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1

C2-ceramide mediates cerebellar granule cells apoptosis by activation of caspases-2, -9, and -3.  

PubMed

Ceramide is able to induce the apoptotic death of cerebellar granule cells (CGC) in culture. However, previous reports did not agree on whether ceramide-induced apoptosis of CGC requires caspase activation. Here we have shown that addition of C2-ceramide is able to produce extensive death of cultured CGC, which is associated with chromatin condensation, ladder-like DNA fragmentation, and activation of caspases. Our results show that C2-ceramide activates caspases-3, -9, and -2 but not caspases-1 and -8. Caspase-9 activation was associated with cytochrome c release from mitochondria toward the cytosol and was followed by activation of caspases-2 and -3. PARP proteolysis was also observed after caspase-3 and -2 activation. The involvement of caspases-9, -3, and -2 in ceramide-mediated apoptotic death of CGC was further supported by the use of specific inhibitors. PMID:18311838

Miñano, Alfredo; Caballero-Benítez, Andrea; Lluch, Mónica; Morán, Julio; Rodríguez-Alvarez, José

2008-06-01

2

CASPASE 2-MEDIATED TUMOR SUPPRESSION INVOLVES SURVIVIN GENE SILENCING  

PubMed Central

One of the pivotal functions of endogenous tumor suppression is to oppose aberrant cell survival, but the molecular requirements of this process are not completely understood. Here, we show that caspase 2, a death effector with largely unknown functions, represses transcription of the survivin gene, a general regulator of cell division and cytoprotection in tumors. This pathway involves caspase 2 proteolytic cleavage of the NF?B activator, RIP1. In turn, loss of RIP1 abolishes transcription of NF?B target genes, including survivin, resulting in deregulated mitotic transitions, enhanced apoptosis, and suppression of tumorigenicity, in vivo. Therefore, caspase 2 functions as an endogenous inhibitor of NF?B-dependent cell survival, and this mechanism may contribute to tumor suppression in humans.

Guha, Minakshi; Xia, Fang; Raskett, Christopher M.; Altieri, Dario C.

2009-01-01

3

Salmonella-induced caspase-2 activation in macrophages: a novel mechanism in pathogen-mediated apoptosis.  

PubMed

The enterobacterial pathogen Salmonella induces phagocyte apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. These bacteria use a specialized type III secretion system to export a virulence factor, SipB, which directly activates the host's apoptotic machinery by targeting caspase-1. Caspase-1 is not involved in most apoptotic processes but plays a major role in cytokine maturation. We show that caspase-1-deficient macrophages undergo apoptosis within 4-6 h of infection with invasive bacteria. This process requires SipB, implying that this protein can initiate the apoptotic machinery by regulating components distinct from caspase-1. Invasive Salmonella typhimurium targets caspase-2 simultaneously with, but independently of, caspase-1. Besides caspase-2, the caspase-1-independent pathway involves the activation of caspase-3, -6, and -8 and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, none of which occurs during caspase-1-dependent apoptosis. By using caspase-2 knockout macrophages and chemical inhibition, we establish a role for caspase-2 in both caspase-1-dependent and -independent apoptosis. Particularly, activation of caspase-1 during fast Salmonella-induced apoptosis partially relies on caspase-2. The ability of Salmonella to induce caspase-1-independent macrophage apoptosis may play a role in situations in which activation of this protease is either prevented or uncoupled from the induction of apoptosis. PMID:11015444

Jesenberger, V; Procyk, K J; Yuan, J; Reipert, S; Baccarini, M

2000-10-01

4

STAT1-induced apoptosis is mediated by caspases 2, 3, and 7.  

PubMed

STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 1) has been implicated as a mediator of a variety of biological responses in response to stimulation by specific growth factors and cytokines. To understand better the role of STAT1 in the interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-induced phenotype, we generated an active form of STAT1 (STAT1C) by substituting Cys residues for both Arg-656 and Asn-658 within the C-terminal loop of the STAT1 SH2 domain. The IFN-gamma activation site element was stimulated and bound efficiently by STAT1C without IFN-gamma treatment. STAT1C was found to be tyrosine-phosphorylated in the nucleus for more than 30 h after IFN-gamma stimulation. STAT1-negative U3A cells reexpressing STAT1C showed retarded cell growth and underwent apoptosis when treated with IFN-gamma. Further analysis demonstrated that apoptosis was preceded by proteolytic cleavage of caspases 2, 3, and 7, and wild type STAT1 also induced cleavage of caspase 7 when expressed in STAT1-negative U3A cells, indicating that STAT1C augments potential activity of wild type STAT1. Studies with cycloheximide treatment showed that protein synthesis induced in the first 24 h after IFN-gamma treatment was required for apoptosis under these conditions. Finally, we found that STAT1C-induced apoptosis was, in part, mediated by caspase 2, 3, and 7 because benzyloxycarbonyl-valyl-aspartyl-valyl-alanyl-aspartic acid fluoromethyl ketone (Z-VDVAD-FMK) treatment partially blocked apoptosis. These results suggest that prolonged nuclear localization of activated STAT1 results in apoptosis involving specific regulation of caspase pathway. PMID:14623896

Sironi, Juan J; Ouchi, Toru

2003-11-17

5

Caspase-2-mediated cleavage of Mdm2 creates p53-induced positive feedback loop  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Caspase-2 is an evolutionarily conserved caspase, yet its biological function and cleavage targets are poorly understood. Caspase-2 is activated by the p53 target gene product PIDD (also known as LRDD) in a complex called the Caspase-2-PIDDosome. We show that PIDD expression promotes growth arrest and chemotherapy resistance by a mechanism that depends on Caspase-2 and wild-type p53. PIDD-induced Caspase-2 directly cleaves the E3 ubiquitin ligase Mdm2 at Asp 367, leading to loss of the C-terminal RING domain responsible for p53 ubiquitination. As a consequence, N-terminally truncated Mdm2 binds p53 and promotes its stability. Upon DNA damage, p53 induction of the Caspase-2-PIDDosome creates a positive feedback loop that inhibits Mdm2 and reinforces p53 stability and activity, contributing to cell survival and drug resistance. These data establish Mdm2 as a cleavage target of Caspase-2 and provide insight into a mechanism of Mdm2 inhibition that impacts p53 dynamics upon genotoxic stress.

Oliver, Trudy G.; Meylan, Etienne; Chang, Gregory P.; Xue, Wen; Burke, James R.; Humpton, Timothy J.; Hubbard, Diana; Bhutkar, Arjun; Jacks, Tyler

2011-01-01

6

Caspase-2 is essential for c-Jun transcriptional activation and Bim induction in neuron death.  

PubMed

Neuronal apoptotic death generally requires de novo transcription, and activation of the transcription factor c-Jun has been shown to be necessary in multiple neuronal death paradigms. Caspase-2 has been implicated in death of neuronal and non-neuronal cells, but its relationship to transcriptional activation has not been clearly elucidated. In the present study, using two different neuronal apoptotic paradigms, ?-amyloid treatment and NGF (nerve growth factor) withdrawal, we examined the hierarchical role of caspase-2 activation in the transcriptional control of neuron death. Both paradigms induce rapid activation of caspase-2 as well as activation of the transcription factor c-Jun and subsequent induction of the pro-apoptotic BH3 (Bcl-homology domain 3)-only protein Bim (Bcl-2-interacting mediator of cell death). Caspase-2 activation is dependent on the adaptor protein RAIDD {RIP (receptor-interacting protein)-associated ICH-1 [ICE (interleukin-1?-converting enzyme)/CED-3 (cell-death determining 3) homologue 1] protein with a death domain}, and both caspase-2 and RAIDD are required for c-Jun activation and Bim induction. The present study thus shows that rapid caspase-2 activation is essential for c-Jun activation and Bim induction in neurons subjected to apoptotic stimuli. This places caspase-2 at an apical position in the apoptotic cascade and demonstrates for the first time that caspase-2 can regulate transcription. PMID:23815625

Jean, Ying Y; Ribe, Elena M; Pero, Maria Elena; Moskalenko, Marina; Iqbal, Zarah; Marks, Lianna J; Greene, Lloyd A; Troy, Carol M

2013-10-01

7

Coenzyme Q10 rescues ethanol-induced corneal fibroblast apoptosis through the inhibition of caspase-2 activation.  

PubMed

Recent studies indicate that caspase-2 is involved in the early stages of apoptosis, particularly before the occurrence of mitochondrial damage. Here we report the important role of the coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on the activity of caspase-2 upstream of mitochondria in ethanol (EtOH)-treated corneal fibroblasts. After EtOH exposure, cells produce excessive reactive oxygen species formation, p53 expression, and most importantly, caspase-2 activation. After the activation of the caspase-2, the cells exhibited hallmarks of apoptotic pathway, such as mitochondrial damage and translocation of Bax and cytochrome c, which were then followed by caspase-3 activation. By pretreating the cells with a cell-permeable, biotinylated pan-caspase inhibitor, we identified caspase-2 as an initiator caspase in EtOH-treated corneal fibroblasts. Loss of caspase-2 inhibited EtOH-induced apoptosis. We further found that caspase-2 acts upstream of mitochondria to mediate EtOH-induced apoptosis. The loss of caspase-2 significantly inhibited EtOH-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, Bax translocation, and cytochrome c release from mitochondria. The pretreatment of CoQ10 prevented EtOH-induced caspase-2 activation and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Our data demonstrated that by blocking caspase-2 activity, CoQ10 can protect the cells from mitochondrial membrane change, apoptotic protein translocation, and apoptosis. Taken together, EtOH-induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis is initiated by caspase-2 activation, which is regulated by CoQ10. PMID:23430247

Chen, Chun-Chen; Liou, Shiow-Wen; Chen, Chi-Chih; Chen, Wen-Chung; Hu, Fung-Rong; Wang, I-Jong; Lin, Shing-Jong

2013-02-19

8

Salmonella -induced Caspase2 Activation in Macrophages: A Novel Mechanism in Pathogen-mediated Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enterobacterial pathogen Salmonella induces phagocyte apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. These bacteria use a specialized type III secretion system to export a virulence factor, SipB, which di- rectly activates the host's apoptotic machinery by targeting caspase-1. Caspase-1 is not involved in most apoptotic processes but plays a major role in cytokine maturation. We show that caspase-1-deficient macrophages undergo

Veronika Jesenberger; Katarzyna J. Procyk; Junying Yuan; Siegfried Reipert; Manuela Baccarini

9

Caspase-2 deficiency promotes aberrant DNA-damage response and genetic instability  

PubMed Central

Caspase-2 is an initiator caspase, which has been implicated to function in apoptotic and non-apoptotic signalling pathways, including cell-cycle regulation, DNA-damage signalling and tumour suppression. We previously demonstrated that caspase-2 deficiency enhances E1A/Ras oncogene-induced cell transformation and augments lymphomagenesis in the E?Myc mouse model. Caspase-2?/? mouse embryonic fibroblasts (casp2?/? MEFs) show aberrant cell-cycle checkpoint regulation and a defective apoptotic response following DNA damage. Disruption of cell-cycle checkpoints often leads to genomic instability (GIN), which is a common phenotype of cancer cells and can contribute to cellular transformation. Here we show that caspase-2 deficiency results in increased DNA damage and GIN in proliferating cells. Casp2?/? MEFs readily escape senescence in culture and exhibit increased micronuclei formation and sustained DNA damage during cell culture and following ?-irradiation. Metaphase analyses demonstrated that a lack of caspase-2 is associated with increased aneuploidy in both MEFs and in E?Myc lymphoma cells. In addition, casp2?/? MEFs and lymphoma cells exhibit significantly decreased telomere length. We also noted that loss of caspase-2 leads to defective p53-mediated signalling and decreased trans-activation of p53 target genes upon DNA damage. Our findings suggest that loss of caspase-2 serves as a key function in maintaining genomic integrity, during cell proliferation and following DNA damage.

Dorstyn, L; Puccini, J; Wilson, C H; Shalini, S; Nicola, M; Moore, S; Kumar, S

2012-01-01

10

Measurement of caspase-2 activation during different anti-tumor drugs induced apoptosis by FRET technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Caspase-2 is important for the engagement of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, in the presence of DNA-damaging agents, such as cisplatin; however, the mechanism by which caspase-2 executes apoptosis remains obscure. In this study, we carried out the measurements of the dynamics of caspase-2 activation in a single living cell by a FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) probe. A FRET probe was constructed that encoded a CRS (caspase-2 recognition site) fused with a cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and a red fluorescent protein (DsRed) (CFP-CRS-DsRed). Using this probe, we found that during TRAIL-induced apoptosis, caspase-2 was not activated, and caspase-2 activation occurred in etoposide and cisplatin treated cells. However, during cisplatin-induced apoptosis caspase-2 activation was initiated much earlier than that of etoposide. Cisplatin and etoposide is one of the most broadly used drugs in the Clinical applications of cancer chemotherapy, and TRAIL, which belongs to the TNF family proteins, can selectively induce apoptosis in many transformed cells but not in normal cells. Most of anticancer drugs can induce apoptosis mediated by the activation of caspase pathway. Thus, the perfect synergistic effect group of multi-drug can be selected by using our FRET probe.

Lin, Juqiang; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming; Rong, Chen; Zhang, Zhihong

2007-10-01

11

Caspase-2 can function upstream of bid cleavage in the TRAIL apoptosis pathway.  

PubMed

In many mammalian cell types, engagement of the TRAIL/Apo2L death receptors DR4 and DR5 alters mitochondrial physiology, thereby promoting the release of pro-apoptotic proteins normally contained within this organelle. A contemporary view of this process is that in so-called type II cells death receptor-activated caspase-8 cleaves the Bcl-2 family member Bid, which generates a truncated Bid fragment that collaborates with Bax, another Bcl-2 relative, to promote the release of mitochondrial factors necessary for activation of executioner caspases and apoptosis. Here we show that in some type II cells caspase-2 is necessary for optimal TRAIL-mediated cleavage of Bid. Down-regulation of caspase-2 using RNA interference significantly inhibited TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Analysis of the TRAIL proteolytic cascade following gene silencing of specific pathway components revealed that caspase-2 is necessary for efficient cleavage of Bid; however, caspase-2 proteolytic processing, which occurs downstream of Bax, is not necessary for its role in Bid cleavage. PMID:15173176

Wagner, Klaus W; Engels, Ingo H; Deveraux, Quinn L

2004-06-01

12

PRIMA-1MET induces mitochondrial apoptosis through activation of caspase-2.  

PubMed

p53 mutations occur frequently in human tumors. The low-molecular-weight compound PRIMA-1(MET) reactivates mutant p53, induces apoptosis in human tumor cells and inhibits tumor xenograft growth in vivo. Here, we show that PRIMA-1(MET) induces mutant p53-dependent mitochondria-mediated apoptosis through activation of caspase-2 with subsequent cytochrome c release and further activation of downstream caspase-9 and caspase-3. Inhibition of caspase-2 by a selective inhibitor and/or siRNA prevents cytochrome c release on PRIMA-1(MET) treatment and causes a significant reduction in PRIMA-1(MET)-induced cell death. Our findings highlight a chain of cellular events triggered by PRIMA-1(MET) that lead to apoptotic cell death. This should facilitate further development and optimization of efficient PRIMA-1(MET)-based anticancer drugs. PMID:18663359

Shen, J; Vakifahmetoglu, H; Stridh, H; Zhivotovsky, B; Wiman, K G

2008-07-28

13

Metabolic Regulation of Caspase 2 in Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our research focuses on the apical apoptotic enzyme caspase 2 (C2), which has been proposed as a critical activating protease for breast cancer chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin and etoposide. Our lab has previously shown that C2 is held inactiv...

M. Buchakjian

2009-01-01

14

Caspase-2: Vestigial Remnant or Master Regulator?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Caspase-2, the second mammalian caspase to be identified and the most evolutionarily conserved caspase, has eluded classification. The lack of a profound phenotype in the caspase-2–deficient mouse resulted in decreased interest in caspase-2 for many years. However, advances in the field, including the identification of a potential activation complex and the development of methods to detect active caspase-2, now illuminate our understanding of the function of this caspase. These studies suggest that caspase-2 induces death through two pathways. First, caspase-2 induces cell death independently of the mitochondrial pathway, in a manner similar to that of ced-3, a caspase in Caenorhabditis elegans. Second, caspase-2 also induces cell death upstream of the mitochondrial pathway. The choice of pathway may depend on the type of death stimulus. The placing of caspase-2 upstream and independent of mitochondrial dysfunction provides a potentially new therapeutic target for aberrant cell death.

Carol M. Troy (Departments of Pathology and Neurology;Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons REV); Elena M. Ribe (Departments of Pathology and Neurology;Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons REV)

2008-09-23

15

Exploiting Novel Calcium-Mediated Apoptotic Processes for the Treatment of Human Breast.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Alterations in the regulation and initiation of cell death, in particular caspase-mediated apoptotic cell death, have been associated with a vast array of pathological disease states such as cancer, and the development of resistance to cancer chemotherapi...

M. S. Bentle D. A. Boothman

2005-01-01

16

Degradomics reveals that cleavage specificity profiles of caspase-2 and effector caspases are alike.  

PubMed

Caspase-2 is considered an initiator caspase because its long prodomain contains a CARD domain that allows its recruitment and activation in several complexes by homotypic death domain-fold interactions. Because little is known about the function and specificity of caspase-2 and its physiological substrates, we compared the cleavage specificity profile of recombinant human caspase-2 with those of caspase-3 and -7 by analyzing cell lysates using N-terminal COmbined FRActional DIagonal Chromatography (COFRADIC). Substrate analysis of the 68 cleavage sites identified in 61 proteins revealed that the protease specificities of human caspases-2, -3, and -7 largely overlap, revealing the DEVD?G consensus cleavage sequence. We confirmed that Asp(563) in eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4B (eIF4B) is a cleavage site preferred by caspase-2 not only in COFRADIC setup but also upon co-expression in HEK 293T cells. These results demonstrate that activated human caspase-2 shares remarkably overlapping protease specificity with the prototype apoptotic executioner caspases-3 and -7, suggesting that caspase-2 could function as a proapoptotic caspase once released from the activating complex. PMID:22825847

Wejda, Magdalena; Impens, Francis; Takahashi, Nozomi; Van Damme, Petra; Gevaert, Kris; Vandenabeele, Peter

2012-07-23

17

Degradomics Reveals That Cleavage Specificity Profiles of Caspase-2 and Effector Caspases Are Alike*  

PubMed Central

Caspase-2 is considered an initiator caspase because its long prodomain contains a CARD domain that allows its recruitment and activation in several complexes by homotypic death domain-fold interactions. Because little is known about the function and specificity of caspase-2 and its physiological substrates, we compared the cleavage specificity profile of recombinant human caspase-2 with those of caspase-3 and -7 by analyzing cell lysates using N-terminal COmbined FRActional DIagonal Chromatography (COFRADIC). Substrate analysis of the 68 cleavage sites identified in 61 proteins revealed that the protease specificities of human caspases-2, -3, and -7 largely overlap, revealing the DEVD?G consensus cleavage sequence. We confirmed that Asp563 in eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4B (eIF4B) is a cleavage site preferred by caspase-2 not only in COFRADIC setup but also upon co-expression in HEK 293T cells. These results demonstrate that activated human caspase-2 shares remarkably overlapping protease specificity with the prototype apoptotic executioner caspases-3 and -7, suggesting that caspase-2 could function as a proapoptotic caspase once released from the activating complex.

Wejda, Magdalena; Impens, Francis; Takahashi, Nozomi; Van Damme, Petra; Gevaert, Kris; Vandenabeele, Peter

2012-01-01

18

Elastase-mediated phosphatidylserine receptor cleavage impairs apoptotic cell clearance in cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis  

PubMed Central

Cystic fibrosis is characterized by an early and sustained influx of inflammatory cells into the airways and by release of proteases. Resolution of inflammation is normally associated with the orderly removal of dying apoptotic inflammatory cells through cell recognition receptors, such as the phosphatidylserine receptor, CD36, and ?v integrins. Accordingly, removal of apoptotic inflammatory cells may be impaired in persistent inflammatory responses such as that seen in cystic fibrosis airways. Examination of sputa from cystic fibrosis and non–cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis patients demonstrated an abundance of apoptotic cells, in excess of that seen in patients with chronic bronchitis. In vitro, cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis airway fluid directly inhibited apoptotic cell removal by alveolar macrophages in a neutrophil elastase-dependent manner, suggesting that elastase may impair apoptotic cell clearance in vivo. Flow cytometry demonstrated that neutrophil elastase cleaved the phosphatidylserine receptor, but not CD36 or CD32 (Fc?RII). Cleavage of the phosphatidylserine receptor by neutrophil elastase specifically disrupted phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, implying a potential mechanism for delayed apoptotic cell clearance in vivo. Therefore, defective airway clearance of apoptotic cells in cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis may be due to elastase-mediated cleavage of phosphatidylserine receptor on phagocytes and may contribute to ongoing airway inflammation.

Vandivier, R. William; Fadok, Valerie A.; Hoffmann, Peter R.; Bratton, Donna L.; Penvari, Churee; Brown, Kevin K.; Brain, Joseph D.; Accurso, Frank J.; Henson, Peter M.

2002-01-01

19

Arl8/ARL-8 functions in apoptotic cell removal by mediating phagolysosome formation in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Efficient clearance of apoptotic cells by phagocytes is important for development, tissue homeostasis, and the prevention of autoimmune responses. Phagosomes containing apoptotic cells undergo acidification and mature from Rab5-positive early to Rab7-positive late stages. Phagosomes finally fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes, which degrade apoptotic cells; however, the molecular mechanism underlying phagosome–lysosome fusion is not fully understood. Here we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans Arf-like small GTPase Arl8 (ARL-8) is involved in phagolysosome formation and is required for the efficient removal of apoptotic cells. Loss of function of arl-8 results in the accumulation of apoptotic germ cells. Both the engulfment of the apoptotic cells by surrounding somatic sheath cells and the phagosomal maturation from RAB-5- to RAB-7-positive stages occur in arl-8 mutants. However, the phagosomes fail to fuse with lysosomes in the arl-8 mutants, leading to the accumulation of RAB-7-positive phagosomes and the delayed degradation of apoptotic cells. ARL-8 localizes primarily to lysosomes and physically interacts with the homotypic fusion and protein sorting complex component VPS-41. Collectively our findings reveal that ARL-8 facilitates apoptotic cell removal in vivo by mediating phagosome–lysosome fusion during phagocytosis.

Sasaki, Ayaka; Nakae, Isei; Nagasawa, Maya; Hashimoto, Keisuke; Abe, Fumiko; Saito, Kota; Fukuyama, Masamitsu; Gengyo-Ando, Keiko; Mitani, Shohei; Katada, Toshiaki; Kontani, Kenji

2013-01-01

20

Ocular neuroprotection by siRNA targeting caspase-2.  

PubMed

Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss after optic nerve damage is a hallmark of certain human ophthalmic diseases including ischemic optic neuropathy (ION) and glaucoma. In a rat model of optic nerve transection, in which 80% of RGCs are eliminated within 14 days, caspase-2 was found to be expressed and cleaved (activated) predominantly in RGC. Inhibition of caspase-2 expression by a chemically modified synthetic short interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) delivered by intravitreal administration significantly enhanced RGC survival over a period of at least 30 days. This exogenously delivered siRNA could be found in RGC and other types of retinal cells, persisted inside the retina for at least 1 month and mediated sequence-specific RNA interference without inducing an interferon response. Our results indicate that RGC apoptosis induced by optic nerve injury involves activation of caspase-2, and that synthetic siRNAs designed to inhibit expression of caspase-2 represent potential neuroprotective agents for intervention in human diseases involving RGC loss. PMID:21677688

Ahmed, Z; Kalinski, H; Berry, M; Almasieh, M; Ashush, H; Slager, N; Brafman, A; Spivak, I; Prasad, N; Mett, I; Shalom, E; Alpert, E; Di Polo, A; Feinstein, E; Logan, A

2011-06-16

21

Caspase3-mediated secretion of connective tissue growth factor by apoptotic endothelial cells promotes fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptosis of endothelial cells (ECs) is an early pathogenic event in various fibrotic diseases. In this study, we evaluated whether paracrine mediators produced by apoptotic ECs play direct roles in fibrogenesis. C3H mice injected subcutaneously with serum-free medium conditioned by apoptotic ECs (SSC) showed increased skin thickness and heightened protein levels of ?-smooth-muscle actin (?SMA), vimentin and collagen I as

P Laplante; I Sirois; M-A Raymond; V Kokta; A Béliveau; A Prat; A V Pshezhetsky; M-J Hébert

2010-01-01

22

Caspase-2-Dependent Dendritic Cell Death, Maturation, and Priming of T Cells in Response to Brucella abortus Infection  

PubMed Central

Smooth virulent Brucella abortus strain 2308 (S2308) causes zoonotic brucellosis in cattle and humans. Rough B. abortus strain RB51, derived from S2308, is a live attenuated cattle vaccine strain licensed in the USA and many other countries. Our previous report indicated that RB51, but not S2308, induces a caspase-2-dependent apoptotic and necrotic macrophage cell death. Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells critical for bridging innate and adaptive immune responses. In contrast to Brucella-infected macrophages, here we report that S2308 induced higher levels of apoptotic and necrotic cell death in wild type bone marrow-derived DCs (WT BMDCs) than RB51. The RB51 and S2308-induced BMDC cell death was regulated by caspase-2, indicated by the minimal cell death in RB51 and S2308-infected BMDCs isolated from caspase-2 knockout mice (Casp2KO BMDCs). More S2308 bacteria were taken up by Casp2KO BMDCs than wild type BMDCs. Higher levels of S2308 and RB51 cells were found in infected Casp2KO BMDCs compared to infected WT BMDCs at different time points. RB51-infected wild type BMDCs were mature and activated as shown by significantly up-regulated expression of CD40, CD80, CD86, MHC-I, and MHC-II. RB51 induced the production of cytokines TNF-?, IL-6, IFN-? and IL12/IL23p40 in infected BMDCs. RB51-infected WT BMDCs also stimulated the proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells compared to uninfected WT BMDCs. However, the maturation, activation, and cytokine secretion are significantly impaired in Casp2KO BMDCs infected with RB51 or Salmonella (control). S2308-infected WT and Casp2KO BMDCs were not activated and could not induce cytokine production. These results demonstrated that virulent smooth strain S2308 induced more apoptotic and necrotic dendritic cell death than live attenuated rough vaccine strain RB51; however, RB51, but not its parent strain S2308, induced caspase-2-mediated DC maturation, cytokine production, antigen presentation, and T cell priming.

Li, Xinna; He, Yongqun

2012-01-01

23

Pharmacological Inhibition of Caspase-2 Protects Axotomised Retinal Ganglion Cells from Apoptosis in Adult Rats  

PubMed Central

Severing the axons of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) by crushing the optic nerve (ONC) causes the majority of RGC to degenerate and die, primarily by apoptosis. We showed recently that after ONC in adult rats, caspase-2 activation occurred specifically in RGC while no localisation of caspase-3 was observed in ganglion cells but in cells of the inner nuclear layer. We further showed that inhibition of caspase-2 using a single injection of stably modified siRNA to caspase-2 protected almost all RGC from death at 7 days, offering significant protection for up to 1 month after ONC. In the present study, we confirmed that cleaved caspase-2 was localised and activated in RGC (and occasional neurons in the inner nuclear layer), while TUNEL+ RGC were also observed after ONC. We then investigated if suppression of caspase-2 using serial intravitreal injections of the pharmacological inhibitor z-VDVAD-fmk (z-VDVAD) protected RGC from death for 15 days after ONC. Treatment of eyes with z-VDVAD suppressed cleaved caspase-2 activation by >85% at 3–4 days after ONC. Increasing concentrations of z-VDVAD protected greater numbers of RGC from death at 15 days after ONC, up to a maximum of 60% using 4000 ng/ml of z-VDVAD, compared to PBS treated controls. The 15-day treatment with 4000 ng/ml of z-VDVAD after ONC suppressed levels of cleaved caspase-2 but no significant changes in levels of cleaved caspase-3, -6, -7 or -8 were detected. Although suppression of caspase-2 protected 60% of RGC from death, RGC axon regeneration was not promoted. These results suggest that caspase-2 specifically mediates death of RGC after ONC and that suppression of caspase-2 may be a useful therapeutic strategy to enhance RGC survival not only after axotomy but also in diseases where RGC death occurs such as glaucoma and optic neuritis.

Vigneswara, Vasanthy; Berry, Martin; Logan, Ann; Ahmed, Zubair

2012-01-01

24

The PIDDosome, a Protein Complex Implicated in Activation of Caspase2 in Response to Genotoxic Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptosis is triggered by activation of initiator caspases upon complex-mediated clustering of the inactive zymogen, as occurs in the caspase-9-activating apoptosome complex. Likewise, caspase-2, which is involved in stress-induced apoptosis, is recruited into a large protein complex, the molecular composition of which remains elusive. We show that activation of caspase-2 occurs in a complex that contains the death domain-containing protein

Antoine Tinel; Jürg Tschopp

2004-01-01

25

Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 mediates the enhancement of apoptotic cell clearance by glucocorticoids.  

PubMed

The phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells is essential to prevent chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. The phosphatidylserine-binding protein milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a major opsonin for apoptotic cells, and MFG-E8(-/-) mice spontaneously develop a lupus-like disease. Similar to human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the murine disease is associated with an impaired clearance of apoptotic cells. SLE is routinely treated with glucocorticoids (GCs), whose anti-inflammatory effects are consentaneously attributed to the transrepression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here, we show that the GC-mediated transactivation of MFG-E8 expression and the concomitantly enhanced elimination of apoptotic cells constitute a novel aspect in this context. Patients with chronic inflammation receiving high-dose prednisone therapy displayed substantially increased MFG-E8 mRNA levels in circulating monocytes. MFG-E8 induction was dependent on the GC receptor and several GC response elements within the MFG-E8 promoter. Most intriguingly, the inhibition of MFG-E8 induction by RNA interference or genetic knockout strongly reduced or completely abolished the phagocytosis-enhancing effect of GCs in vitro and in vivo. Thus, MFG-E8-dependent promotion of apoptotic cell clearance is a novel anti-inflammatory facet of GC treatment and renders MFG-E8 a prospective target for future therapeutic interventions in SLE. PMID:23832117

Lauber, K; Keppeler, H; Munoz, L E; Koppe, U; Schröder, K; Yamaguchi, H; Krönke, G; Uderhardt, S; Wesselborg, S; Belka, C; Nagata, S; Herrmann, M

2013-07-05

26

Insights into Caspase-Mediated Apoptotic Pathways Induced by Amyloid-? in Cerebral Microvascular Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Background The vascular deposition of amyloid known as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) – an age-associated condition and a common finding in Alzheimer's disease – compromises cerebral blood flow, causing macro/microhemorrhages and/or cognitive impairment. Very little is known about the mechanisms causing CAA-related degeneration of cerebral vascular cells. The Dutch E22Q familial amyloid-? (A?) variant is primarily associated with CAA, and manifests clinically with severe cerebral hemorrhages. Objective: We aimed to determine the molecular mechanisms causing apoptosis of cerebral endothelial cells in the presence of wild-type A?40 or its vasculotropic E22Q variant. Methods We challenged human brain microvascular endothelial cells with both A? variants, and studied the apoptotic pathways triggered by these peptides. Results Caspase-mediated apoptotic pathways were elicited by both peptides within time frames correlating with their aggregation properties and formation of oligomeric/protofibrillar assemblies. Our data revealed a primary activation of caspase-8 (typically triggered by death receptors) with secondary engagement of caspase-9, with cytochrome C and apoptosis-inducing factor release from the mitochondria, suggesting the independent or synergistic engagement of extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic mechanisms. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate the induction of caspase-8- and caspase-9-dependent mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic pathways by A? oligomers/protofibrils in vascular cells, likely implicating a primary activation of death receptors.

Fossati, Silvia; Ghiso, Jorge; Rostagno, Agueda

2012-01-01

27

Real-time detection of caspase-2 activation in a single living HeLa cell during cisplatin-induced apoptosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Caspase-2 is important for the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, however, the mechanism by which caspase-2 executes apoptosis remains obscure. We carry out the first measurements of the dynamics of caspase-2 activation in a single living cell by a FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) probe. Two FRET probes are constructed that each encoded a CRS (caspase-2 or caspase-3 recognition site) fused with a cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and a red fluorescent protein (DsRed) (CFP-CRS-DsRed). Using these probes, we found that during cisplatin-induced apoptosis, caspase-2 activation occurred more slowly than did activation of caspase-3; additionally, caspase-2 activation was initiated much earlier than that of caspase-3.

Lin, Juqiang; Zhang, Zhihong; Yang, Jie; Zeng, Shaoqun; Liu, Bifeng; Luo, Qingming

2006-03-01

28

Murine glomerular mesangial cell uptake of apoptotic cells is inefficient and involves serum-mediated but complement-independent mechanisms  

PubMed Central

An increased number of apoptotic bodies have been detected in glomeruli of non-nephritic kidneys of C1q-deficient mice. In these mice an in vivo impaired uptake of apoptotic cells by peritoneal macrophages was also demonstrated. Here we investigated whether C1q plays a role in the in vitro clearance of apoptotic cells by glomerular mesangial cells. Phagocytosis was assessed using a novel flow cytometric assay that was validated by immunofluorescence studies. The uptake of apoptotic cells by mesangial cells, measured as percentage of mesangial cells ingesting apoptotic cells, was ?25%, 10% and 10% for a T cell lymphoma line (RMA), thymocytes and neutrophils, respectively. The uptake reached a plateau phase after 3 h, was specific for apoptotic cells and was mediated by serum but not by complement components C1q or C3. The phagocytosis of apoptotic cells was significantly inhibited by Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGDS), a peptide capable of blocking the interaction of thrombospondin with CD36 or the vitronectin receptor. Pretreatment of the mesangial cells with dexamethasone (200 nm) but not with LPS increased the uptake markedly. These findings indicate that murine mesangial cells are capable of taking up syngeneic apoptotic cells, although much less efficiently than professional phagocytic cells. They also show that serum proteins other than complement components mediate the removal of apoptotic cells by murine mesangial cells in vitro.

CORTES-HERNANDEZ, J; FOSSATI-JIMACK, L; CARUGATI, A; POTTER, P K; WALPORT, M J; COOK, H T; BOTTO, M

2002-01-01

29

Murine glomerular mesangial cell uptake of apoptotic cells is inefficient and involves serum-mediated but complement-independent mechanisms.  

PubMed

An increased number of apoptotic bodies have been detected in glomeruli of non-nephritic kidneys of C1q-deficient mice. In these mice an in vivo impaired uptake of apoptotic cells by peritoneal macrophages was also demonstrated. Here we investigated whether C1q plays a role in the in vitro clearance of apoptotic cells by glomerular mesangial cells. Phagocytosis was assessed using a novel flow cytometric assay that was validated by immunofluorescence studies. The uptake of apoptotic cells by mesangial cells, measured as percentage of mesangial cells ingesting apoptotic cells, was approximately 25%, 10% and 10% for a T cell lymphoma line (RMA), thymocytes and neutrophils, respectively. The uptake reached a plateau phase after 3 h, was specific for apoptotic cells and was mediated by serum but not by complement components C1q or C3. The phagocytosis of apoptotic cells was significantly inhibited by Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGDS), a peptide capable of blocking the interaction of thrombospondin with CD36 or the vitronectin receptor. Pretreatment of the mesangial cells with dexamethasone (200 nm) but not with LPS increased the uptake markedly. These findings indicate that murine mesangial cells are capable of taking up syngeneic apoptotic cells, although much less efficiently than professional phagocytic cells. They also show that serum proteins other than complement components mediate the removal of apoptotic cells by murine mesangial cells in vitro. PMID:12452836

Cortes-Hernandez, J; Fossati-Jimack, L; Carugati, A; Potter, P K; Walport, M J; Cook, H T; Botto, M

2002-12-01

30

Fanconi Anemia D2 Protein Is an Apoptotic Target Mediated by Caspases  

PubMed Central

FANCD2, a key factor in the FANC-BRCA1 pathway is monoubiquitinated and targeted to discrete nuclear foci following DNA damage. Since monoubiquitination of FANCD2 is a crucial indicator for cellular response to DNA damage, we monitored the fate of FANCD2 and its monoubiquitination following DNA damage. Disappearance of FANCD2 protein was induced following DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner, which correlated with degradation of BRCA1 and poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP), known targets for caspase-mediated apoptosis. Disappearance of FANCD2 was not affected by a proteasome inhibitor but was blocked by a caspase inhibitor. DNA damage-induced disappearance of FANCD2 was also observed in cells lacking FANCA, suggesting that disappearance of FANCD2 does not depend on FANC-BRCA1 pathway and FANCD2 monoubiquitination. In keeping with this, cells treated with TNF-?, an apoptotic stimulus without causing any DNA damage, also induced disappearance of FANCD2 without monoubiquitination. Together, our data suggest that FANCD2 is a target for caspase-mediated apoptotic pathway, which may be an early indicator for apoptotic cell death.

Park, Su-Jung; Beck, Brian D.; Saadatzadeh, M. Reza; Haneline, Laura S.; Clapp, D. Wade; Lee, Suk-Hee

2012-01-01

31

PIDDosome-independent tumor suppression by Caspase-2  

PubMed Central

The PIDDosome, a multiprotein complex constituted of the ‘p53-induced protein with a death domain (PIDD), ‘receptor-interacting protein (RIP)-associated ICH-1/CED-3 homologous protein with a death domain' (RAIDD) and pro-Caspase-2 has been defined as an activating platform for this apoptosis-related protease. PIDD has been implicated in p53-mediated cell death in response to DNA damage but also in DNA repair and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain enhancer (NF-?B) activation upon genotoxic stress, together with RIP-1 kinase and Nemo/IKK?. As all these cellular responses are critical for tumor suppression and deregulated expression of individual PIDDosome components has been noted in human cancer, we investigated their role in oncogenesis induced by DNA damage or oncogenic stress in gene-ablated mice. We observed that Pidd or Caspase-2 failed to suppress lymphoma formation triggered by ?-irradiation or 3-methylcholanthrene-driven fibrosarcoma development. In contrast, Caspase-2 showed tumor suppressive capacity in response to aberrant c-Myc expression, which did not rely on PIDD, the BH3-only protein Bid (BH3 interacting domain death agonist) or the death receptor ligand Trail (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand), but associated with reduced rates of p53 loss and increased extranodal dissemination of tumor cells. In contrast, Pidd deficiency associated with abnormal M-phase progression and delayed disease onset, indicating that both proteins are differentially engaged upon oncogenic stress triggered by c-Myc, leading to opposing effects on tumor-free survival.

Manzl, C; Peintner, L; Krumschnabel, G; Bock, F; Labi, V; Drach, M; Newbold, A; Johnstone, R; Villunger, Andreas

2012-01-01

32

PERP, a p53 proapoptotic target, mediates apoptotic cell death in renal ischemia.  

PubMed

The p53 tumor suppressor gene plays a crucial role in mediating apoptotic cell death in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). To further elucidate the p53-dependent pathway, we investigated the role of the p53 apoptosis effector related to PMP-22 (PERP), an apoptosis-associated p53 transcriptional target. PERP mRNA and protein are highly induced in the outer medullary proximal tubular cells (PTC) of ischemic kidneys postreperfusion at 3, 12, and 24 h in a p53-dependent manner. In PTC, overexpression of PERP augmented the rate of apoptosis following hypoxia by inducing mitochondrial permeability and subsequent release of cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), and caspase 9 activation. In addition, silencing of the PERP gene with short hairpin RNA prevented apoptosis in hypoxia-mediated injury by precluding mitochondrial dysfunction and consequent cytochrome c and AIF translocation. These data suggest that PERP is a key effector of p53-mediated apoptotic pathways and is a potential therapeutic target for renal IRI. PMID:19158346

Singaravelu, Kurinji; Devalaraja-Narashimha, Kishor; Lastovica, Brynn; Padanilam, Babu J

2009-01-21

33

Receptor-mediated control of regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and apoptotic volume decrease (AVD).  

PubMed

A fundamental property of animal cells is the ability to regulate their own cell volume. Even under hypotonic stress imposed by either decreased extracellular or increased intracellular osmolarity, the cells can re-adjust their volume after transient osmotic swelling by a mechanism known as regulatory volume decrease (RVD). In most cell types, RVD is accomplished mainly by KCl efflux induced by parallel activation of K+ and Cl- channels. We have studied the molecular mechanism of RVD in a human epithelial cell line (Intestine 407). Osmotic swelling results in a significant increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and thereby activates intermediate-conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ (IK) channels. Osmotic swelling also induces ATP release from the cells to the extracellular compartment. Released ATP stimulates purinergic ATP (P2Y2) receptors, thereby inducing phospholipase C-mediated Ca2+ mobilization. Thus, RVD is facilitated by stimulation of P2Y2 receptors due to augmentation of IK channels. In contrast, stimulation of another G protein-coupled Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaR) enhances the activity of volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying Cl- channels, thereby facilitating RVD. Therefore, it is possible that Ca2+ efflux stimulated by swelling-induced and P2Y2 receptor-mediated intracellular Ca2+ mobilization activates the CaR, thereby secondarily upregulating the volume-regulatory Cl- conductance. On the other hand, the initial process towards apoptotic cell death is coupled to normotonic cell shrinkage, called apoptotic volume decrease (AVD). Stimulation of death receptors, such as TNF receptor and Fas, induces AVD and thereafter biochemical apoptotic events in human lymphoid (U937), human epithelial (HeLa), mouse neuroblastoma x rat glioma hybrid (NG108-15) and rat phaeochromocytoma (PC12) cells. In those cells exhibiting AVD, facilitation of RVD is always observed. Both AVD induction and RVD facilitation as well as succeeding apoptotic events can be abolished by prior treatment with a blocker of volume-regulatory K+ or Cl- channels, suggesting that AVD is caused by normotonic activation of ion channels that are normally involved in RVD under hypotonic conditions. Therefore, it is likely that G protein-coupled receptors involved in RVD regulation and death receptors triggering AVD may share common downstream signals which should give us key clues to the detailed mechanisms of volume regulation and survival of animal cells. In this Topical Review, we look at the physiological ionic mechanisms of cell volume regulation and cell death-associated volume changes from the facet of receptor-mediated cellular processes. PMID:11283221

Okada, Y; Maeno, E; Shimizu, T; Dezaki, K; Wang, J; Morishima, S

2001-04-01

34

Receptor-mediated control of regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and apoptotic volume decrease (AVD)  

PubMed Central

A fundamental property of animal cells is the ability to regulate their own cell volume. Even under hypotonic stress imposed by either decreased extracellular or increased intracellular osmolarity, the cells can re-adjust their volume after transient osmotic swelling by a mechanism known as regulatory volume decrease (RVD). In most cell types, RVD is accomplished mainly by KCl efflux induced by parallel activation of K+ and Cl? channels. We have studied the molecular mechanism of RVD in a human epithelial cell line (Intestine 407). Osmotic swelling results in a significant increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and thereby activates intermediate-conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ (IK) channels. Osmotic swelling also induces ATP release from the cells to the extracellular compartment. Released ATP stimulates purinergic ATP (P2Y2) receptors, thereby inducing phospholipase C-mediated Ca2+ mobilization. Thus, RVD is facilitated by stimulation of P2Y2 receptors due to augmentation of IK channels. In contrast, stimulation of another G protein-coupled Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaR) enhances the activity of volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying Cl? channels, thereby facilitating RVD. Therefore, it is possible that Ca2+ efflux stimulated by swelling-induced and P2Y2 receptor-mediated intracellular Ca2+ mobilization activates the CaR, thereby secondarily upregulating the volume-regulatory Cl? conductance. On the other hand, the initial process towards apoptotic cell death is coupled to normotonic cell shrinkage, called apoptotic volume decrease (AVD). Stimulation of death receptors, such as TNF? receptor and Fas, induces AVD and thereafter biochemical apoptotic events in human lymphoid (U937), human epithelial (HeLa), mouse neuroblastoma × rat glioma hybrid (NG108-15) and rat phaeochromocytoma (PC12) cells. In those cells exhibiting AVD, facilitation of RVD is always observed. Both AVD induction and RVD facilitation as well as succeeding apoptotic events can be abolished by prior treatment with a blocker of volume-regulatory K+ or Cl? channels, suggesting that AVD is caused by normotonic activation of ion channels that are normally involved in RVD under hypotonic conditions. Therefore, it is likely that G protein-coupled receptors involved in RVD regulation and death receptors triggering AVD may share common downstream signals which should give us key clues to the detailed mechanisms of volume regulation and survival of animal cells. In this Topical Review, we look at the physiological ionic mechanisms of cell volume regulation and cell death-associated volume changes from the facet of receptor-mediated cellular processes.

Okada, Yasunobu; Maeno, Emi; Shimizu, Takahiro; Dezaki, Katsuya; Wang, Jun; Morishima, Shigeru

2001-01-01

35

MRP- and BCL-2-mediated drug resistance in human SCLC: effects of apoptotic sphingolipids in vitro.  

PubMed

Multidrug-resistance-associated protein (MRP) and BCL-2 contribute to drug resistance expressed in SCLC. To establish whether MRP-mediated drug resistance affects sphingolipid (SL)-induced apoptosis in SCLC, we first examined the human SCLC cell line, UMCC-1, and its MRP over-expressing, drug-resistant subline, UMCC-1/VP. Despite significantly decreased sensitivity to doxorubicin (Dox) and to the etoposide, VP-16, the drug-selected line was essentially equally as sensitive to treatment with exogenous ceramide (Cer), sphingosine (Sp) or dimethyl-sphingosine (DMSP) as the parental line. Next, we observed that high BCL-2-expressing human H69 SCLC cells, that were approximately 160-fold more sensitive to Dox than their combined BCL-2 and MRP-over-expressing (H69AR) counterparts, were only approximately 5-fold more resistant to DMSP. Time-lapse fluorescence microscopy of either UMCC cell line treated with DMSP-Coumarin revealed comparable extents and kinetics of SL uptake, further ruling out MRP-mediated effects on drug uptake. DMSP potentiated the cytotoxic activity of VP-16 and Taxol, but not Dox, in drug-resistant UMCC-1/VP cells. However, this sensitization did not appear to involve DMSP-mediated effects on the function of MRP in drug export; nor did DMSP strongly shift the balance of pro-apoptotic Sps and anti-apoptotic Sp-1-Ps in these cells. We conclude that SL-induced apoptosis markedly overcomes or bypasses MRP-mediated drug resistance relevant to SCLC and may suggest a novel therapeutic approach to chemotherapy for these tumors. PMID:19195736

Khodadadian, M; Leroux, M E; Auzenne, E; Ghosh, S C; Farquhar, D; Evans, R; Spohn, W; Zou, Y; Klostergaard, J

2009-02-04

36

Loss of caspase-2-dependent apoptosis induces autophagy after mitochondrial oxidative stress in primary cultures of young adult cortical neurons.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial dysfunctions have been associated with neuronal apoptosis and are characteristic of neurodegenerative conditions. Caspases play a central role in apoptosis; however, their involvement in mitochondrial dysfunction-induced neuronal apoptosis remains elusive. In the present report using rotenone, a complex I inhibitor that causes mitochondrial dysfunction, we determined the initiator caspase and its role in cell death in primary cultures of cortical neurons from young adult mice (1-2 months old). By pretreating the cells with a cell-permeable, biotinylated pan-caspase inhibitor that irreversibly binds to and traps the active caspase, we identified caspase-2 as an initiator caspase activated in rotenone-treated primary neurons. Loss of caspase-2 inhibited rotenone-induced apoptosis; however, these neurons underwent a delayed cell death by necrosis. We further found that caspase-2 acts upstream of mitochondria to mediate rotenone-induced apoptosis in neurons. The loss of caspase-2 significantly inhibited rotenone-induced activation of Bid and Bax and the release of cytochrome c and apoptosis inducing factor from mitochondria. Rotenone-induced downstream activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 were also inhibited in the neurons lacking caspase-2. Autophagy was enhanced in caspase-2 knock-out neurons after rotenone treatment, and this response was important in prolonging neuronal survival. In summary, the present study identifies a novel function of caspase-2 in mitochondrial oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in neurons cultured from young adult mice. PMID:21216964

Tiwari, Meenakshi; Lopez-Cruzan, Marisa; Morgan, William W; Herman, Brian

2011-01-07

37

Oligomycin A enhances apoptotic effect of TRAIL through CHOP-mediated death receptor 5 expression.  

PubMed

Development of resistance to TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in tumor cells is one of the important problems in cancer treatment. Despite the previous report demonstrating that oligomycin suppressed TNF-induced apoptosis, in our screening of small molecules enhancing cancer cell death to TRAIL, oligomycin A (OMA) was found to enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) was found to directly bind to death receptor 5 (DR5) promoter through endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER-stress) signaling and sensitize the cells to TRAIL. Among ER-stress associated proteins, OMA triggered the inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) signaling pathway, leading to X-binding protein 1 (XBP1) splicing, CHOP expression and DR5 upregulation. In contrast, small-interfering RNA (siRNA) of CHOP reduced the number of apoptotic cells in response to the co-treatment of TRAIL and OMA. Collectively, our data suggest that OMA enhances apoptotic death of cervical cancer cells to TRAIL through upregulation of CHOP-mediated DR5 expression following ER-stress. PMID:23335397

He, Long; Jang, Jae Hyuk; Choi, Hyun Gil; Lee, Sun Mi; Nan, Mei Hua; Jeong, Sook Jung; Dong, Zigang; Kwon, Yong Tae; Lee, Kyung Sang; Lee, Ki Won; Chung, Jong Kyeong; Ahn, Jong Seog; Kim, Bo Yeon

2011-11-15

38

Antiapoptotic Signaling via MCL1 Confers Resistance to Caspase-3-Mediated Apoptotic Cell Death in the Pregnant Human Uterine Myocyte  

PubMed Central

Our group has previously identified elevated levels of nonapoptotic active caspase 3 (CASP3) accompanied by increased prosurvival, antiapoptotic signaling in the pregnant mouse uterus during late gestation. We speculated that increased antiapoptotic signaling desensitized the pregnant uterine myocyte to the apoptotic action of uterine CASP3. This current study examines the mechanism by which the pregnant myocyte gains resistance to the apoptotic effects of increased uterine CASP3. Using both primary human pregnant fundal myometrial cultures and the telomerase-immortalized human uterine myocyte cell line (hTERT) as our model systems, uterine myocytes were exposed to UV irradiation and Fas ligand to stimulate both the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Stimulation of either the intrinsic or extrinsic apoptotic pathways resulted in elevated levels of uterine myocyte CASP3. However, apoptotic cell death was restricted to CASP3 activated by intrinsic stimulation via UV light. In contrast Fas ligand-mediated CASP3 activation was accompanied by increased antiapoptotic signaling mimicking our in vivo observations in the pregnant mouse uterus. Using small interfering RNA to inhibit antiapoptotic signaling, we determined the ability of the human uterine myocyte to resist apoptotic cell death in the absence of the prosurvival, antiapoptotic signaling. Accordingly, suppression of antiapoptotic signaling specifically mediated by myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 was sufficient to sensitize the uterine myocyte to undergo apoptotic cell death. These data demonstrate that elevated myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 levels are sufficient to confer apoptotic resistance on the human uterine myocyte despite highly elevated levels of active CASP3.

Stephenson-Famy, Alyssa; Marks, Jason; Suresh, Arvind; Caritis, Stanley N.; Simhan, Hygraiv; Jeyasuria, Pancharatnam

2012-01-01

39

GRAMD4 mimics p53 and mediates the apoptotic function of p73 at mitochondria  

PubMed Central

p73, a member of the p53 family, shares high sequence homology with p53 and shows many p53-like properties: it binds to p53-DNA target sites, transactivates p53-responsive genes and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Apart from this transcription-dependent effect, less is known about the downstream mechanism(s) by which p73 controls cell fate at the mitochondria. We have previously identified GRAMD4 (alias KIAA0767 or Death-Inducing-Protein) as a novel p53-independent pro-apoptotic target of E2F1, which localizes to mitochondria. In this study, we found that p73-induced apoptosis is mediated by GRAMD4 expression and translocation to the mitochondria. We showed that this protein physically interacts with Bcl-2, promotes Bax mitochondrial relocalization and oligomerization, and is highly efficient in inducing mitochondrial membrane permeabilization with release of cytochrome c and Smac. Overexpression of p73? and p73? isoforms, but not p53, leads to direct GRAMD4 promoter transactivation. In addition, GRAMD4 induces changes in Bcl-2 and Bax protein levels. GRAMD4 transcription is activated in response to cisplatin (cDDP) in a manner dependent on endogenous p73. Using solid tumor xenografts, ectopic expression of GRAMD4 together with cDDP resulted in enhanced cancer killing. Our findings demonstrate that p73 is able to trigger apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway by a new mechanism using pro-apoptotic GRAMD4 as mediator, and strongly support its p53-like function.

John, K; Alla, V; Meier, C; Putzer, B M

2011-01-01

40

Phosphatidylserine (PS) induces PS receptor-mediated macropinocytosis and promotes clearance of apoptotic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

fficient phagocytosis of apoptotic cells is important for normal tissue development, homeostasis, and the resolution of inflammation. Although many receptors have been implicated in the clearance of apoptotic cells, the roles of these receptors in the engulfment process have not been well defined. We developed a novel system to distinguish between receptors involved in tethering of apoptotic cells versus those

Peter R. Hoffmann; Aimee M. deCathelineau; Carol Anne Ogden; Yann Leverrier; Donna L. Bratton; David L. Daleke; Anne J. Ridley; Valerie A. Fadok; Peter M. Henson

2001-01-01

41

Abnormal Sperm Parameters in Humans Are Indicative of an Abortive Apoptotic Mechanism Linked to the Fas-Mediated Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life cycle of many cell types can hinge on the presence of death factors that can control programmed cell death. The Fas-mediated apoptotic pathway has been implicated in controlling apoptosis during spermatogenesis in a number of mammalian species. In the human, the presence of nuclear DNA damage in ejaculated spermatozoa has pointed to a possible role for apoptosis during

Denny Sakkas; Ewa Mariethoz; Justin C. St. John

1999-01-01

42

DIEPOXYBUTANE ACTIVATES THE MITOCHONDRIAL APOPTOTIC PATHWAY AND MEDIATES APOPTOSIS IN HUMAN LYMPHOBLASTS THROUGH OXIDATIVE STRESS  

PubMed Central

Diepoxybutane (DEB) is the most potent metabolite of the environmental chemical 1, 3-butadiene (BD), which is prevalent in petrochemical industrial areas. BD is a known mutagen and human carcinogen, and possesses multi-systems organ toxicity. We recently reported that DEB-induced cell death in TK6 lymphoblasts was due to the occurrence of apoptosis, and not necrosis. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms responsible for DEB-induced apoptosis in these cells. Bax and Bak were found to be over-expressed and activated, and the mitochondrial trans-membrane potential was attenuated in cells undergoing DEB-induced apoptosis. Cytochrome c was depleted from the mitochondria of TK6 cells undergoing apoptosis, and was released into the cytosol in Jurkat-T lymphoblasts exposed to the same concentrations of DEB. Executioner caspase 3 was deduced to be activated by initiator caspase 9. DEB induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine effectively blocked DEB-induced apoptosis in TK6 cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway is activated to mediate DEB-induced apoptosis in human TK6 lymphoblasts. These results further demonstrate that DEB-induced apoptosis is also mediated by the DEB-induced generation of ROS. This is the first report to examine the mechanism of DEB-induced apoptosis in human lymphoblasts.

Yadavilli, Sridevi; Martinez-Ceballos, Eduardo; Snowden-Aikens, Janana; Hurst, Angela; Joseph, Tranole; Albrecht, Thomas; Muganda, Perpetua M.

2007-01-01

43

Upregulation of extrinsic apoptotic pathway in curcumin-mediated antiproliferative effect on human pancreatic carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal human cancers, with almost identical incidence and mortality rates. Curcumin, derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, has a long history of use as coloring agent and for a wide variety of disorders. Here, the antiproliferative activity of curcumin and its modulatory effect on gene expression of pancreatic cancer cell lines were investigated. The effect of curcumin on cellular proliferation and viability was monitored by sulphurhodamine B assay. Apoptotic effect was evaluated by flow cytometry and further confirmed by measuring amount of cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragments. Analysis of gene expression was performed with and without curcumin treatment using microarray expression profiling techniques. Array results were confirmed by real-time PCR. ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) has been used to classify the list of differentially expressed genes and to indentify common biomarkergenes modulating the chemopreventive effect of curcumin. Results showed that curcumin induces growth arrest and apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cell lines. Its effect was more obvious on the highly COX-2 expressing cell line. Additionally, the expression of 366 and 356 cancer-related genes, involved in regulation of apoptosis, cell cycle, metastasis, was significantly altered after curcumin treatment in BxPC-3 and MiaPaCa-2 cells, respectively. Our results suggested that up-regulation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway was among signaling pathways modulating the growth inhibitory effects of curcumin on pancreatic cancer cells. Curcumin effect was mediated through activation of TNFR, CASP 8, CASP3, BID, BAX, and down-regulation of NF?B, NDRG 1, and BCL2L10 genes. J. Cell. Biochem. 114: 2654-2665, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23794119

Youns, Mahmoud; Fathy, Gihan Mahmoud

2013-12-01

44

Impaired antioxidant defence and accumulation of oxidative stress in caspase-2-deficient mice  

PubMed Central

Caspase-2 has been implicated in apoptosis and in non-apoptotic processes such as cell cycle regulation, tumor suppression and ageing. Using caspase-2 knockout (casp2?/?) mice, we show here that the putative anti-ageing role of this caspase is due in part to its involvement in the stress response pathway. The old casp2?/? mice show increased cellular levels of oxidized proteins, lipid peroxides and DNA damage, suggesting enhanced oxidative stress. Furthermore, murine embryonic fibroblasts from casp2?/? mice showed increased reactive oxygen species generation when challenged with pro-oxidants. Reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were observed in the old casp2?/? mice. Interestingly, in the old casp2?/? animals expression of FoxO1 and FoxO3a was significantly reduced, whereas p21 levels and the number of senescent hepatocytes were elevated. In contrast to young wild-type mice, the casp2?/? animals fed an on ethanol-based diet failed to show enhanced GSH-Px and SOD activities. Thus, caspase-2, most likely via FoxO transcription factors, regulates the oxidative stress response in vivo.

Shalini, S; Dorstyn, L; Wilson, C; Puccini, J; Ho, L; Kumar, S

2012-01-01

45

Impaired antioxidant defence and accumulation of oxidative stress in caspase-2-deficient mice.  

PubMed

Caspase-2 has been implicated in apoptosis and in non-apoptotic processes such as cell cycle regulation, tumor suppression and ageing. Using caspase-2 knockout (casp2(-/-)) mice, we show here that the putative anti-ageing role of this caspase is due in part to its involvement in the stress response pathway. The old casp2(-/-) mice show increased cellular levels of oxidized proteins, lipid peroxides and DNA damage, suggesting enhanced oxidative stress. Furthermore, murine embryonic fibroblasts from casp2(-/-) mice showed increased reactive oxygen species generation when challenged with pro-oxidants. Reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were observed in the old casp2(-/-) mice. Interestingly, in the old casp2(-/-) animals expression of FoxO1 and FoxO3a was significantly reduced, whereas p21 levels and the number of senescent hepatocytes were elevated. In contrast to young wild-type mice, the casp2(-/-) animals fed an on ethanol-based diet failed to show enhanced GSH-Px and SOD activities. Thus, caspase-2, most likely via FoxO transcription factors, regulates the oxidative stress response in vivo. PMID:22343713

Shalini, S; Dorstyn, L; Wilson, C; Puccini, J; Ho, L; Kumar, S

2012-02-17

46

Polyglutamine-expanded androgen receptor truncation fragments activate a Bax-dependent apoptotic cascade mediated by DP5/Hrk  

PubMed Central

Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an inherited neuromuscular disorder caused by a polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat expansion in the androgen receptor (AR). PolyQ-AR neurotoxicity may involve generation of an amino-terminal truncation fragment, as such peptides occur in SBMA patients and mouse models. To elucidate the basis of SBMA, we expressed amino-terminal truncated AR in motor neuron-derived cells and primary cortical neurons. Accumulation of polyQ-AR truncation fragments in the cytosol resulted in neurodegeneration and apoptotic, caspase-dependent cell death. Using primary neurons from mice transgenic or deficient for apoptosis-related genes, we determined that polyQ-AR apoptotic activation is fully dependent on Bax. Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was required for apoptotic pathway activation through phosphorylation of c-Jun. Expression of polyQ-AR in DP5/Hrk null neurons yielded significant protection against apoptotic activation, but absence of Bim did not provide protection, apparently due to compensatory up-regulation of DP5/Hrk or other BH3-only proteins. Misfolded AR protein in the cytosol thus initiates a cascade of events beginning with JNK and culminating in Bax-dependent, intrinsic pathway activation, mediated in part by DP5/Hrk. As apoptotic mediators are candidates for toxic fragment generation and other cellular processes linked to neuron dysfunction, delineation of the apoptotic activation pathway induced by polyQ-expanded AR may shed light on the pathogenic cascade in SBMA and other motor neuron diseases.

