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Sample records for cast titanium crowns

  1. Numerical simulation of the casting process of titanium tooth crowns and bridges.

    PubMed

    Wu, M; Augthun, M; Wagner, I; Sahm, P R; Spiekermann, H

    2001-06-01

    The objectives of this paper were to simulate the casting process of titanium tooth crowns and bridges; to predict and control porosity defect. A casting simulation software, MAGMASOFT, was used. The geometry of the crowns with fine details of the occlusal surface were digitized by means of laser measuring technique, then converted and read in the simulation software. Both mold filling and solidification were simulated, the shrinkage porosity was predicted by a "feeding criterion", and the gas pore sensitivity was studied based on the mold filling and solidification simulations. Two types of dental prostheses (a single-crown casting and a three-unit-bridge) with various sprue designs were numerically "poured", and only one optimal design for each prosthesis was recommended for real casting trial. With the numerically optimized design, real titanium dental prostheses (five replicas for each) were made on a centrifugal casting machine. All the castings endured radiographic examination, and no porosity was detected in the cast prostheses. It indicates that the numerical simulation is an efficient tool for dental casting design and porosity control. PMID:15348262

  2. The effect of investment type on the fit of cast titanium crowns.

    PubMed

    Mori, T; Jean-Louis, M; Yabugami, M; Togaya, T

    1994-12-01

    In order to determine the best laboratory procedure for titanium crown casting, a set of thermal expansion measurements and casting experiments were carried out using a casting machine (argon arc, pressure difference type) and three different investments, two conventional SiO2 based investments and a new Al2O3/MgO based investment. The thermal expansion measurements involved a cycle of heating and cooling. The relatively low mould temperatures recommended (200 degrees C) or chosen (350 degrees C) for the conventional investments provided zero or negative mould expansion for the compensation of metal shrinkage. Crowns made from these investments exhibited heavy reaction with the mould, and the common cleaning method of sand blasting appeared to be essential. This cleaning process, however, was not adequate for the assessment of casting accuracy as the short sand blasting time (15 s) rapidly altered the fit of the crowns. The metal reacted little with the new investment and the best compensation (0.15 mm discrepancy) for the metal shrinkage, as assessed 'as cast', was achieved when the investment was heated to 950 degrees C and then cooled to the recommended mould temperature (600 degrees C). PMID:7832681

  3. [Investigation of castability and layered structure on margin of titanium cast crown].

    PubMed

    Ping, M W

    1997-12-01

    Previous studies on dental applications of pure titanium were mainly focused on its mechanical properties rather than its clinical aspects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the margin castability and mechanical properties of C. P. titanium for better understanding of its suitability for clinical application. To simulate the crown margins, flat wax patterns, which had two different margin thicknesses, i.e., 20 and 40 degrees sharp edges respectively, were used. These patterns were cast using two casting systems, centrifugal and pressure systems. There were statistically significant differences between the samples made from the two types of patterns in terms of cast deficiency at the margins observed with a light microscope and the increased length of the margins measured with a video micrometer, but not between the samples made with the two different systems. Both the thickness of layered structures measured by a metallurgical light microscope and the micro-hardness by a Dynamic Hardness Tester were lowest at the apex of the margins in all samples. These observations were more evident among 20 degree samples than 40 degree samples. The layered structures were different among the casting systems. In conclusion, pure titanium is suitable for clinical application as restorative material when used appropriately. PMID:9483892

  4. The present status of dental titanium casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabe, Toru; Ohkubo, Chikahiro; Watanabe, Ikuya; Okuno, Osamu; Takada, Yukyo

    1998-09-01

    Experimentation in all aspects of titanium casting at universities and industries throughout the world for the last 20 years has made titanium and titanium-alloy casting nearly feasible for fabricating sound cast dental prostheses, including crowns, inlays, and partial and complete dentures. Titanium casting in dentistry has now almost reached the stage where it can seriously be considered as a new method to compete with dental casting using conventional noble and base-metal alloys. More than anything else, the strength of titanium’s appeal lies in its excellent biocompatibility, coupled with its comparatively low price and abundant supply. Research efforts to overcome some problems associated with this method, including studies on the development of new titanium alloys suitable for dental use, will continue at many research sites internationally.

  5. Marginal adaptation of cast partial crowns made of pure titanium and a gold alloy under influence of a manual burnishing technique.

    PubMed

    Stoll, R; Makris, P; Stachniss, V

    2001-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the marginal adaptation of partial crowns from pure titanium and a gold alloy after two different cementation techniques. Forty freshly extracted human molars were prepared and randomly divided in four groups. Two groups were restored with partial crowns using the gold alloy Degulor M*. In one group, the crowns were fixed on the tooth by using a zinc phosphate cement. In the other group the margins were additionally burnished by using a hand burnisher No. 660. In the other two groups, partial crowns from pure titanium were cemented in the same way. The marginal quality was determined by quantitative margin analysis in the SEM using a replica technique. Partial crowns from a gold alloy showed significantly (P < 0.05) more margin quality A (vertical marginal discrepancy < 50 microm) while partial crowns from pure titanium had significantly (P < 0.05) more margin quality B (vertical marginal discrepancy 50-100 microm) and over-extended margins (quality D). No significant (P < 0.05) difference was found between the conventional cementation technique and the technique with manual burnishing in both material groups. PMID:11380778

  6. Numerical simulation of porosity-free titanium dental castings.

    PubMed

    Wu, M; Augthun, M; Schädlich-Stubenrauch, J; Sahm, P R; Spiekermann, H

    1999-08-01

    The objective of this research was to analyse, predict and control the porosity in titanium dental castings by the use of numerical simulation. A commercial software package (MAGMASOFT) was used. In the first part of the study, a model casting (two simplified tooth crowns connected by a connector bar) was simulated to analyse shrinkage porosity. Secondly, gas pores were numerically examined by means of a ball specimen with a "snake" sprue. The numerical simulation results were compared with the experimental casting results, which were made on a centrifugal casting machine. The predicted shrinkage levels coincided well with the experimentally determined levels. Based on the above numerical analyses, an optimised running and gating system design for the crown model was proposed. The numerical filling and solidification results of the ball specimen showed that this simulation model could be helpful for the explanation of the experimentally indicated gas pores. It was concluded that shrinkage porosity in titanium dental casting was predictable, and it could be minimised by improving the running and gating system design. Entrapped gas pores can be explained from the simulation results of the mould filling and solidification. PMID:10467947

  7. [Study on the compatibility of slip casting aluminous ceramic crowns

    PubMed

    Wan, Q B; Xue, M; You, L; Du, C S; Chao, Y L

    1997-03-01

    One of the key factors for a good slip casting aluminous ceramic crown is good compatibility between its core material and the veneering porcelain.The chemical and thermal compatibility of two slip casting aluminous ceramic crown systems(In-Ceram and GI-I) were investigated by means of SEM and EDAX,thermal shock tests were also performed to evaluate the crazing resistance.The results showed: the crazing resistance of In-Ceram was 158 degrees centigrade,and that of GI-I was degrees centigrade;there existed tightly bonded interfaces between the slip casting aluminous ceramic cores and the veneering porcelains in both of the two systems,where ion transferences were found.The results also suggested good compatibility of the two slip casting aluminous ceramic crown systems. PMID:15159959

  8. Numerical study of porosity in titanium dental castings.

    PubMed

    Wu, M; Sahm, P R; Augthun, M; Spiekermann, H; Schädlich-Stubenrauch, J

    1999-09-01

    A commercial software package, MAGMASOFT (MAGMA Giessereitechnologie GmbH, Aachen, Germany), was used to study shrinkage and gas porosity in titanium dental castings. A geometrical model for two simplified tooth crowns connected by a connector bar was created. Both mold filling and solidification of this casting model were numerically simulated. Shrinkage porosity was quantitatively predicted by means of a built-in feeding criterion. The risk of gas pore formation was investigated using the numerical filling and solidification results. The results of the numerical simulations were compared with experiments, which were carried out on a centrifugal casting machine with an investment block mold. The block mold was made of SiO2 based slurry with a 1 mm thick Zr2 face coat to reduce metal-mold reactions. Both melting and casting were carried out under protective argon (40 kPa). The finished castings were sectioned and the shrinkage porosity determined. The experimentally determined shrinkage porosity coincided with the predicted numerical simulation results. No apparent gas porosity was found in these model castings. Several running and gating systems for the above model casting were numerically simulated. An optimized running and gating system design was then experimentally cast, which resulted in porosity-free castings. PMID:15348102

  9. Effect of sandblasting on fracture load of titanium ceramic crowns

    PubMed Central

    Moldi, Arvind I.; Bhandari, Kishor Singh; Nagral, Sharanbassapa; Deshpandey, Sumit; Kulkarni, Pawan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: It is difficult to achieve a reliable bond between the titanium and veneering porcelain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength between titanium ceramic crowns. Materials and Methods: The surfaces of titanium copings were divided in two groups. Group A sandblasted with 250 um (n = 10) and Group B without sandblasting (n = 10). Low-fusing porcelain was bonded over copings. A universal testing machine was used to determine the fracture load (N) of the crowns. All data were compared using Student's t-test. Results: There was a significant difference in fracture toughness between two groups (P = 0.05). The mean value of fracture strength for Group A was 721.66 N and for Group B was 396.39 N. Conclusions: Sandblasting improves the bond strength between titanium, and ceramic, mechanical bonding plays a crucial role in the bonding between titanium and ceramic. PMID:26929517

  10. Possible segregation caused by centrifugal titanium casting.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, K; Okawa, S; Kanatani, M; Nakano, S; Miyakawa, O; Kobayashi, M

    1996-12-01

    The possibility of the segregation under solidification process using a centrifugal casting machine was investigated using an electron probe microanalyzer with elemental distribution map, line analysis and quantitative analysis. When a very small quantity of platinum was added to local molten titanium during the casting process, macroscopic segregation was observed under conditions of density difference of 0.1 g/cm3 at the most, confirming that the centrifugal force of the casting machine is extremely strong. When a Ti-6Al-4V alloy was cast, however, no macroscopic segregation was observed. The centrifugal force of the casting machine examined in the present study hardly results in the body-force segregation in this titanium alloy. PMID:9550020

  11. Inner surface roughness of complete cast crowns made by centrifugal casting machines.

    PubMed

    Ogura, H; Raptis, C N; Asgar, K

    1981-05-01

    Six variables that could affect the surface roughness of a casting were investigated. The variables were (1) type of alloy, (2) mold temperature, (3) metal casting temperature, (4) casting machine, (5) sandblasting, and (6) location of each section. It was determined that the training portion of a complete cast crown had rougher surfaces than the leading portion. Higher mold and casting temperatures produced rougher castings, and this effect was more pronounced in the case of the base metal alloy. Sandblasting reduced the roughness, but produced scratched surfaces. Sandblasting had a more pronounced affect on the surface roughness of the base metal alloy cast either at a higher mold temperature or metal casting temperature. The morphology and the roughness profile of the original cast surface differed considerably with the type of alloy used. PMID:7012322

  12. Casting behavior of titanium alloys in a centrifugal casting machine.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, K; Miyakawa, O; Takada, Y; Okuno, O; Okabe, T

    2003-05-01

    Since dental casting requires replication of complex shapes with great accuracy, this study examined how well some commercial titanium alloys and experimental titanium-copper alloys filled a mold cavity. The metals examined were three types of commercial dental titanium [commercially pure titanium (hereinafter noted as CP-Ti), Ti-6Al-4V (T64) and Ti-6Al-7Nb (T67)], and experimental titanium-copper alloys [3%, 5% and 10% Cu (mass %)]. The volume percentage filling the cavity was evaluated in castings prepared in a very thin perforated sheet pattern and cast in a centrifugal casting machine. The flow behavior of the molten metal was also examined using a so-called "tracer element technique." The amounts of CP-Ti and all the Ti-Cu alloys filling the cavity were similar; less T64 and T67 filled the cavity. However, the Ti-Cu alloys failed to reach the end of the cavities due to a lower fluidity compared to the other metals. A mold prepared with specially designed perforated sheets was effective at differentiating the flow behavior of the metals tested. The present technique also revealed that the more viscous Ti-Cu alloys with a wide freezing range failed to sequentially flow to the end of the cavity. PMID:12593955

  13. Wear of double crown systems - electroplated vs. casted female part

    PubMed Central

    BAYER, Stefan; KRAUS, Dominik; KEILIG, Ludger; GÖLZ, Lina; STARK, Helmut; ENKLING, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The wear of telescopic crowns is a common problem often reducing the patient's satisfaction with the denture and resulting in a renewal of the denture. The study aims to compare the wear behavior of conical crowns using electroplated copings (group E) with standard telescopic crowns with cast female parts (group C). Material and Methods 10 conical crowns were milled for each group of a cast gold alloy. The specimen of group E had a conicity of 2º. The cast secondary crowns of group C had a 0º design. The electroplated coping was established by direct electroforming. An apparatus accomplishing 10,000 wear cycles performed the wear test. The retentive forces and the correlating distance during insertion and separation were measured. The wear test was separated in a start phase, an initial wear phase and the long term wear period. The retention force value and the force-distance integral of the first 0.33 mm of each cycle were calculated. Results The retentive forces were significantly higher for group E and the integrals were significantly lower for this group except the integral at cycle 10,000. The changes of retention force and integral did not differ significantly between both groups in all phases. The change of the integrals as well as the integral at the particular cycles showed higher interquartile distances for group C. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study the tested conical crowns showed clinically acceptable retentive properties. The values reached a range comparable to retentive elements tested in recent literature. The values of group C showed higher ranges. The force measured for group E was significantly higher than for group C but the integrals showed an opposite tendency. The results indicate that an exclusive analysis of the force is not sufficient as the integral is not equivalent to the force although it describes the retentive property of the system in a better way than the force over a distance is described. Both systems

  14. Macromolecular leakage benath full cast crowns. Part II: The diffusion of lipopolysaccharide and dextran.

    PubMed

    Coleman, A J

    1996-01-01

    Fifteen extracted molars were prepared for crowns. Crowns with access ports (one facial, one lingual) were cast in gold. Teeth and crowns luted with provisional cement with filters inserted into the ports were immersed in a solution of labeled macromolecules (FITC-dextran, TRITC-LPS) and evaluated for leakage. Filters were retrieved and analyzed by use of fluorescent microscopy. Leakage of LPS and dextran occurred as early as 2 weeks beneath crowns luted with a provisional cement (NoGenol). PMID:8850458

  15. Titanium casting: the surface reaction layer of castings obtained using ultra-low-temperature molds.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, H; Onouchi, M; Hsu, H C; Kurotani, T; Nishiyama, M

    2001-03-01

    To examine whether the surface reaction layer of titanium castings can be reduced by lowering the mold temperature during casting, we cast titanium at three mold temperatures, including an ultra-low temperature produced by cooling the mold with liquid nitrogen, then measured the tensile strength and elongation of the castings. The titanium was cast using a centrifugal casting machine, and the molds were incinerated according to the manufacturers' instructions. Castings were then made with the molds at 200 degrees C, 600 degrees C, and an ultra-low temperature (-196 degrees C). The castability of titanium cast in the mold at the ultra-low temperature was good. The Vickers hardness near the surface layer of castings decreased as the mold temperature decreased. PMID:11383633

  16. [Adhesive strengths of cast crowns with various types of cements].

    PubMed

    Utz, K H; Grüner, M; Büscher, M

    1990-12-01

    In an in vitro study the adhesive strength of sand-blasted castings (gold alloy) was tested on human teeth prepared and finished in different ways. For cementation we used two glass ionomer and one phosphate cement. On the surfaces treated with carbide finishing instruments the force required for separating the crown from the tooth was about 1.9 N/mm2 for Ketac-cem, about 2 N/mm2 for Fuji Ionomer, and about 1.8 N/mm2 for Harvard (a zinc oxide phosphate cement). Compared with this, the values obtained for dentin surfaces pretreated with fine diamonds (red ring) were 1.5 N/mm2 for Ketac-cem, 1.6 N/mm2 for Fuji Ionomer, and 1.9 N/mm2 for Harvard. The measured differences between the various types of cement were statistically not significant. PMID:2135267

  17. Electrochemical characterization of cast titanium alloys.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhuo; Shafer, Ty; Watanabe, Ikuya; Nunn, Martha E; Okabe, Toru

    2003-01-01

    A reaction layer forms on cast titanium alloy surfaces due to the reaction of the molten metal with the investment. This surface layer may affect the corrosion of the alloy in the oral environment. The objective of this study was to characterize the in vitro corrosion behavior of cast titanium alloys. ASTM Grade 2 CP titanium, Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-7Nb and Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys were cast into a MgO-based investment. Experiments were performed on castings (N=4) with three surface conditions: (A) as-cast surface after sandblasting, (B) polished surface after removal of the reaction layer, and (C) sandblasted surface after removal of the reaction layer. Open-circuit potential (OCP) measurement, linear polarization, and potentiodynamic cathodic polarization were performed in aerated (air+10% CO(2)) modified Tani-Zucchi synthetic saliva at 37 degrees C. Potentiodynamic anodic polarization was subsequently conducted in the same medium deaerated with N(2)+10% CO(2) gas 2 h before and during the experiment. Polarization resistance (R(P)) and corrosion rate (I(CORR)) were calculated. Numerical results were subjected to nonparametric statistical analysis at alpha=0.05. The OCP stabilized for all the specimens after 6 x 10(4)s. Apparent differences in anodic polarization were observed among the different surfaces for all the metals. A passivation region followed by breakdown and repassivation were seen on specimens with surfaces A and C. An extensive passive region was observed on all the metals with surface B. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed no significant differences in OCP, R(p), I(CORR) or break down potential for each of the three surfaces among all the metals. The Mann-Whitney test showed significantly lower R(P) and higher I(CORR) values for surface C compared to the other surfaces. Results indicate that the surface condition has more effect on corrosion of these alloys than the surface reaction layer. Within the oxidation potential range of the oral cavity, all the metal

  18. Effect of casting methods on castability of pure titanium.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, J; Zhang, J Z; Okazaki, M

    1993-12-01

    Two types of patterns were tested for castability: 1) polyester mesh pattern (20mm x 22mm with 100 open squares) and 2) 20mm x 20mm wax plates 1.0 and 1.5 mm in thickness. These materials were invested using a pre-arranged commercial phosphate-bonded investment for titanium. Three different types of casting machines were selected: 1) a pressure-type casting machine with separate melting and casting chambers, 2) a pressure-type casting machine with one chamber and 3) a centrifugal-type casting machine at 3000 rpm. Pure titanium (> 99.5%) was cast into the molds at a mold temperature of 100 degrees C. The castability of mesh pattern was evaluated in terms of the number of cast segment, and the cast plate was evaluated using X-ray transparent images by a digital imaging technique. The centrifugal casting method showed the best castability among these three casting methods. PMID:8004920

  19. [Gdansk combined crown with occlusal rest. 1. Clinical and laboratory preparation of combined crown with occlusal rest on the basis of cast crown].

    PubMed

    Tejchman, H; Czerwińska, W

    1990-01-01

    The combined crown used since many years in the Prosthetic Laboratory, Institute of Stomatology, Medical Academy in Gdańsk contains an occlusal rest basis of a cast crown (the metal part is of a gold alloy or chromium-nickel steel, with veneer of acrylateor Colorstat) provides, owing to a special preparation of the abutment tooth and laboratory procedure, full stabilization of the crown, protection of parodontium and good maintenance of the veneer which plays a cosmetic role in this type of crown. The combined crowns with occlusal rest are particularly suitable for supporting bridgeworks. They may be applied onto devitalized or live teeth since they require less extensive grinding of teeth. PMID:2103019

  20. A method for determining adequate resistance form of complete cast crown preparations.

    PubMed

    Weed, R M; Baez, R J

    1984-09-01

    A diagram with various degrees of occlusal convergence, which takes into consideration the length and diameter of complete crown preparations, was designed as a guide to assist the dentist to obtain adequate resistance form. To test the validity of the diagram, five groups of complete cast crown stainless steel dies were prepared (3.5 mm long, occlusal convergence 10, 13, 16, 19, and 22 degrees). Gold copings were cast for each of the 50 preparations. Displacement force was applied to the casting perpendicularly to a simulated 30-degree cuspal incline until the casting was displaced. Castings were deformed at margins except for the 22-degree group. Castings from this group were displaced without deformation, and it was concluded that there was a lack of adequate resistance form as predicted by the diagram. The hypothesis that the diagram could be used to predict adequate or inadequate resistance form was confirmed by this study. PMID:6384470

  1. Producing Foils From Direct Cast Titanium Alloy Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, T. A.; Gaspar, T. A.; Sukonnik, I. M.; Semiatan, S. L.; Batawi, E.; Peters, J. A.; Fraser, H. L.

    1996-01-01

    This research was undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility of producing high-quality, thin-gage, titanium foil from direct cast titanium strip. Melt Overflow Rapid Solidification Technology (MORST) was used to cast several different titanium alloys into 500 microns thick strip, 10 cm wide and up to 3 m long. The strip was then either ground, hot pack rolled or cold rolled, as appropriate, into foil. Gamma titanium aluminide (TiAl) was cast and ground to approximately 100 microns thick foil and alpha-2 titanium aluminide (Ti3AI) was cast and hot pack rolled to approximately 70 microns thick foil. CP Ti, Ti6Al2Sn4Zr2Mo, and Ti22AI23Nb (Orthorhombic), were successfully cast and cold-rolled into good quality foil (less than 125 microns thick). The foils were generally fully dense with smooth surfaces, had fine, uniform microstructures, and demonstrated mechanical properties equivalent to conventionally produced titanium. By eliminating many manufacturing steps, this technology has the potential to produce thin gage, titanium foil with good engineering properties at significantly reduced cost relative to conventional ingot metallurgy processing.

  2. [Assessment of the amount of palladium-silver alloy used for cast posts and veneer crowns].

    PubMed

    Catović, A; Baucić, I

    1988-01-01

    Average amounts of palladium-silver alloy were assessed in a sample of 966 veneer crowns and 667 casted posts. The mean weight values of the samples under study were compared in relation to particular types of anterior teeth. The specimens cast in Auropal SE were weight by the precise balance, Tehtnica, type 6215. Results were analyzed by weight according to the type of the sample under study, and classified according to age, and to the anterior teeth of the upper and lower jaws. On an average, the heaviest posts and veneer crowns were measured on upper canines, whereas the lighest were those on lower incisors. A cast post was found to be by about 40% heavier than a veneer crown on the same tooth. PMID:3076349

  3. Microleakage and marginal gap of adhesive cements for noble alloy full cast crowns.

    PubMed

    Hooshmand, T; Mohajerfar, M; Keshvad, A; Motahhary, P

    2011-01-01

    Very limited comparative information about the microleakage in noble alloy full cast crowns luted with different types of adhesive resin cements is available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microleakage and marginal gap of two self-adhesive resin cements with that of other types of adhesive luting cements for noble alloy full cast crowns. Fifty noncarious human premolars and molars were prepared in a standardized manner for full cast crown restorations. Crowns were made from a noble alloy using a standardized technique and randomly cemented with five cementing agents as follows: 1) GC Fuji Plus resin-modified glass ionomer cement, 2) Panavia F 2.0 resin cement, 3) Multilink Sprint self-adhesive resin cement, 4), Rely X Unicem self-adhesive resin cement with pretreatment, and 5) Rely X Unicem with no pretreatment. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for two weeks and then subjected to thermocycling. They were then placed in a silver nitrate solution, vertically cut in a mesiodistal direction and evaluated for microleakage and marginal gap using a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using a nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn multiple range test at a p<0.05 level of significance. The Rely X Unicem (with or with no pretreatment) exhibited the smallest degree of microleakage at both tooth-cement and cement-crown interfaces. The greatest amount of microleakage was found for Panavia F 2.0 resin cement followed by GC Fuji Plus at both interfaces. No statistically significant difference in the marginal gap values was found between the cementing agents evaluated (p>0.05). The self-adhesive resin cements provided a much better marginal seal for the noble alloy full cast crowns compared with the resin-modified glass ionomer or dual-cured resin-based cements. PMID:21740242

  4. Cast Titanium for Obturator Framework Construction in Maxillofacial Prosthodontics.

    PubMed

    Bourne, George K; Barber, Andrew J; Wilson, Paul H R

    2015-12-01

    A 37 year old male presented with the complaint of a loose and bulky acrylic obturator prosthesis. He had previously tried to using a different acrylic obturator prostheses as well as both cobalt chromium and titanium framework obturators. The most successful previous prosthesis was a titanium based obturator which had performed well prior to a fractured clasp. Accordingly, following an exploration of the available surgical and prosthodontic treatment options, a further tooth borne partial maxillary obturator was provided successfully. The case highlights the relative merits and limitations of the use of cast titanium as a denture base material in partial denture and obturator construction. PMID:26767244

  5. To Evaluate & Compare Retention of Complete Cast Crown in Natural Teeth Using Different Auxiliary Retentive Features with Two Different Crown Heights - An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Vinaya, Kundapur; Rakshith, Hegde; Prasad D., Krishna; Manoj, Shetty; Sunil, Mankar; Naresh, Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: To evaluate the retention of complete cast crowns in teeth with adequate and inadequate crown height and to evaluate the effects of auxiliary retentive features on retention form complete cast crowns. Materials and methods: Sixty freshly extracted human premolars. They were divided into 2 major groups depending upon the height of the teeth after the preparation. Group1 (H1): prepared teeth with constant height of 3.5 mm and Group 2 (H2): prepared teeth with constant height of 2.5 mm. Each group is further subdivided into 3 subgroups, depending upon the retentive features incorporated. First sub group were prepared conventionally, second sub group with proximal grooves and third subgroups with proximal boxes preparation. Castings produced in Nickel chromium alloy were cemented with glass ionomer cement and the cemented castings were subjected to tensional forces required to dislodge each cemented casting from its preparation and used for comparison of retentive quality. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using Oneway ANOVA test. Results: The results showed there was statistically significant difference between adequate (H1) and inadequate (H2) group and increase in retention when there was incorporation of retentive features compared to conventional preparations. Incorporation of retentive grooves was statistically significant compared to retention obtained by boxes. Results also showed there was no statistically significant difference between long conventional and short groove. Conclusion: Complete cast crowns on teeth with adequate crown height exhibited greater retention than with inadequate crown height. Proximal grooves provided greater amount of retention when compared with proximal boxes. PMID:26199584

  6. Evaluation of different bonded investments for dental titanium casting.

    PubMed

    Hsu, H C; Kikuchi, H; Yen, S K; Nishiyama, M

    2007-04-01

    The properties of several different investments were investigated including phosphate bonded, magnesia bonded, and alumina cement investments. Measurements included the setting expansion, thermal expansion, and compressive strength of investments, as well as the tensile strength, elongation, Vickers hardness (VHN) and surface roughness of titanium castings. For phosphate bonded investment, the setting expansion after being mixed with its own mixing solution was 2.10%, which was larger than the other investments; the thermal expansion was -0.25% at 200 degrees C, the compressive strength 14 and 5 MPa after heating. For titanium cast in phosphate bonded investment, the hardness on its top surface was 655 Hv, the tensile strength was 379 MPa, the elongation was 19.4%, and the surface roughness was 2.29 microm. Athough the thermal expansion of phosphate bonded investment is small, the setting expansion is large enough to compensate for the shrinkage of titanium castings. As its thermal expansion at T >/= 600 degrees C was constant and its heating-cooling cycle was almost reversible, these two properties can reduce the thermal shock and thus avoid cracking of the investment. PMID:17546420

  7. Evaluation of different bonded investments for dental titanium casting.

    PubMed

    Hsu, H C; Kikuchi, H; Yen, S K; Nishiyama, M

    2005-09-01

    The properties of several different investments were investigated including phosphate bonded, magnesia bonded, and alumina cement investments. Measurements included the setting expansion, thermal expansion, and compressive strength of investments, as well as the tensile strength, elongation, Vickers hardness (VHN) and surface roughness of titanium castings. For phosphate bonded investment, the setting expansion after being mixed with its own mixing solution was 2.10%, which was larger than the other investments; the thermal expansion was -0.25% at 200 degrees C, the compressive strength 14 and 5 MPa after heating. For titanium cast in phosphate bonded investment, the hardness on its top surface was 655 Hv, the tensile strength was 379 MPa, the elongation was 19.4%, and the surface roughness was 2.29 microm. Although the thermal expansion of phosphate bonded investment is small, the setting expansion is large enough to compensate for the shrinkage of titanium castings. As its thermal expansion at T > or = 600 degrees C was constant and its heating-cooling cycle was almost reversible, these two properties can reduce the thermal shock and thus avoid cracking of the investment. PMID:16167110

  8. Diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in a cast gamma titanium aluminide

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaram, P.A.; Wessel, E.; Ennis, P.J.; Quadakkers, W.J.; Singheiser, L.

    1999-06-04

    Gamma titanium aluminides have the potential for high temperature applications because of their high specific strength and specific modulus. Their oxidation resistance is good, especially at intermediate temperatures and with suitable alloying additions, good oxidation resistance can be obtained up to 800 C. One critical area of application is in combustion engines in aero-space vehicles such as hypersonic airplanes and high speed civil transport airplanes. This entails the use of hydrogen as a fuel component and hence the effect of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of gamma titanium aluminides is of significant scientific and technological utility. The purpose of this short investigation is to use an electrochemical method under galvanostatic conditions to determine the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in a cast gamma titanium aluminide, a typical technical alloy with potential application in gas turbines under creep conditions. This result will be then compared with that obtained by microhardness profiling of electrolytically hydrogen precharged material.

  9. Effect of casting method on castability of titanium and dental alloys.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, I; Woldu, M; Watanabe, K; Okabe, T

    2000-09-01

    Titanium, once considered to be difficult to cast because of its relatively high melting point (1670 +/- 50 degrees C) and strong chemical affinity, can now be acceptably cast using newly developed casting apparatus. The objectives of this study were to examine the castability of commercially pure (CP) titanium using an ultra high-speed centrifugal casting machine and a pressure difference-type casting unit and to compare the castability of titanium with that of conventional dental casting alloys. To determine castability, two types of patterns were used: a mesh pattern of 22 x 24 mm cut polyether thread sieve, and a saucer pattern (24 mm diameter) perforated to create four T-shaped ends. The casting equipment significantly affected the mold filling of both patterns (p < 0.001). The castability indices obtained from both patterns of CP titanium cast in the centrifugal casting machine were significantly (p < 0.05) better than the indices of the castings produced in the pressure-difference casting unit. The radiographs of the saucer pattern cast in the centrifugal casting machine showed some pores that were fewer and smaller in size than the pores found in castings made in the pressure-difference unit. When the ultra high-speed centrifugal casting machine was used with the manufacturer's recommended mold material, the castability of titanium was similar to that of gold alloy or Ni-Cr alloy cast by conventional means. PMID:15348384

  10. [Evaluation of cervical gaps in complete metal crowns cast in alternative silver-tin alloys. Relationship to investing techniques].

    PubMed

    Vecchio, G M; Pretti, E; Vaz, R R; Zaniquelli, O

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate cervical mistifing of casting full metal crowns according to investment techniques using commercial available alloys made from silver stannum. Fifteen metal full crowns were obtained through stainless steel die with full crowns preparation, included into three groups as follows: conventional technique, vacuum technique and pressure technique. Readings of cervical disagreement were made through a comparing microscope increased 45 x and each crown was measured in 4 different regions (vestibular, lingual mesial and distal). This way it was verified which of the techniques proposed would balance the casting shrinkage for the silver-stannum alloy used. From the results obtained we conclude that the best cercical adaptation was the one got through pressure technique. PMID:2135769

  11. Development of dental casting and porcelainizing techniques for titanium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Taira, M.

    1986-01-01

    Casting of titanium metals has been difficult due to their high chemical reactivity at elevated temperatures. Thus, special melting and mold materials are needed. This study investigated molds, Ti alloys, and porcelain applications, utilizing a new dental casting machine, Castmatic. It involved argon-arc melting and subsequent argon/vacuum pressurized casting. Special refractory oxides such as yttria or Zirconia A were utilized for a face coat under phosphate bonded silica investment. Studies of Ti alloys (Ti, Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-15V, Ti-20Cu and Ti-30Pd) involved metallography, phase identification (XRD), hardness, tensile tests, and electrochemical-corrosion tests. Preliminary porcelain studies included an experimental low fusing porcelain along with commercial low fusing porcelains. The bond was evaluated by three-point bending tests and SEM/EDX observations. The yttria face coat was inert, but lacked the necessary mechanical and thermal stability. The face coat, consisting of Zirconia A and zirconium acetate binder, was stable and resulted in less mold reactivity, good internal soundness, but slightly rough surfaces. Metallographs revealed quite larger grains in the cast structure, than in the wrought forms. XRD analysis showed that quasi-equilibrium phases present.

  12. Characteristics comparison of weld metal zones welded to cast and forged steels for piston crown material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Kyung-Man; Kim, Yun-Hae; Lee, Myeong-Hoon; Baek, Tae-Sil

    2015-03-01

    An optimum repair welding for the piston crown which is one of the engine parts exposed to the combustion chamber is considered to be very important to prolong the engine lifetime from an economical point of view. In this study, two types of filler metals such as 1.25Cr-0.5Mo, 0.5Mo were welded with SMAW method and the other two types of filler metals such as Inconel 625 and 718 were welded with GTAW method, respectively, and the used base metals were the cast and forged steels of the piston crown material. The weld metal zones welded with Inconel 625 and 718 filler metals exhibited higher corrosion resistance compared to 1.25Cr-0.5Mo and 0.5Mo filler metals. In particular, the weld metal zone welded with Inconel 718 and 0.5Mo, filler metals indicated the best and worst corrosion resistance, respectively. Consequently, it is suggested that the corrosion resistance of the weld metal zone surely depends on the chemical components of each filler metal and welding method irrespective of the types of piston crown material.

  13. Feasibility of cold rolling titanium strip cast by the plasma melt overflow process

    SciTech Connect

    Gaspar, T.A.; Sukonnik, I.M.; Bird, R.K.; Brewer, W.D.

    1995-12-31

    A new fabrication method tailored specifically for titanium alloys and intermetallics combined direct strip casting and cold rolling to produce foil products by completely eliminating hot working steps. Titanium strips 0.4-mm- to 0.7-mm-thick and 100-mm-wide were cast by the plasma melt overflow process. The cast strips were cold rolled to 0.15-mm-thick, fully dense foils. The effect of thermal and mechanical treatments on the microstructure of the cast strip was investigated. The cold rolled foils were characterized by measurement of average surface roughness, chemical composition, gas content and tensile properties.

  14. Permanent mold casting of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V

    SciTech Connect

    Sadayappan, M.; Sahoo, M.; Lavender, C.; paul.jablonski, P.D.

    2008-01-01

    A literature review indicated that data on the effect of various casting defects, such as inclusions and porosity, on the properties of titanium alloy castings were not readily available. This information is required to reduce the cost of fabricating titanium castings for potential automotive applications. To this end, a research project was initiated to develop data on the as-cast properties of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64). Step plate castings with 3.2, 6.3, 13, and 25 mm thick steps were produced in a high-density graphite mold following melting in an induction furnace with water-cooled copper hearth. The mechanical properties were determined in the as-cast condition and were found to be close to the values reported in standards. Few casting defects such as inclusions and porosity were observed, and the loss of strength due to these defects is not significant. It is shown that titanium castings with good mechanical properties can be produced in high-density graphite molds.

  15. Barodontalgia: a review, and the influence of simulated diving on microleakage and on the retention of full cast crowns.

