the cell death realm. However, multiple studies indicate that the mammalian orthologs of these C. elegans proteins (i.e. caspases, Apaf-1 and multidomain proteins of the Bcl-2 family) participate in cell death-unrelated processes. Similarly, loss-of-function mutations of ced-4 compromise the mitotic arrest of DNA-damaged germline cells from adult nematodes, even in a context in which the apoptotic machinery is inoperative (for instance due to mutations of egl-1 or ced-3). Moreover, EGL-1 is required for the activation of autophagy in starved nematodes. Finally, the depletion of caspase-independent death effectors, such as apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and endonuclease G, provokes cell death-independent consequences, both in mammals and in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). These results corroborate the conjecture that any kind of protein that has previously been specifically implicated in apoptosis might have a phylogenetically conserved apoptosis-unrelated function, most likely as part of an adaptive response to cellular stress. PMID:18309324

  19. Heat-Induced Fibrillation of BclXL Apoptotic Repressor

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Vikas; Olenick, Max B.; Schuchardt, Brett J.; Mikles, David C.; Deegan, Brian J.; McDonald, Caleb B.; Seldeen, Kenneth L.; Kurouski, Dmitry; Faridi, Mohd Hafeez; Shareef, Mohammed M.; Gupta, Vineet; Lednev, Igor K.; Farooq, Amjad

    2013-01-01

    The BclXL apoptotic repressor bears the propensity to associate into megadalton oligomers in solution, particularly under acidic pH. Herein, using various biophysical methods, we analyze the effect of temperature on the oligomerization of BclXL. Our data show that BclXL undergoes irreversible aggregation and assembles into highly-ordered rope-like homogeneous fibrils with length in the order of mm and a diameter in the ?m-range under elevated temperatures. Remarkably, the formation of such fibrils correlates with the decay of a largely ?-helical fold into a predominantly ?-sheet architecture of BclXL in a manner akin to the formation of amyloid fibrils. Further interrogation reveals that while BclXL fibrils formed under elevated temperatures show no observable affinity toward BH3 ligands, they appear to be optimally primed for insertion into cardiolipin bicelles. This salient observation strongly argues that BclXL fibrils likely represent an on-pathway intermediate for insertion into mitochondrial outer membrane during the onset of apoptosis. Collectively, our study sheds light on the propensity of BclXL to form amyloid-like fibrils with important consequences on its mechanism of action in gauging the apoptotic fate of cells in health and disease. PMID:23714425

  20. Short term apoptotic activity of intravitreal bevacizumab on rabbit retina

    PubMed Central

    Türkcü, Fatih Mehmet; Alp, Mehmet Numan; Türkcü, Gül; Kulaço?lu, Sezer; Kural, Gülcan

    2013-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the safety and the short term apoptotic activity of intravitreal bevacizumab in rabbit eyes by histopathological analysis. METHODS Twenty-eight eyes of 14 rabbits were divided into three groups: 8 rabbits in group 1 and 3 rabbits in each of group 2 and group 3. Intravitreal bevacizumab (1.25mg/0.05mL) was applied to the right eyes of each subject in group 1 and group 2 (11 eyes) and the same volume of saline was applied to the left eyes of each subject in group 1 and group 3 (11 eyes). The left eyes in group 2 and the right eyes in group 3 were left untreated and used as control. Enucleated eyes were used for histopathologic analyses. RESULTS After immunohistochemical staining with caspase-3 and p53, there was no histological evidence of toxicity to the retina and the optic nerve in any of the sections that were analyzed in all three groups. In addition, vascular endothelial cells located at the retina and the optic nerve tissues in all groups showed a similar staining pattern with caspase-3 and p53. CONCLUSION Our study showed that intravitreal bevacizumab with the dose of 1.25mg/0.05mL caused no histological signs of toxicity or apoptotic activity on the rabbit retina. PMID:24392325

  1. Apoptotic gene expression in Alzheimer's disease hippocampal tissue.

    PubMed

    Sajan, Farrah D; Martiniuk, Frank; Marcus, David L; Frey, William H; Hite, Richard; Bordayo, Elizabeth Z; Freedman, Michael L

    2007-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the major cause of dementia, accounting for 50% to 70% of the late-onset patients, with 17 to 20 million affected. It is characterized by neurofibrillary tangles, neuronal loss, and amyloid plaques in tissues of the cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala. Apoptosis or programmed cell death appears in the progression of AD. In this study, we investigated the gene expression of 14 apoptotic genes (E2F1, p21/WAF, ICE-LAP3, Fas Antigen, CPP-32, GADD153, ICE-beta, c-Fos, c-Jun, Bax-alpha, Bcl-2, Bcl-(x)L, BAK, and p53) in 5 normal and 6 AD human hippocampal tissues, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Our results show an upregulation of gene expression in AD patients for c-Fos and BAK. ICE-beta, c-Jun, Bax-alpha, Bcl-x(L), p53, and GADD153 were found to be upregulated in some AD samples but were not detected or downregulated in other AD or normal samples. No gene expression was found for E2F1 , p21/WAF, ICE-LAP3, Fas Antigen, CPP32, or Bcl-2. These results indicate significant increases in c-Fos , c-Jun, and Bak; therefore, we suggest that these genes may be critical in the apoptotic cascades of AD. PMID:17712163

  2. HIPK2 sustains apoptotic response by phosphorylating Che-1/AATF and promoting its degradation

    PubMed Central

    De Nicola, F; Catena, V; Rinaldo, C; Bruno, T; Iezzi, S; Sorino, C; Desantis, A; Camerini, S; Crescenzi, M; Floridi, A; Passananti, C; Soddu, S; Fanciulli, M

    2014-01-01

    Che-1/AATF is an RNA polymerase II-binding protein that is involved in the regulation of gene transcription, which undergoes stabilization and accumulation in response to DNA damage. We have previously demonstrated that following apoptotic induction, Che-1 protein levels are downregulated through its interaction with the E3 ligase HDM2, which leads to Che-1 degradation by ubiquitylation. This interaction is mediated by Pin1, which determines a phosphorylation-dependent conformational change. Here we demonstrate that HIPK2, a proapoptotic kinase, is involved in Che-1 degradation. HIPK2 interacts with Che-1 and, upon genotoxic stress, phosphorylates it at specific residues. This event strongly increases HDM2/Che-1 interaction and degradation of Che-1 protein via ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal system. In agreement with these findings, we found that HIPK2 depletion strongly decreases Che-1 ubiquitylation and degradation. Notably, Che-1 overexpression strongly counteracts HIPK2-induced apoptosis. Our results establish Che-1 as a new HIPK2 target and confirm its important role in the cellular response to DNA damage. PMID:25210797

  3. Mapping the Specific Cytoprotective Interaction of Humanin with the Pro-apoptotic Protein Bid

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jungyuen; Zhai, Dayong; Zhou, Xin; Satterthwait, Arnold; Reed, John C.; Marassi, Francesca M.

    2010-01-01

    Humanin is a short endogenous peptide, which can provide protection from cell death through its association with various receptors, including the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bid, Bim, and Bax. By using NMR chemical shift mapping experiments, we demonstrate that the interaction between Humanin-derived peptides and Bid is specific, and we localize the binding site to a region on the surface of Bid, which includes residues from the conserved helical BH3 domain of the protein. The BH3 domain mediates the association of Bid with other Bcl-2 family members and is essential for the protein's cytotoxic activity. The data suggest that Humanin exerts its cytoprotective activity by engaging the Bid BH3 domain; this would hinder the association of Bid with other Bcl-2 family proteins, thereby mitigating its toxicity. The identification of a Humanin-specific binding site on the surface of Bid reinforces its importance as a direct modulator of programmed cell death, and suggests a strategy for the design of cytoprotective peptide inhibitors of Bid. PMID:17927731

  4. c-FLIPL enhances anti-apoptotic Akt functions by modulation of Gsk3? activity.

    PubMed

    Quintavalle, C; Incoronato, M; Puca, L; Acunzo, M; Zanca, C; Romano, G; Garofalo, M; Iaboni, M; Croce, C M; Condorelli, G

    2010-12-01

    Akt is a serine-threonine kinase that has an important role in transducing survival signals. Akt also regulates a number of proteins involved in the apoptotic process. To find new Akt interactors, we performed a two-hybrid screening in yeast using full-length Akt cDNA as bait and a human cDNA heart library as prey. Among 200 clones obtained, two of them were identified as coding for the c-FLIP(L) protein. c-FLIP(L) is an endogenous inhibitor of death receptor-induced apoptosis through the caspase-8 pathway. Using co-immunoprecipitation experiments of either transfected or endogenous proteins, we confirmed the interaction between Akt and c-FLIP(L). Furthermore, we observed that c-FLIP(L) overexpression interferes with Gsk3-? phosphorylation levels. Moreover, through its effects on Gsk3?, c-FLIP(L) overexpression in cancer cells induced resistance to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). This effect was mediated by the regulation of p27(Kip1) and caspase-3 expression. These results indicate the existence of a new mechanism of resistance to TRAIL in cancer cells, and unexpected functions of c-FLIP(L). PMID:20508645

  5. Inhibition of Autophagic Turnover in ?-Cells by Fatty Acids and Glucose Leads to Apoptotic Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Mir, Shakeel U R; George, Nicholas M; Zahoor, Lubna; Harms, Robert; Guinn, Zachary; Sarvetnick, Nora E

    2015-03-01

    Autophagy, a cellular recycling process responsible for turnover of cytoplasmic contents, is critical for maintenance of health. Defects in this process have been linked to diabetes. Diabetes-associated glucotoxicity/lipotoxicity contribute to impaired ?-cell function and have been implicated as contributing factors to this disease. We tested the hypothesis that these two conditions affect ?-cell function by modulating autophagy. We report that exposure of ?-cell lines and human pancreatic islets to high levels of glucose and lipids blocks autophagic flux and leads to apoptotic cell death. EM analysis showed accumulation of autophagy intermediates (autophagosomes), with abundant engulfed cargo in palmitic acid (PA)- or glucose-treated cells, indicating suppressed autophagic turnover. EM studies also showed accumulation of damaged mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum distention, and vacuolar changes in PA-treated cells. Pulse-chase experiments indicated decreased protein turnover in ?-cells treated with PA/glucose. Expression of mTORC1, an inhibitor of autophagy, was elevated in ?-cells treated with PA/glucose. mTORC1 inhibition, by treatment with rapamycin, reversed changes in autophagic flux, and cell death induced by glucose/PA. Our results indicate that nutrient toxicity-induced cell death occurs via impaired autophagy and is mediated by activation of mTORC1 in ?-cells, contributing to ?-cell failure in the presence of metabolic stress. PMID:25548282

  6. Selective apoptotic cell death effects of oral cancer cells treated with destruxin B

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies have revealed that destruxins (Dtx) have potent cytotoxic activities on individual cancer cells, however, data on oral cancer cells especial human are absent. Methods Destruxin B (DB) was isolated and used to evaluate the selective cytotoxicity with human oral cancer cell lines, GNM (Neck metastasis of gingival carcinoma) and TSCCa (Tongue squamous cell carcinoma) cells, and normal gingival fibroblasts (GF) were also included as controls. Cells were tested with different concentrations of DB for 24, 48, and 72 h by MTT assay. Moreover, the mechanism of cytotoxicity was investigated using caspase-3 Immunofluorescence, annexin V/PI staining, and the expression of caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 by western blotting after treated with different concentrations of DB for 72 h as parameters for apoptosis analyses. Results The results show that DB exhibited significant (p?mediated intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in time- and dose-dependent manners. Conclusions This is the first report on the anti-proliferation effect of DB in oral cancer cells. The results reported here may offer further evidences to the development of DB as a potential complementary chemotherapeutic target for oral cancer complications. PMID:24972848

  7. Effects of TRH and its analogues on primary cortical neuronal cell damage induced by various excitotoxic, necrotic and apoptotic agents.

    PubMed

    Jantas, D; Jaworska-Feil, L; Lipkowski, A W; Lason, W

    2009-10-01

    The tripeptide thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH, pGlu-His-Pro-NH2) has been shown to possess neuroprotective activity in in vitro and in vivo models. Since its potential utility is limited by relatively rapid metabolism, metabolically stabilized analogues have been constructed. In the present study we investigated the influence of TRH and its three stable analogues: Montirelin (MON, CG-3703), RGH-2202 (L-6-keto-piperidine-2carbonyl-l-leucyl-l-prolinamide) and Z-TRH (N-carbobenzyloxy-pGlutamyl-Histydyl-Proline) in various models of mouse cortical neuronal cell injury. Twenty four hour pre-treatment with TRH and its analogues in low micromolar concentrations attenuated the neuronal cell death evoked by excitatory amino acids (EAAs: glutamate, NMDA, kainate, quisqualate) and hydrogen peroxide. All the peptides showed neuroprotective action on staurosporine (St)-evoked apoptotic neuronal cell death, but this effect was caspase-3 independent. Interestingly, in mixed neuronal-glial cell preparations only MON decreased St- and glutamate-evoked neurotoxicity. None of the peptides inhibited the doxorubicin- and lactacystin-induced neuronal cortical cell death, agents acting via activation of death receptor (FAS) or inhibition of proteasome function, respectively. Furthermore, we found that neither inhibitors of PI3-K (wortmannin, LY 294002) nor MAPK/ERK1/2 (PD 098059, U 0126) were able to inhibit neuroprotective properties of TRH and MON in St model of apoptosis. The protection mediated by TRH and MON it that model was also not connected with influence of peptides on the pro-apoptotic GSK-3beta and JNK protein kinase expression and activity. Further studies showed that calpains, calcium-activated proteases were induced by Glu, but not by St in cortical neurons. Moreover, the Glu-evoked increase in spectrin alpha II cleavage product induced by calpains was blocked by TRH. The obtained data showed that the potency of TRH and its analogues in inhibiting EAAs- and H(2)O(2)-induced neuronal cell death from the highest to lowest activity was: MON>TRH>Z-TRH>RHG. Interestingly, all peptides were active against St-induced apoptosis, however, on concentration basis MON was far more potent than the other peptides. None of the peptides inhibited Dox- and LC-evoked apoptotic cell death. Additionally, the data exclude potential role of pro-survival (PI3-K/Akt and MAPK/ERK1/2) and pro-apoptotic (GSK-3beta and JNK) pathways in neuroprotective effects of TRH and its analogues on St-induced neuronal apoptosis. Moreover, the results point to involvement of the inhibition of calpains in the TRH neuroprotective effect in Glu model of neuronal cell death. PMID:19666192

  8. COMPUTATIONAL MODELING OF SIGNALING PATHWAYS MEDIATING CELL CYCLE AND APOPTOTIC RESPONSES TO IONIZING RADIATION MEDIATED DNA DAMAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Demonstrated of the use of a computational systems biology approach to model dose response relationships. Also discussed how the biologically motivated dose response models have only limited reference to the underlying molecular level. Discussed the integration of Computational S...

  9. Sculpting Skin Appendages Out of Epidermal Layers Via Temporally and Spatially Regulated Apoptotic Events

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chung-Hsing; Yu, Mingke; Wu, Ping; Jiang, Ting-Xin; Yu, Hsin-Su; Widelitz, Randall B.; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Complex skin appendages are built from the epidermal cells through induction, cell fate specification, proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation, etc. Here we used the TUNEL assay and caspase-3 immuno-localization to examine apoptotic events in different stages of feather morphogenesis. We deduced three modes through which apoptosis may impact morphogenesis. In Mode 1A, apoptosis occurs within the localized growth zone to regulate growth as seen in growing buds. In Mode 1B, morphogen secreting cells are present adjacent to localized growth zones and apoptosis may work as a mechanism to remove such signaling centers. This was seen in marginal / barbule plate interactions. In Mode 2, keratinocytes apoptosed before terminal differentiation and left spaces between branches, as seen in the marginal plate epithelia. In Mode 3A, keratinocytes cornified and flaked off between two epidermal layers, thus helping to free skin appendages as seen in the feather sheath and pulp epithelium. In Mode 3B, keratinized apoptosed epithelial cells became permanent structures as seen in the rachis and barbs. Thus, the mode of death has a major impact on epithelial morphogenesis. We further tested the effects of imbalanced Shh on apoptosis with retroviral mediated transgenic feathers. Shh suppression not only reduces marginal plate apoptosis and caspase-3 expression, but also causes abnormal differentiation of barbule plates. Expression of Patched in the barbules, but not the marginal plates, implied that the previously shown Shh dependent marginal plate apoptosis is mediated through a paracrine mechanism. New Shh over-expression data showed enhanced proliferation and reduced apoptosis in barb ridges. This work complements our recent work on the role of shifting localized growth zones in feather morphogenesis (Chodankar et al., 2003; J. Invest. Dermatol. 120:20), and shows how adding and removing cell masses in temporally and spatially specific ways are coordinated to sculpt skin appendages out from epidermal layers. PMID:15175023

  10. Ochratoxin A Inhibits Mouse Embryonic Development by Activating a Mitochondrion-Dependent Apoptotic Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hsuuw, Yan-Der; Chan, Wen-Hsiung; Yu, Jau-Song

    2013-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin found in many foods worldwide, causes nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and immunotoxicity, both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we explored the cytotoxic effects exerted by OTA on the blastocyst stage of mouse embryos, on subsequent embryonic attachment, on outgrowth in vitro, and following in vivo implantation via embryo transfer. Mouse blastocysts were incubated with or without OTA (1, 5, or 10 ?M) for 24 h. Cell proliferation and growth were investigated using dual differential staining; apoptosis was measured using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay; and embryo implantation and post-implantation development were assessed by examination of in vitro growth and the outcome of in vivo embryo transfer, respectively. Blastocysts treated with 10 ?M OTA displayed a significantly increased level of apoptosis and a reduction in total cell number. Interestingly, we observed no marked difference in implantation success rate between OTA-pretreated and control blastocysts either during in vitro embryonic development (following implantation in a fibronectin-coated culture dish) or after in vivo embryo transfer. However, in vitro treatment with 10 ?M OTA was associated with increased resorption of post-implantation embryos by the mouse uterus, and decreased fetal weight upon embryo transfer. Our results collectively indicate that in vitro exposure to OTA triggers apoptosis and retards early post-implantation development after transfer of embryos to host mice. In addition, OTA induces apoptosis-mediated injury of mouse blastocysts, via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and promotes mitochondrion-dependent apoptotic signaling processes that impair subsequent embryonic development. PMID:23296271

  11. RGS5, a Hypoxia-inducible Apoptotic Stimulator in Endothelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yi; An, Xiaojin; Ye, Zelian; Cully, Brittany; Wu, Jiaping; Li, Jian

    2009-01-01

    Endothelial cells rapidly respond to changes in oxygen homeostasis by regulating gene expression. Regulator of G protein signaling 5 (RGS5) is a negative regulator of G protein-mediated signaling that is strongly expressed in vessels during angiogenesis; however, the role of RGS5 in hypoxia has not been fully understood. Under hypoxic conditions, we found that the expression of RGS5, but not other RGS, was induced in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). RGS5 mRNA was increased when HUVEC were incubated with chemicals that stabilized hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?), whereas hypoxia-stimulated RGS5 promoter activity was absent in HIF-1??/? cells. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is regulated by HIF-1, did not appear to be involved in hypoxia-induced RGS5 expression; however, VEGF-mediated activation of p38 but not ERK1/2 was increased by RGS5. Overexpression of RGS5 in HUVEC exhibited a reduced growth rate without affecting the cell proliferation. Annexin V assay revealed that RGS5 induced apoptosis with significantly increased activation of caspase-3 and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Small interfering RNA-specific for RGS5, caspase-3 inhibitor, and p38 inhibitor resulted in an attenuation of RGS5-stimulated apoptosis. Matrigel assay proved that RGS5 significantly impaired the angiogenic effect of VEGF and stimulated apoptosis in vivo. We concluded that RGS5 is a novel HIF-1-dependent, hypoxia-induced gene that is involved in the induction of endothelial apoptosis. Moreover, RGS5 antagonizes the angiogenic effect of VEGF by increasing the activation of p38 signaling, suggesting that RGS5 could be an important target for apoptotic therapy. PMID:19564336

  12. Anti-Apoptotic Machinery Protects the Necrotrophic Fungus Botrytis cinerea from Host-Induced Apoptotic- Like Cell Death

    E-print Network

    During Plant Infection; Neta Shlezinger; Anna Minz; Yonatan Gur; Ido Hatam; Yasin F. Dagdas; Nicholas J. Talbot; Amir Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Necrotrophic fungi are unable to occupy living plant cells. How such pathogens survive first contact with living host tissue and initiate infection is therefore unclear. Here, we show that the necrotrophic grey mold fungus Botrytis cinerea undergoes massive apoptotic-like programmed cell death (PCD) following germination on the host plant. Manipulation of an antiapoptotic gene BcBIR1 modified fungal response to PCD-inducing conditions. As a consequence, strains with reduced sensitivity to PCD were hyper virulent, while strains in which PCD was over-stimulated showed reduced pathogenicity. Similarly, reduced levels of PCD in the fungus were recorded following infection of Arabidopsis mutants that show enhanced susceptibility to B. cinerea. When considered together, these results suggest that Botrytis PCD machinery is targeted by plant defense molecules, and that the fungal anti-apoptotic machinery is essential for overcoming this host-induced PCD and hence, for establishment of infection. As such, fungal PCD machinery represents a novel target for fungicides and antifungal drugs.

  13. Penicillium antifungal protein (PAF) is involved in the apoptotic and autophagic processes of the producer Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Barbara; Heged?s, Nikoletta; Bálint, Mihály; Szabó, Zsuzsa; Emri, Tamás; Kiss, Gréta; Antal, Miklós; Pócsi, István; Leiter, Eva

    2014-09-01

    PAF, which is produced by the filamentous fungus Pencicillium chrysogenum, is a small antifungal protein, triggering ROS-mediated apoptotic cell death in Aspergillus nidulans. In this work, we provide information on the function of PAF in the host P. chrysogenum considering that carbon-starving cultures of the ?paf mutant strain showed significantly reduced apoptosis rates in comparison to the wild-type (wt) strain. Moreover, the addition of PAF to the ?paf strain resulted in a twofold increase in the apoptosis rate. PAF was also involved in the regulation of the autophagy machinery of this fungus, since several Saccharomyces cerevisiae autophagy-related ortholog genes, e.g. those of atg7, atg22 and tipA, were repressed in the deletion strain. This phenomenon was accompanied by the absence of autophagosomes in the ?paf strain, even in old hyphae. PMID:25261948

  14. Death ligand concentration and the membrane proximal signaling module regulate the type 1/ type 2 choice in apoptotic death signaling

    E-print Network

    Raychaudhuri, Subhadip

    2015-01-01

    Apoptotic death pathways are frequently activated by death ligand induction and subsequent activation of the membrane proximal signaling module. Death receptors cluster upon binding to death ligands, leading to formation of a membrane proximal death-inducing-signaling-complex (DISC). In this membrane proximal signalosome, initiator caspases (caspase 8) are processed resulting in activation of both type 1 and type 2 pathways of apoptosis signaling. How the type 1/type 2 choice is made is an important question in the systems biology of apoptosis signaling. In this study, we utilize a Monte Carlo based in silico approach to elucidate the role of membrane proximal signaling module in the type 1/type 2 choice of apoptosis signaling. Our results provide crucial mechanistic insights into the formation of DISC signalosome and caspase 8 activation. Increased concentration of death ligands was shown to correlate with increased type 1 activation. We also study the caspase 6 mediated system level feedback activation of a...

  15. Gastroprotective effect of nymphayol isolated from Nymphaea stellata (Willd.) flowers: contribution of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities.

    PubMed

    Antonisamy, Paulrayer; Subash-Babu, Pandurangan; Alshatwi, Ali A; Aravinthan, Adithan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Choi, Ki Choon; Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2014-12-01

    Gastric ulcer is an illness that affects a great number of people worldwide. The goal of the present research was to assess the anti-ulcerogenic activity of nymphayol (NYM), isolated from Nymphaea stellata, against an ethanol-induced ulcer model in rats. Administration of ethanol elevates the levels of the ulcer index (UI) along with causing tremendous increases in lipid peroxidation and myeloperoxidase (MPO) and significant decreases in gastric mucus, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). However, the NYM- (45 mg/kg) pretreated animals showed considerable increases in antioxidants, gastric mucus, and PGE2 level and significant decreases in UI, lipid peroxidation, and MPO level. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interferon-? (IFN-?) were increased and the level of interleukin-10 (IL-10), an anti-inflammatory cytokine, was decreased in ethanol-induced ulcerated animals, and these inequalities were amended by NYM pretreatment. Pro-apoptotic markers including caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3 were decreased and Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic marker, was increased through NYM pretreatment, as compared with the ethanol-induced ulcer group. Pretreatment with indomethacin, SC560, rofecoxib, and N?-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) considerably prevented the ulcer protective activity of NYM (45 mg/kg), indicating the involvement of cyclooxygenase (COX) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in NYM-mediated gastroprotection against ethanol-induced ulcer. These outcomes suggest that the gastroprotective effect of NYM might be mediated by adjustment of inflammatory mediators and apoptotic markers and increasing antioxidants. PMID:25289771

  16. ANTICANCER MEDICINAL PLANT, Epipremnum pinnatum (L.) Engl. CHLOROFORM EXTRACTS ELICITED BOTH APOPTOTIC AND NON-APOPTOTIC CELL DEATHS IN T- 47D MAMMARY CARCINOMA CELLS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tan Mei Lan; Shaida Fariza Sulaiman; Nazalan Najimudin

    Epipremnum pinnatum (L.) Engl. chloroform extract produced significant growth inhibition against T-47D breast carcinoma cells and analysis of cell death mechanisms indicated that the extract elicited both apoptotic and non-apoptotic programmed cell deaths. T-47D cells exposed to the extract produced a significant up-regulation of c-myc and caspase-3 mRNA expression levels as compared to untreated cells. The up-regulation of caspase-3 mRNA

  17. The Combined Effect of Acetylation and Glycation on the Chaperone and Anti-apoptotic Functions of Human ?-Crystallin

    PubMed Central

    Nahomi, Rooban B.; Oya-Ito, Tomoko; Nagaraj, Ram H.