Young, Jessica E.; Garden, Gwenn A.; Martinez, Refugio A.; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Sandoval, C. Miguel; Smith, Annette C.; Sopher, Bryce L.; Lin, Amy; Fischbeck, Kenneth H.; Ellerby, Lisa M.; Morrison, Richard S.; Taylor, J. Paul; La Spada, Albert R.

2009-01-01

47

Caspase-9 mediates the apoptotic death of megakaryocytes and platelets, but is dispensable for their generation and function.  

PubMed

Apoptotic caspases, including caspase-9, are thought to facilitate platelet shedding by megakaryocytes. They are known to be activated during platelet apoptosis, and have also been implicated in platelet hemostatic responses. However, the precise requirement for, and the regulation of, apoptotic caspases have never been defined in either megakaryocytes or platelets. To establish the role of caspases in platelet production and function, we generated mice lacking caspase-9 in their hematopoietic system. We demonstrate that both megakaryocytes and platelets possess a functional apoptotic caspase cascade downstream of Bcl-2 family-mediated mitochondrial damage. Caspase-9 is the initiator caspase, and its loss blocks effector caspase activation. Surprisingly, steady-state thrombopoiesis is unperturbed in the absence of caspase-9, indicating that the apoptotic caspase cascade is not required for platelet production. In platelets, loss of caspase-9 confers resistance to the BH3 mimetic ABT-737, blocking phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure and delaying ABT-737-induced thrombocytopenia in vivo. Despite this, steady-state platelet lifespan is normal. Casp9(-/-) platelets are fully capable of physiologic hemostatic responses and functional regulation of adhesive integrins in response to agonist. These studies demonstrate that the apoptotic caspase cascade is required for the efficient death of megakaryocytes and platelets, but is dispensable for their generation and function. PMID:22294729

White, Michael J; Schoenwaelder, Simone M; Josefsson, Emma C; Jarman, Kate E; Henley, Katya J; James, Chloé; Debrincat, Marlyse A; Jackson, Shaun P; Huang, David C S; Kile, Benjamin T

2012-01-31

48

Role of Apoptotic Proteins in REC-2006 Mediated Radiation Protection in Hepatoma Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

The present study was carried out to evaluate the role of apoptotic proteins in REC-2006-mediated radiation protection in hepatoma cell lines. REC-2006 treatment 2?h before irradiation strongly inhibited the cleavage of ATM and PARP-1 in HepG2 cells. The expression of nuclear apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) was found to be more inhibited (~17%) in HepG2 cells in REC-2006 + radiation-treated group. More inhibition (~33%) of cytochrome c was observed in HepG2 cells upon REC-2006 treatment 2?h prior irradiation. Similarly, significantly more (P<.05) inhibition of Apaf-1, caspase-9 and caspase-3 was observed in REC-2006 + radition-treated group in HepG2 cells. REC-2006 treatment restored the expression of ICAD in HepG2 cells; however, no restoration was observed in Hep3B cells. Lower nuclear to cytoplasmic CAD ratio was observed in HepG2 cells (~0.6) as compared with Hep3B cells (~1.2) in REC-2006 + radiation-treated group. In conclusion, REC-2006 rendered higher protection in HepG2 cells by inhibiting the expression and translocation of AIF, inhibiting the cleavage of ATM and PARP-1, restoring the expression of ICAD, inhibiting the release of cytochrome c and thus modulating the expression of Apaf-1 caspase-9 and activity of caspase-3.

Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Kumar, Raj; Sharma, Ashok; Arora, Rajesh; Chawla, Raman; Jain, Swatantra Kumar; Tripathi, Rajendra Prasad; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

2011-01-01

49

Direct involvement of the receptor-mediated apoptotic pathways in cisplatin-induced renal tubular cell death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct involvement of the receptor-mediated apoptotic pathways in cisplatin-induced renal tubular cell death.BackgroundTumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family members, such as Fas and TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1), are thought to induce apoptosis in a variety of cells and organs. Although a number of potential scenarios have been postulated for the involvement of these receptors in the pathogenesis of acute renal

Kazuhiko Tsuruya; Toshiharu Ninomiya; Masanori Tokumoto; Makoto Hirakawa; Kohsuke Masutani; Masatomo Taniguchi; Kyoichi Fukuda; Hidetoshi Kanai; Kenji Kishihara; Hideki Hirakata; Mitsuo Iida

2003-01-01

50

Huntingtin-interacting protein 1-mediated neuronal cell death occurs through intrinsic apoptotic pathways and mitochondrial alterations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huntingtin interacting protein-1 (Hip1) is known to be associated with the N-terminal domain of huntingtin. Although Hip1 can induce apoptosis, the exact upstream signal transduction pathways have not been clarified yet. In the present study, we examined whether activation of intrinsic and\\/or extrinsic apoptotic pathways occurs during Hip1-mediated neuronal cell death. Overexpression of Hip1 induced cell death through caspase-3 activation

Shin Ae Choi; Steven J. Kim; Kwang Chul Chung

2006-01-01

51

Pro-apoptotic gene knockdown mediated by nanocomplexed siRNA reduces radiation damage in primary salivary gland cultures.  

PubMed

A critical issue in the management of head and neck tumors is radioprotection of the salivary glands. We have investigated whether siRNA-mediated gene knock down of pro-apoptotic mediators can reduce radiation-induced cellular apoptosis in salivary gland cells in vitro. We used novel, pH-responsive nanoparticles to deliver functionally active siRNAs into cultures of salivary gland cells. The nanoparticle molecules are comprised of cationic micelles that electrostatically interact with the siRNA, protecting it from nuclease attack, and also include pH-responsive endosomolytic constituents that promote release of the siRNA into the target cell cytoplasm. Transfection controls with Cy3-tagged siRNA/nanoparticle complexes showed efficiently internalized siRNAs in more than 70% of the submandibular gland cells. We found that introduction of siRNAs specifically targeting the Pkc? or Bax genes significantly blocked the induction of these pro-apoptotic proteins that normally occurs after radiation in cultured salivary gland cells. Furthermore, the level of cell death from subsequent radiation, as measured by caspase-3, TUNEL, and mitochondrial disruption assays, was significantly decreased. Thus, we have successfully demonstrated that the siRNA/nanoparticle-mediated knock down of pro-apoptotic genes can prevent radiation-induced damage in submandibular gland primary cell cultures. PMID:22253051

Arany, Szilvia; Xu, Qingfu; Hernady, Eric; Benoit, Danielle S W; Dewhurst, Steve; Ovitt, Catherine E

2012-06-01

52

Hepatocyte growth factor-mediated attraction of mesenchymal stem cells for apoptotic neuronal and cardiomyocytic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) home to injured tissues and have regenerative capacity. In this study,\\u000a we have investigated in vitro the influence of apoptotic and necrotic cell death, thus distinct types of tissue damage, on\\u000a MSC migration. Concordant with an increased overall motility, MSC migrated towards apoptotic, but not vital or necrotic neuronal\\u000a and cardiac cells. Hepatocyte

Sebastian Vogel; Thorsten Trapp; Verena Börger; Corinna Peters; Dalila Lakbir; Dagmar Dilloo; Rüdiger V. Sorg

2010-01-01

53

phagocytosis of apoptotic leukocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various types of phagocytes mediate the clearance of apoptotic cells. We previously reported that human and murine high endothelial venule (HEV) cells ingest apoptotic cells. In this report, we examined endothelial cell fucoidin re- ceptor-mediated phagocytosis using a murine en- dothelial cell model mHEV. mHEV cell recognition of apoptotic leukocytes was blocked by fucoidin but not by other phagocytic receptor

Jacob D. Johnson; Krista L. Hess; Joan M. Cook-Mills

54

Vaccinia virus infection disarms the mitochondrion-mediated pathway of the apoptotic cascade by modulating the permeability transition pore.  

PubMed

Many viruses have evolved strategies that target crucial components within the apoptotic cascade. One of the best studied is the caspase 8 inhibitor, crmA/Spi-2, encoded by members of the poxvirus family. Since many proapoptotic stimuli induce apoptosis through a mitochondrion-dependent, caspase 8-independent pathway, we hypothesized that vaccinia virus would encode a mechanism to directly modulate the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In support of this, we observed that Jurkat cells, which undergo Fas-mediated apoptosis exclusively through the mitochondrial route, were resistant to Fas-induced death following infection with a crmA/Spi-2-deficient strain of vaccinia virus. In addition, vaccinia virus-infected cells subjected to the proapoptotic stimulus staurosporine exhibited decreased levels of both cytochrome c released from the mitochondria and caspase 3 activation. In all cases we found that the loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, which occurs as a result of opening the multimeric permeability transition pore complex, was prevented in vaccinia virus-infected cells. Moreover, vaccinia virus infection specifically inhibited opening of the permeability transition pore following treatment with the permeability transition pore ligand atractyloside and t-butylhydroperoxide. These studies indicate that vaccinia virus infection directly impacts the mitochondrial apoptotic cascade by influencing the permeability transition pore. PMID:11689625

Wasilenko, S T; Meyers, A F; Vander Helm, K; Barry, M

2001-12-01

55

Vaccinia Virus Infection Disarms the Mitochondrion-Mediated Pathway of the Apoptotic Cascade by Modulating the Permeability Transition Pore  

PubMed Central

Many viruses have evolved strategies that target crucial components within the apoptotic cascade. One of the best studied is the caspase 8 inhibitor, crmA/Spi-2, encoded by members of the poxvirus family. Since many proapoptotic stimuli induce apoptosis through a mitochondrion-dependent, caspase 8-independent pathway, we hypothesized that vaccinia virus would encode a mechanism to directly modulate the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In support of this, we observed that Jurkat cells, which undergo Fas-mediated apoptosis exclusively through the mitochondrial route, were resistant to Fas-induced death following infection with a crmA/Spi-2-deficient strain of vaccinia virus. In addition, vaccinia virus-infected cells subjected to the proapoptotic stimulus staurosporine exhibited decreased levels of both cytochrome c released from the mitochondria and caspase 3 activation. In all cases we found that the loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, which occurs as a result of opening the multimeric permeability transition pore complex, was prevented in vaccinia virus-infected cells. Moreover, vaccinia virus infection specifically inhibited opening of the permeability transition pore following treatment with the permeability transition pore ligand atractyloside and t-butylhydroperoxide. These studies indicate that vaccinia virus infection directly impacts the mitochondrial apoptotic cascade by influencing the permeability transition pore.

Wasilenko, Shawn T.; Meyers, Adrienne F. A.; Vander Helm, Kathleen; Barry, Michele

2001-01-01

56

Caspase-2 is upregulated after sciatic nerve transection and its inhibition protects dorsal root ganglion neurons from apoptosis after serum withdrawal.  

PubMed

Sciatic nerve (SN) transection-induced apoptosis of dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGN) is one factor determining the efficacy of peripheral axonal regeneration and the return of sensation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that caspase-2 (CASP2) orchestrates apoptosis of axotomised DRGN both in vivo and in vitro by disrupting the local neurotrophic supply to DRGN. We observed significantly elevated levels of cleaved CASP2 (C-CASP2), compared to cleaved caspase-3 (C-CASP3), within TUNEL+DRGN and DRG glia (satellite and Schwann cells) after SN transection. A serum withdrawal cell culture model, which induced 40% apoptotic death in DRGN and 60% in glia, was used to model DRGN loss after neurotrophic factor withdrawal. Elevated C-CASP2 and TUNEL were observed in both DRGN and DRG glia, with C-CASP2 localisation shifting from the cytosol to the nucleus, a required step for induction of direct CASP2-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated downregulation of CASP2 protected 50% of DRGN from apoptosis after serum withdrawal, while downregulation of CASP3 had no effect on DRGN or DRG glia survival. We conclude that CASP2 orchestrates the death of SN-axotomised DRGN directly and also indirectly through loss of DRG glia and their local neurotrophic factor support. Accordingly, inhibiting CASP2 expression is a potential therapy for improving both the SN regeneration response and peripheral sensory recovery. PMID:23451279

Vigneswara, Vasanthy; Berry, Martin; Logan, Ann; Ahmed, Zubair

2013-02-25

57

Puma is an essential mediator of p53-dependent and -independent apoptotic pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Puma encodes a BH3-only protein that is induced by the p53 tumor suppressor and other apoptotic stimuli. To assess its physiological role in apoptosis, we generated Puma knockout mice by gene targeting. Here we report that Puma is essential for hematopoietic cell death triggered by ionizing radiation (IR), deregulated c-Myc expression, and cytokine withdrawal. Puma is also required for IR-induced

John R. Jeffers; Evan Parganas; Youngsoo Lee; Chunying Yang; JinLing Wang; Jennifer Brennan; Kirsteen H. MacLean; Jiawen Han; Thomas Chittenden; James N. Ihle; Peter J. McKinnon; John L. Cleveland; Gerard P. Zambetti

2003-01-01

58

Axl receptor activation mediates laminar shear stress anti-apoptotic effects in human endothelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Laminar Shear Stress (SS) induces cytosolic acidification and protects endothelial cells (ECs) from apoptosis. Our prior studies showed that acidification protects ECs from serum deprivation-induced apoptosis by a mechanism directly involving Axl-receptor activation. Aim of the present study was to determine whether the anti-apoptotic action of SS involves acidification-dependent Axl activation. Methods and results: Axl mRNA and protein levels

Daniela D'Arcangelo; Valeria Ambrosino; Maria Giannuzzo; Carlo Gaetano; Maurizio C. Capogrossi

2006-01-01

59

Integrin ?PS3/??-mediated phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and bacteria in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Integrins exert a variety of cellular functions as heterodimers of two transmembrane subunits named ? and ?. Integrin ??, a ?-subunit of Drosophila integrin, is involved in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and bacteria. Here, we searched for an ?-subunit that forms a complex and cooperates with ??. Examinations of RNAi-treated animals suggested that ?PS3, but not any of four other ?-subunits, is required for the effective phagocytosis of apoptotic cells in Drosophila embryos. The mutation of ?PS3-encoding scb, deficiency, insertion of P-element, or alteration of nucleotide sequences, brought about a reduction in the level of phagocytosis. The defect in phagocytosis by deficiency was reverted by the forced expression of scb. Furthermore, flies in which the expression of both ?PS3 and ?? was inhibited by RNAi showed a level of phagocytosis almost equal to that observed in flies with RNAi for either subunit alone. A loss of ?PS3 also decreased the activity of larval hemocytes in the phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus. Finally, a co-immunoprecipitation analysis using a Drosophila cell line treated with a chemical cross-linker suggested a physical association between ?PS3 and ??. These results collectively indicated that integrin ?PS3/?? serves as a receptor in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and bacteria by Drosophila phagocytes. PMID:23426364

Nonaka, Saori; Nagaosa, Kaz; Mori, Toshinobu; Shiratsuchi, Akiko; Nakanishi, Yoshinobu

2013-02-20

60

Hsp72 mediates TAp73? anti-apoptotic effects in small cell lung carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

The transcription factor p73, a member of the p53 family of proteins, is involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Due to alternative promoters and carboxy-terminal splicing, the?P73?gene gives rise to a range of different isoforms. Interestingly, a particular increase in expression of the TAp73? isoform has been reported in various tumours. In addition, TAp73? has been shown to inhibit Bax activation and mitochondrial dysfunctions and thereby to confer small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) cells resistance to drug-induced apoptosis. However, the precise mechanism by which TAp73? exerts its pro-survival effect is yet unclear. Here we report that TAp73?, but not TAp73?, regulates the expression of inducible Hsp72/HSPA1A. Hsp72 proved to be required for the survival effects of TAp73? as antisense knockdown of Hsp72 resulted in an abolishment of the anti-apoptotic effect of TAp73? in SCLC cells upon Etoposide treatment. Importantly, depletion of Hsp72 allowed activation of Bax, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and lysosomal membrane permeabilization in SCLC cells even in the presence of TAp73?. Finally, we revealed that TAp73? counteracts the anti-apoptotic effect of TAp73? by preventing Hsp72 induction. Our results thus provide additional evidence for the potential oncogenic role of TAp73?, and extend the understanding of the mechanism for its anti-apoptotic effect. PMID:20807285

Nyman, Ulrika; Muppani, Naveen Reddy; Zhivotovsky, Boris; Joseph, Bertrand

2011-08-01

61

Phagocytic receptor signaling regulates clathrin and epsin-mediated cytoskeletal remodeling during apoptotic cell engulfment in C. elegans.  

PubMed

The engulfment and subsequent degradation of apoptotic cells by phagocytes is an evolutionarily conserved process that efficiently removes dying cells from animal bodies during development. Here, we report that clathrin heavy chain (CHC-1), a membrane coat protein well known for its role in receptor-mediated endocytosis, and its adaptor epsin (EPN-1) play crucial roles in removing apoptotic cells in Caenorhabditis elegans. Inactivating epn-1 or chc-1 disrupts engulfment by impairing actin polymerization. This defect is partially suppressed by inactivating UNC-60, a cofilin ortholog and actin server/depolymerization protein, further indicating that EPN-1 and CHC-1 regulate actin assembly during pseudopod extension. CHC-1 is enriched on extending pseudopods together with EPN-1, in an EPN-1-dependent manner. Epistasis analysis places epn-1 and chc-1 in the same cell-corpse engulfment pathway as ced-1, ced-6 and dyn-1. CED-1 signaling is necessary for the pseudopod enrichment of EPN-1 and CHC-1. CED-1, CED-6 and DYN-1, like EPN-1 and CHC-1, are essential for the assembly and stability of F-actin underneath pseudopods. We propose that in response to CED-1 signaling, CHC-1 is recruited to the phagocytic cup through EPN-1 and acts as a scaffold protein to organize actin remodeling. Our work reveals novel roles of clathrin and epsin in apoptotic-cell internalization, suggests a Hip1/R-independent mechanism linking clathrin to actin assembly, and ties the CED-1 pathway to cytoskeleton remodeling. PMID:23861060

Shen, Qian; He, Bin; Lu, Nan; Conradt, Barbara; Grant, Barth D; Zhou, Zheng

2013-08-01

62

In self-defence: hexokinase promotes voltage-dependent anion channel closure and prevents mitochondria-mediated apoptotic cell death.  

PubMed Central

In tumour cells, elevated levels of mitochondria-bound isoforms of hexokinase (HK-I and HK-II) result in the evasion of apoptosis, thereby allowing the cells to continue proliferating. The molecular mechanisms by which bound HK promotes cell survival are not yet fully understood. Our studies relying on the purified mitochondrial outer membrane protein VDAC (voltage-dependent anion channel), isolated mitochondria or cells in culture suggested that the anti-apoptotic activity of HK-I occurs via modulation of the mitochondrial phase of apoptosis. In the present paper, a direct interaction of HK-I with bilayer-reconstituted purified VDAC, inducing channel closure, is demonstrated for the first time. Moreover, HK-I prevented the Ca(2+)-dependent opening of the mitochondrial PTP (permeability transition pore) and release of the pro-apoptotic protein cytochrome c. The effects of HK-I on VDAC activity and PTP opening were prevented by the HK reaction product glucose 6-phosphate, a metabolic intermediate in most biosynthetic pathways. Furthermore, glucose 6-phosphate re-opened both the VDAC and the PTP closed by HK-I. The HK-I-mediated effects on VDAC and PTP were not observed using either yeast HK or HK-I lacking the N-terminal hydrophobic peptide responsible for binding to mitochondria, or in the presence of an antibody specific for the N-terminus of HK-I. Finally, HK-I overexpression in leukaemia-derived U-937 or vascular smooth muscle cells protected against staurosporine-induced apoptosis, with a decrease of up to 70% in cell death. These results offer insight into the mechanisms by which bound HK promotes tumour cell survival, and suggests that its overexpression not only ensures supplies of energy and phosphometabolites, but also reflects an anti-apoptotic defence mechanism.

Azoulay-Zohar, Heftsi; Israelson, Adrian; Abu-Hamad, Salah; Shoshan-Barmatz, Varda

2004-01-01

63

Regulation of Apoptotic Mediators Reveals Dynamic Responses to Thermal Stress in the Reef Building Coral Acropora millepora  

PubMed Central

Background Mass coral bleaching is increasing in scale and frequency across the world's coral reefs and is being driven primarily by increased levels of thermal stress arising from global warming. In order to understand the impacts of projected climate change upon corals reefs, it is important to elucidate the underlying cellular mechanisms that operate during coral bleaching and subsequent mortality. In this respect, increased apoptotic cell death activity is an important cellular process that is associated with the breakdown of the mutualistic symbiosis between the cnidarian host and their dinoflagellate symbionts. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study reports the impacts of different stressors (colchicine and heat stress) on three phases of apoptosis: (i) the potential initiation by differential expression of Bcl-2 members, (ii) the execution of apoptotic events by activation of caspase 3-like proteases and (iii) and finally, the cell disposal indicated by DNA fragmentation in the reef building coral Acropora millepora. In corals incubated with colchicine, an increase in caspase 3-like activity and DNA fragmentation was associated with a relative down-regulation of Bcl-2, suggesting that the initiation of apoptosis may be mediated by the suppression of an anti-apoptotic mechanism. In contrast, in the early steps of heat stress, the induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis was related to a relative up-regulation of Bcl-2 consecutively followed by a delayed decrease in apoptosis activity. Conclusions/Significance In the light of these results, we propose a model of heat stress in coral hosts whereby increasing temperatures engage activation of caspase 3-dependent apoptosis in cells designated for termination, but also the onset of a delayed protective response involving overexpression of Bcl-2 in surviving cells. This mitigating response to thermal stress could conceivably be an important regulatory mechanism for cell survival in corals exposed to sudden environmental changes.

Pernice, Mathieu; Dunn, Simon R.; Miard, Thomas; Dufour, Sylvie; Dove, Sophie; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

2011-01-01

64

Carbon monoxide mediates the anti-apoptotic effects of heme oxygenase-1 in medulloblastoma DAOY cells via K+ channel inhibition.  

PubMed

Tumor cell survival and proliferation is attributable in part to suppression of apoptotic pathways, yet the mechanisms by which cancer cells resist apoptosis are not fully understood. Many cancer cells constitutively express heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which catabolizes heme to generate biliverdin, Fe(2+), and carbon monoxide (CO). These breakdown products may play a role in the ability of cancer cells to suppress apoptotic signals. K(+) channels also play a crucial role in apoptosis, permitting K(+) efflux which is required to initiate caspase activation. Here, we demonstrate that HO-1 is constitutively expressed in human medulloblastoma tissue, and can be induced in the medulloblastoma cell line DAOY either chemically or by hypoxia. Induction of HO-1 markedly increases the resistance of DAOY cells to oxidant-induced apoptosis. This effect was mimicked by exogenous application of the heme degradation product CO. Furthermore we demonstrate the presence of the pro-apoptotic K(+) channel, Kv2.1, in both human medulloblastoma tissue and DAOY cells. CO inhibited the voltage-gated K(+) currents in DAOY cells, and largely reversed the oxidant-induced increase in K(+) channel activity. p38 MAPK inhibition prevented the oxidant-induced increase of K(+) channel activity in DAOY cells, and enhanced their resistance to apoptosis. Our findings suggest that CO-mediated inhibition of K(+) channels represents an important mechanism by which HO-1 can increase the resistance to apoptosis of medulloblastoma cells, and support the idea that HO-1 inhibition may enhance the effectiveness of current chemo- and radiotherapies. PMID:22593583

Al-Owais, Moza M A; Scragg, Jason L; Dallas, Mark L; Boycott, Hannah E; Warburton, Philip; Chakrabarty, Aruna; Boyle, John P; Peers, Chris

2012-05-16

65

Radiation and inhibition of angiogenesis by canstatin synergize to induce HIF-1?-mediated tumor apoptotic switch  

PubMed Central

Tumor radioresponsiveness depends on endothelial cell death, which leads in turn to tumor hypoxia. Radiation-induced hypoxia was recently shown to trigger tumor radioresistance by activating angiogenesis through hypoxia-inducible factor 1–regulated (HIF-1–regulated) cytokines. We show here that combining targeted radioiodide therapy with angiogenic inhibitors, such as canstatin, enhances direct tumor cell apoptosis, thereby overcoming radio-induced HIF-1–dependent tumor survival pathways in vitro and in vivo. We found that following dual therapy, HIF-1? increases the activity of the canstatin-induced ?v?5 signaling tumor apoptotic pathway and concomitantly abrogates mitotic checkpoint and tetraploidy triggered by radiation. Apoptosis in conjunction with mitotic catastrophe leads to lethal tumor damage. We discovered that HIF-1 displays a radiosensitizing activity that is highly dependent on treatment modalities by regulating key apoptotic molecular pathways. Our findings therefore support a crucial role for angiogenesis inhibitors in shifting the fate of radiation-induced HIF-1? activity from hypoxia-induced tumor radioresistance to hypoxia-induced tumor apoptosis. This study provides a basis for developing new biology-based clinically relevant strategies to improve the efficacy of radiation oncology, using HIF-1 as an ally for cancer therapy.

Magnon, Claire; Opolon, Paule; Ricard, Marcel; Connault, Elisabeth; Ardouin, Patrice; Galaup, Ariane; Metivier, Didier; Bidart, Jean-Michel; Germain, Stephane; Perricaudet, Michel; Schlumberger, Martin

2007-01-01

66

Enhancement of dendritic cell-based vaccine potency by anti-apoptotic siRNAs targeting key pro-apoptotic proteins in cytotoxic CD8 + T cell-mediated cell death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendritic cells (DCs) have become an important measure for the treatment of malignancies. Current DC preparations, however, generate short-lived DCs because they are subject to cell death from various apoptotic pressures. Antigen-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) is one of the main obstacles to limit the DC-mediated immune priming since CTLs can recognize the target antigen expressing DCs as target

Jin Hee Kim; Tae Heung Kang; Kyung Hee Noh; Hyun Cheol Bae; Seok-Ho Kim; Young Do Yoo; Seung-Yong Seong; Tae Woo Kim

2009-01-01

67

The anti-apoptotic effect of Notch-1 requires p56lck-dependent, Akt/PKB-mediated signaling in T cells.  

PubMed

The Notch family of transmembrane receptors have been implicated in a variety of cellular decisions in different cell types. Here we investigate the mechanism underlying Notch-1-mediated anti-apoptotic function in T cells using model cell lines as the experimental system. Ectopic expression of the intracellular domain of Notch-1/activated Notch (AcN1) increases expression of anti-apoptotic proteins of the inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) family, the Bcl-2 family, and the FLICE-like inhibitor protein (FLIP) and inhibits death triggered by multiple stimuli that activate intrinsic or extrinsic pathways of apoptosis in human and murine T cell lines. Numb inhibited the AcN1-dependent induction of anti-apoptotic proteins and anti-apoptotic function. Using pharmacological inhibitors and dominant-negative approaches, we describe a functional role for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent activation of the serine-threonine kinase Akt/PKB in the regulation of AcN1-mediated anti-apoptotic function and the expression of FLIP and IAP family proteins. Using a cell line deficient for the T cell-specific, Src family protein, the tyrosine kinase p56(lck) and by reconstitution approaches we demonstrate that p56(lck) is required for the Notch-1-mediated activation of Akt/PKB function. Furthermore, the Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor, PP2, abrogated ectopically expressed AcN1-mediated anti-apoptotic function and phosphorylation of p56(lck). We present evidence that endogenous Notch-1 associates with p56(lck) and PI3K but that Akt/PKB does not co-immunoprecipitate with the Notch1.p56(lck).PI3K complex. Finally, we demonstrate that the Notch1.p56(lck).PI3K complex is present in primary T cells that have been activated in vitro and sustained in culture with the cytokine interleukin-2. PMID:14583609

Sade, Hadassah; Krishna, Sudhir; Sarin, Apurva

2003-10-28

68

Sorafenib induces apoptosis of AML cells via Bim-mediated activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway.  

PubMed

Raf/MEK/Erk signaling is activated in the majority of acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs), providing rationale for targeting this pathway with therapeutic intent. We investigated growth-inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of sorafenib in AML. Our studies demonstrated that sorafenib significantly inhibited the phosphorylation levels of Raf downstream target proteins MEK1/2 and Erk, induced apoptosis and inhibited colony formation in AML cell lines and in primary AML samples. Mechanistically, treatment with sorafenib resulted in upregulation of proapoptotic Bim, accompanied by an increase in Bad, Bax and Bak protein levels and decreased Mcl-1, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis and surviving levels, which mainly led to the activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Silencing of Bim protein expression significantly abrogated sorafenib-induced apoptosis, suggesting a critical function of Bim in the activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway induced by sorafenib. Importantly, sorafenib also modulated phospho-Erk, Bim, Bax and Mcl-1 levels in samples procured from patients in an ongoing Phase I clinical trial of sorafenib in AML. Combination of sorafenib with cytarabine or the novel small molecule Bcl-2 inhibitor ABT-737 synergistically induced cell death in AML cell lines. Our results strongly suggest potential activity of sorafenib as a novel mechanism-based therapeutic agent in AML. PMID:18200035

Zhang, W; Konopleva, M; Ruvolo, V R; McQueen, T; Evans, R L; Bornmann, W G; McCubrey, J; Cortes, J; Andreeff, M

2008-01-17

69

Neuronal caspase 2 activity and function requires RAIDD, but not PIDD  

PubMed Central

Caspase 2 was initially identified as a neuronally expressed developmentally down-regulated gene (HUGO gene nomenclature CASP2) and has been shown to be required for neuronal death induced by several stimuli, including NGF (nerve growth factor) deprivation and A? (?-amyloid). In non-neuronal cells the PIDDosome, composed of caspase 2 and two death adaptor proteins, PIDD (p53-inducible protein with a death domain) and RAIDD {RIP (receptor-interacting protein)-associated ICH-1 [ICE (interleukin-1?-converting enzyme)/CED-3 (cell-death determining 3) homologue 1] protein with a death domain}, has been proposed as the caspase 2 activation complex, although the absolute requirement for the PIDDosome is not clear. To investigate the requirement for the PIDDosome in caspase-2-dependent neuronal death, we have examined the necessity for each component in induction of active caspase 2 and in execution of caspase-2-dependent neuronal death. We find that both NGF deprivation and A? treatment of neurons induce active caspase 2 and that induction of this activity depends on expression of RAIDD, but is independent of PIDD expression. We show that treatment of wild-type or PIDD-null neurons with A? or NGF deprivation induces formation of a complex of caspase 2 and RAIDD. We also show that caspase-2-dependent execution of neurons requires RAIDD, not PIDD. Caspase 2 activity can be induced in neurons from PIDD-null mice, and NGF deprivation or A? use caspase 2 and RAIDD to execute death of these neurons.

Ribe, Elena M.; Jean, Ying Y.; Goldstein, Rebecca L.; Manzl, Claudia; Stefanis, Leonidas; Villunger, Andreas; Troy, Carol M.

2012-01-01

70

Adenovirus-mediated combined anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic gene therapy enhances antitumor efficacy in hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

A previous study reported that combinatorial human endostatin and soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (sTRAIL) gene transfer suppresses human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) growth and angiogenesis using the pVAX1 plasmid vector. The current study investigated the antitumor efficacy in HCC through adenovirus-mediated combination gene therapy. Human endostatin and sTRAIL (114 to 281 AA) genes were amplified and cloned into the Adeno-X expression vector. The recombinant adenoviruses (Ad-E and Ad-T) were packaged, amplified in the HEK 293 cells and used to infect human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and HepG2 cells, respectively. The results revealed that a significant cell growth inhibition was observed in the two types of cells using a cell viability assay. Intratumoral administration with Ad-E and Ad-T revealed a significant enhanced regression of the tumors compared with treatment with either recombinant adenovirus alone. Histology and immunohistochemistry examination further indicated that the inhibition of tumor growth appeared to result from increased apoptosis and reduced angiogenesis in tumor xenografts. In conclusion, these data further confirm the enhancement of antitumor efficacy through combined endostatin and TRAIL gene therapy and provide a promising application prospect by virtue of adenovirus-mediated anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic cancer gene therapy. PMID:23255947

Yan, Fei; Zheng, Yi; Huang, Laiqiang

2012-10-23

71

Apoptotic pathways are selectively activated by granzyme A and/or granzyme B in CTL-mediated target cell lysis  

PubMed Central

Purified cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) proteases granzyme (gzm)A and gzmB with sublytic dose of perforin (perf) initiate distinct proapoptotic pathways. Their physiological relevance in CTL-mediated target cell apoptosis is elusive. Using ex vivo virus-immune CD8+ T cells from mice deficient in perf, gzmA and/or gzmB, and the Fas-resistant EL4.F15 tumor target cell, we show that (a) CTL from gzmA?/? or gzmB?/? mice similarly induced early proapoptotic features, such as phosphatidyl serine (PS) exposure on plasma membrane, ??m loss, and reactive oxygen radical generation, though with distinct kinetics; (b) CTL from gzmA?/? but not from gzmB?/? mice activate caspase 3 and 9; (c) PS exposure induced by CTL from gzmA?/? or gzmB?/? mice is prevented, respectively, by caspase inhibitors or by reactive oxygen scavengers without interfering with target cell death; and (d) all gzm-induced apoptotic features analyzed depend critically on perf. Thus, perf is the principal regulator in CTL-mediated and gzm-facilitated intracellular processes. The ability of gzmA and gzmB to induce multiple independent cell death pathways may be the hosts response to circumvent evasion strategies of pathogens and tumors.

Pardo, Julian; Bosque, Alberto; Brehm, Reina; Wallich, Reinhard; Naval, Javier; Mullbacher, Arno; Anel, Alberto; Simon, Markus M.

2004-01-01

72

Tip60-mediated acetylation activates transcription independent apoptotic activity of Abl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The proto-oncogene, c-Abl encodes a ubiquitously expressed tyrosine kinase that critically governs the cell death response\\u000a induced by genotoxic agents such as ionizing radiation and cisplatin. The catalytic function of Abl, which is essential for\\u000a executing DNA damage response (DDR), is normally tightly regulated but upregulated several folds upon IR exposure due to ATM-mediated\\u000a phosphorylation on S465. However, the mechanism\\/s

Zhihua Jiang; Ravindra Kamath; Shunquian Jin; Manimalha Balasubramani; Tej K Pandita; Baskaran Rajasekaran

2011-01-01

73

MRP- and BCL2-mediated drug resistance in human SCLC: Effects of apoptotic sphingolipids in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multidrug-resistance-associated protein (MRP) and BCL-2 contribute to drug resistance expressed in SCLC. To establish whether MRP-mediated drug resistance affects sphingolipid (SL)-induced apoptosis in SCLC, we first examined the human SCLC cell line, UMCC-1, and its MRP over-expressing, drug-resistant subline, UMCC-1\\/VP. Despite significantly decreased sensitivity to doxorubicin (Dox) and to the etoposide, VP-16, the drug-selected line was essentially equally as sensitive

M. Khodadadian; M. E. Leroux; E. Auzenne; S. C. Ghosh; D. Farquhar; R. Evans; W. Spohn; Y. Zou; J. Klostergaard

2009-01-01

74

Chandipura Virus Induces Neuronal Death through Fas-Mediated Extrinsic Apoptotic Pathway.  

PubMed

Chandipura virus (CHPV; genus Vesiculovirus, family Rhabdoviridae) is an emerging tropical pathogen with a case fatality rate of 55 to 75% that predominantly affects children in the age group of 2 to 16 years. Although it has been established as a neurotropic virus causing encephalitis, the molecular pathology leading to neuronal death is unknown. The present study elucidates for the first time the mechanism of cell death in neurons after CHPV infection that answers the basic cause of CHPV-mediated neurodegeneration. Through various cell death assays in vitro and in vivo, a relationship between viral replication within neuron and neuronal apoptosis has been established. We report that expression of CHPV phosphoprotein increases up to 6 h postinfection and diminishes thereafter in neuronal cell lines, signifying the replicative phase of CHPV. Various analyses conducted during the investigation established that CHPV-infected neurons are undergoing apoptosis through an extrinsic pathway mediated through the Fas-associated death domain (FADD) following activation of caspase-8 and -3 and prominent cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Knocking down the expression of caspase-3, the final executioner of apoptosis, in a neuronal cell line by endoribonuclease-prepared small interfering RNA (siRNA) validated its pivotal role in CHPV-mediated neurodegeneration by showing reduction in apoptosis after CHPV infection. PMID:24027318

Ghosh, Sourish; Dutta, Kallol; Basu, Anirban

2013-09-11

75

Protection of cells from nitric oxide-mediated apoptotic death by glutathione C?? derivative.  

PubMed

The influence of the glutathione C?? derivative on the cytotoxicity of a highly reactive free radical NO (nitric oxide) has been investigated. Consistent with its cytoprotective abilities, the derivative scavenges ROS (reactive oxygen species) and RNS (reactive nitrogen species) both in vitro and under cell-free conditions. Moreover, the glutathione C?? derivative protected PC12 cells from the cytotoxic effect of the NO-releasing compound, SNP (sodium nitroprusside). Addition of glutathione C?? derivative alone did not induce apoptosis and necrosis. The results suggest that the glutathione C?? derivative has the potential to prevent NO-mediated cell death without evident toxicity. PMID:22439806

Hu, Zhen; Zhang, Chunhua; Tang, Peiyi; Li, Cuiyun; Yao, Yuhuan; Sun, Shaofan; Zhang, Li; Huang, Yudong

2012-07-01

76

PUMA mediates the apoptotic response to p53 in colorectal cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Although several genes that might mediate p53-induced apoptosis have been proposed, none have previously been shown to play an essential role in this process through a rigorous gene disruption approach. We used a gene-targeting approach to evaluate p53-mediated death in human colorectal cancer cells. Expression of p53 in these cells induces growth arrest through transcriptional activation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. If p21 is disrupted via gene targeting, the cells die through apoptosis. If the PUMA gene is also disrupted in such cells, apoptosis is prevented. The effects of PUMA on apoptosis were observed after exogenous overexpression of p53 as well as after exposure to hypoxia, a physiologic activator of p53, and DNA damage. The PUMA protein interacts with Bcl-XL and promotes mitochondrial translocation and multimerization of Bax. Accordingly, genetic disruption of BAX makes cells resistant to the apoptosis resulting from PUMA expression. These results suggest that the balance between PUMA and p21 is pivotal in determining the responses to p53 activation and provide a model for understanding the basis of p53 mutations in human cancer.

Yu, Jian; Wang, Zhenghe; Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Vogelstein, Bert; Zhang, Lin

2003-01-01

77

The apoptotic engulfment protein Ced-6 participates in clathrin-mediated yolk uptake in Drosophila egg chambers  

PubMed Central

Clathrin-mediated endocytosis and phagocytosis are both selective surface internalization processes but have little known mechanistic similarity or interdependence. Here we show that the phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain protein Ced-6, a well-established phagocytosis component that operates as a transducer of so-called “eat-me” signals during engulfment of apoptotic cells and microorganisms, is expressed in the female Drosophila germline and that Ced-6 expression correlates with ovarian follicle development. Ced-6 exhibits all the known biochemical properties of a clathrin-associated sorting protein, yet ced-6–null flies are semifertile despite massive accumulation of soluble yolk precursors in the hemolymph. This is because redundant sorting signals within the cytosolic domain of the Drosophila vitellogenin receptor Yolkless, a low density lipoprotein receptor superfamily member, occur; a functional atypical dileucine signal binds to the endocytic AP-2 clathrin adaptor directly. Nonetheless, the Ced-6 PTB domain specifically recognizes the noncanonical Yolkless FXNPXA sorting sequence and in HeLa cells promotes the rapid, clathrin-dependent uptake of a Yolkless chimera lacking the distal dileucine signal. Ced-6 thus operates in vivo as a clathrin adaptor. Because the human Ced-6 orthologue GULP similarly binds to clathrin machinery, localizes to cell surface clathrin-coated structures, and is enriched in placental clathrin-coated vesicles, new possibilities for Ced-6/Gulp operation during phagocytosis must be considered.

Jha, Anupma; Watkins, Simon C.; Traub, Linton M.

2012-01-01

78

Analysis of gene expression identifies PLAB as a mediator of the apoptotic activity of fenretinide in human ovarian cancer cells.  

PubMed

Fenretinide (4-HPR) is a synthetic retinoid with antitumor activity, which induces apoptosis in cancer cell lines of different histotypes. To identify genes contributing to its apoptotic activity in ovarian cancer cells, we monitored, by cDNA arrays, gene expression changes after 4-HPR exposure in A2780, a human ovarian carcinoma cell line sensitive to the retinoid. Among the differentially expressed transcripts, PLAcental Bone morphogenetic protein (PLAB), a proapoptotic gene, was the most highly induced. In a panel of ovarian carcinoma cell lines with different 4-HPR sensitivities, PLAB upregulation was associated with cellular response to 4-HPR, its overexpression increased basal apoptosis and its silencing by small interfering RNA decreased the ability of 4-HPR to induce apoptosis. PLAB induction by 4-HPR was p53- and EGR-1 independent and was regulated, at least in part, by increased stability of PLAB mRNA. PLAB up-modulation by 4-HPR also occurred in vivo: in ascitic cells collected from patients with ovarian cancer before and after 4-HPR treatment, PLAB was upmodulated in 2/4 patients. Our results in certain ovarian cancer cell lines indicate a role for PLAB as a mediator of 4-HPR-induced apoptosis. The correlation of increased PLAB in vivo with antitumor activity remains to be established. PMID:17213814

Appierto, V; Villani, M G; Cavadini, E; Gariboldi, M; De Cecco, L; Pierotti, M A; Lambert, J R; Reid, J; Tiberio, P; Colombo, N; Formelli, F

2007-01-08

79

p85? Acts as a Novel Signal Transducer for Mediation of Cellular Apoptotic Response to UV Radiation?  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis is an important cellular response to UV radiation (UVR), but the corresponding mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we report that the p85? regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K) exerted a proapoptotic role in response to UVR through the induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) gene expression. This special effect of p85? was unrelated to the PI-3K-dependent signaling pathway. Further evidence demonstrated that the inducible transcription factor NFAT3 was the major downstream target of p85? for the mediation of UVR-induced apoptosis and TNF-? gene transcription. p85? regulated UVR-induced NFAT3 activation by modulation of its nuclear translocation and DNA binding and the relevant transcriptional activities. Gel shift assays and site-directed mutagenesis allowed the identification of two regions in the TNF-? gene promoter that served as the NFAT3 recognition sequences. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further confirmed that the recruitment of NFAT3 to the endogenous TNF-? promoter was regulated by p85? upon UVR exposure. Finally, the knockdown of the NFAT3 level by its specific small interfering RNA decreased UVR-induced TNF-? gene transcription and cell apoptosis. The knockdown of endogenous p85? blocked NFAT activity and TNF-? gene transcription, as well as cell apoptosis. Thus, we demonstrated p85?-associated but PI-3K-independent cell death in response to UVR and identified a novel p85?/NFAT3/TNF-? signaling pathway for the mediation of cellular apoptotic responses under certain stress conditions such as UVR.

Song, Lun; Li, Jingxia; Ye, Jianping; Yu, Gang; Ding, Jin; Zhang, Dongyun; Ouyang, Weiming; Dong, Zigang; Kim, Sung O.; Huang, Chuanshu

2007-01-01

80

Curcumin induces apoptosis through the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway in HT-29 cells*  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the effects of curcumin on release of cytochrome c and expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, Bad, Bcl-xL, caspase-3, poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), and survivin of HT-29 cells. Methods: HT-29 cells were treated with curcumin (0~80 ?mol/L) for 24 h. The release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria and the apoptosis-related proteins Bax, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bad, caspase-3, PARP, and survivin were determined by Western blot analysis and their mRNA expressions by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: Curcumin significantly induced the growth inhibition and apoptosis of HT-29 cells. A decrease in expressions of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and survivin was observed after exposure to 10~80 ?mol/L curcumin, while the levels of Bax and Bad increased in the curcumin-treated cells. Curcumin also induced the release of cytochrome c, the activation of caspase-3, and the cleavage of PARP in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: These data suggest that curcumin induced the HT-29 cell apoptosis possibly via the mitochondria-mediated pathway.

Wang, Jin-bo; Qi, Li-li; Zheng, Shui-di; Wu, Tian-xing

2009-01-01

81

IgG Autoantibodies Against Deposited C3 Inhibit Macrophage-Mediated Apoptotic Cell Engulfment in Systemic Autoimmunity1  

PubMed Central

Defective clearance of apoptotic cells has been shown in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and is postulated to enhance autoimmune responses by increasing access to intracellular autoantigens. Until now, research has emphasized inherited rather than acquired impairment of apoptotic cell engulfment in the pathogenesis of SLE. Here, we confirm previous results that efficient removal of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) is bolstered in the presence of wild type mouse serum, through the C3 deposition on the apoptotic cell surface. In contrast, sera from three mouse models of SLE, MerKD, MRLlpr and NZBWF1, did not support and in fact actively inhibited apoptotic cell uptake. IgG autoantibodies were responsible for the inhibition, through the blockade of C3 recognition by macrophages. Consistent with this, IgG removal reversed the inhibitory activity within autoimmune serum and purified autoimmune IgG blocked both the detection of C3 on apoptotic cells and C3-dependent efferocytosis. Sera from SLE patients demonstrated elevated anti-C3b IgG that blocked detection of C3 on apoptotic cells, activity that was not found in healthy controls or patients with rheumatoid arthritis, nor in mice prior to the onset of autoimmunity. We propose that the suppression of apoptotic cell disposal by antibodies against deposited C3 may contribute to increasing severity and/or exacerbations in SLE.

Kenyon, Karla D.; Cole, Caroline; Crawford, Fran; Kappler, John W.; Thurman, Joshua M.; Bratton, Donna L.; Boackle, Susan A.; Henson, Peter M.

2011-01-01

82

IgG autoantibodies against deposited C3 inhibit macrophage-mediated apoptotic cell engulfment in systemic autoimmunity.  

PubMed

Defective clearance of apoptotic cells has been shown in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and is postulated to enhance autoimmune responses by increasing access to intracellular autoantigens. Until now, research has emphasized inherited rather than acquired impairment of apoptotic cell engulfment in the pathogenesis of SLE. In this study, we confirm previous results that efficient removal of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) is bolstered in the presence of wild-type mouse serum, through the C3 deposition on the apoptotic cell surface. In contrast, sera from three mouse models of SLE, Mer(KD), MRL(lpr), and New Zealand Black/WF1 did not support and in fact actively inhibited apoptotic cell uptake. IgG autoantibodies were responsible for the inhibition, through the blockade of C3 recognition by macrophages. Consistent with this, IgG removal reversed the inhibitory activity within autoimmune serum, and purified autoimmune IgG blocked both the detection of C3 on apoptotic cells and C3-dependent efferocytosis. Sera from SLE patients demonstrated elevated anti-C3b IgG that blocked detection of C3 on apoptotic cells, activity that was not found in healthy controls or patients with rheumatoid arthritis, nor in mice prior to the onset of autoimmunity. We propose that the suppression of apoptotic cell disposal by Abs against deposited C3 may contribute to increasing severity and/or exacerbations in SLE. PMID:21813769

Kenyon, Karla D; Cole, Caroline; Crawford, Fran; Kappler, John W; Thurman, Joshua M; Bratton, Donna L; Boackle, Susan A; Henson, Peter M

2011-08-03

83

Pem renders tumor cells resistant to apoptotic cell death induced by a CD8+ T cell-mediated immune response or anticancer drug treatment.  

PubMed

Pem, a member of homeobox genes, is an oncofetal gene which is preferentially expressed in reproductive tissues and in multiple tumor cell lines. However, the function of Pem in tumor cell lines has not been elucidated. Herein we report that the ectopic expression of Pem in TC-1, a human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E7-expressing surrogate cervical tumor cell line, demonstrated a significant increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity and multiple resistance to various apoptotic pressures from an E7-specific CD8(+) T cell-mediated immune response and anticancer drug treatment. The observed resistance to apoptotic death of the Pem-over-expressing TC-1 tumor cells (TC-1/Pem) was associated with the down-regulation of a pro-apoptotic molecule, such as BIM, and up-regulation of an anti-apoptotic molecule, such as Bcl-2 protein, which mediated ERK activation. We also observed that the intratumoral injection of an ERK inhibitor enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of E7-specific CD8(+) T cell adoptive transfer or anticancer drug treatment against the resistant TC-1/Pem tumor. This is the first evidence demonstrating an association between Pem and a signaling pathway, namely the ERK-mediated survival signal transduction pathway. Thus, our data indicate that activation of the ERK pathway represents a new mechanism of Pem-mediated multiple resistances and the present research will contribute to the development of a novel strategy in cancer therapy against Pem-over-expressing tumor cells. PMID:20137854

Kim, Seok-Ho; Kim, Keon Woo; Kim, Jin Hee; Noh, Kyung Hee; Bae, Hyun Cheol; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Tae Woo

2010-02-06

84

Caspase-2 cleaves DNA fragmentation factor (DFF45)/inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (ICAD).  

PubMed

To investigate the signal transduction pathway of caspase-2, cell permeable Tat-reverse-caspase-2 was constructed, characterized and utilized for biochemical and cellular studies. It could induce the cell death as early as 2h, and caspase-2-specific VDVADase activity but not other caspase activities including DEVDase and IETDase. Interestingly, nuclear DNA fragmentation occurred and consistently DNA fragmentation factor (DFF45)/Inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (ICAD) was cleaved inside the cell as well as in vitro, suggesting a role of caspase-2 in nuclear DNA fragmentation. PMID:17945178

Dahal, Giri Raj; Karki, Pratap; Thapa, Arjun; Shahnawaz, Mohammad; Shin, Song Yub; Lee, Jung Sup; Cho, Byungyun; Park, Il-Seon

2007-09-19

85

Bid can mediate a pro-apoptotic response to etoposide and ionizing radiation without cleavage in its unstructured loop and in the absence of p53  

PubMed Central

BH3-only protein Bid is a key player in death receptor-induced apoptosis, because it provides the link with the mitochondrial route for caspase activation. In this pathway, Bid is activated upon cleavage by caspase-8. Its BH3 domain-containing carboxy-terminal fragment subsequently provokes mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization by Bak/Bax activation. Bid has also been implicated in the apoptotic response to ionizing radiation (IR) and the topoisomerase inhibitor etoposide, anti-cancer regimens that cause double-strand (ds)DNA breaks. We confirm the existence of this pathway and show that it is p53-independent. However, the degree of Bid participation in the apoptotic response to dsDNA breaks depends on the nature of cell transformation. We used Bid-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) lines that were reconstituted with Bid to control the cellular background and demonstrated that the Bid-dependent apoptotic pathway induced by IR and etoposide operates in MEFs that are transformed by SV40, but is not evident in E1A/Ras-transformed MEFs. The Bid-dependent apoptotic response in p53-deficient SV40-transformed MEFs contributed to clonogenic execution of the cells, implying relevance for treatment outcome. In these cells, Bid acted in a conventional manner in that it required its BH3 domain to mediate apoptosis in response to IR and etoposide, and triggered apoptotic execution by indirect activation of Bak/Bax, mitochondrial permeabilization and caspase-9 activation. However, the mechanism of Bid activation was unconventional, because elimination of all known or suspected cleavage sites for caspases or other proteolytic enzymes and even complete elimination of its unstructured cleavage loop left Bid's pro-apoptotic role in the response to IR and etoposide unaffected.

Maas, C; de Vries, E; Tait, S W G; Borst, J

2011-01-01

86

Attenuation of NF-?? mediated apoptotic signaling by tocotrienol ameliorates cognitive deficits in rats postnatally exposed to ethanol.  

PubMed

Ethanol-induced damage in the developing brain may result in cognitive impairment including deficits on neuropsychological tests of learning, memory and executive function, yet the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In the present study we investigated the protective effect of tocotrienol against cognitive deficit, neuroinflammation and neuronal apoptosis in rat pups postnatally exposed to ethanol. Pups were administered ethanol (5g/kg, 12% v/v) by intragastric intubation on postnatal days 7, 8 and 9. Ethanol-exposed pups showed significant memory impairment in Morris water maze task as evident from increase in escape latency and total distance travelled to reach the hidden platform. Time spent in target quadrant, % total distance traversed in target quadrant and frequency of appearance in target quadrant was also significantly decreased in ethanol exposed pups in probe trial. Poor memory retention was exhibited by ethanol-exposed pups in elevated plus maze test also. Impaired cognition was associated with significantly enhanced acetylcholinesterase activity, increased neuroinflammation (oxidative-nitrosative stress, TNF-?, IL-1? and TGF-?1) and neuronal apoptosis (NF-?? and Caspase-3) in different brain regions of ethanol-exposed pups. Co-administration with tocotrienol significantly ameliorated all the behavioral, biochemical and molecular alterations in the different brain regions of ethanol exposed pups. The current study thus demonstrates the possible involvement of NF-?? mediated apoptotic signaling in cognitive deficits associated with postnatal ethanol exposure in rats and points to the potential of tocotrienol in the prevention of cognitive deficits in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). PMID:22613133

Tiwari, Vinod; Arora, Vipin; Chopra, Kanwaljit

2012-05-18

87

Apoptotic Cells Contribute to Melanoma Progression and This Effect is Partially Mediated by the Platelet-Activating Factor Receptor  

PubMed Central

There is evidence that the platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) is involved in the clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages, and that this is associated with anti-inflammatory phenotype. Our group has previously shown that coinjection of a large number of apoptotic cells can promote tumor growth from a subtumorigenic dose of melanoma cells. Here, we studied the involvement of the PAFR in the tumor growth promoting effect of apoptotic cells. A sub-tumorigenic dose of melanoma cells (Tm1) was coinjected with apoptotic Tm1 cells, subcutaneously in the flank of C57Bl/6 mice, and the volume was monitored for 30 days. Animals received the PAFR antagonists, WEB2170 or PCA4248 (5?mg/kg body weight) or vehicle, by peritumoral daily injection for 5 days. Results showed that PAFR antagonists significantly inhibited the tumor growth induced by the coinjection of a sub-tumorigenic dose of melanoma cells together with apoptotic cells. This was accompanied by inhibition of early neutrophil and macrophage infiltration. Addition of (platelet-activating factor) to this system has no significant effect. PAFR antagonists did not affect the promoting effect of carrageenan. We suggest that the recognition of apoptotic cells by phagocytes leads to activation of PAFR pathways, resulting in a microenvironment response favorable to melanoma growth.

Bachi, Andre Luis Lacerda; dos Santos, Livia Caires; Nonogaki, Suely; Jancar, Sonia; Jasiulionis, Miriam Galvonas

2012-01-01

88

Somatic mutations of caspase-2 gene in gastric and colorectal cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is mounting evidence that evasion of apoptosis is a hallmark of cancer. Caspase-2, which plays roles in both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways, is considered a candidate tumor suppressor. The aim of this study was to explore the possibility that genetic alterations of caspase-2 gene are present in human cancers. In this study, we analyzed the entire coding sequences

Min Sung Kim; Ho Shik Kim; Eun Goo Jeong; Young Hwa Soung; Nam Jin Yoo; Sug Hyung Lee

2011-01-01

89

Caspase-2 is involved in cell death induction by taxanes in breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: We studied the role of caspase-2 in apoptosis induction by taxanes (paclitaxel, novel taxane SB-T-1216) in breast cancer cells using SK-BR-3 (nonfunctional p53, functional caspase-3) and MCF-7 (functional p53, nonfunctional caspase-3) cell lines. RESULTS: Both taxanes induced apoptosis in SK-BR-3 as well as MCF-7 cells. Caspase-2 activity in SK-BR-3 cells increased approximately 15-fold within 48 h after the application of both taxanes at the death-inducing concentration (100 nM). In MCF-7 cells, caspase-2 activity increased approximately 11-fold within 60 h after the application of taxanes (300 nM). Caspase-2 activation was confirmed by decreasing levels of procaspase-2, increasing levels of cleaved caspase-2 and the cleavage of caspase-2 substrate golgin-160. The inhibition of caspase-2 expression using siRNA increased the number of surviving cells more than 2-fold in MCF-7 cells, and at least 4-fold in SK-BR-3 cells, 96 h after the application of death-inducing concentration of taxanes. The inhibition of caspase-2 expression also resulted in decreased cleavage of initiator caspases (caspase-8, caspase-9) as well as executioner caspases (caspase-3, caspase-7) in both cell lines after the application of taxanes. In control cells, caspase-2 seemed to be mainly localized in the nucleus. After the application of taxanes, it was released from the nucleus to the cytosol, due to the long-term disintegration of the nuclear envelope, in both cell lines. Taxane application led to some formation of PIDDosome complex in both cell lines within 24 h after the application. After taxane application, p21WAF1/CIP1 expression was only induced in MCF-7 cells with functional p53. However, taxane application did not result in a significant increase of PIDD expression in either SK-BR-3 or MCF-7 cells. The inhibition of RAIDD expression using siRNA did not affect the number of surviving SK-BR-3 and MCF-7 cells after taxane application at all. CONCLUSION: Caspase-2 is required, at least partially, for apoptosis induction by taxanes in tested breast cancer cells. We suggest that caspase-2 plays the role of an apical caspase in these cells. Caspase-2 seems to be activated via other mechanism than PIDDosome formation. It follows the release of caspase-2 from the nucleus to the cytosol. PMID:23672670

Jelínek, Michael; Balu Íková, Kamila; Kopperová, Dana; N McOvá-Fürstová, Vlasta; Rámek, Jan; Fidlerová, Julie; Zanardi, Ilaria; Ojima, Iwao; Ková, Jan

2013-05-15

90

Caspase-2 is involved in cell death induction by taxanes in breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background We studied the role of caspase-2 in apoptosis induction by taxanes (paclitaxel, novel taxane SB-T-1216) in breast cancer cells using SK-BR-3 (nonfunctional p53, functional caspase-3) and MCF-7 (functional p53, nonfunctional caspase-3) cell lines. Results Both taxanes induced apoptosis in SK-BR-3 as well as MCF-7 cells. Caspase-2 activity in SK-BR-3 cells increased approximately 15-fold within 48 h after the application of both taxanes at the death-inducing concentration (100 nM). In MCF-7 cells, caspase-2 activity increased approximately 11-fold within 60 h after the application of taxanes (300 nM). Caspase-2 activation was confirmed by decreasing levels of procaspase-2, increasing levels of cleaved caspase-2 and the cleavage of caspase-2 substrate golgin-160. The inhibition of caspase-2 expression using siRNA increased the number of surviving cells more than 2-fold in MCF-7 cells, and at least 4-fold in SK-BR-3 cells, 96 h after the application of death-inducing concentration of taxanes. The inhibition of caspase-2 expression also resulted in decreased cleavage of initiator caspases (caspase-8, caspase-9) as well as executioner caspases (caspase-3, caspase-7) in both cell lines after the application of taxanes. In control cells, caspase-2 seemed to be mainly localized in the nucleus. After the application of taxanes, it was released from the nucleus to the cytosol, due to the long-term disintegration of the nuclear envelope, in both cell lines. Taxane application led to some formation of PIDDosome complex in both cell lines within 24 h after the application. After taxane application, p21WAF1/CIP1 expression was only induced in MCF-7 cells with functional p53. However, taxane application did not result in a significant increase of PIDD expression in either SK-BR-3 or MCF-7 cells. The inhibition of RAIDD expression using siRNA did not affect the number of surviving SK-BR-3 and MCF-7 cells after taxane application at all. Conclusion Caspase-2 is required, at least partially, for apoptosis induction by taxanes in tested breast cancer cells. We suggest that caspase-2 plays the role of an apical caspase in these cells. Caspase-2 seems to be activated via other mechanism than PIDDosome formation. It follows the release of caspase-2 from the nucleus to the cytosol.

2013-01-01

91

Neuroprotection by BDNF against glutamate-induced apoptotic cell death is mediated by ERK and PI3-kinase pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurotrophins protect neurons against glutamate excitotoxicity, but the signaling mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. We studied the role of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) and Ras\\/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in the protection of cultured hippocampal neurons from glutamate induced apoptotic cell death, characterized by nuclear condensation and activation of caspase-3-like enzymes. Pre-incubation with the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF),

R D Almeida; B J Manadas; C V Melo; J R Gomes; C S Mendes; M M Grãos; R F Carvalho; A P Carvalho; C B Duarte

2005-01-01

92

RRR-?-tocopherol induces human breast cancer cells to undergo apoptosis via death receptor 5 (DR5)-mediated apoptotic signaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal of this study was to investigate the pro-apoptotic properties of RRR-?-tocopherol (?T) in human breast cancer cells. ?T was shown to induce cancer cells but not normal cells to undergo apoptosis, sensitize cancer cells to Tumor necrosis factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis, and increase death receptor 5 (DR5) mRNA, protein and cell surface expression. Knockdown of DR5 attenuated ?T-induced

Weiping Yu; Sook-Kyung Park; Li Jia; Richa Tiwary; Wenjun W. Scott; Jing Li; Pei Wang; Marla Simmons-Menchaca; Bob G. Sanders; Kimberly Kline

2008-01-01

93

Genetic deletion of caspase-2 accelerates MMTV/c-neu-driven mammary carcinogenesis in mice.  