    PubMed

    Lyons, K M; Rodda, J C; Hood, J A

    1999-03-01

    This paper reviews the causes of barodontalgia and reports on a study that indicates a possible cause of barodontalgia in the diver. In the study, extracted teeth had full cast crowns cemented with either a zinc phosphate, a glass ionomer, or a resin cement, and simulated diving to 30 m (3.0 atmospheres) was performed. During simulated diving, the teeth were pressure cycled 15 times to 3 atmospheres and microleakage was monitored. The force required to dislodge the crown was then tested; a significant difference was found between the zinc phosphate and the glass ionomer cement groups (p < 0.01). No difference was found between the resin cement groups. Microleakage was also detected in the zinc phosphate and glass ionomer cement groups and was found to occur sooner, and to a greater extent with zinc phosphate. No microleakage was detected in the resin cement experimental group. This study showed that the retention of full cast crowns to extracted teeth is reduced after pressure cycling and that microleakage does occur if the crowns are cemented with either zinc phosphate cement or glass ionomer cement. PMID:10091498

  16. A comparative evaluation of the effect of dentin desensitizers on the retention of complete cast metal crowns

    PubMed Central

    Chandavarkar, Saili M.; Ram, Sabita M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Desensitizers are used to reduce dentin hypersensitivity. They affect the surface texture of prepared dentin and may alter the retention of fixed restorations. Aims: The aim was to evaluate the effect of dentin desensitizers on the retention of complete cast metal crowns luted with glass ionomer cement. Subjects and Methods: Fifty freshly extracted human premolars were subjected to standardized tooth preparation (20° total convergence, 4 mm axial height) with a computer numerically controlled machine. Individual cast metal crowns were fabricated from a base metal alloy. Dentin desensitizers included none (control), a glutaraldehyde (GLU) based primer (Gluma desensitizer), casein phosphopeptide (CPP)-amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) (GC Mousse), erbium, chromium: YSGG laser (Waterlase MD Turbo, Biolase) and Pro-Argin (Colgate Sensitive Pro-Relief desensitizing polishing paste). After desensitization, crowns were luted with glass ionomer cement and kept for 48 h at 37°C in 100% relative humidity. The samples were tested using a universal testing machine by applying a load at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis included One-way ANOVA, followed by the Scheffe post-hoc test with P < 0.05. Results: All dentin desensitizers showed significantly different values: Pro-Argin (4.10 Megapascals [Mpa]) < CPP-ACP (4.01 mpa) < GLU based primer (3.87 Mpa) < Virgin dentin (3.65 Mpa) < LASER (3.37 Mpa). Conclusions: On comparing the effect of prepared virgin dentin, GLU based primer, CPP-ACP, LASER and Pro-Argin on the retention of complete cast metal crowns luted with glass ionomer cement on prepared teeth, it can be concluded that Pro-Argin and CPP-ACP showed the best retention in this in vitro study. PMID:25821374

  17. A three-die cast technique for duplicating free gingival form in zirconia crowns: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Nozawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Koji; Tsurumaki, Shunzo; Ookame, Yasuhisa; Enomoto, Hiroaki; Ito, Koichi

    2012-08-01

    This report describes a duplication technique of free gingival form from a provisional restoration to a zirconia crown. Three die casts were manufactured from a silicone impression with an acrylic resin ring tray. The first die cast was for the zirconia framework, the second for the provisionalized transfer coping, and the third for relining the provisional restoration. A free gingival impression was taken using a provisionalized transfer coping, and a soft gingival cast was manufactured. The depth of free gingival transparency was measured using a zirconia shade plate. Then, the zirconia framework was customized to allow for subgingival porcelain space. This technique seems to contribute to the clinical-laboratory interface in computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture restorations. PMID:22577656

  18. All-cast-titanium removable partial denture for a patient with a severely reduced interarch distance: a case report.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, N; Mizutani, H; Ai, M

    1997-03-01

    A patient had a maxillary posterior edentulous area and severely reduced interarch distance that precluded the use of a conventional removable partial denture. An all-cast-titanium denture base and occlusal surface was designed to fabricate a removable denture to restore the edentulous area. Titanium was cast in a centrifugal casting machine with electric are melting design. The desirable characteristics of titanium, such as favorable mechanical properties, low density, and comparatively low cost, make this metal particularly effective and suitable for construction of an all-cast-metal denture base with a metal occlusal surface. PMID:9452683

  19. Castability and surface hardness of titanium cast plates obtained from experimental phosphate-bonded silica investment molds.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, J; Zhang, J Z; Okazaki, M

    1993-12-01

    The effect of 12 different experimental compositions of phosphate-bonded SiO2 investments was examined on cast pure titanium. The mold temperature was 600 degrees C and the casting was conducted with an argon-arc melting and pressure casting machine. Castability was evaluated by the volume of casting porosity, which was calculated from the volume of wax pattern (15 mm x 15 mm x 1.5 mm), the weight of cast plate and the specific density of pure titanium. The existence of inner casting porosities was confirmed by an X-ray non-destructive inspection instrument. Cast plates made in molds with cristobalite had significantly lower castability and higher surface hardness than those in molds with quartz as a refractory material. Cast plates in molds (quartz-cristobalite mixtures) with 20% binder had lower surface hardness and fewer casting porosities than those in molds with 10% binder. PMID:8004919

  20. Long-term follow-up of conical crown-retained dentures fabricated using different technologies.

    PubMed

    Pietruski, Jan K; Pietruska, Malgorzata D; Sajewicz, Eugeniusz

    2012-08-01

    This study presents the results of a long-term clinical evaluation of conical crown-retained dentures fabricated using different technologies. Four different material connections between the outer and inner crowns were used: cast gold/cast gold, cast gold/electroforming, nonprecious alloy/electroforming, and titanium abutment/electroforming. Technical failures and retention values were assessed. The best clinical outcome was found with dentures in which both crowns were cast from gold alloy. The most frequent technical failures were observed in restorations with electroformed outer crowns. Better clinical outcomes were noted when the electroformed outer crowns were used in dentures retained by implants as compared to dentures on natural dentition. PMID:22577653

  1. Effect of Titanium on the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Gray Cast Iron for Automotive Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfi, M.; Gorini, D.; Pola, A.; La Vecchia, G. M.

    2016-07-01

    Lamellar gray cast iron, with a mainly pearlitic microstructure, is widely used in the automotive industry, mostly in the manufacturing of brake disks. This work analyzes in depth the effects of small variations of titanium content on the microstructure and mechanical properties of cast iron brake disks. For this purpose, eight different heats of EN-GJL-250 cast iron were selected, with a similar chemical composition but with different titanium contents, varying from 0.013 to 0.031%. The drops in mechanical strength and hardness values measured on the high-Ti samples were correlated to microstructural variations quantitatively observed by means of optical and scanning electron microscope. It was found that titanium combines to form titanium nitrides, suppressing the beneficial microstructural effects of nitrogen at solidification. Residual nitrogen, if present in sufficient quantity, promotes the nucleation of primary austenite from the liquid and the formation of a fine microstructure, with small eutectic cells and lower graphite content. Such a microstructure provides brake disks with better mechanical properties. The interpretation of results was further supported by thermal analysis and thermodynamic calculations.

  2. Phased Arrays Techniques and Split Spectrum Processing for Inspection of Thick Titanium Casting Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banchet, J.; Sicard, R.; Zellouf, D. E.; Chahbaz, A.

    2003-03-01

    In aircraft structures, titanium parts and engine members are critical structural components, and their inspection crucial. However, these structures are very difficult to inspect ultrasonically because of their large grain structure that increases noise drastically. In this work, phased array inspection setups were developed to detected small defects such as simulated inclusions and porosity contained in thick titanium casting blocks, which are frequently used in the aerospace industry. A Cut Spectrum Processing (CSP)-based algorithm was then implemented on the acquired data by employing a set of parallel bandpass filters with different center frequencies. This process led in substantial improvement of the signal to noise ratio and thus, of detectability.

  3. Shadow-casted ultrathin surface coatings of titanium and titanium/silicon oxide sol particles via ultrasound-assisted deposition.

    PubMed

    Karahan, H Enis; Birer, Özgür; Karakuş, Kerem; Yıldırım, Cansu

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasound-assisted deposition (USAD) of sol nanoparticles enables the formation of uniform and inherently stable thin films. However, the technique still suffers in coating hard substrates and the use of fast-reacting sol-gel precursors still remains challenging. Here, we report on the deposition of ultrathin titanium and titanium/silicon hybrid oxide coatings using hydroxylated silicon wafers as a model hard substrate. We use acetic acid as the catalyst which also suppresses the reactivity of titanium tetraisopropoxide while increasing the reactivity of tetraethyl orthosilicate through chemical modifications. Taking the advantage of this peculiar behavior, we successfully prepared titanium and titanium/silicon hybrid oxide coatings by USAD. Varying the amount of acetic acid in the reaction media, we managed to modulate thickness and surface roughness of the coatings in nanoscale. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy studies showed the formation of conformal coatings having nanoroughness. Quantitative chemical state maps obtained by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggested the formation of ultrathin (<10nm) coatings and thickness measurements by rotating analyzer ellipsometry supported this observation. For the first time, XPS chemical maps revealed the transport effect of ultrasonic waves since coatings were directly cast on rectangular substrates as circular shadows of the horn with clear thickness gradient from the center to the edges. In addition to the progress made in coating hard substrates, employing fast-reacting precursors and achieving hybrid coatings; this report provides the first visual evidence on previously suggested "acceleration and smashing" mechanism as the main driving force of USAD. PMID:26964975

  4. Micromechanical Characterization and Texture Analysis of Direct Cast Titanium Alloys Strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine a post-processing technique to optimize mechanical and material properties of a number of Titanium based alloys and aluminides processed via Melt Overflow Solidification Technique (MORST). This technique was developed by NASA for the development of thin sheet titanium and titanium aluminides used in high temperature applications. The materials investigated in this study included conventional titanium alloy strips and foils, Ti-1100, Ti-24Al-11Nb (Alpha-2), and Ti-48Al-2Ta (Gamma). The methodology used included micro-characterization, heat-treatment, mechanical processing and mechanical testing. Characterization techniques included optical, electron microscopy, and x-ray texture analysis. The processing included heat-treatment and mechanical deformation through cold rolling. The initial as-cast materials were evaluated for their microstructure and mechanical properties. Different heat-treatment and rolling steps were chosen to process these materials. The properties were evaluated further and a processing relationship was established in order to obtain an optimum processing condition. The results showed that the as-cast material exhibited a Widmanstatten (fine grain) microstructure that developed into a microstructure with larger grains through processing steps. The texture intensity showed little change for all processing performed in this investigation.

  5. Adhesion enhancement of titanium nitride coating on aluminum casting alloy by intrinsic microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Chuong L.; Preston, Andrew; Tran, Anh T. T.; Dickinson, Michelle; Metson, James B.

    2016-07-01

    Aluminum casting alloys have excellent castability, high strength and good corrosion resistance. However, the presence of silicon in these alloys prevents surface finishing with conventional methods such as anodizing. Hard coating with titanium nitride can provide wear and corrosion resistances, as well as the aesthetic finish. A critical factor for a durable hard coating is its bonding with the underlying substrate. In this study, a titanium nitride layer was coated on LM25 casting alloy and a reference high purity aluminum substrate using Ion Assisted Deposition. Characterization of the coating and the critical interface was carried out by a range of complementing techniques, including SIMS, XPS, TEM, SEM/EDS and nano-indentation. It was observed that the coating on the aluminum alloy is stronger compared to that on the pure aluminum counterpart. Silicon particles in the alloy offers the reinforcement though mechanical interlocking at microscopic level, even with nano-scale height difference. This reinforcement overcomes the adverse effect caused by surface segregation of magnesium in aluminum casting alloys.

  6. Custom-made laser-welded titanium implant prosthetic abutment.

    PubMed

    Iglesia-Puig, Miguel A

    2005-10-01

    A technique to create an individually modified implant prosthetic abutment is described. An overcasting is waxed onto a machined titanium abutment, cast in titanium, and joined to it with laser welding. With the proposed technique, a custom-made titanium implant prosthetic abutment is created with adequate volume and contour of metal to support a screw-retained, metal-ceramic implant-supported crown. PMID:16198181

  7. A novel seeding methodology for determining the detectability and effects of inclusions in titanium castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ret, Paul Louis

    A novel artificial inclusion seeding methodology was developed to simulate actual titanium investment casting inclusions. Inclusions were added to machined holes in cast titanium plate (Ti-6Al-4V). After being welded closed in a vacuum, hot isostatic pressing (HIP) was utilized to incorporate the inclusions into the cast material. To validate that this methodology did not result in inherent mechanical property degradation, machined, backfilled, and HIPed holes were produced and compared to virgin, cast Ti-6Al-4V material. Fatigue test results indicated that the drill and HIP methodology did not result in any fundamental mechanical property degradation that would bias comparative results. Validation that the artificially seeded inclusions were equivalent to "as cast" inclusions was completed. The nondestructive inspection response (to multiple techniques), mechanical fatigue behavior, and metallographic characteristics of the inclusions artificially seeded by the developed methodology were determined to be indecipherable from "as cast" inclusions. The industry need for supporting data in terms of nondestructive inspection, metallography, and fatigue life was also addressed by this work. The data generated to evaluate the novel seeding methodology was examined with respect to Ti-6Al-4V casting design and inspection needs. The industry methodology for developing radiographic probability of detection data for both ceramic and hard alpha inclusions was determined to be unconservative. The absence of a reaction zone surrounding inclusions placed on varying thicknesses of material prior to radiographic inspection resulted in an overestimation of what is detectable during manufacturing inspections. Metallographic and mechanical data indicate that of the fatigue life effects of the diffusion zone surrounding hard alpha inclusions are minor compared to the effects of the inclusions themselves. Modeling hard alpha inclusions as sharp penny cracks accounting for a "fixed

  8. Fatigue Life of Cast Titanium Alloys Under Simulated Denture Framework Displacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Mari; Chan, Kwai S.; Hummel, Susan K.; Mason, Robert L.; Okabe, Toru

    2013-02-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the hypothesis that the mechanical properties and fatigue behavior of removable partial dentures (RPD) made from cast titanium alloys can be improved by alloying with low-cost, low-melting elements such as Cu, Al, and Fe using commercially pure Ti (CP-Ti) and Ti-6Al-4V as controls. RPD specimens in the form of rest-shaped, clasp, rectangular-shaped specimens and round-bar tensile specimens were cast using an experimental Ti-5Al-5Cu alloy, Ti-5Al-1Fe, and Ti-1Fe in an Al2O3-based investment with a centrifugal-casting machine. The mechanical properties of the alloys were determined by performing tensile tests under a controlled displacement rate. The fatigue life of the RPD specimens was tested by the three-point bending in an MTS testing machine under a cyclic displacement of 0.5 mm. Fatigue tests were performed at 10 Hz at ambient temperature until the specimens failed into two pieces. The tensile data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA (α = 0.05) and the fatigue life data were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (α = 0.05). The experimental Ti-5Al-5Cu alloy showed a significantly higher average fatigue life than that of either CP-Ti or Ti-5Al-1Fe alloy ( p < 0.05). SEM fractography showed that the fatigue cracks initiated from surface grains, surface pores, or hard particles in surface grains instead of the internal casting pores. Among the alloys tested, the Ti-5Al-5Cu alloy exhibited favorable results in fabricating dental appliances with an excellent fatigue behavior compared with other commercial alloys.

  9. Tensile properties of cast titanium alloys: Titanium-6Al-4V ELI and Titanium-5Al-2.5Sn ELI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billinghurst, E. E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This work was performed to determine the tensile properties of cast, hot isostatic pressed (HIP'ed), and annealed titanium alloys, Ti-6Al-4V ELI and Ti-5Al-2.5Sn ELI, that are candidate materials for the space transportation main engine (STME) liquid hydrogen turbopump impeller. Samples of the cast alloys were HIP'ed, annealed, and machined into tensile specimens. The specimens were tested in air at ambient temperature (70 F) and also at -423 F in liquid hydrogen. The Ti-6Al-4V alloy had an average ultimate strength of 129.1 ksi at 70 F and 212.2 ksi at -423 F. The Ti-5Al-2.5Sn alloy had an average ultimate strength of 108.4 ksi at 70 degrees F and 185.0 ksi at -423 F. The ductility, as measured by reduction of area, for the Ti-6Al-4V averaged 15.2 percent at 70 F and 8.7 percent at -423 F, whereas for the Ti-5Al-2.5Sn alloy average reduction of area was 24.6 percent at 70 F and 11.7 percent at -423 F.

  10. Effect of Topical Fluoride on Surface of Cast Titanium and Nickel-Chromium: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Nadiger, Ramesh Khandurao; Shetty, Omkar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the effect of topical fluoride on surface of cast titanium and nickel-chromium. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine rectangular specimens of titanium (grade 2) and 39 rectangular specimens of nickel-chromium were cast in equal dimensions and divided into three groups of 13 samples each. Group one specimens of titanium and nickel-chromium were placed in 2% neutral sodium fluoride (NaF) solution for 16 minutes. Group two specimens of titanium and nickel-chromium were immersed in 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel for eight minutes. Group three specimens of titanium and nickel-chromium were immersed in distilled water for 16 minutes. The surface roughness of the specimens was evaluated and the data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and post-hoc comparison test with the level of significance set at 5% (P< 0.05). The surface of the specimens was further analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Results: Group two titanium specimens showed a statistically significant increase in surface roughness (P<0.05); but no statistically significant increase was noted in the surface roughness of nickel-chromium specimens in groups one, two and three (P>0.05). Qualitative SEM and EDS analyses further revealed the surface corrosion of titanium (group two) and localized mild corrosive pitting of nickel-chromium specimens (group two). Conclusion: Topical fluoride with acidic pH affects the surface roughness of titanium and to a certain extent, nickel-chromium. Neutral NaF solutions cause no significant change in corrosion resistance of titanium or nickel-chromium. PMID:26884773

  11. CAD/CAM ZIRCONIA VS. SLIP-CAST GLASS-INFILTRATED ALUMINA/ZIRCONIA ALL-CERAMIC CROWNS: 2-YEAR RESULTS OF A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Çehreli, Murat Cavit; Kökat, Ali Murat; Akça, Kivanç

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to compare the early clinical outcome of slip-cast glass-infiltrated Alumina/Zirconia and CAD/CAM Zirconia all-ceramic crowns. A total of 30 InCeram® Zirconia and Cercon® Zirconia crowns were fabricated and cemented with a glass ionomer cement in 20 patients. At baseline, 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year recall appointments, Californian Dental Association (CDA) quality evaluation system was used to evaluate the prosthetic replacements, and plaque and gingival index scores were used to explore the periodontal outcome of the treatments. No clinical sign of marginal discoloration, persistent pain and secondary caries was detected in any of the restorations. All InCeram® Zirconia crowns survived during the 2-year period, although one nonvital tooth experienced root fracture coupled with the fracture of the veneering porcelain of the restoration. One Cercon® Zirconia restoration fractured and was replaced. According to the CDA criteria, marginal integrity was rated excellent for InCeram® Zirconia (73%) and Cercon® Zirconia (80%) restorations, respectively. Slight color mismatch rate was higher for InCeram® Zirconia restorations (66%) than Cercon® Zirconia (26%) restorations. Plaque and gingival index scores were mostly zero and almost constant over time. Time-dependent changes in plaque and gingival index scores within and between groups were statistically similar (p>0.05). This clinical study demonstrates that single-tooth InCeram® Zirconia and Cercon® Zirconia crowns have comparable early clinical outcome, both seem as acceptable treatment modalities, and most importantly, all-ceramic alumina crowns strengthened by 25% zirconia can sufficiently withstand functional load in the posterior zone. PMID:19148406

  12. Vertical misfit of laser-sintered and vacuum-cast implant-supported crown copings luted with definitive and temporary luting agents

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Turrión, Andrés; López-Lozano, José F.; Albaladejo, Alberto; Torres-Lagares, Daniel; Montero, Javier; Suárez-García, Maria J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to evaluate the vertical discrepancy of implant-supported crown structures constructed with vacuum-casting and Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) technologies, and luted with different cement types. Study Design. Crown copings were fabricated using: (1) direct metal laser sintered Co-Cr (LS); (2) vacuum-cast Co-Cr (CC); and (3) vacuum-cast Ti (CT). Frameworks were luted onto machined implant abutments under constant seating pressure. Each alloy group was randomly divided into 5 subgroups (n = 10 each) according to the cement system utilized: Subgroup 1 (KC) used resin-modified glass-ionomer Ketac Cem Plus; Subgroup 2 (PF) used Panavia F 2.0 dual-cure resin cement; Subgroup 3 (RXU) used RelyX Unicem 2 Automix self-adhesive dual-cure resin cement; Subgroup 4 (PIC) used acrylic/urethane-based temporary Premier Implant Cement; and Subgroup 5 (DT) used acrylic/urethane-based temporary DentoTemp cement. Vertical misfit was measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Two-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls tests were run to investigate the effect of alloy/fabrication technique, and cement type on vertical misfit. The statistical significance was set at α = 0.05. Results. The alloy/manufacturing technique and the luting cement affected the vertical discrepancy (p < 0.001). For each cement type, LS samples exhibited the best fit (p < 0.01) whereas CC and CT frames were statistically similar. Within each alloy group, PF and RXU provided comparably greater discrepancies than KC, PIC, and DT, which showed no differences. Conclusions. Laser sintering may be an alternative to vacuum-casting of base metals to obtain passive-fitting implant-supported crown copings. The best marginal adaptation corresponded to laser sintered structures luted with glass-ionomer KC, or temporary PIC or DT cements. The highest discrepancies were recorded for Co-Cr and Ti cast frameworks bonded with PF or RXU resinous agents. All groups were within the clinically

  13. Adhesive bonding of super-elastic titanium-nickel alloy castings with a phosphate metal conditioner and an acrylic adhesive.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, H; Tanoue, N; Yanagida, H; Atsuta, M; Koike, M; Yoneyama, T

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the bonding characteristics of super-elastic titanium-nickel (Ti-Ni) alloy castings. Disk specimens were cast from a Ti-Ni alloy (Ti-50.85Ni mol%) using an arc centrifugal casting machine. High-purity titanium and nickel specimens were also prepared as experimental references. The specimens were air-abraded with alumina, and bonded with an adhesive resin (Super-Bond C & B). A metal conditioner containing a phosphate monomer (Cesead II Opaque Primer) was also used for priming the specimens. Post-thermocycling average bond strengths (MPa) of the primed groups were 41.5 for Ti-Ni, 30.4 for Ti and 19.5 for Ni, whereas those of the unprimed groups were 21.6 for Ti, 19.3 for Ti-Ni and 9.3 for Ni. Application of the phosphate conditioner elevated the bond strengths of all alloy/metals (P < 0.05). X-ray fluorescence analysis revealed that nickel was attached to the debonded resin surface of the resin-to-nickel bonded specimen, indicating that corrosion of high-purity nickel occurred at the resin-nickel interface. Durable bonding to super-elastic Ti-Ni alloy castings can be achieved with a combination of a phosphate metal conditioner and a tri-n-butylborane-initiated adhesive resin. PMID:12787464

  14. Effect of Vertical Misfit on Screw Joint Stability of Implant-Supported Crowns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves; Delben, Juliana Aparecida; Tabata, Lucas Fernando; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Gomes, Érica Alves

    2011-08-01

    The passive fit between prosthesis and implant is a relevant factor for screw joint stability and treatment success. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of vertical misfit in abutment-implant interface on preload maintenance of retention screw of implant-supported crowns. The crowns were fabricated with different abutments and veneering materials and divided into 5 groups ( n = 12): Gold UCLA abutments cast in gold alloy veneered with ceramic (Group I) and resin (Group II), UCLA abutments cast in titanium veneered with ceramic (Group III) and resin (Group IV), and zirconia abutments with ceramic veneering (Group V). The crowns were attached to implants by gold retention screws with 35-N cm insertion torque. Specimens were submitted to mechanical cycling up to 106 cycles. Measurements of detorque and vertical misfit in abutment-implant interface were performed before and after mechanical cycling. ANOVA revealed statistically significant difference ( P < 0.05) among groups for vertical misfit measured before and after mechanical cycling. The abutments cast in titanium exhibited the highest misfit values. Pearson correlation test did not demonstrate significant correlation ( P > 0.05) between vertical misfit and detorque value. It was concluded that vertical misfit did not influence torque maintenance and the abutments cast in titanium exhibited the highest misfit values.

  15. Investigations on Microstructures and Toughness of Fe-B Cast Alloy Containing Titanium and Nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Dawei; Zhang, Zhiyun; Fu, Hanguang; Yang, Chengyan

    2013-11-01

    The effects of titanium and nitrogen elements on the microstructure and impact toughness of the Fe-B alloy have been studied. The results show that the borides are refined after the additions of titanium and nitrogen elements. With the additions of titanium and nitrogen, titanium nitrides are formed in the Fe-B alloy. Titanium nitride can act as effective heterogeneous nuclei of primary austenite, and promote the refinement of austenite and boride. After heat treatment, the impact toughness of Fe-B alloys modified by titanium and nitrogen elements is higher than that of ordinary alloy.

  16. A comparison of the marginal adaptation of cathode-arc vapor-deposited titanium and cast base metal copings

    PubMed Central

    Wu, JC; Lai, LC; Sheets, CG; Earthman, J; Newcomb, R

    2011-01-01

    Statement of problem A new fabrication process has been developed where a titanium coping, which has a gold colored titanium nitride outer layer can be reliably fused to porcelain, but the marginal adaptation characteristics are still undetermined. Purpose The primary purpose of this study is to compare the rate of Clinically Acceptable Marginal Adaptation (CAMA-defined as a marginal gap mean ≤60 μm) of cathode-arc vapor-deposited titanium with the CAMA rate for the cast base metal copings. In addition, the study will evaluate the marginal gap scores themselves to assess their mean difference between the two study groups. Finally, the study will present two analyses of group differences in variability to support the contention that the titanium copings perform more consistently than their base metal counterparts. Material and methods Thirty-seven cathode-arc vapor-deposited titanium copings and 40 cast base metal copings were evaluated by computer-based image analysis using an optical microscope. The conventional lost wax technique was used to fabricate the 40 cast base metal copings that were 0.3 mm thick. The titanium copings were 0.3 mm thick and were formed by a collection of atomic titanium vapor onto a refractory die duplicate in a high vacuum chamber. Fifty vertical marginal gap measurements were collected from each of the 77 copings and the mean of these measurements was computed to form a gap score for each coping. Next, the gap score was compared to the 60 μm criterion to classify each coping as to whether it did or did not achieve Clinically Acceptable Marginal Adaption (CAMA). A comparison of the CAMA rates for each type of coping was used to address the primary purpose of this study. In addition, the gap scores themselves were used to test the (one-sided) hypothesis that the mean of the titanium gap scores is smaller than the mean of the base metal gap scores. Finally, the assertion that the titanium copings provide more consistency in their

  17. [Cervical discrepancies and closeness of marginal fit of full cast crowns in correlation with the luting agent used].

    PubMed

    Utz, K H; Grüner, M; Vothknecht, R

    1989-11-01

    In an in-vitro study 75 extracted teeth were prepared with a chamfer and a 12 degree convergence angle. After corrective impression taking and preparation of the dies accurately fitting caps were made of "Stabilor G" alloy. The marginal defects were measured at 4 points on each tooth under the light-microscope before and after cementing with three different luting agents. Before cementation the mean values and standard deviation of the cervical discrepancies were 105 +/- 43 microns. The crowns fixed by means of zinc oxyphosphate cement (Harvard) exhibited marginal defects of 142 +/- 33 microns, those fixed with Fuji-Ionomer type I glass polyalkenoate cement had 159 +/- 20 microns, and the crowns cemented with Ketac-Cem had 127 +/- 6 microns. After exposing the specimens to thermal cycling, additional data on the sealing capacity of these cements could be obtained which showed zinc oxyphosphate cement to have the most favorable properties. PMID:2639008

  18. Corrosion resistance of cast irons and titanium alloys as reference engineered metal barriers for use in basalt geologic storage: a literature assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Charlot, L.A.; Westerman, R.E.

    1981-07-01

    A survey and assessment of the literature on the corrosion resistance of cast irons and low-alloy titanium are presented. Selected engineering properties of cast iron and titanium are briefly described; however, the corrosion resistance of cast iron and titanium in aqueous solutions or in soils and their use in a basalt repository are emphasized. In evaluating the potential use of cast iron and titanium as structural barrier materials for long-lived nuclear waste packages, it is assumed that titanium has the general corrosion resistance to be used in relatively thin cross sections whereas the cost and availability of cast iron allows its use even in very thick cross sections. Based on this assumption, the survey showed that: The uniform corrosion of low-alloy titanium in a basalt environment is expected to be extremely low. A linear extrapolation of general corrosion rates with an added corrosion allowance suggests that a 3.2- to 6.4-mm-thick wall may have a life of 1000 yr. Pitting and crevice corrosion are not likely corrosion modes in basalt ground waters. It is also unlikely that stress corrosion cracking (SCC) will occur in the commercially pure (CP) titanium alloy or in palladiumor molybdenum-alloyed titanium materials. Low-alloy cast irons may be used as barrier metals if the environment surrounding the metal keeps the alloy in the passive range. The solubility of the corrosion product and the semipermeable nature of the oxide film allow significant uniform corrosion over long time periods. A linear extrapolation of high-temperature corrosion rates on carbon steels and corrosion rates of cast irons in soils gives an estimated metal penetration of 51 to 64 mm after 1000 yr. A corrosion allowance of 3 to 5 times that suggests that an acceptable cast iron wall may be from 178 to 305 mm thick. Although they cannot be fully assessed, pitting and crevice corrosion should not affect cast iron due to the ground-water chemistry of basalt.

  19. Titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, G.J.

    1997-01-01

    The article contains a summary of factors pertinent to titanium use. Geology and exploitation, production processes, global production, titanium dioxide and alloy applications, and the titanium market are reviewed. Potential applications outlined are for oil and gas equipment and for the automotive industry. Titanium alloys were selected for drilling risers for North Sea oil and gas drilling platforms due to a high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. These properties also make titanium alloys attractive for auto parts, although the cost is currently prohibitive.

  20. Titanium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedinger, G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Titanium is the ninth most abundant element in the earth’s crust and can be found in nearly all rocks and sediments. It is a lithophile element with a strong affinity for oxygen and is not found as a pure metal in nature. Titanium was first isolated as a pure metal in 1910, but it was not until 1948 that metal was produced commercially using the Kroll process (named after its developer, William Kroll) to reduce titanium tetrachloride with magnesium to produce titanium metal.

  1. Interfacial reaction in cast WC particulate reinforced titanium metal matrix composites coating produced by laser processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dejian; Hu, Peipei; Min, Guoqing

    2015-06-01

    Laser injection of ceramic particle was conducted to produce particulate reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs) coating on Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Cast WC particle (WCp) was used as injection reinforcement to avoid excessive release of carbon atoms into the melt pool. The interfaces and boundaries between WC and Ti matrix were investigated by electron microscopy study. Compared with single crystal WCp, cast WCp was an appropriate solution to control the reaction products (TiC) in the matrix and the total amount of reaction products was significantly reduced. Irregular-shape reaction layers were formed around cast WCp. The reaction layers consist of a W2C layer and a mixed layer of W and TiC. Such reaction layers are effective in load transfer under an external load.

  2. Optimizing strength and fracture toughness of a cast titanium alloy through heat treatment and microstructure control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Amy C.

    The relationship between the microstructure and tensile ductility and fracture toughness for cast Ti-5111 was determined and compared to that of hot-rolled and annealed Ti-5111. Graphite mold cast Ti-5111 plate material was examined in the as-received condition and after six different heat treatments involving elevated temperature anneals followed by an air or furnace cool. Three investment cast Ti-5111 plates were also examined after annealing followed by either a fan cool, air cool, or furnace cool. All castings developed a lamellar colony microstructure consisting of aligned lamellae of alpha and beta phases. Altering the cooling rate from the annealing temperature had the most influence on the microstructure such that plates with a slower cooling rate typically developed coarser grain boundary alpha, larger alpha colonies, thicker alpha laths, and greater volume fractions of alpha phase. The average prior beta grain size for the graphite mold cast specimens ranged from 920 mum to 1360 mum, while that for the investment cast specimens was approximately 1750 mum. The tensile behavior of the castings was characterized by a crack initiation and propagation process where the ductility was often limited by the strain required to initiate a large crack. The cracks formed along planar slip bands that crossed alpha colonies or in some cases, entire prior beta grains. Thus, reducing the alpha colony size and prior beta grain size should improve the casting ductility by limiting the length of slip-induced cracks. Due to the large grain and colony sizes present in the castings, the strength and ductility was observed to be sensitive to specimen size such that a smaller tensile diameter (i.e. 3.2 mm as compared to 12.5 mm) decreased the tensile and yield strengths due to the high fraction of large grains located on the specimen surface that can yield by predominantly single slip. The scatter in ductility values in the smaller specimens was significantly greater as a result

  3. Effects of the Exposure to Corrosive Salts on the Frictional Behavior of Gray Cast Iron and a Titanium-Based Metal Matrix Composite

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian; Truhan, Jr., John J; Kenik, Edward A

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of increasingly aggressive road-deicing chemicals has created significant and costly corrosion problems for the trucking industry. From a tribological perspective, corrosion of the sliding surfaces of brakes after exposure to road salts can create oxide scales on the surfaces that affect friction. This paper describes experiments on the effects of exposure to sodium chloride and magnesium chloride sprays on the transient frictional behavior of cast iron and a titanium-based composite sliding against a commercial brake lining material. Corrosion scales on cast iron initially act as abrasive third-bodies, then they become crushed, spread out, and behave as a solid lubricant. The composition and subsurface microstructures of the corrosion products on the cast iron were analyzed. Owing to its greater corrosion resistance, the titanium composite remained scale-free and its frictional response was markedly different. No corrosion scales were formed on the titanium composite after aggressive exposure to salts; however, a reduction in friction was still observed. Unlike the crystalline sodium chloride deposits that tended to remain dry, hygroscopic magnesium chloride deposits absorbed ambient moisture from the air, liquefied, and retained a persistent lubricating effect on the titanium surfaces.

  4. Quantitative chemical analysis of nickel-chromium dental casting alloys.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, K; Kuroiwa, A; Ando, Y; Hashimoto, H

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-nine brands of dental casting nickel-chromium alloys made in Japan for small castings were analyzed by electron probe X-ray microanalyzer. Nickel-chromium alloys for metal-ceramic application were composed primarily of nickel, chromium, and molybdenum with the exception of one brand. Of the nickel-chromium alloys for inlay, crown, and bridgework applications, 11 of the 22 alloys were up to the standard of the Ministry of Welfare specifications. And additive metal elements of these alloys were molybdenum, iron, copper, manganese, aluminum, silicon, tin, indium, silver, titanium, and gallium. PMID:2134288

  5. THE ELECTROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF FOUR DENTAL CASTING SUPRASTRUCTURE ALLOYS COUPLED WITH TITANIUM IMPLANTS

    PubMed Central

    Tuna, Suleyman Hakan; Pekmez, Nuran Ozcícek; Keyf, Filiz; Canlí, Fulya

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: As the choice of suprastructure alloy to be combined with titanium for the oral cavity is still a much debated issue, the aim of this study was to investigate the electrochemical interaction of the suprastructure/implant couples under the determined experiment conditions. Material and Methods: The potentiodynamic polarization curves and open-circuit potentials (OCP) of four UCLA type suprastructures coupled with straight Swiss Plus implant fixtures were taken in Afnor type artificial saliva solution at 37°C. The concentration of ions leached into artificial saliva solutions was estimated with ICP-MS. SEM images of the margins of suprastructure/implant couples were obtained before and after the electrochemical tests. Results: The OCP value of titanium became passive at the most negative potential. The lowest difference between the initial and constant OCP value was exhibited by the Au based suprastructure. Suprastructures made greater contributions to the potentiodynamic polarization curves of the implant/suprastructure couples. According to the ICP-MS results, Pd based and Au based couples dissolved less than Co-Ni based and Co-Cr based couples. Conclusions: Within the conditions this study, it may be concluded that the titanium implant forms a stable passive oxide layer in artificial saliva exposed to open air and does not affect the corrosion properties of the suprastructures. Pd based and Au based couples have been found to be more corrosion-resistant than base alloy couples. PMID:19936528

  6. Structure, castability and mechanical properties of commercially pure and alloyed titanium cast in graphite mould.

    PubMed

    Cheng, W W; Ju, C P; Lin, J H Chern

    2007-07-01

    This report is a study of structure, castability, mechanical properties as well as corrosion behaviour of titanium doped with up to 5 weight percentage (wt%) of a series of alloy elements, including Ta, Mo, Nb, Hf, Zr, Sn, Bi and Ag. The results indicate that, with addition of 1 wt% alloy element, Bi and Mo were most effective in enhancing the castability of titanium. With more alloy elements added, the castability values of most alloys more or less decreased. Except Ti-Mo system, all Ti alloys with a fine acicular morphology had the same crystal structure (hcp) as that of c.p. Ti with a typical lath type morphology. When 3 wt% or more Mo was added, a finer orthorhombic alpha'' phase was formed. The microhardness and bending strength values of Ti alloys were all higher than those of c.p. Ti. Among all alloys, Ti-Mo system exhibited the highest hardness and strength level. For a certain alloy, the bending strength did not necessarily increase with its alloy content. Except Ti-5Zr and Ti-Mo alloys, the bending moduli of most alloy systems were not much different from that of c.p. Ti. All alloys showed an excellent resistance to corrosion in Hanks' solution at 37 degrees C. PMID:17559621

  7. Effect of Titanium and Niobium on Modifying the Microstructure of Cast K100 Tool Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaee, Masoud; Momeni, Amir; Keshmiri, Hamid; Razavinejad, Reza

    2014-12-01

    The effects of Ti and Nb on the microstructure of cast K100 tool steel were studied by optical and scanning electron microscopes. The amounts of Ti as 0.3, 0.7, and 1 wt pct and Nb as 0.2 and 1 wt pct were added to the studied steel. The addition of 0.3 wt pct Ti did not result in a considerable change in the size of carbides and prior austenite grain size. However, microstructure of K100 with 0.7 and 1 wt pct Ti was considerably modified (about 55 pct) and a uniform grain size was obtained at different positions (bottom, middle, and top) of the ingot. With addition of 0.2 and 1 wt pct Nb, microstructure was modified and a more uniform grain size was obtained all over the ingot. The average modification of microstructure in the bottom, middle, and top of the ingot was about 22 pct. Both Ti and Nb could effectively decrease the segregation of Cr and C from the bottom (high cooling rate positions) to the top of the ingots (low cooling rate positions). The homogeneity of chemical composition increased with increasing Nb or Ti. In alloy with 0.7 to 1 wt pct Ti, the average size of prior austenite grains was finer than alloys with 0.2 to 1 wt pct Nb. Therefore, Ti was found more capable than Nb in the modification of microstructure and decreasing the segregation of Cr and C in cast K100 tool steel.

  8. Removal of failed crown and bridge

    PubMed Central

    Rahul, G R.; Poduval, Soorya T.; Shetty, Karunakar

    2012-01-01

    Crown and bridge have life span of many years but they fail for a number of reasons. Over the years, many devices have been designed to remove crowns and bridges from abutment teeth. While the removal of temporary crowns and bridges is usually very straightforward, the removal of a definitive cast crown with unknown cement is more challenging. Removal is often by destructive means. There are a number of circumstances, however, in which conservative disassembly would aid the practitioner in completing restorative/endodontic procedures. There are different mechanisms available to remove a failed crown or bridge. But there is no information published about the classification of available systems for crown and bridge removal. So it is logical to classify these systems into different groups which can help a clinician in choosing a particular type of system depending upon the clinical situation. The aim of this article is to provide a classification for various crown and bridge removal systems; describe how a number of systems work; and when and why they might be used. A PubMed search of English literature was conducted up to January 2010 using the terms: Crown and bridge removal, Crown and bridge disassembly, Crown and bridge failure. Additionally, the bibliographies of 3 previous reviews, their cross references as well as articles published in various journals like International Endodontic Journal, Journal of Endodontics and were manually searched. Key words:Crown and bridge removal, Crown and bridge disassembly, Crown and bridge failure. PMID:24558549

  9. Crown Gall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crown gall disease occurs on diverse dicotyledonous and gymnospermous plant species worldwide. Reports of crown gall on hop date back to at least 1929, and the disease has been reported from most countries where hop is or has been grown commercially. The epidemiology of the causal bacterium, Agrob...