    2012-01-01

    N?-acetylation occurs on select lysine residues in ?-crystallin of the human lens and alters its chaperone function. In this study, we investigated the effect of N?-acetylation on advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation and consequences of the combined N?-acetylation and AGE formation on the function of ?-crystallin. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that N?-acetylation of lysine residues and AGE formation co-occurs in both ?A- and ?B-crystallin of the human lens. Prior acetylation of ?A- and ?B-crystallin with acetic anhydride (Ac2O) before glycation with methylglyoxal (MGO) resulted in significant inhibition of the synthesis of two AGEs, hydroimidazolone (HI) and argpyrimidine. Similarly, synthesis of ascorbate-derived AGEs, pentosidine and N?-carboxymethyl lysine (CML), was inhibited in both proteins by prior acetylation. In all cases, inhibition of AGE synthesis was positively related to the degree of acetylation. While prior acetylation further increased the chaperone activity of MGO-glycated ?A-crystallin, it inhibited the loss of chaperone activity by ascorbate-glycation in both proteins. BioPORTER-mediated transfer of ?A- and ?B-crystallin into CHO cells resulted in significant protection against hyperthermia-induced apoptosis. This effect was enhanced in acetylated and MGO-modified ?A- and ?B-crystallin. Caspase-3 activity was reduced in ?-crystallin transferred cells. Glycation of acetylated proteins with either MGO or ascorbate produced no significant change in the anti-apoptotic function. Collectively, these data demonstrate that lysine acetylation and AGE formation can occur concurrently in ?-crystallin of human lens, and that lysine acetylation improves anti-apoptotic function of ?-crystallin and prevents ascorbate-mediated loss of chaperone function. PMID:22982407

  18. Acetylcholine inhibits tumor necrosis factor ? activated endoplasmic reticulum apoptotic pathway via EGFR-PI3K signaling in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yi; Bi, Xue-Yuan; Zhao, Mei; Jiang, Hong-Ke; Liu, Jin-Jun; Li, Dong-Ling; Yu, Xiao-Jiang; Yang, Yong-Hua; Huang, Ning; Zang, Wei-Jin

    2015-04-01

    Previous findings have shown that acetylcholine (ACh) decreased hypoxia-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF ?) production, thus protected against cardiomyocyte injury. However, whether and how ACh affects TNF ?-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and cell apoptosis remain poorly defined. This study was aimed at determining the effect of ACh in H9c2 cells after TNF ? stimulation. Presence of ER stress was verified using the ER stress protein markers glucose regulatory protein 78 (GRP78) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). Cell apoptosis was shown by caspase-3 activation and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling. Exogenously administered ACh significantly decreased these TNF ?-induced changes. Moreover, when the cells were exposed to nonspecific muscarinic receptor (M AChR) inhibitor atropine, methoctramine (M2 AChR inhibitor) or the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor AG1478, the cardioprotection elicited by ACh was diminished. Furthermore, the above effects were also blocked by M2 AChR or EGFR siRNA, indicating that EGFR transactivation by M2 AChR may be the major pathway responsible for the benefits of ACh. In addition, LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, displayed the similar trends as AG1478, suggesting that PI3K/Akt signaling may be the downstream of EGFR in ACh-elicited anti-apoptotic property. Together, these data indicate that EGFR-PI3K/Akt signaling is involved in M2 AChR-mediated ER apoptotic pathway suppression and the subsequent survival of H9c2 cardiomyocytes. We have identified a novel pathway underlying the cardioprotection afforded by ACh. PMID:25201632

  19. Curcumin induces apoptotic cell death of activated human CD4+ T cells via increasing endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Min; Zhang, Qinggao; Joe, Yeonsoo; Lee, Bong Hee; Ryu, Do Gon; Kwon, Kang Beom; Ryter, Stefan W; Chung, Hun Taeg

    2013-03-01

    Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic antioxidant compound, exerts well-known anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, the latter which can influence the activation of immune cells including T cells. Furthermore, curcumin can inhibit the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, through suppression of the NF-?B signaling pathway. The beneficial effects of curcumin in diseases such as arthritis, allergy, asthma, atherosclerosis, diabetes and cancer may be due to its immunomodulatory properties. We studied the potential of curcumin to modulate CD4+ T cells-mediated autoimmune disease, by examining the effects of this compound on human CD4+ lymphocyte activation. Stimulation of human T cells with PHA or CD3/CD28 induced IL-2 mRNA expression and activated the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. The treatment of T cells with curcumin induced the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway, initiated by the phosphorylation of PERK and IRE1. Furthermore, curcumin increased the expression of the ER stress associated transcriptional factors XBP-1, cleaved p50ATF6? and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) in human CD4+ and Jurkat T cells. In PHA-activated T cells, curcumin further enhanced PHA-induced CHOP expression and reduced the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Finally, curcumin treatment induced apoptotic cell death in activated T cells via eliciting an excessive ER stress response, which was reversed by the ER-stress inhibitor 4-phenylbutyric acid or transfection with CHOP-specific siRNA. These results suggest that curcumin can impact both ER stress and mitochondria functional pathways, and thereby could be used as a promising therapy in the context of Th1-mediated autoimmune diseases. PMID:23415873

  20. The role of mitogen-activated protein kinase in cadmium-induced primary rat cerebral cortical neurons apoptosis via a mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yan; Jiang, Chenyang; Hu, Feifei; Wang, Qiwen; Zhang, Kangbao; Wang, Yi; Gu, Jianhong; Liu, Xuezhong; Bian, Jianchun; Liu, Zongping

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an extremely toxic metal capable of severely damaging several organs, including the brain. Studies have shown that Cd induces neuronal apoptosis partially by activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. However, the underlying mechanism of MAPK involving the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in neurons remains unclear. In this study, primary rat cerebral cortical neurons were exposed to Cd, which significantly decreased cell viability and the B-cell lymphoma 2/Bcl-2 associate X protein (Bcl-2/Bax) ratio and increased the percentage of apoptotic cells, release of cytochrome c, cleavages of caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). In addition, Cd induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK. Inhibition of ERK and JNK, but not p38 MAPK, partially protected the cells from Cd-induced apoptosis. ERK and JNK inhibition also blocked alteration of the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, release of cytochrome c, cleavages of caspase-3 and PARP, and nuclear translocation of AIF. Taken together, these data suggest that the ERK- and JNK-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathways play important roles in Cd-induced neuronal apoptosis. PMID:25043952

  1. Diarylheptanoid hirsutenone enhances apoptotic effect of TRAIL on epithelial ovarian carcinoma cell lines via activation of death receptor and mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chung Soo; Jang, Eun-Ra; Kim, Yun Jeong; Myung, Soon Chul; Kim, Wonyong; Lee, Min Won

    2012-04-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in various cancer cells. Diarylheptanoids such as hirsutenone and oregonin have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects. However, it is still unknown by which mechanism diarylheptanoids induce cell death. In addition, the effect of hirsutenone on TRAIL-induced apoptosis in the human epithelial ovarian carcinoma cell lines is unknown. To assess the apoptosis promoting effect of hirsutenone, we investigated the effect of hirsutenone on the apoptotic effect of TRAIL using the human epithelial carcinoma cell lines OVCAR-3 and SK-OV-3. TRAIL induced nuclear damage, decrease in Bid, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein levels, increase in Bax levels, loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, cytochrome c release, activation of caspases (8, 9 and 3) and increase in tumor suppressor p53 levels. Hirsutenone enhanced the TRAIL-induced apoptosis-related protein activation, nuclear damage and cell death. The results suggest that hirsutenone may enhance the apoptotic effect of TRAIL on ovarian carcinoma cell lines by increasing the activation of the caspase-8- and Bid-dependent pathways and the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway, leading to caspase activation. Hirsutenone may confer a benefit in the TRAIL treatment of epithelial ovarian adenocarcinoma. PMID:21120579

  2. Apoptotic body engulfment by hepatic stellate cells promotes their survival by the JAK/STAT and Akt/NF-?B-dependent pathways

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Joy X.; Mikami, Kenichiro; Venugopal, Senthil; Li, Yong; Török, Natalie J

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims We have previously shown that phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies (AB) by hepatic stellate cells (HSC) is profibrogenic. As HSC survival is central to the progression of liver fibrosis, our goal was to investigate if phagocytosis induces HSC survival. Methods Apoptosis of phagocytosing HSC was studied in the presence of known apoptotic agents. The JAK/STAT and PI3K/Akt dependent pathways, NF-?B activation and expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and A1 were evaluated. Apoptosis was assessed after blocking A1 by an siRNA approach. Results Phagocytosing HSC were resistant to FasL/cycloheximide or TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Inhibition of the JAK/STAT or PI3K-mediated pathways induced apoptosis of HSC. Phagocytosis induced JAK1/STAT3 phosphorylation, and this was prevented by inhibiting JAK. Translocation of STAT3 to the nucleus was also blocked by JAK inhibition. Mcl-1 expression was upregulated in a JAK-dependent manner. PI3K-dependent phosphorylation of Akt depended on NADPH oxidase activity and superoxide production. NF-?B activation and subsequent upregulation of A1 was observed, and A1 inhibition induced apoptosis of HSC. Conclusion Phagocytosis of AB promotes HSC survival by two pathways, of which the A1 dependent is more significant. This represents a new mechanism by which engulfment of AB contributes to the propagation of liver fibrosis. PMID:19457567

  3. Cell Death Differ . Author manuscript Intravenous apoptotic spleen cell infusion induces a TGF-beta-dependent

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    a TGF-beta-dependent regulatory T-cell expansion Fran ois M. Kleinclaussç 1 , Sylvain Perruche 1Cell Death Differ . Author manuscript Page /1 14 Intravenous apoptotic spleen cell infusion induces hematopoietic engraftment and prevent graft-versus-host disease. This apoptotic cell-induced tolerogenic effect

  4. Phagocytic Receptor CED1 Initiates a Signaling Pathway for Degrading Engulfed Apoptotic Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaomeng Yu; Nan Lu; Zheng Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Apoptotic cells in animals are engulfed by phagocytic cells and subsequently degraded inside phagosomes. To study the mechanisms controlling the degradation of apoptotic cells, we developed time-lapse imaging protocols in developing Caenorhabditis elegans embryos and established the temporal order of multiple events during engulfment and phagosome maturation. These include sequential enrichment on phagocytic membranes of phagocytic receptor cell death abnormal

  5. Caenorhabditis elegans Myotubularin MTM-1 Negatively Regulates the Engulfment of Apoptotic Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Zou; Qun Lu; Dongfeng Zhao; Weida Li; James Mapes; Yuting Xie; Xiaochen Wang

    2009-01-01

    During programmed cell death, apoptotic cells are recognized and rapidly engulfed by phagocytes. Although a number of genes have been identified that promote cell corpse engulfment, it is not well understood how phagocytosis of apoptotic cells is negatively regulated. Here we have identified Caenorhabditis elegans myotubularin MTM-1 as a negative regulator of cell corpse engulfment. Myotubularins (MTMs) constitute a large,

  6. A quantitative comparison of rates of phagocytosis and digestion of apoptotic cells by macrophages from normal

    E-print Network

    Keshet, Leah

    A quantitative comparison of rates of phagocytosis and digestion of apoptotic cells by macrophages head: Phagocytosis and digestion by NOD mice macrophages Corresponding author: Leah Edelstein, thus quantifying kinetics of uptake and digestion of apoptotic cells in both mouse strains (Mar´ee et

  7. Fitness Landscapes of Evolved Apoptotic Cellular Automata Daniel Ashlock and Sharon McNicholas

    E-print Network

    Ashlock, Dan

    Fitness Landscapes of Evolved Apoptotic Cellular Automata Daniel Ashlock and Sharon McNicholas Abstract--This paper examines the fitness landscape for evo- lutionary algorithms evolving cellular automata rules to satisfy an apoptotic fitness function. This fitness function requires the automata

  8. Apoptotic Molecular Machinery: Vastly Increased Complexity in Vertebrates Revealed by Genome Comparisons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Aravind; Vishva M. Dixit; Eugene V. Koonin

    2001-01-01

    A comparison of the proteins encoded in the recently (nearly) completed human genome to those from the fly and nematode genomes reveals a major increase in the complexity of the apoptotic molecular machinery in vertebrates, in terms of both the number of proteins involved and their domain architecture. Several components of the apoptotic system are shared by humans and flies,

  9. Detection of apoptotic cells using propidium iodide staining.

    PubMed

    Newbold, Andrea; Martin, Ben P; Cullinane, Carleen; Bots, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Flow cytometry assays are often used to detect apoptotic cells in in vitro cultures. Depending on the experimental model, these assays can also be useful in evaluating apoptosis in vivo. In this protocol, we describe a propidium iodide (PI) flow cytometry assay to evaluate B-cell lymphomas that have undergone apoptosis in vivo. B-cell lymphoma cells are injected into recipient mice and, on tumor formation, the mice are treated with the apoptosis inducer vorinostat (a histone deacetylase inhibitor). Tumor samples collected from the lymph nodes and/or the spleen are used to prepare a single-cell suspension that is exposed to a hypotonic solution containing the fluorochrome PI. The DNA content of the cells, now labeled with PI, is analyzed by flow cytometry. Nuclear DNA content is lost during apoptosis, resulting in a hypodiploid (or sub-G1) DNA profile during flow cytometry. In contrast, healthy cells display a sharp diploid DNA profile. PMID:25368311

  10. Multisite phosphorylation of c-Jun at threonine 91/93/95 triggers the onset of c-Jun pro-apoptotic activity in cerebellar granule neurons.

    PubMed

    Reddy, C E; Albanito, L; De Marco, P; Aiello, D; Maggiolini, M; Napoli, A; Musti, A M

    2013-01-01

    Cerebellar granule cell (CGC) apoptosis by trophic/potassium (TK) deprivation is a model of election to study the interplay of pro-apoptotic and pro-survival signaling pathways in neuronal cell death. In this model, the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) induces pro-apoptotic genes through the c-Jun/activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factor. On the other side, a survival pathway initiated by lithium leads to repression of pro-apoptotic c-Jun/AP-1 target genes without interfering with JNK activity. Yet, the mechanism by which lithium inhibits c-Jun activity remains to be elucidated. Here, we used this model system to study the regulation and function of site-specific c-Jun phosphorylation at the S63 and T91/T93 JNK sites in neuronal cell death. We found that TK-deprivation led to c-Jun multiphosphorylation at all three JNK sites. However, immunofluorescence analysis of c-Jun phosphorylation at single cell level revealed that the S63 site was phosphorylated in all c-Jun-expressing cells, whereas the response of T91/T93 phosphorylation was more sensitive, mirroring the switch-like apoptotic response of CGCs. Conversely, lithium prevented T91T93 phosphorylation and cell death without affecting the S63 site, suggesting that T91T93 phosphorylation triggers c-Jun pro-apoptotic activity. Accordingly, a c-Jun mutant lacking the T95 priming site for T91/93 phosphorylation protected CGCs from apoptosis, whereas it was able to induce neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Vice versa, a c-Jun mutant bearing aspartate substitution of T95 overwhelmed lithium-mediate protection of CGCs from TK-deprivation, validating that inhibition of T91/T93/T95 phosphorylation underlies the effect of lithium on cell death. Mass spectrometry analysis confirmed multiphosphorylation of c-Jun at T91/T93/T95 in cells. Moreover, JNK phosphorylated recombinant c-Jun at T91/T93 in a T95-dependent manner. On the basis of our results, we propose that T91/T93/T95 multiphosphorylation of c-Jun functions as a sensitivity amplifier of the JNK cascade, setting the threshold for c-Jun pro-apoptotic activity in neuronal cells. PMID:24113186

  11. Multisite phosphorylation of c-Jun at threonine 91/93/95 triggers the onset of c-Jun pro-apoptotic activity in cerebellar granule neurons

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, C E; Albanito, L; De Marco, P; Aiello, D; Maggiolini, M; Napoli, A; Musti, A M

    2013-01-01

    Cerebellar granule cell (CGC) apoptosis by trophic/potassium (TK) deprivation is a model of election to study the interplay of pro-apoptotic and pro-survival signaling pathways in neuronal cell death. In this model, the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) induces pro-apoptotic genes through the c-Jun/activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factor. On the other side, a survival pathway initiated by lithium leads to repression of pro-apoptotic c-Jun/AP-1 target genes without interfering with JNK activity. Yet, the mechanism by which lithium inhibits c-Jun activity remains to be elucidated. Here, we used this model system to study the regulation and function of site-specific c-Jun phosphorylation at the S63 and T91/T93 JNK sites in neuronal cell death. We found that TK-deprivation led to c-Jun multiphosphorylation at all three JNK sites. However, immunofluorescence analysis of c-Jun phosphorylation at single cell level revealed that the S63 site was phosphorylated in all c-Jun-expressing cells, whereas the response of T91/T93 phosphorylation was more sensitive, mirroring the switch-like apoptotic response of CGCs. Conversely, lithium prevented T91T93 phosphorylation and cell death without affecting the S63 site, suggesting that T91T93 phosphorylation triggers c-Jun pro-apoptotic activity. Accordingly, a c-Jun mutant lacking the T95 priming site for T91/93 phosphorylation protected CGCs from apoptosis, whereas it was able to induce neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Vice versa, a c-Jun mutant bearing aspartate substitution of T95 overwhelmed lithium-mediate protection of CGCs from TK-deprivation, validating that inhibition of T91/T93/T95 phosphorylation underlies the effect of lithium on cell death. Mass spectrometry analysis confirmed multiphosphorylation of c-Jun at T91/T93/T95 in cells. Moreover, JNK phosphorylated recombinant c-Jun at T91/T93 in a T95-dependent manner. On the basis of our results, we propose that T91/T93/T95 multiphosphorylation of c-Jun functions as a sensitivity amplifier of the JNK cascade, setting the threshold for c-Jun pro-apoptotic activity in neuronal cells. PMID:24113186

  12. Cooperative binding of Annexin A5 to phosphatidylserine on apoptotic cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Janko, Christina; Jeremic, Ivica; Biermann, Mona; Chaurio, Ricardo; Schorn, Christine; Muñoz, Luis E; Herrmann, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Healthy cells exhibit an asymmetric plasma membrane with phosphatidylserine (PS) located on the cytoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane bilayer. Annexin A5-FITC, a PS binding protein, is commonly used to evaluate apoptosis in flow cytometry. PS exposed by apoptotic cells serves as a major 'eat-me' signal for phagocytes. Although exposition of PS has been observed after alternative stimuli, no clearance of viable, PS exposing cells has been detected. Thus, besides PS exposure, membranes of viable and apoptotic cells might exhibit specific characteristics. Here, we show that Annexin A5 binds in a cooperative manner to different types of dead cells. Shrunken apoptotic cells thereby showed the highest Hill coefficient values. Contrarily, parafomaldehyde fixation of apoptotic cells completely abrogates the cooperativity effect seen with dead and dying cells. We tend to speculate that the cooperative binding of Annexin A5 to the membranes of apoptotic cells reflects higher fluidity of the exposed membranes facilitating PS clustering. PMID:24304966

  13. Cooperative binding of Annexin A5 to phosphatidylserine on apoptotic cell membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janko, Christina; Jeremic, Ivica; Biermann, Mona; Chaurio, Ricardo; Schorn, Christine; Muñoz, Luis E.; Herrmann, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Healthy cells exhibit an asymmetric plasma membrane with phosphatidylserine (PS) located on the cytoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane bilayer. Annexin A5-FITC, a PS binding protein, is commonly used to evaluate apoptosis in flow cytometry. PS exposed by apoptotic cells serves as a major ‘eat-me’ signal for phagocytes. Although exposition of PS has been observed after alternative stimuli, no clearance of viable, PS exposing cells has been detected. Thus, besides PS exposure, membranes of viable and apoptotic cells might exhibit specific characteristics. Here, we show that Annexin A5 binds in a cooperative manner to different types of dead cells. Shrunken apoptotic cells thereby showed the highest Hill coefficient values. Contrarily, parafomaldehyde fixation of apoptotic cells completely abrogates the cooperativity effect seen with dead and dying cells. We tend to speculate that the cooperative binding of Annexin A5 to the membranes of apoptotic cells reflects higher fluidity of the exposed membranes facilitating PS clustering.

  14. Regulation of apoptotic signaling pathways by 5?-dihydrotestosterone and 17?-estradiol in immature rat Sertoli cells.

    PubMed

    Simões, V L; Alves, M G; Martins, A D; Dias, T R; Rato, L; Socorro, S; Oliveira, P F

    2013-05-01

    Apoptosis is an important regulatory event in testicular homeostasis and optimization of sperm production. Sertoli cells (SCs) form the blood-testis barrier creating a special microenvironment where germ cells develop and are under strict hormonal control. Estrogens and androgens are known to play critical roles in SCs functioning, improving their in vitro survival by preventing apoptotic progression. Herein, we studied the influence of 17?-estradiol (E2) and 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the apoptotic signaling pathways of immature rat cultured SCs. For that we chose key points of the apoptotic pathway that interact with the mitochondria and evaluated the mRNA expression and/or protein levels of several apoptotic markers such as p53, the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2, the pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family member Bax, the apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and caspase-3 and 9. Caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation were also evaluated as endpoint markers of apoptosis. E2 and DHT down-regulated the mRNA transcript levels of p53, Bax, caspase-9 and caspase-3. The protein levels of AIF were reduced after DHT treatment while E2-treated cells presented decreased levels of cleaved caspase-9 protein. Moreover, Bax/Bcl2 ratio was significantly decreased in E2-treated cells. The apoptotic endpoints caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation presented significant decreased levels after hormonal treatment. Taken together, these results show that E2 and DHT act as apoptotic signaling modulators in in vitro immature rat SCs suggesting that androgens and estrogens may be capable of modulating independent pathways of the apoptotic event by regulating different pro-apoptotic factors. PMID:23220551

  15. Host cell killing by the West Nile Virus NS2B-NS3 proteolytic complex: NS3 alone is sufficient to recruit caspase-8-based apoptotic pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, Mathura P. [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 422 Curie Blvd., 505 Stellar-Chance Laboratories, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Chambers, Jerome A. [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 422 Curie Blvd., 505 Stellar-Chance Laboratories, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Pankhong, Panyupa [Department of Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Chattergoon, Michael [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 422 Curie Blvd., 505 Stellar-Chance Laboratories, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Attatippaholkun, Watcharee [Department of Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Dang, Kesen [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 422 Curie Blvd., 505 Stellar-Chance Laboratories, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Shah, Neelima [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 422 Curie Blvd., 505 Stellar-Chance Laboratories, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Weiner, David B. [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 422 Curie Blvd., 505 Stellar-Chance Laboratories, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)]. E-mail: dbweiner@mail.med.upenn.edu

    2006-02-05

    The West Nile Virus (WNV) non-structural proteins 2B and 3 (NS2B-NS3) constitute the proteolytic complex that mediates the cleavage and processing of the viral polyprotein. NS3 recruits NS2B and NS5 proteins to direct protease and replication activities. In an effort to investigate the biology of the viral protease, we cloned cDNA encoding the NS2B-NS3 proteolytic complex from brain tissue of a WNV-infected dead crow, collected from the Lower Merion area (Merion strain). Expression of the NS2B-NS3 gene cassette induced apoptosis within 48 h of transfection. Electron microscopic analysis of NS2B-NS3-transfected cells revealed ultra-structural changes that are typical of apoptotic cells including membrane blebbing, nuclear disintegration and cytoplasmic vacuolations. The role of NS3 or NS2B in contributing to host cell apoptosis was examined. NS3 alone triggers the apoptotic pathways involving caspases-8 and -3. Experimental results from the use of caspase-specific inhibitors and caspase-8 siRNA demonstrated that the activation of caspase-8 was essential to initiate apoptotic signaling in NS3-expressing cells. Downstream of caspase-3 activation, we observed nuclear membrane ruptures and cleavage of the DNA-repair enzyme, PARP in NS3-expressing cells. Nuclear herniations due to NS3 expression were absent in the cells treated with a caspase-3 inhibitor. Expression of protease and helicase domains themselves was sufficient to trigger apoptosis generating insight into the apoptotic pathways triggered by NS3 from WNV.

  16. 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol attenuates spatio-cognitive deficits in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model: modulation of the molecular signals in neuronal survival-apoptotic programs.

    PubMed

    Arunsundar, Mohanasundaram; Shanmugarajan, Thukani Sathanantham; Ravichandran, Velayutham

    2015-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common type of dementia, is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive neuro-cognitive dysfunction. In our study, we investigated the potential of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (DOPET), a dopamine metabolite, and also a polyphenol from olive oil, in ameliorating soluble oligomeric amyloid ?1-42 plus ibotenic acid (oA42i)-induced neuro-behavioral dysfunction in C57BL/6 mice. The results depicted that intracerebroventricular injection of oA42i negatively altered the spatial reference and working memories in mice, whereas DOPET treatment significantly augmented the spatio-cognitive abilities against oA42i. Upon investigation of the underlying mechanisms, oA42i-intoxicated mice displayed significantly activated death kinases including JNK- and p38-MAPKs with concomitantly inhibited ERK-MAPK/RSK2, PI3K/Akt1, and JAK2/STAT3 survival signaling pathways in the hippocampal neurons. Conversely, DOPET treatment reversed these dysregulated signaling mechanisms comparable to the sham-operated mice. Notably, oA42i administration altered the Bcl-2/Bad levels and activated the caspase-dependent mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway involving cytochrome c, apoptotic protease activating factor-1, and caspase-9/3. In contrary, DOPET administration stabilized the dysregulated activities of these apoptotic/anti-apoptotic markers and preserved the mitochondrial ultra-architecture. Besides, we observed that oA42i intoxication substantially down-regulated the expression of genes involved in the regulation of survival and memory functions including sirtuin-1, cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), CREB-target genes (BDNF, c-Fos, Nurr1, and Egr1) and a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10. Fascinatingly, DOPET treatment significantly diminished these aberrations when compared to the oA42i group. Taken together, these results accentuate that DOPET may be a multipotent agent to combat AD. PMID:25274193

  17. Macrophages and Dendritic Cells Use Different Axl\\/Mertk\\/Tyro3 Receptors in Clearance of Apoptotic Cells1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather M. Seitz; Todd D. Camenisch; Greg Lemke; H. Shelton Earp; Glenn K. Matsushima

    2007-01-01

    The clearance of apoptotic cells is important for regulating tissue homeostasis, inflammation, and autoimmune responses. The absence of receptor tyrosine kinases (Axl, Mertk, and Tyro3) results in widespread accumulation of apoptotic cells and autoan- tibody production in mice. In this report, we examine the function of the three family members in apoptotic cell clearance by different phagocytic cell types. Mertk

  18. Autologous Apoptotic Cell Engulfment Stimulates Chemokine Secretion by Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fries, Diana M.; Lightfoot, Richard; Koval, Michael; Ischiropoulos, Harry

    2005-01-01

    Apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) occurs in vivo under both physiological and pathological settings. The clearance of apoptotic cells may be accomplished in part by the surrounding normal VSMCs. However, the fate of internalized apoptotic cells, the rate of intracellular degradation, and the consequences of these processes to VSMC biology are unknown. Electron microscopy and confocal fluorescence imaging showed that rat VSMCs effectively bound and internalized autologous apoptotic VSMCs in vitro. Within 2 hours, the internalized apoptotic cells were delivered to lysosomes, and the majority of these internalized cells and their proteins were efficiently degraded by 24 hours. After degradation was completed, the phagocytic VSMCs remained viable with normal rates of proliferation. Clearance of apoptotic cells by VSMCs did not induce the release of vascular wall matrix proteases but was associated with a 1.6-fold increase in transforming growth factor-?1 release. Interestingly, clearance of apoptotic cells stimulated VSMCs to secrete monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1 and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant. The coordinated release of transforming growth factor-?1 and chemokines suggests that autologous apoptotic cell clearance stimulates VSMCs to release molecules that specifically recruit professional phagocytes while simultaneously dampening the inflammatory response and preventing vascular injury. PMID:16049322

  19. O Death Where Is Thy Sting? Immunologic Tolerance To Apoptotic Self

    PubMed Central

    Ravishankar, Buvana; McGaha, Tracy L.