PubMed

Despite being the most evolutionarily conserved of the mammalian caspases, little is understood about the cellular function of caspase-2 in normal tissues or what role caspase-2 may have in the progression of human disease. It has been reported that deletion of the caspase-2 gene (Casp2), accelerates E?-myc lymphomagenesis in mice, and thus caspase-2 may act as a tumor suppressor in hematological malignancies. Here, we sought to extend these findings to epithelial cancers by examining the potential role of caspase-2 as a tumor suppressor in the mouse mammary carcinogenesis model; MMTV/c-neu. The rate of tumor acquisition was significantly higher in multiparous Casp2(-/-)/MMTV mice compared with Casp2(+/+)/MMTV and Casp2(+/-)/MMTV mice. Cells from Casp2(-/-)/MMTV tumors were often multinucleated and displayed bizarre mitoses and karyomegaly, while cells from Casp2(+/+)/MMTV and Casp2(+/-)/MMTV tumors never displayed this phenotype. Tumors from Casp2(-/-)/MMTV animals had a significantly higher mitotic index than tumors from Casp2(+/+)/MMTV and Casp2(+/-)/MMTV animals. Cell cycle analysis of Casp2(-/-) E1A/Ras-transformed mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) also indicated a higher proliferative rate in the absence of caspase-2. In vitro assays further illustrated that MEF had increased genomic instability in the absence of caspase-2. This appears to be due to disruption of the p53 pathway because we observed a concomitant decrease in the induction of the p53 target genes, Pidd, p21 and Mdm2. Thus caspase-2 may function as a tumor suppressor, in part, through regulation of cell division and genomic stability. PMID:23645210

Parsons, M J; McCormick, L; Janke, L; Howard, A; Bouchier-Hayes, L; Green, D R

2013-05-03

94

Nucleotide excision repair factor XPC enhances DNA damage-induced apoptosis by downregulating the antiapoptotic short isoform of caspase-2.  

PubMed

XPC protein is a critical DNA damage recognition factor in nucleotide excision repair for which genetic deficiency confers a predisposition to cancer. In this study, we show that XPC has a function that is independent of its canonical function in DNA repair, potentially altering the interpretation of how XPC deficiency leads to heightened cancer susceptibility. XPC enhances apoptosis induced by DNA damage in a p53 nullizygous background, acting downstream of mitochondrial permeabilization and upstream of caspase-9 activation in the DNA damage-induced apoptosis cascade. We found that deficiency in XPC upregulated production of the short isoform of caspase-2 (casp-2S). This upregulation occurred at both protein and mRNA levels through repression of the caspase-2 promoter by XPC protein. Targeted RNAi-mediated downregulation of casp-2S-enhanced UV-induced apoptosis as well as activation of caspase-9 and caspase-6 in XPC-deficient cells, but not in XPC-proficient cells. In addition, XPC overexpression in various p53-deficient cancer cells resistant to cisplatin improved their sensitivity to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Given that casp-2S functions as an antiapoptotic protein, our findings suggest that XPC enhances DNA damage-induced apoptosis through inhibition of casp-2S transcription. Together, these findings offer a mechanistic foundation to overcome the resistance of highly prevalent p53-deficient tumors to cell death induced by DNA-damaging therapeutic agents, by targeting strategies that inhibit the expression or function of casp-2S. PMID:22174370

Wang, Qi-En; Han, Chunhua; Zhang, Bo; Sabapathy, Kanaga; Wani, Altaf A

2011-12-15

95

Pronounced transcriptional regulation of apoptotic and TNF-NF-kappa-B signaling genes during the course of thymoquinone mediated apoptosis in HeLa cells.  

PubMed

Thymoquinone (TQ) is the active ingredient extracted from the essential oil of Nigella sativa. A number of studies implicated TQ as an antitumor agent. In this study, cytotoxic effects of the oil of N. sativa and TQ were evaluated on human cervical cancer cell line, HeLa cells. IC50 value was ~0.125 ?l/ml for N. sativa oil preparations and 12.5 ?M for TQ. TQ strongly inhibited wound healing at all concentrations ranging from 12.5 to 100 ?M in a scratch wound healing assay. Additionally, induction of apoptosis by TQ was assessed by Giemsa staining and TQ was found to induce apoptosis in cancer cells especially at concentrations of 50 and 100 ?M. TQ-mediated transcriptional regulation of 84 genes involved in apoptosis was studied using a PCR array. At low dose (12.5 ?M), TQ was found to induce expression of four pro-apoptotic genes: BIK (~22.7-fold), FASL (~2.9-fold), BCL2L10 (~2.1-fold), and CASP1 (~2-fold). TQ was also found to reduce the expression of an anti-apoptotic gene implicated in NF-kappa-B signaling and cancer: RELA (~8-fold). At high dose (100 ?M), TQ mediated the expression of 21 genes implicated directly in apoptosis (6 genes), TNF signaling (10 genes), and NF-kappa-B signaling (3 genes) such as BIK, BID, TNFRSF10A, TNFRSF10B, TNF, TRAF3, RELA, and RELB. In conclusion, this study implicates the role of TQ in the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation and migration. At the same time, our results strongly suggest that TQ intervenes with TNF and NF-kappa-B signaling during TQ-mediated induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. PMID:23943306

Sakalar, Cagri; Yuruk, Merve; Kaya, Tugba; Aytekin, Metin; Kuk, Salih; Canatan, Halit

2013-08-14

96

Arylpiperazine-mediated activation of Akt protects SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells from 6-hydroxydopamine-induced apoptotic and autophagic death.  

PubMed

We investigated the ability of 19 recently synthesized arylpiperazine compounds to protect human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells from the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). The compound with the most potent neuroprotective action was N-{3-[2-(4-phenyl-piperazin-1-yl)-ethyl]-phenyl}-picolinamide (6b), which reduced 6-OHDA-induced apoptotic death through stabilization of mitochondrial membrane and subsequent prevention of superoxide production, caspase activation and DNA fragmentation. 6-OHDA-triggered autophagic response was also reduced by 6b, which prevented inactivation of the main autophagy repressor mTOR, upregulation of proautophagic beclin-1, conversion of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-I to autophagosome-associated LC3-II, as well as intracytoplasmic acidification induced by 6-OHDA. The inhibition of autophagy using LC3? gene silencing or pharmacological autophagy blockers 3-methyladenine or bafilomycin A1, mimicked the cytoprotective effect of 6b. While the treatment with 6b had no effect on the phosphorylation of proapoptotic MAP kinases ERK and JNK, it markedly increased the phosphorylation of the prosurvival kinase Akt in 6-OHDA-treated cells. Akt inhibitor DEBC or RNA interference-mediated Akt silencing reduced the ability of 6b to block 6-OHDA-triggered apoptotic and autophagic responses, thus confirming their dependency on Akt activation. The cytoprotective effect of 6b was also observed in 6-OHDA-treated neuronal PC12 cells, but not in SH-SY5Y or PC12 cells exposed to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, indicating that the observed neuroprotection was dependent on the cytotoxic stimulus. Because of the ability to prevent 6-OHDA induced apoptotic/autophagic cell death through activation of Akt, the investigated arylpiperazines could be potential candidates for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23643751

Tovilovic, Gordana; Zogovic, Nevena; Soskic, Vukic; Schrattenholz, Andre; Kostic-Rajacic, Sladjana; Misirkic-Marjanovic, Maja; Janjetovic, Kristina; Vucicevic, Ljubica; Arsikin, Katarina; Harhaji-Trajkovic, Ljubica; Trajkovic, Vladimir

2013-05-03

97

Selenium (sodium selenite) causes cytotoxicity and apoptotic mediated cell death in PLHC-1 fish cell line through DNA and mitochondrial membrane potential damage.  

PubMed

Elevated concentration of selenium poses a toxic threat to organisms inhabiting aquatic ecosystems influenced by excessive inputs from anthropogenic sources. Selenium is also an essential micronutrient in living things, particularly in fish, and provides antioxidant properties to tissues. Whole fish and hepatocytes in primary culture show selenite toxicity above threshold levels. The present study was designed to investigate the process by which selenite exposure causes cellular toxicity and apoptotic and necrotic cell death in fish hepatoma cell line PLHC-1. PLHC-1 cells were exposed to various selenite concentrations (1, 10, 50 and 100 ?M) for 10, 20 and 40 h intervals. The 24h inhibitory concentration 50 (IC??) of selenite in PLHC-1 cell line was found to be 237 ?M. Flow cytometery data showed that selenite exposed cells promote apoptotic and necrotic mediated cell death when selenite concentrations were ?10 ?M compared to control. Selenite exposure was associated with a significant increase of caspase-3 activities suggesting the induction of apoptosis. Selenite exposure at high levels (?10 ?M) and longer exposure times (?20 h) induces mitochondrial membrane potential damage (??(m)), DNA damage and elevated production of ROS which could be associated with cell death. PMID:23158585

Selvaraj, Vellaisamy; Tomblin, Justin; Yeager Armistead, Mindy; Murray, Elizabeth

2012-11-13

98

Rac1 signaling protects monocytic AML cells expressing the MLL-AF9 oncogene from caspase-mediated apoptotic death.  

PubMed

We investigated the relevance of signaling mechanisms regulated by the Ras-homologous GTPase Rac1 for survival of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells harbouring the MLL-AF9 oncogene due to t(9;11)(p21;q23) translocation. Monocytic MLL-AF9 expressing cells (MM6, THP-1) were hypersensitive to both small-molecule inhibitors targeting Rac1 (EHT 1864, NSC 23766) (IC50EHT ~12.5 ?M) and lipid lowering drugs (lovastatin, atorvastatin) (IC50Lova ~7.5 ?M) as compared to acute myelocytic leukemia (NOMO-1, HL60) and T cell leukemia (Jurkat) cells (IC50EHT >30 ?M; IC50Lova >25 ?M). Hypersensitivity of monocytic cells following Rac1 inhibition resulted from caspase-driven apoptosis as shown by profound activation of caspase-8,-9,-7,-3 and substantial (~90 %) decrease in protein expression of pro-survival factors (survivin, XIAP, p-Akt). Apoptotic death was preceded by S139-posphorylation of histone H2AX (?H2AX), a prototypical surrogate marker of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Taken together, abrogation of Rac1 signaling causes DSBs in acute monocytic leukemia cells harbouring the MLL-AF9 oncogene, which, together with downregulation of survivin, XIAP and p-Akt, results in massive induction of caspase-driven apoptotic death. Apparently, Rac1 signaling is required for maintaining genetic stability and maintaining survival in specific subtypes of AML. Hence, targeting of Rac1 is considered a promising novel strategy to induce lethality in MLL-AF9 expressing AML. PMID:23624644

Hinterleitner, C; Huelsenbeck, J; Henninger, C; Wartlick, F; Schorr, A; Kaina, B; Fritz, G

2013-08-01

99

C-Terminal Clipping of Chemokine CCL1/I-309 Enhances CCR8-Mediated Intracellular Calcium Release and Anti-Apoptotic Activity  

PubMed Central

Carboxypeptidase M (CPM) targets the basic amino acids arginine and lysine present at the C-terminus of peptides or proteins. CPM is thought to be involved in inflammatory processes. This is corroborated by CPM-mediated trimming and modulation of inflammatory factors, and expression of the protease in inflammatory environments. Since the function of CPM in and beyond inflammation remains mainly undefined, the identification of natural substrates can aid in discovering the (patho)physiological role of CPM. CCL1/I-309, with its three C-terminal basic amino acids, forms a potential natural substrate for CPM. CCL1 plays a role not only in inflammation but also in apoptosis, angiogenesis and tumor biology. Enzymatic processing differently impacts the biological activity of chemokines thereby contributing to the complex regulation of the chemokine system. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether (i) CCL1/I-309 is prone to trimming by CPM, and (ii) the biological activity of CCL1 is altered after C-terminal proteolytic processing. CCL1 was identified as a novel substrate for CPM in vitro using mass spectrometry. C-terminal clipping of CCL1 augmented intracellular calcium release mediated by CCR8 but reduced the binding of CCL1 to CCR8. In line with the higher intracellular calcium release, a pronounced increase of the anti-apoptotic activity of CCL1 was observed in the BW5147 cellular model. CCR8 signaling, CCR8 binding and anti-apoptotic activity were unaffected when CPM was exposed to the carboxypeptidase inhibitor DL-2-mercaptomethyl-3-guanidino-ethylthiopropanoic acid. The results of this study suggest that CPM is a likely candidate for the regulation of biological processes relying on the CCL1-CCR8 system.

Denis, Catherine; Deiteren, Kathleen; Mortier, Anneleen; Tounsi, Amel; Fransen, Erik; Proost, Paul; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Lambeir, Anne-Marie

2012-01-01

100

SCAR/WAVE-mediated processing of engulfed apoptotic corpses is essential for effective macrophage migration in Drosophila.  

PubMed

In vitro studies have shown that SCAR/WAVE activates the Arp2/3 complex to generate actin filaments, which in many cell types are organised into lamellipodia that are thought to have an important role in cell migration. Here we demonstrate that SCAR is utilised by Drosophila macrophages to drive their developmental and inflammatory migrations and that it is regulated via the Hem/Kette/Nap1-containing SCAR/WAVE complex. SCAR is also important in protecting against bacterial pathogens and in wound repair as SCAR mutant embryos succumb more readily to both sterile and infected wounds. However, in addition to driving the formation of lamellipodia in macrophages, SCAR is required cell autonomously for the correct processing of phagocytosed apoptotic corpses by these professional phagocytes. Removal of this phagocytic burden by preventing apoptosis rescues macrophage lamellipodia formation and partially restores motility. Our results show that efficient processing of phagosomes is critical for effective macrophage migration in vivo. These findings have important implications for the resolution of macrophages from chronic wounds and the behaviour of those associated with tumours, because phagocytosis of debris may serve to prolong the presence of these cells at these sites of pathology. PMID:23328632

Evans, I R; Ghai, P A; Urban?i?, V; Tan, K-L; Wood, W

2013-01-18

101

SCAR/WAVE-mediated processing of engulfed apoptotic corpses is essential for effective macrophage migration in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

In vitro studies have shown that SCAR/WAVE activates the Arp2/3 complex to generate actin filaments, which in many cell types are organised into lamellipodia that are thought to have an important role in cell migration. Here we demonstrate that SCAR is utilised by Drosophila macrophages to drive their developmental and inflammatory migrations and that it is regulated via the Hem/Kette/Nap1-containing SCAR/WAVE complex. SCAR is also important in protecting against bacterial pathogens and in wound repair as SCAR mutant embryos succumb more readily to both sterile and infected wounds. However, in addition to driving the formation of lamellipodia in macrophages, SCAR is required cell autonomously for the correct processing of phagocytosed apoptotic corpses by these professional phagocytes. Removal of this phagocytic burden by preventing apoptosis rescues macrophage lamellipodia formation and partially restores motility. Our results show that efficient processing of phagosomes is critical for effective macrophage migration in vivo. These findings have important implications for the resolution of macrophages from chronic wounds and the behaviour of those associated with tumours, because phagocytosis of debris may serve to prolong the presence of these cells at these sites of pathology.

Evans, I R; Ghai, P A; Urbancic, V; Tan, K-L; Wood, W

2013-01-01

102

Mesenchymal stem cells from rat bone marrow down regulate Caspase-3 mediated apoptotic pathway after spinal cord injury in rats  

PubMed Central

Mesenchymal stem cells have been intensively studied for their potential use in reparative strategies for neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic injuries. We used mesenchymal stem cells (rMSC) from rat bone marrow to evaluate the therapeutic potential after spinal cord injury (SCI). Immunohistochemistry confirmed a large number of apoptotic neurons and oligodendrocytes in caudal segments 2mm away from the lesion site. Expression of caspase-3 on both neurons and oligodendrocytes after SCI was significantly downregulated by rMSC. Caspase-3 downregulation by rMSC involves increased expression of FLIP and XIAP in the cytosol and inhibition of PARP cleavage in the nucleus. Animals treated with rMSC had higher BBB scores and better recovery of hind limb sensitivity. Treatment with rMSC had a positive effect on behavioral outcome and histopathological assessment after SCI. The ability of rMSC to incorporate into the spinal cord, differentiate and to improve locomotor recovery hold promise for a potential cure after SCI.

Dasari, Venkata Ramesh; Spomar, Daniel G.; Cady, Craig; Gujrati, Meena; Rao, Jasti S.; Dinh, Dzung H.

2007-01-01

103

Charge Profile Analysis Reveals That Activation of Pro-apoptotic Regulators Bax and Bak Relies on Charge Transfer Mediated Allosteric Regulation  

PubMed Central

The pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bak are essential for executing programmed cell death (apoptosis), yet the mechanism of their activation is not properly understood at the structural level. For the first time in cell death research, we calculated intra-protein charge transfer in order to study the structural alterations and their functional consequences during Bax activation. Using an electronegativity equalization model, we investigated the changes in the Bax charge profile upon activation by a functional peptide of its natural activator protein, Bim. We found that charge reorganizations upon activator binding mediate the exposure of the functional sites of Bax, rendering Bax active. The affinity of the Bax C-domain for its binding groove is decreased due to the Arg94-mediated abrogation of the Ser184-Asp98 interaction. We further identified a network of charge reorganizations that confirms previous speculations of allosteric sensing, whereby the activation information is conveyed from the activation site, through the hydrophobic core of Bax, to the well-distanced functional sites of Bax. The network was mediated by a hub of three residues on helix 5 of the hydrophobic core of Bax. Sequence and structural alignment revealed that this hub was conserved in the Bak amino acid sequence, and in the 3D structure of folded Bak. Our results suggest that allostery mediated by charge transfer is responsible for the activation of both Bax and Bak, and that this might be a prototypical mechanism for a fast activation of proteins during signal transduction. Our method can be applied to any protein or protein complex in order to map the progress of allosteric changes through the proteins' structure.

Ionescu, Crina-Maria; Svobodova Varekova, Radka; Prehn, Jochen H. M.; Huber, Heinrich J.; Koca, Jaroslav

2012-01-01

104

ERK-Mediated Activation of Fas Apoptotic Inhibitory Molecule 2 (Faim2) Prevents Apoptosis of 661W Cells in a Model of Detachment-Induced Photoreceptor Cell Death  

PubMed Central

In this study, we examined the role of Fas apoptotic inhibitory molecule 2 (Faim2), an inhibitor of the Fas signaling pathway, and its regulation by stress kinase signaling during Fas-mediated apoptosis of 661W cells, an immortalized photoreceptor-like cell line Treatment of 661W cells with a Fas-activating antibody led to increased levels of Faim2. Both ERK and JNK stress kinase pathways were activated in Fas-treated 661W cells, but only the inhibition of the ERK pathway reduced the levels of Faim2. Blocking the ERK pathway using a pharmacological inhibitor increased the susceptibility of 661W cells to Fas-induced caspase activation and apoptosis. When the levels of Faim2 were reduced in 661W cells by siRNA knockdown, Fas activating antibody treatment resulted in earlier and more robust caspase activation, and increased cell death. These results demonstrate that Faim2 acts as a neuroprotectant during Fas-mediated apoptosis of 661W cells. The expression of Faim2 is triggered, at least in part, by Fas-receptor activation and subsequent ERK signaling. Our findings identify a novel protective pathway that auto-regulates Fas-induced photoreceptor apoptosis in vitro. Modulation of this pathway to increase Faim2 expression may be a potential therapeutic option to prevent photoreceptor death.

Besirli, Cagri G.; Zheng, Qiong-Duon; Reed, David M.; Zacks, David N.

2012-01-01

105

6-shogaol (alkanone from ginger) induces apoptotic cell death of human hepatoma p53 mutant Mahlavu subline via an oxidative stress-mediated caspase-dependent mechanism.  

PubMed

Mahlavu cells, poorly differentiated and p53 mutants of a human hepatoma subline, are known to be highly refractory to a number of chemotherapeutic agents and radiotherapy due to their high expressions of multidrug resistance gene-1 (MDR-1) and Bcl-2 proteins. Thus, it is desirable to search for an alternative strategy for effective eradication of this type of cancer cells. We present evidence here for the first time that 6-shogaol (6-SG), an alkanone isolated from the rhizomes of ginger, can effectively induce apoptotic cell death of Mahlavu cells via an oxidative stress-mediated caspase-dependent mechanism. The cascade of events in 6-SG-induced apoptosis of these cells involved an initial overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) followed by a severe depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH) contents. Both events consequently entailed a significant drop in mitochondrial transmembrane potential (DeltaPsim), which ultimately activated the activities of caspases 3/7 resulting in the DNA fragmentation. Interestingly, we also found that N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant and a precursor of GSH biosynthesis, could offer a near complete protection of apoptotic cell death exerted by 6-SG. Similarly, exogenously added GSH could also provide protection with an equal efficacy. However, it was paradoxical that both Boc-Asp(OMe)-fmk (a broad caspases inhibitor) and cyclosporin A (an mitochondrial permeability transition opening inhibitor) could only partially protect these cells from 6-SG-induced apoptosis. Taking these data into consideration, it is obvious that GSH depletion is the major contributing factor in arbitrating 6-SG-induced apoptosis of Mahlavu cells. In conclusion, we provide here a novel modality that can help to eradicate a p53 mutant of human hepatoma cells by using a natural consistent isolated form of ginger. These data also provide evidence to reaffirm the notion that consumption of certain foodstuffs can be beneficial to health because some of the constituents contained in them may be anticarcinogenic. PMID:17263498

Chen, Chung-Yi; Liu, Tsan-Zon; Liu, Yi-Wen; Tseng, Wei-Chang; Liu, Ray H; Lu, Fung-Jou; Lin, Yu-Shan; Kuo, Shih-Hsien; Chen, Ching-Hsein

2007-02-01

106

The apoptotic effect of brucine from the seed of Strychnos nux-vomica on human hepatoma cells is mediated via Bcl-2 and Ca2+ involved mitochondrial pathway.  

PubMed

In an attempt to dissect the mechanism of Strychnos nux-vomica, a commonly used Chinese folk medicine in the therapy of liver cancer, the cytotoxic effects of four alkaloids in Strychnos nux-vomica, brucine, brucine N-oxide, strychnine, and isostrychnine, on human hepatoma cells (HepG2) were screened by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrasolium bromide (MTT) assay. Brucine, among the four alkaloids, exhibited the strongest toxic effect, the mechanism of which was found to cause HepG2 cell apoptosis, since brucine caused HepG2 cell shrinkage, the formation of apoptotic bodies, DNA fragmentation, cell cycle arrest, as well as phosphatidylserine externalization, all of which are typical characteristics of apoptotic programmed cell death. Brucine-induced HepG2 cell apoptosis was caspase dependent, with caspase-3 activated by caspase-9. Brucine also caused the proteolytic processing of caspase-9. In addition, brucine caused depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane of HepG2 cells, the inhibition of which by cyclosporine A completely abrogated the activation of casapses and release of cytochrome c in brucine-treated HepG2 cells. These findings suggested a pivotal role of mitochondrial membrane depolarization in HepG2 cell apoptosis elicited by brucine. Furthermore, brucine induced a rapid and sustained elevation of intracellular [Ca2+], which compromised the mitochondrial membrane potential and triggered the process of HepG2 cell apoptosis. Finally, Bcl-2 was found to predominately control the whole event of cell apoptosis induced by brucine. The elevation of [Ca2+]i caused by brucine was also suppressed by overexpression of Bcl-2 protein in HepG2 cells. From the facts given above, Ca2+ and Bcl-2 mediated mitochondrial pathway were found to be involved in brucine-induced HepG2 cell apoptosis. PMID:16443926

Deng, Xukun; Yin, Fangzhou; Lu, Xiaoyu; Cai, Baochang; Yin, Wu

2006-01-27

107

Cell death-resistance of differentiated myotubes is associated with enhanced anti-apoptotic mechanisms compared to myoblasts  

PubMed Central

Skeletal muscle atrophy is associated with elevated apoptosis while muscle differentiation results in apoptosis resistance, indicating that the role of apoptosis in skeletal muscle is multifaceted. The objective of this study was to investigate mechanisms underlying apoptosis susceptibility in proliferating myoblasts compared to differentiated myotubes and we hypothesized that cell death-resistance in differentiated myotubes is mediated by enhanced anti-apoptotic pathways. C2C12 myoblasts and myotubes were treated with H2O2 or staurosporine (Stsp) to induce cell death. H2O2 and Stsp induced DNA fragmentation in more than 50% of myoblasts, but in myotubes less than 10% of nuclei showed apoptotic changes. Mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation was detected with H2O2 and Stsp in myoblasts, while this response was greatly diminished in myotubes. Caspase-3 activity was 10-fold higher in myotubes compared to myoblasts, and Stsp caused a significant caspase-3 induction in both. However, exposure to H2O2 did not lead to caspase-3 activation in myoblasts, and only to a modest induction in myotubes. A similar response was observed for caspase-2, -8 and -9. Abundance of caspase-inhibitors (apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC), and heat shock protein (HSP) 70 and -25 was significantly higher in myotubes compared to myoblasts, and in addition ARC was suppressed in response to Stsp in myotubes. Moreover, increased expression of HSPs in myoblasts attenuated cell death in response to H2O2 and Stsp. Protein abundance of the pro-apoptotic protein endonuclease G (EndoG) and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was higher in myotubes compared to myoblasts. These results show that resistance to apoptosis in myotubes is increased despite high levels of pro-apoptotic signaling mechanisms, and we suggest that this protective effect is mediated by enhanced anti-caspase mechanisms.

Xiao, Rijin; Ferry, Amy L.

2011-01-01

108

(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate induces non-apoptotic cell death in human cancer cells via ROS-mediated lysosomal membrane permeabilization.  

PubMed

(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most extensive studied tea polyphenol for its anti-cancer function. In this study, we report a novel mechanism of action for EGCG-mediated cell death by identifying the critical role of lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). First, EGCG-induced cell death in human cancer cells (both HepG2 and HeLa) was found to be caspase-independent and accompanied by evident cytosolic vacuolization, only observable when cells were treated in serum-free medium. The cytosolic vacuolization observed in EGCG-treated cells was most probably caused by lysosomal dilation. Interestingly, EGCG was able to disrupt autophagic flux at the degradation stage by impairment of lysosomal function, and EGCG-induced cell death was independent of Atg5 or autophagy. The key finding of this study is that EGCG is able to trigger LMP, as evidenced by Lyso-Tracker Red staining, cathepsin D cytosolic translocation and cytosolic acidification. Consistently, a lysosomotropic agent, chloroquine, effectively rescues the cell death via suppressing LMP-caused cytosolic acidification. Lastly, we found that EGCG promotes production of intracellular ROS upstream of LMP and cell death, as evidenced by increased level of ROS in cells treated with EGCG and the protective effects of antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against EGCG-mediated LMP and cell death. Taken together, data from our study reveal a novel mechanism underlying EGCG-induced cell death involving ROS and LMP. Therefore, understanding this lysosome-associated cell death pathway shed new lights on the anti-cancer effects of EGCG. PMID:23056433

Zhang, Yin; Yang, Nai-Di; Zhou, Fan; Shen, Ting; Duan, Ting; Zhou, Jing; Shi, Yin; Zhu, Xin-Qiang; Shen, Han-Ming

2012-10-08

109

(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Induces Non-Apoptotic Cell Death in Human Cancer Cells via ROS-Mediated Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization  

PubMed Central

(?)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most extensive studied tea polyphenol for its anti-cancer function. In this study, we report a novel mechanism of action for EGCG-mediated cell death by identifying the critical role of lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). First, EGCG-induced cell death in human cancer cells (both HepG2 and HeLa) was found to be caspase-independent and accompanied by evident cytosolic vacuolization, only observable when cells were treated in serum-free medium. The cytosolic vacuolization observed in EGCG-treated cells was most probably caused by lysosomal dilation. Interestingly, EGCG was able to disrupt autophagic flux at the degradation stage by impairment of lysosomal function, and EGCG-induced cell death was independent of Atg5 or autophagy. The key finding of this study is that EGCG is able to trigger LMP, as evidenced by Lyso-Tracker Red staining, cathepsin D cytosolic translocation and cytosolic acidification. Consistently, a lysosomotropic agent, chloroquine, effectively rescues the cell death via suppressing LMP-caused cytosolic acidification. Lastly, we found that EGCG promotes production of intracellular ROS upstream of LMP and cell death, as evidenced by increased level of ROS in cells treated with EGCG and the protective effects of antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against EGCG-mediated LMP and cell death. Taken together, data from our study reveal a novel mechanism underlying EGCG-induced cell death involving ROS and LMP. Therefore, understanding this lysosome-associated cell death pathway shed new lights on the anti-cancer effects of EGCG.

Zhang, Yin; Yang, Nai-Di; Zhou, Fan; Shen, Ting; Duan, Ting; Zhou, Jing; Shi, Yin; Zhu, Xin-Qiang; Shen, Han-Ming

2012-01-01

110

Apoptotic induction with bifunctional E.coli cytosine deaminase-uracil phosphoribosyltransferase mediated suicide gene therapy is synergized by curcumin treatment in vitro.  

PubMed

Development of novel suicide gene therapy vector with potential application in cancer treatment has a great impact on human health. Investigation to understand molecular mechanism of cell death is necessary to evaluate the therapeutic application of suicide vectors. For example, the bifunctional E.coli cytosine deaminase & uracil phosphoribosyltransferase fusion (CD-UPRT) gene expression is known to sensitize a wide range of cells toward nontoxic prodrug 5-flurocytosine (5-FC) by converting it to toxic compounds, but the exact pathway of cell death is yet to be defined. Herein, we investigated the mechanism of cell death by 5-FC/CD-UPRT suicide system in both cancer and non-cancer cells and found that the optimum 5-FC concentration led to programmed cell death in vitro. The CD-UPRT expression of transfected cells was measured by the RT-PCR analysis. Biochemical assays, such as mitochondrial activity (MTS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) measurements exhibited cell death. Microscopic experiments showed characteristic onset of apoptosis which was further supported by internucleosomal DNA cleavage of BrdU labeled cellular DNA, appearance of characteristic laddering of chromosomal DNA and involvement of caspase pathway. Furthermore, the 5-FC/CD-UPRT-mediated apoptosis was potentiated with addition of a known anticancer agent curcumin. Our in vitro studies confirmed synergistic induction of apoptotic pathway in the combination treatment. Therefore, combination of 5-FC/CD-UPRT with curcumin could be a potential chemosensitization strategy for cancer treatment. PMID:18092145

Gopinath, P; Ghosh, Siddhartha Sankar

2007-12-19

111

Hyperthermia-enhanced TRAIL- and mapatumumab-induced apoptotic death is mediated through mitochondria in human colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the world; death usually results from uncontrolled metastatic disease. Previously, we developed a novel strategy of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (Apo2L/TRAIL) in combination with hyperthermia to treat hepatic colorectal metastases. However, previous studies suggest a potential hepatocyte cytotoxicity with TRAIL. Unlike TRAIL, anti-human TRAIL receptor antibody induces apoptosis without hepatocyte toxicity. In this study, we evaluated the anti-tumor efficacy of humanized anti-death receptor 4 (DR4) antibody mapatumumab (Mapa) by comparing it with TRAIL in combination with hyperthermia. TRAIL, which binds to both DR4 and death receptor 5 (DR5), was approximately tenfold more effective than Mapa in inducing apoptosis. However, hyperthermia enhances apoptosis induced by either agent. We observed that the synergistic effect was mediated through elevation of reactive oxygen species, c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation, Bax oligomerization, and translocalization to the mitochondria, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c to cytosol, activation of caspases, and increase in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. We believe that the successful outcome of this study will support the application of Mapa in combination with hyperthermia to colorectal hepatic metastases. PMID:22174016

Song, Xinxin; Kim, Han-Cheon; Kim, Seog-Young; Basse, Per; Park, Bae-Hang; Lee, Byeong-Chel; Lee, Yong J

2012-05-01

112

Two-Step Engulfment of Apoptotic Cells  

PubMed Central

Apoptotic cells expose phosphatidylserine on their surface as an “eat me” signal, and macrophages respond by engulfing them. Although several molecules that specifically bind phosphatidylserine have been identified, the molecular mechanism that triggers engulfment remains elusive. Here, using a mouse pro-B cell line, Ba/F3, that grows in suspension, we reconstituted the engulfment of apoptotic cells. The parental Ba/F3 cells did not engulf apoptotic cells. Ba/F3 transformants expressing T cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule 4 (Tim4), a type I membrane protein that specifically binds phosphatidylserine, efficiently bound apoptotic cells in a phosphatidylserine-dependent manner but did not engulf them. However, Ba/F3 transformants expressing both Tim4 and the integrin ?v?3 complex bound to and engulfed apoptotic cells in the presence of milk fat globule epidermal growth factor factor VIII (MFG-E8), a secreted protein that can bind phosphatidylserine and integrin ?v?3. These results indicate that the engulfment of apoptotic cells proceeds in two steps: Tim4 tethers apoptotic cells, and the integrin ?v?3 complex mediates engulfment in coordination with MFG-E8. A similar two-step engulfment of apoptotic cells was observed with mouse resident peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, the Tim4/integrin-mediated engulfment by the Ba/F3 cells was enhanced in cells expressing Rac1 and Rab5, suggesting that this system well reproduces the engulfment of apoptotic cells by macrophages.

Toda, Satoshi; Hanayama, Rikinari

2012-01-01

113

Immunosuppressive effects of apoptotic cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apoptotic cell death is important in the development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms and is a highly controlled means of eliminating dangerous, damaged or unnecessary cells without causing an inflammatory response or tissue damage,. We now show that the presence of apoptotic cells during monocyte activation increases their secretion of the anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10) and decreases secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), IL-1 and IL-12. This may inhibit inflammation and contribute to impaired cell-mediated immunity in conditions associated with increased apoptosis, such as viral infections, pregnancy, cancer and exposure to radiation.

Voll, Reinhard E.; Herrmann, Martin; Roth, Edith A.; Stach, Christian; Kalden, Joachim R.; Girkontaite, Irute

1997-11-01

114

Transcriptional and Translational Regulation of Inflammatory Mediator Production by Endogenous TGF-b in Macrophages That Have Ingested Apoptotic Cells1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently reported that phagocytosis of apoptotic cells inhibits the release of inflammatory cytokines by human macrophages. In this paper we show that apoptotic cell uptake by mouse J774 macrophages also inhibits the synthesis and secretion of the chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (Mip-2), KC, and Mip-1 a (but not that of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)\\/JE), and increases TGF-b formation. Anti-TGF-b

Patrick P. McDonald; Valerie A. Fadok; Donna Bratton; Peter M. Henson

115

Apoptotic effects of Physalis minima L. chloroform extract in human breast carcinoma T-47D cells mediated by c-myc-, p53-, and caspase-3-dependent pathways.  

PubMed

The chloroform extract of Physalis minima produced a significant growth inhibition against human T-47D breast carcinoma cells as compared with other extracts with an EC(50) value of 3.8 microg/mL. An analysis of cell death mechanisms indicated that the extract elicited an apoptotic cell death. mRNA expression analysis revealed the coregulation of apoptotic genes, that is, c-myc , p53, and caspase-3. The c-myc was significantly induced by the chloroform extract at the earlier phase of treatment, followed by p53 and caspase-3. Biochemical assay and ultrastructural observation displayed typical apoptotic features in the treated cells, including DNA fragmentation, blebbing and convolution of cell membrane, clumping and margination of chromatin, and production of membrane-bound apoptotic bodies. The presence of different stages of apoptotic cell death and phosphatidylserine externalization were further reconfirmed by annexin V and propidium iodide staining. Thus, the results from this study strongly suggest that the chloroform extract of P. minima induced apoptotic cell death via p53-, caspase-3-, and c-myc-dependent pathways. PMID:20150224

Ooi, Kheng Leong; Tengku Muhammad, Tengku Sifzizul; Lim, Chui Hun; Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza

2010-02-11

116

ERK mediates anti-apoptotic effect through phosphorylation and cytoplasmic localization of p21Waf1/Cip1/Sdi in response to DNA damage in normal human embryonic fibroblast (HEF) cells.  

PubMed

Since anti-apoptotic effect of ERK has not been elucidated clearly in DNA-damage-induced cell death, the role of ERK was examined in normal HEF cells treated with mild DNA damage using etoposide or camptothecin. ERK was activated by DNA damage in HEF cells. PD98059 increased apoptosis and reduced DNA-damage-induced p21Waf1/Cip1/Sdi level. Depletion of p21Waf1/Cip1/Sdi induced cell death and PD98059 induced additional cell death. DNA-damage-induced increase in cytoplasmic localization and phosphorylation of threonine residues of p21Waf1/Cip1/Sdi was reversed by PD98059. Thus, the results suggest that ERK pathway mediates anti-apoptotic effects through phosphorylation and cytoplasmic localization of p21Waf1/Cip1/Sdi in response to mild DNA damage. PMID:21110119

Heo, Jee-In; Oh, Soo-Jin; Kho, Yoon-Jung; Kim, Jeong-Hyeon; Kang, Hong-Joon; Park, Seong-Hoon; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Shin, Jong-Yeon; Kim, Min-Ju; Kim, Sung Chan; Park, Jae-Bong; Kim, Jaebong; Lee, Jae-Yong

2010-11-26

117

c-Met Overexpression Contributes to the Acquired Apoptotic Resistance of Nonadherent Ovarian Cancer Cells through a Cross Talk Mediated by  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic cancer mainly because of widespread peritoneal dissemination and malignant ascites. Key to this is the capacity of tumor cells to escape suspension-induced apoptosis (anoikis), which also underlies their resistance to chemotherapy. Here, we used a nonadherent cell culture model to investigate the molecular mechanisms of apoptotic resistance of ovarian cancer cells that may

Extracellular Signal-Regulated; Maggie K. S. Tang; Hong Y. Zhou; Judy W. P. Yam; Alice S. T. Wong

2010-01-01

118

Translocation and oligomerization of Bax is regulated independently by activation of p38 MAPK and caspase-2 during MN9D dopaminergic neurodegeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bax is translocated into the mitochondrial membrane and oligomerized therein to initiate mitochondrial apoptotic signaling.\\u000a Our previous study indicated that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)\\u000a and caspase is critically involved in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-mediated neurodegeneration. Here, we specifically attempted\\u000a to examine whether and how these death signaling pathways may be linked to Bax translocation and oligomerization.

Chang-Ki Oh; Baek-Soo Han; Won-Seok Choi; Moussa B. H. Youdim; Young J. Oh

119

Triggering of death receptor apoptotic signaling by human papillomavirus 16 E2 protein in cervical cancer cell lines is mediated by interaction with c-FLIP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomavirus (HPV) E2 gene disruption is one of the key features of HPV-induced cervical malignant transformation. Though it is thought to prevent\\u000a progression of carcinogenesis, the pro-apoptotic function of E2 protein remains poorly understood. This study shows that expression\\u000a of HPV16 E2 induces apoptosis both in HPV-positive and -negative cervical cancer cell lines and leads to hyperactivation of\\u000a caspase-8

Wei Wang; Yong Fang; Ni Sima; Yan Li; Wei Li; Li Li; Linfei Han; Shujie Liao; Zhiqiang Han; Qinglei Gao; Kezhen Li; Dongrui Deng; Li Meng; Jianfeng Zhou; Shixuan Wang; Ding Ma

2011-01-01

120

Intra-coronary adenoviral-mediated sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ATPase gene transfection during experimental heart failure improves exercise capacity and hemodynamic, inflammatory, and apoptotic profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Heart failure is associated with abnormalities of the inflammatory and apoptotic cascades. Our goal was to assess potential alterations in these systemic pathways as a result of intra-cardiac gene transfection of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA).Methods: Rats underwent aortic banding and were followed by echocardiography for development of heart failure. After a decrease in fractional shortening of at least 25%

Dipin Gupta; Jonathan Palma; Walter Long; John Gaughan; Steven Houser; Satoshi Furukawa; Mahender Macha

2004-01-01

121

Houttuynia cordata Thunb extract modulates G0/G1 arrest and Fas/CD95-mediated death receptor apoptotic cell death in human lung cancer A549 cells  

PubMed Central

Background Houttuynia cordata Thunb (HCT) is commonly used in Taiwan and other Asian countries as an anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antiviral herbal medicine. In this study, we investigated the anti-human lung cancer activity and growth inhibition mechanisms of HCT in human lung cancer A549 cells. Results In order to investigate effects of HCT on A549 cells, MTT assay was used to evaluate cell viability. Flow cytometry was employed for cell cycle analysis, DAPI staining, and the Comet assay was used for DNA fragmentation and DNA condensation. Western blot analysis was used to analyze cell cycle and apoptotic related protein levels. HCT induced morphological changes including cell shrinkage and rounding. HCT increased the G0/G1 and Sub-G1 cell (apoptosis) populations and HCT increased DNA fragmentation and DNA condensation as revealed by DAPI staining and the Comet assay. HCT induced activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3. Fas/CD95 protein levels were increased in HCT-treated A549 cells. The G0/G1 phase and apoptotic related protein levels of cyclin D1, cyclin A, CDK 4 and CDK 2 were decreased, and p27, caspase-8 and caspase-3 were increased in A549 cells after HCT treatment. Conclusions The results demonstrated that HCT-induced G0/G1 phase arrest and Fas/CD95-dependent apoptotic cell death in A549 cells

2013-01-01

122

Adaptation to ER Stress Is Mediated by Differential Stabilities of Pro-Survival and Pro-Apoptotic mRNAs and Proteins  

PubMed Central

The accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) activates a signaling cascade known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). Although activation of the UPR is well described, there is little sense of how the response, which initiates both apoptotic and adaptive pathways, can selectively allow for adaptation. Here we describe the reconstitution of an adaptive ER stress response in a cell culture system. Monitoring the activation and maintenance of representative UPR gene expression pathways that facilitate either adaptation or apoptosis, we demonstrate that mild ER stress activates all UPR sensors. However, survival is favored during mild stress as a consequence of the intrinsic instabilities of mRNAs and proteins that promote apoptosis compared to those that facilitate protein folding and adaptation. As a consequence, the expression of apoptotic proteins is short-lived as cells adapt to stress. We provide evidence that the selective persistence of ER chaperone expression is also applicable to at least one instance of genetic ER stress. This work provides new insight into how a stress response pathway can be structured to allow cells to avert death as they adapt. It underscores the contribution of posttranscriptional and posttranslational mechanisms in influencing this outcome.

Rutkowski, D. Thomas; Arnold, Stacey M; Miller, Corey N; Wu, Jun; Li, Jack; Gunnison, Kathryn M; Mori, Kazutoshi; Sadighi Akha, Amir A.; Raden, David; Kaufman, Randal J

2006-01-01

123

Oldenlandia diffusa extracts exert antiproliferative and apoptotic effects on human breast cancer cells through ER?/Sp1-mediated p53 activation.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the most frequent tumor and a major cause of death among women. Estrogens play a crucial role in breast tumor growth, which is the rationale for the use of hormonal antiestrogen therapies. Unfortunately, not all therapeutic modalities are efficacious and it is imperative to develop new effective antitumoral drugs. Oldenlandia diffusa (OD) is a well-known medicinal plant used to prevent and treat many disorders, especially cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of OD extracts on breast cancer cell proliferation. We observed that OD extracts strongly inhibited anchorage-dependent and -independent cell growth and induced apoptosis in estrogen receptor alpha (ER?)-positive breast cancer cells, whereas proliferation and apoptotic responses of MCF-10A normal breast epithelial cells were unaffected. Mechanistically, OD extracts enhance the tumor suppressor p53 expression as a result of an increased binding of ER?/Sp1 complex to the p53 promoter region. Finally, we isolated ursolic and oleanolic acids as the bioactive compounds able to upregulate p53 expression and inhibit breast cancer cell growth. These acids were greatly effective in reducing tamoxifen-resistant growth of a derivative MCF-7 breast cancer cell line resistant to the antiestrogen treatment. Our results evidence how OD, and its bioactive compounds, exert antiproliferative and apoptotic effects selectively in ER?-positive breast cancer cells, highlighting the potential use of these herbal extracts as breast cancer preventive and/or therapeutic agents. PMID:22213398

Gu, Guowei; Barone, Ines; Gelsomino, Luca; Giordano, Cinzia; Bonofiglio, Daniela; Statti, Giancarlo; Menichini, Francesco; Catalano, Stefania; Andò, Sebastiano

2012-10-01

124

The apoptotic effect of hesperetin on human cervical cancer cells is mediated through cell cycle arrest, death receptor, and mitochondrial pathways.  

PubMed

Hesperetin, a flavonoid from citrus fruits, has several bioactivities such as anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antiatherogenic effects. However, studies elucidating the role and the mechanism(s) of action of hesperetin in cervical cancer are sparse. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of the antiproliferative and apoptotic actions exerted by hesperetin on human cervical cancer SiHa cells. The viability of SiHa cells was evaluated using the MTT assay, apoptosis by acridine orange/ethidium bromide, propidium iodide, TUNEL assay, and Annexin V-Cy3, cell cycle distribution and mitochondrial transmembrane potential using flow cytometry, and apoptotic marker genes using quantitative real-time PCR. The treatment of SiHa cells with hesperetin (IC50, 650 ?m) showed a marked concentration- and time-dependent inhibition of proliferation and induced the G2/M phase in a dose-dependent manner after 24 h. There was an attenuation of mitochondrial membrane potential with increased expression of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, p53, Bax, and Fas death receptor and its adaptor protein Fas-associated death domain-containing protein (FADD), indicating the participation of both death receptor- and mitochondria-related mechanisms. Furthermore, hesperetin-induced apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL and Annexin V-Cy3. This study shows that hesperetin exhibits a potential anticancer activity against human cervical cancer cell lines in vitro through the reduction in cell viability and the induction of apoptosis. Altogether, these data sustain our contention that hesperetin has anticancer properties and merits further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent. PMID:22913657

Alshatwi, Ali A; Ramesh, E; Periasamy, V S; Subash-Babu, P

2012-08-23

125

Pheophorbide a-mediated photodynamic therapy induces apoptotic cell death in murine oral squamous cell carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with several photosensitizers is a promising modality for the treatment of cancer. In this study, the therapeutic effect of PDT using the synthetic photosensitizer pheophorbide a (Pa-PDT) was examined in AT-84 murine oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. The MTT assay revealed that Pa-PDT induced cell growth inhibition in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Pa-PDT treatment significantly induced intracellular ROS generation, which is critical for cell death induced by Pa-PDT. Cell cycle analysis showed the increased sub-G1 proportion of cells in Pa-PDT-treated cells. Induction of apoptotic cell death was confirmed by DAPI staining and the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) on Pa-PDT-treated cells. The changes in apoptosis-related molecules were next examined using western blotting. Cytochrome c release and cleavage of caspase-3 and PAPR were observed in AT-84 cells, whereas Bcl-2 protein levels were decreased. To determine the therapeutic effect of Pa-PDT in vivo, a murine OSCC animal model was used. Treatment of mice with Pa-PDT significantly inhibited tumor growth, especially PDT with Pa intravenous administration (i.v. Pa-PDT), and increased proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) levels and TUNEL-stained apoptotic cells compared to vehicle-treated controls. The data demonstrate that the in vitro effects of Pa-PDT on the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis correlate to the anticancer activity of Pa-PDT in vivo. Our findings suggest the therapeutic potential of Pa-PDT in OSCC. PMID:22470106

Ahn, Mee-Young; Kwon, Seong-Min; Kim, Yong-Chul; Ahn, Sang-Gun; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

2012-03-27

126

Recognition ligands on apoptotic cells: a perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of apoptosis includes crit- ically important changes on the cell surface that lead to its recognition and removal. The recogni- tion also generates a number of other local tissue responses including suppression of inflammation and immunity. It is surprising that the ligands gen- erated on the apoptotic cell, which mediates these effects, have received relatively little attention. Some

Shyra J. Gardai; Donna L. Bratton; Carole Anne Ogden; Peter M. Henson

2006-01-01

127

MMP-2 siRNA induced Fas\\/CD95-mediated extrinsic II apoptotic pathway in the A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously reported that the downregulation of MMP-2 by adenovirus-mediated delivery of MMP-2 siRNA (Ad-MMP-2) reduced spheroid invasion and angiogenesis in vitro, and, metastasis and tumor growth in vivo. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of Ad-MMP-2-mediated growth inhibition in vitro and in vivo. Ad-MMP-2 infection led to the induction of apoptosis as determined by TUNEL assay, Annexin-V

C Chetty; P Bhoopathi; S S Lakka; J S Rao

2007-01-01

128

Carboxypeptidase E/NF?1: A New Neurotrophic Factor against Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptotic Cell Death Mediated by ERK and PI3-K/AKT Pathways  

PubMed Central

Mice lacking Carboxypeptidase E (CPE) exhibit degeneration of hippocampal neurons caused by stress at weaning while over-expression of CPE in hippocampal neurons protect them against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death. Here we demonstrate that CPE acts as an extracellular trophic factor to protect neurons. Rat hippocampal neurons pretreated with purified CPE protected the cells against hydrogen peroxide-, staurosporine- and glutamate-induced cell death. This protection was observed even when hippocampal neurons were treated with an enzymatically inactive mutant CPE or with CPE in the presence of its inhibitor, GEMSA. Purified CPE added to the culture medium rescued CPE knock-out hippocampal neurons from cell death. Both ERK and AKT were phosphorylated within 15 min after CPE treatment of hippocampal neurons and, using specific inhibitors, both signaling pathways were shown to be required for the neuroprotective effect. The expression of the anti-apoptotic protein, B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2), was up-regulated after hippocampal neurons were treated with CPE. Furthermore, hydrogen peroxide induced down-regulation of BCL-2 protein and subsequent activation of caspase-3 were inhibited by CPE treatment. Thus, this study has identified CPE as a new neurotrophic factor that can protect neurons against degeneration through the activation of ERK and AKT signaling pathways to up-regulate expression of BCL-2.

Cheng, Yong; Cawley, Niamh X.; Loh, Y. Peng

2013-01-01

129

Mediation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and apoptotic signaling by resveratrol following muscle disuse in the gastrocnemius muscles of young and old rats.  

PubMed

Hindlimb suspension (HLS) elicits muscle atrophy, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in skeletal muscle. Increases in oxidative stress can have detrimental effects on muscle mass and function, and it can potentially lead to myonuclear apoptosis. Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenol possessing both antioxidant and antiaging properties. To analyze the capacity of resveratrol to attenuate oxidative stress, apoptosis and muscle force loss were measured following 14 days of HLS. Young (6 mo) and old (34 mo) rats were administered either 12.5 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) of trans-resveratrol, or 0.1% carboxymethylcellulose for 21 days, including 14 days of HLS. HLS induced a significant decrease in plantarflexor isometric force, but resveratrol blunted this loss in old animals. Resveratrol increased gastrocnemius catalase activity, MnSOD activity, and MnSOD protein content following HLS. Resveratrol reduced hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation levels in muscles from old animals after HLS. Caspase 9 abundance was reduced and Bcl-2 was increased, but other apoptotic markers were not affected by resveratrol in the gastrocnemius muscle after HLS. The data indicate that resveratrol has a protective effect against oxidative stress and muscle force loss in old HLS animals; however, resveratrol was unable to attenuate apoptosis following HLS. These results suggest that resveratrol has the potential to be an effective therapeutic agent to treat muscle functional decrements via improving the redox status associated with disuse. PMID:20861279

Jackson, Janna R; Ryan, Michael J; Hao, Yanlei; Alway, Stephen E

2010-09-22

130

Pro-apoptotic and migration-suppressing potential of EGCG, and the involvement of AMPK in the p53-mediated modulation of VEGF and MMP-9 expression  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated the regulatory mechanisms by which epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) exerts vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-, p53- and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-associated pro-apoptotic and migration-suppressing effects on colon cancer cells. EGCG decreased the expression levels of VEGF and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9. EGCG treatment induced apoptosis in the presence of wild-type and mutant p53, indicating that a p53-independent pathway may contribute to EGCG-induced apoptosis in these cells. EGCG showed migration-suppressing effects, suggesting that this activity may also have p53-dependent and -independent components. The interaction between p53 and VEGF in the EGCG-treated cells was investigated using pifithrin-?. Notably, the suppression of p53 activity blocked the ability of EGCG to inhibit VEGF and MMP-9 in the cells expressing wild-type p53, but not mutant p53, indicating that the effects of EGCG on VEGF may be p53-dependent or -independent. Finally, although AMPK and VEGF did not appear to co-localize, the results indicated that AMPK controls VEGF in EGCG-treated cells regardless of the p53 status.

PARK, SONG YI; JUNG, CHANG HEE; SONG, BOKYUNG; PARK, OCK JIN; KIM, YOUNG-MIN

2013-01-01

131

Carboxypeptidase E/NF?1: A New Neurotrophic Factor against Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptotic Cell Death Mediated by ERK and PI3-K/AKT Pathways.  

PubMed

Mice lacking Carboxypeptidase E (CPE) exhibit degeneration of hippocampal neurons caused by stress at weaning while over-expression of CPE in hippocampal neurons protect them against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death. Here we demonstrate that CPE acts as an extracellular trophic factor to protect neurons. Rat hippocampal neurons pretreated with purified CPE protected the cells against hydrogen peroxide-, staurosporine- and glutamate-induced cell death. This protection was observed even when hippocampal neurons were treated with an enzymatically inactive mutant CPE or with CPE in the presence of its inhibitor, GEMSA. Purified CPE added to the culture medium rescued CPE knock-out hippocampal neurons from cell death. Both ERK and AKT were phosphorylated within 15 min after CPE treatment of hippocampal neurons and, using specific inhibitors, both signaling pathways were shown to be required for the neuroprotective effect. The expression of the anti-apoptotic protein, B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2), was up-regulated after hippocampal neurons were treated with CPE. Furthermore, hydrogen peroxide induced down-regulation of BCL-2 protein and subsequent activation of caspase-3 were inhibited by CPE treatment. Thus, this study has identified CPE as a new neurotrophic factor that can protect neurons against degeneration through the activation of ERK and AKT signaling pathways to up-regulate expression of BCL-2. PMID:23977080

Cheng, Yong; Cawley, Niamh X; Loh, Y Peng

2013-08-15

132

The anti-apoptotic effect of IGF-1 on tissue resident stem cells is mediated via PI3-kinase dependent secreted frizzled related protein 2 (Sfrp2) release  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies suggest that IGF-1 may be used as an adjuvant to stem cell transfer in order to improve cell engraftment in ischemic tissue. In the current study, we investigated the effect of IGF-1 on serum deprivation and hypoxia induced stem cell apoptosis and the possible mechanisms involved. Exposure of adipose tissue derived stem cells (ASCs) to serum deprivation and hypoxia resulted in significant apoptosis in ASC which is partially prevented by IGF-1. IGF-1's anti-apoptotic effect was abolished in ASCs transfected with Sfrp2 siRNA but not by the control siRNA. Using Western blot analysis, we demonstrated that serum deprivation and hypoxia reduced the expression of nuclear {beta}-catenin, which is reversed by IGF-1. IGF-1's effect on {beta}-catenin expression was abolished by the presence of PI3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 or in ASCs transfected with Sfrp2 siRNA. These results suggest that IGF-1, through the release of the Sfrp2, contributes to cell survival by stabilizing {beta}-catenin.

Gehmert, Sebastian; Sadat, Sanga; Song Yaohua; Yan Yasheng [Department of Molecular Pathology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, SCRB2, Box 951, 7435 Fannin Street, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Alt, Eckhard [Department of Molecular Pathology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, SCRB2, Box 951, 7435 Fannin Street, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)], E-mail: ealt@mdanderson.org

2008-07-11

133

Growth inhibition and pro-apoptotic activity of violacein in Ehrlich ascites tumor.  

PubMed

The continuing threat to biodiversity lends urgency to the need of identification of sustainable source of natural products. This is not so much trouble if there is a microbial source of the compound. Herein, violacein, a natural indolic pigment extracted from Chromobacterium violaceum, was evaluated for its antitumoral potential against the Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) in vivo and in vitro. Evaluation of violacein cytotoxicity using different endpoints indicated that EAT cells were twofold (IC(50)=5.0 microM) more sensitive to the compound than normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes. In vitro studies indicated that violacein cytotoxicity to EAT cells is mediated by a rapid (8-12h) production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a decrease in intracellular GSH levels, probably due to oxidative stress. Additionally, apoptosis was primarily induced, as demonstrated by an increase in Annexin-V positive cells, concurrently with increased levels of DNA fragmentation and increased caspase-2, caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities up to 4.5-, 6.0- and 5.5-fold, respectively, after 72 h of treatment. Moreover, doses of 0.1 and 1.0 microg kg(-1) violacein, administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) to EAT-bearing mice throughout the lifespan of the animals significantly inhibited tumor growth and increased survival of mice. In view of these results, a 35-day toxicity study was conducted in vivo. Complete hematology, biochemistry (ALT, AST and creatinine levels) and histopathological analysis of liver and kidney indicated that daily doses of violacein up to 1000 microg kg(-1) for 35 days are well tolerated and did not cause hematotoxicity nor renal or hepatotoxicity when administered i.p. to mice. Altogether, these results indicate that violacein causes oxidative stress and an imbalance in the antioxidant defense machinery of cells culminating in apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, this is the first report of its antitumor activity in vivo, which occurs in the absence of toxicity to major organs. PMID:20416285

Bromberg, Natália; Dreyfuss, Juliana L; Regatieri, Caio V; Palladino, Marcelly V; Durán, Nelson; Nader, Helena B; Haun, Marcela; Justo, Giselle Z

2010-04-21

134

Chloroacetic acid induced neuronal cells death through oxidative stress-mediated p38-MAPK activation pathway regulated mitochondria-dependent apoptotic signals.  

PubMed

Chloroacetic acid (CA), a toxic chlorinated analog of acetic acid, is widely used in chemical industries as an herbicide, detergent, and disinfectant, and chemical intermediates that are formed during the synthesis of various products. In addition, CA has been found as a by-product of chlorination disinfection of drinking water. However, there is little known about neurotoxic injuries of CA on the mammalian, the toxic effects and molecular mechanisms of CA-induced neuronal cell injury are mostly unknown. In this study, we examined the cytotoxicity of CA on cultured Neuro-2a cells and investigated the possible mechanisms of CA-induced neurotoxicity. Treatment of Neuro-2a cells with CA significantly reduced the number of viable cells (in a dose-dependent manner with a range from 0.1 to 3mM), increased the generation of ROS, and reduced the intracellular levels of glutathione depletion. CA also increased the number of sub-G1 hypodiploid cells; increased mitochondrial dysfunction (loss of MMP, cytochrome c release, and accompanied by Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 down-regulation and Bax up-regulation), and activated the caspase cascades activations, which displayed features of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis pathway. These CA-induced apoptosis-related signals were markedly prevented by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Moreover, CA activated the JNK and p38-MAPK pathways, but did not that ERK1/2 pathway, in treated Neuro-2a cells. Pretreatment with NAC and specific p38-MAPK inhibitor (SB203580), but not JNK inhibitor (SP600125) effectively abrogated the phosphorylation of p38-MAPK and attenuated the apoptotic signals (including: decrease in cytotoxicity, caspase-3/-7 activation, the cytosolic cytochrome c release, and the reversed alteration of Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA) in CA-treated Neuro-2a cells. Taken together, these data suggest that oxidative stress-induced p38-MAPK activated pathway-regulated mitochondria-dependent apoptosis plays an important role in CA-caused neuronal cell death. PMID:23103613

Chen, Chun-Hung; Chen, Sz-Jie; Su, Chin-Chuan; Yen, Cheng-Chieh; Tseng, To-Jung; Jinn, Tzyy-Rong; Tang, Feng-Cheng; Chen, Kuo-Liang; Su, Yi-Chang; Lee, kuan-I; Hung, Dong-Zong; Huang, Chun-Fa

2012-10-26

135

The non-ankyrin C terminus of Ikappa Balpha physically interacts with p53 in vivo and dissociates in response to apoptotic stress, hypoxia, DNA damage, and transforming growth factor-beta 1-mediated growth suppression.  

