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Sample records for cassia moschata sometidas

  1. [Chemical constituents from Cinnamomum cassia].

    PubMed

    He, Shan; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-fei

    2015-09-01

    Various column chromatography, such as silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS, and semi-preparative HPLC was used to isolate and purify the chemical constituents from Cinnamomum cassia. The structures were determined on the basis of NMR and MS spectral data analysis, together with the comparison with literature data. Fifteen compounds were isolated from the 85% aqueous ethanol extract of C. cassia, and their structures were identified as (2R, 3R)-5,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavan-3-ol( 1), (2R, 3R)-5,7-dimethoxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavan-3-ol (2), coumarin (3), cinnamic acid (4), (E)-2-hydroxy-phenylpropionic acid cinnamoyl ester (5), 3, 3', 4, 4'-tetrahydroxy biphenyl (6), methylstictic acid (7), epi-boscialin (8), (1R,2S,3S,4S)-2,3-epoxy-1, 4-dihydroxy-5-methyl-5-cyelohexene (9), 4,5-dihydroxy-3-methyl cyclohex-2-enone (10), cis-4-hydroxymellein (11), and 2-hydroxy-4-methoxyl-cinnamaldehyde (12). Compounds 5-11 were obtained from this genus plants for the first time. PMID:26983207

  2. Therapeutic effects on murine oral candidiasis by oral administration of cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) preparation.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Yuuki; Takizawa, Toshio; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Sagawa, Takehito; Arai, Ryo; Inoue, Shigeharu; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    We examined the effects of spices and herbs on Candida albicans growth using in vitro assay and therapeutic activity of some selected herbal preparations against murine oral candidiasis. All tested samples: lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa), green tea (Camellia sinensis), and cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) inhibited Candida mycelial growth in vitro. The results of this assay showed that the anti-Candida activity of lemongrass, green tea, and cassia is stronger than that of the other tested herbs. Oral administration of lemongrass or green tea did not result in significant improvement in the murine oral candidiasis, while the administration of cassia improved the symptoms and reduced the number of viable Candida cells in the oral cavity. The results of in vitro Candida growth assay including GC/MS analysis suggested that cinnamaldehyde in the cassia preparation was the principal component responsible for the inhibitory activity of Candida mycelial growth. These findings suggest that oral intake of a cassia preparation is a clinical candidate for a prophylactic or therapeutic tool against oral Candida infection. PMID:20185867

  3. Broad spectrum anthelmintic potential of Cassia plants

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Suman; Roy, Saptarshi; Lyndem, Larisha Mawkhleing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of Cassia alata (C. alata), Cassia angustifolia (C. angustifolia) and Cassia occidentalis (C. occidentalis). Methods Crude ethanol extract from leaves of the three plants were prepared in rotary evaporator and different concentrations (10, 20 and 40 mg/mL) of leaf extracts were used for treatment on different representatives of helminthes (Heterakis gallinarum, Raillietina tetragona and Catatropis sp.) from domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus). Loss of motility and death were monitored frequently. Results C. alata showed early paralysis in all worms treated followed by C. angustifolia. C. occidentalis in combination with C. alata together caused early paralysis in all treated worms than the combination of C. alata with C. angustfolia. While Heterakis gallinarum in control survived for (81.33±2.07) h, treated worms lost their motility at (5.71±0.10) h, (6.60±0.86) h and (13.95±0.43) h with C. angustifolia, C. alata and C. occidentalis respectively at a concentration of 40 mg/mL which showed better efficacy than albendazole. Catatropis sp. survival period was (26.49±1.38) h in control, but with plant treatment, it lost its motility in just (0.57±0.08) h, (1.00±0.12) h and (1.47±0.40) h at 40 mg/mL concentration of C. alata, C. angustifolia and C. occidentalis respectively. Raillietina tetragona on the other hand became paralysed at (1.68±0.27) h, (2.95±0.29) h and (4.13±0.31) h with above concentrations treated with three plants respectively, however in control it survived up to (81.93±4.71) h. Conclusions This present study indicated broad spectrum vermifugal activity of all plants tested. PMID:25183125

  4. Three new compounds from Cinnamomum cassia.

    PubMed

    He, Shan; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Three new compounds, including two new diterpenoids, named epianhydrocinnzeylanol (1) and cinnacasiol H (2), and one hydroxylasiodiplodin, (3R,4S,6R)-4,6-dihydroxy-de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (3), together with five known diterpenoids (4-8) and two known phenolic glycosides (9-10) were isolated from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison of the chemical shift values with those of related known compounds. The anti-inflammatory activities of the isolates were evaluated on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-induced BV-2 microglial cells and the compounds showed weak inhibition activities. PMID:26498626

  5. The sterols of Cucurbita moschata ("calabacita") seed oil.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, J B; Gros, E G; Bertoni, M H; Cattaneo, P

    1996-11-01

    From the sterol fraction of seed oil from commercial Cucurbita moschata Dutch ("calabacita") delta 5 and delta 7 sterols having saturated and unsaturated side chain were isolated by chromatographic procedures and characterized by spectroscopic (1H and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry) methods. The main components were identified as 24S-ethyl 5 alpha-cholesta-7,22E-dien-3 beta-ol (alpha-spinasterol); 24S-ethyl 5 alpha-cholesta-7,22E,25-trien-3 beta-ol (25-dehydrochondrillasterol); 24S-ethyl 5 alpha-cholesta-7,25-dien-3 beta-ol; 24R-ethyl-cholesta-7-en-3 beta-ol (delta 7-stigmastenol) and 24-ethyl-cholesta-7, 24(28)-dien-3 beta-ol (delta 7,24(28)-stigmastadienol). PMID:8934454

  6. Comparative Analysis of the Antioxidant Activity of Cassia fistula Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Irshad, Md.; Zafaryab, Md.; Singh, Man; Rizvi, M. Moshahid A.

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidant potential of various extracts of Cassia fistula was determined by the DPPH, FRAP, Fe3+ reducing power, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay. Methanolic extracts of Cassia fistula showed the highest amount of phenolic and flavonoid content and reducing capacity, whereas hexane extracts exhibited the lowest level of reducing capacity. The order of antioxidant activity in Cassia fistula extracts displayed from higher to lower level as methanolic extracts of pulp, methanolic extracts of seed, hexane extracts of pulp, and hexane extracts of seed. The antioxidant potential of Cassia fistula extracts significantly correlated (P < 0.02) with the phenolic content of the methanolic extracts. Ascorbic acid taken as control showed highest antioxidant power in the present study. PMID:25374682

  7. Seed oil content and fatty acid composition in a genebank collection of Cucurbita moschata Duchesne and C. argyrosperma C. Huber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data on intraspecific variability for seed oil content, fatty acid composition and seed oil characteristics in Cucurbita moschata and C. argyrosperma are lacking in the scientific literature. We examined 528 genebank accessions of C. moschata and 166 accessions of C. argyrosperma - that included mem...

  8. SSR-based genetic linkage map of Cucurbita moschata and its synteny with Cucurbita pepo.

    PubMed

    Gong, L; Pachner, M; Kalai, K; Lelley, T

    2008-11-01

    The first SSR-based genetic linkage map of Cucurbita moschata was created by integrating the maps of two F2 populations with one common parent developed from the crosses Waltham Butternut (WB) x Nigerian Local (NL) and ZHOU (a hull-less type) x WB. The integrated C. moschata map comprises 205 SSR markers and two morphological traits (Gr and n). The map is composed of 27 linkage groups with a marker density of 7 cM. Comparing the C. moschata map with the published Cucurbita pepo map, we found a high level of macrosynteny. Seventy-two of 76 common SSR markers between C. moschata and C. pepo were located in homologous linkage groups. These markers in general have conserved orders and similar genetic distances; they represent orthologous loci. A reference map based on these SSRs was obtained. No major chromosomal rearrangement between the two species could be detected at present, although four SSR markers were mapped in nonhomologous linkage groups. The comparative alignment of SSR markers did not provide any indication of a possible ancient polyploid origin of the species. The comparative mapping of C. moschata and C. pepo reported here will be useful for further studies on Cucurbit evolution, gene isolation, and breeding work. PMID:18956020

  9. In vitro effects of Cucurbita moschata seed extracts on Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Marie-Magdeleine, C; Hoste, H; Mahieu, M; Varo, H; Archimede, H

    2009-04-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of Cucurbita moschata seed against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus. Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and dichloromethane) of C. moschata seed were tested in vitro on four developmental stages of H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition (LMI) assay and adult worm motility (AWM) assay. The highly significant (P<0.001) ability to stop larval development (inhibition>90% for each extract) and the negative effect of the dichloromethane and methanolic extracts on adult worm motility (inhibition of motility >59.2% after 24h of incubation) compared to the negative controls, suggest anthelmintic properties of C. moschata seed against H. contortus. The active principles responsible for the activity could be secondary metabolites such as amino acid compounds or terpenoid compounds present in the extracts. PMID:19135803

  10. [Allelopathic effects of cultured Cucurbita moschata root exudates].

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Ma, Yongqin; Shui, Junfeng

    2005-04-01

    By using the techniques of tissue culture, bio-assay and laboratory analysis, this paper studied the effects of the allelopathic chemicals from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) roots on the seed germination and seedling growth of pumpkin, wheat (Triticum aestivum), and radish (Raphanus sativus). The pumpkin root was cultured on a sterile B5 media, and the concentrations of macro- and microelements, organic supplements and hormones in the media were adjusted by using an orthogonal design. After culturing, the culture media was filtered and used in a bioassay to test the autotoxicity and allelopathic effects. The results showed that the pumpkin had both autotoxic and allelopathic effects, and the media having been used to culture the pumpkin roots contained the chemicals that significantly inhibited the seedling growth of wheat and radish. The allelopathic effect decreased when the culture media was diluted. The production of allelochemicals seemed to be related to the growth rate of the pumpkin roots. When the root growth was rapid, the concentration of allelochemicals was high. The allelopathic effect was stronger on radish than on wheat. The optimum concentrations of macro- and microelements, vitamins and hormones for culturing pumpkin root were determined, and the effect of pumpkin root nutrition on the production of allelochemicals was tested. The results indicated that pumpkin root nutrition had a significant effect on the production of allelochemicals. PMID:16011180

  11. Rabies Virus Infection in Ferret Badgers (Melogale moschata subaurantiaca) in Taiwan: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jen-Chieh; Tsai, Kuo-Jung; Hsu, Wei-Cheng; Tu, Yang-Chang; Chuang, Wei-Chieh; Chang, Chia-Yi; Chang, Shih-Wei; Lin, Te-En; Fang, Kuo-Yun; Chang, Yung-Fu; Tsai, Hsiang-Jung; Lee, Shu-Hwae

    2015-10-01

    Fifteen ferret badgers (Melogale moschata subaurantiaca), collected 2010-13 and stored frozen, were submitted for rabies diagnosis by direct fluorescent antibody test and reverse transcription PCR. We detected seven positive animal samples, including some from 2010, which indicated that the ferret badger population in Taiwan had been affected by rabies prior to 2010. PMID:26267459

  12. Quality evaluation of Semen Cassiae (Cassia obtusifolia L.) by using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Dong; Wang, Ying; Wang, Qing; Yang, Wan-Jun; Gu, Yi; Wang, Rong; Song, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Xiao-Juan

    2012-08-01

    A sensitive and reliable ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed and partially validated to evaluate the quality of Semen Cassiae (Cassia obtusifolia L.) through simultaneous determination of 11 anthraquinones and two naphtha-γ-pyrone compounds. The analysis was achieved on a Poroshell 120 EC-C(18) column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 2.7 μm; Agilent, Palo Alto, CA, USA) with gradient elution using a mobile phase that consisted of acetonitrile-water (30 mM ammonium acetate) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. For quantitative analysis, all calibration curves showed perfect linear regression (r(2) > 0.99) within the testing range. This method was also validated with respect to precision and accuracy, and was successfully applied to quantify the 13 components in nine batches of Semen Cassiae samples from different areas. The performance of developed method was compared with that of conventional high-performance liquid chromatography method. The significant advantages of the former include high-speed chromatographic separation, four times faster than high-performance liquid chromatography with conventional columns, and great enhancement in sensitivity. This developed method provided a new basis for overall assessment on quality of Semen Cassiae. PMID:22753381

  13. Plant pigments (antioxidants) of medicinal plants Malva silvestris L. and Malva moschata L. (Malvaceae).

    PubMed

    Redzić, Sulejman; Hodzić, Nizama; Tuka, Mijat

    2005-05-01

    Qualitative-quantitative structure of plant pigments in wild plants Malva silvestrs L. and Malva moschata L. (Malvaceae), which were collected in 20 locations in Sarajevo area and surroundings, was tested during spring and summer in 2003. Acetone extracts of both categories were made and rising paper-chromatography done for the purpose of qualitative analysis. Quantitative analysis was done by spectrophotometry. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and xanthophylls presence was confirmed by separation of pigments from acetone extract of these plant species. Spectrophotometric analysis of acetone extracts showed these results (given in mg/L): chlorophyll a 2,386, chlorophyll b 0,332 and carrotenoides 1,037. Data given in mg/g dry substance are: chlorophyll a 1,193x10(-2), chlorophyll b 1,66x10(-3), and carrotenoides 5,185x10(-3). Pigments structure (in mg/L) in species Malva moschata is 1,6 for chlorophyll; 1,419 for chlorophyll b; and 0,364 for carrotenoides. Data given in mg/g are: chlorophyll a 8x10(-3), chlorophyll b 7,09x10(-3), and carrotenoides 1,82x10(-3). Considering that species Malva moschata L. grows on ecologically clear soils as opposed to well-known medicinal species Malva sylvestris L., and considering the production of phytomass, phytochemical structure and pharmacological influence it can be considered very medical and be given advantage over this wider spread category. PMID:16053456

  14. Cassia fistula Linn: Potential candidate in the health management

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Arshad H.

    2015-01-01

    Cassia fistula Linn is known as Golden shower has therapeutics importance in health care since ancient times. Research findings over the last two decade have confirmed the therapeutics consequence of C. fistula in the health management via modulation of biological activities due to the rich source of antioxidant. Several findings based on the animal model have confirmed the pharmacologically safety and efficacy and have opened a new window for human health management. This review reveals additional information about C. fistula in the health management via in vivo and in vitro study which will be beneficial toward diseases control. PMID:26130932

  15. A distinct tymovirus infecting Cassia hoffmannseggii in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nicolini, C; Pio-Ribeiro, G; Andrade, G P; Melo, F L; Oliveira, V C; Guimarães, F C; Resende, R O; Kitajima, E W; Rezende, J A M; Nagata, Tatsuya

    2012-08-01

    Leaves of Cassia hoffmannseggii, a wild fabaceous species found in the Atlantic Forest, with a severe mosaic symptom were collected in Pernambuco State, Brazil. By transmission electron microscopy, two types of virus particles were found: the first was recognized as particles of a potyvirus, which was later identified as Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus; and the second was isometric and present in high concentration. The observation of vesicles at the periphery of chloroplasts suggested a tymovirus infection, which was confirmed by subsequent assays. A serological assay against several tymovirus antisera resulted in positive reaction of this tymo-like virus with an antiserum of Passion fruit yellow mosaic virus. By means of RT-PCR and using degenerated primers for the conserved region of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene of tymoviruses, a specific DNA fragment was amplified and sequenced. Based on this sequence, a specific forward primer was synthesized and successfully used to amplify the 3' terminal genome region, containing the partial RdRp gene and the complete coat protein (CP) sequences. The CP was 188 amino acids (aa) long, and the highest CP aa identity was observed with Kennedya yellow mosaic virus (61 %). Based on the current ICTV demarcation criterion, this isolate was considered as a distinct tymovirus and tentatively named as Cassia yellow mosaic-associated virus. PMID:22528644

  16. Improved postharvest quality in patagonian squash ( Cucurbita moschata) coated with radiation depolymerized chitosan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugliese, Maria Alicia; Goitia, Maria Teresa; Yossen, Mariana; Cifone, Norma; Agulló, Enrique; Andreucetti, Noemi

    2011-12-01

    Different molecular weight chitosans were evaluated on the decay of coated Anquito squashes ( Cucurbita moschata) as well as the maintenance of the fruit quality along five storage months. The original chitosan (Mw=391 kDa, 83% DD), was depolymerized by gamma radiation. Apart from chain scission, other chemical changes were not detected by FTIR or UV-vis analyses. The molecular weight characterization of chitosans was done by size exclusion chromatography with dual light scattering and concentration detection (SEC-MALLS-RI). The coating effectiveness was evaluated on the following parameters: fungal decay incidence, weight loss, firmness, total reducing sugar, soluble solid, flesh color, carotene content, pH and titratable acidity. No sign of fungal decay was observed in squashes coated with 122 and 56 kDa chitosans, which were also the most effective treatments in reducing the weight loss. The chitosan with Mw=122 kDa was also the best treatment considering firmness, internal aspect, sugar and carotene content. Then, radiation degraded chitosan was better in C. moschata preservation than the original chitosan.

  17. Nitric oxide inhibitory constituents from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia.

    PubMed

    He, Shan; Zeng, Ke-Wu; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2016-07-01

    Six new compounds including one γ-butyrolactone, cinncassin A (1), two tetrahydrofuran derivatives, cinncassins B and C (2, 3), two lignans, cinncassins D and E (4, 5), and one phenylpropanol glucoside, cinnacassoside D (6), together with 14 known lignans (7-20) were isolated from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia. The structures of 1-6 were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data analysis as well as chemical methods, and the absolute configurations were established by experimental and calculated ECD data. The anti-inflammatory activities of the isolates were evaluated on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV-2 microglial cells. Compounds 5, 7, 8, and 15 showed potent inhibition activities with IC50 values of 17.6, 17.7, 18.7, and 17.5μM, respectively. PMID:27223848

  18. Antiplasmodial compounds from Cassia siamea stem bark extract.

    PubMed

    Ajaiyeoba, E O; Ashidi, J S; Okpako, L C; Houghton, P J; Wright, C W

    2008-02-01

    Cassia siamea L. (Fabaceae) was identified from the southwest Nigerian ethnobotany as a remedy for febrile illness. This led to the bioassay-guided fractionation of stem bark of the plant extract, using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase assay and multi-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum (K1) for assessing the in vitro antimalarial activity. Emodin and lupeol were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction by a combination of chromatographic techniques. The structures of the compounds were determined by spectroscopy, co-spotting with authentic samples and comparison with literature data. Both compounds were found to be the active principles responsible for the antiplasmodial property with IC(50) values of 5 microg/mL, respectively. PMID:17705142

  19. Platelet anti-aggregation activities of compounds from Cinnamomum cassia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Young; Koo, Yean Kyoung; Koo, Ja Yong; Ngoc, Tran Minh; Kang, Sam Sik; Bae, KiHwan; Kim, Yeong Sik; Yun-Choi, Hye Sook

    2010-10-01

    Cinnamomum cassia is a well-known traditional medicine for improvement of blood circulation. An extract of this plant showed both platelet anti-aggregation and blood anti-coagulation effects in preliminary testing. Among the 13 compounds obtained from this plant, eugenol (2), amygdalactone (4), cinnamic alcohol (5), 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (7), 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (8), and coniferaldehyde (9) showed 1.5-73-fold greater inhibitory effects than acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on arachidonic acid (AA)-induced aggregation (50% inhibitory concentration [IC₅₀] = 3.8, 5.16, 31.2, 40.0, 16.9, and 0.82 μM, respectively, vs. 60.3 μM) and 6.3-730-fold stronger effect than ASA on U46619 (a thromboxane A₂ mimic)-induced aggregation (IC₅₀ = 3.51, 33.9, 31.0, 51.3, 14.6, and 0.44 μM, respectively, vs. 321 μM). The other compounds, coumarin (3), cinnamaldehyde (6), cinnamic acid (10), icariside DC (11), and dihydrocinnacasside (12), also inhibited (2.5 to four times greater than ASA) U46619-induced aggregation. In addition, compounds 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 were 1.3-87 times more effective than ASA against epinephrine-induced aggregation (IC₅₀ = 1.86, 1.10, 37.7, 25.0, 16.8, 15.3, and 0.57 μM, respectively, vs. 50.0 μM). However, the 13 compounds were only very mildly effective against blood coagulation, if at all. In conclusion, compounds 2, 4, 8, and 9 showed stronger inhibitory potencies than others on AA-, U46619-, and epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation. Eugenol (2) and coniferaldehyde (9) were the two of the most active anti-platelet constituents of C. cassia. PMID:20828311

  20. The Antibacterial Activity of Cassia fistula Organic Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Seyyednejad, Seyyed Mansour; Motamedi, Hossein; Vafei, Mouzhan; Bakhtiari, Ameneh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cassia fistula, is a flowering plant and a member of Fabaceae family. Its leaves are compound of 4 - 8 pairs of opposite leaflets. There are many Cassia species around the world which are used in herbal medicine. Objectives: This study was designed to examine in vitro anti-bacterial activity of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of C. fistula native to Khuzestan, Iran. Materials and Methods: The microbial inhibitory effect of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of C. fistula was tested on 3 Gram positive: Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis and 5 Gram negative: Salmonella Typhi, Kelebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis bacterial species using disc diffusion method at various concentrations. The minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC) were measured by the tube dilution assay. Results: The extract of C. fistula was effective against B. cereus, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, E. coli and K. pneumoniae. The most susceptible microorganisms to ethanolic and methanolic extracts were E. coli and K. pneumoniae, respectively. Also B. cereus and S. aureus showed the least sensitivity to ethanolic and methanolic extracts, respectively. The MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) and MBC (minimum bactericidal concentration) of ethanolic extracts against S. aureus, E. coli, S. epidermidis and K. pneumoniae were also determined. Conclusions: With respect to the obtained results and regarding to the daily increase of the resistant microbial strains to the commercial antibiotics, it can be concluded that these extracts can be proper candidates of antibacterial substance against pathogenic bacterial species especially S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae and S. epidermidis. PMID:25147664

  1. Larvicidal Activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the Larvae of Bancroftian Filariasis Vector Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepak; Chawla, Rakesh; Dhamodaram, P.; Balakrishnan, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives. The plan of this work was to study the larvicidal activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. These larvae are the most significant vectors. They transmit the parasites and pathogens which cause a deadly disease like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so forth, which are considered harmful towards the population in tropic and subtropical regions. Methods. The preliminary laboratory trail was undertaken to determine the efficacy of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of dried whole plant of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae at various concentrations against the late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus by following the WHO guidelines. Results. The results suggest that 100% mortality effect of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) was observed at 200 and 300 ppm (parts per million). The results obviously showed use of plants in insect control as an alternative method for minimizing the noxious effect of some pesticide compounds on the environment. Thus the extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) is claimed as more selective and biodegradable agent. Conclusion. This study justified that plant Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) has a realistic mortality result for larvae of filarial vector. This is safe to individual and communities against mosquitoes. It is a natural weapon for mosquito control. PMID:24688786

  2. Cassia tora Linn Cream Inhibits Ultraviolet-B-Induced Psoriasis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Manmohan; Kansara, Niraj

    2012-01-01

    The aim of present study was to determine the antipsoriatic activity of newly formulated O/W creams of methanolic extract of Cassia tora L. leaves by using ultraviolet-B-induced psoriasis in rat. The plant Cassia tora L. is traditionally claimed to be useful in the treatment of a number of skin diseases. However, there are no established scientific reports for its antipsoriatic activity. Methanolic Cassia tora L. leaves extract was used to prepare various concentrations of O/W creams and tested for acute dermal toxicity study. The different O/W creams showed good physical characteristics and passed the sensitivity, irritation, grittiness and bleeding test. The results of acute dermal toxicity showed that the creams were safe up to the dose of 2000 mg/kg. In case of psoriasis model, histopathological analysis revealed that there were absence of Munro's microabscess, elongation of rete ridges, and capillary loop dilation in the section in Test 2 (0.1%) and standard group. O/W creams and methanolic extract of Cassia tora L. leaves exhibited significant reduction in percentage of relative epidermal thickness and spleen index as compared to positive control. We concluded that topical O/W creams and crude extract containing methanolic extract of Cassia tora L. leaves have potent antipsoriatic activity in ultraviolet-B-induced psoriasis in rat. PMID:22536527

  3. Characterization of Jamaican Delonix regia and Cassia fistula Seed Extracts.

    PubMed

    Goldson Barnaby, Andrea; Reid, Raymond; Rattray, Vaughn; Williams, Ruth; Denny, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Delonix regia and Cassia fistula seed extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activity, total phenolics, ash, zinc and fatty acid content. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was utilized to assess the chemical functionalities present within the seeds. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Total phenolics were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Lipid extracts were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Zinc concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Extracts from the seeds of C. fistula had a higher antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging activity, and phenolic content than D. regia. FTIR revealed that the seeds are a rich source of protein with small quantities of fat. C. fistula extracts contained a higher percentage of total fat than D. regia. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominant saturated fatty acid in both extracts. Oleic acid and linoleic acid were identified in smaller quantities. Seed extracts may be considered for use in food and nutraceutical applications. PMID:27034834

  4. Antibacterial activities and phytochemical analysis of Cassia fistula (Linn.) leaf

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Sujogya K.; Padhi, L. P.; Mohanty, G.

    2011-01-01

    Cassia fistula Linn. which belongs to family Leguminosae is a medium-sized tree and its different parts are used in ayurvedic medicine as well as home remedies for common ailments. Sequential extraction was carried out using solvents viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, methanol and water from leaf of the plant were investigated for preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial property. Results of the study showed that all the extracts had good inhibitory activity against Gram-positive test organism. Although all five extracts showed promising antibacterial activity against test bacterial species, yet maximum activity was observed in ethanol extract. The minimum inhibitory concentration ranged in between 94 to 1 500 μg/ml. Evaluation of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, protein and amino acids, saponins, and triterpenoids revealed the presence of most of constituents in polar extracts (ethanol, methanol, and aqueous) compared with nonpolar extracts (petroleum ether and chloroform). Furthermore, the ethanol extract was subjected to TLC bioautography and time-kill study against Staphylococcus epidermidis. All the findings exhibit that the leaf extracts have broad-spectrum activity and suggest its possible use in treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:22171295

  5. Development and Characterization of Cassia grandis and Bixa orellana Nanoformulations.

    PubMed

    Prada, Ariadna L; Bitencourt, Antônio P R; Amado, Jesús R R; Cruz, Rodrigo A S; Carvalho, José C T; Fernandes, Caio P

    2016-01-01

    Cassia grandis and Bixa orellana are important plant species with folk use and great potential for phytopharmaceuticals. Nanodispersions are disperse systems of insoluble or immiscible substances in a liquid medium that may be prepared with or without coating polymers. To our knowledge, no studies were carried in order to achieve coating-polymer free nanoformulations using B. orellana extract or any C. grandis-based nanoformulations. Thus, on the present study we aimed to develop C. grandis nanoformulations using three different coating polymers (Eudragit® L 100 55, PEG 4000 and Kollicoat®), while B. orellana nanodispersions were obtained using different surfactants (polysorbate 80, polysorbate 20, polyethylene glycol 400 monooleate, polyethylene glycol 600 monooleate, polyethylene glycol 400 dioleate and polyethylene glycol 600 dioleate) as coating polymer-free nanoformulations. Characterization of nanoformulations was performed by different parameters, including particle size, polydispersity index and zeta-potential. Our results suggested that some optimal nanoformulations were obtained for both plant species. Moreover, possible stable behavior was observed during storage period for C. grandis (30 days) and B. orellana (21 days). On this context, the present study contributes to nanobiotechnology development of phytopharmaceuticals, allowing achievement of novel nano-delivery systems with two important folk medicinal plant extracts and making them potential products for innovative phytopharmaceuticals. PMID:26876518

  6. Characterization of Jamaican Delonix regia and Cassia fistula Seed Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Raymond; Rattray, Vaughn; Williams, Ruth; Denny, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Delonix regia and Cassia fistula seed extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activity, total phenolics, ash, zinc and fatty acid content. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was utilized to assess the chemical functionalities present within the seeds. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Total phenolics were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Lipid extracts were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Zinc concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Extracts from the seeds of C. fistula had a higher antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging activity, and phenolic content than D. regia. FTIR revealed that the seeds are a rich source of protein with small quantities of fat. C. fistula extracts contained a higher percentage of total fat than D. regia. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominant saturated fatty acid in both extracts. Oleic acid and linoleic acid were identified in smaller quantities. Seed extracts may be considered for use in food and nutraceutical applications. PMID:27034834

  7. Transcriptomic analysis of heteromorphic stamens in Cassia biscapsularis L.

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhonglai; Hu, Jin; Zhao, Zhongtao; Zhang, Dianxiang

    2016-01-01

    Hermaphroditic flowers have evolved primarily under the selection on male function. Evolutionary modification often leads to stamen differentiation within flowers, or “heteranthery”, a phenomenon intrigued scientists since the 18th century until recently. However, the genetic basis and molecular regulation mechanism has barely been touched. Here we conducted comparative transcriptome profiling in Cassia biscapsularis L., a heterantherous species with representative patterns of stamen differentiation. Numerous differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between the staminodes (the degenerated stamens) and fertile stamens, while much fewer genes differentially expressed among the three sets of fertile stamens. GO term enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis characterized functional properties of DEGs in different stamen types. Transcripts showing close correlation between expression pattern and stamen types were identified. Transcription factors from the bHLH family were suggested to have taken crucial part in the formation of staminodes. This first global transcriptomic analysis focusing on stamen differentiation opens the door toward a more comprehensive understanding on the molecular regulation of floral organ evolution. Especially, the generated unigene resource would be valuable for developing male sterile lines in agronomy. PMID:27527392

  8. Transcriptomic analysis of heteromorphic stamens in Cassia biscapsularis L.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhonglai; Hu, Jin; Zhao, Zhongtao; Zhang, Dianxiang

    2016-01-01

    Hermaphroditic flowers have evolved primarily under the selection on male function. Evolutionary modification often leads to stamen differentiation within flowers, or "heteranthery", a phenomenon intrigued scientists since the 18(th) century until recently. However, the genetic basis and molecular regulation mechanism has barely been touched. Here we conducted comparative transcriptome profiling in Cassia biscapsularis L., a heterantherous species with representative patterns of stamen differentiation. Numerous differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between the staminodes (the degenerated stamens) and fertile stamens, while much fewer genes differentially expressed among the three sets of fertile stamens. GO term enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis characterized functional properties of DEGs in different stamen types. Transcripts showing close correlation between expression pattern and stamen types were identified. Transcription factors from the bHLH family were suggested to have taken crucial part in the formation of staminodes. This first global transcriptomic analysis focusing on stamen differentiation opens the door toward a more comprehensive understanding on the molecular regulation of floral organ evolution. Especially, the generated unigene resource would be valuable for developing male sterile lines in agronomy. PMID:27527392

  9. Peroxynitrite scavenging mode of alaternin isolated from Cassia tora.

    PubMed

    Park, Tae Hyun; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Chul Hong; Jung, Hyun Ah; Choi, Jae Sue; Lee, Jae Won; Chung, Hae Young

    2004-10-01

    Peroxynitrite (ONOO-), formed from the reaction of superoxide (.O2-) and nitric oxide (NO), is a potent oxidant that contributes to the oxidation of various cellular constituents, including lipids, amino acids, sulfhydryls and nucleotides. It can cause cellular injury, such as DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cell death. ONOO- toxicity is also reported to be involved in inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and atherosclerosis. Moreover, the necessity for a strong ONOO- scavenger is important because of the lack of endogenous enzymes that protect against the damage caused by ONOO-. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of natural products to scavenge ONOO-. We tested various plant extracts for their ONOO- scavenging activity. Among them, extract from Cassia tora, which is well known as an oriental herb in traditional medicine, showed potent ONOO- scavenging activity. Further analysis identified the phenolic active components, alaternin and nor-rubrofusarin glucose, as potent ONOO- scavengers. Spectrophotometric analysis demonstrated that alaternin and nor-rubrofusarin glucose led to a decrease in the ONOO- -mediated nitration of tyrosine through electron donation. In bovine serum albumin, alaternin, but not nor-rubrofusarin glucose, showed significant inhibition of ONOO- -mediated nitration in a dose-dependent manner. We believe alaternin can be developed as an effective ONOO- scavenger for the prevention of ONOO- -associated diseases. PMID:15482647

  10. Chemical composition of the underutilized legume Cassia hirsuta L.

    PubMed

    Vadivel, V; Janardhanan, K

    2000-01-01

    Seven accessions of the underutilized legume, Cassia hirsuta L., seeds collected from seven different agroclimatic regions of Tamil Nadu, India, were analyzed for proximate composition, total proteins, protein fractions, mineral profiles and selected antinutritional factors. Crude protein ranged from 15.52 to 20.74%, crude lipid 3.77-7.04%, crude fiber 4.68-6.92%, ash 3.98-6.42% and carbohydrates 62.45-70.16%. Energy values of the seeds were 1549-1634 kJ/100 g (DM), which are comparable to those of other legumes. Data on seed protein fractions revealed that globulins constituted the bulk of the seed protein as in most legumes. Mineral contents of the seeds showed greater variation. Potassium was the most abundant mineral (1029-1786 mg/100 g), whereas manganese was low (2.1-2.2 mg/100 g). Antinutritional factors such as total free phenolics, tannins, L-DOPA and lectins were analyzed. The results of the study demonstrated that the accessions of C. hirsuta seeds collected from Tamil Nadu, India, could be good sources of some important nutrients for humans. PMID:11086879

  11. Antiulcer activity of ethanol leaf extract of Cassia fistula.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Sivanesan; Gobianand, Kuppannan

    2010-08-01

    The ethanol leaf extract (ELE) of Cassia fistula Linn. (Caesalpinaceae) was evaluated for antiulcer activity against pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer. Ranitidine (30 mg/kg b.w.) and ELE at doses of 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg b.w. were administered orally in different groups of rats (n = 6), 1 h prior to pyloric ligation. Four hours after pyloric ligation, the gastric juice was collected for evaluation of various parameters. The antiulcer activity of ELE was evidenced by the significant attenuation of gastric volume, pH, free acidity, and total acidity in the gastric juice of pyloric-ligated rats in a dose-dependent manner, and this protective effect could be due to strengthening of the mucosal defense mechanism. ELE pre-treatment significantly attenuated the fall in status of sialic acid and fucose accompanied by an increase in hexose, hexosamine, total non-amino polysaccharide, total carbohydrate, and C:P ratio in the gastric juice of pylorus-ligated rats, and this effect could be due to protection of the mucosal barrier system. ELE pre-treatment significantly prevented the increase in LPO and SOD accompanied by a fall in CAT, in the gastric juice of pyloric-ligated rats. This protective ability of ELE against pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer could be attributed to its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. Higher doses of ELE (750 mg/kg b.w.) produced maximum antiulcer activity comparable to ranitidine treatment. In essence, the antiulcer activity of ELE could be attributed to (i) a decrease in gastric acid secretion, (ii) protection of the mucosal barrier and restoration of mucosal secretions, (iii) inhibition of free radical generation or prevention of lipid peroxidation, and (iv) free radical scavenging or antioxidant properties. PMID:20673173

  12. LARVICIDAL POTENTIAL AND MOSQUITO REPELLENT ACTIVITY OF CASSIA MIMOSOIDES EXTRACTS.

    PubMed

    Alayo, M A; Femi-Oyewo, M N; Bakre, L G; Fashina, A O

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to investigate larvicidal activities of extracts of Cassia mimosoides leaves and pods as a potential agent in vector control of malaria and to evaluate repellent effect against Anopheles gambiae mosquito of the extract formulated in an aqueous cream base. Petroleum spirit, ethanol, water and dichloromethane extracts were tested against third and fourth instar Anopheles gambiae larvae. The petroleum extract was formulated in an aqueous cream base and repellency determined using N-N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) as control. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of saponins, tannins, anthraquinones, steroids, and flavonoids but absence of cardiac glycosides and alkaloids in powdered C. mimosoides. A dose related response was observed in the mortality rate of the extracts, with 2 mg/ml petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts achieving 100 % mortality. Larvicidal activity of extracts based on LC50 values was petroleum ether > dichloromethane > ethanol > water. The formulated petroleum ether extract cream had a characteristic odor, hard and smooth texture, skin feeling of smoothness, ease of application by rubbing, easy removal using soap and water, non-irritating effect on skin and an acceptable pH value. The cream containing 2%-6% (w/w) extract and control achieved 100% repellency against mosquitoes after an exposure time of 5 minutes. There was a linear relationship between percent concentration of plant extract in the cream samples and repellent activity. These results suggest that crude extracts of C. mimosoides can be developed as eco-friendly larvicide and mosquito repellent and encourage further effort to investigate the bioactive compounds in the extracts. PMID:26867378

  13. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Cassia siamea flowers.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Alam, M Sarwar; Jabbar, Zoobi; Javed, Kaleem; Athar, Mohammad

    2006-12-01

    The study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity of alcoholic extract of Cassia siamea Lam. (Fabaceae) flowers. The extract was found to contain a large amount of polyphenols and also exhibited an immense reducing ability. At a concentration of 250 microg/ml, 96% of DPPH radicals and at 500 microg/ml, 42.7, 32.7 and 64.5% of O2-, H2O2 and NO respectively could be scavenged by C. siamea flower extract. The extract also inhibited OH radical induced oxidation of protein (BSA) and LPO in murine hepatic microsomes. The determination of metal chelating capacity of the extract indicated chelating of metal ions (Fe2+) to be a putative mechanism implicated in the inhibition of OH radical-induced BSA oxidation and LPO. C. siamea flower extract also exhibited a significant antioxidant activity in acute oxidative tissue injury animal model constituted by CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity. Oral administration of the extract at a dose of 50-150 mg/kg of body weight significantly protected from CCl4 induced elevation in AST and ALT in the serum, elevation in hepatic LPO, depletion of hepatic GSH and decrease in the activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes: SOD, CAT and GPX. The extract also protected against histopathological changes produced by CCl4 such as necrosis, fatty changes, ballooning degeneration, etc. The data obtained in the present study suggests that the alcoholic extract of C. siamea flowers have potent antioxidant activity against free radicals, prevent oxidative damage to major biomolecules and afford significant protection against oxidative damage in the liver. PMID:16846707

  14. Chemical Profile, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Achillea moschata Wulfen, an Endemic Species from the Alps.

