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1

ARC protects rat cardiomyocytes against oxidative stress through inhibition of caspase-2 mediated mitochondrial pathway.  

PubMed

Apoptosis repressor with a CARD domain (ARC) has been demonstrated to protect heart cells against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which ARC protects heart cells against oxidative stress. We monitored the extent of apoptosis and activity of multiple components of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in rat cardiac myoblast cell line H9c2 with either reduced or increased expression of ARC during oxidative stress. Overexpression of ARC-inhibited oxidative stress-induced caspase-2/3 activation, cytochrome c release, and translocation of Bax to mitochondria. Furthermore, phosphorylation of ARC at threonine 149 was found to be critical to its function. ARC containing a T149A mutation failed to translocate to mitochondria, did not inhibit caspase-2 activation, and had a dominant negative effect against the protective effect of endogenous ARC during oxidative stress. In addition, wild-type ARC but not the T149A mutant inhibited cell death induced by overexpression of caspase-2. Using a yeast two-hybrid (YTH) screening approach and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP), we found that protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) interacted with ARC and that PP2C mediated-dephosphorylation of ARC inhibited its anti-apoptotic activity. Eliminating either the N-terminal CARD domain or the C-terminal P/E domain also abolished the anti-apoptotic function of ARC, suggesting that full-length ARC is required for its apoptotic inhibition. These results indicate that ARC plays an important role in protection of H9c2 cells against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by phosphorylation-dependent suppression of the mitochondria-mediated intrinsic pathway, partially initiated through the activation of caspase-2. PMID:16639714

Zhang, Yi-Qiang; Herman, Brian

2006-10-01

2

Caspase2 Cleavage of BID Is a Critical Apoptotic Signal Downstream of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of misfolded proteins stresses the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and triggers cell death through activation of the multidomain proapoptotic BCL-2 proteins BAX and BAK at the outer mitochondrial membrane. The signaling events that connect ER stress with the mitochondrial apoptotic machinery remain unclear, despite evidence that deregulation of this pathway contributes to cell loss in many human degenerative diseases.

John-Paul Upton; Kathryn Austgen; Mari Nishino; Kristen M. Coakley; Andrew Hagen; Dan Han; Feroz R. Papa; Scott A. Oakes

2008-01-01

3

Caspase-2 mediates a Brucella abortus RB51-induced hybrid cell death having features of apoptosis and pyroptosis  

PubMed Central

Programmed cell death (PCD) can play a crucial role in tuning the immune response to microbial infection. Although PCD can occur in different forms, all are mediated by a family of proteases called caspases. Caspase-2 is the most conserved caspase, however, its function in cell death is ill-defined. Previously we demonstrated that live attenuated cattle vaccine strain Brucella abortus RB51 induces caspase-2-mediated and caspase-1-independent PCD of infected macrophages. We also discovered that rough attenuated B. suis strain VTRS1 induces a caspase-2-mediated and caspase-1-independent proinflammatory cell death in infected macrophages, which was tentatively coined “caspase-2-mediated pyroptosis”. However, the mechanism of caspase-2-mediated cell death pathway remained unclear. In this study, we found that caspase-2 mediated proinflammatory cell death of RB51-infected macrophages and regulated many genes in different PCD pathways. We show that the activation of proapoptotic caspases-3 and -8 was dependent upon caspase-2. Caspase-2 regulated mitochondrial cytochrome c release and TNF? production, both of which are known to activate caspase-3 and caspase-8, respectively. In addition to TNF?, RB51-induced caspase-1 and IL-1? production was also driven by caspase-2-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Interestingly, pore formation, a phenomenon commonly associated with caspase-1-mediated pyroptosis, occurred; however, unlike its role in S. typhimurium-induced pyroptosis, pore formation did not contribute to RB51-induced proinflammatory cell death. Our data suggest that caspase-2 acts as an initiator caspase that mediates a novel RB51-induced hybrid cell death that simulates but differs from typical non-proinflammatory apoptosis and caspase-1-mediated proinflammatory pyroptosis. The initiator role of the caspase-2-mediated cell death was also conserved in cellular stress-induced cell death of macrophages treated with etoposide, naphthalene, or anti-Fas. Caspase-2 also regulated caspase-3 and -8 activation, as well as cell death in macrophages treated with each of the three reagents. Taken together, our data has demonstrated that caspase-2 can play an important role in mediating a proinflammatory response and a hybrid cell death that demonstrates features of both apoptosis and pyroptosis. PMID:24350060

Bronner, Denise N.; O'Riordan, Mary X. D.; He, Yongqun

2013-01-01

4

Attenuation of the ELAV1-like protein HuR sensitizes adenocarcinoma cells to the intrinsic apoptotic pathway by increasing the translation of caspase-2L  

PubMed Central

Caspase-2 represents the most conserved member of the caspase family, which exhibits features of both initiator and effector caspases. Using ribonucleoprotein (RNP)-immunoprecipitation assay, we identified the proapoptotic caspase-2L encoding mRNA as a novel target of the ubiquitous RNA-binding protein HuR in DLD-1 colon carcinoma cells. Unexpectedly, crosslinking-RNP and RNA probe pull-down experiments revealed that HuR binds exclusively to the caspase-2-5? untranslated region (UTR) despite that the 3? UTR of the mRNA bears several adenylate- and uridylate-rich elements representing the prototypical HuR binding sites. By using RNAi-mediated loss-of-function approach, we observed that HuR regulates the mRNA and in turn the protein levels of caspase-2 in a negative manner. Silencing of HuR did not affect the stability of caspase-2 mRNA but resulted in an increased redistribution of caspase-2 transcripts from RNP particles to translational active polysomes implicating that HuR exerts a direct repressive effect on caspase-2 translation. Consistently, in vitro translation of a luciferase reporter gene under the control of an upstream caspase-2-5?UTR was strongly impaired after the addition of recombinant HuR, whereas translation of caspase-2 coding region without the 5?UTR is not affected by HuR confirming the functional role of the caspase-2-5?UTR. Functionally, an elevation in caspase-2 level by HuR knockdown correlated with an increased sensitivity of cells to apoptosis induced by staurosporine- and pore-forming toxins as implicated by their significant accumulation in the sub G1 phase and an increase in caspase-2, -3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage, respectively. Importantly, HuR knockdown cells remained insensitive toward STS-induced apoptosis if cells were additionally transfected with caspase-2-specific siRNAs. Collectively, our findings support the hypothesis that HuR by acting as an endogenous inhibitor of caspase-2-driven apoptosis may essentially contribute to the antiapoptotic program of adenocarcinoma cells by HuR. PMID:25010987

Winkler, C; Doller, A; Imre, G; Badawi, A; Schmid, T; Schulz, S; Steinmeyer, N; Pfeilschifter, J; Rajalingam, K; Eberhardt, W

2014-01-01

5

TNF receptors regulate vascular homeostasis in zebrafish through a caspase-8, caspase-2 and P53 apoptotic program that bypasses caspase-3  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Although it is known that tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) signaling plays a crucial role in vascular integrity and homeostasis, the contribution of each receptor to these processes and the signaling pathway involved are still largely unknown. Here, we show that targeted gene knockdown of TNFRSF1B in zebrafish embryos results in the induction of a caspase-8, caspase-2 and P53-dependent apoptotic program in endothelial cells that bypasses caspase-3. Furthermore, the simultaneous depletion of TNFRSF1A or the activation of NF-?B rescue endothelial cell apoptosis, indicating that a signaling balance between both TNFRs is required for endothelial cell integrity. In endothelial cells, TNFRSF1A signals apoptosis through caspase-8, whereas TNFRSF1B signals survival via NF-?B. Similarly, TNF? promotes the apoptosis of human endothelial cells through TNFRSF1A and triggers caspase-2 and P53 activation. We have identified an evolutionarily conserved apoptotic pathway involved in vascular homeostasis that provides new therapeutic targets for the control of inflammation- and tumor-driven angiogenesis. PMID:22956347

Espín, Raquel; Roca, Francisco J.; Candel, Sergio; Sepulcre, María P.; González-Rosa, Juan M.; Alcaraz-Pérez, Francisca; Meseguer, José; Cayuela, María L.; Mercader, Nadia; Mulero, Victoriano

2013-01-01

6

Additive effects of nicotine and high-fat diet on hepatocellular apoptosis in mice: involvement of caspase 2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase-mediated intrinsic pathway signaling.  

PubMed

Smoking is a major risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease and may contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The health risk associated with smoking is exaggerated by obesity and is the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We recently demonstrated that combined treatment with nicotine and a high-fat diet (HFD) triggers greater oxidative stress, activates hepatocellular apoptosis, and exacerbates HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Given that hepatocellular apoptosis plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD, using this model of exacerbated hepatic steatosis, we elucidated the signal transduction pathways involved in HFD plus nicotine-induced liver cell death. Adult C57BL6 male mice were fed a normal chow diet or HFD with 60% of calories derived from fat and received twice daily IP injections of 0.75?mg/kg BW of nicotine or saline for 10 weeks. High-resolution light microscopy revealed markedly higher lipid accumulation in hepatocytes from mice received HFD plus nicotine, compared to mice on HFD alone. Addition of nicotine to HFD further resulted in an increase in the incidence of hepatocellular apoptosis and was associated with activation of caspase 2, induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and perturbation of the BAX/BCL-2 ratio. Together, our data indicate the involvement of caspase 2 and iNOS-mediated apoptotic signaling in nicotine plus HFD-induced hepatocellular apoptosis. Targeting the caspase 2-mediated death pathway may have a protective role in development and progression of NAFLD. PMID:24830635

Ivey, R; Desai, M; Green, K; Sinha-Hikim, I; Friedman, T C; Sinha-Hikim, A P

2014-07-01

7

Coenzyme Q10 rescues ethanol-induced corneal fibroblast apoptosis through the inhibition of caspase-2 activation.  

PubMed

Recent studies indicate that caspase-2 is involved in the early stages of apoptosis, particularly before the occurrence of mitochondrial damage. Here we report the important role of the coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on the activity of caspase-2 upstream of mitochondria in ethanol (EtOH)-treated corneal fibroblasts. After EtOH exposure, cells produce excessive reactive oxygen species formation, p53 expression, and most importantly, caspase-2 activation. After the activation of the caspase-2, the cells exhibited hallmarks of apoptotic pathway, such as mitochondrial damage and translocation of Bax and cytochrome c, which were then followed by caspase-3 activation. By pretreating the cells with a cell-permeable, biotinylated pan-caspase inhibitor, we identified caspase-2 as an initiator caspase in EtOH-treated corneal fibroblasts. Loss of caspase-2 inhibited EtOH-induced apoptosis. We further found that caspase-2 acts upstream of mitochondria to mediate EtOH-induced apoptosis. The loss of caspase-2 significantly inhibited EtOH-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, Bax translocation, and cytochrome c release from mitochondria. The pretreatment of CoQ10 prevented EtOH-induced caspase-2 activation and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Our data demonstrated that by blocking caspase-2 activity, CoQ10 can protect the cells from mitochondrial membrane change, apoptotic protein translocation, and apoptosis. Taken together, EtOH-induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis is initiated by caspase-2 activation, which is regulated by CoQ10. PMID:23430247

Chen, Chun-Chen; Liou, Shiow-Wen; Chen, Chi-Chih; Chen, Wen-Chung; Hu, Fung-Rong; Wang, I-Jong; Lin, Shing-Jong

2013-04-26

8

Caspase-2: Vestigial Remnant or Master Regulator?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Caspase-2, the second mammalian caspase to be identified and the most evolutionarily conserved caspase, has eluded classification. The lack of a profound phenotype in the caspase-2–deficient mouse resulted in decreased interest in caspase-2 for many years. However, advances in the field, including the identification of a potential activation complex and the development of methods to detect active caspase-2, now illuminate our understanding of the function of this caspase. These studies suggest that caspase-2 induces death through two pathways. First, caspase-2 induces cell death independently of the mitochondrial pathway, in a manner similar to that of ced-3, a caspase in Caenorhabditis elegans. Second, caspase-2 also induces cell death upstream of the mitochondrial pathway. The choice of pathway may depend on the type of death stimulus. The placing of caspase-2 upstream and independent of mitochondrial dysfunction provides a potentially new therapeutic target for aberrant cell death.

Carol M. Troy (Departments of Pathology and Neurology;Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons REV); Elena M. Ribe (Departments of Pathology and Neurology;Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons REV)

2008-09-23

9

A nonapoptotic role for CASP2/caspase 2: modulation of autophagy.  

PubMed

CASP2/caspase 2 plays a role in aging, neurodegeneration, and cancer. The contributions of CASP2 have been attributed to its regulatory role in apoptotic and nonapoptotic processes including the cell cycle, DNA repair, lipid biosynthesis, and regulation of oxidant levels in the cells. Previously, our lab demonstrated CASP2-mediated modulation of autophagy during oxidative stress. Here we report the novel finding that CASP2 is an endogenous repressor of autophagy. Knockout or knockdown of CASP2 resulted in upregulation of autophagy in a variety of cell types and tissues. Reinsertion of Caspase-2 gene (Casp2) in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEFs) lacking Casp2 (casp2(-/-)) suppresses autophagy, suggesting its role as a negative regulator of autophagy. Loss of CASP2-mediated autophagy involved AMP-activated protein kinase, mechanistic target of rapamycin, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and autophagy-related proteins, indicating the involvement of the canonical pathway of autophagy. The present study also demonstrates an important role for loss of CASP2-induced enhanced reactive oxygen species production as an upstream event in autophagy induction. Additionally, in response to a variety of stressors that induce CASP2-mediated apoptosis, casp2(-/-) cells demonstrate a further upregulation of autophagy compared with wild-type MEFs, and upregulated autophagy provides a survival advantage. In conclusion, we document a novel role for CASP2 as a negative regulator of autophagy, which may provide important insight into the role of CASP2 in various processes including aging, neurodegeneration, and cancer. PMID:24879153

Tiwari, Meenakshi; Sharma, Lokendra K; Vanegas, Difernando; Callaway, Danielle A; Bai, Yidong; Lechleiter, James D; Herman, Brian

2014-06-01

10

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Mediated Activation of p38 MAPK, Caspase-2 and Caspase-8 Leads to Abrin-Induced Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Abrin from Abrus precatorius plant is a potent protein synthesis inhibitor and induces apoptosis in cells. However, the relationship between inhibition of protein synthesis and apoptosis is not well understood. Inhibition of protein synthesis by abrin can lead to accumulation of unfolded protein in the endoplasmic reticulum causing ER stress. The observation of phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2? and upregulation of CHOP (CAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein), important players involved in ER stress signaling by abrin, suggested activation of ER stress in the cells. ER stress is also known to induce apoptosis via stress kinases such as p38 MAPK and JNK. Activation of both the pathways was observed upon abrin treatment and found to be upstream of the activation of caspases. Moreover, abrin-induced apoptosis was found to be dependent on p38 MAPK but not JNK. We also observed that abrin induced the activation of caspase-2 and caspase-8 and triggered Bid cleavage leading to mitochondrial membrane potential loss and thus connecting the signaling events from ER stress to mitochondrial death machinery. PMID:24664279

Mishra, Ritu; Karande, Anjali A.

2014-01-01

11

Arl8/ARL-8 functions in apoptotic cell removal by mediating phagolysosome formation in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Efficient clearance of apoptotic cells by phagocytes is important for development, tissue homeostasis, and the prevention of autoimmune responses. Phagosomes containing apoptotic cells undergo acidification and mature from Rab5-positive early to Rab7-positive late stages. Phagosomes finally fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes, which degrade apoptotic cells; however, the molecular mechanism underlying phagosome–lysosome fusion is not fully understood. Here we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans Arf-like small GTPase Arl8 (ARL-8) is involved in phagolysosome formation and is required for the efficient removal of apoptotic cells. Loss of function of arl-8 results in the accumulation of apoptotic germ cells. Both the engulfment of the apoptotic cells by surrounding somatic sheath cells and the phagosomal maturation from RAB-5- to RAB-7-positive stages occur in arl-8 mutants. However, the phagosomes fail to fuse with lysosomes in the arl-8 mutants, leading to the accumulation of RAB-7-positive phagosomes and the delayed degradation of apoptotic cells. ARL-8 localizes primarily to lysosomes and physically interacts with the homotypic fusion and protein sorting complex component VPS-41. Collectively our findings reveal that ARL-8 facilitates apoptotic cell removal in vivo by mediating phagosome–lysosome fusion during phagocytosis. PMID:23485564

Sasaki, Ayaka; Nakae, Isei; Nagasawa, Maya; Hashimoto, Keisuke; Abe, Fumiko; Saito, Kota; Fukuyama, Masamitsu; Gengyo-Ando, Keiko; Mitani, Shohei; Katada, Toshiaki; Kontani, Kenji

2013-01-01

12

Defects in regulation of apoptosis in caspase-2-deficient?mice  

PubMed Central

During embryonic development, a large number of cells die naturally to shape the new organism. Members of the caspase family of proteases are essential intracellular death effectors. Herein, we generated caspase-2-deficient mice to evaluate the requirement for this enzyme in various paradigms of apoptosis. Excess numbers of germ cells were endowed in ovaries of mutant mice and the oocytes were found to be resistant to cell death following exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs. Apoptosis mediated by granzyme B and perforin was defective in caspase-2-deficient B lymphoblasts. In contrast, cell death of motor neurons during development was accelerated in caspase-2-deficient mice. In addition, caspase-2-deficient sympathetic neurons underwent apoptosis more effectively than wild-type neurons when deprived of NGF. Thus, caspase-2 acts both as a positive and negative cell death effector, depending upon cell lineage and stage of development. PMID:9573047

Bergeron, Louise; Perez, Gloria I.; Macdonald, Glen; Shi, Lianfa; Sun, Yi; Jurisicova, Andrea; Varmuza, Sue; Latham, Keith E.; Flaws, Jodi A.; Salter, Jessica C.M.; Hara, Hideaki; Moskowitz, Michael A.; Li, En; Greenberg, Arnold; Tilly, Jonathan L.; Yuan, Junying

1998-01-01

13

Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 mediates the enhancement of apoptotic cell clearance by glucocorticoids.  

PubMed

The phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells is essential to prevent chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. The phosphatidylserine-binding protein milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a major opsonin for apoptotic cells, and MFG-E8(-/-) mice spontaneously develop a lupus-like disease. Similar to human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the murine disease is associated with an impaired clearance of apoptotic cells. SLE is routinely treated with glucocorticoids (GCs), whose anti-inflammatory effects are consentaneously attributed to the transrepression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here, we show that the GC-mediated transactivation of MFG-E8 expression and the concomitantly enhanced elimination of apoptotic cells constitute a novel aspect in this context. Patients with chronic inflammation receiving high-dose prednisone therapy displayed substantially increased MFG-E8 mRNA levels in circulating monocytes. MFG-E8 induction was dependent on the GC receptor and several GC response elements within the MFG-E8 promoter. Most intriguingly, the inhibition of MFG-E8 induction by RNA interference or genetic knockout strongly reduced or completely abolished the phagocytosis-enhancing effect of GCs in vitro and in vivo. Thus, MFG-E8-dependent promotion of apoptotic cell clearance is a novel anti-inflammatory facet of GC treatment and renders MFG-E8 a prospective target for future therapeutic interventions in SLE. PMID:23832117

Lauber, K; Keppeler, H; Munoz, L E; Koppe, U; Schröder, K; Yamaguchi, H; Krönke, G; Uderhardt, S; Wesselborg, S; Belka, C; Nagata, S; Herrmann, M

2013-09-01

14

(+)-Medioresinol leads to intracellular ROS accumulation and mitochondria-mediated apoptotic cell death in Candida albicans.  

PubMed

The phytochemical (+)-Medioresinol, a furofuran type lignan identification and isolation on the stem bark of Sambucus williamsii, which is a folk medicinal plant used in traditional medicine. (+)-Medioresinol is known to possess a lesishmanicidal activity and cardiovascular disease risk reduction but its antifungal effects have not yet been identified. In this study, to confirm (+)-Medioresinol's antifungal properties and mode of action, we observed morphological and physiological change in Candida albicans. In cells exposed to (+)-Medioresinol, arrested the cell cycle and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) which is a major cause of apoptosis were increased. The increase of ROS induced oxidative stress and the mitochondria dysfunction which causes release of pro-apoptotic factors. We investigated a series of characteristic cellular changes of apoptosis by using various apoptosis detection methods. We report here for the first time that (+)-Medioresinol has effects on mitochondria and induced the accumulation of ROS in C. albicans cells. We demonstrated that one of the important features of apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane depolarization is caused by ROS. Substantially, we investigated the release of cytochrome c, which is one of the factors of metacaspase activity. We also show that the effects of (+)-Medioresinol are mediated at an early stage in apoptosis acting on the plasma membrane phosphatidylserine externalization. In addition, (+)-Medioresinol induced apoptotic morphological changes, showing the reduced cell size (low FSC) and enhanced intracellular density (high SSC). In late stage of confirmation of diagnostic markers in yeast apoptosis include the effects of nucleus morphological change, DNA fragmentation and condensation by influence of oxidative stress. These apoptotic phenomena represent that oxidative stress and mitochondria dysfunctions by inducing the phytochemical (+)-Medioresinol must be an important factors of the apoptotic process in C. albicans. These results support the elucidation of the underlying antifungal mechanisms of (+)-Medioresinol. PMID:22534194

Hwang, Ji Hong; Hwang, In-Sok; Liu, Qing-He; Woo, Eun-Rhan; Lee, Dong Gun

2012-08-01

15

Orai1 and STIM1 mediate SOCE and contribute to apoptotic resistance of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

The store-operated calcium channels (SOCs) represent one of the major calcium-entry pathways in non-excitable cells. SOCs and in particular their major components ORAI1 and STIM1 have been shown to be implicated in a number of physiological and pathological processes such as apoptosis, proliferation and invasion. Here we demonstrate that ORAI1 and STIM1 mediate store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines. We show that both ORAI1 and STIM1 play pro-survival anti-apoptotic role in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines, as siRNA-mediated knockdown of ORAI1 and/or STIM1 increases apoptosis induced by chemotherapy drugs 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or gemcitabine. We also demonstrate that both 5-FU and gemcitabine treatments increase SOCE in Panc1 pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line via upregulation of ORAI1 and STIM1. Altogether our results reveal the novel calcium-dependent mechanism of action of the chemotherapy drugs 5-FU and gemcitabine and emphasize the anti-apoptotic role of ORAI1 and STIM1 in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium signaling in health and disease. Guest Editors: Geert Bultynck, Jacques Haiech, Claus W. Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, and Marc Moreau. PMID:24583265

Kondratska, Kateryna; Kondratskyi, Artem; Yassine, Maya; Lemonnier, Loic; Lepage, Gilbert; Morabito, Angela; Skryma, Roman; Prevarskaya, Natalia

2014-10-01

16

Integrin ? PAT-2/CDC-42 Signaling Is Required for Muscle-Mediated Clearance of Apoptotic Cells in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Clearance of apoptotic cells by engulfment plays an important role in the homeostasis and development of multicellular organisms. Despite the fact that the recognition of apoptotic cells by engulfment receptors is critical in inducing the engulfment process, the molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we characterize a novel cell corpse engulfment pathway mediated by the integrin ? subunit PAT-2 in Caenorhabditis elegans and show that it specifically functions in muscle-mediated engulfment during embryogenesis. Inactivation of pat-2 results in a defect in apoptotic cell internalization. The PAT-2 extracellular region binds to the surface of apoptotic cells in vivo, and the intracellular region may mediate signaling for engulfment. We identify essential roles of small GTPase CDC-42 and its activator UIG-1, a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor, in PAT-2–mediated cell corpse removal. PAT-2 and CDC-42 both function in muscle cells for apoptotic cell removal and are co-localized in growing muscle pseudopods around apoptotic cells. Our data suggest that PAT-2 functions through UIG-1 for CDC-42 activation, which in turn leads to cytoskeletal rearrangement and apoptotic cell internalization by muscle cells. Moreover, in contrast to PAT-2, the other integrin ? subunit INA-1 and the engulfment receptor CED-1, which signal through the conserved signaling molecules CED-5 (DOCK180)/CED-12 (ELMO) or CED-6 (GULP) respectively, preferentially act in epithelial cells to mediate cell corpse removal during mid-embryogenesis. Our results show that different engulfing cells utilize distinct repertoires of receptors for engulfment at the whole organism level. PMID:22615577

Jiang, Hang-Shiang; Wu, Yi-Chun

2012-01-01

17

Characterization of cytoplasmic caspase-2 activation by induced proximity  

PubMed Central

Caspase-2 is an initiator caspase, activated in response to heat shock and other stressors that induce apoptosis. Activation of caspase-2 requires induced proximity resulting after recruitment to caspase-2 activation complexes, such as the PIDDosome. We have adapted bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) to measure caspase-2 induced proximity in real time, in single cells. Non-fluorescent fragments of the fluorescent protein Venus that can associate to reform the fluorescent complex were fused to caspase-2 allowing visualization and kinetic measurements of caspase-2 induced proximity after heat shock and other stresses. This revealed that the caspase-2 activation platform occurred in the cytosol and not in the nucleus in response to heat shock, DNA damage, cytoskeletal disruption and other treatments. Activation, as measured by this approach, in response to heat shock, was RAIDD-dependent and upstream of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. Furthermore we identify Hsp90? as a key negative regulator of heat shock-induced caspase-2 activation. PMID:19782032

Bouchier-Hayes, Lisa; Oberst, Andrew; McStay, Gavin P.; Connell, Samuel; Tait, Stephen W.G.; Dillon, Christopher P.; Flanagan, Jonathan M.; Beere, Helen M.; Green, Douglas R.

2009-01-01

18

Characterisation of the anti-apoptotic function of survivin-?Ex3 during TNF??mediated cell death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survivin is an oncogenic protein involved in cell division and acts as an anti-apoptotic factor. It is highly expressed in most cancers and is associated with chemotherapy resistance, increased tumour recurrence, and shorter patient survival. This makes anti-survivin therapy an attractive cancer treatment strategy. These functions are mediated by several survivin spliced variants, whose expression may correlate with cancer progression.

M-H Malcles; H-W Wang; A Koumi; Y-H Tsai; M Yu; A Godfrey; C Boshoff

2007-01-01

19

Transplantation . Author manuscript Mediators involved in the immunomodulatory effects of apoptotic cells  

E-print Network

of apoptotic cells Philippe Saas 1 * , Francis Bonnefoy 1 , Stephanie Kury-Paulin 1 , Fran ois M. Kleinclaussç are attributed to apoptotic cells. These properties have been used to modulate allogeneic immune responses in experimental transplantation settings. In independent studies, apoptotic cell infusion has been shown to favor

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

20

Mer receptor tyrosine kinase mediates both tethering and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells.  

PubMed

Billions of inflammatory leukocytes die and are phagocytically cleared each day. This regular renewal facilitates the normal termination of inflammatory responses, suppressing pro-inflammatory mediators and inducing their anti-inflammatory counterparts. Here we investigate the role of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) Mer and its ligands Protein S and Gas6 in the initial recognition and capture of apoptotic cells (ACs) by macrophages. We demonstrate extremely rapid binding kinetics of both ligands to phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-displaying ACs, and show that ACs can be co-opsonized with multiple PtdSer opsonins. We further show that macrophage phagocytosis of ACs opsonized with Mer ligands can occur independently of a requirement for ?V integrins. Finally, we demonstrate a novel role for Mer in the tethering of ACs to the macrophage surface, and show that Mer-mediated tethering and subsequent AC engulfment can be distinguished by their requirement for Mer kinase activity. Our results identify Mer as a receptor uniquely capable of both tethering ACs to the macrophage surface and driving their subsequent internalization. PMID:25695599

Dransfield, I; Zagórska, A; Lew, E D; Michail, K; Lemke, G

2015-01-01

21

Activation of p53-regulated pro-apoptotic signaling pathways in PrP-mediated myopathy  

PubMed Central

Background We have reported that doxycycline-induced over-expression of wild type prion protein (PrP) in skeletal muscles of Tg(HQK) mice is sufficient to cause a primary myopathy with no signs of peripheral neuropathy. The preferential accumulation of the truncated PrP C1 fragment was closely correlated with these myopathic changes. In this study we use gene expression profiling to explore the temporal program of molecular changes underlying the PrP-mediated myopathy. Results We used DNA microarrays, and confirmatory real-time PCR and Western blot analysis to demonstrate deregulation of a large number of genes in the course of the progressive myopathy in the skeletal muscles of doxycycline-treated Tg(HQK) mice. These include the down-regulation of genes coding for the myofibrillar proteins and transcription factor MEF2c, and up-regulation of genes for lysosomal proteins that is concomitant with increased lysosomal activity in the skeletal muscles. Significantly, there was prominent up-regulation of p53 and p53-regulated genes involved in cell cycle arrest and promotion of apoptosis that paralleled the initiation and progression of the muscle pathology. Conclusion The data provides the first in vivo evidence that directly links p53 to a wild type PrP-mediated disease. It is evident that several mechanistic features contribute to the myopathy observed in PrP over-expressing mice and that p53-related apoptotic pathways appear to play a major role. PMID:19400950

Liang, Jingjing; Parchaliuk, Debra; Medina, Sarah; Sorensen, Garrett; Landry, Laura; Huang, Shenghai; Wang, Meiling; Kong, Qingzhong; Booth, Stephanie A

2009-01-01

22

Caspase 2 Activation and ER Stress Drive Rapid Jurkat Cell Apoptosis by Clofibrate  

PubMed Central

Differently from the antiapoptotic action most commonly assigned to peroxisome proliferators (PPs), we demonstrated that some of them, clofibrate (CF) in particular, display clearcut apoptogenic properties on rat hepatoma cell lines. We and others could confirm that CF as well as various other PPs can induce apoptosis in a variety of cells, including human liver, breast and lung cancer cell lines. The present study was aimed at investigating the cytotoxic action of CF on a neoplastic line of different origin, the human T leukemia Jurkat cells. We observed that CF rapidly triggers an extensive and morphologically typical apoptotic process on Jurkat cells, though not in primary T cells, which is completely prevented by the polycaspase inhibitor zVADfmk. Gene silencing studies demonstrated that CF-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells is partially dependent on activation of caspase 2. Looking for a possible trigger of caspase 2 activation, we observed increased levels of phosphorylated eIF2? and JNK in CF-treated cells. Moreover, intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis was perturbed. Together, these findings are suggestive for the occurrence of ER stress, an event that is known to have the potential to activate caspase 2. The present observations demonstrate that CF induces in Jurkat cells a very fast and extensive apoptosis, that involves induction of ER stress and activation of caspases 2 and 3. Since apoptosis in Jurkat cells occurs at pharmacologically relevant concentrations of CF, the present findings encourage further in depth analysis in order to work out the potential implications of CF cytotoxcity on leukemic cells. PMID:23028936

Penna, Fabio; Pin, Fabrizio; Costamagna, Domiziana; Reffo, Patrizia; Baccino, Francesco Maria; Bonelli, Gabriella; Costelli, Paola

2012-01-01

23

Caspase 2 activation and ER stress drive rapid Jurkat cell apoptosis by clofibrate.  

PubMed

Differently from the antiapoptotic action most commonly assigned to peroxisome proliferators (PPs), we demonstrated that some of them, clofibrate (CF) in particular, display clearcut apoptogenic properties on rat hepatoma cell lines. We and others could confirm that CF as well as various other PPs can induce apoptosis in a variety of cells, including human liver, breast and lung cancer cell lines. The present study was aimed at investigating the cytotoxic action of CF on a neoplastic line of different origin, the human T leukemia Jurkat cells. We observed that CF rapidly triggers an extensive and morphologically typical apoptotic process on Jurkat cells, though not in primary T cells, which is completely prevented by the polycaspase inhibitor zVADfmk. Gene silencing studies demonstrated that CF-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells is partially dependent on activation of caspase 2. Looking for a possible trigger of caspase 2 activation, we observed increased levels of phosphorylated eIF2? and JNK in CF-treated cells. Moreover, intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis was perturbed. Together, these findings are suggestive for the occurrence of ER stress, an event that is known to have the potential to activate caspase 2. The present observations demonstrate that CF induces in Jurkat cells a very fast and extensive apoptosis, that involves induction of ER stress and activation of caspases 2 and 3. Since apoptosis in Jurkat cells occurs at pharmacologically relevant concentrations of CF, the present findings encourage further in depth analysis in order to work out the potential implications of CF cytotoxcity on leukemic cells. PMID:23028936

Penna, Fabio; Pin, Fabrizio; Costamagna, Domiziana; Reffo, Patrizia; Baccino, Francesco Maria; Bonelli, Gabriella; Costelli, Paola

2012-01-01

24

Role of Apoptotic Proteins in REC-2006 Mediated Radiation Protection in Hepatoma Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

The present study was carried out to evaluate the role of apoptotic proteins in REC-2006-mediated radiation protection in hepatoma cell lines. REC-2006 treatment 2?h before irradiation strongly inhibited the cleavage of ATM and PARP-1 in HepG2 cells. The expression of nuclear apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) was found to be more inhibited (~17%) in HepG2 cells in REC-2006 + radiation-treated group. More inhibition (~33%) of cytochrome c was observed in HepG2 cells upon REC-2006 treatment 2?h prior irradiation. Similarly, significantly more (P<.05) inhibition of Apaf-1, caspase-9 and caspase-3 was observed in REC-2006 + radition-treated group in HepG2 cells. REC-2006 treatment restored the expression of ICAD in HepG2 cells; however, no restoration was observed in Hep3B cells. Lower nuclear to cytoplasmic CAD ratio was observed in HepG2 cells (~0.6) as compared with Hep3B cells (~1.2) in REC-2006 + radiation-treated group. In conclusion, REC-2006 rendered higher protection in HepG2 cells by inhibiting the expression and translocation of AIF, inhibiting the cleavage of ATM and PARP-1, restoring the expression of ICAD, inhibiting the release of cytochrome c and thus modulating the expression of Apaf-1 caspase-9 and activity of caspase-3. PMID:21799693

Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Kumar, Raj; Sharma, Ashok; Arora, Rajesh; Chawla, Raman; Jain, Swatantra Kumar; Tripathi, Rajendra Prasad; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

2011-01-01

25

The scavenger receptor SCARF1 mediates apoptotic cell clearance and prevents autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

Clearance of apoptotic cells is critical for control of tissue homeostasis however the full range of receptor(s) on phagocytes responsible for recognition of apoptotic cells remains to be identified. Here we show that dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages and endothelial cells use scavenger receptor type F family member 1 (SCARF1) to recognize and engulf apoptotic cells via C1q. Loss of SCARF1 impairs uptake of apoptotic cells. Consequently, in SCARF1-deficient mice, dying cells accumulate in tissues leading to a lupus-like disease with the spontaneous generation of autoantibodies to DNA-containing antigens, immune cell activation, dermatitis and nephritis. The discovery of SCARF1 interactions with C1q and apoptotic cells provides insights into molecular mechanisms involved in maintenance of tolerance and prevention of autoimmune disease. PMID:23892722

Ramirez-Ortiz, Zaida G.; Pendergraft, William F.; Prasad, Amit; Byrne, Michael H.; Iram, Tal; Blanchette, Christopher J.; Luster, Andrew D.; Hacohen, Nir; Khoury, Joseph El; Means, Terry K.

2013-01-01

26

Pro-apoptotic gene knockdown mediated by nanocomplexed siRNA reduces radiation damage in primary salivary gland cultures  

PubMed Central

A critical issue in the management of head and neck tumors is radioprotection of the salivary glands. We have investigated whether siRNA-mediated gene knock down of pro-apoptotic mediators can reduce radiation-induced cellular apoptosis in salivary gland cells in vitro. We used novel, pH-responsive nanoparticles to deliver functionally active siRNAs into cultures of salivary gland cells. The nanoparticle molecules are comprised of cationic micelles that electrostatically interact with the siRNA, protecting it from nuclease attack, and also include pH-responsive endosomolytic constituents that promote release of the siRNA into the target cell cytoplasm. Transfection controls with Cy3-tagged siRNA/nanoparticle complexes showed efficiently internalized siRNAs in more than 70% of the submandibular gland cells. We found that introduction of siRNAs specifically targeting the Pkc? or Bax genes significantly blocked the induction of these pro-apoptotic proteins that normally occurs after radiation in cultured salivary gland cells. Furthermore, the level of cell death from subsequent radiation, as measured by caspase-3, TUNEL, and mitochondrial disruption assays, was significantly decreased. Thus, we have successfully demonstrated that the siRNA/ nanoparticle-mediated knock down of pro-apoptotic genes can prevent radiation-induced damage in submandibular gland primary cell cultures. PMID:22253051

Arany, Szilvia; Xu, Qingfu; Hernady, Eric; Benoit, Danielle S.W.; Dewhurst, Steve; Ovitt, Catherine E.

2012-01-01

27

Structural study of TTR-52 reveals the mechanism by which a bridging molecule mediates apoptotic cell engulfment  

PubMed Central

During apoptosis, apoptotic cells are removed by professional phagocytes or neighboring engulfing cells either directly through phagocytic receptors or indirectly through bridging molecules that cross-link dying cells to phagocytes. However, how bridging molecules recognize “eat me” signals and phagocytic receptors to mediate engulfment remains unclear. Here, we report the structural and functional studies of Caenorhabditis elegans TTR-52, a recently identified bridging molecule that cross-links surface-exposed phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) on apoptotic cells to the CED-1 receptor on phagocytes. Crystal structure studies show that TTR-52 has an open ?-barrel-like structure with some similarities to the PKC?-C2 domain. TTR-52 is proposed to bind PtdSer via an “ion-mediating” PtdSer-binding mode. Intensive functional studies show that CED-1 binds TTR-52 through its N-terminal EMI domain and that the hydrophobic region of the TTR-52 C terminus is involved in this interaction. In addition, unlike other PtdSer-binding domains, TTR-52 forms dimers, and its dimerization is important for its function in vivo. Our results reveal the first full-length structure of a bridging molecule and the mechanism underlying bridging molecule-mediated apoptotic cell recognition. PMID:22713871

Kang, Yanyong; Zhao, Dongfeng; Liang, Huanhuan; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Qinwen; Wang, Xiaochen; Liu, Yingfang

2012-01-01

28

A novel anti-proliferative role of HMGA2 in induction of apoptosis through caspase 2 in primary human fibroblast cells  

PubMed Central

The HMGA2 (high-mobility group AT-hook) protein has previously been shown as an oncoprotein, whereas ectopic expression of HMGA2 is found to induce growth arrest in primary cells. The precise mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain to be unravelled. In the present study, we determined that HMGA2 was able to induce apoptosis in WI38 primary human cells. We show that WI38 cells expressing high level of HMGA2 were arrested at G2/M phase and exhibited apoptotic nuclear phenotypes. Meanwhile, the cleaved caspase 3 (cysteine aspartic acid-specific protease 3) was detected 8 days after HMGA2 overexpression. Flow cytometric analysis confirmed that the ratio of cells undergoing apoptosis increased dramatically. Concurrently, other major apoptotic markers were also detected, including the up-regulation of p53, Bax and cleaved caspase 9, down-regulation of Bcl-2; as well as release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. We further demonstrate that the shRNA (small-hairpin RNA)-mediated Apaf1 (apoptotic protease activating factor 1) silencing partially rescued the HMGA2-induced apoptosis, which was accompanied by the decrease of cleaved caspase-3 level and a decline of cell death ratio. Our results also reveal that ?H2A was accumulated in nuclei during the HMGA2-induced apoptosis along with the up-regulation of cleaved caspase 2, suggesting that the HMGA2-induced apoptosis was dependent on the pathway of DNA damage. Overall, the present study unravelled a novel function of HMGA2 in induction of apoptosis in human primary cell lines, and provided clues for clarification of the mechanistic action of HMGA2 in addition to its function as an oncoprotein. PMID:25300915

Shi, Xi; Tian, Baoqing; Ma, Wenlong; Zhang, Na; Qiao, Yuehua; Li, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Baiqu; Lu, Jun

2014-01-01

29

The IRF-3/Bax-Mediated Apoptotic Pathway, Activated by Viral Cytoplasmic RNA and DNA, Inhibits Virus Replication ? †  

PubMed Central

Induction of apoptosis in cells infected by Sendai virus (SeV), which triggers the cytosolic RIG-I pathway, requires the presence of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3). Independent of IRF-3's transcriptional role, a novel IRF-3 activation pathway causes its interaction with the proapoptotic protein Bax and its mitochondrial translocation to induce apoptosis. Here we report that two other RNA viruses, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), may also activate the same pathway. Moreover, cytosolic DNA, produced by adenovirus or introduced by transfection, activated the pathway in an RNA polymerase III-dependent fashion. To evaluate the contribution of this newly discovered apoptotic pathway to the host's overall antiviral response, we measured the efficiencies of replication of various viruses in vitro and viral pathogenesis in vivo, using cells and mice that are selectively deficient in components required for the apoptotic pathway of IRF-3. Our results clearly demonstrate that the IRF-3/Bax-mediated apoptotic signaling branch contributes significantly to the host's protection from viral infection and consequent pathogenesis. PMID:21307205

Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Yamashita, Michifumi; Zhang, Ying; Sen, Ganes C.

2011-01-01

30

The IRF-3/Bax-mediated apoptotic pathway, activated by viral cytoplasmic RNA and DNA, inhibits virus replication.  

PubMed

Induction of apoptosis in cells infected by Sendai virus (SeV), which triggers the cytosolic RIG-I pathway, requires the presence of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3). Independent of IRF-3's transcriptional role, a novel IRF-3 activation pathway causes its interaction with the proapoptotic protein Bax and its mitochondrial translocation to induce apoptosis. Here we report that two other RNA viruses, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), may also activate the same pathway. Moreover, cytosolic DNA, produced by adenovirus or introduced by transfection, activated the pathway in an RNA polymerase III-dependent fashion. To evaluate the contribution of this newly discovered apoptotic pathway to the host's overall antiviral response, we measured the efficiencies of replication of various viruses in vitro and viral pathogenesis in vivo, using cells and mice that are selectively deficient in components required for the apoptotic pathway of IRF-3. Our results clearly demonstrate that the IRF-3/Bax-mediated apoptotic signaling branch contributes significantly to the host's protection from viral infection and consequent pathogenesis. PMID:21307205

Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Yamashita, Michifumi; Zhang, Ying; Sen, Ganes C

2011-04-01

31

Engulfment of Activated Apoptotic Cells Abolishes TGF-?-Mediated Immunoregulation via the Induction of IL-6.  

PubMed

Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells (ACs) is usually a potent immunoregulatory signal but can also promote inflammation. In this article, we show that administration of apoptotic dendritic cells (DCs) inhibited inflammation in vivo through increasing production of TGF-? from intrinsic DCs and B cells. However, ACs derived from LPS-activated DCs failed to restrain inflammation because of a short-lived but marked IL-6 response, which abolished the increase in TGF-?. Inhibition of IL-6 restored the protective anti-inflammatory properties of aACs and the TGF-? response. DCs isolated from mice that had received resting but not activated ACs could transfer the suppression of inflammation to recipient mice. These transferred DCs stimulated B cell TGF-? production and relied on an intact B cell compartment to limit inflammation. These results highlight how the activation state of AC governs their ability to control inflammation through reciprocal regulation of IL-6 and TGF-?. PMID:25601923

Notley, Clare A; Brown, Mark A; McGovern, Jenny L; Jordan, Christine K; Ehrenstein, Michael R

2015-02-15

32

Engulfment of Activated Apoptotic Cells Abolishes TGF-?–Mediated Immunoregulation via the Induction of IL-6  

PubMed Central

Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells (ACs) is usually a potent immunoregulatory signal but can also promote inflammation. In this article, we show that administration of apoptotic dendritic cells (DCs) inhibited inflammation in vivo through increasing production of TGF-? from intrinsic DCs and B cells. However, ACs derived from LPS-activated DCs failed to restrain inflammation because of a short-lived but marked IL-6 response, which abolished the increase in TGF-?. Inhibition of IL-6 restored the protective anti-inflammatory properties of aACs and the TGF-? response. DCs isolated from mice that had received resting but not activated ACs could transfer the suppression of inflammation to recipient mice. These transferred DCs stimulated B cell TGF-? production and relied on an intact B cell compartment to limit inflammation. These results highlight how the activation state of AC governs their ability to control inflammation through reciprocal regulation of IL-6 and TGF-?. PMID:25601923

Notley, Clare A.; Brown, Mark A.; McGovern, Jenny L.; Jordan, Christine K.

2015-01-01

33

Puma is an essential mediator of p53-dependent and -independent apoptotic pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Puma encodes a BH3-only protein that is induced by the p53 tumor suppressor and other apoptotic stimuli. To assess its physiological role in apoptosis, we generated Puma knockout mice by gene targeting. Here we report that Puma is essential for hematopoietic cell death triggered by ionizing radiation (IR), deregulated c-Myc expression, and cytokine withdrawal. Puma is also required for IR-induced

John R. Jeffers; Evan Parganas; Youngsoo Lee; Chunying Yang; JinLing Wang; Jennifer Brennan; Kirsteen H. MacLean; Jiawen Han; Thomas Chittenden; James N. Ihle; Peter J. McKinnon; John L. Cleveland; Gerard P. Zambetti

2003-01-01

34

Reactive oxygen species are key mediators of the nitric oxide apoptotic pathway in anterior pituitary cells.  

PubMed

We previously showed that long-term exposure of anterior pituitary cells to nitric oxide (NO) induces apoptosis. The intracellular signals underlying this effect remained unclear. In this study, we searched for possible mechanisms involved in the early stages of the NO apoptotic cascade. Caspase 3 was activated by NO with no apparent disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. NO caused a rapid increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and this increase seems to be dependent of mitochondrial electron transport chain. The antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine avoided ROS increase, prevented the NO-induced caspase 3 activation, and reduced the NO apoptotic effect. Catalase was inactivated by NO, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) were not modified at first, but increased at later times of NO exposure. The increase of GSH level is important for the scavenging of the NO-induced ROS overproduction. Our results indicate that ROS have an essential role as a trigger of the NO apoptotic cascade in anterior pituitary cells. The permanent inhibition of catalase may strengthen the oxidative damage induced by NO. GPx activity and GSH level augment in response to the oxidative damage, though this increase seems not to be enough to rescue the cells from the NO effect. PMID:16996755

Machiavelli, Leticia I; Poliandri, Ariel H; Quinteros, Fernanda A; Cabilla, Jimena P; Duvilanski, Beatriz H

2007-03-01

35

Cracking the Cytotoxicity Code: Apoptotic Induction of 10-Acetylirciformonin B is Mediated through ROS Generation and Mitochondrial Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

A marine furanoterpenoid derivative, 10-acetylirciformonin B (10AB), was found to inhibit the proliferation of leukemia, hepatoma, and colon cancer cell lines, with selective and significant potency against leukemia cells. It induced DNA damage and apoptosis in leukemia HL 60 cells. To fully understand the mechanism behind the 10AB apoptotic induction against HL 60 cells, we extended our previous findings and further explored the precise molecular targets of 10AB. We found that the use of 10AB increased apoptosis by 8.9%–87.6% and caused disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by 15.2%–95.2% in a dose-dependent manner, as demonstrated by annexin-V/PI and JC-1 staining assays, respectively. Moreover, our findings indicated that the pretreatment of HL 60 cells with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, diminished MMP disruption and apoptosis induced by 10AB, suggesting that ROS overproduction plays a crucial rule in the cytotoxic activity of 10AB. The results of a cell-free system assay indicated that 10AB could act as a topoisomerase catalytic inhibitor through the inhibition of topoisomerase II?. On the protein level, the expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL and Bcl-2, caspase inhibitors XIAP and survivin, as well as hexokinase II were inhibited by the use of 10AB. On the other hand, the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax was increased after 10AB treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that 10AB-induced apoptosis is mediated through the overproduction of ROS and the disruption of mitochondrial metabolism. PMID:24857964

Shih, Huei-Chuan; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Juan, Yung-Shun; Chang, Chao-Yuan; Su, Jui-Hsin; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Shih, Shou-Ping; Chen, Huei-Mei; Wu, Yang-Chang; Lu, Mei-Chin

2014-01-01

36

Regulation of Apoptotic Mediators Reveals Dynamic Responses to Thermal Stress in the Reef Building Coral Acropora millepora  

PubMed Central

Background Mass coral bleaching is increasing in scale and frequency across the world's coral reefs and is being driven primarily by increased levels of thermal stress arising from global warming. In order to understand the impacts of projected climate change upon corals reefs, it is important to elucidate the underlying cellular mechanisms that operate during coral bleaching and subsequent mortality. In this respect, increased apoptotic cell death activity is an important cellular process that is associated with the breakdown of the mutualistic symbiosis between the cnidarian host and their dinoflagellate symbionts. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study reports the impacts of different stressors (colchicine and heat stress) on three phases of apoptosis: (i) the potential initiation by differential expression of Bcl-2 members, (ii) the execution of apoptotic events by activation of caspase 3-like proteases and (iii) and finally, the cell disposal indicated by DNA fragmentation in the reef building coral Acropora millepora. In corals incubated with colchicine, an increase in caspase 3-like activity and DNA fragmentation was associated with a relative down-regulation of Bcl-2, suggesting that the initiation of apoptosis may be mediated by the suppression of an anti-apoptotic mechanism. In contrast, in the early steps of heat stress, the induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis was related to a relative up-regulation of Bcl-2 consecutively followed by a delayed decrease in apoptosis activity. Conclusions/Significance In the light of these results, we propose a model of heat stress in coral hosts whereby increasing temperatures engage activation of caspase 3-dependent apoptosis in cells designated for termination, but also the onset of a delayed protective response involving overexpression of Bcl-2 in surviving cells. This mitigating response to thermal stress could conceivably be an important regulatory mechanism for cell survival in corals exposed to sudden environmental changes. PMID:21283671

Pernice, Mathieu; Dunn, Simon R.; Miard, Thomas; Dufour, Sylvie; Dove, Sophie; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

2011-01-01

37

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Mediated Apoptotic Pathway Is Involved in Corpus Luteum Regression in Rats.  

PubMed

Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), which is a novel pathway of regulating cellular apoptosis and the function of ERS during corpus luteum (CL) regression, is explored. Early-luteal stage (day 2), mid-luteal stage (day 7), and late-luteal stage (day 14 and 20) were induced, and the apoptosis of luteal cells was detected by a terminal 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The apoptotic cells were increased with the regression of CL, especially during the late-luteal stage. The ERS markers glucose-regulated protein 78 (Grp78), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), activating transcription factor 6? (ATF6?), eukaryotic initiation factor 2? (eIF2?), inositol-requiring protein 1? (IRE1?), caspase 12, and apoptosis marker caspase 3 were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry, in agreement with the results of the TUNEL assay; the expression levels of CHOP, caspase 12, and caspase 3 were increased during the process of CL regression. Luteal cells were isolated and cultured in vitro, and the apoptosis of luteal cells was induced by prostaglandin F2?. The ERS was attenuated by the ERS inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid, and the apoptotic rate was analyzed by flow cytometry. The ERS markers Grp78, CHOP, XBP1s, ATF6?, eIF2?, IRE1?, caspase 12, and apoptotic execute marker caspase 3 were analyzed by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence, and the results suggested that the expression of CHOP, caspase 12, and caspase 3 were increased, and there was increased apoptosis of luteal cells. But the expression of IRE1?/XBP1s and eIF2? was not detected. Taken together, the ERS is involved in the CL regression of rats through the CHOP and caspase 12 pathway. PMID:25332219

Yang, Yanzhou; Sun, Miao; Shan, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Xiaomin; Ma, Huiming; Ma, Wenzhi; Wang, Zhisheng; Pei, Xiuying; Wang, Yanrong

2014-10-20

38

Macrophage-mediated phagocytosis of apoptotic cholangiocytes contributes to reversal of experimental biliary fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Studies have suggested the reversibility of liver fibrosis, but the mechanisms of fibrosis reversal are poorly understood. We investigated the possible functional link between apoptosis, macrophages, and matrix turnover in rat liver during reversal of fibrosis secondary to bile duct ligation (BDL). Biliary fibrosis was induced by BDL for 4 wk. After Roux-en-Y (RY)-bilio-jejunal-anastomosis, resolution of fibrosis was monitored for up to 12 wk by hepatic collagen content, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and activities, and fibrosis-related gene expression. MMP expression and activities were studied in macrophages after engulfment of apoptotic cholangiocytes in vitro. Hepatic collagen decreased to near normal at 12 wk after RY-anastomosis. During reversal, profibrogenic mRNA declined, whereas expression of several profibrolytic MMPs increased. Fibrotic septa showed fragmentation at week 4 and disappeared at week 12. Peak histological remodeling at week 4 was characterized by massive apoptosis of cytokeratin 19+ cholangiocytes, >90% in colocalization with CD68+ macrophages, and a 2- to 7.5-fold increase in matrix-degrading activities. In vitro, phagocytosis of apoptotic cholangiocytes induced matrix-degrading activities and MMP-3, -8, and -9 in rat peritoneal macrophages. We concluded that reconstruction of bile flow after BDL leads to an orchestrated fibrolytic program that results in near complete reversal of advanced fibrosis. The peak of connective tissue remodeling and fibrolytic activity is associated with massive apoptosis of cholangiocytes and their phagocytic clearance by macrophages in vivo. Macrophages upregulate MMPs and become fibrolytic effector cells upon apoptotic cholangiocyte engulfment in vitro, suggesting that phagocytosis-associated MMP induction in macrophages significantly contributes to biliary fibrosis reversal. PMID:20056896

Popov, Yury; Sverdlov, Deanna Y.; Bhaskar, K. Ramakrishnan; Sharma, Anisha K.; Millonig, Gunda; Patsenker, Eleonora; Krahenbuhl, Stephan; Krahenbuhl, Lukas

2010-01-01

39

PUMA mediates the apoptotic response to p53 in colorectal cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although several genes that might mediate p53-induced apoptosis have been proposed, none have previously been shown to play an essential role in this process through a rigorous gene disruption approach. We used a gene-targeting approach to evaluate p53-mediated death in human colorectal cancer cells. Expression of p53 in these cells induces growth arrest through transcriptional activation of the cyclin-dependent kinase

Jian Yu; Zhenghe Wang; Kenneth W. Kinzler; Bert Vogelstein; Lin Zhang

2003-01-01

40

Computational Modeling of Signaling Pathways Mediating Cell Cycle Checkpoint Control and Apoptotic Responses to Ionizing Radiation-Induced DNA Damage  

PubMed Central

The shape of dose response of ionizing radiation (IR) induced cancer at low dose region, either linear non-threshold or J-shaped, has been a debate for a long time. This dose response relationship can be influenced by built-in capabilities of cells that minimize the fixation of IR-mediated DNA damage as pro-carcinogenic mutations. Key capabilities include sensing of damage, activation of cell cycle checkpoint arrests that provide time needed for repair of the damage as well as apoptosis. Here we describe computational modeling of the signaling pathways that link sensing of DNA damage and checkpoint arrest activation/apoptosis to investigate how these molecular-level interactions influence the dose response relationship for IR induced cancer. The model provides qualitatively accurate descriptions of the IR-mediated activation of cell cycle checkpoints and the apoptotic pathway, and of time-course activities and dose response of relevant regulatory proteins (e.g. p53 and p21). Linking to a two-stage clonal growth cancer model, the model described here successfully captured a monotonically increasing to a J-shaped dose response curve and identified one potential mechanism leading to the J-shape: the cell cycle checkpoint arrest time saturates with the increase of the dose. PMID:22740786

Zhao, Yuchao; Lou, In Chio; Conolly, Rory B.

2012-01-01

41

p85? recruitment by the CD300f phosphatidylserine receptor mediates apoptotic cell clearance required for autoimmunity suppression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apoptotic cell (AC) clearance is essential for immune homeostasis. Here we show that mouse CD300f (CLM-1) recognizes outer membrane-exposed phosphatidylserine, and regulates the phagocytosis of ACs. CD300f accumulates in phagocytic cups at AC contact sites. Phosphorylation within CD300f cytoplasmic tail tyrosine-based motifs initiates signals that positively or negatively regulate AC phagocytosis. Y276 phosphorylation is necessary for enhanced CD300f-mediated phagocytosis through the recruitment of the p85? regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K). CD300f-PI3K association leads to activation of downstream Rac/Cdc42 GTPase and mediates changes of F-actin that drive AC engulfment. Importantly, primary macrophages from CD300f-deficient mice have impaired phagocytosis of ACs. The biological consequence of CD300f deficiency is predisposition to autoimmune disease development, as Fc?RIIB-deficient mice develop a systemic lupus erythematosus-like disease at a markedly accelerated rate if CD300f is absent. In this report we identify the mechanism and role of CD300f in AC phagocytosis and maintenance of immune homeostasis.

Tian, Linjie; Choi, Seung-Chul; Murakami, Yousuke; Allen, Joselyn; Morse, Herbert C., III; Qi, Chen-Feng; Krzewski, Konrad; Coligan, John E.

2014-01-01

42

p85? recruitment by the CD300f phosphatidylserine receptor mediates apoptotic cell clearance required for autoimmunity suppression  

PubMed Central

Apoptotic cell (AC) clearance is essential for immune homeostasis. Here we show that mouse CD300f (CLM-1) recognizes outer membrane-exposed phosphatidylserine, and regulates the phagocytosis of ACs. CD300f accumulates in phagocytic cups at AC contact sites. Phosphorylation within CD300f cytoplasmic tail tyrosine-based motifs initiates signals that positively or negatively regulate AC phagocytosis. Y276 phosphorylation is necessary for enhanced CD300f-mediated phagocytosis through the recruitment of the p85? regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K). CD300f-PI3K association leads to activation of downstream Rac/Cdc42 GTPase and mediates changes of F-actin that drive AC engulfment. Importantly, primary macrophages from CD300f-deficient mice have impaired phagocytosis of ACs. The biological consequence of CD300f deficiency is predisposition to autoimmune disease development, as Fc?RIIB-deficient mice develop a systemic lupus erythematosus-like disease at a markedly accelerated rate if CD300f is absent. In this report we identify the mechanism and role of CD300f in AC phagocytosis and maintenance of immune homeostasis. PMID:24477292

Tian, Linjie; Choi, Seung-Chul; Murakami, Yousuke; Allen, Joselyn; Morse, Herbert C.; Qi, Chen-Feng; Krzewski, Konrad; Coligan, John E

2014-01-01

43

EFF-1-mediated regenerative axonal fusion requires components of the apoptotic pathway.  

PubMed

Functional regeneration after nervous system injury requires transected axons to reconnect with their original target tissue. Axonal fusion, a spontaneous regenerative mechanism identified in several species, provides an efficient means of achieving target reconnection as a regrowing axon is able to contact and fuse with its own separated axon fragment, thereby re-establishing the original axonal tract. Here we report a molecular characterization of this process in Caenorhabditis elegans, revealing dynamic changes in the subcellular localization of the EFF-1 fusogen after axotomy, and establishing phosphatidylserine (PS) and the PS receptor (PSR-1) as critical components for axonal fusion. PSR-1 functions cell-autonomously in the regrowing neuron and, instead of acting in its canonical signalling pathway, acts in a parallel phagocytic pathway that includes the transthyretin protein TTR-52, as well as CED-7, NRF-5 and CED-6 (refs 9, 10, 11, 12). We show that TTR-52 binds to PS exposed on the injured axon, and can restore fusion several hours after injury. We propose that PS functions as a 'save-me' signal for the distal fragment, allowing conserved apoptotic cell clearance molecules to function in re-establishing axonal integrity during regeneration of the nervous system. PMID:25567286

Neumann, Brent; Coakley, Sean; Giordano-Santini, Rosina; Linton, Casey; Lee, Eui Seung; Nakagawa, Akihisa; Xue, Ding; Hilliard, Massimo A

2015-01-01

44

Heat Stress Induces Apoptosis through a Ca2+-Mediated Mitochondrial Apoptotic Pathway in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Heat stress can be acutely cytotoxic, and heat stress-induced apoptosis is a prominent pathological feature of heat-related illnesses, although the precise mechanisms by which heat stress triggers apoptosis are poorly defined. Methods The percentages of viability and cell death were assessed by WST-1 and LDH release assays. Apoptosis was assayed by DNA fragmentation and caspase activity. Expression of cleaved PARP, Apaf-1, phospho-PERK, Phospho-eIF2a, ATF4, XBP-1s, ATF6, GRP78, phospho-IP3R, RYR and SERCA was estimated by Western blot. The effect of calcium overload was determined using flow cytometric analysis with the fluorescent probe Fluo-3/AM. The generation of ROS (O2?, H2O2, NO) was labeled by confocal laser scanning microscopy images of fluorescently and flow cytometry. Results In this study, we found that heat stress in HUVEC cells activated initiators of three major unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling transduction pathways: PERK-eIF2a-ATF4, IRE1-XBP-1S and ATF6 to protect against ER stress, although activation declined over time following cessation of heat stress. Furthermore, we show that intense heat stress may induce apoptosis in HUVEC cells through the calcium-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, as indicated by elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+, expression of Apaf-1, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, PARP cleavage, and ultimately nucleosomal DNA fragmentation; Reactive oxygen species (ROS) appear to act upstream in this process. In addition, we provide evidence that IP3R upregulation may promote influx of Ca2+ into the cytoplasm after heat stress. Conclusion Our findings describe a novel mechanism for heat stress-induced apoptosis in HUVEC cells: following elevation of cytoplasm Ca2+, activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway via the IP3R upregulation, with ROS acting as an upstream regulator of the process. PMID:25549352

Liu, Zhifeng; Geng, Yan; Liu, Yunsong; Tong, Huasheng; Tang, Youqing; Qiu, Junmin; Su, Lei

2014-01-01

45

The role of lysosomes in BDE 47-mediated activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in HepG2 cells.  

PubMed

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a group of widely used flame retardants. The rising presence of PBDEs in human tissues has received considerable concerns with regard to potential health risks. While the mitochondrial-apoptotic pathway has been suggested in PBDEs-induced apoptosis, the role of lysosomes is yet to be understood. In the present study, HepG2 cells were exposed to BDE 47 at various concentrations and durations to establish the causal and temporal relationships among various cellular events, such as cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), apoptosis, and expression of cytochrome C and caspase 3. The involvement of lysosomes was simultaneously studied by evaluating lysosomal membrane permeability (LMP) and changes in the expression of cathepsin B, a lysosome hydrolase. In addition, a cathepsin B inhibitor (10?M CA-074) was used to determine the involvement of lysosomes and potential interactions between lysosomes and mitochondria. Our results showed that ROS production was an initial response of HepG2 to BDE 47 exposure, followed by a decreased MMP; a loss of MMP caused additional ROS generation which acted to induce LMP; an increased LMP resulted in a release of cathepsin B which aggravated the loss of MMP leading to release of cytochrome C and caspase 3 and subsequent apoptosis. Pretreatment with CA-074 did not abolish the initial ROS generation, however, all downstream events were dramatically alleviated. Taken together, our data indicate that lysosomes might be involved in BDE 47-mediated mitochondrial-apoptotic pathway in HepG2 cells, possibly through feedback interactions between mitochondria and lysosomes. PMID:25479806

Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Jian; Lu, Chengquan; Zhu, Chunyan; Qian, Bo; Li, Zhenwei; Liu, Chang; Shao, Jing; Yan, Jinsong

2015-04-01

46

Cyclooxygenase 2-mediated apoptotic and inflammatory responses in photodynamic therapy treated breast adenocarcinoma cells and xenografts.  

PubMed

Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) is an inducible enzyme that contributes to the generation of chronic inflammation and the development of cancer, and promotes neoplastic transformation, in response to chemical carcinogens and environmental stresses. In this study, we demonstrated that a sublethal dose photodynamic therapy (PDT) led to inflammatory response mediated by the induction of COX-2 and release of Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reduced COX-2 expression and PGE2 release induced by PDT. The elevated COX-2 level and PGE2 release following PDT were inhibited by NADPH oxidase inhibitor and NF-?B inhibitor. Inhibition of COX-2 attenuated the levels of PGE2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) following PDT in treated tumors, and also decreased the expression of proinflammatory mediators interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). In addition, PDT led to an appreciable accumulation of pSer15-p53/COX-2 complexes, and this association of complexes was partially inhibited by SB203580, an inhibitor of p38. Blockage of COX-2 expression by siRNA enhanced the transcriptional activity of p53, and facilitated PDT-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and cleavage of caspase 3, probably due to the elevated Noxa expression disrupting the interaction of Mcl-1/Bax. Together, this study highlights the important roles of COX-2 in PDT-induced apoptosis and inflammation and the specific COX-2-mediated responses to PDT initiated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) involving the regulation of the multiple signaling pathways. These results indicate the inflammatory mediator COX-2 as a potential therapeutic target for improving PDT efficacy. PMID:24792472

Song, Jiaxing; Wei, Yanchun; Chen, Qun; Xing, Da

2014-05-01

47

Curcumin ameliorates testicular damage in diabetic rats by suppressing cellular stress-mediated mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum-dependent apoptotic death.  