PubMed

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta1) suppresses the growth of mink lung Mv1Lu epithelial cells, whereas testicular hyaluronidase abolishes the growth inhibition. Exposure of Mv1Lu cells to TGF-beta1 rapidly resulted in down-regulation of cytosolic IkappaBalpha and hyaluronidase prevented this effect, suggesting a possible role of IkappaBalpha in the growth regulation. Ectopic expression of wild-type and dominant negative IkappaBalpha prevented TGF-beta1-mediated growth suppression. Nonetheless, the blocking effect of IkappaBalpha is not related to regulation of NF-kappaB function by its N-terminal ankyrin-repeat region (amino acids 1-243). Removal of the PEST (proline-glutamic acid-serine-threonine) domain-containing C terminus (amino acids 244-314) abolished the IkappaBalpha function, and the C terminus alone blocked the TGF-beta1 growth-inhibitory effect. Co-immunoprecipitation by anti-p53 antibody using Mv1Lu and other types of cells, as well as rat liver and spleen, revealed that a portion of cytosolic IkappaBalpha physically interacted with p53. In contrast, Mdm2, an inhibitor of p53, was barely detectable in the immunoprecipitates. The cytosolic p53 x IkappaBalpha complex rapidly dissociated in response to apoptotic stress, etoposide- and UV-mediated DNA damage, hypoxia, and TGF-beta1-mediated growth suppression. Also, a rapid increase in the formation of the nuclear p53 x IkappaBalpha complex was observed during exposure to etoposide and UV. In contrast, TGF-beta1-mediated promotion of fibroblast growth failed to mediate p53 x IkappaBalpha dissociation. Mapping by yeast two-hybrid showed that the non-ankyrin C terminus of IkappaBalpha physically interacted with the proline-rich region and a phosphorylation site, serine 46, in p53. Deletion of serine 46 or alteration of serine 46 to glycine abolished the p53 x IkappaBalpha interaction. Alteration to threonine retained the binding interaction, suggesting that serine 46 phosphorylation is involved in the p53 x IkappaBalpha complex formation. Functionally, enhancement of p53 apoptosis was observed when p53 and IkappaBalpha were transiently co-expressed in cells. Together, the IkappaBalpha x p53 complex plays an important role in responses involving growth regulation, apoptosis, and hypoxic stress. PMID:11799106

Chang, Nan-Shan

2002-01-17

136

A Death Effector Domain Chain DISC Model Reveals a Crucial Role for Caspase-8 Chain Assembly in Mediating Apoptotic Cell Death  

PubMed Central

Summary Formation of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) is a critical step in death receptor-mediated apoptosis, yet the mechanisms underlying assembly of this key multiprotein complex remain unclear. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we have delineated the stoichiometry of the native TRAIL DISC. While current models suggest that core DISC components are present at a ratio of 1:1, our data indicate that FADD is substoichiometric relative to TRAIL-Rs or DED-only proteins; strikingly, there is up to 9-fold more caspase-8 than FADD in the DISC. Using structural modeling, we propose an alternative DISC model in which procaspase-8 molecules interact sequentially, via their DED domains, to form a caspase-activating chain. Mutating key interacting residues in procaspase-8 DED2 abrogates DED chain formation in cells and disrupts TRAIL/CD95 DISC-mediated procaspase-8 activation in a functional DISC reconstitution model. This provides direct experimental evidence for a DISC model in which DED chain assembly drives caspase-8 dimerization/activation, thereby triggering cell death.

Dickens, Laura S.; Boyd, Robert S.; Jukes-Jones, Rebekah; Hughes, Michelle A.; Robinson, Gemma L.; Fairall, Louise; Schwabe, John W.R.; Cain, Kelvin; MacFarlane, Marion

2012-01-01

137

Regulation of HA14-1 mediated oxidative stress, toxic response, and autophagy by curcumin to enhance apoptotic activity in human embryonic kidney cells.  

PubMed

An alteration in susceptibility to apoptosis not only contributes to promotion of malignancy but can also enhance drug resistance in response to anticancer therapies. HA14-1 is a small molecule which has the potential of inducing apoptosis in cancerous cells. HA14-1 manifests an antagonistic effect on antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and consequently induces cell death in various cancerous cell lines. However, it is also known to generate ROS and toxic response in the cells upon decomposition. Elevated level of ROS is responsible for oxidative stress and other pathological consequences, if not metabolized properly. The aim of the present study was to examine the synergistic effect of curcumin in promoting apoptosis by regulating the HA14-1 mediated ROS generation, toxicity, oxidative stress, and autophagy in human embryonic kidney cells. Our study demonstrates that curcumin efficiently scavenges HA14-1 mediated generation of ROS and toxic response resulting in augmentation of apoptosis in HEK 293T cells by promoting inhibition of antiapoptotic proteins and process of autophagy. Thus curcumin along with HA14-1 regulates cell proliferation by disruption of the antiapoptotic signaling mechanism. This approach could serve as a promising strategy for therapeutic potential to overcome their adverse effects. © 2013 BioFactors, 2013. PMID:23559532

Ranjan, Kishu; Sharma, Anupama; Surolia, Avadhesha; Pathak, Chandramani

2013-04-01

138

Apoptotic Signaling in Mouse Odontogenesis  

PubMed Central

Abstract Apoptosis is an important morphogenetic event in embryogenesis as well as during postnatal life. In the last 2 decades, apoptosis in tooth development (odontogenesis) has been investigated with gradually increasing focus on the mechanisms and signaling pathways involved. The molecular machinery responsible for apoptosis exhibits a high degree of conservation but also organ and tissue specific patterns. This review aims to discuss recent knowledge about apoptotic signaling networks during odontogenesis, concentrating on the mouse, which is often used as a model organism for human dentistry. Apoptosis accompanies the entire development of the tooth and corresponding remodeling of the surrounding bony tissue. It is most evident in its role in the elimination of signaling centers within developing teeth, removal of vestigal tooth germs, and in odontoblast and ameloblast organization during tooth mineralization. Dental apoptosis is caspase dependent and proceeds via mitochondrial mediated cell death with possible amplification by Fas-FasL signaling modulated by Bcl-2 family members.

Svandova, Eva; Tucker, Abigail S.

2012-01-01

139

Hyperthermia enhances mapatumumab-induced apoptotic death through ubiquitin-mediated degradation of cellular FLIP(long) in human colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the world; the main cause of death of colorectal cancer is hepatic metastases, which can be treated with hyperthermia using isolated hepatic perfusion (IHP). In this study, we report that mild hyperthermia potently reduced cellular FLIP(long), (c-FLIP(L)), a major regulator of the death receptor (DR) pathway of apoptosis, thereby enhancing humanized anti-DR4 antibody mapatumumab (Mapa)-mediated mitochondria-independent apoptosis. We observed that overexpression of c-FLIP(L) in CX-1 cells abrogated the synergistic effect of Mapa and hyperthermia, whereas silencing of c-FLIP in CX-1 cells enhanced Mapa-induced apoptosis. Hyperthermia altered c-FLIP(L) protein stability without concomitant reductions in FLIP mRNA. Ubiquitination of c-FLIP(L) was increased by hyperthermia, and proteasome inhibitor MG132 prevented heat-induced downregulation of c-FLIP(L). These results suggest the involvement of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in this process. We also found lysine residue 195 (K195) to be essential for c-FLIP(L) ubiquitination and proteolysis, as mutant c-FLIP(L) lysine 195 arginine (arginine replacing lysine) was left virtually un-ubiquitinated and was refractory to hyperthermia-triggered degradation, and thus partially blocked the synergistic effect of Mapa and hyperthermia. Our observations reveal that hyperthermia transiently reduced c-FLIP(L) by proteolysis linked to K195 ubiquitination, which contributed to the synergistic effect between Mapa and hyperthermia. This study supports the application of hyperthermia combined with other regimens to treat colorectal hepatic metastases. PMID:23559011

Song, X; Kim, S-Y; Zhou, Z; Lagasse, E; Kwon, Y T; Lee, Y J

2013-04-04

140

Hyperthermia enhances mapatumumab-induced apoptotic death through ubiquitin-mediated degradation of cellular FLIP(long) in human colon cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the world; the main cause of death of colorectal cancer is hepatic metastases, which can be treated with hyperthermia using isolated hepatic perfusion (IHP). In this study, we report that mild hyperthermia potently reduced cellular FLIP(long), (c-FLIPL), a major regulator of the death receptor (DR) pathway of apoptosis, thereby enhancing humanized anti-DR4 antibody mapatumumab (Mapa)-mediated mitochondria-independent apoptosis. We observed that overexpression of c-FLIPL in CX-1 cells abrogated the synergistic effect of Mapa and hyperthermia, whereas silencing of c-FLIP in CX-1 cells enhanced Mapa-induced apoptosis. Hyperthermia altered c-FLIPL protein stability without concomitant reductions in FLIP mRNA. Ubiquitination of c-FLIPL was increased by hyperthermia, and proteasome inhibitor MG132 prevented heat-induced downregulation of c-FLIPL. These results suggest the involvement of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in this process. We also found lysine residue 195 (K195) to be essential for c-FLIPL ubiquitination and proteolysis, as mutant c-FLIPL lysine 195 arginine (arginine replacing lysine) was left virtually un-ubiquitinated and was refractory to hyperthermia-triggered degradation, and thus partially blocked the synergistic effect of Mapa and hyperthermia. Our observations reveal that hyperthermia transiently reduced c-FLIPL by proteolysis linked to K195 ubiquitination, which contributed to the synergistic effect between Mapa and hyperthermia. This study supports the application of hyperthermia combined with other regimens to treat colorectal hepatic metastases.

Song, X; Kim, S-Y; Zhou, Z; Lagasse, E; Kwon, Y T; Lee, Y J

2013-01-01

141

Croquemort, A Novel Drosophila Hemocyte\\/Macrophage Receptor that Recognizes Apoptotic Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programmed cell death is first observed at stage 11 of embryogenesis in Drosophila. The systematic removal of apoptotic cells is mediated by cells that are derived from the procephalic mesoderm and differentiate into macrophages. We describe a macrophage receptor for apoptotic cells. This receptor, croquemort (catcher of death), is a member of the CD36 superfamily. Croquemort-mediated phagocytosis represents the concept

Nathalie C Franc; Jean-Luc Dimarcq; Marie Lagueux; Jules Hoffmann; R. Alan B Ezekowitz

1996-01-01

142

Goniothalamin-induced oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis via caspase-2 independent and Bcl-2 independent pathways in Jurkat T-cells  

PubMed Central

Goniothalamin (GTN) isolated from Goniothalamus sp. has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in a variety of cancer cell lines including Jurkat T leukemia cells. However, the mechanism of GTN-induced apoptosis upstream of mitochondria is still poorly defined. In this study, GTN caused a decrease in GSH with an elevation of reactive oxygen species as early as 30 min and DNA damage as assessed by Comet assay. Analysis using topoisomerase II processing of supercoiled pBR 322 DNA showed that GTN caused DNA damage via a topoisomerase II-independent pathway suggesting that cellular oxidative stress may contribute to genotoxicity. A 12-fold increase of caspase-2 activity was observed in GTN-treated Jurkat cells after 4 h treatment and this was confirmed using Western blotting. Although the caspase-2 inhibitor Z-VDVAD-FMK inhibited the proteolytic activity of caspase-2, apoptosis ensued confirming that caspase-2 activity was not crucial for GTN-induced apoptosis. However, GTN-induced apoptosis was completely abrogated by N-acetylcysteine further confirming the role of oxidative stress. Since cytochrome c release was observed as early as 1 h without any appreciable change in Bcl-2 protein expression, we further investigated whether overexpression of Bcl-2 confers resistance in GTN-induced cytotoxicity. Using a panel of Jurkat Bcl-2 transfectants, GTN cytotoxicity was not abrogated in these cells. In conclusion, GTN induces DNA damage and oxidative stress resulting in apoptosis which is independent of both caspase-2 and Bcl-2.

Inayat-Hussain, S.H.; Chan, K.M.; Rajab, N.F.; Din, L.B.; Chow, S.C.; Kizilors, A.; Farzaneh, F.; Williams, G.T.

2010-01-01

143

A New View of the Lethal Apoptotic Pore  

PubMed Central

Cell death by apoptosis is indispensable for proper development and tissue homeostasis in all multicellular organisms, and its deregulation plays a key role in cancer and many other diseases. A crucial event in apoptosis is the formation of protein-permeable pores in the outer mitochondrial membrane that release cytochrome c and other apoptosis-promoting factors into the cytosol. Research efforts over the past two decades have established that apoptotic pores require BCL-2 family proteins, with the proapoptotic BAX-type proteins being direct effectors of pore formation. Accumulating evidence indicates that other cellular components also cooperate with BCL-2 family members to regulate the apoptotic pore. Despite this knowledge, the molecular pathway leading to apoptotic pore formation at the outer mitochondrial membrane and the precise nature of this outer membrane pore remain enigmatic. In this issue of PLOS Biology, Kushnareva and colleagues describe a novel kinetic analysis of the dynamics of BAX-dependent apoptotic pore formation recapitulated in native mitochondrial outer membranes. Their study reveals the existence of a hitherto unknown outer mitochondrial membrane factor that is critical for BAX-mediated apoptotic pore formation, and challenges the currently popular view that the apoptotic pore is a purely proteinaceous multimeric assembly of BAX proteins. It also supports the notion that membrane remodeling events are implicated in the formation of a lipid-containing apoptotic pore.

Basanez, Gorka; Soane, Lucian; Hardwick, J. Marie

2012-01-01

144

Apoptotic markers in protozoan parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The execution of the apoptotic death program in metazoans is characterized by a sequence of morphological and biochemical changes that include cell shrinkage, presentation of phosphatidylserine at the cell surface, mitochondrial alterations, chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, membrane blebbing and the formation of apoptotic bodies. Methodologies for measuring apoptosis are based on these markers. Except for membrane blebbing and formation of

Antonio Jiménez-Ruiz; Juan Fernando Alzate; Ewan Thomas MacLeod; Carsten Günter Kurt Lüder; Nicolas Fasel; Hilary Hurd

2010-01-01

145

Age-related activation of mitochondrial caspase-independent apoptotic signaling in rat gastrocnemius muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondria-mediated apoptosis represents a central process driving age-related muscle loss. However, the temporal relation between mitochondrial apoptotic signaling and sarcopenia as well as the regulation of release of pro-apoptotic factors from the mitochondria has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated mitochondrial apoptotic signaling in skeletal muscle of rats across a wide age range. We also investigated whether mitochondrial-driven

Emanuele Marzetti; Stephanie Eva Wohlgemuth; Hazel Anne Lees; Hae-Young Chung; Silvia Giovannini; Christiaan Leeuwenburgh

2008-01-01

146

Apoptotic action of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activation in human non small-cell lung cancer is mediated via proline oxidase-induced reactive oxygen species formation.  

PubMed

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma ligands have been shown to inhibit human lung cancers by inducing apoptosis and differentiation. In the present study, we elucidated the apoptotic mechanism of PPARgamma activation in human lung cancers by using a novel PPARgamma agonist, 1-(trans-methylimino-N-oxy)-6-(2-morpholinoethoxy)-3-phenyl-(1H-indene-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (KR-62980), and rosiglitazone. PPARgamma activation selectively inhibited cell viability of non-small-cell lung cancer with little effect on small-cell lung cancer and normal lung cells. The cell death induced by PPARgamma activation presented apoptotic features of oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation in A549 human non-small-cell lung cancer cell line. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was accompanied by increased expression of proline oxidase (POX), a redox enzyme expressed in mitochondria, upon incubation with the agonists. POX RNA interference treatment blocked PPARgamma-induced ROS formation and cytotoxicity, suggesting that POX plays a functional role in apoptosis through ROS formation. The apoptotic effects by the agonists were antagonized by bisphenol A diglycidyl ether, a PPARgamma antagonist, and by knockdown of PPARgamma expression, indicating the involvement of PPARgamma in these actions. The results of the present study suggest that PPARgamma activation induces apoptotic cell death in non-small-cell lung carcinoma mainly through ROS formation via POX induction. PMID:17535976

Kim, Ki Young; Ahn, Jin Hee; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong

2007-05-29

147

Parathyroid hormone(1–34) mediates proliferative and apoptotic signaling in human periodontal ligament cells in vitro via protein kinase C-dependent and protein kinase A-dependent pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periodontal ligament (PDL) cells exhibit several osteoblastic traits and are parathyroid hormone (PTH)-responsive providing evidence for a role of these cells in dental hard-tissue repair. To examine the hypothesis that PDL cells respond to PTH stimulation with changes in proliferation and apoptotic signaling through independent but convergent signaling pathways, PDL cells were cultured from human bicuspids obtained from six patients.

S. Lossdörfer; W. Götz; B. Rath-Deschner; A. Jäger

2006-01-01

148

Apoptotic Regulators and RA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is currently unknown, the disease is mediated by chronic inflammation within the joint, characterized by leukocyte recruitment and the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF? , IL-1, IL-8, and MCP-1. In this review, we discuss recent studies suggesting that apoptosis plays an important role in preventing the development of RA by reducing

Jack Hutcheson; Harris Perlman

2008-01-01

149

Annexin-1 and Peptide Derivatives Are Released by Apoptotic Cells and Stimulate Phagocytosis of Apoptotic Neutrophils by Macrophages1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resolution of inflammation is a dynamically regulated process that may be subverted in many pathological conditions. Macrophage (M) phagocytic clearance of apoptotic leukocytes plays an important role in the resolution of inflammation as this process prevents the exposure of tissues at the inflammatory site to the noxious contents of lytic cells. It is increasingly appreciated that endogenously produced mediators,

Michael Scannell; Michelle B. Flanagan; Kieran J. Wynne; Gerard Cagney; Catherine Godson; Paola Maderna

150

Antiinflammatory effects of apoptotic cells.  

PubMed

Apoptotic cells are rapidly phagocytosed by macrophages, a process that represents a critical step in tissue remodeling, immune responses, and the resolution of inflammation. In 1998, Peter Henson, Donna Bratton, and colleagues at National Jewish Health demonstrated that phagocytosis of apoptotic cells actively suppresses inflammation by inhibiting the production of inflammatory cytokines and inducing production of antiinflammatory factors, including TGF-? and prostaglandin E2. Here they discuss the evolving relationship among apoptosis, phagocytosis, and inflammation. PMID:23863635

Henson, Peter M; Bratton, Donna L

2013-07-01

151

Macrophage response to apoptotic cells varies with the apoptotic trigger and is not altered by a deficiency in LRP expression.  

PubMed

Rapid engulfment of apoptotic cells in the absence of inflammation is required for maintenance of normal tissue homeostasis. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP/CD91) is a receptor mediating interactions between macrophages and apoptotic cells, but recent reports have challenged the requirement of this surface protein in this process. To explore the role of LRP in the recognition of apoptotic cells, target cells were generated with two distinct inducers of apoptotic cell death, etoposide and actinomycin-D. Jurkat T cells rendered apoptotic with etoposide exposed phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) and triggered engulfment by murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM), however they failed to suppress lipopolysaccharide-driven inflammatory cytokine secretion or, correspondingly, NF kappaB-dependent or TNFalpha promoter-driven transcriptional activity in transfected RAW264.7 macrophages. In contrast, induction of apoptosis in either Jurkat cells or HeLa epithelial cells with actinomycin-D resulted in diminution of proinflammatory signaling from RAW264.7 cells and BMDM. Treatment of actinomycin-treated Jurkat cells with Q-VD-OPh, an irreversible inhibitor of caspase activity, blocked apoptosis, as assessed by the inhibition of PtdSer exposure; however, the cells maintained anti-inflammatory activity. Anti-inflammatory signaling mediated by actinomycin-treated cells was not affected by a macrophage-specific deletion in LRP. Moreover, the presence of LRP on macrophages did not alter the efficiency of engulfment of apoptotic cells in vitro or in vivo. These data demonstrate that the method of induction of apoptosis of target cells influences subsequent macrophage responsiveness, and that LRP is not required for engulfment of apoptotic cells regardless of the method of induction. PMID:20375555

Kozmar, Ana; Greenlee-Wacker, Mallary C; Bohlson, Suzanne S

2010-03-10

152

Apoptotic cell instillation after bleomycin attenuates lung injury through hepatocyte growth factor induction.  

PubMed

Apoptotic cell clearance by macrophages and neighbouring tissue cells induces hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) secretion. HGF plays a key role in alveolar epithelial regeneration and reconstruction after lung injury. Direct in vivo exposure to apoptotic cells enhances HGF production, resulting in attenuation of pulmonary injury. We investigated the direct effect of in vivo exposure to apoptotic cells in bleomycin-stimulated lungs (2 days old) on HGF induction. Furthermore, sequential changes of bleomycin-induced HGF production following apoptotic cell instillation related to the changes in inflammatory and fibrotic responses were assessed. At 2 h after apoptotic cell instillation into bleomycin-stimulated lungs, the levels of HGF mRNA and protein production, and apoptotic cell clearance by alveolar macrophages were enhanced. Furthermore, HGF induction persistently increased following apoptotic cell instillation up to 21 days after bleomycin treatment. Apoptotic cell instillation attenuated bleomycin-induced pro-inflammatory mediator production, inflammatory cell recruitment and total protein levels. Apoptotic cell instillation also induced antiapoptotic and antifibrotic effects. These anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects could be reversed by co-administration of HGF-neutralising antibody. These findings indicate that in vivo exposure to apoptotic cells enhances transcriptional HGF production in bleomycin-stimulated lungs, resulting in attenuation of lung injury and fibrosis. PMID:22441736

Lee, Ye-Ji; Moon, Changsuk; Lee, Seung Hae; Park, Hyun-Jeong; Seoh, Ju-Young; Cho, Min-Sun; Kang, Jihee Lee

2012-03-22

153

The anti-apoptotic role of interleukin-6 in human cervical cancer is mediated by up-regulation of Mcl-1 through a PI 3-K\\/Akt pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a multifunctional cytokine, has recently been implicated in human cervical cancer, though the mechanism remains elusive. This study demonstrates that the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 and IL-6 was concomitantly expressed in human cervical cancer tissues and cell lines, but not in normal cervix tissues. Upon IL-6 treatment, Mcl-1, but not other Bcl-2 family members, was rapidly up-regulated peaking at

Lin-Hung Wei; Min-Liang Kuo; Chi-An Chen; Chia-Hung Chou; Wen-Fang Cheng; Ming-Cheng Chang; Jen-Liang Su; Chang-Yao Hsieh

2001-01-01

154

Anti-inflammatory, pro-apoptotic, and anti-proliferative effects of a methanolic neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract are mediated via modulation of the nuclear factor-?B pathway.  

PubMed

Azadirachta indica (neem tree) is used in traditional Indian medicine for its pharmacological properties including cancer prevention and treatment. Here, we studied a neem extract's anti-inflammatory potential via the nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) signaling pathway, linked to cancer, inflammation, and apoptosis. Cultured human leukemia cells were treated with a methanolic neem leaf extract with or without tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? stimulation. Inhibition of NF-?B activity was demonstrated by luciferase assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Inhibition of viability by neem extracts was assessed by luminescent assays. Western blot analysis allowed assessing the inhibitory effect of the neem extract on TNF-?-induced degradation of inhibitor of ?B (I?B) and nuclear translocation of the NF-?B p50/p65 heterodimer. Inhibition of I?B kinase (IKK) activity was shown as well as the effect of neem extract on the induction of apoptotic cell death mechanisms by nuclear fragmentation analysis and flow cytometry analysis. In conclusion, our data provide evidence for a strong effect of the neem extract on pro-inflammatory cell signaling and apoptotic cell death mechanisms, contributing to a better understanding of the mechanisms triggered by Azadirachta indica. PMID:21484152

Schumacher, Marc; Cerella, Claudia; Reuter, Simone; Dicato, Mario; Diederich, Marc

2010-12-14

155

Apoptotic Death of Olfactory Sensory Neurons in the Adult Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olfactory sensory neurons only live for about 1 month in most mammals. It is not fully understood whether the short life span of these neurons is due to necrotic death, or if these cells die by apoptosis. One characteristic of cells undergoing apoptotic cell death is internucleosomal DNA-fragmentation. We have used TdT-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling (TUNEL) to detect cells

Maja-Lena Deckner; Mårten Risling; Jonas Frisén

1997-01-01

156

Vasoactive intestinal peptide inhibits TNF-?-induced apoptotic events in acinar cells from nonobese diabetic mice submandibular glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: The role of apoptotic secretory epithelium as a pro-inflammatory triggering factor of exocrine dysfunction is currently explored in Sjogren's syndrome patients and in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has anti-inflammatory effects in various models of chronic inflammation. Our goal was to analyse the effect of TNF-? on apoptotic mediators in isolated acinar cells from

Mario Calafat; Luciana Larocca; Valeria Roca; Vanesa Hauk; Nicolás Pregi; Alcira Nesse; Claudia Pérez Leirós

2009-01-01

157

The Roles and Acting Mechanism of Caenorhabditis elegans DNase II Genes in Apoptotic DNA Degradation and Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNase II enzymes are acidic endonucleases that have been implicated in mediating apoptotic DNA degradation, a critical cell death execution event. C. elegans genome contains three DNase II homologues, NUC-1, CRN-6, and CRN-7, but their expression patterns, acting sites, and roles in apoptotic DNA degradation and development are unclear. We have conducted a comprehensive analysis of three C. elegans DNase

Huey-Jen Lai; Szecheng J. Lo; Eriko Kage-Nakadai; Shohei Mitani; Ding Xue

2009-01-01

158

The pyranoxanthone inophyllin A induces oxidative stress mediated-apoptosis in Jurkat T lymphoblastic leukemia cells.  

PubMed

Inophyllin A (INO-A), a pyranoxanthone isolated from the roots of Calophyllum inophyllum represents a new xanthone with potential chemotherapeutic activity. In this study, the molecular mechanism of INO-A-induced cell death was investigated in Jurkat T lymphoblastic leukemia cells. Assessment of phosphatidylserine exposure confirmed apoptosis as the primary mode of cell death in INO-A-treated Jurkat cells. INO-A treatment for only 30 min resulted in a significant increase of tail moment which suggests that DNA damage is an early apoptotic signal. Further flow cytometric assessment of the superoxide anion level confirmed that INO-A induced DNA damage was mediated with a concomitant generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Investigation on the thiols revealed an early decrease of free thiols in 30 min after 50 ?M INO-A treatment. Using tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester, a potentiometric dye, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MPP) was observed in INO-A-treated cells as early as 30 min. The INO-A-induced apoptosis progressed with the simultaneous activation of caspases-2 and -9 which then led to the processing of caspase-3. Taken together, these data demonstrate that INO-A induced early oxidative stress, DNA damage and loss of MMP which subsequently led to the activation of an intrinsic pathway of apoptosis in Jurkat cells. PMID:22613213

Chan, Kok Meng; Hamzah, Ruhana; Rahaman, Amira Abd; Jong, Vivien Yi Mian; Khong, Heng Yen; Rajab, Nor Fadilah; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Inayat-Hussain, Salmaan Hussain

2012-05-18

159

Apoptotic Engulfment Pathway and Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundApoptosis has been speculated to be involved in schizophrenia. In a previously study, we reported the association of the MEGF10 gene with the disease. In this study, we followed the apoptotic engulfment pathway involving the MEGF10, GULP1, ABCA1 and ABCA7 genes and tested their association with the disease.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsTen, eleven and five SNPs were genotyped in the GULP1, ABCA1 and

Xiangning Chen; Cuie Sun; Qi Chen; F. Anthony O'Neill; Dermot Walsh; Ayman H. Fanous; Kodavali V. Chowdari; Vishwajit L. Nimgaonkar; Adrian Scott; Sibylle G. Schwab; Dieter B. Wildenauer; Ronglin Che; Wei Tang; Yongyong Shi; Lin He; Xiong-Jian Luo; Bing Su; Todd L. Edwards; Zhongming Zhao; Kenneth S. Kendler; Hitoshi Okazawa

2009-01-01

160

Apoptotic markers in protozoan parasites  

PubMed Central

The execution of the apoptotic death program in metazoans is characterized by a sequence of morphological and biochemical changes that include cell shrinkage, presentation of phosphatidylserine at the cell surface, mitochondrial alterations, chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, membrane blebbing and the formation of apoptotic bodies. Methodologies for measuring apoptosis are based on these markers. Except for membrane blebbing and formation of apoptotic bodies, all other events have been observed in most protozoan parasites undergoing cell death. However, while techniques exist to detect these markers, they are often optimised for metazoan cells and therefore may not pick up subtle differences between the events occurring in unicellular organisms and multi-cellular organisms. In this review we discuss the markers most frequently used to analyze cell death in protozoan parasites, paying special attention to changes in cell morphology, mitochondrial activity, chromatin structure and plasma membrane structure/permeability. Regarding classical regulators/executors of apoptosis, we have reviewed the present knowledge of caspase-like and nuclease activities.

2010-01-01

161

Leukocyte apoptosis and pro-\\/anti-apoptotic proteins following downhill running  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study were to determine the effect of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage on the induction of apoptosis\\u000a in peripheral blood leukocytes and to investigate if the elevation in apoptotic leukocytes was mediated by changes in the\\u000a concentration of anti-\\/pro-apoptotic proteins in circulation. Twelve moderately trained subjects performed three 40 min treadmill\\u000a runs at ~70% VO2max: a level run

Kyung-Shin ParkDarlene; Darlene A. Sedlock; James W. Navalta; Man-Gyoon Lee; Seung-Hwan Kim

162

Selective involvement of BH3-only proteins and differential targets of Noxa in diverse apoptotic pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

The BH3-only proteins of the Bcl-2 family are known to mediate mitochondrial dysfunction during apoptosis. However, the identity of the critical BH3-only proteins and the mechanism of their action following treatment by diverse apoptotic stimuli remain to be fully resolved. We therefore used RNAi to screen the entire Bcl-2 family for their involvement in three major apoptotic pathways in HeLa

L Zhang; H Lopez; N M George; X Liu; X Pang; X Luo

2011-01-01

163

EBNA3C-Mediated Regulation of Aurora Kinase B Contributes to Epstein-Barr Virus-Induced B-Cell Proliferation through Modulation of the Activities of the Retinoblastoma Protein and Apoptotic Caspases.  

PubMed

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic gammaherpesvirus that is implicated in several human malignancies, including Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD), nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and AIDS-associated lymphomas. Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C), one of the essential EBV latent antigens, can induce mammalian cell cycle progression through its interaction with cell cycle regulators. Aurora kinase B (AK-B) is important for cell division, and deregulation of AK-B is associated with aneuploidy, incomplete mitotic exit, and cell death. Our present study shows that EBNA3C contributes to upregulation of AK-B transcript levels by enhancing the activity of its promoter. Further, EBNA3C also increased the stability of the AK-B protein, and the presence of EBNA3C leads to reduced ubiquitination of AK-B. Importantly, EBNA3C in association with wild-type AK-B but not with its kinase-dead mutant led to enhanced cell proliferation, and AK-B knockdown can induce nuclear blebbing and cell death. This phenomenon was rescued in the presence of EBNA3C. Knockdown of AK-B resulted in activation of caspase 3 and caspase 9, along with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) cleavage, which is known to be an important contributor to apoptotic signaling. Importantly, EBNA3C failed to stabilize the kinase-dead mutant of AK-B compared to wild-type AK-B, which suggests a role for the kinase domain in AK-B stabilization and downstream phosphorylation of the cell cycle regulator retinoblastoma protein (Rb). This study demonstrates the functional relevance of AK-B kinase activity in EBNA3C-regulated B-cell proliferation and apoptosis. PMID:23986604

Jha, Hem Chandra; Lu, Jie; Saha, Abhik; Cai, Qiliang; Banerjee, Shuvomoy; Prasad, Mahadesh A J; Robertson, Erle S

2013-08-28

164

Activation-induced cell death of memory CD8+ T cells from pleural effusion of lung cancer patients is mediated by the type II Fas-induced apoptotic pathway.  

PubMed

Lung cancer is the second most common form of cancer and the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Pleural effusions, containing high numbers of mononuclear and tumor cells, are frequent in patients with advanced stages of lung cancer. We reported that in pleural effusions from primary lung cancer, the CD8+ T cell subpopulation, and particularly the terminally differentiated subset, is reduced compared to that of non-malignant effusions. We analyzed the participation of activation-induced cell death (AICD) and extrinsic pathways (type I or II) as mechanisms for the decrease in pleural effusion CD8+ T cell subpopulation. Pleural effusion or peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, from lung cancer patients, were stimulated with anti-CD3 antibody and analyzed for (a) apoptosis by annexin-V-binding and TUNEL assay, (b) transcript levels of Fas ligand (FasL) and TRAIL by real-time RT-PCR, (c) expression of FasL and TRAIL, measured as integrated mean fluorescence intensities (iMFI) by flow cytometry, (d) expression of Bcl-2 and BIM molecules, measured as MFI, and (e) apoptosis inhibition using caspase-8 and -9 inhibitors. Pleural effusion CD8+ T cells, but not CD4+ T cells, from cancer patients underwent AICD. Blocking FasL/Fas pathway protected from AICD. Upregulation of FasL and TRAIL expressions was found in pleural effusion CD8+ T cells, which also showed a subset of Bcl-2 low cells. In memory CD8+ T cells, AICD depended on both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Hence, in the pleural space of lung cancer patients, AICD might compromise the antitumor function of CD8+ T cells. PMID:22159518

Prado-Garcia, Heriberto; Romero-Garcia, Susana; Morales-Fuentes, Jorge; Aguilar-Cazares, Dolores; Lopez-Gonzalez, Jose Sullivan

2011-12-13

165

Pathways of apoptotic and non-apoptotic death in tumour cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defects in cell-death pathways are hallmarks of cancer. Although resistance to apoptosis is closely linked to tumorigenesis, tumour cells can still be induced to die by non-apoptotic mechanisms, such as necrosis, senescence, autophagy and mitotic catastrophe. The molecular pathways that underlie these non-apoptotic responses remain unclear. Several apoptotic and non-apoptotic pathways of cell death have been defined in normal physiology

Hitoshi Okada; Tak W. Mak

2004-01-01

166

The Nuclear Receptor Interacting Factor3 Transcriptional Coregulator Mediates Rapid Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells through Direct and Bystander-Mediated Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously reported that amino acids 20 to 50 of nuclear receptor interacting factor-3 mediates rapid apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines but not in cells derived from other tissues. We refer to this short region as death domain-1 (DD1). Small interfering RNA studies indicated that DD1-mediated apoptosis is caspase-2 dependent. In this study, we examined DD1-mediated apoptosis in more

Sharmistha Das; Jerome C. Nwachukwu; Dangsheng Li; Kathleen W. Kinnally; Herbert H. Samuels

2007-01-01

167

The Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor Promotes Efferocytosis of Apoptotic Cells  

PubMed Central

The urokinase receptor (uPAR), expressed on the surface of many cell types, coordinates plasmin-mediated cell surface proteolysis for matrix remodeling and promotes cell adhesion by acting as a binding protein for vitronectin. There is great clinical interest in uPAR in the cancer field as numerous reports have demonstrated that up-regulation of the uPA system is correlated with malignancy of various carcinomas. Using both stable cell lines overexpressing uPAR and transient gene transfer, here we provide evidence for a non-reported role of uPAR in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, a process that has recently been termed efferocytosis. When uPAR was expressed in human embryonic kidney cells, hamster melanoma cells, or breast cancer cells (BCCs), there was a robust enhancement in the efferocytosis of apoptotic cells. uPAR-expressing cells failed to stimulate engulfment of viable cells, suggesting that uPAR enhances recognition of one or more determinant on the surface of the apoptotic cell. uPAR-mediated engulfment was not inhibited by expression of mutant ?5 integrin, nor was ?v?5 integrin-mediated engulfment modulated by cleavage of uPAR by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. Further, we found that the more aggressive BCCs had a higher phagocytic capacity that correlated with uPAR expression and cleavage of membrane-associated uPAR in MDA-MB231 BCCs significantly impaired phagocytic activity. Because efferocytosis is critical for the resolution of inflammation and production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, overexpression of uPAR in tumor cells may promote a tolerogenic microenvironment that favors tumor progression.

D'mello, Veera; Singh, Sukhwinder; Wu, Yi; Birge, Raymond B.

2009-01-01

168

P90RSK and Nrf2 Activation via MEK1/2-ERK1/2 Pathways Mediated by Notoginsenoside R2 to Prevent 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Apoptotic Death in SH-SY5Y Cells  

PubMed Central

6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is known to contribute to neuronal death in Parkinson's disease. In this study, we found that the preincubation of SH-SY5Y cells for 24?h with 20??M notoginsenoside R2 (NGR2), which is a newly isolated notoginsenoside from Panax notoginseng, showed neuroprotective effects against 6-OHDA-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. NGR2 incubation successively resulted in the activation of P90RSK, inactivation of BAD, and inhibition of 6-OHDA-induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization, thus preventing the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. NGR2 incubation also led to the activation of Nrf2 and subsequent activity enhancement of phase II detoxifying enzymes, thus suppressing 6-OHDA-induced oxidative stress, and these effects could be removed by Nrf2 siRNA. We also found that the upstream activators of P90RSK and Nrf2 were the MEK1/2–ERK1/2 pathways but not the JNK, P38, or PI3K/Akt pathways. Interestingly, NGR2 incubation could also activate MEK1/2 and ERK1/2. Most importantly, NGR2-mediated P90RSK and Nrf2 activation, respective downstream target activation, and neuroprotection were reversed by the genetic silencing of MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 by using siRNA and PD98059 application. These results suggested that the neuroprotection elicited by NGR2 against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity was associated with NGR2-mediated P90RSK and Nrf2 activation through MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathways.

Meng, Xiang-Bao; Sun, Gui-Bo; Sun, Xiao-Bo

2013-01-01

169

Altholactone induces apoptotic cell death in human colorectal cancer cells.  

PubMed

Resistance of colorectal cancer (CRC) to the available chemotherapy reveals the demand for identification of new anticancer agents. We evaluated the antitumour potential of altholactone, a naturally occurring bioactive compound isolated from Goniothalamus spp. (Annonaceae) hooks, against CRC cells. Antitumour activity of altholactone was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and the propidium iodide method. Apoptosis mediators involved were assessed using biochemical inhibitors and Western blotting analysis. Results revealed that altholactone induced varying degrees of apoptosis in CRC cells but not in normal fibroblasts. Dissection of the altholactone-induced apoptotic signalling pathway revealed that altholactone activated caspase-dependent and -independent apoptotic pathways. Activation of caspase-4 appeared to be the initiating event in the caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. Pre-treatment of CRC cells with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly inhibited activation of caspase-4 and altholactone-induced apoptosis. These results indicate that altholactone induces selective cytotoxicity against colon carcinoma cells and warrants further clinical evaluation. PMID:22105918

Mhaidat, Nizar M; Abdul-Razzak, Kalid K; Alkofahi, Ahmad S; Alsarhan, Aseera M; Aldaher, Ahmad N; Thorne, Rick F

2011-11-22

170

Anti-apoptotic function of Rac in hematopoietic cells.  

PubMed

The small GTP-binding protein Rac plays a pivotal role in the regulation of diverse physiological events including reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, cell cycle progression, and transformation. Here we show an anti-apoptotic effect of Rac in interleukin-3-dependent murine hematopoietic BaF3 cells. Activated Rac(G12V), when ectopically expressed in BaF3 cells, rendered the cells resistant to apoptosis upon interleukin-3 deprivation, while activated mutants of Rho and Cdc42 displayed no significant anti-apoptotic effect. In contrast to activated Ras, which also supports cell survival in the absence of interleukin-3, Rac required fetal bovine serum for the prevention of cell death. The involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase downstream of Rac was demonstrated by the inhibition of Rac-induced cell survival by wortmannin and LY294002 and the presence of phosphatidylinositol kinase activity in the Rac immunoprecipitate. Furthermore, the serine/threonine kinase Akt was stimulated by activated Rac and fetal bovine serum in a synergistic manner. Rac-induced Akt activation was mediated by phosphorylation of threonine-308 and serine-473. In addition to the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway, the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway was crucial for Rac-dependent survival, whereas p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase nas not implicated in Ras-induced anti-apoptotic signaling. These findings provide evidence for the involvement of Rac in survival signaling of hematopoietic cells. PMID:9927197

Nishida, K; Kaziro, Y; Satoh, T

1999-01-14

171

A Novel Anticancer Agent, 8-Methoxypyrimido[4?,5?:4,5]thieno(2,3-b) Quinoline-4(3H)-One Induces Neuro 2a Neuroblastoma Cell Death through p53-Dependent, Caspase-Dependent and -Independent Apoptotic Pathways  

PubMed Central

Neuroblastoma is the most common cancer in infants and fourth most common cancer in children. Despite recent advances in cancer treatments, the prognosis of stage-IV neuroblastoma patients continues to be dismal which warrant new pharmacotherapy. A novel tetracyclic condensed quinoline compound, 8-methoxypyrimido [4?,5?:4,5]thieno(2,3-b) quinoline-4(3H)-one (MPTQ) is a structural analogue of an anticancer drug ellipticine and has been reported to posses anticancer property. Study on MPTQ on neuroblastoma cells is very limited and mechanisms related to its cytotoxicity on neuroblastoma cells are completely unknown. Here, we evaluated the anticancer property of MPTQ on mouse neuro 2a and human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and investigated the mechanisms underlying MPTQ-mediated neuro 2a cell death. MPTQ-mediated neuro 2a and SH-SY5Y cell deaths were found to be dose and time dependent. Moreover, MPTQ induced cell death reached approximately 99.8% and 90% in neuro 2a and SH-SY5Y cells respectively. Nuclear oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation and Terminal dUTP Nick End Labelling assays indicated MPTQ-mediated neuro 2a cell death involved apoptosis. MPTQ-mediated apoptosis is associated with increased phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15 and Ser20 which correlates with the hyperphosphorylation of Ataxia-Telangiectasia mutated protein (ATM). Immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated the increased level of Bax protein in MPTQ treated neuro 2a cells. MPTQ-mediated apoptosis is also associated with increased activation of caspase-9, -3 and -7 but not caspase-2 and -8. Furthermore, increased level of caspase-3 and cleaved Poly (ADP Ribose) polymerase were observed in the nucleus of MPTQ treated neuro 2a cells, suggesting the involvement of caspase-dependent intrinsic but not extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Increased nuclear translocation of apoptosis inducing factor suggests additional involvement of caspase-independent apoptosis pathway in MPTQ treated neuro 2a cells. Collectively, MPTQ-induced neuro 2a cell death is mediated by ATM and p53 activation, and Bax-mediated activation of caspase-dependent and caspase-independent mitochondrial apoptosis pathways.

Sahu, Upasana; Sidhar, Himakshi; Ghate, Pankaj S.; Advirao, Gopal M.; Raghavan, Sathees C.; Giri, Ranjit K.

2013-01-01

172

HIV-1 infection-induced apoptotic microparticles inhibit human DCs via CD44  

PubMed Central

Acute HIV-1 infection results in dysregulated immunity, which contributes to poor control of viral infection. DCs are key regulators of both adaptive and innate immune responses needed for controlling HIV-1, and we surmised that factors elicited during acute HIV-1 infection might impede DC function. We derived immature DCs from healthy donor peripheral blood monocytes and treated them with plasma from uninfected control donors and donors with acute HIV-1 infections. We found that the plasma from patients with HIV specifically inhibited DC function. This suppression was mediated by elevated apoptotic microparticles derived from dying cells during acute HIV-1 infection. Apoptotic microparticles bound to and inhibited DCs through the hyaluronate receptor CD44. These data suggest that targeting this CD44-mediated inhibition by apoptotic microparticles could be a novel strategy to potentiate DC activation of HIV-specific immunity.

Frleta, Davor; Ochoa, Carolyn E.; Kramer, Holger B.; Khan, Shaukat Ali; Stacey, Andrea R.; Borrow, Persephone; Kessler, Benedikt M.; Haynes, Barton F.; Bhardwaj, Nina

2012-01-01

173

Apoptotic neutrophils and T cells sequester chemokines during immune response resolution through modulation of CCR5 expression  

PubMed Central

During the resolution phase of inflammation, the ‘corpses’ of apoptotic leukocytes are gradually cleared by macrophages. Here we report that during the resolution of peritonitis, the CCR5 chemokine receptor ligands CCL3 and CCL5 persisted in CCR5-deficient mice. CCR5 expression on apoptotic neutrophils and activated apoptotic T cells sequestered and effectively cleared CCL3 and CCL5 from sites of inflammation. CCR5 expression on late apoptotic human polymorphonuclear cells was downregulated by proinflammatory stimuli, including tumor necrosis factor, and was upregulated by ‘proresolution’ lipid mediators, including lipoxin A4, resolvin E1 and protectin D1. Our results suggest that CCR5+ apoptotic leukocytes act as ‘terminators’ of chemokine signaling during the resolution of inflammation.

Ariel, Amiram; Fredman, Gabrielle; Sun, Yee-Ping; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Van Dyke, Thomas E; Luster, Andrew D; Serhan, Charles N

2006-01-01

174

Modulation of apoptotic pathways in intestinal mucosa during hibernation.  

PubMed

Mammalian hibernation is associated with several events that can affect programmed cell death (apoptosis) in nonhibernators, including marked changes in blood flow, extended fasting, and oxidative stress. However, the effect of hibernation on apoptosis is poorly understood. Here, we investigated apoptosis and expression of proteins involved in apoptotic pathways in intestinal mucosa of summer and hibernating ground squirrels. We used terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) to identify possible apoptotic enterocytes in small intestine of summer squirrels and hibernating squirrels throughout the winter. Nuclear TUNEL staining increased as hibernation progressed, but the staining pattern was diffuse and not accompanied by chromatin condensation or apoptotic bodies. Electrophoresis of mucosal DNA revealed no ladders typical of apoptosis. Nuclear levels of proapoptotic p53 protein were fourfold less in hibernators compared with summer squirrels. A 12-fold increase in anti-apoptotic Bcl-x(L) compared with a 2-fold increase in proapoptotic Bax suggested a balance in favor of antiapoptotic signaling in hibernators. There was no change in Bcl-2 protein expression but phospho-Bcl-2 increased in mucosa of hibernators. Hibernation had minimal effects on expression of active caspase-8 or -9, whereas caspase-3-specific activity was lower in hibernators during an interbout arousal compared with summer squirrels. Expression of the prosurvival protein Akt increased 20-fold during hibernation, but phospho-Akt was not altered. These data provide evidence for enhanced expression of antiapoptotic proteins during hibernation that may promote enterocyte survival in a pro-oxidative, proapoptotic environment. PMID:15831769

Fleck, Courtney C; Carey, Hannah V

2005-04-14

175

Enhanced adhesion to laminin by apoptotic eosinophils.  

PubMed

Apoptotic cells are regarded as inert bodies that turn off intracellular processes and functional capabilities. The objective was to study adhesion by eosinophils in relation to the apoptotic process. Eosinophils were cultured for up to 72 h. The living cells were separated from the apoptotic cells, and their adhesion to transfected cell lines expressing vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), E-selectin and laminin was measured. To relate the functional studies with cell structure, the surface receptor expression of beta1- and beta2-integrins was investigated by flow cytometry. Apoptotic eosinophils evidenced an increased expression of the alpha-chain of the laminin receptor and CD49f and an increased ability to adhere to a laminin-coated surface. Adhesion to the endothelial cell adhesion receptors E-selectin, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 was absent in apoptotic eosinophils and was paralleled by a low expression of CD11b, CD29, CD49d and CD66b. The specifically increased adhesion to laminin and expression of the laminin receptor alpha-chain is a unique feature of apoptotic eosinophils. When an eosinophil goes into apoptosis, it still possesses the ability to interact with its environment. Our results point to new ideas as to how the apoptotic eosinophil behaves in apoptosis. PMID:14507306

Seton, K; Håkansson, L; Venge, P

2003-10-01

176

Survivin of Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotides Reverse Apoptotic Resistance Induced by Cisplatin in Lung Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore whether antisense oligodeoxy-nucleotides (ASODN) targeting survivin gene can reverse apoptotic resistance induced by cisplatin in human lung adenocarcinoma cells. A549 \\/ CDDP cell lines were cultured routinely with RPMI-1640 medium. Survivin ASODN mediated by cytofectin was transfected into the A549 \\/ CDDP cells. The influence of ASODN transfection on apoptosis was determined by Diphenylamine assay (DPA) , caspase-3

Zhi-wei Zhang; Dong Jiang; Jin-feng Ge; Shi-ying Zheng

2010-01-01

177

2Methoxyestradiol induces mitochondria dependent apoptotic signaling in pancreatic cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antiproliferative action of 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME), an endogenous estrogen metabolite is specific for cancer cells and is mediated by the induction of programmed cell death or apoptosis. But the identity of the downstream effectors of apoptotic signaling induced by 2-ME is not known. In the present study, we explored the effect of 2-ME on apoptosis in a panel of human

Suparna Qanungo; Aruna Basu; Madhusudan Das; Subrata Haldar

2002-01-01

178

Role of microglia in ethanol's apoptotic action on hypothalamic neuronal cells in primary cultures  

PubMed Central

Background Microglia are the major inflammatory cells in the central nervous system and play a role in brain injuries as well as brain diseases. In this study, we determined the role of microglia in ethanol’s apoptotic action on neuronal cells obtained from the mediobasal hypothalamus and maintained in primary cultures. We also tested the effect of cAMP, a signaling molecule critically involved in hypothalamic neuronal survival, on microglia-mediated ethanol’s neurotoxic action. Methods Ethanol’s neurotoxic action was determined on enriched fetal mediobasal hypothalamic neuronal cells with or without microglia cells or ethanol-activated microglia conditioned media. Ethanol’s apoptotic action was determined using nucleosome assay. Microglia activation was determined using OX6 histochemistry and by measuring inflammatory cytokines secretion from microglia in cultures using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). An immunoneutralization study was conducted to identify the role of a cytokine involved in ethanol’s apoptotic action. Results We show here that ethanol at a dose range of 50 and 100 mM induces neuronal death by an apoptotic process. Ethanol’s ability to induce an apoptotic death of neurons is increased by the presence of ethanol-activated microglia conditioned media. In the presence of ethanol, microglia showed elevated secretion of various inflammatory cytokines, of which TNF-? shows significant apoptotic action on mediobasal hypothalamic neuronal cells. Ethanol’s neurotoxic action was completely prevented by cAMP. The cell-signaling molecule also prevented ethanol-activated microglial production of TNF-?. Immunoneutralization of TNF-? prevented microglia-derived media’s ability to induce neuronal death. Conclusions These results suggest that ethanol’s apoptotic action on hypothalamic neuronal cells might be mediated via microglia, possibly via increased production of TNF-?. Furthermore, cAMP reduces TNF-? production from microglia to prevent ethanol’s neurotoxic action.

Boyadjieva, Nadka I.; Sarkar, Dipak K.

2010-01-01

179

Dynamic release of nuclear RanGTP triggers TPX2-dependent microtubule assembly during the apoptotic execution phase  

PubMed Central

Summary During apoptosis, the interphase microtubule network is dismantled then later replaced by a novel, non-centrosomal microtubule array. These microtubules assist in the peripheral redistribution of nuclear fragments in the apoptotic cell; however, the regulation of apoptotic microtubule assembly is not understood. Here, we demonstrate that microtubule assembly depends upon the release of nuclear RanGTP into the apoptotic cytoplasm because this process is blocked in apoptotic cells overexpressing dominant-negative GDP-locked Ran (T24N). Actin–myosin-II contractility provides the impetus for Ran release and, consequently, microtubule assembly is blocked in blebbistatin- and Y27632-treated apoptotic cells. Importantly, the spindle-assembly factor TPX2 (targeting protein for Xklp2), colocalises with apoptotic microtubules, and siRNA silencing of TPX2, but not of the microtubule motors Mklp1 and Kid, abrogates apoptotic microtubule assembly. These data provide a molecular explanation for the assembly of the apoptotic microtubule network, and suggest important similarities with the process of RanGTP- and TPX2-mediated mitotic spindle formation.

Moss, David K.; Wilde, Andrew; Lane, Jon D.

2009-01-01

180

Death-defying apoptotic caspases in thrombopoiesis.  

PubMed

In this issue of Blood, White et al provide compelling evidence that the intrinsic apoptotic caspase cascade, while required for megakaryocyte and platelet death under pathophysiologic conditions, is dispensable for normal platelet formation and function. PMID:22555660

Cantor, Alan B

2012-05-01

181

Intercellular transfer of apoptotic signals via electrofusion.  

PubMed

We determined whether cells that are induced to undergo anoikis by matrix detachment can initiate apoptosis in healthy cells following electroporation-induced fusion. Separate populations of MDCK cells undergoing anoikis and stained with FITC-annexin or viable MDCK cells that were labeled with spectrally discrete fluorescent beads were electroporated. Cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for enumeration of viable cells with beads, apoptotic cells or fused cells. Electroporation promoted a 49-fold increase of the percentage of viable cells that had fused with apoptotic cells. Apoptotic cell-viable cell fusions were 8-fold more likely to not attach to cell culture plastic and 2.3-fold less likely to proliferate after 24hr incubation than viable cell fusion controls. These data demonstrate that apoptotic signals can be transferred between cells by electrofusion, possibly suggesting a novel investigative approach for optimizing targeted cell deletion in cancer treatment. PMID:22426198

Park, Jin Suk; Lee, Wilson; McCulloch, Christopher A

2012-03-08

182

B cell encounters with apoptotic cells.  

PubMed

Autoantibodies directed against nuclear antigens often arise in autoimmune disease associated with the failure to clear apoptotic cells in a swift and timely manner. Nucleic acids present in apoptotic cells and in membranous microparticles derived thereof exert adjuvant activity in the immune response to apoptosis. The scope of this review is to provide an overview on the current knowledge on B cell responses to apoptotic cells and membranous microparticles. Although physiological B cell responses to apoptotic cells result in the release of IL-10 by B cells and immunosuppression, pathological responses lead to autoantibody formation. Toll-like receptors specific for nucleic acids are engaged in both types of responses. In this review we delineate the functional impact of nucleic acids on B cell responses in the context of apoptosis. PMID:23215840

Bekeredjian-Ding, Isabelle

2013-01-09

183

Apoptotic death sensor: an organelle's alter ego?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caspases are intracellular cysteine proteases that are primarily responsible for the stereotypic morphological and biochemical changes that are associated with apoptosis. Caspases are often activated by the apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 (APAF-1) apoptosome, a complex that is formed following mitochondrial release of cytochrome c in response to many death-inducing stimuli. Both pro- and anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members regulate apoptosis, primarily

Shawn B. Bratton; Gerald M. Cohen

2001-01-01

184

p53 regulates a non-apoptotic death induced by ROS.  

PubMed

DNA damage induced by reactive oxygen species and several chemotherapeutic agents promotes both p53 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation. p53 activation is well known to regulate apoptotic cell death, whereas robust activation of PARP-1 has been shown to promote a necrotic cell death associated with energetic collapse. Here we identify a novel role for p53 in modulating PARP enzymatic activity to regulate necrotic cell death. In mouse embryonic fibroblasts, human colorectal and human breast cancer cell lines, loss of p53 function promotes resistance to necrotic, PARP-mediated cell death. We therefore demonstrate that p53 can regulate both necrotic and apoptotic cell death, mutations or deletions in this tumor-suppressor protein may be selected by cancer cells to provide not only their resistance to apoptosis but also to necrosis, and explain resistance to chemotherapy and radiation even when it kills via non-apoptotic mechanisms. PMID:23703322

Montero, J; Dutta, C; van Bodegom, D; Weinstock, D; Letai, A

2013-05-24

185

ATP-binding cassette transporter A7 enhances phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and associated ERK signaling in macrophages.  

PubMed

The mammalian ATP-binding cassette transporters A1 and A7 (ABCA1 and -A7) show sequence similarity to CED-7, a Caenorhabditis elegans gene that mediates the clearance of apoptotic cells. Using RNA interference or gene targeting, we show that knock down of macrophage ABCA7 but not -A1 results in defective engulfment of apoptotic cells. In response to apoptotic cells, ABCA7 moves to the macrophage cell surface and colocalizes with the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) in phagocytic cups. The cell surface localization of ABCA7 and LRP1 is defective in ABCA7-deficient cells. C1q is an opsonin of apoptotic cells that acts via phagocyte LRP1 to induce extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling. We show that ERK signaling is required for phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and that ERK phosphorylation in response to apoptotic cells or C1q is defective in ABCA7-deficient cells. These studies reveal a major role of ABCA7 and not -A1 in the clearance of apoptotic cells and therefore suggest that ABCA7 is an authentic orthologue of CED-7. PMID:16908670

Jehle, Andreas W; Gardai, Shyra J; Li, Suzhao; Linsel-Nitschke, Patrick; Morimoto, Konosuke; Janssen, William J; Vandivier, R William; Wang, Nan; Greenberg, Steven; Dale, Benjamin M; Qin, Chunbo; Henson, Peter M; Tall, Alan R

2006-08-14

186

Reactive oxygen species-independent rapid initiation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by chelerythrine.  

PubMed

Chelerythrine, formerly identified as a protein kinase C inhibitor, has also been shown to inhibit the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. However, recent studies have now demonstrated that chelerythrine can induce the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), a membrane permeability transition (MPT), and the subsequent activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, even in the cells deficient in Bax and Bak. This suggests the existence of an alternative Bax/Bak-independent pathway for apoptosis. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) is also implicated in the cytotoxity elicited by chelerythrine. In our current study, we show that chelerythrine induces the rapid apoptotic death of H9c2 cardiomyocyte-derived cells within 8 min of treatment. The proteolytic activation of caspase9 and caspase3, crucial mediators of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, are also observed within 6 min of exposure to this drug. The generation of ROS is detected but at only marginal levels in the treated cells. The inhibition of the mitochondrial ETC by rotenone and malonate had almost no effects on ROS generation but in both cases effectively inhibited both cell death and the caspase activation induced by chelerythrine. Hence, chelerythrine initiates the rapid mitochondrial apoptotic death of H9c2 cardiomyoblastoma cells in a manner that is likely independent of the generation of ROS from mitochondria. PMID:21664962

Funakoshi, Takeshi; Aki, Toshihiko; Nakayama, Haruka; Watanuki, Yumi; Imori, Satoko; Uemura, Koichi

2011-06-02

187

MFG-E8 released by apoptotic endothelial cells triggers anti-inflammatory macrophage reprogramming.  

PubMed

Apoptotic endothelial cells are an important component of the "response to injury" process. Several atherosclerosis risk factors such as hyperglycemia and oxidized low-density lipoproteins, and immune injuries, such as antibodies and complement, induce endothelial cell apoptosis. While endothelial cell apoptosis is known to affect neighboring vascular wall cell biology, its consequences on macrophage reprogramming are ill defined. In this study, we report that apoptosis of human and mouse endothelial cells triggers the release of milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) and reprograms macrophages into an anti-inflammatory cells. We demonstrated that MFG-E8 is released by apoptotic endothelial cells in a caspase-3-dependent manner. When macrophages were exposed to conditioned media from serum-starved apoptotic endothelial cells, they adopt a high anti-inflammatory, low pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine secreting phenotype that is lost if MFG-E8 is absent from the media. Macrophage treatment with recombinant MFG-E8 recapitulates the effect of conditioned media. Finally, we showed that MFG-E8-mediated reprogramming of macrophages occurs through increased phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3). Taken together, our study suggests a key role of MFG-E8 release from apoptotic endothelial cells in macrophage reprogramming and demonstrates the importance of the apoptotic microenvironment in anti-inflammatory macrophage responses. PMID:22558449

Brissette, Marie-Joëlle; Lepage, Stéphanie; Lamonde, Anne-Sophie; Sirois, Isabelle; Groleau, Jessika; Laurin, Louis-Philippe; Cailhier, Jean-François

2012-04-30

188

Modafinil Abrogates Methamphetamine-Induced Neuroinflammation and Apoptotic Effects in the Mouse Striatum  

PubMed Central

Methamphetamine is a drug of abuse that can cause neurotoxic damage in humans and animals. Modafinil, a wake-promoting compound approved for the treatment of sleeping disorders, is being prescribed off label for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. The aim of the present study was to investigate if modafinil could counteract methamphetamine-induced neuroinflammatory processes, which occur in conjunction with degeneration of dopaminergic terminals in the mouse striatum. We evaluated the effect of a toxic methamphetamine binge in female C57BL/6 mice (4×5 mg/kg, i.p., 2 h apart) and modafinil co-administration (2×90 mg/kg, i.p., 1 h before the first and fourth methamphetamine injections) on glial cells (microglia and astroglia). We also evaluated the striatal expression of the pro-apoptotic BAX and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, which are known to mediate methamphetamine-induced apoptotic effects. Modafinil by itself did not cause reactive gliosis and counteracted methamphetamine-induced microglial and astroglial activation. Modafinil also counteracted the decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter levels and prevented methamphetamine-induced increases in the pro-apoptotic BAX and decreases in the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein expression. Our results indicate that modafinil can interfere with methamphetamine actions and provide protection against dopamine toxicity, cell death, and neuroinflammation in the mouse striatum.

Goitia, Belen; Garcia-Rill, Edgar; Krasnova, Irina N.; Cadet, Jean Lud; Urbano, Francisco J.; Bisagno, Veronica

2012-01-01

189

A stapled BIM peptide overcomes apoptotic resistance in hematologic cancers  

PubMed Central

Cancer cells subvert the natural balance between cellular life and death, achieving immortality through pathologic enforcement of survival pathways and blockade of cell death mechanisms. Pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins are frequently disarmed in relapsed and refractory cancer through genetic deletion or interaction-based neutralization by overexpressed antiapoptotic proteins, resulting in resistance to chemotherapy and radiation treatments. New pharmacologic strategies are urgently needed to overcome these formidable apoptotic blockades. We harnessed the natural killing activity of BCL-2–interacting mediator of cell death (BIM), which contains one of the most potent BH3 death domains of the BCL-2 protein family, to restore BH3-dependent cell death in resistant hematologic cancers. A hydrocarbon-stapled peptide modeled after the BIM BH3 helix broadly targeted BCL-2 family proteins with high affinity, blocked inhibitory antiapoptotic interactions, directly triggered proapoptotic activity, and induced dose-responsive and BH3 sequence–specific cell death of hematologic cancer cells. The therapeutic potential of stapled BIM BH3 was highlighted by the selective activation of cell death in the aberrant lymphoid infiltrates of mice reconstituted with BIM-deficient bone marrow and in a human AML xenograft model. Thus, we found that broad and multimodal targeting of the BCL-2 family pathway can overcome pathologic barriers to cell death.