    PubMed

    Vitalini, Sara; Madeo, Moira; Tava, Aldo; Iriti, Marcello; Vallone, Lisa; Avato, Pinarosa; Cocuzza, Clementina Elvezia; Simonetti, Paolo; Argentieri, Maria Pia

    2016-01-01

    Aerial parts of Achillea moschata Wulfen (Asteraceae) growing wild in the Italian Rhaetian Alps were investigated to describe, for the first time, their phenolic content, as well as to characterize the essential oil. Inspection of the metabolic profile combining HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS/MS data showed that the methanol extract contained glycosylated flavonoids with luteolin and apigenin as the main aglycones. Among them, the major compound was 7-O-glucosyl apigenin. Caffeoyl derivates were other phenolics identified. The essential oil obtained by steam distillation and investigated by GC/FID and GC/MS showed camphor, 1,8-cineole, and bornylacetate as the main constituents. The antioxidant capacity of three different extracts with increasing polarity and of the essential oil was evaluated by employing ABTS·+ and DPPH· radical scavenging assays. The methanolic extract was the only significantly effective sample against both synthetic radicals. All samples were also tested against Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacterial species using the disk diffusion assay. The non-polar extracts (dichloromethane and petroleum ether) and the essential oil possessed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity expressed according to inhibition zone diameter (8-24 mm). PMID:27347915

  15. Carotenoid composition and vitamin A value of an Argentinian squash (Cucurbita moschata).

    PubMed

    González, E; Montenegro, M A; Nazareno, M A; López de Mishima, B A

    2001-12-01

    The carotenoid composition of butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata) cultivated in the province of Santiago del Estero, Argentina, was determined. The main carotenoids isolated were identified as beta-carotene (beta,beta-carotene), alpha-carotene (beta,epsilon-carotene), and lutein (beta,epsilon-carotene-3,3'-diol) and the minor carotenoids, as phytofluene (7,8,11,12,7',8'-hexahydro-psi,psi-carotene), zeta-carotene (7,8,7',8'-tetrahydro-psi,psi-carotene), neurosporene (7,8-dihydro-psi,psi-carotene), violaxanthin (5,6,5',6'- diepoxy-5,6,5',6'-tetrahydro-beta,beta-carotene-3,3'-diol) and neoxanthin (5,6-epoxy-6,7-didehydro-5,6,5',6'-tetrahydro-beta,beta- carotene-3,5,3'-triol). In some samples, 5,6,5',6'-beta-carotene diepoxide, (5,6,5',6'-diepoxy-5,6,5',6'-tetrahydro-beta,beta-carotene) and flavoxanthin (5,8-epoxy-5,8-dihydro-beta,epsilon-carotene-3,3'-diol) were detected. The presence of cis-isomers of beta,beta-carotene was also detected by HPLC. The vitamin A value obtained was 432 micrograms RE/100 g fresh sample, which indicates that this vegetable is an important source of provitamin A. PMID:12012567

  16. Cucurbita moschata Duch. and its active component, β-carotene effectively promote the immune responses through the activation of splenocytes and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Yun; Nam, Sun-Young; Yang, Shi-Young; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2016-10-01

    Cucurbita moschata Duch. has long been used for traditional health food in many countries. However, to enhance the immune system of Cucurbita moschata Duch. and its major component, β-carotene is not clear. Here, we determined the immune enhancement effect of Cucurbita moschata Duch. and β-carotene in mouse splenocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line. We prepared baked Cucurbita moschata Duch. (Sweetme Sweet Pumpkin(TM), SSP) and steamed Cucurbita moschata Duch. (SC). Splenocytes isolated from the spleen of BALB/c mice were treated with SSP, SC, and β-carotene for 24 h. RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated with recombinant interferon-γ (rIFN-γ) for 6 h before treatment with SSP, SC, or β-carotene. SSP, SC and β-carotene significantly up-regulated the proliferation of splenocyte and mRNA expression of KI-67. The levels of interleukin-2 and IFN-γ were up-regulated by SSP, SC, or β-carotene in the splenocytes. SC and β-carotene also increased the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the splenocytes. In addition, SSP, SC, or β-carotene significantly increased the levels of TNF-α through the nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor-κB and phosphorylation of IκBα in the rIFN-γ-primed RAW 264.7 cells. These data indicate that Cucurbita moschata Duch. and β-carotene may have an immune-enhancing effect through the production of Th1 cytokines by activation of splenocytes and macrophages. PMID:27315229

  17. Cinnamomum cassia: an implication of serotonin reuptake inhibition in animal models of depression.

    PubMed

    Zada, Wahid; Zeeshan, Sara; Bhatti, Huma Aslam; Mahmood, Wajahat; Rauf, Khalid; Abbas, Ghulam

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the traditional use of Cinnamomum cassia against depression. The standardised methanolic extract of the bark of C. cassia was evaluated for antidepressant activity using various behavioural tests, i.e. tail suspension test (TST), forced swim test (FST) and locomotor activity test. The serotonergic and noradrenergic modulation was assessed using 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)-induced head twitches and yohimbine potentiation tests, respectively. The fluoxetine and phenelzine were used as positive controls in the study. The C. cassia extract significantly decreased the immobility time in TST (maximum effective dose tested was 50 mg/kg) while no effect was observed in FST and locomotor activity test. The extract significantly increased the 5-HTP-induced head twitches while yohimbine-induced lethality remained unaltered. The aforementioned results are similar to that caused by fluoxetine. The standardised methanolic extract of C. cassia demonstrated antidepressant activity that can be attributed to rise in serotonin levels. PMID:26134381

  18. Anthraquinones and flavonoids of Cassia tora leaves ameliorate sodium selenite induced cataractogenesis in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Sreelakshmi, V; Abraham, Annie

    2016-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of Cassia tora leaves, an edible plant traditionally used for eye ailments, in preventing experimental cataractogenesis. Cataract is the leading cause of irreversible visual impairment worldwide characterized by the cloudiness or opacification of the lens due to the disturbance of even distribution of lens proteins and lipids. A significant number of epidemiological studies have suggested the potential role of herbal medicine in the prevention of cataract by maintaining lens architecture. The study was conducted in neonatal rat pups of 8-10 days old with an ethyl acetate fraction of Cassia tora leaves (ECT) administered by gastric intubation. After 30 days, the animals were sacrificed and various parameters such as redox status and gene expressions were evaluated in lenses. ECT administration caused a significant decrease in the onset and maturation of cataract, potentiated antioxidant defense and normalized lens crystallin expression against cataract induced animals. HPLC and ESI-MS analysis of ECT revealed the presence of flavonoids and anthraquinones. Thus, the present study indicates the therapeutic potential of Cassia tora leaves in preventing cataract and the effect is endorsed by the presence of antioxidants in Cassia tora leaves. PMID:26786764

  19. Biological control potential of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides for coffee senna (Cassia occidentalis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fungal pathogen, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was isolated from a greenhouse-grown seedling of coffee senna (Cassia occidentalis) and evaluated as a mycoherbicide for that weed. Host range tests revealed that coffee senna, wild senna (C. pilosa),and sicklepod (C. obtusifolia) were also affected...

  20. Nematicidal Activity of Cassia and Cinnamon Oil Compounds and Related Compounds toward Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Jeong-Ok; Lee, Sang-Myung; Moon, Yil-Seong; Lee, Sang-Gil; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2007-01-01

    The nematicidal activity of two cassia, Cinnamomum cassia, oils (Especial and true), four cinnamon, Cinnamomum zey-lanicum, oils (technical, #500, bark and green leaf), and their compounds (e.g., trans-cinnamaldehyde and trans-cinnamic acid) toward adult Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was examined by a direct contact bioassay. Results were compared with those of 34 related compounds. As judged by 24-hour LC50 values, two cassia oils (0.084–0.085 mg/ml) and four cinnamon oils (0.064–0.113 mg/ml) were toxic toward adult B. xylophilus. Of 45 test compounds, trans-cinnamaldehyde (0.061 mg/ml) was the most active nematicide, followed by ethyl cinnamate, α-methyl-trans-cinnamaldehyde, methyl cinnamate and allyl cinnamate (0.114–0.195 mg/ml). Potent nematicidal activity was also observed with 4-methoxycinnamonitrile, trans-4-methoxycinnamaldehyde, trans-2-methoxy-cinnamaldehyde, ethyl α-cyanocinnamate, cinnamonitrile and cinnamyl bromide (0.224–0.502 mg/ml). Structure-activity relationships indicate that structural characteristics, such as types of functional groups, saturation and carbon skeleton, appear to play a role in determining the toxicities to adult B. xylophilus. Cassia and cinnamon oils and test compounds described merit further study as potential nematicides or leads for the control of pine wilt disease caused by B. xylophilus. PMID:19259472

  1. Nematicidal Activity of Cassia and Cinnamon Oil Compounds and Related Compounds toward Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae).

    PubMed

    Kong, Jeong-Ok; Lee, Sang-Myung; Moon, Yil-Seong; Lee, Sang-Gil; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2007-03-01

    The nematicidal activity of two cassia, Cinnamomum cassia, oils (Especial and true), four cinnamon, Cinnamomum zey-lanicum, oils (technical, #500, bark and green leaf), and their compounds (e.g., trans-cinnamaldehyde and trans-cinnamic acid) toward adult Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was examined by a direct contact bioassay. Results were compared with those of 34 related compounds. As judged by 24-hour LC(50) values, two cassia oils (0.084-0.085 mg/ml) and four cinnamon oils (0.064-0.113 mg/ml) were toxic toward adult B. xylophilus. Of 45 test compounds, trans-cinnamaldehyde (0.061 mg/ml) was the most active nematicide, followed by ethyl cinnamate, alpha-methyl-trans-cinnamaldehyde, methyl cinnamate and allyl cinnamate (0.114-0.195 mg/ml). Potent nematicidal activity was also observed with 4-methoxycinnamonitrile, trans-4-methoxycinnamaldehyde, trans-2-methoxy-cinnamaldehyde, ethyl alpha-cyanocinnamate, cinnamonitrile and cinnamyl bromide (0.224-0.502 mg/ml). Structure-activity relationships indicate that structural characteristics, such as types of functional groups, saturation and carbon skeleton, appear to play a role in determining the toxicities to adult B. xylophilus. Cassia and cinnamon oils and test compounds described merit further study as potential nematicides or leads for the control of pine wilt disease caused by B. xylophilus. PMID:19259472

  2. Antimicrobial activities of cinnamon oil and cinnamaldehyde from the Chinese medicinal herb Cinnamomum cassia Blume.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Linda S M; Li, Yaolan; Kam, Sheung-Lau; Wang, Hua; Wong, Elaine Y L; Ooi, Vincent E C

    2006-01-01

    Both Cinnamomum verum J.S. Presl. and Cinnamomum cassia Blume are collectively called Cortex Cinnamonmi for their medicinal cinnamon bark. Cinnamomum verum is more popular elsewhere in the world, whereas C. cassia is a well known traditional Chinese medicine. An analysis of hydro-distilled Chinese cinnamon oil and pure cinnamaldehyde by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed that cinnamaldehyde is the major component comprising 85% in the essential oil and the purity of cinnamaldehyde in use is high (> 98%). Both oil and pure cinnamaldehyde of C. cassia were equally effective in inhibiting the growth of various isolates of bacteria including Gram-positive (1 isolate, Staphylococcus aureus), and Gram-negative (7 isolates, E. coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Samonella typhymurium), and fungi including yeasts (four species of Candida, C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, and C. krusei), filamentous molds (4 isolates, three Aspergillus spp. and one Fusarium sp.) and dermatophytes (three isolates, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagraphytes). Their minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC) as determined by agar dilution method varied only slightly. The MICs of both oil and cinnamaldehyde for bacteria ranged from 75 microg/ml to 600 microg/ml, for yeasts from 100 microg/ml to 450 microg/ml, for filamentous fungi from 75 microg/ml to 150 microg/ml, and for dermatophytes from 18.8 microg/ml to 37.5 microg/ml. The antimicrobial effectiveness of C. cassia oil and its major constituent is comparable and almost equivalent, which suggests that the broad-spectrum antibiotic activities of C. cassia oil are due to cinnamaldehyde. The relationship between structure and function of the main components of cinnamon oil is also discussed. PMID:16710900

  3. Effects of simulated rainfall on disease development and weed control of the bioherbicidal fungi Alternaria cassiae and Colletotrichum truncatum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternaria cassiae and Colletotrichum truncatum are virulent pathogens of sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia), and hemp sesbania (Sesbania exaltata), respectively, under favorable environmental conditions. In greenhouse experiments, the effects of simulated rainfall on pathogenesis and mortality of these ...

  4. In vitro antioxidant activity of hydro alcoholic extract from the fruit pulp of Cassia fistula Linn.

    PubMed

    Bhalodia, Nayan R; Nariya, Pankaj B; Acharya, R N; Shukla, V J

    2013-04-01

    The present study is aimed to investigate antioxidant activity of the extracts of Cassia fistula Linn. (Leguminosae) fruit pulp. Cassia fistula Linn., a Indian Laburnum, is widely cultivated in various countries and different continents including Asia, Mauritius, South Africa, Mexico, China, West Indies, East Africa and Brazil as an ornamental tree for its beautiful bunches of yellow flowers and also used in traditional medicine for several indications. The primary phytochemical study and in vitro antioxidant study was performed on hydro alcoholic extract of fruit pulp. Phytochemical screening of the plant has shown the presence of phenolic compounds, fatty acids, flavonoids, tannins and glycosides. Phenolic content was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and was calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of hydro alcoholic extract was measured by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) assay and was compared to ascorbic acid. Ferric reducing power of the extract was also evaluated by Oyaizu method. In the present study, three methods were used for evaluation of antioxidant activity. First two methods were for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity and third method to evaluate the reducing power. Results indicate that hydro alcoholic fruit pulp extracts have marked amount of total phenols which could be responsible for the antioxidant activity. These in vitro assays indicate that this plant extract is a significant source of natural antioxidant, Cassia fistula fruit pulp extract shows lower activity in DPPH and total phenol content as compared with standard which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stresses. PMID:24250133

  5. In vitro antioxidant activity of hydro alcoholic extract from the fruit pulp of Cassia fistula Linn

    PubMed Central

    Bhalodia, Nayan R.; Nariya, Pankaj B.; Acharya, R. N.; Shukla, V. J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study is aimed to investigate antioxidant activity of the extracts of Cassia fistula Linn. (Leguminosae) fruit pulp. Cassia fistula Linn., a Indian Laburnum, is widely cultivated in various countries and different continents including Asia, Mauritius, South Africa, Mexico, China, West Indies, East Africa and Brazil as an ornamental tree for its beautiful bunches of yellow flowers and also used in traditional medicine for several indications. The primary phytochemical study and in vitro antioxidant study was performed on hydro alcoholic extract of fruit pulp. Phytochemical screening of the plant has shown the presence of phenolic compounds, fatty acids, flavonoids, tannins and glycosides. Phenolic content was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and was calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of hydro alcoholic extract was measured by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) assay and was compared to ascorbic acid. Ferric reducing power of the extract was also evaluated by Oyaizu method. In the present study, three methods were used for evaluation of antioxidant activity. First two methods were for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity and third method to evaluate the reducing power. Results indicate that hydro alcoholic fruit pulp extracts have marked amount of total phenols which could be responsible for the antioxidant activity. These in vitro assays indicate that this plant extract is a significant source of natural antioxidant, Cassia fistula fruit pulp extract shows lower activity in DPPH and total phenol content as compared with standard which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stresses. PMID:24250133

  6. Antifungal effect of Allium tuberosum, Cinnamomum cassia, and Pogostemon cablin essential oils and their components against population of Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Kocevski, Dragana; Du, Muying; Kan, Jianquan; Jing, Chengjun; Lačanin, Ines; Pavlović, Hrvoje

    2013-05-01

    Antifungal activity of Allium tuberosum (AT), Cinnamomum cassia (CC), and Pogostemon cablin (Patchouli, P) essential oils against Aspergillus flavus strains 3.2758 and 3.4408 and Aspergillus oryzae was tested at 2 water activity levels (aw : 0.95 and 0.98). Main components of tested essential oils were: allyl trisulfide 40.05% (AT), cinnamaldehyde 87.23% (CC), and patchouli alcohol 44.52% (P). The minimal inhibitory concentration of the plant essential oils against A. flavus strains 3.2758 and 3.4408 and A. oryzae was 250 ppm (A. tuberosum and C. cassia), whereas Patchouli essential oil inhibited fungi at concentration > 1500 ppm. The essential oils exhibited suppression effect on colony growth at all concentrations (100, 175, and 250 ppm for A. tuberosum; 25, 50, and 75 for C. cassia; 100, 250, and 500 for P. cablin essential oil). Results of the study represent a solution for possible application of essential oil of C. cassia in different food systems due to its strong inhibitory effect against tested Aspergillus species. In real food system (table grapes), C. cassia essential oil exhibited stronger antifungal activity compared to cinnamaldehyde. PMID:23647469

  7. Antifeedant and larvicidal activities of Rhein isolated from the flowers of Cassia fistula L.

    PubMed Central

    Duraipandiyan, V.; Ignacimuthu, S.; Gabriel Paulraj, M.

    2010-01-01

    Antifeedant and larvicidal activities of rhein (1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone-3-carboxylic acid) isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Cassia fistula flower were studied against lepidopteron pests Spodoptera litura and Helicoverpa armigera. Significant antifeedant activity was observed against H. armigera (76.13%) at 1000 ppm concentration. Rhein exhibited larvicidal activity against H. armigera (67.5), S. litura (36.25%) and the LC50 values was 606.50 ppm for H. armigera and 1192.55 ppm for S.litura. The survived larvae produced malformed adults. PMID:23961115

  8. HPLC quantification of kaempferol-3-O-gentiobioside in Cassia alata.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Hiroyoshi; Iizuka, Toru; Nagai, Masahiro; Murata, Yoshimi

    2003-07-01

    Kaempferol-3-O-gentiobioside, the major flavonoid glycoside in Indonesian Cassia alata was quantified in various parts of the plant. The mature leaf was found to contain the highest content of this metabolite. A decrease of the flavonoid content in the juvenile leaf during the period of October through December was also observed. The contents ranged from 2.0 to 5.0% and 1.0 to 4.0% in mature and juvenile leaves, respectively. The other parts studied were flower (sepal and petal), rachis, stem and seed. Kaempferol-3-O-gentiobioside was not detected in the seed. PMID:12837355

  9. Fractionation, physicochemical property and immunological activity of polysaccharides from Cassia obtusifolia.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lei; Yin, Junyi; Nie, Shaoping; Wan, Yiqun; Xie, Mingyong

    2016-10-01

    The seeds of Cassia obtusifolia are widely used as a drink in Asia and an additive in food industry. Considerable amounts of water-soluble polysaccharides were found in the whole seeds, while conflicting results on structure characteristics have been reported, and few studies have been reported on physicochemical properties and immunomodulatory activities. In the present study, gradient ethanol precipitation was applied to fractionate the water-soluble polysaccharide (CP), and two sub-fractions CP-30 (30% ethanol precipitate) and CP-40 (40% ethanol precipitate) were obtained. Different rheological properties for CP-30 and CP-40 were found, indicating the differences in structure characteristics between CP-30 and CP-40. Chemical properties, including molecular weight, monosaccharide composition, and glycosidic linkage were investigated. Compared with CP-30, CP-40 had lower molecular weight and higher content of xylose. The immunomodulatory effects of CP, CP-30 and CP-40 were assessed. All of them were found to possess significant immunomodulation activities, while varied effects of them on macrophage functions were observed. The aim of the present study was to develop a simple and efficient method to purify cassia polysaccharides, and investigate their physicochemical properties and biological activities, which was meaningful for their potential use in food industry and folk medicine. PMID:27177462

  10. Potentiation of antifungal activity of amphotericin B by essential oil from Cinnamomum cassia.

    PubMed

    Giordani, R; Regli, P; Kaloustian, J; Portugal, H

    2006-01-01

    The antifungal activity of the essential oil from Cinnamomum cassia, alone or combined with amphotericin B, a drug widely used for most indications despite side-effects was investigated. The composition of the oil was analysed by GC/MS and characterized by its very high content of cinnamaldehyde (92.2%). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC 80%), used to evaluate the antifungal activity against Candida albicans, was determined by a macrobroth dilution method followed by a modelling of fungal growth. The essential oil of Cinnamomum cassia exhibited strong antifungal effect (MIC 80% = 0.169 microL/mL and K(aff) = 18,544 microL/mL). A decrease of the MIC 80% of amphotericin B was obtained when the culture medium contained essential oil concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 0.1 microL/mL. The strongest decrease (70%) was obtained when the medium contained 0.1 microL/mL of essential oil. This potentiation of amphotericin B obtained in vitro may show promise for the development of less toxic and more effective therapies especially for the treatment of HIV infection. PMID:16397923

  11. Cinnamaldehyde and 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde as NF-kappaB inhibitors from Cinnamomum cassia.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Alavala Matta; Seo, Jee Hee; Ryu, Shi Yong; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kim, Young Sup; Min, Kyung Rak; Kim, Youngsoo

    2004-09-01

    Nuclear factor (NF)-cB is a transcription factor regulating the expression of inflammatory and immune genes. In the present study, an extract from stem bark of Cinnamomum cassia Blume(Lauraceae) was discovered to have an inhibitory effect on LPS-induced NF-KB transcriptional activity, which was determined using macrophages RAW 264.7 transfected stably with an alkaline phosphatase reporter construct containing four copies of the NF-KB binding KB sequence. Following activity-guided fractionation, trans-cinnamaldehyde and 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde were identified as the NF-KB inhibitors from C cassia with IC50 values of 43 MM and 31 pM, respectively. As a positive control, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) showed an IC50 value of 2 uM on NF-KB transcriptional activity. Both trans-cinnamaldehyde and 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde inhibited LPS-induced DNA binding activity of NF-KB in addition to NF-KB transcription-al activity. PMID:15503352

  12. In vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of Cassia fistula Linn. fruit pulp extracts

    PubMed Central

    Bhalodia, N. R.; Nariya, P. B.; Acharya, R. N.; Shukla, V. J.

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study is to assess the antimicrobial activity Cassia fistula fruit pulp extracts on some bacterial and fungal strains. Hydro alcohol and chloroform extracts of Cassia fistula fruit pulp were evaluated for the potential antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity was determined in both the extracts using the agar disc diffusion method. Extracts were effective on tested microorganisms. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of solvent extracts (5, 25, 50, 100, 250 μg/mL) of C. fistula were tested against two gram positive, two gram negative human pathogenic bacteria and three fungi, respectively. Crude extracts of C. fistula exhibited moderate to strong activity against most of the bacteria tested. The tested bacterial strains were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coil, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and fungal strains were Aspergillus. niger, Aspergillus. clavatus, Candida albicans. The antibacterial potential of the extracts were found to be dose dependent. The antibacterial activities of the C. fistula were due to the presence of various secondary metabolites. Hence, these plants can be used to discover bioactive natural products that may serve as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals research activities. PMID:23049197

  13. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Constituents of Leaf Extracts of Cassia auriculata.

    PubMed

    Murugan, T; Wins, J Albino; Murugan, M

    2013-01-01

    Plants produce a wide variety of phytochemical constituents, which are secondary metabolites and are used either directly or indirectly in the pharmaceutical industry. 'For centuries, man has effectively used various components of plants or their extracts for the treatment of many diseases, including bacterial infections. In the present study methanol, chloroform and aqueous extracts of Cassia auriculata leaf were subjected for antimicrobial activity by well-diffusion method against six bacterial strains namely Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis. The results revealed that the methanol and chloroform extracts exhibited strong inhibitory activity against all the tested organisms (zone of inhibition of 12-20 mm), except Pseudomonas aeruginosa (zone of inhibition 10 mm or nil). The aqueous extracts showed moderate activity by 'Zone of inhibition ≤12 or nil). The extracts were screened for their phytochemical constituents by standard protocols' and were shown to contain carbohydrates, proteins, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, saponins and tannins. The antibacterial activity of these extracts is possibly linked to the presence of flavonoids, steroid, saponins and/or tannins. Further studies are needed to determine the precise active principles from Cassia auriculata. PMID:23901174

  14. Clinical & pathological features of acute toxicity due to Cassia occidentalis in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Vashishtha, V M; John, T J; Kumar, Amod

    2009-07-01

    Cassia occidentalis is an annual shrub found in many countries including India. Although bovines and ovines do not eat it, parts of the plant are used in some traditional herbal medicines. Several animal studies have documented that fresh or dried beans are toxic. Ingestion of large amounts by grazing animals has caused serious illness and death. The toxic effects in large animals, rodents and chicken are on skeletal muscles, liver, kidney and heart. The predominant systems involved depend upon the animal species and the dose of the beans consumed. Brain functions are often affected. Gross lesions at necropsy consist of necrosis of skeletal muscle fibres and hepatic centrilobular necrosis; renal tubular necrosis is less frequent. Muscle and liver cell necrosis is reflected in biochemical abnormalities. The median lethal dose (LD(50)) is 1 g/kg for mice and rats. Toxicity is attributed to various anthraquinones and their derivatives and alkaloids, but the specific toxins have not been identified. Data on human toxicity are extremely scarce. This review summarizes information available on Cassia toxicity in animals and compares it with toxic features reported in children. The clinical spectrum and histopathology of C. occidentalis poisoning in children resemble those of animal toxicity, affecting mainly hepatic, skeletal muscle and brain tissues. The case-fatality rate in acute severe poisoning is 75-80 per cent in children. PMID:19700797

  15. Isolation and structural characterization of the water-extractable polysaccharides from Cassia obtusifolia seeds.

    PubMed

    Shang, Mingsheng; Zhang, Xiaoman; Dong, Qun; Yao, Jian; Liu, Qin; Ding, Kan

    2012-10-01

    The seed of Cassia obtusifolia is a food or herbal medicine used for improving eyesight, treating constipation and other disorders, and polysaccharides have been implicated in these pharmacological activities. The endosperm of the seeds, Cassia gum, is a commercial thickening or gelling agent, composed mainly of galactomannans. However, the whole seeds of C. obtusifolia, rather than the endosperm, are used in folk medicine or food, which might contain more complex constituents of polysaccharides. In this study, the whole seeds of C. obtusifolia were extracted with boiling water, and from the water extract, three homogeneous fractions were isolated, designated CFAA-1, CFAA-3, and CFBB2, respectively, after treatment with Fehling solution followed by anion-exchange and gel permeation chromatography. Using chemical and spectroscopic methods, CFAA-1, and CFAA-3 were elucidated to be both branched galactomannans with different molecular weights, consisting of 1,4-linked β-d-mannopyranosyl backbone with single-unit α-d-galactopyranosyl branches attached to O-6 of mannose, while CFBB2 was shown to be a linear (1→4)-α-polygalacturonic acid. PMID:22840008

  16. Characterization of natural aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists from cassia seed and rosemary.

    PubMed

    Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Morio; Takaoka, Masashi; Toda, Haruka; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Matsuda, Rieko; Teshima, Reiko; Nakamura, Masafumi; Handa, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Many recent studies have suggested that activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) reduces immune responses, thus suppressing allergies and autoimmune diseases. In our continuing study on natural AhR agonists in foods, we examined the influence of 37 health food materials on the AhR using a reporter gene assay, and found that aqueous ethanol extracts of cassia seed and rosemary had particularly high AhR activity. To characterize the AhR-activating substances in these samples, the chemical constituents of the respective extracts were identified. From an active ethyl acetate fraction of the cassia seed extract, eight aromatic compounds were isolated. Among these compounds, aurantio-obtusin, an anthraquinone, elicited marked AhR activation. Chromatographic separation of an active ethyl acetate fraction of the rosemary extract gave nine compounds. Among these compounds, cirsimaritin induced AhR activity at 10-10² μM, and nepitrin and homoplantagenin, which are flavone glucosides, showed marked AhR activation at 10-10³ μM. PMID:24747651

  17. A stimulatory effect of Cassia occidentalis on melanoblast differentiation and migration.

    PubMed

    Babitha, Sumathy; Shin, Jeong-Hyun; Nguyen, Dung H; Park, Sang-Joo; Reyes, Gaudelia A; Caburian, Adeltrudes; Kim, Eun Ki

    2011-04-01

    In vitiligo, the active melanocytes in the epidermis are totally missing, whereas melanoblast cells in the outer root sheath of hair follicles are not affected. In an attempt to find potent repigmenting agents for vitiligo therapy, pod extracts of Cassia occidentalis was found to be effective in inducing differentiation and migration of mouse melanoblast cell line. Methanolic extract redissolved in DMSO at 12.5 μg/ml was found to cause 3.5- to 3.8-fold melanin induction in melb-a melanoblast cells after 4 days in treatment medium. In addition it induced the tyrosinase activity and altered melb-a cell morphology. Transwell migration assay showed the potential of this herbal candidate to induce direct migration of treated cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report investigating the effect of Cassia occidentalis on the differentiation and migration of melanoblast cells. The findings of present study are significant in designing preclinical and clinical studies on the efficacy of C. occidentalis as a stimulant for skin repigmentation in vitiligo. PMID:21328088

  18. Antibacterial activity of the essential oils extracted from cassia bark, bay fruits and cloves against Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria spp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spices are added into foods mainly for enhancing the organoleptic quality of the food. The application of spices and their derivatives in foods as preservatives has been investigated for years. In this study, we determined the antibacterial activity of the essential oils of three spices, cassia bark...

  19. 75 FR 70029 - Notice of Temporary Closure of Castle Rocks Inter-Agency Recreation Area in Cassia County, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Temporary Closure of Castle Rocks Inter-Agency Recreation Area in Cassia County, ID AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Temporary...

  20. Cassia cinnamon as a source of coumarin in cinnamon-flavored food and food supplements in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Avula, Bharathi; Nanayakkara, N P Dhammika; Zhao, Jianping; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2013-05-01

    Coumarin as an additive or as a constituent of tonka beans or tonka extracts is banned from food in the United States due to its potentially adverse side effects. However, coumarin in food from other natural ingredients is not regulated. "True Cinnamon" refers to the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum verum. Other cinnamon species, C. cassia, C. loureiroi, and C. burmannii, commonly known as cassia, are also sold in the U.S. as cinnamon. In the present study, coumarin and other marker compounds were analyzed in authenticated cinnamon bark samples as well as locally bought cinnamon samples, cinnamon-flavored foods, and cinnamon-based food supplements using a validated UPLC-UV/MS method. The experimental results indicated that C. verum bark contained only traces of coumarin, whereas barks from all three cassia species, especially C. loureiroi and C. burmannii, contained substantial amounts of coumarin. These species could be potential sources of coumarin in cinnamon-flavored food in the U.S. Coumarin was detected in all locally bought cinnamon, cinnamon-flavored foods, and cinnamon food supplements. Their chemical profiles indicated that the cinnamon samples and the cinnamon in food supplements and flavored foods were probably Indonesian cassia, C. burmannii. PMID:23627682

  1. Subcellular distribution and uptake mechanism of di-n-butyl phthalate in roots of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qingqi; Yang, Xiuhong; Huang, Xiongfei; Wang, Shizhong; Chao, Yuanqing; Qiu, Rongliang

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate acid esters (PAEs) are of particular concern due to their potential environmental risk to human and nonhuman organisms. Although uptake of PAEs by plants has been reported by several researchers, information about the intracellular distribution and uptake mechanisms of PAEs is still lacking. In this study, a series of hydroponic experiments using intact pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings was conducted to investigate how di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), one of the most frequently identified PAEs in the environment, enters and is distributed in roots. DnBP was transported into subcellular tissues rapidly in the initial uptake period (<12 h). More than 80% of DnBP was detected in the cell walls and organelles, which suggests that DnBP is primarily accumulated in these two fractions due to their high affinity to DnBP. The kinetics of DnBP uptake were fitted well with the Michaelis-Menten equation, suggesting that a carrier-mediated process was involved. The application of 2,4-dinitrophenol and sodium vanadate reduced the uptake of DnBP by 37 and 26%, respectively, while aquaporin inhibitors, silver and glycerol, had no effect on DnBP uptake. These data demonstrated that the uptake of DnBP included a carrier-mediated and energy-dependent process without the participation of aquaporins. PMID:26304812

  2. An outbreak of duck viral enteritis (duck plague) in domestic Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata domesticus) in Illinois.