  10. Crown gall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crown gall is uncommon in alfalfa. The disease has been reported from alfalfa stands in the Imperial Valley of California, but rare infected plants can be found occasionally in other parts of the U.S. Symptoms: The galls or tumor-like overgrowths form on the crown branches at or slightly below t...

  11. Effect of adhesive primers on bonding strength of heat cure denture base resin to cast titanium and cobalt-chromium alloy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su-Sung; Yang, Hong-So; Park, Sang-Won; Lim, Hyun-Pil

    2009-01-01

    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM The poor chemical bonding of a denture base resin to cast titanium framework often introduces adhesive failure and increases microleakage. PURPOSE This study evaluated the shear bond strengths of a heat cure denture base resin to commercially pure titanium, Ti-6Al-4V alloy and a cobalt-chromium alloy using two adhesive primers. MATERIAL AND METHODS Disks of commercially pure titanium, Ti-6Al-4V alloy and a cobalt-chromium alloy were cast. Specimens without the primer were also prepared and used as the controls. The shear bond strengths were measured on a screw-driven universal testing machine. RESULTS The primers significantly (P < .05) improved the shear bond strengths of the heat cure resin to all metals. However, the specimens primed with the Alloy primer® (MDP monomer) showed higher bond strength than those primed with the MR bond® (MAC-10 monomer) on titanium. Only adhesive failure was observed at the metal-resin interface in the non-primed specimens, while the primed specimens showed mixed failure of adhesive and cohesive failure. CONCLUSIONS The use of appropriate adhesive metal primers makes it possible not only to eliminate the need for surface preparation of the metal framework before applying the heat cure resins, but also reduce the need for retentive devices on the metal substructure. In particular, the Alloy primer®, which contains the phosphoric acid monomer, MDP, might be clinically more acceptable for bonding a heat cure resin to titanium than a MR bond®, which contains the carboxylic acid monomer, MAC-10. PMID:21165254

  12. Crown wart

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crown wart has been found widely distributed in Australia, New Zealand, and European countries. It has been recorded sporadically in India (Punjab), South Africa, South America (Ecuador, Chile, Peru), Panama, Mexico, and Canada (British Columbia). In the United States, it has been found more frequ...

  13. Dental crowns

    MedlinePlus

    ... cover a tooth Replace a misshapen tooth or dental implant Correct a misaligned tooth Talk to your dentist ... the tooth pulled and replaced with a tooth implant. Your crown could chip or crack: If you grind your teeth or clench your jaw, you may need to ...

  14. Comparative analysis of the fit of 3-unit implant-supported frameworks cast in nickel-chromium and cobalt-chromium alloys and commercially pure titanium after casting, laser welding, and simulated porcelain firings.

    PubMed

    Tiossi, Rodrigo; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira; de Mattos, Maria da Glória Chiarello; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the vertical misfit of 3-unit implant-supported nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) and cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloy and commercially pure titanium (cpTi) frameworks after casting as 1 piece, after sectioning and laser welding, and after simulated porcelain firings. The results on the tightened side showed no statistically significant differences. On the opposite side, statistically significant differences were found for Co-Cr alloy (118.64 microm [SD: 91.48] to 39.90 microm [SD: 27.13]) and cpTi (118.56 microm [51.35] to 27.87 microm [12.71]) when comparing 1-piece to laser-welded frameworks. With both sides tightened, only Co-Cr alloy showed statistically significant differences after laser welding. Ni-Cr alloy showed the lowest misfit values, though the differences were not statistically significantly different. Simulated porcelain firings revealed no significant differences. PMID:18546764

  15. Urinary casts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Casts in the urine; Fatty casts; Red blood cell casts; White blood cell casts ... The absence of cellular casts or presence of a few hyaline casts is normal. The examples above are common measurements for results of ...

  16. Urinary casts

    MedlinePlus

    ... people with advanced kidney disease and chronic kidney failure . White blood cell (WBC) casts are more common ... Hyaline casts; Granular casts; Renal tubular epithelial casts; Waxy casts; Casts in the ...

  17. Effect of adding nano-titanium dioxide on the microstructure, mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity of a freeze cast merwinite scaffold.

    PubMed

    Nezafati, Nader; Hafezi, Masoud; Zamanian, Ali; Naserirad, Mandana

    2015-01-01

    In the present research, merwinite (M) scaffolds with and without nano-titanium dioxide (titania) were synthesized by water-based freeze casting method. Two different amounts (7.5 and 10 wt%) of n-TiO2 were added to M scaffolds. They were sintered at temperature of 1573.15°K and at cooling rate of 4°K/min. The changes in physical and mechanical properties were investigated. The results showed that although M and M containing 7.5 wt% n-TiO2 (MT7.5) scaffolds had approximately the same microstructures in terms of pore size and wall thickness, these factors were different for sample MT10. In overall, the porosity, volume and linear shrinkage were decreased by adding different weight ratios of n-TiO2 into the M structure. According to the obtained mechanical results, the optimum mechanical performance was related to the sample MT7.5 (E = 51 MPa and σ = 2 MPa) with respect to the other samples, i.e.: M (E = 47 MPa and σ = 1.8 MPa) and MT10 (E = 32 MPa and σ = 1.4 MPa). The acellular in vitro bioactivity experiment confirmed apatite formation on the surfaces of all samples for various periods of soaking time. Based on cell study, the sample which possessed favorable mechanical behavior (MT7.5) supported attachment and proliferation of osteoblastic cells. These results revealed that the MT7.5 scaffold with improved mechanical and biological properties could have a potential to be used in bone substitute. PMID:25586918

  18. [Casting faults and structural studies on bonded alloys comparing centrifugal castings and vacuum pressure castings].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, P; Küfmann, W

    1978-07-01

    The casting processes in use today such as centrifugal casting and vacuum pressure casting were compared with one another. An effort was made to answer the question whether the occurrence of shrink cavities and the mean diameter of the grain of the alloy is dependent on the method of casting. 80 crowns were made by both processes from the baked alloys Degudent Universal, Degudent N and the trial alloy 4437 of the firm Degusa. Slice sections were examined for macro and micro-porosity and the structural appearance was evaluated by linear analysis. Statistical analysis showed that casting faults and casting structure is independent of the method used and their causes must be found in the conditions of casting and the composition of the alloy. PMID:352670

  19. Casting Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Michael D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Three articles discuss (1) casting technology as it relates to industry, with comparisons of shell casting, shell molding, and die casting; (2) evaporative pattern casting for metals; and (3) high technological casting with silicone rubber. (JOW)

  20. Crown ethers in graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Junjie; Lee, Jaekwang; Contescu, Cristian I.; Gallego, Nidia C.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Chisholm, Matthew F.

    2014-11-13

    Crown ethers, introduced by Pedersen1, are at their most basic level neutral rings constructed of oxygen atoms linked by two- or three-carbon chains. They have attracted special attention for their ability to selectively incorporate various atoms2 or molecules within the cavity formed by the ring3-6. This property has led to the use of crown ethers and their compounds in a wide range of chemical and biological applications7,8. However, crown ethers are typically highly flexible, frustrating efforts to rigidify them for many uses that demand higher binding affinity and selectivity9,10. In this Letter, we report atomic-resolution images of the same basic structures of the original crown ethers embedded in graphene. This arrangement constrains the crown ethers to be rigid and planar and thus uniquely suited for the many applications that crown ethers are known for. First-principles calculations show that the close similarity of the structures seen in graphene with those of crown ether molecules also extends to their selectivity towards specific metal cations depending on the ring size. Atoms (or molecules) incorporated within the crown ethers in graphene offer a simple environment that can be easily and systematically probed and modeled. Thus, we expect that this discovery will introduce a new wave of investigations and applications of chemically functionalized graphene.

  1. Crown ethers in graphene

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Guo, Junjie; Lee, Jaekwang; Contescu, Cristian I.; Gallego, Nidia C.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Chisholm, Matthew F.

    2014-11-13

    Crown ethers, introduced by Pedersen1, are at their most basic level neutral rings constructed of oxygen atoms linked by two- or three-carbon chains. They have attracted special attention for their ability to selectively incorporate various atoms2 or molecules within the cavity formed by the ring3-6. This property has led to the use of crown ethers and their compounds in a wide range of chemical and biological applications7,8. However, crown ethers are typically highly flexible, frustrating efforts to rigidify them for many uses that demand higher binding affinity and selectivity9,10. In this Letter, we report atomic-resolution images of the same basicmore » structures of the original crown ethers embedded in graphene. This arrangement constrains the crown ethers to be rigid and planar and thus uniquely suited for the many applications that crown ethers are known for. First-principles calculations show that the close similarity of the structures seen in graphene with those of crown ether molecules also extends to their selectivity towards specific metal cations depending on the ring size. Atoms (or molecules) incorporated within the crown ethers in graphene offer a simple environment that can be easily and systematically probed and modeled. Thus, we expect that this discovery will introduce a new wave of investigations and applications of chemically functionalized graphene.« less

  2. Crown ethers in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Junjie; Lee, Jaekwang; Contescu, Cristian I.; Gallego, Nidia C.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Chisholm, Matthew F.

    2014-11-01

    Crown ethers are at their most basic level rings constructed of oxygen atoms linked by two- or three-carbon chains. They have attracted attention for their ability to selectively incorporate various atoms or molecules within the cavity formed by the ring. However, crown ethers are typically highly flexible, frustrating efforts to rigidify them for many uses that demand higher binding affinity and selectivity. Here we present atomic-resolution images of the same basic structures of the original crown ethers embedded in graphene. This arrangement constrains the crown ethers to be rigid and planar. First-principles calculations show that the close similarity of the structures should also extend to their selectivity towards specific metal cations. Crown ethers in graphene offer a simple environment that can be systematically tested and modelled. Thus, we expect that our finding will introduce a new wave of investigations and applications of chemically functionalized graphene.

  3. The acrylic jacket crown.

    PubMed

    Bell, A M

    1975-04-01

    An attempt has been made to cover briefly the many applications of the acrylic jacket crown. It is readily understandable that this type of restoration has many shortcomings but at the same time it has many useful and important applications in dentistry when properly employed. It is hoped that the specialist and generalist alike will have found some new and useful applications of the acrylic jacket crown. PMID:1090464

  4. Stabilizing distressed glass furnace melter crowns

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    Before the advent of pump casting, hot patching a melter or regenerator crown was extremely time and labor intensive. During these installations, known to many as the bucket brigade, the slurry was mixed on floor level and hauled in 50--65 lb batches up to 100 ft to the top of the crown. Today, in a single shift, a crew of seven can accomplish what took two days and a crew of {approximately}25 in the past. The first application of pump-casting zircon patch occurred on the AZS crown of an insulation-wool-glass furnace. For this application, 23 in. of insulating firebrick had to be removed to gain access to the fused AZS surface. The zircon patch was applied by pumping the mix from floor level up {approximately}60 ft to the crown by means of a concrete pump. Postmortems were performed on samples from two of the gas-fired TV-panel-glass furnaces. These postmortems were performed to determine if alterations occurred on the hot face of exposed zircon patch and, if so, how much alteration did occur. There was no destructive alteration because of alkali penetration into the patch. In fact, only trace amounts of lead, barium and strontium were detected, no further than 1 in. from the hot face. There was slight loss of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} on the hot face because of migration of phosphate toward the cold face, but it did not decrease the integrity of the patch. The dissociation of zircon was <3% baddelyite detected, all within an in. of the hot face.

  5. Turner syndrome isochromosome karyotype correlates with decreased dental crown width.

    PubMed

    Rizell, S; Barrenäs, M-L; Andlin-Sobocki, A; Stecksén-Blicks, C; Kjellberg, H

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this project was to study possible influences of Turner syndrome (TS) karyotype and the number of X chromosomes with intact short arm (p-arm) on dental crown width. Primary and permanent mesio-distal crown width was measured on plaster casts from 112 TS females. The influence on crown width of four karyotypes: 1. monosomy (45,X), 2. mosaic (45,X/46,XX), 3. isochromosome, and 4. other, and the number of intact X chromosomal p-arms were investigated. In comparisons between karyotypes, statistically significant differences were found for isochromosome karyotype maxillary second premolars, canines, laterals, mandibular first premolars, and canines, indicating that this karyotype was the most divergent as shown by the most reduced crown width. When each karyotype group were compared versus controls, all teeth in the isochromosome group were significantly smaller than controls (P < 0.01-0.001). The 45,X/46,XX karyotype expressed fewer and smaller differences from controls, while 45,X individuals seemed to display an intermediate tooth width compared with 45,X/46,XX and isochromosomes. No significant difference in crown width was found comparing the groups with one or two intact X chromosomal p-arms. Both primary and permanent teeth proved to have a significantly smaller crown width in the entire group of TS females compared to healthy females. We conclude that the isochromosome group deviates most from other karyotypes and controls, exhibiting the smallest dental crown width, while individuals with 45,X/46,XX mosaicism seemed to have a less affected crown width. An influence of the number of intact p-arms on crown width could not be demonstrated in this study. PMID:21303812

  6. Holographic evaluation of the marginal fit of complete crowns loaded at central fossa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Terry Y.; Chang, Guan L.; Wu, Shih H.

    1993-07-01

    In dentistry, the defect of cementation on the margins of crowns accumulates bacterial plaque easily. This can result in recurrent caries and periodontal disease. In this paper holographic interferometry is applied to study the effect of masticatory force on various complete crowns. Four complete molar crowns made from different casting materials (Au, Pd-Ag, Ni-Cr, and PFM) were tested. The horizontal displacements of two points near the margin, measured by the method of multiple observations, could be as large as 15 micrometers under normal load (25 kgw). However, the marginal discrepancy of all four crowns estimated were quite small (< 0.2 micrometers ). This also indicates that the cementation between the crown and the tooth is quite good. Nevertheless, when the load was increased to 45 kgw, a defect of cementation was found on the Pd-Ag crown.

  7. Porcelain veneering of titanium--clinical and technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Haag, Per

    2011-01-01

    Gold and other alloys have long been used for the production of crowns and bridges as replacements for damaged or lost teeth. However, doubts have arisen on the suitability of using these materials for dental restorations, as gold has also shown a capacity to cause side-effects such as allergic reactions. This is especially valid for alloys, which during the last decades have been used as porcelain-fused-to metal restorations. This fact has led to an interest in using titanium instead of these alloys. Trials to use titanium for this purpose were initiated in Japan in the early 1980s. Titanium as an unalloyed metal differs in two aspects from the above named alloys: it has a phase transformation at 882 degrees C, which changes its outer and inner properties, and it has an expansion that lies between that of the porcelain types available on the market at the time. In Japan a technique for casting titanium was developed, where the after-treatment of the casting was elaborate, to re-establish the original properties of titanium. The porcelain developed for veneering had shortcomings as the rendering produced a rough surface and non satisfactory esthetics. In Sweden a new concept was introduced in 1989. Here the processing of titanium was performed by industrial methods such as milling, spark erosion and laser welding. The idea behind this was to avoid phase transformation. During the 1990s a number of porcelain products were launched and a vast number of both laboratory and clinical studies were performed and published, with varying results. In the first study of this thesis a prospective clinical trial was performed at a public dental health clinic in Sweden. Twenty-five patients were provided with 40 copings of pure titanium, which were veneered with porcelain. After 2 years 36 of these crowns were evaluated and the patients were also interviewed regarding problems such as shooting pains or difficulties in cleaning around the teeth that were crowned. This evaluation

  8. Rapidly solidified titanium alloys by melt overflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaspar, Thomas A.; Bruce, Thomas J., Jr.; Hackman, Lloyd E.; Brasmer, Susan E.; Dantzig, Jonathan A.; Baeslack, William A., III

    1989-01-01

    A pilot plant scale furnace was designed and constructed for casting titanium alloy strips. The furnace combines plasma arc skull melting techniques with melt overflow rapid solidification technology. A mathematical model of the melting and casting process was developed. The furnace cast strip of a suitable length and width for use with honeycomb structures. Titanium alloys Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-14Al-21 Nb were successfully cast into strips. The strips were evaluated by optical metallography, microhardness measurements, chemical analysis, and cold rolling.

  9. Rapidly solidified titanium alloys by melt overflow

    SciTech Connect

    Gaspar, T.A.; Bruce, T.J. Jr.; Hackman, L.E.; Brasmer, S.E.; Dantzig, J.A.; Baeslack, W.A. III.

    1989-09-01

    A pilot plant scale furnace was designed and constructed for casting titanium alloy strips. The furnace combines plasma arc skull melting techniques with melt overflow rapid solidification technology. A mathematical model of the melting and casting process was developed. The furnace cast strip of a suitable length and width for use with honeycomb structures. Titanium alloys Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-14Al-21 Nb were successfully cast into strips. The strips were evaluated by optical metallography, microhardness measurements, chemical analysis, and cold rolling.

  10. Melting and casting of FeAl-based cast alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Wilkening, D.; Liebetrau, J.; Mackey, B.

    1998-11-01

    The FeAl-based intermetallic alloys are of great interest because of their low density, low raw material cost, and excellent resistance to high-temperature oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, and molten salts. The applications based on these unique properties of FeAl require methods to melt and cast these alloys into complex-shaped castings and centrifugal cast tubes. This paper addresses the melting-related issues and the effect of chemistry on the microstructure and hardness of castings. It is concluded that the use of the Exo-Melt{trademark} process for melting and the proper selection of the aluminum melt stock can result in porosity-free castings. The FeAl alloys can be melted and cast from the virgin and revert stock. A large variation in carbon content of the alloys is possible before the precipitation of graphite flakes occurs. Titanium is a very potent addition to refine the grain size of castings. A range of complex sand castings and two different sizes of centrifugal cast tubes of the alloy have already been cast.

  11. Crown depth as a result of evolutionary games: decreasing solar angle should lead to shallower, not deeper crowns.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Peter Johannes

    2014-06-01

    There is a general notion in the literature that, with increasing latitude, trees have deeper crowns as a result of a lower solar elevation angle. However, these predictions are based on models that did not include the effects of competition for light between individuals. Here, I argue that there should be selection for trees to increase the height of the crown base, as this decreases shading by neighbouring trees, leading to an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS). Because the level of between-tree shading increases with decreasing solar angle, the predicted ESS will shift to higher crown base height. This argument is supported by a simulation model to check for the effects of crown shape and the change of light intensity that occurs with changing solar angle on model outcomes. So, the lower solar angle at higher latitudes would tend to select for shallower, and not deeper, crowns. This casts doubt on the common belief that a decreasing solar angle increases crown depth. More importantly, it shows that different assumptions about what should be optimized can lead to different predictions, not just for absolute trait values, but for the direction of selection itself. PMID:24548219

  12. Fabrication of a new crown and provisional to an existing removable partial denture.

    PubMed

    Jackson, A D; Butler, C J

    1995-09-01

    A method of fabricating a new crown to an existing removable partial denture is described. A press-form plastic shell made from the diagnostic cast provides the outer contours for the abutment tooth, while an acrylic resin coping is fabricated on a die to provide accurate internal adaptation. The acrylic resin coping is seated on the prepared abutment. Autopolymerizing acrylic resin is mixed and placed in the plastic shell that is then placed in the mouth over the coping, forming the acrylic resin crown pattern. The removable partial prosthesis is fitted over the crown pattern intraorally. The pattern is transferred back to the die, the margins are refined, and the casting is completed and finished, avoiding reduction of the established contours. The same plastic shell is used with tooth-shaded acrylic resin to construct a provisional crown directly in the mouth. This technique allows the patient to wear the removable partial denture while the laboratory procedures are completed. PMID:8603212

  13. All-ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Lehner, C R; Schärer, P

    1992-06-01

    Despite the good appearance and biocompatibility of dental porcelains, failures are still of considerable concern because of some limited properties common to all-ceramic crown systems. As in the years before, pertinent scientific articles published between November 1990 and December 1991 focused on strengthening mechanisms and compared fracture toughness for different ceramic systems by using various test methods. Some evaluated the clinical implications thereon for seating and loading crowns and measured wear against different ceramic surface conditions. Recently introduced with pleasing aesthetic qualities, IPS-Empress (Ivoclar, Schaan, Liechtenstein), a new European leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic, has finally drawn attention in some journals and has been reviewed with promising in vitro test results. Using a simple press-molding technique, well-fitting crowns, inlays, and veneers can be fabricated without an additional ceramming procedure. Again, only long-term clinical trials will validate achievements compared with other all-ceramic systems and with well-established metal ceramics. PMID:1325848

  14. Effect of cement types on the tensile strength of metallic crowns submitted to thermocycling.

    PubMed

    Consani, Simonides; Santos, Julie Guzela dos; Correr Sobrinho, Lourenço; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between metallic cast crowns and tensile strength according to cement types submitted to thermocycling was studied. Seventy-two metallic crowns were cast with Verabond II Ni-Cr alloy and cemented in standardized preparations with 10 masculine tapering. Three types of finishing line (45-degree chamfered, 20-degree bevel shoulder and right shoulder) were made with diamond burs on bovine teeth. Twenty-four metallic crowns in each group were randomly subdivided into three subgroups of 8 samples each according to the cement used: SS White zinc phosphate cement, Vitremer resin-modified glass ionomer cement, and Rely X resin cement and were submitted to thermocycling. Retention was evaluated according to tensile load required to displace the metallic cast crowns from tooth preparations with an Instron testing machine. ANOVA and Tukey's test showed a statistically significant difference among luting materials, with greater results for Rely X resin cement (24.9 kgf) followed by SS White zinc phosphate cement (13.3 kgf) and Vitremer resin-modified glass ionomer cement (10.1 kgf). The finishing line types did not influence the tensile resistance of the crowns fixed with the three cements. Increased tensile resistance of metallic crowns fixed on bovine teeth was obtained with resin cement, independent of the finishing line types. PMID:15057396

  15. Brushing-Induced Surface Roughness of Two Nickel Based Alloys and a Titanium Based Alloy: A Comparative Study - In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, B L Guruprasanna; Nadiger, Ramesh; Shetty, Bharathraj; Gururaj, G; Kumar, K Naveen; Darshan, D D

    2014-01-01

    Background: Alloys with high nickel content have been increasingly used in dentistry. Alloys have high corrosion rates when exposed to chemical or physical forces that are common intra orally. Titanium is the most biocompatible materials for crowns, fixed partial dentures and implants in the present use, but paradoxically the self-protective oxide film on the titanium can be affected by excessive use of the most common preventive agents in dentistry. Therefore, this study is undertaken in order to draw attention toward the potential effect of prophylactic brushing in a saline medium. Materials and Methods: Forty-five wax patterns in equal dimensions of 10 mm × 10 mm × 2 mm were cast in titanium (Grade II) and nickel-chromium. Of the 45 wax patterns, 15 wax patterns were used for preparing cast titanium samples and 30 wax patterns were used for preparing cast nickel-chromium samples and polished. These samples were divided into three groups of 15 samples each. They are brushed for 48 h each clinically simulating 2 years of brushing in a saline tooth paste medium. The surface roughnesses of the samples were evaluated using profilometer, scanning electron microscopes and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Results were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The statistical analysis of the Rz and Ra surface roughness values were calculated. Significant difference of surface roughness was present in the titanium samples compared to that of the machine-readable cataloguing and Wirolloy (nickel-chromium) samples after the study. To know the difference in the values of all samples before and after, Student’s paired t-test was carried out. Results showed that there is a significant change in the Rz and Ra values of titanium samples. Conclusion: The present findings suggest that, prophylactic brushing with the fluoridated toothpaste have an effect on the surface roughness of titanium and also to a certain extent, on nickel-chromium. Therefore, careful consideration must

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Enhancing Retention of Dislodged Crowns Using Preparation Modifications and Luting Cements: An In-Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Amarnath, G S; Pandey, Apurva; Prasad, Hari Ananth; Hilal, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Complete cast crowns are good alternatives and have best longevity for the restoration of damaged posterior teeth. Occasionally, a crown with clinically acceptable margins, preparation design, and occlusion becomes loose. Providers often debate whether such a crown can be successfully recemented with any degree of confidence that it will not be dislodged under normal masticatory function. It has been documented that resistance form increases by placing grooves opposing each other in a crown and tooth; cements also have a role to play in retention of crowns. To determine whether the addition of horizontal groove in the internal surface of the crown and/or tooth preparation will increase retention of the crowns, without remaking them and achieving better retention with cements. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 extracted human mandibular molars were taken and standard preparation was done. After the crowns were ready, the groove was made in the internal surface of the crown and on the tooth, which were cemented with glass ionomer cement and resin cement. The tensile force needed to dislodge the crowns and teeth after cementation was found out. Result: The mean tensile force needed to dislodge the crown and tooth combination was highest for the group in which crown had a groove without any groove on the tooth and cemented using resin cement (252.60N). Conclusion: It can be concluded from the study that it is best to recement a crown and tooth combination using resin cement where the crown has a groove, and the tooth has no groove. PMID:26464539

  17. Descaling and cleaning titanium and titanium alloy surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The recommended practice covers a cleaning and descaling procedure useful to producers, users, and fabricators of titanium and titanium alloys for the removal of ordinary shop soils, oxides, and scales resulting from heat treatment operations and foreign substances present as surface contaminants. The procedures are not mandatory for removal of the indicated soils but rather serve as a guide when titanium and titanium alloys are being processed in the wrought, cast, or fabricated form. The soils should be removed prior to chemical milling, joining, plating, fabrication, and in any situation where foreign substances interfere with the corrosion resistance, stability, and quality of the finished product. The recommended practice discusses processing soil removal, blast cleaning, pickling, descaling, and inspection. (JMT)

  18. Evaluation of the marginal and internal gap of metal-ceramic crown fabricated with a selective laser sintering technology: two- and three-dimensional replica techniques

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Baek; Kim, Jae-Hong; Kim, Woong-Chul; Kim, Hae-Young

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE One of the most important factors in evaluating the quality of fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) is their gap. The purpose of this study was to compare the marginal and internal gap of two different metal-ceramic crowns, casting and selective laser sintering (SLS), before and after porcelain firing. Furthermore, this study evaluated whether metal-ceramic crowns made using the SLS have the same clinical acceptability as crowns made by the traditional casting. MATERIALS AND METHODS The 10 study models were produced using stone. The 20 specimens were produced using the casting and the SLS methods; 10 samples were made in each group. After the core gap measurements, 10 metal-ceramic crowns in each group were finished using the conventional technique of firing porcelain. The gap of the metal-ceramic crowns was measured. The marginal and internal gaps were measured by two-dimensional and three-dimensional replica techniques, respectively. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test, the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and nonparametric ANCOVA were used for statistical analysis (α=.05). RESULTS In both groups, the gap increased after completion of the metal-ceramic crown compared to the core. In all measured areas, the gap of the metal cores and metal-ceramic crowns produced by the SLS was greater than that of the metal cores and metal-ceramic crowns produced using the casting. Statistically significant differences were found between cast and SLS (metal cores and metal-ceramic crown). CONCLUSION Although the gap of the FDPs produced by the SLS was greater than that of the FDPs produced by the conventional casting in all measured areas, none exceeded the clinically acceptable range. PMID:23755345

  19. Effect of the shades of background substructures on the overall color of zirconia-based all-ceramic crowns

    PubMed Central

    Tulapornchai, Chantana; Mamani, Jatuphol; Kamchatphai, Wannaporn; Thongpun, Noparat

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the color of a background substructure on the overall color of a zirconia-based all-ceramic crown. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty one posterior zirconia crowns were made for twenty subjects. Seven premolar crowns and six molar crowns were cemented onto abutments with metal post and core in the first and second group. In the third group, eight molar crowns were cemented onto abutments with a prefabricated post and composite core build-up. The color measurements of all-ceramic crowns were made before try-in, before and after cementation. A repeated measure ANOVA was used for a statistical analysis of a color change of all-ceramic crowns at α=.05. Twenty four zirconia specimens, with different core thicknesses (0.4-1 mm) were also prepared to obtain the contrast ratio of zirconia materials after veneering. RESULTS L*, a*, and b* values of all-ceramic crowns cemented either on a metal cast post and core or on a prefabricated post did not show significant changes (P>.05). However, the slight color changes of zirconia crowns were detected and represented by ΔE*ab values, ranging from 1.2 to 3.1. The contrast ratios of zirconia specimens were 0.92-0.95 after veneering. CONCLUSION No significant differences were observed between the L*, a*, and b* values of zirconia crowns cemented either on a metal cast post and core or a prefabricated post and composite core. However, the color of a background substructure could affect the overall color of posterior zirconia restorations with clinically recommended core thickness according to ΔE*ab values. PMID:24049574

  20. Titanium 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2014-01-01

    Titanium is the ninth most abundant element in the earth's crust and can be found in nearly all rocks and sediments. It is a lithophile element with a strong affinity for oxygen and is not found as a pure metal in nature. Titanium was first isolated as a pure metal in 1910, but it was not until 1948 that the metal was produced commercially using the Kroll process (named after its developer, William Kroll) to reduce titanium tetrachloride with magnesium to produce titanium metal.

  1. Neutron radiography inspection of investment castings.

    PubMed

    Richards, W J; Barrett, J R; Springgate, M E; Shields, K C

    2004-10-01

    Investment casting, also known as the lost wax process, is a manufacturing method employed to produce near net shape metal articles. Traditionally, investment casting has been used to produce structural titanium castings for aero-engine applications with wall thickness less than 1 in (2.54 cm). Recently, airframe manufacturers have been exploring the use of titanium investment casting to replace components traditionally produced from forgings. Use of titanium investment castings for these applications reduces weight, cost, lead time, and part count. Recently, the investment casting process has been selected to produce fracture critical structural titanium airframe components. These airframe components have pushed the traditional inspection techniques to their physical limits due to cross sections on the order of 3 in (7.6 cm). To overcome these inspection limitations, a process incorporating neutron radiography (n-ray) has been developed. In this process, the facecoat of the investment casting mold material contains a cocalcined mixture of yttrium oxide and gadolinium oxide. The presence of the gadolinium oxide, allows for neutron radiographic imaging (and eventual removal and repair) of mold facecoat inclusions that remain within these thick cross sectional castings. Probability of detection (POD) studies have shown a 3 x improvement of detecting a 0.050 x 0.007 in2 (1.270 x 0.178 mm2) inclusion of this cocalcined material using n-ray techniques when compared to the POD using traditional X-ray techniques. Further, it has been shown that this n-ray compatible mold facecoat material produces titanium castings of equal metallurgical quality when compared to the traditional materials. Since investment castings can be very large and heavy, the neutron radiography facilities at the University of California, Davis McClellan Nuclear Radiation Center (UCD/MNRC) were used to develop the inspection techniques. The UCD/MNRC has very unique facilities that can handle large

  2. Pigmented casts.

    PubMed

    Miteva, Mariya; Romanelli, Paolo; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented casts have been reported with variable frequency in scalp biopsies from alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia and postoperative (pressure induced) alopecia. Their presence and morphology in other scalp disorders has not been described. The authors assessed for the presence and morphology of pigmented casts in 308 transversely bisected scalp biopsies from nonscarring and scarring alopecia, referred to the Department of Dermatology, University of Miami within a year. The pigmented casts were present in 21 of 29 cases of alopecia areata (72%), 7 of 7 cases of trichotillomania (100%), 1 case of friction alopecia, 4 of 28 cases of central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (14%), and 4 of 4 cases of dissecting cellulitis (100%). They did not show any distinguishing features except for the morphology in trichotillomania, which included twisted, linear (zip), and "button"-like pigment aggregation. The linear arrangement was found also in friction alopecia and dissecting cellulitis. Pigmented casts in the hair canals of miniaturized/vellus hairs was a clue to alopecia areata. Pigmented casts can be observed in biopsies of different hair disorders, but they are not specific for the diagnosis. Horizontal sections allow to better assess their morphology and the follicular level of presence of pigmented casts, which in the context of the other follicular findings may be a clue to the diagnosis. PMID:23823025

  3. Process for synthesizing titanium carbide, titanium nitride and titanium carbonitride

    DOEpatents

    Koc, R.; Glatzmaier, G.C.

    1995-05-23

    A process is disclosed for synthesizing titanium carbide, titanium nitride or titanium carbonitride. The process comprises placing particles of titanium, a titanium salt or titanium dioxide within a vessel and providing a carbon-containing atmosphere within the vessel. The vessel is heated to a pyrolysis temperature sufficient to pyrolyze the carbon to thereby coat the particles with a carbon coating. Thereafter, the carbon-coated particles are heated in an inert atmosphere to produce titanium carbide, or in a nitrogen atmosphere to produce titanium nitride or titanium carbonitride, with the heating being of a temperature and time sufficient to produce a substantially complete solid solution.

  4. Process for synthesizing titanium carbide, titanium nitride and titanium carbonitride

    DOEpatents

    Koc, Rasit; Glatzmaier, Gregory C.

    1995-01-01

    A process for synthesizing titanium carbide, titanium nitride or titanium carbonitride. The process comprises placing particles of titanium, a titanium salt or titanium dioxide within a vessel and providing a carbon-containing atmosphere within the vessel. The vessel is heated to a pyrolysis temperature sufficient to pyrolyze the carbon to thereby coat the particles with a carbon coating. Thereafter, the carbon-coated particles are heated in an inert atmosphere to produce titanium carbide, or in a nitrogen atmosphere to produce titanium nitride or titanium carbonitride, with the heating being of a temperature and time sufficient to produce a substantially complete solid solution.

  5. Novel titanium-aluminum joints for cryogenic cold finger structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meehan, H. M.; Sweet, R. C.

    For optimum performance, the sensors employed in airborne detection and surveillance systems must be maintained at low temperatures. The containing wall of the expansion volume of a Stirling cycle cooler may provide the low temperature surface for mounting the sensors. IR detectors are commonly mounted on copper heat exchanger surfaces. A stainless steel member is employed to thermally isolate and structurally stabilize such surfaces. It is pointed out that the use of an aluminum-titanium cold finger results in a considerable weight reduction. The present investigation is concerned with an attempt to obtain such structures with the aid of a technique involving the casting of molten aluminum onto an appropriately dimensioned and positioned titanium member, taking into account the fact that aluminum readily wets and bonds to clean titanium surfaces. The casting is then machined to provide the form and structure desired. It is concluded that aluminum-titanium cast structures offer good potential for use as cryogenic cold finger assemblies.

  6. Project CAST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles County Board of Education, La Plata, MD. Office of Special Education.

    The document outlines procedures for implementing Project CAST (Community and School Together), a community-based career education program for secondary special education students in Charles County, Maryland. Initial sections discuss the role of a learning coordinator, (including relevant travel reimbursement and mileage forms) and an overview of…

  7. Sexual dimorphism in crown units of mandibular deciduous and permanent molars in Australian Aborigines.

    PubMed

    Kondo, S; Townsend, G C

    2004-01-01

    Sexual differences in the crown units of mandibular molars were investigated in Australian Aborigines. The first and second deciduous molars (dm1 and dm2), and first to third permanent molars (M1, M2 and M3) were measured on dental casts using a sliding caliper. Measurements of tooth crowns included overall mesiodistal and buccolingual diameters, as well as the mesiodistal and buccolingual diameters of the trigonid and talonid. Percentage dimorphism values were greater in the talonid dimensions than the trigonid, indicating that sex differences tend to be larger in the later-developing crown units. Sex differences in mesiodistal diameters increased from dm1 to M2 but decreased for M3, the tooth that showed the least dimorphism of all the molars. This result seems to be due to the marked variability in size of the M3 between individuals. PMID:15553268

  8. Initial cytotoxicity of novel titanium alloys.

    PubMed

    Koike, M; Lockwood, P E; Wataha, J C; Okabe, T

    2007-11-01

    We assessed the biological response to several novel titanium alloys that have promising physical properties for biomedical applications. Four commercial titanium alloys [Super-TIX(R) 800, Super-TIX(R) 51AF, TIMETAL(R) 21SRx, and Ti-6Al-4V (ASTM grade 5)] and three experimental titanium alloys [Ti-13Cr-3Cu, Ti-1.5Si and Ti-1.5Si-5Cu] were tested. Specimens (n = 6; 5.0 x 5.0 x 3.0 mm(3)) were cast in a centrifugal casting machine using a MgO-based investment and polished to 600 grit, removing 250 mum from each surface. Commercially pure titanium (CP Ti: ASTM grade 2) and Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) were used as positive controls. The specimens were cleaned and disinfected, and then each cleaned specimen was placed in direct contact with Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts for 72 h. The cytotoxicity [succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) activity] of the extracts was assessed using the MTT method. Cytotoxicity of the metals tested was not statistically different compared to the CP Ti and Teflon controls (p > 0.05). These novel titanium alloys pose cytotoxic risks no greater than many other commonly used alloys, including commercially pure titanium. The promising short-term biocompatibility of these Ti alloys is probably due to their excellent corrosion resistance under static conditions, even in biological environments. PMID:17385227

  9. Casting methods

    DOEpatents

    Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.

    2012-12-18

    A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.

  10. Retention of gold alloy crowns cemented with traditional and resin cements.

    PubMed

    Pinzón, Lilliam M; Frey, Gary N; Winkler, Mark M; Tate, William H; Burgess, John O; Powers, John M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure in vitro retention of cast gold crowns cemented with traditional and resin cements. Forty-eight human molars were prepared on a lathe to produce complete crown preparations with a consistent taper and split into six groups, eight crowns in each group. Crowns were cast in a high-gold alloy and then cemented. After 24 hours, the retention force (N) was recorded and mean values were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and the Fisher post-hoc least significant difference (PLSD) multiple comparisons test (a = .05). Failure sites were examined under 3100 magnification and recorded. Mean values (SD) for each group in increasing order of retention force were: Harvard Cement: 43 N (27), TempoCem: 59 N (16), PermaCem Dual: 130 N (42), RelyX Luting Cement: 279 N (26), Contax and PermaCem Dual: 286 N (38), and TempoCem with Contax and PermaCem Dual: 340 N (14). The Fisher PLSD interval (P = .05) for comparing cements was 29 N. Zinc-phosphate cement and provisional resin cements had the lowest retention forces. Resin cement with a bonding agent and the hybrid-ionomer cement had similar retention forces. Resin cement with a bonding agent applied after use of a provisional resin cement had a significantly higher retention force than the other cements tested. PMID:19639070

  11. CASTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Gray, C.F.; Thompson, R.H.

    1958-09-23

    An apparatus is described for casting small quantities of uranlum. It consists of a crucible having a hole in the bottom with a mold positioned below. A vertical rcd passes through the hole in the crucible and has at its upper end a piercing head adapted to break the oxide skin encasing a molten uranium body. An air tight cylinder surrounds the crucible and mold, and is arranged to be evacuated.