    2013-01-01

    In higher organisms, innate scavenging cells maintain physiologic homeostasis by removal of the billions of apoptotic cells generated on a daily basis. Apoptotic cell removal requires efficient recognition and uptake by professional and non-professional phagocytic cells, which are governed by an array of soluble and apoptotic cell-integral signals resulting in immunologically silent clearance. While apoptosis is associated with profound suppression of adaptive and innate inflammatory immunity, we have only begun to scratch the surface in understanding how immunologic tolerance to apoptotic self manifest at either the molecular or cellular level. In the last 10 years data has emerged implicating professional phagocytes, most notably stromal macrophages and CD8?+CD103+ dendritic cells, as critical in initiation of the regulatory cascade that will ultimately lead to long-term whole animal immune tolerance. Importantly, recent work by our lab and others has shown that alterations in apoptotic cell perception by the innate immune system either by removal of critical phagocytic sentinels in secondary lymphoid organs or blockage of immunosuppressive pathways leads to pronounced inflammation with a breakdown of tolerance towards self. This challenges the paradigm that apoptotic cells are inherently immunosuppressive suggesting that apoptotic cell tolerance is a “context dependent” event. PMID:23377225

  20. Apoptotic osteocytes regulate osteoclast precursor recruitment and differentiation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Al-Dujaili, Saja A; Lau, Esther; Al-Dujaili, Hashem; Tsang, Kyle; Guenther, Axel; You, Lidan

    2011-09-01

    Fatigue loading causes a spatial distribution of osteocyte apoptosis co-localized with bone resorption spaces peaking around microdamage sites. Since osteocytes have been shown to regulate osteoclast formation and activity, we hypothesize that osteocyte apoptosis regulates osteoclastogenesis. In this study, we used serum-starvation to mimic reduced nutrient transport in microdamaged bone and induce apoptosis in MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells; conditioned medium was used to apply soluble factors released by apoptotic osteocytes (aOCY) to healthy non-apoptotic MLO-Y4 cells. Osteoclast precursor (RAW264.7 monocyte) migration and differentiation were assessed in the presence of conditioned media (CM) from: (A) aOCY, (B) osteocytes treated with apoptosis conditioned medium (i.e., healthy osteocytes in the presence of apoptosis cues; apoptosis CM-treated osteocytes (atOCY)), and (C) osteocytes treated with non-apoptosis conditioned medium (i.e., healthy osteocytes in the absence of apoptosis cues; non-apoptosis CM-treated osteocytes (natOCY)). Receptor activator for nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL), macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) mRNA, and protein expression were measured. Our findings indicate that soluble factors released by aOCY and atOCY promoted osteoclast precursor migration (up to 64% and 24% increase, respectively) and osteoclast formation (up to 450% and 265% increase, respectively). Osteoclast size increased up to 233% in the presence of aOCY and atOCY CM. Recruitment, formation and size were unaltered by natOCY. RANKL mRNA and protein expression were upregulated only in aOCY, while M-CSF and VEGF increased in atOCY. Addition of RANKL-blocking antibody abolished aOCY-induced osteoclast precursor migration and osteoclast formation. VEGF and M-CSF blocking antibodies abolished atOCY-induced osteoclastogenesis. These findings suggest that aOCY directly and indirectly (through atOCY) initiate targeted bone resorption by regulating osteoclast precursor recruitment and differentiation. PMID:21538477

  1. Increased CD8+ T cell responses to apoptotic T cell-associated antigens in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Here, we evaluated the hypothesis that CD8+ T cell responses to caspase-cleaved antigens derived from effector T cells undergoing apoptosis, may contribute to multiple sclerosis (MS) immunopathology. Methods The percentage of autoreactive CD8+ T effector cells specific for various apoptotic T cell-associated self-epitopes (apoptotic epitopes) were detected in the peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by both enzyme-linked immunospot and dextramers of class I molecules complexed with relevant apoptotic epitopes. Moreover, the capacity of dextramer+ CD8+ T cells to produce interferon (IFN)-? and/or interleukin (IL)-17 in response to the relevant apoptotic epitopes was evaluated by the intracellular cytokine staining. Cross-presentation assay of apoptotic T cells by dendritic cells was also evaluated ex vivo. Results We found that polyfunctional (IFN-? and/or IL-17 producing) autoreactive CD8+ T cells specific for apoptotic epitopes were represented in MS patients with frequencies significantly higher than in healthy donors. These autoreactive CD8+ T cells with a strong potential to produce IFN-? or IL-17 in response to the relevant apoptotic epitopes were significantly accumulated in the CSF from the same patients. In addition, the frequencies of these autoreactive CD8+ T cells correlated with the disease disability. Cross-presentation assay revealed that caspase-cleaved cellular proteins are required to activate apoptotic epitope-specific CD8+ T cells ex vivo. Conclusion Taken together, these data indicate that apoptotic epitope-specific CD8+ T cells with strong inflammatory potential are recruited at the level of the inflammatory site, where they may be involved in MS immunopathology through the production of high levels of inflammatory cytokines. PMID:23890271

  2. The apoptotic mechanism of action of the sphingosine kinase 1 selective inhibitor SKI-178 in human acute myeloid leukemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Dick, Taryn E; Hengst, Jeremy A; Fox, Todd E; Colledge, Ashley L; Kale, Vijay P; Sung, Shen-Shu; Sharma, Arun; Amin, Shantu; Loughran, Thomas P; Kester, Mark; Wang, Hong-Gang; Yun, Jong K

    2015-03-01

    We previously developed SKI-178 (N'-[(1E)-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethylidene]-3-(4-methoxxyphenyl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carbohydrazide) as a novel sphingosine kinase-1 (SphK1) selective inhibitor and, herein, sought to determine the mechanism-of-action of SKI-178-induced cell death. Using human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines as a model, we present evidence that SKI-178 induces prolonged mitosis followed by apoptotic cell death through the intrinsic apoptotic cascade. Further examination of the mechanism of action of SKI-178 implicated c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and cyclin-dependent protein kinase 1 (CDK1) as critical factors required for SKI-178-induced apoptosis. In cell cycle synchronized human AML cell lines, we demonstrate that entry into mitosis is required for apoptotic induction by SKI-178 and that CDK1, not JNK, is required for SKI-178-induced apoptosis. We further demonstrate that the sustained activation of CDK1 during prolonged mitosis, mediated by SKI-178, leads to the simultaneous phosphorylation of the prosurvival Bcl-2 family members, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, as well as the phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of Mcl-1. Moreover, multidrug resistance mediated by multidrug-resistant protein1 and/or prosurvival Bcl-2 family member overexpression did not affect the sensitivity of AML cells to SKI-178. Taken together, these findings highlight the therapeutic potential of SKI-178 targeting SphK1 as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of AML, including multidrug-resistant/recurrent AML subtypes. PMID:25563902

  3. The small heat shock protein HspB2 is a novel anti-apoptotic protein that inhibits apical caspase activation in the extrinsic apoptotic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Oshita, Shayna E.; Chen, Feng; Kwan, Toni; Yehiely, Fruma

    2010-01-01

    Members of the conserved small heat shock protein (sHSP) family, such as ?B-crystallin and Hsp27, are constitutively expressed in diverse malignancies and have been linked to several hallmark features of cancer including apoptosis resistance. In contrast, the sHSP HspB2/MKBP, which shares an intergenic promoter with ?B-crystallin, was discovered as a chaperone of the myotonic dystrophy protein kinase and has not been previously implicated in apoptosis regulation. Here we describe a new function for HspB2 as a novel inhibitor of apical caspase activation in the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Specifically, we demonstrate that HspB2 is expressed in a subset of human breast cancer cell lines and that ectopic expression of HspB2 in breast cancer cells confers resistance to apoptosis induced by both TRAIL and TNF-?. We also show that HspB2 inhibits the extrinsic apoptotic pathway by suppressing apical caspases-8 and 10 activation, thereby blocking downstream apoptotic events, such as Bid cleavage and caspase-3 activation. Consistent with these in vitro effects, HspB2 attenuates the anti-tumor activity of TRAIL in an orthotopic xenograft model of breast cancer. Collectively, our results reveal a novel function of HspB2 as an anti-apoptotic protein that negatively regulates apical caspase activation in the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. PMID:20087649

  4. The Role of Nucleotides and Purinergic Signaling in Apoptotic Cell Clearance – Implications for Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jin; Zhao, Yi; Liu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Billions of cells undergo apoptosis every day in healthy individuals. A prompt removal of dying cells prevents the release of pro-inflammatory intracellular content and progress to secondary necrosis. Thus, inappropriate clearance of apoptotic cells provokes autoimmunity and has been associated with many chronic inflammatory diseases. Recent studies have suggested that extracellular adenosine 5?-triphosphate and related nucleotides play an important role in the apoptotic clearance process. Here, we review the current understanding of nucleotides and purinergic receptors in apoptotic cell clearance and the potential therapeutic targets of purinergic receptor subtypes in inflammatory conditions. PMID:25566266

  5. Anti-apoptotic Role of Caspase-cleaved GAB1 Adaptor Protein in Hepatocyte Growth Factor/Scatter Factor-MET Receptor Protein Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Le Goff, Arnaud; Ji, Zongling; Leclercq, Bérénice; Bourette, Roland P.; Mougel, Alexandra; Guerardel, Cateline; de Launoit, Yvan; Vicogne, Jérôme; Goormachtigh, Gautier; Fafeur, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    The GRB2-associated binder 1 (GAB1) docking/scaffold protein is a key mediator of the MET-tyrosine kinase receptor activated by hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF). Activated MET promotes recruitment and tyrosine phosphorylation of GAB1, which in turn recruits multiple proteins and mediates MET signaling leading to cell survival, motility, and morphogenesis. We previously reported that, without its ligand, MET is a functional caspase target during apoptosis, allowing the generation of a p40-MET fragment that amplifies apoptosis. In this study we established that GAB1 is also a functional caspase target by evidencing a caspase-cleaved p35-GAB1 fragment that contains the MET binding domain. GAB1 is cleaved by caspases before MET, and the resulting p35-GAB1 fragment is phosphorylated by MET upon HGF/SF binding and can interact with a subset of GAB1 partners, PI3K, and GRB2 but not with SHP2. This p35-GAB1 fragment favors cell survival by maintaining HGF/SF-induced MET activation of AKT and by hindering p40-MET pro-apoptotic function. These data demonstrate an anti-apoptotic role of caspase-cleaved GAB1 in HGF/SF-MET signaling. PMID:22915589

  6. Threonine 48 in the BIR domain of survivin is critical to its mitotic and anti-apoptotic activities and can be phosphorylated by CK2 in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Rachel MA; Colnaghi, Rita

    2011-01-01

    In this study we report that the protein kinase CK2 phosphorylates survivin specifically on threonine 48 (T48) within its BIR domain, and that T48 is critical to both the mitotic and anti-apoptotic roles of survivin. Interestingly, during mitosis T48 mutants localise normally, but are unable to support cell growth when endogenous survivin is removed by siRNA. In addition, while overexpression of survivin normally confers inhibition of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis, this protection is abolished by mutation of T48. Furthermore in interphase cells depletion of endogenous survivin causes redistribution of T48 mutants from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and treatment of cells expressing survivin-GFP with the CK2 inhibitor TBB phenocopies this nuclear redistribution. Finally, we show T48 mutants have increased affinity for borealin, and that this association and cell proliferation can be restored by introduction of a second mutation at T97. To our knowledge these data are the first to identify T48 as a key regulatory site on survivin, and CK2 as a mediator of its mitotic and anti-apoptotic functions. PMID:21252625

  7. The apoptotic initiator caspase-8: its functional ubiquity and genetic diversity during animal evolution.

    PubMed

    Sakamaki, Kazuhiro; Shimizu, Kouhei; Iwata, Hiroaki; Imai, Kenichiro; Satou, Yutaka; Funayama, Noriko; Nozaki, Masami; Yajima, Mamiko; Nishimura, Osamu; Higuchi, Mayura; Chiba, Kumiko; Yoshimoto, Michi; Kimura, Haruna; Gracey, Andrew Y; Shimizu, Takashi; Tomii, Kentaro; Gotoh, Osamu; Akasaka, Koji; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Miller, David J

    2014-12-01

    The caspases, a family of cysteine proteases, play multiple roles in apoptosis, inflammation, and cellular differentiation. Caspase-8 (Casp8), which was first identified in humans, functions as an initiator caspase in the apoptotic signaling mediated by cell-surface death receptors. To understand the evolution of function in the Casp8 protein family, casp8 orthologs were identified from a comprehensive range of vertebrates and invertebrates, including sponges and cnidarians, and characterized at both the gene and protein levels. Some introns have been conserved from cnidarians to mammals, but both losses and gains have also occurred; a new intron arose during teleost evolution, whereas in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, the casp8 gene is intronless and is organized in an operon with a neighboring gene. Casp8 activities are near ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom. Exogenous expression of a representative range of nonmammalian Casp8 proteins in cultured mammalian cells induced cell death, implying that these proteins possess proapoptotic activity. The cnidarian Casp8 proteins differ considerably from their bilaterian counterparts in terms of amino acid residues in the catalytic pocket, but display the same substrate specificity as human CASP8, highlighting the complexity of spatial structural interactions involved in enzymatic activity. Finally, it was confirmed that the interaction with an adaptor molecule, Fas-associated death domain protein, is also evolutionarily ancient. Thus, despite structural diversity and cooption to a variety of new functions, the ancient origins and near ubiquitous distribution of this activity across the animal kingdom emphasize the importance and utility of Casp8 as a central component of the metazoan molecular toolkit. PMID:25205508

  8. Straw blood cell count, growth, inhibition and comparison to apoptotic bodies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yonnie; Henry, David C; Heim, Kyle; Tomkins, Jeffrey P; Kuan, Cheng-Yi

    2008-01-01

    Background Mammalian cells transform into individual tubular straw cells naturally in tissues and in response to desiccation related stress in vitro. The transformation event is characterized by a dramatic cellular deformation process which includes: condensation of certain cellular materials into a much smaller tubular structure, synthesis of a tubular wall and growth of filamentous extensions. This study continues the characterization of straw cells in blood, as well as the mechanisms of tubular transformation in response to stress; with specific emphasis placed on investigating whether tubular transformation shares the same signaling pathway as apoptosis. Results There are approximately 100 billion, unconventional, tubular straw cells in human blood at any given time. The straw blood cell count (SBC) is 45 million/ml, which accounts for 6.9% of the bloods dry weight. Straw cells originating from the lungs, liver and lymphocytes have varying nodules, hairiness and dimensions. Lipid profiling reveals severe disruption of the plasma membrane in CACO cells during transformation. The growth rates for the elongation of filaments and enlargement of rabbit straw cells is 0.6~1.1 (?m/hr) and 3.8 (?m3/hr), respectively. Studies using apoptosis inhibitors and a tubular transformation inhibitor in CACO2 cells and in mice suggested apoptosis produced apoptotic bodies are mediated differently than tubular transformation produced straw cells. A single dose of 0.01 mg/kg/day of p38 MAPK inhibitor in wild type mice results in a 30% reduction in the SBC. In 9 domestic animals SBC appears to correlate inversely with an animal's average lifespan (R2 = 0.7). Conclusion Straw cells are observed residing in the mammalian blood with large quantities. Production of SBC appears to be constant for a given animal and may involve a stress-inducible protein kinase (P38 MAPK). Tubular transformation is a programmed cell survival process that diverges from apoptosis. SBCs may be an important indicator of intrinsic aging-related stress. PMID:18492269

  9. Proteins associated with the exon junction complex also control the alternative splicing of apoptotic regulators.

    PubMed

    Michelle, Laetitia; Cloutier, Alexandre; Toutant, Johanne; Shkreta, Lulzim; Thibault, Philippe; Durand, Mathieu; Garneau, Daniel; Gendron, Daniel; Lapointe, Elvy; Couture, Sonia; Le Hir, Hervé; Klinck, Roscoe; Elela, Sherif Abou; Prinos, Panagiotis; Chabot, Benoit

    2012-03-01

    Several apoptotic regulators, including Bcl-x, are alternatively spliced to produce isoforms with opposite functions. We have used an RNA interference strategy to map the regulatory landscape controlling the expression of the Bcl-x splice variants in human cells. Depleting proteins known as core (Y14 and eIF4A3) or auxiliary (RNPS1, Acinus, and SAP18) components of the exon junction complex (EJC) improved the production of the proapoptotic Bcl-x(S) splice variant. This effect was not seen when we depleted EJC proteins that typically participate in mRNA export (UAP56, Aly/Ref, and TAP) or that associate with the EJC to enforce nonsense-mediated RNA decay (MNL51, Upf1, Upf2, and Upf3b). Core and auxiliary EJC components modulated Bcl-x splicing through different cis-acting elements, further suggesting that this activity is distinct from the established EJC function. In support of a direct role in splicing control, recombinant eIF4A3, Y14, and Magoh proteins associated preferentially with the endogenous Bcl-x pre-mRNA, interacted with a model Bcl-x pre-mRNA in early splicing complexes, and specifically shifted Bcl-x alternative splicing in nuclear extracts. Finally, the depletion of Y14, eIF4A3, RNPS1, SAP18, and Acinus also encouraged the production of other proapoptotic splice variants, suggesting that EJC-associated components are important regulators of apoptosis acting at the alternative splicing level. PMID:22203037

  10. Proteins Associated with the Exon Junction Complex Also Control the Alternative Splicing of Apoptotic Regulators

    PubMed Central

    Michelle, Laetitia; Cloutier, Alexandre; Toutant, Johanne; Shkreta, Lulzim; Thibault, Philippe; Durand, Mathieu; Garneau, Daniel; Gendron, Daniel; Lapointe, Elvy; Couture, Sonia; Le Hir, Hervé; Klinck, Roscoe; Elela, Sherif Abou; Prinos, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    Several apoptotic regulators, including Bcl-x, are alternatively spliced to produce isoforms with opposite functions. We have used an RNA interference strategy to map the regulatory landscape controlling the expression of the Bcl-x splice variants in human cells. Depleting proteins known as core (Y14 and eIF4A3) or auxiliary (RNPS1, Acinus, and SAP18) components of the exon junction complex (EJC) improved the production of the proapoptotic Bcl-xS splice variant. This effect was not seen when we depleted EJC proteins that typically participate in mRNA export (UAP56, Aly/Ref, and TAP) or that associate with the EJC to enforce nonsense-mediated RNA decay (MNL51, Upf1, Upf2, and Upf3b). Core and auxiliary EJC components modulated Bcl-x splicing through different cis-acting elements, further suggesting that this activity is distinct from the established EJC function. In support of a direct role in splicing control, recombinant eIF4A3, Y14, and Magoh proteins associated preferentially with the endogenous Bcl-x pre-mRNA, interacted with a model Bcl-x pre-mRNA in early splicing complexes, and specifically shifted Bcl-x alternative splicing in nuclear extracts. Finally, the depletion of Y14, eIF4A3, RNPS1, SAP18, and Acinus also encouraged the production of other proapoptotic splice variants, suggesting that EJC-associated components are important regulators of apoptosis acting at the alternative splicing level. PMID:22203037

  11. MnSOD Overexpression Reduces Fibrosis and Pro-Apoptotic Signaling in the Aging Mouse Heart.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Hyo-Bum; Lee, Yang; Kim, Jong-Hee; Van Remmen, Holly; Richardson, Arlan G; Lawler, John M

    2014-07-11

    Contractility of the heart is impaired with advancing age via mechanical remodeling, as myocytes are lost through apoptosis and collagenous fibers accumulate. Exercise training confers protection against fibrosis and apoptosis in the aging heart, but the mechanisms remain poorly understood. We recently reported that exercise training elevates Mn isoform of superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in the aging heart, concomitant with reduction in oxidative stress and fibrosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that overexpression of MnSOD would be causal in protection against fibrosis and apoptosis in the aging heart. Hearts were extracted from young (8 months) wild-type, young mice overexpressing the Sod2 (MnSOD) gene, old (28 months) wild-type, and old transgenic mice. Left ventricle MnSOD protein levels were elevated in young mice overexpressing the Sod2 (MnSOD) gene and old transgenic mice. MnSODTg mice exhibited lower oxidative stress (total hydroperoxides, 4-hydroxynonenal, and 8-isoprostane) in the old group. Age-related cardiac remodeling and fibrosis was mitigated in MnSOD Tg mice with reductions in extramyocyte space (-65%), collagen-I, and transforming growth factor-?. Pro-apoptotic markers Bax (-38%) and caspase-3 cleavage (-41%) were reduced and apoptosis (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling-positive nuclei, DNA laddering) was mitigated in MnSOD Tg hearts compared with old wild-type. We conclude that MnSOD elevation is indeed protective against oxidative stress, fibrosis, and apoptosis in the aging heart. PMID:25016531

  12. Interferon-? Exacerbates Dry Eye–Induced Apoptosis in Conjunctiva through Dual Apoptotic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Chen, Wei; De Paiva, Cintia S.; Corrales, Rosa M.; Volpe, Eugene A.; McClellan, Andrew J.; Farley, William J.; Li, De-Quan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the role of interferon (IFN)-? in dry eye–associated conjunctival apoptosis. Methods. Desiccating stress (DS) was created in C57BL/6 (B6) and C57BL/6 IFN-?-knockout (B6?KO) mice. A separate group of mice of both strains also received subconjunctival injections of exogenous IFN-? or vehicle control (BSA) at days 0, +2, and +4 after DS. Immunoreactivity to active (Ac)-caspase-3, -8, and -9 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling (TUNEL) were evaluated in cryosections. Goblet cell apoptosis was assessed by MUC5AC and TUNEL double staining. Levels of caspase-3, -8, -9, Fas, and Fas-associated protein with Death Domain (FADD) mRNA in conjunctiva were measured by real-time PCR. The activity of caspase-3, -8, or -9 was measured using fluorometric assay. Results. Increased Ac-caspase-3 and -8 and TUNEL immunoreactivity were noted in conjunctival epithelia in B6 mice compared with B6?KO mice after DS, and exogenous IFN-? administration further increased these parameters. DS-induced conjunctival apoptosis was greatest in the goblet cell area and was accompanied by a decrease in MUC5AC expression in the B6 and B6-IFN-?–injected groups compared with the B6?KO and B6-BSA–injected groups. B6?KO mice were resistant to DS-induced apoptosis; however, B6?KO receiving IFN-? yielded results similar to those for B6 wild-type. Caspase-9 production and activity were not increased with DS in B6 or B6?KO mice; however, the administration of IFN-? significantly increased caspase-9 production and activity in both strains compared with vehicle-injected mice. Conclusions. IFN-? plays a pivotal role in exacerbating conjunctival apoptosis through dual apoptotic pathways with DS. PMID:21474767

  13. Analysis of apoptotic cell death in human hair follicles in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Soma, T; Ogo, M; Suzuki, J; Takahashi, T; Hibino, T

    1998-12-01

    We analyzed changes of growth and apoptotic cell death in human hair follicles. In anagen hair follicles, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick labeling-positive cells were observed in the keratogenous zone of the upper bulb matrix, the inner root sheath, and the companion layer of the outer root sheath. DNA ladder formation was also detected in anagen hair follicles. In catagen hair follicles, the lower bulb matrix cells around the dermal papilla and the outer layer cells of the outer root sheath became strongly positive, showing that apoptosis in catagen hair is distinct from that in anagen hair. We also confirmed the mRNA expression of four caspases (caspase-1, caspase-3, caspase-4, and caspase-7) in anagen hair follicles by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization. When human anagen hair follicles were cultured in the presence of transforming growth factor-beta or tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the serum-free medium, transforming growth factor-beta but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced catagen-like morphologic changes, which were indistinguishable from normal catagen hair follicles. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, however, strongly inhibited the elongation of the hair shaft in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied by abnormal morphology and increased cell death in the bulb matrix cells. Our results suggest that apoptosis in hair follicles involves two different types. One is related to the terminal differentiation of follicular epithelial cells in anagen hair. The other occurs as a major driving force to eliminate the distinct portion of epithelial components in catagen hair. Furthermore, this study strongly indicates that the transforming growth factor-beta pathway is involved in the induction of catagen phase in human hair cycle. PMID:9856801

  14. Involvement of ER stress and activation of apoptotic pathways in fisetin induced cytotoxicity in human melanoma.

    PubMed

    Syed, Deeba N; Lall, Rahul K; Chamcheu, Jean Christopher; Haidar, Omar; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2014-12-01

    The prognosis of malignant melanoma remains poor in spite of recent advances in therapeutic strategies for the deadly disease. Fisetin, a dietary flavonoid is currently being investigated for its growth inhibitory properties in various cancer models. We previously showed that fisetin inhibited melanoma growth in vitro and in vivo. Here, we evaluated the molecular basis of fisetin induced cytotoxicity in metastatic human melanoma cells. Fisetin treatment induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in highly aggressive A375 and 451Lu human melanoma cells, as revealed by up-regulation of ER stress markers including IRE1?, XBP1s, ATF4 and GRP78. Time course analysis indicated that the ER stress was associated with activation of the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Fisetin treated 2-D melanoma cultures displayed autophagic response concomitant with induction of apoptosis. Prolonged treatment (16days) with fisetin in a 3-D reconstituted melanoma model resulted in inhibition of melanoma progression with significant apoptosis, as evidenced by increased staining of cleaved Caspase-3 in the treated constructs. However, no difference in the expression of autophagic marker LC-3 was noted between treated and control groups. Fisetin treatment to 2-D melanoma cultures resulted in phosphorylation and activation of the multifunctional AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) involved in the regulation of diverse cellular processes, including autophagy and apoptosis. Silencing of AMPK failed to prevent cell death indicating that fisetin induced cytotoxicity is mediated through both AMPK-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Taken together, our studies confirm apoptosis as the primary mechanism through which fisetin inhibits melanoma cell growth and that activation of both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways contributes to fisetin induced cytotoxicity. PMID:25016296

  15. Non-apoptotic cell death associated with perturbations of macropinocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Maltese, William A.; Overmeyer, Jean H.