    PubMed

    Campagnolo, E R; Banerjee, M; Panigrahy, B; Jones, R L

    2001-01-01

    Duck viral enteritis (DVE) was diagnosed in an outbreak of the disease in a resident population of Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata domesticus) on a privately owned multispecies game bird production facility in Illinois, where it claimed 625 ducks. This disease condition had not been reported previously in domestic ducks in Illinois. Although other varieties and age groups of domestic waterfowl (i.e., black ducks, rhumen ducks, Pekin ducks, ducklings, and geese) were present on the game bird farm, the morbidity and mortality (100%) in this epornitic was solely limited to adult ducks of the Muscovy lineage. The clinical signs in the affected ducks were lethargy, diarrhea, dehydration, and death within 2-3 hr of onset of symptoms. Gross pathologic changes were nonspecific and included ecchymotic hemorrhage, effusion of fluid and blood within body cavities reflective of an acute systemic infectious disease. Light microscopic findings were necrosis of primarily digestive lining epithelium and variable lymphohistiocytic infiltration within mucosal and serosal connective tissues. Intranuclear inclusions resembling characteristic herpetic (i.e., Cowdry type A) inclusions were observed primarily in the digestive, respiratory, and reproductive tracts; liver; and spleen. Esophageal candidiasis, bacteriosis, and systemic Pasteurella anatipestifer infections, thought to be concurrent or opportunistic infections, were present in several ducks. DVE virus was demonstrated in infected Muscovy duck embryo fibroblast cells by direct DVE virus-specific fluorescent antibody staining. PMID:11417839

  3. Atomic resolution structure of cucurmosin, a novel type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein from the sarcocarp of Cucurbita moschata

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Xiaomin; Meehan, Edward J.; Xie, Jieming; Huang, Mingdong; Chen, Minghuang; Chen, Liqing

    2008-10-27

    A novel type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) designated cucurmosin was isolated from the sarcocarp of Cucurbita moschata (pumpkin). Besides rRNA N-glycosidase activity, cucurmosin exhibits strong cytotoxicities to three cancer cell lines of both human and murine origins, but low toxicity to normal cells. Plant genomic DNA extracted from the tender leaves was amplified by PCR between primers based on the N-terminal sequence and X-ray sequence of the C-terminal. The complete mature protein sequence was obtained from N-terminal protein sequencing and partial DNA sequencing, confirmed by high resolution crystal structure analysis. The crystal structure of cucurmosin has been determined at 1.04 {angstrom}, a resolution that has never been achieved before for any RIP. The structure contains two domains: a large N-terminal domain composed of seven {alpha}-helices and eight {beta}-strands, and a smaller C-terminal domain consisting of three {alpha}-helices and two {beta}-strands. The high resolution structure established a glycosylation pattern of GlcNAc{sub 2}Man3Xyl. Asn225 was identified as a glycosylation site. Residues Tyr70, Tyr109, Glu158 and Arg161 define the active site of cucurmosin as an RNA N-glycosidase. The structural basis of cytotoxicity difference between cucurmosin and trichosanthin is discussed.

  4. [Effects of Celosia argentea and Cucurbita moschata extracts on anti-DNP IgE antibody production in mice].

    PubMed

    Imaoka, K; Ushijima, H; Inouye, S; Takahashi, T; Kojima, Y

    1994-05-01

    We have already reported that the Perilla frutescens extract (PFE) suppressed anti-DNA IgE antibody production in mice. In this study, we prepared extracts of Celosia argentea L. (CAE) and Cucurbita moschata Duch (CME), which are Chinese herbal medicines like Perilla frutescens, and examined the effects on anti-DNP antibody responses in mice. To examine the effects of CAE & CME on primary antibody responses, CAE & CME were intraperitoneally injected the day before primary immunization of DNP-ovalbumin. Anti-DNP antibody production was markedly suppressed. Then, we examined the effects on secondary antibody responses. CEA & CME were injected only the day before secondary immunization. Anti-DNP IgE production was markedly suppressed, but IgG responses were not affected. It was also found that mitogenic activity occurred in CAE & CME dose dependently in vitro. These effects of CAE & CME were superior to that of PFE. These results suggest that CAE & CME may be more useful than PFE for the suppression of IgE antibody in certain allergic disorders. PMID:8031259

  5. Content of mercury and cadmium in fish (Thunnus alalunga) and cephalopods (Eledone moschata) from the south-eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Storelli, M M; Marcotrigiano, G O

    2004-11-01

    Mercury and cadmium concentrations were measured in the flesh and liver (or hepatopancreas) of albacore (Thunnus alalunga) and horned octopus (Eledone moschata) to establish whether the concentrations exceeded the maximum levels fixed by the European Commission. In both species, mercury and cadmium mean concentrations were higher in liver (albacore: mercury = 2.41 microg g(-1) wet wt, cadmium = 9.22 microg g(-1) wet wt; horned octopus: mercury = 0.76 microg g(-1) wet wt, cadmium = 6.72 microg g(-1) wet wt) than in flesh (albacore: mercury = 1.56 microg g(-1) wet wt, cadmium = 0.05 microg g(-1) wet wt; horned octopus: mercury = 0.36 microg g(-1) wet wt, cadmium = 0.33 microg g(-1)). Mercury concentrations exceeding the prescribed legal limit of 1 microg g(-1) wet wt were found in almost all albacore samples (flesh: 71.4%; liver: 85.7%). For horned octopus, concentrations above 0.5 microg g(-1) wet wt were observed solely in hepatopancreas, while in flesh, the concentrations were below this limit in all the samples examined. Of the flesh samples of albacore, 42.8% exceeded the proposed tolerance for cadmium for human consumption, whilst for horned octopus, the established limit was not exceeded in any sample. PMID:15764333

  6. Larvicidal and Histopathological Effects of Cassia siamea Leaf Extract against Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Jiraungkoorskul, Kanitta; Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee

    2015-12-01

    A traditional Thai medicinal extract from Cassia siamea was evaluated with respect to its larvicidal properties by determining the median lethal concentration (LC50) at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h against the fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, which is a carrier of mosquito-borne diseases, by studying the histopathological alterations. The 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC50 values were 394.29, 350.24, 319.17 and 272.42 ppm, respectively. The histopathological lesions after exposure to 25% of the 24-h LC50 were observed primarily in the midgut of the larva. Lesions with edema, swelling, and deformation or elongation of the epithelial cells were observed. Moreover, cells protruding into the lumen and absent microvilli were also found in some areas. The present study reveals that aqueous C. siamea leaf extracts have natural biopesticide properties. PMID:26868707

  7. Larvicidal and Histopathological Effects of Cassia siamea Leaf Extract against Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Jiraungkoorskul, Kanitta; Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee

    2015-01-01

    A traditional Thai medicinal extract from Cassia siamea was evaluated with respect to its larvicidal properties by determining the median lethal concentration (LC50) at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h against the fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, which is a carrier of mosquito-borne diseases, by studying the histopathological alterations. The 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC50 values were 394.29, 350.24, 319.17 and 272.42 ppm, respectively. The histopathological lesions after exposure to 25% of the 24-h LC50 were observed primarily in the midgut of the larva. Lesions with edema, swelling, and deformation or elongation of the epithelial cells were observed. Moreover, cells protruding into the lumen and absent microvilli were also found in some areas. The present study reveals that aqueous C. siamea leaf extracts have natural biopesticide properties. PMID:26868707

  8. A new coumarin and cytotoxic activities of constituents from Cinnamomum cassia.

    PubMed

    Ngoc, Tran Minh; Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Khoi, Nguyen Minh; Son, Doan Cao; Hung, Tran Viet; Van Kiem, Phan

    2014-04-01

    A new coumarin derivative, coumacasia (1) and eight known compounds, coumarin (2), cinnamaldehyde (3), 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (4), 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (5), coniferaldehyde (6), cinnamic acid (7), 2-hydroxycinnamic acid (8), and cinnamic alcohol (9), were isolated from the methanol extract of Cinnamomum cassia. Their structures were elucidated by spectral data and by comparison with the reported literature. The cytotoxic activities of compounds 1-9 were evaluated with two human cancer cell lines, HL-60 and A-549. Compound 1 showed growth inhibitory effects in the HL-60 and A-549 cell lines with IC50 values of 8.2 +/- 0.5 and 11.3 +/- 1.1 microM, respectively. Compounds 3-6, and 8 exhibited moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging from 20.5 to 65.6 microM. PMID:24868863

  9. A new natural naphtho[1,2-b]furan from the leaves of Cassia fistula.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Qin; Tang, Zheng-Rong; Mu, Wei-Hua; Kou, Jun-Feng; He, Dong-Yang

    2013-11-01

    A new naphtho[1,2-b]furan, 2,9-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-4-methylnaphtha[1,2-b]furan-3(2H)-one (1), along with 10 known compounds vanillic acid (2), naringenin (3), glyceryl-1-tetracosanoate (4), moracin J (5), 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone (6), esculetin (7), mauritianin (8), kaempferol 3-neohesperidoside (9), β-sitosterol (10), and β-daucosterol (11), was isolated from the leaves of Cassia fistula. The structure of the new compound was determined by NMR and X-ray analysis. Compounds 1, 3, 5-9 were isolated from this plant for the first time. The naphtha[1,2-b]furan was firstly isolated from the natural resources. PMID:23822190

  10. Breathing pattern and ventilatory chemosensitivity of the 1-day old Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) in relation to its metabolic demands.

    PubMed

    Mortola, Jacopo P; Toro-Velasquez, Paula Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Adult birds have a ventilatory equivalent (pulmonary ventilation-oxygen consumption ratio, V˙ E/ [Formula: see text] ) lower than mammals because of the superior gas exchange efficiency of their respiratory apparatus. In particular, adult Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) have been reported to have an extraordinary low ventilatory equivalent (~14mL STPD·mL BTPS(-1)). We asked if similar high efficiency was already apparent in duck hatchlings. Breathing pattern and V˙E were measured by the barometric technique and [Formula: see text] by an open-flow methodology in 1-day old Muscovy duck hatchlings (N=21); same measurements were performed on chicken hatchlings (N=21) for purpose of comparison. During air breathing V˙E/ [Formula: see text] was slightly, yet significantly, lower in ducklings (20.8) than in chicks (25.3), mostly because of a lower breathing frequency (f). The hatchlings of both species (N=14 per group) responded to inspired hypoxia (15 or 10% O2) or hypercapnia (2 or 4% CO2) with a clear hyperventilation; however, in ducklings the hypercapnic hyperventilation was smaller than in chicks because of a smaller increase in tidal volume and lower f. We conclude that duck and chicken hatchlings just a few hours old have the high ventilatory efficiency typical of birds, although possibly not as high as their adults. The low f and blunted V˙E response to hypercapnia of the newborn duck could be related to the aquatic habitat of the species. In such a case, it would mean that these characteristics are genetic traits, the phenotypic expression of which does not require diving experience. PMID:24055760

  11. Antiinflammatory effects of essential oil from the leaves of Cinnamomum cassia and cinnamaldehyde on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated J774A.1 cells.

    PubMed

    Pannee, Chinjarernpan; Chandhanee, Itthipanichpong; Wacharee, Limpanasithikul

    2014-10-01

    Cassia oil (CO) from different parts of Cinnamomum cassia have different active components. Very few pharmacological properties of cassia leaf oil have been reported. This study investigated and compared effects of cassia leaf oil and cinnamaldehyde on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated J774A.1 cells. Volatile compositions in cassia leaf oil were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS)/MS. Effects of CO and cinnamaldehyde on LPS-activated J774A.1 cells were investigated by determining nitric oxide (NO) production using Griess reaction assay; expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, enzymes involve in inflammatory mediators; antiinflammatory cytokines, and iron exporter ferroportin1 (Fpn1) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; and production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-10 using ELISA. The main component of CO was cinnamaldehyde. Both oils at 1-20 μg/ml markedly inhibited NO production in LPS-activated J774A.1 cells with IC50 value of 6.1 ± 0.25 and 9.97 ± 0.35 μg/ml, respectively. They similarly inhibited mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. These mediators included TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α in LPS-activated cells. They also significantly decreased expression of inducible enzymes inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, microsomal prostaglandin-E synthase-1. In the opposite way, they increased mRNA expression and the production of antiinflammatory cytokines IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β. In addition, they promoted the expression of Fpn1. These results demonstrated that inhibitory effects of cassia leaf oil from C. cassia mainly came from cinnamaldehyde. This compound not only inhibited inflammatory mediators but also activated antiinflammatory mediators in LPS-activated J774A.1 cells. It may also have an effect on iron regulatory proteins in activated macrophages. PMID:25364694

  12. Cinnamomum cassia Suppresses Caspase-9 through Stimulation of AKT1 in MCF-7 Cells but Not in MDA-MB-231 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kianpour Rad, Sima; Kanthimathi, M. S.; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri; Lee, Guan Serm; Looi, Chung Yeng; Wong, Won Fen

    2015-01-01

    Background Cinnamomum cassia bark is a popular culinary spice used for flavoring and in traditional medicine. C. cassia extract (CE) induces apoptosis in many cell lines. In the present study, particular differences in the mechanism of the anti-proliferative property of C. cassia on two breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, were elucidated. Methodology/Principal Findings The hexane extract of C. cassia demonstrated high anti-proliferative activity against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells (IC50, 34±3.52 and 32.42 ±0.37 μg/ml, respectively). Oxidative stress due to disruption of antioxidant enzyme (SOD, GPx and CAT) activity is suggested as the probable cause for apoptosis initiation. Though the main apoptosis pathway in both cell lines was found to be through caspase-8 activation, caspase-9 was also activated in MDA-MB-231 cells but suppressed in MCF-7 cells. Gene expression studies revealed that AKT1, the caspase-9 suppressor, was up-regulated in MCF-7 cells while down-regulated in MDA-MB-231 cells. Although, AKT1 protein expression in both cell lines was down-regulated, a steady increase in MCF-7 cells was observed after a sharp decrease of suppression of AKT1. Trans-cinnamaldehyde and coumarin were isolated and identified and found to be mainly responsible for the observed anti-proliferative activity of CE (Cinnamomum cassia). Conclusion Activation of caspase-8 is reported for the first time to be involved as the main apoptosis pathway in breast cancer cell lines upon treatment with C. cassia. The double effects of C. cassia on AKT1 gene expression in MCF-7 cells is reported for the first time in this study. PMID:26700476

  13. Structure elucidation and DNA binding specificity of natural compounds from Cassia siamea leaves: A biophysical approach.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Mehtab; Ahmad, Faheem; Malla, Ali Mohammed; Khan, Mohd Sohrab; Rehman, Sayeed Ur; Tabish, Mohammad; Silva, Manuela Ramos; Silva, P S Pereira

    2016-06-01

    A novel isoflavone, 5,6,7-trimethoxy-3-(3',4',5'-trimethoxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one (1) along with a known pyranocoumarin, Seselin (2) have been isolated from the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Cassia siamea (Family: Fabaceae). Compound 1 has been reported for the first time from any natural source and has not been synthesized so far. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physical evidences viz. elemental analysis, UV, FT-IR, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and mass spectral analysis. Structure of compound (1) was further authenticated by single-crystal X-ray analysis and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. A multi-technique approach employing UV-Visible spectroscopy, fluorescence, KI quenching studies, competitive displacement assay, circular dichroism and viscosity studies have been utilized to probe the extent of interaction and possible binding modes of isolated compounds (1-2) with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA). Both the compounds were found to interact with DNA via non-intercalative binding mode with moderate proficiencies. Groove binding was the major interaction mode in the case of compound 2 while compound 1 probably interacts with DNA through electrostatic interactions. These studies provide deeper insight in understanding of DNA-drug (natural products) interaction which could be helpful to improve their bioavailability for therapeutic purposes. PMID:27085054

  14. Water uptake, priming, drying and storage effects in Cassia excelsa Schrad seeds.

    PubMed

    Jeller, H; Perez, S C; Raizer, J

    2003-02-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of osmotic potential on the water uptake curve in Cassia excelsa seeds and use the results to analyze the effects of dehydration and storage on primed seed germination. Seeds were imbibed in distilled water and polyethylene glicol (PEG 6000) osmotic solutions at -0.2, -0.4, and -0.6 MPa, at 20 degrees C. The radicle emergence and seed moisture content were evaluated at 6-hour intervals during 240 hours. Afterwards, seeds were primed in distilled water and PEG 6000 solutions at -0.2, -0.4, and -0.6 MPa for 48, 72, 96, and 168 hours at 20 degrees C, followed by air drying and storage for 15 days at 5 degrees C. The lower the osmotic potential, the higher the time required for priming. The osmoconditioning yields benefits with PEG solutions at 0.0 and -0.2 MPa; seed improvements were maintained during storage for 15 days at 5 degrees C, but were reverted by seed drying. PMID:12914415

  15. Simultaneous Estimation of Aloe Emodin and Emodin from Rheum emodi, Cassia alata and Aloes by HPTLC.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sindhu; Jadhav, Aruna P

    2015-01-01

    A simple, precise, specific, accurate high performance thin layer chromatography method was developed for simultaneous estimation of aloe emodin and emodin from medicinal plants like Rheum emodi (Rhubarb), Barbados aloes (dried juice of Aloe barbadensis leaf) and Cassia alata (Candle bush). Thin layer chromatographic aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60 F254 was used as the stationary phase for chromatographic separation of the drugs. Toluene:ethyl acetate:formic acid (10:2:1 v/v/v) was selected as mobile phase and analysis was carried out in absorbance mode at iso-absorptive wavelength of 263 nm. This method shows good resolution for both drugs with retention factor 0.37±0.03 and 0.55±0.03 for aloe emodin and emodin, respectively. The regression analysis data indicated good linear relationship for the calibration plots for aloe emodin and emodin in the range of 300 - 800 ng/spot and 150 - 400 ng/spot and regression coefficient was 0.9993 and 0.9994, respectively. Validation of the method was performed according to International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines for following parameters: Accuracy, precision, limit of detection, linearity, limit of quantification, robustness and specificity. In conclusion, the developed method was found to be rapid, simple, reliable and specific for the identification and quantitation of these anthraquinones in medicinal plants and marketed formulations. PMID:26997709

  16. Bioremediation of adverse impact of cadmium toxicity on Cassia italica Mill by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    PubMed Central

    Hashem, Abeer; Abd_Allah, E.F.; Alqarawi, A.A.; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza

    2015-01-01

    Cassia italica Mill is an important medicinal plant within the family Fabaceae. Pot experiment was conducted to evaluate cadmium stress induced changes in physiological and biochemical attributes in C. italica with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Cadmium stressed plant showed reduced chlorophyll pigment and protein content while AMF inoculation enhanced the chlorophyll and protein content considerably. AMF also ameliorated the cadmium stress induced reduction in total chlorophyll and protein contents by 19.30% and 38.29%, respectively. Cadmium stress enhanced lipid peroxidation while AMF inoculation reduced lipid peroxidation considerably. Increase in proline and phenol content was observed due to cadmium stress and AMF inoculation caused a further increase in proline and phenol content ensuring better growth under stressed conditions. AMF alone also enhanced proline and phenol content. Activity of antioxidant enzymes enhanced under cadmium treatment and AMF inoculation further enhanced their activity thereby strengthening the antioxidant system. Enhanced activities of antioxidants and increased accumulation of osmolytes help plants to avoid damaging impact of oxidative damage. The research has shown that AMF inoculation mitigated the negative impact of stress by reducing the lipid peroxidation and enhancing the antioxidant activity. The present study strongly supports employing AMF as the biological mean for enhancing the cadmium stress tolerance of C. italica. PMID:26858537

  17. Simultaneous Estimation of Aloe Emodin and Emodin from Rheum emodi, Cassia alata and Aloes by HPTLC

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Sindhu; Jadhav, Aruna P.

    2015-01-01

    A simple, precise, specific, accurate high performance thin layer chromatography method was developed for simultaneous estimation of aloe emodin and emodin from medicinal plants like Rheum emodi (Rhubarb), Barbados aloes (dried juice of Aloe barbadensis leaf) and Cassia alata (Candle bush). Thin layer chromatographic aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60 F254 was used as the stationary phase for chromatographic separation of the drugs. Toluene:ethyl acetate:formic acid (10:2:1 v/v/v) was selected as mobile phase and analysis was carried out in absorbance mode at iso-absorptive wavelength of 263 nm. This method shows good resolution for both drugs with retention factor 0.37±0.03 and 0.55±0.03 for aloe emodin and emodin, respectively. The regression analysis data indicated good linear relationship for the calibration plots for aloe emodin and emodin in the range of 300 - 800 ng/spot and 150 - 400 ng/spot and regression coefficient was 0.9993 and 0.9994, respectively. Validation of the method was performed according to International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines for following parameters: Accuracy, precision, limit of detection, linearity, limit of quantification, robustness and specificity. In conclusion, the developed method was found to be rapid, simple, reliable and specific for the identification and quantitation of these anthraquinones in medicinal plants and marketed formulations. PMID:26997709

  18. Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Cinnamomum cassia Constituents In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Jung-Chun; Deng, Jeng-Shyan; Chiu, Chuan-Sung; Hou, Wen-Chi; Huang, Shyh-Shyun; Shie, Pei-Hsin; Huang, Guang-Jhong

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Cinnamomum cassia constituents (cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, cinnamic acid, and coumarin) using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophage (RAW264.7) and carrageenan (Carr)-induced mouse paw edema model. When RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with cinnamic aldehyde together with LPS, a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels productions were detected. Western blotting revealed that cinnamic aldehyde blocked protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB), and IκBα, significantly. In the anti-inflammatory test, cinnamic aldehyde decreased the paw edema after Carr administration, and increased the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the paw tissue. We also demonstrated cinnamic aldehyde attenuated the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the edema paw after Carr injection. Cinnamic aldehyde decreased the NO, TNF-α, and PGE2 levels on the serum level after Carr injection. Western blotting revealed that cinnamic aldehyde decreased Carr-induced iNOS, COX-2, and NF-κB expressions in the edema paw. These findings demonstrated that cinnamic aldehyde has excellent anti-inflammatory activities and thus has great potential to be used as a source for natural health products. PMID:22536283

  19. Isolation, structure modeling and function characterization of a trypsin inhibitor from Cassia obtusifolia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zubi; Zhu, Qiankun; Li, Juanjuan; Zhang, Gan; Jiamahate, Aerguli; Zhou, Jiayu; Liao, Hai

    2015-04-01

    A trypsin inhibitor gene (CoTI1) from Cassia obtusifolia was isolated and the deduced amino acid sequence was attributed to the Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor. The recombined CoTI1, expressed in E. coli, exhibited strong inhibitory effect on bovine trypsin and trypsin-like proteases from Helicoverpa armigera, Spodoptera exigua, and Spodoptera litura. CoTI1 thus presents insecticidal properties that may be useful for the genetic engineering of plants. Leu84, Arg86 and Thr88 were predicted as three key residues by molecular modeling in which Arg86, inserted into the substrate pocket of trypsin, interacted directly with residue Asp189 of trypsin causing the specific inhibition against trypsin. The predicted results were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis with L84A, R86A and T88A, respectively. The substantial changing expression level of CoTI1 under salt, drought and abscisic acid treatment suggested that CoTI1 might play important role in the resistance against abiotic stress. PMID:25479703

  20. Spaceflight-induced variation on biological traits and effective components of Cassia obtusifolia.

    PubMed

    Mao, Ren-jun; Qi, Zhi-hong; Han, Rui-lian; Liu, Feng-hua; Liu, Yan; Liang, Zong-suo

    2015-07-01

    The dry seeds of Cassia obtusifolia were carried by the "ShenZhou 8" satellite and sowed after landing. Based on our pri- or study on SP1, the characteristics of plants growth, physiological index and content of effective components were examined. The results showed that the QC10, QC29 strains matured 5 d earlier compared with control. The plant height, across diameter and ground diameter of QC10, QC29, QC46 strains was superior to the control at whole growth period. The branch number increased ranging from 4 to 11 and the number of pods reached 321, 313,281, respectively, which was dramatically higher than the control (246). The yield of QC10, QC29, QC46 strains increased noticeably from 31.4 to 63.2 g. The 1000-seed-weight of QC10, QC29, QC46 strains was 25.86, 25.88, 24.06 g, while the control was 23.69 g. Compared to the control, the mass fraction of chlorophyll was enhanced 1.098, 1.016, 0.297 mg. There was no significant difference in aurantio-obtusin and chrysophanol content of seeds. Through two years research, three high-yield mutant strains were obtained. This study indicates that spaceflight-induced mutants could provide new germplasm for C. obtusifolia breeding and offers the theoretical basis for further utilization of spaceflight-induced mutation to breed high-quality C. obtusifolia strains. PMID:26697680

  1. Neurochemical and behavioral effects of Cinnamomi cassiae (Lauraceae) bark aqueous extract in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Bano, Farhat; Ikram, Huma; Akhtar, Naheed

    2014-05-01

    Obesity is a risk factor leading to a number of chronic and metabolic disorders. Obesity is the fifth leading cause of global deaths. At least 2.8 million adults are dying each year as being overweight or obese. Cinnamomi cassiae is widely used traditional medicinal plant, used indigenously, to decrease glucose and cholesterol. 5-Hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT; Serotonin) is an important neurotransmitter reported to be involved in the pathophysiology of anorexia. Present study was designed to investigate the neurochemical and behavioral effects of cinnamon bark aqueous extract (CBAE) in obese rats and to find the possible involvement of 5-HT in reducing the body weight in these experimental animals. CBAE was repeatedly administered orally in the test animals for 5 weeks. A decrease in the food intake along with a concomitant increase in brain 5-HT level was observed in rats administered with CBAE. Findings may help in extending therapeutics in the pathophysiology of obesity and related eating disorders. Decrease activities in behavioral models were also monitored in CBAE treated animals. PMID:24811817

  2. Bioremediation of adverse impact of cadmium toxicity on Cassia italica Mill by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Abeer; Abd Allah, E F; Alqarawi, A A; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza

    2016-01-01

    Cassia italica Mill is an important medicinal plant within the family Fabaceae. Pot experiment was conducted to evaluate cadmium stress induced changes in physiological and biochemical attributes in C. italica with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Cadmium stressed plant showed reduced chlorophyll pigment and protein content while AMF inoculation enhanced the chlorophyll and protein content considerably. AMF also ameliorated the cadmium stress induced reduction in total chlorophyll and protein contents by 19.30% and 38.29%, respectively. Cadmium stress enhanced lipid peroxidation while AMF inoculation reduced lipid peroxidation considerably. Increase in proline and phenol content was observed due to cadmium stress and AMF inoculation caused a further increase in proline and phenol content ensuring better growth under stressed conditions. AMF alone also enhanced proline and phenol content. Activity of antioxidant enzymes enhanced under cadmium treatment and AMF inoculation further enhanced their activity thereby strengthening the antioxidant system. Enhanced activities of antioxidants and increased accumulation of osmolytes help plants to avoid damaging impact of oxidative damage. The research has shown that AMF inoculation mitigated the negative impact of stress by reducing the lipid peroxidation and enhancing the antioxidant activity. The present study strongly supports employing AMF as the biological mean for enhancing the cadmium stress tolerance of C. italica. PMID:26858537

  3. Simultaneous separation of three isomeric sennosides from senna leaf (Cassia acutifolia) using counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Park, Sait Byul; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2015-10-01

    Senna leaf is widely consumed as tea to treat constipation or to aid in weight loss. Sennoside A, A1 , and B are dirheinanthrone glucosides that are abundant and the bioactive constituents in the plant. They are isomers that refer to the (R*R*), (S*S*), and (R*S*) forms of protons on C-10 and C-10' centers and it is difficult to refine them individually due to their structural similarities. The new separation method using counter-current chromatography successfully purified sennoside A, A1 , and B from senna leaf (Cassia acutifolia) while reversed-phase medium-pressure liquid chromatography yielded sennoside A only. n-Butanol/isopropanol/water (5:1:6, v/v/v) was selected as the solvent system for counter-current chromatography operation, and the partition coefficients were carefully determined by adding different concentrations of formic acid. High-resolution mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy were performed to verify the chemical properties of the compounds. PMID:26255810

  4. Assimilatory potential of Helicoverpa armigera reared on host (Chickpea) and nonhost (Cassia tora) diets.

    PubMed

    Dawkar, Vishal V; Chikate, Yojana R; Gupta, Vidya S; Slade, Susan E; Giri, Ashok P

    2011-11-01

    Adaptation to plant allelochemicals is a crucial aspect of herbivore chemical ecology. To understand an insect ecology, we studied an effect of nonhost Cassia tora seed-based diet (Ct) on growth, development, and molecular responses in Helicoverpa armigera. We employed a comparative approach to investigate the proteomic differences in gut, hemolymph, and frass of H. armigera reared on a normal (chickpea seed-based, Cp) and Ct diet. In this study, a total of 46 proteins were identified by nano-LC-MS(E). Among them, 17 proteins were up-regulated and 29 proteins were down-regulated when larvae were exposed to the Ct diet. Database searches combined with GO analysis revealed that gut proteases engrossed in digestion, proteins crucial for immunity, adaptive responses to stress, and detoxification were down-regulated in the Ct fed larvae. Proteins identified in H. armigera hemolymph were found to be involved in defense mechanisms. Moreover, proteins found in frass of the Ct fed larvae were observed to participate in energy metabolism. Biochemical and quantitative real-time PCR analysis of selected candidate proteins showed differential gene expression patterns and corroborated with the proteomic data. Our results suggest that the Ct diet could alter expression of proteins related to digestion, absorption of nutrients, adaptation, defense mechanisms, and energy metabolism in H. armigera. PMID:21936543

  5. Pressurized liquid extraction and GC-MS analysis for simultaneous determination of seven components in Cinnamomum cassia and the effect of sample preparation.

    PubMed

    Lv, Guang-Ping; Huang, Wei-Hua; Yang, Feng-Qing; Li, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2010-08-01

    A pressurized liquid extraction and GC-MS method was developed for simultaneous quantitative determination of the seven components, including cinnamaldehyde, copaene, cinnamic acid, coumarin, 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde, 2-methoxycinnamic acid and safrole in Cinnamomum cassia. The results showed that methanol and ethanol was not available for extraction of cinnamaldehyde and 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde due to aldol reaction. The developed method was validated to be sensitive, accurate and simple, and was successfully employed for the analysis of 15 samples of C. cassia. The contents of the investigated components were significantly variant and cinnamaldehyde is the most abundant compound, but safrole was not detected in all samples. PMID:20572266

  6. Exploration of the anticandidal mechanism of Cassia spectabilis in debilitating candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Torey, Angeline; Vijayarathna, Soundararajan; Jothy, Subramanion L; Gothai, Sivapragasam; Chen, Yeng; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Kanwar, Jagat R; Dharmaraj, Saravanan; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans has become resistant to the commercially available, toxic, and expensive anti-Candida agents that are on the market. These factors force the search for new antifungal agents from natural resources. Cassia spectabilis had been traditionally employed by healers for many generations. The possible mechanisms of the C. spectabilis leaf extract were determined by potassium leakage study and the effect of the extract on the constituents of the cell wall and enzymes as well as the morphological changes on C. albicans cells were studied along with cytotoxicity assays. The cytotoxicity result indicated that the extract is nontoxic as was clearly substantiated by a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 59.10 μg/mL. The treated cells (C. spectabilis extract) demonstrated potassium leakage of 1039 parts per million (ppm) compared to Amphotericin B (AmpB)-treated cells with a released potassium value of 1115 ppm. The effects of the extract on the cell wall proteins illustrated that there were three major types of variations in the expression of treated cell wall proteins: the presence of new proteins, the absence of proteins, and the amount of expressed protein. The activities of two enzymes, α-glucosidase and proteinase, were determined to be significantly high, thereby not fully coinciding with the properties of the antifungal reaction triggered by C. spectabilis. The morphology of C. albicans cells treated with the C. spectabilis extract showed that the cells had abnormalities and were damaged or detached within the microcolonies. Our study verifies C. spectabilis leaf extract as an effective anti-C. albicans agent. PMID:26870686

  7. Exploration of the anticandidal mechanism of Cassia spectabilis in debilitating candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Torey, Angeline; Vijayarathna, Soundararajan; Jothy, Subramanion L.; Gothai, Sivapragasam; Chen, Yeng; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Kanwar, Jagat R.; Dharmaraj, Saravanan; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans has become resistant to the commercially available, toxic, and expensive anti-Candida agents that are on the market. These factors force the search for new antifungal agents from natural resources. Cassia spectabilis had been traditionally employed by healers for many generations. The possible mechanisms of the C. spectabilis leaf extract were determined by potassium leakage study and the effect of the extract on the constituents of the cell wall and enzymes as well as the morphological changes on C. albicans cells were studied along with cytotoxicity assays. The cytotoxicity result indicated that the extract is nontoxic as was clearly substantiated by a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 59.10 μg/mL. The treated cells (C. spectabilis extract) demonstrated potassium leakage of 1039 parts per million (ppm) compared to Amphotericin B (AmpB)-treated cells with a released potassium value of 1115 ppm. The effects of the extract on the cell wall proteins illustrated that there were three major types of variations in the expression of treated cell wall proteins: the presence of new proteins, the absence of proteins, and the amount of expressed protein. The activities of two enzymes, α-glucosidase and proteinase, were determined to be significantly high, thereby not fully coinciding with the properties of the antifungal reaction triggered by C. spectabilis. The morphology of C. albicans cells treated with the C. spectabilis extract showed that the cells had abnormalities and were damaged or detached within the microcolonies. Our study verifies C. spectabilis leaf extract as an effective anti-C. albicans agent. PMID:26870686

  8. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Cassia roxburghii-a most potent power for mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan

    2015-12-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of synthesized natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Cassia roxburghii plant leaf extract against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus were determined. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 μg/mL) and aqueous leaf extracts (60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 μg/mL) for 24 h. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX), transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Compare to aqueous extracted synthesized AgNPs showed extensive mortality rate against An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 and LC90 values that were 26.35, 28.67, 31.27 and 48.81, 53.24, and 58.11 μg/mL, respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. This is the first report on mosquito larvicidal activity of plant-synthesized nanoparticles. Thus, the use of C. roxburghii to synthesize silver nanoparticles is a rapid, eco-friendly, and a single-step approach, and the AgNPs formed can be potential mosquito larvicidal agents. Therefore, this study proves that C. roxburghii is a potential bioresource for stable, reproducible nanoparticle synthesis (AgNPs) and also can be used as an efficient mosquito control agent. This is the first report on the larvicidal activity of the plant extract and AgNPs. PMID:26276645

  9. Immunomodulatory potential of Rhein, an anthraquinone moiety of Cassia occidentalis seeds.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Gati Krushna; Yadav, Ashish; Mandal, Payal; Tripathi, Anurag; Das, Mukul

    2016-03-14

    Rhein, the most toxic anthraquinone moiety in Cassia occidentalis seeds, has been associated with hepatomyoencephalopathy (HME) in children. Structural and functional alterations in the lymphoid organs have been reported both in HME patients and experimental animals indicating a possibility of the dysfunction of immune system following exposure to CO seeds or its toxic anthraquinones (Panigrahi et al., 2014a). In the present study the mechanism of immune response of Rhein in splenocytes has been investigated by measuring functional assays of lymphocyte, cell surface receptor expression and analysis of cytokine levels. Results indicate that Rhein at a maximum dose of 10 μM is non cytotoxic up to 72 h in splenocytes. In addition to its potential to decrease the allogenic response of T-cells, Rhein significantly suppresses the proliferation of the concavalin A (Con A) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated splenocytes. Lymphocyte receptor expression analysis revealed that Rhein exposure significantly down regulate the expression of CD3e, CD4, CD8, CD28, CD69 molecules in T-cells. The expression of CD19, CD28, CD40 in B-cells were also found to be significantly decreased following Rhein exposure. In accordance with the functional responses, Rhein treatment significantly lowered the expression of IL2 and IL6 cytokines in Con A stimulated splenocytes, and IL6, IL10, IFNγ and TNFα in LPS stimulated splenocytes. Over all, the study suggests the immunomodulatory activity of Rhein and that it would be useful in understanding the immune response of CO seeds in human subjects. PMID:26784856