PubMed

In the present study, we sought to explore whether curcumin plays any beneficial role against STZ induced testicular abnormalities in diabetic rats, and if so, what possible mechanism it utilizes to provide protection. Exposure to STZ (50mg/kg body weight, i.p., once) reduced testis-to-body weight ratio, enhanced blood glucose level and intracellular ROS, altered testicular markers, diminished serum testosterone and impaired cellular redox balance. Administration of curcumin at a dose of 100mg/kg body weight for 8weeks effectively normalized all the alterations. Curcumin also showed inhibitory effect on the elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and translocation of NF?B into the nucleus and promoted the activation of the transcription factor Nrf-2 to provide protection against oxidants. To protect cells from STZ-induced stress-mediated damage, curcumin acted on the key mediators of the apoptotic cell death such as JNK and p38. In addition, this active molecule upregulated Bcl-2 expression, blocked the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax, Bad and Bid), decreased intracellular Ca(2+) level, inhibited active caspase cascade and attenuated PARP cleavage. These results suggest that curcumin provides protection against cellular stress-mediated mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum-dependent apoptotic death of the testicular cells under diabetic condition and suggests the possibility of using this molecule as a potential therapeutic in the treatment of stress-mediated diabetic testicular dysfunction. PMID:25446996

Rashid, Kahkashan; Sil, Parames C

2015-01-01

48

Receptor tyrosine phosphatase, CD45 binds galectin-1 but does not mediate its apoptotic signal in T cell lines.  

PubMed

Galectin-1 (Gal-1) is an endogenous mammalian S-type lectin with highly pleiotropic effect on different tissues. The viability of the lymphoid cells is reduced by gal-1 by triggering apoptosis, however, the mechanism of the gal-1 induced apoptosis is still under investigation. The receptor tyrosine phosphatase, CD45, a heavily glycosylated cell surface molecule binds to gal-1 with high affinity, however, its contribution to the gal-1 induced apoptosis is still controversial. In this study we show that galectin-1 binds to cells deficient for CD45, although CD45 is one of the galectin-1-binding cell surface proteins on T cells. Moreover, the CD45 deficient Jurkat variant, J45.01 responds readily with tyrosine phosphorylation and subsequent apoptosis to galectin-1 treatment in a similar degree as its wild type counterpart, Jurkat does. These results strongly indicate that CD45 is not the receptor via gal-1 mediates the apoptotic signal into the cells as it was suggested in previous studies. PMID:12008046

Fajka-Boja, Roberta; Szemes, Marianna; Ion, Gabriela; Légrádi, Adám; Caron, Michel; Monostori, Eva

2002-06-01

49

Inflammasome-mediated pyroptotic and apoptotic cell death, and defense against infection  

PubMed Central

Cell death is an effective strategy to limit intracellular infections. Canonical inflammasomes, including NLRP3, NLRC4, and AIM2, recruit and activate caspase-1 in response to a range of microbial stimuli and endogenous danger signals. Caspase-1 then promotes the secretion of IL-1? and IL-18 and a rapid form of lytic programmed cell death termed pyroptosis. A second inflammatory caspase, mouse caspase-11, mediates pyroptotic death through an unknown non-canonical inflammasome system in response to cytosolic bacteria. In addition, recent work shows that inflammasomes can also recruit procaspase-8, initiating apoptosis. The induction of multiple pathways of cell death has probably evolved to counteract microbial evasion of cell death pathways. PMID:23707339

Aachoui, Youssef; Sagulenko, Vitaliya; Miao, Edward A; Stacey, Katryn J.

2013-01-01

50

Efficacious gene silencing in serum and significant apoptotic activity induction by survivin downregulation mediated by new cationic gemini tocopheryl lipids.  

PubMed

Nonviral gene delivery offers cationic liposomes as promising instruments for the delivery of double-stranded RNA (ds RNA) molecules for successful sequence-specific gene silencing (RNA interference). The efficient delivery of siRNA (small interfering RNA) to cells while avoiding unexpected side effects is an important prerequisite for the exploitation of the power of this excellent tool. We present here six new tocopherol based cationic gemini lipids, which induce substantial gene knockdown without any obvious cytotoxicity. All the efficient coliposomal formulations derived from each of these geminis and a helper lipid, dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE), were well characterized using physical methods such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Zeta potential measurements were conducted to estimate the surface charge of these formulations. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the optimized coliposomal formulations could transfect anti-GFP siRNA efficiently in three different GFP expressing cell lines, viz., HEK 293T, HeLa, and Caco-2, significantly better than a potent commercial standard Lipofectamine 2000 (L2K) both in the absence and in the presence of serum (FBS). Notably, the knockdown activity of coliposomes of gemini lipids was not affected even in the presence of serum (10% and 50% FBS) while it dropped down for L2K significantly. Observations under a fluorescence microscope, RT-PCR, and Western blot analysis substantiated the flow cytometry results. The efficient cellular entry of labeled siRNA in GFP expressing cells as evidenced from confocal microscopy put forward these gemini lipids among the potent lipidic carriers for siRNA. The efficient transfection capabilities were also profiled in a more relevant fashion while performing siRNA transfections against survivin (an anti-apoptotic protein) which induced substantial apoptosis. Furthermore, the survivin downregulation improved the therapeutic efficacy levels of an anticancer drug, doxorubicin, significantly. In short, the new tocopherol based gemini lipids appear to be highly promising for achieving siRNA mediated gene knockdown in various cell lines. PMID:25438085

Kumar, Krishan; Maiti, Bappa; Kondaiah, Paturu; Bhattacharya, Santanu

2015-02-01

51

Swainsonine Activates Mitochondria-mediated Apoptotic Pathway in Human Lung Cancer A549 Cells and Retards the Growth of Lung Cancer Xenografts  

PubMed Central

Swainsonine (1, 2, 8-trihyroxyindolizidine, SW), a natural alkaloid, has been reported to exhibit anti-cancer activity on several mouse models of human cancer and human cancers in vivo. However, the mechanisms of SW-mediated tumor regression are not clear. In this study, we investigated the effects of SW on several human lung cancer cell lines in vitro. The results showed that SW significantly inhibited these cells growth through induction of apoptosis in different extent in vitro. Further studies showed that SW treatment up-regulated Bax, down-regulated Bcl-2 expression, promoted Bax translocation to mitochondria, activated mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway, which in turn caused the release of cytochrome c, the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), resulting in A549 cell apoptosis. However, the expression of Fas, Fas ligand (FasL) or caspase-8 activity did not appear significant changes in the process of SW-induced apoptosis. Moreover, SW treatment inhibited Bcl-2 expression, promoted Bax translocation, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activity in xenograft tumor cells, resulting in a significant decrease of tumor volume and tumor weight in the SW-treated xenograft mice groups in comparison to the control group. Taken together, this study demonstrated for the first time that SW inhibited A549 cancer cells growth through a mitochondria-mediated, caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22393311

Li, Zhaocai; Xu, Xingang; Huang, Yong; Ding, Li; Wang, Zhisheng; Yu, Gaoshui; Xu, Dan; Li, Wei; Tong, Dewen

2012-01-01

52

Estrogen receptor-alpha 36 mediates the anti-apoptotic effect of estradiol in triple negative breast cancer cells via a membrane-associated mechanism.  

PubMed

17?-Estradiol can promote the growth and development of several estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancers. The effects are rapid and non-genomic, suggesting that a membrane-associated ER is involved. ER?36 has been shown to mediate rapid, non-genomic, membrane-associated effects of 17?-estradiol in several cancer cell lines, including triple negative HCC38 breast cancer cells. Moreover, the effect is anti-apoptotic. The aim of this study was to determine if ER?36 mediates this anti-apoptotic effect, and to elucidate the mechanism involved. Taxol was used to induce apoptosis in HCC38 cells, and the effect of 17?-estradiol pre-treatment was determined. Antibodies to ER?36, signal pathway inhibitors, ER?36 deletion mutants, and ER?36-silencing were used prior to these treatments to determine the role of ER?36 in these effects and to determine which signaling molecules were involved. We found that the anti-apoptotic effect of 17?-estradiol in HCC38 breast cancer cells is in fact mediated by membrane-associated ER?36. We also showed that this signaling occurs through a pathway that requires PLD, LPA, and PI3K; G?s and calcium signaling may also be involved. In addition, dynamic palmitoylation is required for the membrane-associated effect of 17?-estradiol. Exon 9 of ER?36, a unique exon to ER?36 not found in other identified splice variants of ER? with previously unknown function, is necessary for these effects. This study provides a working model for a mechanism by which estradiol promotes anti-apoptosis through membrane-associated ER?36, suggesting that ER?36 may be a potential membrane target for drug design against breast cancer, particularly triple negative breast cancer. PMID:25108195

Chaudhri, Reyhaan A; Hadadi, Agreen; Lobachev, Kirill S; Schwartz, Zvi; Boyan, Barbara D

2014-11-01

53

Regulation of CRADD-caspase 2 cascade by histone deacetylase 1 in gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

CRADD, also referred as RAIDD, is an adaptor protein that could interact with both caspase 2 and RIP that can promote apoptosis once activated. HDAC inhibitors are promising anti-cancer agents by inducing apoptosis of various cancer cells. In this study, we found that CRADD was induced by TSA (trichostatin A) to activate caspase 2-dependent apoptosis. CRADD was downregulated in gastric cancer and the restoration of its expression suppressed the viability of gastric cancer cells. HDAC1 was responsible for its downregulation in gastric cancer since HDAC1 siRNA upregulated CRADD expression and HDAC1 directly bound to the promoter of CRADD. Therefore, the high expression of HDAC1 can downregulate CRADD to confer gastric cancer cells the resistance to caspase 2-dependent apoptosis. HDAC inhibitors, potential anti-cancer drugs under investigation, can promote caspase 2-dependent apoptosis by inducing the expression of CRADD. PMID:25360218

Shen, Qi; Tang, Wanfen; Sun, Jie; Feng, Lifeng; Jin, Hongchuan; Wang, Xian

2014-01-01

54

Tip60 HAT Activity Mediates APP Induced Lethality and Apoptotic Cell Death in the CNS of a Drosophila Alzheimer's Disease Model  

PubMed Central

Histone acetylation of chromatin promotes dynamic transcriptional responses in neurons that influence neuroplasticity critical for cognitive ability. It has been demonstrated that Tip60 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity is involved in the transcriptional regulation of genes enriched for neuronal function as well as the control of synaptic plasticity. Accordingly, Tip60 has been implicated in the neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer's disease (AD) via transcriptional regulatory complex formation with the AD linked amyloid precursor protein (APP) intracellular domain (AICD). As such, inappropriate complex formation may contribute to AD-linked neurodegeneration by misregulation of target genes involved in neurogenesis; however, a direct and causative epigenetic based role for Tip60 HAT activity in this process during neuronal development in vivo remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that nervous system specific loss of Tip60 HAT activity enhances APP mediated lethality and neuronal apoptotic cell death in the central nervous system (CNS) of a transgenic AD fly model while remarkably, overexpression of Tip60 diminishes these defects. Notably, all of these effects are dependent upon the C-terminus of APP that is required for transcriptional regulatory complex formation with Tip60. Importantly, we show that the expression of certain AD linked Tip60 gene targets critical for regulating apoptotic pathways are modified in the presence of APP. Our results are the first to demonstrate a functional interaction between Tip60 and APP in mediating nervous system development and apoptotic neuronal cell death in the CNS of an AD fly model in vivo, and support a novel neuroprotective role for Tip60 HAT activity in AD neurodegenerative pathology. PMID:22848598

Pirooznia, Sheila K.; Chiu, Kellie; Koduri, Sravanthi; Elefant, Felice

2012-01-01

55

Jab1/CSN5 mediates E2F dependent expression of mitotic and apoptotic but not DNA replication targets.  

PubMed

The E2F transcription factors are critical regulators of cell cycle and cell fate control. Several classes of E2F target genes have been categorized based on their roles in DNA replication, mitosis, apoptosis, DNA repair, etc. How E2Fs coordinate the appropriate and timely expression of these functionally disparate gene products is poorly understood at a molecular level. We previously showed that the E2F1 binding partner Jab1/CSN5 promotes E2F1-dependent induction of apoptosis but not proliferation. To better understand how Jab1 regulates E2F1 dependent transcription, we performed gene expression analysis to identify E2F target genes most and least affected by shRNA depletion of Jab1. We find that a significant number of apoptotic and mitotic E2F target genes are poorly expressed in cells lacking Jab1/CSN5, whereas DNA replication genes are generally still highly expressed. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis indicates that both Jab1 and E2F1 co-occupy apoptotic and mitotic, but not DNA replication target genes. We explored a potential connection between PI3K activity and Jab1/E2F1 target gene induction, and found that E2F1/Jab1 co-induction of apoptotic target genes can be inhibited by activated PI3K. Furthermore, PI3K activity interferes with formation of the E2F1/Jab1 complex by co-immunoprecipitation. Jab1/CSN5 is upregulated in a variety of human tumors, but it's unclear how its pro-proliferatory and apoptotic functions are regulated in this context. We explored the link between increased Jab1 levels and PI3K function in tumors and detected a highly significant correlation between elevated Jab1/CSN5 levels and PI3K activity in breast, ovarian, lung and prostate cancers. PMID:21937878

Lu, Huarui; Liang, Xudong; Issaenko, Olga A; Hallstrom, Timothy C

2011-10-01

56

Enhancement in efferocytosis of oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced apoptotic RAW264.7 cells through Sirt1-mediated autophagy.  

PubMed

Macrophages play a key role in atherosclerotic plaque formation and rupture. These phagocytic cells are important in the scavenging of modified lipoproteins, unwanted or dead cells and cellular debris through efferocytosis. Sirtuin1 (Sirt1), a member of the conserved sirtuin family and a key regulator in the progression of atherosclerosis exerts protective effects by regulating autophagy, a well-known survival mechanism. Inhibition of autophagy may also result in defective efferocytosis. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Sirt1 on the efferocytosis of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced apoptotic RAW264.7 cells through upregulation of autophagy. The apoptotic cells were incubated with high and low concentrations of Sirt1 activator resveratrol (RSV) and Sirt1 inhibitor nicotinamide (NAM) as well as autophagy inhibitor 3-methyl-adenine (3-MA) + low concentration RSV. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry (FCM) of annexin-V/propidium iodide (AV/PI) dual staining. Total proteins were extracted and protein levels were detected through western blot analysis. The ox-LDL uptake and efferocytosis of apoptotic RAW264.7 cells were detected by oil red O staining and calculation of the phagocytic index of apoptotic RAW264.7 cells. The expression of Sirt1 and autophagy marker proteins was simultaneously increased with the stimulation of low concentration RSV (all P<0.05) and decreased in low and high NAM groups (all P<0.05), compared with the control group. Efferocytosis was highest in the low concentration RSV group (P<0.001) and relatively lower in the low and high concentration NAM groups (both P<0.05) compared with the control group, which was similar to the change in the expression of Sirt1 and autophagy marker proteins. The results showed that the efferocytosis of apoptotic RAW264.7 cells was significantly improved with the upregulation of Sirt1?mediated autophagy. Therefore, Sirt1 may serve as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:24378473

Liu, Baoxin; Zhang, Buchun; Guo, Rong; Li, Shuang; Xu, Yawei

2014-03-01

57

Pronounced transcriptional regulation of apoptotic and TNF-NF-kappa-B signaling genes during the course of thymoquinone mediated apoptosis in HeLa cells.  

PubMed

Thymoquinone (TQ) is the active ingredient extracted from the essential oil of Nigella sativa. A number of studies implicated TQ as an antitumor agent. In this study, cytotoxic effects of the oil of N. sativa and TQ were evaluated on human cervical cancer cell line, HeLa cells. IC50 value was ~0.125 ?l/ml for N. sativa oil preparations and 12.5 ?M for TQ. TQ strongly inhibited wound healing at all concentrations ranging from 12.5 to 100 ?M in a scratch wound healing assay. Additionally, induction of apoptosis by TQ was assessed by Giemsa staining and TQ was found to induce apoptosis in cancer cells especially at concentrations of 50 and 100 ?M. TQ-mediated transcriptional regulation of 84 genes involved in apoptosis was studied using a PCR array. At low dose (12.5 ?M), TQ was found to induce expression of four pro-apoptotic genes: BIK (~22.7-fold), FASL (~2.9-fold), BCL2L10 (~2.1-fold), and CASP1 (~2-fold). TQ was also found to reduce the expression of an anti-apoptotic gene implicated in NF-kappa-B signaling and cancer: RELA (~8-fold). At high dose (100 ?M), TQ mediated the expression of 21 genes implicated directly in apoptosis (6 genes), TNF signaling (10 genes), and NF-kappa-B signaling (3 genes) such as BIK, BID, TNFRSF10A, TNFRSF10B, TNF, TRAF3, RELA, and RELB. In conclusion, this study implicates the role of TQ in the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation and migration. At the same time, our results strongly suggest that TQ intervenes with TNF and NF-kappa-B signaling during TQ-mediated induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. PMID:23943306

Sakalar, Cagri; Yuruk, Merve; Kaya, Tugba; Aytekin, Metin; Kuk, Salih; Canatan, Halit

2013-11-01

58

Mangiferin Attenuates Diabetic Nephropathy by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress Mediated Signaling Cascade, TNF? Related and Mitochondrial Dependent Apoptotic Pathways in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy in hyperglycemic conditions. It has already been reported that mangiferin, a natural C-glucosyl xanthone and polyhydroxy polyphenol compound protects kidneys from diabetic nephropathy. However, little is known about the mechanism of its beneficial action in this pathophysiology. The present study, therefore, examines the detailed mechanism of the beneficial action of mangiferin on STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy in Wister rats as the working model. A significant increase in plasma glucose level, kidney to body weight ratio, glomerular hypertrophy and hydropic changes as well as enhanced nephrotoxicity related markers (BUN, plasma creatinine, uric acid and urinary albumin) were observed in the experimental animals. Furthermore, increased oxidative stress related parameters, increased ROS production and decreased the intracellular antioxidant defenses were detected in the kidney. Studies on the oxidative stress mediated signaling cascades in diabetic nephropathy demonstrated that PKC isoforms (PKC?, PKC? and PKC?), MAPKs (p38, JNK and ERK1/2), transcription factor (NF-?B) and TGF-?1 pathways were involved in this pathophysiology. Besides, TNF? was released in this hyperglycemic condition, which in turn activated caspase 8, cleaved Bid to tBid and finally the mitochorndia-dependent apoptotic pathway. In addition, oxidative stress also disturbed the proapoptotic-antiapoptotic (Bax and Bcl-2) balance and activated mitochorndia-dependent apoptosis via caspase 9, caspase 3 and PARP cleavage. Mangiferin treatment, post to hyperglycemia, successfully inhibited all of these changes and protected the cells from apoptotic death. PMID:25233093

Pal, Pabitra Bikash; Sinha, Krishnendu; Sil, Parames C.

2014-01-01

59

Critical role of oxidative stress and sustained JNK activation in aloe-emodin-mediated apoptotic cell death in human hepatoma cells.  

PubMed

Aloe-emodin (AE), one of the main bioactive anthraquinones of Rheum palmatum, possesses potent antitumor properties. Our previous proteomic study revealed that AE-induced apoptosis was associated with oxidative stress and oxidation of many redox-sensitive proteins. In this study, we aimed to further dissect the cell death-signaling pathways in AE-induced apoptosis. AE was found to cause redox imbalance and deplete the intracellular-reduced glutathione (GSH). Manipulation of the intracellular GSH with buthionine-L-sulfoximine (a GSH synthesis inhibitor) sensitized, and with glutathione monomethyl ester (a GSH donor) protected the AE-induced apoptosis, respectively. More importantly, AE treatment led to evident and sustained activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), an important stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Over-expression of antioxidant gene sod1 significantly reduced AE-induced JNK activation and cell death, suggesting that oxidative stress-mediated JNK is the effector molecule in AE-induced apoptosis. Such a notion was clearly supported by subsequent studies in which JNK activation was inhibited by JNK inhibitor, JNK small interfering RNA knockdown or over-expression of dominant-negative JNK. In addition, we provided evidence demonstrating the critical role of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1, a well-established MAPK kinase kinase, in AE-induced JNK activation and apoptotic cell death. Finally, we showed that dissociation of inactive JNK-Glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-pi) complex was also involved in JNK activation through GST-pi oxidation. Taken together, these results suggest that AE-induced apoptotic cell death is mediated via oxidative stress and sustained JNK activation. PMID:17698970

Lu, Guo Dong; Shen, Han-Ming; Chung, Maxey C M; Ong, Choon Nam

2007-09-01

60

Death Receptors 4 and 5 Activate Nox1 NADPH Oxidase through Riboflavin Kinase to Induce Reactive Oxygen Species-mediated Apoptotic Cell Death*  

PubMed Central

Stimulation of the proapoptotic tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors, death receptors 4 (DR4) and 5 (DR5), conventionally induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in tumor cells. Here we report that stimulation of DR4 and/or DR5 by the agonistic protein KD548-Fc, an Fc-fused DR4/DR5 dual-specific Kringle domain variant, activates plasma membrane-associated Nox1 NADPH oxidase to generate superoxide anion and subsequently accumulates intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to sustained c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation and eventual apoptotic cell death in human HeLa and Jurkat tumor cells. KD548-Fc treatment induces the formation of a DR4/DR5 signaling complex containing riboflavin kinase (RFK), Nox1, the Nox1 subunits (Rac1, Noxo1, and Noxa1), TNF receptor-associated death domain (TRADD), and TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2). Depletion of RFK, but not the Nox1 subunits, TRADD and TRAF2, failed to recruit Nox1 and Rac1 to DR4 and DR5, demonstrating that RFK plays an essential role in linking DR4/DR5 with Nox1. Knockdown studies also reveal that RFK, TRADD, and TRAF2 play critical, intermediate, and negligible roles, respectively, in the KD548-Fc-mediated ROS accumulation and downstream signaling. Binding assays using recombinantly expressed proteins suggest that DR4/DR5 directly interact with cytosolic RFK through RFK-binding regions within the intracellular death domains, and TRADD stabilizes the DR4/DR5-RFK complex. Our results suggest that DR4 and DR5 have a capability to activate Nox1 by recruiting RFK, resulting in ROS-mediated apoptotic cell death in tumor cells. PMID:22158615

Park, Kyung-Jin; Lee, Chang-Han; Kim, Aeyung; Jeong, Ki Jun; Kim, Chul-Ho; Kim, Yong-Sung

2012-01-01

61

Caspase-2 Maintains Bone Homeostasis by Inducing Apoptosis of Oxidatively-Damaged Osteoclasts  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis is a silent disease, characterized by a porous bone micro-structure that enhances risk for fractures and associated disabilities. Senile, or age-related osteoporosis (SO), affects both men and women, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying senile osteoporosis are not fully known. Recent studies implicate the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased oxidative stress as key factors in SO. Herein, we show that loss of caspase-2, a cysteine aspartate protease involved in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, results in total body and femoral bone loss in aged mice (20% decrease in bone mineral density), and an increase in bone fragility (30% decrease in fracture strength). Importantly, we demonstrate that genetic ablation or selective inhibition of caspase-2 using zVDVAD-fmk results in increased numbers of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and enhanced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity. Conversely, transfection of osteoclast precursors with wild type caspase-2 but not an enzymatic mutant, results in a decrease in TRAP activity. We demonstrate that caspase-2 expression is induced in osteoclasts treated with oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide and that loss of caspase-2 enhances resistance to oxidants, as measured by TRAP activity, and decreases oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of osteoclasts. Moreover, oxidative stress, quantified by assessment of the lipid peroxidation marker, 4-HNE, is increased in Casp2-/- bone, perhaps due to a decrease in antioxidant enzymes such as SOD2. Taken together, our data point to a critical and novel role for caspase-2 in maintaining bone homeostasis by modulating ROS levels and osteoclast apoptosis during conditions of enhanced oxidative stress that occur during aging. PMID:24691516

Sharma, Ramaswamy; Callaway, Danielle; Vanegas, Difernando; Bendele, Michelle; Lopez-Cruzan, Marisa; Horn, Diane; Guda, Teja; Fajardo, Roberto; Abboud-Werner, Sherry; Herman, Brian

2014-01-01

62

Rac1 signaling protects monocytic AML cells expressing the MLL-AF9 oncogene from caspase-mediated apoptotic death.  

PubMed

We investigated the relevance of signaling mechanisms regulated by the Ras-homologous GTPase Rac1 for survival of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells harbouring the MLL-AF9 oncogene due to t(9;11)(p21;q23) translocation. Monocytic MLL-AF9 expressing cells (MM6, THP-1) were hypersensitive to both small-molecule inhibitors targeting Rac1 (EHT 1864, NSC 23766) (IC50EHT ~12.5 ?M) and lipid lowering drugs (lovastatin, atorvastatin) (IC50Lova ~7.5 ?M) as compared to acute myelocytic leukemia (NOMO-1, HL60) and T cell leukemia (Jurkat) cells (IC50EHT >30 ?M; IC50Lova >25 ?M). Hypersensitivity of monocytic cells following Rac1 inhibition resulted from caspase-driven apoptosis as shown by profound activation of caspase-8,-9,-7,-3 and substantial (~90 %) decrease in protein expression of pro-survival factors (survivin, XIAP, p-Akt). Apoptotic death was preceded by S139-posphorylation of histone H2AX (?H2AX), a prototypical surrogate marker of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Taken together, abrogation of Rac1 signaling causes DSBs in acute monocytic leukemia cells harbouring the MLL-AF9 oncogene, which, together with downregulation of survivin, XIAP and p-Akt, results in massive induction of caspase-driven apoptotic death. Apparently, Rac1 signaling is required for maintaining genetic stability and maintaining survival in specific subtypes of AML. Hence, targeting of Rac1 is considered a promising novel strategy to induce lethality in MLL-AF9 expressing AML. PMID:23624644

Hinterleitner, C; Huelsenbeck, J; Henninger, C; Wartlick, F; Schorr, A; Kaina, B; Fritz, G

2013-08-01

63

Mimulone-Induced Autophagy through p53-Mediated AMPK/mTOR Pathway Increases Caspase-Mediated Apoptotic Cell Death in A549 Human Lung Cancer Cells.  

PubMed

Anticancer properties and mechanisms of mimulone (MML), C-geranylflavonoid isolated from the Paulownia tomentosa fruits, were firstly elucidated in this study. MML prevented cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent way and triggered apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Furthermore, MML-treated cells displayed autophagic features, such as the formation of autophagic vacuoles, a primary morphological feature of autophagy, and the accumulation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) puncta, another typical maker of autophagy, as determined by FITC-conjugated immunostaining and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining, respectively. The expression levels of LC3-I and LC3-II, specific markers of autophagy, were also augmented by MML treatment. Autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA), pharmacological autophagy inhibitor, and shRNA knockdown of Beclin-1 reduced apoptotic cell death induced by MML. Autophagic flux was not significantly affected by MML treatment and lysosomal inhibitor, chloroquine (CQ) suppressed MML-induced autophagy and apoptosis. MML-induced autophagy was promoted by decreases in p53 and p-mTOR levels and increase of p-AMPK. Moreover, inhibition of p53 transactivation by pifithrin-? (PFT-?) and knockdown of p53 enhanced induction of autophagy and finally promoted apoptotic cell death. Overall, the results demonstrate that autophagy contributes to the cytotoxicity of MML in cancer cells harboring wild-type p53. This study strongly suggests that MML is a potential candidate for an anticancer agent targeting both autophagy and apoptotic cell death in human lung cancer. Moreover, co-treatment of MML and p53 inhibitor would be more effective in human lung cancer therapy. PMID:25490748

An, Hyun-Kyu; Kim, Kyoung-Sook; Lee, Ji-Won; Park, Mi-Hyun; Moon, Hyung-In; Park, Shin-Ji; Baik, Ji-Sue; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Lee, Young-Choon

2014-01-01

64

Nitric oxide mediates coral bleaching through an apoptotic-like cell death pathway: evidence from a model sea anemone-dinoflagellate symbiosis.  

PubMed

Coral bleaching (involving the loss of symbiotic algae from the cnidarian host) is a major threat to coral reefs and appears to be mediated at the cellular level by nitric oxide (NO). In this study, we examined the specific role of NO in bleaching using the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella, a model system for the study of corals. Exposure of A. pulchella to high-temperature shock (26-33°C over <1 h) or an NO donor (S-nitrosoglutathione) resulted in significant increases in host caspase-like enzyme activity. These responses were reflected in the intensities of bleaching, which were significantly higher in heat- or NO-treated specimens than in controls maintained in seawater at 26°C. Notably, the inhibition of caspase-like activity prevented bleaching even in the presence of an NO donor or at elevated temperature. The additional use of an NO scavenger controlled for effects mediated by agents other than NO. We also exposed A. pulchella to a more ecologically relevant treatment (an increase from 26 to 33°C over 6-7 d). Again, host NO synthesis correlated with the activation of caspase-like enzyme activity. Therefore, we conclude that NO's involvement in cnidarian bleaching arises through the regulation of host apoptotic pathways. PMID:23934282

Hawkins, Thomas D; Bradley, Benjamin J; Davy, Simon K

2013-12-01

65

Antiapoptotic and Antioxidant Properties of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth (Cat's Whiskers): Intervention in the Bcl-2-Mediated Apoptotic Pathway  

PubMed Central

Antiapoptotic and antioxidant activities of aqueous-methanolic extract (CAME) of Orthosiphonstamineus Benth(OS), and its hexane (HF), chloroform (CF), n-butanol (NBF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and water (WF) fractions were investigated. Antioxidant properties were evaluated using the assays of Folin-Ciocalteu, aluminiumtrichloride, ?-carotene bleaching and DPPH. The role of OS against hydrogen peroxide induced apoptosis on MDA-M231 epithelial cells was examined using MTT assay, phase contrast microscope, colorimetric assay of caspase-3, western blot and quantitative real-time PCR. Results showed that EAF showed the highest total phenolic content followed by CAME, NBF, WF, CF and HF, respectively. Flavonoid content was in the order of the CF > EAF > HF > CAME > NBF > WF. The IC50 values on DPPH assay for different extract/fractions were 126.2 ± 23, 31.25 ± 1.2, 15.25 ± 2.3, 13.56 ± 1.9, 23.0 ± 3.2, and 16.66 ± 1.5??g/ml for HF, CF, EAF, NBF, WF and CAME, respectively. OSreduced the oxidation of ?-carotene by hydroperoxides. Cell death was dose-dependently inhibited by pretreatment with OS. Caspase-3 and distinct morphological features suggest the anti-apoptotic activities of OS. This plant not only increased the expression of Bcl-2, but also decreased Bax expression, and ultimately reduced H2O2-induced apoptosis. The current results showed that phenolics may provide health and nutritional benefits. PMID:21234328

Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Mohan, Syam; Mohamed Elhassan, Manal; Al-Mekhlafi, Nabil; Mariod, Abdelbasit Adam; Abdul, Ahmad Bustamam; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Alkharfy, Khalid M.

2011-01-01

66

Involvement of Bcl-xL degradation and mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic pathway in pyrrolizidine alkaloids-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes  

SciTech Connect

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are natural hepatotoxins with worldwide distribution in more than 6000 high plants including medicinal herbs or teas. The aim of this study is to investigate the signal pathway involved in PAs-induced hepatotoxicity. Our results showed that clivorine, isolated from Ligularia hodgsonii Hook, decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis in L-02 cells and mouse hepatocytes. Western-blot results showed that clivorine induced caspase-3/-9 activation, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c and decreased anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL in a time (8-48 h)- and concentration (1-100 {mu}M)-dependent manner. Furthermore, inhibitors of pan-caspase, caspase-3 and caspase-9 significantly inhibited clivorine-induced apoptosis and rescued clivorine-decreased cell viability. Polyubiquitination of Bcl-xL was detected after incubation with 100 {mu}M clivorine for 40 h in the presence of proteasome specific inhibitor MG132, indicating possible degradation of Bcl-xL protein. Furthermore, pretreatment with MG132 or calpain inhibitor I for 2 h significantly enhanced clivorine-decreased Bcl-xL level and cell viability. All the other tested PAs such as senecionine, isoline and monocrotaline decreased mouse hepatocytes viability in a concentration-dependent manner. Clivorine (10 {mu}M) induced caspase-3 activation and decreased Bcl-xL was also confirmed in mouse hepatocytes. Meanwhile, another PA senecionine isolated from Senecio vulgaris L also induced apoptosis, caspase-3 activation and decreased Bcl-xL in mouse hepatocytes. In conclusion, our results suggest that PAs may share the same hepatotoxic signal pathway, which involves degradation of Bcl-xL protein and thus leading to the activation of mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic pathway.

Ji Lili [Key Laboratory of Standardization of Chinese Medicines of Ministry of Education, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203 (China); Shanghai R and D Centre for Standardization of Traditional Chinese Medicines, Shanghai 201203 (China); Chen Ying [Key Laboratory of Standardization of Chinese Medicines of Ministry of Education, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203 (China); Department of Pharmacognosy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210038, Jiangsu (China); Liu Tianyu [Key Laboratory of Standardization of Chinese Medicines of Ministry of Education, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203 (China); Wang Zhengtao [Key Laboratory of Standardization of Chinese Medicines of Ministry of Education, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203 (China); Shanghai R and D Centre for Standardization of Traditional Chinese Medicines, Shanghai 201203 (China); Department of Pharmacognosy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210038, Jiangsu (China)], E-mail: wangzht@hotmail.com

2008-09-15

67

Cadmium renal toxicity via apoptotic pathways.  

PubMed

Cadmium is a nonessential heavy metal and ubiquitous potential environmental pollutant. Although the kidney proximal tubule is an important target for cadmium, the underlying cellular mechanisms of cadmium-induced renal toxicity remain elusive. Numerous studies have demonstrated that cadmium induces apoptotic cell death in various cell types via several apoptotic pathways, including mitochondria-mediated apoptotic cell death. In the epithelial cells of renal proximal tubules, cadmium can also induce apoptotic cell death in vivo and in vitro, which suggests that cell death of the epithelial cells through the apoptotic pathways is one of the key events in cadmium-induced renal toxicity. In this review, based upon the major findings of previous reports related to cadmium and apoptotic cell death, especially in the kidney and kidney proximal tubular cells, we present evidence for the current mechanisms of cadmium-induced renal toxicity via apoptotic cell death. PMID:23123462

Fujiwara, Yasuyuki; Lee, Jin-Yong; Tokumoto, Maki; Satoh, Masahiko

2012-01-01

68

(?)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Induces Non-Apoptotic Cell Death in Human Cancer Cells via ROS-Mediated Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization  

PubMed Central

(?)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most extensive studied tea polyphenol for its anti-cancer function. In this study, we report a novel mechanism of action for EGCG-mediated cell death by identifying the critical role of lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). First, EGCG-induced cell death in human cancer cells (both HepG2 and HeLa) was found to be caspase-independent and accompanied by evident cytosolic vacuolization, only observable when cells were treated in serum-free medium. The cytosolic vacuolization observed in EGCG-treated cells was most probably caused by lysosomal dilation. Interestingly, EGCG was able to disrupt autophagic flux at the degradation stage by impairment of lysosomal function, and EGCG-induced cell death was independent of Atg5 or autophagy. The key finding of this study is that EGCG is able to trigger LMP, as evidenced by Lyso-Tracker Red staining, cathepsin D cytosolic translocation and cytosolic acidification. Consistently, a lysosomotropic agent, chloroquine, effectively rescues the cell death via suppressing LMP-caused cytosolic acidification. Lastly, we found that EGCG promotes production of intracellular ROS upstream of LMP and cell death, as evidenced by increased level of ROS in cells treated with EGCG and the protective effects of antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against EGCG-mediated LMP and cell death. Taken together, data from our study reveal a novel mechanism underlying EGCG-induced cell death involving ROS and LMP. Therefore, understanding this lysosome-associated cell death pathway shed new lights on the anti-cancer effects of EGCG. PMID:23056433

Zhang, Yin; Yang, Nai-Di; Zhou, Fan; Shen, Ting; Duan, Ting; Zhou, Jing; Shi, Yin; Zhu, Xin-Qiang; Shen, Han-Ming

2012-01-01

69

Effect of cilostazol pretreatment on the PARP/AIF-mediated apoptotic pathway in rat cerebral ischemia-reperfusion models.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to observe the expression of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus and to explore whether cilostazol pretreatment exerts a protective effect on the brain through the PARP/AIF-mediated pathway in a rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. Rats were randomly divided into three groups: Sham-surgery, ischemia-reperfusion and cilostazol (n=45 rats/group). Rat models of middle cerebral artery occlusion were prepared using a thread occlusion method. Rats in the cilostazol group were administered 30 mg/kg intragastric cilostazol 6 and 2 h before brain ischemia, respectively. Following reperfusion, samples were collected at different time-points (6, 24 and 72 h) and each group was further subdivided into three subgroups (n=15 rats/subgroup). Apoptosis was measured using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling method. The protein expression levels of AIF and PARP were detected using western blot analysis and the expression levels of AIF mRNA were determined using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. AIF nuclear translocation occurred following local cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Apoptosis, levels of AIF and PARP protein expression and levels of AIF mRNA expression were significantly increased in the ischemia-reperfusion group compared with the sham-surgery group (P<0.05). However, apoptosis and the expression levels of AIF protein, PARP protein and AIF mRNA at different time-points were significantly decreased in the cilostazol group compared with the ischemia-reperfusion group (P<0.05). In conclusion, cilostazol has a protective effect on rat cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, and acts by inhibiting nerve cell apoptosis by preventing the excessive activation of PARP and AIF nuclear translocation. PMID:24940413

Ba, Xiao-Hong; Cai, Li-Ping; Han, Wei

2014-05-01

70

Apoptotic Response through a High Mobility Box 1 Protein-Dependent Mechanism in LPS/GalN-Induced Mouse Liver Failure and Glycyrrhizin-Mediated Inhibition  

PubMed Central

HMGB1 is a nuclear component involved in nucleosome stabilization and transcription regulation, but extracellularly it is able to serve as a potential late mediator of lethality. In the present study, we explored inflammation-promoting activity of HMGB1 and blockade of extracellular release of HMGB1 by glycyrrhizin (GL) in LPS/GalN-triggered mouse liver injury. At 1 to 10 h after LPS/GalN-treatment, mice were anesthetized to collect blood from heart puncture, and serum transaminase and HMGB1 were evaluated. Administration of LPS/GalN precipitated tissue injury associated with time-dependent alteration in HMGB1 serum levels. At 8 h nuclear immunoreactive products were remarkably reduced and extracellular HMGB1 expression was found exclusively in the pericentral foci. The treatment with GL significantly down-regulated the serum levels of ALT, AST, and HMGB1 in addition to the strong inhibition of tissue injury and extracellular immunoreactivity to HMGB1 and to acetylated-lysine. Furthermore, GL brought about a significant decrease in the number of apoptotic hepatocytes labeled with TUNEL-method. On the basis of these results, three apoptosis-associated genes were identified with microarray analysis and real-time PCR. The ChIP-assay revealed the binding of HMGB1 protein to Gsto1 promoter sequence in LPS/GalN-treated mice and the remarkable decrease in combined HMGB1 protein by GL. The current findings claim that a single injection of LPS/GalN might stimulate apoptosis of hepatocytes through the binding of HMGB1 protein to Gsto1 promoter region and that GL-treatment might prevent the apoptosis and inflammatory infiltrates caused with LPS/GalN-injection by disturbing the binding of HMGB1 protein to Gsto1 promoter sequence. PMID:24690901

Kuroda, Noriyuki; Inoue, Kouji; Ikeda, Tadayuki; Hara, Yaiko; Wake, Kenjiro; Sato, Tetsuji

2014-01-01

71

Apoptotic regulation and transfer RNA  

PubMed Central

Apoptotic regulation is critical to organismal homeostasis and protection against many human disease processes such as cancer. Significant research efforts over the past several decades have illuminated many of the signaling molecules and effecter proteins responsible for this form of programmed cell death. Recent evidence suggests that transfer RNA (tRNA) regulates apoptotic sensitivity at the level of cytochrome c-mediated apoptosome formation. This finding unexpectedly places tRNA at the nexus of cellular biosynthesis and survival. Here we review the current understanding of both the apoptotic machinery and tRNA biology. We describe the evidence linking tRNA and cytochrome c in depth, and speculate on the implications of this link in cell biology. PMID:21113408

Mei, Yide; Stonestrom, Aaron; Hou, Ya-Ming; Yang, Xiaolu

2010-01-01

72

Age-related proteostasis and metabolic alterations in Caspase-2-deficient mice.  

PubMed

Ageing is a complex biological process for which underlying biochemical changes are still largely unknown. We performed comparative profiling of the cellular proteome and metabolome to understand the molecular basis of ageing in Caspase-2-deficient (Casp2(-/-)) mice that are a model of premature ageing in the absence of overt disease. Age-related changes were determined in the liver and serum of young (6-9 week) and aged (18-24 month) wild-type and Casp2(-/-) mice. We identified perturbed metabolic pathways, decreased levels of ribosomal and respiratory complex proteins and altered mitochondrial function that contribute to premature ageing in the Casp2(-/-) mice. We show that the metabolic profile changes in the young Casp2(-/-) mice resemble those found in aged wild-type mice. Intriguingly, aged Casp2(-/-) mice were found to have reduced blood glucose and improved glucose tolerance. These results demonstrate an important role for caspase-2 in regulating proteome and metabolome remodelling during ageing. PMID:25611376

Wilson, C H; Shalini, S; Filipovska, A; Richman, T R; Davies, S; Martin, S D; McGee, S L; Puccini, J; Nikolic, A; Dorstyn, L; Kumar, S

2015-01-01

73

A Novel Herbal Medicine, KIOM-C, Induces Autophagic and Apoptotic Cell Death Mediated by Activation of JNK and Reactive Oxygen Species in HT1080 Human Fibrosarcoma Cells  

PubMed Central

KIOM-C was recently demonstrated to have anti-metastatic activity in highly malignant cancer cells via suppression of NF-?B-mediated MMP-9 activity. In addition, it was reported to be effective for clearance of the influenza virus by increasing production of anti-viral cytokines, such as TNF-? and IFN-?, and efficacious in the treatment of pigs suffering from porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD). In this study, we investigated whether KIOM-C induces cancer cell death and elucidated the underlying anti-cancer mechanisms. In addition, we examined whether KIOM-C oral administration suppresses in vivo tumor growth of HT1080 cells in athymic nude mice. We initially found that KIOM-C at concentrations of 500 and 1000 µg/ml caused dose- and time-dependent cell death in cancer cells, but not normal hepatocytes, to approximately 50% of control levels. At the early stage of KIOM-C treatment (12 h), cells were arrested in G1 phase, which was accompanied by up-regulation of p21 and p27, down-regulation of cyclin D1, and subsequent increases in apoptotic and autophagic cells. Following KIOM-C treatment, the extent of caspase-3 activation, PARP cleavage, Beclin-1 expression, and LC3-II conversion was remarkably up-regulated, but p62 expression was down-regulated. Phosphorylation of AMPK, ULK, JNK, c-jun, and p53 was increased significantly in response to KIOM-C treatment. The levels of intracellular ROS and CHOP expression were also increased. In particular, the JNK-specific inhibitor SP600125 blocked KIOM-C-induced ROS generation and CHOP expression almost completely, which consequently almost completely rescued cell death, indicating that JNK activation plays a critical role in KIOM-C-induced cell death. Furthermore, daily oral administration of 85 and 170 mg/kg KIOM-C efficiently suppressed the tumorigenic growth of HT1080 cells, without systemic toxicity. These results collectively suggest that KIOM-C efficiently induces cancer cell death by both autophagy and apoptosis via activation of JNK signaling pathways, and KIOM-C represents a safe and potent herbal therapy for treating malignancies. PMID:24878898

Kim, Aeyung; Im, Minju; Yim, Nam-Hui; Kim, Taesoo; Ma, Jin Yeul

2014-01-01

74

Berberine-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells is mediated by reactive oxygen species generation and mitochondrial-related apoptotic pathway.  

PubMed

Berberine has drawn extensive attention toward their wide range of biochemical and pharmacological effects, including antineoplastic effect in recent years, but the precise mechanisms remain unclear. Treatment of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells) with berberine induced inhibition of cell viability in concentration- and time-dependent manner irrespective of their estrogen receptor (ER) expression. Hoechst33342 staining confirmed berberine induced breast cancer cell apoptosis in time-dependent manner. Because apoptosis induction is considered to be a crucial strategy for cancer prevention and therapy, berberine may be an effective chemotherapeutic agent against breast cancer. To explore the precise mechanism, berberine-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial-related apoptotic pathway in human breast cancer cells were investigated in this study. In both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, berberine increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which activated the pro-apoptotic JNK signaling. Phosphorylated JNK triggered mitochondria membrane potential (??m) depolarization and downregulation expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 concomitant with the upregulation expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax. Downregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein in parallel with loss of ??m, leading to increased the release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria, and eventually triggered the caspase-dependent and caspase-independent apoptosis. Taken together, our study reveled that berberine exerted an antitumor activity in breast cancer cells by reactive oxygen species generation and mitochondrial-related apoptotic pathway. These finding provide an insight into the potential of berberine for breast cancer therapy. PMID:25352028

Xie, Juan; Xu, Yinyan; Huang, Xinyan; Chen, Yanni; Fu, Jing; Xi, Mingming; Wang, Li

2014-10-29

75

THE TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PTEN MEDIATES THE PRO-APOPTOTIC ACTIVITY OF DIETARY GENISTEIN ON MAMMARY EPITHELIAL CELLS: IMPLICATIONS FOR MAMMARY CANCER PROTECTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dysregulation of the apoptotic pathway is a hallmark of tumor cells and underlies tumor progression, metastasis, and aggressiveness. We previously reported that AIN-93G diet made with soy protein isolate (SPI+) as the sole protein source protected against DMBA- and NMU-induced tumorigenesis in Sprag...

76

Assessment of in-utero venlafaxine induced, ROS-mediated, apoptotic neurodegeneration in fetal neocortex and neurobehavioral sequelae in rat offspring.  

PubMed

Venlafaxine (VEN), a serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor is being used as a drug of choice for treating clinical depression even during pregnancy. It is an important therapeutic option in the treatment of perinatal depression, but the effects of VEN on fetus and the newborn are uncertain. Therefore, present study was undertaken to investigate the safety of in-utero exposure to VEN in terms of developmental neurotoxicity and neurodegenerative potential by using prenatal rat model. The selected doses of VEN (25, 40 and 50mg/kg) were administered to pregnant rats from GD 5 to 19 through oral gavage. The fetal brains were dissected and processed for histopathological measurements of neocortical thickness that showed significant reduction. Considering vulnerability of immature brain to free radical injury, VEN exposed neocortices were tested for reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels which were significantly increased. As ROS play important role in the initiation of apoptotic mechanisms, we explored for in situ detection of apoptosis by confocal microscopy that showed enhanced apoptosis including chromatin condensation which was further reconfirmed by electron microscopy. Substantially increased levels of pro-apoptotic protein Bax and decreased levels of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 as shown by western blotting also supported the increased neuro-apoptotic degeneration. For further correlation of these findings, prenatally VEN exposed young-adult rat offspring were assessed for open field exploratory behavior that showed increased anxiety-like and stereotypic responses indicating disturbed neurobehavioral pattern. The study concludes that prenatal VEN exposure may primarily enhance ROS generation that plays a key role in regulating release of proapoptotic factors from mitochondria and thereby enhancing apoptotic neurodegeneration that affect proliferation, migration and differentiation of cells, resulting in neuronal deficits manifested as long term neurobehavioral impairments. PMID:25450524

Singh, Manish; Singh, K P; Shukla, Shubha; Dikshit, Madhu

2015-02-01

77

Quercetin enhances apoptotic effect of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in ovarian cancer cells through reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated CCAAT enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP)-death receptor 5 pathway.  

PubMed

Although tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has shown efficacy in a phase 2 clinical trial, development of resistance to TRAIL by tumor cells is a major roadblock. We investigated whether quercetin, a flavonoid, can sensitize human ovarian cancer cells to TRAIL. Results indicate that quercetin sensitized cancer cells to TRAIL. The quercetin induced expression of death receptor DR5 but did not affect expression of DR4 in cancer cells. The induction of DR5 was mediated through activation of JNK and through upregulation of a transcription factor CCAAT enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP); as silencing of these signaling molecules abrogated the effect of quercetin. Upregulation of DR5 was mediated through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as ROS scavengers reduced the effect of quercetin on JNK activation, CHOP upregulation, DR induction, TRAIL sensitization, downregulated the expression of cell survival proteins and upregulated the proapoptotic proteins. Furthermore, quercetin enhances TRAIL mediated inhibition of tumor growth of human SKOV-3 xenograft was associated with induction of apoptosis, activation of caspase-3, CHOP and DR5. Overall, our data suggest that quercetin enhances apoptotic death of ovarian cancer cells to TRAIL through upregulation of CHOP-induced DR5 expression following ROS mediated endoplasmic reticulum-stress. PMID:24612139

Yi, Liu; Zongyuan, Yang; Cheng, Gong; Lingyun, Zhang; Guilian, Yu; Wei, Gong

2014-05-01

78

The roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial apoptotic signaling pathway in quercetin-mediated cell death of human prostate cancer PC-3 cells.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer has its highest incidence and is becoming a major concern. Many studies have shown that traditional Chinese medicine exhibited antitumor responses. Quercetin, a natural polyphenolic compound, has been shown to induce apoptosis in many human cancer cell lines. Although numerous evidences show multiple possible signaling pathways of quercetin in apoptosis, there is no report to address the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in quercetin-induced apoptosis in PC-3 cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of quercetin on the induction of the apoptotic pathway in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Cells were treated with quercetin for 24 and 48 h and at various doses (50-200 ?M), and cell morphology and viability decreased significantly in dose-dependent manners. Flow cytometric assay indicated that quercetin at 150 ?M caused G0/G1 phase arrest (31.4-49.7%) and sub-G1 phase cells (19.77%) for 36 h treatment and this effect is a time-dependent manner. Western blotting analysis indicated that quercetin induces the G0/G1 phase arrest via decreasing the levels of CDK2, cyclins E, and D proteins. Quercetin also stimulated the protein expression of ATF, GRP78, and GADD153 which is a hall marker of ER stress. Furthermore, PC-3 cells after incubation with quercetin for 48 h showed an apoptotic cell death and DNA damage which are confirmed by DAPI and Comet assays, leading to decrease the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein and level of ??m , and increase the proapoptotic Bax protein and the activations of caspase-3, -8, and -9. Moreover, quercetin promoted the trafficking of AIF protein released from mitochondria to nuclei. These data suggest that quercetin may induce apoptosis by direct activation of caspase cascade through mitochondrial pathway and ER stress in PC-3 cells. PMID:22431435

Liu, Kuo-Ching; Yen, Chun-Yi; Wu, Rick Sai-Chuen; Yang, Jai-Sing; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Lu, Kung-Wen; Lo, Chyi; Chen, Hung-Yi; Tang, Nou-Ying; Wu, Chih-Chung; Chung, Jing-Gung

2014-04-01

79

The apoptotic effect of hesperetin on human cervical cancer cells is mediated through cell cycle arrest, death receptor, and mitochondrial pathways.  

PubMed

Hesperetin, a flavonoid from citrus fruits, has several bioactivities such as anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antiatherogenic effects. However, studies elucidating the role and the mechanism(s) of action of hesperetin in cervical cancer are sparse. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of the antiproliferative and apoptotic actions exerted by hesperetin on human cervical cancer SiHa cells. The viability of SiHa cells was evaluated using the MTT assay, apoptosis by acridine orange/ethidium bromide, propidium iodide, TUNEL assay, and Annexin V-Cy3, cell cycle distribution and mitochondrial transmembrane potential using flow cytometry, and apoptotic marker genes using quantitative real-time PCR. The treatment of SiHa cells with hesperetin (IC50, 650 ?m) showed a marked concentration- and time-dependent inhibition of proliferation and induced the G2/M phase in a dose-dependent manner after 24 h. There was an attenuation of mitochondrial membrane potential with increased expression of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, p53, Bax, and Fas death receptor and its adaptor protein Fas-associated death domain-containing protein (FADD), indicating the participation of both death receptor- and mitochondria-related mechanisms. Furthermore, hesperetin-induced apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL and Annexin V-Cy3. This study shows that hesperetin exhibits a potential anticancer activity against human cervical cancer cell lines in vitro through the reduction in cell viability and the induction of apoptosis. Altogether, these data sustain our contention that hesperetin has anticancer properties and merits further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent. PMID:22913657

Alshatwi, Ali A; Ramesh, E; Periasamy, V S; Subash-Babu, P

2013-12-01

80

Loss of caspase-2 accelerates age-dependent alterations in mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species.  

PubMed

Mitochondria are known to be a major source and target of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress increases during aging and is suggested to underlie in part the aging process. We have previously documented an increase in endogenous caspase-2 (casp2) activity in hepatocytes obtained from old (28 months) vs. young mice (5 months). More recently, we have shown that casp2 is activated by oxidative stress and is critical for mitochondrial oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Since casp2 appears integral to mitochondrial oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, in this study we determined whether loss of casp2 altered the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen radicals (mROS) as a function of age in intact living hepatocytes. To stimulate mitochondrial metabolic activity, we added a mixture of pyruvate and glutamate to hepatocytes while continuously monitoring endogenous mROS production in the presence or absence of rotenone and/or antimycin A. Our data demonstrate that mROS production and neutralization are compromised in hepatocytes of old mice. Interestingly, casp2 deficient hepatocytes from middle age mice (12 months) had similar mROS neutralization kinetics to those of hepatocytes from old WT mice. Rotenone had no effect on mROS metabolism, whereas antimycin A significantly altered mROS production and metabolism in an age-dependent fashion. Our results indicate that: (1) hepatocytes from young and old mice respond differently to dysfunction of the mitochondrial electron transport chain; (2) age-dependent alterations in mROS metabolism are likely regulated by complex III; and (3) absence of casp2 accelerates age-dependent changes in terms of pyruvate/glutamate-induced mROS metabolism. PMID:23504374

Lopez-Cruzan, Marisa; Herman, Brian

2013-04-01

81

AlphaII-spectrin is an in vitro target for caspase-2, and its cleavage is regulated by calmodulin binding.  

PubMed Central

The spectrin-actin scaffold underlying the lipid bilayer is considered to participate in cell-shape stabilization and in the organization of specialized membrane subdomains. These structures are dynamic and likely to undergo frequent remodelling during changes in cell shape. Proteolysis of spectrin, which occurs during apoptosis, leads to destabilization of the scaffold. It is also one of the major processes involved in membrane remodelling. Spectrins, the main components of the membrane skeleton, are the targets for two important protease systems: m- and micro-calpains (Ca2+-activated proteases) and caspase-3 (activated during apoptosis). In this paper, we show that caspase-2 also targets spectrin in vitro, and we characterize Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent regulation of spectrin cleavage by caspases. Yeast two-hybrid screening reveals that the large isoform (1/L) of procaspase-2 specifically binds to alphaII-spectrin, while the short isoform does not. Like caspase-3, caspase-2 cleaves alphaII-spectrin in vitro at residue Asp-1185. This study emphasizes a role of executioner caspase for caspase-2. We also demonstrated that the executioner caspase-7 but not caspase-6 cleaves spectrin at residue Asp-1185 in vitro. This spectrin cleavage by caspases 2, 3 and 7 is inhibited by the Ca2+-dependent binding of calmodulin to spectrin. In contrast, calmodulin binding enhances spectrin cleavage by calpain at residue Tyr-1176. These results indicate that alphaII-spectrin cleavage is highly influenced by Ca2+ homoeostasis and calmodulin, which therefore represent potential regulators of the stability and the plasticity of the spectrin-based skeleton. PMID:14599290

Rotter, Björn; Kroviarski, Yolande; Nicolas, Gaël; Dhermy, Didier; Lecomte, Marie-Christine

2004-01-01

82

In the absence of cellular poly (A) binding protein, the glycolytic enzyme GAPDH translocated to the cell nucleus and activated the GAPDH mediated apoptotic pathway by enhancing acetylation and serine 46 phosphorylation of p53  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} PABP knock down and cell apoptosis. {yields} Nuclear translocation of GAPDH in PABP depleted cells. {yields} Role of p53 in apoptosis of PABP depleted cells. {yields} Bax translocation and cytochrome C release and caspase 3 activation following PABP depletion. {yields} Association of p53 with Bcl2 and Bax. -- Abstract: The cytoplasmic poly (A) binding protein (PABP) interacts with 3' poly (A) tract of eukaryotic mRNA and is important for both translation and stability of mRNA. Previously, we have shown that depletion of PABP by siRNA prevents protein synthesis and consequently leads to cell death through apoptosis. In the present investigation, we studied the mechanism of cell apoptosis. We show that in the absence of PABP, the glycolytic enzyme GAPDH translocated to the cell nucleus and activated the GAPDH mediated apoptotic pathway by enhancing acetylation and serine 46 phosphorylation of p53. As a result, p53 translocated to the mitochondria to initiate Bax mediated apoptosis.

Thangima Zannat, Mst.; Bhattacharjee, Rumpa B. [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)] [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Bag, Jnanankur, E-mail: jbag@uoguelph.ca [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)] [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)

2011-06-03

83

Phenethyl Isothiocyanate (PEITC) Inhibits the Growth of Human Oral Squamous Carcinoma HSC-3 Cells through G0/G1 Phase Arrest and Mitochondria-Mediated Apoptotic Cell Death  

PubMed Central

Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), an effective anticancer and chemopreventive agent, has been reported to inhibit cancer cell growth through cell-cycle arrest and induction of apoptotic events in various human cancer cells models. However, whether PEITC inhibits human oral squamous cell carcinoma HSC-3 cell growth and its underlying mechanisms is still not well elucidated. In the present study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of PEITC in HSC-3 cells and examined PEITC-modulated cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. The contrast-phase and flow cytometric assays were used for examining cell morphological changes and viability, respectively. The changes of cell-cycle and apoptosis-associated protein levels were determined utilizing Western blotting in HSC-3 cells after exposure to PEITC. Our results indicated that PEITC effectively inhibited the HSC-3 cells' growth and caused apoptosis. PEITC induced G0/G1 phase arrest through the effects of associated protein such as p53, p21, p17, CDK2 and cyclin E, and it triggered apoptosis through promotion of Bax and Bid expression and reduction of Bcl-2, leading to decrease the levels of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), and followed the releases of cytochrome c, AIF and Endo G then for causing apoptosis in HSC-3 cells. These results suggest that PEITC could be an antitumor compound for oral cancer therapy. PMID:22919418

Chen, Po-Yuan; Lin, Kai-Chun; Lin, Jing-Pin; Tang, Nou-Ying; Yang, Jai-Sing; Lu, Kung-Wen; Chung, Jing-Gung

2012-01-01

84

Mediation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and apoptotic signaling by resveratrol following muscle disuse in the gastrocnemius muscles of young and old rats  

PubMed Central

Hindlimb suspension (HLS) elicits muscle atrophy, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in skeletal muscle. Increases in oxidative stress can have detrimental effects on muscle mass and function, and it can potentially lead to myonuclear apoptosis. Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenol possessing both antioxidant and antiaging properties. To analyze the capacity of resveratrol to attenuate oxidative stress, apoptosis and muscle force loss were measured following 14 days of HLS. Young (6 mo) and old (34 mo) rats were administered either 12.5 mg·kg?1·day?1 of trans-resveratrol, or 0.1% carboxymethylcellulose for 21 days, including 14 days of HLS. HLS induced a significant decrease in plantarflexor isometric force, but resveratrol blunted this loss in old animals. Resveratrol increased gastrocnemius catalase activity, MnSOD activity, and MnSOD protein content following HLS. Resveratrol reduced hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation levels in muscles from old animals after HLS. Caspase 9 abundance was reduced and Bcl-2 was increased, but other apoptotic markers were not affected by resveratrol in the gastrocnemius muscle after HLS. The data indicate that resveratrol has a protective effect against oxidative stress and muscle force loss in old HLS animals; however, resveratrol was unable to attenuate apoptosis following HLS. These results suggest that resveratrol has the potential to be an effective therapeutic agent to treat muscle functional decrements via improving the redox status associated with disuse. PMID:20861279

Jackson, Janna R.; Ryan, Michael J.; Hao, Yanlei

2010-01-01

85

Apoptotic cells subjected to cold/warming exposure disorganize apoptotic microtubule network and undergo secondary necrosis.  

PubMed

Apoptotic microtubule network (AMN) is organized during apoptosis, forming a cortical structure beneath the plasma membrane which plays a critical role in preserving cell morphology and plasma membrane integrity. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of cold/warming exposure on apoptotic microtubules and plasma membrane integrity during the execution phase of apoptosis. We demonstrated in camptothecin-induced apoptotic H460 cells that cold/warming exposure disorganized apoptotic microtubules and allowed the access of active caspases to the cellular cortex and the cleavage of essential proteins in the preservation of plasma membrane permeability. Cleavage of cellular cortex and plasma membrane proteins, such as ?-spectrin, paxilin, focal adhesion kinase and calcium ATPase pump (PMCA-4) involved in cell calcium extrusion resulted in increased plasma permeability and calcium overload leading apoptotic cells to secondary necrosis. The essential role of caspase-mediated cleavage in this process was demonstrated because the addition of the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD during cold/warming exposure that induces AMN depolymerization avoided the cleavage of cortical and plasma membrane proteins and prevented apoptotic cells to undergo secondary necrosis. Likewise, apoptotic microtubules stabilization by taxol during cold/warming exposure also prevented cellular cortex and plasma membrane protein cleavage and secondary necrosis. Furthermore, microtubules stabilization or caspase inhibition during cold/warming exposure was also critical for proper phosphatidylserine externalization and apoptotic cell clearance by macrophages. These results indicate that cold/warming exposure of apoptotic cells induces secondary necrosis which can be prevented by both, microtubule stabilization or caspase inhibition. PMID:25027509

Oropesa-Ávila, Manuel; Fernández-Vega, Alejandro; de la Mata, Mario; Garrido-Maraver, Juan; Cotán, David; Paz, Marina Villanueva; Pavón, Ana Delgado; Cordero, Mario D; Alcocer-Gómez, Elizabet; de Lavera, Isabel; Lema, Rafael; Zaderenko, Ana Paula; Sánchez-Alcázar, José A

2014-09-01

86

Ultraviolet-C overexposure induces programmed cell death in Arabidopsis, which is mediated by caspase-like activities and which can be suppressed by caspase inhibitors, p35 and Defender against Apoptotic Death.  