    2015-01-01

    Although macropinocytosis is widely recognized as a distinct form of fluid-phase endocytosis in antigen-presenting dendritic cells, it also occurs constitutively in many other normal and transformed cell types. Recent studies have established that various genetic or pharmacological manipulations can hyperstimulate macropinocytosis or disrupt normal macropinosome trafficking pathways, leading to accumulation of greatly enlarged cytoplasmic vacuoles. In some cases, this extreme vacuolization is associated with a unique form of non-apoptotic cell death termed “methuosis,” from the Greek methuo (to drink to intoxication). It remains unclear whether cell death related to dysfunctional macropinocytosis occurs in normal physiological contexts. However, the finding that some types of cancer cells are particularly vulnerable to this unusual form of cell death has raised the possibility that small molecules capable of altering macropinosome trafficking or function might be useful as therapeutic agents against cancers that are resistant to drugs that work by inducing apoptosis. Herein we review examples of cell death associated with dysfunctional macropinocytosis and summarize what is known about the underlying mechanisms.

  16. Mediating Ebonics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Robin R. Means; Daniel, Jack L.

    2000-01-01

    Suggests that Ebonics has been mediated in ways that clearly reveal American racial politics, which remain hostile to African Americans, describing the dominant strategies used to mediate Ebonics and locating those media strategies within the cultural context of racist circumstances, the racist political history of African Americans, and African…

  17. The DNA binding domain of p53 is sufficient to trigger a potent apoptotic response at the mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Matissek, Karina J; Mossalam, Mohanad; Okal, Abood; Lim, Carol S

    2013-10-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 is one of the most studied proteins in human cancer.1-3 While nuclear p53 has been utilized for cancer gene therapy, mitochondrial targeting of p53 has not been fully exploited to date.4,5 In response to cellular stress, p53 translocates to the mitochondria and directly interacts with Bcl-2 family proteins including antiapoptotic Bcl-XL and Bcl-2 and proapoptotic Bak and Bax.6 Antiapoptotic Bcl-XL forms inhibitory complexes with proapoptotic Bak and Bax preventing their homo-oligomerization.7 Upon translocation to the mitochondria, p53 binds to Bcl-XL, releases Bak and Bax from the inhibitory complex and enhances their homo-oligomerization.8 Bak and Bax homotetramer formation disrupts the mitochondrial outer membrane, releases antiapoptotic factors such as cytochrome c and triggers a rapid apoptotic response mediated by caspase induction.9 It is still unclear if the MDM2 binding domain (MBD), the proline-rich domain (PRD) and/or DNA binding domain (DBD) of p53 are the domains responsible for interaction with Bcl-XL.10-17 The purpose of this work is to determine if a smaller functional domain of p53 is capable of inducing apoptosis similarly to full length p53. To explore this question, different domains of p53 (MBD, PRD, DBD) were fused to the mitochondrial targeting signal (MTS) from Bcl-XL to ensure Bcl-XL specific targeting.18 The designed constructs were tested for apoptotic activity (TUNEL, Annexin-V, and 7-AAD) in 3 different breast cancer cell lines (T47D, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231), in a cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) and in non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma cells H1373. Our results indicate that DBD-XL (p53 DBD fused to the Bcl-XL MTS) reproduces (in T47D cells) or demonstrates increased apoptotic activity (in MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and HeLa cells) compared to p53-XL (full length p53 fused to Bcl-XL MTS). Additionally, mitochondrial dependent apoptosis assays (TMRE, caspase-9), co-IP and overexpression of Bcl-XL in T47D cells suggest that DBD fused to XL MTS may bind to and inhibit Bcl-XL. Taken together, our data demonstrates for the first time that the DBD of p53 may be the minimally necessary domain for achieving apoptosis at the mitochondria in multiple cell lines. This work highlights the role of small functional domains of p53 as a novel cancer biologic therapy. PMID:23968395

  18. ENGULFMENT OF APOPTOTIC CELLS BY MACROPHAGES: A ROLE OF MICRO-RNA-21 IN THE RESOLUTION OF WOUND INFLAMMATION1

    PubMed Central

    Das, Amitava; Ganesh, Kasturi; Khanna, Savita; Sen, Chandan K.; Roy, Sashwati

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY At an injury-site, efficient clearance of apoptotic cells by wound macrophages or efferocytosis is a pre-requisite for the timely resolution of inflammation. Emerging evidence indicates that miR-21 may regulate the inflammatory response. In this work, we sought to elucidate the significance of miR-21 in the regulation of efferocytosis mediated suppression of innate immune response, a key process implicated in resolving inflammation following injury. An increased expression of inducible miR-21 was noted in post-efferocytotic peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Such induction of miR-21 was associated with silencing of its target genes PTEN and PDCD4. Successful efferocytosis of apoptotic cells by MDM resulted in the suppression of LPS-induced NF-?B activation and TNF? expression. Interestingly, bolstering of miR-21 levels alone using miR mimic resulted in significant suppression of LPS-induced TNF? expression and NF?B activation. We report that efferocytosis-induced miR-21, by silencing PTEN and GSK3?, tempers LPS-induced inflammatory response. Macrophage efferocytosis is known to trigger the release of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. This study demonstrates that following successful efferocytosis, miR-21 induction in macrophages silence PDCD4 favoring cJun-AP1 activity which in turn results in elevated production of anti-inflammatory IL-10. In summary, this work provides direct evidence implicating miRNA in the process of turning-on an anti-inflammatory phenotype in the post-efferocytotic macrophage. Elevated macrophage miR-21 promotes efferocytosis and silences target genes PTEN and PDCD4 which in turn accounts for a net anti-inflammatory phenotype. Findings of this study highlight the significance of miRNAs in the resolution of wound inflammation. PMID:24391209

  19. Antitumour effect of polyoxomolybdates: induction of apoptotic cell death and autophagy in in vitro and in vivo models

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, A; Yanagie, H; Ishikawa, E; Morishita, Y; Mitsui, S; Yamashita, A; Hasumi, K; Takamoto, S; Yamase, T; Eriguchi, M

    2007-01-01

    Polyoxomolybdates (PMs) as discrete molybdenum-oxide cluster anions have been investigated in the course of study of their medical applications. Here, we show the significant antitumour potency of the polyoxomolybdate [Me3NH]6[H2MoV12O28(OH)12(MoVIO3)4]·2H2O (PM-17), which is a photo-reduced compound of [NH3Pri]6[Mo7O24]·3H2O. The effect of PM-17 on the growth of cancer cell lines and xenografts was assessed by a cell viability test and analysis of tumour expansion rate. Morphological analysis was carried out by Hoechst staining, flow-cytometric analysis of Annexin V staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated ‘nick-end' labelling staining, and electron-microscopic analysis. Activation of autophagy was detected by western blotting and fluorescence-microscopic analysis of the localisation of GFP-LC3 in transfected tumour cells. PM-17 inhibited the growth of human pancreatic cancer (AsPC-1) xenografts in a nude mice model, and induced morphological alterations in tumour cells. Correspondingly, PM-17 repressed the proliferation of AsPC-1 cells and human gastric cancer cells (MKN45) depending on the dose in vitro. We observed apoptotic patterns as the formation of apoptotic small bodies and translocation of phosphatidylserine by Hoechst staining and flow-cytometric analysis following Annexin V staining, and in parallel, autophagic conformation by the formulation of autophagosomes and localisation of GFP-LC3 by electron- and fluorescence-microscopic analysis. PMID:18087283

  20. Antitumour effect of polyoxomolybdates: induction of apoptotic cell death and autophagy in in vitro and in vivo models.

    PubMed

    Ogata, A; Yanagie, H; Ishikawa, E; Morishita, Y; Mitsui, S; Yamashita, A; Hasumi, K; Takamoto, S; Yamase, T; Eriguchi, M

    2008-01-29

    Polyoxomolybdates (PMs) as discrete molybdenum-oxide cluster anions have been investigated in the course of study of their medical applications. Here, we show the significant antitumour potency of the polyoxomolybdate [Me(3)NH](6)[H(2)Mo(V)(12)O(28)(OH)(12)(Mo(VI)O(3))(4)].2H(2)O (PM-17), which is a photo-reduced compound of [NH(3)Pr(i)](6)[Mo(7)O(24)].3H(2)O. The effect of PM-17 on the growth of cancer cell lines and xenografts was assessed by a cell viability test and analysis of tumour expansion rate. Morphological analysis was carried out by Hoechst staining, flow-cytometric analysis of Annexin V staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated 'nick-end' labelling staining, and electron-microscopic analysis. Activation of autophagy was detected by western blotting and fluorescence-microscopic analysis of the localisation of GFP-LC3 in transfected tumour cells. PM-17 inhibited the growth of human pancreatic cancer (AsPC-1) xenografts in a nude mice model, and induced morphological alterations in tumour cells. Correspondingly, PM-17 repressed the proliferation of AsPC-1 cells and human gastric cancer cells (MKN45) depending on the dose in vitro. We observed apoptotic patterns as the formation of apoptotic small bodies and translocation of phosphatidylserine by Hoechst staining and flow-cytometric analysis following Annexin V staining, and in parallel, autophagic conformation by the formulation of autophagosomes and localisation of GFP-LC3 by electron- and fluorescence-microscopic analysis. PMID:18087283

  1. The Chinese herbal formula Liuwei dihuang protects dopaminergic neurons against Parkinson's toxin through enhancing antioxidative defense and preventing apoptotic death.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yu-Ting; Chang, Fang-Rong; Lo, Yi-Ching

    2014-04-15

    Liuwei dihuang (LWDH), a widely used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been employed as an anti-aging prescription to improve declined function. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons with complex pathological mechanisms, including oxidative stress. Increasing evidence indicate that TCM has the potential to be neuroprotective drugs because of their antioxidant characteristics. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms of LWDH-mediated protection in Parkinson's toxin-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration by evaluating water extract of LWDH (LWDH-WE) in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-treated primary mesencephalic neurons and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated C57BL/6 mice. In the present study, chemical profiling and quantitative analysis of LWDH-WE were revealed using 3D-HPLC technique, and were confirmed by the data of three batches of LWDH-WE. In primary mesencephalic neuronal cultures, LWDH-WE decreased MPP(+)-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons and increase of Annexin V-positive neurons. LWDH-WE reduced MPP(+)-induced oxidative damage via increasing antioxidant defense (SOD, GSH), decreasing ROS production, and down-regulating NADPH oxidases (Nox2 and Nox4). Also, LWDH-WE inhibited neuronal apoptosis by improving mitochondrial membrane potential, increasing antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 expression, and down-regulating apoptotic signaling (Bax, cytochrome c, cleaved-caspase-3) in MPP(+)-treated neurons. In MPTP-treated C57BL/6 mice, LWDH-WE attenuated TH-positive neuronal loss in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), and improved locomotor activity of mice. In conclusion, the present results reveal that LWDH-WE possesses protection on dopaminergic neurons through enhancing antioxidant defense and decreasing apoptotic death, suggesting the potential benefits of LWDH-WE for PD treatment. PMID:24411708

  2. Investigating Migration Inhibition and Apoptotic Effects of Fomitopsis pinicola Chloroform Extract on Human Colorectal Cancer SW-480 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pan; Wang, Lu; Fan, Jianping; Wang, Xiaobing; Liu, Quanhong

    2014-01-01

    Background Fomitopsis pinicola (Sw. Ex Fr.m) Karst (FPK) which belongs to the Basidiomycota fungal class is one of the most popular medical fungi in China. It has been used for many diseases: cancer, heart diseases, diabetes and so on. However, little study on the pro-apoptotic effect and migration inhibition of FPK chloroform extract (FPKc) has been reported and the possible involved mechanism has not been illuminated. Methodology/Principal Findings Chemical analysis was performed by HPLC which showed ergosterol (ES) concentration was 105 µg/mg. MTT assay revealed that FPKc could selectively inhibit SW-480 cells viability with the IC50 of 190.28 µg/ml. Wound healing and transwell assay indicated that FPKc could inhibit the migration of SW-480 cells obviously, FPKc could also dramatically decreased the matrix metalloproteinases-2, 9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9) expression. Annexin V–FITC/PI staining, nuclear Hoechst 33342 staining and DNA fragmentation analysis revealed that FPKc and ES could induce SW-480 cells apoptosis. The apoptosis process closely involved in ROS accumulation and depletion of GSH, activation of caspase 3, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) degradation. FPKc could also up-regulate P53 expression and thus lead to G1 phase arrest. When SW-480 cells were pretreated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), the ROS generation, cell viability and apoptotic ratio were partially declined, which indicated that ROS was vertical in the pro-apoptosis process induced by FPKc. Moreover, in the whole process, ES which has been previously found in FPKc had the similar effect to FPKc. Thus we could conclude that ES, as one of the highest abundant components in FPKc, might also be one of the active constituents. Conclusion/Significance FPKc could inhibit the migration of SW-480 cells, induce SW-480 cells G1 phase arrest and cause ROS-mediated apoptosis effect. And ES might be one of the effective constituents in the whole process. PMID:24992193

  3. Simultaneous induction of apoptotic, autophagic, and necrosis-like cell death by monoclonal antibodies recognizing chicken transferrin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, Yoshiya; Yagi, Hideki [Cell Biology Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Kinki University, 4-1 Kowakae 3-chome, Higashiosaka-shi, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Nakamura, Masanori [Department of Oral Anatomy, Developmental Biology, Showa University School of Dentistry, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Masuko, Kazue [Cell Biology Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Kinki University, 4-1 Kowakae 3-chome, Higashiosaka-shi, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Hashimoto, Yoshiyuki [Kyoritsu University of Pharmacy, 1-5-30 Shibakohen, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan); Masuko, Takashi [Cell Biology Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Kinki University, 4-1 Kowakae 3-chome, Higashiosaka-shi, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan)], E-mail: masuko@phar.kindai.ac.jp

    2008-03-21

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is categorized as apoptotic, autophagic, or necrosis-like. Although the possibility that plural (two or three) death signals could be induced by a given stimulus has been reported, the precise mechanisms regulating PCD are not well understood. Recently, we have obtained two anti-chicken transferrin receptor (TfR) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs; D18 and D19) inducing a unique cell death. Although the cell death had several features of apoptosis, autophagic and necrosis-like morphological alterations were simultaneously observed in electron microphotographs. In addition to cells with condensed chromatin and an intact plasma membrane (apoptotic cells), cells having many vacuoles in the cytoplasm (autophagic cells), and enlarged cells with ruptured plasma membranes (necrosis-like cells) were observed in DT40 cells treated with the mAbs, however, the latter two types of dead cells were not detected upon treatment with staurosporine, a typical apoptosis inducer. In autophagic cells, numerous membrane-bound vesicles occupying most of the cytoplasmic space, which frequently contained electron-dense materials from cytoplasmic fragments and organelles, were observed. The simultaneous induction of multiple death signals from a stimulus via the TfR is of great interest to those researching cell death. In addition, activation of caspases was observed in DT40 cells treated with D19, however, the cell death was not inhibited with z-VAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, suggesting that at least in part, a caspase-independent pathway is involved in the TfR-mediated cell death.

  4. Induction of Non-Apoptotic Cell Death by Activated Ras Requires Inverse Regulation of Rac1 and Arf6

    PubMed Central

    Bhanot, Haymanti; Young, Ashley M.; Overmeyer, Jean H.; Maltese, William A.

    2010-01-01

    Methuosis is a unique form of non-apoptotic cell death triggered by alterations in the trafficking of clathrin-independent endosomes, ultimately leading to extreme vacuolization and rupture of the cell. Methuosis can be induced in glioblastoma cells by expression of constitutively active Ras. This study identifies the small GTPases, Rac1 and Arf6, and the Arf6 GTPase-activating-protein, GIT1, as key downstream components of the signaling pathway underlying Ras-induced methuosis. The extent to which graded expression of active H-Ras(G12V) triggers cytoplasmic vacuolization correlates with the amount of endogenous Rac1 in the active GTP state. Blocking Rac1 activation with the specific Rac inhibitor, EHT 1864, or co-expression of dominant-negative Rac1(T17N), prevents the accumulation of vacuoles induced by H-Ras(G12V). Coincident with Rac1 activation, H-Ras(G12V) causes a decrease in the amount of active Arf6, a GTPase that functions in recycling of clathrin-independent endosomes. The effect of H-Ras(G12V) on Arf6 is blocked by EHT 1864, indicating that the decrease in Arf6-GTP is directly linked to activation of Rac1. Constitutively active Rac1(G12V) interacts with GIT1 in immunoprecipitation assays. Ablation of GIT1 by shRNA prevents the decrease in active Arf6, inhibits vacuolization, and prevents loss of cell viability in cells expressing Rac1(G12V). Together the results suggest that perturbations of endosome morphology associated with Ras-induced methuosis are due to downstream activation of Rac1, combined with reciprocal inactivation of Arf6. The latter appears to be mediated through Rac1 stimulation of GIT1. Further insights into this pathway could suggest opportunities for induction of methuosis in cancers that are resistant to apoptotic cell death. PMID:20713492

  5. GM-CSF CAUSES A PARADOXICAL INCREASE IN THE BH3-ONLY PRO-APOPTOTIC PROTEIN BIM IN HUMAN NEUTROPHILS

    PubMed Central

    Cowburn, Andrew S; Summers, Charlotte; Dunmore, Benjamin J; Farahi, Neda; Print, Cristin G; Cook, Simon J; Chilvers, Edwin R

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophil apoptosis is essential for the resolution of inflammation but delayed by several inflammatory mediators. In such terminally differentiated cells it has been uncertain whether these agents can inhibit apoptosis through transcriptional regulation of anti-death (Bcl-XL, Mcl-1, Bcl2A1) or BH3-only (Bim, Bid, Puma) Bcl2-family proteins. We report that GM-CSF and TNF? prevent the normal time-dependent loss of Mcl-1 and Bcl2A1 in neutrophils and demonstrate that they cause a NF-?B-dependent increase in Bcl-XL transcription/translation. Surprisingly, we show that GM-CSF and TNF? increase and/or maintain mRNA levels for the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Bid and that GM-CSF has a similar NF-?B-dependent effect on Bim transcription and BimEL expression. The in-vivo relevance of these findings was shown by the demonstration that GM-CSF is the dominant neutrophil survival factor present in lung lavage from patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia and confirmation of an increase lung neutrophil Bim mRNA. Finally GM-CSF caused mitochondrial location of Bim and a switch in phenotype to a cell that displays accelerated caspase-9-dependent apoptosis. This study demonstrates the capacity of neutrophil survival agents to induce a paradoxical increase in the pro-apoptotic proteins Bid and Bim and suggests that this may function to facilitate rapid apoptosis at the termination of the inflammatory cycle. PMID:20705940

  6. ABT-263 Enhances Sensitivity to Metformin and 2-Deoxyglucose in Pediatric Glioma by Promoting Apoptotic Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Levesley, Jane; Steele, Lynette; Taylor, Claire; Sinha, Priyank; Lawler, Sean E.

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric high grade glioma is refractory to conventional multimodal treatment, highlighting a need to develop novel efficacious therapies. We investigated tumor metabolism as a potential therapeutic target in a panel of diverse pediatric glioma cell lines (SF188, KNS42, UW479 and RES186) using metformin and 2-deoxyglucose. As a single agent, metformin had little effect on cell viability overall. SF188 cells were highly sensitive to 2-deoxyglucose however, combination of metformin with 2-deoxyglucose significantly reduced cell proliferation compared to either drug alone in all cell lines tested. In addition, the combination of the two agents was associated with a rapid decrease in cellular ATP and subsequent AMPK activation. However, increased cell death was only observed in select cell lines after prolonged exposure to the drug combination and was caspase independent. Anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins have been indicated as mediators of resistance against metabolic stress. Therefore we sought to determine whether pharmacological inhibition of BCL-2/BCL-xL with ABT-263 could potentiate apoptosis in response to these agents. We found that ABT-263 increased sensitivity to 2-deoxyglucose and promoted rapid and extensive cell death in response to the combination of 2-deoxyglucose and metformin. Furthermore, cell death was inhibited by the pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-FMK suggesting that ABT-263 potentiated caspase-dependent cell death in response to 2-deoxyglucose or its combination with metformin. Overall, these data provide support for the concept that targeting metabolic and anti-apoptotic pathways may be an effective therapeutic strategy in pediatric glioma. PMID:23691145

  7. Leukemia . Author manuscript Sirolimus enhances the effect of apoptotic cell infusion on hematopoietic

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Leukemia . Author manuscript Page /1 6 Sirolimus enhances the effect of apoptotic cell infusion not candidate for standard myeloablative AHCT and diseases other than acute leukemia. However, and despite some

  8. COMPARISON OF CELLULAR AND NUCLEAR FLOW CYTOMETRIC TECHNIQUES FOR DISCRIMINATING APOPTOTIC SUBPOPULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared cellular flow cytometric methods employing carboxyfluorescein (CF), Hoechst 33342, and Hoechst 33258 with a nuclear method in their ability to discriminate apoptotic subpopulations in rat thymocyte cultures exposed to dexamethasone r tributyltin. n the nuclear techniq...

  9. Phototherapy-treated apoptotic tumor cells induce pro-inflammatory cytokines production in macrophage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cuixia; Wei, Yanchun; Xing, Da

    2014-09-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that as a mitochondria-targeting cancer phototherapy, high fluence low-power laser irradiation (HF-LPLI) induces mitochondrial superoxide anion burst, resulting in oxidative damage to tumor cells. In this study, we further explored the immunological effects of HF-LPLI-induced apoptotic tumor cells. When macrophages were co-incubated with apoptotic cells induced by HF-LPLI, we observed the increased levels of TNF-? secretion and NO production in macrophages. Further experiments showed that NF-?B was activated in macrophages after co-incubation with HF-LPLI-induced apoptotic cells, and inhibition of NF-?B activity by pyrrolidinedithiocarbamic acid (PDTC) reduced the elevated levels of TNF-? secretion and NO production. These data indicate that HF-LPLI-induced apoptotic tumor cells induce the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages, which may be helpful for better understanding the biological effects of cancer phototherapy.

  10. Quantitative analysis of apoptotic decisions in single cells and cell populations

    E-print Network

    Albeck, John G

    2007-01-01

    Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death that is essential for the elimination of damaged or unneeded cells in multicellular organisms. Inactivation of apoptotic cell death is a necessary step in the development of ...

  11. Manganese nanoparticle activates mitochondrial dependent apoptotic signaling and autophagy in dopaminergic neuronal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Afeseh Ngwa, Hilary; Kanthasamy, Arthi [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Iowa Center for Advanced Neurotoxicology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)] [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Iowa Center for Advanced Neurotoxicology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Gu, Yan; Fang, Ning [Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Anantharam, Vellareddy [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Iowa Center for Advanced Neurotoxicology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)] [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Iowa Center for Advanced Neurotoxicology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Kanthasamy, Anumantha G., E-mail: akanthas@iastate.edu [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Iowa Center for Advanced Neurotoxicology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    The production of man-made nanoparticles for various modern applications has increased exponentially in recent years, but the potential health effects of most nanoparticles are not well characterized. Unfortunately, in vitro nanoparticle toxicity studies are extremely limited by yet unresolved problems relating to dosimetry. In the present study, we systematically characterized manganese (Mn) nanoparticle sizes and examined the nanoparticle-induced oxidative signaling in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies revealed that Mn nanoparticles range in size from single nanoparticles ({approx} 25 nM) to larger agglomerates when in treatment media. Manganese nanoparticles were effectively internalized in N27 dopaminergic neuronal cells, and they induced a time-dependent upregulation of the transporter protein transferrin. Exposure to 25-400 {mu}g/mL Mn nanoparticles induced cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Mn nanoparticles also significantly increased ROS, accompanied by a caspase-mediated proteolytic cleavage of proapoptotic protein kinase C{delta} (PKC{delta}), as well as activation loop phosphorylation. Blocking Mn nanoparticle-induced ROS failed to protect against the neurotoxic effects, suggesting the involvement of other pathways. Further mechanistic studies revealed changes in Beclin 1 and LC3, indicating that Mn nanoparticles induce autophagy. Primary mesencephalic neuron exposure to Mn nanoparticles induced loss of TH positive dopaminergic neurons and neuronal processes. Collectively, our results suggest that Mn nanoparticles effectively enter dopaminergic neuronal cells and exert neurotoxic effects by activating an apoptotic signaling pathway and autophagy, emphasizing the need for assessing possible health risks associated with an increased use of Mn nanoparticles in modern applications. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn nanoparticles activate mitochondrial cell death signaling in dopaminergic neuron. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn nanoparticles activate caspase-mediated proteolytic cleavage of PKC{delta} cascade. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn nanoparticles induce autophagy in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn nanoparticles induce loss of TH{sup +} neurons in primary mesencephalic cultures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study emphasizes neurotoxic risks of Mn nanoparticles to nigral dopaminergic system.

  12. egl-1: a key activator of apoptotic cell death in C. elegans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Nehme; B Conradt

    2008-01-01

    Since the discovery of mammalian BIK and BAD in 1995, BH3-only proteins have emerged as key activators of apoptotic cell death in animals as diverse as the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, and humans. BH3-only proteins have also emerged as integrators of cell-death signals that determine the life-versus-death decision and that transduce this decision to the central apoptotic machinery through their physical

  13. Sequential identification of apoptotic and necrotic cells on individual cytospin preparations.

    PubMed

    Pantelidis, P; Santilli, G; Knight, R A

    1998-05-01

    Here, we describe a simple methodology which allows the consecutive differentiation of apoptotic and necrotic cells on the same cytospin preparation of fresh and cultured cells. In this methodology, necrotic cells are initially identified on the cytospin preparations using trypan blue followed by the identification of in situ DNA fragmentation using the TUNEL assay. Identification of trypan blue and TUNEL positive cells in the same section permits the simultaneous assessment of necrotic and apoptotic cells. PMID:9692872

  14. Apoptotic Neutrophils Augment the Inflammatory Response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Henrik; Andersson, Blanka; Eklund, Daniel; Ngoh, Eyler; Persson, Alexander; Svensson, Kristoffer; Lerm, Maria; Blomgran, Robert; Stendahl, Olle

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages in the lung are the primary cells being infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) during the initial manifestation of tuberculosis. Since the adaptive immune response to Mtb is delayed, innate immune cells such as macrophages and neutrophils mount the early immune protection against this intracellular pathogen. Neutrophils are short-lived cells and removal of apoptotic cells by resident macrophages is a key event in the resolution of inflammation and tissue repair. Since anti-inflammatory activity is not compatible with effective immunity to intracellular pathogens, we therefore investigated how uptake of apoptotic neutrophils modulates the function of Mtb-activated human macrophages. We show that Mtb infection exerts a potent proinflammatory activation of human macrophages with enhanced gene activation and release of proinflammatory cytokines and that this response was augmented by apoptotic neutrophils. The enhanced macrophage response is linked to apoptotic neutrophil-driven activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and subsequent IL-1? signalling. We also demonstrate that apoptotic neutrophils not only modulate the inflammatory response, but also enhance the capacity of infected macrophages to control intracellular growth of virulent Mtb. Taken together, these results suggest a novel role for apoptotic neutrophils in the modulation of the macrophage-dependent inflammatory response contributing to the early control of Mtb infection. PMID:25000410

  15. Apoptosome: a platform for the activation of initiator caspases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q Bao; Y Shi

    2007-01-01

    Apoptosome refers to the adaptor protein complex that mediates the activation of an initiator caspase at the onset of apoptosis. In mammalian cells, caspase-9, caspase-8, and caspase-2 rely on the apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 (Apaf-1)-apoptosome, death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), and PIDDosome, respectively, for activation. In Drosophila, activation of the caspase-9 homolog Dronc requires assembly of an apoptosome comprised of Dark\\/Hac-1\\/Dapaf-1.