  12. Advanced titanium processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, Alan D.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Schrems, Karol K.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Argetsinger, Edward R.; Hansen, Jeffrey S.; Paige, Jack I.; Turner, Paul C.

    2001-01-01

    The Albany Research Center of the U.S. Department of Energy has been investigating a means to form useful wrought products by direct and continuous casting of titanium bars using cold-wall induction melting rather than current batch practices such as vacuum arc remelting. Continuous ingots produced by cold-wall induction melting, utilizing a bottomless water-cooled copper crucible, without slag (CaF2) additions had minor defects in the surface such as ''hot tears''. Slag additions as low as 0.5 weight percent were used to improve the surface finish. Therefore, a slag melted experimental Ti-6Al-4V alloy ingot was compared to a commercial Ti-6Al-4V alloy ingot in the areas of physical, chemical, mechanical, and corrosion attributes to address the question, ''Are any detrimental effects caused by slag addition''?

  13. Comparison of Primary Molar Crown Dimensions with Stainless Steel Crowns in a Sample of Iranian Children

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, Hossein; Kamali Sabeti, Arghavan; Shahrabi, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Due to anatomic variation in tooth anatomy between populations, this study compared the buccolingual (BL) and mesiodistal (MD) dimensions of primary molars with those of stainless steel crowns (SSCs) in anIranian population. Materials and methods. Impressions were taken from both dental arches of children, and casts were poured. Teeth with caries, restoration, hypoplasia or other dental anomalies were excluded. 216 primary molars were selected and divided into 4 groups of 54 each (maxillary and mandibular first and second primary molars). MD/BL dimensions were measured using a digital caliper with 0.01 mm precision on casts and SCCs (3M brand). Data were assessed using paired t-test, post hoc test and ANOVA. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The MD dimension of the lower first molar SSC and the BL dimension of the lower second molar SSC had the least difference with the corresponding values of the respective teeth. The MD dimension of the upper second molar SSC and the BL dimension of the upper first molar SSC had the greatest difference with the corresponding values in the respective teeth. Comparison of the two different brands of SSCs for the upper first molar revealed that both types had significant differences with the teeth in terms of both MD (P = 0.0) and BL (P = 0.0) dimensions. Conclusion. In the studied population, best adaptation was seen in second lower molars and the least adaptationswere seen in first and second upper molars. PMID:26236433

  14. Cast aluminum denture base.

    PubMed

    Barco, M T; Dembert, M L

    1987-08-01

    The laboratory procedures for a cast aluminum base denture have been presented. If an induction casting machine is not available, the "two-oven technique" works well, provided the casting arm is kept spinning manually for 4 minutes after casting. If laboratory procedures are executed precisely and with care, the aluminum base denture can be cast with good results. PMID:3305884

  15. Marginal accuracy of temporary composite crowns.

    PubMed

    Tjan, A H; Tjan, A H; Grant, B E

    1987-10-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to quantitatively compare the marginal adaptation of temporary crowns made from Protemp material with those made from Scutan, Provisional, and Trim materials. A direct technique was used to make temporary restorations on prepared teeth with an impression as a matrix. Protem, Trim, and Provisional materials produced temporary crowns of comparable accuracy. Crowns made from Scutan material had open margins. PMID:2959770

  16. Casting materials

    DOEpatents

    Chaudhry, Anil R.; Dzugan, Robert; Harrington, Richard M.; Neece, Faurice D.; Singh, Nipendra P.

    2011-06-14

    A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

  17. An Evaluation of the Stress Distribution in Screw Retained Implants of Different Crown Implant Ratios in Different Bone Densities Under Various Loads-A FEM Study

    PubMed Central

    Vootla, Naveen Reddy; Kumar, VHC; Surapaneni, Hemchand; Balusu, Srilatha; Kalyanam, Swetha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Studies on stress distribution around screw retained implants in different bone densities are limited. In clinical situations crowns of different heights are placed on the implants and the effect of varying crown implant ratio on the bone is not understood properly. Aim To evaluate and compare the stress distribution in different screw retained implants for different crown–implant ratios in different bone densities under various occlusal loads using three dimensional finite element analyses. Materials and Methods In this invitro study the stress distribution was evaluated and compared between two different crown heights (7.5mm, 10mm) retained on implants by using different screw materials (commercially pure titanium, titanium alloy) in two different densities of bone D2, D3 under various load (100N, 200N) applications by using finite element analysis. Results For crown height of 7.5mm, in D2 bone density when vertical load of 200N was applied, the maximum stress concentration was 1780N/cm2, for oblique load of 100N it was 2936N/cm2 respectively and in D3 bone density when vertical load of 200N was applied, the maximum stress concentration was 1820N/cm2, for oblique load of 100N it was 3477N/cm2 respectively. When the crown height is increased to 10mm, the maximum stress concentration in D2 bone was 1875N/cm2 for vertical load, 4015N/cm2 for oblique load and in D3 bone the maximum stress concentration was 2123N/cm2 for vertical load and 4236N/ cm2 for oblique load. In case of titanium screws for crown height of 7.5 mm, when vertical load was applied, stress concentration was 1603 N/cm2 where as for titanium alloy screw it was 1820N/cm2. In case of 10mm crown height stress concentration was 1904N/cm2 for titanium screw and 2123N/cm2 for titanium alloy screw. In case of oblique loading for 7.5mm crown height stress concentration was 3155N/cm2 for titanium screw 3477N/cm2 for titanium alloy screw. For 10mm crown height stress concentration was 4236N/cm2

  18. Synthesis of some novel quinone diimine derivatives of benzo-15-crown-5 for application in Hg(2+) recognition.

    PubMed

    Jagadale, S D; Sawant, A D; Patil, P P; Patil, D R; Mulik, A G; Chandam, D R; Sankpal, S A; Deshmukh, M B

    2014-09-01

    A series of novel fluoroionophore bearing derivatives of benzo-15-crown-5 were synthesized by the amination of benzo-15-crown-5 followed by condensation with different quinones in the presence of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4 ) and 1,4-diazabicyclo-[2.2.2]octane. The compounds were characterized by infrared, (1) H and (13) C nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Absorption and fluorescence spectral characteristics of these compounds were studied. It was observed that the anthraquinone derivative was acting as an Hg(2+) ion sensor. PMID:24123997

  19. Steel castings by the electroslag casting technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikka, V. K.; Mitchell, A.

    1984-10-01

    Electroslag casting facilities in Canada and the United States were reviewed. Several value body castings of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo, 9 Cr-1 Mo, and 18% Cr-8% Ni (Mo) steels were made at the University of British Columbia facility. These castings were examined for surface finish, chemical segregation, and macrostructure in the as-cast condition and after various heat treatments. Castings were subjected to tensile, charpy impact, and creep testing. Results of these tests were compared with similar data on wrought material and where applicable, with data on sand castings.

  20. Steel castings by the electroslag casting technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Mitchell, A.

    1984-10-01

    Electroslag casting facilities in Canada and the United States were reviewed. Several valve body castings of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo, 9 Cr-1 Mo, and 18% Cr-8% Ni(Mo) steels were made at the University of British Columbia facility. These castings were examined for surface finish, chemical segregation, and macrostructure in the as-cast condition and after various heat treatments. Castings were subjected to tensile, Charpy impact, and creep testing. Results of these tests were compared with similar data on wrought material and, where applicable, with data on sand castings. 22 figures.

  1. Advances in gamma titanium aluminides and their manufacturing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, Kunal; Radhakrishnan, Ramachandran; Wereley, Norman M.

    2012-11-01

    Gamma titanium aluminides display attractive properties for high temperature applications. For over a decade in the 1990s, the attractive properties of titanium aluminides were outweighed by difficulties encountered in processing and machining at room temperature. But advances in manufacturing technologies, deeper understanding of titanium aluminides microstructure, deformation mechanisms, and advances in micro-alloying, has led to the production of gamma titanium aluminide sheets. An in-depth review of key advances in gamma titanium aluminides is presented, including microstructure, deformation mechanisms, and alloy development. Traditional manufacturing techniques such as ingot metallurgy and investment casting are reviewed and advances via powder metallurgy based manufacturing techniques are discussed. Finally, manufacturing challenges facing gamma titanium aluminides, as well as avenues to overcome them, are discussed.

  2. Pipe weld crown removal device

    SciTech Connect

    Sword, C.K.; Sette, P.J.

    1992-11-24

    A device is provided for grinding down the crown of a pipe weld joining aligned pipe sections so that the weld is substantially flush with the pipe sections joined by the weld. The device includes a cage assembly comprising a pair of spaced cage rings adapted to be mounted for rotation on the respective pipe sections on opposite sides of the weld, a plurality of grinding wheels, supported by the cage assembly for grinding down the crown of the weld, and a plurality of support shafts, each extending longitudinally along the joined pipe sections, parallel thereto, for individually mounting respective grinding wheels. Each end of the support shafts is mounted for rotation in a bearing assembly housed within a radially directed opening in a corresponding one of the cage rings so as to provide radial movement of the associated shaft, and thus of the associated grinding wheel, towards and away from the weld. A first drive sprocket provides rotation of the cage assembly around the pipe sections while a second drive unit, driven by a common motor, provides rotation of the grinding wheels. 2 figs.

  3. Pipe weld crown removal device

    SciTech Connect

    Sword, C.K.; Sette, P.J.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a device that provides for grinding down the crown of a pipe weld joining aligned pipe sections so that the weld is substantially flush with the pipe sections joined by the weld. The device includes a cage assembly comprising a pair of spaced cage rings adapted to be mounted for rotation on the respective pipe sections on opposite sides of the weld, a plurality of grinding wheels, supported by the cage assembly for grinding down the crown of the weld, and a plurality of support shafts, each extending longitudinally along the joined pipe sections, parallel thereto, for individually mounting respective grinding wheels. Each end of the support shafts is mounted for rotation in a bearing assembly housed within a radially directed opening in a corresponding one of the cage rings so as to provide radial movement of the associated shaft, and thus of the associated grinding wheel, towards and away from the weld. A first drive sprocket provides rotation of the cage assembly around the pipe sections while a second drive unit, driven by a common motor, provides rotation of the grinding wheels.

  4. Pipe weld crown removal device

    DOEpatents

    Sword, Charles K.; Sette, Primo J.

    1992-01-01

    A device is provided for grinding down the crown of a pipe weld joining aligned pipe sections so that the weld is substantially flush with the pipe sections joined by the weld. The device includes a cage assembly comprising a pair of spaced cage rings adapted to be mounted for rotation on the respective pipe sections on opposite sides of the weld, a plurality of grinding wheels, supported by the cage assembly for grinding down the crown of the weld, and a plurality of support shafts, each extending longitudinally along the joined pipe sections, parallel thereto, for individually mounting respective grinding wheels. Each end of the support shafts is mounted for rotation in a bearing assembly housed within a radially directed opening in a corresponding one of the cage rings so as to provide radial movement of the associated shaft, and thus of the associated grinding wheel, towards and away from the weld. A first drive sprocket provides rotation of the cage assembly around the pipe sections while a second drive unit, driven by a common motor, provides rotation of the grinding wheels.

  5. Sclerotinia stem and crown rot of chickpea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White mold of chickpea is caused by three soil borne fungi Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, S. minor and S. trifoliorum, causing either stem rot and crown rot. Stem infection, usually above ground and initiated by ascospores through carpogenic germination of scleroia produces stem rot, whereas crown infe...

  6. Colour measurements of all ceramic crown systems.

    PubMed

    Rosenstiel, S F; Porter, S S; Johnston, W M

    1989-09-01

    The objectives of this study were: (i) to determine variability among colour parameters of five different ceramic crown systems; and (ii) to measure the effect of using coloured luting agents on restoration colour. The crown systems studied were Cerestore, Dicor, Hi-Ceram, Renaissance, and Vitadur-N. Five crowns for each system were made according to manufacturer's instructions with the same nominal shade (Vita Lumin Vacuum A2) to fit an Ivorine central incisor tooth. Restoration thickness was adjusted to within +/- 0.1 mm (+/- 0.05 mm in the mid-facial area where colour measurements were to be made) with the aid of a dial calliper prior to glazing or, in the case of Dicor, surface staining. Where a core was part of the system this was fabricated to the minimum recommended thickness. The crowns were cemented using luting agents of five different colours in a randomly chosen sequence. The colour of each restoration/cement combination was measured three times using a small-area colorimeter (Minolta CR-121). The variance of each colour parameter (L*, a*, b*) was statistically compared for each crown system using an analysis of variance procedure, as was the effect of the cement. Observed differences were related to visual perception by using the colour difference formula. There were statistically significant differences among the variances of the crown systems and the cements, with significant interactions between crown systems and direction of colour and between cement and direction of colour. Restorations made with different ceramic crown systems had noticeably different colour despite having the same nominal shade. Changing the shade of the luting agent had a perceivable effect on Dicor crowns and, to a lesser extent, on Vitadur-N crowns but not on the other systems due, presumably, to the opacity of their core materials. PMID:2809851

  7. [A study of restoration of seriously damaged posterior teeth by cast metal prostheses].

    PubMed

    Li, N Y

    1993-09-01

    A total of 38 seriously damaged posterior teeth were restored by cast metal prostheses, including onlays (with pulp chamber retainer and radicular retainer), cast dowelcore, two-piece dowel-core or cast dowel crown. As followed up for 6-48 months, 37 prostheses remained firm and sound, with perfect periphery seal, no secondary caries and pathological changes of peridontium were observed, The clinical consummate rate was 97%, The occlusal force of the restored teeth measured in 14 cases was 13.6-30.2 kg, which can satisfy the needs of masticatory function. The selection of retainers should be in accordance with the position and degree of crown damage of the posterior teeth. The key links guaranteeing smooth insertion and perfect periphery seal of cast metal prostheses were also pointed out. PMID:8194413

  8. Preparation of titanium diboride powder

    DOEpatents

    Brynestad, Jorulf; Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1985-01-01

    Finely-divided titanium diboride or zirconium diboride powders are formed by reacting gaseous boron trichloride with a material selected from the group consisting of titanium powder, zirconium powder, titanium dichloride powder, titanium trichloride powder, and gaseous titanium trichloride.

  9. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    SciTech Connect

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  10. Fracture Strength of Zirconia and Alumina Ceramic Crowns Supported by Implants.

    PubMed

    Traini, Tonino; Sorrentino, Roberto; Gherlone, Enrico; Perfetti, Federico; Bollero, Patrizio; Zarone, Ferdinando

    2015-07-01

    Due to the brittleness and limited tensile strength of the veneering glass-ceramic materials, the methods that combine strong core material (as zirconia or alumina) are still under debate. The present study aims to evaluate the fracture strength and the mechanism of failure through fractographic analysis of single all-ceramic crowns supported by implants. Forty premolar cores were fabricated with CAD/CAM technology using alumina (n = 20) and zirconia (n = 20). The specimens were veneered with glass-ceramic, cemented on titanium abutments, and subjected to loading test until fracture. SEM fractographic analysis was also performed. The fracture load was 1165 (±509) N for alumina and 1638 (±662) N for zirconia with a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.026). Fractographic analysis of alumina-glass-ceramic crowns, showed the presence of catastrophic cracks through the entire thickness of the alumina core; for the zirconia-glass-ceramic crowns, the cracks involved mainly the thickness of the ceramic veneering layer. The sandblast procedure of the zirconia core influenced crack path deflection. Few samples (n = 3) showed limited microcracks of the zirconia core. Zirconia showed a significantly higher fracture strength value in implant-supported restorations, indicating the role played by the high resistant cores for premolar crowns. PMID:24779915

  11. Esthetic Outcomes of Single-Tooth Implant-Supported Restorations Using Metal-Ceramic Restorations with Zirconia or Titanium Abutments: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Baldini, Nicola; D'Elia, Chiara; Clementini, Marco; Carrillo de Albornoz, Ana; Sanz, Mariano; De Sanctis, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether zirconia abutments exhibit the same clinical and esthetic outcomes as titanium abutments in single-tooth implant restorations in the esthetic area. The 24 treated patients were randomly assigned to a test (zirconia abutment) or control (titanium abutment) group. Objective evaluations were carried out using the Implant Crown Aesthetic Index (ICAI) and the Papilla Index (PI) at the 1-month and 12-month follow-up examinations after crown cementation. No significant differences, either in ICAI or in other periodontal or radiographic measurements, were observed. At 1 year, zirconia and titanium abutments exhibited the same esthetic outcomes. PMID:27333019

  12. [Study of pure titanium electrolytic polishing].

    PubMed

    Morita, N

    1990-03-01

    This study attempted to polish pure titanium test pieces electrolytically to mirror surface at the size of cast denture frames. Electrolytic polishing of pure titanium could be done on an area of 30 cm2 with a non-aqueous electrolyte. Small pure titanium plates could be polished electrolytically, but a uniformly smooth surface could not be obtained easily with large testpiece. The optimal electrolytic conditions were 30 V for 6 min at 25 degrees C using a solution consisting of 70 ml ethyl alcohol, 30 ml iso-propyl alcohol, 6 g aluminum chloride, and 25 g zinc chloride. The solution was safe and had less restriction of frequency of use. PMID:2135513

  13. Induction of Crown Gall on Carrot Slices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babich, H.; Fox, K. D.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the transfer of plasmid from a bacterium to a plant cell has received little attention. Presents an experiment for studying this type of genetic transformation using the causative agent of crown gall, a malignant plant tumor. (DDR)

  14. Machining accuracy of crowns by CAD/CAM system using TCP/IP: influence of restorative material and scanning condition.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Sachiko; Shin-ya, Akiyoshi; Gomi, Harunori; Shin-ya, Akikazu; Yokoyama, Daiichiro

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal condition for fabricating accurate crowns efficiently using an internet-based CAD/CAM system. The influences of three different CAD/CAM restorative materials (titanium, porcelain, and composite resin) and three different step-over scanning distances (0.01 mm, 0.11 mm, and 0.21 mm) were evaluated, and their interactive effects were carefully examined. Several points on the inner and outer surfaces of machined crowns - as well as height - were measured. These measurements were then compared with the original models, from which machining accuracy was obtained. At all measuring points, the inner surface of all crowns was machined larger than the die model, whereas the cervical area of porcelain crown was machined smaller than the crown model. Results of this study revealed that a step-over distance of 0.11 mm was an optimal scanning condition, taking into consideration the interactive effects of scanning time required, data volume, and machining accuracy. PMID:17886460

  15. Bond strength of binary titanium alloys to porcelain.

    PubMed

    Yoda, M; Konno, T; Takada, Y; Iijima, K; Griggs, J; Okuno, O; Kimura, K; Okabe, T

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the bond strength between porcelain and experimental cast titanium alloys. Eleven binary titanium alloys were examined: Ti-Cr (15, 20, 25 wt%), Ti-Pd (15, 20, 25 wt%), Ti-Ag (10, 15, 20 wt%), and Ti-Cu (5, 10 wt%). As controls, the bond strengths for commercially pure titanium (KS-50, Kobelco, Japan) and a high noble gold alloy (KIK, Ishifuku, Japan) were also examined. Castings were made using a centrifugal casting unit (Ticast Super R, Selec Co., Japan). Commercial porcelain for titanium (TITAN, Noritake, Japan) was applied to cast specimens. The bond strengths were evaluated using a three-point bend test according to ISO 9693. Since the elastic modulus value is needed to evaluate the bond strength, the modulus was measured for each alloy using a three-point bend test. Results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA/S-N-K test (alpha = 0.05). Although the elastic moduli of the Ti-Pd alloys were significantly lower than those of other alloys (p = 0.0001), there was a significant difference in bond strength only between the Ti-25Pd and Ti-15Ag alloys (p = 0.009). The strengths determined for all the experimental alloys ranged from 29.4 to 37.2MPa, which are above the minimum value required by the ISO specification (25 MPa). PMID:11379602

  16. Mold filling and microhardness of 1% Fe titanium alloys.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hideki; Komatsu, Masashi; Miller, Barbara; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Fujii, Hideki; Okabe, Toru

    2004-06-01

    We examined the mold filling capacity and microhardness of two industrial 1% Fe titanium alloys: Super-TIX800 (Nippon Steel Corp.) (Fe: 0.910%, O: 0.370%, N: 0.005%) and Super-TIX800N (Nippon Steel Corp.) (Fe: 0.960%, O: 0.300%, N: 0.041%). Two wedge-shaped acrylic patterns (with 30 degrees or 15 degrees angles) were prepared. Each alloy was cast in a centrifugal casting machine. Mold filling was evaluated as the missing length between the tip of the casting and the theoretical tip. Vickers hardness of the edge of the castings was also determined. For both angles tested, there were no significant differences (p>0.05) in mold filling among these alloys and the control (CP Ti). The results of testing the microhardness near the cast surfaces indicated that the hardened reaction layers on these alloys were thinner at the edge compared to CP Ti. PMID:15287570

  17. Cool Cast Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... outer layer is usually made of plaster or fiberglass. Fiberglass casts are made of fiberglass, which is a plastic that can be shaped. Fiberglass casts come in many different colors — if you' ...

  18. Characterization of titanium and zirconium valerate sol-gel films

    SciTech Connect

    Severin, K.G.; Ledford, J.S.; Torgerson, B.A.; Berglund, K.A. )

    1994-07-01

    FTIR and XPS have been used to characterize titanium and zirconium valerate thin films prepared using sol-gel techniques. Films were prepared by hydrolysis of titanium(IV) isopropoxide or zirconium(IV) n-propoxide in excess valeric acid at room temperature. Film solution chemistry, from precursors to cast films, was followed with FTIR. The structure and chemical composition of films spin cast from fresh and day-old solutions were determined. Results of these studies suggest that all films consist of a metal-oxygen polymer backbone coordinated with bidentate valerate ligands. No evidence for the presence of alkoxide ligands has been found. A small amount of water is present in all cast films. While solution aging experiments indicate that the zirconium film structure does not change with solution reaction time, carboxylate ligand concentrations are higher in titanium films made from aged solutions. Titanium films made from aged solutions contain slightly less than 1.5 valerate ligands/titanium atom. Zirconium films are more highly carboxylated with almost two valerate groups per metal center. 57 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. LLNL casting technology

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.B.; Comfort, W.J. III

    1994-01-01

    Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US compentiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective, experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

  20. LLNL casting technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, A. B.; Comfort, W. J., III

    1994-01-01

    Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US competiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

  1. Crown Ethers in Nonaqueous Electrolytes for Lithium/Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Deyu; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Jiguang

    2010-02-04

    The effects of three crown ethers, 12-crown-4, 15-crown-5, and 18-crown-6, as additives and co-solvents in non-aqueous electrolytes on the cell performance of primary Li/air batteries operated in a dry air environment were investigated. Crown ethers have large effects on the discharge performance of non-aqueous electrolytes in Li/air batteries. A small amount (normally less than 10% by weight or volume in electrolytes) of 12-Crown-4 and 15-crown-5 reduces the battery performance and a minimum discharge capacity appears at the crown ether content of ca. 5% in the electrolytes. However, when the content increases to about 15%, both crown ethers improve the capacity of Li/air cells by about 28% and 16%, respectively. 15-Crown-5 based electrolytes even show a maximum discharge capacity in the crown ether content range from 10% to 15%. On the other hand, the increase of 18-crown-6 amount in the electrolytes continuously lowers of the cell performance. The different battery performances of these three crown ethers in electrolytes are explained by the combined effects from the electrolytes’ contact angle, oxygen solubility, viscosity, ionic conductivity, and the stability of complexes formed between crown ether molecules and lithium ions.

  2. Opportunities in the electrowinning of molten titanium from titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vuuren, D. S.; Engelbrecht, A. D.; Hadley, T. D.

    2005-10-01

    The value chain of titanium products shows that the difference between the cost of titanium ingot and titanium dioxide is about 9/kg titanium. In contrast, the price of aluminum, which is produced in a similar way, is only about 1.7/kg. Electrowinning of molten titanium from titanium dioxide is therefore believed to have significant potential to reduce the cost of titanium products. The process is hampered by the high operating temperatures and sophisticated materials of construction required; the high affinity of titanium for carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen; and physical and chemical properties of the different titanium oxide species when reducing titanium from Ti4+ to metallic titanium.

  3. Properties of test metal ceramic titanium alloys.

    PubMed

    Akagi, K; Okamoto, Y; Matsuura, T; Horibe, T

    1992-09-01

    Four test alloys were prepared using a high frequency centrifugal casting machine and a ceramic crucible for the development of titanium bonding alloys that can be cast in the ordinary atmosphere. Of these alloys, 10.06% Ti, 78.79% Ni, 9.02% Pd, 1.77% Sn and 9.91% Ti, 78.56% Ni, 9.07% Pd, 1.86% Sn, 0.65% Ir could be cast by the conventional high frequency centrifugal method; however, 89.18% Ti, 8.75% Ni, 1.03% Pd, 0.28% Sn and 89.81% Ti, 8.15% Ni, 1.01% Pd, 0.18% Sn, 0.67% Ir could be cast only by the argon are melting method. The alloys 10.06% Ti, 78.95% Ni, 9.02% Pd, 1.77% Sn and 9.91% Ti, 78.56% Ni, 9.07% Pd, 1.86% Sn, 0.65% Ir showed excellent physical and mechanical properties and bonding strengths, surpassing those of the commercial alloys TPW and Unimetal. Concerning the elution of component elements, the amounts of titanium eluted from these alloys were far smaller than those from pure titanium or a Ti-6Al-4V alloy, and nickel elution, which has become an issue in relation to metal allergy, was almost nil in contrast to Unimetal (Ni-Cr alloy). The alloy 9.91% Ti, 78.56% Ni, 9.07% Pd, 1.86% Sn, 0.65% Ir showed properties that indicated its favorable use as an alloy for the bonding of dental porcelain. PMID:1432762

  4. Crown cover chart for oak savannas. Forest Service technical brief

    SciTech Connect

    Law, J.R.; Johnson, P.S.; Houf, G.

    1994-07-01

    Although oak savannas have been defined in many ways, they are characterized by scattered trees, largely comprised of oaks, and a sparse ground layer rich in grasses and forbs. The crown cover chart can be used to estimate the crown cover of trees as a percent of total area. Potential applications of the chart include monitoring changes in savanna crown cover, determining needed reductions in crown cover, and defining the savanna state. in restoring savannas that have grown into closed canopy stands, one can use the chart to estimate initial crown cover before restoration work is begun and again after crown cover has been reduced.

  5. Evaluation of electroslag castings

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.; Sikka, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    Results of evaluations of electroslag castings of ferritic (2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo and 9 Cr-1 Mo) and austenitic (CF8M or type 316) steels are presented. The castings have been characterized for surface finish, cracking, solidification structure, chemical composition, hardness, ferrite distribution, tensile properties, Charpy impact properties, and creep properties. Pertinent data are compared with equivalent data for sand castings and wrought products of the same materials. Based on the results of these studies, the properties of electroslag castings compare favorably with those of sand castings and wrought materials.

  6. A comparative study to evaluate the osteoblastic cell behavior of two nano coated titanium surfaces with NAFION stabilized the membrane

    PubMed Central

    Nayar, Sanjna; Chakraverty, Sanket

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to comparatively analyze the in vitro cell adhesion between nano coated titanium dioxide, and calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) coated titanium samples. Materials and Methods: Nano coated titanium dioxide, and calcium HA were coated onto the titanium samples by drop casting with NAFION membrane and cell culture was done by seeding human osteoblastic sarcoma cells on the coated samples. Results and conclusion: There was marked cell adhesion seen in the samples coated by titanium dioxide nano particles and more cells spreading as compared to calcium HA nano particles. PMID:26929484

  7. Advances in aluminum casting technology

    SciTech Connect

    Tiryakioglu, M.; Campbell, J.

    1998-01-01

    This symposium focuses on the improvements of aluminum casting quality and reliability through a better understanding of processes and process variables, and explores the latest innovations in casting-process design that allow increasing use of the castings to replace complex assemblies and heavy steel and cast-iron components in aerospace and automotive applications. Presented are 35 papers by international experts in the various aspects of the subject. The contents include: Semisolid casting; Computer-aided designing of molds and castings; Casting-process modeling; Aluminum-matrix composite castings; HIPing of castings; Progress in the US car project; Die casting and die design; and Solidification and properties.

  8. 9. VIEW OF CROWN POINT LOOKING NORTH. VISTA HOUSE, UPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF CROWN POINT LOOKING NORTH. VISTA HOUSE, UPPER RETAINING WALL, FLAG POLE AND PARKING LOT IN VIEW. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Crown Point, East of Corbett, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  9. Castable glass ceramic crowns and their reaction to endodontic therapy.

    PubMed

    Cohen, B D; Wallace, J A

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine how castable glass (Dicor) crowns would react to both cold testing and endodontic access intervention. Full crown preparations were made on six extracted maxillary teeth. The teeth were then forwarded to Dentsply International, York, Pa. Six castable glass crowns were fabricated to fit these teeth and returned to us. Subsequently the teeth were dried and the crowns were cemented. Scanning electron micrographs of the cemented crowns were made, and endodontic access openings were drilled. The teeth were also cold tested with standard methods. The teeth were then again subjected to scanning electron microscopy to determine any changes the crowns might have undergone. One crown cracked around the gingival collar as scanning electron microscopy was performed. The other crowns did not exhibit any problems such as cracking or crazing from either the access openings or the cold testing. PMID:1891229

  10. 11. DETAIL VIEW LOOKING EAST OF MASONRY RAILING AT CROWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL VIEW LOOKING EAST OF MASONRY RAILING AT CROWN POINT. ASHLAR EXAMPLE ON LEFT. RANDOM RUBBLE ON RIGHT. BEACON ROCK IN DISTANCE. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Crown Point, East of Corbett, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  11. Titanium hermetic seals

    DOEpatents

    Brow, Richard K.; Watkins, Randall D.

    1995-07-04

    Titanium is prenitrided by being heated in a nitrogen environment under conditions which give rise to the formation of a titanium-nitride surface layer on the titanium. Titanium thus prenitrided may be used in electrical components which are hermetically sealed using silicate glasses and standard glass sealing techniques. According to the method of the invention, alkali volatilization and formation of deleterious interfacial silicide are inhibited.

  12. Titanium hermetic seals

    DOEpatents

    Brow, Richard K.; Watkins, Randall D.

    1995-01-01

    Titanium is prenitrided by being heated in a nitrogen environment under conditions which give rise to the formation of a titanium-nitride surface layer on the titanium. Titanium thus prenitrided may be used in electrical components which are hermetically sealed using silicate glasses and standard glass sealing techniques. According to the method of the invention, alkali volatilization and formation of deleterious interfacial silicide are inhibited.

  13. Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Brow, R.K.; Watkins, R.D.

    1988-01-21

    Glass compositions containing CaO, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, SrO and BaO of various combinations of mole % are provided. These compositions are capable of forming stable glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys, for use in components such as seals for battery headers.

  14. Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Brow, Richard K.; Watkins, Randall D.

    1992-01-01

    Glass compositions containing CaO, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, B.sub.2 O.sub.3, SrO and BaO of various combinations of mole % are provided. These compositions are capable of forming stable glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys, for use in components such as seals for battery headers.

  15. Production of Diesel Engine Turbocharger Turbine from Low Cost Titanium Powder

    SciTech Connect

    Muth, T. R.; Mayer, R.

    2012-05-04

    Turbochargers in commercial turbo-diesel engines are multi-material systems where usually the compressor rotor is made of aluminum or titanium based material and the turbine rotor is made of either a nickel based superalloy or titanium, designed to operate under the harsh exhaust gas conditions. The use of cast titanium in the turbine section has been used by Cummins Turbo Technologies since 1997. Having the benefit of a lower mass than the superalloy based turbines; higher turbine speeds in a more compact design can be achieved with titanium. In an effort to improve the cost model, and develop an industrial supply of titanium componentry that is more stable than the traditional aerospace based supply chain, the Contractor has developed component manufacturing schemes that use economical Armstrong titanium and titanium alloy powders and MgR-HDH powders. Those manufacturing schemes can be applied to compressor and turbine rotor components for diesel engine applications with the potential of providing a reliable supply of titanium componentry with a cost and performance advantage over cast titanium.

  16. Correlation between maxillary central incisor crown morphology and mandibular dental arch form in normal occlusion subjects.

    PubMed

    Paranhos, Luiz Renato; Lima, Carolina Souto; da Silva, Ricardo Henrique Alves; Daruge Júnior, Eduardo; Torres, Fernando Cesar

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the morphology of the mandibular dental arch and the maxillary central incisor crown. Cast models from 51 Caucasian individuals, older than 15 years, with optimal occlusion, no previous orthodontic treatment, featuring 4 of the 6 keys to normal occlusion by Andrews (the first being mandatory) were observed. The models were digitalized using a 3D scanner, and images of the maxillary central incisor and mandibular dental arch were obtained. These were printed and placed in an album below pre-set models of arches and dental crowns, and distributed to 12 dental surgeons, who were asked to choose which shape was most in accordance with the models and crown presented. The Kappa test was performed to evaluate the concordance among evaluators while the chi-square test was used to verify the association between the dental arch and central incisor morphology, at a 5% significance level. The Kappa test showed moderate agreement among evaluators for both variables of this study, and the chi-square test showed no significant association between tooth shape and mandibular dental arch morphology. It may be concluded that the use of arch morphology as a diagnostic method to determine the shape of the maxillary central incisor is not appropriate. Further research is necessary to assess tooth shape using a stricter scientific basis. PMID:22666773

  17. 28. Photocopy of Crown Roller Mill illustration; originally published in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photocopy of Crown Roller Mill illustration; originally published in The Crown Roller Mill, Northwestern Miller 9 (May 21, 1880): 321; SHOWING WEST SIDE, LOOKING EAST - Crown Roller Mill, 105 Fifth Avenue, South, West Side Milling District, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  18. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such...

  19. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such...

  20. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such...

  1. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such...

  2. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such...

  3. Cementing porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns.

    PubMed

    Vadachkoria, D

    2009-12-01

    The clinical success of fixed prosthodontic restorations can be complex and involve multifaceted procedures. Preparation design, oral hygiene/micro flora, mechanical forces, and restorative materials are only a few of the factors which contribute to overall success. One key factor to success is choosing the proper cement. Popular use of cements for PFM crowns has shifted from zinc phosphate and glass ionomer cements to resin-reinforced glass ionomer, or RRGI, cements. This change has been rapid and profound. Dental cements have always been less than ideal materials, but this is shift to the relatively new RRGI category justified. Resin-reinforced glass ionomer (RRGI) cements appear to be better than zinc phosphate and glass ionomer cements when placing porcelain-to-metal crowns. RRGI cements, such as RelyX Luting, Fuji Plus and Vitremer Luting Cement, satisfy more of the ideal characteristics of PFM cementation than any other previous cement. Expansion of all three cements has not caused any apparent problems with the cements when used with PFM or metal crowns, but these cements, however, should be avoided when cementing all-ceramic crowns. PMID:20090144

  4. "Crown Ether" Synthesis: An Organic Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Kurt W.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    This experiment is designed to acquaint the student with a macromolecular synthesis of a crown ether type compound. The starting materials are readily available and the product, a cyclic polyether, belongs to a class of compounds that has aroused the interest of chemist and biologist alike. (Author/BB)

  5. 21 CFR 872.3330 - Preformed crown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... greater gold and metals of the platinum group intended to be affixed temporarily to a tooth after removal of, or breakage of, the natural crown (that portion of the tooth that normally protrudes above the...) tooth until the adult tooth erupts. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3330 - Preformed crown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... greater gold and metals of the platinum group intended to be affixed temporarily to a tooth after removal of, or breakage of, the natural crown (that portion of the tooth that normally protrudes above the...) tooth until the adult tooth erupts. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3330 - Preformed crown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... greater gold and metals of the platinum group intended to be affixed temporarily to a tooth after removal of, or breakage of, the natural crown (that portion of the tooth that normally protrudes above the...) tooth until the adult tooth erupts. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is...

  8. 21 CFR 872.3330 - Preformed crown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... greater gold and metals of the platinum group intended to be affixed temporarily to a tooth after removal of, or breakage of, the natural crown (that portion of the tooth that normally protrudes above the...) tooth until the adult tooth erupts. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is...

  9. 21 CFR 872.3330 - Preformed crown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... greater gold and metals of the platinum group intended to be affixed temporarily to a tooth after removal of, or breakage of, the natural crown (that portion of the tooth that normally protrudes above the...) tooth until the adult tooth erupts. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is...

  10. Aspergillosis in a red-crowned crane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stroud, R.K.; Duncan, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    An unusual form of pulmonary aspergillosis in a red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) is described in this report. The major lesion is unique because it closely resembles a lesion referred to as an aspergilloma. An aspergilloma is a single large granulomatous lesion that resembles a tumor and is caused by fungi of the genus Aspergillus.

  11. SLIP CASTING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Allison, A.G.

    1959-09-01

    S>A process is described for preparing a magnesium oxide slip casting slurry which when used in conjunction with standard casting techniques results in a very strong "green" slip casting and a fired piece of very close dimensional tolerance. The process involves aging an aqueous magnestum oxide slurry, having a basic pH value, until it attains a specified critical viscosity at which time a deflocculating agent is added without upsetting the basic pH value.