PubMed

Plants, animals, and several branches of unicellular eukaryotes use programmed cell death (PCD) for defense or developmental mechanisms. This argues for a common ancestral apoptotic system in eukaryotes. However, at the molecular level, very few regulatory proteins or protein domains have been identified as conserved across all eukaryotic PCD forms. A very important goal is to determine which molecular components may be used in the execution of PCD in plants, which have been conserved during evolution, and which are plant-specific. Using Arabidopsis thaliana, we have shown that UV radiation can induce apoptosis-like changes at the cellular level and that a UV experimental system is relevant to the study of PCD in plants. We report here that UV induction of PCD required light and that a protease cleaving the caspase substrate Asp-Glu-Val-Asp (DEVDase activity) was induced within 30 min and peaked at 1 h. This DEVDase appears to be related to animal caspases at the biochemical level, being insensitive to broad-range cysteine protease inhibitors. In addition, caspase-1 and caspase-3 inhibitors and the pan-caspase inhibitor p35 were able to suppress DNA fragmentation and cell death. These results suggest that a YVADase activity and an inducible DEVDase activity possibly mediate DNA fragmentation during plant PCD induced by UV overexposure. We also report that At-DAD1 and At-DAD2, the two A. thaliana homologs of Defender against Apoptotic Death-1, could suppress the onset of DNA fragmentation in A. thaliana, supporting an involvement of the endoplasmic reticulum in this form of the plant PCD pathway. PMID:14573611

Danon, Antoine; Rotari, Vitalie I; Gordon, Anna; Mailhac, Nathalie; Gallois, Patrick

2004-01-01

87

Transcriptomic Analysis Unveils Correlations between Regulative Apoptotic Caspases and Genes of Cholesterol Homeostasis in Human Brain  

PubMed Central

Regulative circuits controlling expression of genes involved in the same biological processes are frequently interconnected. These circuits operate to coordinate the expression of multiple genes and also to compensate dysfunctions in specific elements of the network. Caspases are cysteine-proteases with key roles in the execution phase of apoptosis. Silencing of caspase-2 expression in cultured glioblastoma cells allows the up-regulation of a limited number of genes, among which some are related to cholesterol homeostasis. Lysosomal Acid Lipase A (LIPA) was up-regulated in two different cell lines in response to caspase-2 down-regulation and cells silenced for caspase-2 exhibit reduced cholesterol staining in the lipid droplets. We expanded this observation by large-scale analysis of mRNA expression. All caspases were analyzed in terms of co-expression in comparison with 166 genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. In the brain, hierarchical clustering has revealed that the expression of regulative apoptotic caspases (CASP2, CASP8 CASP9, CASP10) and of the inflammatory CASP1 is linked to several genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. These correlations resulted in altered GBM (Glioblastoma Multiforme), in particular for CASP1. We have also demonstrated that these correlations are tissue specific being reduced (CASP9 and CASP10) or different (CASP2) in the liver. For some caspases (CASP1, CASP6 and CASP7) these correlations could be related to brain aging. PMID:25330190

Picco, Raffaella; Tomasella, Andrea; Fogolari, Federico; Brancolini, Claudio

2014-01-01

88

Evidence for Apoptotic Cell Death in Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide evidence for apoptosis in Alzheimer's disease using the in situ labeling technique TUNEL (terminal transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling), The technique specifically detects apoptotic cells by utilizing terminal transferase to incorporate biotinylated nucleotides into the fragmented DNA of apoptotic cells. The labeled cells are visualized by reaction with avidin peroxidase and a suitable substrate. Sections from the hippocampus

Georgeann Smale; Nancy R. Nichols; Daniel R. Brady; Caleb E. Finch; Walter E. Horton

1995-01-01

89

An investigation on the cytotoxicity and caspase-mediated apoptotic effect of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles using Podophyllum hexandrum on human cervical carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Now-a-days synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) through biological entity is quite interesting to employ AgNPs for various biomedical applications in general and treatment of cancer in particular. This paper presents the green synthesis of AgNPs using leaf extract of Podophyllum hexandrum Royle and optimized with various parameters such as pH, temperature, reaction time, volume of extract and metal ion concentration for synthesis of AgNPs. TEM, XRD and FTIR were adopted for characterization. The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be spherical shaped with average size of 14 nm. Effects of AgNPs were analyzed against human cervical carcinoma cells by MTT Assay, quantification of ROS, RT-PCR and western blotting techniques. The overall result indicates that AgNPs can selectively inhibit the cellular mechanism of HeLa by DNA damage and caspase mediated cell death. This biological procedure for synthesis of AgNPs and selective inhibition of cancerous cells gives an alternative avenue to treat human cancer effectively. PMID:23117153

Jeyaraj, Murugaraj; Rajesh, Manoharan; Arun, Renganathan; MubarakAli, Davoodbasha; Sathishkumar, Gnanasekar; Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Dev, Gnanajothi Kapil; Manickavasagam, Markandan; Premkumar, Kumpati; Thajuddin, Nooruddin; Ganapathi, Andy

2013-02-01

90

Inactivation of ceramide transfer protein during pro-apoptotic stress by Golgi disassembly and caspase cleavage.  

PubMed

The mammalian Golgi apparatus is composed of multiple stacks of cisternal membranes organized laterally into a polarized ribbon. Furthermore, trans-Golgi membranes come in close apposition with ER (endoplasmic reticulum) membranes to form ER-trans-Golgi contact sites, which may facilitate transfer of newly synthesized ceramide from the ER to SM (sphingomyelin) synthase at the trans-Golgi via CERT (ceramide transfer protein). CERT interacts with both ER and Golgi membranes, and together with Golgi morphology contributes to efficient SM synthesis. In the present study, we show that Golgi disassembly during pro-apoptotic stress induced by TNF? (tumour necrosis factor ?) and anisomycin results in decreased levels of CERT at the Golgi region. This is accompanied by a caspase-dependent loss of full-length CERT and reduction in de novo SM synthesis. In vitro, CERT is cleaved by caspases 2, 3 and 9. Truncated versions of CERT corresponding to fragments generated by caspase 2 cleavage at Asp213 were mislocalized and did not promote efficient de novo SM synthesis. Thus it is likely that during cellular stress, disassembly of Golgi structure together with inactivation of CERT by caspases causes a reduction in ceramide trafficking and SM synthesis, and could contribute to the cellular response to pro-apoptotic stress. PMID:22129459

Chandran, Suchismita; Machamer, Carolyn E

2012-03-01

91

H. pylori Infection Inhibits Phagocyte Clearance of Apoptotic Gastric Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Increased apoptotic death of gastric epithelial cells is a hallmark of H. pylori infection, and altered epithelial cell turnover is an important contributor to gastric carcinogenesis. To address the fate of apoptotic gastric epithelial cells and their role in H. pylori mucosal disease, we investigated phagocyte clearance of apoptotic gastric epithelial cells in H. pylori infection. Human gastric mononuclear phagocytes were analyzed for their ability to take up apoptotic epithelial cells in vivo using immunofluorescence analysis. We then used primary human gastric epithelial cells induced to undergo apoptosis by exposure to live H. pylori to study apoptotic cell uptake by autologous monocyte-derived macrophages. We show that HLA-DR+ mononuclear phagocytes in human gastric mucosa contain cytokeratin-positive and TUNEL-positive apoptotic epithelial cell material, indicating that gastric phagocytes are involved in apoptotic epithelial cell clearance. We further show that H. pylori both increased apoptosis in primary gastric epithelial cells and decreased phagocytosis of the apoptotic epithelial cells by autologous monocyte-derived macrophages. Reduced macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells was mediated in part by H. pylori-induced macrophage TNF-?, which was expressed at higher levels in H. pylori-infected, compared to uninfected, gastric mucosa. Importantly, we show that H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa contained significantly higher numbers of apoptotic epithelial cells and higher levels of non-phagocytosed TUNEL-positive apoptotic material, consistent with a defect in apoptotic cell clearance. Thus, as shown in other autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases, insufficient phagocyte clearance may contribute to the chronic and self-perpetuating inflammation in human H. pylori infection. PMID:23686492

Bimczok, Diane; Smythies, Lesley E.; Waites, Ken B.; Grams, Jayleen M.; Stahl, Richard D.; Mannon, Peter J.; Peter, Shajan; Wilcox, C. Mel; Harris, Paul R.; Das, Soumita; Ernst, Peter B.; Smith, Phillip D.

2013-01-01

92

Dysfunctional cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator inhibits phagocytosis of apoptotic cells with proinflammatory consequences  

PubMed Central

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutated CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and is characterized by robust airway inflammation and accumulation of apoptotic cells. Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) is a pivotal regulator of inflammation, because it prevents postapoptotic necrosis and actively suppresses release of a variety of proinflammatory mediators, including IL-8. Because CF is associated with accumulation of apoptotic cells, inappropriate levels of IL-8, and robust inflammation, we sought to determine whether CFTR deficiency specifically impairs efferocytosis and its regulation of inflammatory mediator release. Here we show that CFTR deficiency directly interferes with efferocytosis by airway epithelium, an effect that is not due to altered binding of apoptotic cells to epithelial cells or altered expression of efferocytosis receptors. In contrast, expression of RhoA, a known negative regulator of efferocytosis, is substantially increased in CFTR-deficient cells, and inhibitors of RhoA or its downstream effector Rho kinase normalize efferocytosis in these cells. Impaired efferocytosis appears to be mediated through an amiloride-sensitive ion channel, because amiloride restores phagocytic competency in CFTR-deficient cells. Finally, ineffective efferocytosis in CFTR-deficient cells appears to have proinflammatory consequences, because apoptotic cells enhance IL-8 release by these cells, but not by wild-type controls. Therefore, in CF, dysregulated efferocytosis may lead to accumulation of apoptotic cells and impaired regulation of the inflammatory response and, ultimately, may suggest a new therapeutic target. PMID:19633071

Richens, Tiffany R.; Horstmann, Sarah A.; deCathelineau, Aimee M.; Ghosh, Moumita; Reynolds, Susan D.; Xiao, Yi-Qun; Riches, David W.; Plumb, Jonathan; Vachon, Eric; Downey, Gregory P.; Henson, Peter M.

2009-01-01

93

Opsonization of Apoptotic Cells by Autologous iC3b Facilitates Clearance by Immature Dendritic Cells, Down-regulates DR and CD86, and Up-regulates CC Chemokine Receptor 7  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immature dendritic cells (iDCs) do not mature after uptake of apoptotic cells and may play a role in the induction of peripheral tolerance to self antigens derived from apoptotic material. The integrins, ? v ? 3, ? v ? 5, and the scavenger receptor, CD36, have been shown to mediate uptake of apoptotic cells by iDCs. However, it is not

Inna Verbovetski; Hila Bychkov; Uriel Trahtemberg; Itzhak Shapira; Mara Hareuveni; Ofira Ben-Tal; Ina Kutikov; Oranit Gill; Dror Mevorach

94

The nuclear receptor interacting factor-3 transcriptional coregulator mediates rapid apoptosis in breast cancer cells through direct and bystander-mediated events.  

PubMed

We previously reported that amino acids 20 to 50 of nuclear receptor interacting factor-3 mediates rapid apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines but not in cells derived from other tissues. We refer to this short region as death domain-1 (DD1). Small interfering RNA studies indicated that DD1-mediated apoptosis is caspase-2 dependent. In this study, we examined DD1-mediated apoptosis in more detail and generated stable caspase-2 knockdown breast cancer cells. These cells are resistant to DD1-mediated apoptosis. Time-lapse movies suggested that DD1-mediated apoptosis also leads to a "bystander effect." We found that within 5 h of DD1 expression, breast cancer cells release a factor(s) into the medium that leads to apoptosis of naive breast cancer cells or DD1-resistant cells (e.g., HeLa). The DD1-expressing caspase-2 knockdown cells also release a factor(s) that kills other cells, indicating that this effect is not dependent on the apoptogenic process. The bystander effect seems dependent on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These and other studies indicate that DD1 expression in breast cancer cells leads to at least two death signals: one involving the rapid production of ROS and/or other soluble factors that directly or indirectly leads to a bystander effect and a second caspase-2-dependent process that leads to apoptosis in cells in which DD1 is expressed. PMID:17308120

Das, Sharmistha; Nwachukwu, Jerome C; Li, Dangsheng; Vulin, Anthony I; Martinez-Caballero, Sonia; Kinnally, Kathleen W; Samuels, Herbert H

2007-02-15

95

Apoptotic Engulfment Pathway and Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundApoptosis has been speculated to be involved in schizophrenia. In a previously study, we reported the association of the MEGF10 gene with the disease. In this study, we followed the apoptotic engulfment pathway involving the MEGF10, GULP1, ABCA1 and ABCA7 genes and tested their association with the disease.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsTen, eleven and five SNPs were genotyped in the GULP1, ABCA1 and

Xiangning Chen; Cuie Sun; Qi Chen; F. Anthony O'Neill; Dermot Walsh; Ayman H. Fanous; Kodavali V. Chowdari; Vishwajit L. Nimgaonkar; Adrian Scott; Sibylle G. Schwab; Dieter B. Wildenauer; Ronglin Che; Wei Tang; Yongyong Shi; Lin He; Xiong-Jian Luo; Bing Su; Todd L. Edwards; Zhongming Zhao; Kenneth S. Kendler; Hitoshi Okazawa

2009-01-01

96

The Nuclear Receptor Interacting Factor3 Transcriptional Coregulator Mediates Rapid Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells through Direct and Bystander-Mediated Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously reported that amino acids 20 to 50 of nuclear receptor interacting factor-3 mediates rapid apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines but not in cells derived from other tissues. We refer to this short region as death domain-1 (DD1). Small interfering RNA studies indicated that DD1-mediated apoptosis is caspase-2 dependent. In this study, we examined DD1-mediated apoptosis in more

Sharmistha Das; Jerome C. Nwachukwu; Dangsheng Li; Kathleen W. Kinnally; Herbert H. Samuels

2007-01-01

97

Structural basis for autoantibody recognition of phosphatidylserine-?2 glycoprotein I and apoptotic cells  

PubMed Central

Apoptotic cells contain nuclear autoantigens that may initiate a systemic autoimmune response. To explore the mechanism of antibody binding to apoptotic cells, 3H9, a murine autoantibody with dual specificity for phospholipids and DNA, was used. H chain mutants of 3H9 were constructed, expressed as single-chain Fv (scFv) in Escherichia coli, and assessed for binding to phosphatidylserine, an antigen expressed on apoptotic cells. Both 3H9 and its germline revertant bound to dioleoyl phosphatidylserine in ELISA, and binding was enhanced by ?2 glycoprotein I (?2GPI), a plasma protein that selectively binds to apoptotic cells. Higher relative affinity for DOPS-?2GPI was achieved by the introduction of Arg residues into the 3H9 H chain variable region at positions previously shown to mediate DNA binding. Specificity of the two structurally most diverse scFv for apoptotic cells was shown by flow cytometry, and two populations of scFv-bound cells were identified by differences in propidium iodide staining. The results suggest that, in autoimmunity, B cells with Ig receptors for apoptotic cells and DNA are positively selected, and that the antibodies they produce have the potential to affect the clearance and processing of apoptotic cells. PMID:11717440

Cocca, Brian A.; Seal, Samarendra N.; D'Agnillo, Paolo; Mueller, Yvonne M.; Katsikis, Peter D.; Rauch, Joyce; Weigert, Martin; Radic, Marko Z.

2001-01-01

98

Annexin A1 on the Surface of Early Apoptotic Cells Suppresses CD8+ T Cell Immunity  

PubMed Central

Prevention of an immune response against self-antigens derived from apoptotic cells is essential to preclude autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases. Here, we describe apoptosis induced externalization of endogenous cytosolic annexin 1 initiating an anti-inflammatory effector mechanism that suppresses the immune response against antigens of apoptotic cells. Cytosolic annexin 1 rapidly translocated to the apoptotic cell surface and inhibited dendritic cell (DC) activation induced by Toll like receptors (TLR). Annexin 1-inhibited DC showed strongly reduced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. TNF and IL-12) and costimulatory surface molecules (e.g. CD40 and CD86), while anti-inflammatory mediators like PD-L1 remained unchanged. T cells stimulated by such DC lacked secretion of interferon-? (IFN-?) and TNF but retained IL-10 secretion. In mice, annexin 1 prevented the development of inflammatory DC and suppressed the cellular immune response against the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) expressed in apoptotic cells. Furthermore, annexin 1 on apoptotic cells compromised OVA-specific tumor vaccination and impaired rejection of an OVA-expressing tumor. Thus, our results provide a molecular mechanism for the suppressive activity of apoptotic cells on the immune response towards apoptotic cell-derived self-antigens. This process may play an important role in prevention of autoimmune diseases and of the immune response against cancer. PMID:23638088

Weyd, Heiko; Jahndel, Veronika; Pfrang, Sandra; Schnölzer, Martina; Falk, Christine S.; Krammer, Peter H.

2013-01-01

99

Determinants of eosinophil survival and apoptotic cell death.  

PubMed

Eosinophils (Eos) are potent inflammatory cells and abundantly present in the sputum and lung of patients with allergic asthma. During both transit to and residence in the lung, Eos contact prosurvival cytokines, particularly IL-3, IL-5 and GM-CSF, that attenuate cell death. Cytokine signaling modulates the expression and function of a number of intracellular pro- and anti-apoptotic molecules. Both intrinsic mitochondrial and extrinsic receptor-mediated pathways are affected. This article discusses the fundamental role of the extracellular and intracellular molecules that initiate and control survival decisions by human Eos and highlights the role of the cis-trans isomerase, Pin1 in controlling these processes. PMID:25563855

Shen, Zhong-Jian; Malter, James S

2015-02-01

100

PDT-treated apoptotic cells induce macrophage synthesis NO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitric oxide (NO) is a biologically active molecule which has multi-functional in different species. As a second messenger and neurotransmitter, NO is not only an important regulatory factor between cells' information transmission, but also an important messenger in cell-mediated immunity and cytotoxicity. On the other side, NO is involving in some diseases' pathological process. In pathological conditions, the macrophages are activated to produce a large quantity of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which can use L-arginine to produce an excessive amount of NO, thereby killing bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi, tumor cells, as well as in other series of the immune process. In this paper, photofrin-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) was used to treat EMT6 mammary tumors in vitro to induce apoptotic cells, and then co-incubation both apoptotic cells and macrophages, which could activate macrophage to induce a series of cytotoxic factors, especially NO. This, in turn, utilizes macrophages to activate a cytotoxic response towards neighboring tumor cells. These results provided a new idea for us to further study the immunological mechanism involved in damaging effects of PDT, also revealed the important function of the immune effect of apoptotic cells in PDT.

Song, S.; Xing, D.; Zhou, F. F.; Chen, W. R.

2009-11-01

101

P90RSK and Nrf2 Activation via MEK1/2-ERK1/2 Pathways Mediated by Notoginsenoside R2 to Prevent 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Apoptotic Death in SH-SY5Y Cells  

PubMed Central

6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is known to contribute to neuronal death in Parkinson's disease. In this study, we found that the preincubation of SH-SY5Y cells for 24?h with 20??M notoginsenoside R2 (NGR2), which is a newly isolated notoginsenoside from Panax notoginseng, showed neuroprotective effects against 6-OHDA-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. NGR2 incubation successively resulted in the activation of P90RSK, inactivation of BAD, and inhibition of 6-OHDA-induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization, thus preventing the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. NGR2 incubation also led to the activation of Nrf2 and subsequent activity enhancement of phase II detoxifying enzymes, thus suppressing 6-OHDA-induced oxidative stress, and these effects could be removed by Nrf2 siRNA. We also found that the upstream activators of P90RSK and Nrf2 were the MEK1/2–ERK1/2 pathways but not the JNK, P38, or PI3K/Akt pathways. Interestingly, NGR2 incubation could also activate MEK1/2 and ERK1/2. Most importantly, NGR2-mediated P90RSK and Nrf2 activation, respective downstream target activation, and neuroprotection were reversed by the genetic silencing of MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 by using siRNA and PD98059 application. These results suggested that the neuroprotection elicited by NGR2 against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity was associated with NGR2-mediated P90RSK and Nrf2 activation through MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathways. PMID:24159358

Meng, Xiang-Bao; Sun, Gui-Bo; Sun, Xiao-Bo

2013-01-01

102

Apoptotic Engulfment Pathway and Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background Apoptosis has been speculated to be involved in schizophrenia. In a previously study, we reported the association of the MEGF10 gene with the disease. In this study, we followed the apoptotic engulfment pathway involving the MEGF10, GULP1, ABCA1 and ABCA7 genes and tested their association with the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Ten, eleven and five SNPs were genotyped in the GULP1, ABCA1 and ABCA7 genes respectively for the ISHDSF and ICCSS samples. In all 3 genes, we observed nominally significant associations. Rs2004888 at GULP1 was significant in both ISHDSF and ICCSS samples (p?=?0.0083 and 0.0437 respectively). We sought replication in independent samples for this marker and found highly significant association (p?=?0.0003) in 3 Caucasian replication samples. But it was not significant in the 2 Chinese replication samples. In addition, we found a significant 2-marker (rs2242436 * rs3858075) interaction between the ABCA1 and ABCA7 genes in the ISHDSF sample (p?=?0.0022) and a 3-marker interaction (rs246896 * rs4522565 * rs3858075) amongst the MEGF10, GULP1 and ABCA1 genes in the ICCSS sample (p?=?0.0120). Rs3858075 in the ABCA1 gene was involved in both 2- and 3-marker interactions in the two samples. Conclusions/Significance From these data, we concluded that the GULP1 gene and the apoptotic engulfment pathway are involved in schizophrenia in subjects of European ancestry and multiple genes in the pathway may interactively increase the risks to the disease. PMID:19721717

Chen, Xiangning; Sun, Cuie; Chen, Qi; O'Neill, F. Anthony; Walsh, Dermot; Fanous, Ayman H.; Chowdari, Kodavali V.; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.; Scott, Adrian; Schwab, Sibylle G.; Wildenauer, Dieter B.; Che, Ronglin; Tang, Wei; Shi, Yongyong; He, Lin; Luo, Xiong-jian; Su, Bing; Edwards, Todd L.; Zhao, Zhongming; Kendler, Kenneth S.

2009-01-01

103

EPO Mediates Neurotrophic, Neuroprotective, Anti-Oxidant, and Anti-Apoptotic Effects via Downregulation of miR-451 and miR-885-5p in SH-SY5Y Neuron-Like Cells.  

PubMed

Erythropoietin (EPO) is a neuroprotective cytokine, which has been applied in several animal models presenting neurological disorders. One of the proposed modes of action resulting in neuroprotection is post-transcriptional gene expression regulation. This directly brings to mind microRNAs (miRNAs), which are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. It has not yet been evaluated whether miRNAs participate in the biological effects of EPO or whether it, inversely, modulates specific miRNAs in neuronal cells. In this study, we employed miRNA and mRNA arrays to identify how EPO exerts its biological function. Notably, miR-451 and miR-885-5p are downregulated in EPO-treated SH-SY5Y neuronal-like cells. Accordingly, target prediction and transcriptome analysis of cells treated with EPO revealed an alteration of the expression of genes involved in apoptosis, cell survival, proliferation, and migration. Low expression of miRNAs in SH-SY5Y was correlated with high expression of their target genes, vascular endothelial growth factor A, matrix metallo peptidase 9 (MMP9), cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), erythropoietin receptor, Mini chromosome maintenance complex 5 (MCM5), B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2), and Galanin (GAL). Cell viability, apoptosis, proliferation, and migration assays were carried out for functional analysis after transfection with miRNA mimics, which inhibited some biological actions of EPO such as neuroprotection, anti-oxidation, anti-apoptosis, and migratory effects. In this study, we report for the first time that EPO downregulates the expression of miRNAs (miR-451 and miR-885-5p) in SH-SY5Y neuronal-like cells. The correlation between the over-expression of miRNAs and the decrease in EPO-mediated biological effects suggests that miR-451 and miR-885-5p may play a key role in the mediation of biological function. PMID:25324845

Alural, Begum; Duran, Gizem Ayna; Tufekci, Kemal Ugur; Allmer, Jens; Onkal, Zeynep; Tunali, Dogan; Genc, Kursad; Genc, Sermin

2014-01-01

104

A ligand-receptor pair that triggers a non-apoptotic form of programmed cell death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several receptors that mediate apoptosis have been identified, such as Fas and tumor necrosis factor receptor I. Studies of the signal transduction pathways utilized by these receptors have played an important role in the understanding of apoptosis. Here we report the first ligand-receptor pair–the neuropeptide substance P and its receptor, neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R)–that mediates an alternative, non-apoptotic form of programmed

S Castro-Obregón; G del Rio; S F Chen; R A Swanson; H Frankowski; R V Rao; V Stoka; S Vesce; D G Nicholls; D E Bredesen

2002-01-01

105

The anti-apoptotic role of neurotensin.  

PubMed

The neuropeptide, neurotensin, exerts numerous biological functions, including an efficient anti-apoptotic role, both in the central nervous system and in the periphery. This review summarizes studies that clearly evidenced the protective effect of neurotensin through its three known receptors. The pivotal involvement of the neurotensin receptor-3, also called sortilin, in the molecular mechanisms of the anti-apoptotic action of neurotensin has been analyzed in neuronal cell death, in cancer cell growth and in pancreatic beta cell protection. The relationships between the anti-apoptotic role of neurotensin and important physiological and pathological contexts are discussed in this review. PMID:24709648

Devader, Christelle; Béraud-Dufour, Sophie; Coppola, Thierry; Mazella, Jean

2013-01-01

106

The Anti-Apoptotic Role of Neurotensin  

PubMed Central

The neuropeptide, neurotensin, exerts numerous biological functions, including an efficient anti-apoptotic role, both in the central nervous system and in the periphery. This review summarizes studies that clearly evidenced the protective effect of neurotensin through its three known receptors. The pivotal involvement of the neurotensin receptor-3, also called sortilin, in the molecular mechanisms of the anti-apoptotic action of neurotensin has been analyzed in neuronal cell death, in cancer cell growth and in pancreatic beta cell protection. The relationships between the anti-apoptotic role of neurotensin and important physiological and pathological contexts are discussed in this review. PMID:24709648

Devader, Christelle; Béraud-Dufour, Sophie; Coppola, Thierry; Mazella, Jean

2013-01-01

107

PARP Inhibition Restores Extrinsic Apoptotic Sensitivity in Glioblastoma  

PubMed Central

Background Resistance to apoptosis is a paramount issue in the treatment of Glioblastoma (GBM). We show that targeting PARP by the small molecule inhibitors, Olaparib (AZD-2281) or PJ34, reduces proliferation and lowers the apoptotic threshold of GBM cells in vitro and in vivo. Methods The sensitizing effects of PARP inhibition on TRAIL-mediated apoptosis and potential toxicity were analyzed using viability assays and flow cytometry in established GBM cell lines, low-passage neurospheres and astrocytes in vitro. Molecular analyses included western blots and gene silencing. In vivo, effects on tumor growth were examined in a murine subcutaneous xenograft model. Results The combination treatment of PARP inhibitors and TRAIL led to an increased cell death with activation of caspases and inhibition of formation of neurospheres when compared to single-agent treatment. Mechanistically, pharmacological PARP inhibition elicited a nuclear stress response with up-regulation of down-stream DNA-stress response proteins, e.g., CCAAT enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) homology protein (CHOP). Furthermore, Olaparib and PJ34 increased protein levels of DR5 in a concentration and time-dependent manner. In turn, siRNA-mediated suppression of DR5 mitigated the effects of TRAIL/PARP inhibitor-mediated apoptosis. In addition, suppression of PARP-1 levels enhanced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in malignant glioma cells. Treatment of human astrocytes with the combination of TRAIL/PARP inhibitors did not cause toxicity. Finally, the combination treatment of TRAIL and PJ34 significantly reduced tumor growth in vivo when compared to treatment with each agent alone. Conclusions PARP inhibition represents a promising avenue to overcome apoptotic resistance in GBM. PMID:25531448

Karpel-Massler, Georg; Pareja, Fresia; Aimé, Pascaline; Shu, Chang; Chau, Lily; Westhoff, Mike-Andrew; Halatsch, Marc-Eric; Crary, John F.; Canoll, Peter; Siegelin, Markus D.

2014-01-01

108

Intercellular transfer of apoptotic signals via electrofusion  

SciTech Connect

We determined whether cells that are induced to undergo anoikis by matrix detachment can initiate apoptosis in healthy cells following electroporation-induced fusion. Separate populations of MDCK cells undergoing anoikis and stained with FITC-annexin or viable MDCK cells that were labeled with spectrally discrete fluorescent beads were electroporated. Cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for enumeration of viable cells with beads, apoptotic cells or fused cells. Electroporation promoted a 49-fold increase of the percentage of viable cells that had fused with apoptotic cells. Apoptotic cell-viable cell fusions were 8-fold more likely to not attach to cell culture plastic and 2.3-fold less likely to proliferate after 24 hr incubation than viable cell fusion controls. These data demonstrate that apoptotic signals can be transferred between cells by electrofusion, possibly suggesting a novel investigative approach for optimizing targeted cell deletion in cancer treatment.

Park, Jin Suk; Lee, Wilson; McCulloch, Christopher A., E-mail: christopher.mcculloch@utoronto.ca

2012-05-01

109

Ulinastatin inhibits oxidant-induced endothelial hyperpermeability and apoptotic signaling  

PubMed Central

Oxidants are important signaling molecules known to increase endothelial permeability. Studies implicate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the intrinsic apoptotic signaling cascades as mediators of vascular hyperpermeability. Here we report the protective effects of ulinastatin, a serine protease inhibitor with antiapoptotic properties, against oxidant-induced endothelial monolayer hyperpermeability. HUVECs were respectively pretreated with 10,000 and 50,000 u/l ulinastatin, followed by stimulation of 0.6 mM H2O2. Monolayer permeability was determined by transendothelial electrical resistance (TER); Mitochondrial release of cytochrome c was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; Caspase-3 activity was measured by fluorometric assay; Adherens junction protein ?-catenin was detected by immunofluorescense staining; Ratio of cell apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin-V/PI double stain assay; Mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) was determined with JC-1; Intracellular ATP content was assayed by a commercial kit; Bax and Bcl-2 expression were estimated by western blotting; Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was measured by DCFH-DA. H2O2 exposure resulted in endothelial hyperpermeability and ROS formation (P < 0.05). The activation of mitochondrial intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway was evidenced from BAX up-regulation, Bcl-2 down-regulation, mitochondrial depolarization, an increase in cytochrome c release, and activation of caspase-3 (P < 0.05). UTI (50,000 u/l) attenuated endothelial hyperpermeability, ROS formation, mitochondrial dysfunction, cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-3, and disruption of cell adherens junctions (P < 0.05). Together, these results demonstrate that UTI provides protection against vascular hyperpermeability by modulating the intrinsic apoptotic signaling.

Li, Guicheng; Li, Tao; Li, Yunfeng; Cai, Shumin; Zhang, Zhiming; Zeng, Zhenhua; Wang, Xingmin; Gao, Youguang; Li, Yunfeng; Chen, Zhongqing

2014-01-01

110

Immunosuppression via adenosine receptor activation by adenosine monophosphate released from apoptotic cells  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis is coupled with recruitment of macrophages for engulfment of dead cells, and with compensatory proliferation of neighboring cells. Yet, this death process is silent, and it does not cause inflammation. The molecular mechanisms underlying anti-inflammatory nature of the apoptotic process remains poorly understood. In this study, we found that the culture supernatant of apoptotic cells activated the macrophages to express anti-inflammatory genes such as Nr4a and Thbs1. A high level of AMP accumulated in the apoptotic cell supernatant in a Pannexin1-dependent manner. A nucleotidase inhibitor and A2a adenosine receptor antagonist inhibited the apoptotic supernatant-induced gene expression, suggesting AMP was metabolized to adenosine by an ecto-5’-nucleotidase expressed on macrophages, to activate the macrophage A2a adenosine receptor. Intraperitoneal injection of zymosan into Adora2a- or Panx1-deficient mice produced high, sustained levels of inflammatory mediators in the peritoneal lavage. These results indicated that AMP from apoptotic cells suppresses inflammation as a ‘calm down’ signal. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02172.001 PMID:24668173

Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Toshihiko; Urade, Yoshihiro; Nagata, Shigekazu

2014-01-01

111

The Fas-Mediated Apoptotic Pathway in Cardiac Myxoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac myxoma is the most common primary tumor of the heart. The existence of apoptosis in cardiac myxoma has been demonstrated. The purpose of this investigation was to elucidate the pathway of apoptosis and the cell cycle in cardiac myxomas. This study had 2 parts: investigation of a cultured cardiac myxoma cell line and the analysis of data from 20

Cheng-Chung Liu; Shih-Ming Jung; Augusto Orlandi; Ta-Sen Yeh; Yu-Shen Lin; Tzu-Fang Shiu; Hsueh-Hua Wu; Jaw-Ji Chu; Pyng-Jing Lin; Pao-Hsien Chu

2010-01-01

112

Delivery of Intracellular-acting Biologics in Pro-Apoptotic Therapies  

PubMed Central

The recent elucidation of molecular regulators of apoptosis and their roles in cellular oncogenesis has motivated the development of biomacromolecular anticancer therapeutics that can activate intracellular apoptotic signaling pathways. Pharmaceutical scientists have employed a variety of classes of biologics toward this goal, including antisense oligodeoxynucleotides, small interfering RNA, proteins, antibodies, and peptides. However, stability in the in vivo environment, tumor-specific biodistribution, cell internalization, and localization to the intracellular microenvironment where the targeted molecule is localized pose significant challenges that limit the ability to directly apply intracellular-acting, pro-apoptotic biologics for therapeutic use. Thus, approaches to improve the pharmaceutical properties of therapeutic biomacromolecules are of great significance and have included chemically modifying the bioactive molecule itself or formulation with auxiliary compounds. Recently, promising advances in delivery of pro-apoptotic biomacromolecular agents have been made using tools such as peptide “stapling”, cell penetrating peptides, fusogenic peptides, liposomes, nanoparticles, smart polymers, and synergistic combinations of these components. This review will discuss the molecular mediators of cellular apoptosis, the respective mechanisms by which these mediators are dysregulated in cellular oncogenesis, the history and development of both nucleic-acid and amino-acid based drugs, and techniques to achieve intracellular delivery of these biologics. Finally, recent applications where pro-apoptotic functionality has been achieved through delivery of intracellular-acting biomacromolecular drugs will be highlighted. PMID:21348831

Li, Hongmei; Nelson, Chris E.; Evans, Brian C.; Duvall, Craig L.

2013-01-01

113

Stabilization of apoptotic cells: generation of zombie cells.  

PubMed

Apoptosis is characterized by degradation of cell components but plasma membrane remains intact. Apoptotic microtubule network (AMN) is organized during apoptosis forming a cortical structure beneath plasma membrane that maintains plasma membrane integrity. Apoptotic cells are also characterized by high reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that can be potentially harmful for the cell. The aim of this study was to develop a method that allows stabilizing apoptotic cells for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. By using a cocktail composed of taxol (a microtubule stabilizer), Zn(2+) (a caspase inhibitor) and coenzyme Q10 (a lipid antioxidant), we were able to stabilize H460 apoptotic cells in cell cultures for at least 72?h, preventing secondary necrosis. Stabilized apoptotic cells maintain many apoptotic cell characteristics such as the presence of apoptotic microtubules, plasma membrane integrity, low intracellular calcium levels and mitochondrial polarization. Apoptotic cell stabilization may open new avenues in apoptosis detection and therapy. PMID:25118929

Oropesa-Ávila, M; Andrade-Talavera, Y; Garrido-Maraver, J; Cordero, M D; de la Mata, M; Cotán, D; Paz, M V; Pavón, A D; Alcocer-Gómez, E; de Lavera, I; Lema, R; Zaderenko, A P; Rodríguez-Moreno, A; Sánchez-Alcázar, J A

2014-01-01

114

Cytoplasmic and nuclear anti-apoptotic roles of ?B-crystallin in retinal pigment epithelial cells.  

PubMed

In addition to its well-characterized role in the lens, ?B-crystallin performs other functions. Methylglyoxal (MGO) can alter the function of the basement membrane of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Thus, if MGO is not efficiently detoxified, it can induce adverse reactions in RPE cells. In this study, we examined the mechanisms underlying the anti-apoptotic activity of ?B-crystallin in the human retinal pigment epithelial cell line ARPE-19 following MGO treatment using various assays, including nuclear staining, flow cytometry, DNA electrophoresis, pulse field gel electrophoresis, western blot analysis, confocal microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation assays. To directly assess the role of phosphorylation of ?B-crystallin, we used site-directed mutagenesis to convert relevant serine residues to alanine residues. Using these techniques, we demonstrated that MGO induces apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells. Silencing ?B-crystallin sensitized ARPE-19 cells to MGO-induced apoptosis, indicating that ?B-crystallin protects ARPE-19 cells from MGO-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that ?B-crystallin interacts with the caspase subtypes, caspase-2L, -2S, -3, -4, -7, -8, -9 and -12 in untreated control ARPE-19 cells and that MGO treatment caused the dissociation of these caspase subtypes from ?B-crystallin; transfection of S19A, S45A or S59A mutants caused the depletion of ?B-crystallin from the nuclei of untreated control RPE cells leading to the release of caspase subtypes. Additionally, transfection of these mutants enhanced MGO-induced apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells, indicating that phosphorylation of nuclear ?B-crystallin on serine residues 19, 45 and 59 plays a pivotal role in preventing apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that ?B-crystallin prevents caspase activation by physically interacting with caspase subtypes in the cytoplasm and nucleus, thereby protecting RPE cells from MGO-induced apoptosis. PMID:23049853

Jeong, Woo Jin; Rho, Jee Hyun; Yoon, Young Geol; Yoo, Seung Hee; Jeong, Na Young; Ryu, Won Yeol; Ahn, Hee Bae; Park, Woo Chan; Rho, Sae Heun; Yoon, Hee Seong; Choi, Yung Hyun; Yoo, Young Hyun

2012-01-01

115

Neuroprotective effects of bovine colostrum on intracerebral hemorrhage-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death in rats?  

PubMed Central

Brain cell death after intracerebral hemorrhage may be mediated in part by an apoptotic mechanism. Colostrum is the first milk produced by mammals for their young. It plays an important role in protection and development by providing various antibodies, growth factors and nutrients, and has been used for various diseases in many countries. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effects of bovine colostrum using organotypic hippocampal slice cultures and an intracerebral hemorrhage animal model. We performed densitometric measurements of propidium iodide uptake, a step-down avoidance task, Nissl staining, and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry. The present results revealed that colostrum treatment significantly suppressed N-methyl-D-aspartic acid-induced neuronal cell death in the rat hippocampus. Moreover, colostrum treatment improved short-term memory by suppressing hemorrhage-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death and decreasing the volume of the lesion induced by intracerebral hemorrhage in the rat hippocampus. These results suggest that colostrum may have a beneficial role in recovering brain function following hemorrhagic stroke by suppressing apoptotic cell death.

Kim, Sung Eun; Ko, Il Gyu; Shin, Mal Soon; Kim, Chang Ju; Ko, Young Gwan; Cho, Hanjin

2012-01-01

116

Pretransplant IgG reactivity to apoptotic cells correlates with late kidney allograft loss.  

PubMed

Preexisting serum antibodies have long been associated with graft loss in transplant recipients. While most studies have focused on HLA-specific antibodies, the contribution of non-HLA-reactive antibodies has been largely overlooked. We have recently characterized mAbs secreted by B cell clones derived from kidney allograft recipients with rejection that bind to apoptotic cells. Here, we assessed the presence of such antibodies in pretransplant serum from 300 kidney transplant recipients and examined their contribution to the graft outcomes. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that patients with high pretransplant IgG reactivity to apoptotic cells had a significantly increased rate of late graft loss. The effect was only apparent after approximately 1 year posttransplant. Moreover, the association between pretransplant IgG reactivity to apoptotic cells and graft loss was still significant after excluding patients with high reactivity to HLA. This reactivity was almost exclusively mediated by IgG1 and IgG3 with complement fixing and activating properties. Overall, our findings support the view that IgG reactive to apoptotic cells contribute to presensitization. Taking these antibodies into consideration alongside anti-HLA antibodies during candidate evaluation would likely improve the transplant risk assessment. PMID:24935695

Gao, B; Moore, C; Porcheray, F; Rong, C; Abidoglu, C; DeVito, J; Paine, R; Girouard, T C; Saidman, S L; Schoenfeld, D; Levin, B; Wong, W; Elias, N; Schuetz, C; Rosales, I; Fu, Y; Zorn, E

2014-07-01

117

Ebola Virus Does Not Block Apoptotic Signaling Pathways  

PubMed Central

Since viruses rely on functional cellular machinery for efficient propagation, apoptosis is an important mechanism to fight viral infections. In this study, we sought to determine the mechanism of cell death caused by Ebola virus (EBOV) infection by assaying for multiple stages of apoptosis and hallmarks of necrosis. Our data indicate that EBOV does not induce apoptosis in infected cells but rather leads to a nonapoptotic form of cell death. Ultrastructural analysis confirmed necrotic cell death of EBOV-infected cells. To investigate if EBOV blocks the induction of apoptosis, infected cells were treated with different apoptosis-inducing agents. Surprisingly, EBOV-infected cells remained sensitive to apoptosis induced by external stimuli. Neither receptor- nor mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis signaling was inhibited in EBOV infection. Although double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-induced activation of protein kinase R (PKR) was blocked in EBOV-infected cells, induction of apoptosis mediated by dsRNA was not suppressed. When EBOV-infected cells were treated with dsRNA-dependent caspase recruiter (dsCARE), an antiviral protein that selectively induces apoptosis in cells containing dsRNA, virus titers were strongly reduced. These data show that the inability of EBOV to block apoptotic pathways may open up new strategies toward the development of antiviral therapeutics. PMID:23468487

Olejnik, Judith; Alonso, Jesus; Schmidt, Kristina M.; Yan, Zhen; Wang, Wei; Marzi, Andrea; Ebihara, Hideki; Yang, Jinghua; Patterson, Jean L.; Ryabchikova, Elena

2013-01-01

118

Apoptotic Sphingolipid Ceramide in Cancer Therapy  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis, also called programmed cell death, is physiologically and pathologically involved in cellular homeostasis. Escape of apoptotic signaling is a critical strategy commonly used for cancer tumorigenesis. Ceramide, a derivative of sphingolipid breakdown products, acts as second messenger for multiple extracellular stimuli including growth factors, chemical agents, and environmental stresses, such as hypoxia, and heat stress as well as irradiation. Also, ceramide acts as tumor-suppressor lipid because a variety of stress stimuli cause apoptosis by increasing intracellular ceramide to initiate apoptotic signaling. Defects on ceramide generation and sphingolipid metabolism are developed for cancer cell survival and cancer therapy resistance. Alternatively, targeting ceramide metabolism to correct these defects might provide opportunities to overcome cancer therapy resistance. PMID:21490804

Huang, Wei-Ching; Chen, Chia-Ling; Lin, Yee-Shin; Lin, Chiou-Feng

2011-01-01

119

Apoptosis and apoptotic mimicry: the Leishmania connection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different death-styles have been described in unicellular organisms. In most cases they evolve with phenotypic features similar\\u000a to apoptotic death of animal cells, such as phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation, and loss\\u000a of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, hinting that similar mechanisms operate in both situations. However, the biochemical\\u000a pathways underlying death in unicellular organisms are still unclear. Host recognition of

João Luiz M. Wanderley; Marcello A. Barcinski

2010-01-01

120

VDAC1-based peptides: novel pro-apoptotic agents and potential therapeutics for B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia  

PubMed Central

The voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), localized in the outer mitochondrial membrane, mediates metabolic cross-talk between the mitochondrion and the cytoplasm and thus serves a fundamental role in cell energy metabolism. VDAC1 also plays a key role in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, interacting with anti-apoptotic proteins. Resistance of cancer cells to apoptosis involves quenching the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by over-expression of anti-apoptotic/pro-survival hexokinase (HK) and Bcl-2 family proteins, proteins that mediate their anti-apoptotic activities via interaction with VDAC1. Using specifically designed VDAC1-based cell-penetrating peptides, we targeted these anti-apoptotic proteins to prevent their pro-survival/anti-apoptotic activities. Anti-apoptotic proteins are expressed at high levels in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), an incurable disease requiring innovative new approaches to improve therapeutic outcome. CLL is characterized by a clonal accumulation of mature neoplastic B cells that are resistant to apoptosis. Specifically, we demonstrate that the VDAC1-based peptides (Antp-LP4 and N-Terminal-Antp) selectively kill peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from CLL patients, yet spare those obtained from healthy donors. The cell death induction competence of the peptides was well correlated with the amount of double positive CD19/CD5 cancerous CLL PBMCs, further illustrating their selectivity toward cancer cells. Moreover, these VDAC1-based peptides induced apoptosis by activating the mitochondria-mediated pathway, reflected in membrane blebbing, condensation of nuclei, DNA fragmentation, release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, decreased cellular ATP levels and detachment of HK, all leading to apoptotic cell death. Thus, the mode of action of the peptides involves decreasing energy production and inducing apoptosis. Over 27 versions of cell-penetrating VDAC1-based peptides were designed and screened to identify the most stable, short and apoptosis-inducing peptides toward CLL-derived lymphocytes. In this manner, three optimized peptides suitable for in vivo studies were identified. This study thus reveals the potential of VDAC1-based peptides as an innovative and effective anti-CLL therapy. PMID:24052077

Prezma, T; Shteinfer, A; Admoni, L; Raviv, Z; Sela, I; Levi, I; Shoshan-Barmatz, V

2013-01-01

121

Novel cytoprotective inhibitors for apoptotic endonuclease g.  

PubMed

Apoptotic endonuclease G (EndoG) is responsible for DNA fragmentation both during and after cell death. Previous studies demonstrated that genetic inactivation of EndoG is cytoprotective against various pro-apoptotic stimuli; however, specific inhibitors for EndoG are not available. In this study, we have developed a high-throughput screening assay for EndoG and have used it to screen a chemical library. The screening resulted in the identification of two potent EndoG inhibitors, PNR-3-80 and PNR-3-82, which are thiobarbiturate analogs. As determined by their IC50s, the inhibitors are more potent than ZnCl2 or EDTA. They inhibit EndoG at one or two orders of magnitude greater than another apoptotic endonuclease, DNase I, and do not inhibit the other five tested cell death-related enzymes: DNase II, RNase A, proteinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and superoxide dismutase 1. Exposure of natural EndoG-expressing 22Rv1 or EndoG-overexpressing PC3 cells rendered them significantly resistant to Cisplatin and Docetaxel, respectively. These novel EndoG inhibitors have the potential to be utilized for amelioration of cell injuries in which participation of EndoG is essential. PMID:25401220

Jang, Dae Song; Penthala, Narsimha R; Apostolov, Eugene O; Wang, Xiaoying; Crooks, Peter A; Basnakian, Alexei G

2015-02-01

122

Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of spanish honeys  

PubMed Central

Background: Current evidence supports that consumption of polyphenols has beneficial effects against numerous diseases mostly associated with their antioxidant activity. Honey is a good source of antioxidants since it contains a great variety of phenolic compounds. Objective: The main objective of this work was to investigate the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of three crude commercial honeys of different floral origin (heather, rosemary and polyfloral honey) from Madrid Autonomic Community (Spain) as well as of an artificial honey in human peripheral blood promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60). Material and Methods: HL-60 cells were cultured in the presence of honeys at various concentrations for up to 72 hours and the percentage of cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells were identified by chromatin condensation and flow cytometry analysis. ROS production was determined using 2´,7´-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA). Results: The three types of crude commercial honey induced apoptosis in a concentration and time dependent-manner. In addition, honeys with the higher phenolic content, heather and polyfloral, were the most effective to induce apoptosis in HL-60 cells. However, honeys did not generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) could not block honeys-induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells. Conclusion: These data support that honeys induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells through a ROS-independent cell death pathway. Moreover, our findings indicate that the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of honey varied according to the floral origin and the phenolic content. PMID:23930007

Morales, Paloma; Haza, Ana Isabel

2013-01-01

123

E3 Ubiquitin Ligase HOIP Attenuates Apoptotic Cell Death Induced by Cisplatin  

PubMed Central

The genotoxin cisplatin is commonly used in chemotherapy to treat solid tumors, yet our understanding of the mechanism underlying the drug response is limited. In a focused siRNA screen, using an siRNA library targeting genes involved in ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like signaling, we identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase HOIP as a key regulator of cisplatin-induced genotoxicity. HOIP forms, with SHARPIN and HOIL-1L, the linear ubiquitin assembly complex (LUBAC). We show that cells deficient in the HOIP ligase complex exhibit hypersensitivity to cisplatin. This is due to a dramatic increase in caspase 8/caspase 3 mediated apoptosis that is strictly dependent on ATM-, but not ATR-mediated DNA damage checkpoint activation. Moreover, basal and cisplatin-induced activity of the stress response kinase JNK is enhanced in HOIP-depleted cells and, conversely, JNK inhibition can increase cellular resistance to cisplatin and reverse the apoptotic hyper-activation in HOIP-depleted cells. Furthermore, we show that HOIP depletion sensitizes cancer cells, derived from carcinomas of various origins, through an enhanced apoptotic cell death response. We also provide evidence that ovarian cancer cells classified as cisplatin-resistant can regain sensitivity following HOIP down-regulation. Cumulatively, our study identifies a HOIP-regulated anti-apoptotic signaling pathway, and we envisage HOIP as a potential target for the development of combinatorial chemotherapies to potentiate the efficacy of platinum-based anti-cancer drugs. PMID:24686174

Ibrahim, Adel F.M.; Garg, Amit; Inman, Gareth J.; Hay, Ronald T.; Alpi, Arno F.

2014-01-01

124

Mangiferin has an additive effect on the apoptotic properties of hesperidin in Cyclopia sp. tea extracts.  

PubMed

A variety of biological pro-health activities have been reported for mangiferin and hesperidin, two major phenolic compounds of Honeybush (Cyclopia sp.) tea extracts. Given their increasing popularity, there is a need for understanding the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of these compounds. In this study, we used real-time cytotoxicity cellular analysis of the Cyclopia sp. extracts on HeLa cells and found that the higher hesperidin content in non-fermented "green" extracts correlated with their higher cytotoxicity compared to the fermented extracts. We also found that mangiferin had a modulatory effect on the apoptotic effects of hesperidin. Quantitative PCR analysis of hesperidin-induced changes in apoptotic gene expression profile indicated that two death receptor pathway members, TRADD and TRAMP, were up regulated. The results of this study suggest that hesperidin mediates apoptosis in HeLa cells through extrinsic pathway for programmed cell death. PMID:24633329

Bartoszewski, Rafal; Hering, Anna; Marsza??, Marcin; Stefanowicz Hajduk, Justyna; Bartoszewska, Sylwia; Kapoor, Niren; Kochan, Kinga; Ochocka, Renata

2014-01-01

125

Leptin Is an Anti-Apoptotic Effector in Placental Cells Involving p53 Downregulation  

PubMed Central

Leptin, a peripheral signal synthetized by the adipocyte to regulate energy metabolism, can also be produced by placenta, where it may work as an autocrine hormone. We have previously demonstrated that leptin promotes proliferation and survival of trophoblastic cells. In the present work, we aimed to study the molecular mechanisms that mediate the survival effect of leptin in placenta. We used the human placenta choriocarcinoma BeWo and first trimester Swan-71 cell lines, as well as human placental explants. We tested the late phase of apoptosis, triggered by serum deprivation, by studying the activation of Caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation. Recombinant human leptin added to BeWo cell line and human placental explants, showed a decrease on Caspase-3 activation. These effects were dose dependent. Maximal effect was achieved at 250 ng leptin/ml. Moreover, inhibition of endogenous leptin expression with 2 µM of an antisense oligonucleotide, reversed Caspase-3 diminution. We also found that the cleavage of Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase-1 (PARP-1) was diminished in the presence of leptin. We analyzed the presence of low DNA fragments, products from apoptotic DNA cleavage. Placental explants cultivated in the absence of serum in the culture media increased the apoptotic cleavage of DNA and this effect was prevented by the addition of 100 ng leptin/ml. Taken together these results reinforce the survival effect exerted by leptin on placental cells. To improve the understanding of leptin mechanism in regulating the process of apoptosis we determined the expression of different intermediaries in the apoptosis cascade. We found that under serum deprivation conditions, leptin increased the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 protein expression, while downregulated the pro-apoptotic BAX and BID proteins expression in Swan-71 cells and placental explants. In both models leptin augmented BCL-2/BAX ratio. Moreover we have demonstrated that p53, one of the key cell cycle-signaling proteins, is downregulated in the presence of leptin under serum deprivation. On the other hand, we determined that leptin reduced the phosphorylation of Ser-46 p53 that plays a pivotal role for apoptotic signaling by p53. Our data suggest that the observed anti-apoptotic effect of leptin in placenta is in part mediated by the p53 pathway. In conclusion, we provide evidence that demonstrates that leptin is a trophic factor for trophoblastic cells. PMID:24922063

Toro, Ayelén Rayen; Maymó, Julieta Lorena; Ibarbalz, Federico Matías; Pérez, Antonio Pérez; Maskin, Bernardo; Faletti, Alicia Graciela; Margalet, Víctor Sánchez; Varone, Cecilia Laura

2014-01-01

126

Protective effects of melittin on transforming growth factor-{beta}1 injury to hepatocytes via anti-apoptotic mechanism  

SciTech Connect

Melittin is a cationic, hemolytic peptide that is the main toxic component in the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Melittin has multiple effects, including anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-inflammatory, in various cell types. However, the anti-apoptotic mechanisms of melittin have not been fully elucidated in hepatocytes. Apoptosis contributes to liver inflammation and fibrosis. Knowledge of the apoptotic mechanisms is important to develop new and effective therapies for treatment of cirrhosis, portal hypertension, liver cancer, and other liver diseases. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effect of melittin on transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta}1-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes. TGF-{beta}1-treated hepatocytes were exposed to low doses (0.5 and 1 {mu}g/mL) and high dose (2 {mu}g/mL) of melittin. The low doses significantly protected these cells from DNA damage in TGF-{beta}1-induced apoptosis compared to the high dose. Also, melittin suppressed TGF-{beta}1-induced apoptotic activation of the Bcl-2 family and caspase family of proteins, which resulted in the inhibition of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. These results demonstrate that TGF-{beta}1 induces hepatocyte apoptosis and that an optimal dose of melittin exerts anti-apoptotic effects against TGF-{beta}1-induced injury to hepatocytes via the mitochondrial pathway. These results suggest that an optimal dose of melittin can serve to protect cells against TGF-{beta}1-mediated injury. - Highlights: > We investigated the anti-apoptotic effect of melittin on TGF-{beta}1-induced hepatocyte. > TGF-{beta}1 induces hepatocyte apoptosis. > TGF-{beta}1-treated hepatocytes were exposed to low doses and high dose of melittin. > Optimal dose of melittin exerts anti-apoptotic effects to hepatocytes.

Lee, Woo-Ram; Park, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Kyung-Hyun [Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yoon-Yub [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sang-Mi [Department of Agricultural Biology, National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kwan-kyu, E-mail: kkpark@cu.ac.kr [Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

2011-10-15

127

Protective effects of melittin on transforming growth factor-?1 injury to hepatocytes via anti-apoptotic mechanism.  

PubMed

Melittin is a cationic, hemolytic peptide that is the main toxic component in the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Melittin has multiple effects, including anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-inflammatory, in various cell types. However, the anti-apoptotic mechanisms of melittin have not been fully elucidated in hepatocytes. Apoptosis contributes to liver inflammation and fibrosis. Knowledge of the apoptotic mechanisms is important to develop new and effective therapies for treatment of cirrhosis, portal hypertension, liver cancer, and other liver diseases. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effect of melittin on transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes. TGF-?1-treated hepatocytes were exposed to low doses (0.5 and 1 ?g/mL) and high dose (2 ?g/mL) of melittin. The low doses significantly protected these cells from DNA damage in TGF-?1-induced apoptosis compared to the high dose. Also, melittin suppressed TGF-?1-induced apoptotic activation of the Bcl-2 family and caspase family of proteins, which resulted in the inhibition of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. These results demonstrate that TGF-?1 induces hepatocyte apoptosis and that an optimal dose of melittin exerts anti-apoptotic effects against TGF-?1-induced injury to hepatocytes via the mitochondrial pathway. These results suggest that an optimal dose of melittin can serve to protect cells against TGF-?1-mediated injury. PMID:21871910

Lee, Woo-Ram; Park, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Yoon-Yub; Han, Sang-Mi; Park, Kwan-kyu

2011-10-15

128

Apoptotic cell clearance: basic biology and therapeutic potential  

PubMed Central

Prompt removal of apoptotic cells by phagocytes is important for maintaining tissue homeostasis. The molecular and cellular events that underpin apoptotic cell recognition and uptake, and the subsequent biological responses are increasingly better defined. The detection and disposal of apoptotic cells generally promote an anti-inflammatory response at the tissue level, as well as immunological tolerance. Consequently, defects in apoptotic cell clearance have been linked with a variety of inflammatory diseases and autoimmunity. Conversely, under certain conditions such as killing tumour cells by specific cell death inducers, the recognition of apoptotic tumour cells can promote an immunogenic response and anti-tumour immunity. Here, we review the current understanding of the complex process of apoptotic cell clearance in physiology and pathology, and discuss how this knowledge could be harnessed for new therapeutic strategies. PMID:24481336

Poon, Ivan K. H.; Lucas, Christopher D.

2014-01-01

129

TRAIL-based tumor sensitizing galactoxyloglucan, a novel entity for targeting apoptotic machinery.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is an attractive target for cancer therapy due to its ability to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells, without causing significant toxicity in normal tissues. We previously reported that galactoxyloglucan (PST001) possesses significant antitumor and immunomodulatory properties. However, the exact mechanism in mediating this anticancer effect is unknown. This study, for the first time, indicated that PST001 sensitizes non-small cell lung cancer (A549) and nasopharyngeal (KB) cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. In vitro studies suggested that PST001 induced apoptosis primarily via death receptors and predominantly activated caspases belonging to the extrinsic apoptotic cascade. Microarray profiling of PST001 treated A549 and KB cells showed the suppression of survivin (BIRC5) and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, as well as increased cytochrome C. TaqMan low density array analysis of A549 cells also confirmed that the induction of apoptosis by the polysaccharide occurred through the TRAIL-DR4/DR5 pathways. This was finally confirmed by in silico analysis, which revealed that PST001 binds to TRAIL-DR4/DR5 complexes more strongly than TNF and Fas ligand-receptor complexes. In summary, our results suggest the potential of PST001 to be developed as an anticancer agent that not only preserves innate biological activity of TRAIL, but also sensitizes cancer cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. PMID:25541375

Aravind, S R; Joseph, Manu M; George, Suraj K; Dileep, K V; Varghese, Sheeja; Rose-James, Alphy; Balaram, Prabha; Sadasivan, C; Sreelekha, T T

2015-02-01

130

WNT signaling controls expression of pro-apoptotic BOK and BAX in intestinal cancer  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} Intestinal adenomas initiated by aberrant activation of the WNT pathway displayed an increased sensitivity to apoptosis. {yields} Expression profiling of apoptosis-related genes in Apc{sup Min/+} mice revealed the differential expression of pro-apoptotic Bok and Bax. {yields} APC-mutant adenomatous crypts in FAP patients showed strongly increased BAX immunoreactivity. {yields} Blocking of {beta}-catenin/TCF-4-mediated signaling in colon cancer cells reduced the expression of BOK and BAX. -- Abstract: In a majority of cases, colorectal cancer is initiated by aberrant activation of the WNT signaling pathway. Mutation of the genes encoding the WNT signaling components adenomatous polyposis coli or {beta}-catenin causes constitutively active {beta}-catenin/TCF-mediated transcription, driving the transformation of intestinal crypts to cancer precursor lesions, called dysplastic aberrant crypt foci. Deregulated apoptosis is a hallmark of adenomatous colon tissue. However, the contribution of WNT signaling to this process is not fully understood. We addressed this role by analyzing the rate of epithelial apoptosis in aberrant crypts and adenomas of the Apc{sup Min/+} mouse model. In comparison with normal crypts and adenomas, aberrant crypts displayed a dramatically increased rate of apoptotic cell death. Expression profiling of apoptosis-related genes along the crypt-villus axis and in Apc mutant adenomas revealed increased expression of two pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members in intestinal adenomas, Bok and Bax. Analysis of the colon of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients along the crypt-to-surface axis, and of dysplastic crypts, corroborated this expression pattern. Disruption of {beta}-catenin/TCF-4-mediated signaling in the colorectal cancer cell line Ls174T significantly decreased BOK and BAX expression, confirming WNT-dependent regulation in intestinal epithelial cells. Our results suggest a feedback mechanism by which uncontrolled epithelial cell proliferation in the stem cell compartment can be counterbalanced by an increased propensity to undergo cell death.

Zeilstra, Jurrit; Joosten, Sander P.J. [Department of Pathology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Pathology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wensveen, Felix M. [Department of Experimental Immunology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Experimental Immunology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dessing, Mark C.; Schuetze, Denise M. [Department of Pathology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Pathology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Eldering, Eric [Department of Experimental Immunology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Experimental Immunology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Spaargaren, Marcel [Department of Pathology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Pathology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pals, Steven T., E-mail: s.t.pals@amc.uva.nl [Department of Pathology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2011-03-04

131

N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor desensitisation is neuroprotective by inhibiting glutamate-induced apoptotic-like death.  

PubMed

Glutamate excitotoxicity is implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases; consequently, considerable effort has been made to elucidate neuroprotective mechanisms against such toxicity. N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor desensitisation is one potential mechanism for controlling glutamate-mediated neuronal cell death. Pretreatment of rat cerebellar granule cells with subtoxic concentrations of NMDA caused a marked reduction in the calcium signals generated by subsequent glutamate stimulation, and, furthermore, this receptor desensitisation was coupled to a reduction in glutamate-induced apoptotic-like death. These effects were reduced by either D-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid, an NMDA receptor antagonist, or cyclosporin A, an inhibitor of calcineurin. Thus, the results support a role for receptor desensitisation in protection from glutamate-mediated apoptotic-like neuronal cell death. PMID:9453562

Wood, A M; Bristow, D R

1998-02-01

132

Gingerol sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death of glioblastoma cells.  

PubMed

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal and aggressive astrocytoma of primary brain tumors in adults. Although there are many clinical trials to induce the cell death of glioblastoma cells, most glioblastoma cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Here, we showed that gingerol as a major component of ginger can induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of glioblastoma. Gingerol increased death receptor (DR) 5 levels in a p53-dependent manner. Furthermore, gingerol decreased the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins (survivin, c-FLIP, Bcl-2, and XIAP) and increased pro-apoptotic protein, Bax and truncate Bid, by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also found that the sensitizing effects of gingerol in TRAIL-induced cell death were blocked by scavenging ROS or overexpressing anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2). Therefore, we showed the functions of gingerol as a sensitizing agent to induce cell death of TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma cells. This study gives rise to the possibility of applying gingerol as an anti-tumor agent that can be used for the purpose of combination treatment with TRAIL in TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma tumor therapy. PMID:25034532

Lee, Dae-Hee; Kim, Dong-Wook; Jung, Chang-Hwa; Lee, Yong J; Park, Daeho

2014-09-15

133

Alpha-lipoic acid attenuates hemorrhagic shock-induced apoptotic signaling and vascular hyperpermeability.  

PubMed

Hemorrhagic shock (HS) is associated with the disruption of endothelial cell barrier leading to vascular hyperpermeability. Previous studies from our laboratory implicate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the intrinsic apoptotic signaling cascades as mediators of vascular hyperpermeability after HS. Here we report the protective effects of alpha-lipoic acid, a natural antioxidant with antiapoptotic properties, against vascular hyperpermeability after HS. Hemorrhagic shock was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by withdrawing blood to reduce the MAP to 40 mmHg for 60 min followed by resuscitation for 60 min. The rats were given fluorescein isothiocyanate-albumin (50 mg/kg) i.v., and the mesenteric postcapillary venules were examined for change in hyperpermeability using intravital microscopy. Mitochondrial ROS formation and change in mitochondrial transmembrane potential were measured using dihydrorhodamine 123 and the cationic dye JC-1, respectively. The mitochondrial release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase 3 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and fluorometric assay, respectively. Hemorrhagic shock resulted in vascular hyperpermeability and mitochondrial ROS formation. The activation of mitochondrial intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway was evidenced from mitochondrial depolarization, an increase in cytochrome c release, and activation of caspase 3. alpha-Lipoic acid (100 mg/kg) given before the shock period attenuated vascular hyperpermeability, mitochondrial ROS formation, mitochondrial depolarization, cytochrome c release, and activation of caspase 3 (P < 0.05). Together, these results demonstrate that alpha-lipoic acid provides protection against vascular hyperpermeability by modulating the mitochondrial "intrinsic" apoptotic signaling. PMID:18923301

Tharakan, Binu; Hunter, Felicia A; Smythe, W Roy; Childs, Ed W

2008-11-01

134

CD300b regulates the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells via phosphatidylserine recognition.  