  16. Interactions of pro-apoptotic BH3 proteins with anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins measured in live MCF-7 cells using FLIM FRET

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qian; Leber, Brian; Andrews, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Increased interactions between pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins at mitochondria result in tumor initiation, progression and resistance to traditional chemotherapy. Drugs that mimic the BH3 region are expected to release BH3-only proteins from anti-apoptotic proteins, inducing apoptosis in some cancer cells and sensitizing others to chemotherapy. Recently, we applied fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer to measure protein:protein interactions for the Bcl-2 family of proteins in live MCF-7 cells using fluorescent fusion proteins. While the BH3-proteins bound to Bcl-XL and Bcl-2, the BH3 mimetic ABT-737 inhibited binding of only Bad and tBid, but not Bim. We have extended our studies by investigating ABT-263, a clinical drug based on ABT-737. We show that the inhibitory effects and pattern of the two drugs are comparable for both Bcl-XL and Bcl-2. Furthermore, we show that mutation of a conserved residue in the BH3 region in Bad and tBid disrupted their interactions with Bcl-XL and Bcl-2, while the corresponding BimEL mutant showed no decrease in binding to these anti-apoptotic proteins. Therefore, in MCF-7 cells, Bim has unique binding properties compared with other BH3-only proteins that resist displacement from Bcl-XL and Bcl-2 by BH3 mimetics. PMID:22895112

  17. The C-terminal domain (CTD) in linker histones antagonizes anti-apoptotic proteins to modulate apoptotic outcomes at the mitochondrion

    PubMed Central

    Garg, M; Ramdas, N; Vijayalakshmi, M; Shivashankar, G V; Sarin, A

    2014-01-01

    The loss of mitochondrial integrity as a consequence of apoptogenic complexes formed on the outer membrane constitutes a key step in controlling progression of apoptotic cascades. Here, we show that multiple members of the linker histone (LH) family of proteins modify apoptotic cascades initiated by the Bcl-2 protein Bak, and impart resistance to its endogenous antagonist Bcl-xL. Our experiments reveal apoptogenic capabilities equivalent to those documented for H1.2 in H1.1 and H1.3 isoforms. Deletion mutants of H1.2 and site-directed mutagenesis of H1.1 and H1.2 implicated the C-terminal domain in apoptogenic activity. In this context, disruption of protein kinase-C activity using chemical inhibitors, dominant-negative approaches and RNA interference coupled with site-directed modifications in H1.1, identified the protein kinase-C?1 isoform as a repressor of H1.1/H1.3 apoptogenic activity. Finally, a H1.2 C-terminal tail recombinant attenuated Bcl-xl inhibition of Bak-induced apoptosis, suggesting that the C-terminal domain was necessary and sufficient for apoptogenic functions. Thus, integration with apoptotic intermediates (via C-terminal tail interactions) may constitute a more generalized function of LH isoforms in apoptotic cascades. PMID:24525734

  18. Extracellular matrix proteins modulate antimigratory and apoptotic effects of Doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Said, Georges; Guilbert, Marie; Morjani, Hamid; Garnotel, Roselyne; Jeannesson, Pierre; El Btaouri, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Anticancer drug resistance is a multifactorial process that includes acquired and de novo drug resistances. Acquired resistance develops during treatment, while de novo resistance is the primary way for tumor cells to escape chemotherapy. Tumor microenvironment has been recently shown to be one of the important factors contributing to de novo resistance and called environment-mediated drug resistance (EMDR). Two forms of EMDR have been described: soluble factor-mediated drug resistance (SFM-DR) and cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR). Anthracyclines, among the most potent chemotherapeutic agents, are widely used in clinics against hematopoietic and solid tumors. Their main mechanism of action relies on the inhibition of topoisomerase I and/or II and the induction of apoptosis. Beyond this well-known antitumor activity, it has been recently demonstrated that anthracyclines may display potent anti-invasive effects when used at subtoxic concentrations. In this paper, we will describe two particular modes of EMDR by which microenvironment may influence tumor-cell response to one of these anthracyclines, doxorubicin. The first one considers the influence of type I collagen on the antimigratory effect of doxorubicin (CAM-DR). The second considers the protection of tumor cells by thrombospondin-I against doxorubicin-induced apoptosis (SFM-DR). PMID:22811904

  19. ROS production is essential for the apoptotic function of E2F1 in pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Espada, Lilia; Meo-Evoli, Nathalie; Sancho, Patricia; Real, Sebastian; Fabregat, Isabel; Ambrosio, Santiago; Tauler, Albert

    2012-01-01

    In this study we demonstrate that accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is essential for E2F1 mediated apoptosis in ER-E2F1 PC12 pheochromocytoma, and SH-SY5Y and SK-N-JD neuroblastoma stable cell lines. In these cells, the ER-E2F1 fusion protein is expressed in the cytosol; the addition of 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHT) induces its translocation to the nucleus and activation of E2F1target genes. Previously we demonstrated that, in ER-E2F1 PC12 cells, OHT treatment induced apoptosis through activation of caspase-3. Here we show that caspase-8 activity did not change upon treatment with OHT. Moreover, over-expression of Bcl-xL arrested OHT-induced apoptosis; by contrast, over-expression of c-FLIP, did not have any effect on OHT-induced apoptosis. OHT addition induces BimL expression, its translocation to mitochondria and activation of Bax, which is paralleled by diminished mitochondrial enrichment of Bcl-xL. Treatment with a Bax-inhibitory peptide reduced OHT-induced apoptosis. These results point out the essential role of mitochondria on the apoptotic process driven by E2F1. ROS accumulation followed E2F1 induction and treatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, inhibited E2F1-induced Bax translocation to mitochondria and subsequent apoptosis. The role of ROS in mediating OHT-induced apoptosis was also studied in two neuroblastoma cell lines, SH-SY5Y and SK-N-JD. In SH-SY5Y cells, activation of E2F1 by the addition of OHT induced ROS production and apoptosis, whereas over-expression of E2F1 in SK-N-JD cells failed to induce either response. Transcriptional profiling revealed that many of the genes responsible for scavenging ROS were down-regulated following E2F1-induction in SH-SY5Y, but not in SK-N-JD cells. Finally, inhibition of GSK3? blocked ROS production, Bax activation and the down regulation of ROS scavenging genes. These findings provide an explanation for the apparent contradictory role of E2F1 as an apoptotic agent versus a cell cycle activator. PMID:23251571

  20. ROS Production Is Essential for the Apoptotic Function of E2F1 in Pheochromocytoma and Neuroblastoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Espada, Lilia; Meo-Evoli, Nathalie; Sancho, Patricia; Real, Sebastian; Fabregat, Isabel; Ambrosio, Santiago; Tauler, Albert

    2012-01-01

    In this study we demonstrate that accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is essential for E2F1 mediated apoptosis in ER-E2F1 PC12 pheochromocytoma, and SH-SY5Y and SK-N-JD neuroblastoma stable cell lines. In these cells, the ER-E2F1 fusion protein is expressed in the cytosol; the addition of 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHT) induces its translocation to the nucleus and activation of E2F1target genes. Previously we demonstrated that, in ER-E2F1 PC12 cells, OHT treatment induced apoptosis through activation of caspase-3. Here we show that caspase-8 activity did not change upon treatment with OHT. Moreover, over-expression of Bcl-xL arrested OHT-induced apoptosis; by contrast, over-expression of c-FLIP, did not have any effect on OHT-induced apoptosis. OHT addition induces BimL expression, its translocation to mitochondria and activation of Bax, which is paralleled by diminished mitochondrial enrichment of Bcl-xL. Treatment with a Bax-inhibitory peptide reduced OHT-induced apoptosis. These results point out the essential role of mitochondria on the apoptotic process driven by E2F1. ROS accumulation followed E2F1 induction and treatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, inhibited E2F1-induced Bax translocation to mitochondria and subsequent apoptosis. The role of ROS in mediating OHT-induced apoptosis was also studied in two neuroblastoma cell lines, SH-SY5Y and SK-N-JD. In SH-SY5Y cells, activation of E2F1 by the addition of OHT induced ROS production and apoptosis, whereas over-expression of E2F1 in SK-N-JD cells failed to induce either response. Transcriptional profiling revealed that many of the genes responsible for scavenging ROS were down-regulated following E2F1-induction in SH-SY5Y, but not in SK-N-JD cells. Finally, inhibition of GSK3? blocked ROS production, Bax activation and the down regulation of ROS scavenging genes. These findings provide an explanation for the apparent contradictory role of E2F1 as an apoptotic agent versus a cell cycle activator. PMID:23251571

  1. Effect of Apoptotic Cell Recognition on Macrophage Polarization and Mycobacterial Persistence

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Fulco, Tatiana; Andrade, Priscila Ribeiro; de Mattos Barbosa, Mayara Garcia; Pinto, Thiago Gomes Toledo; Ferreira, Paula Fernandez; Ferreira, Helen; da Costa Nery, José Augusto; Real, Suzana Côrte; Borges, Valéria Matos; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Sampaio, Elizabeth Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular Mycobacterium leprae infection modifies host macrophage programming, creating a protective niche for bacterial survival. The milieu regulating cellular apoptosis in the tissue plays an important role in defining susceptible and/or resistant phenotypes. A higher density of apoptotic cells has been demonstrated in paucibacillary leprosy lesions than in multibacillary ones. However, the effect of apoptotic cell removal on M. leprae-stimulated cells has yet to be fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether apoptotic cell removal (efferocytosis) induces different phenotypes in proinflammatory (M?1) and anti-inflammatory (M?2) macrophages in the presence of M. leprae. We stimulated M?1 and M?2 cells with M. leprae in the presence or absence of apoptotic cells and subsequently evaluated the M. leprae uptake, cell phenotype, and cytokine pattern in the supernatants. In the presence of M. leprae and apoptotic cells, M?1 macrophages changed their phenotype to resemble the M?2 phenotype, displaying increased CD163 and SRA-I expression as well as higher phagocytic capacity. Efferocytosis increased M. leprae survival in M?1 cells, accompanied by reduced interleukin-15 (IL-15) and IL-6 levels and increased transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) and IL-10 secretion. M?1 cells primed with M. leprae in the presence of apoptotic cells induced the secretion of Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 in autologous T cells compared with cultures stimulated with M. leprae or apoptotic cells alone. Efferocytosis did not alter the M?2 cell phenotype or cytokine secretion profile, except for TGF-?. Based on these data, we suggest that, in paucibacillary leprosy patients, efferocytosis contributes to mycobacterial persistence by increasing the M?2 population and sustaining the infection. PMID:25024361

  2. Evidence for a novel anti-apoptotic pathway in human keratinocytes involving the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, E2F1, and checkpoint kinase 1

    PubMed Central

    Frauenstein, K; Sydlik, U; Tigges, J; Majora, M; Wiek, C; Hanenberg, H; Abel, J; Esser, C; Fritsche, E; Krutmann, J; Haarmann-Stemmann, T

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of keratinocytes (KC) to ultraviolet (UV) radiation results in the initiation of apoptosis, a protective mechanism that eliminates cells harboring irreparable DNA damage. Hence, a manipulation of UV-induced apoptosis may significantly influence photocarcinogenesis. We have discovered that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a key regulator of drug metabolism and an UVB-sensitive transcription factor, serves an anti-apoptotic function in UVB-irradiated human KC. Chemical and shRNA-mediated inhibition of AHR signaling sensitized KC to UVB-induced apoptosis by decreasing the expression of E2F1 and its target gene checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1). The decreased expression of these cell-cycle regulators was due to an enhanced expression of p27KIP1 and an associated decrease in phosphorylation of both cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and its substrate molecule retinoblastoma protein. The subsequent inhibition of E2F1 autoregulation and downstream CHK1 expression resulted in an enhanced susceptibility of damaged cells to undergo apoptosis. Accordingly, ectopic overexpression of either E2F1 or CHK1 in AHR-knockdown KC attenuated the observed sensitization to UVB-induced apoptosis. Using an AHR-knockout SKH-1 hairless mouse model, we next demonstrated the physiological relevance of the anti-apoptotic function of AHR. In contrast to their AHR-proficient littermates, the constitutive expression of E2F1 and CHK1 was significantly reduced in the skin of AHR-knockout mice. Accordingly, a single exposure of the animals to UVB resulted in an enhanced cleavage of caspase-3 in the skin of AHR-knockout mice. These results identify for the first time the AHR-E2F1-CHK1 axis as a novel anti-apoptotic pathway in KC, which may represent a suitable target for chemoprevention of non-melanoma skin cancer. PMID:23912710

  3. Apoptotic death of striatal neurons induced by HIV-1 Tat and gp120: differential involvement of caspase-3 and endonuclease G

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Indrapal N.; Goody, Robin J.; Dean, Celeste; Ahmad, Nael M.; Lutz, Sarah E.; Knapp, Pamela E.; Nath, Avindra; Hauser, Kurt F.

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection affects the striatum resulting in gliosis and neuronal losses. To determine whether HIV-1 proteins induce striatal neurotoxicity through an apoptotic mechanism, mouse striatal neurons isolated on embryonic day 15 and the effects of HIV-1 Tat1-72 and gp120 on survival were assessed in vitro. Mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, caspase-3 activation, and neuron survival, as well as an alternative apoptotic pathway involving endonuclease G (endo G), were assessed at 4 h, 24 h, 48 h and/or 72 h using enzyme assays and immunoblotting. Both HIV-1 Tat and gp120 significantly increased caspase-3 activation in a concentration-dependent manner in striatal neurons at 4 h following continuous exposure in vitro. Tat1-72 and gp120 caused significant neuronal losses at 48 h and/or 72 h. Tat1-72 increased cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 and endo G activation at 4 h, 24 h, and/or 72 h. By contrast, gp120 increased caspase-3 activation, but failed to increase cytochrome c or endo G levels in the cytoplasm at 4 h, 24 h, and/or 72 h. The cell permeant caspase inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK significantly attenuated gp l20-induced, but not Tat1-72-induced, neuronal death suggesting that gp 120 acts in large part through the activation of caspase(s), while Tat1-72 induced neurotoxicity was accompanied by activating an alternative pathway involving endo G. Thus, although Tat1-72 and gp 120 induced significant neurotoxicity, the nature of the apoptotic events preceding death differed. Collectively, our findings suggest that HIV-1 proteins are intrinsically toxic to striatal neurons and the pathogenesis is mediated through separate actions involving both caspase-3 and endo G. PMID:15204919

  4. Sinulariolide induced hepatocellular carcinoma apoptosis through activation of mitochondrial-related apoptotic and PERK/eIF2?/ATF4/CHOP pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Jen; Su, Jui-Hsin; Tsao, Chia-Yu; Hung, Chun-Tzu; Chao, Hsiang-Hao; Lin, Jen-Jie; Liao, Ming-Hui; Yang, Zih-Yan; Huang, Han Hisang; Tsai, Feng-Jen; Weng, Shun-Hsiang; Wu, Yu-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Sinulariolide, an active compound isolated from the cultured soft coral Sinularia flexibilis, has potent anti-microbial and anti-tumorigenesis effects towards melanoma and bladder cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of sinulariolide on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell growth and protein expression. Sinulariolide suppressed the proliferation and colony formation of HCC HA22T cells in a dose-dependent manner and induced both early and late apoptosis according to flow cytometry, Annexin V/PI stain and TUNEL/DAPI stain analyses. A mechanistic analysis demonstrated that sinulariolide-induced apoptosis was activated through a mitochondria-related pathway, showing up-regulation of Bax, Bad and AIF, and down- regulation of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, MCl-1 and p-Bad. Sinulariolide treatment led to loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, release of mitochondrial cytochrome c to the cytosol, and activation of both caspase-9 and caspase-3. Sinulariolide-induced apoptosis was significantly blocked by the caspase inhibitors Z-VAD-FMK and Z-DEVD-FMK. The increased expression of cleaved PARP also suggested that caspase-independent apoptotic pathway was involved. In the western blotting; the elevation of ER chaperones GRP78; GRP94; and CALR; as well as up-regulations of PERK/eIF2?/ATF4/CHOP; and diminished cell death with pre-treatment of eIF2? phosphatase inhibitor; salubrinal; implicated the involvement of ER stress-mediated PERK/eIF2?/ATF4/CHOP apoptotic pathway following sinulariolide treatment in hepatoma cells. The current study suggested sinulariolide-induced hepatoma cell cytotoxicity involved multiple apoptotic signal pathways. This may implicate that sinulariolide is a potential compound for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:23973991

  5. Potentiation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced tumor cell apoptosis by a small molecule inhibitor for anti-apoptotic protein hPEBP4.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jianming; Xiao, Jianfeng; Han, Chaofeng; Li, Nan; Shen, Xu; Jiang, Hualiang; Cao, Xuetao

    2010-04-16

    hPEBP4 (human phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 4) has been identified to be able to potentiate the resistance of breast, prostate, and ovarian cancers, with the preferential expression of hPEBP4, to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis, suggesting that inhibitors targeting the anti-apoptotic protein hPEBP4 may be useful to increase the sensitivity of hPEBP4-expressing cancer cells to TNF-alpha or TRAIL-induced apoptosis. By structure-based virtual screening and following surface plasmon resonance-based binding assay, seven small compounds were found to potently bind with hPEBP4. The hit compounds were further functionally screened for their ability to inhibit cancer cell growth, and one small compound, IOI-42, was identified to be able to promote TNF-alpha-mediated growth inhibition of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. IOI-42 could potentiate TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis of MCF-7 cells by inhibiting hPEBP4 and could suppress anchorage-independent cell growth of MCF-7 cells. We further demonstrated that IOI-42 could reduce the endogenous association of hPEBP4 with Raf-1/MEK1 and enhance the activation of ERK1/2 and JNK while inhibiting Akt activation. Furthermore, IOI-42 also promoted TRAIL-induced cell apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. Taken together, our data suggest that IOI-42, as the first chemical inhibitor of anti-apoptotic protein hPEBP4, may serve as a potential anti-tumor drug by sensitizing tumor cells to apoptotic inducers. PMID:20177075

  6. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields induce poly(ADP-ribose) formation and non-apoptotic cell death in HeLa S3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Morotomi-Yano, Keiko; Akiyama, Hidenori [Institute of Pulsed Power Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)] [Institute of Pulsed Power Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Yano, Ken-ichi, E-mail: yanoken@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Priority Organization for Innovation and Excellence, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)] [Priority Organization for Innovation and Excellence, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: •Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) is a new and unique means for life sciences. •Apoptosis was induced by nsPEF exposure in Jurkat cells. •No signs of apoptosis were detected in HeLa S3 cells exposed to nsPEFs. •Formation of poly(ADP-ribose) was induced in nsPEF-exposed HeLa S3 cells. •Two distinct modes of cell death were activated by nsPEF in a cell-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) have recently gained attention as effective cancer therapy owing to their potency for cell death induction. Previous studies have shown that apoptosis is a predominant mode of nsPEF-induced cell death in several cell lines, such as Jurkat cells. In this study, we analyzed molecular mechanisms for cell death induced by nsPEFs. When nsPEFs were applied to Jurkat cells, apoptosis was readily induced. Next, we used HeLa S3 cells and analyzed apoptotic events. Contrary to our expectation, nsPEF-exposed HeLa S3 cells exhibited no molecular signs of apoptosis execution. Instead, nsPEFs induced the formation of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), a hallmark of necrosis. PAR formation occurred concurrently with a decrease in cell viability, supporting implications of nsPEF-induced PAR formation for cell death. Necrotic PAR formation is known to be catalyzed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), and PARP-1 in apoptotic cells is inactivated by caspase-mediated proteolysis. Consistently, we observed intact and cleaved forms of PARP-1 in nsPEF-exposed and UV-irradiated cells, respectively. Taken together, nsPEFs induce two distinct modes of cell death in a cell type-specific manner, and HeLa S3 cells show PAR-associated non-apoptotic cell death in response to nsPEFs.

  7. Mitochondrial translocation of Nur77 mediates cardiomyocyte apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Zhaokang; Völkers, Mirko; Din, Shabana; Avitabile, Daniele; Khan, Mohsin; Gude, Natalie; Mohsin, Sadia; Bo, Tao; Truffa, Silvia; Alvarez, Roberto; Mason, Matt; Fischer, Kimberlee M.; Konstandin, Mathias H.; Zhang, Xiao-kun; Heller Brown, Joan; Sussman, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Aims The cascade of events leading to compromised mitochondrial integrity in response to stress is mediated by various combinatorial interactions of pro- and anti-apoptotic molecules. Nur77, an immediate early gene that encodes a nuclear orphan receptor, translocates from the nucleus to mitochondria to induce cytochrome c release and apoptosis in cancer cells in response to various pro-apoptotic treatments. However, the role of Nur77 in the cardiac setting is still unclear. The objective of this study is to determine the physiological relevance and pathophysiological importance of Nur77 in cardiomyocytes. Methods and results Myocardial Nur77 is upregulated following cardiomyopathic injury and, while expressed in the postnatal myocardium, declines in level within weeks after birth. Nur77 is localized predominantly in cardiomyocyte nuclei under normal conditions where it is not apoptotic, but translocates to mitochondria in response to oxidative stress both in vitro and in vivo. Mitochondrial localization of Nur77 induces cytochrome c release and typical morphological features of apoptosis, including chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. Knockdown of Nur77 rescued hydrogen peroxide-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Conclusion Translocation of Nur77 from the nucleus to the mitochondria in cardiomyocytes results in the loss of mitochondrial integrity and subsequent apoptosis in response to ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Our findings identify Nur77 as a novel mediator of cardiomyocyte apoptosis and warrants further investigation of mitochondrial Nur77 translocation as a mechanism to control cell death in the treatment of ischaemic heart diseases. PMID:21228009

  8. Uptake of apoptotic cells drives the growth of a pathogenic trypanosome in macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire-de-Lima, Célio G.; Nascimento, Danielle O.; Soares, Milena B. P.; Bozza, Patricia T.; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo C.; de Mello, Fernando G.; Dosreis, George A.; Lopes, Marcela F.

    2000-01-01

    After apoptosis, phagocytes prevent inflammation and tissue damage by the uptake and removal of dead cells. In addition, apoptotic cells evoke an anti-inflammatory response through macrophages. We have previously shown that there is intense lymphocyte apoptosis in an experimental model of Chagas' disease, a debilitating cardiac illness caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Here we show that the interaction of apoptotic, but not necrotic T lymphocytes with macrophages infected with T. cruzi fuels parasite growth in a manner dependent on prostaglandins, transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) and polyamine biosynthesis. We show that the vitronectin receptor is critical, in both apoptotic-cell cytoadherence and the induction of prostaglandin E2/TGF-? release and ornithine decarboxylase activity in macrophages. A single injection of apoptotic cells in infected mice increases parasitaemia, whereas treatment with cyclooxygenase inhibitors almost completely ablates it in vivo. These results suggest that continual lymphocyte apoptosis and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages have a role in parasite persistence in the host, and that cyclooxygenase inhibitors have potential therapeutic application in the control of parasite replication and spread in Chagas' disease.

  9. Apico-basal forces exerted by apoptotic cells drive epithelium folding.

    PubMed

    Monier, Bruno; Gettings, Melanie; Gay, Guillaume; Mangeat, Thomas; Schott, Sonia; Guarner, Ana; Suzanne, Magali

    2015-02-12

    Epithelium folding is a basic morphogenetic event that is essential in transforming simple two-dimensional epithelial sheets into three-dimensional structures in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Folding has been shown to rely on apical constriction. The resulting cell-shape changes depend either on adherens junction basal shift or on a redistribution of myosin II, which could be driven by mechanical signals. Yet the initial cellular mechanisms that trigger and coordinate cell remodelling remain largely unknown. Here we unravel the active role of apoptotic cells in initiating morphogenesis, thus revealing a novel mechanism of epithelium folding. We show that, in a live developing tissue, apoptotic cells exert a transient pulling force upon the apical surface of the epithelium through a highly dynamic apico-basal myosin II cable. The apoptotic cells then induce a non-autonomous increase in tissue tension together with cortical myosin II apical stabilization in the surrounding tissue, eventually resulting in epithelium folding. Together our results, supported by a theoretical biophysical three-dimensional model, identify an apoptotic myosin-II-dependent signal as the initial signal leading to cell reorganization and tissue folding. This work further reveals that, far from being passively eliminated as generally assumed (for example, during digit individualization), apoptotic cells actively influence their surroundings and trigger tissue remodelling through regulation of tissue tension. PMID:25607361

  10. GRK6 deficiency in mice causes autoimmune disease due to impaired apoptotic cell clearance

    PubMed Central

    Nakaya, Michio; Tajima, Mitsuru; Kosako, Hidetaka; Nakaya, Takeo; Hashimoto, Akiko; Watari, Kenji; Nishihara, Hiroaki; Ohba, Mina; Komiya, Shiori; Tani, Naoki; Nishida, Motohiro; Taniguchi, Hisaaki; Sato, Yoji; Matsumoto, Mitsuru; Tsuda, Makoto; Kuroda, Masahiko; Inoue, Kazuhide; Kurose, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Efficient engulfment of apoptotic cells is critical for maintaining tissue homoeostasis. When phagocytes recognize ‘eat me’ signals presented on the surface of apoptotic cells, this subsequently induces cytoskeletal rearrangement of phagocytes for the engulfment through Rac1 activation. However, the intracellular signalling cascades that result in Rac1 activation remain largely unknown. Here we show that G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 6 (GRK6) is involved in apoptotic cell clearance. GRK6 cooperates with GIT1 to activate Rac1, which promotes apoptotic engulfment independently from the two known DOCK180/ELMO/Rac1 and GULP1/Rac1 engulfment pathways. As a consequence, GRK6-deficient mice develop an autoimmune disease. GRK6-deficient mice also have increased iron stores in splenic red pulp in which F4/80+ macrophages are responsible for senescent red blood cell clearance. Our results reveal previously unrecognized roles for GRK6 in regulating apoptotic engulfment and its fundamental importance in immune and iron homoeostasis. PMID:23443560

  11. GRK6 deficiency in mice causes autoimmune disease due to impaired apoptotic cell clearance.

    PubMed

    Nakaya, Michio; Tajima, Mitsuru; Kosako, Hidetaka; Nakaya, Takeo; Hashimoto, Akiko; Watari, Kenji; Nishihara, Hiroaki; Ohba, Mina; Komiya, Shiori; Tani, Naoki; Nishida, Motohiro; Taniguchi, Hisaaki; Sato, Yoji; Matsumoto, Mitsuru; Tsuda, Makoto; Kuroda, Masahiko; Inoue, Kazuhide; Kurose, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Efficient engulfment of apoptotic cells is critical for maintaining tissue homoeostasis. When phagocytes recognize 'eat me' signals presented on the surface of apoptotic cells, this subsequently induces cytoskeletal rearrangement of phagocytes for the engulfment through Rac1 activation. However, the intracellular signalling cascades that result in Rac1 activation remain largely unknown. Here we show that G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 6 (GRK6) is involved in apoptotic cell clearance. GRK6 cooperates with GIT1 to activate Rac1, which promotes apoptotic engulfment independently from the two known DOCK180/ELMO/Rac1 and GULP1/Rac1 engulfment pathways. As a consequence, GRK6-deficient mice develop an autoimmune disease. GRK6-deficient mice also have increased iron stores in splenic red pulp in which F4/80(+) macrophages are responsible for senescent red blood cell clearance. Our results reveal previously unrecognized roles for GRK6 in regulating apoptotic engulfment and its fundamental importance in immune and iron homoeostasis. PMID:23443560

  12. Number of apoptotic cells as a prognostic marker in invasive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jong, J S de; Diest, P J van; Baak, J P A

    2000-01-01

    Apoptosis plays an important role in tumorigenesis. Tumour growth is determined by the rate of cell proliferation and cell death. We counted the number of apoptotic cells in haematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained tumour sections in series of 172 grade I and II invasive breast cancers with long-term follow-up. The number of apoptotic cells in ten high-power fields were converted to the number of apoptotic cells per mm2to obtain the apoptotic index (AI). The AI showed a positive correlation to the mitotic activity index (MAI) (P = 0.0001), histological grade (P< 0.0001) and worse tumour differentiation. Patients with high AI showed shorter overall survival than patients with low AI in the total group as well as in the lymph node-positive group. Tumour size, MAI, lymph node status and AI were independent prognostic indicators in multivariate analysis. The AI was shown to be of additional prognostic value to the MAI in the total patients group as well as in the lymph node-positive group. The correlation between the AI and the MAI points to linked mechanisms of apoptosis and proliferation. Since apoptotic cells can be counted with good reproducibility in H&E-stained tumour sections, the AI may be used as an additional prognostic indicator in invasive breast cancer. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10646890

  13. Selection of Apoptotic Cell Specific Human Antibodies from Adult Bone Marrow

    PubMed Central

    Grönwall, Caroline; Charles, Edgar D.; Dustin, Lynn B.; Rader, Christoph; Silverman, Gregg J.