  12. Effects of coronal substrates and water storage on the microhardness of a resin cement used for luting ceramic crowns

    PubMed Central

    de MENDONÇA, Luana Menezes; PEGORARO, Luiz Fernando; LANZA, Marcos Daniel Septímio; PEGORARO, Thiago Amadei; de CARVALHO, Ricardo Marins

    2014-01-01

    Composite resin and metallic posts are the materials most employed for reconstruction of teeth presenting partial or total destruction of crowns. Resin-based cements have been widely used for cementation of ceramic crowns. The success of cementation depends on the achievement of adequate cement curing. Objectives To evaluate the microhardness of Variolink® II (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein), used for cementing ceramic crowns onto three different coronal substrate preparations (dentin, metal, and composite resin), after 7 days and 3 months of water storage. The evaluation was performed along the cement line in the cervical, medium and occlusal thirds on the buccal and lingual aspects, and on the occlusal surface. Material and Methods Thirty molars were distributed in three groups (N=10) according to the type of coronal substrate: Group D- the prepared surfaces were kept in dentin; Groups M (metal) and R (resin)- the crowns were sectioned at the level of the cementoenamel junction and restored with metallic cast posts or resin build-up cores, respectively. The crowns were fabricated in ceramic IPS e.max® Press (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) and luted with Variolink II. After 7 days of water storage, 5 specimens of each group were sectioned in buccolingual direction for microhardness measurements. The other specimens (N=5) were kept stored in deionized water at 37ºC for three months, followed by sectioning and microhardness measurements. Results Data were first analyzed by three-way ANOVA that did not reveal significant differences between thirds and occlusal surface (p=0.231). Two-way ANOVA showed significant effect of substrates (p<0.001) and the Tukey test revealed that microhardness was significantly lower when crowns were cemented on resin cores and tested after 7 days of water storage (p=0.007). Conclusion The type of material employed for coronal reconstruction of preparations for prosthetic purposes may influence the cement properties

  13. Gap comparison between single crown and three-unit bridge zirconia substructures

    PubMed Central

    Charoenchitt, Masnisa; Asvanund, Chanavut

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To compare marginal and internal gaps of zirconia substructure of single crowns with those of three-unit fixed dental prostheses. MATERIALS AND METHODS Standardized Co-Cr alloy simulated second premolar and second molar abutments were fabricated and subsequently duplicated into type-III dental stone for working casts. After that, all zirconia substructures were made using Lava™ system. Marginal and internal gaps were measured in 2 planes (mesial-distal plane and buccal-palatal plane) at 5 locations: marginal opening (MO), chamfer area (CA), axial wall (AW), cusp tip (CT) and mid-occlusal (OA) using Replica technique. RESULTS There were significant differences between gaps at all locations. The mean ± SD of marginal gap in premolar was 43.6 ± 0.4 µm and 46.5 ± 0.5 µm for single crown and 3-unit bridge substructure respectively. For molar substructure the mean ± SD of marginal gap was 48.5 ± 0.4 µm and 52.6 ± 0.4 µm for single crown and 3-unit bridge respectively. The largest gaps were found at the occlusal area, which was 150.5 ± 0.5 µm and 154.5 ± 0.4 µm for single and 3-unit bridge premolar substructures respectively and 146.5 ± 0.4 µm and 211.5 ± 0.4 µm for single and 3-unit bridge molar substructure respectively. CONCLUSION Independent-samples t-test showed significant differences of gap in zirconia substructure between single crowns and three-unit bridge (P<.001). Therefore, the span length has the effect on the fit of zirconia substructure that is fabricated using CAD/CAM technique especially at the occlusal area. PMID:25177467

  14. Powder processing of hybrid titanium neural electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Jose Luis, Jr.

    A preliminary investigation into the powder production of a novel hybrid titanium neural electrode for EEG is presented. The rheological behavior of titanium powder suspensions using sodium alginate as a dispersant are examined for optimal slip casting conditions. Electrodes were slip cast and sintered at 950°C for 1 hr, 1000°C for 1, 3, and 6 hrs, and 1050°C for 1 hr. Residual porosities from sintering are characterized using Archimedes' technique and image analysis. The pore network is gel impregnated by submerging the electrodes in electrically conductive gel and placing them in a chamber under vacuum. Gel evaporation of the impregnated electrodes is examined. Electrodes are characterized in the dry and gelled states using impedance spectrometry and compared to a standard silver- silver chloride electrode. Power spectral densities for the sensors in the dry and gelled state are also compared. Residual porosities for the sintered specimens were between 50.59% and 44.81%. Gel evaporation tests show most of the impregnated gel evaporating within 20 min of exposure to atmospheric conditions with prolonged evaporation times for electrodes with higher impregnated gel mass. Impedance measurements of the produced electrodes indicate the low impedance of the hybrid electrodes are due to the increased contact area of the porous electrode. Power spectral densities of the titanium electrode behave similar to a standard silver-silver chloride electrode. Tests suggest the powder processed hybrid titanium electrode's performance is better than current dry contact electrodes and comparable to standard gelled silver-silver chloride electrodes.

  15. Cerec anterior crowns: restorative options with monolithic ceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Reich, Sven; Fiedlar, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss the different types of monolithic ceramic crowns that can be placed on anterior teeth with existing shoulder preparations. Anterior crowns were indicated for the teeth 12 to 22 in the present case. The patient, a 65-year-old male, had received all-ceramic crowns 20 years earlier, which had started to develop cracks and palatal fractures over the last few years. The patient's teeth were prepared and four sets of crowns were fabricated using different monolithic ceramic materials: IPS e.max CAD, Cerec Blocs C In, VITABLOCS Real Life, and ENAMIC. Both shade characterization and crystallization firing were performed on the monolithic lithium disilicate glass ceramic crowns. The silicate ceramic crowns received glaze firing alone. The crowns made of hybrid ceramic (ENAMIC) were treated with a polymer sealant. PMID:24555406

  16. Casting Footprints for Eternity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Apollo 11 Astronaut Buzz Aldrin has his footprints casted during the dedication ceremony of the rocket fountain at Building 4200 at Marshall Space Flight Center. The casts of Aldrin's footprints will be placed in the newly constructed Von Braun courtyard representing the accomplishments of the Apollo 11 lunar landing.

  17. Crown Features Extraction from Low Altitude AVIRIS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunjemiyo, S. O.; Roberts, D.; Ustin, S.

    2005-12-01

    Automated tree recognition and crown delineations are computer-assisted procedures for identifying individual trees and segmenting their crown boundaries on digital imagery. The success of the procedures is dependent on the quality of the image data and the physiognomy of the stand as evidence by previous studies, which have all used data with spatial resolution less than 1 m and average crown diameter to pixel size ratio greater than 4. In this study we explored the prospect of identifying individual tree species and extracting crown features from low altitude AVIRIS (Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) data with spatial resolution of 4 m. The test site is a Douglas-fir and Western hemlock dominated old-growth conifer forest in the Pacific Northwest with average crown diameter of 12 m, which translates to a crown diameter pixel ratio less than 4 m; the lowest value ever used in similar studies. The analysis was carried out using AVIRIS reflectance imagery in the NIR band centered at 885 nm wavelength. The analysis required spatial filtering of the reflectance imagery followed by application of a tree identification algorithm based on maximum filter technique. For every identified tree location a crown polygon was delineated by applying crown segmentation algorithm. Each polygon boundary was characterized by a loop connecting pixels that were geometrically determined to define the crown boundary. Crown features were extracted based on the area covered by the polygons, and they include crown diameters, average distance between crowns, species spectral, pixel brightness at the identified tree locations, average brightness of pixels enclosed by the crown boundary and within crown variation in pixel brightness. Comparison of the results with ground reference data showed a high correlation between the two datasets and highlights the potential of low altitude AVIRIS data to provide the means to improve forest management and practices and estimates of critical

  18. Comparative Evaluation of Marginal Accuracy of a Cast Fixed Partial Denture Compared to Soldered Fixed Partial Denture Made of Two Different Base Metal Alloys and Casting Techniques: An In vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Jei, J Brintha; Mohan, Jayashree

    2014-03-01

    The periodontal health of abutment teeth and the durability of fixed partial denture depends on the marginal adaptation of the prosthesis. Any discrepancy in the marginal area leads to dissolution of luting agent and plaque accumulation. This study was done with the aim of evaluating the accuracy of marginal fit of four unit crown and bridge made up of Ni-Cr and Cr-Co alloys under induction and centrifugal casting. They were compared to cast fixed partial denture (FPD) and soldered FPD. For the purpose of this study a metal model was fabricated. A total of 40 samples (4-unit crown and bridge) were prepared in which 20 Cr-Co samples and 20 Ni-Cr samples were fabricated. Within these 20 samples of each group 10 samples were prepared by induction casting technique and other 10 samples with centrifugal casting technique. The cast FPD samples obtained were seated on the model and the samples were then measured with travelling microscope having precision of 0.001 cm. Sectioning of samples was done between the two pontics and measurements were made, then the soldering was made with torch soldering unit. The marginal discrepancy of soldered samples was measured and all findings were statistically analysed. The results revealed minimal marginal discrepancy with Cr-Co samples when compared to Ni-Cr samples done under induction casting technique. When compared to cast FPD samples, the soldered group showed reduced marginal discrepancy. PMID:24605006

  19. Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Hung Sui; Yang, Xiao-Oing; McBreen, James

    1998-08-04

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI.sup.+ ion in alkali metal batteries.

  20. Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.O.; McBreen, J.

    1998-08-04

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI{sup +} ion in alkali metal batteries. 3 figs.

  1. Laser Gas Nitriding of Titanium and Titanium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, J. J.; Hou, S. Q.

    Titanium and titanium alloys are widely used in many fields due to some of their characteristics such as light density, high strength, and excellent corrosion resistance. However, poor mechanical performances limit their practical applications. Laser gas nitriding is a promising method used to improve the surface properties of components. Recent developments on laser gas nitriding of titanium and titanium alloys are reviewed. The processing parameters have important effects on the resulting characteristics of titanium and titanium alloys. The resulting microstructure and properties of laser gas nitrided specimens are presented. The problems to be solved and the prospects in the field of laser gas nitriding of titanium and titanium alloys are discussed.

  2. Dichloromethane photodegradation using titanium catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Tanguay, J.F.; Suib, S.L.; Coughlin, R.W. )

    1989-06-01

    The use of titanium dioxide and titanium aluminosilicates in the photocatalytic destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbons is investigated. Titanium-exchanged clays, titanium-pillared clays, and titanium dioxide in the amorphous, anatase, and rutile forms are used to photocatalytically degrade dichloromethane to hydrochloric acid and carbon dioxide. Bentonite clays pillared by titanium dioxide are observed to be more catalytically active than titanium-exchanged clays. Clays pillared by titanium aluminum polymeric cations display about the same catalytic activity as that of titanium-exchanged clays. The rutile form of titanium dioxide is the most active catalyst studied for the dichloromethane degradation reaction. The anatase form of titanium dioxide supported on carbon felt was also used as a catalyst. This material is about five times more active than titanium dioxide-pillared clays. Degradation of dichloromethane using any of these catalysts can be enhanced by oxygen enrichment of the reaction solution or by preirradiating the catalyst with light.

  3. Fracture strength of ceramic monolithic crown systems of different thickness.

    PubMed

    Nordahl, Niklas; Vult von Steyern, Per; Larsson, Christel

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate fracture strength of high-translucent (HTZ) and low-translucent (LTZ) zirconia and glass-ceramic (LDS) crowns. HTZ and LTZ crowns were made with thicknesses of; 0.3 mm, 0.5 mm, 0.7 mm, 1.0 mm, and 1.5 mm; and LDS crowns of 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm thicknesses. Each group consisted of 10 crowns. All crowns underwent artificial aging before loading until fracture. Mean fracture strengths varied from 450 N to 3,248 N in the LTZ group, 438 N to 3,487 N in the HTZ group, and 1,030 N to 1,431 N in the LDS group. The load at fracture of HTZ and LTZ crowns was equal. The load at fracture of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals crowns was significantly greater than LDS crowns (P = 0.000). Two types of fractures were recorded; complete and partial crack-like fracture. The crack type fracture occurred most frequently in all groups except in the thicker LTZ groups (1.0 mm and 1.5 mm). According to this study, there is no difference in strength between crowns made of high-translucent or low-translucent zirconia. At equal thickness, the strength of zirconia crowns was significantly greater than that of lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic. PMID:26369491

  4. INTERIOR VIEW WITH LARGE PIPE CASTING MACHINE CASTING A 48' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH LARGE PIPE CASTING MACHINE CASTING A 48' PIPE OPERATOR SPRAYING A POWDER TO HELP SOLIDIFY THE PIPE BEING CENTRIFUGALLY CAST. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Pipe Casting & Testing Area, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  5. Clean Metal Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  6. Casting in Sport

    PubMed Central

    DeCarlo, Mark; Malone, Kathy; Darmelio, John; Rettig, Arthur

    1994-01-01

    Attempts by sports medicine professionals to return high school athletes with hand and wrist injuries to competition quickly and safely have been the source of confusion and debate on many playing fields around the country. In addition to the differing views regarding the appropriateness of playing cast usage in high school football, a debate exists among sports medicine professionals as to which material is best suited for playing cast construction. Materials used in playing cast construction should be hard enough to provide sufficient stabilization to the injured area and include adequate padding to absorb blunt impact forces. The purpose of the biomechanical portion of this investigation was to attempt to determine the most appropriate materials for use in constructing playing casts for the hand and wrist by assessing different materials for: 1) hardness using a Shore durometer, and 2) ability to absorb impact using a force platform. Results revealed that RTV11 and Scotchcast were the “least hard” of the underlying casting materials and that Temper Stick foam greatly increased the ability of RTV11 to absorb impact. Assessment of the mechanical properties of playing cast materials and review of current developments in high school football rules are used to aid practitioners in choosing the most appropriate materials for playing cast construction. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2.Fig 3. PMID:16558257

  7. CASTING METHOD AND APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Gray, C.F.; Thompson, R.H.

    1958-10-01

    An improved apparatus for the melting and casting of uranium is described. A vacuum chamber is positioned over the casting mold and connected thereto, and a rod to pierce the oxide skin of the molten uranium is fitted into the bottom of the melting chamber. The entire apparatus is surrounded by a jacket, and operations are conducted under a vacuum. The improvement in this apparatus lies in the fact that the top of the melting chamber is fitted with a plunger which allows squeezing of the oxide skin to force out any molten uranium remaining after the skin has been broken and the molten charge has been cast.

  8. CENTRIFUGAL CASTING MACHINE

    DOEpatents

    Shuck, A.B.

    1958-04-01

    A device is described that is specifically designed to cast uraniumn fuel rods in a vacuunn, in order to obtain flawless, nonoxidized castings which subsequently require a maximum of machining or wastage of the expensive processed material. A chamber surrounded with heating elements is connected to the molds, and the entire apparatus is housed in an airtight container. A charge of uranium is placed in the chamber, heated, then is allowed to flow into the molds While being rotated. Water circulating through passages in the molds chills the casting to form a fine grained fuel rod in nearly finished form.

  9. An Investigation Into the Integrity of Fit of Provisional Crowns Using Current Proprietary Temporary Crown Materials.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Philip D; Georgakis, Georgios; Niggli, Jason

    2016-06-01

    Three methods of direct provisional crown construction were investigated for accuracy of marginal fit. A modified proprietary crown coping was compared to Bis GMA and isobutyl methacrylate resin provisional crowns with margins modified by using a flowable composite and 'bead on' isobutyl methacrylate respectively. Measurement was at 50x magnification at seven sites over the fit surface. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 13.0.1 and measurement compared using the Mann Whitney test set at a significance level of 0.05. Reliability was checked using the Bland Altman test. Statistical significant differences were found between the three groups. The order of best fit was Bis-GMA and flowable composite > isobutyl methacrylate with 'bead on' margins > Bis-GMA modified implant temporary coping. The clinical significance is that the Bis GMA and flowable composite combination can be used with equal confidence to traditional methods of temporarisation. PMID:27424335

  10. Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Brow, R.K.; McCollister, H.L.; Phifer, C.C.; Day, D.E.

    1997-07-15

    Barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are provided comprising various combinations (in terms of mole-%) of boron oxide (B{sub 2}O{sub 3}), barium oxide (BaO), lanthanum oxide (La{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and at least one other oxide selected from the group consisting of aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), calcium oxide (CaO), lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O), sodium oxide (Na{sub 2}O), silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}), or titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}). These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys having an improved aqueous durability and favorable sealing characteristics. Examples of the sealing-glass compositions are provided having coefficients of thermal expansion about that of titanium or titanium alloys, and with sealing temperatures less than about 900 C, and generally about 700--800 C. The barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are useful for components and devices requiring prolonged exposure to moisture or water, and for implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps). 1 fig.

  11. Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Brow, Richard K.; McCollister, Howard L.; Phifer, Carol C.; Day, Delbert E.

    1997-01-01

    Barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are provided comprising various combinations (in terms of mole-%) of boron oxide (B.sub.2 O.sub.3), barium oxide (BaO), lanthanum oxide (La.sub.2 O.sub.3), and at least one other oxide selected from the group consisting of aluminum oxide (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3), calcium oxide (CaO), lithium oxide (Li.sub.2 O), sodium oxide (Na.sub.2 O), silicon dioxide (SiO.sub.2), or titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2). These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys having an improved aqueous durability and favorable sealing characteristics. Examples of the sealing-glass compositions are provided having coefficients of thermal expansion about that of titanium or titanium alloys, and with sealing temperatures less than about 900.degree. C., and generally about 700.degree.-800.degree. C. The barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are useful for components and devices requiring prolonged exposure to moisture or water, and for implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps).

  12. Zirconia crowns - the new standard for single-visit dentistry?

    PubMed

    Wiedhahn, Klaus; Fritzsche, Günter; Wiedhahn, Claudine; Schenk, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Zirconia crowns combine the advantages of metal restorations, such as minimally invasive tooth preparation and ease of cementation, with those of full ceramic crowns, such as low thermal conductivity and tooth color. With the introduction of a high-speed sintering procedure, it is possible to produce and cement zirconia crowns and small monolithic bridges in a Cerec Single Visit procedure. This new procedure is compared to established chairside methods. PMID:27027100

  13. An Overview of Preformed Metal Crowns. Part 1: Conventional Technique.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Helen J; Batley, Haris A; Deery, Chris

    2015-12-01

    This article details the clinical techniques for conventional preformed metal crown placement. It aims to increase the readers' awareness of the clinical advantages of preformed metal crowns and the indications for their use. The second part will discuss the Hall Technique. CPD/Clinical Relevance: This two-part article aims to guide the reader through the conventional and alternative techniques available for placement of a preformed metal crown whilst providing an update of the evidence for each. PMID:26855999

  14. MOLDS FOR CASTING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J.W.; Miley, F.; Pritchard, W.C.

    1962-02-27

    A coated mold for casting plutonium comprises a mold base portion of a material which remains solid and stable at temperatures as high as the pouring temperature of the metal to be cast and having a thin coating of the order of 0.005 inch thick on the interior thereof. The coating is composed of finely divided calcium fluoride having a particle size of about 149 microns. (AEC)

  15. Method of casting aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Poco, J.F.

    1993-09-07

    The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm[sup 3] to 0.6 g/cm[sup 3]. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of aerogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent. 2 figures.

  16. Method of casting aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Poco, John F.

    1993-01-01

    The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm.sup.3 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of alcogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent.

  17. Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a high sludge factor, particularly a high level of Fe, measures must be taken to prevent the formation of large hardspots. For this kind of alloy, the Fe content should be kept at its lowest allowable level and the Mn content should be at its highest possible level. If there are problems in die filling, measures other than changing the alloy chemistry need to be considered first. In terms of alloy chemistry, the elements that form high temperature compounds must be kept at their lowest allowable levels. The alloys should not have machining problems when appropriate machining techniques and machining parameters are used.

  18. Digital Smile Design concept delineates the final potential result of crown lengthening and porcelain veneers to correct a gummy smile.

    PubMed

    Trushkowsky, Richard; Arias, David Montalvo; David, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Prior to initiating any treatment, it is necessary to visualize the desired outcomes. It then becomes possible to formulate the steps required to achieve this result. Digital Smile Design (DSD) utilizes patient input and information gathered through diagnostic procedures to create an esthetic treatment scheme. In the case presented here, the NYUCD Esthetic Evaluation Form, intraoral and extraoral photographs, mounted diagnostic casts, physical examination, and radiographs were the diagnostic modalities. The gathered information served as a starting point for a wax-up and intraoral mock-up. This case report demonstrates how the DSD served as a template for crown lengthening procedures and design of the final porcelain veneer restorations. PMID:27433549

  19. Sprayable titanium composition

    DOEpatents

    Tracy, Chester E.; Kern, Werner; Vibronek, Robert D.

    1980-01-01

    The addition of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol to an organometallic titanium compound dissolved in a diluent and optionally containing a lower aliphatic alcohol spreading modifier, produces a solution that can be sprayed onto a substrate and cured to form an antireflection titanium oxide coating having a refractive index of from about 2.0 to 2.2.

  20. A Winning Cast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Howmet Research Corporation was the first to commercialize an innovative cast metal technology developed at Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama. With funding assistance from NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Auburn University's Solidification Design Center (a NASA Commercial Space Center), developed accurate nickel-based superalloy data for casting molten metals. Through a contract agreement, Howmet used the data to develop computer model predictions of molten metals and molding materials in cast metal manufacturing. Howmet Metal Mold (HMM), part of Howmet Corporation Specialty Products, of Whitehall, Michigan, utilizes metal molds to manufacture net shape castings in various alloys and amorphous metal (metallic glass). By implementing the thermophysical property data from by Auburn researchers, Howmet employs its newly developed computer model predictions to offer customers high-quality, low-cost, products with significantly improved mechanical properties. Components fabricated with this new process replace components originally made from forgings or billet. Compared with products manufactured through traditional casting methods, Howmet's computer-modeled castings come out on top.

  1. (Continuous casting 1985)

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, R.A.

    1985-06-12

    The report covers the Continuous Casting '85 Conference including informal discussions with conference attendees. In general, the papers presented at the conference concerned an overview of continuous steel casting worldwide, state-of-the-art aspects of steel continuous casting technology including caster startup problems, modifications, control system strategies, energy use profiles, quality control aspects, steel chemistry control, refractories, operational aspects of continuous casters, etc. No papers were presented in the development of thin section or thin strip casting of steel. Informal discussions were held with several conference attendees including (1) Bernard Trentini, Executive Director of the Association Technique De La Siderurgie Francaise in Paris, France (similar to the American Iron and Steel Institute); (2) Dr. Wolfgang Reichelt and Dr. Peter Voss-Spilker both of Mannesmann Demag Huttentechnik -a continuous casting and other steel making machine builder in-lieu of meeting at their plant in Duisburg, FRG on May 31; (3) Ewan C. Hewitt of Devote McKee Corp., Sheffield, England; (4) Wilfried Heinemann, head of R D Dept. at Concast Standard AG in Zurich, Switzerland; and (5) Hideo Ueno, engineer of melting section, Mitsubishi Steel Mfg. Co. Ltd, Tokyo Japan. A visit was made to the Teesside Laboratories of British Steel Corp. for discussions of their thin section casting research program in particular and R D program in general.

  2. Quantitative characterization of clumping in Scots pine crowns

    PubMed Central

    Stenberg, Pauline; Mõttus, Matti; Rautiainen, Miina; Sievänen, Risto

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Proper characterization of the clumped structure of forests is needed for calculation of the absorbed radiation and photosynthetic production by a canopy. This study examined the dependency of crown-level clumping on tree size and growth conditions in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), and determined the ability of statistical canopy radiation models to quantify the degree of self-shading within crowns as a result of the clumping effect. Methods Twelve 3-D Scots pine trees were generated using an application of the LIGNUM model, and the crown-level clumping as quantified by the crown silhouette to total needle area ratio (STARcrown) was calculated. The results were compared with those produced by the stochastic approach of modelling tree crowns as geometric shapes filled with a random medium. Key Results Crown clumping was independent of tree height, needle area and growth conditions. The results supported the capability of the stochastic approach in characterizing clumping in crowns given that the outer shell of the tree crown is well represented. Conclusions Variation in the whole-stand clumping index is induced by differences in the spatial pattern of trees as a function of, for example, stand age rather than by changes in the degree of self-shading within individual crowns as they grow bigger. PMID:24431344

  3. Salvaged castings and methods of salvaging castings with defective cast cooling bumps

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Robert Alan; Schaeffer, Jon Conrad; Lee, Ching-Pang; Abuaf, Nesim; Hasz, Wayne Charles

    2002-01-01

    Castings for gas turbine parts exposed on one side to a high-temperature fluid medium have cast-in bumps on an opposite cooling surface side to enhance heat transfer. Areas on the cooling surface having defectively cast bumps, i.e., missing or partially formed bumps during casting, are coated with a braze alloy and cooling enhancement material to salvage the part.

  4. Dosimetric distribution of the surroundings of different dental crowns and implants during LINAC photon irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Kwo-Ping; Lin, Wei-Ting; Shiau, An-Cheng; Chie, Yu-Huang

    2014-11-01

    In radiotherapy of the head and neck, metal dentures or implants will increase the risk of complications such as mucositis and osteoradionecrosis. The aim of this study is to explore the back scatter effect of commercially available dental metal alloys on the mucosa and bone under 6 MV LINAC irradiation. The Monte Carlo method has been employed to calculate the dose distribution in the heterogeneous media of the designed oral phantom based on the oral cavity geometry. Backscatter dose increases up to a maximum of 53%, and is primarily dependent on the physical density and electron density of the metal crown alloy. Ceramic metal crowns have been quantified to increase backscatter dose up to 10% on mucosa. Ceramic serves as an inherent shield of mucosa. The backscatter dose will be greater for a small field size if the tumor is located at a deeper region. Titanium implants will increase the backscatter dose by 13% to bone but will not affect the mucosa. QC-20 (polystyrene resin) is recommended as a shield material (3 mm) to eliminate the backscatter dose on mucosa due to the high density metals.

  5. Use of prefabricated titanium abutments and customized anatomic lithium disilicate structures for cement-retained implant restorations in the esthetic zone.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Shao; Harris, Bryan T; Zandinejad, Amirali; Martin, William C; Morton, Dean

    2014-03-01

    This report describes the fabrication of customized abutments consisting of prefabricated 2-piece titanium abutments and customized anatomic lithium disilicate structures for cement-retained implant restorations in the esthetic zone. The heat-pressed lithium disilicate provides esthetic customized anatomic structures and crowns independently of the computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing process. PMID:24360007

  6. Steel castings by the electroslag casting technique. [CF8M

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Mitchell, A.

    1984-01-01

    ELectroslag casting facilities in Canada and the United States were reviewed. Several valve body castings of 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo, 9 Cr-1 Mo, and 18% Cr-8% Ni(Mo) steels were made at the University of British Columbia facility. These castings were examined for surface finish, chemical segregation, and macrostructure in the as-cast condition and after various heat treatments. Castings were subjected to tensile, Charpy impact, and creep testing. Results of these tests were compared with similar data on wrought material and sand castings.

  7. Electrochemical characterization of cast Ti-Hf binary alloys.

    PubMed

    Cai, Z; Koike, M; Sato, H; Brezner, M; Guo, Q; Komatsu, M; Okuno, O; Okabe, T

    2005-05-01

    This study characterized the electrochemical behavior of Ti-Hf binary alloys in a simulated oral environment. Ti-Hf alloys (10, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 mass% Hf) were prepared by arc-melting titanium sponge and hafnium sponge. Specimens of each alloy (n = 4) were prepared using a dental titanium casting system with a MgO-based investment. Specimens were inspected with X-ray radiography to ensure minimal internal porosity. Castings (n = 4) made from pure titanium and commercially pure titanium were used as controls. The ground flat surface (10 mm x 10 mm) on each specimen where approximately 30 microm was removed was used for the characterization. Sixteen-hour open-circuit potential (OCP) measurement, linear polarization and potentiodynamic cathodic polarization were performed sequentially in aerated (air + 10% CO2) MTZ synthetic saliva at 37 degrees C. Potentiodynamic anodic polarization was conducted in the same medium but deaerated (N2 + 10% CO2) 2 h before and during testing. Polarization resistance (R(P)) and Tafel slopes were determined, as were corrosion current density (I(CORR)) and passive current density (I(PASS)). Results were subjected to nonparametric statistical analysis (alpha = 0.05). The OCP stabilized (mean values -229 mV to -470 mV vs. SCE) for all specimens after the 16-h immersion. Similar passivation was observed for all the metals on their anodic polarization diagrams. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed significant differences in OCP among the test groups (p = 0.006). No significant differences were found in R(P), I(CORR) or I(PASS) among all the metals (p>0.3). Results indicate that the electrochemical behavior of the Ti-Hf alloys examined resembles that of pure titanium. PMID:16701813

  8. Damage Resistance of Titanium Aluminide Evaluated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Bradley A.; Draper, Susan L.; Baaklini, George Y.; Pereira, J. Michael; Austin, Curt

    2000-01-01

    As part of the aviation safety goal to reduce the aircraft accident rate, NASA has undertaken studies to develop durable engine component materials. One of these materials, g-TiAl, has superior high-temperature material properties. Its low density provides improved specific strength and creep resistance in comparison to currently used titanium alloys. However, this intermetallic is inherently brittle, and long life durability is a potential problem. Of particular concern is the material s sensitivity to defects, which may form during the manufacturing process or in service. To determine the sensitivity of TiAl to defects, a team consisting of GE Aircraft Engines, Precision Cast Parts, and NASA was formed. The work at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field has concentrated on the fatigue response to specimens containing defects. The overall objective of this work is to determine the influence of defects on the high cycle fatigue life of TiAl-simulated low-pressure turbine blades. Two types of defects have been introduced into the specimens: cracking from impact damage and casting porosity. For both types of defects, the cast-to-size fatigue specimens were fatigue tested at 650 C and 100 Hz until failure.

  9. A 3-year postoperative clinical evaluation of posts and cores beneath existing crowns.

    PubMed

    Hatzikyriakos, A H; Reisis, G I; Tsingos, N

    1992-04-01

    Fabrication of posts and cores for fixed partial denture (FPD) and removable partial denture (RPD) abutment restorations is common in dentistry. The biocompatibility of various post and core techniques with the restorations was clinically evaluated according to location and function. In this study, 154 post and core constructions for 150 patients were observed for a 3-year period to determine if the function of the original restorations remained unsatisfactory. The following techniques were included: (1) screw post and light-curing composite resins, (2) cemented post with parallel sides and light-curing composite resins, and (3) a cast and core technique. Seventeen of the 154 restorations failed; four failures were attributed to root fractures, three to radicular caries, and five to crown dislodgement, while five failures were from detachment of the post and core from the root. The statistical analysis revealed that only the factor "type of abutment" (RPDs and FPDs) had some effect on the failure of the restorations. PMID:1507125

  10. Evaluation of wild Juglans species for crown gall resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Paradox, the most widely used rootstock in CA walnut production, is highly susceptible to the causal agent of crown gall (CG) Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The bacterial pathogen induces the formation of large tumors around the crown of the tree resulting in a reduction in both vigor and yield. If left...

  11. Management of Rhizoctonia root and crown rot of subarbeet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia root and crown rot is caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani and is one of the most severe soil-borne diseases of sugarbeet in Minnesota and North Dakota. Rhizoctonia root and crown rot may reduce yield significantly, and diseased beets may cause problems in storage piles. Fields with...

  12. Estimating canine tooth crown height in early Australopithecus.

    PubMed

    Plavcan, J Michael; Ward, Carol V; Paulus, Faydre L

    2009-07-01

    Canine tooth size reduction and the associated reduction in canine dimorphism is a basal hominin character that also provides important evidence for models of behavioral evolution. Two specimens of Australopithecus anamensis (KNM-KP 29287 and KNM-KP 29283) that do not preserve the canine crown, but do preserve the root or alveolus, appear to suggest that canine size variation and canine dimorphism in this species may have been greater than in other hominins. We evaluate canine root and crown dimensions in a series of extant hominoids, and estimate canine crown height in Australopithecus afarensis and A. anamensis. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to generate estimates of canine crown height from basal canine crown and root dimensions with a moderate degree of accuracy. Estimates of maxillary canine crown size for A. anamensis are slightly larger than those of A. afarensis, and are approximately the same size as canines of modern female chimpanzees. Estimated mandibular canine crown height is very similar in the two species. Variation within the A. anamensis sample of estimated canine crown heights is similar to that of modern humans, suggesting a low degree of sexual dimorphism. Inclusion of estimates for KNM-KP 29287 and KNM-KP 29283 does not substantially increase either the estimate of overall canine size or variation for A. anamensis. PMID:19482334

  13. Influence of marginal fit and cement types on microleakage of all-ceramic crown systems.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Ece; Zaimoğlu, Ali

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of both marginal fit and cementing with different luting agents on the microleakage of all-ceramic crown systems. Thirty-six extracted upper central incisors were prepared for full-coverage crowns and were divided into three groups. Group 1: CAD/CAM-fabricated ZrO2, Group 2: Heat-pressed lithium-disilicate, and Group 3: Cast Cr-Co copings as the control group. Copings were made following standard techniques, and groups were assigned cementation with either self-adhesive resin cement (A) or glass-ionomer luting cement (B). The specimens were subjected to thermocycling, immersed in basic fuchsin solution, sectioned mesiodistally and buccolingually. The surface of each section was digitally photographed under a stereomicroscope. Microleakage was scored using a five-point scale, and the marginal gap was measured using image analysis software. Data were statistically analyzed using 2-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney U tests (α: 0.05). The marginal discrepancy of each group was 82.7 ± 7 µm, 92.6 ± 4 µm and 96.5 ± 7 µm respectively. Group 1 showed significantly smaller gaps than Group 3 (P = 0.042). Self-adhesive resin cement (A) showed a lower level of microleakage than glass-ionomer luting cement (B) in all groups (P = 0.029). Microleakage scores of '0' were 83% for 1A, 50% for 1B, 50% for 2A, 16% for 2B, 33% for 3A and none for 3B. Marginal discrepancy and cement type both had significant effects on microleakage. Lower levels of microleakage were recorded with self-adhesive resin cement, while CAD/CAM-fabricated ZrO2 copings showed smaller marginal discrepancy and less microleakage in comparison to cast Cr-Co. PMID:21670858

  14. Using 15-crown-5, 18-crown-6 and dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 for Am, Ce, Eu and Cm extraction from acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Romanovski, V.V.; Proyaev, V.V.; Wester, D.W.

    1994-08-01

    The extraction from nitric acid of Am, Eu, Ce, Cm(III) tracers by 15-crown-5 (15C5), 18-crown-6 (18C6), dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6) as well as mixtures of crown ethers and chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (ChCoD) in nitrobenzene solutions has been investigated. It was revealed that 18C6 is selective for Ce, Am and Cm compared with Eu. The addition of 18C6 to a solution of ChCoD allows Am and Cm to be separated from lanthanides by using this extractant more efficiently. The separation factors of Ce, Am, Cm and Eu are increased as a function of the ionic strength of the aqueous phase for extraction by mixtures of 18C6 and ChCoD and of DCH18C6 and ChCoD.

  15. CAST FLOOR WITH VIEW OF TORPEDO LADLE (BENEATH CAST FLOOR) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CAST FLOOR WITH VIEW OF TORPEDO LADLE (BENEATH CAST FLOOR) AND KEEPERS OF THE CAST HOUSE FLOOR, S.L. KIMBROUGH AND DAVID HOLMES. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Blast Furnace No. 8, North of Valley Road, West of Ensley-Pleasant Grove Road, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

  16. Electroplating on titanium alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowery, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    Activation process forms adherent electrodeposits of copper, nickel, and chromium on titanium alloy. Good adhesion of electroplated deposits is obtained by using acetic-hydrofluoric acid anodic activation process.

  17. Corrosion behavior of cast Ti-6Al-4V alloyed with Cu.

    PubMed

    Koike, Marie; Cai, Zhuo; Oda, Yutaka; Hattori, Masayuki; Fujii, Hiroyuki; Okabe, Toru

    2005-05-01

    It has recently been found that alloying with copper improved the inherently poor grindability and wear resistance of titanium. This study characterized the corrosion behavior of cast Ti-6Al-4V alloyed with copper. Alloys (0.9 or 3.5 mass % Cu) were cast with the use of a magnesia-based investment in a centrifugal casting machine. Three specimen surfaces were tested: ground, sandblasted, and as cast. Commercially pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V served as controls. Open-circuit potential measurement, linear polarization, and potentiodynamic cathodic polarization were performed in aerated (air + 10% CO(2)) modified Tani-Zucchi synthetic saliva at 37 degrees C. Potentiodynamic anodic polarization was conducted in the same medium deaerated by N(2) + 10% CO(2). Polarization resistance (R(p)), Tafel slopes, and corrosion current density (I(corr)) were determined. A passive region occurred for the alloy specimens with ground and sandblasted surfaces, as for CP Ti. However, no passivation was observed on the as-cast alloys or on CP Ti. There were significant differences among all metals tested for R(p) and I(corr) and significantly higher R(p) and lower I(corr) values for CP Ti compared to Ti-6Al-4V or the alloys with Cu. Alloying up to 3.5 mass % Cu to Ti-6Al-4V did not change the corrosion behavior. Specimens with ground or sandblasted surfaces were superior to specimens with as-cast surfaces. PMID:15744719

  18. Method for casting polyethylene pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, R. M., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Short lengths of 7-cm ID polyethylene pipe are cast in a mold which has a core made of room-temperature-vulcanizable (RTV) silicone. Core expands during casting and shrinks on cooling to allow for contraction of the polyethylene.