  10. Local and systemic toxicity of Echis carinatus venom: neutralization by Cassia auriculata L. leaf methanol extract.

    PubMed

    Nanjaraj Urs, A N; Yariswamy, M; Joshi, Vikram; Suvilesh, K N; Sumanth, M S; Das, Diganta; Nataraju, A; Vishwanath, B S

    2015-01-01

    Viper bites cause high morbidity and mortality especially in tropical and subtropical regions, affecting a large number of the rural population in these areas. Even though anti-venoms are available, in most cases they fail to tackle viper venom-induced local manifestations that persist even after anti-venom administration. Several studies have been reported the use of plant products and approved drugs along side anti-venom therapy for efficient management of local tissue damage. In this regard, the present study focuses on the protective efficacy of Cassia auriculata L. (Leguminosae) against Echis carinatus venom (ECV) induced toxicity. C. auriculata is a traditional medicinal plant, much valued in alternative medicine for its wide usage in ayurveda, naturopathy, and herbal therapy. Further, it has been used widely by traditional healers for treatment of snake and scorpion bites in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. In the present study, C. auriculata leaf methanol extract (CAME) significantly inhibited enzymatic activities of ECV proteases (96 ± 1 %; P = 0.001), PLA2 (45 ± 5 %; P = 0.01) and hyaluronidases (100 %; P = 0.0003) in vitro and hemorrhage, edema and myotoxicity in vivo. Further, CAME effectively reduced the lethal potency of ECV and increased the survival time of mice by ~6 times (17 vs 3 h). These inhibitory potentials of CAME towards hydrolytic enzymes, mortal and morbid symptoms of ECV toxins clearly substantiates the use by traditional healers of C. auriculata as a folk medicinal remedy for snakebite. PMID:25378214

  11. Pest-managing activities of plant extracts and anthraquinones from Cassia nigricans from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Georges, Kambou; Jayaprakasam, Bolleddula; Dalavoy, Sanjeev S; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2008-04-01

    Insecticidal activity of eight plants collected from Burkina Faso was studied using mosquito (Ochlerotatus triseriatus), Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens larvae and adult white fly (Bemisia tabaci). The n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Strophantus hispidus, Securidaca longepedunculata, Sapium grahamii, Swartzia madagascariensis, Cassia nigricans, Jatropha curcas and Datura innoxia were used in this study. Extracts were tested at 250 microg/mL concentration. All three extracts of C. nigricans, J. curcas (skin and seeds) and D. innoxia exhibited 100% mortality on fourth instar mosquito (O. triseriatus) larvae. In addition, the n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of S. hispidus, S. longepedunculata, S. grahamii showed 100% mortality. The ethyl acetate extract of S. madagascariensis was the most active on adult white fly and exhibited 80% mortality. Extracts of all other plants exhibited 30-50% mortality on B. tabaci. In the antifeedant assays against H. zea and H. virescens, the MeOH extracts of C. nigricans, S. madagascarensis and S. hispidus were more effective against H. zea as indicated by 74% larval weight reduction as compared to the control. Since C. nigricans is commonly used in West Africa to protect grain storage from insects, we have characterized the insecticidal components present in its extract. Bioassay directed isolation of C. nigricans leaf extract yielded anthraquinones emodin, citreorosein, and emodic acid and a flavonoid, luteolin. Emodin, the most abundant and active anthraquinone in C. nigricans showed approximately 85% mortality on mosquito larvae Anopheles gambiaea and adult B. tabaci at 50 and 25 microg/mL, respectively, in 24 h. These results suggest that the extract of C. nigricans has the potential to be used as an organic approach to manage some of the agricultural pests. PMID:17478091

  12. Isolation, characterization, and evaluation of Cassia fistula Linn. seed and pulp polymer for pharmaceutical application

    PubMed Central

    Killedar, Suresh G; Nale, Ashwini B; more, Harinath N; Nadaf, Sameer J; Pawar, Anuja A; Tamboli, Umarfarukh S

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Present work, is an effort toward exploring the potential of Cassia fistula Linn. seed gum as an extended release polymer and laxative. While, C. fistula pulp polymer has evaluated as suspending agent. Materials and Methods: For extended release application, total five batches (F1-F5) were prepared by varying the ratio of drug:polymer as 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5, respectively. The granules were prepared by wet granulation method and further evaluated for micromeritic properties such as angle of repose (θ), Carr's compressibility index (CCI), and Hausner's ratio. Further compacts were evaluated by hardness, thickness, swelling index, in-vitro dissolution, and so on. Laxative activity was evaluated by administration of seed polymer (100 mg/kg) alone or in combination with bisacodyl (2.5 mg/kg) in 1% Tween 80. Zinc oxide suspension was prepared by varying the concentration of C. fistula pulp polymer and compared with suspension made by use of tragacanth, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and bentonite. Results: Result showed that granules were free flowing, while the compact extended the drug release up to 10 h (72.84 ± 0.98; batch F5) and followed Higuchi matrix release kinetics. This extended release might be due to the formation of polyelectrolyte complex because of gluco-mannose in seed gum. Result of in-vivo laxative activity showed that seed polymer reduced faeces weight after 24 h compared to control (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Pulp polymer showed good sedimentation volume, but alone fails to stabilize the suspension for a longer period, so it could be useful in combination with other suspending agents and can be useful as novel excipient. PMID:25426443

  13. Phenolic acid allelochemicals induced morphological, ultrastructural, and cytological modification on Cassia sophera L. and Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Gulzar, Aasifa; Siddiqui, M B; Bi, Shazia

    2016-09-01

    The allelopathic potential of leaf aqueous extract (LAE) of Calotropis procera on growth behavior, ultrastructural changes on Cassia sophera L., and cytological changes on Allium cepa L. was investigated. LAE at different concentrations (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 %) significantly reduced the root length, shoot length, and dry biomass of C. sophera. Besides, the ultrastructural changes (through scanning electron microscopy, SEM) induced in epidermal cells of 15-day-old seedlings of Cassia leaf were also noticed. The changes induced were shrinking and contraction of epidermal cells along with the formation of major grooves, canals, and cyst-like structures. The treated samples of epidermal cells no longer seem to be smooth as compared to control. LAE at different concentrations induces chromosomal aberrations and variation in shape of the interphase and prophase nucleus in A. cepa root tip cells when compared with control groups. The mitotic index in treated onion root tips decreased with increasing concentrations of the extracts. The most frequent aberrations were despiralization at prophase with the formation of micronuclei, sticky anaphase with bridges, sticky telophase, C-metaphase, etc. The results also show the induction of ghost cells, cells with membrane damage, and cells with heterochromatic nuclei by extract treatment. Upon HPLC analysis, nine phenolic acids (caffeic acid, gentisic acid, catechol, gallic acid, syringic acid, ellagic acid, resorcinol, p-coumaric acid, and p-hydroxy benzoic acid) were identified. Thus, the phenolic acids are mainly responsible for the allelopathic behavior of C. procera. PMID:26387115

  14. Cassia Cinnamon Supplementation Reduces Peak Blood Glucose Responses but Does Not Improve Insulin Resistance and Sensitivity in Young, Sedentary, Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Jean L; Bowden, Rodney G; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2016-07-01

    Cassia cinnamon has been suggested to lower blood glucose (BG) and serum insulin (SI) due to an improvement in insulin resistance (IR) and sensitivity (IS). This study compared the effects Cassia cinnamon had on calculated IR and IS values and BG and SI in response to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in young, sedentary, and obese women. On three separate days, 10 women had a fasted venous blood sample obtained. Participants were given 5 g of encapsulated placebo (PLC) or 5 g of encapsulated Cassia cinnamon bark (CASS). Three hours after the initial blood sample, another blood sample was obtained to calculate values for IS and IR. The participants then completed an OGTT by consuming a 75 g glucose solution. Blood was obtained 30, 60, 90, and 120 min following glucose ingestion. IS and IR were not significantly different between placebo and Cassia (p > .05). The peak BG concentration in response to the OGTT was significantly lower at the 30 min time point for CASS, as compared to PLC (140 ± 5.8 and 156 ± 5.2 mg/dL, p = .025); however, there was no significant difference between treatments for SI (p > .05). The area-under-the-curve responses for BG and SI were not significantly different between PLC and CASS (p > .05). This study suggests that a 5 g dose of Cassia cinnamon may reduce the peak BG response and improve glucose tolerance following an OGTT, but with no improvement in IS and IR in young, sedentary, obese women. PMID:26716656

  15. Effect of drying and co-matrix addition on the yield and quality of supercritical CO₂ extracted pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) oil.

    PubMed

    Durante, Miriana; Lenucci, Marcello S; D'Amico, Leone; Piro, Gabriella; Mita, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    In this work a process for obtaining high vitamin E and carotenoid yields by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO₂) extraction from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) is described. The results show that the use of a vacuum oven-dried [residual moisture (∼8%)] and milled (70 mesh sieve) pumpkin flesh matrix increased SC-CO₂ extraction yields of total vitamin E and carotenoids of ∼12.0- and ∼8.5-fold, respectively, with respect to the use of a freeze-dried and milled flesh matrix. The addition of milled (35 mesh) pumpkin seeds as co-matrix (1:1, w/w) allowed a further ∼1.6-fold increase in carotenoid yield, besides to a valuable enrichment of the extracted oil in vitamin E (274 mg/100 g oil) and polyunsaturated fatty acids. These findings encourage further studies in order to scale up the process for possible industrial production of high quality bioactive ingredients from pumpkin useful in functional food or cosmeceutical formulation. PMID:24262563

  16. The Effects of Cinnamomum Cassia on Blood Glucose Values are Greater than those of Dietary Changes Alone

    PubMed Central

    Hoehn, Ashley N.; Stockert, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    Eighteen type II diabetics (9 women and 9 men) participated in a 12-week trial that consisted of 2 parts, a 3-week control phase followed by a 9-week experimental phase where half of the subjects received 1000 mg of Cinnamomum cassia while the other half received 1000 mg of a placebo pill. All of the subjects that were in the cinnamon group had a statistically significant decrease in their blood sugar levels with a P-value of 3.915 × 10−10. The subjects in the cinnamon group had an average overall decrease in their blood sugar levels of about 30 mg/dL, which is comparable to oral medications available for diabetes. All subjects were educated on appropriate diabetic diets and maintained that diet for the entire 12 week study. Greater decreases in blood glucose values were observed in patients using the cinnamon compared to those using the dietary changes alone. PMID:23882151

  17. Nuclear and mitochondrial genome instability induced by senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) aqueous extract in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    PubMed

    Silva, C R; Caldeira-de-Araújo, A; Leitão, A C; Pádula, M

    2014-01-01

    Cassia angustifolia Vahl. (senna) is commonly used in self-medication and is frequently used to treat intestine constipation. A previous study involving bacteria and plasmid DNA suggested the possible toxicity of the aqueous extract of senna (SAE). The aim of this study was to extend the knowledge concerning SAE genotoxicity mechanisms because of its widespread use and its risks to human health. We investigated the impact of SAE on nuclear DNA and on the stability of mitochondrial DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (wt, ogg1, msh6, and ogg1msh6) strains, monitoring the formation of petite mutants. Our results demonstrated that SAE specifically increased Can(R) mutagenesis only in the msh6 mutant, supporting the view that SAE can induce misincorporation errors in DNA. We observed a significant increase in the frequency of petite colonies in all studied strains. Our data indicate that SAE has genotoxic activity towards both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. PMID:25501195

  18. Fabrication and Characterization of Sansevieria trifasciata, Pandanus amaryllifolius and Cassia angustifolia as Photosensitizer for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cari; Supriyanto, Agus; Mahfudli Fadli, Ulfa; Bayu Prasada, Ashari

    2016-04-01

    Dye sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC) is one of the electric cells photochemical consisting of photoelectrode, dye, counter electrode, and electrolyte. The aims of the research to determine of the optical and electrical characteristic of the extract Sansevieria trifasciata, Pandanus amaryllifolius, and Cassia angustifolia. The study is also aimed to determine the effect of natural dyes extract to increase the efficiency of solar cells based DSSC. Sandwich structures formed in the sample consisted of working electrode pair Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and the counter electrode platinum (Pt). Dye extraction process is performed by stirring for 1 hour and then allowed to stand for 24 hours. Absorbance test is measure by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer Lambda 25, conductivity test by using a two-point probes Elkahfi 100, and characterization of current and voltage (I-V) by using a Keithley 2602A. The results showed that the greatest efficiency of 0.160% at Dye Pandanus amaryllifolius.

  19. Effects of Respiration Inhibitors and Uncouplers on Dark- and Light-Induced Leaflet Movements of Cassia fasciculata.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, S; Roblin, G

    1986-09-01

    Respiration inhibitors, in particular KCN and NaN(3), inhibited slightly the dark-induced (scotonasty) as well as the light-induced (photonasty) leaflet movements of Cassia fasciculata: they act only at concentrations higher than 1 millimolar and 0.1 millimolar, respectively. Amytal induced a stronger inhibitory effect on scotonasty. Salicylhydroxamic acid, which inhibits the cyanide-insensitive respiration pathway, was also poorly effective when applied alone. KCN and salicylhydroxamic acid applied together increased the inhibition. Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation were very effective: 2,4-dinitrophenol and carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone inhibited the scotonastic movements at concentrations higher than 10 mum and 1 mum, respectively. Although uncouplers reduced the photonastic movements at higher concentrations, they promoted leaflet opening at other concentrations in an unexpected way. PMID:16665004

  20. Effects of Respiration Inhibitors and Uncouplers on Dark- and Light-Induced Leaflet Movements of Cassia fasciculata1

    PubMed Central

    Saeedi, Saed; Roblin, Gabriel

    1986-01-01

    Respiration inhibitors, in particular KCN and NaN3, inhibited slightly the dark-induced (scotonasty) as well as the light-induced (photonasty) leaflet movements of Cassia fasciculata: they act only at concentrations higher than 1 millimolar and 0.1 millimolar, respectively. Amytal induced a stronger inhibitory effect on scotonasty. Salicylhydroxamic acid, which inhibits the cyanide-insensitive respiration pathway, was also poorly effective when applied alone. KCN and salicylhydroxamic acid applied together increased the inhibition. Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation were very effective: 2,4-dinitrophenol and carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone inhibited the scotonastic movements at concentrations higher than 10 μm and 1 μm, respectively. Although uncouplers reduced the photonastic movements at higher concentrations, they promoted leaflet opening at other concentrations in an unexpected way. PMID:16665004

  1. Biochemical analysis of Cassia fistula aqueous extract and phytochemically synthesized gold nanoparticles as hypoglycemic treatment for diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Daisy, P; Saipriya, K

    2012-01-01

    Cassia fistula stem bark was used for the preparation of aqueous extract and synthesis of gold nanoparticles to evaluate the hypoglycemic effects of the plant. The synthesized gold nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy for their absorbance pattern, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to identify possible functional groups, and scanning electron microscopy to determine the size of the nanoparticles. The present investigation reports the efficacy of the gold nanoparticles as promising in the treatment of hyperglycemia. Body weight, serum glucose concentrations, liver function tests, kidney function tests, and lipid profile were analyzed. A significantly larger decrease in serum biochemistry parameters and an increase in body weight, total protein levels, and high-density lipoprotein were observed in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes treated with gold nanoparticles than in the ones treated with the aqueous extract. The results of this study confirm that C. fistula gold nanoparticles have promising antidiabetic properties. PMID:22419867

  2. Anti-proliferative effect of a compound isolated from Cassia auriculata against human colon cancer cell line HCT 15.

    PubMed

    Esakkirajan, M; Prabhu, N M; Arulvasu, C; Beulaja, M; Manikandan, R; Thiagarajan, R; Govindaraju, K; Prabhu, D; Dinesh, D; Babu, G; Dhanasekaran, G

    2014-01-01

    The compound was isolated from leaves of Cassia auriculata and its structure was characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS), UV-vis spectroscopy (UV-vis), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, cytotoxicity, nuclear morphology and lactate dehydrogenase assay of isolated compound was tested against human colon cancer cell line HCT 15. The isolated compound, 4-(4-chlorobenzyl)-2,3,4,5,6,7-hexahydro-7-(2-ethoxyphenyl)benzo[h][1,4,7]triazecin-8(1H)-one at 25μg/ml concentration and by 48h showed 50% inhibition of human colon cancer cells (HCT 15). The results suggest that isolated compound from C. auriculata has potential to prevent colon cancer cell line. PMID:24211805

  3. Semen cassiae attenuates myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury in high-fat diet streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Fu, Feng; Tian, Fei; Zhou, Heping; Lv, Weifeng; Tie, Ru; Ji, Lele; Li, Rong; Shi, Zhenwei; Yu, Liming; Liang, Xiangyan; Xing, Wenjuan; Xing, Jinliang; Yu, Jun; Sun, Lijun; Zhu, Hailong; Zhang, Haifeng

    2014-01-01

    Obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which is characterized by hyperglycemia, are liable to more severe myocardial infarction. Semen Cassiae is proven to reduce serum lipid levels. This study investigated whether the Semen Cassiae extract (SCE) reduces myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (MI/R) injury with or without diabetes and the underlying mechanisms. The high-fat diet-fed streptozotocin (HFD-STZ) rat model was created as a T2DM model. Normal and DM rats received SCE treatment orally (10 mg/kg/day) for one week. Subsequently these animals were subjected to MI/R. Compared with the normal animals, DM rats showed increased plasma total cholesterol (TC) and triacylglycerol (TG), and more severe MI/R injury and cardiac functional impairment. SCE treatment significantly reduced the plasma TC and TG, improved the instantaneous first derivation of left ventricle pressure and reduced infarct size, decreased plasma creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels, and apoptosis index at the end of reperfusion in diabetic rats. Moreover, SCE treatment increased the antiapoptotic protein Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation levels. Pretreatment with a PI3K inhibitor wortmannin or an ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 not only blocked Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation respectively, but also inhibited the cardioprotective effects of SCE. However, SCE treatment did not show any effects on the MI/R injury in the normal rats. Our data suggest that SCE effectively improves myocardial function and reduces MI/R-induced injury in diabetic but not normal animals, which is possibly attributed to the reduced TC/TG levels and the triggered cell survival signaling Akt and ERK1/2. PMID:24467537

  4. Quantification of flavoring constituents in cinnamon: high variation of coumarin in cassia bark from the German retail market and in authentic samples from indonesia.

    PubMed

    Woehrlin, Friederike; Fry, Hildburg; Abraham, Klaus; Preiss-Weigert, Angelika

    2010-10-13

    Coumarin is a flavoring which can cause hepatotoxicity in experimental animals and in a proportion of the human population. The tolerable daily intake (TDI) may be exceeded in consumers with high intake of cinnamon containing high levels of coumarin. The objective of this study was to determine these levels in cinnamon samples and to identify possible factors influencing them. A HPLC method to quantify coumarin and related constituents (cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, cinnamyl alcohol, eugenol) in a single run was used. Results found in 47 cinnamon powder samples obtained from the German retail market confirmed high levels of coumarin in cassia cinnamon. A huge variation was observed in stick samples from two packages (range from below the limit of detection to about 10000 mg/kg). Cassia bark samples of five trees received directly from Indonesia were analyzed additionally. Interestingly, a high variation was observed in one of the trees, whereas no coumarin was detected in the samples of two other trees. In conclusion, coumarin levels in cassia cinnamon can vary widely even within a single tree. PMID:20853872

  5. Characterization of acid-extracted pectin-enriched products obtained from red beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. conditiva) and butternut (Cucurbita moschata Duch ex Poiret).

    PubMed

    Fissore, Eliana N; Ponce, Nora M A; de Escalada Pla, Marina; Stortz, Carlos A; Rojas, Ana M; Gerschenson, Lía N

    2010-03-24

    Chemical and rheological characteristics of fractions enriched in soluble dietary fiber are reported. These fractions were obtained through acid hydrolysis of butternut (Cucurbita moschata Duch ex Poiret) and red beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. conditiva) cell wall enriched powders. Hydrolysis was performed using citric acid at different pH values and reaction times (2 and 3 h). Yields obtained for butternut fractions were between 21 and 28 g/100 g; for red beet, yields were 24 and 31 g/100 g for pH 1.5 and 11 and 17 g/100 g for pH 2.0 for previously mentioned times; in general, the increase of the yield was directly correlated with the decrease of pH and the increase of reaction time. Products enriched in low methoxyl pectins were obtained in all cases. At the lowest pH assayed, pectins were essentially constituted by homogalacturonan; a significant content of neutral sugars was determined at the higher extraction pH. Neutral sugars were constituted mainly by arabinose, galactose, rhamnose, and glucose in different proportions for each fraction; in general, butternut fractions showed high glucose contents. Flow behavior for 2.00% (w/v) aqueous systems of the different products was evaluated. Data obtained for fractions isolated at pH 1.5 fit to Herschel-Bulkley and Cross models while those isolated at pH 2.0 fit to Ostwald and Cross models. All samples showed low viscosity and, hence, poor thickening properties. PMID:20178319

  6. A Novel Aqueous Two Phase System Composed of Surfactant and Xylitol for the Purification of Lipase from Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) Seeds and Recycling of Phase Components.

    PubMed

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Hussin, Muhaini; Mustafa, Shuhaimi

    2015-01-01

    Lipase is one of the more important enzymes used in various industries such as the food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, and pulp and paper sectors. A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of surfactant and xylitol was employed for the first time to purify lipase from Cucurbita moschata. The influence of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, and the composition of the surfactant/xylitol mixtures on the partitioning behavior and recovery of lipase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of system pH and crude load on the degree of purification and yield of the purified lipase were studied. The results indicated that the lipase was partitioned into the top surfactant rich phase while the impurities partitioned into the bottom xylitol-rich phase using an aqueous two phase system composed of 24% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 20% (w/w) xylitol, at 56.2% of tie line length (TLL), (TTL is one of the important parameters in this study and it is determined from a bimodal curve in which the tie-line connects two nodes on the bimodal, that represent concentration of phase components in the top and bottom phases) and a crude load of 25% (w/w) at pH 8.0. Recovery and recycling of components was also measured in each successive step process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the proposed method with a high purification factor of 16.4 and yield of 97.4% while over 97% of the phase components were also recovered and recycled. This study demonstrated that the proposed novel aqueous two phase system method is more efficient and economical than the traditional aqueous two phase system method for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme lipase. PMID:26091076

  7. Cadmium-induced changes in hatchability and in the activity of aminotransaminases and selected lysosomal hydrolases in the blood plasma of Muscovy ducklings (Cairina moschata).

    PubMed

    Dżugan, Małgorzata; Lis, Marcin

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cadmium on Muscovy ducklings (Cairina moschata) based on hatching results and the activity of enzymes in the blood plasma. On day 6 of incubation, hatching eggs were injected into the egg albumen with 50 μl of saline solution containing Cd ions (CdCl2) at concentrations of 0 (control group), 1.3, 4.0, 7.5, 15.0 and 30 μg/egg, using 50 eggs per group. A gradual decrease in hatchability, from 52% in the control to 4% in the highest Cd dose group, was observed, with the LD50 calculated as 8 μg/egg. However, the impact of cadmium on the incidence of malformations of duck embryos has not been proven. Compared to the control group, N-acetyl-β-Dglucosaminidase activity increased by 30-50% (P ≤ 0.05) in the blood serum of ducklings in the groups receiving more than 7.5 μg Cd/egg, whereas an elevated activity of arylsulphatase (by 45%) was observed for a lower dose only (4 μg Cd/egg). A gradual increase in the activity of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases was observed (P ≤ 0.05), starting from the lowest exposure of 1.3 μg Cd/egg, by 155% and 53%, respectively. In conclusion, the results prove the dosedependent toxic impact of cadmium on embryogenesis and on the studied blood plasma enzyme activities of ducklings. PMID:27342095

  8. Dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol isolated from Cucurbita moschata shows anti-adipogenic and anti-lipogenic effects in 3T3-L1 cells and primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junghun; Kim, Donghyun; Choi, Jonghyun; Choi, Hyounjeong; Ryu, Jae-Ha; Jeong, Jinhyun; Park, Eun-Jin; Kim, Seon-Hee; Kim, Sunyoung

    2012-03-16

    A water-soluble extract from the stems of Cucurbita moschata, code named PG105, was previously found to contain strong anti-obesity activities in a high fat diet-induced obesity mouse model. One of its biological characteristics is that it inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. To isolate the biologically active compound(s), conventional solvent fractionation was performed, and the various fractions were tested for anti-adipogenic activity using Oil Red O staining method. A single spot on thin layer chromatography of the chloroform fraction showed a potent anti-adipogenic activity. When purified, the structure of its major component was resolved as dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (DHCA), a lignan, by NMR and mass spectrometry analysis. In 3T3-L1 cells, synthesized DHCA significantly reduced the expression of several adipocyte marker genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (Pparg), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (Cebpa), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (Fabp4), sterol response element-binding protein-1c (Srebp1c), and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 (Scd), and decreased lipid accumulation without affecting cell viability. DHCA also suppressed the mitotic clonal expansion of preadipocytes (an early event of adipogenesis), probably by suppressing the DNA binding activity of C/EBPβ, and lowered the production level of cyclinA and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2), coinciding with the decrease in DNA synthesis and cell division. In addition, DHCA directly inhibited the expression of SREBP-1c and SCD-1. Similar observations were made, using primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Taken together, our data indicate that DHCA may contain dual activities, affecting both adipogenesis and lipogenesis. PMID:22262865

  9. Comparative analysis of fruit aroma patterns in the domesticated wild strawberries “Profumata di Tortona” (F. moschata) and “Regina delle Valli” (F. vesca)

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Alfredo S.; Allegra, Domenico; Simoni, Laura; Rusconi, Fabio; Tonelli, Chiara; Espen, Luca; Galbiati, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Strawberry is one of the most valued fruit worldwide. Modern cultivated varieties (Fragaria × ananassa) exhibit large fruits, with intense color and prolonged shell life. Yet, these valuable traits were attained at the cost of the intensity and the variety of the aroma of the berry, two characteristics highly appreciated by consumers. Wild species display smaller fruits and reduced yield compared with cultivated varieties but they accumulate broader and augmented blends of volatile compounds. Because of the large diversity and strength of aromas occurring in natural and domesticated populations, plant breeders regard wild strawberries as important donors of novel scented molecules. Here we report a comprehensive metabolic map of the aroma of the wild strawberry Profumata di Tortona (PdT), an ancient clone of F. moschata, considered as one of the most fragrant strawberry types of all. Comparison with the more renowned woodland strawberry Regina delle Valli (RdV), an aromatic cultivar of F. vesca, revealed a significant enrichment in the total level of esters, alcohols and furanones and a reduction in the content of ketones in in the aroma of PdT berries. Among esters, particularly relevant was the enhanced accumulation of methyl anthranilate, responsible for the intensive sweetish impression of wild strawberries. Interestingly, increased ester accumulation in PdT fruits correlated with enhanced expression of the Strawberry Alcohol Acyltransferase (SAAT) gene, a key regulator of flavor biogenesis in ripening berries. We also detected a remarkable 900-fold increase in the level of mesifurane, the furanone conferring the typical caramel notes to most wild species. PMID:25717332

  10. Comparative analysis of fruit aroma patterns in the domesticated wild strawberries "Profumata di Tortona" (F. moschata) and "Regina delle Valli" (F. vesca).

    PubMed

    Negri, Alfredo S; Allegra, Domenico; Simoni, Laura; Rusconi, Fabio; Tonelli, Chiara; Espen, Luca; Galbiati, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Strawberry is one of the most valued fruit worldwide. Modern cultivated varieties (Fragaria × ananassa) exhibit large fruits, with intense color and prolonged shell life. Yet, these valuable traits were attained at the cost of the intensity and the variety of the aroma of the berry, two characteristics highly appreciated by consumers. Wild species display smaller fruits and reduced yield compared with cultivated varieties but they accumulate broader and augmented blends of volatile compounds. Because of the large diversity and strength of aromas occurring in natural and domesticated populations, plant breeders regard wild strawberries as important donors of novel scented molecules. Here we report a comprehensive metabolic map of the aroma of the wild strawberry Profumata di Tortona (PdT), an ancient clone of F. moschata, considered as one of the most fragrant strawberry types of all. Comparison with the more renowned woodland strawberry Regina delle Valli (RdV), an aromatic cultivar of F. vesca, revealed a significant enrichment in the total level of esters, alcohols and furanones and a reduction in the content of ketones in in the aroma of PdT berries. Among esters, particularly relevant was the enhanced accumulation of methyl anthranilate, responsible for the intensive sweetish impression of wild strawberries. Interestingly, increased ester accumulation in PdT fruits correlated with enhanced expression of the Strawberry Alcohol Acyltransferase (SAAT) gene, a key regulator of flavor biogenesis in ripening berries. We also detected a remarkable 900-fold increase in the level of mesifurane, the furanone conferring the typical caramel notes to most wild species. PMID:25717332

  11. Dehydrodiconiferyl Alcohol Isolated from Cucurbita moschata Shows Anti-adipogenic and Anti-lipogenic Effects in 3T3-L1 Cells and Primary Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Junghun; Kim, Donghyun; Choi, Jonghyun; Choi, Hyounjeong; Ryu, Jae-Ha; Jeong, Jinhyun; Park, Eun-Jin; Kim, Seon-Hee; Kim, Sunyoung

    2012-01-01

    A water-soluble extract from the stems of Cucurbita moschata, code named PG105, was previously found to contain strong anti-obesity activities in a high fat diet-induced obesity mouse model. One of its biological characteristics is that it inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. To isolate the biologically active compound(s), conventional solvent fractionation was performed, and the various fractions were tested for anti-adipogenic activity using Oil Red O staining method. A single spot on thin layer chromatography of the chloroform fraction showed a potent anti-adipogenic activity. When purified, the structure of its major component was resolved as dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (DHCA), a lignan, by NMR and mass spectrometry analysis. In 3T3-L1 cells, synthesized DHCA significantly reduced the expression of several adipocyte marker genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (Pparg), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (Cebpa), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (Fabp4), sterol response element-binding protein-1c (Srebp1c), and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 (Scd), and decreased lipid accumulation without affecting cell viability. DHCA also suppressed the mitotic clonal expansion of preadipocytes (an early event of adipogenesis), probably by suppressing the DNA binding activity of C/EBPβ, and lowered the production level of cyclinA and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2), coinciding with the decrease in DNA synthesis and cell division. In addition, DHCA directly inhibited the expression of SREBP-1c and SCD-1. Similar observations were made, using primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Taken together, our data indicate that DHCA may contain dual activities, affecting both adipogenesis and lipogenesis. PMID:22262865

  12. Effect of a Vietnamese Cinnamomum cassia essential oil and its major component trans-cinnamaldehyde on the cell viability, membrane integrity, membrane fluidity, and proton motive force of Listeria innocua.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Nga-Thi-Thanh; Dumas, Emilie; Thanh, Mai Le; Degraeve, Pascal; Ben Amara, Chedia; Gharsallaoui, Adem; Oulahal, Nadia

    2015-04-01

    The antibacterial mechanism of a Cinnamomum cassia essential oil from Vietnam and of its main component (trans-cinnamaldehyde, 90% (m/m) of C. cassia essential oil) against a Listeria innocua strain was investigated to estimate their potential for food preservation. In the presence of C. cassia essential oil or trans-cinnamaldehyde at their minimal bactericidal concentration (2700 μg·mL(-1)), L. innocua cells fluoresced green after staining with Syto9® and propidium iodide, as observed by epifluorescence microscopy, suggesting that the perturbation of membrane did not cause large pore formation and cell lysis but may have introduced the presence of viable but nonculturable bacteria. Moreover, the fluidity, potential, and intracellular pH of the cytoplasmic membrane were perturbed in the presence of the essential oil or trans-cinnamaldehyde. However, these membrane perturbations were less severe in the presence of trans-cinnamaldehyde than in the presence of multicomponent C. cassia essential oil. This indicates that in addition to trans-cinnamaldehyde, other minor C. cassia essential oil components play a major role in its antibacterial activity against L. innocua cells. PMID:25728340

  13. In Vitro Antiviral Activity of Cinnamomum cassia and Its Nanoparticles Against H7N3 Influenza A Virus.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Munazza; Zaidi, Najam-Us-Sahar Sadaf; Amraiz, Deeba; Afzal, Farhan

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles have wide-scale applications in various areas, including medicine, chemistry, electronics, and energy generation. Several physical, biological, and chemical methods have been used for synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using plants provide advantages over other methods as it is easy, efficient, and eco-friendly. Nanoparticles have been extensively studied as potential antimicrobials to target pathogenic and multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Their applications recently extended to development of antivirals to inhibit viral infections. In this study, we synthesized silver nanoparticles using Cinnamomum cassia (Cinnamon) and evaluated their activity against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H7N3. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UVVis absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Cinnamon bark extract and its nanoparticles were tested against H7N3 influenza A virus in Vero cells and the viability of cells was determined by tetrazolium dye (MTT) assay. The silver nanoparticles derived from Cinnamon extract enhanced the antiviral activity and were found to be effective in both treatments, when incubated with the virus prior to infection and introduced to cells after infection. In order to establish the safety profile, Cinnamon and its corresponding nanoparticles were tested for their cytotoxic effects in Vero cells. The tested concentrations of extract and nanoparticles (up to 500 μg/ml) were found non-toxic to Vero cells. The biosynthesized nanoparticles may, hence, be a promising approach to provide treatment against influenza virus infections. PMID:26403820

  14. Polyphenols of Cassia tora leaves prevents lenticular apoptosis and modulates cataract pathology in Sprague-Dawley rat pups.