    2014-01-01

    Autoreactive antibodies that recognize neo-determinants on apoptotic cells in mice have been proposed to have protective, homeostatic and immunoregulatory properties, although our knowledge about the equivalent antibodies in humans has been much more limited. In the current study, human monoclonal antibodies with binding specificity for apoptotic cells were isolated from the bone marrow of healthy adults using phage display technology. These antibodies were shown to recognize phosphorylcholine (PC)-associated neo-determinants. Interestingly, three of the four identified apoptotic cell-specific antibody clones were encoded by VH3 region rearrangements with germline or nearly germline configuration without evidence of somatic hypermutation. Importantly, the different identified antibody clones had diverse heavy chain CDR3 and deduced binding surfaces as suggested by structure modeling. This may suggest a potentially great heterogeneity in human antibodies recognizing PC-related epitopes on apoptotic cells. To re-construct the postulated structural format of the parental anti-PC antibody, the dominant clone was also expressed as a recombinant human polymeric IgM, which revealed a substantially increased binding reactivity, with dose-dependent and antigen-inhibitable binding of apoptotic cells. Our findings may have implication for improved prognostic testing and therapeutic interventions in human inflammatory disease. PMID:24760047

  14. Effects of microwave exposure and Gemcitabine treatment on apoptotic activity in Burkitt's lymphoma (Raji) cells.

    PubMed

    Canseven, Ay?e G; Esmekaya, Meric Arda; Kayhan, Handan; Tuysuz, Mehmet Zahid; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2014-06-01

    Abstract We investigated the effects of 1.8?MHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)-modulated microwave (MW) radiation on apoptotic level and cell viability of Burkitt's lymphoma (Raji) cells with or without Gemcitabine, which exhibits cell phase specificity, primarily killing cells undergoing DNA synthesis (S-phase). Raji cells were exposed to 1.8?GHz GSM-modulated MW radiation at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 0.350?W/kg in a CO2 incubator. The duration of the exposure was 24?h. The amount of apoptotic cells was analyzed using Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide (PI) staining with flow cytometer. The apoptotic activity of MW exposed Raji cells was increased significantly. In addition, cell viability of exposed samples was significantly decreased. Combined exposure of MW and Gemcitabine increased the amount of apoptotic cells than MW radiation alone. Moreover, viability of MW?+?Gemcitabine exposed cells was lower than that of cells exposed only to MW. These results demonstrated that MW radiation exposure and Gemcitabine treatment have a synergistic effect on apoptotic activity of Raji cells. PMID:24901461

  15. Cutting edge: Parathyroid hormone facilitates macrophage efferocytosis in bone marrow via proresolving mediators resolvin D1 and resolvin D2.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Laurie K; Dalli, Jesmond; Koh, Amy J; Chiang, Nan; Serhan, Charles N

    2014-07-01

    Bone marrow macrophages stimulate skeletal wound repair and osteoblastic bone formation by poorly defined mechanisms. Specialized proresolving mediators of inflammation drive macrophage efferocytosis (phagocytosis of apoptotic cells) and resolution, but little is known regarding this process in the bone marrow. In this study, metabololipidomic profiling via liquid chromatography mass spectrometry revealed higher levels of specialized proresolving mediators in the bone marrow relative to the spleen. The endocrine and bone anabolic agent parathyroid hormone increased specialized proresolving mediator levels, including resolvins (Rvs), in bone marrow. Human and murine primary macrophages efferocytosed apoptotic osteoblasts in vitro, and RvD1 and RvD2 (10 pM-10 nM) enhanced this process. These findings support a unique profile of specialized lipid mediators in bone marrow that contribute to a feedback system for resolution of inflammation and maintenance of skeletal homeostasis. PMID:24890726

  16. Mitochondria in DRG neurons undergo hyperglycemic mediated injury through Bim, Bax and the fission protein Drp1

    E-print Network

    Yi, Yun-Bo

    Mitochondria in DRG neurons undergo hyperglycemic mediated injury through Bim, Bax and the fission sequentially increases the expression, activation and localization of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bim and Bax accumulation of Bim and Bax but does not modulate Drp1 expression or localization. We propose that mitochondria

  17. Visualization of proteolytic activity associated with the apoptotic response in cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tice, Brian George

    Caspases execute programmed cell death, where low levels of caspase activity are linked to cancer. Chemotherapies utilize induction of apoptosis as a key mechanism for cancer treatment, where caspase-3 is a major player involved in dismantling these aberrant cells. The ability to sensitively measure the initial caspase-3 cleavage events during apoptosis is important for understanding the initiation of this complex cellular process, however, current ensemble methods are not sensitive enough to measure single cleavage events in cells. By utilizing the optical properties of plasmon coupling, peptide-linked gold nanoparticles were developed to enable single molecule imaging of caspase-3 activity in two different cancer systems. Au crown nanoparticles were assembled in a multimeric fashion to overcome the high and heterogeneous background scattering of live cells. In a colon cancer (SW620) cell line challenged with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), single molecule trajectories show early stage caspase-3 activation within minutes, which was not detectable by ensemble assays until 23 hours. Variability in caspase-3 activation among the population of cells was identified and likely a result of each cell's specific resistance to death receptor-induced apoptosis. Following these studies, improvements by way of sensitivity and selectivity were tailored into an improved nanosensor construct. Au nanoshell dimers were prepared as a comparably bright construct with 1) reduced heterogeneity compared to the synthesis of the crown nanoparticles and 2) a peptide sequence highly selective for caspase-3. Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) K562 cells were assessed for their early apoptotic response upon treatment with dasatinib, a clinically approved tyrosine kinase inhibitor that specifically targets BCR-ABL. It has been demonstrated that inhibition of BCR-ABL by dasatinib commits K562 cells to apoptosis. Single molecule experiments with Au nanoshell dimers show caspase-3 activation as early as 8 hours than previously reported. This suggests an early commitment to apoptosis that precedes the competing fate of growth factor mediated survival in CML patient-derived BCR-ABL cells. These nanosensors are sensitive and selective in observing caspase-3 activation compared to ensemble methods; and allow the possibility to detect caspase-3 activity for use as a drug screening or diagnostic tool for personalized care in the treatment of cancer.

  18. Ginsenoside Rb1 Protects Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocytes from Hypoxia/Ischemia Induced Apoptosis and Inhibits Activation of the Mitochondrial Apoptotic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xu; Tian, Jinwen; Wu, Hongjin; Liu, Yuna; Ren, Jianxun; Zheng, Sidao; Zhang, Chengying; Yang, Cui; Li, Yang; Wang, Shengqi

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the effect of Ginsenoside Rb1 (GS-Rb1) on hypoxia/ischemia (H/I) injury in cardiomyocytes in vitro and the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway mediated mechanism. Methods. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) for the H/I groups were kept in DMEM without glucose and serum, and were placed into a hypoxic jar for 24?h. GS-Rb1 at concentrations from 2.5 to 40?µM was given during hypoxic period for 24?h. NRCMs injury was determined by MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage assay. Cell apoptosis, ROS accumulation, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were assessed by flow cytometry. Cytosolic translocation of mitochondrial cytochrome c and Bcl-2 family proteins were determined by Western blot. Caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities were determined by the assay kit. Results. GS-Rb1 significantly reduced cell death and LDH leakage induced by H/I. It also reduced H/I induced NRCMs apoptosis induced by H/I, in accordance with a minimal reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst. Moreover, GS-Rb1 markedly decreased the translocation of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol, increased the Bcl-2/ Bax ratio, and preserved mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m). Its administration also inhibited activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Conclusion. Administration of GS-Rb1 during H/I in vitro is involved in cardioprotection by inhibiting apoptosis, which may be due to inhibition of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. PMID:25120573

  19. Tumor suppressor function of miR-483-3p on squamous cell carcinomas due to its pro-apoptotic properties

    PubMed Central

    Bertero, Thomas; Bourget-Ponzio, Isabelle; Puissant, Alexandre; Loubat, Agnès; Mari, Bernard; Meneguzzi, Guerrino; Auberger, Patrick; Barbry, Pascal; Ponzio, Gilles; Rezzonico, Roger

    2013-01-01

    The frequent alteration of miRNA expression in many cancers, together with our recent reports showing a robust accumulation of miR-483-3p at the final stage of skin wound healing, and targeting of CDC25A leading to an arrest of keratinocyte proliferation, led us to hypothesize that miR-483-3p could also be endowed with antitumoral properties. We tested that hypothesis by documenting the in vitro and in vivo impacts of miR-483-3p in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells. miR-483-3p sensitized SCC cells to serum deprivation- and drug-induced apoptosis, thus exerting potent tumor suppressor activities. Its pro-apoptotic activity was mediated by a direct targeting of several anti-apoptotic genes, such as API5, BIRC5, and RAN. Interestingly, an in vivo delivery of miR-483-3p into subcutaneous SCC xenografts significantly hampered tumor growth. This effect was explained by an inhibition of cell proliferation and an increase of apoptosis. This argues for its further use as an adjuvant in the many instances of cancers characterized by a downregulation of miR-483-3p. PMID:24067364

  20. Amelioration of Aspirin Induced Oxidative Impairment and Apoptotic Cell Death by a Novel Antioxidant Protein Molecule Isolated from the Herb Phyllanthus niruri

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Ghosh, Shatadal; Sil, Parames C.

    2014-01-01

    Aspirin has been used for a long time as an analgesic and anti-pyretic drug. Limitations of its use, however, remain for the gastro-intestinal side effects and erosions. Although the role of aspirin on gastro-intestinal injury has been extensively studied, the molecular mechanisms underlying aspirin-induced liver and spleen pathophysiology are poorly defined. The present study has been conducted to investigate whether phyllanthus niruri protein (PNP) possesses any protective role against aspirin mediated liver and spleen tissue toxicity, and if so, what signaling pathways it utilizes to convey its protective action. Aspirin administration in mice enhanced serum marker (ALP) levels, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, reduced antioxidant power and altered oxidative stress related biochemical parameters in liver and spleen tissues. Moreover, we observed that aspirin intoxication activated both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, as well as down regulated NF-?B activation and the phosphorylation of p38 and JNK MAPKs. Histological assessments and TUNEL assay also supported that aspirin induced tissue damages are apoptotic in nature. PNP treatment after aspirin exposure effectively neutralizes all these abnormalities via the activation of survival PI3k/Akt pathways. Combining all results suggest that PNP could be a potential protective agent to protect liver and spleen from the detrimental effects of aspirin. PMID:24586486

  1. Pyruvate kinase isoenzyme M2 is a glycolytic sensor differentially regulating cell proliferation, cell size and apoptotic cell death dependent on glucose supply

    SciTech Connect

    Spoden, Gilles A. [Department of Cell Metabolism and Differentiation, Institute for Biomedical Aging Research of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Rennweg 10, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria) [Department of Cell Metabolism and Differentiation, Institute for Biomedical Aging Research of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Rennweg 10, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Tumorvirology Research Group, Tyrolean Cancer Research Institute, Medical University Innsbruck, Innrain 66, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Rostek, Ursula; Lechner, Stefan; Mitterberger, Maria [Department of Cell Metabolism and Differentiation, Institute for Biomedical Aging Research of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Rennweg 10, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)] [Department of Cell Metabolism and Differentiation, Institute for Biomedical Aging Research of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Rennweg 10, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Mazurek, Sybille [Department for Biochemistry and Endocrinology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany) [Department for Biochemistry and Endocrinology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany); ScheBo Biotech AG, Netanyastrasse 3, 35394 Giessen (Germany); Zwerschke, Werner, E-mail: werner.zwerschke@oeaw.ac.at [Department of Cell Metabolism and Differentiation, Institute for Biomedical Aging Research of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Rennweg 10, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria) [Department of Cell Metabolism and Differentiation, Institute for Biomedical Aging Research of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Rennweg 10, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Tumorvirology Research Group, Tyrolean Cancer Research Institute, Medical University Innsbruck, Innrain 66, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2009-10-01

    The glycolytic key regulator pyruvate kinase M2 (M2-PK or PKM2) can switch between a highly active tetrameric and an inactive dimeric form. The transition between the two conformations regulates the glycolytic flux in tumor cells. We developed specific M2-PK-binding peptide aptamers which inhibit M2-PK, but not the 96% homologous M1-PK isoenzyme. In this study we demonstrate that, at normal blood glucose concentrations, peptide aptamer-mediated inhibition of M2-PK induces a significant decrease of the population doubling (PDL rate) and cell proliferation rate as well as an increase in cell size, whereas under glucose restriction an increase in PDL and cell proliferation rates but a decrease in cell size was observed. Moreover, M2-PK inhibition rescues cells from glucose starvation-induced apoptotic cell death by increasing the metabolic activity. These findings suggest that M2-PK is a metabolic sensor which regulates cell proliferation, cell growth and apoptotic cell death in a glucose supply-dependent manner.

  2. Amelioration of aspirin induced oxidative impairment and apoptotic cell death by a novel antioxidant protein molecule isolated from the herb Phyllanthus niruri.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Ghosh, Shatadal; Sil, Parames C

    2014-01-01

    Aspirin has been used for a long time as an analgesic and anti-pyretic drug. Limitations of its use, however, remain for the gastro-intestinal side effects and erosions. Although the role of aspirin on gastro-intestinal injury has been extensively studied, the molecular mechanisms underlying aspirin-induced liver and spleen pathophysiology are poorly defined. The present study has been conducted to investigate whether phyllanthus niruri protein (PNP) possesses any protective role against aspirin mediated liver and spleen tissue toxicity, and if so, what signaling pathways it utilizes to convey its protective action. Aspirin administration in mice enhanced serum marker (ALP) levels, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, reduced antioxidant power and altered oxidative stress related biochemical parameters in liver and spleen tissues. Moreover, we observed that aspirin intoxication activated both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, as well as down regulated NF-?B activation and the phosphorylation of p38 and JNK MAPKs. Histological assessments and TUNEL assay also supported that aspirin induced tissue damages are apoptotic in nature. PNP treatment after aspirin exposure effectively neutralizes all these abnormalities via the activation of survival PI3k/Akt pathways. Combining all results suggest that PNP could be a potential protective agent to protect liver and spleen from the detrimental effects of aspirin. PMID:24586486

  3. Lithium-induced neuroprotection is associated with epigenetic modification of specific BDNF gene promoter and altered expression of apoptotic-regulatory proteins

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Tushar; Zhang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD), one of the most debilitating mental disorders, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Lithium is the first line of treatment option for BD and is often used for maintenance therapy. Recently, the neuroprotective action of lithium has gained tremendous attention, given that BD is associated with structural and functional abnormalities of the brain. However, the precise molecular mechanism by which lithium exerts its neuroprotective action is not clearly understood. In hippocampal neurons, the effects of lithium (1 and 2 mM) on neuronal viability against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity, dendritic length and number, and expression and methylation of BDNF promoter exons and expression of apoptotic regulatory genes were studied. In rat hippocampal neurons, lithium not only increased dendritic length and number, but also neuronal viability against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity. While lithium increased the expression of BDNF as well as genes associated with neuroprotection such as Bcl2 and Bcl-XL, it decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic genes Bax, Bad, and caspases 3. Interestingly, lithium activated transcription of specific exon IV to induce BDNF gene expression. This was accompanied by hypomethylation of BDNF exon IV promoter. This study delineates mechanisms by which lithium mediates its effects in protecting neurons. PMID:25642163

  4. Chlorobenzenes, lindane and dieldrin induce apoptotic alterations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (in vitro study).

    PubMed

    Micha?owicz, Jaromir; Mokra, Katarzyna; Rosiak, Karolina; Sici?ska, Paulina; Bukowska, Bo?ena

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we have assessed apoptotic effect of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, lindane and dieldrin on human peripheral blood lymphocytes. We observed an increase in ROS formation and a decrease in mitochondrial transmembrane potential in the cells incubated with low concentrations of all compounds studied, in particular lindane and dieldrin. ROS formation and changes in mitochondrial transmembrane potential may have influenced caspase-3 activation, a crucial enzyme in the apoptotic process. Moreover, chlorobenzenes, and in particular lindane and dieldrin changed cells' membrane permeability and induced phosphatidylserine translocation, which confirmed that they are capable of inducing apoptosis in human lymphocytes. Apoptotic changes in human lymphocytes provoked by biologically relevant concentrations of these substances suggest that they may disturb function of immunological system especially among people occupationally exposed to their action. PMID:24077485

  5. Cytokine dysregulation induced by apoptotic cells is a shared characteristic of murine lupus.

    PubMed

    Koh, J S; Wang, Z; Levine, J S

    2000-10-15

    Of the multiple murine models of autoimmunity, the three most closely resembling human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are the MRL/lpr, New Zealand Black/White F(1), and male BXSB. Although these strains share many disease characteristics, no common cellular defect has previously been found in prediseased mice from all these strains. We show in this study that macrophages from prediseased mice of all three SLE-prone strains, as well as macrophages from mice whose genomes contribute to the development of SLE (MRL/+, New Zealand White, New Zealand Black, female BXSB, and LG/J), have an identical and profound defect in cytokine expression that is triggered by apoptotic cells. Strikingly, none of 13 nonautoimmune strains tested exhibited this defect. Given that apoptotic Ags have been increasingly recognized as the target of autoantibodies, a defect in cytokine expression that is triggered by apoptotic cells has broad potential to upset the balance between tolerance and immunity. PMID:11035051

  6. Comparison of DNA fragmentation and color thresholding for objective quantitation of apoptotic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plymale, D. R.; Ng Tang, D. S.; Fermin, C. D.; Lewis, D. E.; Martin, D. S.; Garry, R. F.

    1995-01-01

    Apoptosis is a process of cell death characterized by distinctive morphological changes and fragmentation of cellular DNA. Using video imaging and color thresholding techniques, we objectively quantitated the number of cultured CD4+ T-lymphoblastoid cells (HUT78 cells, RH9 subclone) displaying morphological signs of apoptosis before and after exposure to gamma-irradiation. The numbers of apoptotic cells measured by objective video imaging techniques were compared to numbers of apoptotic cells measured in the same samples by sensitive apoptotic assays that quantitate DNA fragmentation. DNA fragmentation assays gave consistently higher values compared with the video imaging assays that measured morphological changes associated with apoptosis. These results suggest that substantial DNA fragmentation can precede or occur in the absence of the morphological changes which are associated with apoptosis in gamma-irradiated RH9 cells.

  7. Impaired Clearance of Apoptotic Cells in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases: Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Szondy, Zsuzsa; Garabuczi, Éva; Joós, Gergely; Tsay, Gregory J.; Sarang, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    In healthy individuals, billions of cells die by apoptosis every day. Removal of the dead cells by phagocytosis (a process called efferocytosis) must be efficient to prevent secondary necrosis and the consequent release of pro-inflammatory cell contents that damages the tissue environment and provokes autoimmunity. In addition, detection and removal of apoptotic cells generally induces an anti-inflammatory response. As a consequence improper clearance of apoptotic cells, being the result of either genetic anomalies and/or a persistent disease state, contributes to the establishment and progression of a number of human chronic inflammatory diseases such as autoimmune and neurological disorders, inflammatory lung diseases, obesity, type 2 diabetes, or atherosclerosis. During the past decade, our knowledge about the mechanism of efferocytosis has significantly increased, providing therapeutic targets through which impaired phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and the consequent inflammation could be influenced in these diseases. PMID:25136342

  8. Antimicrobial Peptide-induced Apoptotic Death of Leishmania Results from Calcium-de pend ent, Caspase-independent Mitochondrial Toxicity*

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Manjusha M.; Robert McMaster, W.; Kamysz, Wojciech; McGwire, Bradford S.

    2009-01-01

    ?- and ?-defensin-, magainin-, and cathelicidin-type antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) can kill the pathogenic protozoan Leishmania. Comparative studies of a panel of AMPs have defined two distinct groups: those that induce nonapoptotic (Class I) and apoptotic (Class II) parasite killing based on their differential ability to induce phosphatidyl serine exposure, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased ATP production, induction of caspase-3/7 and -12 activity, and DNA degradation. Class II AMPs cause rapid influx of the vital stain SYTOX and an increase in intracellular Ca2+, whereas Class I AMPs cause a slow accumulation of SYTOX and do not affect intracellular Ca2+ levels. Inhibitors of cysteine or caspase proteases diminished fast influx of SYTOX through the surface membrane and DNA degradation but do not ablate the annexin V staining or the induction of apoptosis by Class II AMPs. This suggests that the changes in surface permeability in AMP-mediated apoptosis are related to the downstream events of intracellular cysteine/caspase activation or the loss of ATP. The activation of caspase-12-like activity was Ca2+-dependent, and inhibitors of voltage-gated and nonspecific Ca2+ channels diminished this activity. Flufenamic acid, a nonspecific Ca2+ inhibitor, completely ablated AMP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death, indicating the importance of dysregulation of Ca2+ in antimicrobial peptide-induced apoptosis. PMID:19357081

  9. Induction of a Feed Forward Pro-Apoptotic Mechanistic Loop by Nitric Oxide in a Human Breast Cancer Model

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Suvajit; Kawahara, Brian; Fukuto, Jon; Chaudhuri, Gautam

    2013-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that relatively high concentrations of NO [Nitric Oxide] as produced by activated macrophages induced apoptosis in the human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-468. More recently, we also demonstrated the importance of endogenous H2O2 in the regulation of growth in human breast cancer cells. In the present study we assessed the interplay between exogenously administered NO and the endogenously produced reactive oxygen species [ROS] in human breast cancer cells and evaluated the mechanism[s] in the induction of apoptosis. To this end we identified a novel mechanism by which NO down regulated endogenous hydrogen peroxide [H2O2] formation via the down-regulation of superoxide [O2.?] and the activation of catalase. We further demonstrated the existence of a feed forward mechanistic loop involving protein phosphatase 2A [PP2A] and its downstream substrate FOXO1 in the induction of apoptosis and the synthesis of catalase. We utilized gene silencing of PP2A, FOXO1 and catalase to assess their relative importance and key roles in NO mediated apoptosis. This study provides the potential for a therapeutic approach in treating breast cancer by targeted delivery of NO where NO donors and activators of downstream players could initiate a self sustaining apoptotic cascade in breast cancer cells. PMID:23950968

  10. 4-Hydroxyderricin from Angelica keiskei roots induces caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death in HL60 human leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Akihisa, Toshihiro; Kikuchi, Takashi; Nagai, Hisashi; Ishii, Koichi; Tabata, Keiichi; Suzuki, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The ethyl acetate (EtOAc)-soluble fraction of a methanol extract of Angelica keiskei roots exhibited cytotoxic activity against 4 human tumor cell lines, HL60 (leukemia), CRL1579 (melanoma), A549 (lung), and AZ521 (stomach). Nine chalcones (1-9), 5 coumarins (10-14), and 4 flavanones (15-18), isolated from the EtOAc-soluble fraction, were examined for their cytotoxic activities in the 4 human tumor cell lines. Among the compounds tested, 4-hydroxyderricin (2), a major chalcone constituent, exhibited potent cytotoxic activities in all 4 tumor cell lines with IC(50) values of 5.5 µM (HL60), 4.8 µM (CRL1579), 10.2 µM (A549), and 4.2 µM (AZ521). 4-Hydroxyderricin induced early apoptosis in HL60 cells, observed as membrane phospholipid exposure in flow cytometry. Western blot analysis showed that 4-hydroxyderricin markedly reduced the levels of procaspases-3, -8, and -9, while increasing the levels of cleaved caspases-3, -8, and -9. In addition, 4-hydroxyderricin exhibited potent inhibitory activity on human DNA topoisomerase (Topo) II (IC(50) 21.9 µM). These results suggested that 4-hydroxyderricin induces apoptotic cell death in HL60 via both the death receptor-mediated pathway and the mitochondrial pathway by, at least in part, Topo II inhibition. 4-Hydroxyderricin may therefore hold promise as an effective antitumor agent. PMID:21263202

  11. Anti-apoptotic effect of claudin-1 on TNF-?-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Liang; Lin, Xu-Yong; Wang, Jian; Yu, Juan-Han; Miao, Yuan; Wang, En-Hua

    2012-12-01

    Accumulating evidence reveals that aberrant expression of claudins manifests in various tumors; however, their biological functions are poorly understood. Here, we report on the elevated expression of claudin-1 in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells under tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? treatment. Interestingly, the increased expression of claudin-1 contributes to an anti-apoptotic role in TNF-?-induced apoptosis. In line with this, upon TNF-? stimulus, downregulation of claudin-1 by siRNA knockdown results in a significant increase in cleavage of caspase-8 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, a decrease of cyclinD1 expression, and DNA fragmentation. Consistently, TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay also shows that loss of claudin-1 increases the susceptibility of MCF-7 cells to TNF-?-induced apoptosis. However, there is no obvious effect on the expression of Bax and p53 after the treatment aforementioned. In addition, TNF-? increases the amount of claudin-1 and the cytoplasmic accumulation of ?-catenin, while claudin-1 siRNA increases the amount of ?-catenin in the cell membrane as well as the amount of E-cadherin in the cytoplasm. In conclusion, our data reveal a novel role of claudin-1 in regulating apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. PMID:22941467

  12. Death ligand concentration and the membrane proximal signaling module regulate the type 1/type 2 choice in apoptotic death signaling.