  19. Titanium Allergy: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Goutam, Manish; Giriyapura, Chandu; Mishra, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Siddharth

    2014-01-01

    Titanium has gained immense popularity and has successfully established itself as the material of choice for dental implants. In both medical and dental fields, titanium and its alloys have demonstrated success as biomedical devices. Owing to its high resistance to corrosion in a physiological environment and the excellent biocompatibility that gives it a passive, stable oxide film, titanium is considered the material of choice for intraosseous use. There are certain studies which show titanium as an allergen but the resources to diagnose titanium sensivity are very limited. Attention is needed towards the development of new and precise method for early diagnosis of titanium allergy and also to find out the alternative biomaterial which can be used in place of titanium. A review of available articles from the Medline and PubMed database was done to find literature available regarding titanium allergy, its diagnosis and new alternative material for titanium. PMID:25484409

  20. Aluminum Alloy and Article Cast Therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Chen, Po-Shou (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A cast article from an aluminum alloy, which has improved mechanical properties at elevated temperatures, has the following composition in weight percent: Silicon 14 - 25.0, Copper 5.5 - 8.0, Iron 0.05 - 1.2, Magnesium 0.5 - 1.5, Nickel 0.05 - 0.9, Manganese 0.05 - 1.0, Titanium 0.05 - 1.2, Zirconium 0.05 - 1.2, Vanadium 0.05 - 1.2, Zinc 0.05 - 0.9, Phosphorus 0.001 - 0.1, and the balance is Aluminum, wherein the silicon-to-magnesium ratio is 10 - 25, and the copper-to-magnesium ratio is 4 - 15. The aluminum alloy contains a simultaneous dispersion of three types of Al3X compound particles (X=Ti, V, Zr) having a LI2, crystal structure, and their lattice parameters are coherent to the aluminum matrix lattice. A process for producing this cast article is also disclosed, as well as a metal matrix composite, which includes the aluminum alloy serving as a matrix and containing up to about 60% by volume of a secondary filler material.

  1. Casting Of Multilayer Ceramic Tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Procedure for casting thin, multilayer ceramic membranes, commonly called tapes, involves centrifugal casting at accelerations of 1,800 to 2,000 times normal gravitational acceleration. Layers of tape cast one at a time on top of any previous layer or layers. Each layer cast from slurry of ground ceramic suspended in mixture of solvents, binders, and other components. Used in capacitors, fuel cells, and electrolytic separation of oxygen from air.

  2. Crowns and other extra-coronal restorations: try-in and cementation of crowns.

    PubMed

    Wassell, R W; Barker, D; Steele, J G

    2002-07-13

    Having successfully negotiated the planning, preparation, impression and prescription of your crown, the cementation stage represents the culmination of all your efforts. This stage is not difficult, but a successful outcome needs as much care as the preceding stages. Once a restoration is cemented there is no scope for modification or repeat You have to get it right first time. Decemented crowns often have thick layers of residual cement suggesting problems with either initial seating or cement handling. When the fate of restorations costing hundreds of pounds depends on correct proportioning of cements and the quality of the mix, the value of a well-trained and experienced dental nurse is easy to see. Both dentist and nurse need a working knowledge of the materials they are handling. PMID:12171196

  3. Mix/Cast Contamination Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallentine, M.

    2005-01-01

    Presented is a training handbook for Mix/Cast Contamination Control; a part of a series of training courses to qualify access to Mix/Cast facilities. Contents: List Contamination Control Requirements; Identify foreign objects debris (FOD), Control Areas and their guidelines; Describe environmental monitoring; List Contamination Control Initiatives; Describe concern for Controlled Materials; Identify FOD Controlled Areas in Mix/Cast.

  4. Casting and Angling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Mildred J.; Bunting, Camille

    The self-contained packet contains background information, lesson plans, 15 transparency and student handout masters, drills and games, 2 objective examinations, and references for teaching a 15-day unit on casting and angling to junior high and senior high school students, either as part of a regular physical education program or as a club…

  5. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOEpatents

    Scribner, Kenneth J.

    1985-01-01

    Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants.

  6. ShakeCast Manual

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lin, Kuo-Wan; Wald, David J.

    2008-01-01

    ShakeCast is a freely available, post-earthquake situational awareness application that automatically retrieves earthquake shaking data from ShakeMap, compares intensity measures against users? facilities, and generates potential damage assessment notifications, facility damage maps, and other Web-based products for emergency managers and responders.

  7. Hair Casts or Pseudonits

    PubMed Central

    França, Katlein; Villa, Ricardo Tadeu; Silva, Isabella Rezende; de Carvalho, Cristine Almeida; Bedin, Valcinir

    2011-01-01

    Hair casts or pseudonits are thin, elongated, cylindrical concretions that encircle the hair shaft and can be easily dislodged. A case of pseudonits in a 9-year-old girl is reported. Though not unusual, false diagnoses are common. PMID:22223977

  8. Casting and Angling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julian W.

    As part of a series of books and pamphlets on outdoor education, this manual consists of easy-to-follow instructions for fishing activities dealing with casting and angling. The manual may be used as a part of the regular physical education program in schools and colleges or as a club activity for the accomplished weekend fisherman or the…

  9. Titanium by design: TRIP titanium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Jamie

    Motivated by the prospect of lower cost Ti production processes, new directions in Ti alloy design were explored for naval and automotive applications. Building on the experience of the Steel Research Group at Northwestern University, an analogous design process was taken with titanium. As a new project, essential kinetic databases and models were developed for the design process and used to create a prototype design. Diffusion kinetic models were developed to predict the change in phase compositions and microstructure during heat treatment. Combining a mobility database created in this research with a licensed thermodynamic database, ThermoCalc and DICTRA software was used to model kinetic compositional changes in titanium alloys. Experimental diffusion couples were created and compared to DICTRA simulations to refine mobility parameters in the titanium mobility database. The software and database were able to predict homogenization times and the beta→alpha plate thickening kinetics during cooling in the near-alpha Ti5111 alloy. The results of these models were compared to LEAP microanalysis and found to be in reasonable agreement. Powder metallurgy was explored using SPS at GM R&D to reduce the cost of titanium alloys. Fully dense Ti5111 alloys were produced and achieved similar microstructures to wrought Ti5111. High levels of oxygen in these alloys increased the strength while reducing the ductility. Preliminary Ti5111+Y alloys were created, where yttrium additions successfully gettered excess oxygen to create oxides. However, undesirable large oxides formed, indicating more research is needed into the homogeneous distribution of the yttrium powder to create finer oxides. Principles established in steels were used to optimize the beta phase transformation stability for martensite transformation toughening in titanium alloys. The Olson-Cohen kinetic model is calibrated to shear strains in titanium. A frictional work database is established for common alloying

  10. Earliest known crown-group salamanders.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ke-Qin; Shubin, Neil H

    2003-03-27

    Salamanders are a model system for studying the rates and patterns of the evolution of new anatomical structures. Recent discoveries of abundant Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous salamanders are helping to address these issues. Here we report the discovery of well-preserved Middle Jurassic salamanders from China, which constitutes the earliest known record of crown-group urodeles (living salamanders and their closest relatives). The new specimens are from the volcanic deposits of the Jiulongshan Formation (Bathonian), Inner Mongolia, China, and represent basal members of the Cryptobranchidae, a family that includes the endangered Asian giant salamander (Andrias) and the North American hellbender (Cryptobranchus). These fossils document a Mesozoic record of the Cryptobranchidae, predating the previous record of the group by some 100 million years. This discovery provides evidence to support the hypothesis that the divergence of the Cryptobranchidae from the Hynobiidae had taken place in Asia before the Middle Jurassic period. PMID:12660782

  11. Effect of minor chemistry elements on GTA weld fusion zone characteristics of a commercial grade titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Marya, S.K.

    1996-06-01

    Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) is the most common technique employed in the fabrication of rolled thin tubes. One of the major manufacturing problems concerns the stability of weld fusion zone on materials from different casts, notwithstanding stringent monitoring of the process parameters -- current, voltage and travel speed. These parameters determine the theoretical weld heat and are expected to control the instantaneous mass of melt. According to the data compiled by Sahoo et al., oxygen is known to reduce the surface tension of most of the metals. However, investigations on the role of minor changes in concentrations of elements like sulphur, oxygen, selenium, bismuth, aluminium, and titanium in steels have very often attributed the cast to cast variations to different temperature gradients of surface tension over the weldpool. To the author`s knowledge, no reported work so far has revealed changing weld profiles in autogeneous mechanized GTA welds on titanium due to minor composition changes.

  12. Evaluation of an improved centrifugal casting machine.

    PubMed

    Donovan, T E; White, L E

    1985-05-01

    A Type III gold alloy, a silver-palladium alloy, and a base metal alloy were cast in two different centrifugal casting machines. With the number of complete cast mesh squares as an indicator of castability, the Airspin casting machine produced superior castings with all three alloys. The base metal alloy produced the greatest number of complete squares with both casting machines. PMID:3889295

  13. Clinical outcome of double crown-retained implant overdentures with zirconia primary crowns

    PubMed Central

    Buergers, Ralf; Ziebolz, Dirk; Roediger, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE This retrospective study aims at the evaluation of implant-supported overdentures (IODs) supported by ceramo-galvanic double crowns (CGDCs: zirconia primary crowns + galvano-formed secondary crown). MATERIALS AND METHODS In a private practice, 14 patients were restored with 18 IODs (mandible: 11, maxilla: 7) retained by CGDCs on 4 - 8 implants and annually evaluated for technical and/or biological failures/complications. RESULTS One of the 86 inserted implants failed during the healing period (cumulative survival rate (CSR) implants: 98.8%). During the prosthetic functional period (mean: 5.9 ± 2.2 years), 1 implant demonstrated an abutment fracture (CSR-abutments: 98.2%), and one case of peri-implantitis was detected. All IODs remained in function (CSR-denture: 100%). A total of 15 technical complications required interventions to maintain function (technical complication rate: 0.178 treatments/patients/year). CONCLUSION Considering the small sample size, the use of CGDCs for the attachment of IODs is possible without an increased risk of technical complications. However, for a final evaluation, results from a larger cohort are required. PMID:26330981

  14. Computer cast blast modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, S.; McGill, M.; Preece, D.S.

    1994-07-01

    Cast blasting can be designed to utilize explosive energy effectively and economically for coal mining operations to remove overburden material. The more overburden removed by explosives, the less blasted material there is left to be transported with mechanical equipment, such as draglines and trucks. In order to optimize the percentage of rock that is cast, a higher powder factor than normal is required plus an initiation technique designed to produce a much greater degree of horizontal muck movement. This paper compares two blast models known as DMC (Distinct Motion Code) and SABREX (Scientific Approach to Breaking Rock with Explosives). DMC, applies discrete spherical elements interacted with the flow of explosive gases and the explicit time integration to track particle motion resulting from a blast. The input to this model includes multi-layer rock properties, and both loading geometry and explosives equation-of-state parameters. It enables the user to have a wide range of control over drill pattern and explosive loading design parameters. SABREX assumes that heave process is controlled by the explosive gases which determines the velocity and time of initial movement of blocks within the burden, and then tracks the motion of the blocks until they come to a rest. In order to reduce computing time, the in-flight collisions of blocks are not considered and the motion of the first row is made to limit the motion of subsequent rows. Although modelling a blast is a complex task, the DMC can perform a blast simulation in 0.5 hours on the SUN SPARCstation 10--41 while the new SABREX 3.5 produces results of a cast blast in ten seconds on a 486-PC computer. Predicted percentage of cast and face velocities from both computer codes compare well with the measured results from a full scale cast blast.

  15. Survival rates of porcelain molar crowns-an update.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Amr Shebl; Atta, Osama; El-Mowafy, Omar

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify recent studies that dealt with the clinical performance of porcelain molar crowns and to explore the possibility of grouping the findings from similar studies together to draw overall conclusions. A MEDLINE literature search was conducted in early 2009 covering the preceding 12 years. Seventeen studies were indentified. However, only seven met the specific inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Among seven studies, five European countries were covered. Five studies reported on Procera AllCeram molar crowns while one reported on In-Ceram Alumina and Spinell crowns and another on CEREC crowns. For comparison, one additional study that reported on premolar crowns was included. In the five Procera AllCeram studies, 235 molar crowns were evaluated for 5 or more years, of which 24 failed. When the results of the five studies on the performance of Procera AllCeram molar crowns were considered collectively, an overall failure rate of 10.2% was found at 5 or more years. Int J Prosthodont 2010;23:60-62. PMID:20234895

  16. Clinical assessment of enamel wear caused by monolithic zirconia crowns.

    PubMed

    Stober, T; Bermejo, J L; Schwindling, F S; Schmitter, M

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure enamel wear caused by antagonistic monolithic zirconia crowns and to compare this with enamel wear caused by contralateral natural antagonists. Twenty monolithic zirconia full molar crowns were placed in 20 patients. Patients with high activity of the masseter muscle at night (bruxism) were excluded. For analysis of wear, vinylpolysiloxane impressions were prepared after crown incorporation and at 6-, 12-, and 24-month follow-up. Wear of the occlusal contact areas of the crowns, of their natural antagonists, and of two contralateral natural antagonists (control teeth) was measured by use of plaster replicas and a 3D laser-scanning device. Differences of wear between the zirconia crown antagonists and the control teeth were investigated by means of two-sided paired Student's t-tests and linear regression analysis. After 2 years, mean vertical loss was 46 μm for enamel opposed to zirconia, 19-26 μm for contralateral control teeth and 14 μm for zirconia crowns. Maximum vertical loss was 151 μm for enamel opposed to zirconia, 75-115 μm for control teeth and 60 μm for zirconia crowns. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences between wear of enamel by zirconia-opposed teeth and by control teeth. Gender, which significantly affected wear, was identified as a possible confounder. Monolithic zirconia crowns generated more wear of opposed enamel than did natural teeth. Because of the greater wear caused by other dental ceramics, the use of monolithic zirconia crowns may be justified. PMID:27198539

  17. Precision cast vs. wrought superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, J. K.; Borofka, J. C.; Casey, M. E.

    1986-01-01

    While cast polycrystalline superalloys recommend themselves in virtue of better 'buy-to-fly' ratios and higher strengthening gamma-prime volume fractions than those of wrought superalloys, the expansion of their use into such critical superalloy applications as gas turbine hot section components has been slowed by insufficient casting process opportunities for microstructural control. Attention is presently drawn, however, to casting process developments facilitating the production of defect-tolerant superalloy castings having improved fracture reliability. Integrally bladed turbine wheel and thin-walled turbine exhaust case near-net-shape castings have been produced by these means.

  18. Unique case of a geminated supernumerary tooth with trifid crown

    PubMed Central

    Ather, Hunaiza; Sheth, Sanket Milan; Muliya, Vidya Saraswathi

    2012-01-01

    Gemination, a relatively uncommon dental anomaly, is characterized by its peculiar representation as a tooth with a bifid crown and a common root and root canal. It usually occurs in primary dentition. To come across gemination in a supernumerary tooth is a rare phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to present a unique case of hyperdontia wherein gemination in an impacted supernumerary tooth resulted in a trifid crown unlike the usual bifid crown. The role of conventional radiographs as well as computed tomography, to accurately determine the morphology and spatial location, and to arrive at a diagnosis, is also emphasized in this paper. PMID:23071971

  19. AMCC casting development, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    PCC successfully cast and performed nondestructive testing, FPI and x-ray, on seventeen AMCC castings. Destructive testing, lab analysis and chemical milling, was performed on eleven of the castings and the remaining six castings were shipped to NASA or Aerojet. Two of the six castings shipped, lots 015 and 016, were fully processed per blueprint requirements. PCC has fully developed the gating and processing parameters of this part and feels the part could be implemented into production, after four more castings have been completed to ensure the repeatability of the process. The AMCC casting has been a technically challenging part due to its size, configuration, and alloy type. The height and weight of the wax pattern assembly necessitated the development of a hollow gating system to ensure structural integrity of the shell throughout the investment process. The complexity in the jacket area of the casting required the development of an innovative casting technology that PCC has termed 'TGC' or thermal gradient control. This method of setting up thermal gradients in the casting during solidification represents a significant process improvement for PCC and has been successfully implemented on other programs. The alloy, JBK75, is a relatively new alloy in the investment casting arena and required our engineering staff to learn the gating, processing, and dimensional characteristics of the material.

  20. High-temperature oxidation of titanium silicide coatings on titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Abba, A.; Caillet, M.; Galerie, A.

    1982-02-01

    Coatings of Ti/sub 5/Si/sub 3/ on titanium have been prepared by means of decomposition of silane SiH/sub 4/ on heated titanium ribbons. Oxidation of the coated titanium specimens was much slower than that of the noncoated ones. Gravimetric and morphological experiments allowed to propose a mechanism describing the oxidation process.

  1. Designing the microstructure of squeeze-cast Al composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumant, X.; Beaugnon, E.; Regazzoni, G.

    1989-11-01

    Retaining their high strength and stiffness up to 350°C, SiC fiber-reinforced aluminum composites are lightweight alternatives to titanium or steel parts. By combining filament winding and squeeze-casting, components of fairly complex shapes can be produced. Both Nicalon and Tyranno "hybrid" SiC fibers (that is, continuous fibers with SiC particles distributed between the fibers) were used to reinforce pure aluminum and alloy 357 matrices. Their longitudinal properties appear much more dependent on alloying elements and processing conditions than on fiber types, but hybridization is effective in raising transverse properties significantly. Failure modes can be related to microstructural features, including interfaces, fiber-to-fiber contacts, second-phase bridges between fibers and fiber damage through processing. Provided some basic rules for microstructural design are followed for the manufacture of actual parts, squeeze-cast SiC fiber aluminum composites offer great potential for defense and aerospace applications.

  2. Microstructural characterization of as-cast Co-B alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Faria, M.I.S.T. . E-mail: ismenia@phase.faenquil.br; Leonardi, T.; Coelho, G.C.; Nunes, C.A.; Avillez, R.R.

    2007-04-15

    This work presents results of microstructural characterization of as-cast Co-B alloys. Samples of different compositions were prepared by arc melting Co (min. 99.97%) and B (min. 99.5%) under argon atmosphere in a water-cooled copper crucible with non-consumable tungsten electrode and titanium getter. All samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in back-scattered electron (BSE) mode, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and wavelength dispersive spectrometry (WDS). A good agreement is observed between the obtained microstructures and those expected by the currently accepted Co-B phase diagram.

  3. Titanium Cold Spray Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajaja, Jihane; Goldbaum, Dina; Chromik, Richard; Yue, Stephen; Rezaeian, Ahmad; Wong, Wilson; Irissou, Eric; Legoux, Jean-Gabriel

    Titanium Cold Spray Coatings Cold Spray is an emerging technology used for the deposition of coatings for many industries including aerospace. This technique allows the deposition of metallic materials at low temper-atures below their melting point. The aim of this research was to develop a test technique that can measure the degree to which a cold spray coating achieves mechanical properties similar to a traditional bulk material. Vickers hardness testing and nanoindentation were used as micro-and nano-scale measurement techniques to characterize the mechanical properties of titanium coatings, deposited at different deposition conditions, and bulk Ti. The mechanical properties of bulk titanium and titanium coatings were measured over a range of length scales, with the indentation size effect examined with Meyer's law. Hardness measurements are shown to be affected by material porosity, microstructure and coating particle bonding mechanism. Hard-ness measurements showed that Ti coatings deposited at higher gas pressures and temperatures demonstrate an indentation load response similar to bulk Ti. Key words: titanium, cold spray, Vickers hardness, nanoindentation, indentation size effect, microstructure, mechanical properties

  4. Manufacturing techniques for titanium aluminide based alloys and metal matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, Kunal B.

    Dual phase titanium aluminides composed vastly of gamma phase (TiAl) with moderate amount of alpha2 phase (Ti3Al) have been considered for several high temperature aerospace and automobile applications. High specific strength coupled with good high temperature performance in the areas of creep and oxidation resistance makes titanium aluminides "materials of choice" for next generation propulsion systems. Titanium alumnides are primarily being considered as potential replacements for Ni-based superalloys in gas turbine engine components with aim of developing more efficient and leaner engines exhibiting high thrust-to-weight ratio. Thermo-mechanical treatments have shown to enhance the mechanical performance of titanium aluminides. Additionally, small additions of interstitial elements have shown further and significant improvement in the mechanical performance of titanium alumnide alloys. However, titanium aluminides lack considerably in room temperature ductility and as a result manufacturing processes of these aluminides have greatly suffered. Traditional ingot metallurgy and investment casting based methods to produce titanium aluminide parts in addition to being expensive, have also been unsuccessful in producing titanium aluminides with the desired mechanical properties. Hence, the manufacturing costs associated with these methods have completely outweighed the benefits offered by titanium aluminides. Over the last two decades, several powder metallurgy based manufacturing techniques have been studied to produce titanium aluminide parts. These techniques have been successful in producing titanium aluminide parts with a homogeneous and refined microstructure. These powder metallurgy techniques also hold the potential of significant cost reduction depending on the wide market acceptance of titanium aluminides. In the present study, a powder metallurgy based rapid consolidation technique has been used to produce near-net shape parts of titanium aluminides. Micron

  5. Tape cast bioactive metal-ceramic laminates for structural application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clupper, Daniel Christopher

    Bioglass 45S5, is a silica based glass which is able to rapidly form strong bonds with bone and soft tissue in vivo. It is used clinically to replace damaged ear ossicles and in dental surgery to help maintain the structural integrity of the jaw bone. The goal of the research was to demonstrate that Bioglass can be toughened by lamination with metallic layers while maintaining bioactivity. Improvement of the mechanical properties of Bioglass 45SS would allow for additional clinical applications, such as fracture fixation plates, or vertebral spacers. Bioglass 45S5 was tape cast and laminated with clinically relevant metals (316L, stainless steel and titanium) as well as copper in an effort to demonstrate that the effective toughness, or area under the load-deflection diagram can be increased significantly through ductile layer lamination. The average strength of monolithic tape cast sintered Bioglass was as high as 150 MPa and the toughness measured approximately 1.0 MPa m1/2. Copper-Bioglass laminates clearly demonstrated the toughening effect of metal layers on tape cast sintered Bioglass 45S5. Steel-Bioglass laminates, although less tough than the copper-Bioglass laminates, showed higher strengths. In vitro bioactivity tests of both titanium and steel Bioglass laminates showed the formation of mature and thick hydroxyapatite layers after 24 hours in Tris buffer solution. Under the standard test conditions, the bioactivity of monolithic tape cast sintered Bioglass increased with increasing sintering temperature. For samples sintered at 1000°C, thick crystalline layers of hydroxyapatite formed within 24 hours in Tris buffer solution. The bioactivity of these samples approached that of amorphous bulk Bioglass. Samples processed at 800°C were able to form thick crystalline hydroxyapatite layer after 24 hours when the test solution volume was increased by eight times.

  6. Volume MLS ray casting.

    PubMed

    Ledergerber, Christian; Guennebaud, Gaël; Meyer, Miriah; Bächer, Moritz; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2008-01-01

    The method of Moving Least Squares (MLS) is a popular framework for reconstructing continuous functions from scattered data due to its rich mathematical properties and well-understood theoretical foundations. This paper applies MLS to volume rendering, providing a unified mathematical framework for ray casting of scalar data stored over regular as well as irregular grids. We use the MLS reconstruction to render smooth isosurfaces and to compute accurate derivatives for high-quality shading effects. We also present a novel, adaptive preintegration scheme to improve the efficiency of the ray casting algorithm by reducing the overall number of function evaluations, and an efficient implementation of our framework exploiting modern graphics hardware. The resulting system enables high-quality volume integration and shaded isosurface rendering for regular and irregular volume data. PMID:18988986

  7. Face Coat Materials Through Sessile Drop and Investment Casting Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xu; Yuan, Chen; Blackburn, Stuart; Withey, Paul A.

    2014-06-01

    Investment casting is uniquely suited to the manufacture of Ti alloys for the production of near net-shape components, reducing material waste, and machining costs. Because of the high reactivity of titanium and its based alloy, the molds which are used in the investment casting process require high chemical inertness, which results in them being very costly and non-recyclable. In order to reduce the cost of these molds, traditionally using yttria as the face coat, two alternative molds are developed in this study with face coat materials of Y2O3-Al2O3 and Y2O3-Al2O3-ZrO2. The slurry properties and chemical inertness of the face coats were evaluated for viscosity, thermal expansion, friability, and phase development. The chemical inertness of these two molds were determined using both the sessile drop test and investment casting to identify the levels of interaction with a Ti-45Al-2Mn-2Nb-0.2B alloy. The results illustrated that the molds using Y2O3-Al2O3 and Y2O3-Al2O3-ZrO2 as the face coats both showed excellent sintering properties and chemical inertness when compared to the yttria face coat. They can consequently be used as two alternative face coats for the investment casting of TiAl alloys.

  8. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOEpatents

    Scribner, K.J.

    1985-11-26

    Disclosed is an improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

  9. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOEpatents

    Scribner, K.J.

    1985-01-29

    Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

  10. Computer cast blast modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, S.; McGill, M.; Preece, D.S.

    1994-12-31

    Cast blasting can be designed to utilize explosive energy effectively and economically for coal mining operations to remove overburden material. This paper compares two blast models known as DMC (Distinct Motion Code) and SABREX (Scientific Approach to Breaking Rock with Explosives). DMC applies discrete spherical elements interacted with the flow of explosive gases and the explicit time integration to track particle motion resulting from a blast. The input to this model includes multi-layer rock properties, and both loading geometry and explosives equation-of-state parameters. It enables the user to have a wide range of control over drill pattern and explosive loading design parameters. SABREX assumes that heave process is controlled by the explosive gases which determines the velocity and time of initial movement of blocks within the burden, and then tracks the motion of the blocks until they come to a rest. In order to reduce computing time, the in-flight collisions of blocks are not considered and the motion of the first row is made to limit the motion of subsequent rows. Although modelling a blast is a complex task, the advance in computer technology has increased the computing power of small work stations as well as PC (personal computers) to permit a much shorter turn-around time for complex computations. The DMC can perform a blast simulation in 0.5 hours on the SUN SPARC station 10-41 while the new SABREX 3.5 produces results of a cast blast in ten seconds on a 486-PC. Predicted percentage of cast and face velocities from both computer codes compare well with the measured results from a full scale cast blast.

  11. USGS ShakeCast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, David; Lin, Kuo-Wan

    2007-01-01

    Automating, Simplifying, and Improving the Use of ShakeMap for Post-Earthquake Decisionmaking and Response. ShakeCast is a freely available, post-earthquake situational awareness application that automatically retrieves earthquake shaking data from ShakeMap, compares intensity measures against users facilities, and generates potential damage assessment notifications, facility damage maps, and other Web-based products for emergency managers and responders.

  12. 6. BRIDGE LOOKING SOUTH FROM CROWN POINT STATE PARK SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. BRIDGE LOOKING SOUTH FROM CROWN POINT STATE PARK SHOWING SURROUNDING DEVELOPMENT FROM CONSTRUCTION OF DAM - Columbia River Bridge at Grand Coulee Dam, Spanning Columbia River at State Route 155, Coulee Dam, Okanogan County, WA

  13. Estimation of crown closure from AVIRIS data using regression analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staenz, K.; Williams, D. J.; Truchon, M.; Fritz, R.

    1993-01-01

    Crown closure is one of the input parameters used for forest growth and yield modelling. Preliminary work by Staenz et al. indicates that imaging spectrometer data acquired with sensors such as the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) have some potential for estimating crown closure on a stand level. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to establish a relationship between AVIRIS data and the crown closure derived from aerial photography of a forested test site within the Interior Douglas Fir biogeoclimatic zone in British Columbia, Canada; (2) to investigate the impact of atmospheric effects and the forest background on the correlation between AVIRIS data and crown closure estimates; and (3) to improve this relationship using multiple regression analysis.

  14. Titanium metal: extraction to application

    SciTech Connect

    Gambogi, Joseph; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2002-09-01

    In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium. In this paper, we discuss all aspects of the titanium industry from ore deposits through extraction to present and future applications. The methods of both primary (mining of ore, extraction, and purification) and secondary (forming and machining) operations will be analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of titanium metal will be briefly examined. Present and future applications for titanium will be discussed. Finally, the economics of titanium metal production also are analyzed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various alternative extraction methods.

  15. Mineral of the month: titanium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gambogi, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    From paint to airplanes, titanium is important in a number of applications. Commercial production comes from titanium-bearing ilmenite, rutile and leucoxene (altered ilmenite). These minerals are used to produce titanium dioxide pigment, as well as an assortment of metal and chemical products.

  16. Weld-bonded titanium structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, R. W.; Creedon, J. F. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Structurally stronger titanium articles are produced by a weld-bonding technique comprising fastening at least two plates of titanium together using spotwelding and curing an adhesive interspersed between the spot-weld nuggets. This weld-bonding may be employed to form lap joints or to stiffen titanium metal plates.

  17. In vitro Evaluation of the Accuracy of Seating Cast Metal Fixed Partial Denture on the Abutment Teeth with Varying Degree of Convergence Angle

    PubMed Central

    Tatikonda, Aravind; Raina, Seema; Gubrellay, Priyanka; Gupta, Naveen; Asopa, Swati Joshi

    2015-01-01

    Background The prime goal of a diligent prosthodontist is to obtain adequate marginal fit while restoring lost tooth structure. The marginal fit of the restoration, in turn depends upon the geometrical morphology of the tooth preparation. Objective To determine the effect of varying degree of convergence angle on the marginal seating of the single crown, three-unit fixed partial denture and multiple-unit fixed partial denture with pier abutment. Materials and Methods Three dies, of same convergence angle, were placed in an arch form on a base. In this way, four arch forms were prepared for four different convergence angles i.e. 0°, 6°, 12°, and 20°. Five castings each were made for single crown, 3-unit fixed partial denture and multiple-unit fixed partial denture (FPD) with pier abutment for each convergence angle. The castings were seated on their respective dies and vertical marginal discrepancy was measured at four points for each casting with the help of an optical microscope. Results The results showed that 200 convergence angle showed better marginal seating of the single crown, 3-unit FPD as well as for the multiple unit FPD. Conclusion There was a possibility that the retention and resistance may be compromised with 200 taper. Hence 120 taper is suggested for crowns and fixed partial denture retainers as the marginal discrepancy is reasonable and retention and resistance is optimum. There was a high statistical significant difference in the values obtained for the different convergence angles. PMID:26393207

  18. Tensile and creep properties of titanium-vanadium, titanium-molybdenum, and titanium-niobium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, H. R.

    1975-01-01

    Tensile and creep properties of experimental beta-titanium alloys were determined. Titanium-vanadium alloys had substantially greater tensile and creep strength than the titanium-niobium and titanium-molybdenum alloys tested. Specific tensile strengths of several titanium-vanadium-aluminum-silicon alloys were equivalent or superior to those of commercial titanium alloys to temperatures of 650 C. The Ti-50V-3Al-1Si alloy had the best balance of tensile strength, creep strength, and metallurgical stability. Its 500 C creep strength was far superior to that of a widely used commercial titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V, and almost equivalent to that of newly developed commercial titanium alloys.

  19. Surgical crown lengthening: a periodontal and restorative interdisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Parwani, Simran R; Parwani, Rajkumar N

    2014-01-01

    Surgical crown lengthening helps to provide an adequate retention form for proper tooth preparation, thus enabling dentists to create esthetically pleasing and healthy restorations. Long-term stability requires accurate diagnosis and development of a comprehensive treatment plan in each case. This sequence of events stresses the importance of communication between the restorative dentist and the periodontist. This article presents 2 cases that involve surgical crown lengthening (including mucoperiosteal flap and ostectomy) for the restoration of teeth. PMID:25369395

  20. Failure Probability of Three Designs of Zirconia Crowns.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Gabriela Freitas; Monteiro, Evelyn Barbosa; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Zhang, Yu; Marques de Melo, Renata

    2015-01-01

    This study used a two-parameter Weibull analysis for evaluation of the lifespan of fully or partially porcelain-/glaze-veneered zirconia crowns after fatigue test. A sample of 60 first molars were selected and prepared for full-coverage crowns with three different designs (n = 20): traditional (crowns with zirconia framework covered with feldspathic porcelain), modified (crowns partially covered with veneering porcelain), and monolithic (full-contour zirconia crowns). All specimens were treated with a glaze layer. Specimens were subjected to mechanical cycling (100 N, 3 Hz) with a piston with a hemispherical tip (Ø = 6 mm) until the specimens failed or up to 2 × 10⁶ cycles. Every 500,000 cycles, the fatigue tests were interrupted and stereomicroscopy (10×) was used to inspect the specimens for damage. The authors performed Weibull analysis of interval data to calculate the number of failures in each interval. The types and numbers of failures according to the groups were: cracking (13 traditional, 6 modified) and chipping (4 traditional) of the feldspathic porcelain, followed by delamination (1 traditional) at the veneer/core interface and debonding (2 monolithic) at the cementation interface. Weibull parameters (β, scale; η, shape), with a two-sided confidence interval of 95%, were: traditional-1.25 and 0.9 × 10⁶ cycles; modified-0.58 and 11.7 × 10⁶ cycles; and monolithic-1.05 and 16.5 × 10⁶ cycles. Traditional crowns showed greater susceptibility to fatigue, the modified group presented higher propensity to early failures, and the monolithic group showed no susceptibility to fatigue. The modified and monolithic groups presented the highest number of crowns with no failures after the fatigue test. The three crown designs presented significantly different behaviors under fatigue. The modified and monolithic groups presented less probability of failure after 2 × 10⁶ cycles. PMID:26509988

  1. Failure probability of three designs of zirconia crowns

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, G. Freitas; Monteiro, E. Barbosa Carmona; Bottino, M.A.; Zhang, Y.; de Melo, R. Marques

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study utilized a 2-parameter Weibull analysis for evaluation of lifetime of fully or partially porcelain-/glaze-veneered zirconia crowns after fatigue test. Methods Sixty first molars were selected and prepared for full-coverage crowns with three different designs(n = 20): Traditional –crowns with zirconia framework covered with feldspathic porcelain; Modified– crowns partially covered with veneering porcelain; and Monolithic–full-contour zirconia crowns. All specimens were treated with a glaze layer. Specimens were subjected to mechanical cycling (100N, 3Hz) with a piston with hemispherical tip (Ø=6 mm) until the specimens failed or up to 2×106 cycles. Every 500,000 cycles intervals, the fatigue tests were interrupted, and stereomicroscopy (10 X) was used to inspect the specimens for damage. We performed Weibull analysis of interval data to calculate the number of failures in each interval. Results The types and number of failures according to the groups were: cracking (Traditional-13, Modified-6) and chipping (Traditional-4) of the feldspathic porcelain, followed by delamination (Traditional-1) at the veneer/core interface and debonding (Monollithic-2) at the cementation interface. Weibull parameters (beta, scale; and eta, shape), with a two-sided confidence interval of 95%, were: Traditional – 1.25 and 0.9 × 106cycles; Modified– 0.58 and 11.7 × 106 cycles; and Monolithic – 1.05 and 16.5 × 106 cycles. Traditional crowns showed greater susceptibility to fatigue, the Modified group presented higher propensity to early failures, and the Monolithic group showed no susceptibility to fatigue. The Modified and Monolithic groups presented the highest number of crowns with no failures after the fatigue test. Conclusions The three crown designs presented significantly different behaviors under fatigue. The Modified and the Monolithic groups presented less probability to failure after 2×106cycles. PMID:26509988

  2. Casting larger polycrystalline silicon ingots

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Tomlinson, T.; Cliber, J.; Shea, S.; Narayanan, M.

    1995-08-01

    Solarex has developed and patented a directional solidification casting process specifically designed for photovoltaics. In this process, silicon feedstock is melted in a ceramic crucible and solidified into a large grained semicrystalline silicon ingot. In-house manufacture of low cost, high purity ceramics is a key to the low cost fabrication of Solarex polycrystalline wafers. The casting process is performed in Solarex designed casting stations. The casting operation is computer controlled. There are no moving parts (except for the loading and unloading) so the growth process proceeds with virtually no operator intervention Today Solarex casting stations are used to produce ingots from which 4 bricks, each 11.4 cm by 11.4 cm in cross section, are cut. The stations themselves are physically capable of holding larger ingots, that would yield either: 4 bricks, 15 cm by 15 an; or 9 bricks, 11.4 cm by 11.4 an in cross-section. One of the tasks in the Solarex Cast Polycrystalline Silicon PVMaT Program is to design and modify one of the castings stations to cast these larger ingots. If successful, this effort will increase the production capacity of Solarex`s casting stations by 73% and reduce the labor content for casting by an equivalent percentage.

  3. Titanium alkoxide compound

    DOEpatents

    Boyle, Timothy J.

    2007-08-14

    A titanium alkoxide composition is provided, as represented by the chemical formula (OC.sub.6H.sub.5N).sub.2Ti(OC.sub.6H.sub.5NH.sub.2).sub.2. As prepared, the compound is a crystalline substance with a hexavalent titanium atom bonded to two OC.sub.6H.sub.5NH.sub.2 groups and two OC.sub.6H.sub.5N groups with a theoretical molecular weight of 480.38, comprising 60.01% C, 5.04% H and 11.66% N.

  4. Composite fuselage crown panel manufacturing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willden, Kurtis; Metschan, S.; Grant, C.; Brown, T.

    1992-01-01

    Commercial fuselage structures contain significant challenges in attempting to save manufacturing costs with advanced composite technology. Assembly issues, material costs, and fabrication of elements with complex geometry are each expected to drive the cost of composite fuselage structures. Boeing's efforts under the NASA ACT program have pursued key technologies for low-cost, large crown panel fabrication. An intricate bond panel design and manufacturing concepts were selected based on the efforts of the Design Build Team (DBT). The manufacturing processes selected for the intricate bond design include multiple large panel fabrication with the Advanced Tow Placement (ATP) process, innovative cure tooling concepts, resin transfer molding of long fuselage frames, and utilization of low-cost material forms. The process optimization for final design/manufacturing configuration included factory simulations and hardware demonstrations. These efforts and other optimization tasks were instrumental in reducing cost by 18 percent and weight by 45 percent relative to an aluminum baseline. The qualitative and quantitative results of the manufacturing demonstrations were used to assess manufacturing risks and technology readiness.