    PubMed

    Sreelakshmi, V; Abraham, Annie

    2016-07-01

    Cataract is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide with multifactorial etiology and is a significant global health problem with increasing prevalence with age. Currently, no pharmacological measures are discovered to prevent and treat cataract and a significant number of epidemiological studies have suggested the potential role of antioxidants in the prevention of cataract by scavenging free radicals and preventing lens protein derangement and lenticular cell damage. The main goal of the present study is to evaluate Cassia tora leaves; an edible leafy vegetable employed in Ayurvedic and Chinese system of medicine for eye rejuvenation in preventing selenite-induced cataract in rat pups and to identify the active components that produce the effect. ECT pre-treatment effectively restored both enzymatic and metabolic antioxidant levels, membrane integrity and reduced metal accumulation and thus down-regulate epithelial cell death. Gene expression studies also confirmed these findings. ESI-MS analysis of ECT revealed the presence of chrysophanol, emodin, kaemferol, quercetin, stigmasterol and isoquercetin. The study suggests the possible role of C. tora in alleviating cataract pathology and presence of many anthraquinones and flavonoids. As it is an edible plant, the incorporation of these leaves in daily vegetables might prevent or delay the onset and maturation of cataract. PMID:27261615

  15. Astragalin from Cassia alata induces DNA adducts in vitro and repairable DNA damage in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Saito, Samuel; Silva, Givaldo; Santos, Regineide Xavier; Gosmann, Grace; Pungartnik, Cristina; Brendel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Reverse phase-solid phase extraction from Cassia alata leaves (CaRP) was used to obtain a refined extract. Higher than wild-type sensitivity to CaRP was exhibited by 16 haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants with defects in DNA repair and membrane transport. CaRP had a strong DPPH free radical scavenging activity with an IC(50) value of 2.27 μg mL(-1) and showed no pro-oxidant activity in yeast. CaRP compounds were separated by HPLC and the three major components were shown to bind to DNA in vitro. The major HPLC peak was identified as kampferol-3-O-β-d-glucoside (astragalin), which showed high affinity to DNA as seen by HPLC-UV measurement after using centrifugal ultrafiltration of astragalin-DNA mixtures. Astragalin-DNA interaction was further studied by spectroscopic methods and its interaction with DNA was evaluated using solid-state FTIR. These and computational (in silico) docking studies revealed that astragalin-DNA binding occurs through interaction with G-C base pairs, possibly by intercalation stabilized by H-bond formation. PMID:22489129

  16. Apoptosis mediated anti-proliferative effect of compound isolated from Cassia auriculata leaves against human colon cancer cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esakkirajan, M.; Prabhu, N. M.; Manikandan, R.; Beulaja, M.; Prabhu, D.; Govindaraju, K.; Thiagarajan, R.; Arulvasu, C.; Dhanasekaran, G.; Dinesh, D.; Babu, G.

    2014-06-01

    A compound was isolated from Cassia auriculata leaves and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS), UV-vis spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The in vitro anticancer effect of the compound isolated from C. auriculata was evaluated in human colon cancer cells HCT 15 by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, cytotoxicity, nuclear morphology analysis and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase. The isolated compound 4-(2,5 dichlorobenzyl)-2,3,4,5,6,7 hexahydro7(4 methoxyphenyl)benzo[h][1,4,7] triazecin8(1H)-one showed 50% inhibition of HCT 15 cells when tested at 20 μg/ml after 24 h incubation. Cytotoxicity, nuclear morphology and lactate dehydrogenase assays clearly show potent anticancer activity of the isolated compound against colon cancer. Thus, the in vitro findings suggest that the compound isolated from C. auriculata leaves have potent anti-cancer properties with possible clinical applications.

  17. [Soil greenhouse gases emission from an Acacia crassicarpa plantation under effects of understory removal and Cassia alata addition].

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Fang; Zhang, Xing-Feng

    2010-03-01

    Forest soil is one of the main sources of greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O. By using static chamber and GS technique, this paper measured in situ the CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes of Acacia crassicarpa plantation in Heshan Hilly Land Interdisciplinary Experimental Station under Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), and studied the soil CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from the plantation under effects of understory removal and Cassia alata addition. The CO2 flux of the plantation maintained at a higher level during rainy season but decreased obviously in dry season, while the CH4 and N2O fluxes varied widely from September to November, with the peaks in October. Under the effects of understory removal and C. alata addition, the soil in the plantation could be a sink or a source of CH4, but consistently a source of CO2 and N2O. Understory removal enhanced the soil CO2 emission (P < 0.05 ), C. alata addition increased the soil CH4 emission (P < 0.05), while both understory removal and C. alata addition increased the soil N2O emission (P < 0.05). Surface soil temperature, moisture content, NO3(-) -N concentration, and microbial biomass carbon were the main factors affecting the soil CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions. PMID:20560308

  18. Apoptosis mediated anti-proliferative effect of compound isolated from Cassia auriculata leaves against human colon cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Esakkirajan, M; Prabhu, N M; Manikandan, R; Beulaja, M; Prabhu, D; Govindaraju, K; Thiagarajan, R; Arulvasu, C; Dhanasekaran, G; Dinesh, D; Babu, G

    2014-06-01

    A compound was isolated from Cassia auriculata leaves and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS), UV-vis spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The in vitro anticancer effect of the compound isolated from C. auriculata was evaluated in human colon cancer cells HCT 15 by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, cytotoxicity, nuclear morphology analysis and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase. The isolated compound 4-(2,5 dichlorobenzyl)-2,3,4,5,6,7 hexahydro7(4 methoxyphenyl)benzo[h][1,4,7] triazecin8(1H)-one showed 50% inhibition of HCT 15 cells when tested at 20μg/ml after 24h incubation. Cytotoxicity, nuclear morphology and lactate dehydrogenase assays clearly show potent anticancer activity of the isolated compound against colon cancer. Thus, the in vitro findings suggest that the compound isolated from C. auriculata leaves have potent anti-cancer properties with possible clinical applications. PMID:24657422

  19. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Extracts from Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Eremomastax speciosa, Carica papaya and Polyscias fulva Medicinal Plants Collected in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Sagnia, Bertrand; Fedeli, Donatella; Casetti, Rita; Montesano, Carla; Falcioni, Giancarlo; Colizzi, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Background The vast majority of the population around the world has always used medicinal plants as first source of health care to fight infectious and non infectious diseases. Most of these medicinal plants may have scientific evidence to be considered in general practice. Objective The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts of leaves of Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa and the stem bark of Polyscias fulva, collected in Cameroon. Methods Chemiluminescence was used to analyze the antioxidant activities of plant extracts against hydrogen peroxide or superoxide anion. Comet assays were used to analyze the protection against antioxidant-induced DNA damage induced in white blood cells after treating with hydrogen peroxide. Flow cytometry was used to measure γδ T cells proliferation and anti-inflammatory activity of γδ T cells and of immature dendritic cells (imDC) in the presence of different concentrations of plant extracts. Results Ethanol extracts showed strong antioxidant properties against both hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion. Cassia alata showed the highest antioxidant activity. The effect of plant extracts on γδ T cells and imDC was evidenced by the dose dependent reduction in TNF-α production in the presence of Cassia alata, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa Eleusine indica, and Polyscias fulva. γδ T cells proliferation was affected to the greatest extent by Polyscias fulva. Conclusion These results clearly show the antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activities of plant extracts collected in Cameroon. These properties of leaves and stem bark extracts may contribute to the value for these plants in traditional medicine and in general medical practice. PMID:25090613

  20. Myeloprotective activity of crude methanolic leaf extract of Cassia occidentalis in cyclophosphamide-induced bone marrow suppression in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Neboh, Emeka E; Ufelle, Silas A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Myelosuppression is the most common dose-limiting side effect of chemotherapy. Cassia occidentalis plays a vital role in preventing health disorders, but its hematological effects have not been documented much. This study is designed to investigate the myeloprotective activity of the crude methanolic leaf extract of C. occidentalis in cyclophosphamide-induced bone marrow suppression. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight Wistar rats aged two to three months, weighing 120-170 g were used for the study. The rats were divided into four groups of seven rats each, labeled A to D. Groups A and B were administered with 3 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide intraperitoneally daily for three days to induce bone marrow suppression, after which groups B and C were orally fed with 250 mg/kg body weight of the crude leaf extract once daily for 14 days. Group D served as control without receiving the extract. On Day 15, blood samples (3.0 ml) were collected from each rat through the retro-orbital plexus of the median canthus into K3-EDTA containers for hematological analysis using standard operative procedures. Data were analyzed with Pearson's correlation test and multivariate analysis of variance using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 and results were expressed as mean ± SD. The level of significance was determined at 95% confidence level. Results: Myelosuppression was achieved in Group A rats. Group B rats showed a significant increase in hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), and total white blood cell count (TWBC) compared with Group A. The Group C rats revealed a significant increase (P < 0.05) in Hb, Hct and TWBC when compared with control. Conclusions: Crude methanolic leaf extract of C. occidentalis may possess myeloprotective properties when orally administered in cyclophosphamide-induced bone marrow suppression. PMID:25625111

  1. Evaluation of the in vitro anti-hyperglycemic effect of Cinnamomum cassia derived phenolic phytochemicals, via carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kang, B-H; Racicot, K; Pilkenton, S J; Apostolidis, E

    2014-06-01

    Cinnamomum cassia (cinnamon) proanthocyanidins (PACs) are believed to have anti-hyperglycemic potential via stimulation of insulin sensitivity. The present study investigates the carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibition of cinnamon PACs. Five grams of cinnamon bark powder were extracted in 100 mL acetone solution (CAE) (acetone: water: hydrochloric acid, 70:29.9:0.01) for 2 h at room temperature and in 100 mL deionized water for 30 min at 90 °C (CWE). PACs were purified from CAE using LH-20 (CAE-PAC) to be further evaluated. PAC contents were evaluated by 4-Dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMAC) assay and yielded 795, 177 and 123 mg/g, for CAE-PAC, CAE and CWE respectively. The total phenolic contents of CAE and CWE were determined to be 152 and 134 mg/g respectively. All extracts were adjusted to the same PAC content (180, 90, 45 and 20 μg) and the inhibitory activity against rat α-glucosidase was determined. The CAE-PAC fraction had very low rat α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, CAE had the highest (IC50 0.474 mg/mL total phenolic (TP) basis) followed by CWE (IC50 0.697 mg/mL TP basis). The specific maltase and sucrase inhibitory activities were determined and CAE (IC50 0.38 and 0.10 mg/mL TP basis) had higher inhibition than CWE (IC50 0.74 and 0.37 mg/mL TP basis). Results suggest that the observed bioactivity is not PAC dependent and that CAE has a higher anti-hyperglycemic potential than CWE via inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. PMID:24706251

  2. Biosynthesis characterization of silver nanoparticles using Cassia roxburghii DC. aqueous extract, and coated on cotton cloth for effective antibacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    Balashanmugam, Pannerselvam; Kalaichelvan, Pudupalayam Thangavelu

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver precursor using a plant biomaterial, Cassia roxburghii DC., aqueous extract. The AgNPs were synthesized from the shade-dried leaf extract and assessed for their stability; they elucidated characteristics under UV–visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The synthesized AgNPs exhibited a maximum absorption at 430 nm, and the X-ray diffraction patterns showed that they were crystal in nature. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis confirmed the conversion of Ag+ ions to AgNPs due to the reduction by capping material of plant extract. The HR-TEM analysis revealed that they are spherical ranging from 10 nm to 30 nm. The spot EDAX analysis showed the presence of silver atoms. In addition, AgNPs were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against six different pathogenic bacteria: three Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus, and three Gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter aerogenes. They were highly sensitive to AgNPs, whereas less sensitive to AgNO3. Furthermore, the green synthesized AgNPs were immobilized on cotton fabrics and screened for antibacterial activity. The immobilized AgNPs on cotton cloth showed high antibacterial activity. Therefore, they could be a feasible alternative source in treating wounds or may help in replacing pharmaceutical band-aids. PMID:26491310

  3. Biochemical Evaluation of the Hypoglycemic Effects of Extract and Fraction of Cassia fistula Linn. in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jarald, E. E.; Joshi, S. B.; Jain, D. C.; Edwin, S.

    2013-01-01

    Various extracts of flowers of Cassia fistula Linn (Leguminosae) such as petroleum ether (60-80°), chloroform, acetone, ethanol, aqueous, and crude aqueous extracts and two fractions of ethanol extract were tested for antihyperglycemic activity in glucose-overloaded hyperglycemic rats. The effective antihyperglycemic extracts and fraction were tested for their hypoglycemic activity at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. To confirm their utility in higher models, the effective extracts and fraction of C. fistula were subjected to antidiabetic study in an alloxan-induced diabetic model at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Biochemical parameters like glucose, urea, creatinine, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, hemoglobin, and glycosylated hemoglobin were also assessed in experimental animals. The petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of C. fistula and the water-soluble fraction of ethanol extract were found to exhibit significant antihyperglycemic activity. The extracts, at the given doses, did not produce hypoglycemia in fasted normal rats, and the fraction exhibited weak hypoglycemic effect after 2 h of the treatment. Treatment of diabetic rats with ethanol extract and water-soluble fraction of this plant restored the elevated biochemical parameters significantly (P<0.05) to the normal level. No activity was found in the petroleum ether extract of the plant. Comparatively, the water-soluble fraction of ethanol extract was found to be more effective than the ethanol extract, and the activity was comparable with that of the standard, glibenclamide (5 mg/kg). PMID:24302797

  4. Validation of a QuEChERS-based gas chromatographic method for analysis of pesticide residues in Cassia angustifolia (senna).

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Vandana; Saha, Ajoy; Patel, Dilipkumar J; Basak, B B; Shah, Paresh G; Kumar, Jitendra

    2016-08-01

    A simple multi-residue method based on modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) approach was established for the determination of 17 organochlorine (OC), 15 organophosphorous (OP) and 7 synthetic pyrethroid (SP) pesticides in an economically important medicinal plant of India, Senna (Cassia angustifolia), by gas chromatography coupled to electron capture and flame thermionic detectors (GC/ECD/FTD) and confirmation of residues was done on gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The developed method was validated by testing the following parameters: linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), matrix effect, accuracy-precision and measurement uncertainty; the validation study clearly demonstrated the suitability of the method for its intended application. All pesticides showed good linearity in the range 0.01-1.0 μg mL(-1) for OCs and OPs and 0.05-2.5 μg mL(-1) for SPs with correlation coefficients higher than 0.98. The method gave good recoveries for most of the pesticides (70-120%) with intra-day and inter-day precision < 20% in most of the cases. The limits of detection varied from 0.003 to 0.03 mg kg(-1), and the LOQs were determined as 0.01-0.049 mg kg(-1). The expanded uncertainties were <30%, which was distinctively less than a maximum default value of ±50%. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine pesticide residues in 12 commercial market samples obtained from different locations in India. PMID:27153296

  5. Anti-plasmodial activity of ethanolic extract of root and stem back of Cassia sieberiana DC on mice

    PubMed Central

    Abdulrazak, Nuhu; Asiya, Umar Imam; Usman, NataaLa Shehu; Unata, Iduh Micheal; Farida, Aminu

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study assessed within 4 days of suppressive test in vivo antimalarial activity of Ethanolic extract of root and stem bark of Cassia sieberiana DC against chloroquine sensitive strain of Plasmodium berghei NK65 in mice. Methodology: Two sets, each of five groups of four mice per each group were used. The groups of animals were administered with 100, 200, and 300 mg extract/kg body weight respectively, while positive control group were administered with 5 mg chloroquine/kg body weight and the negative control, were administered with 5 m1 distilled water/kg body weight. Oral acute toxicity was evaluated using up and down procedure. Result: Both the root and stem bark extract of C. sieberiana showed antimalarial property for suppressive tests. Chemo suppression of the root extract exerted significant (P < 0.05) dose-dependent reduction in the level of parasiteamia of 30.7%, 52.7%, and 55.8%. And from stem extract 17.6%, 38.0%, and 63.9% were recorded on mice when compared with 96.0% suppressive rate obtained from weight of chloroquine. The phytochemical screening of the plants root and stem bark extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, triterpenoids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, saponins, reducing sugars and carbohydrates. The oral median lethal dose was determined to be >3000 mg/kg body weight. Conclusion: The acute toxicity results of this study showed that the plant parts used are assumed to be safe and has anti-plasmodial activity that can be explored for the management of malaria. PMID:26401393

  6. Identification of compounds from the water soluble extract of Cinnamomum cassia barks and their inhibitory effects against high-glucose-induced mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qi; Wang, Shu-Mei; Lu, Qing; Luo, Jie; Cheng, Yong-Xian

    2013-01-01

    The difficulty of diabetic nephropathy (DN) treatment makes prevention the best choice. Cinnamomum cassia barks, known as Chinese cinnamon or Chinese cassia, is one of the most popular natural spices and flavoring agents in many parts of the World. Since previous reports indicated that Chinese cinnamon extract could be used for the treatment of diabetes, we proposed that this spice may be beneficial for the prevention of DN. However, the responsible compounds need to be further identified. In this study, we isolated three new phenolic glycosides, cinnacassosides A-C (1-3), together with fifteen known compounds from the water soluble extract of Chinese cinnamon. The structures of the new compounds were identified by comprehensive spectroscopic evidence. Eleven compounds (6-9, 11, 13-18) were isolated from this spice for the first time, despite extensive research on this species in the past, which added new facets for the chemical profiling of this spice. These isolates were purposely evaluated for their inhibitory effects on IL-6 and extracellular matrix production in mesangial cells which are definitely implicated in DN. The results showed that compounds 4-8 could inhibit over secretion of IL-6, collagen IV and fibronectin against high-glucose-induced mesangial cells at 10 mM, suggesting that Chinese cinnamon could be used as a functional food against DN. PMID:24013407

  7. Assessing product adulteration in natural health products for laxative yielding plants, Cassia, Senna, and Chamaecrista, in Southern India using DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Seethapathy, Gopalakrishnan Saroja; Ganesh, Doss; Santhosh Kumar, Jayanthinagar Urumarudappa; Senthilkumar, Umapathy; Newmaster, Steven G; Ragupathy, Subramanyam; Uma Shaanker, Ramanan; Ravikanth, Gudasalamani

    2015-07-01

    Medicinal plants such as Cassia, Senna, and Chamaecrista (belonging to the family Fabaceae) are well known for their laxative properties. They are extensively used within indigenous health care systems in India and several other countries. India exports over 5000 metric tonnes per year of these specific herbal products, and the demand for natural health product market is growing at approximately 10-15% annually. The raw plant material used as active ingredients is almost exclusively sourced from wild populations. Consequently, it is widely suspected that the commercial herbal products claiming to contain these species may be adulterated or contaminated. In this study, we have attempted to assess product authentication and the extent of adulteration in the herbal trade of these species using DNA barcoding. Our method includes four common DNA barcode regions: ITS, matK, rbcL, and psbA-trnH. Analysis of market samples revealed considerable adulteration of herbal products: 50% in the case of Senna auriculata, 37% in Senna tora, and 8% in Senna alexandrina. All herbal products containing Cassia fistula were authentic, while the species under the genus Chamaecrista were not in trade. Our results confirm the suspicion that there is rampant herbal product adulteration in Indian markets. DNA barcodes such as that demonstrated in this study could be effectively used as a regulatory tool to control the adulteration of herbal products and contribute to restoring quality assurance and consumer confidence in natural health products. PMID:25425095

  8. Reproductive allocation and output in herbaceous annuals of the genera Polygonum, Ipomoea, and Cassia in elevated CO[sub 2] environments

    SciTech Connect

    Farnsworth, E.J.; Bazzaz, F.A. )

    1994-06-01

    In assessing the capacity of plants to adapt to rapidly changing global climate, we must elucidate the impacts of elevated carbon dioxide on reproduction, fitness and evolution. We investigated how elevated CO[sub 2] influenced reproduction and growth of plants exhibiting a range of floral displays, the implications of shifts in allocation for fitness in these species, and whether related taxa would show similar patterns of response. Three herbaceous, annual species each of the genera Polygonum, Ipomoea, and Cassia were grown under 350 or 700 ppm CO[sub 2]. Vegetative growth and reproductive output were non-destructively measured throughout the full life span, and biomass calibrated with a subsample harvest at first flowering. Viability and germination studies of seed progeny were conducted to more precisely characterize fitness. Timecourse and numbers of floral buds, flowers, unripe and abscised fruits differed between CO[sub 2] treatments. Genera differed significantly in their phenological responses to elevated CO[sub 2], Polygonum and Cassia species (but not Ipomoea) showed accelerated, enhanced reproduction. Elevated CO[sub 2] ameliorated trade-offs between vegetative and floral production. However, seed [open quotes]quality[close quotes] and fitness were not always directly correlated with quantity produced. Species within general responded more consistently to CO[sub 2], indicating that phylogeny and life form may be general predictors of performance under global change.

  9. Co-Administration of Cholesterol-Lowering Probiotics and Anthraquinone from Cassia obtusifolia L. Ameliorate Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Lu; Tang, Youcai; Li, Ming; Yang, Pingchang; Liu, Zhiqiang; Yuan, Jieli; Zheng, Pengyuan

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a common liver disease in recent decades. No effective treatment is currently available. Probiotics and natural functional food may be promising therapeutic approaches to this disease. The present study aims to investigate the efficiency of the anthraquinone from Cassia obtusifolia L. (AC) together with cholesterol-lowering probiotics (P) to improve high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD in rat models and elucidate the underlying mechanism. Cholesterol-lowering probiotics were screened out by MRS-cholesterol broth with ammonium ferric sulfate method. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were fed with HFD and subsequently administered with AC and/or P. Lipid metabolism parameters and fat synthesis related genes in rat liver, as well as the diversity of gut microbiota were evaluated. The results demonstrated that, compared with the NAFLD rat, the serum lipid levels of treated rats were reduced effectively. Besides, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) were up-regulated while the expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) was reduced. The expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α protein was significantly increased while the expression of PPAR-γ and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) was down-regulated. In addition, compared with HFD group, in AC, P and AC+P group, the expression of intestinal tight-junction protein occludin and zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1) were up-regulated. Furthermore, altered gut microbiota diversity after the treatment of probiotics and AC were analysed. The combination of cholesterol-lowering probiotics and AC possesses a therapeutic effect on NAFLD in rats by up-regulating CYP7A1, LDL-R, FXR mRNA and PPAR-α protein produced in the process of fat metabolism while down-regulating the expression of HMGCR, PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c, and through normalizing the intestinal

  10. In vitro, in situ and in vivo studies on the anticandidal activity of Cassia fistula seed extract.

    PubMed

    Jothy, Subramanion L; Zakariah, Zuraini; Chen, Yeng; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2012-01-01

    Cassia fistula seeds have many therapeutic uses in traditional medicine practice. The present investigation was undertaken to demonstrate the anticandidal activity of the C. fistula seed extract at ultra-structural level through transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. The effect of seed extract on the growth profile of the Candida albicans was examined via time-kill assays and in vivo efficacy of the extract was tested in an animal model. In addition, the anticandidal effect of seed extract was further evaluated by microscopic observations using SEM and TEM to determine any major alterations in the ultrastructure of C. albicans. The complete inhibition of C. albicans growth was shown by C. fistula seed extract at 6.25 mg/mL concentration. The time-kill assay suggested that C. fistula seed extract had completely inhibited the growth of C. albicans and also exhibited prolonged anti-yeast activity. The SEM and TEM observations carried out to distinguish the metamorphosis in the morphology of control and C. fistula seed extract-treated C. albicans cells revealed the notable effect on the outer cell wall and cytoplasmic content of the C. albicans and complete collapse of yeast cell exposed to seed extract at concentration 6.25 mg/mL at 36 h. The in vitro time-kill study performed using the leaf extract at 1/2, 1 or 2 times of the MIC significantly inhibited the yeast growth with a noticeable drop in optical density (OD) of yeast culture, thus confirming the fungicidal effect of the extract on C. albicans. In addition, in vivo antifungal activity studies on candidiasis in mice showed a 6-fold decrease in C. albicans in kidneys and blood samples in the groups of animals treated with the extract (2.5 g/kg body weight). The results suggested that the C. fistula seed extract possessed good anticandidal activity and is a potential candidate for the development of anticandidal agents. PMID:22678414

  11. Antiproliferative Activity of Cinnamomum cassia Constituents and Effects of Pifithrin-Alpha on Their Apoptotic Signaling Pathways in Hep G2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Lean-Teik; Wu, Shu-Jing

    2011-01-01

    Cinnamaldehyde (Cin), cinnamic acid (Ca) and cinnamyl alcohol (Cal), major constituents of Cinnamomum cassia, have been shown to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and other activities. In this study, our aim was to evaluate the antiproliferative activity of these compounds in human hepatoma Hep G2 cells and examine the effects of pifithrin-alpha (PFTα; a specific p53 inhibitor) on their apoptotic signaling transduction mechanism. The antiproliferative activity was measured by XTT assay. Expression of apoptosis-related proteins was detected by western blotting. Results showed that at a concentration of 30 μM, the order of antiproliferative activity in Hep G2 cells was Cin > Ca > Cal. Cin (IC50 9.76 ± 0.67 μM) demonstrated an antiproliferative potency as good as 5-fluorouracil (an anti-cancer drug; IC50 9.57 ± 0.61 μM). Further studies on apoptotic mechanisms of Cin showed that it downregulated the expression of Bcl-XL, upregulated CD95 (APO-1), p53 and Bax proteins, as well as cleaving the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in a time-dependent pattern. PFTα pre-incubation significantly diminished the effect of Cin-induced apoptosis. It markedly upregulated the anti-apoptotic (Bcl-XL) expression and downregulated the pro-apoptotic (Bax) expression, as well as effectively blocking the CD95 (APO-1) and p53 expression, and PARP cleavage in Cin-treated cells. This study indicates that Cin was the most potent antiproliferative constituent of C. cassia, and its apoptotic mechanism in Hep G2 cells could be mediated through the p53 induction and CD95 (APO-1) signaling pathways. PMID:20038571

  12. Evaluation of aqueous and ethanol extract of bioactive medicinal plant, Cassia didymobotrya (Fresenius) Irwin & Barneby against immature stages of filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Nagappan, Raja

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate aqueous and ethanol extract of Cassia didymobotrya leaves against immature stages of Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods The mortality rate of immature mosquitoes was tested in wide and narrow range concentration of the plant extract based on WHO standard protocol. The wide range concentration tested in the present study was 10 000, 1 000, 100, 10 and 1 mg/L and narrow range concentration was 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/L. Results 2nd instar larvae exposed to 100 mg/L and above concentration of ethanol extract showed 100% mortality. Remaining stages such as 3rd, 4th and pupa, 100% mortality was observed at 1 000 mg/L and above concentration after 24 h exposure period. In aqueous extract all the stages 100% mortality was recorded at 1 000 mg/L and above concentration. In narrow range concentration 2nd instar larvae 100% mortality was observed at 150 mg/L and above concentration of ethanol extract. The remaining stages 100% mortality was recorded at 250 mg/L. In aqueous extract all the tested immature stages 100% mortality was observed at 250 mg/L concentration after 24 h exposure period. The results clearly indicate that the rate of mortality was based dose of the plant extract and stage of the mosquitoes. Conclusions From this study it is confirmed and concluded that Cassia didymobotrya is having active principle which is responsible for controlling Culex quinquefasciatus. The isolation of bioactive molecules and development of simple formulation technique is important for large scale implementation. PMID:23569999

  13. Next Generation Sequencing and Transcriptome Analysis Predicts Biosynthetic Pathway of Sennosides from Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.), a Non-Model Plant with Potent Laxative Properties

    PubMed Central

    Rama Reddy, Nagaraja Reddy; Mehta, Rucha Harishbhai; Soni, Palak Harendrabhai; Makasana, Jayanti; Gajbhiye, Narendra Athamaram; Ponnuchamy, Manivel; Kumar, Jitendra

    2015-01-01

    Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) is a world’s natural laxative medicinal plant. Laxative properties are due to sennosides (anthraquinone glycosides) natural products. However, little genetic information is available for this species, especially concerning the biosynthetic pathways of sennosides. We present here the transcriptome sequencing of young and mature leaf tissue of Cassia angustifolia using Illumina MiSeq platform that resulted in a total of 6.34 Gb of raw nucleotide sequence. The sequence assembly resulted in 42230 and 37174 transcripts with an average length of 1119 bp and 1467 bp for young and mature leaf, respectively. The transcripts were annotated using NCBI BLAST with ‘green plant database (txid 33090)’, Swiss Prot, Kyoto Encylcopedia of Genes & Genomes (KEGG), Cluster of Orthologous Gene (COG) and Gene Ontology (GO). Out of the total transcripts, 40138 (95.0%) and 36349 (97.7%) from young and mature leaf, respectively, were annotated by BLASTX against green plant database of NCBI. We used InterProscan to see protein similarity at domain level, a total of 34031 (young leaf) and 32077 (mature leaf) transcripts were annotated against the Pfam domains. All transcripts from young and mature leaf were assigned to 191 KEGG pathways. There were 166 and 159 CDS, respectively, from young and mature leaf involved in metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides. Many CDS encoding enzymes leading to biosynthesis of sennosides were identified. A total of 10,763 CDS differentially expressing in both young and mature leaf libraries of which 2,343 (21.7%) CDS were up-regulated in young compared to mature leaf. Several differentially expressed genes found functionally associated with sennoside biosynthesis. CDS encoding for many CYPs and TF families were identified having probable roles in metabolism of primary as well as secondary metabolites. We developed SSR markers for molecular breeding of senna. We have identified a set of putative genes involved in various

  14. Anti-inflammatory activity of cinnamon (C. zeylanicum and C. cassia) extracts - identification of E-cinnamaldehyde and o-methoxy cinnamaldehyde as the most potent bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Gunawardena, Dhanushka; Karunaweera, Niloo; Lee, Samiuela; van Der Kooy, Frank; Harman, David G; Raju, Ritesh; Bennett, Louise; Gyengesi, Erika; Sucher, Nikolaus J; Münch, Gerald

    2015-03-01

    Chronic inflammation is a contributing factor in many age-related diseases. In a previous study, we have shown that Sri Lankan cinnamon (C. zeylanicum) was one of the most potent anti-inflammatory foods out of 115 foods tested. However, knowledge about the exact nature of the anti-inflammatory compounds and their distribution in the two major cinnamon species used for human consumption is limited. The aim of this investigation was to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of C. zeylanicum and C. cassia and elucidate their main phytochemical compounds. When extracts were tested in LPS and IFN-γ activated RAW 264.7 macrophages, most of the anti-inflammatory activity, measured by down-regulation of nitric oxide and TNF-α production, was observed in the organic extracts. The most abundant compounds in these extracts were E-cinnamaldehyde and o-methoxycinnamaldehyde. The highest concentration of E-cinnamaldehyde was found in the DCM extract of C. zeylanicum or C. cassia (31 and 34 mg g(-1) of cinnamon, respectively). When these and other constituents were tested for their anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 and J774A.1 macrophages, the most potent compounds were E-cinnamaldehyde and o-methoxycinnamaldehyde, which exhibited IC₅₀ values for NO with RAW 264.7 cells of 55 ± 9 μM (7.3 ± 1.2 μg mL(-1)) and 35 ± 9 μM (5.7 ± 1.5 μg mL(-1)), respectively; and IC₅₀ values for TNF-α of 63 ± 9 μM (8.3 ± 1.2 μg mL(-1)) and 78 ± 16 μM (12.6 ± 2.6 μg mL(-1)), respectively. If therapeutic concentrations can be achieved in target tissues, cinnamon and its components may be useful in the treatment of age-related inflammatory conditions. PMID:25629927

  15. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal extracts of Cibotium barometz, Gentiana scabra, Dioscorea batatas, Cassia tora, and Taxillus chinensis inhibit SARS-CoV replication

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Chih-Chun; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Jan, Jia-Tsrong; Liang, Po-Huang; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Wu, Jin-Bin; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2011-01-01

    Development of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) agents is pivotal to prevent the reemergence of the life-threatening disease, SARS. In this study, more than 200 extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs were evaluated for anti-SARS-CoV activities using a cell-based assay that measured SARS-CoV-induced cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in vitro on Vero E6 cells. Six herbal extracts, one each from Gentianae Radix (龍膽 lóng dǎn; the dried rhizome of Gentiana scabra), Dioscoreae Rhizoma (山藥 shān yào; the tuber of Dioscorea batatas), Cassiae Semen (決明子 jué míng zǐ; the dried seed of Cassia tora) and Loranthi Ramus (桑寄生 sāng jì shēng; the dried stem, with leaf of Taxillus chinensis) (designated as GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH, respectively), and two from Rhizoma Cibotii (狗脊 gǒu jǐ; the dried rhizome of Cibotium barometz) (designated as CBE and CBM), were found to be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV at concentrations between 25 and 200 μg/ml. The concentrations of the six extracts needed to inhibit 50% of Vero E6 cell proliferation (CC50) and 50% of viral replication (EC50) were determined. The resulting selective index values (SI = CC50/EC50) of the most effective extracts CBE, GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH were > 59.4, > 57.5, > 62.1, > 59.4, and > 92.9, respectively. Among these extracts, CBM and DBM also showed significant inhibition of SARS-CoV 3CL protease activity with IC50 values of 39 μg/ml and 44 μg/ml, respectively. Our findings suggest that these six herbal extracts may have potential as candidates for future development of anti-SARS therapeutics. Abbreviations SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV, coronavirus CPE, cytopathogenic effect TCM, traditional Chinese medicine PMID:24716104

  16. Cassia tora Seed Extract and Its Active Compound Aurantio-obtusin Inhibit Allergic Responses in IgE-Mediated Mast Cells and Anaphylactic Models.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myungsuk; Lim, Sue Ji; Lee, Hee-Ju; Nho, Chu Won

    2015-10-21

    Cassia tora seed is widely used due to its various biological properties including anticancer, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory effects. However, there has been no report of the effects of C. tora seed extract (CTE) on immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic responses. In this research, we demonstrated the effects of CTE and its active compound aurantio-obtusin on IgE-sensitized allergic reactions in mast cells and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA). CTE and aurantio-obtusin suppressed degranulation, histamine production, and reactive oxygen species generation and inhibited the production and mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-4. CTE and aurantio-obtusin also suppressed the prostaglandin E2 production and expression of cyclooxygenase 2. Furthermore, CTE and aurantio-obtusin suppressed IgE-mediated FcεRI signaling such as phosphorylation of Syk, protein kinase Cμ, phospholipase Cγ, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases. CTE and aurantio-obtusin blocked mast cell-dependent PCA in IgE-mediated mice. These results suggest that CTE and aurantio-obtusin are a beneficial treatment for allergy-related diseases. PMID:26434611

  17. Assessment of oxidative stress markers and concentrations of selected elements in the leaves of Cassia occidentalis growing wild on a coal fly ash basin.

    PubMed

    Love, Amit; Banerjee, B D; Babu, C R

    2013-08-01

    Assessment of oxidative stress levels and tissue concentrations of elements in plants growing wild on fly ash basins is critical for realistic hazard identification of fly ash disposal areas. Hitherto, levels of oxidative stress markers in plants growing wild on fly ash basins have not been adequately investigated. We report here concentrations of selected metal and metalloid elements and levels of oxidative stress markers in leaves of Cassia occidentalis growing wild on a fly ash basin (Badarpur Thermal Power Station site) and a reference site (Garhi Mandu Van site). Plants growing on the fly ash basin had significantly high foliar concentration of As, Ni, Pb and Se and low foliar concentration of Mn and Fe compared to the plants growing on the reference site. The plants inhabiting the fly ash basin showed signs of oxidative stress and had elevated levels of lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage from cells and low levels of chlorophyll a and total carotenoids compared to plants growing at the reference site. The levels of both protein thiols and nonprotein thiols were elevated in plants growing on the fly ash basin compared to plants growing on the reference site. However, no differences were observed in the levels of cysteine, reduced glutathione and oxidized glutathione in plants growing at both the sites. Our study suggests that: (1) fly ash triggers oxidative stress responses in plants growing wild on fly ash basin, and (2) elevated levels of protein thiols and nonprotein thiols may have a role in protecting the plants from environmental stress. PMID:23307051

  18. Characterization and in vitro studies on anticancer, antioxidant activity against colon cancer cell line of gold nanoparticles capped with Cassia tora SM leaf extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Ezra Elumalai; John Poonga, Preetam Raj; Panicker, Shirly George

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the effectiveness of synthesized gold nanoparticles of an ethnobotanically and medicinally important plant species Cassia tora against colon cancer cells and to find its antibacterial and antioxidant activities. In order to improve the bioavailability of C. tora, we synthesized gold nanoparticles through green synthesis, by simple mixing and stirring of C. tora leaf powder and tetrachloroauric acid (HAuCl4) solution which gave a dispersion of gold nanoparticles conjugate with C. tora secondary metabolites (SMs) with characteristic surface plasmon resonance. It was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, zeta sizer, zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy. Antibacterial activity was carried out for gold nanoparticles conjugated with C. tora SMs, using well-diffusion method. The MTT assay for cell viability and markers such as catalase, nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation was predictable to confirm the cytotoxicity and antioxidant properties. The treatment of gold nanoparticles conjugated with C. tora SMs on Col320 cells showed reduction in the cell viability through MTT assay, and it also significantly suppressed the release of H2O2, LPO and NO production in a dose-dependent manner. C. tora SMs conjugate gold nanoparticles showed enhanced bioavailability, antioxidant and anticancer effect against colon cancer cell line (Col320).