PubMed

The CD300 receptor family members are a group of molecules that modulate a variety of immune cell processes. We show that mouse CD300b (CLM7/LMIR5), expressed on myeloid cells, recognizes outer membrane-exposed phosphatidylserine (PS) and does not, as previously reported, directly recognize TIM1 or TIM4. CD300b accumulates in phagocytic cups along with F-actin at apoptotic cell contacts, thereby facilitating their engulfment. The CD300b-mediated activation signal is conveyed through CD300b association with the adaptor molecule DAP12, and requires a functional DAP12 ITAM motif. Binding of apoptotic cells promotes the activation of the PI3K-Akt kinase pathway in macrophages, while silencing of CD300b expression diminishes PI3K-Akt kinase activation and impairs efferocytosis. Collectively, our data show that CD300b recognizes PS as a ligand, and regulates the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells via the DAP12 signaling pathway. PMID:25034781

Murakami, Y; Tian, L; Voss, O H; Margulies, D H; Krzewski, K; Coligan, J E

2014-11-01

135

Gingerol sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death of glioblastoma cells  

PubMed Central

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal and aggressive astrocytoma of primary brain tumors in adults. Although there are many clinical trials to induce the cell death of glioblastoma cells, most glioblastoma cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Here, we showed that gingerol as a major component of ginger can induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of glioblastoma. Gingerol increased death receptor (DR) 5 levels in a p53-dependent manner. Furthermore, gingerol decreased the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins (survivin, c-FLIP, Bcl-2, and XIAP) and increased pro-apoptotic protein, Bax and truncate Bid, by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS).We also found that the sensitizing effects of gingerol in TRAIL-induced cell death were blocked by scavenging ROS or overexpressing anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2). Therefore, we showed the functions of gingerol as a sensitizing agent to induce cell death of TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma cells. This study gives rise to the possibility of applying gingerol as an anti-tumor agent that can be used for the purpose of combination treatment with TRAIL in TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma tumor therapy. PMID:25034532

Lee, Dae-Hee; Kim, Dong-Wook; Jung, Chang-Hwa; Lee, Yong J.; Park, Daeho

2014-01-01

136

Engulfment of apoptotic cells: signals for a good meal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clearance of apoptotic cells by phagocytes is an integral component of normal life, and defects in this process can have significant implications for self tolerance and autoimmunity. Recent studies have provided new insights into the engulfment process, including how phagocytes seek apoptotic cells, how they recognize and ingest these targets and how they maintain cellular homeostasis after the 'meal'.

Ulrike Lorenz; Kodi S. Ravichandran

2007-01-01

137

Structure and Apoptotic Function of p73.  

PubMed

p73 is a structural and functional homologue of p53 tumor suppressor protein. Like p53, p73 induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest and transactivates p53-responsive genes, conferring its tumor suppressive activity. In addition, p73 has unique roles such as neuronal development and differentiation. The importance of p73-induced apoptosis lies in its capability to substitute the pro-apoptotic activity of p53 in various human cancer cells in which p53 is mutated or inactive. Despite the great importance of p73-induced apoptosis in cancer therapy, little is known about molecular basis for the p73-induced apoptosis. In this review, we discuss the p73 structures reported to date, detailed structural comparison between p73 and p53, and current understanding of transcription-dependent and -independent mechanisms of p73-induced apoptosis. PMID:25441426

Yoon, Mi-Kyung; Ha, Ji-Hyang; Lee, Min-Sung; Chi, Seung-Wook

2014-12-01

138

The Anti-Apoptotic Role of Neuroglobin  

PubMed Central

The small heme-protein neuroglobin is expressed at high concentrations in certain brain neurons and in the rod cells of the retina. This paper reviews the many studies which have recently identified a protective role for neuroglobin, in a wide range of situations involving apoptotic cell death. The origins of this protective mechanism are discussed in terms of both experimental results and computational modeling of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, which shows that neuroglobin can intervene in this process by a reaction with released mitochondrial cytochrome c. An integrated model, based on the various molecular actions of both neuroglobin and cytochrome c, is developed, which accounts for the cellular distribution of neuroglobin. PMID:24710547

Brittain, Thomas

2012-01-01

139

Expression of animal CED-9 anti-apoptotic gene in tobacco modifies plasma membrane ion fluxes in response to salinity and oxidative stress  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Apoptosis, one form of programmed cell death (PCD), plays an important role in mediating plant adaptive responses to the environment. Recent studies suggest that expression of animal anti-apoptotic genes in transgenic plants may be an efficient way of enhancing stress resistance in economically impo...

140

PED Mediates AKT-Dependent Chemoresistance in Human Breast Cancer Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Killing of tumor cells by cytotoxic therapies, such as chemo- therapy or gamma-irradiation, is predominantly mediated by the activation of apoptotic pathways. Refractoriness to anticancer therapy is often due to a failure in the apoptotic pathway. The mechanisms that control the balance between survival and cell death in cancer cells are still largely unknown. Tumor cells have been shown to

Giorgio Stassi; Michela Garofalo; Monica Zerilli; Lucia Ricci-Vitiani; Ciro Zanca; Matilde Todaro; Federico Aragona; Giuseppe Petrella; Gerolama Condorelli

2005-01-01

141

Use of the inhibitory effect of apoptotic cells on dendritic cells for graft survival via T-cell deletion and regulatory T cells.  

PubMed

Tolerance induction against donor allo-antigens (allo-Ag) remains one of the most challenging aspects of transplant immunology. The ability of dendritic cells (DC) to participate in immunity and tolerance makes them an excellent tool for tolerance induction. Here, we employed the immunosuppressive properties of apoptotic cells to deliver simultaneously an inhibitory signal and donor allo-Ag to recipient DC for treatment of allograft rejection. DC that captured apoptotic cells remained immature and activated deficiently anti-donor CD4(+) T cells that were unable to upregulate T-cell activation markers, to secrete IL-2 and IFN-gamma and to survive under homeostatic conditions due to low expression of Bcl-X(L), IL-7R and IL-15R. Administration of donor apoptotic cells decreased the systemic anti-donor T- and B-cell response and prolonged cardiac allograft survival in mice. The effect was donor specific and required the interaction of donor apoptotic cells with recipient quiescent CD8alpha(+) DC. When combined with CD40-CD154-blockade, administration of donor apoptotic cells resulted in indefinite graft survival mediated by generation of regulatory T cells. The use of the inhibitory effects of apoptotic cells on the anti-donor response provides a new approach to treat transplant rejection. PMID:16686754

Wang, Z; Larregina, A T; Shufesky, W J; Perone, M J; Montecalvo, A; Zahorchak, A F; Thomson, A W; Morelli, A E

2006-06-01

142

Apoptosis and apoptotic mimicry in Leishmania: an evolutionary perspective  

PubMed Central

Apoptotic death and apoptotic mimicry are defined respectively as a non-accidental death and as the mimicking of an apoptotic-cell phenotype, usually by phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure. In the case of the murine infection by Leishmania spp, apoptotic death has been described in promastigotes and apoptotic mimicry in amastigotes. In both situations they are important events of the experimental murine infection by this parasite. In the present review we discuss what features we need to consider if we want to establish if a behavior shown by Leishmania is altruistic or not: does the behavior increases the fitness of organisms other than the one showing it? Does this behavior have a cost for the actor? If we manage to show that a given behavior is costly for the actor and beneficial for the recipient of the action, we will be able to establish it as altruistic. From this perspective, we can argue that apoptotic-like death and apoptotic mimicry are both altruistic with the latter representing a weaker altruistic behavior than the former. PMID:22912937

El-Hani, Charbel N.; Borges, Valéria M.; Wanderley, João L. M.; Barcinski, Marcello A.

2012-01-01

143

Mannose-binding lectin is required for the effective clearance of apoptotic cells by adipose tissue macrophages during obesity.  

PubMed

Obesity is accompanied by the presence of chronic low-grade inflammation manifested by infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a soluble mediator of innate immunity, promotes phagocytosis and alters macrophage function. To assess the function of MBL in the development of obesity, we studied wild-type and MBL(-/-) mice rendered obese using a high-fat diet (HFD). Whereas no gross morphological differences were observed in liver, an HFD provoked distinct changes in the adipose tissue morphology of MBL(-/-) mice. In parallel with increased adipocyte size, MBL(-/-) mice displayed an increased influx of macrophages into adipose tissue. Macrophages were polarized toward an alternatively activated phenotype known to modulate apoptotic cell clearance. MBL deficiency also significantly increased the number of apoptotic cells in adipose tissue. Consistent with these observations, recombinant MBL enhanced phagocytic capacity of the stromal vascular fraction isolated from adipose tissue and modulated uptake of apoptotic adipocytes by macrophages. Despite changes in macrophage abundance and polarity, the absence of MBL did not affect systemic insulin resistance. Finally, in humans, lower levels of circulating MBL were accompanied by enhanced macrophage influx in subcutaneous adipose tissue. We propose a novel role for MBL in the recognition and clearance of apoptotic adipocytes during obesity. PMID:25008177

Stienstra, Rinke; Dijk, Wieneke; van Beek, Lianne; Jansen, Henry; Heemskerk, Mattijs; Houtkooper, Riekelt H; Denis, Simone; van Harmelen, Vanessa; Willems van Dijk, Ko; Tack, Cees J; Kersten, Sander

2014-12-01

144

Heme oxygenase-1 and its reaction product, carbon monoxide, prevent inflammation-related apoptotic liver damage in mice.  

PubMed

Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a stress-responsive enzyme that catabolizes heme into carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin, and iron, has previously been shown to protect grafts from ischemia/reperfusion injury and rejection. Here we investigated the protective potential of HO-1 in 5 models of immune-mediated liver injury. We found that up-regulation of endogenous HO-1 by cobalt-protoporphyrin-IX (CoPP) protected mice from apoptotic liver damage induced by anti-CD95 antibody (Ab) or d-galactosamine in combination with either anti-CD3 Ab, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). HO-1 induction prevented apoptotic liver injury, measured by inhibition of caspase 3 activation, although it did not protect mice from caspase-3-independent necrotic liver damage caused by concanavalin A (Con A) administration. In addition, overexpression of HO-1 by adenoviral gene transfer resulted in protection from apoptotic liver injury, whereas inhibition of HO-1 enzymatic activity by tin-protoporphyrin-IX (SnPP) abrogated the protective effect. HO-1-mediated protection seems to target parenchymal liver cells directly because CoPP treatment protected isolated primary hepatocytes from anti-CD95-induced apoptosis in vitro. Furthermore, depletion of Kupffer cells (KCs) did not interfere with the protective effect in vivo. Exogenous CO administration or treatment with the CO-releasing agent methylene chloride mimicked the protective effect of HO-1, whereas treatment with exogenous biliverdin or overexpression of ferritin by recombinant adenoviral gene transfer did not. In conclusion, HO-1 is a potent protective factor for cytokine- and CD95-mediated apoptotic liver damage. Induction of HO-1 might be of a therapeutic modality for inflammatory liver diseases. PMID:14512878

Sass, Gabriele; Soares, Miguel Che Parreira; Yamashita, Kenichiro; Seyfried, Stefan; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus; Eschenhagen, Thomas; Kaczmarek, Elzbieta; Ritter, Thomas; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Tiegs, Gisa

2003-10-01

145

ARTEMIS nuclease facilitates apoptotic chromatin cleavage.  

PubMed

One hallmark of apoptosis is DNA degradation that first appears as high molecular weight fragments followed by extensive internucleosomal fragmentation. During apoptosis, the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is activated. DNA-PK is involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) and its catalytic subunit is associated with the nuclease ARTEMIS. Here, we report that, on initiation of apoptosis in human cells by agents causing DNA DSB or by staurosporine or other agents, ARTEMIS binds to apoptotic chromatin together with DNA-PK and other DSB repair proteins. ARTEMIS recruitment to chromatin showed a time and dose dependency. It required DNA-PK protein kinase activity and was blocked by antagonizing the onset of apoptosis with a pan-caspase inhibitor or on overexpression of the antiapoptotic BCL2 protein. In the absence of ARTEMIS, no defect in caspase-3, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1, and XRCC4 cleavage or in H2AX phosphorylation was observed and DNA-PK catalytic subunit was still phosphorylated on S2056 in response to staurosporine. However, DNA fragmentation including high molecular weight fragmentation was delayed in ARTEMIS-deficient cells compared with cells expressing ARTEMIS. In addition, ARTEMIS enhanced the kinetics of MLL gene cleavage at a breakage cluster breakpoint that is frequently translocated in acute or therapy-related leukemias. These results show a facilitating role for ARTEMIS at least in early, site-specific chromosome breakage during apoptosis. PMID:19808974

Britton, Sébastien; Frit, Philippe; Biard, Denis; Salles, Bernard; Calsou, Patrick

2009-10-15

146

BH3-Only Protein BIM Mediates Heat Shock-Induced Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Acute heat shock can induce apoptosis through a canonical pathway involving the upstream activation of caspase-2, followed by BID cleavage and stimulation of the intrinsic pathway. Herein, we report that the BH3-only protein BIM, rather than BID, is essential to heat shock-induced cell death. We observed that BIM-deficient cells were highly resistant to heat shock, exhibiting short and long-term survival equivalent to Bax?/?Bak?/? cells and better than either Bid?/? or dominant-negative caspase-9-expressing cells. Only Bim?/? and Bax?/?Bak?/? cells exhibited resistance to mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and loss of mitochondrial inner membrane potential. Moreover, while dimerized caspase-2 failed to induce apoptosis in Bid?/? cells, it readily did so in Bim?/? cells, implying that caspase-2 kills exclusively through BID, not BIM. Finally, BIM reportedly associates with MCL-1 following heat shock, and Mcl-1?/? cells were indeed sensitized to heat shock-induced apoptosis. However, pharmacological inhibition of BCL-2 and BCL-XL with ABT-737 also sensitized cells to heat shock, most likely through liberation of BIM. Thus, BIM mediates heat shock-induced apoptosis through a BAX/BAK-dependent pathway that is antagonized by antiapoptotic BCL-2 family members. PMID:24427286

Mahajan, Indra M.; Chen, Miao-Der; Muro, Israel; Robertson, John D.; Wright, Casey W.; Bratton, Shawn B.

2014-01-01

147

Ca(2+)-induced inhibition of apoptosis in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells: degradation of apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (APAF-1).  

PubMed

During apoptotic and excitotoxic neuron death, challenged mitochondria release the pro-apoptotic factor cytochrome c. In the cytosol, cytochrome c is capable of binding to the apoptotic protease-activating factor-1 (APAF-1). This complex activates procaspase-9 in the presence of dATP, resulting in caspase-mediated execution of apoptotic neuron death. Many forms of Ca(2+)-mediated neuron death, however, do not lead to prominent activation of the caspase cascade despite significant release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. We demonstrate that elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) induced prominent degradation of APAF-1 in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and in a neuronal cell-free apoptosis system. Loss of APAF-1 correlated with a reduced ability of cytochrome c to activate caspase-3-like proteases. Ca(2+) induced the activation of calpains, monitored by the cleavage of full-length alpha-spectrin into a calpain-specific 150-kDa breakdown product. However, pharmacological inhibition of calpain activity indicated that APAF-1 degradation also occurred via calpain-independent pathways. Our data suggest that Ca(2+) inhibits caspase activation during Ca(2+)-mediated neuron death by triggering the degradation of the cytochrome c-binding protein APAF-1. PMID:11579134

Reimertz, C; Kögel, D; Lankiewicz, S; Poppe, M; Prehn, J H

2001-09-01

148

Optical determination of intracellular water in apoptotic cells  

PubMed Central

Intracellular water plays a critical role in apoptotic and necrotic cell death. We describe a method for quantifying cell water by application of two previously described variants of transmission microscopy. By taking two axially displaced brightfield images, the phase shift of the transmitted wave was computed using the transport-of-intensity equation. At the same time, cell thickness was determined by transmission through an externally applied dye (‘transmission-through-dye’ microscopy); switching between these two imaging modalities was accomplished by simply changing the illumination wavelength. The sets of data thus obtained allow computation of the refractive index and cell water content within individual cells. The method was illustrated using cells treated with apoptotic agents staurosporine and actinomycin D and with necrosis inducer ionomycin. Water imaging allows discrimination between apoptotic volume decrease due to dehydration from that due to detachment of apoptotic bodies and can be used on samples where cell volume determination alone would be difficult or insufficient. PMID:24127617

Model, Michael A; Schonbrun, Ethan

2013-01-01

149

Atypical antiinflammatory activation of microglia induced by apoptotic neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the central nervous system (CNS), apoptosis plays an important role during development and is a primary pathogenic mechanism\\u000a in several adult neurodegenerative diseases. A main feature of apoptotic cell death is the efficient and fast removal of dying\\u000a cells by macrophages and nonprofessional phagocytes, without eliciting inflammation in the surrounding tissue. Apoptotic cells\\u000a undergo several membrane changes, including the

Roberta De Simone; Maria Antonietta Ajmone-Cat; Luisa Minghetti

2004-01-01

150

Morpholino artifacts provide pitfalls and reveal a novel role for pro-apoptotic genes in hindbrain boundary development  

PubMed Central

Morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (MOs) are widely used as a tool to achieve loss of gene function, but many have off-target effects mediated by activation of Tp53 and associated apoptosis. Here, we re-examine our previous MO-based loss-of-function studies that had suggested that Wnt1 expressed at hindbrain boundaries in zebrafish promotes neurogenesis and inhibits boundary marker gene expression in the adjacent para-boundary regions. We find that Tp53 is highly activated and apoptosis is frequently induced by the MOs used in these studies. Co-knockdown of Tp53 rescues the decrease in proneural and neuronal marker expression, which is thus an off-target effect of MOs. While loss of gene expression can be attributed to cell loss through apoptotic cell death, surprisingly we find that the ectopic expression of hindbrain boundary markers is also dependent on Tp53 activity and its downstream apoptotic effectors. We examine whether this non-specific activation of hindbrain boundary gene expression provides insight into the endogenous mechanisms underlying boundary cell specification. We find that the pro-apoptotic Bcl genes puma and bax-a are required for hindbrain boundary marker expression, and that gain of function of the Bcl-caspase pathway leads to ectopic boundary marker expression. These data reveal a non-apoptotic role for pro-apoptotic genes in the regulation of gene expression at hindbrain boundaries. In light of these findings, we discuss the precautions needed in performing morpholino knockdowns and in interpreting the data derived from their use. PMID:21145318

Gerety, Sebastian S.; Wilkinson, David G.

2011-01-01

151

C1q Binds Phosphatidylserine and Likely Acts as a Multiligand-Bridging Molecule in Apoptotic Cell Recognition1  

PubMed Central

Efficient apoptotic cell clearance is critical for maintenance of tissue homeostasis, and to control the immune responses mediated by phagocytes. Little is known about the molecules that contribute “eat me” signals on the apoptotic cell surface. C1q, the recognition unit of the C1 complex of complement, also senses altered structures from self and is a major actor of immune tolerance. HeLa cells were rendered apoptotic by UV-B treatment and a variety of cellular and molecular approaches were used to investigate the nature of the target(s) recognized by C1q. Using surface plasmon resonance, C1q binding was shown to occur at early stages of apoptosis and to involve recognition of a cell membrane component. C1q binding and phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, as measured by annexin V labeling, proceeded concomitantly, and annexin V inhibited C1q binding in a dose-dependent manner. As shown by cosedimentation, surface plasmon resonance, and x-ray crystallographic analyses, C1q recognized PS specifically and avidly (KD = 3.7-7 × 10-8 M), through multiple interactions between its globular domain and the phosphoserine group of PS. Confocal microscopy revealed that the majority of the C1q molecules were distributed in membrane patches where they colocalized with PS. In summary, PS is one of the C1q ligands on apoptotic cells, and C1q-PS interaction takes place at early stages of apoptosis, in newly organized membrane patches. Given its versatile recognition properties, these data suggest that C1q has the unique ability to sense different markers which collectively would provide strong eat me signals, thereby allowing efficient apoptotic cell removal. PMID:18250442

Païdassi, Helena; Tacnet-Delorme, Pascale; Garlatti, Virginie; Darnault, Claudine; Ghebrehiwet, Berhane; Gaboriaud, Christine; Arlaud, Gérard J.; Frachet, Philippe

2009-01-01

152

Rnd3 haploinsufficient mice are predisposed to hemodynamic stress and develop apoptotic cardiomyopathy with heart failure.  

PubMed

Rho family guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) 3 (Rnd3), a member of the small Rho GTPase family, has been suggested to regulate cell actin cytoskeleton dynamics, cell migration, and apoptosis through the Rho kinase-dependent signaling pathway. The biological function of Rnd3 in the heart is unknown. The downregulation of small GTPase Rnd3 transcripts was found in patients with end-stage heart failure. The pathological significance of Rnd3 loss in the transition to heart failure remains unexplored. To investigate the functional consequence of Rnd3 downregulation and the associated molecular mechanism, we generated Rnd3(+/-) haploinsufficient mice to mimic the downregulation of Rnd3 observed in the failing human heart. Rnd3(+/-) mice were viable; however, the mice developed heart failure after pressure overload by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Remarkable apoptosis, increased caspase-3 activity, and elevated Rho kinase activity were detected in the Rnd3(+/-) haploinsufficient animal hearts. Pharmacological inhibition of Rho kinase by fasudil treatment partially improved Rnd3(+/-) mouse cardiac functions and attenuated myocardial apoptosis. To determine if Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase 1 (ROCK1) was responsible for Rnd3 deficiency-mediated apoptotic cardiomyopathy, we established a double-knockout mouse line, the Rnd3 haploinsufficient mice with ROCK1-null background (Rnd3(+/-/ROCK1-/-)). Again, genetic deletion of ROCK1 partially but not completely rescued Rnd3 deficiency-mediated heart failure phenotype. These data suggest that downregulation of Rnd3 correlates with cardiac loss of function as in heart failure patients. Animals with Rnd3 haploinsufficiency are predisposed to hemodynamic stress. Hyperactivation of Rho kinase activity is responsible in part for the apoptotic cardiomyopathy development. Further investigation of ROCK1-independent mechanisms in Rnd3-mediated cardiac remodeling should be the focus for future study. PMID:24901055

Yue, X; Yang, X; Lin, X; Yang, T; Yi, X; Dai, Y; Guo, J; Li, T; Shi, J; Wei, L; Fan, G-C; Chen, C; Chang, J

2014-01-01

153

Src kinase modulates the apoptotic p53 pathway by altering HIPK2 localization  

PubMed Central

Non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src is a master regulator of cell proliferation. Hyperactive Src is a potent oncogene and a driver of cellular transformation and carcinogenesis. Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) is a tumor suppressor mediating growth suppression and apoptosis upon genotoxic stress through phosphorylation of p53 at Ser46. Here we show that Src phosphorylates HIPK2 and changes its subcellular localization. Using mass spectrometry we identified 9 Src-mediated Tyr-phosphorylation sites within HIPK2, 5 of them positioned in the kinase domain. By means of a phosphorylation-specific antibody we confirm that Src mediates phosphorylation of HIPK2 at Tyr354. We demonstrate that ectopic expression of Src increases the half-life of HIPK2 by interfering with Siah-1-mediated HIPK2 degradation. Moreover, we find that hyperactive Src binds HIPK2 and redistributes HIPK2 from the cell nucleus to the cytoplasm, where both kinases partially colocalize. Accordingly, we find that hyperactive Src decreases chemotherapeutic drug-induced p53 Ser46 phosphorylation and apoptosis activation. Together, our results suggest that Src kinase suppresses the apoptotic p53 pathway by phosphorylating HIPK2 and relocalizing the kinase to the cytoplasm. PMID:24196445

Polonio-Vallon, Tilman; Kirkpatrick, Joanna; Krijgsveld, Jeroen; Hofmann, Thomas G

2014-01-01

154

Non-apoptotic phosphatidylserine externalization induced by engagement of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins.  

PubMed

The exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the cell surface is a general marker of apoptotic cells. Non-apoptotic PS externalization is induced by several activation stimuli, including engagement of immunoreceptors. Immune cells can also be activated by aggregation of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs). However, it is unknown whether cell triggering through these proteins, lacking transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, also leads to PS externalization. Here we show that engagement of GPI-APs in rodent mast cells induces a rapid and reversible externalization of PS by a non-apoptotic mechanism. PS externalization triggered by GPI-AP-specific monoclonal antibodies was dependent on the activity of H(+)-ATP synthase and several other enzymes involved in mast cell signaling but was independent of cell degranulation, free cytoplasmic calcium up-regulation, and a decrease in lipid packing as determined by merocyanine 540 binding. Surprisingly, disruption of actin cytoskeleton by latrunculin B or plasma membrane integrity by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin had opposite effects on PS externalization triggered through GPI-AP or the high affinity IgE receptor. We further show that PS externalization mediated by GPI-APs was also observed in some other cells, and its extent varied with antibodies used. Interestingly, effects of different antibodies on PS externalization were additive, indicating that independent stimuli converge onto a signaling pathways leading to PS externalization. Our findings identify the cell surface PS exposure induced through GPI-AP as a distinct mechanism of cell signaling. Such a mechanism could contribute to "inside-out" signaling in response to pathogens and other external activators and/or to initiation of other functions associated with PS externalization. PMID:17284440

Smrz, Daniel; Dráberová, L'ubica; Dráber, Petr

2007-04-01

155

Apoptotic and Autophagic Effects of Sesbania grandiflora Flowers in Human Leukemic Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Identification of cytotoxic compounds that induce apoptosis has been the mainstay of anti-cancer therapeutics for several decades. In recent years, focus has shifted to inducing multiple modes of cell death coupled with reduced systemic toxicity. The plant Sesbania grandiflora is widely used in Indian traditional medicine for the treatment of a broad spectrum of diseases. This encouraged us to investigate into the anti-proliferative effect of a fraction (F2) isolated from S. grandiflora flowers in cancer cells and delineate the underlying involvement of apoptotic and autophagic pathways. Principal Findings Using MTT based cell viability assay, we evaluated the cytotoxic potential of fraction F2. It was the most effective on U937 cells (IC50?18.6 µg/ml). Inhibition of growth involved enhancement of Annexin V positivity. This was associated with elevated reactive oxygen species generation, measured by flow cytometry and reduced oxygen consumption – both effects being abrogated by anti-oxidant NAC. This caused stimulation of pro-apoptotic proteins and concomitant inhibition of anti-apoptotic protein expressions inducing mitochondrial depolarization, as measured by flow cytometry and release of cytochrome c. Interestingly, even with these molecular features of apoptosis, F2 was able to alter Atg protein levels and induce LC3 processing. This was accompanied by formation of autophagic vacuoles as revealed by fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy – confirming the occurrence of autophagy. Eventually, F2 triggered caspase cascade – executioners of programmed cell death and AIF translocation to nuclei. This culminated in cleavage of the DNA repair enzyme, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase that caused DNA damage as proved by staining with Hoechst 33258 leading to cell death. Conclusions The findings suggest fraction F2 triggers pro-oxidant activity and mediates its cytotoxicity in leukemic cells via apoptosis and autophagy. Thus, it merits consideration and further investigation as a therapeutic option for the treatment of leukemia. PMID:23967233

Chakraborty, Biswajit; Chowdhury, Chinmay; Das, Padma

2013-01-01

156

Induction of discrete apoptotic pathways by bromo-substituted indirubin derivatives in invasive breast cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of 6BIO and 7BIO are evaluated against five breast cancer cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 6BIO induces a caspase dependent apoptotic effect via the intrinsic pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 7BIO promotes G{sub 2}/M cells cycle arrest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 7BIO triggers a caspase-8 mediated apoptotic pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 7BIO triggers and a caspase independent pathway. -- Abstract: Indirubin derivatives gained interest in recent years for their anticancer and antimetastatic properties. The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the anticancer properties of the two novel bromo-substituted derivatives 6-bromoindirubin-3 Prime -oxime (6BIO) and 7-bromoindirubin-3 Prime -oxime (7BIO) in five different breast cancer cell lines. Cell viability assays identified that 6BIO and 7BIO are most effective in preventing the proliferation of the MDA-MB-231-TXSA breast cancer cell line from a total of five breast cancer cell lined examined. In addition it was found that the two compounds induce apoptosis via different mechanisms. 6BIO induces caspase-dependent programmed cell death through the intrinsic (mitochondrial) caspase-9 pathway. 7BIO up-regulates p21 and promotes G{sub 2}/M cell cycle arrest which is subsequently followed by the activation of two different apoptotic pathways: (a) a pathway that involves the upregulation of DR4/DR5 and activation of caspase-8 and (b) a caspase independent pathway. In conclusion, this study provides important insights regarding the molecular pathways leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by two indirubin derivatives that can find clinical applications in targeted cancer therapeutics.

Nicolaou, Katerina A. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus)] [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus); Liapis, Vasilis; Evdokiou, Andreas [Department of Surgery, Basil Hetzel Institute, Adelaide University, Adelaide (Australia)] [Department of Surgery, Basil Hetzel Institute, Adelaide University, Adelaide (Australia); Constantinou, Constantina [St. George's University of London Medical School at the University of Nicosia, Nicosia (Cyprus)] [St. George's University of London Medical School at the University of Nicosia, Nicosia (Cyprus); Magiatis, Prokopios; Skaltsounis, Alex L. [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Athens, Athens (Greece)] [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Koumas, Laura; Costeas, Paul A. [Center for Study of Hematological Malignancies, Nicosia (Cyprus)] [Center for Study of Hematological Malignancies, Nicosia (Cyprus); Constantinou, Andreas I., E-mail: andreasc@ucy.ac.cy [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus)

2012-08-17

157

Phosphoproteomic analysis of apoptotic hematopoietic stem cells from hemoglobin E/?-thalassemia  

PubMed Central

Background Hemoglobin E/?-thalassemia is particularly common in Southeast Asia and has variable symptoms ranging from mild to severe anemia. Previous investigations demonstrated the remarkable symptoms of ?-thalassemia in terms of the acceleration of apoptotic cell death. Ineffective erythropoiesis has been studied in human hematopoietic stem cells, however the distinct apoptotic mechanism was unclear. Methods The phosphoproteome of bone marrow HSCs/CD34+ cells from HbE/?-thalassemic patients was analyzed using IMAC phosphoprotein isolation followed by LC-MS/MS detection. Decyder MS software was used to quantitate differentially expressed proteins in 3 patients and 2 normal donors. The differentially expressed proteins from HSCs/CD34+ cells were compared with HbE/?-thalassemia and normal HSCs. Results A significant change in abundance of 229 phosphoproteins was demonstrated. Importantly, the analysis of the candidate proteins revealed a high abundance of proteins that are commonly found in apoptotic cells including cytochrome C, caspase 6 and apoptosis inducing factors. Moreover, in the HSCs patients a significant increase was observed in a specific type of phosphoserine/threonine binding protein, which is known to act as an important signal mediator for the regulation of cell survival and apoptosis in HbE/?-thalassemia. Conclusions Our study used a novel method to investigate proteins that influence a particular pathway in a given disease or physiological condition. Ultimately, phosphoproteome profiling in HbE/?-thalassemic stem cells is an effective method to further investigate the cell death mechanism of ineffective erythropoiesis in ?-thalassemia. Our report provides a comprehensive phosphoproteome, an important resource for the study of ineffective erythropoiesis and developing therapies for HbE/?-thalassemia. PMID:21702968

2011-01-01

158

Rho kinase regulates fragmentation and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells  

SciTech Connect

During the execution phase of apoptosis, a cell undergoes cytoplasmic and nuclear changes that prepare it for death and phagocytosis. The end-point of the execution phase is condensation into a single apoptotic body or fragmentation into multiple apoptotic bodies. Fragmentation is thought to facilitate phagocytosis; however, mechanisms regulating fragmentation are unknown. An isoform of Rho kinase, ROCK-I, drives membrane blebbing through its activation of actin-myosin contraction; this raises the possibility that ROCK-I may regulate other execution phase events, such as cellular fragmentation. Here, we show that COS-7 cells fragment into a number of small apoptotic bodies during apoptosis; treating with ROCK inhibitors (Y-27632 or H-1152) prevents fragmentation. Latrunculin B and blebbistatin, drugs that interfere with actin-myosin contraction, also inhibit fragmentation. During apoptosis, ROCK-I is cleaved and activated by caspases, while ROCK-II is not activated, but rather translocates to a cytoskeletal fraction. siRNA knock-down of ROCK-I but not ROCK-II inhibits fragmentation of dying cells, consistent with ROCK-I being required for apoptotic fragmentation. Finally, cells dying in the presence of the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 are not efficiently phagocytized. These data show that ROCK plays an essential role in fragmentation and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells.

Orlando, Kelly A. [Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, 3620 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Stone, Nicole L. [GlaxoSmithKline, 1250 S. Collegeville Rd., Collegeville, PA 19426 (United States); Pittman, Randall N. [Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, 3620 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)]. E-mail: pittman@pharm.med.upenn.edu

2006-01-01

159

Pro-apoptotic Sorafenib signaling in murine hepatocytes depends on malignancy and is associated with PUMA expression in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

The multi-kinase inhibitor Sorafenib increases the survival of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Current data suggest that Sorafenib inhibits cellular proliferation and angiogenesis and promotes apoptosis. However, the underlying pro-apoptotic molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here we compared the pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative properties of Sorafenib in murine hepatoma cells and syngeneic healthy hepatocytes in vitro and in animal models of HCC and liver regeneration in vivo. In vitro, we demonstrate that cell cycle activity and expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 like proteins are similarly downregulated by Sorafenib in Hepa1-6 hepatoma cells and in syngeneic primary hepatocytes. However, Sorafenib-mediated activation of caspase-3 and induction of apoptosis were exclusively found in hepatoma cells, but not in matching primary hepatocytes. We validated these findings in vivo by applying an isograft HCC transplantation model and partial hepatectomy (PH) in C57BL/6 mice. Sorafenib treatment activated caspase-3 and thus apoptosis selectively in small tumor foci that originated from implanted Hepa1-6 cells but not in surrounding healthy hepatocytes. Similarly, Sorafenib did not induce apoptosis after PH. However, Sorafenib treatment transiently inhibited cell cycle progression and resulted in mitotic catastrophe and enhanced non-apoptotic liver injury during regeneration. Importantly, Sorafenib-mediated apoptosis in hepatoma cells was associated with the expression of p53-upregulated-modulator-of-apoptosis (PUMA). In contrast, regenerating livers after PH revealed downregulation of PUMA and were completely protected from Sorafenib-mediated apoptosis. We conclude that Sorafenib induces apoptosis selectively in hepatoma cells but not in healthy hepatocytes and can additionally increase non-apoptotic hepatocyte injury in the regenerating liver. PMID:24481444

Sonntag, R; Gassler, N; Bangen, J-M; Trautwein, C; Liedtke, C

2014-01-01

160

Withania somnifera Alleviates Parkinsonian Phenotypes by Inhibiting Apoptotic Pathways in Dopaminergic Neurons.  

PubMed

Maneb (MB) and paraquat (PQ) are environmental toxins that have been experimentally used to induce selective damage of dopaminergic neurons leading to the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the mechanism of this selective neuronal toxicity in not fully understood, oxidative stress has been linked to the pathogenesis of PD. The present study investigates the mechanisms of neuroprotection elicited by Withania somnifera (Ws), a herb traditionally recognized by the Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda. An ethanolic root extract of Ws was co-treated with the MB-PQ induced mouse model of PD and was shown to significantly rescue canonical indicators of PD including compromised locomotor activity, reduced dopamine in the substantia nigra and various aspects of oxidative damage. In particular, Ws reduced the expression of iNOS, a measure of oxidative stress. Ws also significantly improved the MB + PQ mediated induction of a pro-apoptotic state by reducing Bax and inducing Bcl-2 protein expression, respectively. Finally, Ws reduced expression of the pro-inflammatory marker of astrocyte activation, GFAP. Altogether, the present study suggests that Ws treatment provides nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuroprotection against MB-PQ induced Parkinsonism by the modulation of oxidative stress and apoptotic machinery possibly accounting for the behavioural effects. PMID:25403619

Prakash, Jay; Chouhan, Shikha; Yadav, Satyndra Kumar; Westfall, Susan; Rai, Sachchida Nand; Singh, Surya Pratap

2014-12-01

161

Cell death stages in single apoptotic and necrotic cells monitored by Raman microspectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Although apoptosis and necrosis have distinct features, the identification and discrimination of apoptotic and necrotic cell death in vitro is challenging. Immunocytological and biochemical assays represent the current gold standard for monitoring cell death pathways; however, these standard assays are invasive, render large numbers of cells and impede continuous monitoring experiments. In this study, both room temperature (RT)-induced apoptosis and heat-triggered necrosis were analyzed in individual Saos-2 and SW-1353 cells by utilizing Raman microspectroscopy. A targeted analysis of defined cell death modalities, including early and late apoptosis as well as necrosis, was facilitated based on the combination of Raman spectroscopy with fluorescence microscopy. Spectral shifts were identified in the two cell lines that reflect biochemical changes specific for either RT-induced apoptosis or heat-mediated necrosis. A supervised classification model specified apoptotic and necrotic cell death based on single cell Raman spectra. To conclude, Raman spectroscopy allows a non-invasive, continuous monitoring of cell death, which may help shedding new light on complex pathophysiological or drug-induced cell death processes. PMID:24732136

Brauchle, Eva; Thude, Sibylle; Brucker, Sara Y.; Schenke-Layland, Katja

2014-01-01

162

Mitochondria-specific pro-apoptotic activity of genistein lipidic nanocarriers.  

PubMed

Genistein (Gen) soy isoflavone produces extensive pro-apoptotic anticancer effects, mediated predominantly via induction of mitochondrial damages. Rationalization of the native mitochondrial selectivity of Gen, utilizing biophysical model assumptions, led to our design of cationic lipid-based nanocarriers (NC) of Gen. Prototype nanoformulations, lipidic micelles (Mic) and nanoemulsions (NEs) incorporated Gen to serve as both therapeutic and targeting moieties, specific for mitochondria. Both Gen-NCs, showing superior physicochemical properties, produced significant cytotoxicity (5-10-fold lower EC50), compared to all drug controls, in hepatic and colon carcinomas. Owing to the mitochondria-specific accumulation of Gen-NCs, their mitochondrial depolarization effect was most evident, leading to marked activation of intrinsic apoptotic pathway markers--cytosolic cytochrme c and specific caspase-9--thus, confirming the direct mitochondrial action of Gen-NCs. This mechanistic evidence of the mitochondria specificity of our Gen-NE and Gen-Mic strongly indicates their potential as targeted delivery nanosystems to augment anticancer efficacy of many lipophilic chemotherapeutics. PMID:23992356

Pham, Jimmy; Brownlow, Bill; Elbayoumi, Tamer

2013-10-01

163

Potential for Modulation of the Fas Apoptotic Pathway by Epidermal Growth Factor in Sarcomas  

PubMed Central

One important mechanism by which cancer cells parasitize their host is by escaping apoptosis. Thus, selectively facilitating apoptosis is a therapeutic mechanism by which oncotherapy may prove highly advantageous. One major apoptotic pathway is mediated by Fas ligand (FasL). The death-inducing signaling Ccmplex (DISC) and subsequent death-domain aggregations are created when FasL is bound by its receptor thereby enabling programmed cell death. Conceptually, if a better understanding of the Fas pathway can be garnered, an oncoselective prodeath therapeutic approach can be tailored. Herein, we propose that EGF and CTGF play essential roles in the regulation of the Fas apoptotic pathway in sarcomas. Tumor and in vitro data suggest viable cells counter the prodeath signal induced by FasL by activating EGF, which in turn induces prosurvival CTGF. The prosurvival attributes of CTGF ultimately predominate over the death-inducing FasL. Cells destined for elimination inhibit this prosurvival response via a presently undefined pathway. This scenario represents a novel role for EGF and CTGF as regulators of the Fas pathway in sarcomas. PMID:22135505

Joyner, David E.; Jones, Kevin B.; Lessnick, Stephen L.; Schiffman, Joshua D.; Randall, R. Lor

2011-01-01

164

Nitric Oxide Induces Cell Death by Regulating Anti-Apoptotic BCL-2 Family Members  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) activates the intrinsic apoptotic pathway to induce cell death. However, the mechanism by which this pathway is activated in cells exposed to NO is not known. Here we report that BAX and BAK are activated by NO and that cytochrome c is released from the mitochondria. Cells deficient in Bax and Bak or Caspase-9 are completely protected from NO-induced cell death. The individual loss of the BH3-only proteins, Bim, Bid, Puma, Bad or Noxa, or Bid knockdown in Bim?/?/Puma?/? MEFs, does not prevent NO-induced cell death. Our data show that the anti-apoptotic protein MCL-1 undergoes ASK1-JNK1 mediated degradation upon exposure to NO, and that cells deficient in either Ask1 or Jnk1 are protected against NO-induced cell death. NO can inhibit the mitochondrial electron transport chain resulting in an increase in superoxide generation and peroxynitrite formation. However, scavengers of ROS or peroxynitrite do not prevent NO-induced cell death. Collectively, these data indicate that NO degrades MCL-1 through the ASK1-JNK1 axis to induce BAX/BAK-dependent cell death. PMID:19768117

Snyder, Colleen M.; Shroff, Emelyn H.; Liu, Jing; Chandel, Navdeep S.

2009-01-01

165

KLF6 degradation after apoptotic DNA damage.  

PubMed

Krüppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) is a cancer gene (). Here, we demonstrate that KLF6 protein is rapidly degraded when apoptosis is induced via the intrinsic pathway by cisplatin, adriamycin, or UVB irradiation in multiple cell lines (HCT116, SW40, HepG2, PC3-M, Skov3, NIH-3T3, 293T, GM09706, and MEF, IMR-90). KLF6 degradation occurred in the presence or absence of p53, was associated with ubiquitination, mediated by the proteasome (half-life 16min, unstimulated), and independent of caspases and calpain. KLF6 was unchanged by apoptosis via the extrinsic/death-receptor pathway. Deregulation of KLF6 stability may alter its tumor suppressor function and/or the response of tumors to chemotherapeutics. PMID:17113081

Banck, Michaela S; Beaven, Simon W; Narla, Goutham; Walsh, Martin J; Friedman, Scott L; Beutler, Andreas S

2006-12-22

166

Novel functions of viral anti-apoptotic factors.  

PubMed

Cellular apoptosis is of major importance in the struggle between virus and host. Although many viruses use various strategies to control the cell death machinery by encoding anti-apoptotic virulence factors, it is now becoming clear that, in addition to their role in inhibiting apoptosis, these factors function in multiple immune and metabolic pathways to promote fitness and pathogenesis. In this Progress article, we discuss novel functions of viral anti-apoptotic factors in the regulation of autophagy, in the nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) pathway and in interferon signalling, with a focus on persistent and oncogenic gammaherpesviruses. If viral anti-apoptotic proteins are to be properly exploited as targets for antiviral drugs, their diverse and complex roles should be considered. PMID:25363821

Liang, Chengyu; Oh, Byung-Ha; Jung, Jae U

2015-01-01

167

Die another way--non-apoptotic mechanisms of cell death.  

PubMed

Regulated, programmed cell death is crucial for all multicellular organisms. Cell death is essential in many processes, including tissue sculpting during embryogenesis, development of the immune system and destruction of damaged cells. The best-studied form of programmed cell death is apoptosis, a process that requires activation of caspase proteases. Recently it has been appreciated that various non-apoptotic forms of cell death also exist, such as necroptosis and pyroptosis. These non-apoptotic cell death modalities can be either triggered independently of apoptosis or are engaged should apoptosis fail to execute. In this Commentary, we discuss several regulated non-apoptotic forms of cell death including necroptosis, autophagic cell death, pyroptosis and caspase-independent cell death. We outline what we know about their mechanism, potential roles in vivo and define outstanding questions. Finally, we review data arguing that the means by which a cell dies actually matters, focusing our discussion on inflammatory aspects of cell death. PMID:24833670

Tait, Stephen W G; Ichim, Gabriel; Green, Douglas R

2014-05-15

168

Novel oncolytic adenovirus sensitizes renal cell carcinoma cells to radiotherapy via mitochondrial apoptotic cell death.  

PubMed

Renal cell carcinoma is the most frequent kidney malignancy and patients with metastatic disease have a poor prognosis. Suppressed apoptosis and marked invasiveness are distinctive features of renal cell carcinoma. In the present study, a dual?regulated oncolytic adenovirus expressing the interluekin (IL)?24 gene (Ki67?ZD55?IL?24) was constructed utilizing the Ki67 promoter to replace the native viral promoter of the E1A gene. Whether the combination of Ki67?ZD55?IL?24?mediated gene virotherapy and radiotherapy produced increased cytotoxicity in renal cell carcinoma cells via mitochondrial apoptotic cell death was investigated. The data indicated that this novel strategy has the potential to be further developed into an effective approach to treat renal cell carcinoma. The results showed that the combination of Ki67?ZD55?IL?24 and radiotherapy significantly enhanced anti?tumour activity via increasing the induction of apoptosis in melanoma cells compared with the other agents. PMID:25411768

Chen, Ren-Fu; Li, Yue-Yan; Li, Lian-Tao; Cheng, Qian; Jiang, Guan; Zheng, Jun-Nian

2015-03-01

169

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor interacts with HBx and inhibits its apoptotic activity  

SciTech Connect

HBx, a transcriptional transactivating protein of hepatitis B virus (HBV), is required for viral infection and has been implicated in virus-mediated liver oncogenesis. However, the precise molecular mechanism remains largely elusive. We used the yeast two-hybrid system to identify that HBx interacts with MIF directly. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is implicated in the regulation of inflammation, cell growth, and even tumor formation. The interaction between HBx and MIF was verified with co-immunoprecipitation, GST pull-down, and cellular colocalization. The expression of MIF was up-regulated in HBV particle producing cell 2.2.15 compared with HepG2 cell. Both HBx and MIF cause HepG2 cell G /G{sub 1} phase arrest, proliferation inhibition, and apoptosis. However, MIF can counteract the apoptotic effect of HBx. These results may provide evidence to explain the link between HBV infection and hepatocellular carcinoma.

Zhang Shimeng [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, No.27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Lin Ruxian [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, No.27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Zhou Zhe [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, No.27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Wen Siyuan [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, No.27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Lin Li [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, No.27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Chen Suhong [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, No.27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Shan Yajun [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, No.27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Cong Yuwen [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, No.27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Wang Shengqi [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, No.27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China)]. E-mail: sqwang@nic.bmi.ac.cn

2006-04-07

170

p57KIP2 control of actin cytoskeleton dynamics is responsible for its mitochondrial pro-apoptotic effect  

PubMed Central

p57 (Kip2, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C), often found downregulated in cancer, is reported to hold tumor suppressor properties. Originally described as a cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitor, p57KIP2 has since been shown to influence other cellular processes, beyond cell cycle regulation, including cell death and cell migration. Inhibition of cell migration by p57KIP2 is attributed to the stabilization of the actin cytoskeleton through the activation of LIM domain kinase-1 (LIMK-1). Furthermore, p57KIP2 is able to enhance mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. Here, we report that the cell death promoting effect of p57KIP2 is linked to its effect on the actin cytoskeleton. Indeed, whereas Jasplakinolide, an actin cytoskeleton-stabilizing agent, mimicked p57KIP2's pro-apoptotic effect, destabilizing the actin cytoskeleton with cytochalsin D reversed p57KIP2's pro-apoptotic function. Conversely, LIMK-1, the enzyme mediating p57KIP2's effect on the actin cytoskeleton, was required for p57KIP2's death promoting effect. Finally, p57KIP2-mediated stabilization of the actin cytoskeleton was associated with the displacement of hexokinase-1, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel, from the mitochondria, providing a possible mechanism for the promotion of the mitochondrial apoptotic cell death pathway. Altogether, our findings link together two tumor suppressor properties of p57KIP2, by showing that the promotion of cell death by p57KIP2 requires its actin cytoskeleton stabilization function. PMID:22592318

Kavanagh, E; Vlachos, P; Emourgeon, V; Rodhe, J; Joseph, B

2012-01-01

171

Video-enhanced microscopic visualization of apoptotic cell death caused by anti-Fas antibody in living human glioma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the morphological changes of anti-Fas antibody-mediated apoptosis in living U251-SP human glioma cells, we employed\\u000a video-enhanced contrast differential interference contrast (VEC-DIC) microscopy. In our previous study, we investigated the\\u000a susceptibility of human glioma cell lines to anti-Fas Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody. U251-SP cells express Fas antigen on\\u000a their surface. The cells exposed to anti-Fas antibody underwent apoptotic cell

Seiji Ohta; Jun Yoshida; Seiji Yamamoto; Kenichi Uemura; Toshihiko Wakabayashi; Masaaki Mizuno; Takashi Sakurai; Susumu Terakawa

1998-01-01

172

The Apaf-1-binding protein Aven is cleaved by Cathepsin D to unleash its anti-apoptotic potential  

PubMed Central

The anti-apoptotic molecule Aven was originally identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen for Bcl-xL-interacting proteins and has also been found to bind Apaf-1, thereby interfering with Apaf-1 self-association during apoptosome assembly. Aven is expressed in a wide variety of adult tissues and cell lines, and there is increasing evidence that its overexpression correlates with tumorigenesis, particularly in acute leukemias. The mechanism by which the anti-apoptotic activity of Aven is regulated remains poorly understood. Here we shed light on this issue by demonstrating that proteolytic removal of an inhibitory N-terminal Aven domain is necessary to activate the anti-apoptotic potential of the molecule. Furthermore, we identify Cathepsin D (CathD) as the protease responsible for Aven cleavage. On the basis of our results, we propose a model of Aven activation by which its N-terminal inhibitory domain is removed by CathD-mediated proteolysis, thereby unleashing its cytoprotective function. PMID:22388353

Melzer, I M; Fernández, S B M; Bösser, S; Lohrig, K; Lewandrowski, U; Wolters, D; Kehrloesser, S; Brezniceanu, M-L; Theos, A C; Irusta, P M; Impens, F; Gevaert, K; Zörnig, M

2012-01-01

173

Detection of fragmented DNA in apoptotic cells embedded in LR white: A combined histochemical (LM) and ultrastructural (EM) study.  

PubMed

We developed an improved method for the detection of double-strand DNA breaks in apoptotic cells at both the light (LM) and electron microscopic (EM) levels using a modification of the TdT (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase)-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) technique. Cultured rat cerebellar granule cells were exposed to low potassium conditions to induce apoptosis. Twenty-four hr after treatment, one group of cells was fixed in situ with 4% paraformaldehyde and labeled for DNA fragmentation characteristic of apoptosis. Apoptotic cells were visualized with diaminobenzidine (DAB) and viewed by LM. The second group of cells was detached from the culture dish, pelleted, fixed with a 4% paraformaldehyde and 0. 2% glutaraldehyde mixture, and embedded in LR White. For LM, the modified TUNEL technique was performed on 1.5-microm LR White sections and apoptotic cells were visualized using an enzymatic reaction to generate a blue precipitate. For EM, thin sections (94 nm) were processed and DNA fragmentation was identified using modified TUNEL with streptavidin-conjugated gold in conjunction with in-depth ultrastructural detail. Alternate sections of cells embedded in LR White can therefore be used for LM and EM TUNEL-based detection of apoptosis. The present findings suggest that the modified TUNEL technique on LR White semithin and consecutive thin sections has useful application for studying the fundamental mechanism of cell death. (J Histochem Cytochem 47:561-568, 1999) PMID:10082758

Goping, G; Wood, K A; Sei, Y; Pollard, H B

1999-04-01

174

Ebi/AP-1 Suppresses Pro-Apoptotic Genes Expression and Permits Long-Term Survival of Drosophila Sensory Neurons  

PubMed Central

Sensory organs are constantly exposed to physical and chemical stresses that collectively threaten the survival of sensory neurons. Failure to protect stressed neurons leads to age-related loss of neurons and sensory dysfunction in organs in which the supply of new sensory neurons is limited, such as the human auditory system. Transducin ?-like protein 1 (TBL1) is a candidate gene for ocular albinism with late-onset sensorineural deafness, a form of X-linked age-related hearing loss. TBL1 encodes an evolutionarily conserved F-box–like and WD40 repeats–containing subunit of the nuclear receptor co-repressor/silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptor and other transcriptional co-repressor complexes. Here we report that a Drosophila homologue of TBL1, Ebi, is required for maintenance of photoreceptor neurons. Loss of ebi function caused late-onset neuronal apoptosis in the retina and increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. Ebi formed a complex with activator protein 1 (AP-1) and was required for repression of Drosophila pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes expression. These results suggest that Ebi/AP-1 suppresses basal transcription levels of apoptotic genes and thereby protects sensory neurons from degeneration. PMID:22666340

Lim, Young-Mi; Hayashi, Shigeo; Tsuda, Leo

2012-01-01

175

Small GTPase CDC-42 promotes apoptotic cell corpse clearance in response to PAT-2 and CED-1 in C. elegans  

PubMed Central

The rapid clearance of dying cells is important for the well-being of multicellular organisms. In C. elegans, cell corpse removal is mainly mediated by three parallel engulfment signaling cascades. These pathways include two small GTPases, MIG-2/RhoG and CED-10/Rac1. Here we present the identification and characterization of CDC-42 as a third GTPase involved in the regulation of cell corpse clearance. Genetic analyses performed by both loss of cdc-42 function and cdc-42 overexpression place cdc-42 in parallel to the ced-2/5/12 signaling module, in parallel to or upstream of the ced-10 module, and downstream of the ced-1/6/7 module. CDC-42 accumulates in engulfing cells at membranes surrounding apoptotic corpses. The formation of such halos depends on the integrins PAT-2/PAT-3, UNC-112 and the GEF protein UIG-1, but not on the canonical ced-1/6/7 or ced-2/5/12 signaling modules. Together, our results suggest that the small GTPase CDC-42 regulates apoptotic cell engulfment possibly upstream of the canonical Rac GTPase CED-10, by polarizing the engulfing cell toward the apoptotic corpse in response to integrin signaling and ced-1/6/7 signaling in C. elegans. PMID:24632947

Neukomm, L J; Zeng, S; Frei, A P; Huegli, P A; Hengartner, M O

2014-01-01

176

Apoptin T108 phosphorylation is not required for its tumor-specific nuclear localization but partially affects its apoptotic activity  

SciTech Connect

Apoptin, a chicken anemia virus-encoded protein, induces apoptosis in human tumor cells but not in normal cells. In addition, Apoptin also exhibits tumor-specific nuclear localization and tumor-specific phosphorylation on threonine 108 (T108). Here, we studied the effects of T108 phosphorylation on the tumor-specific nuclear localization and apoptotic activity of Apoptin. We first showed that a hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged Apoptin, but not the green fluorescent protein-fused Apoptin used in many previous studies, exhibited the same intracellular distribution pattern as native Apoptin. We then made and analyzed an HA-Apoptin mutant with its T108 phosphorylation site abolished. We found that Apoptin T108 phosphorylation is not required for its tumor-specific nuclear localization and abolishing the T108 phosphorylation of Apoptin does affect its apoptotic activity in tumor cells but only partially. Our results support the previous finding that Apoptin contains two distinct apoptosis domains located separately at the N- and C-terminal regions and suggest that the T108 phosphorylation may only be required for the apoptotic activity mediated through the C-terminal apoptosis domain.

Lee, Y.-H. [Faculty of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Kaohsiung Medical University, No. 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Cheng, C.-M. [Faculty of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Kaohsiung Medical University, No. 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chang, Y.-F. [Faculty of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Kaohsiung Medical University, No. 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Wang, T.-Y. [Faculty of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Kaohsiung Medical University, No. 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Yuo, C.-Y. [Faculty of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Kaohsiung Medical University, No. 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); E-mail: m815006@kmu.edu.tw

2007-03-09

177

Lipoxins, Aspirin-Triggered Epi-Lipoxins, Lipoxin Stable Analogues, and the Resolution of Inflammation: Stimulation of Macrophage Phagocytosis of Apoptotic Neutrophils In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipoxins (LX) are eicosanoids with antiinflamma- tory activity in glomerulonephritis (GN) and inflammatory diseases, hypersensitivity, and ischemia reperfusion injury. It has been demonstrated that LXA4 stimulates non-phlogis- tic phagocytosis of apoptotic polymorphonuclear neutro- phils (PMN) by monocyte-derived macrophages (M) in vitro, suggesting a role for LX as endogenous pro-resolution lipid mediators. It is here reported that LXA4, LXB4, the aspirin-triggered

SIOBHAN MITCHELL; GRAHAM THOMAS; KILLEEN HARVEY; DAVID COTTELL; KEIRA REVILLE; GIOVANNI BERLASCONI; NICOS A. PETASIS; LARS ERWIG; ANDREW J. REES; JOHN SAVILL; HUGH R. BRADY; CATHERINE GODSON

178

NDK-1, the Homolog of NM23-H1/H2 Regulates Cell Migration and Apoptotic Engulfment in C. elegans  

PubMed Central

Abnormal regulation of cell migration and altered rearrangement of cytoskeleton are characteristic of metastatic cells. The first described suppressor of metastatic processes is NM23-H1, which displays NDPK (nucleoside-diphosphate kinase) activity. To better understand the role of nm23 genes in cell migration, we investigated the function of NDK-1, the sole Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of group I NDPKs in distal tip cell (DTC) migration. Dorsal phase of DTC migration is regulated by integrin mediated signaling. We find that ndk-1 loss of function mutants show defects in this phase. Epistasis analysis using mutants of the ?-integrin ina-1 and the downstream functioning motility-promoting signaling module (referred to as CED-10 pathway) placed NDK-1 downstream of CED-10/Rac. As DTC migration and engulfment of apoptotic corpses are analogous processes, both partially regulated by the CED-10 pathway, we investigated defects of apoptosis in ndk-1 mutants. Embryos and germ cells defective for NDK-1 showed an accumulation of apoptotic cell corpses. Furthermore, NDK-1::GFP is expressed in gonadal sheath cells, specialized cells for engulfment and clearence of apoptotic corpses in germ line, which indicates a role for NDK-1 in apoptotic corpse removal. In addition to the CED-10 pathway, engulfment in the worm is also mediated by the CED-1 pathway. abl-1/Abl and abi-1/Abi, which function in parallel to both CED-10/CED-1 pathways, also regulate engulfment and DTC migration. ndk-1(-);abi-1(-) double mutant embryos display an additive phenotype (e. g. enhanced number of apoptotic corpses) which suggests that ndk-1 acts in parallel to abi-1. Corpse number in ndk-1(-);ced-10(-) double mutants, however, is similar to ced-10(-) single mutants, suggesting that ndk-1 acts downstream of ced-10 during engulfment. In addition, NDK-1 shows a genetic interaction with DYN-1/dynamin, a downstream component of the CED-1 pathway. In summary, we propose that NDK-1/NDPK might represent a converging point of CED-10 and CED-1 pathways in the process of cytoskeleton rearrangement. PMID:24658123

Fancsalszky, Luca; Monostori, Eszter; Farkas, Zsolt; Pourkarimi, Ehsan; Masoudi, Neda; Hargitai, Balázs; Bosnar, Maja Herak; Deželjin, Martina; Zsákai, Annamária; Vellai, Tibor; Mehta, Anil; Takács-Vellai, Krisztina

2014-01-01

179

Apoptotic Cell Death of Human Interstitial Cells of Cajal  

PubMed Central

Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are specialized mesenchyme-derived cells that regulate contractility and excitability of many smooth muscles with loss of ICC seen in a variety of gut motility disorders. Maintenance of ICC numbers is tightly regulated, with several factors known to regulate proliferation. In contrast, the fate of ICC is not established. The aim of this study was to investigate whether apoptosis plays a role in the regulation of ICC numbers in the normal colon. ICC were identified by immunolabeling for the c-Kit receptor tyrosine kinase and by electron microscopy. Apoptosis was detected in colon tissue by immunolabeling for activated caspase-3, terminal dUTP nucleotide end labeling, and ultrastructural changes in the cells. Apoptotic ICC were identified and counted in double labeled tissue sections. Apoptotic ICC were identified in all layers of the colonic muscle. In the muscularis propria 1.5 ± 0.2% of ICC were positive for activated caspase-3 and in the circular muscle layer 2.1 ± 0.9% of ICC were positive for TUNEL. Apoptotic ICC were identified by electron microscopy. Apoptotic cell death is ongoing in ICC. The level of apoptosis in ICC in healthy colon indicates that these cells must be continually regenerated to maintain intact networks. PMID:18798796

De Giorgio, Roberto; Faussone Pellegrini, Maria Simonetta; Garrity-Park, Megan M.; Miller, Steven M.; Schmalz, Philip F.; Young-Fadok, Tonia M.; Larson, David W.; Dozois, Eric J.; Camilleri, Michael; Stanghellini, Vincenzo; Szurszewski, Joseph H.; Farrugia, Gianrico

2008-01-01

180

Apoptotic Osteocytes Regulate Osteoclast Precursor Recruitment and Differentiation In Vitro  

E-print Network

Apoptotic Osteocytes Regulate Osteoclast Precursor Recruitment and Differentiation In Vitro Saja A, Toronto, ON, Canada ABSTRACT Fatigue loading causes a spatial distribution of osteocyte apoptosis co-localized with bone resorption spaces peaking around microdamage sites. Since osteocytes have been shown to regulate

You, Lidan

181

Monitoring circulating apoptotic cells by in-vivo flow cytometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemotherapies currently constitute one main venue of cancer treatment. For a large number of adult and elderly patients, however, treatment options are poor. These patients may suffer from disease that is resistant to conventional chemotherapy or may not be candidates for curative therapies because of advanced age or poor medical conditions. To control disease in these patients, new therapies must be developed that are selectively targeted to unique characteristics of tumor cell growth and metastasis. A reliable early evaluation and prediction of response to the chemotherapy is critical to its success. Chemotherapies induce apoptosis in tumor cells and a portion of such apoptotic cancer cells may be present in the circulation. However, the fate of circulating tumor cells is difficult to assess with conventional methods that require blood sampling. We report the in situ measurement of circulating apoptotic cells in live animals using in vivo flow cytometry, a novel method that enables real-time detection and quantification of circulating cells without blood extraction. Apoptotic cells are rapidly cleared from the circulation with a half-life of ~10 minutes. Real-time monitoring of circulating apoptotic cells can be useful for detecting early changes in disease processes, as well as for monitoring response to therapeutic intervention.

Wei, Xunbin; Tan, Yuan; Chen, Yun; Zhang, Li; Li, Yan; Liu, Guangda; Wu, Bin; Wang, Chen

2008-02-01

182

Apoptotic Genes are Differentially Expressed in Aged Gingival Tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellular and molecular changes of the periodontium associated with a higher prevalence of oral diseases (e.g., chronic periodontitis) in aged populations have received little attention. Since impaired apoptosis during aging appears to be related to chronic inflammatory disorders, we hypothesized that the expression of genes associated with apoptotic processes are altered in aged healthy and periodontitis-affected gingival tissue. Ontology analysis

O. A. González; A. J. Stromberg; P. M. Huggins; J. Gonzalez-Martinez; M. J. Novak; J. L. Ebersole

2011-01-01

183

Cytostatic and apoptotic actions of TGF-? in homeostasis and cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytostatic and apoptotic functions of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) help restrain the growth of mammalian tissues; loss of these effects leads to hyperproliferative disorders and is common in cancer. However, tumour cells that are relieved from TGF-? growth constraints might then overproduce this cytokine to create a local immunosuppressive environment that fosters tumour growth and exacerbates the invasive and

Peter M. Siegel; Joan Massagué

2003-01-01

184

Ethanol-Induced Apoptotic Neurodegeneration and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deleterious effects of ethanol on the developing human brain are poorly understood. Here it is reported that ethanol, acting by a dual mechanism [blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors and excessive activation of GABAA receptors], triggers widespread apoptotic neurodegeneration in the developing rat forebrain. Vulnerability coincides with the period of synaptogenesis, which in humans extends from the sixth month

Chrysanthy Ikonomidou; Petra Bittigau; Masahiko J. Ishimaru; David F. Wozniak; Christian Koch; Kerstin Genz; Madelon T. Price; Vanya Stefovska; Friederike Hörster; Tanya Tenkova; Krikor Dikranian; John W. Olney

2000-01-01

185

Cardioprotective activity of urocortin by preventing caspase-independent, non-apoptotic death in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes exposed to ischemia  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} Ischemia induces high level of iPLA{sub 2} resulting in caspase-independent myocyte death. {yields} Urocortin causes iPLA{sub 2} down-regulation leading to avoidance of non-apoptotic death. {yields} The survival-promoting effect of urocortin is abrogated by CRH receptor antagonist. -- Abstract: Caspase-independent, non-apoptotic cell death in ischemic heart disease is considered to be one of the important therapeutic targets, however, the detailed mechanisms of this cell death process are not clear. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of non-apoptotic cell death in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes during ischemia, and the cardioprotection by preventing the mechanisms. We found that ischemia caused elevation of the phospholipase A{sub 2} (iPLA{sub 2}) expression in the myocytes, leading to distinctive non-apoptotic nuclear shrinkage, and cell death. Moreover, we investigated whether the potent cardioprotective corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), urocortin, which had been less focused on non-apoptotic cell death, inhibits the ischemic myocyte death. Ischemia-augmented nuclear shrinkage of the myocytes was suppressed by the pretreatment of {approx}10 nM urocortin before the cells were exposed to ischemia. Urocortin could significantly suppress the expression and activity of iPLA{sub 2}, resulting in preventing the ischemia-induced cell death. The survival-promoting effect of urocortin was abrogated by the CRH receptor antagonist astressin. These findings provide the first evidence linking the targets of the urocortin-mediated cardioprotection to the suppression of the caspase-independent, non-apoptotic death in cardiac myocytes exposed to ischemia.