  5. Standardisation of crown-rump length measurement.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, C; Sarris, I; Hoch, L; Salomon, L J; Papageorghiou, A T

    2013-09-01

    Correct estimation of gestational age is essential for any study of ultrasound biometry and for everyday clinical practice. However, inconsistency in pregnancy dating may occur through differences in measurement methods or errors during measurement. In the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project, pregnancies are dated by the last menstrual period, provided that it is certain and associated with a regular menstrual cycle, and the gestational age by dates concurs with a first-trimester ultrasound crown-rump length (CRL) estimation. Hence, there was a need to standardise CRL measurement methodology across the study sites in this international, multicentre project to avoid systematic differences in dating. To achieve uniformity we undertook the following steps: the ultrasound technique was standardised by disseminating an illustrated, operating manual describing CRL plane landmarks and calliper application, and posters describing the correct acquisition technique were disseminated for quick reference. To ensure that all ultrasonographers understood the methodology, they forwarded a log-book to the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Ultrasound Coordinating Unit, containing the answers to a written test on the manual material and five images of a correctly acquired CRL. Interpretation of CRL was also standardised by ensuring that the same CRL regression formula was used across all study sites. These methods should minimise potential systematic errors in dating associated with pooling data from different health institutions, and represent a model for standardising CRL measurement in future studies. PMID:23678951

  6. The energetic characterization of pineapple crown leaves.

    PubMed

    Braga, R M; Queiroga, T S; Calixto, G Q; Almeida, H N; Melo, D M A; Melo, M A F; Freitas, J C O; Curbelo, F D S

    2015-12-01

    Energetic characterization of biomass allows for assessing its energy potential for application in different conversion processes into energy. The objective of this study is to physicochemically characterize pineapple crown leaves (PC) for their application in energy conversion processes. PC was characterized according to ASTM E871-82, E1755-01, and E873-82 for determination of moisture, ash, and volatile matter, respectively; the fixed carbon was calculated by difference. Higher heating value was determined by ASTM E711-87 and ash chemical composition was determined by XRF. The thermogravimetric and FTIR analyses were performed to evaluate the thermal decomposition and identify the main functional groups of biomass. PC has potential for application in thermochemical processes, showing high volatile matter (89.5%), bulk density (420.8 kg/m(3)), and higher heating value (18.9 MJ/kg). The results show its energy potential justifying application of this agricultural waste into energy conversion processes, implementing sustainability in the production, and reducing the environmental liabilities caused by its disposal. PMID:26233737

  7. Cost studies for commercial fuselage crown designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, T. H.; Smith, P. J.; Truslove, G.; Willden, K. S.; Metschan, S. L.; Pfahl, C. L.

    1991-01-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the cost and weight potential of advanced composite design concepts in the crown region of a commercial transport. Two designs from each of three design families were developed using an integrated design-build team. A range of design concepts and manufacturing processes were included to allow isolation and comparison of cost centers. Detailed manufacturing/assembly plans were developed as the basis for cost estimates. Each of the six designs was found to have advantages over the 1995 aluminum benchmark in cost and weight trade studies. Large quadrant panels and cobonded frames were found to save significant assembly labor costs. Comparisons of high- and intermediate-performance fiber systems were made for skin and stringer applications. Advanced tow placement was found to be an efficient process for skin lay up. Further analysis revealed attractive processes for stringers and frames. Optimized designs were informally developed for each design family, combining the most attractive concepts and processes within that family. A single optimized design was selected as the most promising, and the potential for further optimization was estimated. Technical issues and barriers were identified.

  8. High density tape casting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A system is provided for casting thin sheets (or tapes) of particles bound together, that are used for oxygen membranes and other applications, which enables the particles to be cast at a high packing density in a tape of uniform thickness. A slurry contains the particles, a binder, and a solvent, and is cast against the inside walls of a rotating chamber. Prior to spraying the slurry against the chamber walls, a solvent is applied to a container. The solvent evaporates to saturate the chamber with solvent vapor. Only then is the slurry cast. As a result, the slurry remains fluid long enough to spread evenly over the casting surface formed by the chamber, and for the slurry particles to become densely packed. Only then is the chamber vented to remove solvent, so the slurry can dry. The major novel feature is applying solvent vapor to a rotating chamber before casting slurry against the chamber walls.

  9. Enantiomeric recognition of organic ammonium salts by chiral crown ethers based on the pyridino-18-crown-6 structure

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, R.B.; Bradshaw, J.S.; Jones, B.A.; Dalley, N.K.; Christensen, J.J.; Izatt, R.M.

    1984-01-27

    Enantiomeric recognition by several chiral dimethyl-substituted macrocycles of the pyridino-18-crown-6 type for chiral organic ammonium salts has been studied by titration calorimetry in CH/sub 3/OH, temperature-dependent /sup 1/H NMR spectroscopy in CD/sub 2/CL/sub 2/, and selective crystallization. Results from the three procedures are consistent in demonstrating either host-guest recognition or nonrecognition in the systems investigated. Futhermore, enaniomeric recognition by one chiral host for a pair of chiral guests is correlated with X-ray crystallographic data for the same system. The chiral dimethyl-substituted ligands used in the study include three dimethyl diester pyridino-18-crown-6 ligands, dimethyl thiono diester pyridino-18-crown-6, and dimethyl-pyridino-18-crown-6 ligands. All of these ligands exhibited chiral recognition. Dimethylpyridino-18-crown-6 in complexation with (R)- and (S)-(..cap alpha..-(1-naphthyl)ethyl)ammonium perchlorate exhibited the largest ratio of ..delta..G/sub c/+ yet observed by the /sup 1/H NMR technique. A diphenyl-substituted diester pyridino-18-crown-6 where the phenyl substituents are in less rigid portion of the macrocycle failed to show chiral recognition.

  10. Cast dielectric composite linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Sanders, David M.; Sampayan, Stephen; Slenes, Kirk; Stoller, H. M.

    2009-11-10

    A linear accelerator having cast dielectric composite layers integrally formed with conductor electrodes in a solventless fabrication process, with the cast dielectric composite preferably having a nanoparticle filler in an organic polymer such as a thermosetting resin. By incorporating this cast dielectric composite the dielectric constant of critical insulating layers of the transmission lines of the accelerator are increased while simultaneously maintaining high dielectric strengths for the accelerator.

  11. Sorting Titanium Welding Rods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, W. D., Jr.; Brown, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Three types of titanium welding wires identified by their resistance to current flow. Welding-wire tester quickly identifies unknown titaniumalloy wire by touching wire with test probe, and comparing meter response with standard response. Before touching wire, tip of test probe dipped into an electrolyte.

  12. Sintering titanium powders

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Alman, David E.

    2005-09-01

    Recently, there has been renewed interest in low-cost titanium. Near-net-shape powder metallurgy offers the potential of manufacturing titanium articles without costly and difficult forming and machining operations; hence, processing methods such as conventional press-and-sinter, powder forging and powder injection molding are of interest. The sintering behavior of a variety of commercial and experimental titanium powders was studied. Commercial powders were acquired that were produced different routes: (i) sponge fines from the primary titanium processing; (ii) via the hydride-dehydride process; and (iii) gas atomization. The influence of vacuum sintering time (0.5 to 32 hrs) and temperature (1200, 1275 or 1350°C) on the microstructure (porosity present) of cold pressed powders was studied. The results are discussed in terms of the difference in powder characteristics, with the aim of identify the characteristics required for full density via press-and-sinter processing. Near-net-shape tensile bars were consolidated via cold pressed and sintered. After sintering, a sub-set of the tensile bars was hot-isostatic pressed (HIPed). The microstructure and properties of the bars were compared in the sintered and HIPed conditions.

  13. Titanium Aluminide Applications in the High Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartolotta, Paul A.; Krause, David L.

    1999-01-01

    It is projected that within the next two decades, overseas air travel will increase to over 600,000 passengers per day. The High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) is a second-generation supersonic commercial aircraft proposed to meet this demand. The expected fleet of 500 to 1500 aircraft is required to meet EPA environmental goals; the HSCT propulsion system requires advanced technologies to reduce exhaust and noise pollution. A part of the resultant strategy for noise attenuation is the use of an extremely large exhaust nozzle. In the nozzle, several critical components are fabricated from titanium aluminide: the divergent nap uses wrought gamma; the nozzle sidewall is a hybrid fabrication of both wrought gamma face sheet and cast gamma substructure. This paper describes the HSCT program and the use of titanium aluminide for its components.

  14. Replacing London's cast iron mains

    SciTech Connect

    Thorne, A. ); Mathews, P. )

    1992-07-01

    This paper discusses the cast iron gas distribution systems that exist in many cities and contains considerable amounts of pipe that vary in age from 20 to 150 years. In many ways, cast iron is an excellent material. It is inherently corrosion resistant, easy to install and cheap. However, it is also brittle and smaller diameter cast iron pipe has a relatively low beam strength. This can lead, under some circumstances, to failure without external warning, with typically a full-circumferential failure. In congested areas this can lead to serious consequences. As a result, cast iron replacement programs are a common feature in such urban gas distribution systems.

  15. Titanium in dentistry: historical development, state of the art and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Juliana Ribeiro Pala; Barão, Valentim Adelino; Delben, Juliana Aparecida; Faverani, Leonardo Perez; Queiroz, Thallita Pereira; Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves

    2013-06-01

    Titanium is a metallic element known by several attractive characteristics, such as biocompatibility, excellent corrosion resistance and high mechanical resistance. It is widely used in Dentistry, with high success rates, providing a favorable biological response when in contact with live tissues. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe the different uses of titanium in Dentistry, reviewing its historical development and discoursing about its state of art and future perspective of its utilization. A search in the MEDLINE/PubMed database was performed using the terms 'titanium', 'dentistry' and 'implants'. The title and abstract of articles were read, and after this first screening 20 articles were selected and their full-texts were downloaded. Additional text books and manual search of reference lists within selected articles were included. Correlated literature showed that titanium is the most used metal in Implantology for manufacturing osseointegrated implants and their systems, with a totally consolidated utilization. Moreover, titanium can be also employed in prosthodontics to obtain frameworks. However, problems related to its machining, casting, welding and ceramic application for dental prosthesis are still limiting its use. In Endodontics, titanium has been used in association to nickel for manufacturing rotatory instruments, providing a higher resistance to deformation. However, although the different possibilities of using titanium in modern Dentistry, its use for prostheses frameworks still needs technological improvements in order to surpass its limitations. PMID:24431713

  16. Clinical evaluation of carbon fiber reinforced carbon endodontic post, glass fiber reinforced post with cast post and core: A one year comparative clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Preethi, GA; Kala, M

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Restoring endodontically treated teeth is one of the major treatments provided by the dental practitioner. Selection and proper use of restorative materials continues to be a source of frustration for many clinicians. There is controversy surrounding the most suitable choice of restorative material and the placement method that will result in the highest probability of successful treatment. This clinical study compares two different varieties of fiber posts and one cast post and core in terms of mobility of crown margin under finger pressure, recurrent caries detected at the crown margin, fracture of the restoration, fracture of the root and periapical and periodontal pathology requiring crown removal over the period of 12months as evaluated by clinical and radiographical examination. Materials and Methods: 30 root canal treated, single rooted maxillary anterior teeth of 25 patients in the age range of 18–60 years where a post retained crown was indicated were selected for the study between January 2007 and August 2007; and prepared in a standard clinical manner. It was divided into 3 groups of 10 teeth in each group. After post space preparation, the Carbon fiber and Glass fiber reinforced posts were cemented with Scotch bond multipurpose plus bonding agent and RelyX adhesive resin cement in the first and second groups respectively. The Cast post and cores were cemented with Zinc Phosphate cement in the third group. Following post- cementation, the preparation was further refined and a rubber base impression was taken for metal-ceramic crowns which was cemented with Zinc Phosphate cement. A baseline periapical radiograph was taken once each crown was cemented. All patients were evaluated after one week (baseline), 3 months, 6 months and one year for following characteristics mobility of crown margin under finger pressure, recurrent caries detected at the crown margin, fracture of the restoration, fracture of the root and periapical and periodontal pathology

  17. Open-grown crown radius of eleven bottomland hardwood species: Prediction and use in assessing stocking

    SciTech Connect

    Goelz, J.C.G.

    1996-08-01

    Equations were prepared to predict crown radius for eleven species of open-grown bottomland hardwood trees. Crown radius was predicted as a function of diameter at breast height (dbh) and as a function of dbh, total height, and crown ratio. Equations were prepared for individual species and species groups. Pecan has the largest crowns over a broad range of dbh. Eastern cottonwood has the smallest crowns for most levels of dbh. Sweetgum has relatively small crowns for trees of small dbh, but crown radius is comparable to most species at the largest dbh. The crown radius predictions may be used to calculate crown competition factor. B-lines of stocking may be calculated that represent a stand of one species as well as a mixed-species stand of any particular species proportion.

  18. 3D statistical failure analysis of monolithic dental ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Nasrin, Sadia; Katsube, Noriko; Seghi, Robert R; Rokhlin, Stanislav I

    2016-07-01

    For adhesively retained ceramic crown of various types, it has been clinically observed that the most catastrophic failures initiate from the cement interface as a result of radial crack formation as opposed to Hertzian contact stresses originating on the occlusal surface. In this work, a 3D failure prognosis model is developed for interface initiated failures of monolithic ceramic crowns. The surface flaw distribution parameters determined by biaxial flexural tests on ceramic plates and point-to-point variations of multi-axial stress state at the intaglio surface are obtained by finite element stress analysis. They are combined on the basis of fracture mechanics based statistical failure probability model to predict failure probability of a monolithic crown subjected to single-cycle indentation load. The proposed method is verified by prior 2D axisymmetric model and experimental data. Under conditions where the crowns are completely bonded to the tooth substrate, both high flexural stress and high interfacial shear stress are shown to occur in the wall region where the crown thickness is relatively thin while high interfacial normal tensile stress distribution is observed at the margin region. Significant impact of reduced cement modulus on these stress states is shown. While the analyses are limited to single-cycle load-to-failure tests, high interfacial normal tensile stress or high interfacial shear stress may contribute to degradation of the cement bond between ceramic and dentin. In addition, the crown failure probability is shown to be controlled by high flexural stress concentrations over a small area, and the proposed method might be of some value to detect initial crown design errors. PMID:27215334

  19. Mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy dental castings.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, E; Wang, T J; Doi, H; Yoneyama, T; Hamanaka, H

    1998-10-01

    With the aim of applying a novel titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-7Nb, to a dental casting material, a comprehensive research work was carried out on its characteristics, such as castability, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance in the present study. As a result, Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy exhibited sufficient castability by a dental casting method for titanium alloys and enough mechanical properties for dental application. It is also showed excellent corrosion resistance through an immersion test in 1.0% lactic acid and an anodic polarization test in 0.9% NaCl solution. From these results, it is concluded that this Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy is applicable as a dental material in place of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, which includes cytotoxic vanadium. PMID:15348689

  20. Casting Equipment. Casting and Angling Skills Series. Instructor Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staton, Robert D., Jr.

    Part of a series of self-contained instructional units designed by the Missouri Department of Conservation to teach Missourians how to use outdoor resources wisely and skillfully, the instructor manual, the first in the casting and angling series, is intended both as a reference book on casting equipment and as an introduction to the sport.…

  1. Friction Stir Processing of Investment-Cast Ti-6Al-4V: Microstructure and Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilchak, A. L.; Norfleet, D. M.; Juhas, M. C.; Williams, J. C.

    2008-07-01

    Investment-cast titanium components are becoming increasingly common in the aerospace industry due to the ability to produce large, complex, one-piece components that were previously fabricated by mechanically fastening multiple pieces together. The fabricated components are labor-intensive and the fastener holes are stress concentrators and prime sites for fatigue crack initiation. The castings are typically hot-isostatically-pressed (HIP) to close internal porosity, but have a coarse, fully lamellar structure that has low resistance to fatigue crack initiation. The as-cast + HIP material exhibited 1- to 1.5-mm prior β grains containing a fully lamellar α + β microstructure consistent with slow cooling from above the β transus. Friction stir processing (FSP) was used to locally modify the microstructure on the surface of an investment-cast Ti-6Al-4V plate. Friction stir processing converted the as-cast microstructure to fine (1- to 2-μm) equiaxed α grains. Using micropillars created with a dual-beam focused ion beam device, it was found that the fine-grained equiaxed structure has about a 12 pct higher compressive yield stress. In wrought products, higher strength conditions are more resistant to fatigue crack initiation, while the coarse lamellar microstructure in the base material has better fatigue crack growth resistance. In combination, these two microstructures can increase the fatigue life of titanium alloy castings by increasing the number of cycles prior to crack initiation while retaining the same low-crack growth rates of the colony microstructure in the remainder of the component. In the current study, high-cycle fatigue testing of investment-cast Ti-6Al-4V was performed on four-point bend specimens. Early results show that FSP can increase fatigue strength dramatically.

  2. When Your Child Needs a Cast

    MedlinePlus

    ... hard bandage that's usually made of material like fiberglass or plaster. Casts keep bones in place while ... water. Plaster of Paris casts are heavier than fiberglass casts and don't hold up as well ...

  3. A comparative study of gold UCLA-type and CAD/CAM titanium implant abutments

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Man; Lee, Jai-Bong; Heo, Seong-Joo

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the interface accuracy of computer-assisted designed and manufactured (CAD/CAM) titanium abutments and implant fixture compared to gold-cast UCLA abutments. MATERIALS AND METHODS An external connection implant system (Mark III, n=10) and an internal connection implant system (Replace Select, n=10) were used, 5 of each group were connected to milled titanium abutment and the rest were connected to the gold-cast UCLA abutments. The implant fixture and abutment were tightened to torque of 35 Ncm using a digital torque gauge, and initial detorque values were measured 10 minutes after tightening. To mimic the mastication, a cyclic loading was applied at 14 Hz for one million cycles, with the stress amplitude range being within 0 N to 100 N. After the cyclic loading, detorque values were measured again. The fixture-abutment gaps were measured under a microscope and recorded with an accuracy of ±0.1 µm at 50 points. RESULTS Initial detorque values of milled abutment were significantly higher than those of cast abutment (P<.05). Detorque values after one million dynamic cyclic loadings were not significantly different (P>.05). After cyclic loading, detorque values of cast abutment increased, but those of milled abutment decreased (P<.05). There was no significant difference of gap dimension between the milled abutment group and the cast abutment group after cyclic loading. CONCLUSION In conclusion, CAD/CAM milled titanium abutment can be fabricated with sufficient accuracy to permit screw joint stability between abutment and fixture comparable to that of the traditional gold cast UCLA abutment. PMID:24605206

  4. Gingival health in relation to clinical crown length: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Gingival margin position in relation to synthetic crowns and crown length could be etiological factors in gingival health. Case presentation A 27-year-old male presented with necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis with short clinical crowns suggestive of altered passive eruption. Three years after the initial diagnosis, he presented with crowns on the maxillary incisors. There were short clinical crowns and marked gingival inflammation. Conclusion Placement of the crown margin could be an etiological factor in gingival inflammation. Therefore, should the margin be subgingival, equigingival or supragingival? PMID:20062553

  5. Gingival health in relation to clinical crown length: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Gingival margin position in relation to synthetic crowns and crown length could be etiological factors in gingival health. Case presentation A 27-year-old male presented with necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis with short clinical crowns suggestive of altered passive eruption. Three years after the initial diagnosis, he presented with crowns on the maxillary incisors. There were short clinical crowns and marked gingival inflammation. Conclusion Placement of the crown margin could be an etiological factor in gingival inflammation. Therefore, should the margin be subgingival, equigingival or supragingival? PMID:20184687

  6. Intrinsic affinities of alkali cations for 15-crown-5 and 18-crown-6: Bond dissociation energies of gas-phase M{sup +}-crown ether complexes

    SciTech Connect

    More, M.B.; Ray, D.; Armentrout, P.B.

    1999-01-20

    Bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of M{sup +}[c-(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}O){sub 5}] and M{sup +}[c-(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}O){sub 6}] for M = Na, K, Rb, and Cs are reported. The BDEs are determined experimentally by analysis of the thresholds for collision-induced dissociation of the cation-crown ether complexes by xenon measured by using guided ion beam mass spectrometry. In all cases, the primary and lowest energy dissociation channel observed experimentally in endothermic loss of the ligand molecule. The cross section thresholds are interpreted to yield 0 and 298 K BDEs after accounting for the effects of multiple ion-molecule collisions, internal energy of the complexes, and unimolecular decay rates. For both 18-crown-6 and 15-crown-5, the BDEs decrease monotonically with increasing cation size. These results indicate that the intrinsic affinity of c-(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}O){sub 5} and c-(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}O){sub 6} for M{sup +} is determined principally by the charge density of the cation not by the ratio of the ionic radius to the cavity size. The BDEs reported here are in fair agreement with recent ab initio calculations at the MP2 level with 6-31+G* basis sets. The experimental values are systematically smaller than the computed values by 8 {+-} 2 kJ/mol per metal-oxygen interaction. The existence of less strongly bound isomers in the experimental apparatus for Rb{sup +}(15-crown-5) and Cs{sup +}(15-crown-5) appears likely, but their absence for Na{sup +} and K{sup +} complexes indicates interesting metal-dependent dynamics to the formation of such isomers.

  7. Biology and control of the raspberry crown borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    PubMed

    McKern, Jacquelyn A; Johnson, Donn T; Lewis, Barbara A

    2007-04-01

    This study explored the biology of raspberry crown borer, Pennisetia marginata (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), in Arkansas and the optimum timing for insecticide and nematode applications. The duration of P. marginata's life cycle was observed to be 1 yr in Arkansas. Insecticide trials revealed that bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, metaflumizone, and metofluthrin efficacy were comparable with that of azinphosmethyl, the only labeled insecticide for P. marginata in brambles until 2005. Applications on 23 October 2003 for plots treated with bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and azinphosmethyl resulted in >88% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 3 November 2004 of metaflumizone, metofluthrin, and bifenthrin resulted in >89% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 7 April 2005 for metofluthrin, imidacloprid, bifenthrin, metaflumizone, and benzoylphenyl urea resulted in >64% reduction in the number of larvae per crown. Applications on 6 May 2004 did not reduce larval numbers. The optimum timing for treatments was found to be between October and early April, before the larvae tunneled into the crowns of plants. Applying bifenthrin with as little as 468 liters water/ha (50 gal/acre) was found to be as effective against larvae as higher volumes of spray. Nematode applications were less successful than insecticides. Nematode applications of Steinernemafeltiae, Steinernema carpocapsae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora reduced larvae counts per plant by 46, 53, and 33%, respectively. PMID:17461064

  8. Effect of cements on fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Keisuke; Mouhat, Mathieu; Nergård, John Magnus; Lægreid, Solveig Jenssen; Kanno, Taro; Milleding, Percy; Örtengren, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The present study investigated the effect of cements on fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns in relation to their compressive strength. Materials and methods Four different cements were tested: zinc phosphate cement (ZPC), glass-ionomer cement (GIC), self-adhesive resin-based cement (SRC) and resin-based cement (RC). RC was used in both dual cure mode (RC-D) and chemical cure mode (RC-C). First, the compressive strength of each cement was tested according to a standard (ISO 9917-1:2004). Second, load-to-failure test was performed to analyze the crown fracture resistance. CAD/CAM-produced monolithic zirconia crowns with a minimal thickness of 0.5 mm were prepared and cemented to dies with each cement. The crown–die samples were loaded until fracture. Results The compressive strength of SRC, RC-D and RC-C was significantly higher than those of ZPC and GIC (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the fracture load of the crown between the groups. Conclusion The values achieved in the load-to-failure test suggest that monolithic zirconia crowns with a minimal thickness of 0.5 mm may have good resistance against fracture regardless of types of cements. PMID:27335900

  9. Digital modeling technology for full dental crown tooth preparation.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ning; Zhong, Yicheng; Liu, Hao; Yuan, Fusong; Sun, Yuchun

    2016-04-01

    A dental defect is one of the most common oral diseases, and it often requires a full crown restoration. In this clinical operation, the dentist must manually prepare the affected tooth for the full crown so that it has a convergence angle between 4° and 10°, no undercuts, and uniform and even shoulder widths and depths using a high speed diamond bur in the patient׳s mouth within one hour, which is a difficult task that requires visual-manual operation. The quality of the tooth preparation has an important effect on the success rate of the subsequent prosthodontic treatment. This study involved research into digital modeling technology for full dental crown tooth preparation. First, the margin line of the tooth preparation was designed using a semi-automatic interactive process. Second, the inserting direction was automatically computed. Then, the characteristic parameters and the constraints on the tooth preparation were defined for the model. Next, the shoulder and axial surface of the tooth preparation were formed using parametric modeling. Finally, the implicit surface of a radial basis function was used to construct the tooth preparation׳s occlusal surface. The experimental results verified that the method of digital modeling for full crown preparation proposed in this study can quickly and accurately implement personalized designs of various parameters, such as the shoulder width and the convergence angle; it provides a digital design tool for full crown preparation. PMID:26945598

  10. Orthodontic band retention on primary molar stainless steel crowns.

    PubMed

    Beemer, R L; Ferracane, J L; Howard, H E

    1993-01-01

    The retention of orthodontic bands cemented on primary molar stainless steel crowns (SSC) was studied in vitro. Unitek maxillary and mandibular 1st and 2nd primary molar SSC were fitted with one of four commonly used orthodontic bands (Unitek regular, Unitek narrow, Rocky Mountain, or custom bands made from SSC) using glass ionomer cement. The cemented samples were tested for their resistance to dislodgment on the Instron Universal Testing Machine (Instron Engineering Corp., Canton, MA) in tensile mode. Alpha level for statistical significance was set at alpha = 0.05. Unitek regular bands cemented on the 2nd molar crowns and Unitek narrow bands cemented on the 1st molar crown samples had equivalent or superior resistance to dislodgment compared with the other bands in the study. When the inside of the band and the outside band-bearing surfaces of selected crowns were lightly scored with a diamond bur prior to cementation, samples exhibited significantly superior retention. Subgroup means increased from 107 to 330%, compared to the values obtained in their preroughened state. The mean values obtained using the roughened band/crown interface technique (range 52.9 +/- 7.6 to 73.6 +/- 8.4 lbs) compared favorably with retention values from the literature for orthodontic bands cemented on permanent molar and premolar teeth. PMID:8153003

  11. Experimental investigation of the abrasive crown dynamics in orbital atherectomy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yihao; Belmont, Barry; Shih, Albert J

    2016-07-01

    Orbital atherectomy is a catheter-based minimally invasive procedure to modify the plaque within atherosclerotic arteries using a diamond abrasive crown. This study was designed to investigate the crown motion and its corresponding contact force with the vessel. To this end, a transparent arterial tissue-mimicking phantom made of polyvinyl chloride was developed, a high-speed camera and image processing technique were utilized to visualize and quantitatively analyze the crown motion in the vessel phantom, and a piezoelectric dynamometer measured the forces on the phantom during the procedure. Observed under typical orbital atherectomy rotational speeds of 60,000, 90,000, and 120,000rpm in a 4.8mm caliber vessel phantom, the crown motion was a combination of high-frequency rotation at 1000, 1500, and 1660.4-1866.1Hz and low-frequency orbiting at 18, 38, and 40Hz, respectively. The measured forces were also composed of these high and low frequencies, matching well with the rotation of the eccentric crown and the associated orbital motion. The average peak force ranged from 0.1 to 0.4N at different rotational speeds. PMID:27160429

  12. Lost-Soap Aluminum Casting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihalow, Paula

    1980-01-01

    Lost-wax casting in sterling silver is a costly experience for the average high school student. However, this jewelry process can be learned at no cost if scrap aluminum is used instead of silver, and soap bars are used instead of wax. This lost-soap aluminum casting process is described. (Author/KC)

  13. Electroslag component casting. [Nickel aluminide

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    This project is directed toward the development of electroslag-casting (ESC) technology for use in coal conversion components such as valve bodies, pump housings, and pipe fittings. The aim is also to develop a sufficient data base to permit electroslag casting to become an ASME Code-accepted process. It is also intended to transfer the ESC process technology to private industry. A total of 32 electroslag castings of 2.25Cr-1Mo, 9Cr-1Mo, type 316, and nickel aluminide were procured from four facilities for evaluation (Table 1). The most complex castings procured during this program were the valve bodies shown in Figure 2. The castings were subjected to various heat treatments (Table 2), checked for chemical composition uniformity from top to bottom, and subjected to macrostructural evaluation and mechanical properties testing. Results are discussed. 10 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Reverse engineering of mandible and prosthetic framework: Effect of titanium implants in conjunction with titanium milled full arch bridge prostheses on the biomechanics of the mandible.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Roberto; Gloria, Antonio; Russo, Teresa; D'Amora, Ugo; Varriale, Angelo; Veltri, Mario; Balleri, Piero; Mollica, Francesco; Riccitiello, Francesco; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2014-12-18

    This study aimed at investigating the effects of titanium implants and different configurations of full-arch prostheses on the biomechanics of edentulous mandibles. Reverse engineered, composite, anisotropic, edentulous mandibles made of a poly(methylmethacrylate) core and a glass fibre reinforced outer shell were rapid prototyped and instrumented with strain gauges. Brånemark implants RP platforms in conjunction with titanium Procera one-piece or two-piece bridges were used to simulate oral rehabilitations. A lateral load through the gonion regions was used to test the biomechanical effects of the rehabilitations. In addition, strains due to misfit of the one-piece titanium bridge were compared to those produced by one-piece cast gold bridges. Milled titanium bridges had a better fit than cast gold bridges. The stress distribution in mandibular bone rehabilitated with a one-piece bridge was more perturbed than that observed with a two-piece bridge. In particular the former induced a stress concentration and stress shielding in the molar and symphysis regions, while for the latter design these stresses were strongly reduced. In conclusion, prosthetic frameworks changed the biomechanics of the mandible as a result of both their design and manufacturing technology. PMID:25468297

  15. Corrosion of stainless steel, nickel-titanium, coated nickel-titanium, and titanium orthodontic wires.

    PubMed

    Kim, H; Johnson, J W

    1999-02-01

    Orthodontic wires containing nickel have been implicated in allergic reactions. The potential for orthodontic wires to cause allergic reactions is related to the pattern and mode of corrosion with subsequent release of metal ions, such as nickel, into the oral cavity. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a significant difference in the corrosive potential of stainless steel, nickel titanium, nitride-coated nickel titanium, epoxy-coated nickel titanium, and titanium orthodontic wires. At least two specimens of each wire were subjected to potentiostatic anodic dissolution in 0.9% NaCl solution with neutral pH at room temperature. Using a Wenking MP 95 potentiostat and an electrochemical corrosion cell, the breakdown potential of each wire was determined. Photographs were taken of the wire speci mens using a scanning electron microscope, and surface changes were qualitatively evaluated. The breakdown potentials of stainless steel, two nickel titanium wires, nitride-coated nickel titanium, epoxy-coated nickel titanium, and titanium were 400 mV, 300 mV, 750 mV, 300 mV, 1800 mV, and >2000 mV, respectively. SEM photographs revealed that some nickel titanium and stainless steel wires were susceptible to pitting and localized corrosion. The results indicate that corrosion occurred readily in stainless steel. Variability in breakdown potential of nickel titanium alloy wires differed across vendors' wires. The nitride coating did not affect the corrosion of the alloy, but epoxy coating decreased corrosion. Titanium wires and epoxy-coated nickel titanium wires exhibited the least corrosive potential. For patients allergic to nickel, the use of titanium or epoxy-coated wires during orthodontic treatment is recommended. PMID:10022183

  16. Hydride precipitation in titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Numakura, H.; Kowia, M.

    1984-10-01

    The crystal structure and morphology of hydride (deuteride) precipitates are investigated on ..cap alpha..-titanium specimens containing 1-3 at.% H or D by transmission electron microscopy. The hydride is found to have a face-centered tetragonal structure (c/a = 1.09) with an ordered arrangement of hydrogen, being isomorphous to ..gamma..-zirconium hydride. Two types of precipitation mode are observed with the habit planes (0110) and near (0225).

  17. Titanium Honeycomb Panel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, W. Lance; Thompson, Randolph C.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal-mechanical tests were performed on a titanium honeycomb sandwich panel to experimentally validate the hypersonic wing panel concept and compare test data with analysis. Details of the test article, test fixture development, instrumentation, and test results are presented. After extensive testing to 900 deg. F, non-destructive evaluation of the panel has not detected any significant structural degradation caused by the applied thermal-mechanical loads.

  18. Application of continuous casting steel 100Cr6 (SAE 52100) for bearing balls

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, F.; Hirsch, Th.; Mayr, P.

    1998-12-31

    The objective of the investigation was to study the feasibility of applying continuous casting steel 100Cr6 (SAE 52100) for bearing balls. It was found that two of three continuous casted steel batches have longer or at least similar rolling contact fatigue lifetimes compared to one ingot casted batch. For one of the continuous casted batches, the rolling contact fatigue lifetime was 30% less. The micro- and macrostructure and the residual stresses below the surface of the balls were comparable. There is also no obvious difference between the four batches in the metallurgical parameters like contents of oxygen, titanium and sulfur as well as in the distribution of carbides and their network. The reason for the shorter lifetime of one batch finally was found to be due not to the continuous casting process itself. There was a difference in the cross section of the different casting moulds, and by this in the speed of solidification. As a consequence an increased segregation of alloying elements was observed. So the primary carbides of this batch were of bigger size and higher amounts have been detected within a larger cross section of the bloom. Finally the inferior distribution and size of carbides in the layers of maximum equivalent stress below the surface were found to be crack initiation points. The reduced lifetime of one batch therefore could be correlated to these metallurgical differences. It has been demonstrated that bearing balls made from continuous casted steel 100Cr6 (SAE 52100) have similar or better rolling contact fatigue lifetime than bearing balls made from ingot casted material. However, it is necessary to have minimal amounts of micro- and macro-inclusions as well as a homogeneous distribution of carbides, particularly in the main segregation areas. For that reason, the steel quality of every type of continuous casting machine has to be evaluated separately.

  19. Chipping Resistance of Graded Zirconia Ceramics for Dental Crowns

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y.; Chai, H.; Lee, J.J.-W.; Lawn, B.R.

    2012-01-01

    A serious drawback of veneering porcelains is a pronounced susceptibility to chipping. Glass-infiltrated dense zirconia structures can now be produced with esthetic quality, making them an attractive alternative. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that such infiltrated structures are much more chip-resistant than conventional porcelains, and at least as chip-resistant as non-infiltrated zirconia. A sharp indenter was used to produce chips in flat and anatomically correct glass-infiltrated zirconia crown materials, and critical loads were measured as a function of distance from the specimen edge (flat) or side wall (crown). Control data were obtained on zirconia specimens without infiltration and on crowns veneered with porcelains. The results confirmed that the resistance to chipping in graded zirconia is more than 4 times higher than that of porcelain-veneered zirconia and is at least as high as that of non-veneered zirconia. PMID:22232142

  20. Materials design of ceramic-based layer structures for crowns.

    PubMed

    Lawn, B R; Deng, Y; Lloyd, I K; Janal, M N; Rekow, E D; Thompson, V P

    2002-06-01

    Radial cracking has been identified as the primary mode of failure in all-ceramic crowns. This study investigates the hypothesis that critical loads for radial cracking in crown-like layers vary explicitly as the square of ceramic layer thickness. Experimental data from tests with spherical indenters on model flat laminates of selected dental ceramics bonded to clear polycarbonate bases (simulating crown/dentin structures) are presented. Damage initiation events are video-recorded in situ during applied loading, and critical loads are measured. The results demonstrate an increase in the resistance to radial cracking for zirconia relative to alumina and for alumina relative to porcelain. The study provides simple a priori predictions of failure in prospective ceramic/substrate bilayers and ranks ceramic materials for best clinical performance. PMID:12097438

  1. Crown-formation time of a fossil hominid premolar tooth.

    PubMed

    Beynon, A D; Dean, M C

    1987-01-01

    Studies using surface or internal enamel growth indicators in hominids have suggested that crown-formation times were shorter than those in modern man. The crown-formation time in a robust australopithecine premolar tooth was calculated by counting enamel cross-striations, which correspond to daily increments of formation, on a replica of the fractured internal enamel surface of cuspal enamel using scanning electron microscopy. Cervical enamel completion time was estimated using other growth indicators including striae, and using measured and calculated cross-striation repeat intervals, giving a completion time of approx. 2.4 yr. This is much shorter than reported premolar crown formation times in modern man. These findings support the concept of an abbreviated period of dental development, with implications on the duration of the growth period in early hominids. PMID:3130039

  2. Titanium fasteners. [for aircraft industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Titanium fasteners are used in large quantities throughout the aircraft industry. Most of this usage is in aluminum structure; where titanium structure exists, titanium fasteners are logically used as well. Titanium fasteners offer potential weight savings to the designer at a cost of approximately $30 per pound of weight saved. Proper and least cost usage must take into consideration type of fastener per application, galvanic couples and installation characteristics of protective coatings, cosmetic appearance, paint adhesion, installation forces and methods available and fatigue performance required.

  3. Titanium: light, strong, and white

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodruff, Laurel; Bedinger, George

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a strong silver-gray metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a very high refractive index, which means that it has high light-scattering ability. As a result, TiO2 imparts whiteness, opacity, and brightness to many products. ...Because of the unique physical properties of titanium metal and the whiteness provided by TiO2, titanium is now used widely in modern industrial societies.