  19. Activity-guided chemo toxic profiling of Cassia occidentalis (CO) seeds: detection of toxic compounds in body fluids of CO-exposed patients and experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Gati Krushna; Ch, Ratnasekhar; Mudiam, Mohana K R; Vashishtha, Vipin M; Raisuddin, S; Das, Mukul

    2015-06-15

    Our prior studies have shown an association between the deaths of children and consumption of Cassia occidentalis (CO) seeds. However, the chemicals responsible for the CO poisoning are not known. Therefore, the present study was designed to identify the key moieties in CO seeds and their cytotoxicity in rat primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. Activity-guided sequential extraction and fractionation of the seeds followed by GC-MS analysis identified the toxic compounds in the CO seeds. These identified compounds were subsequently detected and quantified in blood and urine samples from CO-exposed rats and CO poisoning human study cases. GC-MS analysis of different fractions of methanol extracts of CO seeds revealed the presence of five anthraquinones (AQs), viz. physcion, emodin, rhein, aloe-emodin, and chrysophanol. Interestingly, these AQs were detected in serum and urine samples from the study cases and CO-exposed rats. Cytotoxicity analysis of the above AQs in rat primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells revealed that rhein is the most toxic moiety, followed by emodin, aloe-emodin, physcion, and chrysophanol. These studies indicate that AQ aglycones are responsible for producing toxicity, which may be associated with symptoms of hepatomyoencephalopathy in CO poisoning cases. PMID:25915165

  20. Anti-cancer effect of Cassia auriculata leaf extract in vitro through cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis in human breast and larynx cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, R; Harish, C C; Pichai, R; Sakthisekaran, D; Gunasekaran, P

    2009-02-01

    The in vitro anti-cancer effect of Cassia auriculata leaf extract (CALE) was evaluated in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 and human larynx carcinoma Hep-2 cell lines. CALE preferentially inhibited the growth of both the cell lines in a dose-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 400 and 500 microg for MCF-7 and Hep-2 cells, respectively. The results showed the anti-cancer action is due to nuclear fragmentation and condensation, associated with the appearance of A(0) peak in cell cycle analysis that is indicative of apoptosis. In addition, CALE treated MCF-7 and Hep-2 cells had decreased expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein and increased expression of pro-apoptotic Bax protein, eventually leading a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. These results demonstrated that CALE inhibits the proliferation of MCF-7 and Hep-2 cells through induction of apoptosis, making CALE a candidate as new anti-cancer drug. PMID:18996213

  1. Extraction and characterization of polysaccharides from Semen Cassiae by microwave-assisted aqueous two-phase extraction coupled with spectroscopy and HPLC.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi; Zhang, Wei; Tang, Xunyou; Fan, Huajun; Xie, Xiujuan; Wan, Qiang; Wu, Xuehao; Tang, James Z

    2016-06-25

    A novel and rapid method for simultaneous extraction and separation of the different polysaccharides from Semen Cassiae (SC) was developed by microwave-assisted aqueous two-phase extraction (MAATPE) in a one-step procedure. Using ethanol/ammonium sulfate system as a multiphase solvent, the effects of MAATPE on the extraction of polysaccharides from SC such as the composition of the ATPS, extraction time, temperature and solvent-to-material ratio were investigated by UV-vis analysis. Under the optimum conditions, the yields of polysaccharides were 4.49% for the top phase, 8.80% for the bottom phase and 13.29% for total polysaccharides, respectively. Compared with heating solvent extraction and ultrasonic assisted extraction, MAATPE exhibited the higher extraction yields in shorter time. Fourier-transform infrared spectra showed that two polysaccharides extracted from SC to the top and bottom phases by MAATPE were different from each other in their chemical structures. Through acid hydrolysis and PMP derivatization prior to HPLC, analytical results by indicated that a polysaccharide of the top phases was a relatively homogeneous homepolysaccharide composed of dominant gucose glucose while that of the bottom phase was a water-soluble heteropolysaccharide with multiple components of glucose, xylose, arabinose, galactose, mannose and glucuronic acid. Molar ratios of monosaccharides were 95.13:4.27:0.60 of glucose: arabinose: galactose for the polysaccharide from the top phase and 62.96:14.07:6.67: 6.67:5.19:4.44 of glucose: xylose: arabinose: galactose: mannose: glucuronic acid for that from the bottom phase, respectively. The mechanism for MAATPE process was also discussed in detail. MAATPE with the aid of microwave and the selectivity of the ATPS not only improved yields of the extraction, but also obtained a variety of polysaccharides. Hence, it was proved as a green, efficient and promising alternative to simultaneous extraction of polysaccharides from SC. PMID

  2. Structural Analysis and Biological Toxicity of Aflatoxins B1 and B2 Degradation Products Following Detoxification by Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula Aqueous Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Iqbal, Mazhar; Ghaffar, Abdul; Abbas, Mateen; Khan, Abdul Muqeet

    2016-01-01

    This study showed the comparison between Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula (leaves and branch) aqueous extracts for their ability to detoxify of aflatoxins B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 μg L-1 and AFB2; 50 μg L-1) by In Vitro assays and decontamination studies. Results indicated that O. basilicum leaves extract was found to be highly significant (P < 0.05) in degrading AFB1 and AFB2, i.e., 90.4 and 88.6%, respectively. However, O. basilicum branch, C. fistula leaves and branch extracts proved to be less efficient in degrading these aflatoxins, under optimized conditions, i.e., pH 8, temperature 30°C and incubation period of 72 h. Moreover the antifungal activity of these plants extracts were also tested. The findings depicted that O. basilicum leaves extract showed maximum growth inhibition of aflatoxigenic isolates, i.e., 82–87% as compared to other tested plants extracts. The structural elucidation of degraded toxin products by LCMS/MS analysis showed that nine degraded products of AFB1 and AFB2 were formed. MS/MS spectra showed that most of the products were formed by the removal of double bond in the terminal furan ring and modification of lactone group indicating less toxicity as compared to parent compounds. Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that O. basilicum leaves extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins. PMID:27471501

  3. Classification of raw and roasted Semen Cassiae samples with the use of Fourier transform infrared fingerprints and least squares support vector machines.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yanhua; Ni, Yongnian; Kokot, Serge

    2010-06-01

    Raw and roasted Semen Cassiae seeds, a complex traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), are used as examples to research and develop a method of classification analysis based on measurements of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectral fingerprints. Eighty samples of the TCM were measured in the mid-infrared range, 400-2000 cm(-1) (KBr pellets), and the complex overlapping spectra were submitted for interpretation to a principal component analysis least squares support vector machine (PC-LS-SVM), kernel principal component analysis least squares support vector machine (KPC-LS-SVM), and radial basis function artificial neural networks (RBF-ANN). The LS-SVM models were developed with an RBF kernel function and a grid search technique. Training models were constructed with the use of raw and first-derivative spectra and these were then verified by another data set containing both raw and roasted spectral objects. It was demonstrated that the first-derivative data set produced the best separation of the spectral objects. In general, satisfactory analytical performance was obtained with the PC-LS-SVM, KPC-LS-SVM, and RBF-ANN training models and with the classification of the verification spectral objects. With regard to chemometrics modeling, the performance of KPC-LS-SVM was somewhat more economical than that of the PC-LS-SVM model. It would appear that the latter relatively simple model would be sufficient for application to most small to medium sized FT-IR fingerprint data sets, but with larger matrices the more complex models, such as the RBF-ANN and KPC-LS-SVM, may be more advantageous on a computational basis. PMID:20537233

  4. Structural Analysis and Biological Toxicity of Aflatoxins B1 and B2 Degradation Products Following Detoxification by Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula Aqueous Extracts.

    PubMed

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Iqbal, Mazhar; Ghaffar, Abdul; Abbas, Mateen; Khan, Abdul Muqeet

    2016-01-01

    This study showed the comparison between Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula (leaves and branch) aqueous extracts for their ability to detoxify of aflatoxins B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 μg L(-1) and AFB2; 50 μg L(-1)) by In Vitro assays and decontamination studies. Results indicated that O. basilicum leaves extract was found to be highly significant (P < 0.05) in degrading AFB1 and AFB2, i.e., 90.4 and 88.6%, respectively. However, O. basilicum branch, C. fistula leaves and branch extracts proved to be less efficient in degrading these aflatoxins, under optimized conditions, i.e., pH 8, temperature 30°C and incubation period of 72 h. Moreover the antifungal activity of these plants extracts were also tested. The findings depicted that O. basilicum leaves extract showed maximum growth inhibition of aflatoxigenic isolates, i.e., 82-87% as compared to other tested plants extracts. The structural elucidation of degraded toxin products by LCMS/MS analysis showed that nine degraded products of AFB1 and AFB2 were formed. MS/MS spectra showed that most of the products were formed by the removal of double bond in the terminal furan ring and modification of lactone group indicating less toxicity as compared to parent compounds. Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that O. basilicum leaves extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins. PMID:27471501

  5. The Standardized BHH10 Extract, a Combination of Astragalus membranaceus, Cinnamomum cassia, and Phellodendron amurense, Reverses Bone Mass and Metabolism in a Rat Model of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Soo-Jeong; Kang, Jung-Won; Nam, Dong-Woo; Choi, Do-Young; Park, Dong-Suk; Lee, Jae-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Jasin-hwan-gagambang (BHH10), a modified prescription of Jasin-hwan, contains Astragalus membranaceus, Cinnamomum cassia, and Phellodendron amurense, and it has been traditionally used to treat osteoporosis and other inflammatory diseases. In this study, we systematically investigated the protective effects of BHH10 in ovariectomy (OVX)-induced rats. Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham and OVX subgroups. The rats in the OVX group were treated with vehicle, BHH10, alendronate (ALN), and 17β-estradiol (E2). BHH10 treatment significantly inhibited OVX-induced increases in body weight and uterus atrophy. In addition, it significantly increased the bone mineral density (BMD) and prevented a decrease in trabecular bone volume, connectivity density, trabecular number, thickness, and separation at the total femur and femur neck. The OVX rats showed significant decreases in the serum levels of calcium and phosphorous and significant increases in the serum levels of cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, C-telopeptide type 1 collagen, and bone morphogenetic protein-2. These changes were significantly reduced to near sham levels by administration of BHH10 to OVX rats. BHH10-treated rats had a greater bone mass, a better structural architecture of the bone, and higher levels of biochemical markers of the bone than did the ALN-treated or E2-treated rats. These results suggest that BHH10 reverses osteoporosis in OVX rats by stimulating bone formation or regulating bone resorption and is not associated with toxicity. © 2014 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25230217

  6. Protective effect of different parts of Cassia fistula on human umbilical vein endothelial cells against glycated protein-induced toxicity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Einstein, John Wilking; Mustafa, Moh Rais; Nishigaki, Ikuo; Rajkapoor, Balasubramanian; Moh, Mustafa Ali

    2008-10-01

    The protective effect of methanol extracts of Cassia fistula (flowers, leaves and bark) was examined in vitro in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) against toxicity induced by glycated protein (GFBS) in vitro. The experiments consisted of eight groups of HUVEC with five flasks in each group. Group I was treated with 15% FBS, group II with GFBS (70 microM) alone, and the other six groups were treated with GFBS plus 25 and 50 microg of each of the three types of C. fistula extracts. After 72 h of incubation, cells were collected and tested for lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities and glutathione S-transferase (GST). The protective effect of C. fistula extracts against GFBS-induced cytotoxicity was examined in HUVEC by using trypan blue exclusion and MTT assays. Results showed that HUVEC incubated with GFBS alone showed a significant (P < 0.001) elevation of lipid peroxidation accompanied by depletion of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR), in addition to decreased cytosolic GST. Treatment of HUVEC with C. fistula extracts at a concentration of 25 and 50 microg significantly decreased lipid peroxidation and normalized the activities of the antioxidant enzymes and GST levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Morphological changes of HUVEC were compared with respective controls; in addition, the C. fistula extracts increased the viability of HUVEC damaged by GFBS. A protective effect of C. fistula extracts on HUVEC against GFBS-induced toxicity suggested a potential beneficial effect of the extract in preventing diabetic angiopathies. PMID:19088944

  7. Evaluation of the effect of ethanolic extract of fruit pulp of Cassia fistula Linn. on forced swimming induced chronic fatigue syndrome in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sarma, P.; Borah, M.; Das, S.

    2015-01-01

    The fruit of Cassia fistula Linn. is a legume, has antioxidant and lots of other medicinal properties. As oxidants are involved in the pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome, the present study was done to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of fruit pulp of C. fistula Linn. (EECF) on forced swimming induced chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Albino mice of 25-40 grams were grouped into five groups (n=5). Group A served as naive control and group B served as stress control. Group C received EECF 200 mg/kg and group D received EECF 400 mg/kg respectively. Group E received imipramine 20 mg/kg (standard). All animals were treated with their respective agent orally daily for 7 days. Except for group A, animals in other groups were subjected to force swimming 6 min daily for 7 days to induce a state of chronic fatigue. Duration of immobility was assessed on day 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th. Anxiety level (by elevated plus maze and mirrored chamber) and loco-motor activity (by open field test) were assessed 24 h after last force swimming followed by biochemical estimations of oxidative biomarkers in brain homogenate at the end of study. Treatment with EECF resulted in significant reduction in the duration of immobility, reduced anxiety and increased loco-motor activity. Malondialdehyde level was also reduced and catalase level was increased in the extract treated group and standard group compared to stress control group. The study indicates that EECF has protective effect against experimentally induced CFS. PMID:26600847

  8. Influence of herbal combinations on the extraction efficiencies of chemical compounds from Cinnamomum cassia, Paeonia lactiflora, and Glycyrrhiza uralensis, the herbal components of Gyeji-tang, evaluated by HPLC method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Ha, Woo-Ram; Park, Jin-Hyung; Lee, Guemsan; Choi, Goya; Lee, Seung-Ho; Kim, Young-Sik

    2016-09-10

    During decoction process, the ingredients of herbal formula interact with each other, such that therapeutic properties and chemical extraction characteristics are altered. The crude drugs, Cinnamomum cassia (CC), Paeonia lactiflora (PL), and Glycyrrhiza uralensis (GU), are the main herbal constituents of Gyeji-tang, a traditional herbal formula. To evaluate the chemical interaction between CC, PL, and GU during the course of decoction, quantification of 16 marker compounds in the herbal decoction, performed using a Box-Behnken experimental design, was carried out by HPLC-diode array detection using validated method. Correlations between the amounts of marker compounds from CC, PL, and GU were assessed by multiple regression analysis. The results obtained showed that amounts of single herb marker compounds significantly changed (usually decreased) by decoction in the presence of other herbs and that these changes depended on the chemical natures of the markers and the herbal medicines present. Results also demonstrated that the extraction efficiencies of marker compounds increased when the proportion of the herb containing them was increased and decreased in proportion to amounts of herbs added. In conclusion, chemical interactions between compositional herbal medicines may occur when herbs are co-decocted. This study provides insight of understanding the herbal interactions in herbal formulae. PMID:27399342

  9. Rootstock of interspecific squash hybrids (Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata) increases lycopene content of watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The watermelon industry in the U.S. is facing increased soil-borne disease pressure and the loss of the soil fumigant methyl bromide. To combat this, grafting of scions with disease-resistant rootstocks of cucurbit species has garnered widespread interest. Both scion and rootstock can affect plant...

  10. Propagation of viruses infecting waterfowl on continuous cell lines of Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) origin.

    PubMed

    Mészáros, István; Tóth, Renáta; Bálint, Adám; Dán, Adám; Jordan, Ingo; Zádori, Zoltán

    2014-01-01

    Duck circovirus, duck hepatitis A virus 1, goose parvovirus and goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus are economically damaging pathogens of waterfowl, and replicate poorly or not at all in established cell lines. AGE1.CR, AGE1.CR.pIX and AGE1.CS cell lines, originating from the Muscovy duck, were tested for their suitability to isolate and identify these viruses. Immunofluorescence (IF) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction investigations verified that all cell lines are permissive for all four viruses; however, AGE1.CR.pIX proved to be the most productive and most sensitive for viral infection. IF experiments revealed that the time of one infectious cycle is approximately 12 to 14 h in the AGE1.CR.pIX cells in the case of the three DNA viruses, while it is 10 to 12 h for DHAV-1. Specific viral infectivity and the limit of detection by IF varied between 55 and 1484 copies, depending on the viruses and cell lines. Despite the high sensitivity of the cell lines for viruses, their viral productivity remained relatively low for the investigated field isolates. However, optimization of virus infection and/or the adaptation of the viruses to the cells can raise viral productivity and can make these cell lines suitable for vaccine development and production. PMID:24992264

  11. Molecular characterization and tissue-specific expression of invariant chain isoform in Muscovy Duck (Cairina moschata).

    PubMed

    Liu, S J; Chen, F F; Wu, C; Ni, Q S; Yu, W Y

    2014-01-01

    Invariant chain (Ii) isoform, through its thyroglobulin-like (Tg) domain, inhibits cysteine proteases during antigen presentation in vertebrates. In birds, the Ii of Muscovy Duck (MDIi) has 2 forms: MDIi-1 and MDIi-2 (MDIi isoform). To understand the genetic information and expression characteristics of MDIi-2, polymerase chain reaction, and bioinformatic analysis were performed for MDIi-2 from healthy adult Muscovy Duck. The full-length MDIi-2 cDNA sequence was found to be 1377-base pairs, encoding a 285-amino acid protein. MDIi-2 contains 63 amino acids with an insertion sequence in the Tg domain. MDIi-2 shares high identity (72.51-94.74%) with the same protein in other birds. The Tg domain of MDIi-2 is highly conserved and showed relatively high identity (96.83%) among all tested birds. The molecular structure of the Tg domain supports this conservation. MDIi-2 expression was measured in various tissues using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Similar to MDIi-1, MDIi-2 was detected in all tissues but at different levels. Higher expression level was observed in the spleen, intestinal mucosa, and bursa stipe (bursa of Fabricius stipe) than in other tissues. This suggests that MDIi-2, like MDIi-1, plays an essential role in all tissues and that its differential expression may be related to its functions in these tissues. The coexistence of 2 MDIi isoforms indicates that their functions are correlated in Muscovy Duck. This study improves the understanding of poultry immunology and may be used to improve measures to protect Muscovy Duck from disease. PMID:25366788

  12. Molecular Characterization of Tomato leaf curl Palampur virus and Pepper leaf curl betasatellite Naturally Infecting Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) in India.

    PubMed

    Namrata, Jaiswal; Saritha, R K; Datta, D; Singh, M; Dubey, R S; Rai, A B; Rai, M

    2010-10-01

    Pumpkin cultivation in India is affected by severe incidence of a yellow vein mosaic disease. Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus and Squash leaf curl China virus are known to be associated with this disease in India. We were able to identify a third begomovirus-Tomato leaf curl Palampur virus (ToLCPMV), from pumpkin showing typical symptoms of the disease at Varanasi based on the sequence of complete DNA-A genome of the virus. The complete DNA-A sequence of the virus shared more than 99% sequence identity with other ToLCPMV isolates available in the GenBank and clustered with them in the phylogenetic analysis. This betasatellite amplified from the same infected sample has been identified as Pepper leaf curl betasatellite (PepLCB) which also infects chilli in India. There was 92% sequence identity between the two isolates. This is the first report of natural infection of ToLCPMV on pumpkin and association of PepLCB with yellow vein mosaic disease of pumpkin in India. PMID:23637491

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the glycerol-3-phosphate 1-acyltransferase from squash (Cucurbita moschata).

    PubMed

    Turnbull, A P; Rafferty, J B; Sedelnikova, S E; Slabas, A R; Schierer, T P; Kroon, J T; Nishida, I; Murata, N; Simon, J W; Rice, D W

    2001-03-01

    Glycerol-3-phosphate 1-acyltransferase (E.C. 2.3.1.15; G3PAT) catalyses the incorporation of an acyl group from either acyl-acyl carrier proteins (acylACPs) or acylCoAs into the sn-1 position of glycerol 3-phosphate to yield 1-acylglycerol 3-phosphate. Crystals of squash G3PAT have been obtained by the hanging-drop method of vapour diffusion using PEG 4000 as the precipitant. These crystals are most likely to belong to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with approximate unit-cell parameters a = 61.1, b = 65.1, c = 103.3 A, alpha = beta = gamma = 90 degrees and a monomer in the asymmetric unit. X-ray diffraction data to 1.9 A resolution have been collected in-house using a MAR 345 imaging-plate system. PMID:11223529

  14. Nutritional evaluation of phosphorylated pumpkin seed (Cucurbita moschata) protein concentrate in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen (Quoy and Gaimard, 1824).

    PubMed

    Lovatto, Naglezi de Menezes; Goulart, Fernanda Rodrigues; de Freitas, Silvandro Tonetto; Mombach, Patricia Inês; Loureiro, Bruno Bianch; Bender, Ana Betine Beutinger; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Radünz Neto, João; da Silva, Leila Picolli

    2015-12-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing fish meal with pumpkin seed meal (PSM) or phosphorylated protein concentrate of pumpkin seed meal (PPCPS) on growth and metabolic responses of silver catfish. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were formulated. Control diet contained fish meal as the main protein source. The treatment groups contained 25 and 50% of either PSM or PPCPS protein replaced the fishmeal protein. A total of 400 silver catfish, with initial mean weight of 24 ± 0.46 g, were distributed into 20 tanks. For data four orthogonal contrasts were applied: control diet versus PSM diets; control diets versus PPCPS diets; control versus other diets; PSM diets versus PPCPS diets. The results indicated that the fish fed PSM diets had lower weight gain when compared to either control diet or PPCPS. The PPCPS do not affect growth and protein efficiency ratio. Lower albumin contents were found for the control diet fish for the contrasts control diet versus PPCPS diet and control diet versus other diets. The hepatic ALAT enzyme activity was higher in the fish fed the control diet (P < 0.05). The hepatic ALP was most active in fish that received the PPCPS diets, when comparing control diet versus PPCPS diets and control diet versus other diets. The hepatosomatic index was higher for fish fed the PPCPS. Our results indicated that PPCPS presents relevant nutritional quality for fish and can replace the fish meal protein up to 50% without affecting growth, PER and intermediate metabolites in silver catfish. PMID:26377938

  15. Verticillium wilt in transgenic sugar beet cultivars in Cassia County, ID, 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-three transgenic (resistant to glyphosate) and six commercial sugar beet cultivars were evaluated for their susceptibility to Verticillium dahliae in Heyburn, ID during the 2006 growing season. The cultivars were planted in a commercial sugar beet field and exposed to natural levels of V. da...

  16. Lipoperoxidation and cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibitory piperidine alkaloids from Cassia spectabilis green fruits.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Cláudio; Silva, Dulce H S; Pivatto, Marcos; de Rezende, Amanda; Castro-Gambôa, Ian; Bolzani, Vanderlan S; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2007-12-01

    Phytochemical work in the search for bioactive metabolites from the methanolic extract of Senna spectabilis green fruits led to the isolation of a new piperidine alkaloid, (+)-3- O-feruloylcassine ( 1), in addition to the known (-)-spectaline ( 2) and (-)-3- O-acetylspectaline ( 3). The isolates were submitted to in vitro evaluation of lipoperoxidation (LPO) and cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX-1 and -2) inhibitory properties and showed moderate antioxidant activities (40-70%) at 100 ppm when compared to commercial standards BHT and vitamin E and moderate inhibition of COX-1 (ca . 40%) and marginal inhibition of COX-2 enzymes (<10%) at 100 ppm when compared to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) aspirin, rofecoxib, and celecoxib, respectively. PMID:18047293

  17. 76 FR 78940 - Minidoka National Wildlife Refuge, Blaine, Cassia, Minidoka, and Power Counties, ID...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    .... The Refuge is located 12 miles northeast of Rupert, ID, in the Snake River Plain, at approximately 4,200 feet in elevation. The area was historically comprised of a portion of the Snake River surrounded... impounded the Snake River and created Lake Walcott to store water for irrigation, and provide...

  18. Hydrochemistry of selected parameters at the Raft River KGRA, Cassia County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, D.L.; Ralston, D.R.; Allman, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Low to moderate temperature (< 150/sup 0/C) geothermal fluids are being developed in the southern Raft River Valley of Idaho. Five deep geothermal wells ranging in depth from 4911 feet to 6543 feet (1490 to 1980 meters) and two intermediate depth (3858 feet or 1170 meters) injection wells have been drilled within the Raft River KGRA. Several shallower (1423-500 feet or 430-150 meters) wells have also been constructed to monitor the environmental effects of geothermal development of the shallower aquifer systems. Sampling of water from wells within the KGRA has been conducted since the onset of the project in 1974. Five analytical laboratories have conducted analyses on waters from the KGRA. Charge-balance error calculations conducted on the data produced from these laboratories indicated that data from three laboratories were reliable while two were not. A method of equating all data was established by using linear regression analyses on sets of paired data from various laboratories. The chemical data collected from the deep geothermal wells indicates that a two reservoir system exists within the Raft River KGRA. Each reservoir is associated with a major structural feature. These features are known as the Bridge Fault System (BFS) and the Narrows Structure (NS).

  19. Final Technical Resource Confirmation Testing at the Raft River Geothermal Project, Cassia County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Glaspey, Douglas J.

    2008-01-30

    Incorporates the results of flow tests for geothermal production and injection wells in the Raft River geothermal field in southern Idaho. Interference testing was also accomplished across the wellfield.

  20. Basic data from five core holes in the Raft River geothermal area, Cassia County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crosthwaite, E. G., (compiler)

    1976-01-01

    meters) were completed in the area (Crosthwaite, 1974), and the Aerojet Nuclear Company, under the auspices of the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration, was planning some deep drilling 4,000 to 6,000 feet (1,200 to 1,800 meters) (fig. 1). The purpose of the core drilling was to provide information to test geophysical interpretations of the subsurface structure and lithology and to provide hydrologic and geologic data on the shallow part of the geothermal system. Samples of the core were made available to several divisions and branches of the Geological Survey and to people and agencies outside the Survey. This report presents the basic data from the core holes that had been collected to September 1, 1975, and includes lithologic and geophysical well logs, chemical analyses of water (table 1), and laboratory analyses of cores (table 2) that were completed as of the above date. The data were collected by the Idaho District office, Hydrologic Laboratory, Borehole Geophysics Research Project, and Drilling, Sampling, and Testing Section, all of the Water Resources Division, and the Branch of Central Environmental Geology of the Geologic Divison.

  1. 7 CFR 301.32-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... utilissimus Melon, long Peach. Cucurbita maxima Squash Melon. Cucurbita moschata Pumpkin, Canada Melon. Cucurbita pepo Pumpkin Melon. Cydonia oblonga Quince Mexican, Mediterranean, Oriental, Peach, Sapote... (Cucumis utilissimus) Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) Pumpkin, Canada (Cucurbita moschata) Squash...

  2. 7 CFR 301.32-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... utilissimus Melon, long Peach. Cucurbita maxima Squash Melon. Cucurbita moschata Pumpkin, Canada Melon. Cucurbita pepo Pumpkin Melon. Cydonia oblonga Quince Mexican, Mediterranean, Oriental, Peach, Sapote... (Cucumis utilissimus) Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) Pumpkin, Canada (Cucurbita moschata) Squash...

  3. 7 CFR 301.32-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... utilissimus Melon, long Peach. Cucurbita maxima Squash Melon. Cucurbita moschata Pumpkin, Canada Melon. Cucurbita pepo Pumpkin Melon. Cydonia oblonga Quince Mexican, Mediterranean, Oriental, Peach, Sapote... (Cucumis utilissimus) Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) Pumpkin, Canada (Cucurbita moschata) Squash...

  4. 7 CFR 301.32-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... utilissimus Melon, long Peach. Cucurbita maxima Squash Melon. Cucurbita moschata Pumpkin, Canada Melon. Cucurbita pepo Pumpkin Melon. Cydonia oblonga Quince Mexican, Mediterranean, Oriental, Peach, Sapote... (Cucumis utilissimus) Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) Pumpkin, Canada (Cucurbita moschata) Squash...

  5. Cassia Cinnamon as a source of Coumarin in cinnamon-flavored food and food supplements in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cinnamon is one of the most popular flavoring agents in the United States. Some cinnamon varieties and cinnamon flavored food sold in US could be potential sources of coumarin. Coumarin is banned from food in the United States due to its potential adverse side effects. An ultra-performance liquid ch...

  6. Whitening efficacy of plant extracts including Hippophae rhamnoides and Cassia fistula extracts on the skin of Asian patients with melasma

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Naveed; Hussain, Irshad; Abbas, Khwaja Asad; Rasul, Akhtar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Melasma/hyperpigmentation and solar damage of the skin remains a difficult problem to treat. Various types of whitening agents are used to treat hyperpigmentation. A change has been observed recently to use plant extracts as skin whitening agents. Aim To compare the effectiveness of emulsion formulations containing plant extracts that include catechins/polyphenols and placebo without plant extracts, on patients with melasma. Material and methods Two groups of 25 patients each (aged 21–35 years), who reported to the outpatient department of BV Hospital and Personal clinic of a dermatologist, were included in the study. Volunteers applied the formulations with plant extracts and placebo to one side of the cheek. Prior to the study, signed consent was obtained from each patient. The tyrosinase inhibitory activity of the extracts and formulations was tested in vitro. The pigment density of patients was evaluated biometrologically using Mexameter® and subjectively using a visual survey before and after treatment of 12 weeks. The approval of the Institutional Ethics Committee of Faculty of Pharmacy, the Islamia University of Bahawalpur was obtained before the study. One-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used in the statistical analysis. Results A significant decrease in the level of melanin was determined in all 50 patients who used a plant extract containing catechin (p ≤ 0.05). The difference between pre- and post-treatment levels of melanin was statistically significant (p = 0.05). Formulations prepared with plant extracts containing catechin were found effective on melasma, compared to the placebo. Conclusions Formulations containing plant extracts that are not yet being used widespread commercially on melasma could be an effective alternative treatment of melasma. PMID:24278079

  7. Geologic Map and Digital Data Base of the Almo Quadrangle and City of Rocks National Reserve, Cassia County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David M.; Armstrong, Richard L.; Bedford, David R.; Davis, Marsha

    2008-01-01

    This geologic map describes the geology of the City of Rocks National Reserve and environs, located in the Albion Mountains of south-central Idaho. The most prominent geologic features of the Reserve are the spectacular rock spires that attracted visitors, beginning with commentary in the journals of travelers to California during the Gold Rush of 1849. The tectonic history is outlined, and descriptions of landscape processes, a newly discovered Quaternary fault, and features of the pinnacles are presented.

  8. Clinoptilolite and associated authigenic minerals in Miocene tuffaceous rocks in the Goose Creek Basin, Cassia County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Brownfield, M.E.; Hildebrand, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    Miocene tuffaceous fluviolacustrine deposits in the southeastern part of the Goose Creek basin contain a variety of authigenic minerals, including clinoptilolite, smectite, pyrite, gypsum, and calcite. Clinoptilolite is the primary mineral in the diagenetically altered rhyolitic vitric tuffs in the study area. These zeolitic tuffs locally attain thicknesses of as much as 30 meters. Examinations of samples of the altered tuff beds using the scanning electron microscope reveal that the clinoptilolite usually occurs as clean, well-formed tabular crystals about 0.005 mm across in a matrix of smectite. Prismatic clinoptilolite crystals, as much as 0.06 mm long, are present in the larger vugs. During the Miocene, thick beds of air-fall rhyolitic vitric volcanic ash accumulated in the Goose Creek basin in a coalescing fluviolacustrine depositional setting. In the southeastern part of the basin, the volcanic ash was deposited in a lacustrine fan delta, where it was partly reworked and interbedded with sandstone and siltstone. Diagenetic alteration of the ash beds proceeded in an open hydrologic system. Solution and hydrolysis by ground water initially altered the glass shards to form smectite and silica gel. Clinoptilolite subsequently precipitated on the altered shard surfaces. The paragenesis of pyrite, gypsum, and calcite in the zeolitic tuffs is uncertain.