LaBelle, James L.; Katz, Samuel G.; Bird, Gregory H.; Gavathiotis, Evripidis; Stewart, Michelle L.; Lawrence, Chelsea; Fisher, Jill K.; Godes, Marina; Pitter, Kenneth; Kung, Andrew L.; Walensky, Loren D.

2012-01-01

190

Delivery of Intracellular-acting Biologics in Pro-Apoptotic Therapies  

PubMed Central

The recent elucidation of molecular regulators of apoptosis and their roles in cellular oncogenesis has motivated the development of biomacromolecular anticancer therapeutics that can activate intracellular apoptotic signaling pathways. Pharmaceutical scientists have employed a variety of classes of biologics toward this goal, including antisense oligodeoxynucleotides, small interfering RNA, proteins, antibodies, and peptides. However, stability in the in vivo environment, tumor-specific biodistribution, cell internalization, and localization to the intracellular microenvironment where the targeted molecule is localized pose significant challenges that limit the ability to directly apply intracellular-acting, pro-apoptotic biologics for therapeutic use. Thus, approaches to improve the pharmaceutical properties of therapeutic biomacromolecules are of great significance and have included chemically modifying the bioactive molecule itself or formulation with auxiliary compounds. Recently, promising advances in delivery of pro-apoptotic biomacromolecular agents have been made using tools such as peptide “stapling”, cell penetrating peptides, fusogenic peptides, liposomes, nanoparticles, smart polymers, and synergistic combinations of these components. This review will discuss the molecular mediators of cellular apoptosis, the respective mechanisms by which these mediators are dysregulated in cellular oncogenesis, the history and development of both nucleic-acid and amino-acid based drugs, and techniques to achieve intracellular delivery of these biologics. Finally, recent applications where pro-apoptotic functionality has been achieved through delivery of intracellular-acting biomacromolecular drugs will be highlighted.

Li, Hongmei; Nelson, Chris E.; Evans, Brian C.; Duvall, Craig L.

2013-01-01

191

Skeletal muscle stem cells express anti-apoptotic ErbB receptors during activation from quiescence  

SciTech Connect

To be effective for tissue repair, satellite cells (the stem cells of adult muscle) must survive the initial activation from quiescence. Using an in vitro model of satellite cell activation, we show that erbB1, erbB2 and erbB3, members of the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase family, appear on satellite cells within 6 h of activation. We show that signalling via erbB2 provides an anti-apoptotic survival mechanism for satellite cells during the first 24 h, as they progress to a proliferative state. Inhibition of erbB2 signalling with AG825 reduced satellite cell numbers, concomitant with elevated caspase-8 activation and TUNEL labelling of apoptotic satellite cells. In serum-free conditions, satellite cell apoptosis could be largely prevented by a mixture of erbB1, erbB3 and erbB4 ligand growth factors, but not by neuregulin alone (erbB3/erbB4 ligand). Furthermore, using inhibitors specific to discrete intracellular signalling pathways, we identify MEK as a pro-apoptotic mediator, and the erbB-regulated factor STAT3 as an anti-apoptotic mediator during satellite cell activation. These results implicate erbB2 signalling in the preservation of a full compliment of satellite cells as they activate in the context of a damaged muscle.

Golding, Jon P. [Department of Biological Sciences, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: j.p.golding@open.ac.uk; Calderbank, Emma [Muscle Cell Biology Group, Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Du Cane Road, London, W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Partridge, Terence A. [Muscle Cell Biology Group, Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Du Cane Road, London, W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Beauchamp, Jonathan R. [Muscle Cell Biology Group, Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Du Cane Road, London, W12 0NN (United Kingdom)

2007-01-15

192

Involvement of caspase-dependent and -independent apoptotic pathways in cisplatin-induced apoptosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cisplatin, an efficient anticancer agent, can trigger multiple apoptotic pathways in cancer cells. However, the signal transduction pathways in response to cisplatin-based chemotherapy are complicated, and the mechanism is not fully understood. In current study, we showed that, during cisplatin-induced apoptosis of human lung adenocarcinoma cells, both the caspase-dependent and -independent pathways were activated. Herein, we reported that after cisplatin treatment, the activities of caspase-9/-3 were sharply increased; pre-treatment with Z-LEHD-fmk (inhibitor of caspase-9), Z-DEVD-fmk (inhibitor of caspase-3), and Z-VAD-fmk (a pan-caspase inhibitor) increased cell viability and decreased apoptosis, suggesting that caspase-mediated apoptotic pathway was activated following cisplatin treatment. Confocal imaging of the cells transfected with AIF-GFP demonstrated that AIF release occurred about 9 h after cisplatin treatment. The event proceeded progressively over time, coinciding with a nuclear translocation and lasting for more than 2 hours. Down-regulation of AIF by siRNA also significantly increased cell viability and decreased apoptosis, these results suggested that AIF-mediated caspase-independent apoptotic pathway was involved in cispatin-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that both caspase-dependent and -independent apoptotic pathways were involved in cisplatin-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

Liu, Lei; Zhang, Yingjie; Wang, Xianwang

2009-02-01

193

Apoptotic Effects of Melandryum firmum Root Extracts in Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Melandryum firmum is a biennial plant that has been used in traditional medicine for treatment of bacterial and fungal infection. Here, we investigated molecular mechanisms underlying apoptotic effects of Melandryum firmum root extract (MFRE) in neuroblastoma cells, since the effect of this natural compound on cancer cells has not been fully clarified. The root extract of M. firmum reduced cell proliferation, as revealed by cell viability assay. However, MFRE-treated cells exhibited morphological changes including cell rounding, neurite retraction and membrane blebbing. These alterations of cellular shape suggest this morphological change might be due to the apoptosis which shows fragmented DNA. In addition, MFRE up-regulated the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and down-regulated the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and Mcl-1, which also finally activated cleaved caspase-3 in a dose-dependent manner, as determined by western blot analyses. Together, these findings demonstrate that apoptotic and cytotoxic effects of MFRE on SH-SY5Y cells are mediated by intrinsic mitochondria-mediated caspase pathway and that this natural extract might be effective as an anticancer agent for neuroblastoma malignancies.

Rahman, Md. Ataur; Yang, Haijie; Lim, Soon-Sung

2013-01-01

194

Pro-apoptotic Bid induces membrane perturbation by inserting selected lysolipids into the bilayer  

PubMed Central

Bid is a BH3-only member of the Bcl-2 family that regulates cell death at the level of mitochondrial membranes. Bid appears to link the mitochondrial pathway with the death receptor-mediated pathway of cell death. It is generally assumed that the f.l. (full-length) protein becomes activated after proteolytic cleavage, especially by apical caspases like caspase 8. The cleaved protein then relocates to mitochondria and promotes membrane permeabilization, presumably by interaction with mitochondrial lipids and other Bcl-2 proteins that facilitate the release of apoptogenic proteins like cytochrome c. Although the major action may reside in the C-terminus part, tBid (cleaved Bid), un-cleaved Bid also has pro-apoptotic potential when ectopically expressed in cells or in vitro. This pro-apoptotic action of f.l. Bid has remained unexplained, especially at the biochemical level. In the present study, we show that f.l. (full-length) Bid can insert specific lysolipids into the membrane surface, thereby priming mitochondria for the release of apoptogenic factors. This is most effective for lysophosphatidylcholine species that we report to accumulate in mitochondria during apoptosis induction. A Bid mutant that is not pro-apoptotic in vivo is defective in lysophosphatidylcholine-mediated membrane perturbation in vitro. Our results thus provide a biochemical explanation for the pro-apoptotic action of f.l. Bid.

2004-01-01

195

Apoptotic Effects of Melandryum firmum Root Extracts in Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells.  

PubMed

Melandryum firmum is a biennial plant that has been used in traditional medicine for treatment of bacterial and fungal infection. Here, we investigated molecular mechanisms underlying apoptotic effects of Melandryum firmum root extract (MFRE) in neuroblastoma cells, since the effect of this natural compound on cancer cells has not been fully clarified. The root extract of M. firmum reduced cell proliferation, as revealed by cell viability assay. However, MFRE-treated cells exhibited morphological changes including cell rounding, neurite retraction and membrane blebbing. These alterations of cellular shape suggest this morphological change might be due to the apoptosis which shows fragmented DNA. In addition, MFRE up-regulated the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and down-regulated the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and Mcl-1, which also finally activated cleaved caspase-3 in a dose-dependent manner, as determined by western blot analyses. Together, these findings demonstrate that apoptotic and cytotoxic effects of MFRE on SH-SY5Y cells are mediated by intrinsic mitochondria-mediated caspase pathway and that this natural extract might be effective as an anticancer agent for neuroblastoma malignancies. PMID:24167415

Rahman, Md Ataur; Yang, Haijie; Lim, Soon-Sung; Huh, Sung-Oh

2013-09-30

196

Apoptotic mimicry by an obligate intracellular parasite downregulates macrophage microbicidal activity.  

PubMed

Programmed cell death by apoptosis of unnecessary or potentially harmful cells is clearly beneficial to multicellular organisms. Proper functioning of such a program demands that the removal of dying cells proceed without an inflammatory reaction. Phosphatidylserine (PS) is one of the ligands displayed by apoptotic cells that participates in their noninflammatory removal when recognized by neighboring phagocytes. PS ligation induces the release of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), an antiinflammatory cytokine that mediates the suppression of macrophage-mediated inflammation. In Hydra vulgaris, an organism that stands at the base of metazoan evolution, the selective advantage provided by apoptosis lies in the fact that Hydra can survive recycling apoptotic cells by phagocytosis. In unicellular organisms, it has been proposed that altruistic death benefits clonal populations of yeasts and trypanosomatids. Now we show that advantageous features of the apoptotic process can operate without death as the necessary outcome. Leishmania spp are able to evade the killing activity of phagocytes and establish themselves as obligate intracellular parasites. Amastigotes, responsible for disease propagation, similar to apoptotic cells, inhibit macrophage activity by exposing PS. Exposed PS participates in amastigote internalization. Recognition of this moiety by macrophages induces TGF-beta secretion and IL-10 synthesis, inhibits NO production, and increases susceptibility to intracellular leishmanial growth. PMID:11728310

de Freitas Balanco, J M; Moreira, M E; Bonomo, A; Bozza, P T; Amarante-Mendes, G; Pirmez, C; Barcinski, M A

2001-11-27

197

T-cell anti-apoptotic mechanisms in inflammatory myopathies.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown an up-regulation of the Fas/Fas ligand system in inflammatory myopathies. In myositis, however, the major Fas-mediated cytotoxicity which activates caspases bypasses apoptosis. We therefore evaluated the expression of proteins promoting cell survival, such as bcl-2, bcl-x(l) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, on muscle biopsies from 14 patients with polymyositis, dermatomyositis, inclusion body myositis and HIV-associated myositis. Our data demonstrate that inflammatory cells are immunoreactive for bcl-x(l), p16 and p57, three apoptosis-preventing proteins. Hence, we assume that these proteins might protect T cells from apoptotic nuclear changes. Our results could explain the non-self-limiting nature of inflammatory myopathies. PMID:11063832

Vattemi, G; Tonin, P; Filosto, M; Spagnolo, M; Rizzuto, N; Tomelleri, G

2000-11-01

198

Apoptotic Photoreceptor Degeneration in Experimental Retinal Detachment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. To investigate the possibility that cell death in retinal detachment may occur by reactivation of apoptotic programmed cell death mechanisms. Methods. Unilateral retinal detachments were created in adult cats using 0.25% sodium hyalur- onate; detached and control retinas were studied at different intervals. Internucleosomal DNA fragmentation (one of the landmarks of apoptosis) was investigated in tissue sections with the

Briggs Cook; Geoffrey P. Lewis; Steven K. Fisher; Ruben Adler

1995-01-01

199

Apoptotic DNA fragmentation and tissue homeostasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA fragmentation is a hallmark of apoptosis. The tightly controlled activation of the apoptosis-specific endonucleases provides an effective means to ensure the removal of unwanted DNA and the timely completion of apoptosis. Over the past several years, crucial progress has been made in identifying the long-awaited apoptotic endonucleases, and their importance in tissue homeostasis is beginning to unfold. Here, we

Jianhua Zhang; Ming Xu

2002-01-01

200

Persistent Chlamydia trachomatis Infections Resist Apoptotic Stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial modulation of apoptosis has added a new dimension of understanding to the dynamic interaction between the human host and its microbial invaders. Persistent infection can be a by-product of inhibition of apoptosis and may significantly impact the pathogenesis of diseases caused by organisms such as Chlamydia trachomatis. We compared apoptotic responses among HeLa 229 cells acutely and persistently infected

DEBORAH DEAN; VIRGINIA C. POWERS

2001-01-01

201

Apoptotic activity in Libyan breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background We evaluated the relationship of the apoptotic activity index (AI) and the standardized mitotic-apoptotic ratio (SMI/AI) with clinicopathological features and prognosis in Libyan female breast cancer (BC) patients. We then compared our results with corresponding results in Finnish and Nigerian female BC patients. Methods Histological samples of breast carcinoma from 130 patients were retrospectively studied: an estimation of the apoptotic activity per square millimeter (expressed as apoptotic activity index (AI)), and standardized mitotic-apoptotic ratio (SMI/AI) was made, and the results compared with the clinicopathological features and the patient’s survival. Results There was a statistically significant correlation between the AI and most of the clinicopathological features; the strongest association was observed for clinical stage lymph node (LN) status (P?=?0.005). There were also correlations between AI and histological grade (P?=?0.035), large tumor size (P?=?0.011) and the clinical stage (P?=?0.009). There were, however, prominent AI differences between Libyan, Nigerian and Finnish populations. The mean values of AI and SMI/AI in Libyan BC patients were 12.8 apoptotic figures per square millimeter and 2.8, respectively. The Libyan AI is slightly higher than in Nigeria, but much higher than in Finland. The differences between countries are seen throughout the samples as well as being present in certain subgroups. The survival analysis indicated that short survival time was associated with high apoptotic indices values and so can identify aggressive tumors and provide significant prognostic support. The cutoff (4 and 18 apoptosis/mm2) of AI might be applied as a quantitative criterion for Libyan BC to separate the patients into good, moderate and bad prognosis groups. Conclusions The results indicated that the differences in AI among the three countries may be due to the known variation in the distribution of genetic markers in these populations. Improvement in health care and introduction of screening programs, however, could be very helpful in the Libyan population.

2012-01-01

202

HIPK2 modulates p53 activity towards pro-apoptotic transcription  

PubMed Central

Background Activation of p53-mediated gene transcription is a critical cellular response to DNA damage and involves a phosphorylation-acetylation cascade of p53. The discovery of differences in the response to different agents raises the question whether some of the p53 oncosuppressor functions might be exerted by different posttranslational modifications. Stress-induced homeodomain-interacting protein kinase-2 (HIPK2) phosphorylates p53 at serine-46 (Ser46) for p53 apoptotic activity; p53 acetylation at different C-terminus lysines including p300-mediated lysine-382 (Lys382) is also required for full activation of p53 transcriptional activity. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the interplay among HIPK2, p300, and p53 in p53 acetylation and apoptotic transcriptional activity in response to drug by using siRNA interference, p300 overexpression or deacetylase inhibitors, in cancer cells. Results Knockdown of HIPK2 inhibited both adriamycin-induced Ser46 phosphorylation and Lys382 acetylation in p53 protein; however, while combination of ADR and zinc restored Ser46 phosphorylation it did not recover Lys382 acetylation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies showed that HIPK2 was required in vivo for efficient p300/p53 co-recruitment onto apoptotic promoters and that both p53 modifications at Ser46 and Lys382 were necessary for p53 apoptotic transcription. Thus, p53Lys382 acetylation in HIPK2 knockdown as well as p53 apoptotic activity in response to drug could be rescued by p300 overexpression. Similar effect was obtained with the Sirt1-inhibitor nicotinamide. Interestingly trichostatin A (TSA), the inhibitor of histone deacetylase complexes (HDAC) did not have effect, suggesting that Sirt1 was the deacetylase involved in p53 deacetylation in HIPK2 knockdown. Conclusion These results reveal a novel role for HIPK2 in activating p53 apoptotic transcription. Our results indicate that HIPK2 may regulate the balance between p53 acetylation and deacetylation, by stimulating on one hand co-recruitment of p300 and p53Lys382 on apoptotic promoters and on the other hand by inhibiting Sirt1 deacetylase activity. We attempted to reactivate p53 apoptotic transcriptional activity by rescuing both Ser46 and Lys382 modification in response to drug. Our data propose combination strategies for the treatment of tumors with dysfunctional p53 and/or HIPK2 that include classical chemotherapy with pharmacological or natural agents such as Sirt1-deacetylase inhibitors or zinc, respectively.

Puca, Rosa; Nardinocchi, Lavinia; Sacchi, Ada; Rechavi, Gideon; Givol, David; D'Orazi, Gabriella

2009-01-01

203

Continued clearance of apoptotic cells critically depends on the phagocyte Ucp2 protein  

PubMed Central

Rapid and efficient removal of apoptotic cells by phagocytes plays a key role during development, tissue homeostasis, and in controlling immune responses1–5. An important feature of efficient clearance is the capacity of a single phagocyte to ingest multiple apoptotic cells successively, and to process the increased load of corpse-derived cellular material6–9. However, factors that influence sustained phagocytic capacity or how they in turn influence continued clearance by phagocytes are not known. Here we identify that the ability of a phagocyte to control its mitochondrial membrane potential is a critical factor in the capacity of a phagocyte to engulf apoptotic cells. Changing the phagocyte mitochondrial membrane potential (genetically or pharmacologically) significantly affected phagocytosis, with lower potential enhancing engulfment and higher membrane potential inhibiting uptake. We then identified that Ucp2, a mitochondrial membrane protein that acts to lower the mitochondrial membrane potential10–12, is upregulated in phagocytes engulfing apoptotic cells (but not synthetic targets, bacteria, or yeast). Loss of Ucp2 limited the capacity of phagocytes to continually ingest apoptotic cells, while overexpression of Ucp2 increased the capacity for engulfment and the ability to engulf multiple apoptotic cells. Mutational and pharmacological inhibition of Ucp2 uncoupling activity reversed the positive effect of Ucp2 on engulfment capacity, suggesting a direct role for Ucp2-mediated mitochondrial function in phagocytosis. Macrophages from Ucp2-deficient mice13, 14 were impaired in their capacity to engulf apoptotic cells in vitro, and Ucp2-deficient mice displayed profound in vivo defects in clearing dying cells in the thymus and the testes. Collectively, these data suggest that phagocytes alter the mitochondrial membrane potential during engulfment to regulate uptake of sequential apoptotic cells, and that Ucp2 is a key molecular determinant of this step in vivo. Since Ucp2 function has also been linked to metabolic diseases and atherosclerosis14–16, these data identifying a new role for Ucp2 in regulating apoptotic cell clearance may provide additional insights toward understanding the complex etiology and pathogenesis of these diseases.

Park, Daeho; Han, Claudia; Elliott, Michael R.; Kinchen, Jason M.; Trampont, Paul C.; Das, Soumita; Collins, Sheila; Lysiak, Jeffrey J.; Hoehn, Kyle L.; Ravichandran, Kodi S.

2012-01-01

204

Mechanisms of non-apoptotic programmed cell death in diabetes and heart failure  

PubMed Central

Programmed cell elimination is an important pathological mediator of disease. Multiple pathways to programmed cell death have been delineated, including apoptosis, autophagy and programmed necrosis. Cross-talk between the signaling pathways mediating each process has made it difficult to define specific mechanisms of in vivo programmed cell death. For this reason, many “apoptotic” diseases may involve other death signaling pathways. Recent advances in genetic complementation using mouse knockout models are helping to dissect apoptotic and necrotic cell death in different pathological states. The current state of research in this area is reviewed, focusing upon new findings describing the role of programmed necrosis induced by the mitochondrial permeability transition in mouse models of heart failure and diabetes.

2010-01-01

205

Apoptotic DNA Degradation into Oligonucleosomal Fragments, but Not Apoptotic Nuclear Morphology, Relies on a Cytosolic Pool of DFF40/CAD Endonuclease*  

PubMed Central

Apoptotic cell death is characterized by nuclear fragmentation and oligonucleosomal DNA degradation, mediated by the caspase-dependent specific activation of DFF40/CAD endonuclease. Here, we describe how, upon apoptotic stimuli, SK-N-AS human neuroblastoma-derived cells show apoptotic nuclear morphology without displaying concomitant internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Cytotoxicity afforded after staurosporine treatment is comparable with that obtained in SH-SY5Y cells, which exhibit a complete apoptotic phenotype. SK-N-AS cell death is a caspase-dependent process that can be impaired by the pan-caspase inhibitor q-VD-OPh. The endogenous inhibitor of DFF40/CAD, ICAD, is correctly processed, and dff40/cad cDNA sequence does not reveal mutations altering its amino acid composition. Biochemical approaches show that both SH-SY5Y and SK-N-AS resting cells express comparable levels of DFF40/CAD. However, the endonuclease is poorly expressed in the cytosolic fraction of healthy SK-N-AS cells. Despite this differential subcellular distribution of DFF40/CAD, we find no differences in the subcellular localization of both pro-caspase-3 and ICAD between the analyzed cell lines. After staurosporine treatment, the preferential processing of ICAD in the cytosolic fraction allows the translocation of DFF40/CAD from this fraction to a chromatin-enriched one. Therefore, the low levels of cytosolic DFF40/CAD detected in SK-N-AS cells determine the absence of DNA laddering after staurosporine treatment. In these cells DFF40/CAD cytosolic levels can be restored by the overexpression of their own endonuclease, which is sufficient to make them proficient at degrading their chromatin into oligonucleosome-size fragments after staurosporine treatment. Altogether, the cytosolic levels of DFF40/CAD are determinants in achieving a complete apoptotic phenotype, including oligonucleosomal DNA degradation.

Iglesias-Guimarais, Victoria; Gil-Guinon, Estel; Gabernet, Gisela; Garcia-Belinchon, Merce; Sanchez-Osuna, Maria; Casanelles, Elisenda; Comella, Joan X.; Yuste, Victor J.

2012-01-01

206

Apoptotic DNA degradation into oligonucleosomal fragments, but not apoptotic nuclear morphology, relies on a cytosolic pool of DFF40/CAD endonuclease.  

PubMed

Apoptotic cell death is characterized by nuclear fragmentation and oligonucleosomal DNA degradation, mediated by the caspase-dependent specific activation of DFF40/CAD endonuclease. Here, we describe how, upon apoptotic stimuli, SK-N-AS human neuroblastoma-derived cells show apoptotic nuclear morphology without displaying concomitant internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Cytotoxicity afforded after staurosporine treatment is comparable with that obtained in SH-SY5Y cells, which exhibit a complete apoptotic phenotype. SK-N-AS cell death is a caspase-dependent process that can be impaired by the pan-caspase inhibitor q-VD-OPh. The endogenous inhibitor of DFF40/CAD, ICAD, is correctly processed, and dff40/cad cDNA sequence does not reveal mutations altering its amino acid composition. Biochemical approaches show that both SH-SY5Y and SK-N-AS resting cells express comparable levels of DFF40/CAD. However, the endonuclease is poorly expressed in the cytosolic fraction of healthy SK-N-AS cells. Despite this differential subcellular distribution of DFF40/CAD, we find no differences in the subcellular localization of both pro-caspase-3 and ICAD between the analyzed cell lines. After staurosporine treatment, the preferential processing of ICAD in the cytosolic fraction allows the translocation of DFF40/CAD from this fraction to a chromatin-enriched one. Therefore, the low levels of cytosolic DFF40/CAD detected in SK-N-AS cells determine the absence of DNA laddering after staurosporine treatment. In these cells DFF40/CAD cytosolic levels can be restored by the overexpression of their own endonuclease, which is sufficient to make them proficient at degrading their chromatin into oligonucleosome-size fragments after staurosporine treatment. Altogether, the cytosolic levels of DFF40/CAD are determinants in achieving a complete apoptotic phenotype, including oligonucleosomal DNA degradation. PMID:22253444

Iglesias-Guimarais, Victoria; Gil-Guiñon, Estel; Gabernet, Gisela; García-Belinchón, Mercè; Sánchez-Osuna, María; Casanelles, Elisenda; Comella, Joan X; Yuste, Victor J

2012-01-17

207

Expressional and Mutational Analysis of Pro-apoptotic Bcl2 Member PUMA in Hepatocellular Carcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deregulation of apoptosis is involved in mechanisms of cancer development. PUMA is a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family\\u000a and mediates p53-dependent and -independent apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether alterations of PUMA\\u000a protein expression and somatic mutations of PUMA gene are characteristics of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We analyzed expression of PUMA protein in 20

Chang H. Ahn; Eun G. Jeong; Sung S. Kim; Jong W. Lee; Sung H. Lee; Sung H. Kim; Min S. Kim; Nam J. Yoo; Sug Hyung Lee

2008-01-01

208

TUNEL Apoptotic Cell Detection in Tissue Sections: Critical Evaluation and Improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY TUNEL, i.e., terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end- labeling, has become a widely used staining method to assist in detection of apoptotic cells in tissue sections. However, despite its apparent simplicity, this technique has led to consid- erable disappointment because of its serious limitations in sensitivity and, even more, in specificity. We reviewed the limitations and artifacts of TUNEL

Françoise Labat-Moleur; Christiane Guillermet; Philippe Lorimier; Catherine Robert; Sylvie Lantuejoul; Elisabeth Brambilla; Adrien Negoescu

1998-01-01

209

Tributyltin induces apoptotic signaling in hepatocytes through pathways involving the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria  

SciTech Connect

Tri-n-butyltin is a widespread environmental toxicant, which accumulates in the liver. This study investigates whether tri-n-butyltin induces pro-apoptotic signaling in rat liver hepatocytes through pathways involving the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Tri-n-butyltin activated the endoplasmic reticulum pathway of apoptosis, which was demonstrated by the activation of the protease calpain, its translocation to the plasma membrane, followed by cleavage of the calpain substrates, cytoskeletal protein vinculin, and caspase-12. Caspase-12 is localized to the cytoplasmic side of the endoplasmic reticulum and is involved in apoptosis mediated by the endoplasmic reticulum. Tri-n-butyltin also caused translocation of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bad from the cytosol to mitochondria, as well as changes in mitochondrial membrane permeability, events which can activate the mitochondrial death pathway. Tri-n-butyltin induced downstream apoptotic events in rat hepatocytes at the nuclear level, detected by chromatin condensation and by confocal microscopy using acridine orange. We investigated whether the tri-n-butyltin-induced pro-apoptotic events in hepatocytes could be linked to perturbation of intracellular calcium homeostasis, using confocal microscopy. Tri-n-butyltin caused changes in intracellular calcium distribution, which were similar to those induced by thapsigargin. Calcium was released from a subcellular compartment, which is likely to be the endoplasmic reticulum, into the cytosol. Cytosolic acidification, which is known to trigger apoptosis, also occurred and involved the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3} {sup -} exchanger. Pro-apoptotic events in hepatocytes were inhibited by the calcium chelator, Bapta-AM, and by a calpain inhibitor, which suggests that changes in intracellular calcium homeostasis are involved in tri-n-butyltin-induced apoptotic signaling in rat hepatocytes.

Grondin, Melanie [Departement de Chimie, Centre de Recherche en Toxicologie de l'environnement (TOXEN), Universite du Quebec a Montreal, CP 8888, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3P8 (Canada); Marion, Michel [Departement de Chimie, Centre de Recherche en Toxicologie de l'environnement (TOXEN), Universite du Quebec a Montreal, CP 8888, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3P8 (Canada); Denizeau, Francine [Departement de Chimie, Centre de Recherche en Toxicologie de l'environnement (TOXEN), Universite du Quebec a Montreal, CP 8888, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3P8 (Canada); Averill-Bates, Diana A. [Departement des Sciences Biologiques, Centre de Recherche en Toxicologie de l'environnement (TOXEN), Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: averill.diana@uqam.ca

2007-07-01

210

Identification of a factor that links apoptotic cells to phagocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptotic cells are rapidly engulfed by phagocytes to prevent the release of potentially noxious or immunogenic intracellular materials from the dying cells, thereby preserving the integrity and function of the surrounding tissue. Phagocytes engulf apoptotic but not healthy cells, indicating that the apoptotic cells present a signal to the phagocytes, and the phagocytes recognize the signal using a specific receptor.

Rikinari Hanayama; Masato Tanaka; Keiko Miwa; Azusa Shinohara; Akihiro Iwamatsu; Shigekazu Nagata

2002-01-01

211

Oxidized phosphatidylserine-CD36 interactions play an essential role in macrophage-dependent phagocytosis of apoptotic cells  

PubMed Central

The phagocytosis of apoptotic cells within an organism is a critical terminal physiological process in programmed cell death. Evidence suggests that apoptotic cell engulfment and removal by macrophages is facilitated by phosphatidylserine (PS) displayed at the exofacial surface of the plasma membrane; however, neither the macrophage receptors responsible for PS recognition, nor characterization of the PS molecular species potentially involved, have been clearly defined. We show that the class B scavenger receptor CD36 plays an essential role in macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells in vivo. Further, macrophage recognition of apoptotic cells via CD36 is shown to occur via interactions with membrane-associated oxidized PS (oxPS) and, to a lesser extent, oxidized phosphatidylcholine, but not nonoxidized PS molecular species. Mass spectrometry analyses of oxPS species identify structures of candidate ligands for CD36 in apoptotic membranes that may facilitate macrophage recognition. Collectively, these results identify oxPS–CD36 interactions on macrophages as potential participants in a broad range of physiologic processes where macrophage-mediated engulfment of apoptotic cells is involved.

Greenberg, Michael E.; Sun, Mingjiang; Zhang, Renliang; Febbraio, Maria; Silverstein, Roy; Hazen, Stanley L.

2006-01-01

212

Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of spanish honeys  

PubMed Central

Background: Current evidence supports that consumption of polyphenols has beneficial effects against numerous diseases mostly associated with their antioxidant activity. Honey is a good source of antioxidants since it contains a great variety of phenolic compounds. Objective: The main objective of this work was to investigate the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of three crude commercial honeys of different floral origin (heather, rosemary and polyfloral honey) from Madrid Autonomic Community (Spain) as well as of an artificial honey in human peripheral blood promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60). Material and Methods: HL-60 cells were cultured in the presence of honeys at various concentrations for up to 72 hours and the percentage of cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells were identified by chromatin condensation and flow cytometry analysis. ROS production was determined using 2´,7´-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA). Results: The three types of crude commercial honey induced apoptosis in a concentration and time dependent-manner. In addition, honeys with the higher phenolic content, heather and polyfloral, were the most effective to induce apoptosis in HL-60 cells. However, honeys did not generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) could not block honeys-induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells. Conclusion: These data support that honeys induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells through a ROS-independent cell death pathway. Moreover, our findings indicate that the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of honey varied according to the floral origin and the phenolic content.

Morales, Paloma; Haza, Ana Isabel

2013-01-01

213

New Lives Given by Cell Death: Macrophage Differentiation Following Their Encounter with Apoptotic Leukocytes during the Resolution of Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Monocytes that migrate into tissues during inflammatory episodes and differentiate to macrophages were previously classified as classically (M1) or alternatively (M2) activated macrophages, based on their exposure to different fate-determining mediators. These macrophage subsets display distinct molecular markers and differential functions. At the same time, studies from recent years found that the encounter of apoptotic leukocytes with macrophages leads to the clearance of this cellular “debris” by the macrophages, while concomitantly reprogramming/immune-silencing the macrophages. While some of the features of M2 differentiation, such as arginase-1 (murine) and 15-lipoxygenases (human and murine) expression, were also displayed by macrophages following the engulfment of apoptotic cells, it was not clear whether apoptotic cells can be regarded as an M2-like differentiating signal. In this manuscript we review the recent information regarding the impact of apoptotic cells on macrophage phenotype changes in molecular terms. We will focus on recent evidence for the in vivo existence of distinct pro-resolving macrophages and the role of apoptotic cells, specialized lipid mediators, and glucocorticoids in their generation. Consequently, we will suggest that these pro-resolving CD11blow macrophages have metamorphed from M2-like macrophages, and modulated their protein profile to accommodate the changes in their function.

Ariel, Amiram; Serhan, Charles N.

2012-01-01

214

Kolaviron protects apoptotic cell death in PC12 cells exposed to atrazine.  

PubMed

Kolaviron (KV), a natural biflavonoid obtained from the seeds of Garcinia kola, has been documented for its wide pharmacological window, including anti-apoptotic activities. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood at the cellular level. This study investigates the anti-apoptotic activity of KV in PC12 cells, a rat pheochromocytoma, exposed to endocrine disruptor-atrazine (ATZ). KV (60 ?M) treatment for 24 h shows significant anti-apoptotic responses in PC12 cells exposed to ATZ (232 ?M) for 24 h. KV treatment recovers the ATZ-induced levels of malondialdehyde, reactive oxygen species (ROS), caspase-3 activity and depleted levels of glutathione and catalase activity. However, KV was found to be ineffective to restore the ATZ-induced expression (mRNA) and activity of glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione reductase (GR). KV treatment also demonstrates significant restoration in ATZ-induced alterations in the expression of apoptosis markers viz., p53, Bax, Bcl2, caspase-3, caspase-9, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), c-Jun and c-fos. Flow cytometric analysis confirms the involvement of ROS in the mediation of ATZ-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. Together, these data suggest that KV has the therapeutic potential against chemical-induced apoptotic cell death in the neuronal system. PMID:21726175

Abarikwu, Sunny O; Farombi, Ebenezer O; Kashyap, Mahendra P; Pant, Aditya B

2011-07-05

215

Phagocytic Receptor CED-1 Initiates a Signaling Pathway for Degrading Engulfed Apoptotic Cells  

PubMed Central

Apoptotic cells in animals are engulfed by phagocytic cells and subsequently degraded inside phagosomes. To study the mechanisms controlling the degradation of apoptotic cells, we developed time-lapse imaging protocols in developing Caenorhabditis elegans embryos and established the temporal order of multiple events during engulfment and phagosome maturation. These include sequential enrichment on phagocytic membranes of phagocytic receptor cell death abnormal 1 (CED-1), large GTPase dynamin (DYN-1), phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P), and the small GTPase RAB-7, as well as the incorporation of endosomes and lysosomes to phagosomes. Two parallel genetic pathways are known to control the engulfment of apoptotic cells in C. elegans. We found that null mutations in each pathway not only delay or block engulfment, but also delay the degradation of engulfed apoptotic cells. One of the pathways, composed of CED-1, the adaptor protein CED-6, and DYN-1, controls the rate of enrichment of PI(3)P and RAB-7 on phagosomal surfaces and the formation of phagolysosomes. We further identified an essential role of RAB-7 in promoting the recruitment and fusion of lysosomes to phagosomes. We propose that RAB-7 functions as a downstream effector of the CED-1 pathway to mediate phagolysosome formation. Our work suggests that phagocytic receptors, which were thought to act specifically in initiating engulfment, also control phagosome maturation through the sequential activation of multiple effectors such as dynamin, PI(3)P, and Rab GTPases.

Yu, Xiaomeng; Lu, Nan; Zhou, Zheng

2008-01-01

216

Overexpression of Nrf2 Protects Cerebral Cortical Neurons from Ethanol-Induced Apoptotic DeathS?  

PubMed Central

Ethanol (ETOH) can cause apoptotic death of neurons by depleting GSH with an associated increase in oxidative stress. The current study illustrates a means to overcome this ETOH-induced neurotoxicity by enhancing GSH through boosting Nrf2, a transcription factor that controls GSH homeostasis. ETOH treatment caused a significant increase in Nrf2 protein, transcript expression, Nrf2-DNA binding activity, and expression of its transcriptional target, NQO1, in primary cortical neuron (PCNs). However, this increase in Nrf2 did not maintain GSH levels in response to ETOH, and apoptotic death still occurred. To elucidate this phenomenon, we silenced Nrf2 in neurons and found that ETOH-induced GSH depletion and the increase in superoxide levels were exacerbated. Furthermore, Nrf2 knockdown resulted in significantly increased (P < 0.05) caspase 3 activity and apoptosis. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Nrf2 prevented ETOH-induced depletion of GSH from the medium and high GSH subpopulations and prevented ETOH-related apoptotic death. These studies illustrate the importance of Nrf2-dependent maintenance of GSH homeostasis in cerebral cortical neurons in the defense against oxidative stress and apoptotic death elicited by ETOH exposure.

Narasimhan, Madhusudhanan; Mahimainathan, Lenin; Rathinam, Mary Latha; Riar, Amanjot Kaur

2011-01-01

217

Parkin Promotes Degradation of the Mitochondrial Pro-Apoptotic ARTS Protein  

PubMed Central

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with excessive cell death causing selective loss of dopaminergic neurons. Dysfunction of the Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS) is associated with the pathophysiology of PD. Mutations in Parkin which impair its E3-ligase activity play a major role in the pathogenesis of inherited PD. ARTS (Sept4_i2) is a mitochondrial protein, which initiates caspase activation upstream of cytochrome c release in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Here we show that Parkin serves as an E3-ubiquitin ligase to restrict the levels of ARTS through UPS-mediated degradation. Though Parkin binds equally to ARTS and Sept4_i1 (H5/PNUTL2), the non-apoptotic splice variant of Sept4, Parkin ubiquitinates and degrades only ARTS. Thus, the effect of Parkin on ARTS is specific and probably related to its pro-apoptotic function. High levels of ARTS are sufficient to promote apoptosis in cultured neuronal cells, and rat brains treated with 6-OHDA reveal high levels of ARTS. However, over-expression of Parkin can protect cells from ARTS-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, Parkin loss-of-function experiments reveal that reduction of Parkin causes increased levels of ARTS and apoptosis. We propose that in brain cells in which the E3-ligase activity of Parkin is compromised, ARTS levels increase and facilitate apoptosis. Thus, ARTS is a novel substrate of Parkin. These observations link Parkin directly to a pro-apoptotic protein and reveal a novel connection between Parkin, apoptosis, and PD.

Kemeny, Stav; Dery, Dikla; Loboda, Yelena; Rovner, Marshall; Lev, Tali; Zuri, Dotan; Finberg, John P. M.; Larisch, Sarit

2012-01-01

218

Boolean Model of Yeast Apoptosis as a Tool to Study Yeast and Human Apoptotic Regulations  

PubMed Central

Programmed cell death (PCD) is an essential cellular mechanism that is evolutionary conserved, mediated through various pathways and acts by integrating different stimuli. Many diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases and cancers are found to be caused by, or associated with, regulations in the cell death pathways. Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a unicellular eukaryotic organism that shares with human cells components and pathways of the PCD and is therefore used as a model organism. Boolean modeling is becoming promising approach to capture qualitative behavior and describe essential properties of such complex networks. Here we present large literature-based and to our knowledge first Boolean model that combines pathways leading to apoptosis (a type of PCD) in yeast. Analysis of the yeast model confirmed experimental findings of anti-apoptotic role of Bir1p and pro-apoptotic role of Stm1p and revealed activation of the stress protein kinase Hog proposing the maximal level of activation upon heat stress. In addition we extended the yeast model and created an in silico humanized yeast in which human pro- and anti-apoptotic regulators Bcl-2 family and Valosin-contain protein (VCP) are included in the model. We showed that accumulation of Bax in silico humanized yeast shows apoptotic markers and that VCP is essential target of Akt Signaling. The presented Boolean model provides comprehensive description of yeast apoptosis network behavior. Extended model of humanized yeast gives new insights of how complex human disease like neurodegeneration can initially be tested.

Kazemzadeh, Laleh; Cvijovic, Marija; Petranovic, Dina

2012-01-01

219

Modulation of apoptotic pathways of macrophages by surface-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes.  

PubMed

Biomedical applications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) often involve improving their hydrophilicity and dispersion in biological media by modifying them through noncovalent or covalent functionalization. However, the potential adverse effects of surface-functionalized CNTs have not been well characterized. In this study, we functionalized multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) via carboxylation, to produce MWCNTs-COOH, and via poly (ethylene glycol) linking, to produce MWCNTs-PEG. We used these functionalized MWCNTs to study the effect of surface functionalization on MWCNTs-induced toxicity to macrophages, and elucidate the underlying mechanisms of action. Our results revealed that MWCNTs-PEG were less cytotoxic and were associated with less apoptotic cell death of macrophages than MWCNTs-COOH. Additionally, MWCNTs-PEG induced less generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) involving less activation of NADPH oxidase compared with MWCNTs-COOH, as evidenced by membrane translocation of p47(phox) and p67(phox) in macrophages. The less cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of MWCNTs-PEG compared with MWCNTs-COOH resulted from the lower cellular uptake of MWCNTs-PEG, which resulted in less activation of oxidative stress-responsive pathways, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-?B. These results demonstrate that surface functionalization of CNTs may alter ROS-mediated cytotoxic and apoptotic response by modulating apoptotic signaling pathways. Our study thus provides new insights into the molecular basis for the surface properties affecting CNTs toxicity. PMID:23755279

Jiang, Yuanqin; Zhang, Honggang; Wang, Yange; Chen, Min; Ye, Shefang; Hou, Zhenqing; Ren, Lei

2013-06-06

220

Ebola Virus Does Not Block Apoptotic Signaling Pathways  

PubMed Central

Since viruses rely on functional cellular machinery for efficient propagation, apoptosis is an important mechanism to fight viral infections. In this study, we sought to determine the mechanism of cell death caused by Ebola virus (EBOV) infection by assaying for multiple stages of apoptosis and hallmarks of necrosis. Our data indicate that EBOV does not induce apoptosis in infected cells but rather leads to a nonapoptotic form of cell death. Ultrastructural analysis confirmed necrotic cell death of EBOV-infected cells. To investigate if EBOV blocks the induction of apoptosis, infected cells were treated with different apoptosis-inducing agents. Surprisingly, EBOV-infected cells remained sensitive to apoptosis induced by external stimuli. Neither receptor- nor mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis signaling was inhibited in EBOV infection. Although double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-induced activation of protein kinase R (PKR) was blocked in EBOV-infected cells, induction of apoptosis mediated by dsRNA was not suppressed. When EBOV-infected cells were treated with dsRNA-dependent caspase recruiter (dsCARE), an antiviral protein that selectively induces apoptosis in cells containing dsRNA, virus titers were strongly reduced. These data show that the inability of EBOV to block apoptotic pathways may open up new strategies toward the development of antiviral therapeutics.

Olejnik, Judith; Alonso, Jesus; Schmidt, Kristina M.; Yan, Zhen; Wang, Wei; Marzi, Andrea; Ebihara, Hideki; Yang, Jinghua; Patterson, Jean L.; Ryabchikova, Elena

2013-01-01

221

Computational study of the mechanism of Bcl-2 apoptotic switch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In spite of attention devoted to molecular mechanisms of apoptosis, the details of functioning of one crucial component-the Bcl-2 apoptotic switch-are not completely understood. There are two competing mechanisms of its internal working—the indirect activation and the direct activation. In the absence of conclusive experimental data, we have used computational modeling to assess the properties of both mechanisms and their suitability to act as a biological switch. Since the two mechanisms form opposite poles of continuum of Bcl-2 molecular interaction models, we have constructed more general models including these two models as extreme cases. By studying the relationship between model parameters and the steady-state response we have found optimal interaction patterns which reproduce the behavior of the Bcl-2 apoptotic switch. Our results show, that stimulus-response ultrasensitivity is negatively affected by spontaneous activation of Bcl-2 effectors. We found that ultrasensitivity requires effectors activation, mediated by another subgroup of Bcl-2 proteins—activators. We have shown that the auto-activation of monomeric effector forms provides an ultrasensitivity enhancing feedback loop. Thorough robustness analysis revealed that the interaction pattern postulated in the direct activation hypothesis is able to conserve stimulus-response switching characteristics for wide range changes of its internal parameters. The robustness of the switch against the variation of the reaction parameter is strongly reduced for the intermediate hybrid model and even more for the indirect part of the models. Computer simulations of the more general model presented here suggest, that stimulus-response ultrasensitivity is an emergent property of the direct activation model that is unlikely to occur in the model of indirect activation. Introduction of indirect-model-specific interactions does not provide a better explanation of the Bcl-2 switch functionality compared to the direct model.

Tokár, Tomáš; Uli?ný, Jozef

2012-12-01

222

VDAC1-based peptides: novel pro-apoptotic agents and potential therapeutics for B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia  

PubMed Central

The voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), localized in the outer mitochondrial membrane, mediates metabolic cross-talk between the mitochondrion and the cytoplasm and thus serves a fundamental role in cell energy metabolism. VDAC1 also plays a key role in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, interacting with anti-apoptotic proteins. Resistance of cancer cells to apoptosis involves quenching the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by over-expression of anti-apoptotic/pro-survival hexokinase (HK) and Bcl-2 family proteins, proteins that mediate their anti-apoptotic activities via interaction with VDAC1. Using specifically designed VDAC1-based cell-penetrating peptides, we targeted these anti-apoptotic proteins to prevent their pro-survival/anti-apoptotic activities. Anti-apoptotic proteins are expressed at high levels in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), an incurable disease requiring innovative new approaches to improve therapeutic outcome. CLL is characterized by a clonal accumulation of mature neoplastic B cells that are resistant to apoptosis. Specifically, we demonstrate that the VDAC1-based peptides (Antp-LP4 and N-Terminal-Antp) selectively kill peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from CLL patients, yet spare those obtained from healthy donors. The cell death induction competence of the peptides was well correlated with the amount of double positive CD19/CD5 cancerous CLL PBMCs, further illustrating their selectivity toward cancer cells. Moreover, these VDAC1-based peptides induced apoptosis by activating the mitochondria-mediated pathway, reflected in membrane blebbing, condensation of nuclei, DNA fragmentation, release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, decreased cellular ATP levels and detachment of HK, all leading to apoptotic cell death. Thus, the mode of action of the peptides involves decreasing energy production and inducing apoptosis. Over 27 versions of cell-penetrating VDAC1-based peptides were designed and screened to identify the most stable, short and apoptosis-inducing peptides toward CLL-derived lymphocytes. In this manner, three optimized peptides suitable for in vivo studies were identified. This study thus reveals the potential of VDAC1-based peptides as an innovative and effective anti-CLL therapy.

Prezma, T; Shteinfer, A; Admoni, L; Raviv, Z; Sela, I; Levi, I; Shoshan-Barmatz, V

2013-01-01

223

VDAC1-based peptides: novel pro-apoptotic agents and potential therapeutics for B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.  

PubMed

The voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), localized in the outer mitochondrial membrane, mediates metabolic cross-talk between the mitochondrion and the cytoplasm and thus serves a fundamental role in cell energy metabolism. VDAC1 also plays a key role in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, interacting with anti-apoptotic proteins. Resistance of cancer cells to apoptosis involves quenching the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by over-expression of anti-apoptotic/pro-survival hexokinase (HK) and Bcl-2 family proteins, proteins that mediate their anti-apoptotic activities via interaction with VDAC1. Using specifically designed VDAC1-based cell-penetrating peptides, we targeted these anti-apoptotic proteins to prevent their pro-survival/anti-apoptotic activities. Anti-apoptotic proteins are expressed at high levels in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), an incurable disease requiring innovative new approaches to improve therapeutic outcome. CLL is characterized by a clonal accumulation of mature neoplastic B cells that are resistant to apoptosis. Specifically, we demonstrate that the VDAC1-based peptides (Antp-LP4 and N-Terminal-Antp) selectively kill peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from CLL patients, yet spare those obtained from healthy donors. The cell death induction competence of the peptides was well correlated with the amount of double positive CD19/CD5 cancerous CLL PBMCs, further illustrating their selectivity toward cancer cells. Moreover, these VDAC1-based peptides induced apoptosis by activating the mitochondria-mediated pathway, reflected in membrane blebbing, condensation of nuclei, DNA fragmentation, release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, decreased cellular ATP levels and detachment of HK, all leading to apoptotic cell death. Thus, the mode of action of the peptides involves decreasing energy production and inducing apoptosis. Over 27 versions of cell-penetrating VDAC1-based peptides were designed and screened to identify the most stable, short and apoptosis-inducing peptides toward CLL-derived lymphocytes. In this manner, three optimized peptides suitable for in vivo studies were identified. This study thus reveals the potential of VDAC1-based peptides as an innovative and effective anti-CLL therapy. PMID:24052077

Prezma, T; Shteinfer, A; Admoni, L; Raviv, Z; Sela, I; Levi, I; Shoshan-Barmatz, V

2013-09-19

224

Dehydrocrotonin and its derivative, dimethylamide-crotonin induce apoptosis with lipid peroxidation and activation of caspases-2, -6 and -9 in human leukemic cells HL60  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of stimuli can induce cells to undergo apoptosis, with one of the most reproducible inducers being mild oxidative stress following exposure to anticancer agents. Apoptosis involves events mediated by cysteine proteases (caspases) that are classified as initiators (-8, -9 and -12) or executors (-2, -3, -6 and -7). In this study, we examined the mechanisms of apoptosis induced

Maristella C. Anazetti; Patricia S. Melo; Nelson Durán; Marcela Haun

2004-01-01

225

Corosolic acid induces apoptotic cell death in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells in vitro.  

PubMed

Corosolic acid (CRA), a triterpenoid from medicinal herbs, has been shown to induce apoptosis in several cell lines, with the exception of A549 cells. In this report, we investigated the apoptotic effect and mechanism of CRA in A549 cells. The present study shows that CRA significantly inhibits cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Exposure to CRA induces sub-G1 cell cycle arrest and causes apoptotic death in A549 cells. CRA also triggers the activation of caspases and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, an effect antagonized by z-vad-fmk. In addition, exposure to CRA leads to a significant increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in A549 cells. Furthermore, exposure to the ROS scavenger N acetylcysteine (NAC)prevents CRA-induced apoptosis, suggesting a role for ROS in CRA-induced apoptosis. ROS are critical regulators of caspase-mediated apoptosis in A549 cells. These results indicate that CRA induces mitochondria-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis in A549 cells by altering anti-apoptotic proteins in a ROS-dependent manner. PMID:23454206

Nho, Kyoung Jin; Chun, Jin Mi; Kim, Ho Kyoung

2013-02-20

226

G-CSF protects motoneurons against axotomy-induced apoptotic death in neonatal mice  

PubMed Central

Background Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a growth factor essential for generation of neutrophilic granulocytes. Apart from this hematopoietic function, we have recently uncovered potent neuroprotective and regenerative properties of G-CSF in the central nervous system (CNS). The G-CSF receptor and G-CSF itself are expressed in ? motoneurons, G-CSF protects motoneurons, and improves outcome in the SOD1(G93A) transgenic mouse model for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In vitro, G-CSF acts anti-apoptotically on motoneuronal cells. Due to the pleiotrophic effects of G-CSF and the complexity of the SOD1 transgenic ALS models it was however not possible to clearly distinguish between directly mediated anti-apoptotic and indirectly protective effects on motoneurons. Here we studied whether G-CSF is able to protect motoneurons from purely apoptotic cell death induced by a monocausal paradigm, neonatal sciatic nerve axotomy. Results We performed sciatic nerve axotomy in neonatal mice overexpressing G-CSF in the CNS and found that G-CSF transgenic mice displayed significantly higher numbers of surviving lumbar motoneurons 4 days following axotomy than their littermate controls. Also, surviving motoneurons in G-CSF overexpressing animals were larger, suggesting additional trophic effects of this growth factor. Conclusions In this model of pure apoptotic cell death the protective effects of G-CSF indicate direct actions of G-CSF on motoneurons in vivo. This shows that G-CSF exerts potent anti-apoptotic activities towards motoneurons in vivo and suggests that the protection offered by G-CSF in ALS mouse models is due to its direct neuroprotective activity.

2010-01-01

227

Antcin B and its ester derivative from Antrodia camphorata induce apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells involves enhancing oxidative stress coincident with activation of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathway.  

PubMed

The triterpenoids methylantcinate B (MAB) and antcin B (AB), isolated from the medicinal mushroom Antrodia camphorata , have been identified as strong cytotoxic agents against various type of cancer cells; however, the mechanisms of MAB- and AB-induced cytotoxicity have not been adequately explored. This study investigated the roles of caspase cascades, reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage, mitochondrial disruption, and Bax and Bcl-2 proteins in MAB- and AB-induced apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cells. Here, we showed that MAB and AB induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells, as characterized by increased DNA fragmentation, cleavage of PARP, sub-G1 population, chromatin condensation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and release of cytochrome c. Increasing the levels of caspase-2, -3, -8, and -9 activities was involved in MAB- and AB-induced apoptosis, and they could be attenuated by inhibitors of specific caspases, indicating that MAB and AB triggered the caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. Additionally, the enhanced apoptotic effect correlates with high expression of Fas, Fas ligand, as well as Bax and decreased protein levels of Bcl-(XL) and Bcl-2, suggesting that both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways were involved in the apoptotic processes. Incubation of HepG2 cells with antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase and antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and ascorbic acid attenuated the ROS generation and apoptosis induced by MAB and AB, which indicate that ROS plays a pivotal role in cell death. NADPH oxidase activation was observed in MAB- and AB-stimulated HepG2 cells; however, inhibition of such activation by diphenylamine significantly blocked MAB- and AB-induced ROS production and increased cell viability. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence that triterpenoids MAB and AB induced a NADPH oxidase-provoked oxidative stress and extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis as a critical mechanism of cause cell death in HCC cells. PMID:21916504

Hsieh, Yun-Chih; Rao, Yerra Koteswara; Whang-Peng, Jacqueline; Huang, Chi-Ying F; Shyue, Song-Kun; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Tzeng, Yew-Min

2011-10-05

228

Apoptotic volume decrease as a geometric determinant for cell dismantling into apoptotic bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptosis is a mode of cell death through which cells are dismantled and cell remains are packed into small, membrane-bound, sealed vesicles called apoptotic bodies, which are easy to erase by phagocytosis by neighbouring and immune system cells. The end point of the process is to cleanly eliminate damaged or unnecessary cells without disrupting the surrounding tissue or eliciting an

R Núñez; S M Sancho-Martínez; J M L Novoa; F J López-Hernández

2010-01-01

229

Investigations on the C1q-calreticulin-phosphatidylserine interactions yield new insights into apoptotic cell recognition.  

PubMed

Both C1q and calreticulin (CRT) are involved in the recognition of apoptotic cells. CRT was initially characterized as a receptor for the C1q collagen-like fragment (CLF), whereas C1q was shown to bind apoptotic cells through its globular region (GR). Using purified CRT and recombinant CRT domains, we now provide unambiguous experimental evidence that, in addition to its CLF, the C1q GR also binds CRT and that both types of interactions are mediated by the CRT globular domain. Surface plasmon resonance analyses revealed that the C1q CLF and GR domains each bind individually to immobilized CRT and its globular domain with K(D) values of (2.6-8.3) × 10(-7) M. Further evidence that CRT binds to the C1q GR was obtained by electron microscopy. The role of CRT in the recognition of apoptotic HeLa cells by C1q was analyzed. The C1q GR partially colocalized with CRT on the surface of early apoptotic cells, and siRNA (small interfering RNA)-induced CRT deficiency resulted in increased apoptotic cell binding to C1q. The interaction between CRT and phosphatidylserine (PS), a known C1q ligand on apoptotic cells, was also investigated. The polar head of PS was shown to bind to CRT with a 10-fold higher affinity (K(D)=1.5 × 10(-5) M) than that determined for C1q, and, accordingly, the C1q GR-PS interaction was impaired in the presence of CRT. Together, these observations indicate that CRT, C1q, and PS are all closely involved in the uptake of apoptotic cells and strongly suggest a combinatorial role of these three molecules in the recognition step. PMID:21352829

Païdassi, Helena; Tacnet-Delorme, Pascale; Verneret, Mélanie; Gaboriaud, Christine; Houen, Gunnar; Duus, Karen; Ling, Wai Li; Arlaud, Gérard J; Frachet, Philippe

2011-02-23

230

Bruton's tyrosine kinase is required for apoptotic cell uptake via regulating the phosphorylation and localization of calreticulin.  

PubMed

In addition to regulating B cell development and activation, Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) functions downstream of multiple TLRs, including TLR7, to regulate innate immune responses in myeloid cells. Although critical for defense against RNA viruses such as influenza and Sendai virus, recognition of self-RNA by TLR7 also has been shown to be an important contributor to the pathophysiology of systemic lupus erythematosus. To date, the role of Btk in regulating TLR7-mediated responses is poorly understood. In the current study, we have demonstrated a hitherto undiscovered role for Btk in apoptotic cell uptake, identifying the molecular chaperone calreticulin (CRT) as a novel substrate for Btk in regulating this response. CRT together with the transmembrane receptor CD91 function at the cell membrane and regulate uptake of C1q-opsonised apoptotic cells. Our results show that Btk directly phosphorylates CRT and that in the absence of Btk, CRT fails to localize with CD91 at the cell surface and at the phagocytic cup. Critically, a blocking Ab against CRT in wild-type macrophages mimics the inability of Btk-deficient macrophages to phagocytose apoptotic cells efficiently, indicating the critical importance of Btk in regulating CRT-driven apoptotic cell uptake. Our data have revealed a novel regulatory role for Btk in mediating apoptotic cell clearance, with CRT identified as the critical component of the CRT/CD91/C1q system targeted by Btk. Given the importance of clearing apoptotic cell debris to prevent inappropriate exposure of TLRs to endogenous ligands, our results have important implications regarding the role of Btk in myeloid cell function. PMID:23596312

Byrne, Jennifer C; Ní Gabhann, Joan; Stacey, Kevin B; Coffey, Barbara M; McCarthy, Eoghan; Thomas, Warren; Jefferies, Caroline A

2013-04-17

231

Apoptotic cells selectively suppress the Th1 cytokine interferon gamma in stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and shift the Th1/Th2 balance towards Th2.  

PubMed

Apoptotic cells are readily recognized and engulfed by phagocytes and usually do not induce inflammation or tissue damage. Furthermore, they can actively suppress a pro-inflammatory response in phagocytes: In the presence of apoptotic cells, activated monocytes/macrophages produce more of the anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-beta, but less of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFalpha, IL-1beta and IL-12. This immunoregulatory effect is most likely mediated by several receptors on monocytes/macrophages including the thrombospondin receptor (CD36). In addition to the modulation of cytokine secretion, apoptotic cell material inhibited the expression of MHC class II molecules on the surface of monocytes/macrophages. Decreased MHC II expression appeared to be mediated predominantly by increased IL-10 secretion in a para-/autocrine manner. Here, we show that the functional modulation of antigen-presenting monocytes/macrophages by apoptotic cells also influences T cell activation and function. When human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with recall antigens in the presence of apoptotic cells, interferon gamma (IFN gamma) secretion was markedly suppressed, whereas secretion of the Th2 cytokine IL-4 was not significantly altered. Hence, apoptotic cells shift the T cell cytokine secretion pattern towards a Th2-like response. This Th2 shift can largely be prevented by neutralizing IL-10, indicating an important role of this cytokine for modulating T cell cytokine secretion patterns. PMID:17516220

Girkontaite, Irute; Urbonaviciute, Vilma; Maseda, Damian; Neubert, Kirsten; Herrmann, Martin; Voll, Reinhard E

2007-06-01

232

Hypoxic enlarged mitochondria protect cancer cells from apoptotic stimuli.  

PubMed

It is well established that cells exposed to the limiting oxygen microenvironment (hypoxia) of tumors acquire resistance to chemotherapy, through mechanisms not fully understood. We noted that a large number of cell lines showed protection from apoptotic stimuli, staurosporine, or etoposide, when exposed to long-term hypoxia (72 h). In addition, these cells had unusual enlarged mitochondria that were induced in a HIF-1-dependent manner. Enlarged mitochondria were functional as they conserved their transmembrane potential and ATP production. Here we reveal that mitochondria of hypoxia-induced chemotherapy-resistant cells undergo a HIF-1-dependent and mitofusin-1-mediated change in morphology from a tubular network to an enlarged phenotype. An imbalance in mitochondrial fusion/fission occurs since silencing of not only the mitochondrial fusion protein mitofusin 1 but also BNIP3 and BNIP3L, two mitochondrial HIF-targeted genes, reestablished a tubular morphology. Hypoxic cells were insensitive to staurosporine- and etoposide-induced cell death, but the silencing of mitofusin, BNIP3, and BNIP3L restored sensitivity. Our results demonstrate that some cancer cells have developed yet another way to evade apoptosis in hypoxia, by inducing mitochondrial fusion and targeting BNIP3 and BNIP3L to mitochondrial membranes, thereby giving these cells a selective growth advantage. PMID:19957303

Chiche, Johanna; Rouleau, Matthieu; Gounon, Pierre; Brahimi-Horn, M Christiane; Pouysségur, Jacques; Mazure, Nathalie M

2010-03-01

233

Estrogens exert a rapid apoptotic action in anterior pituitary cells.  