Takatani-Nakase, Tomoka, E-mail: nakase@mukogawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mukogawa Women's University, 11-68, Koshien, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8179 (Japan)] [Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mukogawa Women's University, 11-68, Koshien, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8179 (Japan); Takahashi, Koichi, E-mail: koichi@mukogawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mukogawa Women's University, 11-68, Koshien, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8179 (Japan)] [Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mukogawa Women's University, 11-68, Koshien, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8179 (Japan)

2010-11-12

186

Prostaglandin D2 synthase: Apoptotic factor in alzheimer plasma, inducer of reactive oxygen species, inflammatory cytokines and dialysis dementia  

PubMed Central

Background: Apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokines have all been implicated in the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Objectives: The present study identifies the apoptotic factor that was responsible for the fourfold increase in apoptotic rates that we previously noted when pig proximal tubule, LLC-PK1, cells were exposed to AD plasma as compared to plasma from normal controls and multi-infarct dementia. Patients and Methods: The apoptotic factor was isolated from AD urine and identified as lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase (L-PGDS). L-PGDS was found to be the major apoptotic factor in AD plasma as determined by inhibition of apoptosis approximating control levels by the cyclo-oxygenase (COX) 2 inhibitor, NS398, and the antibody to L-PGDS. Blood levels of L-PGDS, however, were not elevated in AD. We now demonstrate a receptor-mediated uptake of L-PGDS in PC12 neuronal cells that was time, dose and temperature-dependent and was saturable by competition with cold L-PGDS and albumin. Further proof of this endocytosis was provided by an electron microscopic study of gold labeled L-PGDS and immunofluorescence with Alexa-labeled L-PGDS. Results: The recombinant L-PGDS and wild type (WT) L-PGDS increased ROS but only the WTL-PGDS increased IL6 and TNF?, suggesting that differences in glycosylation of L-PGDS in AD was responsible for this discrepancy. Conclusions: These data collectively suggest that L-PGDS might play an important role in the development of dementia in patients on dialysis and of AD. PMID:24475446

Maesaka, John K.; Sodam, Bali; Palaia, Thomas; Ragolia, Louis; Batuman, Vecihi; Miyawaki, Nobuyuki; Shastry, Shubha; Youmans, Steven; El-Sabban, Marwan

2013-01-01

187

MATURATION-INDUCED DOWNREGULATION OF MFG-E8 IMPAIRS APOPTOTIC CELL CLEARANCE AND ENHANCES ENDOTOXIN RESPONSE  

PubMed Central

In sepsis, phagocytosis and killing of bacteria by phagocytes are important. Similarly, the clearance of accumulating apoptotic cells is critical in maintaining normal immunity. Upon maturation, peritoneal macrophages (PM) become a major source of proinflammatory cytokines, while losing their efficacy of phagocytosis. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here we investigated the differential effects of apoptotic thymocytes (AoTC) on TNF-? release in immature thioglycolate-elicited PM (TGPM) and mature resident PM (RPM) in vitro by culturing them with or without AoTC and/or LPS. MFG-E8 expression was assessed by Western blot and the ability to engulf AoTC was determined histologically. Cytokine secretion was measured by ELISA. MAP kinase phosphorylation was assessed by Western blot. Mature RPM express less than 50% of TGPM MFG-E8 levels and have a 30% lower capacity to clear AoTC. Their proinflammatory response (TNF-? release) to LPS is 5 times higher, and their capability to phagocytose is decreased along with further downregulation of MFG-E8 after LPS-stimulation. RPMs also lack phagocytosis-induced inhibition of TNF-? release after LPS stimulation. LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38 and JNK is enhanced in RPM compared to TGPM. MFG-E8-mediated apoptotic cell phagocytosis results in an inhibition of MAPK and NF?B signaling pathways. Differential MAPK activation may play a role in the enhanced LPS responsiveness of RPM and the lack of MFG-E8 impedes post-phagocytic suppression of LPS-response through the inhibition of those signaling pathways. These results provide a potential mechanistic insight into the benefit of promoting apoptotic cell clearance via MFG-E8 under inflammatory conditions. PMID:19020771

Miksa, Michael; Amin, Dhruv; Wu, Rongqian; Jacob, Asha; Zhou, Mian; Dong, Weifeng; Yang, Weng-Lang; Ravikumar, Thanjavur S.; Wang, Ping

2009-01-01

188

Estrogen Negatively Regulates the Pro-apoptotic Function of Mixed Lineage Kinase 3 in Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Estrogen stimulates growth and inhibits apoptosis of breast cancer cells via genomic and non-genomic actions. However, the detailed mechanism by which estrogen inhibits the pro-apoptotic pathways that might impede the normal homeostasis and action of chemotherapeutic drugs in breast cancer cells is not well understood. Here, we report a negative regulation of a pro-apoptotic kinase, Mixed Lineage Kinase 3 (MLK3) by 17?-estradiol (E2) that hinders cytotoxic drug-induced cell death in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer cells. MLK3 kinase activities were significantly higher in estrogen receptor negative (ER?), progesterone receptor negative (PR?) primary human breast tumors, suggesting that E2 might have a negative role in regulating MLK3 kinase activity. The kinase activities of MLK3 and its downstream target, JNK were rapidly inhibited by E2 in ER+ but not in ER? breast cancer cells. The inhibition of MLK3 kinase activity by E2 was mediated via activation of protein kinase B (PKB/AKT) because specific knockdown of AKT1/2 prevented the E2-induced inhibition of MLK3. Furthermore, E2-induced inhibition of MLK3 kinase activity involved a direct phosphorylation of MLK3 at Ser 674 site by AKT, which resulted in an attenuation of the pro-apoptotic function of MLK3. In addition, a pan-MLK inhibitor (CEP-11004) significantly attenuated Taxol-induced cell death, which was further synergized by E2. Thus, our data suggest that E2 negatively regulates the pro-apoptotic function of MLK3 during breast cancer pathogenesis and therefore MLK3 and other MLK family members might play an important role in cytotoxic drug-induced cell death in ER+ breast cancer cells. PMID:20145118

Rangasamy, Velusamy; Mishra, Rajakishore; Mehrotra, Suneet; Sondarva, Gautam; Ray, Rajarshi S.; Rao, Arundhati; Chatterjee, Malay; Rana, Basabi; Rana, Ajay

2009-01-01

189

Enhancement of macrophage phagocytosis upon iC3b deposition on apoptotic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptotic cells activate homologous complement and are opsonized with iC3b. We assessed the effect of iC3b opsonization upon phagocytosis of apoptotic Jurkat cells by macrophages, which were differentiated from THP-1 cells by treatment with retinoic acid. Macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic Jurkat cells was enhanced upon incubation of the apoptotic cells with normal human serum. The enhanced macrophage phagocytosis of normal

Fumitake Takizawa; Shoutaro Tsuji; Shigeharu Nagasawa

1996-01-01

190

Redox regulation of anoikis: reactive oxygen species as essential mediators of cell survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proper attachment to the extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for cell survival. The loss of integrin-mediated cell–ECM contact results in an apoptotic process termed anoikis. However, mechanisms involved in regulation of cell survival are poorly understood and mediators responsible for anoikis have not been well characterized. Here, we demonstrate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced through the involvement of the

E Giannoni; F Buricchi; G Grimaldi; M Parri; F Cialdai; M L Taddei; G Raugei; G Ramponi; P Chiarugi

2008-01-01

191

Apoptotic Machinery Diversity in Multiple Myeloma Molecular Subtypes  

PubMed Central

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma-cell (PC) malignancy that is heterogeneous in its clinical presentation and prognosis. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) consistently preceded development of MM. The presence of primary IgH translocations and the universal overexpression of cyclin D genes led to a molecular classification of MM patients into different disease subtypes. Since Bcl-2 family proteins determine cell fate, we analyzed a publicly available Affymetrix gene expression of 44 MGUS and 414 newly diagnosed MM patients to investigate (1) the global change of Bcl-2 family members in MM versus MGUS (2) whether the four major subtypes defined as hyperdiploid, CyclinD1, MAF, and MMSET, display specific apoptotic machineries. We showed that among the main anti-apoptotic members (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1), Mcl-1 up-regulation discriminated MM from MGUS, in agreement with the prominent role of Mcl-1 in PC differentiation. Surprisingly, the expression of multi-domain pro-apoptotic Bak and Bax were increased during the progression of MGUS to MM. The combined profile of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1 was sufficient to distinguish MM molecular groups. While specific pro-apoptotic members expression was observed for each MM subtypes, CyclinD1 subgroup, was identified as a particular entity characterized by a low expression of BH3-only (Puma, Bik, and Bad) and multi-domain pro-apoptotic members (Bax and Bak). Our analysis supports the notion that MM heterogeneity is extended to the differential expression of the Bcl-2 family content in each MM subgroup. The influence of Bcl-2 family profile in the survival of the different patient groups will be further discussed to establish the potential consequences for therapeutic interventions. Finally, the use of distinct pro-survival members in the different steps of immune responses to antigen raises also the question of whether the different Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic profile could reflect a different origin of MM cells. PMID:24391642

Gomez-Bougie, Patricia; Amiot, Martine

2013-01-01

192

Leptin induces phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies by hepatic stellate cells via a Rho GTP-ase-dependent mechanism  

PubMed Central

Leptin, a profibrogenic cytokine plays an important role in the development of non alcoholic steatohepatitis. Leptin also regulates immune responses including macrophage phagocytic activity. Stellate cells are key elements in liver fibrogenesis, and previously we have demonstrated that phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies by stellate cells is profibrogenic. To study the effects of leptin on the phagocytic activity of hepatic stellate cells, we exposed both LX-2 cells and primary stellate cells to leptin, and we have observed increased phagocytic activity. In stellate cells isolated from Zucker (fa/fa) rats, the rate of phagocytosis was significantly decreased. To investigate the mechanism by which leptin induces phagocytosis, we focused on the role of Rho-GTP-ases. We found that leptin induced the PI3K-dependent activation of Rac1, and that NADPH oxidase activation was also implicated in this process. Leptin also induced RhoA activation and translocation to the phagosomes. Expression of the constitutive active Rac1 and RhoA both increased the phagocytic rate, while inhibition of the Rho-dependent kinase decreased the phagocytic activity. In conclusion, we describe a novel role of leptin in the fibrogenic process, the induction of phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies by hepatic stellate cells. The data provide strong evidence of a Rho-GTP-ase mediated regulation of the cytoskeleton during stellate cell phagocytosis. Leptin-mediated phagocytic activity of stellate cells therefore could be an important mechanism responsible for progression of fibrosis in NASH. PMID:18925608

Jiang, Joy X.; Mikami, Kenichiro; Shah, Vijay H.; Torok, Natalie J

2008-01-01

193

A DR4:tBID axis drives the p53 apoptotic response by promoting oligomerization of poised BAX  

PubMed Central

The cellular response to p53 activation varies greatly in a stimulus- and cell type-specific manner. Dissecting the molecular mechanisms defining these cell fate choices will assist the development of effective p53-based cancer therapies and also illuminate fundamental processes by which gene networks control cellular behaviour. Using an experimental system wherein stimulus-specific p53 responses are elicited by non-genotoxic versus genotoxic agents, we discovered a novel mechanism that determines whether cells undergo proliferation arrest or cell death. Strikingly, we observe that key mediators of cell-cycle arrest (p21, 14-3-3?) and apoptosis (PUMA, BAX) are equally activated regardless of outcome. In fact, arresting cells display strong translocation of PUMA and BAX to the mitochondria, yet fail to release cytochrome C or activate caspases. Surprisingly, the key differential events in apoptotic cells are p53-dependent activation of the DR4 death receptor pathway, caspase 8-mediated cleavage of BID, and BID-dependent activation of poised BAX at the mitochondria. These results reveal a previously unappreciated role for DR4 and the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in cell fate choice following p53 activation. PMID:22246181

Henry, Ryan E; Andrysik, Zdenek; París, Ramiro; Galbraith, Matthew D; Espinosa, Joaquín M

2012-01-01

194

Licochalcone A induces apoptosis in malignant pleural mesothelioma through downregulation of Sp1 and subsequent activation of mitochondria-related apoptotic pathway.  

PubMed

Licochalcone A (LCA) is a natural product derived from the roots of Glycyrrhiza inflata exhibiting a wide range of bioactivities such as antitumor, anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial effects. Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an extremely aggressive type of cancer with a poor prognosis because of its rapid progression. However, LCA has not been investigated concerning its effects on MPM. Preliminarily, we observed that LCA negatively modulated not only cell growth, but also specificity protein 1 (Sp1) expression in MSTO-211H and H28 cell lines. It was found that IC50 values of LCA for growth inhibition of MSTO-211H and H28 cells were approximately 26 and 30 µM, respectively. Consistent with downregulation of Sp1, expression of Sp1 regulatory proteins such as Cyclin D1, Mcl-1 and Survivin was substantially diminished. Mechanistically, LCA triggered the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by affecting the ratio of mitochondrial proapoptotic Bax to anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL. Bid induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, eventually leading to multi-caspase activation and increased sub-G1 population. Moreover, nuclear staining with DAPI highlighted nuclear condensation and fragmentation of apoptotic features. Flow cytometry analyses after staining cells with Annexin V and propiodium iodide corroborated LCA-mediated apoptotic cell death of MPM cells. In conclusion, these results present that LCA may be a potential bioactive material to control human MPM cells by apoptosis via the downregulation of Sp1. PMID:25586190

Kim, Ka Hwi; Yoon, Goo; Cho, Jung Jae; Cho, Jin Hyoung; Cho, Young Sik; Chae, Jung-Il; Shim, Jung-Hyun

2015-03-01

195

RGDechi-hCit: ?v?3 Selective Pro-Apoptotic Peptide as Potential Carrier for Drug Delivery into Melanoma Metastatic Cells  

PubMed Central

?v?3 integrin is an important tumor marker widely expressed on the surface of cancer cells. Recently, we reported some biological features of RGDechi-hCit, an ?v?3 selective peptide antagonist. In the present work, we mainly investigated the pro-apoptotic activity of the molecule and its ability to penetrate the membrane of WM266 cells, human malignant melanoma cells expressing high levels of ?v?3 integrin. For the first time we demonstrated the pro-apoptotic effect and the ability of RGDechi-hCit to enter into cell overexpressing ?v?3 integrin mainly by clathrin- and caveolin-mediated endocytosis. Furthermore, we deepened and confirmed the selectivity, anti-adhesion, and anti-proliferative features of the peptide. Altogether these experiments give insight into the biological behavior of RGDechi-hCit and have important implications for the employment of the peptide as a new selective carrier to deliver drugs into the cell and as a therapeutic and diagnostic tool for metastatic melanoma. Moreover, since the peptide shows a pro-apoptotic effect, a great perspective could be the development of a new class of selective systems containing RGDechi-hCit and pro-apoptotic molecules or other therapeutic agents to attain a synergic action. PMID:25248000

Del Gatto, Annarita; Di Gaetano, Sonia; Guarnieri, Daniela; Saviano, Michele; Zaccaro, Laura

2014-01-01

196

Anti-apoptotic activity of p53 maps to the COOH-terminal domain and is retained in a highly oncogenic natural mutant.  

PubMed

The tumour suppressor p53 plays a complex role in the regulation of apoptosis. High levels of wild type p53 potentiate the apoptotic response, while physiological range, low levels of the protein have an anti-apoptotic activity in serum starved immortalized fibroblasts. Here we report that primary fibroblast-like cells that show normal growth control are also efficiently protected from apoptosis by the endogenous p53 activity. The capacity to inhibit apoptosis is not restricted to the wild type protein: the R-->H175 p53 mutant fully retains the anti-apoptotic activity of the wild type p53, providing a possible explanation for its high oncogenicity. Using a series of point and deletion mutants of p53 under the control of tetracycline-regulated promoter we show that certain mutants, like the wild type, protect cells at low levels but lead to apoptosis when overexpressed. This latter effect is lost upon deletion of a proline-rich domain in the NH2 part of the protein. The anti-apoptotic activity can be mapped to the extreme carboxy-terminal part of the protein and is therefore independent of other well characterized p53 activities. Our results add a new level of complexity to the network of interactions mediated by p53 in normal physiology and pathology. PMID:10467417

Lassus, P; Bertrand, C; Zugasti, O; Chambon, J P; Soussi, T; Mathieu-Mahul, D; Hibner, U

1999-08-19

197

Rybp interacts with Hippi and enhances Hippi-mediated apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rybp (DEDAF) has been shown to interact with DED-containing proteins and to encode pro-apoptotic functions. Here we characterize\\u000a a novel interaction between Rybp and Hippi, a protein implicated in neuronal apoptosis as well as in the pathogenesis of Huntington’s\\u000a disease. Rybp can synergize with Hippi to enhance Caspase 8-mediated apoptosis and also appears to be essential for Hippi-mediated\\u000a apoptosis. Moreover,

Sasha E. Stanton; Jennifer K. Blanck; Joseph Locker; Nicole Schreiber-Agus

2007-01-01

198

Alteration of TEAD1 Expression Levels Confers Apoptotic Resistance through the Transcriptional Up-Regulation of Livin  

PubMed Central

Background TEA domain (TEAD) proteins are highly conserved transcription factors involved in embryonic development and differentiation of various tissues. More recently, emerging evidences for a contribution of these proteins towards apoptosis and cell proliferation regulation have also been proposed. These effects appear to be mediated by the interaction between TEAD and its co-activator Yes-Associated Protein (YAP), the downstream effector of the Hippo tumour suppressor pathway. Methodology/Principal Findings We further investigated the mechanisms underlying TEAD-mediated apoptosis regulation and showed that overexpression or RNAi-mediated silencing of the TEAD1 protein is sufficient to protect mammalian cell lines from induced apoptosis, suggesting a proapoptotic function for TEAD1 and a non physiological cytoprotective effect for overexpressed TEAD1. Moreover we show that the apoptotic resistance conferred by altered TEAD1 expression is mediated by the transcriptional up-regulation of Livin, a member of the Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (IAP) family. In addition, we show that overexpression of a repressive form of TEAD1 can induce Livin up-regulation, indicating that the effect of TEAD1 on Livin expression is indirect and favoring a model in which TEAD1 activates a repressor of Livin by interacting with a limiting cofactor that gets titrated upon TEAD1 up-regulation. Interestingly, we show that overexpression of a mutated form of TEAD1 (Y421H) implicated in Sveinsson's chorioretinal atrophy that strongly reduces its interaction with YAP as well as its activation, can induce Livin expression and protect cells from induced apoptosis, suggesting that YAP is not the cofactor involved in this process. Conclusions/Significance Taken together our data reveal a new, Livin-dependent, apoptotic role for TEAD1 in mammals and provide mechanistic insight downstream of TEAD1 deregulation in cancers. PMID:23029054

Landin Malt, André; Cagliero, Julie; Legent, Kevin; Silber, Joël; Zider, Alain; Flagiello, Domenico

2012-01-01

199

Deep Sequencing Identification of Novel Glucocorticoid-Responsive miRNAs in Apoptotic Primary Lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis of lymphocytes governs the response of the immune system to environmental stress and toxic insult. Signaling through the ubiquitously expressed glucocorticoid receptor, stress-induced glucocorticoid hormones induce apoptosis via mechanisms requiring altered gene expression. Several reports have detailed the changes in gene expression mediating glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis of lymphocytes. However, few studies have examined the role of non-coding miRNAs in this essential physiological process. Previously, using hybridization-based gene expression analysis and deep sequencing of small RNAs, we described the prevalent post-transcriptional repression of annotated miRNAs during glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis of lymphocytes. Here, we describe the development of a customized bioinformatics pipeline that facilitates the deep sequencing-mediated discovery of novel glucocorticoid-responsive miRNAs in apoptotic primary lymphocytes. This analysis identifies the potential presence of over 200 novel glucocorticoid-responsive miRNAs. We have validated the expression of two novel glucocorticoid-responsive miRNAs using small RNA-specific qPCR. Furthermore, through the use of Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) we determined that the putative targets of these novel validated miRNAs are predicted to regulate cell death processes. These findings identify two and predict the presence of additional novel glucocorticoid-responsive miRNAs in the rat transcriptome, suggesting a potential role for both annotated and novel miRNAs in glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis of lymphocytes. PMID:24250753

Mav, Deepak; Scoltock, Alyson B.; Cidlowski, John A.

2013-01-01

200

Linking Metabolic Abnormalities to Apoptotic Pathways in Beta Cells in Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis is an important feature of islets in type 2 diabetes. Apoptosis can occur through two major pathways, the extrinsic or death receptor mediated pathway, and the intrinsic or Bcl-2-regulated pathway. Hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia and islet amyloid poly-peptide (IAPP) represent important possible causes of increased beta-cell apoptosis. Hyperglycaemia induces islet-cell apoptosis by the intrinsic pathway involving molecules of the Bcl-2 family. High concentrations of palmitate also activate intrinsic apoptosis in islets cells. IAPP oligomers can induce apoptosis by both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. IL-1? produced through NLRP3 inflammasome activation can also induce islet cell death. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome may not be important for glucose or palmitate induced apoptosis in islets but may be important for IAPP mediated cell death. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress have been observed in beta cells in type 2 diabetes, and these could be the link between upstream metabolic abnormalities and downstream apoptotic machinery. PMID:24709700

Wali, Jibran A.; Masters, Seth L.; Thomas, Helen E.

2013-01-01

201

The Extrathyronine Actions of Iodine as Antioxidant, Apoptotic, and Differentiation Factor in Various Tissues  

PubMed Central

Background Seaweed is an important dietary component and a rich source of iodine in several chemical forms in Asian communities. Their high consumption of this element (25 times higher than in Western countries) has been associated with the low incidence of benign and cancerous breast and prostate disease in Japanese people. Summary We review evidence showing that, in addition to being a component of the thyroid hormone, iodine can be an antioxidant as well as an antiproliferative and differentiation agent that helps to maintain the integrity of several organs with the ability to take up iodine. In animal and human studies, molecular iodine (I2) supplementation exerts a suppressive effect on the development and size of both benign and cancerous neoplasias. Investigations by several groups have demonstrated that these effects can be mediated by a variety of mechanisms and pathways, including direct actions, in which the oxidized iodine dissipates the mitochondrial membrane potential, thereby triggering mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis, and indirect effects through iodolipid formation and the activation of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptors type gamma, which, in turn, trigger apoptotic or differentiation pathways. Conclusions We propose that the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficient Disorders recommend that iodine intake be increased to at least 3?mg/day of I2 in specific pathologies to obtain the potential extrathyroidal benefits described in the present review. PMID:23607319

Anguiano, Brenda; Delgado, Guadalupe

2013-01-01

202

Secondary necrosis: the natural outcome of the complete apoptotic program.  

PubMed

The predominant definition of apoptosis considers that the elimination of the apoptosing cell is by heterolytic degradation following phagocytosis by an assisting scavenger (efferocytosis). However, an alternative and largely underestimated outcome of apoptosis is secondary necrosis, an autolytic process of cell disintegration with release of cell components that occurs when there is no intervention of scavengers and the full apoptotic program is completed. Secondary necrosis is the typical outcome of apoptosis in unicellular eukaryotes but, importantly, it may also occur in multicellular animals and has been implicated in the genesis of important human pathologies. Secondary necrosis is a mode of cell elimination with specific molecular and morphological features and should be considered the natural outcome of the complete apoptotic program. PMID:20974143

Silva, Manuel T

2010-11-19

203

Manipulating the apoptotic pathway: potential therapeutics for cancer patients  

PubMed Central

This review summarizes the current state of scientific understanding of the apoptosis pathway, with a focus on the proteins involved in the pathway, their interactions and functions. This forms the rationale for detailing the preclinical and clinical pharmacology of drugs that modulate the pivotal proteins in this pathway, with emphasis on drugs that are furthest advanced in clinical development as anticancer agents. There is a focus on describing drugs that modulate three of the most promising targets in the apoptosis pathway, namely antibodies that bind and activate the death receptors, small molecules that inhibit the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins, and small molecules and antisense oligonucleotides that inactivate the inhibitors of apoptosis, all of which drive the equilibrium of the apoptotic pathway towards apoptosis. These structurally different yet functionally related groups of drugs represent a promising novel approach to anticancer therapeutics whether used as monotherapy or in combination with either classical cytotoxic or other molecularly targeted anticancer agents. PMID:23782006

Bates, Darcy J P; Lewis, Lionel D

2013-01-01

204

Clearing the Dead: Apoptotic Cell Sensing, Recognition, Engulfment, and Digestion  

PubMed Central

Clearance of apoptotic cells is the final stage of programmed cell death. Uncleared corpses can become secondarily necrotic, promoting inflammation and autoimmunity. Remarkably, even in tissues with high cellular turnover, apoptotic cells are rarely seen because of efficient clearance mechanisms in healthy individuals. Recently, significant progress has been made in understanding the steps involved in prompt cell clearance in vivo. These include the sensing of corpses via “find me” signals, the recognition of corpses via “eat me” signals and their cognate receptors, the signaling pathways that regulate cytoskeletal rearrangement necessary for engulfment, and the responses of the phagocyte that keep cell clearance events “immunologically silent.” This study focuses on our understanding of these steps. PMID:23284042

Hochreiter-Hufford, Amelia; Ravichandran, Kodi S.

2013-01-01

205

Apoptotic Death of Cancer Stem Cells for Cancer Therapy  

PubMed Central

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play crucial roles in tumor progression, chemo- and radiotherapy resistance, and recurrence. Recent studies on CSCs have advanced understanding of molecular oncology and development of novel therapeutic strategies. This review article updates the hypothesis and paradigm of CSCs with a focus on major signaling pathways and effectors that regulate CSC apoptosis. Selective CSC apoptotic inducers are introduced and their therapeutic potentials are discussed. These include synthetic and natural compounds, antibodies and recombinant proteins, and oligonucleotides. PMID:24823879

He, Ying-Chun; Zhou, Fang-Liang; Shen, Yi; Liao, Duan-Fang; Cao, Deliang

2014-01-01

206

Opposing Role of Prion Protein in Oxidative Stress- and ER Stress-induced Apoptotic Signaling  

PubMed Central

Although the prion protein is abundantly expressed in the CNS, its biological functions remain unclear. To determine the endogenous function of the cellular prion protein (PrPc), we compared the effects of oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducers on apoptotic signaling in PrPc-expressing and PrPko-knockout neural cells. H2O2, brefeldin-A (BFA) and tunicamycin (TUN) induced increases in caspase-9 and caspase-3, PKC? proteolytic activation, and DNA fragmentation in PrPc and PrPko cells. Interestingly, ER stress-induced activation of caspases, PKC?, and apoptosis were significantly exacerbated in PrPc cells, whereas H2O2-induced proapoptotic changes were suppressed in PrPc compared to PrPko cells. Additionally, caspases-12 and -8 were activated only in BFA and TUN treatments. Inhibitors of caspase-9, caspase-3, and PKC? significantly blocked H2O2-, BFA- and TUN-induced apoptosis, whereas the caspase-8 inhibitor attenuated only BFA- and TUN-induced cell death, and the antioxidant MnTBAP blocked only H2O2-induced apoptosis. Overexpression of the kinase inactive PKC?K376R or the cleavage site-resistant PKC?D327A mutants suppressed both ER- and oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Thus, PrPc plays a proapoptotic role during ER stress, and an anti-apoptotic role during oxidative stress-induced cell death. Together, these results suggest that cellular PrPc enhances the susceptibility of neural cells to impairment of protein processing and trafficking, but decreases the vulnerability to oxidative insults, and that PKC? is a key downstream mediator of cellular stress-induced neuronal apoptosis. PMID:18835352

Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Choi, Christopher J; Martin, Dustin P; Latchoumycandane, Calivarathan; Richt, Jüergen A.; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

2008-01-01

207

Complex Human Glucocorticoid Receptor dim Mutations Define Glucocorticoid Induced Apoptotic Resistance in Bone Cells  

PubMed Central

A mutation in the D-loop of the second zinc finger of the DNA-binding domain of the human glucocorticoid receptor (hGR), A458T (GRdim), has been suggested to be essential for dimerization and DNA binding of the GR, and genetically altered GRdim mice survive, whereas murine GR knockout mice die. Interestingly, thymocytes isolated from the GRdim mice were reported to be resistant to glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis. To further evaluate the dim mutations in glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis, we stably expressed either the hGRdim (A458T) or the hGRdim4 (A458T, R460D, D462C, and N454D) mutant receptors in human osteosarcoma (U-2 OS) cells that are devoid of hGR and unresponsive to glucocorticoids. We analyzed these cell lines by comparison with a stable expression hGR? U-2 OS cell line, which undergoes apoptosis after glucocorticoid treatment. Transient reporter gene assays with glucocorticoid response element-driven vectors revealed that the hGRdim mutation had diminished steroid responsiveness and cells carrying the hGRdim4 mutation were unresponsive to steroid, whereas glucocorticoid-induced nuclear factor ?B repression was unaffected by either mutation. Interestingly, both the hGRdim and hGRdim4 receptors readily formed dimers as measured by immunoprecipitation. Examination of GR-mediated apoptosis showed that hGRdim cells were only partially resistant to apoptosis, whereas hGRdim4 cells were completely resistant to glucocorticoid-induced cell death despite remaining sensitive to other apoptotic stimuli. Global gene expression analysis revealed that hGRdim4 cells widely regulated gene expression but differentially regulated apoptotic mRNA when compared with cells expressing wild-type hGR?. These studies challenge conclusions drawn from previous studies of GR dim mutants. PMID:22174376

Scoltock, Alyson B.; Hamel, Brant L.; Yudt, Matthew R.; Cidlowski, John A.

2012-01-01

208

The study of the Oxytropis kansuensis-induced apoptotic pathway in the cerebrum of SD rats  

PubMed Central

Background Locoweeds cause significant livestock poisoning and economic loss all over the world. Animals can develop locoism, a chronic neurological disease, after grazing on locoweeds. Oxytropis kansuensis is a variety of locoweed that contains swainsonine as its main toxic ingredient. The purpose of this study was to investigate the apoptotic pathway induced in the cerebrum by swainsonine. Results Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (experimental groups I, II, III and a control group) and 6 SD rats of each group were feed in 3 cages separately. Rats were penned as groups and fed with feeds containing 15% (SW content 0.03‰), 30% (SW content 0.06‰), or 45% (SW content 0.09‰) O. kansuensis for experimental groups I, II, and III, respectively, or complete feed in the case of the control group. One hundred and nineteen days after poisoning, and all rats showed neurological disorders at different degrees, which were considered to be successful established a chronic poisoning model of O. kansuensis. rats were sacrificed and the expression of Fas, FasL, Bcl-2, Bax as well as cleaved caspase-3, -8 and -9 proteins in brain tissues were detected by Western blot. The results showed that SW treatment up-regulated Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) (P?mediated, caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways in the brain tissue of SD rats. PMID:24148892

2013-01-01

209

Regulation of Apoptotic Pathways by Stylophora pistillata (Anthozoa, Pocilloporidae) to Survive Thermal Stress and Bleaching  

PubMed Central

Elevated seawater temperatures are associated with coral bleaching events and related mortality. Nevertheless, some coral species are able to survive bleaching and recover. The apoptotic responses associated to this ability were studied over 3 years in the coral Stylophora pistillata from the Gulf of Eilat subjected to long term thermal stress. These include caspase activity and the expression profiles of the S. pistillata caspase and Bcl-2 genes (StyCasp and StyBcl-2-like) cloned in this study. In corals exposed to thermal stress (32 or 34°C), caspase activity and the expression levels of the StyBcl-2-like gene increased over time (6–48 h) and declined to basal levels within 72 h of thermal stress. Distinct transcript levels were obtained for the StyCasp gene, with stimulated expression from 6 to 48 h of 34°C thermal stress, coinciding with the onset of bleaching. Increased cell death was detected in situ only between 6 to 48 h of stress and was limited to the gastroderm. The bleached corals survived up to one month at 32°C, and recovered back symbionts when placed at 24°C. These results point to a two-stage response in corals that withstand thermal stress: (i) the onset of apoptosis, accompanied by rapid activation of anti-oxidant/anti-apoptotic mediators that block the progression of apoptosis to other cells and (ii) acclimatization of the coral to the chronic thermal stress alongside the completion of symbiosis breakdown. Accordingly, the coral's ability to rapidly curb apoptosis appears to be the most important trait affecting the coral's thermotolerance and survival. PMID:22194880

Kvitt, Hagit; Rosenfeld, Hanna; Zandbank, Keren; Tchernov, Dan

2011-01-01

210

Altered Transmission of HOX and Apoptotic SNPs Identify a Potential Common Pathway for Clubfoot  

PubMed Central

Clubfoot is a common birth defect that affects 135,000 newborns each year worldwide. It is characterized by equinus deformity of one or both feet and hypoplastic calf muscles. Despite numerous study approaches, the cause(s) remains poorly understood although a multifactorial etiology is generally accepted. We considered the HOXA and HOXD gene clusters and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) as candidate genes because of their important roles in limb and muscle morphogenesis. Twenty SNPs from the HOXA and HOXD gene clusters and 12 SNPs in IGFBP3 were genotyped in a sample composed of nonHispanic white and Hispanic multiplex and simplex families (discovery samples) and a second sample of nonHispanic white simplex trios (validation sample). Four SNPs (rs6668, rs2428431, rs3801776 and rs3779456) in the HOXA cluster demonstrated altered transmission in the discovery sample, but only rs3801776, located in the HOXA basal promoter region, showed altered transmission in both the discovery and validation samples (p=0.004 and p=0.028). Interestingly, HOXA9 is expressed in muscle during development. A SNP in IGFBP3, rs13223993, also showed altered transmission (p=0.003) in the discovery sample. Gene-gene interactions were identified between variants in HOXA, HOXD and IGFBP3 and with previously associated SNPs in mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic genes. The most significant interactions were found between CASP3 SNPS and variants in HOXA, HOXD and IGFBP3. These results suggest a biologic model for clubfoot in which perturbation of HOX and apoptotic genes together affect muscle and limb development, which may cause the downstream failure of limb rotation into a plantar grade position. PMID:19938081

Ester, Audrey R.; Weymouth, Katelyn S.; Burt, Amber; Wise, Carol; Scott, Allison; Gurnett, Christina A; Dobbs, Matthew B.; Blanton, Susan H.; Hecht, Jacqueline T.

2009-01-01

211

Carbon disulfide induces rat testicular injury via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.  

PubMed

Carbon disulfide (CS2), one of the most important volatile organic chemicals, was shown to have serious impairment to male reproductive system. But the underline mechanism is still unclear. In the present study, we aim to investigate the male germ cell apoptosis induced by CS2 exposure alone and by co-administration with cyclosporin A (CsA), which is the inhibitor of membrane permeability transition pore (MPTP). It was shown that CS2 exposure impaired ultrastructure of germ cells, increased the numbers of apoptotic germ cells, accumulated intracellular level of calcium, elevated ROS level, and increased activities of complexes of respiratory chain. Meanwhile, exposure to CS2 dramatically decreased the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m) and levels of ATP and MPTP opening. Exposure to CS2 can also cause a significantly dose-dependent increase in the expression levels of Bax, Cytc, Caspase-9, and Caspase-3, but decreased the expression level of Bcl-2. Moreover, co-administration of CsA with CS2 can reverse or alleviate the above apoptotic damage effects of CS2 on testicular germ cells. Taken together, our findings suggested that CS2 can cause damage to testicular germ cells via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and MPTP play a crucial role in this process. PMID:24582363

Guo, Yinsheng; Wang, Wei; Dong, Yu; Zhang, Zhen; Zhou, Yijun; Chen, Guoyuan

2014-08-01

212

The expression patterns of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic factors in human fetal and adult ovary.  

PubMed

The influence of pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins on the cell death (caspase-3, TUNEL) of different ovarian cell lineages was immunohistochemically analyzed in six fetal and five adult human ovaries in order to disclose possible mechanisms of cell number control. Mild to moderate expression of Bcl-2 characterized ovarian surface epithelium, follicular cells and oocytes of 15 and 22 week human ovaries, while expression of Bax and caspase-3 gradually increased in all ovarian cell populations, except caspase-3 in the ovarian surface epithelium. Different levels of Bax and Bcl-2 proteins co-expression characterized fetal ovarian cells, while TUNEL and caspase-3 co-expression was found only in some of them. In adult ovaries, Bcl-2 was moderately and Bax strongly expressed in the surface ovarian epithelium and stroma. Bcl-2 and Bax expression in granulosa and theca interna cells varied depending on the stage of follicular atresia. Caspase-3 apoptotic cells characterized granulosa cells of adult atretic follicles. Our results indicate that intracellular levels of Bcl-2 and Bax protein might regulate the final destiny of developing germ cells. Caspase-3 dependent apoptosis seems to be the most important, but not the only cell death pathway in ovaries. In adult ovaries, caspase-dependent cell death characterized granulosa cells, but not the germ cells. PMID:23295106

Poljicanin, Ana; Vukusic Pusic, Tanja; Vukojevic, Katarina; Caric, Ana; Vilovic, Katarina; Tomic, Snjezana; Soljic, Violeta; Saraga-Babic, Mirna

2013-07-01

213

Balance of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic marker and perforin granule release in squamous intraepithelial lesions. HIV infection leads to a decrease in perforin degranulation.  

PubMed

Cell-mediated cytotoxicity plays an important role in the regulation to HPV-associated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. HIV co-infection is related to poorer prognosis and more rapid clinical progression to cancer. We evaluated the presence of cervical inflammatory cells, apoptotic (Bax, Bcl-2, FasL, NOS2, perforin) markers and the degranulating expressing cell marker (CD107a) in low and high squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL and HSIL, respectively) from HIV-negative and -positive women. Higher percentage of cervical CD4(+), CD8(+) T cells and macrophage were observed in LSIL and HSIL groups when compared with control, especially in epithelium and basal layer of epithelium. However, progression from LSIL to HSIL did not change the frequency of inflammatory cells. HIV-infection lead to a reduction on cervical CD4(+) T cell infiltration and an increased CD8(+) T cell distribution in LSIL groups. A balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic protein expressions was verified. Bax-expressing cells were present in all groups and were rarely expressed in keratinocytes in the epithelium in LSIL and control groups, but notably decreased in HSIL group. However, its frequency was enhanced in the basal layer of the epithelium meanly in LSIL group. Bcl2-expressing cells in the epithelium and the stroma were enhanced in HSIL group when compared with LSIL group. HIV-infection did not interfere in both expressions NOS2 expression was located on keratinocytes in both LSIL and HSIL groups when compared with control group. There were few FasL cervical expressing cells in all groups. Indeed, perforin was identified in few cervical cells. However, CD107a, a surface marker for cellular degranulation was significantly higher in epithelium, basal layer of epithelium and stroma in LSIL and HSIL, respectively, when compared with control group. These results support that HIV infection may induce reduction on inflammatory cervical cell degranulation corroborating to carcinogenesis process. This is the first description on the role of HIV in downregulation of perforin degranulation in the cervical lesions and it might be related to carcinogenesis. PMID:23791892

Fernandes, Ana Teresa G; da Rocha, Natalia Pereira; Avvad, Elyzabeth; Grinsztejn, Beatriz J; Russomano, Fabio; Tristão, Aparecida; Quintana, Marcel de Souza Borges; Perez, Mauricio A; Conceição-Silva, Fátima; Bonecini-Almeida, Maria da Gloria

2013-10-01

214

Resveratrol protects astrocytes against traumatic brain injury through inhibiting apoptotic and autophagic cell death  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is often caused by accidents that damage the brain. TBI can induce glutamate excitotoxicity and lead to neuronal and glial cell death. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of cell death during the secondary damage caused by TBI in vivo and in vitro, as well as the protective effect of resveratrol (RV). Here we report that glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) activation and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 processing were induced in rat brains exposed to TBI. In the in vitro TBI model, apoptotic and autophagic cell death were induced through glutamate-mediated GSK-3? activation in normal CTX TNA2 astrocytes. The GSK-3? inhibitor SB216763 or transfection of GSK-3? small-interfering RNA increases cell survival. By contrast, overexpression of GSK-3? enhanced glutamate excitotoxicity. Administration of RV reduced cell death in CTX TNA2 astrocytes by suppressing reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated GSK-3? activation, the mechanism by which RV also exerted protective effects in vivo. Mitochondrial damages, including the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) and mitochondrial depolarization, were induced by glutamate through the ROS/GSK-3? pathway. Moreover, cyclosporine A, an MPTP inhibitor, suppressed mitochondrial damage and the percentages of cells undergoing autophagy and apoptosis and thereby increased cell survival. Taken together, our results demonstrated that cell death occurring after TBI is induced through the ROS/GSK-3?/mitochondria signaling pathway and that administration of RV can increase cell survival by suppressing GSK-3?-mediated autophagy and apoptosis. Therefore, the results indicated that resveratrol may serve as a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of TBI. PMID:24675465

Lin, C-J; Chen, T-H; Yang, L-Y; Shih, C-M

2014-01-01

215

Effect of Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Rabbit Corneal Epithelial Cells on Inflammatory and Apoptotic Signaling Pathways in the Presence of High Osmotic Pressure  

PubMed Central

It is generally accepted that high osmotic pressure (HOP) of lacrimal fluid is the core mechanism causing ocular inflammation and injury. However, the association between HOP and the regulation of cell inflammatory response and apoptotic pathways remains unclear. In the present study, we used HOP to interfere with in vitro cultured rabbit corneal epithelial cells, and found that HOP increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in rabbit corneal epithelial cells, and increased ROS in turn induced the activation of JNK inflammatory signaling pathway, which further promoted the expression of pro-inflammatory factor NF-?? and induced the generation of inflammatory factor IL-1? and TNF-?. In addition, HOP-induced ROS in rabbit corneal epithelial cells regulated the CD95/CD95L-mediated cell apoptotic signaling pathway by activating JNK inflammatory signaling pathway. These findings may serve as new theoretical basis and a new way of thinking about the treatment of ocular diseases, especially dry eye. PMID:23977369

Li, Bing; Wang, Weifang; Lin, Anjuan; Sheng, Minjie

2013-01-01

216

PEGylated apoptotic protein-loaded PLGA microspheres for cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

The aim of the current study was to investigate the antitumor potential of poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres (PLGA MSs) containing polyethylene glycol (PEG)-conjugated (PEGylated) tumor necrosis factor–related apoptosis-inducing ligand (PEG-TRAIL). PEG-TRAIL PLGA MSs were prepared by using a water-in-oil-in-water double-emulsion method, and the apoptotic activities of supernatants released from the PLGA MSs at days 1, 3, and 7 were examined. The antitumor effect caused by PEG-TRAIL PLGA MSs was evaluated in pancreatic Mia Paca-2 cell-xenografted mice. PEG-TRAIL PLGA MS was found to be spherical and 14.4±1.06 ?m in size, and its encapsulation efficiency was significantly greater than that of TRAIL MS (85.7%±4.1% vs 43.3%±10.9%, respectively). The PLGA MS gradually released PEG-TRAIL for 14 days, and the released PEG-TRAIL was shown to have clear apoptotic activity in Mia Paca-2 cells, whereas TRAIL released after 1 day had a negligible activity. Finally, PEG-TRAIL PLGA MS displayed remarkably greater antitumor efficacy than blank or TRAIL PLGA MS in Mia Paca-2 cell-xenografted mice in terms of tumor volume and weight, apparently due to increased stability and well-retained apoptotic activity of PEG-TRAIL in PLGA MS. We believe that this PLGA MS system, combined with PEG-TRAIL, should be considered a promising candidate for treating pancreatic cancer.

Byeon, Hyeong Jun; Kim, Insoo; Choi, Ji Su; Lee, Eun Seong; Shin, Beom Soo; Youn, Yu Seok

2015-01-01

217

Mediation Analysis with Multiple Mediators  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in the causal inference literature on mediation have extended traditional approaches to direct and indirect effects to settings that allow for interactions and non-linearities. In this paper, these approaches from causal inference are further extended to settings in which multiple mediators may be of interest. Two analytic approaches, one based on regression and one based on weighting are proposed to estimate the effect mediated through multiple mediators and the effects through other pathways. The approaches proposed here accommodate exposure-mediator interactions and, to a certain extent, mediator-mediator interactions as well. The methods handle binary or continuous mediators and binary, continuous or count outcomes. When the mediators affect one another, the strategy of trying to assess direct and indirect effects one mediator at a time will in general fail; the approach given in this paper can still be used. A characterization is moreover given as to when the sum of the mediated effects for multiple mediators considered separately will be equal to the mediated effect of all of the mediators considered jointly. The approach proposed in this paper is robust to unmeasured common causes of two or more mediators.

VanderWeele, T.J.; Vansteelandt, S.

2014-01-01

218

Allograft tolerance induced by donor apoptotic lymphocytes requires phagocytosis in the recipient  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cell death through apoptosis plays a critical role in regulating cellular homeostasis. Whether the disposal of apoptotic cells through phagocytosis can actively induce immune tolerance in vivo, however, remains controversial. Here, we report in a rat model that without using immunosuppressants, transfusion of apoptotic splenocytes from the donor strain prior to transplant dramatically prolonged survival of heart allografts. Histological analysis verified that rejection signs were significantly ameliorated. Splenocytes from rats transfused with donor apoptotic cells showed a dramatically decreased response to donor lymphocyte stimulation. Most importantly, blockade of phagocytosis in vivo, either with gadolinium chloride to disrupt phagocyte function or with annexin V to block binding of exposed phosphotidylserine to its receptor on phagocytes, abolished the beneficial effect of transfused apoptotic cells on heart allograft survival. Our results demonstrate that donor apoptotic cells promote specific allograft acceptance and that phagocytosis of apoptotic cells in vivo plays a crucial role in maintaining immune tolerance.

Sun, E.; Gao, Y.; Chen, J.; Roberts, A. I.; Wang, X.; Chen, Z.; Shi, Y.

2004-01-01

219

Liposomes-mediated delivery of pro-apoptotic therapeutic membrane proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The delivery of functional therapeutic proteins by lipid vesicles into targeted living cells is one of the most promising strategies for treatment of different diseases and cancer. The use of this system in the delivery of membrane proteins directly into cells remains to be tested because the methods for producing membrane proteins are difficult to perform. Here we describe the

Lavinia Liguori; Bruno Marques; Ana Villegas-Mendez; Romy Rothe; Jean-Luc Lenormand

2008-01-01

220

Tumor-targeting novel manganese complex induces ROS-mediated apoptotic and autophagic cancer cell death  

PubMed Central

In this study, the antitumor activity of the novel manganese (II) compound, Adpa-Mn {[(Adpa)Mn(Cl)(H2O)] (Adpa=bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amino-2-propionic acid)}, and its possible mechanisms of action were investigated. In vitro, the growth inhibitory effects of Adpa-Mn (with IC50 values lower than 15 ?M) on tumor cell lines were examined by MTT assay. We found that this compound was more selective against cancer cells than the popular chemotherapeutic reagent, cisplatin. We then found that Adpa-Mn achieved its selectivity against cancer cells through the transferrin (Tf)-transferrin receptor (TfR) system, which is highly expressed in tumor cells. Furthermore, Adpa-Mn induced both apoptosis and autophagy, as indicated by chromatin condensation, the activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), Annexin V/prop-idium iodide staining, an enhanced fluorescence intensity of monodansylcadaverine (MDC), as well as the elevated expression of the autophagy-related protein, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3). In addition, Adpa-Mn induced the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and its anticancer effects were significantly reduced following pre-treatment with the antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine, indicating that ROS triggered cell death. In vivo, the induction of apoptosis and autophagy in tumor tissue was confirmed following treatment with Adpa-Mn, which contributed to its significant antitumor activity against hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep-A cell) xenografts at 10 mg/kg. Taken together, these data suggest the possible use of Adpa-Mn as a novel anticancer drug. PMID:25604962

LIU, JIA; GUO, WENJIE; LI, JING; LI, XIANG; GENG, JI; CHEN, QIUYUN; GAO, JING

2015-01-01

221

MEDIATORS INVOLVED IN THE IMMUNOMODULATORY EFFECTS OF APOPTOTIC Philippe Saas,2,4  

E-print Network

as metabolic diseases (e.g., diabetes, atherosclerosis, etc). Immunomodulatory approaches allowing1-20Feb2012 #12;3 ABBREVIATIONS BM Bone marrow DC Dendritic cell Foxp3 Forkhead-box transcription factor p3 GVHD Graft-versus-host disease HC Hematopoietic cell i.v Intravenous TGF- Transforming growth

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

222

Adiponectin mediates antiproliferative and apoptotic responses in human MCF7 breast cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

It is well established that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer and that blood levels of adiponectin, a hormone mainly secreted by white adipocytes, are inversely correlated with the body fat mass. As adiponectin elicits anti-proliferative effects in some cell types, we tested the hypothesis that adiponectin could influence human breast cancer MCF-7 cell growth. Here we show that MCF-7 cells express adiponectin receptors and respond to human recombinant adiponectin by reducing their growth, AMPkinase activation, and p42/p44 MAPkinase inactivation. Further, we demonstrate that the anti-proliferative effect of adiponectin involves activation of cell apoptosis and inhibition of cell cycle. These findings suggest that adiponectin could act in vivo as a paracrine/endocrine growth inhibitor towards mammary epithelial cells. Moreover, adipose adiponectin production being strongly reduced in obesity, this study may help to explain why obesity is a risk factor of developing breast cancers.

Dieudonne, Marie-Noelle [Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, UPRES-EA 2493, Faculte de Medecine Paris-Ile de France Ouest, Universite Versailles-St Quentin, Centre Hospitalier de Poissy, 78303 Poissy Cedex (France); Bussiere, Marianne [Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, UPRES-EA 2493, Faculte de Medecine Paris-Ile de France Ouest, Universite Versailles-St Quentin, Centre Hospitalier de Poissy, 78303 Poissy Cedex (France); Dos Santos, Esther [Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, UPRES-EA 2493, Faculte de Medecine Paris-Ile de France Ouest, Universite Versailles-St Quentin, Centre Hospitalier de Poissy, 78303 Poissy Cedex (France); Leneveu, Marie-Christine [Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, UPRES-EA 2493, Faculte de Medecine Paris-Ile de France Ouest, Universite Versailles-St Quentin, Centre Hospitalier de Poissy, 78303 Poissy Cedex (France); Giudicelli, Yves [Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, UPRES-EA 2493, Faculte de Medecine Paris-Ile de France Ouest, Universite Versailles-St Quentin, Centre Hospitalier de Poissy, 78303 Poissy Cedex (France)]. E-mail: biochip@wanadoo.fr; Pecquery, Rene [Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, UPRES-EA 2493, Faculte de Medecine Paris-Ile de France Ouest, Universite Versailles-St Quentin, Centre Hospitalier de Poissy, 78303 Poissy Cedex (France)

2006-06-23

223

Tumor-targeting novel manganese complex induces ROS-mediated apoptotic and autophagic cancer cell death.  

PubMed

In this study, the antitumor activity of the novel manganese (II) compound, Adpa-Mn {[(Adpa)Mn(Cl)(H2O)] (Adpa=bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amino-2-propionic acid)}, and its possible mechanisms of action were investigated. In vitro, the growth inhibitory effects of Adpa-Mn (with IC50 values lower than 15 µM) on tumor cell lines were examined by MTT assay. We found that this compound was more selective against cancer cells than the popular chemotherapeutic reagent, cisplatin. We then found that Adpa-Mn achieved its selectivity against cancer cells through the transferrin (Tf)-transferrin receptor (TfR) system, which is highly expressed in tumor cells. Furthermore, Adpa-Mn induced both apoptosis and autophagy, as indicated by chromatin condensation, the activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, an enhanced fluorescence intensity of monodansylcadaverine (MDC), as well as the elevated expression of the autophagy-related protein, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3). In addition, Adpa-Mn induced the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and its anticancer effects were significantly reduced following pre-treatment with the antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine, indicating that ROS triggered cell death. In vivo, the induction of apoptosis and autophagy in tumor tissue was confirmed following treatment with Adpa-Mn, which contributed to its significant antitumor activity against hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep-A cell) xenografts at 10 mg/kg. Taken together, these data suggest the possible use of Adpa-Mn as a novel anticancer drug. PMID:25604962

Liu, Jia; Guo, Wenjie; Li, Jing; Li, Xiang; Geng, Ji; Chen, Qiuyun; Gao, Jing

2015-03-01

224

Role for the Class A Macrophage Scavenger Receptor in the Phagocytosis of Apoptotic Thymocytes in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous immature thymocytes undergo apoptosis and are rapidly engulfed by phagocytic thymic macrophages. The macrophage surface receptors involved in apoptotic thymocyte recognition are unknown. We have examined the role of the class A macrophage scavenger receptor (SR-A) in the engulfment of apoptotic thymocytes. Uptake of steroid-treated apoptotic thymocytes by thymic and inflammatory-elicited SR-A positive macrophages is partially inhibited by an

Nick Platt; Hiroshi Suzuki; Yukiko Kurihara; Tatsuhiko Kodama; Siamon Gordon

1996-01-01

225

Apoptotic Cells Are Cleared by Directional Migration and elmo1-Dependent Macrophage Engulfment  

PubMed Central

Summary Apoptotic cell death is essential for development and tissue homeostasis [1, 2]. Failure to clear apoptotic cells can ultimately cause inflammation and autoimmunity [3, 4]. Apoptosis has primarily been studied by staining of fixed tissue sections, and a clear understanding of the behavior of apoptotic cells in living tissue has been elusive. Here, we use a newly developed technique [5] to track apoptotic cells in real time as they emerge and are cleared from the zebrafish brain. We find that apoptotic cells are remarkably motile, frequently migrating several cell diameters to the periphery of living tissues. F-actin remodeling occurs in surrounding cells, but also within the apoptotic cells themselves, suggesting a cell-autonomous component of motility. During the first 2 days of development, engulfment is rare, and most apoptotic cells lyse at the brain periphery. By 3 days postfertilization, most cell corpses are rapidly engulfed by macrophages. This engulfment requires the guanine nucleotide exchange factor elmo1. In elmo1-deficient macrophages, engulfment is rare and may occur through macropinocytosis rather than directed engulfment. These findings suggest that clearance of apoptotic cells in living vertebrates is accomplished by the combined actions of apoptotic cell migration and elmo1-dependent macrophage engulfment. PMID:22503503

van Ham, Tjakko J.; Kokel, David; Peterson, Randall T.

2013-01-01

226

Genotoxic stress/p53-induced DNAJB9 inhibits the pro-apoptotic function of p53.  

PubMed

DNAJB9 is a recently isolated member of the molecular chaperone gene family, whose precise function is largely unknown. In the present study, we have identified DNAJB9 as an inducible gene of the tumor suppressor p53. DNAJB9 expression was induced by p53 or genotoxic stress in a p53-dependent manner, which was mediated by the Ras/Raf/ERK pathway. In addition, depletion of DNAJB9 by using siRNAs greatly increased genotoxic stress/p53-induced apoptosis, suggesting that DNAJB9 inhibits the pro-apoptotic function of p53. We also found that DNAJB9 physically interacts with p53 through its J domain, through which it inhibits the pro-apoptotic function of p53. Moreover, DNAJB9 colocalized with p53 in both cytoplasm and nucleus under genotoxic conditions. Together, these results demonstrate that DNAJB9 is a downstream target of p53 that belongs to the group of negative feedback regulators of p53. PMID:25146923

Lee, H J; Kim, J M; Kim, K H; Heo, J I; Kwak, S J; Han, J A

2015-01-01

227

Lycopene protects against trimethyltin-induced neurotoxicity in primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons by inhibiting the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.  

PubMed

Lycopene is a potent free radicals scavenger with demonstrated protective efficacy in several experimental models of oxidative damage. Trimethyltin (TMT) is an organotin compound with neurotoxic effects on the hippocampus and other limbic structures and is used to model neurodegenerative diseases targeting these brain areas. Oxidative stress is widely accepted as a central pathogenic mechanism of TMT-mediated neurotoxicity. The present study investigated whether the plant carotene lycopene protects against TMT-induced neurotoxicity in primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Lycopene pretreatment improved cell viability in TMT-treated hippocampal neurons and inhibited neuronal apoptosis. Microfluorometric imaging revealed that lycopene inhibited the accumulation of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) during TMT exposure. Moreover, lycopene ameliorated TMT-induced activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) and the concomitant depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential (??(m)). Consequently, cytochrome c release from the mitochondria and ensuing caspase-3 activation were markedly reduced. These findings reveal that lycopene protects against TMT-induced neurotoxicity by inhibiting the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. The anti-apoptotic effect of lycopene on hippocampal neurons highlights the therapeutic potential of plant-derived antioxidants against neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22032970

Qu, Mingyue; Zhou, Zhou; Chen, Chunhai; Li, Min; Pei, Liping; Chu, Fang; Yang, Ju; Wang, Yuan; Li, Li; Liu, Chuan; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Guangbin; Yu, Zhengping; Wang, Denggao

2011-12-01

228

Melatonin with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 protects against apoptotic ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat kidney.  

PubMed

This study was designed to evaluate the preventive role of melatonin (Mel) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3) in biochemical and apoptotic events leading to tissue injury and renal dysfunction after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: sham-operated, I/R, Mel + I/R, VD3 + I/R, and Mel + VD3 + I/R. The rats were intraperitoneally administered with Mel (10 mg/kg), VD3 (0.5 ?g/kg), or Mel (10 mg/kg) plus VD3 (0.5 ?g/kg) each day at 1 week prior to ischemia. Right nephrectomy was initially performed and left renal I/R injury was induced by 45 min of bilateral renal ischemia followed by 45 min of reperfusion. After reperfusion, kidneys and blood were obtained for histopathologic and biochemical evaluation. Mel and VD3 had an ameliorative effect on biochemical parameters such as serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and apoptosis (caspase-3 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling staining) in the kidneys against renal I/R injury in rats. Additionally, VD3 combined with Mel significantly reduced apoptotic and histological alterations when compared with Mel or VD3 alone. This preventive effect on renal tubular apoptosis was remarkable when Mel was combined with VD3. PMID:22780560

Sinanoglu, Orhun; Sezgin, Gulbuz; Ozturk, Guler; Tuncdemir, Matem; Guney, Sevin; Aksungar, Fehime Benli; Yener, Nese

2012-01-01

229

Flow cytometric discrimination between viable neutrophils, apoptotic neutrophils and eosinophils by double labelling of permeabilized blood granulocytes.  

PubMed

Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) is frequently used to detect apoptotic cells in tissues, cytospins and suspensions. Here we show that TUNEL staining of freshly isolated granulocytes results in non-specific positivity of a distinct population, which can be observed in the presence or absence of TdT. The morphological features of the false-positive cells examined in fluorescence microscopy suggest that the non-specifically stained cells are eosinophilic granulocytes. Granules of eosinophilic granulocytes were brightly stained by non-specific TUNEL reaction independent of TdT. This staining does not, therefore, indicate apoptosis and most likely reflects 'stickiness' of the permeabilized eosinophils. Immunofluorescence with phycoerythrin (PE)-labelled CD16 antibodies performed simultaneously with conventional TUNEL staining confirmed that the false-positive cells in TUNEL staining were CD16-negative eosinophils. In this report we describe a new procedure that allows: (i) the differentiation of neutrophilic and eosinophilic granulocytes in forward scatter versus log side scatter histograms after permeabilisation; (ii) the reliable discrimination between viable neutrophils, apoptotic neutrophils and eosinophilic granulocytes in cytofluorimetry. PMID:10915845

Kern, P M; Herrmann, M; Stockmeyer, B; Kalden, J R; Valerius, T; Repp, R

2000-07-31

230

Short term apoptotic activity of intravitreal bevacizumab on rabbit retina  

PubMed Central

AIM To evaluate the safety and the short term apoptotic activity of intravitreal bevacizumab in rabbit eyes by histopathological analysis. METHODS Twenty-eight eyes of 14 rabbits were divided into three groups: 8 rabbits in group 1 and 3 rabbits in each of group 2 and group 3. Intravitreal bevacizumab (1.25mg/0.05mL) was applied to the right eyes of each subject in group 1 and group 2 (11 eyes) and the same volume of saline was applied to the left eyes of each subject in group 1 and group 3 (11 eyes). The left eyes in group 2 and the right eyes in group 3 were left untreated and used as control. Enucleated eyes were used for histopathologic analyses. RESULTS After immunohistochemical staining with caspase-3 and p53, there was no histological evidence of toxicity to the retina and the optic nerve in any of the sections that were analyzed in all three groups. In addition, vascular endothelial cells located at the retina and the optic nerve tissues in all groups showed a similar staining pattern with caspase-3 and p53. CONCLUSION Our study showed that intravitreal bevacizumab with the dose of 1.25mg/0.05mL caused no histological signs of toxicity or apoptotic activity on the rabbit retina. PMID:24392325

Türkcü, Fatih Mehmet; Alp, Mehmet Numan; Türkcü, Gül; Kulaço?lu, Sezer; Kural, Gülcan

2013-01-01

231

Interaction of Late Apoptotic and Necrotic Cells with Vitronectin  

PubMed Central

Background Vitronectin is an abundant plasma glycoprotein identified also as a part of extracellular matrix. Vitronectin is substantially enriched at sites of injured, fibrosing, inflamed, and tumor tissues where it is believed to be involved in wound healing and tissue remodeling. Little is known about the mechanism of vitronectin localization into the damaged tissues. Methodology/Principal Findings 2E12 antibody has been described to bind a subset of late apoptotic cells. Using immunoisolation followed by mass spectrometry, we identified the antigen recognized by 2E12 antibody as vitronectin. Based on flow cytometry, we described that vitronectin binds to the late apoptotic and necrotic cells in cell cultures in vitro as well as in murine thymus and spleen in vivo. Confocal microscopy revealed that vitronectin binds to an intracellular cytoplasmic structure after the membrane rupture. Conclusions/Significance We propose that vitronectin could serve as a marker of membrane disruption in necrosis and apoptosis for flow cytometry analysis. Moreover, we suggest that vitronectin binding to dead cells may represent one of the mechanisms of vitronectin incorporation into the injured tissues. PMID:21573223

Stepanek, Ondrej; Brdicka, Tomas; Angelisova, Pavla; Horvath, Ondrej; Spicka, Jiri; Stockbauer, Petr; Man, Petr; Horejsi, Vaclav

2011-01-01

232

No death without life: vital functions of apoptotic effectors  

PubMed Central

As a result of the genetic experiments performed in Caenorhabditis elegans, it has been tacitly assumed that the core proteins of the ‘apoptotic machinery’ (CED-3, -4, -9 and EGL-1) would be solely involved in cell death regulation/execution and would not exert any functions outside of the cell death realm. However, multiple studies indicate that the mammalian orthologs of these C. elegans proteins (i.e. caspases, Apaf-1 and multidomain proteins of the Bcl-2 family) participate in cell death-unrelated processes. Similarly, loss-of-function mutations of ced-4 compromise the mitotic arrest of DNA-damaged germline cells from adult nematodes, even in a context in which the apoptotic machinery is inoperative (for instance due to mutations of egl-1 or ced-3). Moreover, EGL-1 is required for the activation of autophagy in starved nematodes. Finally, the depletion of caspase-independent death effectors, such as apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and endonuclease G, provokes cell death-independent consequences, both in mammals and in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). These results corroborate the conjecture that any kind of protein that has previously been specifically implicated in apoptosis might have a phylogenetically conserved apoptosis-unrelated function, most likely as part of an adaptive response to cellular stress. PMID:18309324

Galluzzi, L; Joza, N; Tasdemir, E; Maiuri, MC; Hengartner, M; Abrams, JM; Tavernarakis, N; Penninger, J; Madeo, F; Kroemer, G

2010-01-01

233

COMPUTATIONAL MODELING OF SIGNALING PATHWAYS MEDIATING CELL CYCLE AND APOPTOTIC RESPONSES TO IONIZING RADIATION MEDIATED DNA DAMAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Demonstrated of the use of a computational systems biology approach to model dose response relationships. Also discussed how the biologically motivated dose response models have only limited reference to the underlying molecular level. Discussed the integration of Computational S...