  9. Differentiating parts of Cinnamomum cassia using LC-qTOF-MS in conjunction with principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Yi; Yu, Jhe-Wei; Lu, Fen-Ling; Lin, Mei-Chih; Cheng, Hwei-Fang

    2016-09-01

    Cinnamon bark (Rou Gui in Chinese), cinnamon twig (Gui Zhi) and shaved cinnamon bark (Gui Sin) have been widely used as spices and in traditional Chinese medicine since ancient times. On-going issues related to quality and authenticity necessitate the development of analytical methods capable of providing an objective evaluation of samples. In this study, chemical fingerprints of cinnamon bark, cinnamon twigs and shaved cinnamon bark were established using liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry in conjunction with principal component analysis (PCA). From 125 samples of cinnamon, we identified the following eight compounds and their the detection ratios: coumarin, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol, cinnamic acid, 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde, 2-hydroxycinnamic acid, 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde and 4-methoxycinnamaldehyde. Of these, 4-methoxycinnamaldehyde presented the largest variations in detection ratio, making up 64.0, 97.4 and 50.0% in cinnamon bark, cinnamon twig, and shaved cinnamon bark, respectively. The quantities of cinnamyl alcohol, coumarin and cinnamaldehyde also varied between the three parts of the plant. Chemical fingerprints of the three cinnamon samples were established using principal component analysis, the results of which indicate that cinnamon bark and shaved cinnamon bark could be easily differentiated, despite a marked similarity in outward appearance. Cinnamon twig was also shown to depart from the other clusters. The proposed method provides a fast and efficient means of identifying cinnamon herbs for quality control purposes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26873449

  10. Biosynthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles from Methanol Leaf Extract of Cassia didymobotyra and Assessment of Their Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Mohd Sayeed; Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Umar, Ahmad; Al Sahli, Abdulaziz Abdullah

    2015-12-01

    The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was achieved for the first time using methanol leaf extract of C. didymobotyra and their in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities were also evaluated. Methanol leaf extracts of C. didymobotyra after mixing with AgNO3 solution showed the change in color from light brown to dark yellowish brown within 1 hour. UV-visible spectroscopy study showed the surface plasmon resonance at around 420 nm clearly indicating the biosynthesis of AgNPs. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analysis proved the presence of biosynthesized AgNPs in spherical shape with huge disparity in sizes. The average size of biosynthesized nanoparticle was about 18 nm. The occurrence of face centered cubic shapes of nanoparticles was established by X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. Further, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study showed the possible capping of AgNPs because of the active biomolecules present in the methanol leaf extract of C. didymobotyra. The antioxidant activities of biosynthesized AgNPs were evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and found that AgNPs demonstrated a strong antioxidant properties compared to methanol leaf extract. Nevertheless, the biosynthesized AgNPs exhibited a strong antibacterial activity against all the tested human pathogenic bacterial strains compared to crude methanol leaf extract of C. didymobotyra. Thus, it is concluded that these biosynthesized AgNPs are cost effective, eco-friendly in nature and could be applied for developing new antibacterial drugs and other biomedical applications in near future. PMID:26682418

  11. Differentiation of the four major species of cinnamons (C. burmannii, C. verum, C. cassia, and C. loureiroi) using a flow injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprinting method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei; Sun, Jianghao; Ford, Paul

    2014-03-26

    A simple and efficient flow injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) method was developed to differentiate cinnamon (Cinnamomum) bark (CB) samples of the four major species (C. burmannii, C. verum, C. aromaticum, and C. loureiroi) of cinnamon. Fifty cinnamon samples collected from China, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka were studied using the developed FIMS fingerprinting method. The FIMS fingerprints of the cinnamon samples were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The FIMS technique required only 1 min of analysis time per sample. The representative samples from each of the four major species of cinnamon were further examined using an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry system, and the chemical differences between the four species were profiled. The results showed that the 1 min FIMS fingerprinting method successfully differentiated the four cinnamon species studied. PMID:24628250

  12. Mosquitocidal and antiplasmodial activity of Senna occidentalis (Cassiae) and Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae) from Maruthamalai hills against Anopheles stephensi and Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Aarthi, Narayanan; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Amerasan, Duraisamy; Paulpandi, Manickam; Chandirasekar, Ramachandran; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Higuchi, Akon; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Nicoletti, Marcello; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Each year, mosquito-borne diseases infect nearly 700 million people, resulting to more than 1 million deaths. In this study, we evaluated the larvicidal, pupicidal, and smoke toxicity of Senna occidentalis and Ocimum basilicum leaf extracts against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. Furthermore, the antiplasmodial activity of plant extracts was evaluated against chloroquine (CQ)-resistant (CQ-r) and CQ-sensitive (CQ-s) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. In larvicidal and pupicidal experiments, S. occidentalis LC50 ranged from 31.05 (I instar larvae) to 75.15 ppm (pupae), and O. basilicum LC50 ranged from 29.69 (I instar larvae) to 69 ppm (pupae). Smoke toxicity experiments conducted against adults showed that S. occidentalis and O. basilicum coils evoked mortality rates comparable to the pyrethrin-based positive control (38, 52, and 42%, respectively). In antiplasmodial assays, Senna occidentalis 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) were 48.80 μg/ml (CQ-s) and 54.28 μg/ml (CQ-r), while O. basilicum IC50 were 68.14 μg/ml (CQ-s) and 67.27 μg/ml (CQ-r). Overall, these botanicals could be considered as potential sources of metabolites to build newer and safer malaria control tools. PMID:26122992

  13. Differentiation of the Four Major Species of Cinnamons (C. burmannii, C. verum, C. cassia, and C. loureiroi) Using a Flow Injection Mass Spectrometric (FIMS) Fingerprinting Method

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A simple and efficient flow injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) method was developed to differentiate cinnamon (Cinnamomum) bark (CB) samples of the four major species (C. burmannii, C. verum, C. aromaticum, and C. loureiroi) of cinnamon. Fifty cinnamon samples collected from China, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka were studied using the developed FIMS fingerprinting method. The FIMS fingerprints of the cinnamon samples were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The FIMS technique required only 1 min of analysis time per sample. The representative samples from each of the four major species of cinnamon were further examined using an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry system, and the chemical differences between the four species were profiled. The results showed that the 1 min FIMS fingerprinting method successfully differentiated the four cinnamon species studied. PMID:24628250

  14. Differentiation of the four major types (C. Burmannii, C. Verum, C. cassia, And C. Loureiroi) of cinnamons using a flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprinting method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple and efficient flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) method was developed to differentiate cinnamon (Cinnamomum) bark (CB) samples of the four major species (C. burmannii, C. verum, C. aromaticum, and C. loureiroi) of cinnamon. Fifty cinnamon samples collected from China, Vietnam, Indon...

  15. Chemical and light-stable isotope characteristics of waters from the raft river geothermal area and environs, cassia county, idaho; box elder county, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nathenson, M.; Nehring, N.L.; Crosthwaite, E.G.; Harmon, R.S.; Janik, C.; Borthwick, J.

    1982-01-01

    Chemical and light-stable isotope data are presented for water samples from the Raft River geothermal area and environs. On the basis of chemical character, as defined by a trilinear plot of per cent milliequivalents, and light-stable isotope data, the waters in the geothermal area can be divided into waters that have and have not mixed with cold water. The non-mixed waters have essentially a constant value of light-stable isotopes but show a large variation in chloride content. The variation of chloride composition is not the usual pattern for deep geothermal waters, where it is normally assumed that the deep water has a single chloride composition. Different mixed waters also have hot-water sources of varying chloride composition. Plots of chloride values on cross-sections show that water circulation patterns are confused, with non-mixed waters having different chloride concentrations located in close proximity. Three models can explain the characteristics of the deep geothermal water: (1) in addition to near-surface mixing of cold and hot water, there is deep mixing of two hot waters with the same enthalpy and isotopic composition but differing chloride concentrations to produce the range of chloride concentrations found in the deep geothermal water; (2) there is a single deep hot water, and the range of chloride concentrations is produced by the water passing through a zone of highly soluble materials (most likely in the sedimentary section above the basement) in which waters have different residence times or slightly different circulation paths; (3) the varying chloride concentrations in space have been caused by varying chloride concentrations in the deep feed water through time. Some of this older water has not been flushed from the system by the natural discharge. Although one model may seem more plausible than the others, the available data do not rule out any of them. Data for water samples from the Raft River and Jim Sage Mountains show that water from these areas is probably the source for the cold mixing water determined from end-members on mixing lines. Data for water samples in the Upper Raft River Valley show that the thermal anomaly found at Almo 1 is probably not related to the Raft River geothermal area. The water is different in type as shown by its placement on a trilinear plot, and the isotopes are different enough to show that it is probably a different water. Isotopic compositions of samples from a wide area around the Raft River geothermal system indicate that the likely source of the recharge water is the southern Albion Mountains and western Raft River Mountains. The recharge area is at one end of the Narrows zone, and the geothermal area is along the Narrows zone; thus it is likely that the Narrows zone defines the circulation path. ?? 1982.

  16. 7 CFR 301.32-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... utilissimus Melon, long Peach. Cucurbita maxima Squash Melon. Cucurbita moschata Pumpkin, Canada Melon. Cucurbita pepo Pumpkin Melon. Cydonia oblonga Quince Mexican, Mediterranean, Oriental, Peach, Sapote... flowered (Lagenaria siceraria) Melon, Chinese (Benincasa hispida) Melon, long (Cucumis utilissimus)...

  17. Grafting for Management of Southern Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne Incognita, in Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, one squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima) hybrid, four wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm lines, and one commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus var. citroides) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for cultivated watermelo...

  18. Grafting – a tool for managing root-knot nematodes in watermelon?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm, bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, hybrid squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima), and commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus) were evaluated as rootstocks for cultivated watermelon (C. lanatus var. lanatus) in a field infested ...

  19. Utility of Grafting for Managing Southern Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne Incognita, in Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, one squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima) hybrid, four wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm lines, and one commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus var. citroides) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for cultivated watermelo...

  20. Encapsulation of essential oils in zein nanosperical particles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Essential oils, oregano, red thyme, and cassia (100% pure oil), were encapsulated by phase separation into zein particles. Typical yields were between 65% and 75% of product. Encapsulation efficiency of all oils was 87% except for cassia oil which was 49%. Loading efficiency of all oils was 22% exce...

  1. Biochemical and immunological studies on eight pollen types from South Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Dhruba; Dutta, B K; Singh, A B

    2009-12-01

    A total of 65 pollen types were identified from two years atmospheric pollen survey in the environmental conditions of South Assam. Out of them, eight pollen types viz., Acacia auriculiformis, Amaranthus spinosus, Cassia alata, Cleome gynandra, Cocos nucifera, Imperata cylindrica, Ricinus communis and Trewia nudiflora, were selected for biochemical studies on the basis of their dominance in the study sites. Among the sample extract tested, Ricinus communis was found to contain the highest amount of soluble protein, free amino acid and total carbohydrate, per gram of dry weight followed by Imperata cylindrica and Cassia alata. Maximum numbers of protein polypeptide bands were detected in the sample extract of Cassia alata by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method followed by Acacia auriculiformis, Imperata cylindrica and Cocos nucifera. IgE binding protein fractions were maximum in Cassia alata and minimum in Trewia nudiflora. PMID:20404388

  2. 77 FR 37705 - Notice of Public Meetings, Twin Falls District Resource Advisory Council, Idaho

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... members for the proposed Monument and Cassia Land Use Plan amendments will meet at the Rock Creek Fire... subcommittee members will discuss rock climbing, camping, staging, trail-building and other recreational...

  3. 77 FR 43353 - Notice of Public Meetings, Twin Falls District Resource Advisory Council, Idaho

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... members for the proposed Monument and Cassia Land Use Plan amendments will meet at the Rock Creek Fire... subcommittee members will discuss rock climbing, camping, staging, trail-building and other recreational...

  4. 7. VIEW SHOWING SOUTH SIDE OF BURLEY SUBSTATION WITH DRYCLEANERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW SHOWING SOUTH SIDE OF BURLEY SUBSTATION WITH DRYCLEANERS IN FOREGROUND AND SIDE OF SUBSTATION WITH BREAK BETWEEN 1913-1914 AND 1921 CONSTRUCTION PHASES IN BACKGROUND - Bonneville Power Administration Burley Substation, 1221 Albion Avenue, Burley, Cassia County, ID

  5. Cinnamon

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1):41–43. Cassia Cinnamon. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at naturaldatabase.com on October 7, 2011. Cinnamon ( Cinnamomum spp.). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at naturalstandard.com on October 7, ...

  6. Antimicrobial activity of cloves and cinnamon extracts against food borne pathogens and spoilage bacteria, and inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in ground chicken meat with their essential oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol, aqueous extracts, and essential oils of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum), and Cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) were analyzed for determination of antibacterial activity against 21 food borne pathogens: Listeria monocytogenes (5 strains), Staphylococcus aureus (4 strains), Escherichia coli O157:H7 (...

  7. Factors influencing distribution ofDiabrotica spp. in blossoms of cultivatedCucurbita spp.

    PubMed

    Andersen, J F; Metcalf, R L

    1987-04-01

    Cultivars representing three species ofCucurbita were examined for blossom preference byDiabrotica spp.C. maxima cultivars were found to be preferred byD. undecimpunctata howardi over those ofC. pepo andC. moschata.D. virgifera virgifera preferredC. maxima and the "Connecticut Field" cultivar ofC. pepo.C. moschata and other cultivars ofC. pepo were not preferred. Cultivars were examined for differences in floral volatile release, blossom cucurbitacin content, and pollen content of male blossoms.C. maxima male blossoms released a larger quantity of volatiles thanC. pepo orC. moschata. Also, onlyC. maxima male blossoms contained cucurbitacins. Cultivars ofC. moschata contained the largest quantities of pollen, but all three species contained relatively large quantities. The data indicate a correspondence ofD. u. howardi distribution in the field with high volatile release rates and high cucurbitacin levels that are found inC. maxima blossoms.D. v. virgifera distribution appears to be somewhat independent of these factors since this species was abundant in blossoms of aC. pepo cultivar as well as cultivars ofC. maxima. PMID:24302038

  8. Differences between Pekin and Muscovy ducks in response to vaccination against HPAI H5N1 virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination of domestic ducks against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 has been done in Asia with mixed results. One of the observations from the field is that Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) respond differently to vaccination than other common domestic ducks (Anas sp.). The objectiv...

  9. 75 FR 60691 - Migratory Bird Permits; Revisions to the Waterfowl Permit Exceptions and Waterfowl Sale and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... March 1, 2010 (75 FR 9316), that revised the regulations for the muscovy duck. We request comments from..., 2010, we published a final rule (75 FR 9282) adding the muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) to the List of... order to manage feral populations (75 FR 9316). The control order at 50 CFR 21.54 allows landowners...

  10. First report of zucchini tigre mosaic virus infecting several cucurbit plants in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.), Cucumber (Cucumis sativus Linn.) and Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) are important crops in tropical and subtropical regions in the world, and they are popular vegetable crops in China. There are currently 59 viruses known infecting cucurbit plants which including...

  11. Is Grafting Useful for Managing Root-Knot Nematodes in Watermelon?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five Citrullus lanatus var. citroides germplasm lines, four Lagenaria siceraria cultivars, one Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima hybrid, and one commercial wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus spp.) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for watermelon in a field infested with the southern root-knot nemat...

  12. Grafting for Management of Root-Knot Nematodes in Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm lines, four bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, one squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima) hybrid, and one commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus spp.) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for watermelon in a field infested...

  13. Identification of a Herbal Powder by Deoxyribonucleic Acid Barcoding and Structural Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Bhavisha P.; Thaker, Vrinda S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Authentic identification of plants is essential for exploiting their medicinal properties as well as to stop the adulteration and malpractices with the trade of the same. Objective: To identify a herbal powder obtained from a herbalist in the local vicinity of Rajkot, Gujarat, using deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) barcoding and molecular tools. Materials and Methods: The DNA was extracted from a herbal powder and selected Cassia species, followed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of the rbcL barcode locus. Thereafter the sequences were subjected to National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) analysis, followed by the protein three-dimension structure determination of the rbcL protein from the herbal powder and Cassia species namely Cassia fistula, Cassia tora and Cassia javanica (sequences obtained in the present study), Cassia Roxburghii, and Cassia abbreviata (sequences retrieved from Genbank). Further, the multiple and pairwise structural alignment were carried out in order to identify the herbal powder. Results: The nucleotide sequences obtained from the selected species of Cassia were submitted to Genbank (Accession No. JX141397, JX141405, JX141420). The NCBI BLAST analysis of the rbcL protein from the herbal powder showed an equal sequence similarity (with reference to different parameters like E value, maximum identity, total score, query coverage) to C. javanica and C. roxburghii. In order to solve the ambiguities of the BLAST result, a protein structural approach was implemented. The protein homology models obtained in the present study were submitted to the protein model database (PM0079748-PM0079753). The pairwise structural alignment of the herbal powder (as template) and C. javanica and C. roxburghii (as targets individually) revealed a close similarity of the herbal powder with C. javanica. Conclusion: A strategy as used here, incorporating the integrated use of DNA

  14. Coumarin and cinnamaldehyde in cinnamon marketed in Italy: a natural chemical hazard?

    PubMed

    Lungarini, S; Aureli, F; Coni, E

    2008-11-01

    Some plants that are processed into foods often contain natural substances that may be hazardous to human health. One example is coumarin, which is known to cause liver and kidney damage in rats, mice and probably humans. The main source of coumarin in the diet is cinnamon. The name 'cinnamon' is correctly used to refer to Ceylon cinnamon, also known as 'true cinnamon'. However, other plant species are sometimes sold with the label of cinnamon. This is the case of Cinnamomun aromaticum (cassia). In recent years, due to its cheaper price, cassia is replacing true cinnamon in the European food market being largely used in the preparation of some kinds of sweets. Several European health agencies have recently warned against consuming high amounts of cassia due to its high content of coumarin. In this study, 34 samples of cinnamon and 50 samples of cinnamon-containing foodstuffs were collected from the Italian market. Quantitative determinations of coumarin and cinnamaldehyde were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detector (DAD). The analytical method was in-house validated assessing recovery, repeatability, linearity, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ). The results showed that about 51% of cinnamon samples consisted of cassia, 10% were probably a blend of cassia and Ceylon cinnamon, whereas only 39% were actually Ceylon cinnamon. As far as cinnamon-containing foods are concerned, the samples often exceeded the maximum level fixed in the European Flavourings Directive of 2 mg kg(-1). PMID:19680836

  15. Authentication of true cinnamon (Cinnamon verum) utilising direct analysis in real time (DART)-QToF-MS.

    PubMed

    Avula, Bharathi; Smillie, Troy J; Wang, Yan-Hong; Zweigenbaum, Jerry; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-01

    The use of cinnamon as a spice and flavouring agent is widespread throughout the world. Many different species of plants are commonly referred to as 'cinnamon'. 'True cinnamon' refers to the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum verum J. S. Presl (syn. C. zeylanicum) (Lauraceae). Other 'cinnamon' species, C. cassia (Nees & T. Nees) J. Presl (syn. C. aromaticum Nees) (Chinese cassia), C. loureiroi Nees (Saigon cassia), and C. burmannii (Nees & T. Nees) Blume (Indonesian cassia), commonly known as cassia, are also marketed as cinnamon. Since there is a prevalence of these various types of 'cinnamons' on the market, there is a need to develop a rapid technique that can readily differentiate between true cinnamon (C. verum) and other commonly marketed species. In the present study, coumarin and other marker compounds indicative of 'cinnamon' were analysed using DART-QToF-MS in various samples of cinnamon. This method involved the use of [M + H](+) ions in positive mode in addition to principal component analysis (PCA) using Mass Profiler Professional software to visualise several samples for quality and to discriminate 'true cinnamon' from other Cinnamomum species using the accurate mass capabilities of QToF-MS. PMID:25421162

  16. Chloroplast DNA diversity among wild and cultivated members of Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae).

    PubMed

    Wilson, H D; Doebley, J; Duvall, M

    1992-09-01

    Cladistic analysis of 86 chloroplast DNA restriction-site mutations among 30 samples representing 15 species of Cucurbita indicates that annual species of the genus are derived from perennials. The Malabar Gourd, C. ficifolia, is placed as a basal, sister taxon relative to other domesticated species and allied wild-types. The pattern of variation supports three species groups as monophyletic: (1) C. fraterna, C. pepo, and C. texana, (2) C. lundelliana, C. martinezii, C. mixta, C. moschata and C. sororia, and (3) C. foetidissima and C. pedatifolia. Domesticated samples representing subspecies of C. pepo are divided into two concordant groups, one of which is allied to wild-types referable to C. texana and C. fraterna. The data failed to resolve relationships among cultivars of C. moschata and C. mixta and their association to the wild C. sororia. The South American domesticate, C. maxima, and its companion weed, C. andreana, show close affinity and alliance to C. equadorensis. PMID:24201487

  17. Raft River Geothermal Area Data Models - Conceptual, Logical and Fact Models

    DOE Data Explorer

    Cuyler, David

    2012-07-19

    Conceptual and Logical Data Model for Geothermal Data Concerning Wells, Fields, Power Plants and Related Analyses at Raft River a. Logical Model for Geothermal Data Concerning Wells, Fields, Power Plants and Related Analyses, David Cuyler 2010 b. Fact Model for Geothermal Data Concerning Wells, Fields, Power Plants and Related Analyses, David Cuyler 2010 Derived from Tables, Figures and other Content in Reports from the Raft River Geothermal Project: "Technical Report on the Raft River Geothermal Resource, Cassia County, Idaho," GeothermEx, Inc., August 2002. "Results from the Short-Term Well Testing Program at the Raft River Geothermal Field, Cassia County, Idaho," GeothermEx, Inc., October 2004.

  18. Comparison of the chemical compositions and nutritive values of various pumpkin (Cucurbitaceae) species and parts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Young-Nam; Choi, Changsun; Lee, Bog-Hieu

    2012-02-01

    Pumpkins have considerable variation in nutrient contents depending on the cultivation environment, species, or part. In this study, the general chemical compositions and some bioactive components, such as tocopherols, carotenoids, and β-sitosterol, were analyzed in three major species of pumpkin (Cucurbitaceae pepo, C. moschata, and C. maxima) grown in Korea and also in three parts (peel, flesh, and seed) of each pumpkin species. C. maxima had significantly more carbohydrate, protein, fat, and fiber than C. pepo or C. moschata (P < 0.05). The moisture content as well as the amino acid and arginine contents in all parts of the pumpkin was highest in C. pepo. The major fatty acids in the seeds were palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids. C. pepo and C. moschata seeds had significantly more γ-tocopherol than C. maxima, whose seeds had the highest β-carotene content. C. pepo seeds had significantly more β-sitosterol than the others. Nutrient compositions differed considerably among the pumpkin species and parts. These results will be useful in updating the nutrient compositions of pumpkin in the Korean food composition database. Additional analyses of various pumpkins grown in different years and in different areas of Korea are needed. PMID:22413037

  19. Use of Cucumis metuliferus as a Rootstock for Melon to Manage Meloidogyne incognita

    PubMed Central

    Sigüenza, Concepcion; Schochow, Martin; Turini, Tom; Ploeg, Antoon

    2005-01-01

    Root-knot nematode-susceptible melons (Cantaloupe) were grown in pots with varying levels of Meloidogyne incognita and were compared to susceptible melons that were grafted onto Cucumis metuliferus or Cucurbita moschata rootstocks. In addition, the effect of using melons as transplants in nematode-infested soil was compared to direct seeding of melons in nematode-infested soil. There were no differences in shoot or root weight, or severity of root galling between transplanted and direct-seeded non-grafted susceptible melon in nematode-infested soil. Susceptible melon grafted on C. moschata rootstocks had lower root gall ratings and, at high nematode densities, higher shoot weights than non-grafted susceptible melons. However, final nematode levels were not lower on the grafted than on the non-grafted plants, and it was therefore concluded that grafting susceptible melon on to C. moschata rootstock made the plants tolerant, but not resistant, to the nematodes. Grafting susceptible melons on C. metuliferus rootstocks also reduced levels of root galling, prevented shoot weight losses, and resulted in significantly lower nematode levels at harvest. Thus, C. metuliferus may be used as a rootstock for melon to prevent both growth reduction and a strong nematode buildup in M. incognita-infested soil. PMID:19262873

  20. Determination of naphthopyrone and anthraquinone glycosides from Sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia) seeds by HPLC-ESI-CID-MSn with potential medical utilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sicklepod (Senna/Cassia obtusifolia L) is a tropical leguminous plant chemically armoured to protect itself from herbivores. In the subtropical Southeastern United States, sicklepod has been a problem weed, especially in soybean fields, since its seeds contaminate soybean harvest and lowers the lat...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 1068 - High-Altitude Counties

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Carson Lake La Plata Larimer Las Animas Lincoln Mesa Mineral Moffat Montezuma Montrose Morgan Otero Ouray... Weld STATE OF IDAHO Bannock Bear Lake Bingham Blaine Bonneville Butte Camas Caribou Cassia Clark Custer... OF OREGON Harney Lake Klamath STATE OF TEXAS Jeff Davis Judspeth Parmer STATE OF UTAH Beaver...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 1068 - High-Altitude Counties

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Carson Lake La Plata Larimer Las Animas Lincoln Mesa Mineral Moffat Montezuma Montrose Morgan Otero Ouray... Weld State of Idaho Bannock Bear Lake Bingham Blaine Bonneville Butte Camas Caribou Cassia Clark Custer... of Oregon Harney Lake Klamath State of Texas Jeff Davis Judspeth Parmer State of Utah Beaver...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 1068 - High-Altitude Counties

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Carson Lake La Plata Larimer Las Animas Lincoln Mesa Mineral Moffat Montezuma Montrose Morgan Otero Ouray... Weld State of Idaho Bannock Bear Lake Bingham Blaine Bonneville Butte Camas Caribou Cassia Clark Custer... of Oregon Harney Lake Klamath State of Texas Jeff Davis Judspeth Parmer State of Utah Beaver...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 1068 - High-Altitude Counties

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Paso Fremont Garfield Gilpin Grand Gunnison Hinsdale Huerfano Jackson Jefferson Kit Carson Lake La... IDAHO Bannock Bear Lake Bingham Blaine Bonneville Butte Camas Caribou Cassia Clark Custer Franklin... Harney Lake Klamath STATE OF TEXAS Jeff Davis Judspeth Parmer STATE OF UTAH Beaver Box Elder Cache...

  5. Conodont color alteration (CAI) as an aid to structural interpretation in the Black Pine Mountains, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Fred J., Jr.; Wardlaw, Bruce R.

    2012-01-01

    The Black Pine Mountains, southeastern Cassia County, Idaho, consist of southern and northern blocks separated by a northeast-trending, high-angle fault. Differences in conodont color alteration values distinguish the two blocks. The southern block has significantly higher organic maturation levels than the northern block and is interpreted to have been thrust northeastward adjacent to the northern block.

  6. DRY CREEK, IDAHO WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1976-1977

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality samples were collected monthly at one station in Water Year 1977 to determine the water quality status of Dry Creek in Twin Falls and Cassia Counties, Idaho (17040212). The stream was sampled near the mouth upstream from Murtaugh Lake. The section of Dry Creek abo...

  7. Effect of Partial Occlusion on Newborns' Face Preference and Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gava, Lucia; Valenza, Eloisa; Turati, Chiara; de Schonen, Scania

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have shown that newborns prefer (e.g. Goren, Sarty & Wu, 1975 ; Valenza, Simion, Macchi Cassia & Umilta, 1996) and recognize (e.g. Bushnell, Say & Mullin, 1989; Pascalis & de Schonen, 1994) faces. However, it is not known whether, at birth, faces are still preferred and recognized when some of their parts are not visible because…

  8. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Botanical Sources and Their Use for Control of Medical Insects and Malaria Parasites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of "green" processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles is a new branch of nanotechnology. However, knowledge of the bioactivity of nanoparticles against mosquitoes and malaria parasites is limited. We tested silver nanoparticles (average size 450 nm) bio-reduced in 5% Cassia occidentalis ...

  9. 11. INTERIOR VIEW OF BURLEY SUBSTATION, SECOND STORY, LOOKING EAST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR VIEW OF BURLEY SUBSTATION, SECOND STORY, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING PARTITIONS, POURED-IN-PLACE CONCRETE ROOF AND WATER- DAMAGED SOUTH WALL (BREAK BETWEEN 1913-1914 AND 1921 CONSTRUCTION PHASES IN FOREGROUND) - Bonneville Power Administration Burley Substation, 1221 Albion Avenue, Burley, Cassia County, ID

  10. 3. VIEW SHOWING FRONT HALF OF NORTH SIDE OF BURLEY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW SHOWING FRONT HALF OF NORTH SIDE OF BURLEY SUBSTATION, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. BREAK BETWEEN 1913-1914 AND 1921 CONSTRUCTION PHASES, LOCATED BELOW AND ABOVE RIGHT EDGE OF SECOND WINDOW, FRONT LEFT OF PHOTOGRAPH - Bonneville Power Administration Burley Substation, 1221 Albion Avenue, Burley, Cassia County, ID

  11. Microsatellites for the genus Cucurbita and an SSR-based genetic linkage map of Cucurbita pepo L.

    PubMed Central

    Gong, L.; Stift, G.; Kofler, R.; Pachner, M.

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, only a few microsatellites have been available for Cucurbita, thus their development is highly desirable. The Austrian oil-pumpkin variety Gleisdorfer Ölkürbis (C. pepo subsp. pepo) and the C. moschata cultivar Soler (Puerto Rico) were used for SSR development. SSR-enriched partial genomic libraries were established and 2,400 clones were sequenced. Of these 1,058 (44%) contained an SSR at least four repeats long. Primers were designed for 532 SSRs; 500 primer pairs produced fragments of expected size. Of these, 405 (81%) amplified polymorphic fragments in a set of 12 genotypes: three C. moschata, one C. ecuadorensis, and eight C. pepo representing all eight cultivar groups. On an average, C. pepo and C. moschata produced 3.3 alleles per primer pair, showing high inter-species transferability. There were 187 SSR markers detecting polymorphism between the USA oil-pumpkin variety “Lady Godiva” (O5) and the Italian crookneck variety “Bianco Friulano” (CN), which are the parents of our previous F2 mapping population. It has been used to construct the first published C. pepo map, containing mainly RAPD and AFLP markers. Now the updated map comprises 178 SSRs, 244 AFLPs, 230 RAPDs, five SCARs, and two morphological traits (h and B). It contains 20 linkage groups with a map density of 2.9 cM. The observed genome coverage (Co) is 86.8%. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-008-0750-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18379753

  12. [The germinal population at embryonic stage and young age in the female hybrid duck born of male Pekin x female Barbary crossing. Comparison with ducks of the parent species].

    PubMed

    Deray, A

    1977-01-01

    As hatching the number of left ovary germinal cells of the female hybrid (Anas platyrhynchos x Cairina moschata) is weaker than that of the Peking and Barbary females because the small size of the genital crest limites the number of colonising germinal cells. As well after 16 days of incubation the multiplication of the oogonies stops in a way that we can not explain. The later growth of the ovarian follicle is, however, very fast, and the first laying is earlier than with the female parents. PMID:142551

  13. Antimicrobial effect against different bacterial strains and bacterial adaptation to essential oils used as feed additives.

    PubMed

    Melo, Antonio Diego Brandão; Amaral, Amanda Figueiredo; Schaefer, Gustavo; Luciano, Fernando Bittencourt; de Andrade, Carla; Costa, Leandro Batista; Rostagno, Marcos Horácio

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and determine the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the essential oils derived from Origanum vulgare (oregano), Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree), Cinnamomum cassia (cassia), and Thymus vulgaris (white thyme) against Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The study also investigated the ability of these different bacterial strains to develop adaptation after repetitive exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of these essential oils. The MBC of the essential oils studied was determined by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. All essential oils showed antimicrobial effect against all bacterial strains. In general, the development of adaptation varied according to the bacterial strain and the essential oil (tea tree > white thyme > oregano). Therefore, it is important to use essential oils at efficient bactericidal doses in animal feed, food, and sanitizers, since bacteria can rapidly develop adaptation when exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of these oils. PMID:26424908

  14. Ethnomedicine of Dharwad district in Karnataka, India--plants used in oral health care.

    PubMed

    Hebbar, S S; Harsha, V H; Shripathi, V; Hegde, G R

    2004-10-01

    The present ethnomedicine survey covers the Dharwad district of Karnataka in southern India. It was revealed that 35 plants belonging to 26 families are being used to treat different types of oral ailments like toothache, plaque and caries, pyorrhea and aphthae. Sixteen of these plants were new claims for the treatment of oral ailments not previously reported in the ethnomedicinal literature of India. Basella alba, Blepharis repens, Capparis sepiaria, Oxalis corniculata and Ricinus communis are used for the treatment of aphthae; Azima tetracantha, Caesalpinia coriaria, Cleome gynandra, Gossypium herbacium, Leucas aspera, Merremia chryseides, Pergularia daemia, Prosopis juliflora and Solanum nigrum are used to treat tooth ache and Cassia hirsuta and Cassia tora are used in the treatment of plaque and caries. PMID:15325728

  15. Antifungal Activity of Plant Extracts against Candida Species from Oral Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakar, K.; Kumar, L. Sathish; Rajendran, S.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Bhaskar, K.; Sajit Khan, A. K.

    2008-01-01

    Seventy five patients with oral lesions attending the different departments of Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital, Annamalai University were screened for Candida. Forty six (61.3%) Candida strains were isolated from the oral lesions. Of the 46 Candida strains, Candida albicans accounted for 35 (76.08%), Candida glabrata for 5 (10.86%), Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei for 2 (4.34%) each and Candida parapsilosis and Candida guilliermondii for one (2.17%) each. Antifungal activity of ethanol extracts of five plant species that included Syzygium jambolanum, Cassia siamea, Odina wodier, Momordica charantia and Melia azedarach and two algal species, Sargassum wightii and Caulerpa scalpelliformis were tested against 25 isolated strains by disc diffusion method. Antifungal activity was observed at 100 mg/ml for Syzygium jambolanum, Cassia siamea and Caulerpa scalpelliformis and at 10 mg/ml for Sargassum wightii. PMID:21369447

  16. Antimicrobial effect against different bacterial strains and bacterial adaptation to essential oils used as feed additives

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Antonio Diego Brandão; Amaral, Amanda Figueiredo; Schaefer, Gustavo; Luciano, Fernando Bittencourt; de Andrade, Carla; Costa, Leandro Batista; Rostagno, Marcos Horácio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and determine the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the essential oils derived from Origanum vulgare (oregano), Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree), Cinnamomum cassia (cassia), and Thymus vulgaris (white thyme) against Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The study also investigated the ability of these different bacterial strains to develop adaptation after repetitive exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of these essential oils. The MBC of the essential oils studied was determined by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. All essential oils showed antimicrobial effect against all bacterial strains. In general, the development of adaptation varied according to the bacterial strain and the essential oil (tea tree > white thyme > oregano). Therefore, it is important to use essential oils at efficient bactericidal doses in animal feed, food, and sanitizers, since bacteria can rapidly develop adaptation when exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of these oils. PMID:26424908

  17. Antioxidant activity of spice extracts in a liposome system and in cooked pork patties and the possible mode of action.

    PubMed

    Kong, Baohua; Zhang, Huiyun; Xiong, Youling L

    2010-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to assess the antioxidant efficacy of spice extracts in cooked meat. In experiment 1, antioxidant activity of 13 common spice extracts was screened in a liposome system. Six of the extracts (clove, rosemary, cassia bark, liquorice, nutmeg, and round cardamom), identified to have the greatest total phenolic contents, were strongly inhibitory of TBARS formation. In experiment 2, 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferric-reducing power, and metal chelation of these six spice extracts were evaluated. Clove exhibited the greatest reducing power, and all had strong DPPH scavenging activity. In experiment 3, clove, rosemary, and cassia bark extracts were further tested for in situ antioxidant efficacy. Cooked pork patties containing these spice extracts had markedly reduced TBARS formation and off-flavour scores but a more stable red colour, during storage. The results demonstrated strong potential of spice extracts as natural antioxidants in cooked pork products. PMID:20430533

  18. [Research progress of trans-cinnamaldehyde pharmacological effects].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-qing; Zhang, Zhan-gang; Fu, Yan; Xu, Ying

    2015-12-01

    Trans-cinnamaldehyde, the main component of volatile oil from cassia twig or Cinnamomum cassia, which is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Trans-cinnamaldehyde is a kind olefine aldehyde of organic compounds and has many pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, antidiabetic, anti-obesity, and neuroprotection etc. The compound has preventive and therapeutic effects on the nervous system, cardiovascular, cancer, diabetes and other diseases. Trans-cinnamaldehyde, as a preventive care of nature medicine, has great clinical and market potential. This paper gives a review about the pharmacological effects and mechanism of trans-cinnamaldehyde researched in the latest five years. We hope to provide some basic information for further research on trans-cinnamaldehyde. PMID:27141665

  19. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. 2. Evaluation of antifungal activity of seven American plants.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, A; López, B; Juárez, X; del Aguila, J; García, S

    1993-12-01

    From 52 plants screened for antifungal activity, 26 (50%) were active against dermatophytes. This paper reports further evaluation of seven American plants against four pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton rubrum), the part showing most activity, the best solvent and, in three cases, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the fungus in pure culture. Antifungal activity was confirmed in all of the plants, but not all parts; the most active parts were the bark and leaves. The most active species were Byrsonima crassifolia, Cassia grandis, Gliricidia sepium and Malpighia glabra. Diphysa robinioides, Rhizophora mangle and Cassia occidentalis were less active. The most susceptible fungi were E. floccosum and T. rubrum; A. flavus was not susceptible. Ethanol was usually the best solvent and the MIC of C. grandis, C. occidentalis and D. robinioides was 50 micrograms/ml. PMID:8145577

  20. [Plant extracts with cytostatic properties growing in Cuba. II].