PubMed

It is now accepted that estrogens not only stimulate lactotrope proliferation but also sensitize anterior pituitary cells to proapoptotic stimuli. In addition to their classical mechanism of action through binding to intracellular estrogen receptors (ERs), there is increasing evidence that estrogens exert rapid actions mediated by cell membrane-localized ERs (mERs). In the present study, we examined the involvement of membrane-initiated steroid signaling in the proapoptotic action of estradiol in primary cultures of anterior pituitary cells from ovariectomized rats by using estren, a synthetic estrogen with no effect on classical transcription and a cell-impermeable 17beta-estradiol conjugate (E2-BSA). Both compounds induced cell death of anterior pituitary cells after 60 min of incubation as assessed by flow cytometry and the [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)]-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium assay. Estren, E2, and E2-BSA induced apoptosis of lactotropes and somatotropes as evaluated by the deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay and immunodetection of prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH). The proapoptotic effect of E2-BSA was abrogated by ICI-182,780, an antagonist of ERs. The expression of membrane-associated ERalpha was observed in PRL- and GH-bearing cells. Our results indicate that estradiol is able to exert a rapid apoptotic action in anterior pituitary cells, especially lactotropes and somatotropes, by a mechanism triggered by mERs. This mechanism could be involved in anterior pituitary cell turnover. PMID:19158323

Zárate, S; Jaita, G; Zaldivar, V; Radl, D B; Eijo, G; Ferraris, J; Pisera, D; Seilicovich, A

2009-01-21

234

Synergistic apoptotic response between valproic acid and fludarabine in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells involves the lysosomal protease cathepsin B.  

PubMed

Fludarabine, a nucleoside analogue, is commonly used in combination with other agents for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). In previous studies, valproic acid (VPA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, combined with fludarabine to synergistically increase apoptotic cell death in CLL cells. In the present study, we found that the combination of fludarabine and VPA decreases the level of the anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and XIAP in primary CLL cells. Treatment with fludarabine alone, or in combination with VPA, led to the loss of lysosome integrity, and chemical inhibition of the lysosomal protease cathepsin B, using CA074-Me, was sufficient to reduce apoptosis. VPA treatment increased cathepsin B levels and activities in primary CLL cells, thereby priming CLL cells for lysosome-mediated cell death. Six previously treated patients with relapsed CLL were treated with VPA, followed by VPA/fludarabine combination. The combined therapy resulted in reduced lymphocyte count in five out of six and reduced lymph node sizes in four out of six patients. In vivo VPA treatment increased histone-3 acetylation and cathepsin B expression levels. Thus, the synergistic apoptotic response with VPA and fludarabine in CLL is mediated by cathepsin B activation leading to a decrease in the anti-apoptotic proteins. PMID:24141622

Yoon, J-Y; Szwajcer, D; Ishdorj, G; Benjaminson, P; Xiao, W; Kumar, R; Johnston, J B; Gibson, S B

2013-10-18

235

Innate and adaptive immune response to apoptotic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immune system is constantly exposed to dying cells, most of which arise during central tolerance and from effete circulating immune cells. Under homeostatic conditions, phagocytes (predominantly macrophages and dendritic cells) belonging to the innate immune system, rapidly ingest cells and their debris. Apoptotic cell removal requires recognition of altered self on the apoptotic membrane, a process which is facilitated

YuFeng Peng; David A. Martin; Justin Kenkel; Kang Zhang; Carol Anne Ogden; Keith B. Elkon

2007-01-01

236

Anti-apoptotic gene transcription signature of salivary gland neoplasms  

PubMed Central

Background Development of accurate therapeutic approaches to salivary gland neoplasms depends on better understanding of their molecular pathogenesis. Tumour growth is regulated by the balance between proliferation and apoptosis. Few studies have investigated apoptosis in salivary tumours relying almost exclusively on immunohistochemistry or TUNEL assay. Furthermore, there is no information regarding the mRNA expression profile of apoptotic genes in salivary tumors. Our objective was to investigate the quantitative expression of BCL-2 (anti-apoptotic), BAX and Caspase3 (pro-apoptotic genes) mRNAs in salivary gland neoplasms and examine the association of these data with tumour size, proliferative activity and p53 staining (parameters associated with a poor prognosis of salivary tumours patients). Methods We investigated the apoptotic profile of salivary neoplasms in twenty fresh samples of benign and seven samples of malignant salivary neoplasms, using quantitative real time PCR. We further assessed p53 and ki-67 immunopositivity and obtained clinical tumour size data. Results We demonstrated that BCL-2 mRNA is overexpressed in salivary neoplasms, leading to an overall anti-apoptotic profile. We also found an association between the anti-apoptotic index (BCL-2/BAX) with p53 immunoexpression. A higher proliferative activity was found in the malignant tumours. In addition, tumour size was associated with cell proliferation but not with the transcription of apoptotic genes. Conclusion In conclusion, we show an anti-apoptotic gene expression profile in salivary neoplasms in association with p53 staining, but independent of cell proliferation and tumour size.

2012-01-01

237

Vascular endothelial growth factor enhances macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells  

PubMed Central

Efficient clearance of apoptotic cells from the lung by alveolar macrophages is important for the maintenance of tissue structure and function. Lung tissue from humans with emphysema contains increased numbers of apoptotic cells and decreased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Mice treated with VEGF receptor inhibitors have increased numbers of apoptotic cells and develop emphysema. We hypothesized that VEGF regulates apoptotic cell clearance by alveolar macrophages (AM) via its interaction with VEGF receptor 1 (VEGF R1). Our data show that the uptake of apoptotic cells by murine AMs and human monocyte-derived macrophages is inhibited by depletion of VEGF and that VEGF activates Rac1. Antibody blockade or pharmacological inhibition of VEGF R1 activity also decreased apoptotic cell uptake ex vivo. Conversely, overexpression of VEGF significantly enhanced apoptotic cell uptake by AMs in vivo. These results indicate that VEGF serves a positive regulatory role via its interaction with VEGF R1 to activate Rac1 and enhance AM apoptotic cell clearance.

Dalal, Samay; Horstmann, Sarah A.; Richens, Tiffany R.; Tanaka, Takeshi; Doe, Jenna M.; Boe, Darren M.; Voelkel, Norbert F.; Taraseviciene-Stewart, Laimute; Janssen, William J.; Lee, Chun G.; Elias, Jack A.; Bratton, Donna; Tuder, Rubin M.; Henson, Peter M.; Vandivier, R. William

2012-01-01

238

Vascular endothelial growth factor enhances macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells.  

PubMed

Efficient clearance of apoptotic cells from the lung by alveolar macrophages is important for the maintenance of tissue structure and function. Lung tissue from humans with emphysema contains increased numbers of apoptotic cells and decreased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Mice treated with VEGF receptor inhibitors have increased numbers of apoptotic cells and develop emphysema. We hypothesized that VEGF regulates apoptotic cell clearance by alveolar macrophages (AM) via its interaction with VEGF receptor 1 (VEGF R1). Our data show that the uptake of apoptotic cells by murine AMs and human monocyte-derived macrophages is inhibited by depletion of VEGF and that VEGF activates Rac1. Antibody blockade or pharmacological inhibition of VEGF R1 activity also decreased apoptotic cell uptake ex vivo. Conversely, overexpression of VEGF significantly enhanced apoptotic cell uptake by AMs in vivo. These results indicate that VEGF serves a positive regulatory role via its interaction with VEGF R1 to activate Rac1 and enhance AM apoptotic cell clearance. PMID:22307908

Kearns, Mark T; Dalal, Samay; Horstmann, Sarah A; Richens, Tiffany R; Tanaka, Takeshi; Doe, Jenna M; Boe, Darren M; Voelkel, Norbert F; Taraseviciene-Stewart, Laimute; Janssen, William J; Lee, Chun G; Elias, Jack A; Bratton, Donna; Tuder, Rubin M; Henson, Peter M; Vandivier, R William

2012-02-03

239

The conserved histidine in epidermal growth factor-like domains of stabilin-2 modulates pH-dependent recognition of phosphatidylserine in apoptotic cells.  

PubMed

Clearance of apoptotic cells is involved in the resolution of inflammation, and this mechanism is controlled by the regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production during the ingestion of apoptotic cells. Inflamed areas show extracellular acidity, and low pH stimulates cellular functions of immune cells. However, little is known about the influence of extracellular acidic pH on the function of phagocytic cells. In this study, we showed that stabilin-2-mediated phagocytosis is activated in low pH media (pH 6.8) and examined the molecular mechanisms underlying this pH-dependent enhancement of phagocytic activity. Stabilin-2, which is expressed in human monocyte derived macrophages (HMDM), is a phosphatidylserine (PS) receptor that mediates phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, and releases the anti-inflammatory cytokine, TGF-beta. The PS binding activity of stabilin-2 is enhanced in low pH, and a conserved histidine(1403) in close proximity to the PS binding loop is critical for pH-dependent activity. We propose that protonation of His(1403) may rearrange the PS binding loop to enhance binding affinity in low pH, indicating that acidic pH might act as a danger signal to stimulate stabilin-2-mediated phagocytosis to resolve inflammation. Considering that phosphatidylserine is an important target molecule for apoptotic cells in the acidic microenvironment of inflammation and tumors, our results also have implications for pH sensitive targeting of apoptotic cells. PMID:20382256

Kim, Soyoun; Bae, Dong-Jun; Hong, Mina; Park, Seung-Yoon; Kim, In-San

2010-04-09

240

"Human Remyelination Promoting Antibody Inhibits Apoptotic Signaling and Differentiation Through Lyn Kinase in Primary Rat Oligodendrocytes"  

PubMed Central

Purpose Human remyelination promoting IgM mAbs target oligodendrocytes (OLs) and function in animal models of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, their mechanism of action is unknown. This study seeks to identify the cellular mechanism of action of a recombinant human IgM on OL survival. Methods Binding of rHIgM22 to the surface of rat OLs was studied by co-localization with various markers. RHIgM22-mediated effects on apoptotic signaling in OLs, differentiation markers and signaling molecules were detected by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation. Results RHIgM22 co-localized with integrin ?3 but not other integrin ?-chains in OLs. Downstream of integrin ?3 we identified Src family kinase (SFK) Lyn as a key player of rHIgM22-mediated actions in OLs. Lyn immunoprecipitated in a complex together with integrin ?v?3 and PDGF?R. Lyn expression was 9 fold up-regulated and Lyn activation was 3 fold higher in rHIgM22-treated OL cultures compared to controls. RHIgM22 inhibited apoptotic signaling by greater than 10 fold reduction of caspase-3 and capsase-9 cleavage and reduced by 4 fold expression of differentiation markers MBP and MOG in OLs. SFK inhibitors PP2 and SU6656 inhibited Lyn activity and restored caspase-cleavage in OLs. A human IgM that did not promote remyelination and medium were used as controls. Conclusions rHIgM22 prevented apoptotic signaling and inhibited OL differentiation by Lyn implying that IgM-mediated remyelination is due to protection of OPC and OLs rather than promotion of OPC differentiation.

Watzlawik, J; Holicky, E; Edberg, DD; Marks, DL; Warrington, AE; Wright, BR; Pagano, RE; Rodriguez, M

2010-01-01

241

Doxorubicin generates a pro-apoptotic phenotype by phosphorylation of EF-2  

PubMed Central

We have previously shown that doxorubicin sensitizes prostate cancer cells to TNF-Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL). Sensitization correlated with decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein cFLIPS. The decrease in cFLIPS could not be explained by transcriptional regulation or increased degradation, leading us to focus on translational mechanisms. In this study, we found that doxorubicin caused strong and sustained phosphorylation of elongation factor 2 (EF-2), which interferes with protein elongation. Phosphorylation of EF-2 appeared to occur in a kinase-independent manner. Treatment with hydrogen peroxide recapitulated the events observed after doxorubicin treatment. In addition, cells treated with hydrogen peroxide expressed less XIAP and survivin which, like cFLIPS, are short half-life proteins with an anti-apoptotic function while expression levels of DR5, caspases-8, -9, -3, and Bax are maintained. The doxorubicin-mediated decrease in cFLIPS and XIAP as well as TRAIL-induced apoptosis was prevented by pretreatment with an iron chelator, indicating that expression of these proteins was affected by free radical generation upon interaction of iron with doxorubicin. In conclusion, our data suggest that free radicals can affect the phosphorylation of EF-2 resulting in a net loss of short half-life proteins such as cFLIPS and XIAP, leaving a cell more vulnerable to apoptotic stimuli.

White, Shai J.; Kasman, Laura M.; Kelly, Margaret M.; Lu, Ping; Spruill, Laura; McDermott, Paul J.; Voelkel-Johnson, Christina

2007-01-01

242

Structure-apoptotic potency evaluations of novel sterols using human leukemic cells.  

PubMed

Three oxidized analogs of cholesterol have been characterized for their ability to cause apoptotic cell death in CEM-C7-14 human leukemic cells. In addition to testing 15-ketocholestenol (K15), 15-ketocholestenol hydroxyethyl ether (CK15), and 7-ketocholesterol hydroxyethyl ether (CK7), an oxysterol of known apoptotic response, 25-hydroxycholesterol (25OHC), served as a standard for comparison. Growth studies based on dye exclusion by viable cells while using a sublethal concentration of oxysterols ranked their potency for cell kill as 25OHC > K15 > CK15 > CK7. Both the TUNEL assay (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-X nick end labeling), which quantifies the amount of DNA nicks caused by a toxic agent, and the MTT assay, which measures cell metabolism and thus reflects cell viability, substantiated the same rank order. An ELISA assay for evaluating release of DNA fragments into the cytosol after treatment gave a similar potency order. The oncogene c-myc mRNA was suppressed by all three oxysterols, with 25OHC and K15 being the most potent suppressors. Hoechst and Annexin V staining documented that these oxysterols kill cells by an apoptotic pathway as evidenced by condensation of nuclear chromatin and plasma membrane inversion, respectively. From these in vitro studies, we believe that 25OHC, K15, and possibly CK15 have the potential to be chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:10783008

Johnson, B H; Russell, M J; Krylov, A S; Medh, R D; Ayala-Torres, S; Regner, J L; Thompson, E B

2000-03-01

243

Apoptotic markers in a prostate cancer cell line: Effect of ellagic acid.  

PubMed

Ellagic acid (EA) inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in cultured cells; however, the precise molecular mechanism involved in EA-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells is unknown. The aim of the present study was to delineate possible apoptotic pathway(s) involved in the EA-mediated chemotherapeutic effects in the LNCaP human prostatic cancer cell line. EA produced anti-proliferative effects through inhibition of rapamycin (mTOR) activation and a reduction in intracellular levels of ?-catenin. Moreover, we demonstrated that EA induced apoptosis via downregulation of the anti-apoptotic proteins, silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), human antigen R (HuR) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). EA modulated the expression of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) resulting in a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and the activation of caspase-3. Finally, we demonstrated that EA reduced both transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. EA treatment resulted in the increased expression of the tumor suppressor protein p21 and increased the percentage of apoptotic cells. In conclusion, the results suggest that EA treatment represents a new and highly effective strategy in reducing prostate cancer carcinogenesis. PMID:24085108

Vanella, Luca; Di Giacomo, Claudia; Acquaviva, Rosaria; Barbagallo, Ignazio; Cardile, Venera; Kim, Dong Hyun; Abraham, Nader G; Sorrenti, Valeria

2013-09-30

244

Suppression of FVIII Inhibitor Formation in Hemophilic Mice by Delivery of Transgene Modified Apoptotic Fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

The development of inhibitory antibodies to factor VIII (FVIII) is currently the most significant complication of FVIII replacement therapy in the management of patients with severe hemophilia A. Immune tolerance protocols for the eradication of inhibitors require daily delivery of intravenous FVIII for at least 6 months and are unsuccessful in 20–40% of treated patients. We hypothesize that tolerance can be induced more efficiently and reliably by delivery of FVIII antigen within autologous apoptotic cells (ACs). In this study, we demonstrated suppression of the T cell and inhibitor responses to FVIII by infusion of FVIII expression vector modified apoptotic syngeneic fibroblasts in both naive and preimmunized hemophilia A mice. ACs without FVIII antigen exerted modest generalized immune suppression mediated by anti-inflammatory signals. However, FVIII expressing apoptotic syngeneic fibroblasts produced much stronger antigen-specific immune suppression. Mice treated with these fibroblasts generated CD4+ T cells that suppressed the immune response to FVIII after adoptive transfer into naive recipients and antigen-specific CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) that inhibited the proliferation of FVIII responsive effector T cells in vitro. These preclinical results demonstrate the potential for using FVIII vector modified autologous ACs to treat high-titer inhibitors in patients with hemophilia A.

Su, Rui-Jun; Epp, Angela; Latchman, Yvette; Bolgiano, Doug; Pipe, Steven W; Josephson, Neil C

2009-01-01

245

Leukocyte apoptosis and pro-/anti-apoptotic proteins following downhill running.  

PubMed

The purposes of this study were to determine the effect of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage on the induction of apoptosis in peripheral blood leukocytes and to investigate if the elevation in apoptotic leukocytes was mediated by changes in the concentration of anti-/pro-apoptotic proteins in circulation. Twelve moderately trained subjects performed three 40 min treadmill runs at ~70% VO(2max): a level run (L) followed by two downhill runs (DH1 and DH2). Blood samples were taken at rest (PRE) and immediately (POST), 2, 24, and 48 h after each run. Data were analyzed using two-way repeated measures analysis of variance with post hoc Tukey tests. Creatine kinase (CK) activity was significantly elevated at 24 and 48 h following DH1 (P < 0.01). The proportion (%) of apoptotic leukocytes was significantly elevated at POST and 2 h following all three runs, and up to 48 h following DH1 (P < 0.01). Bax at 24-h post and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio at 24- (P < 0.01) and 48-h post (P < 0.05) following DH1 were greater than PRE (P < 0.05). An acute bout of moderate intensity downhill running altered CK activity, Bax concentration and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in circulating leukocytes resulting in a greater apoptotic response at 24- and 48-h post-exercise compared to level grade running or a second downhill run. Although the mechanism by which these proteins are altered by unaccustomed eccentric exercise is currently unknown, the differential response to DH1 versus L and DH2 indicates that it may be related to exercise-induced muscle damage. PMID:21424274

Park, Kyung-Shin; Sedlock, Darlene A; Navalta, James W; Lee, Man-Gyoon; Kim, Seung-Hwan

2011-03-19

246

Deletion mutational analysis of BMRP, a pro-apoptotic protein that binds to Bcl-2.  

PubMed

Bcl-2 is an anti-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins that protects cells from apoptosis induced by a large variety of stimuli. The protein BMRP (MRPL41) was identified as a Bcl-2 binding partner and shown to have pro-apoptotic activity. We have performed deletion mutational analyses to identify the domain(s) of Bcl-2 and BMRP that are involved in the Bcl-2/BMRP interaction, and the region(s) of BMRP that mediate its pro-apoptotic activity. The results of these studies indicate that both the BH4 domain of Bcl-2 and its central region encompassing its BH1, BH2, and BH3 domains are required for its interaction with BMRP. The loop region and the transmembrane domain of Bcl-2 were found to be dispensable for this interaction. The Bcl-2 deletion mutants that do not interact with BMRP were previously shown to be functionally inactive. Deletion analyses of the BMRP protein delimited the region of BMRP needed for its interaction with Bcl-2 to the amino-terminal two-thirds of the protein (amino acid residues 1-92). Further deletions at either end of the BMRP(1-92) truncated protein resulted in lack of binding to Bcl-2. Functional studies performed with BMRP deletion mutants suggest that the cell death-inducing domains of the protein reside mainly within its amino-terminal two-thirds. The region of BMRP required for the interaction with Bcl-2 is very relevant for the cell death-inducing activity of the protein, suggesting that one possible mechanism by which BMRP induces cell death is by binding to and blocking the anti-apoptotic activity of Bcl-2. PMID:21253851

Malladi, Srinivas; Parsa, Kishore V L; Bhupathi, Deepthi; Rodríguez-González, María A; Conde, Juan A; Anumula, Pallavi; Romo, Hannah E; Claunch, Cheryl J; Ballestero, Rafael P; González-García, Maribel

2011-01-21

247

Cell death-resistance of differentiated myotubes is associated with enhanced anti-apoptotic mechanisms compared to myoblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skeletal muscle atrophy is associated with elevated apoptosis while muscle differentiation results in apoptosis resistance,\\u000a indicating that the role of apoptosis in skeletal muscle is multifaceted. The objective of this study was to investigate mechanisms\\u000a underlying apoptosis susceptibility in proliferating myoblasts compared to differentiated myotubes and we hypothesized that\\u000a cell death-resistance in differentiated myotubes is mediated by enhanced anti-apoptotic pathways.

Rijin Xiao; Amy L. Ferry; Esther E. Dupont-Versteegden

2011-01-01

248

Characterization of the effects of cross-linking of macrophage CD44 associated with increased phagocytosis of apoptotic PMN.  

PubMed

Control of macrophage capacity for apoptotic cell clearance by soluble mediators such as cytokines, prostaglandins and lipoxins, serum proteins, and glucocorticoids may critically determine the rate at which inflammation resolves. Previous studies suggested that macrophage capacity for clearance of apoptotic neutrophils was profoundly altered following binding of CD44 antibodies. We have used a number of different approaches to further define the mechanism by which CD44 rapidly and specifically augment phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils. Use of Fab' fragments unequivocally demonstrated a requirement for cross-linking of macrophage surface CD44. The molecular mechanism of CD44-augmented phagocytosis was shown to be opsonin-independent and to be distinct from the Mer/protein S pathway induced by glucocorticoids and was not functional for clearance of apoptotic eosinophils. CD44-cross-linking also altered macrophage migration and induced cytoskeletal re-organisation together with phosphorylation of paxillin and activation of Rac2. Investigation of signal transduction pathways that might be critical for CD44 augmentation of phagocytosis revealed that Ca(2+) signalling, PI-3 kinase pathways and altered cAMP signalling were not involved, but did implicate a key role for tyrosine phosphorylation events. Finally, although CD44 antibodies were able to augment phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils by murine peritoneal and bone marrow-derived macrophages, we did not observe a difference in the clearance of neutrophils following induction of peritonitis with thioglycollate in CD44-deficient animals. Together, these data demonstrate that CD44 cross-linking induces a serum opsonin-independent mechanism of macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils that is associated with reduced macrophage migration and cytoskeletal reorganisation. PMID:22427969

Hart, Simon P; Rossi, Adriano G; Haslett, Christopher; Dransfield, Ian

2012-03-09

249

Epigenetic aspects of HP1 exchange kinetics in apoptotic chromatin.  

PubMed

Apoptotic bodies are the most condensed form of chromatin. In general, chromatin structure and function are mostly dictated by histone post-translational modifications. Thus, we have analyzed the histone signature in apoptotic cells, characterized by pronounced chromatin condensation. Here, H2B mono-acetylation, and H3K9 and H4 acetylation was significantly decreased in apoptotic cells, which maintained a high level of H3K9 methylation. This phenotype was independent of p53 function and distinct levels of anti-apoptotic Bcl2 protein. Interestingly, after etoposide treatment of leukemia and multiple myeloma cells, H3K9 and H4 hypoacetylation was accompanied by increased H3K9me2, but not H3K9me1 or H3K9me3. In adherent mouse fibroblasts, a high level of H3K9me3 and histone deacetylation in apoptotic bodies was likely responsible for the pronounced (?40%) recovery of GFP-HP1? and GFP-HP1? after photobleaching. HP1 mobility in apoptotic cells appeared to be unique because limited exchange after photobleaching was observed for other epigenetically important proteins, including GFP-JMJD2b histone demethylase (?10% fluorescence recovery) or Polycomb group-related GFP-BMI1 protein (?20% fluorescence recovery). These findings imply a novel fact that only certain subset of proteins in apoptotic bodies is dynamic. PMID:23023195

Legartová, So?a; Jugová, Alžb?ta; Stixová, Lenka; Kozubek, Stanislav; Fojtová, Miloslava; Zdráhal, Zbyn?k; Lochmanová, Gabriela; Bártová, Eva

2012-09-27

250

Apoptosis and apoptotic mimicry in Leishmania: an evolutionary perspective  

PubMed Central

Apoptotic death and apoptotic mimicry are defined respectively as a non-accidental death and as the mimicking of an apoptotic-cell phenotype, usually by phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure. In the case of the murine infection by Leishmania spp, apoptotic death has been described in promastigotes and apoptotic mimicry in amastigotes. In both situations they are important events of the experimental murine infection by this parasite. In the present review we discuss what features we need to consider if we want to establish if a behavior shown by Leishmania is altruistic or not: does the behavior increases the fitness of organisms other than the one showing it? Does this behavior have a cost for the actor? If we manage to show that a given behavior is costly for the actor and beneficial for the recipient of the action, we will be able to establish it as altruistic. From this perspective, we can argue that apoptotic-like death and apoptotic mimicry are both altruistic with the latter representing a weaker altruistic behavior than the former.

El-Hani, Charbel N.; Borges, Valeria M.; Wanderley, Joao L. M.; Barcinski, Marcello A.

2012-01-01

251

Expression of animal CED-9 anti-apoptotic gene in tobacco modifies plasma membrane ion fluxes in response to salinity and oxidative stress  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Apoptosis, one form of programmed cell death (PCD), plays an important role in mediating plant adaptive responses to the environment. Recent studies suggest that expression of animal anti-apoptotic genes in transgenic plants may be an efficient way of enhancing stress resistance in economically impo...

252

Immunolocalization of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) system in the rat ovary and the anti-apoptotic effect of HGF in rat ovarian granulosa cells in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) regulates granulosa cell (GC) steroidogenesis and suppresses apoptosis in non-ovarian cells. The hypothesis was thus developed that intraovarian HGF supports folliculogenesis by mediating steroidogenesis and suppressing apoptosis. To investigate the latter, the anti-apoptotic actions of HGF were tested in GCs and follicles isolated from immature rats. Results showed that HGF suppressed apoptosis in GC and follicle

Mehmet Uzumcu; Zui Pan; Yi Chu; Peter E Kuhn; Rob Zachow

2006-01-01

253

EKSPERIMENTINIAI TYRIMAI Application of Photoshop-based image analysis and TUNEL for the distribution and quantification of dexamethasone-induced apoptotic cells in rat thymus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The aim of the present study was to determine the target site cells in the rat thymus after exposure to the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, at therapeutic doses. The findings of histology and histochemistry (Feulgen, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling - TUNEL) with quantification by computerized histomorphometry are described. Material and methods. A quantified investigation of apoptotic and

Piret Hussar; Ivan Tokin; Ülo Hussar; Galina Filimonova; Toivo Suuroja

254

TAM receptors in apoptotic cell clearance, autoimmunity, and cancer.  

PubMed

Receptor tyrosine kinases, Tyro-3, Axl and Mer, collectively designated as TAM, are involved in the clearance of apoptotic cells. TAM ligands, Gas6 and Protein S, bind to the surfaces of apoptotic cells, and at the same time, interact directly with TAM expressed on phagocytes, impacting the engulfment and clearance of apoptotic cells and debris. The well-tuned and balanced actions of TAM may affect a variety of human pathologies including autoimmunity, retinal degeneration, and cancer. This article emphasizes some of the emerging findings and mechanistic insights into TAM functions that are clinically relevant and possibly therapeutically targeted. PMID:23662598

Nguyen, Khanh-Quynh; Tsou, Wen-I; Kotenko, Sergei; Birge, Raymond B

2013-05-10

255

Apoptotic Phosphorylation of Histone H3 on Ser-10 by Protein Kinase C?  

PubMed Central

Phosphorylation of histone H3 on Ser-10 is regarded as an epigenetic mitotic marker and is tightly correlated with chromosome condensation during both mitosis and meiosis. However, it was also reported that histone H3 Ser-10 phosphorylation occurs when cells are exposed to various death stimuli, suggesting a potential role in the regulation of apoptosis. Here we report that histone H3 Ser-10 phosphorylation is mediated by the pro-apoptotic kinase protein kinase C (PKC) ? during apoptosis. We observed that PKC? robustly phosphorylates histone H3 on Ser-10 both in vitro and in vivo. Ectopic expression of catalytically active PKC? efficiently induces condensed chromatin structure in the nucleus. We also discovered that activation of PKC? is required for histone H3 Ser-10 phosphorylation after treatment with DNA damaging agents during apoptosis. Collectively, these findings suggest that PKC? is the kinase responsible for histone H3 Ser-10 phosphoryation during apoptosis and thus contributes to chromatin condensation together with other apoptosis-related histone modifications. As a result, histone H3 Ser-10 phosphorylation can be designated a new ‘apoptotic histone code’ mediated by PKC?.

Park, Choon-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Tai

2012-01-01

256

Cannabidiol induced a contrasting pro-apoptotic effect between freshly isolated and precultured human monocytes  

SciTech Connect

It has been documented that cannabidiol (CBD) induced apoptosis in a variety of transformed cells, including lymphocytic and monocytic leukemias. In contrast, a differential sensitivity between normal lymphocytes and monocytes to CBD-mediated apoptosis has been reported. The present study investigated the pro-apoptotic effect of CBD on human peripheral monocytes that were either freshly isolated or precultured for 72 h. CBD markedly enhanced apoptosis of freshly isolated monocytes in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, whereas precultured monocytes were insensitive. By comparison, both cells were sensitive to doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. CBD significantly diminished the cellular thiols and glutathione in freshly isolated monocytes. The apoptosis induced by CBD was abrogated in the presence of N-acetyl-{sub L}-cysteine, a precursor of glutathione. In addition, precultured monocytes contained a significantly greater level of glutathione and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) compared to the freshly isolated cells. The HO-1 competitive inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin partially but significantly restored the sensitivity of precultured monocytes to CBD-mediated apoptosis. Collectively, our results demonstrated a contrasting pro-apoptotic effect of CBD between precultured and freshly isolated monocytes, which was closely associated with the cellular level of glutathione and the antioxidative capability of the cells.

Wu, Hsin-Ying; Chang, An-Chi; Wang, Chia-Chi; Kuo, Fu-Hua; Lee, Chi-Ya [Department and Graduate Institute of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liu, Der-Zen [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Jan, Tong-Rong, E-mail: tonyjan@ntu.edu.t [Department and Graduate Institute of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2010-08-01

257

Inhibitors of apoptotic proteins: new targets for anticancer therapy.  

PubMed

Inhibitors of apoptotic proteins (IAPs) can play an important role in inhibiting apoptosis by exerting their negative action on caspases (apoptotic proteins). There are eight proteins in this family: NAIP/BIRC1/NLRB, cellular IAP1 (cIAP1)/human IAP2/BIRC2, cellular IAP2 (cIAP2)/human IAP1/BIRC3, X-linked IAP (XIAP)/BIRC4, survivin/BIRC5, baculoviral IAP repeat (BIR)-containing ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme/apollon/BIRC6, livin/melanoma-IAP (ML-IAP)/BIRC7/KIAP, and testis-specific IAP (Ts-IAP)/hILP-2/BIRC8. Deregulation of these inhibitors of apoptotic proteins (IAPs) may push cell toward cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Inhibitors of apoptotic proteins (IAPs) may provide new target for anticancer therapy. Drugs may be developed that are inhibiting these IAPs to induce apoptosis in cancerous cells. PMID:23790005

Saleem, Mohammad; Qadir, Muhammad Imran; Perveen, Nadia; Ahmad, Bashir; Saleem, Uzma; Irshad, Tehseen; Ahmad, Bashir

2013-09-01

258

ANTI-APOPTOTIC ACTIONS OF VASOPRESSIN IN H32 NEURONS INVOLVE MAP KINASE TRANSACTIVATION AND BAD PHOSPHORYLATION  

PubMed Central

Vasopressin (VP) secreted within the brain modulates neuronal function acting as a neurotransmitter. Based on the observation that VP prevented serum deprivation-induced cell death in the neuronal cell line, H32, which expresses endogenous V1 receptors, we tested the hypothesis that VP has anti-apoptotic properties. Flow cytometry experiments showed that 10nM VP prevented serum deprivation-induced cell death and annexin V binding. Serum deprivation increased caspase-3 activity in a time and serum concentration dependent manner, and VP prevented these effects through interaction with receptors of V1 subtype. The signaling pathways mediating the anti-apoptotic effect of VP involve mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), Ca2+/calmodulin dependent kinase (CaMK) and protein kinase C (PKC). Western blot analyses revealed time-dependent decreases of Bad phosphorylation and increases in cytosolic levels of cytochrome c following serum deprivation, effects which were prevented by 10nM VP. These data demonstrate that activation of endogenous V1 VP receptors prevents serum deprivation-induced apoptosis, through phosphorylation-inactivation of the pro-apoptotic protein, Bad, and consequent decreases in cytosolic cytochome c and caspase-3 activation. The data suggest that VP has anti-apoptotic activity in neurons and that VP may act as a neuroprotective agent in the brain.

Chen, Jun; Volpi, Simona; Aguilera, Greti

2008-01-01

259

Involvement of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways in apoptosis induced by genistein in human cervical cancer cells.  

PubMed

Genistein, a naturally occurring isoflavonoid abundant in soy products, has anticancer activity in multiple tumor cells. In this study, we evaluated the apoptotic effect of genistein on cervical cancer cells and its mechanism of apoptosis. Genistein inhibited the proliferation of cervical cancer cells (HeLa, CaSki, and C33A). HeLa cells were the most sensitive to genistein, whereas CaSki and C33A cells were less sensitive. Sub-G(1) analysis showed that genistein increased apoptotic cells up to 45% at a concentration of 60 micromol/L in HeLa cells, whereas it produced 21% and 17% apoptotic cells in CaSki and C33A cells, respectively, at the same concentration. To determine the apoptotic pathway induced by genistein in the cervical cancer cells, we assessed activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9 by immunoblotting. Procaspase-3, -8, and -9 were decreased and PARP cleavage increased in a time-dependent manner after the treatment of genistein in HeLa cells. Also, inhibition of caspase-3, -8, and -9 with pharmacological inhibitors reduced genistein-mediated apoptosis. Interestingly, inhibition of caspase-8 resulted in remarkable reduction of genistein-induced apoptosis. Bax expression was increased and total bid decreased, whereas bcl-2 level was not changed by genistein. Taken together, these results suggest that genistein could induce apoptosis through both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways in human cervical cancer cells. PMID:19723056

Kim, Su-Hyeon; Kim, Su-Hyeong; Lee, Sang-Chul; Song, Yong-Sang

2009-08-01

260

Double-effector nanoparticles: a synergistic approach to apoptotic hyperthermia.  

PubMed

Highly efficient apoptotic hyperthermia is achieved using a double-effector nanoparticle that can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and heat. ROS render cancer cells more susceptible to subsequent heat treatment, which remarkably increases the degree of apoptotic cell death. Xenograft tumors (100?mm(3)) in mice are completely eliminated within 8?days after a single mild magnetic hyperthermia treatment at 43?°C for 30?min. PMID:23139178

Yoo, Dongwon; Jeong, Heeyeong; Preihs, Christian; Choi, Jin-sil; Shin, Tae-Hyun; Sessler, Jonathan L; Cheon, Jinwoo

2012-11-08

261

Renal tubular injury induced by hyperoxaluria: evaluation of apoptotic changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the injurious effect of hyperoxaluria on renal tubular epithelium, as judged by apoptotic changes in\\u000a the renal parenchyma, we performed an experimental study in 20 rabbits. In the experimental group animals (n=10) severe hyperoxaluria was induced by continuous ethylene glycol (EG; 0.75%). Histologic alterations, including crystal\\u000a formation, together with apoptotic changes were evaluated after 7 and

Kemal Sarica; Faruk Ya?ci; Kemal Bakir; Ahmet Erbagci; Sakip Erturhan; Ramazan Uçak

2001-01-01

262

Atypical antiinflammatory activation of microglia induced by apoptotic neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the central nervous system (CNS), apoptosis plays an important role during development and is a primary pathogenic mechanism\\u000a in several adult neurodegenerative diseases. A main feature of apoptotic cell death is the efficient and fast removal of dying\\u000a cells by macrophages and nonprofessional phagocytes, without eliciting inflammation in the surrounding tissue. Apoptotic cells\\u000a undergo several membrane changes, including the

Roberta De Simone; Maria Antonietta Ajmone-Cat; Luisa Minghetti

2004-01-01

263

ASPP Proteins Specifically Stimulate the Apoptotic Function of p53  

Microsoft Academic Search

We identified a family of proteins termed ASPP. ASPP1 is a protein homologous to 53BP2, the C-terminal half of ASPP2. ASPP proteins interact with p53 and specifically enhance p53-induced apoptosis but not cell cycle arrest. Inhibition of endogenous ASPP function suppresses the apoptotic function of endogenous p53 in response to apoptotic stimuli. ASPP enhance the DNA binding and transactivation function

Yardena Samuels-Lev; Daniel J. O'Connor; Daniele Bergamaschi; Giuseppe Trigiante; Jung-Kuang Hsieh; Shan Zhong; Isabelle Campargue; Louie Naumovski; Tim Crook; Xin Lu

2001-01-01

264

Proteases in Fas-mediated apoptosis.  

PubMed

Involvement of a unique family of cysteine proteases in the multistep apoptotic process has been documented. Cloning of several mammalian genes identifies some components of this cellular response. However, it is currently unclear which protease plays a role as a signal and/or effector of apoptosis. We summarize contributions to the data concerning proteases in Fas-mediated apoptosis. PMID:9015753

Zhivotovsky, B; Burgess, D H; Schlegel, J; Pörn, M I; Vanags, D; Orrenius, S

1997-01-01

265

Annexin A1 released from apoptotic cells acts through formyl peptide receptors to dampen inflammatory monocyte activation via JAK/STAT/SOCS signalling  

PubMed Central

The immunosuppressive effects of apoptotic cells involve inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine release and establishment of an anti-inflammatory cytokine profile, thus limiting the degree of inflammation and promoting resolution. We report here that this is in part mediated by the release of the anti-inflammatory mediator annexin A1 from apoptotic cells and the functional activation of annexin A1 receptors of the formyl peptide receptor (FPR) family on target cells. Supernatants from apoptotic neutrophils or the annexin A1 peptidomimetic Ac2-26 significantly reduced IL-6 signalling and the release of TNF-? from endotoxin-challenged monocytes. Ac2-26 activated STAT3 in a JAK-dependent manner, resulting in upregulated SOCS3 levels, and depletion of SOCS3 reversed the Ac2-26-mediated inhibition of IL-6 signalling. This identifies annexin A1 as part of the anti-inflammatory pattern of apoptotic cells and links the activation of FPRs to established signalling pathways triggering anti-inflammatory responses.

Pupjalis, Danute; Goetsch, Julia; Kottas, Diane J; Gerke, Volker; Rescher, Ursula

2011-01-01

266

Circulating Apoptotic Progenitor Cells in Patients with Congestive Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Background Circulating CD34+ endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are capable of differentiating into mature endothelial cells to assist in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. We sought to quantify the numbers of apoptotic progenitors in patients with congestive heart failure. Methods and Results Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated by Ficoll density-gradient from 58 patients with various degrees of heart failure and 23 matched controls. Apoptosis in progenitor CD34+ cells was assessed using the Annexin V-PE/PI detection kit, and FACS analysis was performed with triple staining for CD34, annexin-V and propidium iodide. The percentage of early and late apoptotic progenitor cells was determined in the subject groups and was correlated with clinical characteristics. While there was no significant difference in total CD34 positive cells or early apoptotic progenitors between control subjects and CHF patients (p?=?0.42) or between severe and mild/moderate CHF groups (p?=?0.544), there was an elevated number of late apoptotic progenitors in the severe CHF group compared with the mild/moderate CHF group (p?=? 0.03). Late apoptotic progenitors were significantly increased in CHF patients as compared to matched controls. There was also an inverse correlation between late apoptotic progenitors and ejection fraction (r?=??0.252, p?=?0.028) as well as a positive association with NYHA class (r?=?0.223, p?=?0.046). Conclusion Severe heart failure patients exhibited higher numbers of late apoptotic progenitors, and this was positively associated with NYHA class and negatively correlated with ejection fraction. This finding may shed light on the numerous factors governing the pathophysiology of CHF.

Rogowsky, Ori; Finkelstein, Ariel; Ablin, Jacob; Maysel-Auslender, Sofia; Wexler, Dov; Keren, Gad; George, Jacob

2008-01-01

267

The anti-apoptotic effect of leukotriene D4 involves the prevention of caspase 8 activation and Bid cleavage.  

PubMed Central

We have shown in a previous study that leukotriene D(4) (LTD(4)) signalling increases cell survival and proliferation in intestinal epithelial cells [Ohd, Wikström and Sjölander (2000) Gastroenterology 119, 1007-1018]. This is highly interesting since inflammatory conditions of the bowel are associated with an increased risk of developing colon cancer. The enzyme cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2) is important in this context since it is up-regulated in colon cancer tissues and in tumour cell lines. Treatment with the COX-2-specific inhibitor N -(2-cyclohexyloxy-4-nitrophenyl)methane sulphonamide has been shown previously to cause apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells. In the present study, we attempted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and we can now show that a mitochondrial pathway is employed. Inhibition of COX-2 causes release of cytochrome c, as shown by both Western-blot and microscopy studies, and as with apoptosis, this is significantly decreased by LTD(4). Since previous studies showed increased Bcl-2 levels on LTD(4) stimulation, we further studied apoptotic regulation at the mitochondrial level. From this we could exclude the involvement of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-X(L) as well as its pro-apoptotic counterpart Bax, since they are not expressed. Furthermore, the activity of the pro-apoptotic protein Bad (Bcl-2/Bcl-X(L)-antagonist, causing cell death) was completely unaffected. However, inhibition of COX-2 caused cleavage of caspase 8 into a 41 kDa fragment associated with activation and caused the appearance of an activated 15 kDa fragment of Bid. This indicates that N -(2-cyclohexyloxy-4-nitrophenyl)methane sulphonamide-induced apoptosis is mediated by the activation of caspase 8, via generation of truncated Bid, and thereafter release of cytochrome c. Interestingly, LTD(4) not only reverses the effects induced by inhibition of COX-2 but also reduces the apoptotic potential by lowering the basal level of caspase 8 activation and truncated Bid generation.

Wikstrom, Katarina; Juhas, Maria; Sjolander, Anita

2003-01-01

268

Morpholino artifacts provide pitfalls and reveal a novel role for pro-apoptotic genes in hindbrain boundary development  

PubMed Central

Morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (MOs) are widely used as a tool to achieve loss of gene function, but many have off-target effects mediated by activation of Tp53 and associated apoptosis. Here, we re-examine our previous MO-based loss-of-function studies that had suggested that Wnt1 expressed at hindbrain boundaries in zebrafish promotes neurogenesis and inhibits boundary marker gene expression in the adjacent para-boundary regions. We find that Tp53 is highly activated and apoptosis is frequently induced by the MOs used in these studies. Co-knockdown of Tp53 rescues the decrease in proneural and neuronal marker expression, which is thus an off-target effect of MOs. While loss of gene expression can be attributed to cell loss through apoptotic cell death, surprisingly we find that the ectopic expression of hindbrain boundary markers is also dependent on Tp53 activity and its downstream apoptotic effectors. We examine whether this non-specific activation of hindbrain boundary gene expression provides insight into the endogenous mechanisms underlying boundary cell specification. We find that the pro-apoptotic Bcl genes puma and bax-a are required for hindbrain boundary marker expression, and that gain of function of the Bcl-caspase pathway leads to ectopic boundary marker expression. These data reveal a non-apoptotic role for pro-apoptotic genes in the regulation of gene expression at hindbrain boundaries. In light of these findings, we discuss the precautions needed in performing morpholino knockdowns and in interpreting the data derived from their use.

Gerety, Sebastian S.; Wilkinson, David G.

2011-01-01

269

Silibinin triggers apoptotic signaling pathways and autophagic survival response in human colon adenocarcinoma cells and their derived metastatic cells.  

PubMed

Silibinin, a flavonolignan isolated from the milk thistle plant (Silybum marianum), possesses anti-neoplastic properties. In vitro and in vivo studies have recently shown that silibinin inhibits the growth of colorectal cancer (CRC). The present study investigates the mechanisms of silibinin-induced cell death using an in vitro model of human colon cancer progression, consisting of primary tumor cells (SW480) and their derived metastatic cells (SW620) isolated from a metastasis of the same patient. Silibinin induced apoptotic cell death evidenced by DNA fragmentation and activation of caspase-3 in both cell lines. Silibinin enhanced the expression (protein and mRNA) of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) death receptors (DR4/DR5) at the cell surface in SW480 cells, and induced their expression in TRAIL-resistant SW620 cells normally not expressing DR4/DR5. Caspase-8 and -10 were activated demonstrating the involvement of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in silibinin-treated SW480 and SW620 cells. The protein Bid was cleaved in SW480 cells indicating a cross-talk between extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathway. We demonstrated that silibinin activated also the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in both cell lines, including the perturbation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol and the activation of caspase-9. Simultaneously to apoptosis, silibinin triggered an autophagic response. The inhibition of autophagy with a specific inhibitor enhanced cell death, suggesting a cytoprotective function for autophagy in silibinin-treated cells. Taken together, our data show that silibinin initiated in SW480 and SW620 cells an autophagic-mediated survival response overwhelmed by the activation of both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. PMID:21779837

Kauntz, Henriette; Bousserouel, Souad; Gossé, Francine; Raul, Francis

2011-10-01

270

Natural antibody to apoptotic cell membranes inhibits the proinflammatory properties of lupus autoantibody immune complexes  

PubMed Central

Objective Naturally-arising IgM antibodies (NAbs) to apoptotic cell (AC) determinants are present from birth and can be further induced by AC challenge. In systemic lupus erythematosus, lower anti-AC NAb levels have been associated with higher disease activity. We have recently shown that a prototypic AC-specific NAb IgM can suppress pro-inflammatory responses to purified agonists for Toll-like receptors, and also block the in vivo induction of IgG-immune complex (IC)-induced arthritis. IgG autoantibody-complexes with nuclear antigens, which activate dendritic cells (DCs), have been implicated in autoimmune pathogenesis. Here, we sought to investigate potential roles of such NAbs for regulating immune-complex mediated DC activation, which is believed to be involved in disease initiation and perpetuation. Methods Bone-marrow-derived myeloid DCs were stimulated with ICs composed of IgG-autoantibody-chromatin or IgG-autoantibody-RNA. Outcome was evaluated based on production of inflammatory cytokines by ELISA, and expression of co-stimulatory molecules, which are markers of DC activation, by flow cytometry. MAPK activation was evaluated by phospho-flow and immunofluorescence microscopy. Results Anti-AC NAb IgM dose-dependently suppressed both DNA- and RNA-IC-induced IL-6 and DNA-IC-induced TNF-? production, as well as RNA-IC-induced upregulation of CD86 and CD40 on DCs. NAb IgM-mediated inhibition was associated with suppression of IC-mediated p38-MAPK activation and nuclear localization. Conclusions We demonstrated a direct in vitro inhibitory effect of the NAb IgM on inflammatory responses induced by IgG-nucleic acid ICs. These findings contribute to emerging evidence that regulatory NAbs to apoptotic-cell determinants may oppose the influence of pathogenic lupus autoantibody-ICs and thereby play roles in the maintenance of immune homeostasis.

Vas, Jaya; Gronwall, Caroline; Marshak-Rothstein, Ann; Silverman, Gregg J.

2012-01-01

271

Role of Prooxidants and Antioxidants in the Anti-Inflammatory and Apoptotic Effects of Curcumin (Diferuloylmethane)  

PubMed Central

Extensive research within last half a century has indicated that curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a yellow pigment in curry powder, exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and proapoptotic activities. Whether anti-inflammatory and proapoptotic activities assigned to curcumin, are mediated through its antioxidant mechanism was investigated. We found that TNF-mediated NF-?B activation was inhibited by curcumin; and glutathione reversed the inhibition. Similarly, suppression of TNF-induced AKT activation by curcumin, was also abrogated by glutathione. The reducing agent also counteracted the inhibitory effect of curcumin on TNF-induced NF-?B regulated antiapoptotic (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, IAP1), proliferative (cyclin D1) and proinflammatory (COX-2, iNOS and MMP-9) gene products. The suppression of TNF-induced AP-1 activation by curcumin was also reversed by glutathione. Also, the direct proapoptotic effects of curcumin were inhibited by glutathione and potentiated by depletion of intracellular glutathione by buthionine sulfoximine. Moreover, curcumin induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and modulated the intracellular GSH levels. Quenchers of hydroxyl radicals, however, were ineffective in inhibiting curcumin mediated NF-?B suppression. Further, N-acetylcysteine partially reversed the effect of curcumin. Based on these results we conclude that curcumin mediate its apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities through modulation of the redox status of the cell.

Sandur, Santosh K.; Ichikawa, Haruyo; Pandey, Manoj K.; Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B.; Sung, Bokyung; Sethi, Gautam; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

2009-01-01

272

Critical role of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein phosphorylation in mitotic death.  

PubMed

Microtubule inhibiting agents (MIAs) characteristically induce phosphorylation of the major anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members Mcl-1, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, and although this leads to Mcl-1 degradation, the role of Bcl-2/Bcl-xL phosphorylation in mitotic death has remained controversial. This is in part due to variation in MIA sensitivity among cancer cell lines, the dependency of cell fate on drug concentration and uncertainty about the modes of cell death occurring, thus making comparisons of published reports difficult. To circumvent problems associated with MIAs, we used siRNA knockdown of the anaphase-promoting complex activator, Cdc20, as a defined molecular system to investigate the role, specifically in mitotic death, of individual anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins and their phosphorylated forms. We show that Cdc20 knockdown in HeLa cells induces mitotic arrest and subsequent mitotic death. Knockdown of Cdc20 in HeLa cells stably overexpressing untagged wild-type Bcl-2, Bcl-xL or Mcl-1 promoted phosphorylation of the overexpressed proteins in parallel with their endogenous counterparts. Overexpression of Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL blocked mitotic death induced by Cdc20 knockdown; phospho-defective mutants were more protective than wild-type proteins, and phospho-mimic Bcl-xL was unable to block mitotic death. Overexpressed Mcl-1 failed to protect from Cdc20 siRNA-mediated death, as the overexpressed protein was susceptible to degradation similar to endogenous Mcl-1. These results provide compelling evidence that phosphorylation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins has a critical role in regulation of mitotic death. These findings make an important contribution toward our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of action of MIAs, which is critical for their rational use clinically. PMID:24091677

Eichhorn, J M; Sakurikar, N; Alford, S E; Chu, R; Chambers, T C

2013-10-03

273

Neuroprotection with metformin and thymoquinone against ethanol-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration in prenatal rat cortical neurons  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to ethanol during early development triggers severe neuronal death by activating multiple stress pathways and causes neurological disorders, such as fetal alcohol effects or fetal alcohol syndrome. This study investigated the effect of ethanol on intracellular events that predispose developing neurons for apoptosis via calcium-mediated signaling. Although the underlying molecular mechanisms of ethanol neurotoxicity are not completely determined, mitochondrial dysfunction, altered calcium homeostasis and apoptosis-related proteins have been implicated in ethanol neurotoxicity. The present study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective mechanisms of metformin (Met) and thymoquinone (TQ) during ethanol toxicity in rat prenatal cortical neurons at gestational day (GD) 17.5. Results We found that Met and TQ, separately and synergistically, increased cell viability after ethanol (100 mM) exposure for 12 hours and attenuated the elevation of cytosolic free calcium [Ca2+]c. Furthermore, Met and TQ maintained normal physiological mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??M), which is typically lowered by ethanol exposure. Increased cytosolic free [Ca2+]c and lowered mitochondrial transmembrane potential after ethanol exposure significantly decreased the expression of a key anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2), increased expression of Bax, and stimulated the release of cytochrome-c from mitochondria. Met and TQ treatment inhibited the apoptotic cascade by increasing Bcl-2 expression. These compounds also repressed the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 and reduced the cleavage of PARP-1. Morphological conformation of cell death was assessed by TUNEL, Fluoro-Jade-B, and PI staining. These staining methods demonstrated more cell death after ethanol treatment, while Met, TQ or Met plus TQ prevented ethanol-induced apoptotic cell death. Conclusion These findings suggested that Met and TQ are strong protective agents against ethanol-induced neuronal apoptosis in primary rat cortical neurons. The collective data demonstrated that Met and TQ have the potential to ameliorate ethanol neurotoxicity and revealed a possible protective target mechanism for the damaging effects of ethanol during early brain development.

2012-01-01

274

Cyclin B1/Cdk1 Phosphorylation of Mitochondrial p53 Induces Anti-Apoptotic Response  

PubMed Central

The pro-apoptotic function of p53 has been well defined in preventing genomic instability and cell transformation. However, the intriguing fact that p53 contributes to a pro-survival advantage of tumor cells under DNA damage conditions raises a critical question in radiation therapy for the 50% human cancers with intact p53 function. Herein, we reveal an anti-apoptotic role of mitochondrial p53 regulated by the cell cycle complex cyclin B1/Cdk1 in irradiated human colon cancer HCT116 cells with p53+/+ status. Steady-state levels of p53 and cyclin B1/Cdk1 were identified in the mitochondria of many human and mouse cells, and their mitochondrial influx was significantly enhanced by radiation. The mitochondrial kinase activity of cyclin B1/Cdk1 was found to specifically phosphorylate p53 at Ser-315 residue, leading to enhanced mitochondrial ATP production and reduced mitochondrial apoptosis. The improved mitochondrial function can be blocked by transfection of mutant p53 Ser-315-Ala, or by siRNA knockdown of cyclin B1 and Cdk1 genes. Enforced translocation of cyclin B1 and Cdk1 into mitochondria with a mitochondrial-targeting-peptide increased levels of Ser-315 phosphorylation on mitochondrial p53, improved ATP production and decreased apoptosis by sequestering p53 from binding to Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Furthermore, reconstitution of wild-type p53 in p53-deficient HCT116 p53?/? cells resulted in an increased mitochondrial ATP production and suppression of apoptosis. Such phenomena were absent in the p53-deficient HCT116 p53?/? cells reconstituted with the mutant p53. These results demonstrate a unique anti-apoptotic function of mitochondrial p53 regulated by cyclin B1/Cdk1-mediated Ser-315 phosphorylation in p53-wild-type tumor cells, which may provide insights for improving the efficacy of anti-cancer therapy, especially for tumors that retain p53.

Nantajit, Danupon; Fan, Ming; Duru, Nadire; Wen, Yunfei; Reed, John C.; Li, Jian Jian

2010-01-01

275

Macrophages Discriminate Glycosylation Patterns of Apoptotic Cell-derived Microparticles*  

PubMed Central

Inappropriate clearance of apoptotic remnants is considered to be the primary cause of systemic autoimmune diseases, like systemic lupus erythematosus. Here we demonstrate that apoptotic cells release distinct types of subcellular membranous particles (scMP) derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or the plasma membrane. Both types of scMP exhibit desialylated glycotopes resulting from surface exposure of immature ER-derived glycoproteins or from surface-borne sialidase activity, respectively. Sialidase activity is activated by caspase-dependent mechanisms during apoptosis. Cleavage of sialidase Neu1 by caspase 3 was shown to be directly involved in apoptosis-related increase of surface sialidase activity. ER-derived blebs possess immature mannosidic glycoepitopes and are prioritized by macrophages during clearance. Plasma membrane-derived blebs contain nuclear chromatin (DNA and histones) but not components of the nuclear envelope. Existence of two immunologically distinct types of apoptotic blebs may provide new insights into clearance-related diseases.

Bilyy, Rostyslav O.; Shkandina, Tanya; Tomin, Andriy; Munoz, Luis E.; Franz, Sandra; Antonyuk, Volodymyr; Kit, Yuriy Ya.; Zirngibl, Matthias; Furnrohr, Barbara G.; Janko, Christina; Lauber, Kirsten; Schiller, Martin; Schett, Georg; Stoika, Rostyslav S.; Herrmann, Martin

2012-01-01

276

Inhibition of mitochondria responsible for the anti-apoptotic effects of melatonin during ischemia-reperfusion*  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate a possible mechanism responsible for anti-apoptotic effects of melatonin and provide theoretical evidences for clinical therapy. Methods: Ischemia-reperfusion mediated neuronal cell injury model was constructed in cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) by deprivation of glucose, serum and oxygen in media. After ischemia, melatonin was added to the test groups to reach differential concentration during reperfusion. DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial transmembrane potential, mitochondrial cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activity were observed after subjecting cerebellar granule neurons to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Results: The results showed that OGD induced typical cell apoptosis change, DNA ladder and apoptosis-related alterations in mitochondrial functions including depression of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (its maximal protection ratio was 73.26%) and release of cytochrome c (its maximal inhibition ratio was 42.52%) and the subsequent activation of caspase-3 (its maximal protection ratio was 59.32%) in cytoplasm. Melatonin reduced DNA damage and inhibited release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3. Melatonin can strongly prevent the OGD-induced loss of the mitochondria membrane potential. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that the direct inhibition of mitochondrial pathway might essentially contribute to its anti-apoptotic effects in neuronal ischemia-reperfusion.

Han, Yi-xiang; Zhang, Sheng-hui; Wang, Xi-ming; Wu, Jian-bo

2006-01-01

277

Apoptotic Susceptibility to DNA Damage of Pluripotent Stem Cells Facilitates Pharmacologic Purging of Teratoma Risk  

PubMed Central

Pluripotent stem cells have been the focus of bioengineering efforts designed to generate regenerative products, yet harnessing therapeutic capacity while minimizing risk of dysregulated growth remains a challenge. The risk of residual undifferentiated stem cells within a differentiated progenitor population requires a targeted approach to eliminate contaminating cells prior to delivery. In this study we aimed to validate a toxicity strategy that could selectively purge pluripotent stem cells in response to DNA damage and avoid risk of uncontrolled cell growth upon transplantation. Compared with somatic cell types, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells displayed hypersensitivity to apoptotic induction by genotoxic agents. Notably, hypersensitivity in pluripotent stem cells was stage-specific and consistently lost upon in vitro differentiation, with the mean half-maximal inhibitory concentration increasing nearly 2 orders of magnitude with tissue specification. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting demonstrated that the innate response was mediated through upregulation of the BH3-only protein Puma in both natural and induced pluripotent stem cells. Pretreatment with genotoxic etoposide purged hypersensitive pluripotent stem cells to yield a progenitor population refractory to teratoma formation upon transplantation. Collectively, this study exploits a hypersensitive apoptotic response to DNA damage within pluripotent stem cells to decrease risk of dysregulated growth and augment the safety profile of transplant-ready, bioengineered progenitor cells.

Smith, Alyson J.; Nelson, Natalie G.; Oommen, Saji; Hartjes, Katherine A.; Folmes, Clifford D.; Terzic, Andre

2012-01-01

278

Nicotinamide Inhibits Alkylating Agent-Induced Apoptotic Neurodegeneration in the Developing Rat Brain  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to the chemotherapeutic alkylating agent thiotepa during brain development leads to neurological complications arising from neurodegeneration and irreversible damage to the developing central nerve system (CNS). Administration of single dose of thiotepa in 7-d postnatal (P7) rat triggers activation of apoptotic cascade and widespread neuronal death. The present study was aimed to elucidate whether nicotinamide may prevent thiotepa-induced neurodegeneration in the developing rat brain. Methodology/Principal Findings Neuronal cell death induced by thiotepa was associated with the induction of Bax, release of cytochrome-c from mitochondria into the cytosol, activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1). Post-treatment of developing rats with nicotinamide suppressed thiotepa-induced upregulation of Bax, reduced cytochrome-c release into the cytosol and reduced expression of activated caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP-1. Cresyl violet staining showed numerous dead cells in the cortex hippocampus and thalamus; post-treatment with nicotinamide reduced the number of dead cells in these brain regions. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) and immunohistochemical analysis of caspase-3 show that thiotepa-induced cell death is apoptotic and that it is inhibited by nicotinamide treatment. Conclusion Nicotinamide (Nic) treatment with thiotepa significantly improved neuronal survival and alleviated neuronal cell death in the developing rat. These data demonstrate that nicotinamide shows promise as a therapeutic and neuroprotective agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders in newborns and infants.

Naseer, Muhammad Imran; Ullah, Ikram; Suh, Joo Won; Kim, Myeong Ok

2011-01-01

279

Mitochondria-specific pro-apoptotic activity of genistein lipidic nanocarriers.  