234

Elevation of GM2 ganglioside during ethanol-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration in the developing mouse brain  

PubMed Central

GM2 ganglioside in the brain increased during ethanol-induced acute apoptotic neurodegeneration in 7-day-old mice. A small but a significant increase observed 2 h after ethanol exposure was followed by a marked increase around 24 h. Subcellular fractionation of the brain 24 h after ethanol treatment indicated that GM2 increased in synaptic and non-synaptic mitochondrial fractions as well as in a lysosome-enriched fraction characteristic to the ethanol-exposed brain. Immunohistochemical staining of GM2 in the ethanol-treated brain showed strong punctate staining mainly in activated microglia, in which it partially overlapped with staining for LAMP1, a late endosomal/lysosomal marker. Also, there was weaker neuronal staining, which partially co-localized with complex IV, a mitochondrial marker, and was augmented in cleaved caspase-3-positive neurons. In contrast, the control brain showed only faint and diffuse GM2 staining in neurons. Incubation of isolated brain mitochondria with GM2 in vitro induced cytochrome c release in a manner similar to that of GD3 ganglioside. Because ethanol is known to trigger mitochondria-mediated apoptosis with cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation in the 7-day–old mouse brain, the GM2 elevation in mitochondria may be relevant to neuroapoptosis. Subsequently, activated microglia accumulated GM2, indicating a close relationship between GM2 and ethanol-induced neurodegeneration. PMID:22372857

Saito, Mitsuo; Chakraborty, Goutam; Shah, Relish; Mao, Rui-Fen; Kumar, Asok; Yang, Dun-Sheng; Dobrenis, Kostantin; Saito, Mariko

2012-01-01

235

FOXO3 signalling links ATM to the p53 apoptotic pathway following DNA damage  

PubMed Central

DNA damage as a result of environmental stress is recognized by sensor proteins that trigger repair mechanisms, or, if repair is unsuccessful, initiate apoptosis. Defects in DNA damage-induced apoptosis promote genomic instability and tumorigenesis. The protein ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is activated by DNA double strand breaks and regulates apoptosis via p53. Here we show that FOXO3 interacts with the ATM-Chk2-p53 complex, augments phosphorylation of the complex and induces the formation of nuclear foci in cells upon DNA damage. FOXO3 is essential for DNA damage-induced apoptosis and conversely FOXO3 requires ATM, Chk2, and phosphorylated p53 isoforms to trigger apoptosis as a result of DNA damage. Under these conditions FOXO3 may also play a role in regulating chromatin retention of phosphorylated p53. These results suggest an essential link between FOXO3 and the ATM-Chk2-p53-mediated apoptotic program following DNA damage. PMID:22893124

Chung, Young Min; Park, See-Hyoung; Tsai, Wen-Bin; Wang, Shih-Ya; Ikeda, Masa-Aki; Berek, Jonathan S.; Chen, David J.; Hu, Mickey C-T.

2012-01-01

236

Molecular analysis of the apoptotic effects of BPA in acute myeloid leukemia cells  

PubMed Central

Background: BPA (bisphenol A or 2,2-bis(4-hydroxy-phenol)propane) is present in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins, which can be used in impact-resistant safety equipment and baby bottles, as protective coatings inside metal food containers, and as composites and sealants in dentistry. Recently, attention has focused on the estrogen-like and carcinogenic adverse effects of BPA. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the cytotoxicity and apoptosis-inducing activity of this compound. Methods: Cell cycle, apoptosis and differentiation analyses; western blots. Results: BPA is able to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in three different acute myeloid leukemias. Although some granulocytic differentiation concomitantly occurred in NB4 cells upon BPA treatment, the major action was the induction of apoptosis. BPA mediated apoptosis was caspase dependent and occurred by activation of extrinsic and intrinsic cell death pathways modulating both FAS and TRAIL and by inducing BAD phosphorylation in NB4 cells. Finally, also non genomic actions such as the early decrease of both ERK and AKT phosphorylation were induced by BPA thus indicating that a complex intersection of regulations occur for the apoptotic action of BPA. Conclusion: BPA is able to induce apoptosis in leukemia cells via caspase activation and involvement of both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis. PMID:19538739

Bontempo, Paola; Mita, Luigi; Doto, Antonella; Miceli, Marco; Nebbioso, Angela; Lepore, Ilaria; Franci, GianLuigi; Menafra, Roberta; Carafa, Vincenzo; Conte, Mariarosaria; De Bellis, Floriana; Manzo, Fabio; Di Cerbo, Vincenzo; Benedetti, Rosaria; D'Amato, Loredana; Marino, Maria; Bolli, Alessandro; Del Pozzo, Giovanna; Diano, Nadia; Portaccio, Marianna; Mita, Gustavo D; Vietri, Maria Teresa; Cioffi, Michele; Nola, Ernesto; Dell'Aversana, Carmela; Sica, Vincenzo; Molinari, Anna Maria; Altucci, Lucia

2009-01-01

237

HIPK2 sustains apoptotic response by phosphorylating Che-1/AATF and promoting its degradation  

PubMed Central

Che-1/AATF is an RNA polymerase II-binding protein that is involved in the regulation of gene transcription, which undergoes stabilization and accumulation in response to DNA damage. We have previously demonstrated that following apoptotic induction, Che-1 protein levels are downregulated through its interaction with the E3 ligase HDM2, which leads to Che-1 degradation by ubiquitylation. This interaction is mediated by Pin1, which determines a phosphorylation-dependent conformational change. Here we demonstrate that HIPK2, a proapoptotic kinase, is involved in Che-1 degradation. HIPK2 interacts with Che-1 and, upon genotoxic stress, phosphorylates it at specific residues. This event strongly increases HDM2/Che-1 interaction and degradation of Che-1 protein via ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal system. In agreement with these findings, we found that HIPK2 depletion strongly decreases Che-1 ubiquitylation and degradation. Notably, Che-1 overexpression strongly counteracts HIPK2-induced apoptosis. Our results establish Che-1 as a new HIPK2 target and confirm its important role in the cellular response to DNA damage. PMID:25210797

De Nicola, F; Catena, V; Rinaldo, C; Bruno, T; Iezzi, S; Sorino, C; Desantis, A; Camerini, S; Crescenzi, M; Floridi, A; Passananti, C; Soddu, S; Fanciulli, M

2014-01-01

238

Anti-apoptotic oncogenes prevent caspase-dependent and independent commitment for cell death.  

PubMed

Apoptosis is a morphologically defined type of cell death associated with the activation of certain proteases belonging to the ICE/CED-3 family, known as caspases. Resistance to apoptosis has been implicated as one of the mechanisms that participates in oncogenesis. We found that the broad-spectrum peptide inhibitor of the caspases, zVAD-fmk, interferes in a dose-dependent way with all the morphological and biochemical changes associated with apoptosis induced by anti-CD95 mAb, staurosporine, VP-16 and Act-D. However, with the exception of anti-CD95-triggered apoptosis, the insulted cells lost their clonogenic potential, even when pre-treated with a high dose of zVAD-fmk. Under these circumstances, the dying cells displayed no signs of apoptosis, including activation of caspases, externalization of phosphatidylserine, nuclear condensation, or DNA fragmentation. Instead, this cell death was characterized by cytoplasmic and nuclear vacuolization followed by the loss of plasma membrane integrity. Thus, preventing the onset of apoptosis by blocking caspase activity did not rescue cells from dying in response to drugs such as staurosporine, VP-16 and Act-D. In comparison, ectopic expression of anti-apoptotic oncogenes such as bcl-2 and bcr-abl not only inhibited apoptosis but also preserved the clonogenic potential of the cells. Therefore, oncogenesis is promoted not by simply interfering with caspase-mediated apoptosis, but by preventing an upstream event which we define as the commitment point for cell death. PMID:10200475

Amarante-Mendes, G P; Finucane, D M; Martin, S J; Cotter, T G; Salvesen, G S; Green, D R

1998-04-01

239

YES1 activation elicited by heat stress is anti-apoptotic in mouse pachytene spermatocytes.  

PubMed

Deregulated expression of protein tyrosine phosphorylation has been implicated in testicular response to different stimuli. Herein, YES1, a nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase, was found to be significantly up-regulated in pachytene spermatocytes (PS) during early recovery from a transient testicular heat stress. Coculture of PS with Sertoli cells (SCs) could enhance the hyperthermia-induced YES1 activation, indicative of a positive regulation of the paracrine signaling. Moreover, SU6656, a selective YES1 inhibitor, was shown to effectively block YES1 activity, thereafter resulting in a dramatic increase of heat stress-induced apoptosis in primary cultured PS. Mechanistically, the antiapoptotic effect of YES1 activation in response to testicular heat insult may mediate via the regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/metastasis-associated 1 (MTA1) cascade. From a clinical standpoint, a notably higher level of YES1 expression was observed in the pathological testis from varicocele patients as compared to a negligible staining in the control group. Taken together, our present results provide the first evidence that the YES1/ERK/MTA1/p53 cascade may serve as a naturally occurring, indispensable self-defensive mechanism maintaining apoptotic balance during meiotic heat stress. Our study may have also partially answered the question of how activation of signal pathways at the cell membrane surface interacts with the key regulatory events occurring in the nucleus during testicular heat shock. PMID:24132961

Liang, Yuan; Dong, Yushu; Zhao, Jie; Li, Wei

2013-12-01

240

TRAIL contributes to the apoptotic effect of 13-cis retinoic acid in human sebaceous gland cells  

PubMed Central

Background Isotretinoin’s (13-cis RA) full mechanism of action in treating acne is unknown. 13-cis RA induces key genes in sebocytes that are involved in apoptosis. In this study, we report that 13-cis RA up-regulates expression of Tumor necrosis factor Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) within SEB-1 sebocytes. Methods/Results Treatment with recombinant human TRAIL (rhTRAIL) protein increases TUNEL positive staining in SEB-1 sebocytes. TRAIL siRNA significantly decreases the percentage of TUNEL positive SEB-1 sebocytes in response to 13-cis RA treatment. Furthermore, TRAIL expression increases in the skin of acne patients after one week of isotretinoin therapy compared to baseline. TRAIL expression localized within sebaceous glands. Unlike sebocytes, TRAIL protein expression is not increased in normal human epidermal keratinocytes in response to 13-cis RA, nor does rhTRAIL induce apoptosis in keratinocytes, suggesting that TRAIL is key in the sebocyte-specific apoptotic effects of 13-cis RA. Conclusions Taken together, our data suggests that TRAIL, like the neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is involved in mediating 13-cis RA apoptosis of sebocytes. PMID:21564055

Nelson, A.M.; Cong, Z.; Gilliland, K.L.; Thiboutot, D.M.

2011-01-01

241

Developmental regulation, expression, and apoptotic potential of galectin-9, a beta-galactoside binding lectin.  

PubMed Central

Galectin-9, a beta-galactoside binding lectin, has recently been isolated from murine embryonic kidney. In this study, its biological functions and expression in embryonic, newborn, and adult mice tissues were investigated. By Northern blot analyses, it was found widely distributed and its expression was developmentally regulated. In situ hybridization studies revealed an accentuated expression of galectin-9 in liver and thymus of embryonic mice. In postnatal mice, antigalectin-9 immunoreactivity was observed in various tissues, including thymic epithelial cells. The high expression of galectin-9 in the thymus led us to investigate its role in the clonal deletion of thymocytes. Fusion proteins were generated, which retained lactose-binding activity like the endogenous galectin-9. Galectin-9, at 2.5 microM concentration, induced apoptosis in approximately 30% of the thymocytes, as assessed by terminal deoxytransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling method. The apoptotic effect was dose dependent and lactose inhibitable. At higher concentrations, it induced homotypic aggregation of the thymocytes. Electron microscopy revealed approximately 60% of the thymocytes undergoing apoptosis in the presence of galectin-9. By immunofluorescence microscopy, some of the thymocytes undergoing apoptosis had plasmalemmal bound galectin-9. Galectin-9 failed to induce apoptosis in hepatocytes. Taken together, these findings indicate that galectin-9, a developmentally regulated lectin, plays a role in thymocyte-epithelial interactions relevant to the biology of the thymus. PMID:9153289

Wada, J; Ota, K; Kumar, A; Wallner, E I; Kanwar, Y S

1997-01-01

242

Serotonin activates cell survival and apoptotic death responses in cultured epithelial thyroid cells.  

PubMed

Anatomic and physiological interactions between central serotonergic system and thyroid gland are well established. However, the effects of locally available serotonin on the thyroid functions are poorly known. Here, we first demonstrate the expression of serotonin transporter SERT and 5-HT2A receptor subtype in rat thyroid epithelial cell line FRT both at mRNA and protein levels. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms of serotonin action, FRT cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of the amine. Low concentrations of serotonin (up to 5 ?M) enhanced FRT cell growth, and ERK1/2 and SMAD2/3 phosphorylation. Cell exposure to the selective 5-HT2A receptor agonist DOI recapitulated the effects of 5-HT on ERK1/2 phosphorylation. By contrast, administration of M100907, a specific 5-HT2A receptor inhibitor, prevented 5-HT induced ERK1/2 activation. On the other hand, high doses of serotonin (50 ?M up to 1 mM) activated a caspase-3 mediated apoptosis of cells. Overall, our findings demonstrate that low levels of serotonin, interacting with 5-HT2A receptor, are able to activate proliferative signals in the thyroid epithelial cells, while high levels of serotonin cause pro-apoptotic responses, thus suggesting an active role of the amine in the thyroid functions and disorders. PMID:24997405

Cerulo, Giuliana; Tafuri, Simona; De Pasquale, Valeria; Rea, Silviana; Romano, Simona; Costagliola, Anna; Della Morte, Rossella; Avallone, Luigi; Pavone, Luigi Michele

2014-10-01

243

Roles of microRNA-1 in hypoxia-induced apoptotic insults to neuronal cells.  

PubMed

Hypoxia is a common occurrence in brain tumors and traumatic brain injury. microRNA (miR)-1 participates in the regulation of brain development and neuronal function. Interestingly, miR-1 can mediate ischemia-induced injury to cardiomyocytes. This study was designed to evaluate the roles of miR-1 in hypoxia-induced insults to neurons and the possible mechanisms. Exposure of neuro-2a cells to oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD) or cobalt chloride decreased cell viability and induced cell apoptosis in time-dependent manners. In parallel, OGD caused augmentation of cellular Bax and cytochrome c levels, a reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), activation of caspase-3, and fragmentation of DNA. miR-1 was induced in neuro-2a cells by OGD. Knocking down miR-1 expression using specific antisense inhibitors significantly alleviated OGD-induced neuronal death. Administration of OGD to neuro-2a cells induced heat-shock protein (HSP)-70 messenger (m)RNA and protein expressions. A bioinformatic search revealed that miR-1-specific binding elements exist in the 3'-untranslated region of HSP-70 mRNA. Overexpression of miR-1 simultaneously attenuated OGD-induced HSP-70 mRNA and protein expressions. In comparison, knocking down miR-1 expression synergistically enhanced OGD-induced HSP-70 mRNA. As to the mechanism, reducing miR-1 expression lowered OGD-induced alterations in the MMP, caspase-3 activation, DNA fragmentation, and cell apoptosis. Taken together, this study shows that miR-1 can target HSP-70 expression and consequently mediate hypoxia-induced apoptotic insults to neuro-2a cells via an intrinsic Bax-mitochondrion-caspase protease pathway. PMID:25238743

Chang, Chia-Yu; Lui, Tai-Ngar; Lin, Jia-Wei; Lin, Yi-Ling; Hsing, Chung-Hsi; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Chen, Ruei-Ming

2014-09-20

244

Gastroprotective effect of nymphayol isolated from Nymphaea stellata (Willd.) flowers: contribution of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities.  

PubMed

Gastric ulcer is an illness that affects a great number of people worldwide. The goal of the present research was to assess the anti-ulcerogenic activity of nymphayol (NYM), isolated from Nymphaea stellata, against an ethanol-induced ulcer model in rats. Administration of ethanol elevates the levels of the ulcer index (UI) along with causing tremendous increases in lipid peroxidation and myeloperoxidase (MPO) and significant decreases in gastric mucus, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). However, the NYM- (45 mg/kg) pretreated animals showed considerable increases in antioxidants, gastric mucus, and PGE2 level and significant decreases in UI, lipid peroxidation, and MPO level. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interferon-? (IFN-?) were increased and the level of interleukin-10 (IL-10), an anti-inflammatory cytokine, was decreased in ethanol-induced ulcerated animals, and these inequalities were amended by NYM pretreatment. Pro-apoptotic markers including caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3 were decreased and Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic marker, was increased through NYM pretreatment, as compared with the ethanol-induced ulcer group. Pretreatment with indomethacin, SC560, rofecoxib, and N?-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) considerably prevented the ulcer protective activity of NYM (45 mg/kg), indicating the involvement of cyclooxygenase (COX) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in NYM-mediated gastroprotection against ethanol-induced ulcer. These outcomes suggest that the gastroprotective effect of NYM might be mediated by adjustment of inflammatory mediators and apoptotic markers and increasing antioxidants. PMID:25289771

Antonisamy, Paulrayer; Subash-Babu, Pandurangan; Alshatwi, Ali A; Aravinthan, Adithan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Choi, Ki Choon; Kim, Jong-Hoon

2014-12-01

245

CDK4 inhibition and doxorubicin mediate breast cancer cell apoptosis through Smad3 and survivin.  

PubMed

Cyclin D1/CDK4 activity is upregulated in up to 50% of breast cancers and CDK4-mediated phosphorylation negatively regulates the TGF? superfamily member Smad3. We sought to determine if CDK4 inhibition and doxorubicin chemotherapy could impact Smad3-mediated cell/colony growth and apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Parental and cyclin D1-overexpressing MCF7 cells were treated with CDK4 inhibitor, doxorubicin, or combination therapy and cell proliferation, apoptosis, colony formation, and expression of apoptotic proteins were evaluated using an MTS assay, TUNEL staining, 3D Matrigel assay, and apoptosis array/immunoblotting. Study cells were also transduced with WT Smad3 or a Smad3 construct resistant to CDK4 phosphorylation (5M) and colony formation and expression of apoptotic proteins were assessed. Treatment with CDK4 inhibitor/doxorubicin combination therapy, or transduction with 5M Smad3, resulted in a similar decrease in colony formation. Treating cyclin D overexpressing breast cancer cells with combination therapy also resulted in the greatest increase in apoptosis, resulted in decreased expression of anti-apoptotic proteins survivin and XIAP, and impacted subcellular localization of pro-apoptotic Smac/DIABLO. Additionally, transduction of 5M Smad3 and doxorubicin treatment resulted in the greatest change in apoptotic protein expression. Collectively, this work showed the impact of CDK4 inhibitor-mediated, Smad3-regulated tumor suppression, which was augmented in doxorubicin-treated cyclin D-overexpressing study cells. PMID:25006666

Tarasewicz, Elizabeth; Hamdan, Randala; Straehla, Joelle; Hardy, Ashley; Nunez, Omar; Zelivianski, Stanislav; Dokic, Danijela; Jeruss, Jacqueline S

2014-10-01

246

The combined effect of acetylation and glycation on the chaperone and anti-apoptotic functions of human ?-crystallin.  

PubMed

N(?)-acetylation occurs on select lysine residues in ?-crystallin of the human lens and alters its chaperone function. In this study, we investigated the effect of N(?)-acetylation on advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation and consequences of the combined N(?)-acetylation and AGE formation on the function of ?-crystallin. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that N(?)-acetylation of lysine residues and AGE formation co-occurs in both ?A- and ?B-crystallin of the human lens. Prior acetylation of ?A- and ?B-crystallin with acetic anhydride (Ac(2)O) before glycation with methylglyoxal (MGO) resulted in significant inhibition of the synthesis of two AGEs, hydroimidazolone (HI) and argpyrimidine. Similarly, synthesis of ascorbate-derived AGEs, pentosidine and N(?)-carboxymethyl lysine (CML), was inhibited in both proteins by prior acetylation. In all cases, inhibition of AGE synthesis was positively related to the degree of acetylation. While prior acetylation further increased the chaperone activity of MGO-glycated ?A-crystallin, it inhibited the loss of chaperone activity by ascorbate-glycation in both proteins. BioPORTER-mediated transfer of ?A- and ?B-crystallin into CHO cells resulted in significant protection against hyperthermia-induced apoptosis. This effect was enhanced in acetylated and MGO-modified ?A- and ?B-crystallin. Caspase-3 activity was reduced in ?-crystallin transferred cells. Glycation of acetylated proteins with either MGO or ascorbate produced no significant change in the anti-apoptotic function. Collectively, these data demonstrate that lysine acetylation and AGE formation can occur concurrently in ?-crystallin of human lens, and that lysine acetylation improves anti-apoptotic function of ?-crystallin and prevents ascorbate-mediated loss of chaperone function. PMID:22982407

Nahomi, Rooban B; Oya-Ito, Tomoko; Nagaraj, Ram H

2013-01-01

247

Noxa Mediates Hepatic Stellate Cell Apoptosis by Proteasome Inhibition  

PubMed Central

Aim Induction of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) apoptosis is a viable therapeutic strategy to reduce liver fibrogenesis. Although BH3-only proteins of the Bcl-2 family trigger pro-apoptotic pathways, the BH3-only proteins mediating HSC apoptosis have not been well defined. Our aim, using proteasome inhibition as a model to induce HSC apoptosis, was to examine the BH3-only proteins contributing to cell death of this key liver cell subtype. Methods Apoptosis was induced by treating LX-2 cells, an immortalized human hepatic stellate cell line, and primary rat stellate cells with the proteasome inhibitor MG-132. Results Treatment with proteasome inhibitors increased expression of Noxa both at the mRNA (16-fold) and protein (22-fold) levels indicating that both transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms contributed to the increase in cellular Noxa levels. Knockdown of Noxa by siRNA significantly attenuated cell death, mechanistically implicating Noxa as a key apoptotic mediator of proteasome inhibitor-induced cell death. Given the pivotal role for the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein A1 in activated HSC survival, we determined if Noxa bound to this survival protein. Noxa was shown to physically bind the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein A1 by co-immunoprecipitation. Conclusions Noxa contributes to proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis of stellate cells likely by binding A1. Strategies to therapeutically increase Noxa expression may be useful for inducing HSC apoptosis. PMID:20557369

Sosa Seda, Ivette M.; Mott, Justin L.; Akazawa, Yuko; Barreyro, Fernando J.; Bronk, Steven F.; Kaufmann, Scott H.; Gores, Gregory J.

2010-01-01

248

ANTICANCER MEDICINAL PLANT, Epipremnum pinnatum (L.) Engl. CHLOROFORM EXTRACTS ELICITED BOTH APOPTOTIC AND NON-APOPTOTIC CELL DEATHS IN T- 47D MAMMARY CARCINOMA CELLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epipremnum pinnatum (L.) Engl. chloroform extract produced significant growth inhibition against T-47D breast carcinoma cells and analysis of cell death mechanisms indicated that the extract elicited both apoptotic and non-apoptotic programmed cell deaths. T-47D cells exposed to the extract produced a significant up-regulation of c-myc and caspase-3 mRNA expression levels as compared to untreated cells. The up-regulation of caspase-3 mRNA

Tan Mei Lan; Shaida Fariza Sulaiman; Nazalan Najimudin

249

Protective role of malvidin-3-glucoside on peroxynitrite-induced damage in endothelial cells by counteracting reactive species formation and apoptotic mitochondrial pathway.  

PubMed

The health-promoted benefits of anthocyanins, including vascular protective effects and antiatherogenic properties, have now been recognized, but the involved molecular mechanisms have not been well elucidated. Following our previous work on cytoprotective mechanisms of some anthocyanins against apoptosis triggered by peroxynitrite in endothelial cells, here we investigated the protective role of malvidin-3-glucoside, a major dietary anthocyanin, on such deleterious process, by exploring the interference on cellular reactive species formation and on apoptotic mitochondrial pathway. Preincubation of cells with 25 ?M malvidin-3-glucoside protected efficiently endothelial cells from peroxynitrite-promoted apoptotic death, an effect which may be partially mediated by its ability to decrease the formation of reactive species after cell aggression, as assessed by the dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate assay and by carbonyl groups formation. Moreover, malvidin-3-glucoside inhibited mitochondrial apoptotic signaling pathways induced by peroxynitrite, by counteracting mitochondrial membrane depolarization, the activation of caspase-3 and -9, and the increase in the expression of the proapoptotic Bax protein. Altogether, our data expands our knowledge about the molecular mechanisms underlying the vascular protection afforded by malvidin-3-glucoside, and anthocyanins in general, in the context of prevention of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. PMID:22792413

Paixão, Joana; Dinis, Teresa C P; Almeida, Leonor M

2012-01-01

250

DIDS (4,4-diisothiocyanatostilbenedisulphonic acid) induces apoptotic cell death in a hippocampal neuronal cell line and is not neuroprotective against ischemic stress.  

PubMed

DIDS is a commonly used anion channel antagonist that is putatively cytoprotective against ischemic insult. However, recent reports indicate potentially deleterious secondary effects of DIDS. To assess the impact of DIDS on cellular viability comprehensively we examined neuronal morphology and function through 24 hours treatment with ACSF ± DIDS (40 or 400 µM). Control cells were unchanged, whereas DIDS induced an apoptotic phenotype (chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation and cleavage of the nuclear membrane protein lamin A, expression of pro-apoptotic proteins c-Jun N-terminal kinase 3, caspase 3, and cytochrome C, Annexin V staining, RNA degradation, and oligonucleosomal DNA cleavage). These deleterious effects were mediated by DIDS in a dose- and time-dependant manner, such that higher [DIDS] induced apoptosis more rapidly while apoptosis was observed at lower [DIDS] with prolonged exposure. In an apparent paradox, despite a clear overall apoptotic phenotype, certain hallmarks of apoptosis were not present in DIDS treated cells, including mitochondrial fission and loss of plasma membrane integrity. We conclude that DIDS induces apoptosis in cultured hippocampal neurons, in spite of the fact that some common hallmarks of cell death pathways are prevented. These contradictory effects may cause false-positive results in certain assays and future evaluations of DIDS as a neuroprotective agent should incorporate multiple viability assays. PMID:23577164

Pamenter, Matthew E; Perkins, Guy A; Gu, Xiang Q; Ellisman, Mark H; Haddad, Gabriel G

2013-01-01

251

Bee venom protects SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells from 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced apoptotic cell death.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Recently, bee venom was reported to protect dopaminergic neurons in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine induced mice PD model, however, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. The objective of the present study is to investigate the neuroprotective mechanism of bee venom against Parkinsonian toxin, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPP(+)), in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Our results revealed that bee venom pretreatment (1-100 ng/ml) increased the cell viability and decreased apoptosis assessed by DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activity assays in MPP(+)-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Bee venom increased the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression and decreased the pro-apoptotic Bax, cleaved PARP expressions. In addition, bee venom prevented the MPP(+)-induced suppression of Akt phosphorylation, and the neuroprotective effect of bee venom against MPP(+)-induced cytotoxicity was inhibited by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY294002. These results suggest that the anti-apoptotic effect of bee venom is mediated by the cell survival signaling, the PI3K/Akt pathway. These results provide new evidence for elucidating the mechanism of neuroprotection of bee venom against PD. PMID:22078207

Doo, Ah-Reum; Kim, Seung-Nam; Kim, Seung-Tae; Park, Ji-Yeun; Chung, Sung-Hyun; Choe, Bo-Young; Chae, Younbyoung; Lee, Hyejung; Yin, Chang-Shik; Park, Hi-Joon

2012-01-01

252

Impaired apoptotic cell clearance in the germinal center by Mer-deficient tingible body macrophages leads to enhanced antibody-forming cell and germinal center responses1  

PubMed Central

Germinal centers (GC) are specialized microenvironments that generate high-affinity antibody-forming (AFCs) and memory B cells. Many B cells undergo apoptosis during B-cell clonal selection in GC. Although the factors that regulate the AFC and GC responses are not precisely understood, it is widely believed that dysregulated AFCs and GCs contribute to autoimmunity. The Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (MerTK or Mer) facilitates macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells. The TAM (Tyro-3, Axl, and Mer) receptors, including Mer, suppress Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and cytokine-mediated inflammatory responses. We report here that tingible body macrophages (TBM?s) in GC express Mer. Compared to C57BL/6 (B6) controls, Mer deficient (Mer?/?) mice had significantly higher AFC, GC and Th1-skewed antibody (IgG2c) responses against the T-dependent Ag (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl) acetyl (NP)-chicken gamma globulin (CGG). Mer?/? mice had significantly higher percentage of GC B cells on days 9, 14 and 21 post-immunization compared to B6 controls. Significantly increased numbers of apoptotic cells accumulated in Mer?/? GCs than in B6 GCs, while the number of TBM?s remained similar in both strains. Our data are the first to demonstrate a critical role for Mer in GC apoptotic cell clearance by TBM?s and have interesting implications for Mer in the regulation of B cell tolerance operative in the AFC and GC pathways. PMID:20952679

Rahman, Ziaur S.M.; Shao, Wen-Hai; Khan, Tahsin N.; Zhen, Yuxuan; Cohen, Philip L.

2013-01-01

253

Cholesterol-derived novel anti-apoptotic agents on the structural basis of ginsenoside Rk1  

E-print Network

Cholesterol-derived novel anti-apoptotic agents on the structural basis of ginsenoside Rk1 Sujin Cholesterol Ginsenoside Rk1 a b s t r a c t Design and synthesis of cholesterol-derived anti-apoptotic agents were described. The synthesized cho- lesterol analogs designed on the structural basis of ginsenoside

Suh, Young-Ger

254

Apoptotic Neutrophils Undergoing Secondary Necrosis Induce Human Lung Epithelial Cell Detachment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clearance of apoptotic neutrophils by alveolar macrophages plays an important role in the resolution phase of lung inflammation. If not cleared, apoptotic neutrophils are postulated to release histotoxic granular contents. Since numerous cellular proteins are degraded during apoptosis, we sought to determine whether functional serine proteinases are indeed released by apoptosing neutrophils in vitro. In a coculture system, cytokine-activated neutrophils

Chien-Ying Liu; Yun-Hen Liu; Shu-Min Lin; Chih-Ten Yu; Chun-Hua Wang; Horng-Chyuan Lin; Chien-Huang Lin; Han-Pin Kuo

2003-01-01

255

Apoptotic neutrophils undergoing secondary necrosis induce human lung epithelial cell detachment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clearance of apoptotic neutrophils by alveolar macrophages plays an important role in the resolution phase of lung inflammation. If not cleared, apoptotic neutrophils are postulated to release histotoxic granular contents. Since numerous cellular proteins are degraded during apoptosis, we sought to determine whether functional serine proteinases are indeed released by apoptosing neutrophils in vitro. In a coculture system, cytokine-activated neutrophils

Chien-Ying Liu; Yun-Hen Liu; Shu-Min Lin; Chih-Ten Yu; Chun-Hua Wang; Horng-Chyuan Lin; Chien-Huang Lin; Han-Pin Kuo

2003-01-01

256

Apoptotic hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells accelerate blood coagulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backgrounds and Aim: Intrasinusoidal microthrombosis is considered to be a cause of massive hepatocyte death in fulminant hepatic failure. Generally, apoptotic cells express phosphatidyl serine (PS) outside the plasma membrane, which is also expressed on the surface of activated platelets and accelerates fibrin–thrombus formation. Therefore, the acceleration of blood coagulation on the surface of apoptotic hepatocytes may occur because hepatocytes

Yasuhiro Miyamoto; Yasuhiro Takikawa; Shi De Lin; Shinichiro Sato; Kazuyuki Suzuki

2004-01-01

257

Caenorhabditis elegans Myotubularin MTM-1 Negatively Regulates the Engulfment of Apoptotic Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

During programmed cell death, apoptotic cells are recognized and rapidly engulfed by phagocytes. Although a number of genes have been identified that promote cell corpse engulfment, it is not well understood how phagocytosis of apoptotic cells is negatively regulated. Here we have identified Caenorhabditis elegans myotubularin MTM-1 as a negative regulator of cell corpse engulfment. Myotubularins (MTMs) constitute a large,

Wei Zou; Qun Lu; Dongfeng Zhao; Weida Li; James Mapes; Yuting Xie; Xiaochen Wang

2009-01-01

258

Cell Death Differ . Author manuscript Intravenous apoptotic spleen cell infusion induces a TGF-beta-dependent  

E-print Network

Cell Death Differ . Author manuscript Page /1 14 Intravenous apoptotic spleen cell infusion induces a TGF-beta-dependent regulatory T-cell expansion Fran ois M. Kleinclaussç 1 , Sylvain Perruche 1 hematopoietic engraftment and prevent graft-versus-host disease. This apoptotic cell-induced tolerogenic effect

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

259

Multisite phosphorylation of c-Jun at threonine 91/93/95 triggers the onset of c-Jun pro-apoptotic activity in cerebellar granule neurons  

PubMed Central

Cerebellar granule cell (CGC) apoptosis by trophic/potassium (TK) deprivation is a model of election to study the interplay of pro-apoptotic and pro-survival signaling pathways in neuronal cell death. In this model, the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) induces pro-apoptotic genes through the c-Jun/activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factor. On the other side, a survival pathway initiated by lithium leads to repression of pro-apoptotic c-Jun/AP-1 target genes without interfering with JNK activity. Yet, the mechanism by which lithium inhibits c-Jun activity remains to be elucidated. Here, we used this model system to study the regulation and function of site-specific c-Jun phosphorylation at the S63 and T91/T93 JNK sites in neuronal cell death. We found that TK-deprivation led to c-Jun multiphosphorylation at all three JNK sites. However, immunofluorescence analysis of c-Jun phosphorylation at single cell level revealed that the S63 site was phosphorylated in all c-Jun-expressing cells, whereas the response of T91/T93 phosphorylation was more sensitive, mirroring the switch-like apoptotic response of CGCs. Conversely, lithium prevented T91T93 phosphorylation and cell death without affecting the S63 site, suggesting that T91T93 phosphorylation triggers c-Jun pro-apoptotic activity. Accordingly, a c-Jun mutant lacking the T95 priming site for T91/93 phosphorylation protected CGCs from apoptosis, whereas it was able to induce neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Vice versa, a c-Jun mutant bearing aspartate substitution of T95 overwhelmed lithium-mediate protection of CGCs from TK-deprivation, validating that inhibition of T91/T93/T95 phosphorylation underlies the effect of lithium on cell death. Mass spectrometry analysis confirmed multiphosphorylation of c-Jun at T91/T93/T95 in cells. Moreover, JNK phosphorylated recombinant c-Jun at T91/T93 in a T95-dependent manner. On the basis of our results, we propose that T91/T93/T95 multiphosphorylation of c-Jun functions as a sensitivity amplifier of the JNK cascade, setting the threshold for c-Jun pro-apoptotic activity in neuronal cells. PMID:24113186

Reddy, C E; Albanito, L; De Marco, P; Aiello, D; Maggiolini, M; Napoli, A; Musti, A M

2013-01-01

260

Apoptotic Mechanisms in the Immature Brain: Involvement of Mitochondria  

PubMed Central

Brain injury after hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy often develops with delayed appearance, opening a therapeutic window. Clinical studies in newborns show that post-hypoxic-ischemic hypothermia improves outcome. This has generated renewed interest in the molecular mechanisms of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. In this brief review, we propose that mitochondrial permeabilization is crucial for injury to advance beyond the point of no return. We suggest that excitatory amino acids, nitric oxide, inflammation, trophic factor withdrawal, and an increased pro- versus anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein ratio will trigger Bax-dependent mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). MOMP, in turn, elicits mitochondrial release of cytochrome C, apoptosis-inducing factor, SMAC/Diablo, and HtrA2/Omi. Cytochrome C efflux activates caspase-9/-3, leading to DNA fragmentation. Apoptosis-inducing factor interacts with cyclophilin A and induces chromatinolysis. Blockage of MOMP holds promise as a strategy for perinatal brain protection. PMID:19574577

Hagberg, Henrik; Mallard, Carina; Rousset, Catherine I.; Wang, Xiaoyang

2013-01-01

261

Apoptotic pathway induced by diallyl trisulfide in pancreatic cancer cells  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effects of diallyl trisulfide (DATS), a garlic-derived organosulfur compound, in pancreatic cancer cells. METHODS: Human pancreatic cancer cells with wild-type p53 gene (Capan-2) and normal pancreatic epithelial cells (H6C7) were cultured in RPMI1640. DATS was prepared at a concentration of 100 ?mol/L. Cell viability was determined via the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. Apoptotic cells were detected by TUNEL assay. Cell cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometry. Protein expression was determined by Western blot. Bax and Bcl-2 expression was detected by immunofluorescence. Apoptosis genes and cell cycle were assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: DATS suppressed the viability of cultured human pancreatic cancer cells (Capan-2) by increasing the proportion of cells in the G2/M phase and induced apoptotic cell death. Western blot analysis indicated that DATS enhanced the expression of Fas, p21, p53 and cyclin B1, but downregulated the expression of Akt, cyclin D1, MDM2 and Bcl-2. DATS induced cell cycle inhibition which was correlated with elevated levels of cyclin B1 and p21, and reduced levels of cyclin D1 in Capan-2 cells and H6C7 cells. DATS-induced apoptosis was markedly elevated in Capan-2 cells compared with H6C7 cells, and this was correlated with elevated levels of cyclin B1 and p53, and reduced levels of Bcl-2. DATS-induced apoptosis was correlated with down-regulation of Bcl-2, Akt and cyclin D1 protein levels, and up-regulation of Bax, Fas, p53 and cyclin B protein levels in Capan-2 cells. CONCLUSION: DATS induces apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells (Capan-2) and non-tumorigenic pancreatic ductal epithelial cells (H6C7). PMID:24415872

Ma, Hong-Bing; Huang, Shan; Yin, Xiao-Ran; Zhang, Yang; Di, Zheng-Li

2014-01-01

262

Cooperative binding of Annexin A5 to phosphatidylserine on apoptotic cell membranes.  

PubMed

Healthy cells exhibit an asymmetric plasma membrane with phosphatidylserine (PS) located on the cytoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane bilayer. Annexin A5-FITC, a PS binding protein, is commonly used to evaluate apoptosis in flow cytometry. PS exposed by apoptotic cells serves as a major 'eat-me' signal for phagocytes. Although exposition of PS has been observed after alternative stimuli, no clearance of viable, PS exposing cells has been detected. Thus, besides PS exposure, membranes of viable and apoptotic cells might exhibit specific characteristics. Here, we show that Annexin A5 binds in a cooperative manner to different types of dead cells. Shrunken apoptotic cells thereby showed the highest Hill coefficient values. Contrarily, parafomaldehyde fixation of apoptotic cells completely abrogates the cooperativity effect seen with dead and dying cells. We tend to speculate that the cooperative binding of Annexin A5 to the membranes of apoptotic cells reflects higher fluidity of the exposed membranes facilitating PS clustering. PMID:24304966

Janko, Christina; Jeremic, Ivica; Biermann, Mona; Chaurio, Ricardo; Schorn, Christine; Muñoz, Luis E; Herrmann, Martin

2013-12-01

263

3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol attenuates spatio-cognitive deficits in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model: modulation of the molecular signals in neuronal survival-apoptotic programs.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common type of dementia, is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive neuro-cognitive dysfunction. In our study, we investigated the potential of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (DOPET), a dopamine metabolite, and also a polyphenol from olive oil, in ameliorating soluble oligomeric amyloid ?1-42 plus ibotenic acid (oA42i)-induced neuro-behavioral dysfunction in C57BL/6 mice. The results depicted that intracerebroventricular injection of oA42i negatively altered the spatial reference and working memories in mice, whereas DOPET treatment significantly augmented the spatio-cognitive abilities against oA42i. Upon investigation of the underlying mechanisms, oA42i-intoxicated mice displayed significantly activated death kinases including JNK- and p38-MAPKs with concomitantly inhibited ERK-MAPK/RSK2, PI3K/Akt1, and JAK2/STAT3 survival signaling pathways in the hippocampal neurons. Conversely, DOPET treatment reversed these dysregulated signaling mechanisms comparable to the sham-operated mice. Notably, oA42i administration altered the Bcl-2/Bad levels and activated the caspase-dependent mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway involving cytochrome c, apoptotic protease activating factor-1, and caspase-9/3. In contrary, DOPET administration stabilized the dysregulated activities of these apoptotic/anti-apoptotic markers and preserved the mitochondrial ultra-architecture. Besides, we observed that oA42i intoxication substantially down-regulated the expression of genes involved in the regulation of survival and memory functions including sirtuin-1, cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), CREB-target genes (BDNF, c-Fos, Nurr1, and Egr1) and a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10. Fascinatingly, DOPET treatment significantly diminished these aberrations when compared to the oA42i group. Taken together, these results accentuate that DOPET may be a multipotent agent to combat AD. PMID:25274193

Arunsundar, Mohanasundaram; Shanmugarajan, Thukani Sathanantham; Ravichandran, Velayutham

2015-02-01

264

GADD45b mediates p53 protein degradation via Src/PP2A/MDM2 pathway upon arsenite treatment  

E-print Network

OPEN GADD45b mediates p53 protein degradation via Src/PP2A/MDM2 pathway upon arsenite treatment Y protein degradation via targeting Src/protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)/murine double minute 2 (MDM2) pathway) activation. We demonstrated here that GADD45b mediated its anti-apoptotic effect via promoting p53 protein

Cai, Long

265

Plasminogen activation: a mediator of vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis in atherosclerotic plaques  

E-print Network

specimens, apoptotic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) were observed in areas with loss of pericellularPlasminogen activation: a mediator of vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis in atherosclerotic and recent in vitro data suggest that plasminogen activation may trigger vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

266

Amyloid Beta Resistance in Nerve Cell Lines Is Mediated by the Warburg Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amyloid beta (A?) peptide accumulation in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is closely associated with increased nerve cell death. However, many cells survive and it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in this survival response. Recent studies have shown that an anti-apoptotic mechanism in cancer cells is mediated by aerobic glycolysis, also known as the Warburg

Jordan T. Newington; Andrea Pitts; Andrew Chien; Robert Arseneault; David Schubert; Robert C. Cumming; Hitoshi Okazawa

2011-01-01

267

O Death Where Is Thy Sting? Immunologic Tolerance To Apoptotic Self  

PubMed Central

In higher organisms, innate scavenging cells maintain physiologic homeostasis by removal of the billions of apoptotic cells generated on a daily basis. Apoptotic cell removal requires efficient recognition and uptake by professional and non-professional phagocytic cells, which are governed by an array of soluble and apoptotic cell-integral signals resulting in immunologically silent clearance. While apoptosis is associated with profound suppression of adaptive and innate inflammatory immunity, we have only begun to scratch the surface in understanding how immunologic tolerance to apoptotic self manifest at either the molecular or cellular level. In the last 10 years data has emerged implicating professional phagocytes, most notably stromal macrophages and CD8?+CD103+ dendritic cells, as critical in initiation of the regulatory cascade that will ultimately lead to long-term whole animal immune tolerance. Importantly, recent work by our lab and others has shown that alterations in apoptotic cell perception by the innate immune system either by removal of critical phagocytic sentinels in secondary lymphoid organs or blockage of immunosuppressive pathways leads to pronounced inflammation with a breakdown of tolerance towards self. This challenges the paradigm that apoptotic cells are inherently immunosuppressive suggesting that apoptotic cell tolerance is a “context dependent” event. PMID:23377225

Ravishankar, Buvana; McGaha, Tracy L.

2013-01-01

268

A novel role for microtubules in apoptotic chromatin dynamics and cellular fragmentation.  

PubMed

Dramatic changes in cellular dynamics characterise the apoptotic execution phase, culminating in fragmentation into membrane-bound apoptotic bodies. Previous evidence suggests that actin-myosin plays a dominant role in apoptotic cellular remodelling, whereas all other cytoskeletal elements dismantle. We have used fixed cells and live-cell imaging to confirm that interphase microtubules rapidly depolymerise at the start of the execution phase. Around this time, pericentriolar components (pericentrin, ninein and gamma-tubulin) are lost from the centrosomal region. Subsequently, however, extensive non-centrosomal bundles of densely packed, dynamic microtubules rapidly assemble throughout the cytoplasm in all cell lines tested. These microtubules have an important role in the peripheral relocation of chromatin in the dying cell, because nocodazole treatment restricts the dispersal of condensed apoptotic chromatin into surface blebs, and causes the withdrawal of chromatin fragments back towards the cell centre. Importantly, nocodazole and taxol are both potent inhibitors of apoptotic fragmentation in A431 cells, implicating dynamic microtubules in apoptotic body formation. Live-cell-imaging studies indicate that fragmentation is accompanied by the extension of rigid microtubule-rich spikes that project through the cortex of the dying cell. These structures enhance interactions between apoptotic cells and phagocytes in vitro, by providing additional sites for attachment to neighbouring cells. PMID:16723742

Moss, David K; Betin, Virginie M; Malesinski, Soazig D; Lane, Jon D

2006-06-01

269

The Apoptotic Mechanism of Action of the Sphingosine Kinase 1 Selective Inhibitor SKI-178 in Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cell Lines.  

PubMed

We previously developed SKI-178 (N'-[(1E)-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethylidene]-3-(4-methoxxyphenyl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carbohydrazide) as a novel sphingosine kinase-1 (SphK1) selective inhibitor and, herein, sought to determine the mechanism-of-action of SKI-178-induced cell death. Using human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines as a model, we present evidence that SKI-178 induces prolonged mitosis followed by apoptotic cell death through the intrinsic apoptotic cascade. Further examination of the mechanism of action of SKI-178 implicated c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and cyclin-dependent protein kinase 1 (CDK1) as critical factors required for SKI-178-induced apoptosis. In cell cycle synchronized human AML cell lines, we demonstrate that entry into mitosis is required for apoptotic induction by SKI-178 and that CDK1, not JNK, is required for SKI-178-induced apoptosis. We further demonstrate that the sustained activation of CDK1 during prolonged mitosis, mediated by SKI-178, leads to the simultaneous phosphorylation of the prosurvival Bcl-2 family members, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, as well as the phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of Mcl-1. Moreover, multidrug resistance mediated by multidrug-resistant protein1 and/or prosurvival Bcl-2 family member overexpression did not affect the sensitivity of AML cells to SKI-178. Taken together, these findings highlight the therapeutic potential of SKI-178 targeting SphK1 as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of AML, including multidrug-resistant/recurrent AML subtypes. PMID:25563902

Dick, Taryn E; Hengst, Jeremy A; Fox, Todd E; Colledge, Ashley L; Kale, Vijay P; Sung, Shen-Shu; Sharma, Arun; Amin, Shantu; Loughran, Thomas P; Kester, Mark; Wang, Hong-Gang; Yun, Jong K

2015-03-01

270

Inhibition of Rac GTPase triggers a c-Jun- and Bim-dependent mitochondrial apoptotic cascade in cerebellar granule neurons  

PubMed Central

Rho GTPases are key transducers of integrin/extracellular matrix and growth factor signaling. Although integrin-mediated adhesion and trophic support suppress neuronal apoptosis, the role of Rho GTPases in neuronal survival is unclear. Here, we have identified Rac as a critical pro-survival GTPase in cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) and elucidated a death pathway triggered by its inactivation. GTP-loading of Rac1 was maintained in CGNs by integrin-mediated (RGDdependent) cell attachment and trophic support. Clostridium difficile toxin B (ToxB), a specific Rho family inhibitor, induced a selective caspase-mediated degradation of Rac1 without affecting RhoA or Cdc42 protein levels. Both ToxB and dominant-negative N17Rac1 elicited CGN apoptosis, characterized by cytochrome c release and activation of caspase-9 and -3, whereas dominant-negative N19RhoA or N17Cdc42 did not cause significant cell death. ToxB stimulated mitochondrial translocation and conformational activation of Bax, c-Jun activation, and induction of the BH3-only protein Bim. Similarly, c-Jun activation and Bim induction were observed with N17Rac1. A c-jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK)/p38 inhibitor, SB203580, and a JNK-specific inhibitor, SP600125, significantly decreased ToxB-induced Bim expression and blunted each subsequent step of the apoptotic cascade. These results indicate that Rac acts downstream of integrins and growth factors to promote neuronal survival by repressing c-Jun/Bim-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis. PMID:16092944

Le, Shoshona S.; Loucks, F. Alexandra; Udo, Hiroshi; Richardson-Burns, Sarah; Phelps, Reid A.; Bouchard, Ron J.; Barth, Holger; Aktories, Klaus; Tyler, Kenneth L.; Kandel, Eric R.; Heidenreich, Kim A.; Linseman, Daniel A.

2008-01-01

271

Increased CD8+ T cell responses to apoptotic T cell-associated antigens in multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background Here, we evaluated the hypothesis that CD8+ T cell responses to caspase-cleaved antigens derived from effector T cells undergoing apoptosis, may contribute to multiple sclerosis (MS) immunopathology. Methods The percentage of autoreactive CD8+ T effector cells specific for various apoptotic T cell-associated self-epitopes (apoptotic epitopes) were detected in the peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by both enzyme-linked immunospot and dextramers of class I molecules complexed with relevant apoptotic epitopes. Moreover, the capacity of dextramer+ CD8+ T cells to produce interferon (IFN)-? and/or interleukin (IL)-17 in response to the relevant apoptotic epitopes was evaluated by the intracellular cytokine staining. Cross-presentation assay of apoptotic T cells by dendritic cells was also evaluated ex vivo. Results We found that polyfunctional (IFN-? and/or IL-17 producing) autoreactive CD8+ T cells specific for apoptotic epitopes were represented in MS patients with frequencies significantly higher than in healthy donors. These autoreactive CD8+ T cells with a strong potential to produce IFN-? or IL-17 in response to the relevant apoptotic epitopes were significantly accumulated in the CSF from the same patients. In addition, the frequencies of these autoreactive CD8+ T cells correlated with the disease disability. Cross-presentation assay revealed that caspase-cleaved cellular proteins are required to activate apoptotic epitope-specific CD8+ T cells ex vivo. Conclusion Taken together, these data indicate that apoptotic epitope-specific CD8+ T cells with strong inflammatory potential are recruited at the level of the inflammatory site, where they may be involved in MS immunopathology through the production of high levels of inflammatory cytokines. PMID:23890271

2013-01-01

272

The Functional Differences between Pro-survival and Pro-apoptotic B Cell Lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) Proteins Depend on Structural Differences in Their Bcl-2 Homology 3 (BH3) Domains.  

PubMed

Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3) domains are short sequence motifs that mediate nearly all protein-protein interactions between B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family proteins in the intrinsic apoptotic cell death pathway. These sequences are found on both pro-survival and pro-apoptotic members, although their primary function is believed to be associated with induction of cell death. Here, we identify critical features of the BH3 domains of pro-survival proteins that distinguish them functionally from their pro-apoptotic counterparts. Biochemical and x-ray crystallographic studies demonstrate that these differences reduce the capacity of most pro-survival proteins to form high affinity "BH3-in-groove" complexes that are critical for cell death induction. Switching these residues for the corresponding residues in Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer (Bak) increases the binding affinity of isolated BH3 domains for pro-survival proteins; however, their exchange in the context of the parental protein causes rapid proteasomal degradation due to protein destabilization. This is supported by further x-ray crystallographic studies that capture elements of this destabilization in one pro-survival protein, Bcl-w. In pro-apoptotic Bak, we demonstrate that the corresponding distinguishing residues are important for its cell-killing capacity and antagonism by pro-survival proteins. PMID:25371206

Lee, Erinna F; Dewson, Grant; Evangelista, Marco; Pettikiriarachchi, Anne; Gold, Grace J; Zhu, Haoran; Colman, Peter M; Fairlie, W Douglas

2014-12-26

273

The Role of Nucleotides and Purinergic Signaling in Apoptotic Cell Clearance – Implications for Chronic Inflammatory Diseases  

PubMed Central

Billions of cells undergo apoptosis every day in healthy individuals. A prompt removal of dying cells prevents the release of pro-inflammatory intracellular content and progress to secondary necrosis. Thus, inappropriate clearance of apoptotic cells provokes autoimmunity and has been associated with many chronic inflammatory diseases. Recent studies have suggested that extracellular adenosine 5?-triphosphate and related nucleotides play an important role in the apoptotic clearance process. Here, we review the current understanding of nucleotides and purinergic receptors in apoptotic cell clearance and the potential therapeutic targets of purinergic receptor subtypes in inflammatory conditions. PMID:25566266

Chen, Jin; Zhao, Yi; Liu, Yi

2014-01-01

274

Spontaneous and Fas-induced apoptotic cell death in aged neutrophils.  

PubMed

On the basis of the strict analogies between polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) alterations in the aging and depressed functional capacities displayed by apoptotic PMN, we investigated the possible occurrence of age-associated changes in neutrophil apoptosis, either spontaneous or induced by Fas antigen (CD95) activation. In both cases, old subjects exhibited a time course kinetics of neutrophil apoptosis, as assessed by morphologic and quantitative DNA fragmentation analysis, which overlapped that observed in the young. These findings were confirmed by DNA ladder analysis, showing a progressive increase in DNA cleavage products in cells cultured in medium alone or added with agonistic anti-Fas IgM (CH-11) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), after 12 and 6 hr of incubation, respectively. Aged purified neutrophils constitutively expressed CD95, at levels similar to those observed in the young. Moreover, although we failed to detect Fas ligand expression on PMN surface, treatment of cell cultures with antagonistic anti-Fas IgG1 (ZB4) mAbs determined a significant inhibition of spontaneous apoptosis in neutrophils from both groups of subjects, thus suggesting that the Fas/Fas ligand system is in fact involved in such an event. The results indicate that the overall intrinsic mechanisms regulating neutrophil cell death are not affected by age. Yet aged neutrophils showed a diminished capacity to be rescued by proinflammatory mediators, such as granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and bacterial lipopolysaccharide, following Fas activation. This may hamper the accumulation of functionally active cells in inflammatory areas in vivo, thus contributing to the increased susceptibility of elderly individuals to life-threatening infections. PMID:9793824

Tortorella, C; Piazzolla, G; Spaccavento, F; Pece, S; Jirillo, E; Antonaci, S

1998-09-01

275

Proteins Associated with the Exon Junction Complex Also Control the Alternative Splicing of Apoptotic Regulators  

PubMed Central

Several apoptotic regulators, including Bcl-x, are alternatively spliced to produce isoforms with opposite functions. We have used an RNA interference strategy to map the regulatory landscape controlling the expression of the Bcl-x splice variants in human cells. Depleting proteins known as core (Y14 and eIF4A3) or auxiliary (RNPS1, Acinus, and SAP18) components of the exon junction complex (EJC) improved the production of the proapoptotic Bcl-xS splice variant. This effect was not seen when we depleted EJC proteins that typically participate in mRNA export (UAP56, Aly/Ref, and TAP) or that associate with the EJC to enforce nonsense-mediated RNA decay (MNL51, Upf1, Upf2, and Upf3b). Core and auxiliary EJC components modulated Bcl-x splicing through different cis-acting elements, further suggesting that this activity is distinct from the established EJC function. In support of a direct role in splicing control, recombinant eIF4A3, Y14, and Magoh proteins associated preferentially with the endogenous Bcl-x pre-mRNA, interacted with a model Bcl-x pre-mRNA in early splicing complexes, and specifically shifted Bcl-x alternative splicing in nuclear extracts. Finally, the depletion of Y14, eIF4A3, RNPS1, SAP18, and Acinus also encouraged the production of other proapoptotic splice variants, suggesting that EJC-associated components are important regulators of apoptosis acting at the alternative splicing level. PMID:22203037

Michelle, Laetitia; Cloutier, Alexandre; Toutant, Johanne; Shkreta, Lulzim; Thibault, Philippe; Durand, Mathieu; Garneau, Daniel; Gendron, Daniel; Lapointe, Elvy; Couture, Sonia; Le Hir, Hervé; Klinck, Roscoe; Elela, Sherif Abou; Prinos, Panagiotis

2012-01-01

276

Blocking Apoptotic Signaling Rescues Axon Guidance in Netrin Mutants  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Netrins are guidance cues that form gradients to guide growing axons. We uncover a mechanism for axon guidance by demonstrating that axons can accurately navigate in the absence of a Netrin gradient if apoptotic signaling is blocked. Deletion of the two Drosophila NetA and NetB genes leads to guidance defects and increased apoptosis, and expression of either gene at the midline is sufficient to rescue the connectivity defects and cell death. Surprisingly, pan-neuronal expression of NetB rescues equally well, even though no Netrin gradient has been established. Furthermore, NetB expression blocks apoptosis, suggesting that NetB acts as a neurotrophic factor. In contrast, neuronal expression of NetA increases axon defects. Simply blocking apoptosis in NetAB mutants is sufficient to rescue connectivity, and inhibition of caspase activity in subsets of neurons rescues guidance independently of survival. In contrast to the traditional role of Netrin as simply a guidance cue, our results demonstrate that guidance and survival activities may be functionally related. PMID:23499445

Newquist, Gunnar; Drennan, J. Michelle; Lamanuzzi, Matthew; Walker, Kirsti; Clemens, James C.; Kidd, Thomas

2013-01-01

277

Histone deacetylase inhibitors: apoptotic effects and clinical implications (Review).  

PubMed

It has been shown that epigenetic modifications play an important role in tumorigenesis. Thus, affecting epigenetic tumorigenic alterations can represent a promising strategy for anticancer targeted therapy. Among the key chromatin modifying enzymes which influence gene expression, histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) have recently attracted interest because of their impact on tumor development and progression. Increased expression of HDACs and disrupted activities of HATs have been found in several tumor types, with a consequent hypoacetylated state of chromatin that can be strictly correlated with low expression of either tumor suppressor or pro-apoptotic genes. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) represent a new and promising class of antitumor drugs that influence gene expression by enhancing acetylation of histones in specific chromatin domains. HDACIs have been shown to exert potent anticancer activities inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Notably, a high efficacy of these drugs has been selectively revealed in malignant cells rather than in normal cells. Moreover, the therapeutic potential of these agents is also supported by the evidence that HDACIs downregulate genes involved in tumor progression, invasion and angiogenesis. Several HDACIs are currently under clinical investigation, including vorinostat (SAHA), romidepsin (depsipeptide, FK-228), LAQ824/LBH589 and belinostat (PXD101), compounds that have shown therapeutic potential in many types of malignancies including solid tumors. Based on the ability of HDACIs to regulate many signaling pathways, co-treatment of these compounds with molecular targeted drugs is a promising strategy against many types of tumors. PMID:18813776

Emanuele, Sonia; Lauricella, Marianna; Tesoriere, Giovanni

2008-10-01

278

Mitochondrial pathology and apoptotic muscle degeneration in Drosophila parkin mutants.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Several lines of evidence strongly implicate mitochondrial dysfunction as a major causative factor in PD, although the molecular mechanisms responsible for mitochondrial dysfunction are poorly understood. Recently, loss-of-function mutations in the parkin gene, which encodes a ubiquitin-protein ligase, were found to underlie a familial form of PD known as autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP). To gain insight into the molecular mechanism responsible for selective cell death in AR-JP, we have created a Drosophila model of this disorder. Drosophila parkin null mutants exhibit reduced lifespan, locomotor defects, and male sterility. The locomotor defects derive from apoptotic cell death of muscle subsets, whereas the male sterile phenotype derives from a spermatid individualization defect at a late stage of spermatogenesis. Mitochondrial pathology is the earliest manifestation of muscle degeneration and a prominent characteristic of individualizing spermatids in parkin mutants. These results indicate that the tissue-specific phenotypes observed in Drosophila parkin mutants result from mitochondrial dysfunction and raise the possibility that similar mitochondrial impairment triggers the selective cell loss observed in AR-JP. PMID:12642658

Greene, Jessica C; Whitworth, Alexander J; Kuo, Isabella; Andrews, Laurie A; Feany, Mel B; Pallanck, Leo J

2003-04-01

279

Effect of thrombopoietin receptor agonists on the apoptotic profile of platelets in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia.  

PubMed

Platelet survival depends upon mediators of apoptosis e.g., Bcl-xL, Bax, and Bak, which are regulated by thrombopoietin (TPO)-mediated AKT signaling. Thrombopoietin receptor (TPO-R) signaling might decrease platelet and/or megakaryocyte apoptosis and increase the platelet count. This study therefore explored anti-apoptotic effects of TPO-R-agonists in vivo on platelets of patients with immune thrombocytopenia. Patients received eltrombopag or romiplostim for two weeks. Total, immature, and large platelet counts were assessed as were Bcl-xL inhibitor assay; Bcl-xL Western blot; and flow cytometric (FACS) analysis of the AKT-signaling pathway. Eight/ten patients had platelet responses to eltrombopag and all three to romiplostim. Platelet sensitivity to apoptosis by Bcl-xL inhibition was greater in pretreatment patients than controls. This sensitivity normalized after one week of therapy, but surprisingly returned to pretreatment levels at week two. FACS analysis revealed increased AKT-pathway signaling after one week, followed by a decrease at week two. Platelet counts correlated with the Bcl-xL /Bak ratio. Platelet survival may be enhanced by TPO-R-agonists as a transient decrease in platelet sensitivity to apoptosis was accompanied by transient activation of AKT. However, this mechanism has only a short-lived effect. Megakaryocytes and platelets already present at the start of TPO-R-agonist treatment appear to respond differently than those generated de novo. PMID:25132654

Mitchell, William Beau; Pinheiro, Mariana P; Boulad, Nayla; Kaplan, David; Edison, Michele N; Psaila, Bethan; Karpoff, Marissa; White, Michael J; Josefsson, Emma C; Kile, Benjamin T; Bussel, James B

2014-12-01

280

Neuropeptide Y receptors activation protects rat retinal neural cells against necrotic and apoptotic cell death induced by glutamate.  