    PubMed

    Raychaudhuri, Subhadip; Raychaudhuri, Somkanya C

    2014-03-01

    Apoptotic death pathways are frequently activated by death ligand induction and subsequent activation of the membrane proximal signaling module. Death receptors cluster upon binding to death ligands, leading to formation of a membrane proximal death-inducing-signaling-complex (DISC). In this membrane proximal signalosome, initiator caspases (caspase 8) are processed resulting in activation of both type 1 and type 2 pathways of apoptosis signaling. How the type 1/type 2 choice is made is an important question in the systems biology of apoptosis signaling. In this study, we utilize a Monte Carlo based in silico approach to elucidate the role of membrane proximal signaling module in the type 1/type 2 choice of apoptosis signaling. Our results provide crucial mechanistic insights into the formation of DISC signalosome and caspase 8 activation. Increased concentration of death ligands was shown to correlate with increased type 1 activation. We also study the caspase 6 mediated system level feedback activation of apoptosis signaling and its role in the type 1/type 2 choice. Our results clarify the basis of cell-to-cell stochastic variability in apoptosis activation and ramifications of this issue is further discussed in the context of therapies for cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24592294

  13. Capsaicin-induced apoptosis is regulated by endoplasmic reticulum stress- and calpain-mediated mitochondrial cell death pathways.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Ja; Kee, Keun-Hong; Suh, Chae-Hong; Lim, Sung-Chul; Oh, Seon-Hee

    2009-10-29

    Capsaicin, a pungent compound found in hot chili peppers, induces apoptotic cell death in various cell lines, however, the precise apoptosis signaling pathway is unknown. Here, we investigated capsaicin-induced apoptotic signaling in the human breast cell line MCF10A and found that it involves both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and calpain activation. Capsaicin inhibited growth in a dose-dependent manner and induced apoptotic nuclear changes in MCF10A cells. Capsaicin also induced degradation of tumor suppressor p53; this effect was enhanced by the ER stressor tunicamycin. The proteasome inhibitor MG132 completely blocked capsaicin-induced p53 degradation and enhanced apoptotic cell death. Capsaicin treatment triggered ER stress by increasing levels of IRE1, GADD153/Chop, GRP78/Bip, and activated caspase-4. It led to an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+), calpain activation, loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, and caspase-9 and -7 activation. Furthermore, capsaicin-induced the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway through calpain-mediated Bid translocation to the mitochondria and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). Capsaicin-induced caspase-9, Bid cleavage, and AIF translocation were blocked by calpeptin, and BAPTA and calpeptin attenuated calpain activation and Bid cleavage. Thus, both ER stress- and mitochondria-mediated death pathways are involved in capsaicin-induced apoptosis. PMID:19699254

  14. Pro?apoptotic effects of pycnogenol on HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Harati, Kamran; Slodnik, Pawel; Chromik, Ansgar Michael; Behr, Björn; Goertz, Ole; Hirsch, Tobias; Kapalschinski, Nicolai; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Kolbenschlag, Jonas; Uhl, Waldemar; Lehnhardt, Marcus; Daigeler, Adrien

    2015-04-01

    Complete surgical resection with clear margins remains the mainstay of therapy for localised fibrosarcomas. Nevertheless, metastatic fibrosarcomas still represent a therapeutic dilemma. Commonly used chemotherapeutic agents like doxorubicin have proven to be effective in <30% of all cases of disseminated fibrosarcoma. Especially elderly patients with cardiac subdisease are not suitable for systemic chemotherapy with doxorubicin. Therefore we tested the apoptotic effects of the well?tolerated pine bark extract pycnogenol and its constituents on human fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080). Ten healthy subjects (six females, four males, mean age 24.8±6 years) received a single dose of 300 mg pycnogenol orally. Blood plasma samples were obtained before and 6 h after intake of pycnogenol. HT1080 cells were treated with these plasma samples. Additionally, HT1080 were incubated separately with catechin, epicatechin and taxifolin that are known as the main constituents of pycnogenol. Vital, apoptotic and necrotic cells were quantified using flow cytometric analysis. Gene expression was analyzed by RNA microarray. The results showed that single application of taxifolin, catechin and epicatechin reduced cell viability of HT1080 cells only moderately. A single dose of 300 mg pycnogenol given to 10 healthy adults produced plasma samples that led to significant apoptotic cell death ex vivo whereas pycnogenol?negative serum displayed no apoptotic activity. Microarray analysis revealed remarkable expression changes induced by pycnogenol in a variety of genes, which are involved in different apoptotic pathways of cancer cells [Janus kinase 1 (JAK1), DUSP1, RHOA, laminin ?1 (LAMC1), fibronectin 1 (FN1), catenin ?1 (CTNNA1), ITGB1]. In conclusion, metabolised pycnogenol induces apoptosis in human fibrosarcoma cells. Pycnogenol exhibits its pro?apoptotic activity as a mixture and is more effective than its main constituents catechin, epicatechin and taxifolin indicating that the metabolised components interact synergistically. These results provide experimental support for in vivo trials assessing the effect of the pine bark extract pycnogenol. PMID:25625225

  15. Cooperation between Apoptotic and Viable Metacyclics Enhances the Pathogenesis of Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Wanderley, João Luiz Mendes; Pinto da Silva, Lucia Helena; Deolindo, Poliana; Soong, Lynn; Borges, Valéria Matos; Prates, Deboraci Brito; de Souza, Ana Paula Almeida; Barral, Aldina; de Freitas Balanco, José Mario; do Nascimento, Michelle Tanny Cunha; Saraiva, Elvira Maria; Barcinski, Marcello André

    2009-01-01

    Mimicking mammalian apoptotic cells by exposing phosphatidylserine (PS) is a strategy used by virus and parasitic protozoa to escape host protective inflammatory responses. With Leishmania amazonensis (La), apoptotic mimicry is a prerogative of the intramacrophagic amastigote form of the parasite and is modulated by the host. Now we show that differently from what happens with amastigotes, promastigotes exposing PS are non-viable, non-infective cells, undergoing apoptotic death. As part of the normal metacyclogenic process occurring in axenic cultures and in the gut of sand fly vectors, a sub-population of metacyclic promastigotes exposes PS. Apoptotic death of the purified PS-positive (PSPOS) sub-population was confirmed by TUNEL staining and DNA laddering. Transmission electron microscopy revealed morphological alterations in PSPOS metacyclics such as DNA condensation, cytoplasm degradation and mitochondrion and kinetoplast destruction, both in in vitro cultures and in sand fly guts. TUNELPOS promastigotes were detected only in the anterior midgut to foregut boundary of infected sand flies. Interestingly, caspase inhibitors modulated parasite death and PS exposure, when added to parasite cultures in a specific time window. Efficient in vitro macrophage infections and in vivo lesions only occur when PSPOS and PS-negative (PSNEG) parasites were simultaneously added to the cell culture or inoculated in the mammalian host. The viable PSNEG promastigote was the infective form, as shown by following the fate of fluorescently labeled parasites, while the PSPOS apoptotic sub-population inhibited host macrophage inflammatory response. PS exposure and macrophage inhibition by a subpopulation of promastigotes is a different mechanism than the one previously described with amastigotes, where the entire population exposes PS. Both mechanisms co-exist and play a role in the transmission and development of the disease in case of infection by La. Since both processes confer selective advantages to the infective microorganism they justify the occurrence of apoptotic features in a unicellular pathogen. PMID:19478944

  16. Cooperation between apoptotic and viable metacyclics enhances the pathogenesis of Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Wanderley, João Luiz Mendes; Pinto da Silva, Lucia Helena; Deolindo, Poliana; Soong, Lynn; Borges, Valéria Matos; Prates, Deboraci Brito; de Souza, Ana Paula Almeida; Barral, Aldina; Balanco, José Mario de Freitas; do Nascimento, Michelle Tanny Cunha; Saraiva, Elvira Maria; Barcinski, Marcello André

    2009-01-01

    Mimicking mammalian apoptotic cells by exposing phosphatidylserine (PS) is a strategy used by virus and parasitic protozoa to escape host protective inflammatory responses. With Leishmania amazonensis (La), apoptotic mimicry is a prerogative of the intramacrophagic amastigote form of the parasite and is modulated by the host. Now we show that differently from what happens with amastigotes, promastigotes exposing PS are non-viable, non-infective cells, undergoing apoptotic death. As part of the normal metacyclogenic process occurring in axenic cultures and in the gut of sand fly vectors, a sub-population of metacyclic promastigotes exposes PS. Apoptotic death of the purified PS-positive (PS(POS)) sub-population was confirmed by TUNEL staining and DNA laddering. Transmission electron microscopy revealed morphological alterations in PS(POS) metacyclics such as DNA condensation, cytoplasm degradation and mitochondrion and kinetoplast destruction, both in in vitro cultures and in sand fly guts. TUNEL(POS) promastigotes were detected only in the anterior midgut to foregut boundary of infected sand flies. Interestingly, caspase inhibitors modulated parasite death and PS exposure, when added to parasite cultures in a specific time window. Efficient in vitro macrophage infections and in vivo lesions only occur when PS(POS) and PS-negative (PS(NEG)) parasites were simultaneously added to the cell culture or inoculated in the mammalian host. The viable PS(NEG) promastigote was the infective form, as shown by following the fate of fluorescently labeled parasites, while the PS(POS) apoptotic sub-population inhibited host macrophage inflammatory response. PS exposure and macrophage inhibition by a subpopulation of promastigotes is a different mechanism than the one previously described with amastigotes, where the entire population exposes PS. Both mechanisms co-exist and play a role in the transmission and development of the disease in case of infection by La. Since both processes confer selective advantages to the infective microorganism they justify the occurrence of apoptotic features in a unicellular pathogen. PMID:19478944

  17. Promoting effects of sanguinarine on apoptotic gene expression in human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cecen, Emre; Altun, Zekiye; Ercetin, Pinar; Aktas, Safiye; Olgun, Nur

    2014-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children. Approximately half of the affected patients are diagnosed with high-risk poor prognosis disease, and novel therapies are needed. Sanguinarine is a benzophenanthridine alkaloid which has anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study is whether sanguinarine has in vitro apoptotic effects and which apoptotic genes might be affected in the human neuroblastoma cell lines SH-SY5Y (N-myc negative), Kelly (N-myc positive, ALK positive), and SK- N-BE(2). Cell viability was analysed with WST-1 and apoptotic cell death rates were determined using TUNEL. After RNA isolation and cDNA conversion, expression of 84 custom array genes of apoptosis was determined. Sanguinarine caused cell death in a dose dependent manner in all neuroblastoma cell lines except SK-N-BE(2) with rates of 18% in SH-SY5Y and 21% in Kelly human neuroblastoma cells. Cisplatin caused similar apoptotic cell death rates of 16% in SH-SY5Y and 23% in Kelly cells and sanguinarine-cisplatin combinations caused the same rates (18% and 20%). Sanguinarine treatment did not affect apoptototic gene expression but decreased levels of anti-apoptotic genes NOL3 and BCL2L2 in SH-SY5Y cells. Caspase and TNF related gene expression was affected by the sanguinarine-cisplatin combination in SH-SY5Y cells. The expression of regulation of apoptotic genes were increased with sanguinarine treatment in Kelly cells. From these results, we conclude that sanguinarine is a candidate agent against neuroblastoma. PMID:25422239

  18. Mediator Deathwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Tony

    2005-01-01

    The most discussed and analyzed form of deathwork is the dyadic "therapist" [double arrow] "client" relationship, but this far from exhausts the various types of professional work involving the dead. Mediator deathwork is where the professional gleans or constructs information about the dead, edits and polishes it, and publicly presents the edited…

  19. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate, acting through an anti-apoptotic mechanism, protects native and amyloid-precursor-protein-transfected neuroblastoma cells against oxidative stress-induced death.

    PubMed

    Wendt, G; Kemmel, V; Patte-Mensah, C; Uring-Lambert, B; Eckert, A; Schmitt, M J; Mensah-Nyagan, A G

    2014-03-28

    Clinical observations suggested that gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) protects nerve cells against death but the direct proofs are missing. Here, we combined several approaches to investigate GHB capacity to protect human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced death. To increase the patho-physiological relevancy of our study, we used native SH-SY5Y cells and SH-SY5Y cells stably transfected with the wild-type amyloid-precursor-protein (APPwt) or control-vector-pCEP4. Trypan Blue exclusion and MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium-bromide) assays combined with pharmacological analyses showed that H2O2 reduced native and genetically modified cell viability and APPwt-transfected cells were the most vulnerable. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and activated caspase-3 staining assessed by flow cytometry revealed a basally elevated apoptotic signal in APPwt-transfected cells. Reverse-transcription, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blotting showed that mRNA and protein basal ratios of apoptotic modulators Bax/Bcl-2 were also high in APPwt-transfected cells. GHB efficiently and dose-dependently rescued native and genetically modified cells from H2O2-induced death. Interestingly, GHB, which strongly decreased elevated basal levels of TUNEL-staining, activated caspase 3-labeling and Bax/Bcl-2 in APPwt-transfected cells, also counteracted H2O2-evoked increased apoptotic markers in native and genetically modified SH-SY5Y cells. Since GHB did not promote cell proliferation, anti-apoptotic action through the down-regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratios and/or caspase 3 activity appears as a critical mechanism involved in GHB-induced protection of SH-SY5Y cells against APPwt-overexpression- or H2O2-evoked death. Altogether, these results, providing multi-parametric evidence for the existence of neuroprotective action of GHB, also open interesting perspectives for the development of GHB analog-based strategies against neurodegeneration or nerve cell death. PMID:24456637

  20. MicroRNA-494 Targeting both Pro-apoptotic and Anti-apoptotic Proteins Protects against Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Cardiac Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Xiaowei; Ren, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Jing; Liu, Hongzhu; Yang, Junqi; Medvedovic, Mario; Hu, Zhuowei; Fan, Guo-Chang

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND microRNAs (miRs) participate in many cardiac pathophysiological processes including ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced cardiac injury. Recently, we and others observed that miR-494 was downregulated in murine I/R injured and human infarcted hearts. However, the functional consequence of miR-494 in response to I/R remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS We generated a mouse model with cardiac-specific overexpression of miR-494. Transgenic (TG) hearts and wild-type (WT) hearts from multiple lines were subjected to global no-flow I/R using the Langendorff system. TG hearts exhibited improved recovery of contractile performance over the reperfusion period. This improvement was accompanied by remarkable decreases in both lactate dehydrogenase release and the extent of apoptosis in TGs, compared to WTs. Also, myocardial infarction size was significantly reduced in TGs upon I/R in vivo, versus WTs. Similarly, acute overexpression of miR-494 in cultured adult cardiomyocytes demonstrated an inhibition of caspase-3 activity and reduced cell death upon simulated I/R. In vivo treatment with antagomiR-494 increased I/R-triggered cardiac injury relative to the administration of mutant antagomiR-494 and saline controls. We further identified that three pro-apoptotic proteins (PTEN, ROCK1 and CaMKII?) and two anti-apoptotic proteins (FGFR2 and LIF) were authentic targets for miR-494. Importantly, the Akt-mitochondrial signaling pathway was activated in miR-494-overexpressing myocytes. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that although miR-494 targets both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins, the ultimate consequence is activation of the Akt pathway, leading to cardioprotective effects against I/R-induced injury. Thus, miR-494 may constitute a new therapeutic agent for the treatment of ischemic heart disease. PMID:20837890

  1. Anti-Apoptotic Bfl-1 Is the Major Effector in Activation-Induced Human Mast Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Ekoff, Maria; Lyberg, Katarina; Krajewska, Maryla; Arvidsson, Monica; Rak, Sabina; Reed, John C.; Harvima, Ilkka; Nilsson, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Mast cells are best known for their role in allergic reactions, where aggregation of Fc?RI leads to the release of mast cell mediators causing allergic symptoms. The activation also induces a survival program in the cells, i.e., activation-induced mast cell survival. The aim of the present study was to investigate how the activation-induced survival is mediated. Cord blood-derived mast cells and the mast cell line LAD-2 were activated through Fc?RI crosslinking, with or without addition of chemicals that inhibit the activity or expression of selected Bcl-2 family members (ABT-737; roscovitine). Cell viability was assessed using staining and flow cytometry. The expression and function of Bcl-2 family members BFL-1 and MCL-1 were investigated using real-time quantitative PCR and siRNA treatment. The mast cell expression of Bfl-1 was investigated in skin biopsies. Fc?RI crosslinking promotes activation-induced survival of human mast cells and this is associated with an upregulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bfl-1. ABT-737 alone or in combination with roscovitine decreases viability of human mast cells although activation-induced survival is sustained, indicating a minor role for Bcl-XL, Bcl-2, Bcl-w and Mcl-1. Reducing BFL-1 but not MCL-1 levels by siRNA inhibited activation-induced mast cell survival. We also demonstrate that mast cell expression of Bfl-1 is elevated in birch-pollen-provocated skin and in lesions of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis patients. Taken together, our results highlight Bfl-1 as a major effector in activation-induced human mast cell survival. PMID:22720045

  2. Anti-apoptotic signaling as a cytoprotective mechanism in mammalian hibernation.

    PubMed

    Rouble, Andrew N; Hefler, Joshua; Mamady, Hapsatou; Storey, Kenneth B; Tessier, Shannon N

    2013-01-01

    In the context of normal cell turnover, apoptosis is a natural phenomenon involved in making essential life and death decisions. Apoptotic pathways balance signals which promote cell death (pro-apoptotic pathways) or counteract these signals (anti-apoptotic pathways). We proposed that changes in anti-apoptotic proteins would occur during mammalian hibernation to aid cell preservation during prolonged torpor under cellular conditions that are highly injurious to most mammals (e.g. low body temperatures, ischemia). Immunoblotting was used to analyze the expression of proteins associated with pro-survival in six tissues of thirteen-lined ground squirrels, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus. The brain showed a concerted response to torpor with significant increases in the levels of all anti-apoptotic targets analyzed (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, BI-1, Mcl-1, cIAP1/2, xIAP) as well as enhanced phosphorylation of Bcl-2 at S70 and T56. Heart responded similarly with most anti-apoptotic proteins elevated significantly during torpor except for Bcl-xL and xIAP that decreased and Mcl-1 that was unaltered. In liver, BI-1 increased whereas cIAP1/2 decreased. In kidney, there was an increase in BI-1, cIAP and xIAP but decreases in Bcl-xL and p-Bcl-2(T56) content. In brown adipose tissue, protein levels of BI-1, cIAP1/2, and xIAP decreased significantly during torpor (compared with euthermia) whereas Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1 were unaltered; however, Bcl-2 showed enhanced phosphorylation at Thr56 but not at Ser70. In skeletal muscle, only xIAP levels changed significantly during torpor (an increase). The data show that anti-apoptotic pathways have organ-specific responses in hibernators with a prominent potential role in heart and brain where coordinated enhancement of anti-apoptotic proteins occurred in response to torpor. PMID:23638364

  3. Anti-apoptotic signaling as a cytoprotective mechanism in mammalian hibernation

    PubMed Central

    Mamady, Hapsatou; Tessier, Shannon N.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of normal cell turnover, apoptosis is a natural phenomenon involved in making essential life and death decisions. Apoptotic pathways balance signals which promote cell death (pro-apoptotic pathways) or counteract these signals (anti-apoptotic pathways). We proposed that changes in anti-apoptotic proteins would occur during mammalian hibernation to aid cell preservation during prolonged torpor under cellular conditions that are highly injurious to most mammals (e.g. low body temperatures, ischemia). Immunoblotting was used to analyze the expression of proteins associated with pro-survival in six tissues of thirteen-lined ground squirrels, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus. The brain showed a concerted response to torpor with significant increases in the levels of all anti-apoptotic targets analyzed (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, BI-1, Mcl-1, cIAP1/2, xIAP) as well as enhanced phosphorylation of Bcl-2 at S70 and T56. Heart responded similarly with most anti-apoptotic proteins elevated significantly during torpor except for Bcl-xL and xIAP that decreased and Mcl-1 that was unaltered. In liver, BI-1 increased whereas cIAP1/2 decreased. In kidney, there was an increase in BI-1, cIAP and xIAP but decreases in Bcl-xL and p-Bcl-2(T56) content. In brown adipose tissue, protein levels of BI-1, cIAP1/2, and xIAP decreased significantly during torpor (compared with euthermia) whereas Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1 were unaltered; however, Bcl-2 showed enhanced phosphorylation at Thr56 but not at Ser70. In skeletal muscle, only xIAP levels changed significantly during torpor (an increase). The data show that anti-apoptotic pathways have organ-specific responses in hibernators with a prominent potential role in heart and brain where coordinated enhancement of anti-apoptotic proteins occurred in response to torpor. PMID:23638364

  4. The apoptotic-cell receptor CR3, but not ?v?5, is a regulator of human dendritic-cell immunostimulatory function

    PubMed Central

    Škoberne, Mojca; Somersan, Selin; Almodovar, Wanda; Truong, Tuan; Petrova, Kseniya; Henson, Peter M.; Bhardwaj, Nina

    2006-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) that capture apoptotic cells (ACs) in the steady state mediate peripheral tolerance to self-antigens. ACs are recognized by an array of receptors on DCs, the redundancy of which is not completely defined. We made use of an AC surrogate system to address the individual roles of the ?v?5 and complement receptors (CRs) in the phagocytosis and induction of immunity. CR3 and CR4, while substantially less efficient than ?v?5 in internalizing ACs, initiate signals that render DCs tolerogenic. Responding T cells show impaired proliferation and IFN? production and subsequently die by apoptosis. While tolerogenic DCs are not induced via ?v?5, coligation of CR3 and ?v?5 maintains the DC's tolerogenic profile. This immunomodulatory role, however, is countered by a significant inflammatory stimulus such as bacterial infection. Overall, our data suggest that under steady-state conditions, signaling via CRs predominates to render DCs tolerogenic. PMID:16614246

  5. Reevesioside F induces potent and efficient anti-proliferative and apoptotic activities through Na+/K+-ATPase ?3 subunit-involved mitochondrial stress and amplification of caspase cascades

    PubMed Central

    Chan, She-Hung; Leu, Wohn-Jenn; Hsu, Lih-Ching; Chang, Hsun-Shuo; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Chen, Ih-Sheng; Chen, Ching-Shih; Guh, Jih-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Reevesioside F, isolated from Reevesia formosana, induced anti-proliferative activity that was highly correlated with the expression of Na+/K+-ATPase ?3 subunit in several cell lines, including human leukemia HL-60 and Jurkat cells, and some other cell lines. Knockdown of ?3 subunit significantly inhibited cell apoptosis suggesting a crucial role of the ?3 subunit. Reevesioside F induced a rapid down-regulation of survivin protein, followed by release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m). Further examination demonstrated the mitochondrial damage in leukemic cells through Mcl-1 down-regulation, Noxa up-regulation and an increase of the formation of truncated Bid, tBim and a 23-kDa cleaved Bcl-2 fragment. Furthermore, reevesioside F induced an increase of mitochondria-associated acetyl ?-tubulin that may also contribute to apoptosis. The caspase cascade was profoundly activated by reevesioside F. Notably, the specific caspase-3 inhibitor z-DEVD-fmk significantly blunted reevesioside F-induced loss of ??m and apoptosis, suggesting that caspase-3 activation may further amplify mitochondrial damage and apoptotic signaling cascade. In spite of being a cardiac glycoside, reevesioside F did not increase the intracellular Ca2+ levels. Moreover, CGP-37157 which blocked Na+/Ca2+ exchanger on plasma membrane and mitochondria did not modify reevesioside F-mediated effect. In summary, the data suggest that reevesioside F induces apoptosis through the down-regulation of survivin and Mcl-1, and the formation of pro-apoptotic fragments from Bcl-2 family members. The loss of ??m and mitochondrial damage are responsible for the activation of caspases. Moreover, the amplification of caspase-3-mediated signaling pathway contributes largely to the execution of apoptosis in leukemic cells. PMID:24099795

  6. Towards the Small and the Beautiful: A Small Dibromotyrosine Derivative from Pseudoceratina sp. Sponge Exhibits Potent Apoptotic Effect through Targeting IKK/NF?B Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jui-Hsin; Chen, Yu-Cheng; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Du, Ying-Chi; Su, Chiang-Wen; Tsao, Chia-Wei; Liu, Li-Lian; Chou, Yalan; Chang, Wen-Been; Su, Yin-Di; Chiang, Michael Y.; Yeh, Yao-Tsung; Lu, Mei-Chin

    2013-01-01

    A dibromotyrosine derivative, (1?R,5?S,6?S)-2-(3?,5?-dibromo-1?,6?-dihydroxy-4?-oxocyclohex-2?-enyl) acetonitrile (DT), was isolated from the sponge Pseudoceratina sp., and was found to exhibit a significant cytotoxic activity against leukemia K562 cells. Despite the large number of the isolated bromotyrosine derivatives, studies focusing on their biological mechanism of action are scarce. In the current study we designed a set of experiments to reveal the underlying mechanism of DT cytotoxic activity against K562 cells. First, the results of MTT cytotoxic and the annexin V-FITC/PI apoptotic assays, indicated that the DT cytotoxic activity is mediated through induction of apoptosis. This effect was also supported by caspases-3 and -9 activation as well as PARP cleavage. DT induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) as indicated by flow cytometric assay. The involvement of ROS generation in the apoptotic activity of DT was further corroborated by the pretreatment of K562 cells with N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger, which prevented apoptosis and the disruption of MMP induced by DT. Results of cell-free system assay suggested that DT can act as a topoisomerase II catalytic inhibitor, unlike the clinical anticancer drug, etoposide, which acts as a topoisomerase poison. Additionally, we found that DT treatment can block IKK/NF?B pathway and activate PI3K/Akt pathway. These findings suggest that the cytotoxic effect of DT is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction-dependent apoptosis which is mediated through oxidative stress. Therefore, DT represents an interesting reference point for the development of new cytotoxic agent targeting IKK/NF?B pathway. PMID:24065159

  7. Apoptosis resistance downstream of eIF4E: posttranscriptional activation of an anti-apoptotic transcript carrying a consensus hairpin structure

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Ola; Perlman, David M.; Fan, Danhua; Reilly, Cavan S.; Peterson, Mark; Dahlgren, Cecilia; Liang, Zicai; Li, Shunan; Polunovsky, Vitaly A.; Wahlestedt, Claes; Bitterman, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    Aberrant activation of the translation initiation machinery is a common property of malignant cells, and is essential for breast carcinoma cells to manifest a malignant phenotype. How does sustained activation of the rate limiting step in protein synthesis so fundamentally alter a cell? In this report, we test the post transcriptional operon theory as a possible mechanism, employing a model system in which apoptosis resistance is conferred on NIH 3T3 cells by ectopic expression of eIF4E. We show (i) there is a set of 255 transcripts that manifest an increase in translational efficiency during eIF4E-mediated escape from apoptosis; (ii) there is a novel prototype 55 nt RNA consensus hairpin structure that is overrepresented in the 5?-untranslated region of translationally activated transcripts; (iii) the identified consensus hairpin structure is sufficient to target a reporter mRNA for translational activation under pro-apoptotic stress, but only when eIF4E is deregulated; and (iv) that osteopontin, one of the translationally activated transcripts harboring the identified consensus hairpin structure functions as one mediator of the apoptosis resistance seen in our model. Our findings offer genome-wide insights into the mechanism of eIF4E-mediated apoptosis resistance and provide a paradigm for the systematic study of posttranscriptional control in normal biology and disease. PMID:16936314

  8. Opsonization with C1q and Mannose-Binding Lectin Targets Apoptotic Cells to Dendritic Cells1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alma J. Nauta; Giuseppe Castellano; Wei Xu; Andrea M. Woltman; Maria C. Borrias; Mohamed R. Daha; Cees van Kooten; Anja Roos

    poptotic cell death and the removal of cells dying by apoptosis is an essential process during development in the maintenance of normal tissue homeostasis and in the resolution of inflammation (reviewed in Refs. 1 and 2). A redundant system of receptors, soluble bridging molecules, and apoptotic cell surface molecules has been implicated in the recognition and removal of apoptotic cells.