PubMed

Genistein (Gen) soy isoflavone produces extensive pro-apoptotic anticancer effects, mediated predominantly via induction of mitochondrial damages. Rationalization of the native mitochondrial selectivity of Gen, utilizing biophysical model assumptions, led to our design of cationic lipid-based nanocarriers (NC) of Gen. Prototype nanoformulations, lipidic micelles (Mic) and nanoemulsions (NEs) incorporated Gen to serve as both therapeutic and targeting moieties, specific for mitochondria. Both Gen-NCs, showing superior physicochemical properties, produced significant cytotoxicity (5-10-fold lower EC50), compared to all drug controls, in hepatic and colon carcinomas. Owing to the mitochondria-specific accumulation of Gen-NCs, their mitochondrial depolarization effect was most evident, leading to marked activation of intrinsic apoptotic pathway markers-cytosolic cytochrme c and specific caspase-9-thus, confirming the direct mitochondrial action of Gen-NCs. This mechanistic evidence of the mitochondria specificity of our Gen-NE and Gen-Mic strongly indicates their potential as targeted delivery nanosystems to augment anticancer efficacy of many lipophilic chemotherapeutics. PMID:23992356

Pham, Jimmy; Brownlow, Bill; Elbayoumi, Tamer

2013-09-18

280

The anti-apoptotic Bcl-B protein inhibits BECN1-dependent autophagic cell death  

PubMed Central

Bcl-2 family members are key modulators of apoptosis that have recently been shown to also regulate autophagy. It has been previously reported that Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL bind and inhibit BECN1, an essential mediator of autophagy. Bcl-B is an anti-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family that possesses the four BH (Bcl-2 homology) domains (BH1, BH2, BH3 and BH4) and a predicted C-terminal trans-membrane domain. Although the anti-apoptotic properties of Bcl-B are well characterized, its physiological function remains to be established. In the present study, we first established that Bcl-B interacts with the BH3 domain of BECN1. We also showed that Bcl-B overexpression reduces autophagy triggered by a variety of pro-autophagic stimuli. This impairment of autophagy was closely related to the capacity of Bcl-B to bind to BECN1. Importantly, we have demonstrated that Bcl-B knockdown triggers autophagic cell death and sensitizes cells to amino acid starvation. The cell death induced by Bcl-B knockdown was partially dependent on components of the autophagy machinery (LC3; BECN1; ATG5). These findings reveal a new role of Bcl-B in the regulation of autophagy.

Robert, Guillaume; Gastaldi, Cecile; Puissant, Alexandre; Hamouda, Amine; Jacquel, Arnaud; Dufies, Maeva; Belhacene, Nathalie; Colosetti, Pascal; Reed, John C.; Auberger, Patrick; Luciano, Frederic

2012-01-01

281

The small GTPase Cdc42 initiates an apoptotic signaling pathway in Jurkat T lymphocytes.  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis plays an important role in regulating development and homeostasis of the immune system, yet the elements of the signaling pathways that control cell death have not been well defined. When expressed in Jurkat T cells, an activated form of the small GTPase Cdc42 induces cell death exhibiting the characteristics of apoptosis. The death response induced by Cdc42 is mediated by activation of a protein kinase cascade leading to stimulation of c-Jun amino terminal kinase (JNK). Apoptosis initiated by Cdc42 is inhibited by dominant negative components of the JNK cascade and by reagents that block activity of the ICE protease (caspase) family, suggesting that stimulation of the JNK kinase cascade can lead to caspase activation. The sequence of morphological events observed typically in apoptotic cells is modified in the presence of activated Cdc42, suggesting that this GTPase may account for some aspects of cytoskeletal regulation during the apoptotic program. These data suggest a means through which the biochemical and morphological events occurring during apoptosis may be coordinately regulated. Images

Chuang, T H; Hahn, K M; Lee, J D; Danley, D E; Bokoch, G M

1997-01-01

282

Advanced Glycation Endproducts Stimulate Osteoblast Apoptosis Via the MAP Kinase and Cytosolic Apoptotic Pathways  

PubMed Central

We have previously shown that diabetes significantly enhances apoptosis of osteoblastic cells in vivo and that the enhanced apoptosis contributes to diabetes impaired new bone formation. A potential mechanism is enhanced apoptosis stimulated by advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). To investigate this further, an advanced glycation product, carboxymethyl lysine modified collagen (CML-collagen) was injected in vivo and stimulated a 5 fold increase in calvarial periosteal cell apoptosis compared to unmodified collagen. It also induced apoptosis in primary cultures of human or neonatal rat osteoblastic cells or MC-3T3-E1 cells in vitro. Moreover, the apoptotic effect was largely mediated through RAGE receptor. CML-collagen increased p38 and JNK activity 3.2 and 4.4 fold, respectively. Inhibition of p38 and JNK reduced CML-collagen stimulated apoptosis by 45% and 59% and by 90% when used together (P<0.05). The predominant apoptotic pathway induced by CML-collagen involved caspase-8 activation of caspase-3 and was independent of NF-?B activation. When osteoblastic cells were exposed to a long-term low dose incubation with CML-collagen there was a higher degree of apoptosis compared to short term incubation. In more differentiated osteoblastic cultures apoptosis was enhanced even further. These results indicate that advanced glycation endproducts, which accumulate in diabetic and aged individuals may promote apoptosis of osteoblastic cells and contribute to deficient bone formation.

Alikhani, Mani; Alikhani, Zoubin; Boyd, Coy; MacLellan, Christine M.; Raptis, Markos; Liu, Rongkun; Pischon, Nicole; Trackman, Philip C.; Gerstenfeld, Louis; Graves, Dana T.

2007-01-01

283

Selective apoptotic effect of Zelkova serrata twig extract on mouth epidermoid carcinoma through p53 activation.  

PubMed

Apoptosis or programmed cell death plays an essential role in chemotherapy-induced tumor cell killing, and inducers of apoptosis are commonly used in cancer therapy. Treatment with Zelkova serrata extracts was performed in human gingival fibroblast (HGF), mouth epidermoid carcinoma cell (KB), lower gingival squamous cancer cell (YD38) and tongue mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells (YD15). We observed that extract prepared from Zelkova serrata twig selectively inhibited proliferation of various oral cancer cells, but not normal gingival fibroblasts, in a dose-dependent manner. Caspase-8-mediated apoptosis was induced by treatment with the extract only in mouth epidermoid carcinoma and not in other types of cancer cells, including lower gingival squamous cell carcinoma. The selective apoptotic effect of Zelkova serrata twig extract in mouth epidermoid carcinoma was dependent on normal p53 status. Apoptosis was not remarkably induced by treatment with the extract in either lower gingival squamous or tongue mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells, both of which contain abnormalities of p53. Upon treatment with Zelkova serrata twig extract, mouth epidermoid carcinoma cells accumulated in S phase by activation of p21. These data indicate that Zelkova serrata twig extract exerted a cancer type-specific, p53-dependent apoptotic effect and disturbed the cell cycle, which suggests that herbal medicine could be a treatment for specific types of cancers. PMID:22498930

Kang, Hoe-Jin; Jang, Young-Joo

2012-04-13

284

Equine arteritis virus induced cell death is associated with activation of the intrinsic apoptotic signalling pathway.  

PubMed

Equine arteritis virus (EAV) causes a respiratory and reproductive disease in horses, equine viral arteritis. Though cell death in infection with EAV is considered to occur by apoptosis, the underlying molecular mechanism has not been extensively elucidated. We investigated the expression of mRNA of pro-apoptotic and caspase genes during EAV infection in BHK21 cells, a well-established cell type for EAV replication. Using a SYBR Green real-time PCR, mRNA of p53, Bax, caspase 3 and caspase 9 were found up-regulated in a time dependent manner in EAV infected cells. Western blot analysis for caspase 3 and caspase 9 showed expression of cleaved forms of these proteins during EAV infection. In addition, a luminescence-based cell assay for caspase 3/7 activation as a hallmark in apoptosis confirmed apoptotic cell death. The findings demonstrate that cell death in EAV infected BHK21 cells results from apoptosis mediated through the intrinsic signalling pathway. PMID:23079113

Cholleti, Harindranath; Paidikondala, Maruthibabu; Munir, Muhammad; Hakhverdyan, Mikhayil; Baule, Claudia

2012-10-16

285

Loss of c/EBP-? activity promotes the adaptive to apoptotic switch in hypoxic cortical neurons  

PubMed Central

Understanding the mechanisms governing the switch between hypoxia-induced adaptive and pathological transcription may reveal novel therapeutic targets for stroke. Using an in vitro hypoxia model that temporally separates these divergent responses, we found apoptotic signaling was preceded by a decline in c/EBP-? activity and was associated with markers of ER-stress including transient eIF2? phosphorylation, and the delayed induction of the bZIP proteins ATF4 and CHOP-10. Pretreatment with the eIF2? phosphatase inhibitor salubrinal blocked the activation of caspase-3, indicating that ER-related stress responses are integral to this transition. Delivery of either full-length, or a transcriptionally inactive form of c/EBP-? protected cultures from hypoxic challenge, in part by inducing levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. These data indicate that the pathologic response in cortical neurons induced by hypoxia involves both the loss of c/EBP-?-mediated survival signals and activation of pro-death pathways originating from the endoplasmic reticulum.

Halterman, Marc W.; De Jesus, Christopher; Rempe, David A.; Schor, Nina F.; Federoff, Howard J.

2009-01-01

286

Clearance of apoptotic cells: implications in health and disease  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in defining the molecular signaling pathways that regulate the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells have improved our understanding of this complex and evolutionarily conserved process. Studies in mice and humans suggest that the prompt removal of dying cells is crucial for immune tolerance and tissue homeostasis. Failed or defective clearance has emerged as an important contributing factor to a range of disease processes. This review addresses how specific molecular alterations of engulfment pathways are linked to pathogenic states. A better understanding of the apoptotic cell clearance process in healthy and diseased states could offer new therapeutic strategies.

2010-01-01

287

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor interacts with HBx and inhibits its apoptotic activity  

SciTech Connect

HBx, a transcriptional transactivating protein of hepatitis B virus (HBV), is required for viral infection and has been implicated in virus-mediated liver oncogenesis. However, the precise molecular mechanism remains largely elusive. We used the yeast two-hybrid system to identify that HBx interacts with MIF directly. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is implicated in the regulation of inflammation, cell growth, and even tumor formation. The interaction between HBx and MIF was verified with co-immunoprecipitation, GST pull-down, and cellular colocalization. The expression of MIF was up-regulated in HBV particle producing cell 2.2.15 compared with HepG2 cell. Both HBx and MIF cause HepG2 cell G /G{sub 1} phase arrest, proliferation inhibition, and apoptosis. However, MIF can counteract the apoptotic effect of HBx. These results may provide evidence to explain the link between HBV infection and hepatocellular carcinoma.

Zhang Shimeng [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, No.27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Lin Ruxian [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, No.27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Zhou Zhe [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, No.27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Wen Siyuan [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, No.27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Lin Li [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, No.27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Chen Suhong [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, No.27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Shan Yajun [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, No.27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Cong Yuwen [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, No.27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Wang Shengqi [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, No.27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China)]. E-mail: sqwang@nic.bmi.ac.cn

2006-04-07

288

Near death experiences: Poxvirus regulation of apoptotic death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, plays a critical role in the elimination of virus-infected cells. As a result, a growing number of viruses encode numerous potent anti-apoptotic proteins to counteract apoptosis in an effort to prolong their own survival. This review describes the numerous mechanisms by which poxviruses inhibit apoptosis thereby modulating life and death of the cell.

John M. Taylor; Michele Barry

2006-01-01

289

Paraquat-induced apoptotic cell death in cerebellar granule cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the toxicity of paraquat, a possible environmental risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's disease (PD). Paraquat is structurally similar to the neurotoxin MPP+ that can induce Parkinsonian-like features in rodents, non-human primates and human. Exposure of cerebellar granule cells to relatively low concentrations of paraquat (5 ?M) produces apoptotic cell death with a reduction in mitochondrial cytochrome

Rosa A González-Polo; Andrea Rodr??guez-Mart??n; José M Morán; Mireia Niso; Germán Soler; José M Fuentes

2004-01-01

290

No death without life: vital functions of apoptotic effectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of the genetic experiments performed in Caenorhabditis elegans, it has been tacitly assumed that the core proteins of the ‘apoptotic machinery’ (CED-3, -4, -9 and EGL-1) would be solely involved in cell death regulation\\/execution and would not exert any functions outside of the cell death realm. However, multiple studies indicate that the mammalian orthologs of these C.

L Galluzzi; N Joza; E Tasdemir; M C Maiuri; M Hengartner; J M Abrams; N Tavernarakis; J Penninger; F Madeo; G Kroemer

2008-01-01

291

Phenotype of apoptotic lymphocytes in children with Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Down syndrome (DS) is the most common and best-known chromosomal disorder and is associated with several other pathologic conditions including immunodeficiency which makes a significant contribution to morbidity and mortality. Various immunological theories and observations to explain the predisposition of individuals with DS to various infections have been published, one of which is increased apoptotic cells. AIM: The aim

Solaf M Elsayed; Ghada M Elsayed

2009-01-01

292

Reduced phagocytosis of apoptotic cells in malignant lymphoma.  

PubMed

Efficient removal of lymphocytes undergoing programmed cell death (apoptosis) by macrophages plays an important role for the proper function of normal immune system. Furthermore, in malignant lymphoma, elimination of apoptotic tumor cells by phagocytes contributes to the anti-tumor immune response. It is unknown, however, whether macrophages in normal and malignant lymphoid tissues differ in their ability to recognize and remove apoptotic cells. Our present results demonstrate that normal and malignant lymphoid tissues differ according to the extent of the infiltration by macrophages. The highest densities of macrophages (p < 0.0001) were detected in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, centroblastic (DLBCL-CB) and immunoblastic variants and Burkitt's lymphoma. The grade of the macrophage infiltration correlated with the proliferation rates of the tumors (p < 0.0001). Compared with normal lymphoid organs, malignant lymphoma contained lower percentages of apoptotic cells phagocytosed by tissue macrophages (p < 0.001). Of all lymphomas tested, mantle cell lymphoma and DLBCL-CB expressed the lowest percentages of phagocytosed apoptotic cells (p < 0.0001). PMID:9495233

Hermann, M; Niemitz, C; Marafioti, T; Schriever, F

1998-03-01

293

Chemoresistance in human ovarian cancer: the role of apoptotic regulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ovarian cancer is among the most lethal of all malignancies in women. While chemotherapy is the preferred treatment modality, chemoresistance severely limits treatment success. Recent evidence suggests that deregulation of key pro- and anti-apoptotic pathways is a key factor in the onset and maintenance of chemoresistance. Furthermore, the discovery of novel interactions between these pathways suggests that chemoresistance may be

Michael Fraser; Brendan Leung; Arezu Jahani-Asl; Xiaojuan Yan; Winston E Thompson; Benjamin K Tsang

2003-01-01

294

Novel Apoptotic Molecule Bok for the Treatment of Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have shown by transient expression of hBok that this member of the Bc1-2 pro-apoptotic family is unique since its translocation to the nucleus is important for protein to induced apoptosis. Concern were raised since our observation did not apply to end...

G. A. Bartholomeusz

2004-01-01

295

Anti-cancer activity of targeted pro-apoptotic peptides  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have designed short peptides composed of two functional domains, one a tumor blood vessel 'homing' motif and the other a programmed cell death-inducing sequence, and synthesized them by simple peptide chemistry. The 'homing' domain was designed to guide the peptide to targeted cells and allow its internalization. The pro-apoptotic domain was designed to be nontoxic outside cells, but toxic

H. Michael Ellerby; Wadih Arap; Lisa M. Ellerby; Renate Kain; Rebecca Andrusiak; Gabriel Del Rio; Stanislaw Krajewski; Christian R. Lombardo; Rammohan Rao; Erkki Ruoslahti; Dale E. Bredesen; Renata Pasqualini

1999-01-01

296

Apoptotic mimicry: an altruistic behavior in host\\/Leishmania interplay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptosis is the most common phenotype observed when cells die through programmed cell death. The morphologic and biochemical changes that characterize apoptotic cells depend on the activation of a diverse set of genes. Apoptosis is essential for multicellular organisms since their development and homeostasis are dependent on extensive cell renewal. In fact, there is strong evidence for the correlation between

J. L. M. Wanderley; A. Benjamin; F. Real; A. Bonomo; M. E. C. Moreira; M. A. Barcinski

2005-01-01

297

Non-apoptotic function of caspases in a cellular model of hydrogen peroxide-associated colitis.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress, caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS), is a major contributor to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-associated neoplasia. We mimicked ROS exposure of the epithelium in IBD using non-tumour human colonic epithelial cells (HCEC) and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ). A population of HCEC survived H2 O2 -induced oxidative stress via JNK-dependent cell cycle arrests. Caspases, p21(WAF1) and ?-H2AX were identified as JNK-regulated proteins. Up-regulation of caspases was linked to cell survival and not, as expected, to apoptosis. Inhibition using the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK caused up-regulation of ?-H2AX, a DNA-damage sensor, indicating its negative regulation via caspases. Cell cycle analysis revealed an accumulation of HCEC in the G1 -phase as first response to oxidative stress and increased S-phase population and then apoptosis as second response following caspase inhibition. Thus, caspases execute a non-apoptotic function by promoting cells through G1 - and S-phase by overriding the G1 /S- and intra-S checkpoints despite DNA-damage. This led to the accumulation of cells in the G2 /M-phase and decreased apoptosis. Caspases mediate survival of oxidatively damaged HCEC via ?-H2AX suppression, although its direct proteolytic inactivation was excluded. Conversely, we found that oxidative stress led to caspase-dependent proteolytic degradation of the DNA-damage checkpoint protein ATM that is upstream of ?-H2AX. As a consequence, undetected DNA-damage and increased proliferation were found in repeatedly H2 O2 -exposed HCEC. Such features have been associated with neoplastic transformation and appear here to be mediated by a non-apoptotic function of caspases. Overexpression of upstream p-JNK in active ulcerative colitis also suggests a potential importance of this pathway in vivo. PMID:23742011

Poehlmann, Angela; Reissig, Kathrin; Just, Andrea; Walluscheck, Diana; Hartig, Roland; Schinlauer, Antje; Lessel, Wiebke; Guenther, Thomas; Silver, Andrew; Steinberg, Pablo; Roessner, Albert

2013-06-07

298

Mitochondria-associated apoptotic signalling in denervated rat skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis has been implicated in the regulation of denervation-induced muscle atrophy. However, the activation of apoptotic signal transduction during muscle denervation has not been fully elucidated. The present study examined the apoptotic responses to denervation in rat gastrocnemius muscle. Following 14 days of denervation, the extent of apoptotic DNA fragmentation as determined by a cytosolic nucleosome ELISA was increased by 100% in the gastrocnemius muscle. RT-PCR and immunoblot analyses indicated that Bax was dramatically upregulated while Bcl-2 was modestly increased; however, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was significantly increased in denervated muscles relative to control muscles. Analyses of ELISA and immunoblots from mitochondria-free cytosol extracts showed a significant increase in mitochondria-associated apoptotic factors, including cytochrome c, Smac/DIABLO and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). In addition to the upregulation of caspase-3 and -9 mRNA, pro-/cleaved caspase protein and proteolytic activity levels, the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) protein level was downregulated. The cleaved product of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) was detected in muscle samples following denervation. Although we did not find a difference in the inhibitor of DNA binding/ differentiation-2 (Id2) and c-Myc protein contents between the denervated and control muscles, the protein content of tumour suppressor p53 was significantly increased in both the nuclear and the cytosolic fractions with denervation. Moreover, denervation increased the protein content of HSP70, whereas the MnSOD (a mitochondrial isoform of superoxide dismutase) protein content was diminished, which indicated that denervation might have induced cellular and/or oxidative stress. Our data show that mitochondria-associated apoptotic signalling is upregulated during muscle denervation. We interpret these findings to indicate that apoptosis has a physiologically important role in regulating denervation-induced muscle atrophy.

Siu, Parco M; Alway, Stephen E

2005-01-01

299

SORAFENIB SENSITIZES HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA CELLS TO PHYSIOLOGICAL APOPTOTIC STIMULI  

PubMed Central

Sorafenib increases survival rate of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The mechanism underlying this effect is not completely understood. In this work we have analyzed the effects of sorafenib on autocrine proliferation and survival of different human HCC cell lines. Our results indicate that Sorafenib in vitro counteracts autocrine growth of different tumor cells (Hep3B, HepG2, PLC-PRF-5, SK-Hep1). Arrest in S/G2/M cell cycle phases were observed coincident with cyclin D1 down-regulation. However, sorafenib’s main anti-tumor activity seems to occur through cell death induction which correlated with caspase activation, increase in the percentage of hypodiploid cells, activation of BAX and BAK and cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytosol. In addition, we observed a rise in mRNA and protein levels of the pro-apoptotic “BH3-domain only” PUMA and BIM, as well as decreased protein levels of the anti-apoptotic MCL1 and survivin. PUMA targeting knockdown, by using specific siRNAs, inhibited sorafenib-induced apoptotic features. Moreover, we obtained evidence suggesting that sorafenib also sensitizes HCC cells to the apoptotic activity of Transforming Growth Factor-? (TGF-?) through the intrinsic pathway and to Tumor Necrosis Factor-? (TNF) through the extrinsic pathway. Interestingly, sensitization to sorafenib-induced apoptosis is characteristic of liver tumor cells, since untransformed hepatocytes did not respond to sorafenib inducing apoptosis, either alone or in combination with TGF-? or TNF. Indeed, sorafenib effectiveness in delaying HCC late progression might be partly related to a selectively sensitization of HCC cells to apoptosis by disrupting autocrine signals that protect them from adverse conditions and pro-apoptotic physiological cytokines.

Fernando, Joan; Sancho, Patricia; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Conrado M.; Lledo, Jose L.; Caja, Laia; Campbell, Jean S.; Fausto, Nelson; Fabregat, Isabel

2011-01-01

300

Externalization and recognition by macrophages of large subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 in apoptotic cells  

SciTech Connect

We previously isolated a monoclonal antibody named PH2 that inhibits phosphatidylserine-mediated phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages [C. Fujii, A. Shiratsuchi, J. Manaka, S. Yonehara, Y. Nakanishi. Cell Death Differ. 8 (2001) 1113-1122]. We report here the identification of the cognate antigen. A protein bound by PH2 in Western blotting was identified as the 170-kDa subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3 p170/eIF3a). When eIF3a was expressed in a culture cell line as a protein fused to green fluorescence protein, the fusion protein was detected at the cell surface only after the induction of apoptosis. The same phenomenon was seen when the localization of endogenous eIF3a was determined using anti-eIF3a antibody, and eIF3a seemed to be partially degraded during apoptosis. Furthermore, bacterially expressed N-terminal half of eIF3a fused to glutathione S-transferase bound to the surface of macrophages and inhibited phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages when it was added to phagocytosis reactions. These results collectively suggest that eIF3a translocates to the cell surface upon apoptosis, probably after partial degradation, and bridges apoptotic cells and macrophages to enhance phagocytosis.

Nakai, Yuji [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Shizenken, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Shiratsuchi, Akiko [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Shizenken, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Shizenken, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Manaka, Junko [Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Shizenken, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Nakayama, Hiroshi [Advanced Development and Supporting Center, RIKEN, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Takio, Koji [Highthroughput Factory, RIKEN Harima Institute, Mikazuki, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Zhang Jianting [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Walnut Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States); Suganuma, Tatsuo [Department of Anatomy, the University of Miyazaki, Kiyotake-cho, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan); Nakanishi, Yoshinobu [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Shizenken, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan) and Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Shizenken, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan)]. E-mail: nakanaka@kenroku.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

2005-09-10

301

The Apaf-1-binding protein Aven is cleaved by Cathepsin D to unleash its anti-apoptotic potential  

PubMed Central

The anti-apoptotic molecule Aven was originally identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen for Bcl-xL-interacting proteins and has also been found to bind Apaf-1, thereby interfering with Apaf-1 self-association during apoptosome assembly. Aven is expressed in a wide variety of adult tissues and cell lines, and there is increasing evidence that its overexpression correlates with tumorigenesis, particularly in acute leukemias. The mechanism by which the anti-apoptotic activity of Aven is regulated remains poorly understood. Here we shed light on this issue by demonstrating that proteolytic removal of an inhibitory N-terminal Aven domain is necessary to activate the anti-apoptotic potential of the molecule. Furthermore, we identify Cathepsin D (CathD) as the protease responsible for Aven cleavage. On the basis of our results, we propose a model of Aven activation by which its N-terminal inhibitory domain is removed by CathD-mediated proteolysis, thereby unleashing its cytoprotective function.

Melzer, I M; Fernandez, S B M; Bosser, S; Lohrig, K; Lewandrowski, U; Wolters, D; Kehrloesser, S; Brezniceanu, M-L; Theos, A C; Irusta, P M; Impens, F; Gevaert, K; Zornig, M

2012-01-01

302

The role of p53 in an apoptotic process caused by an oral malodorous compound in periodontal tissues: a review.  

PubMed

Oral malodor is caused by volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) composed mainly of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and methyl mercaptan. In particular, H(2)S is an important compound, since it is a major component of physiologic halitosis. The toxicity of VSCs is similar to that of hydrogen cyanide, and is well investigated. The role of VSCs in reducing collagen in human gingival fibroblasts is one of the main sources of their toxicity to human oral tissues. It has been reported recently that H(2)S may cause apoptosis in several periodontal tissues. In human gingival fibroblasts, H(2)S inhibits not only cytochrome c oxidase activity but also superoxide dismutase activity. The levels of reactive oxygen species are markedly increased, which causes the release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm, resulting in caspase-9 activation; finally, the executor caspase, caspase-3, is activated. This pathway is commonly observed in cells from all periodontal tissues. Moreover, p53, an apoptotic factor, and phosphorlylated p53, which is the activated form, are increased by H(2)S in keratinocyte stem cells and osteoblasts. H(2)S also increases the expression of Bax, a primary response gene playing an important role in p53-mediated apoptosis, but maintains a lower expression of Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic factor, in osteoblasts. It is concluded that the Bax apoptotic pathway and the mitochondrial pathway are activated by H(2)S. PMID:22368256

Aoyama, Izumi; Yaegaki, Ken; Calenic, Bogdan; Ii, Hisataka; Ishkitiev, Nikolay; Imai, Toshio

2012-02-27

303

Apoptotic Cleavage of Cytoplasmic Dynein Intermediate Chain and P150GluedStops Dynein-Dependent Membrane Motility  

PubMed Central

Cytoplasmic dynein is the major minus end–directed microtubule motor in animal cells, and associates with many of its cargoes in conjunction with the dynactin complex. Interaction between cytoplasmic dynein and dynactin is mediated by the binding of cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chains (CD-IC) to the dynactin subunit, p150Glued. We have found that both CD-IC and p150Glued are cleaved by caspases during apoptosis in cultured mammalian cells and in Xenopus egg extracts. Xenopus CD-IC is rapidly cleaved at a conserved aspartic acid residue adjacent to its NH2-terminal p150Glued binding domain, resulting in loss of the otherwise intact cytoplasmic dynein complex from membranes. Cleavage of CD-IC and p150Glued in apoptotic Xenopus egg extracts causes the cessation of cytoplasmic dynein–driven endoplasmic reticulum movement. Motility of apoptotic membranes is restored by recruitment of intact cytoplasmic dynein and dynactin from control cytosol, or from apoptotic cytosol supplemented with purified cytoplasmic dynein–dynactin, demonstrating the dynamic nature of the association of cytoplasmic dynein and dynactin with their membrane cargo.

Lane, Jon D.; Vergnolle, Mailys A.S.; Woodman, Philip G.; Allan, Victoria J.

2001-01-01

304

Engulfment of cerebral apoptotic bodies controls the course of prion disease in a mouse strain-dependent manner  

PubMed Central

Progressive accumulation of PrPSc, a hallmark of prion diseases, occurs when conversion of PrPC into PrPSc is faster than PrPSc clearance. Engulfment of apoptotic bodies by phagocytes is mediated by Mfge8 (milk fat globule epidermal growth factor 8). In this study, we show that brain Mfge8 is primarily produced by astrocytes. Mfge8 ablation induced accelerated prion disease and reduced clearance of cerebellar apoptotic bodies in vivo, as well as excessive PrPSc accumulation and increased prion titers in prion-infected C57BL/6 × 129Sv mice and organotypic cerebellar slices derived therefrom. These phenotypes correlated with the presence of 129Sv genomic markers in hybrid mice and were not observed in inbred C57BL/6 Mfge8?/? mice, suggesting the existence of additional strain-specific genetic modifiers. Because Mfge8 receptors are expressed by microglia and depletion of microglia increases PrPSc accumulation in organotypic cerebellar slices, we conclude that engulfment of apoptotic bodies by microglia may be an important pathway of prion clearance controlled by astrocyte-borne Mfge8.

Kranich, Jan; Krautler, Nike Julia; Falsig, Jeppe; Ballmer, Boris; Li, Shulei; Hutter, Gregor; Schwarz, Petra; Moos, Rita; Julius, Christian; Miele, Gino

2010-01-01

305

Targeted expression of the anti-apoptotic gene CrmA to NOD pancreatic islets protects from autoimmune diabetes.  

PubMed

The activation of apoptosis is a critical mechanism by which pancreatic beta cells are destroyed in type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Strategies aimed at interfering with the apoptotic pathways could therefore be of potential therapeutic value. To this end, we generated NOD transgenic mice with targeted expression of the anti-apoptotic gene Cytokine response modifier A (CrmA) to pancreatic beta cells using the rat insulin promoter and the reverse tetracycline transactivator to express CrmA in a temporally controlled manner. Two lines of transgenic mice were studied whose expression of CrmA occurred only after feeding doxycycline food. Islet expression of CrmA partially protected pancreatic beta cells from the cytokine-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro and reduced modestly the spontaneous development of diabetes in NOD mice in vivo. In addition, beta cells from NOD CrmA mice were significantly protected from the destruction by diabetogenic T cells after adoptive transfer. More strikingly, NODCrmA mice were significantly resistant to the diabetogenic activity of a potent insulin-specific CD8 T-cell clone. Since these adoptive transfer models mainly represent the effector phase rather than the initiation phase of autoimmune diabetes, our data suggest that the latter is more sensitive to CrmA protection. We conclude that anti-apoptotic genes such as CrmA might be potential candidates to enhance islet graft survival in T1DM. PMID:16338119

Millet, I; Wong, F S; Gurr, W; Wen, L; Zawalich, W; Green, E A; Flavell, R A; Sherwin, R S

2005-12-09

306

Apoptin T108 phosphorylation is not required for its tumor-specific nuclear localization but partially affects its apoptotic activity  

SciTech Connect

Apoptin, a chicken anemia virus-encoded protein, induces apoptosis in human tumor cells but not in normal cells. In addition, Apoptin also exhibits tumor-specific nuclear localization and tumor-specific phosphorylation on threonine 108 (T108). Here, we studied the effects of T108 phosphorylation on the tumor-specific nuclear localization and apoptotic activity of Apoptin. We first showed that a hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged Apoptin, but not the green fluorescent protein-fused Apoptin used in many previous studies, exhibited the same intracellular distribution pattern as native Apoptin. We then made and analyzed an HA-Apoptin mutant with its T108 phosphorylation site abolished. We found that Apoptin T108 phosphorylation is not required for its tumor-specific nuclear localization and abolishing the T108 phosphorylation of Apoptin does affect its apoptotic activity in tumor cells but only partially. Our results support the previous finding that Apoptin contains two distinct apoptosis domains located separately at the N- and C-terminal regions and suggest that the T108 phosphorylation may only be required for the apoptotic activity mediated through the C-terminal apoptosis domain.

Lee, Y.-H. [Faculty of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Kaohsiung Medical University, No. 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Cheng, C.-M. [Faculty of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Kaohsiung Medical University, No. 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chang, Y.-F. [Faculty of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Kaohsiung Medical University, No. 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Wang, T.-Y. [Faculty of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Kaohsiung Medical University, No. 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Yuo, C.-Y. [Faculty of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Kaohsiung Medical University, No. 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); E-mail: m815006@kmu.edu.tw

2007-03-09

307

Alpha lipoic acid attenuates microvascular endothelial cell hyperpermeability by inhibiting the intrinsic apoptotic signaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThis study examined whether alpha lipoic acid (ALA), an antioxidant with anti-apoptotic properties, synthesized in mitochondria of endothelial cells, would inhibit intrinsic apoptotic signaling and microvascular endothelial cell hyperpermeability.

Binu Tharakan; Juliet G. Holder-Haynes; Felicia A. Hunter; Ed W. Childs

2008-01-01

308

Green tea extract supplement reduces D-galactosamine-induced acute liver injury by inhibition of apoptotic and proinflammatory signaling  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress and inflammation contributed to the propagation of acute liver injury (ALI). The present study was undertaken to determine whether D-galactosamine (D-GalN) induces ALI via the mitochondrial apoptosis- and proinflammatory cytokine-signaling pathways, and possible mechanism(s) by which green tea (GT) extract modulates the apoptotic and proinflammatory signaling in rat. D-GalN induced hepatic hypoxia/hypoperfusion and triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from affected hepatocytes, infiltrated leukocytes, and activated Kupffer cells. D-GalN evoked cytosolic Bax and mitochondrial cytochrome C translocation and activated proinflammatory nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) translocation, contributing to the increase of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive hepatocytes, multiple plasma cytokines and chemokines release, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity. An altered biliary secretion profile of several acute phase proteins directly indicates oxidative stress affecting intracellular trafficking in the hepatocyte. GT pretreatment attenuated ROS production, mitochondrial apoptosis- and proinflammatory cytokine-signaling pathway, plasma ALT and cytokines levels, biliary acute phase proteins secretion and hepatic pathology by the enhancement of anti-apoptotic mechanisms. In conclusion, D-GalN induced ALI via hypoxia/hypoperfusion-enhanced mitochondrial apoptosis- and proinflammatory cytokine-signaling pathway, contributing to oxidative stress and inflammation in the liver. GT can counteract the D-GalN-induced ALI via the attenuation of apoptotic and proinflammatory signaling by the upregulation of anti-apoptotic mechanism.

Lin, Bor-Ru; Yu, Chia-Jung; Chen, Wang-Chuan; Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Chang, Huei-Min; Lee, Yen-Chih; Chien, Chiang-Ting; Chen, Chau-Fong

2009-01-01

309

Apoptotic and non-apoptotic roles of caspases in neuronal physiology and pathophysiology.  

PubMed

Caspases are cysteine proteases that mediate apoptosis, which is a form of regulated cell death that effectively and efficiently removes extra and unnecessary cells during development. In the mature nervous system, caspases are not only involved in mediating cell death but also regulatory events that are important for neural functions, such as axon pruning and synapse elimination, which are necessary to refine mature neuronal circuits. Furthermore, caspases can be reactivated to cause cell death as well as non-lethal changes in neurons during numerous pathological processes. Thus, although a global activation of caspases leads to apoptosis, restricted and localized activation may control normal physiology and pathophysiology in living neurons. This Review explores the multiple roles of caspase activity in neurons. PMID:22595785

Hyman, Bradley T; Yuan, Junying

2012-05-18

310

Regulation of Cardiomyocyte Apoptotic Signaling by Insulin-like Growth Factor I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptosis is regulated by specific intracellular signaling pathways. The development of cardiomyopathy involves the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes; however, the details of their apoptotic signaling are not yet known. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF I) is an important survival growth factor for myocardium and other tissues, but the effects of IGF I on apoptotic signaling remain largely unknown. To study apoptotic

Lei Wang; Weiqiong Ma; Rachelle Markovich; Jaw-Wen Chen; Ping H. Wang

311

Apoptotic regulators promote cytokinetic midbody degradation in C. elegans  

PubMed Central

Cell death genes are essential for apoptosis and other cellular events, but their nonapoptotic functions are not well understood. The midbody is an important cytokinetic structure required for daughter cell abscission, but its fate after cell division remains elusive in metazoans. In this paper, we show through live-imaging analysis that midbodies generated by Q cell divisions in Caenorhabditis elegans were released to the extracellular space after abscission and subsequently internalized and degraded by the phagocyte that digests apoptotic Q cell corpses. We further show that midbody degradation is defective in apoptotic cell engulfment mutants. Externalized phosphatidylserine (PS), an engulfment signal for corpse phagocytosis, exists on the outer surface of the midbody, and inhibiting PS signaling delayed midbody clearance. Thus, our findings uncover a novel function of cell death genes in midbody internalization and degradation after cell division.

Chai, Yongping; Tian, Dong; Yang, Yihong; Feng, Guoxin; Cheng, Ze; Li, Wei

2012-01-01

312

Chemoresistance in human ovarian cancer: the role of apoptotic regulators  

PubMed Central

Ovarian cancer is among the most lethal of all malignancies in women. While chemotherapy is the preferred treatment modality, chemoresistance severely limits treatment success. Recent evidence suggests that deregulation of key pro- and anti-apoptotic pathways is a key factor in the onset and maintenance of chemoresistance. Furthermore, the discovery of novel interactions between these pathways suggests that chemoresistance may be multi-factorial. Ultimately, the decision of the cancer cell to live or die in response to a chemotherapeutic agent is a consequence of the overall apoptotic capacity of that cell. In this review, we discuss the biochemical pathways believed to promote cell survival and how they modulate chemosensitivity. We then conclude with some new research directions by which the fundamental mechanisms of chemoresistance can be elucidated.

Fraser, Michael; Leung, Brendan; Jahani-Asl, Arezu; Yan, Xiaojuan; Thompson, Winston E; Tsang, Benjamin K

2003-01-01

313

Diverse apoptotic pathways in enterovirus 71-infected cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms related to the neuropathogenesis of enterovirus 71 infection remain unclear. This investigation conducts a comprehensive\\u000a study of the apoptotic pathways in neural and non-neural cells following enterovirus 71 infection. Infections with enterovirus\\u000a 71 not only induce classical cytopathic effects in SF268 (human glioblastoma), SK-N-MC (human neuroblastoma), RD, and Vero\\u000a cells, but also induce classic signs of apoptosis in all

Shih-Cheng Chang; Jing-Yi Lin; Lily Yen-Cheng Lo; Mei-Ling Li; Shin-Ru Shih

2004-01-01

314

Altered mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in placentas from undernourished rat gestations.  

PubMed

Maternal undernutrition (MUN) during pregnancy results in intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) fetuses and small placentas. Although reduced fetal nutrient supply has been presumed to be etiologic in IUGR, MUN-induced placental dysfunction may occur prior to detectable fetal growth restriction. Placental growth impairment may result from apoptosis signaled by mitochondria in response to reduced energy substrate. Therefore, we sought to determine the presence of mitochondrial-induced apoptosis under MUN and ad libitum diet (AdLib) pregnancies. Pregnant rats were fed an AdLib or a 50% MUN diet from embryonic day 10 (E10) to E20. At E20, fetuses and placentas from proximal- and mid-horns (extremes of nutrient/oxygen supply) were collected. Right-horn placentas were used to quantify apoptosis. Corresponding left-horn placentas were separated into basal (hormone production) and labyrinth (feto-maternal exchange) zones, and protein expression of the mitochondrial pathway was determined. Our results show that the MUN placentas had significantly increased apoptosis, with lower expression of cytosolic and mitochondrial anti-apoptotic Bcl2 and Bcl-X(L), and significantly higher expression of pro-apoptotic Bax and Bak especially in the labyrinth zone. This was paralleled by higher coimmunostaining with the mitochondrial marker manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), indicating transition of pro-apoptotic factors to the mitochondrial membrane. Also, cytosolic cytochrome c and activated caspases-9 and -3 were significantly higher in all MUN. Conversely, peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor-? (PPAR?), a member of the nuclear receptor family with anti-apoptotic properties, was significantly downregulated in both zones and horns. Our results suggest that MUN during rat pregnancy enhances mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in the placenta, probably due to the downregulation of PPAR? expression. PMID:21918224

Belkacemi, Louiza; Desai, Mina; Nelson, D Michael; Ross, Michael G

2011-09-14

315

Morphology of mitochondrial permeability transition: morphometric volumetry in apoptotic cells.  

PubMed

Here we report on the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), which refers to the morphology of mitochondria whose inner membrane has lost its selective permeability. In all types of apoptotic cells so far examined, we found outer mitochondrial membranes that had been ruptured. These mitochondria present a swollen matrix covered by an inner membrane herniating into the cytoplasm through the breached outer membrane. Similarly ruptured outer mitochondrial membranes have been reported in studies on mitochondrial fractions induced to undergo MPT, carried out by others. Our observations were made on five types of rat tissue cells and six different cultured cell lines in the early stages of apoptosis. Samples from the cell lines HL-60, HeLa, WEHI-164, and a special batch of PC-12 cells were subjected to various apoptogenic agents and analyzed morphometrically. Nonapoptotic companion cells with unaltered nuclear structure (CUNS) were also analyzed. The mitochondrial volume in microm(3) and the volume fraction of the cytoplasm occupied by mitochondria in cells with typical nuclear signs of apoptosis and also in CUNS were evaluated. The volume of the mitochondria with ruptured membrane represents at least 69% (47-89%) of the total mitochondrial volume of the apoptotic cells. Thus, a considerable fraction of the cellular mitochondrial mass is or was in the state of permeability transition and probably involved in enhancement of the apoptotic program. In all samples, a fraction of the cells with normal nuclei possessed mitochondria with breached outer membranes as described above. In these cells, MPT occurred before the appearance of the typical nuclear phenotype of the apoptotic cells. PMID:15532021

Sesso, Antonio; Marques, Márcia M; Monteiro, Maria M T; Schumacher, Robert I; Colquhoun, Alison; Belizário, José; Konno, Sérgio N; Felix, Tahis B; Botelho, Luis A A; Santos, Vanessa Z C; Da Silva, Guilherme R; Higuchi, Maria de L; Kawakami, Joyce T

2004-12-01

316

Caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways in CNS injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have suggested a role for neuronal apoptosis in cell loss following acute CNS injury as well as in chronic\\u000a neurodegeneration. Caspases are a family of cysteine requiring aspartate proteases with sequence similarity to Ced-3 protein\\u000a of Caenorhabditis elegans. These proteases have been found to contribute significantly to the morphological and biochemical\\u000a manifestations of apoptotic cell death. Caspases are

Alexander G. Yakovlev; Alan I. Faden

2001-01-01

317

The Transcription Factor C/EBP delta Has Anti-Apoptotic and Anti-Inflammatory Roles in Pancreatic Beta Cells  

PubMed Central

In the course of Type 1 diabetes pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-1?, IFN-? and TNF-?) produced by islet-infiltrating immune cells modify expression of key gene networks in ?-cells, leading to local inflammation and ?-cell apoptosis. Most known cytokine-induced transcription factors have pro-apoptotic effects, and little is known regarding “protective” transcription factors. To this end, we presently evaluated the role of the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta (C/EBP?) on ?-cell apoptosis and production of inflammatory mediators in the rat insulinoma INS-1E cells, in purified primary rat ?-cells and in human islets. C/EBP? is expressed and up-regulated in response to the cytokines IL-1? and IFN-? in rat ?-cells and human islets. Small interfering RNA-mediated C/EBP? silencing exacerbated IL-1?+IFN-?-induced caspase 9 and 3 cleavage and apoptosis in these cells. C/EBP? deficiency increased the up-regulation of the transcription factor CHOP in response to cytokines, enhancing expression of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member BIM. Interfering with C/EBP? and CHOP or C/EBP? and BIM in double knockdown approaches abrogated the exacerbating effects of C/EBP? deficiency on cytokine-induced ?-cell apoptosis, while C/EBP? overexpression inhibited BIM expression and partially protected ?-cells against IL-1?+IFN-?-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, C/EBP? silencing boosted cytokine-induced production of the chemokines CXCL1, 9, 10 and CCL20 in ?-cells by hampering IRF-1 up-regulation and increasing STAT1 activation in response to cytokines. These observations identify a novel function of C/EBP? as a modulatory transcription factor that inhibits the pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory gene networks activated by cytokines in pancreatic ?-cells.

Moore, Fabrice; Santin, Izortze; Nogueira, Tatiane C.; Gurzov, Esteban N.; Marselli, Lorella; Marchetti, Piero; Eizirik, Decio L.

2012-01-01

318

Bioluminescence determination of active caspase-3 in single apoptotic cells.  

PubMed

Caspase-3 is an executive caspase, in the central position within apoptotic machinery. Apoptosis as a way of programmed cell death is a physiological process that plays an essential role in the development and homeostasis maintenance; moreover, its deregulations are linked to tumor progression or various autoimmune disorders. Therefore, an investigation of apoptosis pathways on the level of individual cells is not only of biological but also medical importance. In this work we report on the development of a high-sensitivity instrumentation and protocol for detection of active caspase-3 in individual mammalian apoptotic cells. The technology is based on the specific cleavage of modified luciferin by caspase-3, an immediate bioluminescence reaction of free luciferin with luciferase followed by emissions of photons and their detection by photomultiplier tube working in the photon counting regime. Three different instrumental arrangements are compared for the determination of caspase-3 in free cells or tissue samples. Thus, in our best miniaturized system the mean amount as low as about 6.5 fg corresponding to 122?000 molecules of caspase-3 can be detected in individual apoptotic mouse leg cells. PMID:23436689

Lišková, Marcela; Klepárník, Karel; Matalová, Eva; Hegrová, Jitka; P?ikryl, Jan; Svandová, Eva; Foret, František

2013-04-24

319

Ribonuclease binase apoptotic signature in leukemic Kasumi-1 cells.  

PubMed

Cytotoxic exogenous RNases triggering apoptotic response in malignant cells have potential as anticancer drugs; surprisingly, detailed characterization of the RNase-induced apoptosis has not been conducted so far. Here we show that a cytotoxic RNase from Bacillus intermedius (binase) induces extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways in leukemic Kasumi-1 cells. The experiments were performed using TaqMan Array Human Apoptosis 96-well Plate for gene expression analysis, and flow cytometry. Cytometric studies demonstrated dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pores, activation of caspases, increase of intracellular Ca(2+) and decrease of reactive oxygen species levels. We found that expression of 62 apoptotic genes is up-regulated, including 16 genes that are highly up-regulated, and only one gene was found to be down-regulated. The highest, 16 fold increase of the expression level was observed for TNF gene. Highly up-regulated genes also include the non-canonical NF-?B signaling pathway and inflammatory caspases 1,4. The obtained results suggest that binase induces evolutionary acquired cellular response to a microbial agent and triggers unusual apoptosis pathway. PMID:23499289

Mitkevich, Vladimir A; Kretova, Olga V; Petrushanko, Irina Yu; Burnysheva, Ksenia M; Sosin, Dmitry V; Simonenko, Olga V; Ilinskaya, Olga N; Tchurikov, Nickolai A; Makarov, Alexander A

2013-03-13

320

Membrane Protected Apoptotic Trophoblast Microparticles Contain Nucleic Acids  

PubMed Central

Microparticles (MPs) that circulate in blood may be a source of DNA for molecular analyses, including prenatal genetic diagnoses. Because MPs are heterogeneous in nature, however, further characterization is important before use in clinical settings. One key question is whether DNA is either bound to aggregates of blood proteins and lipid micelles or intrinsically associated with MPs from dying cells. To test the latter hypothesis, we asked whether MPs derived in vitro from dying cells were similar to those in maternal plasma. JEG-3 cells model extravillous trophoblasts, which predominate during the first trimester of pregnancy when prenatal diagnosis is most relevant. MPs were derived from apoptosis and increased over 48 hours. Compared with necrotic MPs, DNA in apoptotic MPs was more fragmented and resistant to plasma DNases. Membrane-specific dyes indicated that apoptotic MPs had more membranous material, which protects nucleic acids, including RNA. Flow cytometry showed that MPs derived from dying cells displayed light scatter and DNA staining similar to MPs found in maternal plasma. Quantification of maternal MPs using characteristics defined by MPs generated in vitro revealed a significant increase of DNA+ MPs in the plasma of women with preeclampsia compared with plasma from women with normal pregnancies. Apoptotic MPs are therefore a likely source of stable DNA that could be enriched for both early genetic diagnosis and monitoring of pathological pregnancies.

Orozco, Aaron F.; Jorgez, Carolina J.; Horne, Cassandra; Marquez-Do, Deborah A.; Chapman, Matthew R.; Rodgers, John R.; Bischoff, Farideh Z.; Lewis, Dorothy E.

2008-01-01

321

PDT-apoptotic tumor cells induce macrophage immune response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) functions as a cancer therapy through two major cell death mechanisms: apoptosis and necrosis. Immunological responses induced by PDT has been mainly associated with necrosis while apoptosis associated immune responses have not fully investigated. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play an important role in regulating immune responses. In present study, we studied whether apoptotic tumor cells could induce immune response and how the HSP70 regulates immune response. The endocytosis of tumor cells by the activated macrophages was observed at single cell level by LSM. The TNF-? release of macrophages induced by co-incubated with PDT-apoptotic tumor cells was detected by ELISA. We found that apoptotic tumor cells treated by PDT could activate the macrophages, and the immune effect decreased evidently when HSP70 was blocked. These findings not only show that apoptosis can induce immunological responses, but also show HSP70 may serves as a danger signal for immune cells and induce immune responses to regulate the efficacy of PDT.

Zhou, Fei-fan; Xing, Da; Chen, Wei R.

2008-03-01

322

Apoptotic mimicry: an altruistic behavior in host/Leishmania interplay.  

PubMed

Apoptosis is the most common phenotype observed when cells die through programmed cell death. The morphologic and biochemical changes that characterize apoptotic cells depend on the activation of a diverse set of genes. Apoptosis is essential for multicellular organisms since their development and homeostasis are dependent on extensive cell renewal. In fact, there is strong evidence for the correlation between the emergence of multicellular organisms and apoptosis during evolution. On the other hand, no obvious advantages can be envisaged for unicellular organisms to carry the complex machinery required for programmed cell death. However, accumulating evidence shows that free-living and parasitic protozoa as well as yeasts display apoptotic markers. This phenomenon has been related to altruistic behavior, when a subpopulation of protozoa or yeasts dies by apoptosis, with clear benefits for the entire population. Recently, phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure and its recognition by a specific receptor (PSR) were implicated in the infectivity of amastigote forms of Leishmania, an obligatory vertebrate intramacrophagic parasite, showing for the first time that unicellular organisms use apoptotic features for the establishment and/or maintenance of infection. Here we focus on PS exposure in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane--an early hallmark of apoptosis--and how it modulates the inflammatory activity of phagocytic cells. We also discuss the possible mechanisms by which PS exposure can define Leishmania survival inside host cells and the evolutionary implications of apoptosis at the unicellular level. PMID:15933773

Wanderley, J L M; Benjamin, A; Real, F; Bonomo, A; Moreira, M E C; Barcinski, M A

2005-06-01

323

A DR4:tBID axis drives the p53 apoptotic response by promoting oligomerization of poised BAX  

PubMed Central

The cellular response to p53 activation varies greatly in a stimulus- and cell type-specific manner. Dissecting the molecular mechanisms defining these cell fate choices will assist the development of effective p53-based cancer therapies and also illuminate fundamental processes by which gene networks control cellular behaviour. Using an experimental system wherein stimulus-specific p53 responses are elicited by non-genotoxic versus genotoxic agents, we discovered a novel mechanism that determines whether cells undergo proliferation arrest or cell death. Strikingly, we observe that key mediators of cell-cycle arrest (p21, 14-3-3?) and apoptosis (PUMA, BAX) are equally activated regardless of outcome. In fact, arresting cells display strong translocation of PUMA and BAX to the mitochondria, yet fail to release cytochrome C or activate caspases. Surprisingly, the key differential events in apoptotic cells are p53-dependent activation of the DR4 death receptor pathway, caspase 8-mediated cleavage of BID, and BID-dependent activation of poised BAX at the mitochondria. These results reveal a previously unappreciated role for DR4 and the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in cell fate choice following p53 activation.

Henry, Ryan E; Andrysik, Zdenek; Paris, Ramiro; Galbraith, Matthew D; Espinosa, Joaquin M

2012-01-01

324

Metabolic regulation of CaMKII protein and caspases in Xenopus laevis egg extracts.  

PubMed

The metabolism of the Xenopus laevis egg provides a cell survival signal. We found previously that increased carbon flux from glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) through the pentose phosphate pathway in egg extracts maintains NADPH levels and calcium/calmodulin regulated protein kinase II (CaMKII) activity to phosphorylate caspase 2 and suppress cell death pathways. Here we show that the addition of G6P to oocyte extracts inhibits the dephosphorylation/inactivation of CaMKII bound to caspase 2 by protein phosphatase 1. Thus, G6P sustains the phosphorylation of caspase 2 by CaMKII at Ser-135, preventing the induction of caspase 2-mediated apoptotic pathways. These findings expand our understanding of oocyte biology and clarify mechanisms underlying the metabolic regulation of CaMKII and apoptosis. Furthermore, these findings suggest novel approaches to disrupt the suppressive effects of the abnormal metabolism on cell death pathways. PMID:23400775

McCoy, Francis; Darbandi, Rashid; Chen, Si-Ing; Eckard, Laura; Dodd, Keela; Jones, Kelly; Baucum, Anthony J; Gibbons, Jennifer A; Lin, Sue-Hwa; Colbran, Roger J; Nutt, Leta K

2013-02-11

325

Inducible over-expression of wild type alpha-synuclein in human neuronal cells leads to caspase-dependent non-apoptotic death.  

PubMed

Alpha-synuclein (ASYN) is central in Parkinson's disease pathogenesis. Converging pieces of evidence suggest that the levels of ASYN expression play a critical role in both familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease. To elucidate the mechanism underlying wild type (WT) ASYN-mediated neurotoxicity, we have generated a novel Tet-Off SHSY-5Y cell line, conditionally expressing WT ASYN. Induction of human WT ASYN in retinoic acid-differentiated SHSY-5Y cells leads to accumulation of soluble ASYN oligomers, in the absence of inclusions, and to gradual cellular degeneration. Morphologically, the death observed is non-apoptotic. Caspases other than caspase 3, including caspase 9, are activated and caspase inhibition diminishes death by acting at a point upstream of cytochrome c release. Application of Scyllo-inositol, an oligomer-stabilizing compound, prevents neuronal death in this model. These findings are consistent with a model in which oligomeric ASYN triggers the initial activation of the apoptotic pathway, which is however blocked downstream of the mitochondrial checkpoint, thus leading to a death combining in a unique fashion both apoptotic and non-apoptotic features. This novel inducible cell model system may prove valuable in the deciphering of WT ASYN-induced pathogenic effects and in the assessment and screening of potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:19476547

Vekrellis, Kostas; Xilouri, Maria; Emmanouilidou, Evangelia; Stefanis, Leonidas

2009-03-23

326

The mitochondrial phase of the glucocorticoid-induced apoptotic response in thymocytes comprises sequential activation of adenine nucleotide transporter (ANT)-independent and ANT-dependent events.  

PubMed

In thymocytes, dexamethasone initiates cytochrome c-dependent processing of caspase-9 and the activation of caspase-3 to trigger apoptotic damage. Using murine thymocytes or a thymocyte cell line WEHI 7.1, we show that this pathway is inhibited by dominant-negative caspase-9, the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, or by blocking components of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex (PTPC). We use DIDS (dithiocyanatostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid), a pharmacological modifier of VDAC (voltage-dependent anion channel) function or ectopic expression of hexokinase-II, to examine the role of the VDAC--a mitochondrial outer membrane protein--in this apoptotic pathway. This approach implicated the VDAC in dexamethasone-mediated cytochrome c release, processing of caspase-9 and caspase-3, the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Deltapsim), nuclear damage and cell lysis. Inhibiting the adenine nucleotide transporter (ANT), a protein on the mitochondrial inner membrane, also blocks dexamethasone-induced apoptosis, but the ANT regulates caspase-3 processing and nuclear damage but not the mitochondrial efflux of cytochrome c. Collectively, the data identify two separable, but connected events in dexamethasone-induced mitochondrial damage in thymocytes. The first event is an increase in permeability of the mitochondrial outer membrane leading to VDAC-regulated efflux of cytochrome c and initial processing of caspase-9 followed by ANT-dependent caspase-3 processing and apoptotic damage to cells. PMID:14971037

Sade, Hadassah; Khandre, Nagamani S; Mathew, M K; Sarin, Apurva

2004-01-01

327

Anti-apoptotic activity of p53 maps to the COOH-terminal domain and is retained in a highly oncogenic natural mutant.  

PubMed

The tumour suppressor p53 plays a complex role in the regulation of apoptosis. High levels of wild type p53 potentiate the apoptotic response, while physiological range, low levels of the protein have an anti-apoptotic activity in serum starved immortalized fibroblasts. Here we report that primary fibroblast-like cells that show normal growth control are also efficiently protected from apoptosis by the endogenous p53 activity. The capacity to inhibit apoptosis is not restricted to the wild type protein: the R-->H175 p53 mutant fully retains the anti-apoptotic activity of the wild type p53, providing a possible explanation for its high oncogenicity. Using a series of point and deletion mutants of p53 under the control of tetracycline-regulated promoter we show that certain mutants, like the wild type, protect cells at low levels but lead to apoptosis when overexpressed. This latter effect is lost upon deletion of a proline-rich domain in the NH2 part of the protein. The anti-apoptotic activity can be mapped to the extreme carboxy-terminal part of the protein and is therefore independent of other well characterized p53 activities. Our results add a new level of complexity to the network of interactions mediated by p53 in normal physiology and pathology. PMID:10467417

Lassus, P; Bertrand, C; Zugasti, O; Chambon, J P; Soussi, T; Mathieu-Mahul, D; Hibner, U

1999-08-19

328

Two In-and-out Modulation Strategies for Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-linked Gene Expression of Pro-apoptotic Macrophage-inhibitory Cytokine 1*  

PubMed Central

Excessive and persistent insults during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress lead to apoptotic cell death that is implicated in a range of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancers. Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC-1), a member of the transforming growth factor-? superfamily, is diversely linked to the pathogenesis of cancer. To investigate the precise molecular mechanisms of MIC-1 gene regulation, ER stress and its related signals were studied in human colon cancer cells. Functionally, MIC-1 played pivotal roles in ER stress-linked apoptotic death, which was also influenced by C/EBP homologous protein, a well known apoptotic mediator of ER stress. ER stress enhanced MIC-1 mRNA stability instead of transcriptional activation, and there were two mechanistic translocations critical for mRNA stabilization. First, C/EBP homologous protein triggered protein kinase C-linked cytosolic translocation of the HuR/ELAVL1 (Elav-like RNA-binding protein 1) RNA-binding protein, which bound to and stabilized MIC-1 transcript. As the second critical in-and-out regulation, ER stress-activated ERK1/2 signals contributed to enhanced stabilization of MIC-1 transcript by controlling the extended holding of the nucleated mRNA in the stress granules fusing with the mRNA-decaying processing body. We propose that these two sequential in-and-out modulations can account for stabilized transcription and subsequent translation of pro-apoptotic MIC-1 gene in human cancer cells under ER stress.

Park, Seong-Hwan; Choi, Hye Jin; Yang, Hyun; Do, Kee Hun; Kim, Juil; Kim, Hyun-Hong; Lee, Heejeong; Oh, Chang Gyu; Lee, Dong Won; Moon, Yuseok

2012-01-01

329

AKT KINASE REDUCING ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM Ca2+ RELEASE PROTECTS CELLS FROM Ca2+-DEPENDENT APOPTOTIC STIMULI  

PubMed Central

The proto-oncogene AKT is a potent inhibitor of apoptosis, and it is activated in many human cancers. A number of recent studies have highlighted the importance of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor (IP3R) in mediating calcium (Ca2+) transfer from the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) to the mitochondria in several models of apoptosis. AKT is a serine-threonine kinase and recent data indicate the IP3R as a target of its phosphorylation activity. Here we show that HeLa cells, overexpressing the constitutively active myristoylated/palmitylated AKT1 (m/p-AKT1), were found to have a reduced Ca2+ release from ER after stimulation with agonist coupled to the generation of IP3. In turn, this affected cytosolic and mitochondria Ca2+ response after Ca2+ release from the ER induced either by agonist stimulation or by apoptotic stimuli releasing Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Most importantly, this alteration of ER Ca2+ content and release, reduces significantly cellular sensitivity to Ca2+ mediated proapoptotic stimulation. These results reveal a primary role of AKT in shaping intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, that may underlie its protective role against some proapoptotic stimuli

Marchi, Saverio; Rimessi, Alessandro; Giorgi, Carlotta; Baldini, Claudio; Ferroni, Letizia; Rizzuto, Rosario; Pinton, Paolo

2008-01-01

330

The extrathyronine actions of iodine as antioxidant, apoptotic, and differentiation factor in various tissues.  