PubMed

It has been claimed that glutamate excitotoxicity might have a role in the pathogenesis of several retinal degenerative diseases, including glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has neuroprotective properties against excitotoxicity in the hippocampus, through the activation of Y1, Y2 and/or Y5 receptors. The principal objective of this study is to investigate the potential protective role of NPY against glutamate-induced toxicity in rat retinal cells (in vitro and in an animal model), unraveling the NPY receptors and intracellular mechanisms involved. Rat retinal neural cell cultures were prepared from newborn Wistar rats (P3-P5) and exposed to glutamate (500 ?M) for 24 h. Necrotic cell death was evaluated by propidium iodide (PI) assay and apoptotic cell death using TUNEL and caspase-3 assays. The cell types present in culture were identified by immunocytochemistry. The involvement of NPY receptors was assessed using selective agonists and antagonists. Pre-treatment of cells with NPY (100 nM) inhibited both necrotic cell death (PI-positive cells) and apoptotic cell death (TUNEL-positive cells and caspase 3-positive cells) triggered by glutamate, with the neurons being the cells most strongly affected. The activation of NPY Y2, Y4 and Y5 receptors inhibited necrotic cell death, while apoptotic cell death was only prevented by the activation of NPY Y5 receptor. Moreover, NPY neuroprotective effect was mediated by the activation of PKA and p38K. In the animal model, NPY (2.35 nmol) was intravitreally injected 2 h before glutamate (500 nmol) injection into the vitreous. The protective role of NPY was assessed 24 h after glutamate (or saline) injection by TUNEL assay and Brn3a (marker of ganglion cells) immunohistochemistry. NPY inhibited the increase in the number of TUNEL-positive cells and the decrease in the number of Brn3a-positive cells induced by glutamate. In conclusion, NPY and NPY receptors can be considered potential targets to treat retinal degenerative diseases, such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. PMID:23681231

Santos-Carvalho, A; Elvas, F; Alvaro, A R; Ambrósio, A F; Cavadas, C

2013-01-01

281

Neuropeptide Y receptors activation protects rat retinal neural cells against necrotic and apoptotic cell death induced by glutamate  

PubMed Central

It has been claimed that glutamate excitotoxicity might have a role in the pathogenesis of several retinal degenerative diseases, including glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has neuroprotective properties against excitotoxicity in the hippocampus, through the activation of Y1, Y2 and/or Y5 receptors. The principal objective of this study is to investigate the potential protective role of NPY against glutamate-induced toxicity in rat retinal cells (in vitro and in an animal model), unraveling the NPY receptors and intracellular mechanisms involved. Rat retinal neural cell cultures were prepared from newborn Wistar rats (P3-P5) and exposed to glutamate (500??M) for 24?h. Necrotic cell death was evaluated by propidium iodide (PI) assay and apoptotic cell death using TUNEL and caspase-3 assays. The cell types present in culture were identified by immunocytochemistry. The involvement of NPY receptors was assessed using selective agonists and antagonists. Pre-treatment of cells with NPY (100?nM) inhibited both necrotic cell death (PI-positive cells) and apoptotic cell death (TUNEL-positive cells and caspase 3-positive cells) triggered by glutamate, with the neurons being the cells most strongly affected. The activation of NPY Y2, Y4 and Y5 receptors inhibited necrotic cell death, while apoptotic cell death was only prevented by the activation of NPY Y5 receptor. Moreover, NPY neuroprotective effect was mediated by the activation of PKA and p38K. In the animal model, NPY (2.35?nmol) was intravitreally injected 2?h before glutamate (500?nmol) injection into the vitreous. The protective role of NPY was assessed 24?h after glutamate (or saline) injection by TUNEL assay and Brn3a (marker of ganglion cells) immunohistochemistry. NPY inhibited the increase in the number of TUNEL-positive cells and the decrease in the number of Brn3a-positive cells induced by glutamate. In conclusion, NPY and NPY receptors can be considered potential targets to treat retinal degenerative diseases, such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. PMID:23681231

Santos-Carvalho, A; Elvas, F; Álvaro, A R; Ambrósio, A F; Cavadas, C

2013-01-01

282

Disrupted cytoskeletal homeostasis, astrogliosis and apoptotic cell death in the cerebellum of preweaning rats injected with diphenyl ditelluride.  

PubMed

In the present report 15 day-old rats were injected with 0.3?mol of diphenyl ditelluride (PhTe)(2)/kg body weight and parameters of neurodegeneration were analyzed in slices from cerebellum 3 and 6 days afterwards. The earlier responses, at day 3 after injection, included hyperphosphorylation of intermediate filament (IF) proteins from astrocyte (glial fibrillary acidic protein - GFAP - and vimentin) and neuron (low-, medium- and high molecular weight neurofilament subunits: NF-L, NF-M and NF-H); increased mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (Erk and p38MAPK) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activities. Also, reactive astrogliosis takes part of the early responses to the insult with (PhTe)(2), evidenced by upregulated GFAP in Western blot, PCR and immunofluorescence analysis. Six days after (PhTe)(2) injection we found persistent astrogliosis, increased propidium iodide (PI) positive cells in NeuN positive population evidenced by flow cytometry and reduced immunofluorescence for NeuN, suggesting that the in vivo exposure to (PhTe)(2) progressed to neuronal death. Moreover, activated caspase 3 suggested apoptotic neuronal death. Neurodegeneration was related with decreased [(3)H]glutamate uptake and decreased Akt immunoreactivity, however phospho-GSK-3-? (Ser9) was not altered in (PhTe)(2) injected rat. Therefore, the present results show that the earlier cerebellar responses to (PhTe)(2) include disruption of cytoskeletal homeostasis that could be related with MAPK and PKA activation and reactive astrogliosis. Akt inhibition observed at this time could also play a role in the neuronal death evidenced afterwards. The later events of the neurodegenerative process are characterized by persistent astrogliosis and activation of apoptotic neuronal death through caspase 3 mediated mechanisms, which could be related with glutamate excitotoxicity. The progression of these responses are therefore likely to be critical for the outcome of the neurodegeneration provoked by (PhTe)(2) in rat cerebellum. PMID:23182946

Heimfarth, Luana; Loureiro, Samanta Oliveira; Dutra, Márcio Ferreira; Petenuzzo, Letícia; de Lima, Bárbara Ortiz; Fernandes, Carolina Gonçalves; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Pessoa-Pureur, Regina

2013-01-01

283

Manganese nanoparticle activates mitochondrial dependent apoptotic signaling and autophagy in dopaminergic neuronal cells  

SciTech Connect

The production of man-made nanoparticles for various modern applications has increased exponentially in recent years, but the potential health effects of most nanoparticles are not well characterized. Unfortunately, in vitro nanoparticle toxicity studies are extremely limited by yet unresolved problems relating to dosimetry. In the present study, we systematically characterized manganese (Mn) nanoparticle sizes and examined the nanoparticle-induced oxidative signaling in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies revealed that Mn nanoparticles range in size from single nanoparticles ({approx} 25 nM) to larger agglomerates when in treatment media. Manganese nanoparticles were effectively internalized in N27 dopaminergic neuronal cells, and they induced a time-dependent upregulation of the transporter protein transferrin. Exposure to 25-400 {mu}g/mL Mn nanoparticles induced cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Mn nanoparticles also significantly increased ROS, accompanied by a caspase-mediated proteolytic cleavage of proapoptotic protein kinase C{delta} (PKC{delta}), as well as activation loop phosphorylation. Blocking Mn nanoparticle-induced ROS failed to protect against the neurotoxic effects, suggesting the involvement of other pathways. Further mechanistic studies revealed changes in Beclin 1 and LC3, indicating that Mn nanoparticles induce autophagy. Primary mesencephalic neuron exposure to Mn nanoparticles induced loss of TH positive dopaminergic neurons and neuronal processes. Collectively, our results suggest that Mn nanoparticles effectively enter dopaminergic neuronal cells and exert neurotoxic effects by activating an apoptotic signaling pathway and autophagy, emphasizing the need for assessing possible health risks associated with an increased use of Mn nanoparticles in modern applications. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn nanoparticles activate mitochondrial cell death signaling in dopaminergic neuron. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn nanoparticles activate caspase-mediated proteolytic cleavage of PKC{delta} cascade. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn nanoparticles induce autophagy in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn nanoparticles induce loss of TH{sup +} neurons in primary mesencephalic cultures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study emphasizes neurotoxic risks of Mn nanoparticles to nigral dopaminergic system.

Afeseh Ngwa, Hilary; Kanthasamy, Arthi [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Iowa Center for Advanced Neurotoxicology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)] [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Iowa Center for Advanced Neurotoxicology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Gu, Yan; Fang, Ning [Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Anantharam, Vellareddy [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Iowa Center for Advanced Neurotoxicology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)] [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Iowa Center for Advanced Neurotoxicology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Kanthasamy, Anumantha G., E-mail: akanthas@iastate.edu [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Iowa Center for Advanced Neurotoxicology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

2011-11-15

284

Regulation of JNK activity in the apoptotic response of intestinal epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

We have studied apoptosis of gastrointestinal epithelial cells by examining the receptor-mediated and DNA damage-induced pathways using TNF-? and camptothecin (CPT), respectively. TNF-? requires inhibition of antiapoptotic protein synthesis by cycloheximide (CHX). CHX also results in high levels of active JNK, which are necessary for TNF-induced apoptosis. While CPT induces apoptosis, the increase in JNK activity was not proportional to the degree of apoptosis. Thus the mechanism of activation of JNK and its role in apoptosis are unclear. We examined the course of JNK activation in response to a combination of TNF-? and CPT (TNF + CPT), which resulted in a three- to fourfold increase in apoptosis compared with CPT alone, indicating an amplification of apoptotic signaling pathways. TNF + CPT caused apoptosis by activating JNK, p38, and caspases-8, -9, and -3. TNF-? stimulated a transient phosphorylation of JNK1/2 and ERK1/2 at 15 min, which returned to basal by 60 min and remained low for 4 h. CPT increased JNK1/2 activity between 3 and 4 h. TNF + CPT caused a sustained and robust JNK1/2 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation by 2 h, which remained high at 4 h, suggesting involvement of MEKK4/7 and MEK1, respectively. When administered with TNF + CPT, SP-600125, a specific inhibitor of MEKK4/7, completely inhibited JNK1/2 and decreased apoptosis. However, administration of SP-600125 at 1 h after TNF + CPT failed to prevent JNK1/2 phosphorylation, and the protective effect of SP-600125 on apoptosis was abolished. These results indicate that the persistent activation of JNK might be due to inhibition of JNK-specific MAPK phosphatase 1 (MKP1). Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of MKP1 enhanced TNF + CPT-induced activity of JNK1/2 and caspases-9 and -3. Taken together, these results suggest that MKP1 activity determines the duration of JNK1/2 and p38 activation and, thereby, apoptosis in response to TNF + CPT. PMID:21350193

Jin, Shi; Bavaria, Mitulkumar N.; Johnson, Leonard R.

2011-01-01

285

COMPARISON OF CELLULAR AND NUCLEAR FLOW CYTOMETRIC TECHNIQUES FOR DISCRIMINATING APOPTOTIC SUBPOPULATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

We compared cellular flow cytometric methods employing carboxyfluorescein (CF), Hoechst 33342, and Hoechst 33258 with a nuclear method in their ability to discriminate apoptotic subpopulations in rat thymocyte cultures exposed to dexamethasone r tributyltin. n the nuclear techniq...

286

Role for the class A macrophage scavenger receptor in the phagocytosis of apoptotic thymocytes in vitro.  

PubMed

Numerous immature thymocytes undergo apoptosis and are rapidly engulfed by phagocytic thymic macrophages. The macrophage surface receptors involved in apoptotic thymocyte recognition are unknown. We have examined the role of the class A macrophage scavenger receptor (SR-A) in the engulfment of apoptotic thymocytes. Uptake of steroid-treated apoptotic thymocytes by thymic and inflammatory-elicited SR-A positive macrophages is partially inhibited by an anti-SR-A mAb and more completely by a range of scavenger receptor ligands. Thymic macrophages from mice with targeted disruption of the SR-A gene show a 50% reduction in phagocytosis of apoptotic thymocytes in vitro. These data suggest that SR-A may play a role in the clearance of dying cells in the thymus. PMID:8901603

Platt, N; Suzuki, H; Kurihara, Y; Kodama, T; Gordon, S

1996-10-29

287

Role for the class A macrophage scavenger receptor in the phagocytosis of apoptotic thymocytes in vitro.  

PubMed Central

Numerous immature thymocytes undergo apoptosis and are rapidly engulfed by phagocytic thymic macrophages. The macrophage surface receptors involved in apoptotic thymocyte recognition are unknown. We have examined the role of the class A macrophage scavenger receptor (SR-A) in the engulfment of apoptotic thymocytes. Uptake of steroid-treated apoptotic thymocytes by thymic and inflammatory-elicited SR-A positive macrophages is partially inhibited by an anti-SR-A mAb and more completely by a range of scavenger receptor ligands. Thymic macrophages from mice with targeted disruption of the SR-A gene show a 50% reduction in phagocytosis of apoptotic thymocytes in vitro. These data suggest that SR-A may play a role in the clearance of dying cells in the thymus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8901603

Platt, N; Suzuki, H; Kurihara, Y; Kodama, T; Gordon, S

1996-01-01

288

Phototherapy-treated apoptotic tumor cells induce pro-inflammatory cytokines production in macrophage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our previous studies have demonstrated that as a mitochondria-targeting cancer phototherapy, high fluence low-power laser irradiation (HF-LPLI) induces mitochondrial superoxide anion burst, resulting in oxidative damage to tumor cells. In this study, we further explored the immunological effects of HF-LPLI-induced apoptotic tumor cells. When macrophages were co-incubated with apoptotic cells induced by HF-LPLI, we observed the increased levels of TNF-? secretion and NO production in macrophages. Further experiments showed that NF-?B was activated in macrophages after co-incubation with HF-LPLI-induced apoptotic cells, and inhibition of NF-?B activity by pyrrolidinedithiocarbamic acid (PDTC) reduced the elevated levels of TNF-? secretion and NO production. These data indicate that HF-LPLI-induced apoptotic tumor cells induce the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages, which may be helpful for better understanding the biological effects of cancer phototherapy.

Lu, Cuixia; Wei, Yanchun; Xing, Da

2014-09-01

289

Abl Kinase Inhibits the Engulfment of Apoptotic [corrected] Cells in Caenorhabditis elegans  

E-print Network

The engulfment of apoptotic cells is required for normal metazoan development and tissue remodeling. In Caenorhabditis elegans, two parallel and partially redundant conserved pathways act in cell-corpse engulfment. One ...

Hurwitz, Michael Eliezer

290

Developmental silencing and independency from E2F of apoptotic gene expression in postmitotic tissues.  

PubMed

The involvement of caspases in postmitotic cell death is controversial. Here we report that adult brain and heart are devoid of many key pro-apoptotic proteins due to a progressive postnatal silencing event involving a reduction of their transcript levels. E2F has been shown to control cell cycle progression and to be transcriptional activator of apoptotic genes. However, our data demonstrate that apoptotic gene expression in heart, brain and liver, as well as cardiac and neuronal apoptotic gene silencing during development, are E2F-independent events. Therefore, the genes regulating caspase-dependent cell death are expressed in embryonic organs in an E2F-independent manner and a developmental-related silencing event represses these genes in postmitotic adult tissues. PMID:18037375

Zhang, Jisheng; Bahi, Núria; Zubiaga, Ana M; Comella, Joan X; Llovera, Marta; Sanchis, Daniel

2007-12-22

291

Leukemia . Author manuscript Sirolimus enhances the effect of apoptotic cell infusion on hematopoietic  

E-print Network

; physiology ; Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation ; Immune Tolerance ; Immunosuppressive Agents-Lymphocytes, Regulatory ; immunology ; Transplantation Conditioning Letter to the Editor Allogeneic hematopoietic cell-term post-transplant immunosuppression are[2 ] [3 ] still needed. Intravenous (i.v.) apoptotic cell infusion

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

292

MiR-630 inhibits proliferation by targeting CDC7 kinase, but maintains the apoptotic balance by targeting multiple modulators in human lung cancer A549 cells  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAome analyses have shown microRNA-630 (miR-630) to be involved in the regulation of apoptosis. However, its apoptotic role is still debated and its participation in DNA replication is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that miR-630 inhibits cell proliferation by targeting cell-cycle kinase 7 (CDC7) kinase, but maintains the apoptotic balance by targeting multiple activators of apoptosis under genotoxic stress. We identified a novel regulatory mechanism of CDC7 gene expression, in which miR-630 downregulated CDC7 expression by recognizing and binding to four binding sites in CDC7 3'-UTR. We found that miR-630 was highly expressed in A549 and NIH3T3 cells where CDC7 was downregulated, but lower in H1299, MCF7, MDA-MB-231, HeLa and 2BS cells where CDC7 was upregulated. Furthermore, the induction of miR-630 occurred commonly in a variety of human cancer and immortalized cells in response to genotoxic agents. Importantly, downregulation of CDC7 by miR-630 was associated with cisplatin (CIS)-induced inhibitory proliferation in A549 cells. Mechanistically, miR-630 exerted its inhibitory proliferation by blocking CDC7-mediated initiation of DNA synthesis and by inducing G1 arrest, but maintains apoptotic balance under CIS exposure. On the one hand, miR-630 promoted apoptosis by downregulation of CDC7; on the other hand, it reduced apoptosis by downregulating several apoptotic modulators such as PARP3, DDIT4, EP300 and EP300 downstream effector p53, thereby maintaining the apoptotic balance. Our data indicate that miR-630 has a bimodal role in the regulation of apoptosis in response to DNA damage. Our data also support the notion that a certain mRNA can be targeted by several miRNAs, and in particular an miRNA may target a set of mRNAs. These data afford a comprehensive view of microRNA-dependent control of gene expression in the regulation of apoptosis under genotoxic stress. PMID:25255219

Cao, J-X; Lu, Y; Qi, J-J; An, G-S; Mao, Z-B; Jia, H-T; Li, S-Y; Ni, J-H

2014-01-01

293

Inhibition of the interleukin-1? converting enzyme family rescues neurons from apoptotic death  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interleukin-1? converting enzyme (ICE) family of cysteine proteases has been implicated in apoptosis. This study tested the effects of a novel pan-ICE family inhibitor, boc-aspartyl(OMe)-fluoromethylketone (boc-Asp-CH2F), against low potassium-induced apoptosis of cultured rat cerebellar granule neurons (CGN). A single application of this cell-permeant compound (20 ?M) inhibited apoptotic cell death up to 48 h. Classical apoptotic changes were monitored

T Lynch; J P Vasilakos; K Raser; K M Keane; B D Shivers

1997-01-01

294

Death receptor-associated pro-apoptotic signaling in aged skeletal muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) is elevated in the serum as a result of aging and it promotes pro-apoptotic signaling\\u000a upon binding to the type I TNF receptor. It is not known if activation of this apoptotic pathway contributes to the well-documented\\u000a age-associated decline in muscle mass (i.e. sarcopenia). We tested the hypothesis that skeletal muscles from aged rodents\\u000a would exhibit

Emidio E. Pistilli; Janna R. Jackson; Stephen E. Alway

2006-01-01

295

Development of selective inhibitors for anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins from BHI-1  

PubMed Central

A series of inhibitors for anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins based on BHI-1 were synthesized and their binding interactions with Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and Bcl-w were evaluated. It was found that modification of BHI-1 resulted in varied binding profiles among Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and Bcl-w and a set of inhibitors with varied selectivity to Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and Bcl-w protein have been identified. Molecular modeling of the interaction of the BHI-1 based analogs with the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins suggested that the binding site for the BHI-1 based inhibitor was the least conserved section among Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and Bcl-w: targeting the non-conserved section may account for the observed selectivity of the BHI-1 based inhibitors among the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. The validity of the model was supported by a strong correlation between the model-calculated binding energy and the experimental binding affinity. In summary, our studies suggest that most of the reported inhibitors for anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins are nonselective and BHI-1 is a promising template to distinguish among Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and Bcl-w by targeting the nonconserved domain among the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. Molecular-modeling aided rational development of BHI-1 based selective inhibitor for anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins is underway. PMID:17227711

Xing, Chengguo; Wang, Liangyou; Tang, XiaoHu; Sham, Yuk Y

2007-01-01

296

Apoptotic Neutrophils Augment the Inflammatory Response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Human Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Macrophages in the lung are the primary cells being infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) during the initial manifestation of tuberculosis. Since the adaptive immune response to Mtb is delayed, innate immune cells such as macrophages and neutrophils mount the early immune protection against this intracellular pathogen. Neutrophils are short-lived cells and removal of apoptotic cells by resident macrophages is a key event in the resolution of inflammation and tissue repair. Since anti-inflammatory activity is not compatible with effective immunity to intracellular pathogens, we therefore investigated how uptake of apoptotic neutrophils modulates the function of Mtb-activated human macrophages. We show that Mtb infection exerts a potent proinflammatory activation of human macrophages with enhanced gene activation and release of proinflammatory cytokines and that this response was augmented by apoptotic neutrophils. The enhanced macrophage response is linked to apoptotic neutrophil-driven activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and subsequent IL-1? signalling. We also demonstrate that apoptotic neutrophils not only modulate the inflammatory response, but also enhance the capacity of infected macrophages to control intracellular growth of virulent Mtb. Taken together, these results suggest a novel role for apoptotic neutrophils in the modulation of the macrophage-dependent inflammatory response contributing to the early control of Mtb infection. PMID:25000410

Andersson, Henrik; Andersson, Blanka; Eklund, Daniel; Ngoh, Eyler; Persson, Alexander; Svensson, Kristoffer; Lerm, Maria; Blomgran, Robert; Stendahl, Olle

2014-01-01

297

Apoptotic cell capture by DCs induces unexpectedly robust autologous CD4+ T-cell responses.  

PubMed

Apoptotic cells represent an important source of self-antigens and their engulfment by dendritic cells (DCs) is usually considered to be related to tolerance induction. We report here an unexpectedly high level of human CD4(+) T-cell proliferation induced by autologous DCs loaded with autologous apoptotic cells, due to the activation of more than 10% of naive CD4(+) T cells. This proliferation is not due to an increase in the costimulatory capacity of DCs, but is dependent on apoptotic cell-associated material processed through an endo-lysosomal pathway and presented on DC MHC class II molecules. Autologous CD4(+) T cells stimulated with apoptotic cell-loaded DCs exhibit suppressive capacities. However, in the presence of bacterial lipopolysaccharide, apoptotic cell-loaded DCs induce the generation of IL-17-producing cells. Thus, apoptotic cell engulfment by DCs may lead to increased autologous responses, initially generating CD4(+) T cells with suppressive capacities able to differentiate into Th17 cells in the presence of a bacterial danger signal such as LPS. PMID:24824875

Valente, Michael; Baey, Camille; Louche, Pauline; Dutertre, Charles-Antoine; Vimeux, Lene; Marañón, Concepción; Hosmalin, Anne; Feuillet, Vincent

2014-08-01

298

Chronic NMDA administration to rats increases brain pro-apoptotic factors while decreasing anti-Apoptotic factors and causes cell death  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) administration to rats is reported to increase arachidonic acid signaling and upregulate neuroinflammatory markers in rat brain. These changes may damage brain cells. In this study, we determined if chronic NMDA administration (25 mg/kg i.p., 21 days) to rats would alter expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic factors in frontal cortex, compared with vehicle control. Results Using real time RT-PCR and Western blotting, chronic NMDA administration was shown to decrease mRNA and protein levels of anti-apoptotic markers Bcl-2 and BDNF, and of their transcription factor phospho-CREB in the cortex. Expression of pro-apoptotic Bax, Bad, and 14-3-3? was increased, as well as Fluoro-Jade B (FJB) staining, a marker of neuronal loss. Conclusion This alteration in the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic factors by chronic NMDA receptor activation in this animal model may contribute to neuronal loss, and further suggests that the model can be used to examine multiple processes involved in excitotoxicity. PMID:19785755

Kim, Hyung-Wook; Chang, Yunyoung C; Chen, Mei; Rapoport, Stanley I; Rao, Jagadeesh S

2009-01-01

299

The C-terminal domain (CTD) in linker histones antagonizes anti-apoptotic proteins to modulate apoptotic outcomes at the mitochondrion  

PubMed Central

The loss of mitochondrial integrity as a consequence of apoptogenic complexes formed on the outer membrane constitutes a key step in controlling progression of apoptotic cascades. Here, we show that multiple members of the linker histone (LH) family of proteins modify apoptotic cascades initiated by the Bcl-2 protein Bak, and impart resistance to its endogenous antagonist Bcl-xL. Our experiments reveal apoptogenic capabilities equivalent to those documented for H1.2 in H1.1 and H1.3 isoforms. Deletion mutants of H1.2 and site-directed mutagenesis of H1.1 and H1.2 implicated the C-terminal domain in apoptogenic activity. In this context, disruption of protein kinase-C activity using chemical inhibitors, dominant-negative approaches and RNA interference coupled with site-directed modifications in H1.1, identified the protein kinase-C?1 isoform as a repressor of H1.1/H1.3 apoptogenic activity. Finally, a H1.2 C-terminal tail recombinant attenuated Bcl-xl inhibition of Bak-induced apoptosis, suggesting that the C-terminal domain was necessary and sufficient for apoptogenic functions. Thus, integration with apoptotic intermediates (via C-terminal tail interactions) may constitute a more generalized function of LH isoforms in apoptotic cascades. PMID:24525734

Garg, M; Ramdas, N; Vijayalakshmi, M; Shivashankar, G V; Sarin, A

2014-01-01

300

The TIM and TAM Families of Phosphatidylserine Receptors Mediate Dengue Virus Entry  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Dengue viruses (DVs) are responsible for the most medically relevant arboviral diseases. However, the molecular interactions mediating DV entry are poorly understood. We determined that TIM and TAM proteins, two receptor families that mediate the phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-dependent phagocytic removal of apoptotic cells, serve as DV entry factors. Cells poorly susceptible to DV are robustly infected after ectopic expression of TIM or TAM receptors. Conversely, DV infection of susceptible cells is inhibited by anti-TIM or anti-TAM antibodies or knockdown of TIM and TAM expression. TIM receptors facilitate DV entry by directly interacting with virion-associated PtdSer. TAM-mediated infection relies on indirect DV recognition, in which the TAM ligand Gas6 acts as a bridging molecule by binding to PtdSer within the virion. This dual mode of virus recognition by TIM and TAM receptors reveals how DVs usurp the apoptotic cell clearance pathway for infectious entry. PMID:23084921

Meertens, Laurent; Carnec, Xavier; Lecoin, Manuel Perera; Ramdasi, Rasika; Guivel-Benhassine, Florence; Lew, Erin; Lemke, Greg; Schwartz, Olivier; Amara, Ali

2013-01-01

301

Notochordal cell disappearance and modes of apoptotic cell death in a rat tail static compression-induced disc degeneration model  

PubMed Central

Introduction The intervertebral disc has a complex structure originating developmentally from both the mesenchyme and notochord. Notochordal cells disappear during adolescence, which is also when human discs begin to show degenerative signs. During degeneration later in life, disc cells decline because of apoptosis. Although many animal models have been developed to simulate human disc degeneration, few studies have explored the long-term changes in cell population and phenotype. Our objective was to elucidate the time-dependent notochordal cell disappearance and apoptotic cell death in a rat tail static compression-induced disc degeneration model. Methods Twenty-four 12-week-old male Sprague–Dawley rat tails were instrumented with an Ilizarov-type device and loaded statically at 1.3 MPa for up to 56 days. Loaded and distal-unloaded discs were harvested. Changes in cell number and phenotype were assessed with histomorphology and immunofluorescence. Apoptosis involvement was determined with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining and immunohistochemistry. Results The number of disc nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus cells decreased with the loading period; particularly, the decrease was notable at day 7 in larger, vacuolated, cytokeratin-8- and galectin-3-co-positive cells, indicating notochordal origin. Subsequently, the proportion of cells positive for TUNEL and cleaved caspase-3, markers of apoptosis induction, increased from day 7 through day 56. Although the percentage of cells immunopositive for cleaved caspase-8, a marker of apoptosis initiation through the death-receptor pathway, increased only at day 7, the percentage of cells immunopositive for cleaved caspase-9 and p53-regulated apoptosis-inducing protein 1 (p53AIP1), markers of apoptosis initiation through the p53-mediated mitochondrial pathway, increased from day 7 through day 56. The percentage of cells immunopositive for B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1), antiapoptotic proteins, decreased consistently with compression. Conclusions This rat tail model mimics notochordal cell disappearance and apoptotic cell death in human disc aging and degeneration. Sustained static compression induces transient activation of apoptosis through the death-receptor pathway and persistent activation of apoptosis through the p53-mediated mitochondrial pathway in disc cells. The increased proapoptotic and decreased antiapoptotic proteins observed at all time points signify static compression-induced disc cell death and degeneration. PMID:24472667

2014-01-01

302

Apoptotic death of striatal neurons induced by HIV-1 Tat and gp120: differential involvement of caspase-3 and endonuclease G  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection affects the striatum resulting in gliosis and neuronal losses. To determine whether HIV-1 proteins induce striatal neurotoxicity through an apoptotic mechanism, mouse striatal neurons isolated on embryonic day 15 and the effects of HIV-1 Tat1-72 and gp120 on survival were assessed in vitro. Mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, caspase-3 activation, and neuron survival, as well as an alternative apoptotic pathway involving endonuclease G (endo G), were assessed at 4 h, 24 h, 48 h and/or 72 h using enzyme assays and immunoblotting. Both HIV-1 Tat and gp120 significantly increased caspase-3 activation in a concentration-dependent manner in striatal neurons at 4 h following continuous exposure in vitro. Tat1-72 and gp120 caused significant neuronal losses at 48 h and/or 72 h. Tat1-72 increased cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 and endo G activation at 4 h, 24 h, and/or 72 h. By contrast, gp120 increased caspase-3 activation, but failed to increase cytochrome c or endo G levels in the cytoplasm at 4 h, 24 h, and/or 72 h. The cell permeant caspase inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK significantly attenuated gp l20-induced, but not Tat1-72-induced, neuronal death suggesting that gp 120 acts in large part through the activation of caspase(s), while Tat1-72 induced neurotoxicity was accompanied by activating an alternative pathway involving endo G. Thus, although Tat1-72 and gp 120 induced significant neurotoxicity, the nature of the apoptotic events preceding death differed. Collectively, our findings suggest that HIV-1 proteins are intrinsically toxic to striatal neurons and the pathogenesis is mediated through separate actions involving both caspase-3 and endo G. PMID:15204919

Singh, Indrapal N.; Goody, Robin J.; Dean, Celeste; Ahmad, Nael M.; Lutz, Sarah E.; Knapp, Pamela E.; Nath, Avindra; Hauser, Kurt F.

2015-01-01

303

Evidence for a novel anti-apoptotic pathway in human keratinocytes involving the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, E2F1, and checkpoint kinase 1  

PubMed Central

Exposure of keratinocytes (KC) to ultraviolet (UV) radiation results in the initiation of apoptosis, a protective mechanism that eliminates cells harboring irreparable DNA damage. Hence, a manipulation of UV-induced apoptosis may significantly influence photocarcinogenesis. We have discovered that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a key regulator of drug metabolism and an UVB-sensitive transcription factor, serves an anti-apoptotic function in UVB-irradiated human KC. Chemical and shRNA-mediated inhibition of AHR signaling sensitized KC to UVB-induced apoptosis by decreasing the expression of E2F1 and its target gene checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1). The decreased expression of these cell-cycle regulators was due to an enhanced expression of p27KIP1 and an associated decrease in phosphorylation of both cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and its substrate molecule retinoblastoma protein. The subsequent inhibition of E2F1 autoregulation and downstream CHK1 expression resulted in an enhanced susceptibility of damaged cells to undergo apoptosis. Accordingly, ectopic overexpression of either E2F1 or CHK1 in AHR-knockdown KC attenuated the observed sensitization to UVB-induced apoptosis. Using an AHR-knockout SKH-1 hairless mouse model, we next demonstrated the physiological relevance of the anti-apoptotic function of AHR. In contrast to their AHR-proficient littermates, the constitutive expression of E2F1 and CHK1 was significantly reduced in the skin of AHR-knockout mice. Accordingly, a single exposure of the animals to UVB resulted in an enhanced cleavage of caspase-3 in the skin of AHR-knockout mice. These results identify for the first time the AHR-E2F1-CHK1 axis as a novel anti-apoptotic pathway in KC, which may represent a suitable target for chemoprevention of non-melanoma skin cancer. PMID:23912710

Frauenstein, K; Sydlik, U; Tigges, J; Majora, M; Wiek, C; Hanenberg, H; Abel, J; Esser, C; Fritsche, E; Krutmann, J; Haarmann-Stemmann, T

2013-01-01

304

Nanosecond pulsed electric fields induce poly(ADP-ribose) formation and non-apoptotic cell death in HeLa S3 cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) is a new and unique means for life sciences. •Apoptosis was induced by nsPEF exposure in Jurkat cells. •No signs of apoptosis were detected in HeLa S3 cells exposed to nsPEFs. •Formation of poly(ADP-ribose) was induced in nsPEF-exposed HeLa S3 cells. •Two distinct modes of cell death were activated by nsPEF in a cell-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) have recently gained attention as effective cancer therapy owing to their potency for cell death induction. Previous studies have shown that apoptosis is a predominant mode of nsPEF-induced cell death in several cell lines, such as Jurkat cells. In this study, we analyzed molecular mechanisms for cell death induced by nsPEFs. When nsPEFs were applied to Jurkat cells, apoptosis was readily induced. Next, we used HeLa S3 cells and analyzed apoptotic events. Contrary to our expectation, nsPEF-exposed HeLa S3 cells exhibited no molecular signs of apoptosis execution. Instead, nsPEFs induced the formation of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), a hallmark of necrosis. PAR formation occurred concurrently with a decrease in cell viability, supporting implications of nsPEF-induced PAR formation for cell death. Necrotic PAR formation is known to be catalyzed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), and PARP-1 in apoptotic cells is inactivated by caspase-mediated proteolysis. Consistently, we observed intact and cleaved forms of PARP-1 in nsPEF-exposed and UV-irradiated cells, respectively. Taken together, nsPEFs induce two distinct modes of cell death in a cell type-specific manner, and HeLa S3 cells show PAR-associated non-apoptotic cell death in response to nsPEFs.

Morotomi-Yano, Keiko; Akiyama, Hidenori [Institute of Pulsed Power Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)] [Institute of Pulsed Power Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Yano, Ken-ichi, E-mail: yanoken@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Priority Organization for Innovation and Excellence, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)] [Priority Organization for Innovation and Excellence, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

2013-08-30

305

EGFRvIII-Induced Estrogen-Independence, Tamoxifen-Resistance Phenotype Correlates with PgR expression and Modulation of Apoptotic Molecules in Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

The tumor specific, ligand-independent, constitutively active Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) variant, EGFRvIII, remains understudied in breast cancer. Here, we report that expression of EGFRvIII in the ErbB-2-overexpressing, estrogen-dependent MDA-MB-361 breast cancer cell line resulted in significant estrogen-independent tumor growth in ovariectomized, athymic nude mice in comparison to MDA-MB-361/wt cells. MDA-MB-361/vIII breast cancer cells maintained estrogen-induced tumor growth, but were tamoxifen-resistant in the presence of estrogen, while MDA-MB-361/wt cells had a significant reduction in tumor growth in the presence of estrogen and tamoxifen. Tamoxifen alone did not have a significant effect on EGFRvIII-mediated estrogen-independent tumor growth. Constitutive signaling from the EGFRvIII receptor resulted in increased activation of both the Akt and MAPK pathways. Compared to estrogen-dependent, tamoxifen-sensitive MCF-7/vIII breast cancer cells, which had unchanged levels of ER?, but an increase in progesterone receptor (PgR) in comparison to MCF-7/wt cells, MDA-MB-361/vIII cells had a reduction in ER? expression as well as a more pronounced reduction in progesterone receptor (PgR) compared to MDA-MB-361/wt cells. EGFRvIII expression was also significantly associated with an absence of PgR protein in invasive human breast cancer specimens. Alterations of pro-apoptotic proteins and anti-apoptotic proteins were observed in EGFRvIII transfectants. In conclusion, constitutive signaling through EGFRvIII and its down-stream effector proteins crosstalks with the ER? pathway, resulting in loss of PgR expression and alterations in the apoptotic pathway which may result in the estrogen-independent, tamoxifen-resistant phenotype conferred to EGFRvIII-expressing breast cancer cells. PMID:19588487

Zhang, Yang; Su, Hua; Rahimi, Massod; Tochihara, Ryan; Tang, Careen

2009-01-01

306

Identification of non-canonical NF-jB signaling as a critical mediator of Smac mimetic-stimulated migration  

E-print Network

OPEN Identification of non-canonical NF-jB signaling as a critical mediator of Smac mimetic, which antagonizes IAP proteins, on non-apoptotic functions in glioblastoma (GBM). Here, we identify non-canonical, translocation of p52 into the nucleus, increased NF-jB DNA binding and enhanced NF-jB transcriptional activity

Cai, Long

307

Selection of Apoptotic Cell Specific Human Antibodies from Adult Bone Marrow  

PubMed Central

Autoreactive antibodies that recognize neo-determinants on apoptotic cells in mice have been proposed to have protective, homeostatic and immunoregulatory properties, although our knowledge about the equivalent antibodies in humans has been much more limited. In the current study, human monoclonal antibodies with binding specificity for apoptotic cells were isolated from the bone marrow of healthy adults using phage display technology. These antibodies were shown to recognize phosphorylcholine (PC)-associated neo-determinants. Interestingly, three of the four identified apoptotic cell-specific antibody clones were encoded by VH3 region rearrangements with germline or nearly germline configuration without evidence of somatic hypermutation. Importantly, the different identified antibody clones had diverse heavy chain CDR3 and deduced binding surfaces as suggested by structure modeling. This may suggest a potentially great heterogeneity in human antibodies recognizing PC-related epitopes on apoptotic cells. To re-construct the postulated structural format of the parental anti-PC antibody, the dominant clone was also expressed as a recombinant human polymeric IgM, which revealed a substantially increased binding reactivity, with dose-dependent and antigen-inhibitable binding of apoptotic cells. Our findings may have implication for improved prognostic testing and therapeutic interventions in human inflammatory disease. PMID:24760047

Grönwall, Caroline; Charles, Edgar D.; Dustin, Lynn B.; Rader, Christoph; Silverman, Gregg J.

2014-01-01

308

Macrophages engulfing apoptotic cells produce nonclassical retinoids to enhance their phagocytic capacity.  

PubMed

Previous work in our laboratory has shown that transglutaminase 2 (TG2) acting as a coreceptor for integrin ?3 is required for proper phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. In the absence of TG2, systemic lupus erythematosus-like autoimmunity develops in mice, similarly to other mice characterized by a deficiency in the clearance of apoptotic cells. In this study, we demonstrate that increasing TG2 expression alone in wild-type macrophages is not sufficient to enhance engulfment. However, during engulfment, the lipid content of the apoptotic cells triggers the lipid-sensing receptor liver X receptor (LXR), which in response upregulates the expression of the phagocytic receptor Mer tyrosine kinase and the phagocytosis-related ABCA1, and that of retinaldehyde dehydrogenases leading to the synthesis of a nonclassical retinoid. Based on our retinoid analysis, this compound might be a dihydro-retinoic acid derivative. The novel retinoid then contributes to the upregulation of further phagocytic receptors including TG2 by ligating retinoic acid receptors. Inhibition of retinoid synthesis prevents the enhanced phagocytic uptake induced by LXR ligation. Our data indicate that stimulation of LXR enhances the engulfment of apoptotic cells via regulating directly and indirectly the expression of a range of phagocytosis-related molecules, and its signaling pathway involves the synthesis of a nonclassical retinoid. We propose that retinoids could be used for enhancing the phagocytic capacity of macrophages in diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, where impaired phagocytosis of apoptotic cells plays a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:24850721

Sarang, Zsolt; Joós, Gergely; Garabuczi, Éva; Rühl, Ralph; Gregory, Christopher D; Szondy, Zsuzsa

2014-06-15

309

Effects of microwave exposure and Gemcitabine treatment on apoptotic activity in Burkitt's lymphoma (Raji) cells.  

PubMed

Abstract We investigated the effects of 1.8?MHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)-modulated microwave (MW) radiation on apoptotic level and cell viability of Burkitt's lymphoma (Raji) cells with or without Gemcitabine, which exhibits cell phase specificity, primarily killing cells undergoing DNA synthesis (S-phase). Raji cells were exposed to 1.8?GHz GSM-modulated MW radiation at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 0.350?W/kg in a CO2 incubator. The duration of the exposure was 24?h. The amount of apoptotic cells was analyzed using Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide (PI) staining with flow cytometer. The apoptotic activity of MW exposed Raji cells was increased significantly. In addition, cell viability of exposed samples was significantly decreased. Combined exposure of MW and Gemcitabine increased the amount of apoptotic cells than MW radiation alone. Moreover, viability of MW?+?Gemcitabine exposed cells was lower than that of cells exposed only to MW. These results demonstrated that MW radiation exposure and Gemcitabine treatment have a synergistic effect on apoptotic activity of Raji cells. PMID:24901461

Canseven, Ay?e G; Esmekaya, Meric Arda; Kayhan, Handan; Tuysuz, Mehmet Zahid; Seyhan, Nesrin

2014-06-01

310

Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of telmisartan in human colon cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Telmisartan is an angiotensin I (AT1) receptor blocker used in the treatment of essential hypertension, with partial peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) agonism. In prior studies, PPAR? activation led to apoptosis and cell cycle inhibition in various cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of telmisartan by partially activating PPAR?. HT-29, SW-480 and SW-620 cells were incubated with telmisartan (0.2–5 ?M) or the full agonist, pioglitazone (0.2–5.0 ?M). The antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of telmisartan in the human colon cancer cells were significant at therapeutic serum concentrations, and telmisartan exhibited a potency at least equivalent to the full PPAR? agonist, pioglitazone. The antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of pioglitazone in the human colon cancer cells were not completely deregulated by PPAR? blockade with GW9662. In the telmisartan-treated cells, PPAR? blockade resulted in an increased antiproliferative and apoptotic effect. These effects are not entirely explained by PPAR? activation, however, possible hypotheses that require further experimental investigation are as follows: i) Ligand-independent PPAR? activation through the activation-function 1 domain; ii) a PPAR?-independent mechanism; or iii) independent antiproliferative and apoptotic effects through GW9662. PMID:25360175

LEE, LUCAS D.; MAFURA, BENJAMIN; LAUSCHER, JOHANNES C.; SEELIGER, HENDRIK; KREIS, MARTIN E.; GRÖNE, JÖRN

2014-01-01

311

A Novel Flow Cytometric Method for Quantifying Phagocytosis of Apoptotic Cells  

PubMed Central

Many eukaryotic cell types are capable of specific recognition and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, and there is increasing interest in the mechanisms involved in this process. To facilitate analysis of these mechanisms, we designed a novel fluorescence-based method to quantify phagocytosis in vitro using endothelial cell engulfment of apoptotic cells as a model. The B-cell line WEHI-231 was labeled with the fluorophore 5-(&-6)-carboxytetramethylrhodamine-succinimidyl-ester (TAMRA) and then induced to undergo apoptosis by crosslinking cell surface immunoglobulin. An endothelial cell line was subsequently allowed to ingest these TAMRA-labeled apoptotic lymphocytes. After 24 h, non-bound lymphocytes were removed and the monolayers were dissociated. Any nonphagocytosed lymphocytes that remained tightly bound to the endothelial cells were then indirectly immunofluorescein labeled for the pan leukocyte-specific marker CD45. Flow cytometric analysis of the cells distinguished three endothelial cell populations: 1) endothelial cells with surface bound lymphocytes (TAMRA+CD45+); 2) endothelial cells containing phagocytosed apoptotic lymphocytes (TAMRA+ CD45?); and 3) endothelial cells that were not associated with lymphocytes. The identification of these populations was verified by confocal microscopy of sorted cells. The method described herein will facilitate detailed studies on phagocytic recognition of apoptotic cells and should have broad applications to other phagocytic cell systems. PMID:9012381

Hess, Krista L.; Babcock, George F.; Askew, David S.; Cook-Mills, Joan M.

2009-01-01

312

Apico-basal forces exerted by apoptotic cells drive epithelium folding.  

PubMed

Epithelium folding is a basic morphogenetic event that is essential in transforming simple two-dimensional epithelial sheets into three-dimensional structures in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Folding has been shown to rely on apical constriction. The resulting cell-shape changes depend either on adherens junction basal shift or on a redistribution of myosin II, which could be driven by mechanical signals. Yet the initial cellular mechanisms that trigger and coordinate cell remodelling remain largely unknown. Here we unravel the active role of apoptotic cells in initiating morphogenesis, thus revealing a novel mechanism of epithelium folding. We show that, in a live developing tissue, apoptotic cells exert a transient pulling force upon the apical surface of the epithelium through a highly dynamic apico-basal myosin II cable. The apoptotic cells then induce a non-autonomous increase in tissue tension together with cortical myosin II apical stabilization in the surrounding tissue, eventually resulting in epithelium folding. Together our results, supported by a theoretical biophysical three-dimensional model, identify an apoptotic myosin-II-dependent signal as the initial signal leading to cell reorganization and tissue folding. This work further reveals that, far from being passively eliminated as generally assumed (for example, during digit individualization), apoptotic cells actively influence their surroundings and trigger tissue remodelling through regulation of tissue tension. PMID:25607361

Monier, Bruno; Gettings, Melanie; Gay, Guillaume; Mangeat, Thomas; Schott, Sonia; Guarner, Ana; Suzanne, Magali

2015-02-12

313

Polymicrobial Sepsis Enhances Clearance of Apoptotic Immune Cells by Splenic Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Background Macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic cells induces an anti-inflammatory macrophage phenotype. Immune cell apoptosis is widespread in sepsis; however, it is unknown whether sepsis alters the capacity of macrophages to clear this expanded population. We hypothesize that sepsis will enhance splenic macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic immune cells, potentially contributing to immunosuppression. Methods Sepsis was induced in C57BL/6J mice by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Apoptosis was induced in mouse thymocytes by dexamethasone incubation. At multiple time points following CLP/sham, splenic and peritoneal macrophages were isolated, plated on glass coverslips, co-incubated with apoptotic thymocytes, fixed, and the coverslips were then Giemsa stained. Splenic macrophages were also isolated 48 hours after CLP/sham, stained with the red fluorescent dye PKH26, co-incubated with green fluorescent dye CFSE-stained apoptotic thymocytes and then coverslips were fixed and counterstained with DAPI. The macrophage phagocytic index (PI) was calculated for both staining methods. Results The PI of CLP splenic macrophages was significantly higher than sham by 24 hours, and this difference was sustained through 48 hours. Conclusions Studies suggest that apoptotic cell clearance leads to an anti-inflammatory macrophage condition, which together with our findings in septic macrophages, may point at a process that contributes to septic immune suppression. PMID:17689693

Swan, Ryan; Chung, Chun-Shiang; Albina, Jorge; Cioffi, William; Perl, Mario; Ayala, Alfred

2007-01-01

314

Apoptotic cells can induce non-autonomous apoptosis through the TNF pathway  

PubMed Central

Apoptotic cells can produce signals to instruct cells in their local environment, including ones that stimulate engulfment and proliferation. We identified a novel mode of communication by which apoptotic cells induce additional apoptosis in the same tissue. Strong induction of apoptosis in one compartment of the Drosophila wing disc causes apoptosis of cells in the other compartment, indicating that dying cells can release long-range death factors. We identified Eiger, the Drosophila tumor necrosis factor (TNF) homolog, as the signal responsible for apoptosis-induced apoptosis (AiA). Eiger is produced in apoptotic cells and, through activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway, is able to propagate the initial apoptotic stimulus. We also show that during coordinated cell death of hair follicle cells in mice, TNF-? is expressed in apoptotic cells and is required for normal cell death. AiA provides a mechanism to explain cohort behavior of dying cells that is seen both in normal development and under pathological conditions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01004.001 PMID:24066226

Pérez-Garijo, Ainhoa; Fuchs, Yaron; Steller, Hermann

2013-01-01

315

Apoptotic effects of a chimeric plant virus carrying a mimotope of the hepatitis C virus hypervariable region 1: role of caspases and endoplasmic reticulum-stress.  

PubMed

The role of apoptosis in the persistence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is controversial. Moreover, conflicting data on the modulation of this process by HCV proteins have been provided. We evaluated the susceptibility of peripheral lymphocytes from patients with chronic hepatitis C to apoptosis both spontaneous and after incubation with a chimeric Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) carrying 180 copies of the synthetic R9 mimotope obtained from more than 200 hypervariable region-1 sequences of HCV. Resting T lymphocytes were found to be sensitized to apoptosis as a result of chronic HCV infection. The plant virus-derived vector R9-CMV displayed a strong pro-apoptotic effect associated with activation of both caspase-8 and -9, indicating the involvement of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. A parallel R9-CMV-mediated activation of endoplasmic reticulum-stress was suggested by the significant induction of BiP/GRP78, GADD153 and caspase-12. These data contribute to define the complex HCV/host interaction, and open new prospects for developing a plant-derived antigen-presenting system to strengthen host defences against persistent pathogens. PMID:22392048

Piazzolla, G; Nuzzaci, M; Vitti, A; Napoli, N; Schiavone, M; Piazzolla, P; Antonaci, S; Tortorella, C

2012-08-01

316

Tumor suppressor function of miR-483-3p on squamous cell carcinomas due to its pro-apoptotic properties  

PubMed Central

The frequent alteration of miRNA expression in many cancers, together with our recent reports showing a robust accumulation of miR-483-3p at the final stage of skin wound healing, and targeting of CDC25A leading to an arrest of keratinocyte proliferation, led us to hypothesize that miR-483-3p could also be endowed with antitumoral properties. We tested that hypothesis by documenting the in vitro and in vivo impacts of miR-483-3p in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells. miR-483-3p sensitized SCC cells to serum deprivation- and drug-induced apoptosis, thus exerting potent tumor suppressor activities. Its pro-apoptotic activity was mediated by a direct targeting of several anti-apoptotic genes, such as API5, BIRC5, and RAN. Interestingly, an in vivo delivery of miR-483-3p into subcutaneous SCC xenografts significantly hampered tumor growth. This effect was explained by an inhibition of cell proliferation and an increase of apoptosis. This argues for its further use as an adjuvant in the many instances of cancers characterized by a downregulation of miR-483-3p. PMID:24067364

Bertero, Thomas; Bourget-Ponzio, Isabelle; Puissant, Alexandre; Loubat, Agnès; Mari, Bernard; Meneguzzi, Guerrino; Auberger, Patrick; Barbry, Pascal; Ponzio, Gilles; Rezzonico, Roger

2013-01-01

317

Prooxidant activity of curcumin: copper-dependent formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in DNA and induction of apoptotic cell death.  

PubMed

Curcumin, a well-known antioxidant in a principal ingredient of turmeric, acted as a prooxidant causing a copper-dependent DNA damage and the induction of apoptosis. Treatment of DNA from plasmid pBR322 and calf thymus with curcumin plus copper ion caused strand scission and the formation of 8-hydroxy-2(')-deoxyguanosine in DNA. Addition of catalase protected DNA from the curcumin-dependent injuries, indicating that hydroxyl radical may participate in the DNA damage. Flow cytometry analysis showed that curcumin caused an apoptotic cell death of HL60 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Curcumin-mediated apoptosis was closely related to the increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species. On the contrary, capsaicinoids, which have a ortho-methoxy phenolic structure without beta-diketone in the side chain, did not produce 8-hydroxy-2(')-deoxyguanosine. Capsaicin further did not induce apoptosis of HL60 cells, but rather protected cells from prooxidant-induced apoptosis. Curcumin can generate reactive oxygen species as a prooxidant in the presence of transition metals in cells, resulting in DNA injuries and apoptotic cell death. The prooxidant action of curcumin may be related to the conjugated beta-diketone structure of this compound. PMID:15465643

Yoshino, Masataka; Haneda, Miyako; Naruse, Makoto; Htay, Hla Hla; Tsubouchi, Ryoko; Qiao, Shan Lou; Li, Wei Hua; Murakami, Keiko; Yokochi, Takashi

2004-12-01

318

Targeting of pro-apoptotic TLR adaptor SARM to mitochondria: definition of the critical region and residues in the signal sequence.  

PubMed

The fifth and the most well-conserved member of the TLR (Toll-like receptor) adaptor, SARM (sterile ?- and HEAT/armadillo-motif-containing protein), has been reported to be an important mediator of apoptosis. However, the exact cellular localization of SARM with respect to its role is unclear. In the present study we show that SARM specifically co-localizes with mitochondria. Endogenous SARM is mainly found in the mitochondria. We demonstrate that the N-terminal 27 amino acids (S27) of SARM, which is hydrophobic and polybasic, acts as a mitochondria-targeting signal sequence, associating SARM to the mitochondria. The S27 peptide has an inherent ability to bind to lipids and mitochondria. This sequence effectively translocates the soluble EGFP (enhanced green fluorescence protein) reporter into the mitochondria. Positioning S27 downstream of the EGFP abrogates its mitochondria-targeting ability. Transmission electron microscopy confirms the ability of S27 to import EGFP into the mitochondria. Importantly, by mutagenesis study, we delineated the specificity of the mitochondria-targeting ability to the arginine residue at the 14th position. The R14A SARM mutant also showed reduced apoptotic potential when compared with the wild-type. Taken together, S27, which is a bona fide signal sequence that targets SARM to the mitochondria, explains the pro-apoptotic activity of SARM. PMID:22145856

Panneerselvam, Porkodi; Singh, Laishram Pradeepkumar; Ho, Bow; Chen, Jianzhu; Ding, Jeak Ling

2012-03-01

319

Lithium-induced neuroprotection is associated with epigenetic modification of specific BDNF gene promoter and altered expression of apoptotic-regulatory proteins  

PubMed Central

Bipolar disorder (BD), one of the most debilitating mental disorders, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Lithium is the first line of treatment option for BD and is often used for maintenance therapy. Recently, the neuroprotective action of lithium has gained tremendous attention, given that BD is associated with structural and functional abnormalities of the brain. However, the precise molecular mechanism by which lithium exerts its neuroprotective action is not clearly understood. In hippocampal neurons, the effects of lithium (1 and 2 mM) on neuronal viability against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity, dendritic length and number, and expression and methylation of BDNF promoter exons and expression of apoptotic regulatory genes were studied. In rat hippocampal neurons, lithium not only increased dendritic length and number, but also neuronal viability against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity. While lithium increased the expression of BDNF as well as genes associated with neuroprotection such as Bcl2 and Bcl-XL, it decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic genes Bax, Bad, and caspases 3. Interestingly, lithium activated transcription of specific exon IV to induce BDNF gene expression. This was accompanied by hypomethylation of BDNF exon IV promoter. This study delineates mechanisms by which lithium mediates its effects in protecting neurons. PMID:25642163

Dwivedi, Tushar; Zhang, Hui

2014-01-01

320

Tumor suppressor function of miR-483-3p on squamous cell carcinomas due to its pro-apoptotic properties.  

PubMed

The frequent alteration of miRNA expression in many cancers, together with our recent reports showing a robust accumulation of miR-483-3p at the final stage of skin wound healing, and targeting of CDC25A leading to an arrest of keratinocyte proliferation, led us to hypothesize that miR-483-3p could also be endowed with antitumoral properties. We tested that hypothesis by documenting the in vitro and in vivo impacts of miR-483-3p in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells. miR-483-3p sensitized SCC cells to serum deprivation- and drug-induced apoptosis, thus exerting potent tumor suppressor activities. Its pro-apoptotic activity was mediated by a direct targeting of several anti-apoptotic genes, such as API5, BIRC5, and RAN. Interestingly, an in vivo delivery of miR-483-3p into subcutaneous SCC xenografts significantly hampered tumor growth. This effect was explained by an inhibition of cell proliferation and an increase of apoptosis. This argues for its further use as an adjuvant in the many instances of cancers characterized by a downregulation of miR-483-3p. PMID:24067364

Bertero, Thomas; Bourget-Ponzio, Isabelle; Puissant, Alexandre; Loubat, Agnès; Mari, Bernard; Meneguzzi, Guerrino; Auberger, Patrick; Barbry, Pascal; Ponzio, Gilles; Rezzonico, Roger

2013-07-15

321

Pyruvate kinase isoenzyme M2 is a glycolytic sensor differentially regulating cell proliferation, cell size and apoptotic cell death dependent on glucose supply  

SciTech Connect

The glycolytic key regulator pyruvate kinase M2 (M2-PK or PKM2) can switch between a highly active tetrameric and an inactive dimeric form. The transition between the two conformations regulates the glycolytic flux in tumor cells. We developed specific M2-PK-binding peptide aptamers which inhibit M2-PK, but not the 96% homologous M1-PK isoenzyme. In this study we demonstrate that, at normal blood glucose concentrations, peptide aptamer-mediated inhibition of M2-PK induces a significant decrease of the population doubling (PDL rate) and cell proliferation rate as well as an increase in cell size, whereas under glucose restriction an increase in PDL and cell proliferation rates but a decrease in cell size was observed. Moreover, M2-PK inhibition rescues cells from glucose starvation-induced apoptotic cell death by increasing the metabolic activity. These findings suggest that M2-PK is a metabolic sensor which regulates cell proliferation, cell growth and apoptotic cell death in a glucose supply-dependent manner.

Spoden, Gilles A. [Department of Cell Metabolism and Differentiation, Institute for Biomedical Aging Research of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Rennweg 10, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria) [Department of Cell Metabolism and Differentiation, Institute for Biomedical Aging Research of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Rennweg 10, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Tumorvirology Research Group, Tyrolean Cancer Research Institute, Medical University Innsbruck, Innrain 66, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Rostek, Ursula; Lechner, Stefan; Mitterberger, Maria [Department of Cell Metabolism and Differentiation, Institute for Biomedical Aging Research of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Rennweg 10, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)] [Department of Cell Metabolism and Differentiation, Institute for Biomedical Aging Research of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Rennweg 10, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Mazurek, Sybille [Department for Biochemistry and Endocrinology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany) [Department for Biochemistry and Endocrinology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany); ScheBo Biotech AG, Netanyastrasse 3, 35394 Giessen (Germany); Zwerschke, Werner, E-mail: werner.zwerschke@oeaw.ac.at [Department of Cell Metabolism and Differentiation, Institute for Biomedical Aging Research of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Rennweg 10, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria) [Department of Cell Metabolism and Differentiation, Institute for Biomedical Aging Research of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Rennweg 10, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Tumorvirology Research Group, Tyrolean Cancer Research Institute, Medical University Innsbruck, Innrain 66, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

2009-10-01

322

Protective Role of Morin, a Flavonoid, against High Glucose Induced Oxidative Stress Mediated Apoptosis in Primary Rat Hepatocytes  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis is an early event of liver damage in diabetes and oxidative stress has been linked to accelerate the apoptosis in hepatocytes. Therefore, the compounds that can scavenge ROS may confer regulatory effects on high-glucose induced apoptosis. In the present study, primary rat hepatocytes were exposed to high concentration (40 mM) of glucose. At this concentration decreased cell viability and enhanced ROS generation was observed. Depleted antioxidant status of hepatocytes under high glucose stress was also observed as evident from transcriptional level and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Further, mitochondrial depolarisation was accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial integrity and altered expression of Bax and Bcl-2. Increased translocation of apoptotic proteins like AIF (Apoptosis inducing factor) & Endo-G (endonuclease-G) from its resident place mitochondria to nucleus was also observed. Cyt-c residing in the inter-membrane space of mitochondria also translocated to cytoplasm. These apoptotic proteins initiated caspase activation, DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, increased apoptotic DNA content in glucose treated hepatocytes, suggesting mitochondria mediated apoptotic mode of cell death. Morin, a dietary flavonoid from Psidium guajava was effective in increasing the cell viability and decreasing the ROS level. It maintained mitochondrial integrity, inhibited release of apoptotic proteins from mitochondria, prevented DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation and hypodiploid DNA upon exposure to high glucose. This study confirms the capacity of dietary flavonoid Morin in regulating apoptosis induced by high glucose via mitochondrial mediated pathway through intervention of oxidative stress. PMID:22899998

Kapoor, Radhika; Kakkar, Poonam

2012-01-01

323

The DNA-Binding Domain Mediates both Nuclear and Cytosolic Functions of p53  

PubMed Central

Under conditions of genotoxic stress, human p53 activates the apoptotic effectors BAX or BAK, resulting in mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and apoptosis. Anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family member BCL-xL opposes this activity by sequestering cytosolic p53 via association with its DNA-binding domain, an interaction that is enhanced by p53 tetramerization. Here we characterized the BCL-xL – p53 complex using NMR spectroscopy and modulated it through mutagenesis to determine the relative contributions of BCL-xL’s interactions with p53, or with other BCL-2 family proteins, to BCL-xL-dependent inhibition of UV irradiation-induced apoptosis. Under our experimental conditions, one third of the anti-apoptotic activity of BCL-xL was mediated by p53 sequestration and the remaining two thirds through sequestration of pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family members. Our studies define the contributions of cytosolic p53 to UV irradiation-induced apoptosis and provide opportunities to explore its contributions to other, p53-dependent apoptotic signaling pathways. PMID:24814347

Follis, Ariele Viacava; Llambi, Fabien; Ou, Li; Baran, Katherine; Green, Douglas R.; Kriwacki, Richard W.

2014-01-01

324

The orphan adapter protein SLY1 as a novel anti-apoptotic protein required for thymocyte development  

PubMed Central

Background SH3 containing Lymphocyte Protein (SLY1) is a putative adapter protein exclusively expressed in lymphocytes which is involved in antigen receptor induced activation. We previously have generated SLY1?/? mice harbouring a partial deletion in the N-terminal region of SLY1 which revealed profound immunological defects in T and B cell functions. Results In this study, T cell development in SLY1-/- and SLY1?/? mice was analysed ex vivo and upon cultivation with the bone marrow stromal cell line OP9. SLY1-deficient thymocytes were compromised in inducing nutrient receptor expression and ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation, indicating a defect in mTOR complex activation. Furthermore, SLY1 was identified as a novel anti-apoptotic protein required for developmental progression of T cell precursors to the CD4+CD8+ double-positive stage by protecting from premature programmed cell death initiation in developing CD4-CD8- double-negative thymocytes. In addition, SLY1 phosphorylation was differentially regulated upon Notch ligand-mediated stimulation and expression of the preTCR. Conclusion Thus, our results suggest a non-redundant role for SLY1 in integrating signals from both receptors in early T cell progenitors in the thymus. PMID:19604361

Reis, Bernhard; Pfeffer, Klaus; Beer-Hammer, Sandra

2009-01-01

325

Induction of a Feed Forward Pro-Apoptotic Mechanistic Loop by Nitric Oxide in a Human Breast Cancer Model  

PubMed Central

We have previously demonstrated that relatively high concentrations of NO [Nitric Oxide] as produced by activated macrophages induced apoptosis in the human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-468. More recently, we also demonstrated the importance of endogenous H2O2 in the regulation of growth in human breast cancer cells. In the present study we assessed the interplay between exogenously administered NO and the endogenously produced reactive oxygen species [ROS] in human breast cancer cells and evaluated the mechanism[s] in the induction of apoptosis. To this end we identified a novel mechanism by which NO down regulated endogenous hydrogen peroxide [H2O2] formation via the down-regulation of superoxide [O2.?] and the activation of catalase. We further demonstrated the existence of a feed forward mechanistic loop involving protein phosphatase 2A [PP2A] and its downstream substrate FOXO1 in the induction of apoptosis and the synthesis of catalase. We utilized gene silencing of PP2A, FOXO1 and catalase to assess their relative importance and key roles in NO mediated apoptosis. This study provides the potential for a therapeutic approach in treating breast cancer by targeted delivery of NO where NO donors and activators of downstream players could initiate a self sustaining apoptotic cascade in breast cancer cells. PMID:23950968

Sen, Suvajit; Kawahara, Brian; Fukuto, Jon; Chaudhuri, Gautam

2013-01-01

326

4-Hydroxyderricin from Angelica keiskei roots induces caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death in HL60 human leukemia cells.  

PubMed

The ethyl acetate (EtOAc)-soluble fraction of a methanol extract of Angelica keiskei roots exhibited cytotoxic activity against 4 human tumor cell lines, HL60 (leukemia), CRL1579 (melanoma), A549 (lung), and AZ521 (stomach). Nine chalcones (1-9), 5 coumarins (10-14), and 4 flavanones (15-18), isolated from the EtOAc-soluble fraction, were examined for their cytotoxic activities in the 4 human tumor cell lines. Among the compounds tested, 4-hydroxyderricin (2), a major chalcone constituent, exhibited potent cytotoxic activities in all 4 tumor cell lines with IC(50) values of 5.5 µM (HL60), 4.8 µM (CRL1579), 10.2 µM (A549), and 4.2 µM (AZ521). 4-Hydroxyderricin induced early apoptosis in HL60 cells, observed as membrane phospholipid exposure in flow cytometry. Western blot analysis showed that 4-hydroxyderricin markedly reduced the levels of procaspases-3, -8, and -9, while increasing the levels of cleaved caspases-3, -8, and -9. In addition, 4-hydroxyderricin exhibited potent inhibitory activity on human DNA topoisomerase (Topo) II (IC(50) 21.9 µM). These results suggested that 4-hydroxyderricin induces apoptotic cell death in HL60 via both the death receptor-mediated pathway and the mitochondrial pathway by, at least in part, Topo II inhibition. 4-Hydroxyderricin may therefore hold promise as an effective antitumor agent. PMID:21263202

Akihisa, Toshihiro; Kikuchi, Takashi; Nagai, Hisashi; Ishii, Koichi; Tabata, Keiichi; Suzuki, Takashi

2011-01-01

327

Myosin II Light Chain Phosphorylation Regulates Membrane Localization and Apoptotic Signaling of Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-1*  

PubMed Central

Activation of myosin II by myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) produces the force for many cellular processes including muscle contraction, mitosis, migration, and other cellular shape changes. The results of this study show that inhibition or potentiation of myosin II activation via over-expression of a dominant negative or wild type MLCK can delay or accelerate tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF)-induced apoptotic cell death in cells. Changes in the activation of caspase-8 that parallel changes in regulatory light chain phosphorylation levels reveal that myosin II motor activities regulate TNF receptor-1 (TNFR-1) signaling at an early step in the TNF death signaling pathway. Treatment of cells with either ionomycin or endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) leads to activation of myosin II and increased translocation of TNFR-1 to the plasma membrane independent of TNF signaling. The results of these studies establish a new role for myosin II motor activity in regulating TNFR-1-mediated apoptosis through the translocation of TNFR-1 to or within the plasma membrane. PMID:11384975

Jin, Yijun; Atkinson, Simon J.; Marrs, James A.; Gallagher, Patricia J.