    PubMed

    Lopez Abraham, A M; Rojas Hernandez, N M; Jimenez Misas, C A

    1979-01-01

    The study of the cytostatic activity of aqueous, alcoholic and ketonic extracts from 18 parts of 9 species of superior plants of the families Araceae, Borraginacease, Burseraceae, Cesalpinaceae, Meliaceae, Compositae, Rebiaceae, Cruciferaceae and Verbenaceae using the microbiologic method of described by Kubas in 1972 is pursued. The best results were obtained from Hamelia patens. Lippia alba, Lepidium virginicum, Cassia ligustrina, Bursera simaruba and Heliotropium campechianum extracts. PMID:161406

  1. Fumigant toxicity of plant essential oils against Camptomyia corticalis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Ran; Haribalan, Perumalsamy; Son, Bong-Ki; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2012-08-01

    The toxicity of 98 plant essential oils against third instars of cecidomyiid gall midge Camptomyia corticalis (Loew) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) was examined using a vapor-phase mortality bioassay. Results were compared with that of a conventional insecticide dichlorvos. Based on 24-h LC50 values, all essential oils were less toxic than dichlorvos (LC50, 0.027 mg/cm3). The LC50 of caraway (Carum carvi L.) seed, armoise (Artemisia vulgaris L.), clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf], niaouli (Melaleuca viridiflora Gaertner), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), cassia especial (Cinnamomum cassia Nees ex Blume), Dalmatian sage (Salvia offcinalis L.), red thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), bay [Pimenta racemosa (P. Mill.) J.W. Moore], garlic (Allium sativum L.), and pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) oils is between 0.55 and 0.60 mg/cm3. The LC50 of cassia (C. cassia, pure and redistilled), white thyme (T. vulgaris), star anise (Illicium verum Hook.f.), peppermint (Mentha X piperita L.), wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) bark, sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), Roman chamomile [Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All.], eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labill.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.),Virginian cedarwood (Juniperus virginiana L.), pimento berry [Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr.], summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) oils is between 0.61 and 0.99 mg/cm3. All other essential oils tested exhibited low toxicity to the cecidomyiid larvae (LC50, >0.99 mg/cm3). Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on the active essential oils as potential larvicides for the control of C. corticalis populations as fumigants with contact action. PMID:22928313

  2. In vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activity of 'saye', an herbal remedy used in Burkina Faso traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Traoré, M; Diallo, A; Nikièma, J B; Tinto, H; Dakuyo, Z P; Ouédraogo, J B; Guissou, I P; Guiguemdé, T R

    2008-04-01

    'Saye', a traditional medicine used in Burkina Faso, which consists of extracts of Cochlospermum planchonii (rhizome), Cassia alata (leaf) and Phyllanthus amarus (whole plant), showed a significant effect against Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei parasites grown in vivo (IC(50) = 80.11 +/- 3.40 microg/mL; ED(50) = 112.78 +/- 32.32 mg/kg). In vitro the activity was lower. PMID:17926335

  3. Antibacterial activity of extracts from some edible plants commonly consumed in Asia.

    PubMed

    Alzoreky, N S; Nakahara, K

    2003-02-15

    Extracts of edible plants (26 species) from China, Japan, Thailand and Yemen were screened for their antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonella infantis. Buffered methanol (80% methanol and 20% PBS) and acetone extracted inhibitory substances against tested bacteria from 16 plants, as revealed by the disc assay. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of extracts determined by the agar dilution method ranged from 165 to 2640 mg l(-1). The most sensitive microorganism to extracts from Azadirachta indica, Cinnamomum cassia, Rumex nervosus, Ruta graveolens, Thymus serpyllum and Zingiber officinale was B. cereus, with MIC of 165 to 660 mg l(-1). E. coli and S. infantis were only inhibited by Cinnamomum cassia extracts at the highest MIC (2640 mg l(-1)). L. monocytogenes (Tottori) was more resistant than the ATCC 7644 strain to extracts from Ruta chalepensis, Artemisia absinthium and Cissus spp. EDTA (0.85 mM) reduced the MICs of Cinnamomum cassia and Cissus rotundifolia by at least 50% when tested against E. coli, S. infantis, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes. PMID:12423924

  4. Starch grains on human teeth reveal early broad crop diet in northern Peru

    PubMed Central

    Piperno, Dolores R.; Dillehay, Tom D.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research indicates that the Ñanchoc Valley in northern Peru was an important locus of early and middle Holocene human settlement, and that between 9200 and 5500 14C yr B.P. the valley inhabitants adopted major crop plants such as squash (Cucurbita moschata), peanuts (Arachis sp.), and cotton (Gossypium barbadense). We report here an examination of starch grains preserved in the calculus of human teeth from these sites that provides direct evidence for the early consumption of cultivated squash and peanuts along with two other major food plants not previously detected. Starch from the seeds of Phaseolus and Inga feuillei, the flesh of Cucurbita moschata fruits, and the nuts of Arachis was routinely present on numerous teeth that date to between 8210 and 6970 14C yr B.P. Early plant diets appear to have been diverse and stable through time and were rich in cultivated foods typical of later Andean agriculture. Our data provide early archaeological evidence for Phaseolus beans and I. feuillei, an important tree crop, and indicate that effective food production systems that contributed significant dietary inputs were present in the Ñanchoc region by 8000 14C yr B.P. Starch grain studies of dental remains document plants and edible parts of them not normally preserved in archaeological records and can assume primary roles as direct indicators of ancient human diets and agriculture. PMID:19066222

  5. [Relationships of Aulacophora beetles feeding behavior with cucurbitacin types in host crops].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Kong, Chuihua; Liang, Wenju; Zhang, Maoxin; Hu, Fei

    2005-07-01

    Aulacophora fermoralis chinensis and Aulacophora cattigarensis are the two related Aulacophora beetles, but their host selectivity and feeding behavior are significantly different. A. fernzoralis chinensis usually feeds upon Cucumis sativus and Cucurbita moschata, but never upon Luffa acutangula, Momordica charantia and Citrullas lanatus. Its feeding behavior on hosts is to snip a circular trench on their leaves, and then, to feed the leaf tissues isolated by the trench. On the contrary, A. cattigarensis only feeds L. acutangula, and its trenching behavior rarely occurs. This study showed that the host selectivity and feeding behavior of the two beetles were significantly correlated with the types of cucurbitacin biosynthesized by host melon crops. C. sativus and C. moschata might be induced to produce cucurbitacin I by A. fermoralis chinensis feeding, and this compound was responsible for feeding deterrent on A. fermoralis chinensis. Therefore, the feeding behavior of A. fermoralis chinensis was to block the translocation of cucurbitacin I to feeding sites. M. charantia and C. lanatus contained deterrent cucurbitacin D, and thus, both beetles never fed upon them, while L. acutangula contained stimulants cucurbitacin B and E, and made A. cattigarensis directly feed upon it without trenching. The results suggested that the taste responses of insects on specific allelochemicals from plants may play an important role in host selectivity and feeding behavior. PMID:16252877

  6. Occurrence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus and Pepper golden mosaic virus in Potential New Hosts in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Ruth M.; Moreira, Lisela; Rojas, María R.; Gilbertson, Robert L.; Hernández, Eduardo; Mora, Floribeth; Ramírez, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Leaf samples of Solanum lycopersicum, Capsicum annuum, Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita pepo, Sechium edule and Erythrina spp. were collected. All samples were positive for begomoviruses using polymerase chain reaction and degenerate primers. A sequence of ∼1,100 bp was obtained from the genomic component DNA-A of 14 samples. In addition, one sequence of ∼580 bp corresponding to the coat protein (AV1) was obtained from a chayote (S. edule) leaf sample. The presence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus (SYMMoV) and Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV) were confirmed. The host range reported for SYMMoV includes species of the Cucurbitaceae, Caricaceae and Fabaceae families. This report extends the host range of SYMMoV to include the Solanaceae family, and extends the host range of PepGMV to include C. moschata, C. pepo and the Fabaceae Erythrina spp. This is the first report of a begomovirus (PepGMV) infecting chayote in the Western Hemisphere. PMID:25288955

  7. Antioxidant screening of medicinal herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Speisky, Hernán; Rocco, Claudia; Carrasco, Catalina; Lissi, Eduardo A; López-Alarcón, Camilo

    2006-06-01

    Herbal tea consumption is deeply and widely rooted amongst South-American populations. In view of the involvement of oxygen- and nitrogen-reactive species in the ethiogenesis of several diseases, the antioxidant properties of some of the herbal teas most commonly consumed in the southern regions was assessed in vitro. Around one-third of the 13 examined herbs, displayed a substantially higher ability to scavenge ABTS(+.) radicals (TEAC assay), and to quench the pro-oxidant species, hypochlorite (HClO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). Amongst the tested herbs, teas prepared from Haplopappus baylahuen, Rosa moschata and Peumus boldus showed the highest TEAC and HClO-quenching activities. These herbs were around 5- to 7-fold more potent than the least active herbs. Based on the TEAC assay, 150 mL of tea prepared from H. baylahuen, R. moschata and P. boldus would be equivalent to around 200 mg of Trolox). Teas from H. baylahuen and P. boldus were also found to be particularly potent in quenching HClO. In the ONOO(-) assay, H. baylahuen and Buddleia globosa showed the highest activities. The results obtained suggest that the regular consumption of teas prepared from some of these herbs may be useful potentially to provide the organism with molecules capable of protecting the gastrointestinal tract against certain pathologically relevant oxidant species. PMID:16619353

  8. Potential mechanisms of hypocholesterolaemic effect of Thai spices/dietary extracts.

    PubMed

    Duangjai, Acharaporn; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Limpeanchob, Nanteetip

    2011-02-01

    Several Thai spices/dietary ingredients were previously shown to have hypocholesterolaemic effects. These studies were mostly conducted in animal models in which the mechanisms of action were not yet well-established. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the potential mechanism of hypocholesterolaemic action of 12 selected plants, namely Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Moringa oleifera Lam., Cucurbita moschata Duchesne, Ananas comosus (L.) Merr., Zingiber officinale, Morus alba L., Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, Piper nigrum L., Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd., Curcuma zedoaria Rose, Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. and Piper retrofractum Vahl., widely used as spices and ingredients in various types of Thai food. The extract of P. nigrum at 100 µg mL(-1) was found to be the most effective cholesterol uptake inhibitor whereas those of A. galanga and C. sinensis effectively inhibited pancreatic lipase activity with IC50 values of 8.99±3.41 and 12.36±1.23 µg mL(-1), respectively. The potency of extracts from H. sabdariffa, M. oleifera and C. moschata at 100 µg mL(-1) were found to be similar to 0.4 µg mL(-1) pravastatin in inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase and possibly reduced cholesterol biosynthesis. This study also demonstrated that several of the tested plants possessed multiple sites of action that were possibly responsible for their cholesterol-lowering effect in the in vivo model. PMID:20623425

  9. Starch grains on human teeth reveal early broad crop diet in northern Peru.

    PubMed

    Piperno, Dolores R; Dillehay, Tom D

    2008-12-16

    Previous research indicates that the Nanchoc Valley in northern Peru was an important locus of early and middle Holocene human settlement, and that between 9200 and 5500 (14)C yr B.P. the valley inhabitants adopted major crop plants such as squash (Cucurbita moschata), peanuts (Arachis sp.), and cotton (Gossypium barbadense). We report here an examination of starch grains preserved in the calculus of human teeth from these sites that provides direct evidence for the early consumption of cultivated squash and peanuts along with two other major food plants not previously detected. Starch from the seeds of Phaseolus and Inga feuillei, the flesh of Cucurbita moschata fruits, and the nuts of Arachis was routinely present on numerous teeth that date to between 8210 and 6970 (14)C yr B.P. Early plant diets appear to have been diverse and stable through time and were rich in cultivated foods typical of later Andean agriculture. Our data provide early archaeological evidence for Phaseolus beans and I. feuillei, an important tree crop, and indicate that effective food production systems that contributed significant dietary inputs were present in the Nanchoc region by 8000 (14)C yr B.P. Starch grain studies of dental remains document plants and edible parts of them not normally preserved in archaeological records and can assume primary roles as direct indicators of ancient human diets and agriculture. PMID:19066222

  10. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    PubMed

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto." PMID:26470226

  11. Composition of globoid crystals from embryo protein bodies in five species of cucurbita.

    PubMed

    Lott, J N; Vollmer, C M

    1979-02-01

    Previous energy-dispersive x-ray analysis studies of globoid crystal composition in seed protein bodies gave an indication that there might be a correlation between seed size and the type of elements stored in globoid crystals. This possibility was tested by conducting energy-dispersive x-ray analysis studies of P, K, Mg, and Ca levels in globoid crystals of four embryo regions (radicle, stem, cotyledon center palisade mesophyll, cotyledon center spongy mesophyII) in each of five different Cucurbita species (C. mixta, C. moschata, C. foetidissima, C. pepo, and C. andreana). The species were chosen to provide a range of seed size and weight. Globoid crystals from all embryo regions in all five species contained P, K, and Mg. Some variations in the levels of these elements did occur but there was no consistent pattern with regard to area of the seed or with regard to seed size. Calcium distribution showed significant variations. In species with large seeds (C. mixta, C. moschata) Ca was mainly found in globoid crystals in the radicle. Globoid crystals in species with small seeds (C. foetidissima, C. pepo, C. andreana) contained Ca in all embryo regions tested. The results of this study support the concept that Ca distribution in globoid crystals can be correlated with seed weight. PMID:16660719

  12. Composition of Globoid Crystals from Embryo Protein Bodies in Five Species of Cucurbita1

    PubMed Central

    Lott, John N. A.; Vollmer, Catherine M.

    1979-01-01

    Previous energy-dispersive x-ray analysis studies of globoid crystal composition in seed protein bodies gave an indication that there might be a correlation between seed size and the type of elements stored in globoid crystals. This possibility was tested by conducting energy-dispersive x-ray analysis studies of P, K, Mg, and Ca levels in globoid crystals of four embryo regions (radicle, stem, cotyledon center palisade mesophyll, cotyledon center spongy mesophyII) in each of five different Cucurbita species (C. mixta, C. moschata, C. foetidissima, C. pepo, and C. andreana). The species were chosen to provide a range of seed size and weight. Globoid crystals from all embryo regions in all five species contained P, K, and Mg. Some variations in the levels of these elements did occur but there was no consistent pattern with regard to area of the seed or with regard to seed size. Calcium distribution showed significant variations. In species with large seeds (C. mixta, C. moschata) Ca was mainly found in globoid crystals in the radicle. Globoid crystals in species with small seeds (C. foetidissima, C. pepo, C. andreana) contained Ca in all embryo regions tested. The results of this study support the concept that Ca distribution in globoid crystals can be correlated with seed weight. PMID:16660719

  13. Measurements of Dry Deposition of S and N Compounds on Natural Surfaces (leaves)and Their Parameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, A.; Kumari, K. M.; Srivastava, S. S.

    2001-12-01

    "Measurement of Dry Deposition of S and N Compounds on Natural Surfaces (leaves) and Their Parameterization" Ranjit Kumar, Abha Rani, K. Maharaj Kumari and S.S. Srivasta* Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Daylabgh, Agra-282005 (INDIA), E-mail: sssdei@yahoo.com ABSTRACT Promotion of rapid economic growth and urbanization have led to the increasing emissions of acidifying sulphur and nitrogen compounds in the atmosphere which are most potent for injury to vegetation, deterioration of monuments and acidifications of lakes, soils. Dry deposition appears to be an important process by which, air pollutants can be delivered to sensitive surfaces in the form of gases or particulates from the atmosphere as dry conditions prevail for maximum period in this geographical region. The studies reported for deposition of acidifying sulphur and nitrogen compounds on natural surfaces are limited and none from India. Direct measurement of dry deposition on natural surfaces is lacking. This paper deals with measurements of rate of dry deposition of S as sulphate and N as nitrate on natural surfaces (Ashok and Cassia leaves) at Dayalbagh, Agra in India and estimate the total input of S and N compounds. The mean annual dry deposition rate of SO4 and NO3 on Ashok leaf was found to be 1.07± 0.64 mg m-2 d-1 and 0.76± 0.58 mg m-2 d-1 while on Cassia leaf values were found to be 1.11 ±0.75 and 0.81 ± 0.56 mg m-2 d-1. The deposition of SO4 includes both the deposition due to gaseous SO2 and particulate SO42- while deposition of NO3 include deposition contributed by HNO3 vapor and particulate NO3-. The high deposition rates on Cassia leaf may be due to large number of leaf hairs and stomatal pores on leaf surface as compared to Ashok leaf as observed by Scanning Electron Microscopic photographs. The dry deposition rates for SO4 and NO3 were highest during the monsoon followed by winter and summer. The annual input of S was found to be 3.89 kg

  14. Characterization of the small RNA component of leaves and fruits from four different cucurbit species

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding small RNAs involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression critical for plant growth and development, stress responses and other diverse biological processes in plants. The Cucurbitaceae or cucurbit family represents some of economically important species, particularly those with edible and medicinal fruits. Genomic tools for the molecular analysis of members of this family are just emerging. Partial draft genome sequence became available recently for cucumber and watermelon facilitating investigation of the small RNA component of the transcriptomes in cucurbits. Results We generated four small RNA libraries from bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria), Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita pepo, and, watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in order to identify conserved and novel lineage specific miRNAs in these cucurbits. Deep sequencing of small RNA libraries from these species resulted in 1,597,263, 532,948, 601,388, and 493,384 unique sRNA reads from bottle gourd, moschata, pepo and watermelon, respectively. Sequence analysis of these four libraries resulted in identification of 21 miRNA families that are highly conserved and 8 miRNA families that are moderately conserved in diverse dicots. We also identified 4 putative novel miRNAs in these plant species. Furthermore, the tasiRNAs were identified and their biogenesis was determined in these cucurbits. Small RNA blot analysis or q-PCR analyses of leaf and fruit tissues of these cucurbits showed differential expression of several conserved miRNAs. Interestingly, the abundance of several miRNAs in leaves and fruits of closely related C. moschata and C. pepo was also distinctly different. Target genes for the most conserved miRNAs are also predicted. Conclusion High-throughput sequencing of small RNA libraries from four cucurbit species has provided a glimpse of small RNA component in their transcriptomes. The analysis also showed considerable

  15. Fumigant, Contact, and Repellent Activities of Essential Oils Against the Darkling Beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuegui; Li, Qian; Shen, Litao; Yang, Jizhi; Cheng, Huabao; Jiang, Surong; Jiang, Chunxian; Wang, Haijian

    2014-01-01

    The fumigant, contact, and repellent activities of four essential oils extracted from Citrus limonum (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Litsea cubeba (Laurales: Lauraceae), Cinnamomum cassia, and Allium sativum L. (Asparagales: Alliaceae) against 6th instars and adults of the darkling beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), one of the main pests of materials and products of Juncus effuses L. (Poales: Juncaceae) during the storage period, were assayed, and chemical ingredients were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in this study. While the major ingredients found in C. limonum and C. cassia were limonene and (E)- cinnamaldehyde, the main constituents of L. cubea were D-limonene, (E)-3,7- dimethyl-,2,6- octadienal, (Z)-3,7- dimethyl- ,2 ,6- octadienal, and diallyl disulphide (18.20%), while the main constituents of and A. sativum were di-2-propenyl trisulfide and di-2- propenyl tetrasulfide. The fumigation activities of A. sativum and C. limonum on A. diaperinus adults were better than those of the other two essential oilss. The toxicities of A. sativum and C. limonum were almost equitoxic at 96 hr after treatment. Essential oils from Allium sativum and L. cubeba also showed good contact activities from 24 hr to 48 hr, and toxicities were almost equitoxic 48 hr post-treatment. The repellent activities of A. sativum and L. cubeba oils on 6th instars were also observed, showing repellence indexes of 90.4% and 88.9% at 12 hr after treatment, respectively. The effects of A. sativum on AChE activity of 6th instars of A. diaperinus were strongest compared to the other essential oils, followed by C. limonum, L. cubeba, and C. cassia. These results suggest that the essential oils of C. limonum and A. sativum could serve as effective control agents of A. diaperinus. PMID:25373222

  16. Genes for resistance to zucchini yellow mosaic in tropical pumpkin.

    PubMed

    Pachner, Martin; Paris, Harry S; Lelley, Tamas

    2011-01-01

    Four cultigens of Cucurbita moschata resistant to zucchini yellow mosaic virus were crossed with the susceptible 'Waltham Butternut' and with each other in order to clarify the mode of inheritance of resistance and relationships among the genes involved. Five loci were segregating, with genes for resistance Zym-0 and Zym-4 carried by 'Nigerian Local' and one of them also carried by 'Nicklow's Delight,' Zym-1 carried by 'Menina,' and zym-6 carried by 'Soler.' A recessive gene carried by 'Waltham Butternut,' zym-5, is complementary with the dominant Zym-4 of 'Nigerian Local,' that is, the resistance conferred by Zym-4 is only expressed in zym-5/zym-5 individuals. Gene zym-6 appears to be linked to either Zym-0 or Zym-4, and it is also possible that Zym-1 is linked to one of them as well. PMID:21493595

  17. Breast meat traits of Muscovy ducks fed on a microalga (Crypthecodinium cohnii) meal supplemented diet.

    PubMed

    Schiavone, A; Chiarini, R; Marzoni, M; Castillo, A; Tassone, S; Romboli, I

    2007-10-01

    1. A trial was conducted in order to increase the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content in the meat of Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata domestica L.) fed on a diet supplemented with the microalga Crypthecodinium cohnii. 2. Two diets were provided to 48 male and 48 female ducks, belonging to an Italian rural strain during the last 3 weeks of life: a maize-soybean based diet as the control diet and the same diet supplemented with 5 g/kg microalga meal. 3. Dietary treatment did not induce differences in growth performances and slaughter traits. Similarly, chemical composition, colour, pH, oxidative stability and sensory characteristics of breast muscle were not influenced by the diet. 4. A significant increase of DHA content in breast meat of ducks fed on the Crypthecodinium cohnii enriched diet was observed. PMID:17952729

  18. Identification of linear B-cell epitopes on goose parvovirus non-structural protein.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tian-Fei; Ma, Bo; Wang, Jun-Wei

    2016-10-15

    Goose parvovirus (GPV) infection can cause a highly contagious and lethal disease in goslings and muscovy ducklings which is widespread in all major goose (Anser anser) and Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) farming countries, leading to a huge economic loss. Humoral immune responses play a major role in GPV immune protection during GPV infection. However, it is still unknown for the localization and immunological characteristics of B-cell epitopes on GPV non-structural protein (NSP). Therefore, in this study, the epitopes on the NSP of GPV were identified by means of overlapping peptides expressed in Escherichia coli in combination with Western blot. The results showed that the antigenic epitopes on the GPV NSP were predominantly localized in the C-terminal (aa 485-627), and especially, the fragment NS (498-532) was strongly positive. These results may facilitate future investigations on the function of NSP of GPV and the development of immunoassays for the diagnosis of GPV infection. PMID:27590430

  19. Cinnamon: A Multifaceted Medicinal Plant

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and Cinnamon cassia), the eternal tree of tropical medicine, belongs to the Lauraceae family. Cinnamon is one of the most important spices used daily by people all over the world. Cinnamon primarily contains vital oils and other derivatives, such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and cinnamate. In addition to being an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, lipid-lowering, and cardiovascular-disease-lowering compound, cinnamon has also been reported to have activities against neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. This review illustrates the pharmacological prospective of cinnamon and its use in daily life. PMID:24817901

  20. Rhein: A Review of Pharmacological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan-Xi; Xia, Wei; Yue, Wei; Peng, Cheng; Rahman, Khalid; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Rhein (4, 5-dihydroxyanthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid) is a lipophilic anthraquinone extensively found in medicinal herbs, such as Rheum palmatum L., Cassia tora L., Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., and Aloe barbadensis Miller, which have been used medicinally in China for more than 1,000 years. Its biological activities related to human health are being explored actively. Emerging evidence suggests that rhein has many pharmacological effects, including hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, and antimicrobial activities. The present review provides a comprehensive summary and analysis of the pharmacological properties of rhein, supporting the potential uses of rhein as a medicinal agent. PMID:26185519

  1. Are herbs always good for you? A case of paralytic ileum using a herbal tisane.

    PubMed

    Sossai, Paolo; Nasone, Cinzia; Cantalamessa, Franco

    2007-06-01

    We believe that administration of phytotherapics ('herbal' medicines) should be managed by physicians and pharmacists who can monitor any adverse reactions including allergies in patients. This of course implies that physicians and pharmacists require adequate training at the university and post-university level regarding all aspects of medicinal plants. We report here a case of paralytic ileum occurring in an older self-medicated patient who acquired an herbal tisane composed of Cassia angustifolia, as well as other plant products, in an herbal shop, for chronic constipation. PMID:17397118

  2. Antioxidant activity of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in some medicinal plants of India.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, R K; Swarnkar, P L

    2011-07-01

    In this study, total phenolics, flavonoids and vitamin C content vis-a-vis antioxidant activities were assayed in leaves and stem bark of Azadirachta indica, Butea monosperma, Cassia fistula, Mangifera indica, Syzygium cumini and Tamarindus indica using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radical scavenging method. The DPPH radical scavenging activity positively correlated with the total phenolic content in both stem bark and leaf. Superoxide radical scavenging activity increased with increasing flavonoid contents. However, the vitamin C content could not be correlated with DPPH and superoxide radical scavenging capacity. PMID:21726132

  3. Effect of plant extracts on Alzheimer's disease: An insight into therapeutic avenues.

    PubMed

    Obulesu, M; Rao, Dowlathabad Muralidhara

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastative neurodegenerative disorder which needs adequate studies on effective treatment options. The extracts of plants and their effect on the amelioration of AD symptoms have been extensively studied. This paper summarizes the mechanisms like acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, modification of monoamines, antiamyloid aggregation effect, and antioxidant activity which are actively entailed in the process of amelioration of AD symptoms. These effects are induced by extracts of a few plants of different origin like Yizhi Jiannao, Moringa oleifera (Drumstick tree), Ginkgo Biloba (Ginkgo/Maidenhair tree), Cassia obtisufolia (Sicklepod), Desmodium gangeticum (Sal Leaved Desmodium), Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm), and Salvia officinalis (Garden sage, common sage). PMID:21716802

  4. Biochemical parameters of plants as indicators of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, A K; Gautam, Mukesh

    2007-01-01

    In the present study species like Mangifera indica, Linn., Cassia fistula, Linn., and Eucalyptus hybrid were exposed to different air pollution load for short duration (active biomonitoring). Variation in biochemical parameters like chlorophyll, protein, soluble sugar free amino acid, ascorbic acid, nitrate reductase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase in the leaves were found to be pollution load dependent. These variations can be used as indicators of air pollution for early diagnosis of stress or as a marker for physiological damage to trees prior to the onset of visible injury symptoms. Just by analyzing these biochemical indicators air quality can also be assessed. PMID:17717999

  5. Effect of plant extracts on Alzheimer's disease: An insight into therapeutic avenues

    PubMed Central

    Obulesu, M; Rao, Dowlathabad Muralidhara

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastative neurodegenerative disorder which needs adequate studies on effective treatment options. The extracts of plants and their effect on the amelioration of AD symptoms have been extensively studied. This paper summarizes the mechanisms like acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, modification of monoamines, antiamyloid aggregation effect, and antioxidant activity which are actively entailed in the process of amelioration of AD symptoms. These effects are induced by extracts of a few plants of different origin like Yizhi Jiannao, Moringa oleifera (Drumstick tree), Ginkgo Biloba (Ginkgo/Maidenhair tree), Cassia obtisufolia (Sicklepod), Desmodium gangeticum (Sal Leaved Desmodium), Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm), and Salvia officinalis (Garden sage, common sage). PMID:21716802

  6. Duck viral enteritis in domestic muscovy ducks in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davison, S.; Converse, K.A.; Hamir, A.N.; Eckroade, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Duck viral enteritis (DVE) outbreaks occurred at two different locations in Pennsylvania in 1991 and 1992. In the first outbreak, four ducks died out of a group of 30 domestic ducks; in the second outbreak, 65 ducks died out of a group of 114 domestic ducks, and 15 domestic geese died as well. A variety of species of ducks were present on both premises, but only muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) died from the disease. On necropsy, gross lesions included hepatomegaly with petechial hemorrhages, petechial hemorrhages in the abdominal fat, petechial hemorrhages on the epicardial surface of the heart, and multifocal to coalescing areas of fibrinonecrotic material over the mucosal surface of the trachea, esophagus, intestine, and cloaca. Histologically, the liver had random multifocal areas of necrosis and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in hepatocytes. DVE virus was isolated and identified using muscovy duck embryo fibroblast inoculation and virus neutralization. /// En dos sitios diferentes se presentaron brotes de enteritis viral de los patos en el estados de Pensilvania en los a??os 1991 y 1992. En el primer brote, cuatro de un lote de 30 patos murieron mientras que en el segundo brote murieron 65 patos de un lote de 114 patos y 15 gansos. En ambas localidades exist?-a una variedad de especies de patos, sin embargo, s??lamente los patos almizcleros (Cairina moschata) murieron. A la necropsia, las lesiones macrosc??picas incluyeron hepatomegalia con hemorragias petequiales, hemorragias petequiales en la grasa abdominal y en la superficie del epicardio, y ?!reas multifocales o coalescentes de material fibrinonecr??tico sobre la superficie de la mucosa de la tr?!quea, es??fago, intestino y cloaca. Histol??gicamente, el h?-gado mostraba ?!reas multifocales de necrosis y cuerpos de inclusi??n intranucleares eosinof?-licos en los hepatocitos. El virus de la enteritis viral de los patos fue aislado e identificado usando fibroblasto de embriones de pato almizclero

  7. In Vitro Evaluations of Cytotoxicity of Eight Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants and Their Effect on GLUT4 Translocation.

    PubMed

    Kadan, Sleman; Saad, Bashar; Sasson, Yoel; Zaid, Hilal

    2013-01-01

    Despite the enormous achievements in conventional medicine, herbal-based medicines are still a common practice for the treatment of diabetes. Trigonella foenum-graecum, Atriplex halimus, Olea europaea, Urtica dioica, Allium sativum, Allium cepa, Nigella sativa, and Cinnamomum cassia are strongly recommended in the Greco-Arab and Islamic medicine for the treatment and prevention of diabetes. Cytotoxicity (MTT and LDH assays) of the plant extracts was assessed using cells from the liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) and cells from the rat L6 muscle cell line. The effects of the plant extracts (50% ethanol in water) on glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) translocation to the plasma membrane was tested in an ELISA test on L6-GLUT4myc cells. Results obtained indicate that Cinnamomon cassia is cytotoxic at concentrations higher than 100  μ g/mL, whereas all other tested extracts exhibited cytotoxic effects at concentrations higher than 500  μ g/mL. Exposing L6-GLUT4myc muscle cell to extracts from Trigonella foenum-graecum, Urtica dioica, Atriplex halimus, and Cinnamomum verum led to a significant gain in GLUT4 on their plasma membranes at noncytotoxic concentrations as measured with MTT assay and the LDH leakage assay. These findings indicate that the observed anti-diabetic properties of these plants are mediated, at least partially, through regulating GLUT4 translocation. PMID:23606883

  8. Eco-restoration of a high-sulphur coal mine overburden dumping site in northeast India: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowarah, J.; Deka Boruah, H. P.; Gogoi, J.; Pathak, N.; Saikia, N.; Handique, A. K.

    2009-10-01

    Eco-restoration of mine overburden (OB) or abandoned mine sites is a major environmental concern. In the present investigation, an integrated approach was used to rejuvenate a high-sulphur mine OB dumping site in the Tirap Collieries, Assam, India, which is situated in the Indo-Burma mega-biodiversity hotspot. A mine OB is devoid of true soil character with poor macro and micronutrient content and contains elevated concentrations of trace and heavy metals. Planting of herbs, shrubs, cover crops and tree species at close proximity leads to primary and secondary sere state succession within a period of 3 to 5 years. A variety of plant species were screened for potential use in restoration: herbs, including Sccharum spontaneum, Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (citronella), and Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemon grass) cover plants, including Mimosa strigillosa, M. striata, and M. pigra; shrubs, including Sesbania rostrata (dhaincha) and Cassia streata (cassia); and tree species, including Gmelina arborea (gomari) and Dalbergia sissoo (sissoo). Amendment with unmined soil and bio-organic matter was required for primary establishment of some plant species. Management of these plant species at the site will ensure long term sustainable eco-restoration of the coal mine-degraded land.

  9. Toxicology and risk assessment of coumarin: focus on human data.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Klaus; Wöhrlin, Friederike; Lindtner, Oliver; Heinemeyer, Gerhard; Lampen, Alfonso

    2010-02-01

    Coumarin is a secondary phytochemical with hepatotoxic and carcinogenic properties. For the carcinogenic effect, a genotoxic mechanism was considered possible, but was discounted by the European Food Safety Authority in 2004 based on new evidence. This allowed the derivation of a tolerable daily intake (TDI) for the first time, and a value of 0.1 mg/kg body weight was arrived at based on animal hepatotoxicity data. However, clinical data on hepatotoxicity from patients treated with coumarin as medicinal drug is also available. This data revealed a subgroup of the human population being more susceptible for the hepatotoxic effect than the animal species investigated. The cause of the high susceptibility is currently unknown; possible mechanisms are discussed. Using the human data, a TDI of 0.1 mg/kg body weight was derived, confirming that of the European Food Safety Authority. Nutritional exposure may be considerably, and is mainly due to use of cassia cinnamon, which is a popular spice especially, used for cookies and sweet dishes. To estimate exposure to coumarin during the Christmas season in Germany, a telephone survey was performed with more than 1000 randomly selected persons. Heavy consumers of cassia cinnamon may reach a daily coumarin intake corresponding to the TDI. PMID:20024932

  10. Petrologic constraints on the development of a large-volume, high temperature, silicic magma system: The Twin Falls eruptive centre, central Snake River Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Ben S.; Barry, Tiffany; Branney, Michael J.; Wolff, John A.; Bindeman, Ilya; Wilson, Rob; Bonnichsen, Bill

    2010-12-01

    Explosive volcanism associated with the Yellowstone hotspot spanning ~ 11.3 to 9 Ma, thought to have erupted from the Twin Falls eruptive centre, is recorded in the Cassia Mountains of southern Idaho and northern Nevada. The stratigraphy contains intensely welded, rhyolitic (SiO 2 69-76 wt.%) ignimbrites with an anhydrous mineralogy: plagioclase, sanidine, quartz, pigeonite, augite, ilmenite, titanomagnetite, accessory zircon and apatite. Several different thermometers indicate high temperature rhyolitic magmas (> 900 °C). All Cassia Mountain ignimbrites show a significant depletion in δ18O VSMOW with magmatic feldspar values between 1.7 and 3.0‰, reflecting incorporation of a hydrothermally altered protolith. Multiple compositions of both pigeonite (Mg# 30-46) and augite (Mg# 17-53) may occur within an individual ignimbrite while crystal aggregates contain only a single composition of each. The compositional heterogeneity within the ignimbrites reflects a complex magmatic system whereby magma was segregated into multiple smaller chambers prior to eruption.