PubMed

Background: Seaweed is an important dietary component and a rich source of iodine in several chemical forms in Asian communities. Their high consumption of this element (25 times higher than in Western countries) has been associated with the low incidence of benign and cancerous breast and prostate disease in Japanese people. Summary: We review evidence showing that, in addition to being a component of the thyroid hormone, iodine can be an antioxidant as well as an antiproliferative and differentiation agent that helps to maintain the integrity of several organs with the ability to take up iodine. In animal and human studies, molecular iodine (I2) supplementation exerts a suppressive effect on the development and size of both benign and cancerous neoplasias. Investigations by several groups have demonstrated that these effects can be mediated by a variety of mechanisms and pathways, including direct actions, in which the oxidized iodine dissipates the mitochondrial membrane potential, thereby triggering mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis, and indirect effects through iodolipid formation and the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors type gamma, which, in turn, trigger apoptotic or differentiation pathways. Conclusions: We propose that the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficient Disorders recommend that iodine intake be increased to at least 3?mg/day of I2 in specific pathologies to obtain the potential extrathyroidal benefits described in the present review. PMID:23607319

Aceves, Carmen; Anguiano, Brenda; Delgado, Guadalupe

2013-08-01

331

Mechanisms of pre-apoptotic calreticulin exposure in immunogenic cell death  

PubMed Central

Dying tumour cells can elicit a potent anticancer immune response by exposing the calreticulin (CRT)/ERp57 complex on the cell surface before the cells manifest any signs of apoptosis. Here, we enumerate elements of the pathway that mediates pre-apoptotic CRT/ERp57 exposure in response to several immunogenic anticancer agents. Early activation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-sessile kinase PERK leads to phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2?, followed by partial activation of caspase-8 (but not caspase-3), caspase-8-mediated cleavage of the ER protein BAP31 and conformational activation of Bax and Bak. Finally, a pool of CRT that has transited the Golgi apparatus is secreted by SNARE-dependent exocytosis. Knock-in mutation of eIF2? (to make it non-phosphorylatable) or BAP31 (to render it uncleavable), depletion of PERK, caspase-8, BAP31, Bax, Bak or SNAREs abolished CRT/ERp57 exposure induced by anthracyclines, oxaliplatin and ultraviolet C light. Depletion of PERK, caspase-8 or SNAREs had no effect on cell death induced by anthracyclines, yet abolished the immunogenicity of cell death, which could be restored by absorbing recombinant CRT to the cell surface.

Panaretakis, Theocharis; Kepp, Oliver; Brockmeier, Ulf; Tesniere, Antoine; Bjorklund, Ann-Charlotte; Chapman, Daniel C; Durchschlag, Michael; Joza, Nicholas; Pierron, Gerard; van Endert, Peter; Yuan, Junying; Zitvogel, Laurence; Madeo, Frank; Williams, David B; Kroemer, Guido

2009-01-01

332

Mediation Analysis  

PubMed Central

Mediating variables are prominent in psychological theory and research. A mediating variable transmits the effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable. Differences between mediating variables and confounders, moderators, and covariates are outlined. Statistical methods to assess mediation and modern comprehensive approaches are described. Future directions for mediation analysis are discussed.

MacKinnon, David P.; Fairchild, Amanda J.; Fritz, Matthew S.

2010-01-01

333

Retinal growth hormone is an anti-apoptotic factor in embryonic retinal ganglion cell differentiation.  

PubMed

Cells of the neural retina in the chick embryo undergo several waves of apoptosis during development, including peaks at approximately embryonic day (ED) 7 and 12. Prominent among the cells involved in these phases of cell death are the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). We have previously shown that growth hormone (GH) is expressed in the neural retina, and particularly, in the RGCs. Here we study the ability of GH to rescue retinal cells from apoptosis, both in vitro and in vivo. When retinas from embryos at ED 6-8 are explanted on collagen gels, the application of recombinant GH, at 10(-6)m, significantly reduced the incidence of apoptotic cells in the cultures as judged by terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labelling (TUNEL). GH was delivered to neural retinas in ovo, by microinjection into the eye cup at ED 2. When these embryos were examined at ED 6-8, no reduction in cell death was observed below the normal low control levels. However, when antibodies to GH were microinjected, the incidence of cell death increased significantly at ED 6, providing evidence that in vivo immunoneutralization of endogenous GH results in triggering of apoptotic signaling pathways. Evidence that RGCs are a particular target of this neuroprotective effect of GH was provided by examination of cultures enriched for RGCs by immunopanning. In serum-free culture, RGCs, identified by anti-Islet 1 immunolabelling, were found to be susceptible to the effect of GH immunoneutralization, which approximately quadrupled the incidence of apoptosis in the cultures. We propose that GH is a naturally occurring autocrine and/or paracrine neuroprotective agent in the developing retina which is involved in the regulation of retinal cell numbers during early embryogenesis. PMID:15913606

Sanders, Esmond J; Parker, Eve; Arámburo, Carlos; Harvey, Steve

2005-11-01

334

Localization of dynein light chains 1 and 2 and their pro-apoptotic ligands.  

PubMed Central

The dynein and myosin V motor complexes are multi-protein structures that function to transport molecules and organelles within the cell. DLC (dynein light-chain) proteins, found as components of both dynein and myosin V motor complexes, connect the complexes to their cargoes. One of the roles of these motor complexes is to selectively sequester the pro-apoptotic 'BH3-only' (Bcl-2 homology 3-only) proteins, Bim (Bcl-2-interacting mediator of cell death) and Bmf (Bcl-2-modifying factor), and so regulate their cell death-inducing function. In vivo DLC2 is found exclusively as a component of the myosin V motor complex and Bmf binds DLC2 selectively. On the other hand, Bim interacts with DLC1 (LC8), an integral component of the dynein motor complex. The two DLCs share 93% sequence identity yet show unambiguous in vivo specificity for their respective BH3-only ligands. To investigate this specificity the three-dimensional solution structure of DLC2 was elucidated using NMR spectroscopy. In vitro structural and mutagenesis studies show that Bmf and Bim have identical binding characteristics to recombinant DLC2 or DLC1. Thus the selectivity shown by Bmf and Bim for binding DLC1 or DLC2, respectively, does not reside in their DLC-binding domains. Remarkably, mutational analysis of DLC1 and DLC2 indicates that a single surface residue (residue 41) determines the specific localization of DLCs with their respective motor complexes. These results suggest a molecular mechanism for the specific compartmentalization of DLCs and their pro-apoptotic cargoes and implicate other protein(s) in defining the specificity between the cargoes and the DLC proteins.

Day, Catherine L; Puthalakath, Hamsa; Skea, Gretchen; Strasser, Andreas; Barsukov, Igor; Lian, Lu-Yun; Huang, David C S; Hinds, Mark G

2004-01-01

335

Complex Human Glucocorticoid Receptor dim Mutations Define Glucocorticoid Induced Apoptotic Resistance in Bone Cells  

PubMed Central

A mutation in the D-loop of the second zinc finger of the DNA-binding domain of the human glucocorticoid receptor (hGR), A458T (GRdim), has been suggested to be essential for dimerization and DNA binding of the GR, and genetically altered GRdim mice survive, whereas murine GR knockout mice die. Interestingly, thymocytes isolated from the GRdim mice were reported to be resistant to glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis. To further evaluate the dim mutations in glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis, we stably expressed either the hGRdim (A458T) or the hGRdim4 (A458T, R460D, D462C, and N454D) mutant receptors in human osteosarcoma (U-2 OS) cells that are devoid of hGR and unresponsive to glucocorticoids. We analyzed these cell lines by comparison with a stable expression hGR? U-2 OS cell line, which undergoes apoptosis after glucocorticoid treatment. Transient reporter gene assays with glucocorticoid response element-driven vectors revealed that the hGRdim mutation had diminished steroid responsiveness and cells carrying the hGRdim4 mutation were unresponsive to steroid, whereas glucocorticoid-induced nuclear factor ?B repression was unaffected by either mutation. Interestingly, both the hGRdim and hGRdim4 receptors readily formed dimers as measured by immunoprecipitation. Examination of GR-mediated apoptosis showed that hGRdim cells were only partially resistant to apoptosis, whereas hGRdim4 cells were completely resistant to glucocorticoid-induced cell death despite remaining sensitive to other apoptotic stimuli. Global gene expression analysis revealed that hGRdim4 cells widely regulated gene expression but differentially regulated apoptotic mRNA when compared with cells expressing wild-type hGR?. These studies challenge conclusions drawn from previous studies of GR dim mutants.

Scoltock, Alyson B.; Hamel, Brant L.; Yudt, Matthew R.; Cidlowski, John A.

2012-01-01

336

Differential effects of Oroxylum indicum bark extracts: antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and apoptotic study.  

PubMed

Stem bark of Oroxylum indicum (L) (SBOI) is used by ethnic communities of North East India as health tonic and in treating diseases of humans and animals. The objective of this research was to carry out a detailed investigation including total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of different solvent extracts of SBOI and to establish correlation between some parameters. Among petroleum ether (PE), dichloromethane and methanol (MeOH) extract of SBOI, MeOH extract contained the highest amount of total phenolic (320.7 ± 34.6 mg Gallic acid equivalent/g extract) and flavonoid (346.6 ± 15.2 mg Quercetin equivalent/g extract) content. In vitro antioxidant activity (IC(50) 22.7 ?g/ml) was highest in MeOH extract (p > 0.05) and also a significant inverse correlation was observed between phenolic (r = 0.886)/flavonoid (r = 0.764) content and corresponding DPPH IC(50). Only MeOH extract inhibited both bacteria and fungi. Although, individual extract showed cytotoxicity on HeLa cells with characteristic features of apoptosis, PE extract caused maximum cytotoxicity (IC(50) of 112.3 ?g/ml, p < 0.05) and apoptotic activity (33.2 % sub-G0/G1 population) on HeLa cells. But, there was a significant non-inverse correlation of the MTT IC(50) with total phenolic (r = 0.812, p < 0.05)/flavonoid (r = 0.998, p < 0.05) content in the three solvent extracts. TLC analysis showed three unique compounds in PE extract which may have a role in apoptosis mediated cytotoxicity. These results called for futher chemical characterisation of MeOH and PE extract of SBOI for specific bioactivity. PMID:22821054

Moirangthem, Dinesh Singh; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra; Bora, Utpal; Kasoju, Naresh; Das, Ratul Kumar

2012-07-22

337

Opposing Role of Prion Protein in Oxidative Stress- and ER Stress-induced Apoptotic Signaling  

PubMed Central

Although the prion protein is abundantly expressed in the CNS, its biological functions remain unclear. To determine the endogenous function of the cellular prion protein (PrPc), we compared the effects of oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducers on apoptotic signaling in PrPc-expressing and PrPko-knockout neural cells. H2O2, brefeldin-A (BFA) and tunicamycin (TUN) induced increases in caspase-9 and caspase-3, PKC? proteolytic activation, and DNA fragmentation in PrPc and PrPko cells. Interestingly, ER stress-induced activation of caspases, PKC?, and apoptosis were significantly exacerbated in PrPc cells, whereas H2O2-induced proapoptotic changes were suppressed in PrPc compared to PrPko cells. Additionally, caspases-12 and -8 were activated only in BFA and TUN treatments. Inhibitors of caspase-9, caspase-3, and PKC? significantly blocked H2O2-, BFA- and TUN-induced apoptosis, whereas the caspase-8 inhibitor attenuated only BFA- and TUN-induced cell death, and the antioxidant MnTBAP blocked only H2O2-induced apoptosis. Overexpression of the kinase inactive PKC?K376R or the cleavage site-resistant PKC?D327A mutants suppressed both ER- and oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Thus, PrPc plays a proapoptotic role during ER stress, and an anti-apoptotic role during oxidative stress-induced cell death. Together, these results suggest that cellular PrPc enhances the susceptibility of neural cells to impairment of protein processing and trafficking, but decreases the vulnerability to oxidative insults, and that PKC? is a key downstream mediator of cellular stress-induced neuronal apoptosis.

Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Choi, Christopher J; Martin, Dustin P; Latchoumycandane, Calivarathan; Richt, Juergen A.; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

2008-01-01

338

Alteration of TEAD1 Expression Levels Confers Apoptotic Resistance through the Transcriptional Up-Regulation of Livin  

PubMed Central

Background TEA domain (TEAD) proteins are highly conserved transcription factors involved in embryonic development and differentiation of various tissues. More recently, emerging evidences for a contribution of these proteins towards apoptosis and cell proliferation regulation have also been proposed. These effects appear to be mediated by the interaction between TEAD and its co-activator Yes-Associated Protein (YAP), the downstream effector of the Hippo tumour suppressor pathway. Methodology/Principal Findings We further investigated the mechanisms underlying TEAD-mediated apoptosis regulation and showed that overexpression or RNAi-mediated silencing of the TEAD1 protein is sufficient to protect mammalian cell lines from induced apoptosis, suggesting a proapoptotic function for TEAD1 and a non physiological cytoprotective effect for overexpressed TEAD1. Moreover we show that the apoptotic resistance conferred by altered TEAD1 expression is mediated by the transcriptional up-regulation of Livin, a member of the Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (IAP) family. In addition, we show that overexpression of a repressive form of TEAD1 can induce Livin up-regulation, indicating that the effect of TEAD1 on Livin expression is indirect and favoring a model in which TEAD1 activates a repressor of Livin by interacting with a limiting cofactor that gets titrated upon TEAD1 up-regulation. Interestingly, we show that overexpression of a mutated form of TEAD1 (Y421H) implicated in Sveinsson's chorioretinal atrophy that strongly reduces its interaction with YAP as well as its activation, can induce Livin expression and protect cells from induced apoptosis, suggesting that YAP is not the cofactor involved in this process. Conclusions/Significance Taken together our data reveal a new, Livin-dependent, apoptotic role for TEAD1 in mammals and provide mechanistic insight downstream of TEAD1 deregulation in cancers.

Landin Malt, Andre; Cagliero, Julie; Legent, Kevin; Silber, Joel; Zider, Alain; Flagiello, Domenico

2012-01-01

339

Traditional Mediation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Four articles address traditional mediation in library services, including the librarian as mediator, the reference librarian as information intermediary, recommitment to patrons' information needs, and mediation in reference service to extend patron success. (87 references) (LRW)|

Hafner, Arthur W.; And Others

1992-01-01

340

Effects of Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors on Apoptotic Neuroretinal Cells  

PubMed Central

Glaucoma is characterized by a loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) which is associated with a decrease of visual function. Neuroprotective agents as a new therapeutic strategy could prevent the remaining neurons from apoptotic cell death. Previous studies have shown the involvement of the Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 signalling in the apoptotic death of neurons. Herein we investigated the neuroprotective effect of COX-1/COX-2- and selective COX-2- inhibitors on apoptotic. R28, a neuroretinal cell line and determined the PGE2 levels by ELISA. Furthermore we investigated differences in protein expression in the cells after exposure to elevated pressure compared to untreated cells by ProteinChip analysis. In addition, a protein profiling study of the cells after exposure to elevated pressure was performed. The protein expression profiles were measured by SELDI-TOF (Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization-time of flight) Protein Chips. The protein identification was performed by mass spectrometry (MS). It could be shown that COX-2 inhibition significantly prevented the cells from apoptosis and reduced the PGE2 concentrations. Selective COX-2 inhibitors were significant more potent than non-selective inhibitors or COX-1 inhibitors. We found differently expressed protein patterns in neuroretinal cells cultured at atmospheric pressure compared to those cells exposed to elevated pressure with or without celecoxib respectively. We identified three biomarkers, ubiquitin, HSP10 and NDKB, which were differently expressed in the groups. However, our data indicates a distinct neuroprotective effect of COX-2 inhibition. The local treatment with selective COX-2 inhibitors might provide an innovative strategy of therapeutic intervention for glaucoma.

Brust, Anja-Kristina; Ulbrich, Holger K.; Seigel, Gail M.; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Grus, Franz H.

2008-01-01

341

Second-Hand Smoke-Induced Cardiac Fibrosis Is Related to the Fas Death Receptor Apoptotic Pathway without Mitochondria-Dependent Pathway Involvement in Rats  

PubMed Central

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke has been epidemiologically linked to heart disease among nonsmokers. However, the molecular mechanism behind the pathogenesis of cardiac disease is unknown. In this study, we found that Wistar rats, exposed to tobacco cigarette smoke at doses of 5, 10, or 15 cigarettes for 30 min twice a day for 1 month, had a dose-dependently reduced heart weight to body weight ratio and enhanced interstitial fibrosis as identified by histopathologic analysis. The mRNA and activity of matrix metalloprotease-2 (MMP-2), representing the progress of cardiac remodeling, were also elevated in the heart. In addition, we used reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting to demonstrate significantly increased levels of the apoptotic effecter caspase-3 in treated animal hearts. Dose-dependently elevated mRNA and protein levels of Fas, and promoted apoptotic initiator caspase-8 (active form), a molecule of a death-receptor–dependent pathway, coupled with unaltered or decreased levels of cytosolic cytochrome c and the apoptotic initiator caspase-9 (active form), molecules of mitochondria-dependent pathways, may be indicative of cardiac apoptosis, which is Fas death-receptor apoptotic-signaling dependent, but not mitochondria pathway dependent in rats exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS). With regard to the regulation of survival pathway, using dot blotting, we found cardiac insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF-1 receptor mRNA levels to be significantly increased, indicating that compensative effects of IGF-1 survival signaling could occur. In conclusion, we found that the effects of SHS on cardiomyocyte are mediated by the Fas death-receptor–dependent apoptotic pathway and might be related to the epidemiologic incidence of cardiac disease of SHS-exposed non-smokers.

Kuo, Wei-Wen; Wu, Chieh-Hsi; Lee, Shin-Da; Lin, James A.; Chu, Chia-Yih; Hwang, Jin-Ming; Ueng, Kwo-Chang; Chang, Mu-Hsin; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Wang, Chau-Jong; Liu, Jer-Yuh; Huang, Chih-Yang

2005-01-01

342

Binding of Anti-SSA Antibodies to Apoptotic Fetal Cardiocytes Stimulates uPA/uPAR-Dependent Activation of TGF beta and Potentiates Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

In congenital heart block (CHB), binding of maternal anti-SSA/Ro antibodies to fetal apoptotic cardiocytes impairs their removal by healthy cardiocytes and increases uPA/uPAR-dependent plasmin activation. Since the uPA/uPAR system plays a role in TGF beta activation, we evaluated whether anti-Ro binding to apoptotic cardiocytes enhances plasmin-mediated activation of TGF beta thereby promoting a profibrosing phenotype. Supernatants from co-cultures of healthy cardiocytes and apoptotic cardiocytes bound by IgG from a mother whose child had CHB (apo-CHB-IgG) exhibited significantly increased levels of active TGF beta compared to supernatants from co-cultures of healthy cardiocytes and apoptotic cardiocytes preincubated with IgG (apo-nl-IgG) from a healthy donor. Treatment of the culture medium with anti-TGF beta antibody or TGF beta inhibitor (SB431542) abrogated the luciferase response thereby confirming TGF beta dependency. Increased uPA levels and activity were present in supernatants generated from cocultures of healthy cardiocytes and apo-CHB-IgG cardiocytes compared to healthy cardiocytes and and apo nl-IgG cardiocytes, respectively. Treatment of apo-CHB-IgG cardiocytes with anti-uPAR or anti-uPA antibodies or plasmin inhibitor aprotinin prior to coculturing with healthy cardiocytes attenuated TGF beta activation. Supernatants derived from cocultures of healthy cardiocytes and apo-CHB-IgG cardiocytes promoted Smad2 phosphorylation and fibroblast transdifferentiation as evidenced by increased SMAc and collagen expression, which decreased when fibroblasts were treated with supernatants from cocultures pretreated with uPAR antibodies. These data suggest that binding of anti-Ro antibodies to apoptotic cardiocytes triggers TGF beta activation, by virtue of increasing uPAR-dependent uPA activity, thus initiating and amplifying a cascade of events that promote myofibroblast transdifferentiation and scar.

Briassouli, Paraskevi; Rifkin, Daniel; Clancy, Robert M.; Buyon, Jill P.

2011-01-01

343

Curcumin induces apoptosis through the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway in HT29 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To investigate the effects of curcumin on release of cytochrome c and expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, Bad, Bcl-xL, caspase-3, poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), and survivin of HT-29 cells. Methods:\\u000a HT-29 cells were treated with curcumin (0?80 ?mol\\/L) for 24 h. The release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria and the apoptosis-related proteins Bax, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bad, caspase-3, PARP, and survivin

Jin-bo Wang; Li-li Qi; Shui-di Zheng; Tian-xing Wu

2009-01-01

344

Activation of p53-regulated pro-apoptotic signaling pathways in PrP-mediated myopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We have reported that doxycycline-induced over-expression of wild type prion protein (PrP) in skeletal muscles of Tg(HQK) mice is sufficient to cause a primary myopathy with no signs of peripheral neuropathy. The preferential accumulation of the truncated PrP C1 fragment was closely correlated with these myopathic changes. In this study we use gene expression profiling to explore the temporal

Jingjing Liang; Debra Parchaliuk; Sarah Medina; Garrett Sorensen; Laura Landry; Shenghai Huang; Meiling Wang; Qingzhong Kong; Stephanie A Booth

2009-01-01

345

Apoptotic stress pathway activation mediated by iron on endothelial cells in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Iron sucrose (Fe-S) and low-molecular- weight iron dextran (Fe-D) have been used successfully in the treatment of anaemia in chronic kidney disease patients. However, some side effects, such as endothe- lial cell dysfunction have been reported. Mechanisms by which iron can induce endothelial cell damage have not been completely understood. This study was designed to examine the effect of

Raul G. Carlini; Evelyn Alonzo

2006-01-01

346

Apoptotic Phosphorylation of Histone H2B Is Mediated by Mammalian Sterile Twenty Kinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA in eukaryotic cells is associated with histone proteins; hence, hallmark properties of apoptosis, such as chromatin condensation, may be regulated by posttranslational histone modifications. Here we report that phosphorylation of histone H2B at serine 14 (S14) correlates with cells undergoing programmed cell death in vertebrates. We identify a 34 kDa apoptosis-induced H2B kinase as caspase-cleaved Mst1 (mammalian sterile twenty)

Wang L. Cheung; Kozo Ajiro; Kumiko Samejima; Malgorzata Kloc; Peter Cheung; Craig A. Mizzen; Alexander Beeser; Laurence D. Etkin; Jonathan Chernoff; William C. Earnshaw; C. David Allis

2003-01-01

347

Neisseria gonorrhoeae-mediated inhibition of apoptotic signalling in polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

PubMed

The human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae recruits and interacts extensively with polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) during infection. N. gonorrhoeae is able to survive the bactericidal activity of these innate immune cells and can actively modulate PMN functions in vitro. PMNs are short-lived cells which readily undergo apoptosis, and thus the effect of N. gonorrhoeae infection on PMN survival has implications for whether PMNs might serve as an important site of bacterial replication during infection. We developed and validated an HL-60 myeloid leukemia cell culture model for PMN infection and used both these cells and primary PMNs to show that N. gonorrhoeae infection alone does not induce apoptosis and furthermore that N. gonorrhoeae can inhibit both spontaneous apoptosis and apoptosis induced by the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis inducers staurosporine (STS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), respectively. N. gonorrhoeae infection also results in the activation of NF-?B signaling in neutrophils and induces secretion of an identical profile of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in both HL-60 cells and primary PMNs. Our data show that the HL-60 cell line can be used to effectively model N. gonorrhoeae-PMN interactions and that N. gonorrhoeae actively inhibits apoptosis induced by multiple stimuli to prolong PMN survival and potentially facilitate bacterial survival, replication, and transmission. PMID:21844239

Chen, Adrienne; Seifert, H Steven

2011-08-15

348

Effect of reactive oxygen species generation in rabbit corneal epithelial cells on inflammatory and apoptotic signaling pathways in the presence of high osmotic pressure.  

PubMed

It is generally accepted that high osmotic pressure (HOP) of lacrimal fluid is the core mechanism causing ocular inflammation and injury. However, the association between HOP and the regulation of cell inflammatory response and apoptotic pathways remains unclear. In the present study, we used HOP to interfere with in vitro cultured rabbit corneal epithelial cells, and found that HOP increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in rabbit corneal epithelial cells, and increased ROS in turn induced the activation of JNK inflammatory signaling pathway, which further promoted the expression of pro-inflammatory factor NF-?? and induced the generation of inflammatory factor IL-1? and TNF-?. In addition, HOP-induced ROS in rabbit corneal epithelial cells regulated the CD95/CD95L-mediated cell apoptotic signaling pathway by activating JNK inflammatory signaling pathway. These findings may serve as new theoretical basis and a new way of thinking about the treatment of ocular diseases, especially dry eye. PMID:23977369

Chen, Yihui; Li, Min; Li, Bing; Wang, Weifang; Lin, Anjuan; Sheng, Minjie

2013-08-15

349

Regulation of Fas receptor/Fas-asssociated protein with death domain apoptotic complex and associated signalling systems by cannabinoid receptors in the mouse brain  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Natural and synthetic cannabinoids (CBs) induce deleterious or beneficial actions on neuronal survival. The Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) promotes apoptosis, and its phosphorylated form (p-FADD) mediates non-apoptotic actions. The regulation of Fas/FADD, mitochondrial apoptotic proteins and other pathways by CB receptors was investigated in the mouse brain. Experimental approach: Wild-type, CB1 and CB2 receptor knock-out (KO) mice were used to assess differences in receptor genotypes. CD1 mice were used to evaluate the effects of CB drugs on canonical apoptotic pathways and associated signalling systems. Target proteins were quantified by Western blot analysis. Key results: In brain regions of CB1 receptor KO mice, Fas/FADD was reduced, but p-Ser191 FADD and the p-FADD/FADD ratio were increased. In CB2 receptor KO mice, Fas/FADD was increased, but the p-FADD/FADD ratio was not modified. In mutant mice, cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP) did not indicate alterations in brain cell death. In CD1 mice, acute WIN55212-2 (CB1 receptor agonist), but not JWH133 (CB2 receptor agonist), inversely modulated brain FADD and p-FADD. Chronic WIN55212-2 induced FADD down-regulation and p-FADD up-regulation. Acute and chronic WIN55212-2 did not alter mitochondrial proteins or PARP cleavage. Acute, but not chronic, WIN55212-2 stimulated activation of anti-apoptotic (ERK, Akt) and pro-apoptotic (JNK, p38 kinase) pathways. Conclusions and implications: CB1 receptors appear to exert a modest tonic activation of Fas/FADD complexes in brain. However, chronic CB1 receptor stimulation decreased pro-apoptotic FADD and increased non-apoptotic p-FADD. The multifunctional protein FADD could participate in the mechanisms of neuroprotection induced by CBs. This article is part of a themed issue on Cannabinoids. To view the editorial for this themed issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00831.x

Alvaro-Bartolome, M; Esteban, S; Garcia-Gutierrez, MS; Manzanares, J; Valverde, O; Garcia-Sevilla, JA

2010-01-01

350

Dual-site interactions of p53 protein transactivation domain with anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins reveal a highly convergent mechanism of divergent p53 pathways.  

PubMed

Molecular interactions between the tumor suppressor p53 and the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins play an important role in the transcription-independent apoptosis of p53. The p53 transactivation domain (p53TAD) contains two conserved ?XX?? motifs (? indicates a bulky hydrophobic residue and X is any other residue) referred to as p53TAD1 (residues 15-29) and p53TAD2 (residues 39-57). We previously showed that p53TAD1 can act as a binding motif for anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. In this study, we have identified p53TAD2 as a binding motif for anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins by using NMR spectroscopy, and we calculated the structures of Bcl-X(L)/Bcl-2 in complex with the p53TAD2 peptide. NMR chemical shift perturbation data showed that p53TAD2 peptide binds to diverse members of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family independently of p53TAD1, and the binding between p53TAD2 and p53TAD1 to Bcl-X(L) is competitive. Refined structural models of the Bcl-X(L)·p53TAD2 and Bcl-2·p53TAD2 complexes showed that the binding sites occupied by p53TAD2 in Bcl-X(L) and Bcl-2 overlap well with those occupied by pro-apoptotic BH3 peptides. Taken together with the mutagenesis, isothermal titration calorimetry, and paramagnetic relaxation enhancement data, our structural comparisons provided the structural basis of p53TAD2-mediated interaction with the anti-apoptotic proteins, revealing that Bcl-X(L)/Bcl-2, MDM2, and cAMP-response element-binding protein-binding protein/p300 share highly similar modes of binding to the dual p53TAD motifs, p53TAD1 and p53TAD2. In conclusion, our results suggest that the dual-site interaction of p53TAD is a highly conserved mechanism underlying target protein binding in the transcription-dependent and transcription-independent apoptotic pathways of p53. PMID:23316052

Ha, Ji-Hyang; Shin, Jae-Sun; Yoon, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Min-Sung; He, Fahu; Bae, Kwang-Hee; Yoon, Ho Sup; Lee, Chong-Kil; Park, Sung Goo; Muto, Yutaka; Chi, Seung-Wook

2013-01-11

351

Subcellular localization of Apaf-1 in apoptotic rat pituitary cells.  

PubMed

A key step in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway is the assembly of the apoptosome complex. The apoptosome components are well known; however, the physiology of the assembly of the apoptosome complex at the cellular level is still poorly defined. The aim of this work was to study the subcellular distribution of the apoptosome scaffold protein apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 (Apaf-1) before and after triggering apoptosis in single somatotrophs. Somatotrophs are the subject of extensive pituitary tissue remodeling in different physiological situations in which the quality and the number of pituitary cells are determined by cell proliferation and apoptosis. We show herein that 2 h after triggering apoptosis with rotenone, Apaf-1 redistributed to the proximity of mitochondria. In addition, the degree of colocalization between Apaf-1 and fluorescently labeled caspase-9 significantly increased during the same period. Furthermore, we show herein for the first time in single cells that the colocalization between Apaf-1 and cytochrome c increases only transiently, indicating a transient interaction between cytochrome c and Apaf-1 during the activation of apoptosis in these cells. PMID:16207793

Potokar, Maja; Kreft, Marko; Chowdhury, Helena H; Vardjan, Nina; Zorec, Robert

2005-10-05

352

Heat-induced fibrillation of BclXL apoptotic repressor.  

PubMed

The BclXL apoptotic repressor bears the propensity to associate into megadalton oligomers in solution, particularly under acidic pH. Herein, using various biophysical methods, we analyze the effect of temperature on the oligomerization of BclXL. Our data show that BclXL undergoes irreversible aggregation and assembles into highly-ordered rope-like homogeneous fibrils with length in the order of mm and a diameter in the ?m-range under elevated temperatures. Remarkably, the formation of such fibrils correlates with the decay of a largely ?-helical fold into a predominantly ?-sheet architecture of BclXL in a manner akin to the formation of amyloid fibrils. Further interrogation reveals that while BclXL fibrils formed under elevated temperatures show no observable affinity toward BH3 ligands, they appear to be optimally primed for insertion into cardiolipin bicelles. This salient observation strongly argues that BclXL fibrils likely represent an on-pathway intermediate for insertion into mitochondrial outer membrane during the onset of apoptosis. Collectively, our study sheds light on the propensity of BclXL to form amyloid-like fibrils with important consequences on its mechanism of action in gauging the apoptotic fate of cells in health and disease. PMID:23714425

Bhat, Vikas; Olenick, Max B; Schuchardt, Brett J; Mikles, David C; Deegan, Brian J; McDonald, Caleb B; Seldeen, Kenneth L; Kurouski, Dmitry; Faridi, Mohd Hafeez; Shareef, Mohammed M; Gupta, Vineet; Lednev, Igor K; Farooq, Amjad

2013-05-07

353

Interaction of Late Apoptotic and Necrotic Cells with Vitronectin  

PubMed Central

Background Vitronectin is an abundant plasma glycoprotein identified also as a part of extracellular matrix. Vitronectin is substantially enriched at sites of injured, fibrosing, inflamed, and tumor tissues where it is believed to be involved in wound healing and tissue remodeling. Little is known about the mechanism of vitronectin localization into the damaged tissues. Methodology/Principal Findings 2E12 antibody has been described to bind a subset of late apoptotic cells. Using immunoisolation followed by mass spectrometry, we identified the antigen recognized by 2E12 antibody as vitronectin. Based on flow cytometry, we described that vitronectin binds to the late apoptotic and necrotic cells in cell cultures in vitro as well as in murine thymus and spleen in vivo. Confocal microscopy revealed that vitronectin binds to an intracellular cytoplasmic structure after the membrane rupture. Conclusions/Significance We propose that vitronectin could serve as a marker of membrane disruption in necrosis and apoptosis for flow cytometry analysis. Moreover, we suggest that vitronectin binding to dead cells may represent one of the mechanisms of vitronectin incorporation into the injured tissues.

Stepanek, Ondrej; Brdicka, Tomas; Angelisova, Pavla; Horvath, Ondrej; Spicka, Jiri; Stockbauer, Petr; Man, Petr; Horejsi, Vaclav

2011-01-01

354

No death without life: vital functions of apoptotic effectors  

PubMed Central

As a result of the genetic experiments performed in Caenorhabditis elegans, it has been tacitly assumed that the core proteins of the ‘apoptotic machinery’ (CED-3, -4, -9 and EGL-1) would be solely involved in cell death regulation/execution and would not exert any functions outside of the cell death realm. However, multiple studies indicate that the mammalian orthologs of these C. elegans proteins (i.e. caspases, Apaf-1 and multidomain proteins of the Bcl-2 family) participate in cell death-unrelated processes. Similarly, loss-of-function mutations of ced-4 compromise the mitotic arrest of DNA-damaged germline cells from adult nematodes, even in a context in which the apoptotic machinery is inoperative (for instance due to mutations of egl-1 or ced-3). Moreover, EGL-1 is required for the activation of autophagy in starved nematodes. Finally, the depletion of caspase-independent death effectors, such as apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and endonuclease G, provokes cell death-independent consequences, both in mammals and in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). These results corroborate the conjecture that any kind of protein that has previously been specifically implicated in apoptosis might have a phylogenetically conserved apoptosis-unrelated function, most likely as part of an adaptive response to cellular stress.

Galluzzi, L; Joza, N; Tasdemir, E; Maiuri, MC; Hengartner, M; Abrams, JM; Tavernarakis, N; Penninger, J; Madeo, F; Kroemer, G

2010-01-01

355

Anti-apoptotic activity of hydroxytyrosol and hydroxytyrosyl laurate.  

PubMed

Hydroxytyrosol (HyT) is a polyphenol primarily released in olive mill wastewater and in olive oil. In animal and cell model studies, HyT and its metabolites have strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, as well as beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system and in several human diseases. Differently, many researchers reported that HyT down-regulates tumor cell viability and cell cycle progression, and induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of HyT and the corresponding ester hydroxytyrosyl laurate in U937 cells, a human monocytoid cell line, and in C2C12 myoblasts, a murine proliferating muscle cell model, after apoptotic death induction. Inverted, light and transmission electron microscopy have been utilized to characterize cell death patterns. H2O2, at the concentrations known to induce apoptosis, was utilized as cell death trigger. The results obtained show that laur-HyT has a protective antioxidant effect against H2O2 treatment, greater than HyT, so having a role in the prevention of apoptotic death in normal and tumor cells. These data suggest these compounds as good candidate for novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:23313337

Burattini, Sabrina; Salucci, Sara; Baldassarri, Valentina; Accorsi, Augusto; Piatti, Elena; Madrona, Andres; Espartero, Josè L; Candiracci, Manila; Zappia, Giovanni; Falcieri, Elisabetta

2013-01-08

356

Regulatory natural autoantibodies to apoptotic cells: Pallbearers and protectors  

PubMed Central

To provide effective host defense, a healthy immune system must recognize microbial threats and coordinate a protective inflammatory response. Yet the maintenance of overall homeostasis also dictates an absolute requirement for the efficient recognition and clearance of the host’s own dead and dying cells, and these functions must somehow also be balanced to avoid autoimmune disease. In recent studies we have characterized a class of naturally arising regulatory antibodies (NAbs) to oxidation-associated phospholipid antigens on apoptotic-cell (AC) membranes that discriminate apoptotic from healthy cells. When augmented by appropriate constant region effector functions, these antibodies enhance the phagocytic clearance of ACs, blunt inflammatory responses transduced by membrane and endosomal Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and block the development of inflammatory arthritis. These NAbs have also been implicated in lupus as well as atherosclerosis. We describe a model of immune homeostasis, termed the inhibitory dual receptor hypothesis, in which NAbs to ACs oppose the development of autoimmune and inflammatory disease.

Silverman, Gregg J.

2010-01-01

357

Autoimmune Disease and Impaired Uptake of Apoptotic Cells in MFG-E8Deficient Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptotic cells expose phosphatidylserine and are swiftly engulfed by macrophages. Milk fat globule epidermal growth factor (EGF) factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a protein that binds to apoptotic cells by recognizing phosphatidylserine and that enhances the engulfment of apoptotic cells by macrophages. We report that tingible body macrophages in the germinal centers of the spleen and lymph nodes strongly express MFG-E8.

Rikinari Hanayama; Masato Tanaka; Kay Miyasaka; Katsuyuki Aozasa; Masato Koike; Yasuo Uchiyama; Shigekazu Nagata

2004-01-01

358

Blockade of PKCdelta proteolytic activation by loss of function mutants rescues mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons from methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT)-induced apoptotic cell death.  

PubMed

The use of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) as a gasoline additive has raised health concerns and increased interest in understanding the neurotoxic effects of manganese. Chronic exposure to inorganic manganese causes Manganism, a neurological disorder somewhat similar to Parkinson's disease. However, the cellular mechanism by which MMT, an organic manganese compound, induces neurotoxicity in dopaminergic neuronal cells remains unclear. Therefore, we systematically investigated apoptotic cell-signaling events following exposure to 3-200 microM MMT in mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal (N27) cells. MMT treatment resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in reactive oxygen species generation and cell death in N27 cells. The cell death was preceded by sequential activation of mitochondrial-dependent proapoptotic events including cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, and DNA fragmentation, indicating that the mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic cascade primarily triggers MMT-induced apoptotic cell death. Importantly, MMT induced proteolytic cleavage of protein kinase Cdelta (PKCdelta), resulting in persistently increased kinase activity. The proteolytic activation of PKCdelta was suppressed by treatment with 100 microM Z-VAD-FMK and 100 microM Z-DEVD-FMK, suggesting that caspase-3 mediates the proteolytic activation of PKCdelta. Pretreatment with 100 microM Z-DEVD-FMK and 5 microM rottlerin (a PKCdelta inhibitor) also significantly attenuated MMT-induced DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, overexpression of either the kinase inactive dominant negative PKCdelta(K376R) mutant or the caspase cleavage resistant PKCdelta(D327A) mutant rescued N27 cells from MMT-induced DNA fragmentation. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic cascade mediates apoptosis via proteolytic activation of PKCdelta in MMT-induced dopaminergic degeneration and suggest that PKCdelta may serve as an attractive therapeutic target in Parkinson-related neurological diseases. PMID:15681813

Anantharam, V; Kitazawa, M; Latchoumycandane, C; Kanthasamy, A; Kanthasamy, A G

2004-12-01

359

Inhibition of Protein Kinase Akt1 by Apoptosis Signal-regulating Kinase-1 (ASK1) Is Involved in Apoptotic Inhibition of Regulatory Volume Increase*  

PubMed Central

Most animal cell types regulate their cell volume after an osmotic volume change. The regulatory volume increase (RVI) occurs through uptake of NaCl and osmotically obliged water after osmotic shrinkage. However, apoptotic cells undergo persistent cell shrinkage without showing signs of RVI. Persistence of the apoptotic volume decrease is a prerequisite to apoptosis induction. We previously demonstrated that volume regulation is inhibited in human epithelial HeLa cells stimulated with the apoptosis inducer. Here, we studied signaling mechanisms underlying the apoptotic inhibition of RVI in HeLa cells. Hypertonic stimulation was found to induce phosphorylation of a Ser/Thr protein kinase Akt (protein kinase B). Shrinkage-induced Akt activation was essential for RVI induction because RVI was suppressed by an Akt inhibitor, expression of a dominant negative form of Akt, or small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Akt1 (but not Akt2). Staurosporine, tumor necrosis factor-?, or a Fas ligand inhibited both RVI and hypertonicity-induced Akt activation in a manner sensitive to a scavenger for reactive oxygen species (ROS). Any of apoptosis inducers also induced phosphorylation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) in a ROS-dependent manner. Suppression of (ASK1) expression blocked the effects of apoptosis, in hypertonic conditions, on both RVI induction and Akt activation. Thus, it is concluded that in human epithelial cells, shrinkage-induced activation of Akt1 is involved in the RVI process and that apoptotic inhibition of RVI is caused by inhibition of Akt activation, which results from ROS-mediated activation of ASK1.

Subramanyam, Muthangi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Yuichi; Mohri, Tatsuma; Okada, Yasunobu

2010-01-01

360

Regulation of dendritic cells and macrophages by an anti-apoptotic-cell natural antibody that suppresses TLR responses and inhibits inflammatory arthritis  

PubMed Central

Although natural antibodies (NAbs) are present from birth, little is known about what drives their selection, and whether they have housekeeping functions. The prototypic T15-NAb, first identified because of its protective role in infection, is representative of a special type of NAb response that specifically recognizes and forms complexes with apoptotic cells, and which promotes cell-corpse engulfment by phagocytes. We now show that this T15-NAb IgM-mediated clearance process is dependent on the recruitment of C1q and mannose-binding lectin (MBL), which have known immune modulatory activities that also provide “eat me” signals for enhancing phagocytosis. Further investigation revealed that the addition of T15-NAb significantly suppressed in vitro LPS-induced TNF-? and IL-6 secretion by the macrophage-like cell line, RAW264.7, as well as Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced maturation and secretion of a range of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by bone-marrow derived conventional dendritic cells. Significantly, high doses of this B-1 cell produced NAb also suppressed in vivo TLR–induced pro-inflammatory responses. While infusions of apoptotic cells also suppressed such in vivo inflammatory responses and this effect was associated with the induction of high levels of IgM anti-apoptotic cell antibodies, apoptotic cell treatment was not effective at suppressing such TLR responses in B-cell deficient mice. Moreover, infusions of T15-NAb also efficiently inhibited both collagen-induced arthritis and anti-collagen II antibody-mediated arthritis. These studies identify and characterize a previously unknown regulatory circuit by which a NAb product of innate-like B cells aids homeostasis by control of fundamental inflammatory pathways.

Chen, Yifang; Khanna, Sahil; Goodyear, Carl S.; Park, Yong Beom; Raz, Eyal; Thiel, Steffen; Gronwall, Caroline; Vas, Jaya; Boyle, David L.; Corr, Maripat; Kono, Dwight H.; Silverman, Gregg J.

2009-01-01

361

5-Lipoxygenase contributes to PPAR? activation in macrophages in response to apoptotic cells.  

PubMed

Macrophage polarization to an anti-inflammatory phenotype upon contact with apoptotic cells is a contributing hallmark to immune suppression during the late phase of sepsis. Although the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) supports this macrophage phenotype switch, it remains elusive how apoptotic cells activate PPAR?. Assuming that a molecule causing PPAR? activation in macrophages originates in the cell membrane of apoptotic cells we analyzed lipid rafts from apoptotic, necrotic, and living human Jurkat T cells which showed the presence of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) in lipid rafts of apoptotic cells only. Incubating macrophages with lipid rafts of apoptotic, but not necrotic or living cells, induced PPAR responsive element (PPRE)-driven mRuby reporter gene expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages stably transduced with a 4xPPRE containing vector. Experiments with lipid rafts of apoptotic murine EL4 T cells revealed similar results. To verify the involvement of 5-LO in activating PPAR? in macrophages, Jurkat T cells were incubated with the 5-LO inhibitor MK-866 prior to induction of apoptosis, which failed to induce mRuby expression. Similar results were obtained with lipid rafts of apoptotic EL4 T cells preexposed to the 5-LO inhibitors zileuton and CJ-13610. Interestingly, Jurkat T cells overexpressing 5-LO failed to activate PPAR? in macrophages, while their 5-LO overexpressing apoptotic counterparts did. Our results suggest that during apoptosis 5-LO gets associated with lipid rafts and synthesizes ligands that in turn stimulate PPAR? in macrophages. PMID:24036216

von Knethen, Andreas; Sha, Lisa K; Kuchler, Laura; Heeg, Annika K; Fuhrmann, Dominik; Heide, Heinrich; Wittig, Ilka; Maier, Thorsten J; Steinhilber, Dieter; Brüne, Bernhard

2013-09-13

362

Effects of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark oil on testicular antioxidant values, apoptotic germ cell and sperm quality.  

PubMed

Cinnamon and its contents have multifactorial properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic. Male infertility is one of the major health problems in life. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term cinnamon bark oil (CBO) ingestion on testicular antioxidant values, apoptotic germ cell and sperm quality of adult rats. Twelve male healthy Wistar rats were divided into two groups, each group containing six rats. While olive oil was given to control group, 100 mg kg(-1)  CBO was administered to the other group by gavage daily for 10 weeks. Body and reproductive organ weights, sperm characteristics, testicular lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities, and testicular apoptosis via terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) method were examined. A significant decrease in malondialdehyde level and marked increases in reduced glutathione level, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were observed in rats treated with CBO compared with the control group. CBO consumption provided a significant increase in weights of testes and epididymides, epididymal sperm concentration, sperm motility and diameter of seminiferous tubules when compared with the control group. However, CBO consumption tended to decrease the abnormal sperm rate and apoptotic germ cell count, but it did not reach statistical significance. It is concluded that CBO has improvement effect on testicular oxidant-antioxidant balance and sperm quality, and its consumption may be useful for asthenozoospermic men. PMID:22862806

Yüce, A; Türk, G; Çeriba?i, S; Sönmez, M; Çiftçi, M; Güvenç, M

2012-08-03

363

Tuberin and PRAS40 are anti-apoptotic gatekeepers during early human amniotic fluid stem-cell differentiation.  

PubMed

Embryoid bodies (EBs) are three-dimensional multicellular aggregates allowing the in vitro investigation of stem-cell differentiation processes mimicking early embryogenesis. Human amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells harbor high proliferation potential, do not raise the ethical issues of embryonic stem cells, have a lower risk for tumor development, do not need exogenic induction of pluripotency and are chromosomal stable. Starting from a single human AFS cell, EBs can be formed accompanied by the differentiation into cells of all three embryonic germ layers. Here, we report that siRNA-mediated knockdown of the endogenous tuberous sclerosis complex-2 (TSC2) gene product tuberin or of proline-rich Akt substrate of 40 kDa (PRAS40), the two major negative regulators of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), leads to massive apoptotic cell death during EB development of human AFS cells without affecting the endodermal, mesodermal and ectodermal cell differentiation spectrum. Co-knockdown of endogenous mTOR demonstrated these effects to be mTOR-dependent. Our findings prove this enzyme cascade to be an essential anti-apoptotic gatekeeper of stem-cell differentiation during EB formation. These data allow new insights into the regulation of early stem-cell maintenance and differentiation and identify a new role of the tumor suppressor tuberin and the oncogenic protein PRAS40 with the relevance for a more detailed understanding of the pathogenesis of diseases associated with altered activities of these gene products. PMID:22090422

Fuchs, Christiane; Rosner, Margit; Dolznig, Helmut; Mikula, Mario; Kramer, Nina; Hengstschläger, Markus

2011-11-16

364

cis-Urocanic acid enhances prostaglandin E2 release and apoptotic cell death via reactive oxygen species in human keratinocytes.  

PubMed

Urocanic acid (UCA) is a major UVR-absorbing skin molecule that undergoes trans to cis photoisomerization in the epidermis following UVR exposure. Murine studies have established that cis-UCA is an important mediator of UVR-induced immune suppression, but little is known about its signaling pathway. We have previously demonstrated that treatment of normal human epidermal keratinocytes with cis-UCA resulted in increased synthesis of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and cell death. Here, using immortalized human keratinocytes, we report that cis-UCA but not trans-UCA generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a dose-dependent manner and that the natural antioxidant ?-tocopherol can reduce this ROS generation, subsequent PGE(2) release, and apoptotic cell death. Western blot analysis revealed that cis-UCA leads to a transient phosphorylation of EGFR as well as downstream mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38. Pharmacological inhibition of their activity attenuated PGE(2) release induced by cis-UCA. After transient activation, cis-UCA downregulated EGFR protein expression that corresponded to activation of caspase-3. In addition, pretreatment with ?-tocopherol inhibited EGFR downregulation and caspase-3 activation induced by cis-UCA. These results suggest that cis-UCA exerts its effects on human keratinocytes via intracellular ROS generation that modulates EGFR signaling and subsequently induces PGE(2) synthesis and apoptotic cell death. PMID:21412256

Kaneko, Kazuyo; Walker, Susan L; Lai-Cheong, Joey; Matsui, Mary S; Norval, Mary; Young, Antony R

2011-03-17

365

Lycopene protects against trimethyltin-induced neurotoxicity in primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons by inhibiting the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.  

PubMed

Lycopene is a potent free radicals scavenger with demonstrated protective efficacy in several experimental models of oxidative damage. Trimethyltin (TMT) is an organotin compound with neurotoxic effects on the hippocampus and other limbic structures and is used to model neurodegenerative diseases targeting these brain areas. Oxidative stress is widely accepted as a central pathogenic mechanism of TMT-mediated neurotoxicity. The present study investigated whether the plant carotene lycopene protects against TMT-induced neurotoxicity in primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Lycopene pretreatment improved cell viability in TMT-treated hippocampal neurons and inhibited neuronal apoptosis. Microfluorometric imaging revealed that lycopene inhibited the accumulation of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) during TMT exposure. Moreover, lycopene ameliorated TMT-induced activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) and the concomitant depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential (??(m)). Consequently, cytochrome c release from the mitochondria and ensuing caspase-3 activation were markedly reduced. These findings reveal that lycopene protects against TMT-induced neurotoxicity by inhibiting the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. The anti-apoptotic effect of lycopene on hippocampal neurons highlights the therapeutic potential of plant-derived antioxidants against neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22032970

Qu, Mingyue; Zhou, Zhou; Chen, Chunhai; Li, Min; Pei, Liping; Chu, Fang; Yang, Ju; Wang, Yuan; Li, Li; Liu, Chuan; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Guangbin; Yu, Zhengping; Wang, Denggao

2011-10-19

366

miR-214 regulates lactoferrin expression and pro-apoptotic function in mammary epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Lactoferrin (Lf) is an abundantly expressed protein in human milk. Lactoferrin exhibits several important biological functions, and its expression is regulated by multiple environmental factors. Cellular endogenous factors, however, have not been extensively studied with regard to lactoferrin gene expression. In this study, we showed that lactoferrin gene expression and function are directly targeted by miR-214 in HC11 and MCF7 cells. In the lactoferrin mRNA 3 prime untranslated region (UTR) of human, mouse, rat, pig, bovine, camel, and goat species, there is a conserved region that perfectly matches the seed region of miR-214. Transfection of miR-214 mimic in HEK293 cells dose-dependently inhibited the activity of pGL3-control vector containing lactoferrin mRNA 3 prime UTR downstream of the luciferase gene. In HC11 cells, miR-214 overexpression inhibited the induction of lactoferrin expression by beta -estradiol (E2) and dexamethasone-prolactin-insulin (DPI). Furthermore, in MCF7 cells, overexpression of miR-214 markedly decreased lactoferrin expression (P lt 0.05), and inhibition of endogenous miR-214 expression increased lactoferrin expression and cellular apoptotic activities (P lt 0.05). In summary, our data showed that miR-214 is directly involved in lactoferrin expression and lactoferrin mediated cancer susceptibility (proapoptotic activities) in mammary epithelial cells. PMID:20610637

Liao, Yalin; Du, Xiaogu; Lönnerdal, Bo

2010-07-07

367

Apoptotic effects of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, masitinib mesylate, on canine osteosarcoma cells.  

PubMed

Osteosarcoma (OSA) is the most common primary bone tumor in dogs and the guarded prognosis highlights the necessity to find new treatments. Masitinib mesylate is a highly selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor that predominantly targets c-Kit and PDGFR-?/?. This study evaluated the in-vitro activity of masitinib against three canine OSA cell lines after treatment with increasing concentrations of masitinib (0.1-50 µmol/l) at 24, 48, and 72 h. The IC50 values at 72 h for the three OSA cell lines (POS, HMPOS, and COS31) were determined to be 11.04, 7.09, and 9.74 µmol/l, respectively. In addition, increases in caspase-3/7 activity and transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells indicated apoptotic cell death. Because increased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor are found in dogs with OSA, vascular endothelial growth factor in the supernatant was quantified. Overall, the study found that masitinib causes dose-time dependent OSA cell death in vitro through initiation of caspase-mediated apoptosis, which supports future OSA clinical trials. PMID:23466652

Fahey, Christine E; Milner, Rowan J; Kow, Kelvin; Bacon, Nicholas J; Salute, Marc E

2013-06-01

368

Dealcoholated red wine induces autophagic and apoptotic cell death in an osteosarcoma cell line.  

PubMed

Until recently, the supposed preventive effects of red wine against cardiovascular diseases, the so-called "French Paradox", has been associated to its antioxidant properties. The interest in the anticancer capacity of polyphenols present in red wine strongly increased consequently to the enormous number of studies on resveratrol. In this study, using lyophilized red wine, we present evidence that its anticancer effect in a cellular model is mediated by apoptotic and autophagic cell death. Using a human osteosarcoma cell line, U2Os, we found that the lyophilized red wine was cytotoxic in a dose-dependent manner with a maximum effect in the range of 100-200 ?g/ml equivalents of gallic acid. A mixed phenotype of types I/II cell death was evidenced by means of specific assays following treatment of U2Os with lyophilized red wine, e.g., autophagy and apoptosis. We found that cell death induced by lyophilized red wine proceeded through a mechanism independent from its anti-oxidant activity and involving the inhibition of PI3K/Akt kinase signaling. Considering the relative low concentration of each single bioactive compound in lyophilized red wine, our study suggests the activation of synergistic mechanism able to inhibit growth in malignant cells. PMID:23933363

Tedesco, I; Russo, M; Bilotto, S; Spagnuolo, C; Scognamiglio, A; Palumbo, R; Nappo, A; Iacomino, G; Moio, L; Russo, G L

2013-08-06

369

Mechanical strain delivers anti-apoptotic and proliferative signals to gingival fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Physical forces play a critical role in the survival and proliferation of many cell types, including fibroblasts. Gingival fibroblasts are exposed to mechanical stress during mastication, orthodontic tooth movement, and wound healing following periodontal surgery. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of mechanical strain on human gingival fibroblasts (hGF). Cells were subjected to short-term (up to 60 min) and long-term (up to 48 hrs) 20% average elongation at 0.1 Hz. We monitored survival signaling by evaluating the phosphorylation status and localization of Forkhead box (FoxO) family members, which are mediators of apoptosis. We also examined strain-induced proliferation by measuring the level of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). We observed that cyclic strain caused the phosphorylation and retention in the cytoplasm of FoxO family members. Moreover, mechanical strain resulted in increased ERK kinase phosphorylation and PCNA expression. In conclusion, cyclic strain delivers anti-apoptotic and proliferative stimuli to hGF. PMID:15271966

Danciu, T E; Gagari, E; Adam, R M; Damoulis, P D; Freeman, M R

2004-08-01

370

Elevation of GM2 ganglioside during ethanol-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration in the developing mouse brain  

PubMed Central

GM2 ganglioside in the brain increased during ethanol-induced acute apoptotic neurodegeneration in 7-day-old mice. A small but a significant increase observed 2 h after ethanol exposure was followed by a marked increase around 24 h. Subcellular fractionation of the brain 24 h after ethanol treatment indicated that GM2 increased in synaptic and non-synaptic mitochondrial fractions as well as in a lysosome-enriched fraction characteristic to the ethanol-exposed brain. Immunohistochemical staining of GM2 in the ethanol-treated brain showed strong punctate staining mainly in activated microglia, in which it partially overlapped with staining for LAMP1, a late endosomal/lysosomal marker. Also, there was weaker neuronal staining, which partially co-localized with complex IV, a mitochondrial marker, and was augmented in cleaved caspase-3-positive neurons. In contrast, the control brain showed only faint and diffuse GM2 staining in neurons. Incubation of isolated brain mitochondria with GM2 in vitro induced cytochrome c release in a manner similar to that of GD3 ganglioside. Because ethanol is known to trigger mitochondria-mediated apoptosis with cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation in the 7-day–old mouse brain, the GM2 elevation in mitochondria may be relevant to neuroapoptosis. Subsequently, activated microglia accumulated GM2, indicating a close relationship between GM2 and ethanol-induced neurodegeneration.

Saito, Mitsuo; Chakraborty, Goutam; Shah, Relish; Mao, Rui-Fen; Kumar, Asok; Yang, Dun-Sheng; Dobrenis, Kostantin; Saito, Mariko

2012-01-01

371

Mapping the specific cytoprotective interaction of humanin with the pro-apoptotic protein bid.  

PubMed

Humanin is a short endogenous peptide, which can provide protection from cell death through its association with various receptors, including the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bid, Bim, and Bax. By using NMR chemical shift mapping experiments, we demonstrate that the interaction between Humanin-derived peptides and Bid is specific, and we localize the binding site to a region on the surface of Bid, which includes residues from the conserved helical BH3 domain of the protein. The BH3 domain mediates the association of Bid with other Bcl-2 family members and is essential for the protein's cytotoxic activity. The data suggest that Humanin exerts its cytoprotective activity by engaging the Bid BH3 domain; this would hinder the association of Bid with other Bcl-2 family proteins, thereby mitigating its toxicity. The identification of a Humanin-specific binding site on the surface of Bid reinforces its importance as a direct modulator of programmed cell death, and suggests a strategy for the design of cytoprotective peptide inhibitors of Bid. PMID:17927731

Choi, Jungyuen; Zhai, Dayong; Zhou, Xin; Satterthwait, Arnold; Reed, John C; Marassi, Francesca M

2007-10-10

372

Akebia saponin PA induces autophagic and apoptotic cell death in AGS human gastric cancer cells.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the anticancer mechanism of akebia saponin PA (AS), a natural product isolated from Dipsacus asperoides in human gastric cancer cell lines. It was shown that AS-induced cell death is caused by autophagy and apoptosis in AGS cells. The apoptosis-inducing effect of AS was characterized by annexin V/propidium (PI) staining, increase of sub-G1 phase and caspase-3 activation, while the autophagy-inducing effect was indicated by the formation of cytoplasmic vacuoles and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain-3 II (LC3-II) conversion. The autophagy inhibitor bafilomycin A1 (BaF1) decreased AS-induced cell death and caspase-3 activation, but caspase-3 inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO did not affect LC3-II accumulation or AS-induced cell viability, suggesting that AS induces autophagic cell death and autophagy contributes to caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Furthermore, AS activated p38/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which could be inhibited by BaF1, and caspase-3 activation was attenuated by both SB202190 and SP600125, indicating that AS-induced autophagy promotes mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)-mediated apoptosis. Taken together, these results demonstrate that AS induces autophagic and apoptotic cell death and autophagy plays the main role in akebia saponin PA-induced cell death. PMID:23850994

Xu, Mei-Ying; Lee, Dong Hwa; Joo, Eun Ji; Son, Kun Ho; Kim, Yeong Shik

2013-07-09

373

Cytolethal Distending Toxin of Haemophilus ducreyi Induces Apoptotic Death of Jurkat T Cells  

PubMed Central

The immune response to Haemophilus ducreyi is mediated in part by T cells infiltrating the site of infection. In this study, we show that H. ducreyi antigen preparations inhibited the proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and primary human T-cell lines. H. ducreyi also inhibited Jurkat T-cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of Jurkat T cells, confirmed through the detection of DNA degradation and membrane unpacking. The cytotoxic product(s) was present in cell-free culture supernatant and whole-cell preparations of H. ducreyi and was heat labile. H. ducreyi produces two known heat-labile toxins, a hemolysin and a cytolethal distending toxin (CDT). Whole cells and supernatants prepared from a hemolysin-deficient mutant had the same inhibitory and apoptotic effects on Jurkat T cells as did its isogenic parent. Preparations made from an H. ducreyi cdtC mutant were less toxic and induced less apoptosis than the parent. The toxic activity of the cdtC mutant was restored by complementation in trans. CdtC-neutralizing antibodies also inhibited H. ducreyi-induced toxicity and apoptosis. The data suggest that CDT may interfere with T-cell responses to H. ducreyi by induction of apoptosis.

Gelfanova, Valentina; Hansen, Eric J.; Spinola, Stanley M.

1999-01-01

374

Protective effects of luteolin against apoptotic liver damage induced by D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide in mice.  

PubMed

In this study, the protective effects of luteolin (1, a major component of Cirsium japonicum) were examined against d-galactosamine (GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fulminant hepatic failure. Mice received an intraperitoneal injection of 1 (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg·kg(-1)) 1 h before treatment with GalN (700 mg·kg(-1))/LPS (10 ?g·kg(-1)). Treatment with GalN/LPS resulted in increased mortality and serum aminotransferase activity. These increases were attenuated by pretreatment with 1. Treatment with GalN/LPS induced an increase in the serum level of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and protein expression of TNF-? receptor-associated death domain, and these increases were prevented by 1. In addition, 1 attenuated apoptosis induced by GalN/LPS treatment, which was analyzed using a caspase-3 and -8 activity assay, as well as by proapoptotic BH3-only protein and cytochrome c protein expression, and by a terminal deoxynuleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling method. After GalN/LPS injection, nuclear phosphorylated c-Jun levels showed a significant increase, which were attenuated by 1. The present findings suggest that luteolin ameliorates D-GalN/LPS-induced liver injury and that this protection is likely due to inhibition of the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. PMID:21899269

Lee, Woo-Cheol; Jung, Hyun Ah; Choi, Jae Sue; Kim, Yeong Shik; Lee, Sun-Mee

2011-09-07

375