2010-01-01

328

Impaired Clearance of Apoptotic Cells in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases: Therapeutic Implications  

PubMed Central

In healthy individuals, billions of cells die by apoptosis every day. Removal of the dead cells by phagocytosis (a process called efferocytosis) must be efficient to prevent secondary necrosis and the consequent release of pro-inflammatory cell contents that damages the tissue environment and provokes autoimmunity. In addition, detection and removal of apoptotic cells generally induces an anti-inflammatory response. As a consequence improper clearance of apoptotic cells, being the result of either genetic anomalies and/or a persistent disease state, contributes to the establishment and progression of a number of human chronic inflammatory diseases such as autoimmune and neurological disorders, inflammatory lung diseases, obesity, type 2 diabetes, or atherosclerosis. During the past decade, our knowledge about the mechanism of efferocytosis has significantly increased, providing therapeutic targets through which impaired phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and the consequent inflammation could be influenced in these diseases. PMID:25136342

Szondy, Zsuzsa; Garabuczi, Éva; Joós, Gergely; Tsay, Gregory J.; Sarang, Zsolt

2014-01-01

329

Anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins in acute neural injury  

PubMed Central

Cells under stress activate cell survival and cell death signaling pathways. Cell death signaling frequently converges on mitochondria, a process that is controlled by the activities of pro- and anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) proteins. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the control of neuronal survival, development and injury by anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins. We discuss overlapping and differential effects of the individual family members BCL-2, BCL-extra long (BCL-XL), myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL-1), and BCL2-like 2 (BCL-W) in the control of survival during development and pathophysiological processes such as trophic factor withdrawal, ischemic injury, excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and energy stress. Finally we discuss recent evidence that several anti-apoptotic BCL-2 proteins influence mitochondrial bioenergetics and control neuronal Ca2+ homeostasis independent of their classical role in cell death signaling. PMID:25324720

Anilkumar, Ujval; Prehn, Jochen H. M.

2014-01-01

330

Comparison of DNA fragmentation and color thresholding for objective quantitation of apoptotic cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apoptosis is a process of cell death characterized by distinctive morphological changes and fragmentation of cellular DNA. Using video imaging and color thresholding techniques, we objectively quantitated the number of cultured CD4+ T-lymphoblastoid cells (HUT78 cells, RH9 subclone) displaying morphological signs of apoptosis before and after exposure to gamma-irradiation. The numbers of apoptotic cells measured by objective video imaging techniques were compared to numbers of apoptotic cells measured in the same samples by sensitive apoptotic assays that quantitate DNA fragmentation. DNA fragmentation assays gave consistently higher values compared with the video imaging assays that measured morphological changes associated with apoptosis. These results suggest that substantial DNA fragmentation can precede or occur in the absence of the morphological changes which are associated with apoptosis in gamma-irradiated RH9 cells.

Plymale, D. R.; Ng Tang, D. S.; Fermin, C. D.; Lewis, D. E.; Martin, D. S.; Garry, R. F.

1995-01-01

331

Beta-amyloid oligomers activate apoptotic BAK pore for cytochrome c release.  

PubMed

In Alzheimer's disease, cytochrome c-dependent apoptosis is a crucial pathway in neuronal cell death. Although beta-amyloid (A?) oligomers are known to be the neurotoxins responsible for neuronal cell death, the underlying mechanisms remain largely elusive. Here, we report that the oligomeric form of synthetic A? of 42 amino acids elicits death of HT-22 cells. But, when expression of a bcl-2 family protein BAK is suppressed by siRNA, A? oligomer-induced cell death was reduced. Furthermore, significant reduction of cytochrome c release was observed with mitochondria isolated from BAK siRNA-treated HT-22 cells. Our in vitro experiments demonstrate that A? oligomers bind to BAK on the membrane and induce apoptotic BAK pores and cytochrome c release. Thus, the results suggest that A? oligomers function as apoptotic ligands and hijack the intrinsic apoptotic pathway to cause unintended neuronal cell death. PMID:25296312

Kim, Jaewook; Yang, Yoosoo; Song, Seung Soo; Na, Jung-Hyun; Oh, Kyoung Joon; Jeong, Cherlhyun; Yu, Yeon Gyu; Shin, Yeon-Kyun

2014-10-01

332

Gamma-hydroxybutyrate, acting through an anti-apoptotic mechanism, protects native and amyloid-precursor-protein-transfected neuroblastoma cells against oxidative stress-induced death.  

PubMed

Clinical observations suggested that gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) protects nerve cells against death but the direct proofs are missing. Here, we combined several approaches to investigate GHB capacity to protect human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced death. To increase the patho-physiological relevancy of our study, we used native SH-SY5Y cells and SH-SY5Y cells stably transfected with the wild-type amyloid-precursor-protein (APPwt) or control-vector-pCEP4. Trypan Blue exclusion and MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium-bromide) assays combined with pharmacological analyses showed that H2O2 reduced native and genetically modified cell viability and APPwt-transfected cells were the most vulnerable. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and activated caspase-3 staining assessed by flow cytometry revealed a basally elevated apoptotic signal in APPwt-transfected cells. Reverse-transcription, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blotting showed that mRNA and protein basal ratios of apoptotic modulators Bax/Bcl-2 were also high in APPwt-transfected cells. GHB efficiently and dose-dependently rescued native and genetically modified cells from H2O2-induced death. Interestingly, GHB, which strongly decreased elevated basal levels of TUNEL-staining, activated caspase 3-labeling and Bax/Bcl-2 in APPwt-transfected cells, also counteracted H2O2-evoked increased apoptotic markers in native and genetically modified SH-SY5Y cells. Since GHB did not promote cell proliferation, anti-apoptotic action through the down-regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratios and/or caspase 3 activity appears as a critical mechanism involved in GHB-induced protection of SH-SY5Y cells against APPwt-overexpression- or H2O2-evoked death. Altogether, these results, providing multi-parametric evidence for the existence of neuroprotective action of GHB, also open interesting perspectives for the development of GHB analog-based strategies against neurodegeneration or nerve cell death. PMID:24456637

Wendt, G; Kemmel, V; Patte-Mensah, C; Uring-Lambert, B; Eckert, A; Schmitt, M J; Mensah-Nyagan, A G

2014-03-28

333

Characterization of cyclin E expression in multiple myeloma and its functional role in seliciclib-induced apoptotic cell death.  

PubMed

Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a lymphatic neoplasm characterized by clonal proliferation of malignant plasma cell that eventually develops resistance to chemotherapy. Drug resistance, differentiation block and increased survival of the MM tumor cells result from high genomic instability. Chromosomal translocations, the most common genomic alterations in MM, lead to dysregulation of cyclin D, a regulatory protein that governs the activation of key cell cycle regulator--cyclin dependent kinase (CDK). Genomic instability was reported to be affected by over expression of another CDK regulator--cyclin E (CCNE). This occurs early in tumorigenesis in various lymphatic malignancies including CLL, NHL and HL. We therefore sought to investigate the role of cyclin E in MM. CCNE1 expression was found to be heterogeneous in various MM cell lines (hMMCLs). Incubation of hMMCLs with seliciclib, a selective CDK-inhibitor, results in apoptosis which is accompanied by down regulation of MCL1 and p27. Ectopic over expression of CCNE1 resulted in reduced sensitivity of the MM tumor cells in comparison to the paternal cell line, whereas CCNE1 silencing with siRNA increased the cell sensitivity to seliciclib. Adhesion to FN of hMMCLs was prevented by seliciclib, eliminating adhesion-mediated drug resistance of MM cells. Combination of seliciclib with flavopiridol effectively reduced CCNE1 and CCND1 protein levels, increased subG1 apoptotic fraction and promoted MM cell death in BMSCs co-culture conditions, therefore over-coming stroma-mediated protection. We suggest that seliciclib may be considered as essential component of modern anti MM drug combination therapy. PMID:22558078

Josefsberg Ben-Yehoshua, Liat; Beider, Katia; Shimoni, Avichai; Ostrovsky, Olga; Samookh, Michal; Peled, Amnon; Nagler, Arnon

2012-01-01

334

Cooperation between Apoptotic and Viable Metacyclics Enhances the Pathogenesis of Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Mimicking mammalian apoptotic cells by exposing phosphatidylserine (PS) is a strategy used by virus and parasitic protozoa to escape host protective inflammatory responses. With Leishmania amazonensis (La), apoptotic mimicry is a prerogative of the intramacrophagic amastigote form of the parasite and is modulated by the host. Now we show that differently from what happens with amastigotes, promastigotes exposing PS are non-viable, non-infective cells, undergoing apoptotic death. As part of the normal metacyclogenic process occurring in axenic cultures and in the gut of sand fly vectors, a sub-population of metacyclic promastigotes exposes PS. Apoptotic death of the purified PS-positive (PSPOS) sub-population was confirmed by TUNEL staining and DNA laddering. Transmission electron microscopy revealed morphological alterations in PSPOS metacyclics such as DNA condensation, cytoplasm degradation and mitochondrion and kinetoplast destruction, both in in vitro cultures and in sand fly guts. TUNELPOS promastigotes were detected only in the anterior midgut to foregut boundary of infected sand flies. Interestingly, caspase inhibitors modulated parasite death and PS exposure, when added to parasite cultures in a specific time window. Efficient in vitro macrophage infections and in vivo lesions only occur when PSPOS and PS-negative (PSNEG) parasites were simultaneously added to the cell culture or inoculated in the mammalian host. The viable PSNEG promastigote was the infective form, as shown by following the fate of fluorescently labeled parasites, while the PSPOS apoptotic sub-population inhibited host macrophage inflammatory response. PS exposure and macrophage inhibition by a subpopulation of promastigotes is a different mechanism than the one previously described with amastigotes, where the entire population exposes PS. Both mechanisms co-exist and play a role in the transmission and development of the disease in case of infection by La. Since both processes confer selective advantages to the infective microorganism they justify the occurrence of apoptotic features in a unicellular pathogen. PMID:19478944

Wanderley, João Luiz Mendes; Pinto da Silva, Lucia Helena; Deolindo, Poliana; Soong, Lynn; Borges, Valéria Matos; Prates, Deboraci Brito; de Souza, Ana Paula Almeida; Barral, Aldina; de Freitas Balanco, José Mario; do Nascimento, Michelle Tanny Cunha; Saraiva, Elvira Maria; Barcinski, Marcello André

2009-01-01

335

Anti-apoptotic signaling as a cytoprotective mechanism in mammalian hibernation.  

PubMed

In the context of normal cell turnover, apoptosis is a natural phenomenon involved in making essential life and death decisions. Apoptotic pathways balance signals which promote cell death (pro-apoptotic pathways) or counteract these signals (anti-apoptotic pathways). We proposed that changes in anti-apoptotic proteins would occur during mammalian hibernation to aid cell preservation during prolonged torpor under cellular conditions that are highly injurious to most mammals (e.g. low body temperatures, ischemia). Immunoblotting was used to analyze the expression of proteins associated with pro-survival in six tissues of thirteen-lined ground squirrels, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus. The brain showed a concerted response to torpor with significant increases in the levels of all anti-apoptotic targets analyzed (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, BI-1, Mcl-1, cIAP1/2, xIAP) as well as enhanced phosphorylation of Bcl-2 at S70 and T56. Heart responded similarly with most anti-apoptotic proteins elevated significantly during torpor except for Bcl-xL and xIAP that decreased and Mcl-1 that was unaltered. In liver, BI-1 increased whereas cIAP1/2 decreased. In kidney, there was an increase in BI-1, cIAP and xIAP but decreases in Bcl-xL and p-Bcl-2(T56) content. In brown adipose tissue, protein levels of BI-1, cIAP1/2, and xIAP decreased significantly during torpor (compared with euthermia) whereas Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1 were unaltered; however, Bcl-2 showed enhanced phosphorylation at Thr56 but not at Ser70. In skeletal muscle, only xIAP levels changed significantly during torpor (an increase). The data show that anti-apoptotic pathways have organ-specific responses in hibernators with a prominent potential role in heart and brain where coordinated enhancement of anti-apoptotic proteins occurred in response to torpor. PMID:23638364

Rouble, Andrew N; Hefler, Joshua; Mamady, Hapsatou; Storey, Kenneth B; Tessier, Shannon N

2013-01-01

336

Anti-apoptotic signaling as a cytoprotective mechanism in mammalian hibernation  

PubMed Central

In the context of normal cell turnover, apoptosis is a natural phenomenon involved in making essential life and death decisions. Apoptotic pathways balance signals which promote cell death (pro-apoptotic pathways) or counteract these signals (anti-apoptotic pathways). We proposed that changes in anti-apoptotic proteins would occur during mammalian hibernation to aid cell preservation during prolonged torpor under cellular conditions that are highly injurious to most mammals (e.g. low body temperatures, ischemia). Immunoblotting was used to analyze the expression of proteins associated with pro-survival in six tissues of thirteen-lined ground squirrels, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus. The brain showed a concerted response to torpor with significant increases in the levels of all anti-apoptotic targets analyzed (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, BI-1, Mcl-1, cIAP1/2, xIAP) as well as enhanced phosphorylation of Bcl-2 at S70 and T56. Heart responded similarly with most anti-apoptotic proteins elevated significantly during torpor except for Bcl-xL and xIAP that decreased and Mcl-1 that was unaltered. In liver, BI-1 increased whereas cIAP1/2 decreased. In kidney, there was an increase in BI-1, cIAP and xIAP but decreases in Bcl-xL and p-Bcl-2(T56) content. In brown adipose tissue, protein levels of BI-1, cIAP1/2, and xIAP decreased significantly during torpor (compared with euthermia) whereas Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1 were unaltered; however, Bcl-2 showed enhanced phosphorylation at Thr56 but not at Ser70. In skeletal muscle, only xIAP levels changed significantly during torpor (an increase). The data show that anti-apoptotic pathways have organ-specific responses in hibernators with a prominent potential role in heart and brain where coordinated enhancement of anti-apoptotic proteins occurred in response to torpor. PMID:23638364

Mamady, Hapsatou; Tessier, Shannon N.

2013-01-01

337

P2X7 Receptors Mediate Innate Phagocytosis by Human Neural Precursor Cells and Neuroblasts.  

PubMed

During early human neurogenesis there is overproduction of neuroblasts and neurons accompanied by widespread programmed cell death (PCD). While it is understood that CD68(+) microglia and astrocytes mediate phagocytosis during target-dependent PCD, little is known of the cell identity or the scavenger molecules used to remove apoptotic corpses during the earliest stages of human neurogenesis. Using a combination of multiple-marker immunohistochemical staining, functional blocking antibodies and antagonists, we showed that human neural precursor cells (hNPCs) and neuroblasts express functional P2X7 receptors. Furthermore, using live-cell imaging, flow cytometry, phagocytic assays, and siRNA knockdown, we showed that in a serum-free environment, doublecortin(+) (DCX) neuroblasts and hNPCs can clear apoptotic cells by innate phagocytosis mediated via P2X7. We found that both P2X7(high) DCX(low) hNPCs and P2X7(high) DCX(high) neuroblasts, derived from primary cultures of human fetal telencephalon, phagocytosed targets including latex beads, apoptotic ReNcells, and apoptotic hNPC/neuroblasts. Pretreatment of neuroblasts and hNPCs with 1 mM adenosine triphosphate (ATP), 100 µM OxATP (P2X7 antagonist), or siRNA knockdown of P2X7 inhibited phagocytosis of these targets. Our results show that P2X7 functions as a scavenger receptor under serum-free conditions resembling those in early neurogenesis. This is the first demonstration that hNPCs and neuroblasts may participate in clearance of apoptotic corpses during pre target-dependent neurogenesis and mediate phagocytosis using P2X7 as a scavenger receptor. Stem Cells 2015;33:526-541. PMID:25336287

Lovelace, Michael D; Gu, Ben J; Eamegdool, Steven S; Weible, Michael W; Wiley, James S; Allen, David G; Chan-Ling, Tailoi

2015-02-01

338

Anti-Apoptotic Machinery Protects the Necrotrophic Fungus Botrytis cinerea from Host-Induced Apoptotic-Like Cell Death during Plant Infection  

PubMed Central

Necrotrophic fungi are unable to occupy living plant cells. How such pathogens survive first contact with living host tissue and initiate infection is therefore unclear. Here, we show that the necrotrophic grey mold fungus Botrytis cinerea undergoes massive apoptotic-like programmed cell death (PCD) following germination on the host plant. Manipulation of an anti-apoptotic gene BcBIR1 modified fungal response to PCD-inducing conditions. As a consequence, strains with reduced sensitivity to PCD were hyper virulent, while strains in which PCD was over-stimulated showed reduced pathogenicity. Similarly, reduced levels of PCD in the fungus were recorded following infection of Arabidopsis mutants that show enhanced susceptibility to B. cinerea. When considered together, these results suggest that Botrytis PCD machinery is targeted by plant defense molecules, and that the fungal anti-apoptotic machinery is essential for overcoming this host-induced PCD and hence, for establishment of infection. As such, fungal PCD machinery represents a novel target for fungicides and antifungal drugs. PMID:21876671

Shlezinger, Neta; Minz, Anna; Gur, Yonatan; Hatam, Ido; Dagdas, Yasin F.; Talbot, Nicholas J.; Sharon, Amir

2011-01-01

339

Reevesioside F induces potent and efficient anti-proliferative and apoptotic activities through Na?/K?-ATPase ?3 subunit-involved mitochondrial stress and amplification of caspase cascades.  

PubMed

Reevesioside F, isolated from Reevesia formosana, induced anti-proliferative activity that was highly correlated with the expression of Na?/K?-ATPase ?? subunit in several cell lines, including human leukemia HL-60 and Jurkat cells, and some other cell lines. Knockdown of ?? subunit significantly inhibited cell apoptosis suggesting a crucial role of the ?? subunit. Reevesioside F induced a rapid down-regulation of survivin protein, followed by release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m). Further examination demonstrated the mitochondrial damage in leukemic cells through Mcl-1 down-regulation, Noxa up-regulation and an increase of the formation of truncated Bid, tBim and a 23-kDa cleaved Bcl-2 fragment. Furthermore, reevesioside F induced an increase of mitochondria-associated acetyl ?-tubulin that may also contribute to apoptosis. The caspase cascade was profoundly activated by reevesioside F. Notably, the specific caspase-3 inhibitor z-DEVD-fmk significantly blunted reevesioside F-induced loss of ??m and apoptosis, suggesting that caspase-3 activation may further amplify mitochondrial damage and apoptotic signaling cascade. In spite of being a cardiac glycoside, reevesioside F did not increase the intracellular Ca²? levels. Moreover, CGP-37157 which blocked Na?/Ca²? exchanger on plasma membrane and mitochondria did not modify reevesioside F-mediated effect. In summary, the data suggest that reevesioside F induces apoptosis through the down-regulation of survivin and Mcl-1, and the formation of pro-apoptotic fragments from Bcl-2 family members. The loss of ??m and mitochondrial damage are responsible for the activation of caspases. Moreover, the amplification of caspase-3-mediated signaling pathway contributes largely to the execution of apoptosis in leukemic cells. PMID:24099795

Chan, She-Hung; Leu, Wohn-Jenn; Hsu, Lih-Ching; Chang, Hsun-Shuo; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Chen, Ih-Sheng; Chen, Ching-Shih; Guh, Jih-Hwa

2013-12-01

340

Reevesioside F induces potent and efficient anti-proliferative and apoptotic activities through Na+/K+-ATPase ?3 subunit-involved mitochondrial stress and amplification of caspase cascades  

PubMed Central

Reevesioside F, isolated from Reevesia formosana, induced anti-proliferative activity that was highly correlated with the expression of Na+/K+-ATPase ?3 subunit in several cell lines, including human leukemia HL-60 and Jurkat cells, and some other cell lines. Knockdown of ?3 subunit significantly inhibited cell apoptosis suggesting a crucial role of the ?3 subunit. Reevesioside F induced a rapid down-regulation of survivin protein, followed by release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m). Further examination demonstrated the mitochondrial damage in leukemic cells through Mcl-1 down-regulation, Noxa up-regulation and an increase of the formation of truncated Bid, tBim and a 23-kDa cleaved Bcl-2 fragment. Furthermore, reevesioside F induced an increase of mitochondria-associated acetyl ?-tubulin that may also contribute to apoptosis. The caspase cascade was profoundly activated by reevesioside F. Notably, the specific caspase-3 inhibitor z-DEVD-fmk significantly blunted reevesioside F-induced loss of ??m and apoptosis, suggesting that caspase-3 activation may further amplify mitochondrial damage and apoptotic signaling cascade. In spite of being a cardiac glycoside, reevesioside F did not increase the intracellular Ca2+ levels. Moreover, CGP-37157 which blocked Na+/Ca2+ exchanger on plasma membrane and mitochondria did not modify reevesioside F-mediated effect. In summary, the data suggest that reevesioside F induces apoptosis through the down-regulation of survivin and Mcl-1, and the formation of pro-apoptotic fragments from Bcl-2 family members. The loss of ??m and mitochondrial damage are responsible for the activation of caspases. Moreover, the amplification of caspase-3-mediated signaling pathway contributes largely to the execution of apoptosis in leukemic cells. PMID:24099795

Chan, She-Hung; Leu, Wohn-Jenn; Hsu, Lih-Ching; Chang, Hsun-Shuo; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Chen, Ih-Sheng; Chen, Ching-Shih; Guh, Jih-Hwa

2014-01-01

341

Towards the Small and the Beautiful: A Small Dibromotyrosine Derivative from Pseudoceratina sp. Sponge Exhibits Potent Apoptotic Effect through Targeting IKK/NF?B Signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

A dibromotyrosine derivative, (1?R,5?S,6?S)-2-(3?,5?-dibromo-1?,6?-dihydroxy-4?-oxocyclohex-2?-enyl) acetonitrile (DT), was isolated from the sponge Pseudoceratina sp., and was found to exhibit a significant cytotoxic activity against leukemia K562 cells. Despite the large number of the isolated bromotyrosine derivatives, studies focusing on their biological mechanism of action are scarce. In the current study we designed a set of experiments to reveal the underlying mechanism of DT cytotoxic activity against K562 cells. First, the results of MTT cytotoxic and the annexin V-FITC/PI apoptotic assays, indicated that the DT cytotoxic activity is mediated through induction of apoptosis. This effect was also supported by caspases-3 and -9 activation as well as PARP cleavage. DT induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) as indicated by flow cytometric assay. The involvement of ROS generation in the apoptotic activity of DT was further corroborated by the pretreatment of K562 cells with N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger, which prevented apoptosis and the disruption of MMP induced by DT. Results of cell-free system assay suggested that DT can act as a topoisomerase II catalytic inhibitor, unlike the clinical anticancer drug, etoposide, which acts as a topoisomerase poison. Additionally, we found that DT treatment can block IKK/NF?B pathway and activate PI3K/Akt pathway. These findings suggest that the cytotoxic effect of DT is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction-dependent apoptosis which is mediated through oxidative stress. Therefore, DT represents an interesting reference point for the development of new cytotoxic agent targeting IKK/NF?B pathway. PMID:24065159

Su, Jui-Hsin; Chen, Yu-Cheng; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Du, Ying-Chi; Su, Chiang-Wen; Tsao, Chia-Wei; Liu, Li-Lian; Chou, Yalan; Chang, Wen-Been; Su, Yin-Di; Chiang, Michael Y.; Yeh, Yao-Tsung; Lu, Mei-Chin

2013-01-01

342

Opsonization with C1q and Mannose-Binding Lectin Targets Apoptotic Cells to Dendritic Cells1  

Microsoft Academic Search

poptotic cell death and the removal of cells dying by apoptosis is an essential process during development in the maintenance of normal tissue homeostasis and in the resolution of inflammation (reviewed in Refs. 1 and 2). A redundant system of receptors, soluble bridging molecules, and apoptotic cell surface molecules has been implicated in the recognition and removal of apoptotic cells.

Alma J. Nauta; Giuseppe Castellano; Wei Xu; Andrea M. Woltman; Maria C. Borrias; Mohamed R. Daha; Cees van Kooten; Anja Roos

343

The role of PML in the control of apoptotic cell fate: a new key player at ER–mitochondria sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of malignant tumors results from deregulated proliferation or an inability of cells to undergo apoptotic cell death. Experimental works of the past decade have highlighted the importance of calcium (Ca2+) in the regulation of apoptosis. Several studies indicate that the Ca2+ content of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) determines the cell's sensitivity to apoptotic stress and perturbation of ER

P Pinton; C Giorgi; P P Pandolfi

2011-01-01

344

Co-expression of POU4F2/Brn-3b with p53 may be important for controlling expression of pro-apoptotic genes in cardiomyocytes following ischaemic/hypoxic insults.  

PubMed

Cardiomyocyte death following ischaemic/hypoxic injury causes irreversible damage to cardiac function and contributes to chronic diseases such as heart failure. Understanding the mechanisms associated with myocyte loss under these conditions can help to identify strategies to minimise/abrogate such detrimental effects. The p53 protein can induce apoptosis or cell cycle arrest, but effects on cell fate depend on interactions with other regulators such as POU4F2/Brn-3b (Brn-3b), which co-operates with p53 to increase the expression of pro-apoptotic genes. In contrast, the related POU4F1/Brn-3a (Brn-3a) blocks p53-mediated apoptosis but co-operates with p53 to enhance cell cycle arrest. In this study, we showed that permanent coronary artery ligation in mouse hearts, which induced apoptotic markers, activated caspase-3 and -8 and necroptosis markers; RIP-1 and -3 also increased Brn-3b and Brn-3a expression. However, Brn-3a was only detected in uninjured myocardium but not at the site of injury, whereas Brn-3b showed generalised increase, including within the infarct zone. Conversely, p53 was detected in the infarct zone and in some cells adjacent to the site of injury but not in uninjured myocardium. Co-localisation studies showed Brn-3a co-expression with p53 in cardiomyocytes adjacent to the infarct zone, whereas Brn-3b was co-localised with p53 in the infarct zone only. Increased Brn-3b and p53 correlated with elevated expression of pro-apoptotic target genes, Bax, Noxa and PUMA, whereas cleaved caspase-3 confirmed the presence of apoptotic cells within this region of the injured heart. Similarly, simulated ischaemia/reoxygenation (sI/R) injury in neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVM) and heart derived H9c2 myoblasts increased Brn-3b, p53 as well as apoptotic genes, and this was associated with enhanced apoptosis. Furthermore, targeted reduction of Brn-3b using shRNA caused reduction in pro-apoptotic Bax and Noxa proteins, even though p53 expression remained intact, suggesting that Brn-3b is important for controlling the fate of the myocardium in the injured heart. PMID:25356872

Budhram-Mahadeo, V; Fujita, R; Bitsi, S; Sicard, P; Heads, R

2014-01-01

345

Vessel-associated myogenic precursors control macrophage activation and clearance of apoptotic cells.  

PubMed

Swift and regulated clearance of apoptotic cells prevents the accumulation of cell remnants in injured tissues and contributes to the shift of macrophages towards alternatively activated reparatory cells that sustain wound healing. Environmental signals, most of which are unknown, in turn control the efficiency of the clearance of apoptotic cells and as such determine whether tissues eventually heal. In this study we show that vessel-associated stem cells (mesoangioblasts) specifically modulate the expression of genes involved in the clearance of apoptotic cells and in macrophage alternative activation, including those of scavenger receptors and of molecules that bridge dying cells and phagocytes. Mesoangioblasts, but not immortalized myoblasts or neural precursor cells, enhance CD163 membrane expression in vitro as assessed by flow cytometry, indicating that the effect is specific. Mesoangioblasts transplanted in acutely or chronically injured skeletal muscles determine the expansion of the population of CD163(+) infiltrating macrophages and increase the extent of CD163 expression. Conversely, macrophages challenged with mesoangioblasts engulf significantly better apoptotic cells in vitro. Collectively, the data reveal a feed-forward loop between macrophages and vessel-associated stem cells, which has implications for the skeletal muscle homeostatic response to sterile injury and for diseases in which homeostasis is jeopardized, including muscle dystrophies and inflammatory myopathies. PMID:24749786

Bosurgi, L; Brunelli, S; Rigamonti, E; Monno, A; Manfredi, A A; Rovere-Querini, P

2015-01-01

346

Cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of novel amino analogues of boswellic acids.  

PubMed

4-Amino analogues prepared from beta-boswellic acid and 11-keto-beta-boswellic acid, wherein the carboxyl group in ursane nucleus was replaced by an amino function via Curtius reaction, displayed improved cytotoxicity than the parent molecules. The same molecules also exhibited apoptotic activity by inducing DNA fragmentation. PMID:17950603

Shah, Bhahwal A; Kumar, Ajay; Gupta, Pankaj; Sharma, Madhunika; Sethi, Vijay K; Saxena, Ajit K; Singh, Jaswant; Qazi, Ghulam N; Taneja, Subhash C

2007-12-01

347

Cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of novel amino analogues of boswellic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

4-Amino analogues prepared from ?-boswellic acid and 11-keto-?-boswellic acid, wherein the carboxyl group in ursane nucleus was replaced by an amino function via Curtius reaction, displayed improved cytotoxicity than the parent molecules. The same molecules also exhibited apoptotic activity by inducing DNA fragmentation.

Bhahwal A. Shah; Ajay Kumar; Pankaj Gupta; Madhunika Sharma; Vijay K. Sethi; Ajit K. Saxena; Jaswant Singh; Ghulam N. Qazi; Subhash C. Taneja

2007-01-01

348

Spontaneous and Fas-Induced Apoptotic Cell Death in Aged Neutrophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of the strict analogies between polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) alterations in the aging and depressed functional capacities displayed by apoptotic PMN, we investigated the possible occurrence of age-associated changes in neutrophil apoptosis, either spontaneous or induced by Fas antigen (CD95) activation. In both cases, old subjects exhibited a time course kinetics of neutrophil apoptosis, as assessed by morphologic

Cosimo Tortorella; Giuseppina Piazzolla; Felice Spaccavento; Salvatore Pece; Emilio Jirillo; Salvatore Antonaci

1998-01-01

349

The effects of NAD+ on apoptotic neuronal death and mitochondrial biogenesis and function after glutamate excitotoxicity.  

PubMed

NAD+ is an essential co-enzyme for cellular energy metabolism and is also involved as a substrate for many cellular enzymatic reactions. It has been shown that NAD+ has a beneficial effect on neuronal survival and brain injury in in vitro and in vivo ischemic models. However, the effect of NAD+ on mitochondrial biogenesis and function in ischemia has not been well investigated. In the present study, we used an in vitro glutamate excitotoxicity model of primary cultured cortical neurons to study the effect of NAD+ on apoptotic neuronal death and mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Our results show that supplementation of NAD+ could effectively reduce apoptotic neuronal death, and apoptotic inducing factor translocation after neurons were challenged with excitotoxic glutamate stimulation. Using different approaches including confocal imaging, mitochondrial DNA measurement and Western blot analysis of PGC-1 and NRF-1, we also found that NAD+ could significantly attenuate glutamate-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and the impairment of mitochondrial biogenesis. Furthermore, NAD+ treatment effectively inhibited mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization and NADH redistribution after excitotoxic glutamate stimulation. Taken together, our results demonstrated that NAD+ is capable of inhibiting apoptotic neuronal death after glutamate excitotoxicity via preserving mitochondrial biogenesis and integrity. Our findings provide insights into potential neuroprotective strategies in ischemic stroke. PMID:25387075

Wang, Xiaowan; Li, Hailong; Ding, Shinghua

2014-01-01

350

APOPTOSIS IN DROSOPHILA Regulation of Drosophila melanogaster pro-apoptotic gene hid  

E-print Network

APOPTOSIS IN DROSOPHILA Regulation of Drosophila melanogaster pro-apoptotic gene hid Amber Bilak � of cell death in Drosophila. Here, we review the various levels of control that exist to regulate Hid according to the life-or-death choice of a cell. Keywords Drosophila Á Apoptosis Á hid Drosophila Hid

Su, Tin Tin

351

Drosophila Pro-apoptotic Bcl-2/Bax Homologue Reveals Evolutionary Conservation of Cell Death Mechanisms*  

E-print Network

Drosophila Pro-apoptotic Bcl-2/Bax Homologue Reveals Evolutionary Conservation of Cell Death. A Drosophila homologue of the human killer protein Bok (DBok) was identified. The predicted struc- ture of DBok death in Drosophila reveals many similarities with mammals (reviewed in Ref. 1). For example, caspase

Hammock, Bruce D.

352

Antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of Uncaria tomentosa in human medullary thyroid carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), a rare calcitonin-producing tumor, is derived from parafollicular C-cells of the thyroid and is characterized by constitutive Bcl-2 overexpression. The tumor is relatively insensitive to radiation therapy as well as conventional chemotherapy. To date, the only curative treatment is the early and complete surgical removal of all neoplastic tissue. In this study, the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of fractions obtained from Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC, commonly known as uña de gato or cat's claw were investigated. Cell growth of MTC cells as well as enzymatic activity of mitochondrial dehydrogenase was markedly inhibited after treatment with different fractions of the plant. Furthermore, there was an increase in the expressions of caspase-3 and -7 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) fraction, while bcl-2 overexpression remained constant. In particular, the alkaloids isopterpodine and pteropodine of U. tomentosa exhibited a significant pro-apoptotic effect on MTC cells, whereas the alkaloid-poor fraction inhibited cell proliferation but did not show any pro-apoptotic effects. These promising results indicate the growth-restraining and apoptotic potential of plant extracts against neuroendocrine tumors, which may add to existing therapies for cancer. PMID:20032400

Rinner, Beate; Li, Zeng Xia; Haas, Helga; Siegl, Veronika; Sturm, Sonja; Stuppner, Hermann; Pfragner, Roswitha

2009-11-01

353

Highly reproducible quantification of apoptotic cells using micropatterned culture of neurons.  

PubMed

The quantification of apoptotic cells is an integral component of many cell-based assays in biological studies. However, current methods for quantifying apoptotic cells using conventional random cultures have shown great limitations, especially for the quantification of primary neurons. Randomly distributed neurons under primary culture conditions can lead to biased estimates, and vastly different estimates of cell numbers can be produced within the same experiment. In this study, we developed a simple, accurate, and reliable technique for quantifying apoptotic neurons by means of micropatterned cell cultures. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microstencil was used as a physical mask for micropatterning cell cultures, and primary granular neurons (GNs) were successfully cultured within the micropattern-confined regions and homogeneously distributed over the entire field of each pattern. As compared with the conventional method based on random cultures, the micropatterned culture method allowed for highly reproducible quantification of apoptotic cells. These results were also confirmed by using GNs derived from mice with neurodegeneration. We hope that this micropatterning method based on the use of a PDMS microstencil can overcome the technical obstacles existing in current biological studies and will serve as a powerful tool for facilitating the study of apoptosis-involved diseases. PMID:25277814

Lee, Hyun; Kim, Gyu Man; Choi, Jin Ho; Lee, Jong Kil; Bae, Jae-Sung; Jin, Hee Kyung

2015-01-15

354

The traditional Chinese medicine Cordyceps sinensis and its effects on apoptotic homeostasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cordyceps sinensis is a medicinal fungus of Traditional Chinese Medicine. While there are a wide range of reported uses of Cordyceps sinensis in the literature, the reports that extracts of this fungus may alter apoptotic homeostasis are most intriguing. However, there are significant challenges regarding research surrounding Cordyceps sinensis, such as the difficulty identifying the various species of Cordyceps and

E. J. Buenz; B. A. Bauer; T. W. Osmundson; T. J. Motley

2005-01-01

355

Purification and characterization of an anti-apoptotic protein isolated from Lonomia obliqua hemolymph.  

PubMed

Previously it was reported that supplementation of insect cell culture with Lonomia obliqua hemolymph could extend culture longevity (Maranga et al. Biotechnol. Prog. 2003, 19, 58-63). In this work the anti-apoptotic properties of this hemolymph in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf-9) cell culture were investigated. The presence or absence of apoptotic cells was characterized by light microscopy, flow cytometry, and agarose gel electrophoresis. Hemolymph was fractionated by several ion exchange and gel filtration chromatographic steps for identification of the compounds responsible for this effect. Fractions exhibiting a potent anti-apoptotic effect were isolated and tested in cell culture. A protein of about 51 kDa was identified, isolated, and tested for apoptosis inhibition. Addition of this purified protein to Sf-9 cultures was able to prevent apoptosis induced by nutrient depletion as well as by potent apoptosis chemical inducers such as Actinomycin D. This work confirms that the enhanced culture longevity obtained by supplementation with L. obliqua hemolymph is due to the presence of potent anti-apoptotic factors. PMID:15903246

Souza, Alvaro P B; Peixoto, Cristina C; Maranga, Luis; Carvalhal, Ana V; Moraes, Roberto H P; Mendonça, Rita M Z; Pereira, Carlos A; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Mendonça, Ronaldo Z

2005-01-01

356

Modulation of stress proteins and apoptotic regulators in the anoxia tolerant turtle brain.  

PubMed

Freshwater turtles survive prolonged anoxia and reoxygenation without overt brain damage by well-described physiological processes, but little work has been done to investigate the molecular changes associated with anoxic survival. We examined stress proteins and apoptotic regulators in the turtle during early (1 h) and long-term anoxia (4, 24 h) and reoxygenation. Western blot analyses showed changes within the first hour of anoxia; multiple stress proteins (Hsp72, Grp94, Hsp60, Hsp27, and HO-1) increased while apoptotic regulators (Bcl-2 and Bax) decreased. Levels of the ER stress protein Grp78 were unchanged. Stress proteins remained elevated in long-term anoxia while the Bcl-2/Bax ratio was unaltered. No changes in cleaved caspase 3 levels were observed during anoxia while apoptosis inducing factor increased significantly. Furthermore, we found no evidence for the anoxic translocation of Bax from the cytosol to mitochondria, nor movement of apoptosis inducing factor between the mitochondria and nucleus. Reoxygenation did not lead to further increases in stress proteins or apoptotic regulators except for HO-1. The apparent protection against cell damage was corroborated with immunohistochemistry, which indicated no overt damage in the turtle brain subjected to anoxia and reoxygenation. The results suggest that molecular adaptations enhance pro-survival mechanisms and suppress apoptotic pathways to confer anoxia tolerance in freshwater turtles. PMID:19476552

Kesaraju, Shailaja; Schmidt-Kastner, Rainald; Prentice, Howard M; Milton, Sarah L

2009-06-01

357

Modulation of Apoptotic Signaling by the Hepatitis B Virus X Protein  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, an estimated 350 million people are chronically infected with the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV); chronic infection with HBV is associated with the development of severe liver diseases including hepatitis and cirrhosis. Individuals who are chronically infected with HBV also have a significantly higher risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) than uninfected individuals. The HBV X protein (HBx) is a key regulatory HBV protein that is important for HBV replication, and likely plays a cofactor role in the development of HCC in chronically HBV-infected individuals. Although some of the functions of HBx that may contribute to the development of HCC have been characterized, many HBx activities, and their putative roles during the development of HBV-associated HCC, remain incompletely understood. HBx is a multifunctional protein that localizes to the cytoplasm, nucleus, and mitochondria of HBV?infected hepatocytes. HBx regulates numerous cellular signal transduction pathways and transcription factors as well as cell cycle progression and apoptosis. In this review, we will summarize reports in which the impact of HBx expression on cellular apoptotic pathways has been analyzed. Although various effects of HBx on apoptotic pathways have been observed in different model systems, studies of HBx activities in biologically relevant hepatocyte systems have begun to clarify apoptotic effects of HBx and suggest mechanisms that could link HBx modulation of apoptotic pathways to the development of HBV-associated HCC. PMID:23202511

Rawat, Siddhartha; Clippinger, Amy J.; Bouchard, Michael J.

2012-01-01

358

Protective effect of testosterone on early apoptotic damage induced by streptozotocin in rat pancreas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beta-cell apoptosis is responsible for the development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the streptozotocin (STZ) rat model. It has been demonstrated that steroid hormones possess antioxidant and protective antiapoptotic effects in many tissues. The aim of the present study was to investigate the early apoptotic damage induced by STZ in rat pancreas, and the effect of testosterone in preventing apoptosis

S Morimoto; C A Mendoza-Rodríguez; M Hiriart; M E Larrieta; P Vital; Facultad de Química

2005-01-01

359

Chymotrypsin B cached in rat liver lysosomes and involved in apoptotic regulation through a mitochondrial pathway.  

PubMed

Lysosomes can trigger the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by releasing proteases. Here we report that a 25-kDa protein purified from rat liver lysosomes possesses a long standing potent Bid cleavage activity at neutral pH, and the truncated Bid can in turn induce rapid mitochondrial release of cytochrome c. This protease was revealed as chymotrypsin B by biochemical and mass spectrometric analysis. Although it was long recognized as a digestive protease exclusively secreted by the exocrine pancreas, our data support that it also expresses and intracellularly resides in rat liver lysosomes. Translocation of lysosomal chymotrypsin B into cytosol was triggered by apoptotic stimuli such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and intracellular delivery of chymotrypsin B protein induced apoptotic cell death with a potency comparable with cathepsin B, suggestive of a lysosomal-mitochondrial pathway to apoptosis regulated by chymotrypsin B following its release. Noteworthily, either knockdown of chymotrypsin B expression by RNA interference or pretreatment with chymotrypsin B inhibitor N-p-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone significantly reduced tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induce apoptosis. These results demonstrate for the first time that chymotrypsin B is not only restricted to the pancreas but can function intracellularly as a pro-apoptotic protease. PMID:18211899

Miao, Qi; Sun, Yang; Wei, Taotao; Zhao, Xingyu; Zhao, Kai; Yan, Ling; Zhang, Xujia; Shu, Hongjun; Yang, Fuyu

2008-03-28

360

Nuclear Receptors and Clearance of Apoptotic Cells: Stimulating the Macrophage’s Appetite  

PubMed Central

Clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages occurs as a coordinated process to ensure tissue homeostasis. Macrophages play a dual role in this process; first, a rapid and efficient phagocytosis of the dying cells is needed to eliminate uncleared corpses that can promote inflammation. Second, after engulfment, macrophages exhibit an anti-inflammatory phenotype, to avoid unwanted immune reactions against cell components. Several nuclear receptors, including liver X receptor and proliferator-activated receptor, have been linked to these two important features of macrophages during apoptotic cell clearance. This review outlines the emerging implications of nuclear receptors in the response of macrophages to cell clearance. These include activation of genes implicated in metabolism, to process the additional cellular content provided by the engulfed cells, as well as inflammatory genes, to maintain apoptotic cell clearance as an “immunologically silent” process. Remarkably, genes encoding receptors for the so-called “eat-me” signals are also regulated by activated nuclear receptors after phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, thus enhancing the efficiency of macrophages to clear dead cells. PMID:24860573

A-Gonzalez, Noelia; Hidalgo, Andrés

2014-01-01

361

Photoluminescent graphene quantum dots for in vivo imaging of apoptotic cells.  

PubMed

Apoptosis (programmed cell death) is linked to many incurable neurodegenerative, cardiovascular and cancer causing diseases. Numerous methods have been developed for imaging apoptotic cells in vitro; however, there are few methods available for imaging apoptotic cells in live animals (in vivo). Here we report a novel method utilizing the unique photoluminescence properties of plant leaf-derived graphene quantum dots (GQDs) modified with annexin V antibody (AbA5) to form (AbA5)-modified GQDs (AbA5-GQDs) enabling us to label apoptotic cells in live zebrafish (Danio rerio). The key is that zebrafish shows bright red photoluminescence in the presence of apoptotic cells. The toxicity of the GQDs has also been investigated with the GQDs exhibiting high biocompatibility as they were excreted from the zebrafish's body without affecting its growth significantly at a concentration lower than 2 mg mL(-1) over a period of 4 to 72 hour post fertilization. The GQDs have further been used to image human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7 cells), human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa cells), and normal human mammary epithelial cell line (MCF-10A). These results are indispensable to further the advance of graphene-based nanomaterials for biomedical applications. PMID:25569453

Roy, Prathik; Periasamy, Arun Prakash; Lin, Chiu-Ya; Her, Guor-Mour; Chiu, Wei-Jane; Li, Chi-Lin; Shu, Chia-Lun; Huang, Chih-Ching; Liang, Chi-Te; Chang, Huan-Tsung

2015-01-28

362

Antitumor immune responses mediated by dendritic cells  

PubMed Central

Dendritic cells (DCs) are essential for the induction of adaptive immune responses against malignant cells by virtue of their capacity to effectively cross-present exogenous antigens to T lymphocytes. Dying cancer cells are indeed a rich source of antigens that may be harnessed for the development of DC-based vaccines. In particular, malignant cells succumbing to apoptosis, rather than necrosis, appear to release antigens in a manner that allows for the elicitation of adaptive immune responses. In this review, we describe the processes that mediate the cross-presentation of antigens released by apoptotic cancer cells to CD8+ T lymphocytes, resulting in the activation of protective tumor-specific immune responses. PMID:24482744

Spel, Lotte; Boelens, Jaap-Jan; Nierkens, Stefan; Boes, Marianne

2013-01-01

363

Impact of alginate-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa on alveolar macrophage apoptotic cell clearance.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is a hallmark of lung disease in cystic fibrosis. Acute infection with P. aeruginosa profoundly inhibits alveolar macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) via direct effect of virulence factors. During chronic infection, P. aeruginosa evades host defense by decreased virulence, which includes the production or, in the case of mucoidy, overproduction of alginate. The impact of alginate on innate immunity, in particular on macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells is not known. We hypothesized that P. aeruginosa strains that exhibit reduced virulence impair macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells and we investigated if the polysaccharide alginate produced by mucoid P. aeruginosa is sufficient to inhibit alveolar macrophage efferocytosis. Rat alveolar or human peripheral blood monocyte (THP-1)-derived macrophage cell lines were exposed in vitro to exogenous alginate or to wild type or alginate-overproducing mucoid P. aeruginosa prior to challenge with apoptotic human Jurkat T-lymphocytes. The importance of LPS contamination and that of structural integrity of alginate polymers was tested using alginate of different purities and alginate lyase, respectively. Alginate inhibited alveolar macrophage efferocytosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This effect was augmented but not exclusively attributed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) present in alginates. Alginate-producing P. aeruginosa inhibited macrophage efferocytosis by more than 50%. A mannuronic-specific alginate lyase did not restore efferocytosis inhibited by exogenous guluronic-rich marine alginate, but had a marked beneficial effect on efferocytosis of alveolar macrophages exposed to mucoid P. aeruginosa. Despite decreased virulence, mucoid P. aeruginosa may contribute to chronic airway inflammation through significant inhibition of alveolar clearance of apoptotic cells and debris. The mechanism by which mucoid bacteria inhibit efferocytosis may involve alginate production and synergy with LPS, suggesting that alginate lyase may be an attractive therapeutic approach to airway inflammation in cystic fibrosis and other chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases characterized by P. aeruginosa colonization. PMID:25027418

McCaslin, Charles A; Petrusca, Daniela N; Poirier, Christophe; Serban, Karina A; Anderson, Gregory G; Petrache, Irina

2015-01-01

364

New Insights into the Apoptotic Process in Mollusks: Characterization of Caspase Genes in Mytilus galloprovincialis  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis is an essential biological process in the development and maintenance of immune system homeostasis. Caspase proteins constitute the core of the apoptotic machinery and can be categorized as either initiators or effectors of apoptosis. Although the genes encoding caspase proteins have been described in vertebrates and in almost all invertebrate phyla, there are few reports describing the initiator and executioner caspases or the modulation of their expression by different stimuli in different apoptotic pathways in bivalves. In the present work, we characterized two initiator and four executioner caspases in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Both initiators and executioners showed structural features that make them different from other caspase proteins already described. Evaluation of the genes’ tissue expression patterns revealed extremely high expression levels within the gland and gills, where the apoptotic process is highly active due to the clearance of damaged cells. Hemocytes also showed high expression values, probably due to of the role of apoptosis in the defense against pathogens. To understand the mechanisms of caspase gene regulation, hemocytes were treated with UV-light, environmental pollutants and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and apoptosis was evaluated by microscopy, flow cytometry and qPCR techniques. Our results suggest that the apoptotic process could be tightly regulated in bivalve mollusks by overexpression/suppression of caspase genes; additionally, there is evidence of caspase-specific responses to pathogens and pollutants. The apoptotic process in mollusks has a similar complexity to that of vertebrates, but presents unique features that may be related to recurrent exposure to environmental changes, pollutants and pathogens imposed by their sedentary nature. PMID:21347300

Romero, Alejandro; Estévez-Calvar, Noelia; Dios, Sonia; Figueras, Antonio; Novoa, Beatriz

2011-01-01

365

Relationship between apoptotic markers in semen from fertile men and demographic, hormonal and seminal characteristics.  

PubMed

Apoptosis in the testis has two putative roles during normal spermatogenesis; limitation of the germ cell population to numbers that can be supported by the Sertoli cells, and, possibly, selective depletion of meiotic and postmeiotic abnormal germ cells. We investigated the demographic and biological correlates of the pro-apoptotic marker Fas and the anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-xL in sperm cells of fertile men. Six hundred and four men from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine were consecutively enrolled during their pregnant wife's antenatal visits. Semen analysis was performed as recommended by the World Health Organization. Immunofluorescence coupled to flow cytometry was utilized for detection of apoptotic markers in the sperm cell. DNA damage was assessed by flow cytometry using both the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay. The percentage of Fas-positive sperm cells was higher in men with high total sperm count (P<0.01), more motile sperms (P=0.04) and fewer sperm head defects (P=0.05). These associations were consistent within and across study regions. Furthermore, testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and sexual hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were significantly negatively correlated with Fas within and across regions as well. The data indicated no association between the anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL marker and semen or personal characteristics. The finding of Fas-positive sperm cells associated with better semen quality in a cohort of spouses of pregnant women seems different from previous data obtained in infertile men and warrants further investigation to clarify the biological significance of sperm apoptotic markers. PMID:23064689

Specht, Ina O; Spanò, Marcello; Hougaard, Karin S; Manicardi, Gian C; Bizzaro, Davide; Toft, Gunnar; Giwercman, Aleksander; Bonde, Jens-Peter E

2012-11-01

366

Single molecule fluorescence correlation spectroscopy of single apoptotic cells using a red-fluorescent caspase probe.  

PubMed

The detection of single molecules in single cells has enabled biochemical analyses to be conducted with high sensitivity and high temporal resolution. In this work, detection of apoptosis was studied by single molecule fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) in single living cells. Caspase activity was assayed using a new red fluorogenic probe that avoids the spectral overlap of green fluorescent probes and cell autofluorescence. This new probe, 2SBPO-Casp, was synthesized by coupling a water-soluble Nile Blue derivative (2SBPO) to an aspartic acid residue. Upon apoptosis induction and caspase activation, free 2SBPO dye is shown to accumulate inside the cell after probe cleavage. In previous work in our lab, single molecule fluorescence in single apoptotic cells was detected 45 min after induction using a rhodamine 110-based probe. However, significant statistical analysis was needed to exclude false positives. The use of 2SBPO-Casp overcomes the autofluorescence problem and offers a steady fluorescence signal. In our single molecule FCS measurements, Ramos cells were determined apoptotic on the basis of their correlation coefficient value (R(2)). Cells that contain an R(2) ? 0.65 were identified as highly correlated and therefore determined to be apoptotic. Single apoptotic cells identified in this manner were found as early as 30 min after induction and the number of apoptotic cells reached a peak value at the 3rd hour, which is consistent with other techniques. Using single molecule techniques and a new apoptosis probe, the temporal dynamics were elucidated with better sensitivity and resolution than in previous studies. PMID:22314869

Dong, Meicong; Martinez, Michelle M; Mayer, Michael F; Pappas, Dimitri

2012-07-01

367

BAK overexpression mediates p53-independent apoptosis inducing effects on human gastric cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: BAK (Bcl-2 homologous antagonist\\/killer) is a novel pro-apoptotic gene of the Bcl-2 family. It has been reported that gastric tumors have reduced BAK levels when compared with the normal mucosa. Moreover, mutations of the BAK gene have been identified in human gastrointestinal cancers, suggesting that a perturbation of BAK-mediated apoptosis may contribute to the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. In

Qiang-Song Tong; Li-Duan Zheng; Liang Wang; Jun Liu; Wei Qian

2004-01-01

368

Induction of cytochrome c-mediated apoptosis by amyloid ? 25-35 requires functional mitochondria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulating data suggest a central role for mitochondria and oxidative stress in neurodegenerative apoptosis. We previously demonstrated that amyloid-? peptide 25-35 (A? 25-35) toxicity in cultured cells is mediated by its effects on functioning mitochondria. In this study, we further explored the hypothesis that A? 25-35 might induce apoptotic cell death by altering mitochondrial physiology. Mitochondria in Ntera2 (NT2 ?+)

Sandra Morais Cardoso; Russell H. Swerdlow; Catarina R. Oliveira

2002-01-01

369

Lysosomal and mitochondrial permeabilization mediates zinc(II) cationic phthalocyanine phototoxicity.  

PubMed

In order to find a novel photosensitizer to be used in photodynamic therapy for cancer treatment, we have previously showed that the cationic zinc(II) phthalocyanine named Pc13, the sulfur-linked dye 2,9(10),16(17),23(24)-tetrakis[(2-trimethylammonium) ethylsulfanyl]phthalocyaninatozinc(II) tetraiodide, exerts a selective phototoxic effect on human nasopharynx KB carcinoma cells and induces an apoptotic response characterized by an increase in the activity of caspase-3. Since the activation of an apoptotic pathway by chemotherapeutic agents contributes to the elimination of malignant cells, in this study we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumor action of Pc13. We found that after light exposure, Pc13 induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are mediating the resultant cytotoxic action on KB cells. ROS led to an early permeabilization of lysosomal membranes as demonstrated by the reduction of lysosome fluorescence with acridine orange and the release of lysosomal proteases to cytosol. Treatment with antioxidants inhibited ROS generation, preserved the integrity of lysosomal membrane and increased cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. Lysosome disruption was followed by mitochondrial depolarization, cytosolic release of cytochrome C and caspases activation. Although no change in the total amount of Bax was observed, the translocation of Bax from cytosol to mitochondria, the cleavage of the pro-apoptotic protein Bid, together with the decrease of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-XL and Bcl-2 indicated the involvement of Bcl-2 family proteins in the induction of the mitochondrial pathway. It was also demonstrated that cathepsin D, but not caspase-8, contributed to Bid cleavage. In conclusion, Pc13-induced cell photodamage is triggered by ROS generation and activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway through the release of lysosomal proteases. In addition, our results also indicated that Pc13 induced a caspase-dependent apoptotic response, being activation of caspase-8, -9 and -3 the result of a post-mitochondrial event. PMID:23994488

Marino, Julieta; García Vior, María C; Furmento, Verónica A; Blank, Viviana C; Awruch, Josefina; Roguin, Leonor P

2013-11-01

370

Short-chain fatty acids induced autophagy serves as an adaptive strategy for retarding mitochondria-mediated apoptotic cell death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the major by-products of bacterial fermentation of undigested dietary fibers in the large intestine. SCFAs, mostly propionate and butyrate, inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in colon cancer cells, but clinical trials had mixed results regarding the anti-tumor activities of SCFAs. Herein we demonstrate that propionate and butyrate induced autophagy in human colon cancer cells to

Y Tang; Y Chen; H Jiang; D Nie

2011-01-01

371

Gemcitabine Induces the VMP1-Mediated Autophagy Pathway to Promote Apoptotic Death in Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: Autophagy is a degradation process of cytoplasmic cellular constituents. We have described the vacuole membrane protein-1 (VMP1) whose expression triggers autophagy in mammalian cells. The aim of this study was to analyze the role of autophagy in human pancreatic cancer cell death. Methods\\/Results: Here we show that gemcitabine, the standard chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer, induced autophagy in PANC-1 and

Romina Pardo; Andrea Lo Ré; Cendrine Archange; Alejandro Ropolo; Daniela L. Papademetrio; Claudio D. Gonzalez; Elida M. Alvarez; Juan L. Iovanna; Maria I. Vaccaro

2010-01-01

372

p53- and Drug-Induced Apoptotic Responses Mediated by BH3Only Proteins Puma and Noxa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptosis provoked by DNA damage requires the p53 tumor suppressor, but which of the many p53-regulated genes are required has remained unknown. Two genes induced by this transcription factor, noxa and puma (bbc3), stand out, because they encode BH3-only proteins, proapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family required to initiate apoptosis. In mice with either noxa or puma disrupted, we observed

Andreas Villunger; Ewa M. Michalak; Leigh Coultas; Franziska Müllauer; Günther Böck; Michael J. Ausserlechner; Jerry M. Adams; Andreas Strasser

2003-01-01

373

Membrane Rafts Segregate Pro- from Anti-Apoptotic Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Receptor Signaling in Colon Carcinoma Cells Stimulated by Members of the Tumor Necrosis Factor Superfamily  

PubMed Central

In the tumor microenvironment, autocrine/paracrine loops of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) contribute to cancer cell survival. However, we report here that IGF-I can send contradictory signals that interfere with cell death induced by different ligands of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily. IGF-I protected human colon carcinoma cells from TNF-?-induced apoptosis, but it enhanced the apoptotic response to anti-Fas antibody and TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand stimulation. This proapoptotic effect of IGF-I, observed in several but not all tested colon cancer cell lines, was mediated via the phosphatidylinositol 3?-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. Furthermore, IGF-I receptors (IGF-IR) were located in and out of membrane lipid rafts and were tyrosine autophosphorylated in response to IGF-I. However, disruption of rafts by acute cholesterol depletion shifted IGF-IR to non-raft domains, abolished the IGF-I-mediated proapoptotic effect, and inhibited the IGF-I-dependent IRS-1 and Akt recruitment into and phosphorylation/activation within lipid rafts. Replenishing cell membranes with cholesterol reversed these effects. Activation of extracellular-regulated kinase-1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, which convey the IGF-I anti-apoptotic effect, occurred independently of lipid rafts. Thus, we propose that segregation of IGF-IR in and out of lipid rafts may dynamically regulate the pro- and anti-apoptotic effects of IGF-I on apoptosis induced by TNF superfamily members. PMID:16127155

Remacle-Bonnet, Maryse; Garrouste, Françoise; Baillat, Gilbert; Andre, Frédéric; Marvaldi, Jacques; Pommier, Gilbert

2005-01-01

374

Membrane rafts segregate pro- from anti-apoptotic insulin-like growth factor-I receptor signaling in colon carcinoma cells stimulated by members of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily.  

PubMed

In the tumor microenvironment, autocrine/paracrine loops of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) contribute to cancer cell survival. However, we report here that IGF-I can send contradictory signals that interfere with cell death induced by different ligands of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily. IGF-I protected human colon carcinoma cells from TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis, but it enhanced the apoptotic response to anti-Fas antibody and TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand stimulation. This proapoptotic effect of IGF-I, observed in several but not all tested colon cancer cell lines, was mediated via the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. Furthermore, IGF-I receptors (IGF-IR) were located in and out of membrane lipid rafts and were tyrosine autophosphorylated in response to IGF-I. However, disruption of rafts by acute cholesterol depletion shifted IGF-IR to non-raft domains, abolished the IGF-I-mediated proapoptotic effect, and inhibited the IGF-I-dependent IRS-1 and Akt recruitment into and phosphorylation/activation within lipid rafts. Replenishing cell membranes with cholesterol reversed these effects. Activation of extracellular-regulated kinase-1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, which convey the IGF-I anti-apoptotic effect, occurred independently of lipid rafts. Thus, we propose that segregation of IGF-IR in and out of lipid rafts may dynamically regulate the pro- and anti-apoptotic effects of IGF-I on apoptosis induced by TNF superfamily members. PMID:16127155

Remacle-Bonnet, Maryse; Garrouste, Françoise; Baillat, Gilbert; Andre, Frédéric; Marvaldi, Jacques; Pommier, Gilbert

2005-09-01

375

Altered expression of cell cycle and apoptotic proteins in chronic hepatitis C virus infection  

PubMed Central

Background A disrupted cell cycle progression of hepatocytes was reported in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, which can contribute significantly in the associated pathogenesis. The present study aimed to further elaborate these disruptions by evaluating the expression of key cell cycle and apoptotic proteins in chronic HCV infection with particular reference to genotype 3. Archival liver biopsy specimens of chronic HCV-infection (n = 46) and normal histology (n = 5) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using antibodies against proliferation marker Mcm-2, G1 phase marker Cyclin D1, S phase marker Cyclin A, cell cycle regulators p21 (CDK inhibitor) and p53 (tumor suppressor protein), apoptotic protein Caspase-3 and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Results Elevated Mcm-2 expression was observed in hepatocytes in chronic HCV infection, indicating increased cell cycle entry. Cyclin D1 expression was higher than cyclin A, which suggests a slow progression through the G1 phase. Expression of cell cycle regulators p21 and p53 was elevated, with no concordance between their expressions. The Mcm-2 and p21 expressions were associated with the fibrosis stage (p = 0.0001 and 0.001 respectively) and that of p53 with the inflammation grade (p = 0.051). Apoptotic marker, Caspase-3, was mostly confined to sinusoidal lining cells with little expression in hepatocytes. Anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, was negligible in hepatocytes and detected principally in infiltrating lymphocytes. Expression of all these proteins was unrelated to the HCV genotype and were detected only rarely in the hepatocytes of normal liver. Conclusion The results showed an arrested cell cycle state in the hepatocytes of chronic HCV infection, regardless of any association with genotype 3. Cell cycle arrest is characterized by an increased expression of p21, in relation to fibrosis, and of p53 in relation to inflammation. Furthermore, expression of p21 was independent of the p53 expression and coincided with the reduced expression of apoptotic protein Caspase-3 in hepatocytes. The altered expression of these cell cycle proteins in hepatocytes is suggestive of an impaired cell cycle progression that could limit the regenerative response of the liver to ongoing injury, leading to the progression of disease. PMID:18680610

Sarfraz, Saira; Hamid, Saeed; Siddiqui, Anwar; Hussain, Snawar; Pervez, Shahid; Alexander, Graeme

2008-01-01

376

PUMA mediates ER stress-induced apoptosis in portal hypertensive gastropathy  

PubMed Central

Mucosal apoptosis has been demonstrated to be an essential pathological feature in portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG). p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) was identified as a BH3-only Bcl-2 family protein that has an essential role in apoptosis induced by a variety of stimuli, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. However, whether PUMA is involved in mucosal apoptosis in PHG remains unclear, and whether PUMA induces PHG by mediating ER stress remains unknown. The aim of the study is to investigate whether PUMA is involved in PHG by mediating ER stress apoptotic signaling. To identify whether PUMA is involved in PHG by mediating ER stress, gastric mucosal injury and apoptosis were studied in both PHG patients and PHG animal models using PUMA knockout (PUMA-KO) and PUMA wild-type (PUMA-WT) mice. The induction of PUMA expression and ER stress signaling were investigated, and the mechanisms of PUMA-mediated apoptosis were analyzed. GES-1 and SGC7901 cell lines were used to further identify whether PUMA-mediated apoptosis was induced by ER stress in vitro. Epithelial apoptosis and PUMA were markedly induced in the gastric mucosa of PHG patients and mouse PHG models. ER stress had a potent role in the induction of PUMA and apoptosis in PHG models, and the apoptosis was obviously attenuated in PUMA-KO mice. Although the targeted deletion of PUMA did not affect ER stress, mitochondrial apoptotic signaling was downregulated in mice. Meanwhile, PUMA knockdown significantly ameliorated ER stress-induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in vitro. These results indicate that PUMA