  9. P53-Mediated Rapid Induction of Apoptosis Conveys Resistance to Viral Infection in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo; Behura, Susanta K.; Clem, Rollie J.; Schneemann, Anette; Becnel, James; Severson, David W.; Zhou, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Arthropod-borne pathogens account for millions of deaths each year. Understanding the genetic mechanisms controlling vector susceptibility to pathogens has profound implications for developing novel strategies for controlling insect-transmitted infectious diseases. The fact that many viruses carry genes that have anti-apoptotic activity has long led to the hypothesis that induction of apoptosis could be a fundamental innate immune response. However, the cellular mechanisms mediating the induction of apoptosis following viral infection remained enigmatic, which has prevented experimental verification of the functional significance of apoptosis in limiting viral infection in insects. In addition, studies with cultured insect cells have shown that there is sometimes a lack of apoptosis, or the pro-apoptotic response happens relatively late, thus casting doubt on the functional significance of apoptosis as an innate immunity. Using in vivo mosquito models and the native route of infection, we found that there is a rapid induction of reaper-like pro-apoptotic genes within a few hours following exposure to DNA or RNA viruses. Recapitulating a similar response in Drosophila, we found that this rapid induction of apoptosis requires the function of P53 and is mediated by a stress–responsive regulatory region upstream of reaper. More importantly, we showed that the rapid induction of apoptosis is responsible for preventing the expression of viral genes and blocking the infection. Genetic changes influencing this rapid induction of reaper-like pro-apoptotic genes led to significant differences in susceptibility to viral infection. PMID:23408884

  10. RECOGNITION AND PHAGOCYTOSIS OF APOPTOTIC T CELLS BY RESIDENT MURINE TISSUE MACROPHAGES REQUIRES MULTIPLE SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION EVENTS

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Bin; Punturieri, Antonello; Todt, Jill; Sonstein, Joanne; Polak, Timothy; Curtis, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages (Mø) ingest apoptotic cells with unique effects on their cytokine production, but the signaling pathways involved are virtually unknown. Signal transduction in response to recognition of apoptotic thymocytes by resident murine alveolar (AMø) or peritoneal (PMø) Mø was studied by in vitro phagocytosis assay. Phagocytosis was decreased in a dose-dependent and non-toxic fashion by inhibiting phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (wortmannin and LY294002), protein tyrosine phosphorylation (herbimycin A, genistein, piceatannol and, for AMø only, PP2), and protein kinase C (staurosporine, Gö 6976 and calphostin C). Exposure of Mø to apoptotic or heat-killed thymocytes, but not to viable thymocytes, rapidly activated ERK1/2, as detected by specific phosphorylation, but did not activate NF-?B or MAP kinases p38 or JNK. Mø phagocytosis of apoptotic T cells requires tyrosine, serine/threonine, and lipid phosphorylation. Mø recognition of apoptotic T cells triggers rapid but limited MAP kinase activation. PMID:11994514

  11. Secretomes of apoptotic mononuclear cells ameliorate neurological damage in rats with focal ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Altmann, Patrick; Mildner, Michael; Haider, Thomas; Traxler, Denise; Beer, Lucian; Ristl, Robin; Golabi, Bahar; Gabriel, Christian; Leutmezer, Fritz; Ankersmit, Hendrik Jan

    2014-01-01

    The pursuit of targeting multiple pathways in the ischemic cascade of cerebral stroke is a promising treatment option. We examined the regenerative potential of conditioned medium derived from rat and human apoptotic mononuclear cells (MNC), rMNC apo sec and hMNC apo sec, in experimental stroke. We performed middle cerebral artery occlusion on Wistar rats and administered apoptotic MNC-secretomes intraperitoneally in two experimental settings. Ischemic lesion volumes were determined 48 hours after cerebral ischemia. Neurological evaluations were performed after 6, 24 and 48 hours. Immunoblots were conducted to analyze neuroprotective signal-transduction in human primary glia cells and neurons. Neuronal sprouting assays were performed and neurotrophic factors in both hMNC apo sec and rat plasma were quantified using ELISA. Administration of rat as well as human apoptotic MNC-secretomes significantly reduced ischemic lesion volumes by 36% and 37%, respectively. Neurological examinations revealed improvement after stroke in both treatment groups. Co-incubation of human astrocytes, Schwann cells and neurons with hMNC apo sec resulted in activation of several signaling cascades associated with the regulation of cytoprotective gene products and enhanced neuronal sprouting in vitro. Analysis of neurotrophic factors in hMNC apo sec and rat plasma revealed high levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Our data indicate that apoptotic MNC-secretomes elicit neuroprotective effects on rats that have undergone ischemic stroke. PMID:25383184

  12. Pro-apoptotic cell death genes, hid and reaper, from the tephritid pest species, Anastrepha suspensa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pro-apoptotic proteins from the reaper, hid, grim (RHG) family are primary regulators of programmed cell death in Drosophila due to their antagonistic effect on inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins, thereby releasing IAP inhibition of caspases that effect apoptosis. Using a degenerate PCR approach ...

  13. Synergistic anti-apoptotic activity between Bcl2 and SMN implicated in spinal muscular atrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiromi Iwahashi; Yutaka Eguchi; Noriko Yasuhara; Toshiaki Hanafusa; Yuji Matsuzawa; Yoshihide Tsujimoto

    1997-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a motor neuron disease characterized by degeneration of the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord. It is a common fatal autosomal recessive disorder and linkage studies have identified two candidate genes, SMN (ref. 1) and NAIP (ref. 2), both on chromosome 5q13. Although NAIP protein is known to have an anti-apoptotic function, the function

  14. Intravenous apoptotic spleen cell infusion induces a TGF-beta-dependent regulatory T cell expansion

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Intravenous apoptotic spleen cell infusion induces a TGF-beta-dependent regulatory T cell 17; E-mail: philippe.saas@efs.sante.fr Running title: Apoptosis and regulatory T cells Categories: (6, published in "Cell Death and Differentiation 2006;13(1):41-52" DOI : 10.1038/sj.cdd.4401699 #12;2 Abstract

  15. Carbon black and titanium dioxide nanoparticles elicit distinct apoptotic pathways in bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Increasing environmental and occupational exposures to nanoparticles (NPs) warrant deeper insight into the toxicological mechanisms induced by these materials. The present study was designed to characterize the cell death induced by carbon black (CB) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs in bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o- cell line and primary cells) and to investigate the implicated molecular pathways. Results Detailed time course studies revealed that both CB (13 nm) and TiO2(15 nm) NP exposed cells exhibit typical morphological (decreased cell size, membrane blebbing, peripheral chromatin condensation, apoptotic body formation) and biochemical (caspase activation and DNA fragmentation) features of apoptotic cell death. A decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of Bax and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria were only observed in case of CB NPs whereas lipid peroxidation, lysosomal membrane destabilization and cathepsin B release were observed during the apoptotic process induced by TiO2 NPs. Furthermore, ROS production was observed after exposure to CB and TiO2 but hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production was only involved in apoptosis induction by CB NPs. Conclusions Both CB and TiO2 NPs induce apoptotic cell death in bronchial epithelial cells. CB NPs induce apoptosis by a ROS dependent mitochondrial pathway whereas TiO2 NPs induce cell death through lysosomal membrane destabilization and lipid peroxidation. Although the final outcome is similar (apoptosis), the molecular pathways activated by NPs differ depending upon the chemical nature of the NPs. PMID:20398356

  16. Protective effect of testosterone on early apoptotic damage induced by streptozotocin in rat pancreas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Morimoto; C A Mendoza-Rodríguez; M Hiriart; M E Larrieta; P Vital; Facultad de Química

    2005-01-01

    Beta-cell apoptosis is responsible for the development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the streptozotocin (STZ) rat model. It has been demonstrated that steroid hormones possess antioxidant and protective antiapoptotic effects in many tissues. The aim of the present study was to investigate the early apoptotic damage induced by STZ in rat pancreas, and the effect of testosterone in preventing apoptosis

  17. APOPTOTIC FREQUENCY IS INCREASED IN SPERMATOGENIC MATURATION ARREST AND HYPOSPERMATOGENIC STATES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William W. Lin; Dolores J. Lamb; Thomas M. Wheeler; Jacki Abrams; Larry I. Lipshultz; Edward D. Kim

    1997-01-01

    PurposeIncreased testicular apoptosis has been observed in maturation arrest and hypospermatogenesis states in rodent models, but this process has not yet been characterized in humans. We hypothesized that increased cell death present with accelerated apoptosis is significant in pathophysiology of many male infertility states associated with abnormal spermatogenesis. We examined frequency of apoptotic bodies in human testis biopsy specimens from

  18. Induction of Apoptotic Cell Death by Methylglyoxal and 3-Deoxyglucosone in Macrophage-Derived Cell Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayako Okado; Yoshimi Kawasaki; Yukiko Hasuike; Motoko Takahashi; Tadashi Teshima; Junichi Fujii; Naoyuki Taniguchi

    1996-01-01

    Production of 2-oxoaldehyde compounds increases during hyperglycemic conditions and is cytotoxic to susceptible cells. We have investigated the effects of methylglyoxal and 3-deoxyglucosone at physiological concentrations on monocytic leukemia U937 cells and other cell lines. Both ladder formation of DNA and nuclear fragmentation were observed in the cells treated with these agents, indicating that apoptotic cell death was induced. The

  19. The traditional Chinese medicine Cordyceps sinensis and its effects on apoptotic homeostasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Buenz; B. A. Bauer; T. W. Osmundson; T. J. Motley

    2005-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis is a medicinal fungus of Traditional Chinese Medicine. While there are a wide range of reported uses of Cordyceps sinensis in the literature, the reports that extracts of this fungus may alter apoptotic homeostasis are most intriguing. However, there are significant challenges regarding research surrounding Cordyceps sinensis, such as the difficulty identifying the various species of Cordyceps and

  20. Apoptotic Protease Activating Factor 1 (Apaf1)-independent Cell Death Suppression by Bcl2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Misako Haraguchi; Seiji Torii; Shu-ichi Matsuzawa; Zhihua Xie; Shinichi Kitada; Stanislaw Krajewski; Hiroki Yoshida; Tak W. Mak; John C. Reed

    Reportedly, antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins suppress apoptosis by binding to and inhibit- ing members of the CED-4 family of caspase activators. To explore this question, we used embryonic stem (ES) cells in which one ( 2 \\/ 1 ) or both ( 2 \\/ 2 ) copies of the gene encoding apoptotic protease activating factor 1 (Apaf-1), a CED-4 homologue,

  1. The Core Apoptotic Executioner Proteins CED-3 and CED-4 Promote Initiation of Neuronal Regeneration in

    E-print Network

    regeneration, but the upstream regulators of apoptosis CED-9/Bcl2 and BH3-domain proteins EGL-1 and CED-13The Core Apoptotic Executioner Proteins CED-3 and CED- 4 Promote Initiation of Neuronal reconnection of the two dissociated ends is delayed. The CED-3 activator, CED-4/Apaf-1, similarly promotes

  2. Vessel-associated myogenic precursors control macrophage activation and clearance of apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Bosurgi, L; Brunelli, S; Rigamonti, E; Monno, A; Manfredi, A A; Rovere-Querini, P

    2015-01-01

    Swift and regulated clearance of apoptotic cells prevents the accumulation of cell remnants in injured tissues and contributes to the shift of macrophages towards alternatively activated reparatory cells that sustain wound healing. Environmental signals, most of which are unknown, in turn control the efficiency of the clearance of apoptotic cells and as such determine whether tissues eventually heal. In this study we show that vessel-associated stem cells (mesoangioblasts) specifically modulate the expression of genes involved in the clearance of apoptotic cells and in macrophage alternative activation, including those of scavenger receptors and of molecules that bridge dying cells and phagocytes. Mesoangioblasts, but not immortalized myoblasts or neural precursor cells, enhance CD163 membrane expression in vitro as assessed by flow cytometry, indicating that the effect is specific. Mesoangioblasts transplanted in acutely or chronically injured skeletal muscles determine the expansion of the population of CD163(+) infiltrating macrophages and increase the extent of CD163 expression. Conversely, macrophages challenged with mesoangioblasts engulf significantly better apoptotic cells in vitro. Collectively, the data reveal a feed-forward loop between macrophages and vessel-associated stem cells, which has implications for the skeletal muscle homeostatic response to sterile injury and for diseases in which homeostasis is jeopardized, including muscle dystrophies and inflammatory myopathies. PMID:24749786

  3. Antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of Uncaria tomentosa in human medullary thyroid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Rinner, Beate; Li, Zeng Xia; Haas, Helga; Siegl, Veronika; Sturm, Sonja; Stuppner, Hermann; Pfragner, Roswitha

    2009-11-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), a rare calcitonin-producing tumor, is derived from parafollicular C-cells of the thyroid and is characterized by constitutive Bcl-2 overexpression. The tumor is relatively insensitive to radiation therapy as well as conventional chemotherapy. To date, the only curative treatment is the early and complete surgical removal of all neoplastic tissue. In this study, the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of fractions obtained from Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC, commonly known as uña de gato or cat's claw were investigated. Cell growth of MTC cells as well as enzymatic activity of mitochondrial dehydrogenase was markedly inhibited after treatment with different fractions of the plant. Furthermore, there was an increase in the expressions of caspase-3 and -7 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) fraction, while bcl-2 overexpression remained constant. In particular, the alkaloids isopterpodine and pteropodine of U. tomentosa exhibited a significant pro-apoptotic effect on MTC cells, whereas the alkaloid-poor fraction inhibited cell proliferation but did not show any pro-apoptotic effects. These promising results indicate the growth-restraining and apoptotic potential of plant extracts against neuroendocrine tumors, which may add to existing therapies for cancer. PMID:20032400

  4. From Embryo to Adult: Persistent Neurogenesis and Apoptotic Cell Death Shape the Lobster Deutocerebrum

    E-print Network

    Beltz, Barbara S.

    From Embryo to Adult: Persistent Neurogenesis and Apoptotic Cell Death Shape the Lobster of the American lobster Homarus americanus from early embryonic through larval and juvenile stages into adult life indicate that, in juvenile and adult lobsters, birth and death of olfactory interneurons occur in parallel

  5. Insulin-like growth factor I retards apoptotic signaling induced by ethanol in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, D B; Wang, L; Wang, P H

    2000-08-25

    Apoptosis of cardiac muscle cells may contribute to the development of cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Alcohol (ethanol) abuse is a major cause of cardiomyopathy, but its underlying mechanism remains unknown. To determine whether ethanol causes apoptosis in cardiac muscle and whether insulin-like growth factor I (IGF 1) improves cardiac muscle survival upon ethanol exposure, we have defined the effects of ethanol and IGF I in primary cardiomyocytes. Ethanol decreased cell viability in dose-response manner from 0.2% to 1%. In contrast, ethanol (0.2-1%) did not alter viability of cardiac fibroblasts. To assess the occurrence of apoptosis, DNA fragmentation was determined with quantitation of nucleosomes. Nucleosomes were increased in ethanol-treated cells, thus confirming the apoptotic effects of ethanol. The pro-apoptotic Bax protein and Caspase 3 are important proteins of apoptotic signaling. The content of Bax and the activities of Caspase 3 were increased upon ethanol exposure. IGF I partially suppressed Bax induction, Caspase 3 activation, DNA fragmentation, and increased cardiomyocyte survival. The effects of IGF I on ethanol-induced apoptosis can be inhibited with a chemical inhibitor of PI 3 Kinase (LY-294002), suggesting that anti-apoptotic actions of IGF I involves PI 3 Kinase. These results may have important implications on further understanding the pathogenesis of alcoholic heart disease and the development of new strategies to treat alcoholic cardiomyopathy. PMID:11021353

  6. Phosphatidylserine receptor BAI1 and apoptotic cells as new promoters of myoblast fusion

    PubMed Central

    Hochreiter-Hufford, Amelia E.; Lee, Chang Sup; Kinchen, Jason M.; Sokolowski, Jennifer D.; Arandjelovic, Sanja; Call, Jarrod A.; Klibanov, Alexander L.; Yan, Zhen; Mandell, James W.; Ravichandran, Kodi S.

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle arises from the fusion of precursor myoblasts into multinucleated myofibers1,2. While conserved transcription factors and signaling proteins involved in myogenesis have been identified, upstream regulators are less well understood. Here, we report an unexpected discovery that the membrane protein BAI1, previously linked to recognition of apoptotic cells by phagocytes3, promotes myoblast fusion. Endogenous BAI1 expression increased during myoblast fusion, and BAI1 overexpression enhanced myoblast fusion via signaling through ELMO/Dock180/Rac1 proteins4. During myoblast fusion, a fraction of myoblasts underwent apoptosis and exposed phosphatidylserine (PtdSer), an established ligand for BAI13. Blocking apoptosis potently impaired myoblast fusion, and adding back apoptotic myoblasts restored fusion. Furthermore, primary human myoblasts could be induced to form myotubes by adding apoptotic myoblasts, even under normal growth conditions. In vivo, myofibers from Bai1?/? mice are smaller than wild-type littermates. Muscle regeneration after injury was also impaired in Bai1?/? mice, highlighting a role for BAI1 in mammalian myogenesis. Collectively, these data identify signaling via the phosphatidylserine receptor BAI1 and apoptotic cells as novel promoters of myoblast fusion, with significant implications for muscle development and repair. PMID:23615608

  7. Anti-inflammatory response following uptake of apoptotic bodies by meningothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Meningothelial cells (MECs) are the cellular components of the meninges. As such, they provide important barrier function for the central nervous system (CNS) building the interface between neuronal tissue and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and are also part of the immune response of the CNS. Methods Human, immortalized MECs were analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy to study the uptake of apoptotic cells. Furthermore, cytokine and chemokine production by MECs was analyzed by cytokine array and ELISA. Results We found that MECs are highly active phagocytes able of ingesting and digesting large amounts of apoptotic cells. Furthermore, the uptake of apoptotic cells by MECs was immune suppressive via inhibiting the secretion of pro-inflammatory and chemoattractant cytokines and chemokines IL-6, IL-8, IL-16, MIF, and CXCL1, while increasing the secretion of anti-inflammatory IL-1 receptor antagonist by MECs. Conclusion MECs respond with the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines following the uptake of apoptotic cells potentially connecting these cells to processes important for the shut-down of immune responses in the brain. PMID:24565420

  8. APOPTOSIS IN DROSOPHILA Regulation of Drosophila melanogaster pro-apoptotic gene hid

    E-print Network

    Su, Tin Tin

    APOPTOSIS IN DROSOPHILA Regulation of Drosophila melanogaster pro-apoptotic gene hid Amber Bilak Æ of cell death in Drosophila. Here, we review the various levels of control that exist to regulate Hid according to the life-or-death choice of a cell. Keywords Drosophila Á Apoptosis Á hid Drosophila Hid

  9. Cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of novel amino analogues of boswellic acids.

    PubMed

    Shah, Bhahwal A; Kumar, Ajay; Gupta, Pankaj; Sharma, Madhunika; Sethi, Vijay K; Saxena, Ajit K; Singh, Jaswant; Qazi, Ghulam N; Taneja, Subhash C

    2007-12-01

    4-Amino analogues prepared from beta-boswellic acid and 11-keto-beta-boswellic acid, wherein the carboxyl group in ursane nucleus was replaced by an amino function via Curtius reaction, displayed improved cytotoxicity than the parent molecules. The same molecules also exhibited apoptotic activity by inducing DNA fragmentation. PMID:17950603

  10. The Effects of NAD+ on Apoptotic Neuronal Death and Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Function after Glutamate Excitotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaowan; Li, Hailong; Ding, Shinghua

    2014-01-01

    NAD+ is an essential co-enzyme for cellular energy metabolism and is also involved as a substrate for many cellular enzymatic reactions. It has been shown that NAD+ has a beneficial effect on neuronal survival and brain injury in in vitro and in vivo ischemic models. However, the effect of NAD+ on mitochondrial biogenesis and function in ischemia has not been well investigated. In the present study, we used an in vitro glutamate excitotoxicity model of primary cultured cortical neurons to study the effect of NAD+ on apoptotic neuronal death and mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Our results show that supplementation of NAD+ could effectively reduce apoptotic neuronal death, and apoptotic inducing factor translocation after neurons were challenged with excitotoxic glutamate stimulation. Using different approaches including confocal imaging, mitochondrial DNA measurement and Western blot analysis of PGC-1 and NRF-1, we also found that NAD+ could significantly attenuate glutamate-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and the impairment of mitochondrial biogenesis. Furthermore, NAD+ treatment effectively inhibited mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization and NADH redistribution after excitotoxic glutamate stimulation. Taken together, our results demonstrated that NAD+ is capable of inhibiting apoptotic neuronal death after glutamate excitotoxicity via preserving mitochondrial biogenesis and integrity. Our findings provide insights into potential neuroprotective strategies in ischemic stroke. PMID:25387075

  11. Nuclear Receptors and Clearance of Apoptotic Cells: Stimulating the Macrophage’s Appetite

    PubMed Central

    A-Gonzalez, Noelia; Hidalgo, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages occurs as a coordinated process to ensure tissue homeostasis. Macrophages play a dual role in this process; first, a rapid and efficient phagocytosis of the dying cells is needed to eliminate uncleared corpses that can promote inflammation. Second, after engulfment, macrophages exhibit an anti-inflammatory phenotype, to avoid unwanted immune reactions against cell components. Several nuclear receptors, including liver X receptor and proliferator-activated receptor, have been linked to these two important features of macrophages during apoptotic cell clearance. This review outlines the emerging implications of nuclear receptors in the response of macrophages to cell clearance. These include activation of genes implicated in metabolism, to process the additional cellular content provided by the engulfed cells, as well as inflammatory genes, to maintain apoptotic cell clearance as an “immunologically silent” process. Remarkably, genes encoding receptors for the so-called “eat-me” signals are also regulated by activated nuclear receptors after phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, thus enhancing the efficiency of macrophages to clear dead cells. PMID:24860573

  12. High mobility group protein B1 is an activator of apoptotic response to antimetabolite drugs

    E-print Network

    Obradovic, Zoran

    provides new insights into the determinants of drug sensitivity in cancer cells. INTRODUCTION HMGB1-PAAuthorManuscriptNIH-PAAuthorManuscriptNIH-PAAuthorManuscript #12;Induction of apoptotic death in cancer cells via genotoxic stress by irradiation or chemotherapy­10 times more resistant to these drugs compared with Hmgb1+/+ MEFs. Hmgb1-deficient cells showed

  13. Significance of apoptotic cell death in systemic complications with severe acute pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshifumi Takeyama

    2005-01-01

    In severe acute pancreatitis, multiple organ failure in the early stage after onset, and sepsis in the late stage, due to infection of pancreatic or peripancreatic devitalized tissue, contribute to its high mortality. In analogy with sepsis, evidence has accumulated of the significance of apoptotic cell death in the systemic manifestations associated with acute pancreatitis. Since we identified apoptosis-inducing activity

  14. Induction of apoptosis by nitric oxide in macrophages is independent of apoptotic volume decreas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Hortelano; M Zeini; A Castrillo; A M Alvarez; L Boscá

    2002-01-01

    Apoptosis occurs through a sequence of specific biochemical and morphological alterations that define the progress of cell death. The changes of the mitochondrial inner membrane potential (??m), the release of cytochrome c to the cytosol, the apoptotic volume decrease (AVD) and the activation of caspases have been measured in RAW 264.7, HeLa and Jurkat T cells incubated with molecules that

  15. Photoluminescent graphene quantum dots for in vivo imaging of apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Roy, Prathik; Periasamy, Arun Prakash; Lin, Chiu-Ya; Her, Guor-Mour; Chiu, Wei-Jane; Li, Chi-Lin; Shu, Chia-Lun; Huang, Chih-Ching; Liang, Chi-Te; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2015-01-28

    Apoptosis (programmed cell death) is linked to many incurable neurodegenerative, cardiovascular and cancer causing diseases. Numerous methods have been developed for imaging apoptotic cells in vitro; however, there are few methods available for imaging apoptotic cells in live animals (in vivo). Here we report a novel method utilizing the unique photoluminescence properties of plant leaf-derived graphene quantum dots (GQDs) modified with annexin V antibody (AbA5) to form (AbA5)-modified GQDs (AbA5-GQDs) enabling us to label apoptotic cells in live zebrafish (Danio rerio). The key is that zebrafish shows bright red photoluminescence in the presence of apoptotic cells. The toxicity of the GQDs has also been investigated with the GQDs exhibiting high biocompatibility as they were excreted from the zebrafish's body without affecting its growth significantly at a concentration lower than 2 mg mL(-1) over a period of 4 to 72 hour post fertilization. The GQDs have further been used to image human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7 cells), human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa cells), and normal human mammary epithelial cell line (MCF-10A). These results are indispensable to further the advance of graphene-based nanomaterials for biomedical applications. PMID:25569453

  16. p53 death signal is mainly mediated by Nuc1(EndoG) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Vanessa; Mangiapelo, Eleonora; Piloto, Cristina; Pieri, Luisa; Muscolini, Michela; Tuosto, Loretta; Mazzoni, Cristina

    2013-11-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 plays a central role in the regulation