  4. Uniform versus Asymmetric Shading Mediates Crown Recession in Conifers

    PubMed Central

    Schoonmaker, Amanda L.; Lieffers, Victor J.; Landhäusser, Simon M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we explore the impact of asymmetrical vs. uniform crown shading on the mortality and growth of upper and lower branches within tree crowns, for two conifer species: shade intolerant lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and shade tolerant white spruce (Picea glauca). We also explore xylem hydraulics, foliar nutrition, and carbohydrate status as drivers for growth and expansion of the lower and upper branches in various types of shading. This study was conducted over a two-year period across 10 regenerating forest sites dominated by lodgepole pine and white spruce, in the lower foothills of Alberta, Canada. Trees were assigned to one of four shading treatments: (1), complete uniform shading of the entire tree, (2) light asymmetric shading where the lower 1/4–1/3 of the tree crown was shaded, (3) heavy asymmetric shading as in (2) except with greater light reduction and (4) control in which no artificial shading occurred and most of the entire crown was exposed to full light. Asymmetrical shading of only the lower crown had a larger negative impact on the bud expansion and growth than did uniform shading, and the effect was stronger in pine relative to spruce. In addition, lower branches in pine also had lower carbon reserves, and reduced xylem-area specific conductivity compared to spruce. For both species, but particularly the pine, the needles of lower branches tended to store less C than upper branches in the asymmetric shade, which could suggest a movement of reserves away from the lower branches. The implications of these findings correspond with the inherent shade tolerance and self-pruning behavior of these conifers and supports a carbon based mechanism for branch mortality – mediated by an asymmetry in light exposure of the crown. PMID:25136823

  5. Museum security and the Thomas Crown Affair.

    SciTech Connect

    Michaud, E. C.

    2010-01-01

    Over the years, I've daydreamed about stealing a Vermeer, a Picasso, or Rembrandt. It tickles me, as much as watching the reboot of The Thomas Crown Affair. Why is it, do you suppose, so much fun to think about stealing a world renowned piece off the wall of a major metropolitan museum? Is it the romantic thoughts of getting away with it, walking past infrared detectors, and pressure sensors ala Indiana Jones with the sack of sand to remove the idol without triggering the security system? Is it the idea of snatching items with such fantastic prices, where the romance of possessing an item of such value is less intoxicating than selling it to a private collector for it to never be seen again? I suspect others share my daydreams as they watch theater or hear of a brazen daylight heist at museums around the world, or from private collections. Though when reality sets in, the mind of the security professional kicks in. How could one do it, why would one do it, what should you do once it's done? The main issue a thief confronts when acquiring unique goods is how to process or fence them. They become very difficult to sell because they are one-of-a-kind, easy to identify, and could lead to the people involved with the theft. The whole issue of museum security takes up an ironic twist when one considers the secretive British street artist 'Banksy'. Banksy has made a name for himself by brazenly putting up interesting pieces of art in broad daylight (though many critics don't consider his work to be art) on building walls, rooftops, or even museums. I bring him up for a interesting take on what may become a trend in museum security. In March of 2005, Banksy snuck a piece of his called 'Vandalized Oil Painting' into the Brooklyn Museum's Great Historical Painting Wing, plus 3 other pieces into major museums in New York. Within several days, 2 paintings had been torn down, but 2 stayed up much longer. In his home country of the UK, a unauthorized piece he created and placed

  6. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 26. TITANIUM INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The titanium industry produces two principal products, titanium metal and titanium dioxide. For purposes of analyses, therefore, the industry is considered in two segments: titanium metal production and titanium dioxide production. Two industrial process flow diagrams and eleven ...

  7. Supramolecular polymers constructed by crown ether-based molecular recognition.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bo; Wang, Feng; Dong, Shengyi; Huang, Feihe

    2012-03-01

    Supramolecular polymers, polymeric systems beyond the molecule, have attracted more and more attention from scientists due to their applications in various fields, including stimuli-responsive materials, healable materials, and drug delivery. Due to their good selectivity and convenient enviro-responsiveness, crown ether-based molecular recognition motifs have been actively employed to fabricate supramolecular polymers with interesting properties and novel applications in recent years. In this tutorial review, we classify supramolecular polymers based on their differences in topology and cover recent advances in the marriage between crown ether-based molecular recognition and polymer science. PMID:22012256

  8. Dental enamel growth, perikymata and hypoplasia in ancient tooth crowns.

    PubMed Central

    Hillson, S W

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the hypoplastic defects commonly seen on the surface of ancient human tooth crowns, excavated from archaeological sites, and presents a new method for estimating the ages at which these defects were initiated during life. The method is based upon examination of microscopic incremental structures on the enamel surface and it is possible also to apply it to reconstruction of the sequence and timing of dental crown development. The method of examination is non-destructive and allows full use to be made of the large numbers of complete, unworn dentitions which are found amongst archaeological remains. Images Figure 1. Figure 4. PMID:1404194

  9. Micrometric precision of prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    das Neves, Flávio Domingues; de Almeida Prado Naves Carneiro, Thiago; do Prado, Célio Jesus; Prudente, Marcel Santana; Zancopé, Karla; Davi, Letícia Resende; Mendonça, Gustavo; Soares, Carlos José

    2014-08-01

    The current study evaluated prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and a computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system using micro-computed tomography to compare the marginal fit. The virtual models were obtained with four different scanning surfaces: typodont (T), regular impressions (RI), master casts (MC), and powdered master casts (PMC). Five virtual models were obtained for each group. For each model, a crown was designed on the software and milled from feldspathic ceramic blocks. Micro-CT images were obtained for marginal gap measurements and the data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. The mean vertical misfit was T=62.6±65.2 μm; MC=60.4±38.4 μm; PMC=58.1±38.0 μm, and RI=89.8±62.8 μm. Considering a percentage of vertical marginal gap of up to 75 μm, the results were T=71.5%, RI=49.2%, MC=69.6%, and PMC=71.2%. The percentages of horizontal overextension were T=8.5%, RI=0%, MC=0.8%, and PMC=3.8%. Based on the results, virtual model acquisition by scanning the typodont (simulated mouth) or MC, with or without powder, showed acceptable values for the marginal gap. The higher result of marginal gap of the RI group suggests that it is preferable to scan this directly from the mouth or from MC.

  10. Marginal and Internal Fit of Conventional Metal-Ceramic and Lithium Disilicate CAD/CAM Crowns.

    PubMed

    Nam, Se-Jin; Yoon, Mi-Jung; Kim, Won-Hee; Ryu, Gil-Ju; Bang, Min-Ki; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate and compare the marginal and internal gap widths of lithium disilicate computer-aided design / computer-assisted manufacture (LDC) crowns and conventionally produced porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) crowns. A convenience sample of 21 patients treated with a single restoration was selected. PFM and LDC crowns were fabricated for each selected abutment tooth, following traditional crown preparation. Silicone replicas were produced, and internal gaps and marginal gaps were measured. Internal gaps were significantly larger for the axial and occlusal surfaces of LDC crowns than for those of PFM crowns (P < .001). Marginal gaps were not significantly different (P > .05). Both LDC crowns and PFM crowns showed clinically acceptable marginal fit. PMID:26340013

  11. Retention of Implant Supported Metal Crowns Cemented with Different Luting Agents: A Comparative Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kavipal; Kaur, Simrat; Arora, Aman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To overcome limitations of screw-retained prostheses, cement-retained prostheses have become the restoration of choice now a days. Selection of the cement hence becomes very critical to maintain retrievability of the prostheses. Aim The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the retention of base metal crowns cemented to implant abutments with five different luting cements. Materials and Methods Ten implant analogs were secured in five epoxy resin casts perpendicular to the plane of cast in right first molar and left first molar region and implant abutments were screwed. Total of 100 metal copings were fabricated and cemented. The cements used were zinc phosphate, resin modified glass ionomer cement, resin cement, non-eugenol acrylic based temporary implant cement & non-eugenol temporary resin cement implant cement. Samples were subjected to a pull-out test using an Instron universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5mm/min. The load required to de-cement each coping was recorded and mean values for each group calculated and put to statistical analysis. Results The results showed that resin cement has the highest retention value 581.075N followed by zinc phosphate luting cement 529.48N, resin modified glass ionomer cement 338.095 N, non-eugenol acrylic based temporary implant cement 249.045 N and non-eugenol temporary resin implant cement 140.49N. Conclusion Within the limitations of study, it was concluded that non-eugenol acrylic based temporary implant cement and non-eugenol temporary resin implant cement allow for easy retrievability of the prosthesis in case of any failure in future. These are suitable for cement retained implant restorations. The results provide a possible preliminary ranking of luting agents based on their ability to retain an implant-supported prosthesis and facilitate easy retrieval. PMID:27190954

  12. Sixty Years of Casting Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John

    2015-11-01

    The 60 years of solidification research since the publication of Chalmer's constitutional undercooling in 1953 has been a dramatic advance of understanding which has and continues to be an inspiration. In contrast, 60 years of casting research has seen mixed fortunes. One of its success stories relates to improvements in inoculation of gray irons, and another to the discovery of spheroidal graphite iron, although both of these can be classified as metallurgical rather than casting advances. It is suggested that true casting advances have dated from the author's lab in 1992 when a critical surface turbulence condition was defined for the first time. These last 20 years have seen the surface entrainment issues of castings developed to a sufficient sophistication to revolutionize the performance of light alloy and steel foundries. However, there is still a long way to go, with large sections of the steel and Ni-base casting industries still in denial that casting defects are important or even exist. The result has been that special ingots are still cast poorly, and shaped casting operations have suffered massive losses. For secondary melted and cast materials, electro-slag remelting has the potential to be much superior to expensive vacuum arc remelting, which has cost our aerospace and defense industries dearly over the years. This failure to address and upgrade our processing of liquid metals is a serious concern, since the principle entrainment defect, the bifilm, is seen as the principle initiator of cracks in metals; in general, bifilms are the Griffith cracks that initiate failures by cracking. A new generation of crack resistant metals and engineering structures can now be envisaged.

  13. Recent advances in the application of modeling to the investment casting process

    SciTech Connect

    Foran, R.K.; Hansen, T.; Mueller, B.

    1995-12-31

    Process modeling is being used to reduce development cycle time and cost, and improve the quality of investment castings. A critical component of modeling development is to improve model accuracy. Accuracy improvements are necessary not only for basic solutions such as fluid flow and thermal gradients, but they are also a prerequisite for more sophisticated analysis such as thermal stress and nonfill. This paper discusses accuracy improvements resulting from more complete and accurate thermophysical databases, improved estimates of the contact conductance between different materials, and more metallurgically correct methods to track latent heat evolution. Nonfill prediction techniques have been developed for the case of metal freeze off and applied to titanium castings. These results are being used to develop economical, high quality products and investment casting processes.

  14. Evaluation of marginal fit of 2 CAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown systems and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic crown

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Min-Kyung; Park, Ji-Hee; Park, Sang-Won; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Oh, Gye-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE This study was to evaluate the marginal fit of two CAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown systems compared to lithium disilicate glass-ceramic crowns. MATERIALS AND METHODS Shoulder and deep chamfer margin were formed on each acrylic resin tooth model of a maxillary first premolar. Two CAD-CAM systems (Prettau®Zirconia and ZENOSTAR®ZR translucent) and lithium disilicate glass ceramic (IPS e.max®press) crowns were made (n=16). Each crown was bonded to stone dies with resin cement (Rely X Unicem). Marginal gap and absolute marginal discrepancy of crowns were measured using a light microscope equipped with a digital camera (Leica DFC295) magnified by a factor of 100. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc Tukey's HSD test were conducted to analyze the significance of crown marginal fit regarding the finish line configuration and the fabrication system. RESULTS The mean marginal gap of lithium disilicate glass ceramic crowns (IPS e.max®press) was significantly lower than that of the CAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown system (Prettau®Zirconia) (P<.05). Both fabrication systems and finish line configurations significantly influenced the absolute marginal discrepancy (P<.05). CONCLUSION The lithium disilicate glass ceramic crown (IPS e.max®press) had significantly smaller marginal gap than the CAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown system (Prettau®Zirconia). In terms of absolute marginal discrepancy, the CAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown system (ZENOSTAR®ZR translucent) had under-extended margin, whereas the CAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown system (Prettau®Zirconia) and lithium disilicate glass ceramic crowns (IPS e.max®press) had overextended margins. PMID:26330973

  15. Titanium Optics for Ion Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.; Haag, Thomas W.; Patterson, Michael J.; Rawlin, Vincent K.

    1999-01-01

    Ion thruster total impulse capability is limited, in part, by accelerator grid sputter erosion. A development effort was initiated to identify a material with a lower accelerator grid volumetric sputter erosion rate than molybdenum, but that could utilize the present NSTAR thruster grid design and fabrication techniques to keep development costs low, and perform as well as molybdenum optics. After comparing the sputter erosion rates of several atomic materials to that of molybdenum at accelerator voltages, titanium was found to offer a 45% reduction in volumetric erosion rates. To ensure that screen grid sputter erosion rates are not higher at discharge chamber potentials, titanium and molybdenum sputter erosion rates were measured at these potentials. Preliminary results showed only a slightly higher volumetric erosion rate for titanium, so that screen grid erosion is insignificant. A number of material, thermal, and mechanical properties were also examined to identify any fabrication, launch environment, and thruster operation issues. Several titanium grid sets were successfully fabricated. A titanium grid set was mounted onto an NSTAR 30 cm engineering model ion thruster and tested to determine optics performance. The titanium optics operated successfully over the entire NSTAR power range of 0.5 to 2.3 kW. Differences in impingement-limited perveances and electron backstreaming limits were found to be due to a larger cold gap for the titanium optics. Discharge losses for titanium grids were lower than those for molybdenum, likely due to a slightly larger titanium screen grid open area fraction. Radial distributions of beam current density with titanium optics were very similar to those with molybdenum optics at all power levels. Temporal electron backstreaming limit measurements showed that titanium optics achieved thermal equilibrium faster than molybdenum optics.

  16. Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Robert S.; O'Malley, Ronald J.; Sussman, Richard C.

    1997-01-01

    A strip caster (10) for producing a continuous strip (24) includes a tundish (12) for containing a melt (14), a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls (22) and devices (29) for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces (44) of the casting rolls with a powder flux material (56). The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin (18) for receiving the melt through a teeming tube (16) thereby establishing a meniscus (20) between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line (28) to a sealing chamber (26). A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550.degree. C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll.

  17. Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll

    DOEpatents

    Williams, R.S.; O`Malley, R.J.; Sussman, R.C.

    1997-07-29

    A strip caster for producing a continuous strip includes a tundish for containing a melt, a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls and devices for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces of the casting rolls with a powder flux material. The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin for receiving the melt through a teeming tube thereby establishing a meniscus between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line to a sealing chamber. A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550 C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll. 3 figs.

  18. Strip casting apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Williams, R.S.; Baker, D.F.

    1988-09-20

    Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip. 6 figs.

  19. Biomimetic Materials by Freeze Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Michael M.; Mckittrick, Joanna; Meyers, Marc A.

    2013-06-01

    Natural materials, such as bone and abalone nacre, exhibit exceptional mechanical properties, a product of their intricate microstructural organization. Freeze casting is a relatively simple, inexpensive, and adaptable materials processing method to form porous ceramic scaffolds with controllable microstructural features. After infiltration of a second polymeric phase, hybrid ceramic-polymer composites can be fabricated that closely resemble the architecture and mechanical performance of natural bone and nacre. Inspired by the narwhal tusk, magnetic fields applied during freeze casting can be used to further control architectural alignment, resulting in freeze-cast materials with enhanced mechanical properties.

  20. Slip-Cast Superconductive Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, Stephanie A.; Buckley, John D.; Vasquez, Peter; Buck, Gregory M.; Hicks, Lana P.; Hooker, Matthew W.; Taylor, Theodore D.

    1993-01-01

    Complex shapes fabricated without machining. Nonaqueous slip-casting technique used to form complexly shaped parts from high-temperature superconductive materials like YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-delta). Such parts useful in motors, vibration dampers, and bearings. In process, organic solvent used as liquid medium. Ceramic molds made by lost-wax process used instead of plaster-of-paris molds, used in aqueous slip-casting but impervious to organic solvents and cannot drain away liquid medium. Organic-solvent-based castings do not stick to ceramic molds as they do to plaster molds.

  1. Strip casting apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Robert S.; Baker, Donald F.

    1988-01-01

    Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip.

  2. Reactive sputtering of titanium diboride and titanium disilicide

    SciTech Connect

    Maya, L.; Vallet, C.E.; Fiedor, J.N.

    1997-07-01

    Nanocomposite films of titanium nitride in either boron nitride or silicon nitride matrices were prepared by reactive sputtering of titanium diboride or titanium disilicide targets in a nitrogen plasma. These films were expected to have high dielectric constants and in the case of the silicon nitride matrix high hardness. The films were characterized by a variety of physicochemical techniques including photoelectron spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, RBS, and transmission electron microscopy. The films derived from titanium diboride incorporated oxygen as an inadvertent impurity in the form of titanium monoxide and dioxide. A silicon oxynitride underlayer is suggested by the RBS analysis of the silicon nitride based film, apparently arising from exposure of the native oxide on silicon to the nitrogen plasma. Capacitance measurements of the films showed moderately high dielectric constants of about 30{endash}60 and a hardness of 11 GPa for the silicon nitride nanocomposite. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Vacuum Society.}

  3. Mould filling of Ag-Pd-Cu-Au and Ag-Zn-Sn-In alloy castings made using a rapidly prepared gypsum-bonded investment material.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Hiroshi; Inoue, Shoko; Miyauchi, Hideaki; Watanabe, Kouichi; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2008-12-01

    Mandibular premolar-shaped wax patterns of full crowns with a marginal angle of 300 were prepared. Two semiprecious alloys were cast using a rapidly prepared gypsum-bonded investment material or a conventional gypsum-bonded investment. A precise impression was taken and cut into four segments. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the mould filling of each segment. The mould filling of the silver-palladium-copper-gold alloy was worse than that of the silver-zinc-tin-indium alloy. The mould filling of both alloys cast with the rapidly prepared gypsum-bonded investment material was superior to that using the conventional investment. PMID:19177729

  4. Effect of nitrocarburizing on shape of titanium alloy parts

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.A.

    1993-09-27

    Components are being developed for plutonium casting in support of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A vendor used a proprietary process to grow a nitrocarburized surface layer on a titanium alloy shot sleeve to be used in a prototype die casting machine. The shot sleeve was significantly out-of-round upon return from the vendor and could not be used. Purpose of this study was to determine whether the shape change could have been caused by this surface treatment. Visual observation of disk and ring samples exposed first to surface treatment alone temperature and then the actual nitrocarburizing environment revealed no gross warping in either case. Dimension measurements of each sample before and after both the thermal treatment and the nitrocarburizing revealed no significant changes. Visual examination of the shot sleeve revealed a surface flaw likely made during handling after machining at SRS and before the part was nitrocarburized. The out-of-roundness of the shot sleeve could be related to the damage observed on the surface, but the possibility of warping during the nitrocarburizing cannot be excluded. Nitrocarburization should remain a candidate method to protect titanium alloys from molten metals.

  5. [The demonstrative and information values of correlational methods in predicting the mesiodistal dimensions of the crowns of the canine teeth and premolars].

    PubMed

    Legović, M; Breidić, I

    1999-01-01

    Authors have analyzed the reliability of correlative methods with plaster-casts of 100 examines (50 boys and 50 girls) with permanent dentition, according to Moyers's and author's own methods, and methods of multiple regression analysis according to Bachmann and Traenkmann and collab., while anticipation of mesiodistal crown diameters of canines and premolar (C, P1, P2) in both jaws. The predictable amounts of crown width C, P1, P2 in the maxilla were larger than the measured on the model, according to the method: Moyers in 81% of cases, Legović in 67% of cases, Bachmann in 35% and Traenkmann and collab. in 73% of cases. The predictable amounts of crown width C, P1, P2 in mandible were larger than the one measured on the model: Moyers in 81% of cases, Legović in 80%, Bachmann in 45% and Traenkmann and collab. in 26% of cases, and smaller compared with the measured model: Moyers in 15% of cases, Legović in 18%, Bachmann in 55% and Traenkmann and collab. in 74% of cases. PMID:10453218

  6. Fracture Strength of Aged Monolithic and Bilayer Zirconia-Based Crowns.

    PubMed

    Lameira, Deborah Pacheco; Buarque e Silva, Wilkens Aurélio; Andrade e Silva, Frederico; De Souza, Grace M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of design and surface finishing on fracture strength of yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) crowns in monolithic (1.5 mm thickness) and bilayer (0.8 mm zirconia coping and 0.7 mm porcelain veneer) configuration after artificial aging. Bovine incisors received crown preparation and Y-TZP crowns were manufactured using CAD/CAM technique, according to the following groups (n = 10): Polished monolithic zirconia crowns (PM); Glazed monolithic zirconia crowns (GM); Bi-layer crowns (BL). Crowns were cemented with resin cement, submitted to artificial aging in a chewing simulator (2.5 million cycles/80 N/artificial saliva/37 °C), and tested for fracture strength. Two remaining crowns referring to PM and GM groups were submitted to a chemical composition analysis to measure the level of yttrium after aging. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (P = .05) indicated that monolithic zirconia crowns presented similar fracture strength (PM = 3476.2 N ± 791.7; GM = 3561.5 N ± 991.6), which was higher than bilayer crowns (2060.4 N ± 810.6). There was no difference in the yttrium content among the three surfaces evaluated in the monolithic crowns. Thus, monolithic zirconia crowns present higher fracture strength than bilayer veneered zirconia after artificial aging and surface finishing does not affect their fracture strength. PMID:26576423

  7. Automated individual tree crown delineation from LIDAR data using morphological techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, L.; Hu, B.; Li, H.; Li, J.; Noland, T.

    2014-03-01

    In current tree crown delineation from LiDAR data, treetops and 3D geometric shapes of tree crowns are frequently extracted from LiDAR-derived Crown Height Model (CHM) and used as references to localize and delineate crowns. However, it is difficult to detect deciduous treetops and delineate deciduous tree crowns. The 3D shape of a crown, which can be derived from CHM, may be taken as a half ellipsoid, and any horizontal slice of the ellipsoid contains the treetop and indicates not only the location but also the spatial extent of the crown. Based on such slices, a novel multi-scale method for individual tree crown delineation from CHM was proposed in this study. This method consists mainly of two steps: (1) morphologically open the CHM over the scale range of target tree crowns; and (2) take local maxima within each resulting opened CHM as the horizontal slices of target crowns at the corresponding scale level and integrate all the slices within the scale range together to represent the spatial distribution of target crowns. In an experiment on CHMs over two natural closed canopy forests in Ontario, Canada, the proposed method accurately delineated the majority of the tree crowns from closed canopy forests.

  8. Comparative fracture strength analysis of Lava and Digident CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Taek-Ka; Pak, Hyun-Soon; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE All-ceramic crowns are subject to fracture during function. To minimize this common clinical complication, zirconium oxide has been used as the framework for all-ceramic crowns. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture strengths of two computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia crown systems: Lava and Digident. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and twenty Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns were fabricated. A metal die was also duplicated from the original prepared tooth for fracture testing. A universal testing machine was used to determine the fracture strength of the crowns. RESULTS The mean fracture strengths were as follows: 54.9 ± 15.6 N for the Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and 87.0 ± 16.0 N for the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns. The difference between the mean fracture strengths of the Lava and Digident crowns was statistically significant (P<.001). Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed a complete fracture of both the veneering porcelain and the core whereas the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed fracture only of the veneering porcelain. CONCLUSION The fracture strengths of CAD/CAM zirconia crowns differ depending on the compatibility of the core material and the veneering porcelain. PMID:23755332

  9. Mechanical properties of thin films of laser-welded titanium and their associated welding defects.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yulu; Xin, Haitao; Zhang, Chunbao; Tang, Zhongbin; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Weifeng

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of thin films of laser-welded cast titanium using an interference strain/displacement gauge (ISDG) and to analyze factors that affect laser welding. Dog-bone-shaped small specimens of cast titanium were prepared by wire cutting after they were laser-welded. The specimens were divided into three groups according to the gap distance of the laser weld; the control was non-welded titanium. Small specimens without cast defects detected by X-ray screening were measured by a tensile test machine using ISDG, and stress-strain curves were drawn. Finally, the fracture texture was analyzed. The ultimate tensile strengths (UTSs) of specimens with a gap distance of 0.00, 0.25, and 0.50 mm were 492.16 ± 33.19, 488.09 ± 43.18, and 558.45 ± 10.80 MPa, respectively. There were no significant differences in UTS between the test groups and the control group (p > 0.05). However, the plastic deformation and the percent elongation increased as the gap distance increased. Incomplete penetration defects appeared in groups that had small gap distances, which may have affected the properties of the laser-welded titanium. However, the welding material was still pure titanium. These results suggest that an appropriate gap distance should be maintained to improve the application of dental laser welding. PMID:23636297

  10. 14 CFR 23.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... structural castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid systems and do not support structural loads. (b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in... of § 23.305 at an ultimate load corresponding to a casting factor of 1.25; and (ii) The...

  11. 14 CFR 23.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... structural castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid systems and do not support structural loads. (b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in... of § 23.305 at an ultimate load corresponding to a casting factor of 1.25; and (ii) The...

  12. 14 CFR 23.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... structural castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid systems and do not support structural loads. (b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in... of § 23.305 at an ultimate load corresponding to a casting factor of 1.25; and (ii) The...

  13. 14 CFR 23.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... structural castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid systems and do not support structural loads. (b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in... of § 23.305 at an ultimate load corresponding to a casting factor of 1.25; and (ii) The...

  14. The effect of ferrule presence and type of dowel on fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with metal-ceramic crowns

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Vivek; Singla, Mamta; Yadav, Suman; Yadav, Harish; Sharma, Vikram; Bhasin, Saranjit Singh

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of the present study was to comparatively evaluate the effect of presence of a 2 mm ferrule and different type of dowels on fracture resistance of mandibular premolars. Materials and Methods: Fifty uniradicular mandibular premolars were divided into five groups (n = 10). Ten teeth received no treatment (group I). Samples in group II & III were decoronated 2 mm above cemento-enamel junction and received custom cast dowel-core and fiber dowel-composite core respectively, with 2 mm ferrule. Samples in group IV & V were decoronated at CEJ and were restored using cast dowels and fiber dowel-composite cores, without any ferrule. The restored teeth received metal ceramic crowns and were mechanically loaded. The specimens were subjected to a static load, until fracture, to determine the fracture resistance and fracture mode. Results: The samples with 2 mm ferrule had a higher fracture resistance than non ferrule groups. Within non ferrule groups, there were no significant differences in the fracture resistance. Specimen restored with cast dowel had more incidence of non-repairable fracture. Conclusions: Presence of ferrule increased the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth. In case of absence of ferrule, fiber dowels had similar fracture resistance as that of cast dowels and showed increased incidence of repairable fracture. PMID:24778519

  15. Titanium minerals for new materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotova, O.; Ozhogina, E.; Ponaryadov, A.; Golubeva, I.

    2016-04-01

    The mineral composition of titanium minerals of modern coastal-marine placer in Stradbroke Island (Australia) and Pizhma paleoplacer in Middle Timan (Russia) has been presented. The physical features of titanium minerals and their modification methods were shown. Photocatalysts on the basis of the Pizhma leucoxene were developed for water purification.

  16. Nonmetric tooth crown traits in a Sri Lankan aboriginal Vedda population.

    PubMed

    Peiris, H R D; Arambawatta, A K S; Hewapathirana, T N; Nanayakkara, C D; Chandrasekara, M; Wickramanayake, E

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the frequencies of non-metric tooth crown traits of Vedda of Sri Lanka and to investigate the affinities of these morphological variations with those of other world populations. Fifty dental plaster casts were observed. The Arizona State University dental anthropology system was adopted for classification of the 16 traits observed. We used 13 traits to compare the Vedda and other world populations. Using the frequencies of 13 traits, Smith Mean Measure of Divergence was calculated to determine inter-population distances. Affinities among the Vedda and other world populations were expressed in two dimensions of the principal coordinate analysis. Cusp number in mandibular second molar and hypocone absence in maxillary second molar had the highest frequency at 95.9% and 93.8%, respectively. Shovelling, double shovelling in the maxillary central incisor and deflecting wrinkle in the mandibular first molar had the lowest frequency at 0%. The principal coordinate analysis showed that Sino American and Western Eurasian populations were separated in negative and positive directions in the first principal coordinate axis. Vedda located with the Western Eurasian population groups. Sahul and Sunda Pacific populations located in the intermediate position between Sino American and Western Eurasian populations. The dental phenotype of Vedda has close affinities with those of early south Asian populations. They are far different from Sino American and Sunda pacific populations. Vedda shows closer affinities to Sahul Pacific and South African (Bantu) populations. PMID:21975363

  17. Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial of Bilayer Ceramic and Metal-Ceramic Crown Performance

    PubMed Central

    Esquivel-Upshaw, Josephine; Rose, William; Oliveira, Erica; Yang, Mark; Clark, Arthur E.; Anusavice, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Analyzing the clinical performance of restorative materials is important, as there is an expectation that these materials and procedures will restore teeth and do no harm. The objective of this research study was to characterize the clinical performance of metal-ceramic crowns, core ceramic crowns, and core ceramic/veneer ceramic crowns based on 11 clinical criteria. Materials and Methods An IRB-approved, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted as a single-blind pilot study. The following three types of full crowns were fabricated: (1) metal-ceramic crown (MC) made from a Pd-Au-Ag-Sn-In alloy (Argedent 62) and a glass-ceramic veneer (IPS d.SIGN veneer); (2) non-veneered (glazed) lithium disilicate glass-ceramic crown (LDC) (IPS e.max Press core and e.max Ceram Glaze); and (3) veneered lithia disilicate glass-ceramic crown (LDC/V) with glass-ceramic veneer (IPS Empress 2 core and IPS Eris). Single-unit crowns were randomly assigned. Patients were recalled for each of 3 years and were evaluated by two calibrated clinicians. Thirty-six crowns were placed in 31 patients. A total of 12 crowns of each of the three crown types were studied. Eleven criteria were evaluated: tissue health, marginal integrity, secondary caries, proximal contact, anatomic contour, occlusion, surface texture, cracks/chips (fractures), color match, tooth sensitivity, and wear (of crowns and opposing enamel). Numerical rankings ranged from 1 to 4, with 4 being excellent, and 1 indicating a need for immediate replacement. Statistical analysis of the numerical rankings was performed using a Fisher’s exact test. Results There was no statistically significant difference between performance of the core ceramic crowns and the two veneered crowns at year 1 and year 2 (p > 0.05). All crowns were rated either as excellent or good for each of the clinical criteria; however, between years 2 and 3, gradual roughening of the occlusal surface occurred in some of the ceramic-ceramic crowns

  18. Investment casting design of experiment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, R.

    1997-10-01

    Specific steps in the investment casting process were analyzed in a designed experiment. The casting`s sensitivity to changes in these process steps was experimentally determined Dimensional and radiographic inspection were used to judge the sensitivity of the casting. Thirty-six castings of different pedigrees were poured and measured. Some of the dimensional inspection was conducted during the processing. It was confirmed that wax fixturing, number of gates, gate location, pour and mold temperature, pour speed, and cooling profile all affected the radiographic quality of the casting. Gate and runner assembly techniques, number of gates, and mold temperature affect the dimensional quality of the casting.

  19. 2006 U.S. oat crown rust race survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crown rust severities and resulting yield losses were much lower in 2006 throughout much of the U.S. compared to 2005. Widespread drought conditions throughout the central plains limited disease development. A total of 102 and 27 isolates were collected from the spring and winter oat growing regions...

  20. Spatiotemporal characterization of Sclerotinia crown rot epidemics in pyrethrum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia crown rot, caused by Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum is a disease of pyrethrum in Australia that may cause substantial decline in plant density. The spatiotemporal characteristics of the disease were quantified in 14 fields spread across three growing seasons. Fitting the binary ...

  1. Suppressors of oat crown rust resistance in interspecific oat crosses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Attempts to transfer disease resistance genes between related species may be hindered by suppression, or lack of expression, of the trait in the interspecific combination. In crosses of diploid oat Avena strigosa (Schreb.) accession CI6954SP with resistance to oat crown rust Puccinia coronata f. sp....

  2. Towards an optimized method of olive tree crown volume measurement.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Fuentes, Antonio; Llorens, Jordi; Gamarra-Diezma, Juan L; Gil-Ribes, Jesús A; Gil, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Accurate crown characterization of large isolated olive trees is vital for adjusting spray doses in three-dimensional crop agriculture. Among the many methodologies available, laser sensors have proved to be the most reliable and accurate. However, their operation is time consuming and requires specialist knowledge and so a simpler crown characterization method is required. To this end, three methods were evaluated and compared with LiDAR measurements to determine their accuracy: Vertical Crown Projected Area method (VCPA), Ellipsoid Volume method (VE) and Tree Silhouette Volume method (VTS). Trials were performed in three different kinds of olive tree plantations: intensive, adapted one-trunked traditional and traditional. In total, 55 trees were characterized. Results show that all three methods are appropriate to estimate the crown volume, reaching high coefficients of determination: R2 = 0.783, 0.843 and 0.824 for VCPA, VE and VTS, respectively. However, discrepancies arise when evaluating tree plantations separately, especially for traditional trees. Here, correlations between LiDAR volume and other parameters showed that the Mean Vector calculated for VCPA method showed the highest correlation for traditional trees, thus its use in traditional plantations is highly recommended. PMID:25658396

  3. Delineation of individual tree crowns for mobile laser scanning data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rosen; Chen, Yiping; Wen, Chenglu; Wang, Cheng; Li, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    The information of individual trees plays an important role in urban surveying and mapping. With the development of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology, 3-Dimenisonal (3D) structure of trees can be generated in point clouds with high spatial resolution and accuracy. Individual tree segmentations are used to derive tree structural attributes such as tree height, crown diameter, stem position etc. In this study, a framework is proposed to take advantage of the detailed structures of tree crowns which are represented in the mobile laser scanning (MLS) data. This framework consists of five steps: (1) Automatically detect and remove ground points using RANSAC; (2) Compress all the above ground points to image grid with 3D knowledge reserved; (3) Simplify and remove unqualified grids; (4) Find tree peaks using a heuristic searching method; (5) Delineate the individual tree crowns by applying a modified watershed method. In an experiment on the point clouds on Xiamen Island, China, individual tree crowns from MLS point cloud data are successfully extracted.

  4. 14. Photograph of sheet 2 (general plan; section @ crown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photograph of sheet 2 (general plan; section @ crown, plan, and elevation) of the Indiana State Highway Commission repair plans of 1969 for the Cicott Street Bridge. Photograph of a 24' by 36' print made from microfilm in the archives of the Indiana Department of Transportation in Indianapolis. - Cicott Street Bridge, Spanning Wabash River at State Road 25, Logansport, Cass County, IN

  5. Identification of new sources of partial resistance to oat crown

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of oat crown rust (Puccinia coronata f.sp. avenae) has traditionally been achieved with the use of cultivars with race-specific seedling genes (Pc genes), but this resistance typically is only effective for 3-5 years once a cultivar becomes widely grown. Over 90 Pc genes have been described ...

  6. Towards an Optimized Method of Olive Tree Crown Volume Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Fuentes, Antonio; Llorens, Jordi; Gamarra-Diezma, Juan L.; Gil-Ribes, Jesús A.; Gil, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Accurate crown characterization of large isolated olive trees is vital for adjusting spray doses in three-dimensional crop agriculture. Among the many methodologies available, laser sensors have proved to be the most reliable and accurate. However, their operation is time consuming and requires specialist knowledge and so a simpler crown characterization method is required. To this end, three methods were evaluated and compared with LiDAR measurements to determine their accuracy: Vertical Crown Projected Area method (VCPA), Ellipsoid Volume method (VE) and Tree Silhouette Volume method (VTS). Trials were performed in three different kinds of olive tree plantations: intensive, adapted one-trunked traditional and traditional. In total, 55 trees were characterized. Results show that all three methods are appropriate to estimate the crown volume, reaching high coefficients of determination: R2 = 0.783, 0.843 and 0.824 for VCPA, VE and VTS, respectively. However, discrepancies arise when evaluating tree plantations separately, especially for traditional trees. Here, correlations between LiDAR volume and other parameters showed that the Mean Vector calculated for VCPA method showed the highest correlation for traditional trees, thus its use in traditional plantations is highly recommended. PMID:25658396

  7. EVALUATION OF WILD JUGLANS SPECIES FOR CROWN GALL RESISTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crown Gall disease of walnut is caused by the ubiquitous soil-borne bacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens which is able to transfer a specific piece of its own DNA into the genome of the plant host cell. The result of this genetic transformation is the autonomous undifferentiated massive growth of i...

  8. Restoration of decayed primary incisors using strip crowns.

    PubMed

    Pollard, M A; Curzon, J A; Fenlon, W L

    1991-05-01

    Caries of the primary incisors is a common problem that can be arrested if recognized early enough. However, the arrested decay is unsightly. Celluloid 'strip' crown forms, used with composite resin, now allow the restoration of even the most badly decayed primary incisors. The authors describe this quick and efficient technique. PMID:1884866

  9. Novel Ordered Crown Ether-Containing Polyimides for Ion Conduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvin, Jennifer A.; Stasko, Daniel; Fallis, Stephen; Guenthner, Andrew J.; Webber, Cynthia; Blackwell, John; Chvalun, Sergei N.

    2003-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of thermally-stable polyimides for use as battery and fuel cell electrolyte membranes. Dianhydrides used were 1,4,5,8- naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride and/or 4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphthalic anhydride. Diamines used were anti-4,4-diaminodibenzo-l8-crown-6, 4,4'- diaminodibenzo-24-crown-8, 2,2-bis(4-aminophenyl)hexafluoropropane, and/or 2,5- diaminobenzenesulfonic acid. The polymers were characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. Polymers containing the hexafluoroisopropylidene (HFIP) group were soluble in common organic solvents, while polymers without the HFIP group were very poorly soluble. Sulfonation yields polymers that are sparingly soluble in aqueous base and/or methanol. Degree of sulfonation, determined by titration, was between one and three sulfonate groups per repeat unit. Proton conductivity was determined as a function of water content, with a maximum conductivity of l x 10(exp -2) per centimeter when fully hydrated. Crown ether-containing polymers exhibit a high degree of order that may be indicative of crown ether channel formation, which may facilitate Li(+) transport for use in battery membranes.

  10. Primate molar crown formation times and life history evolution revisited.

    PubMed

    Macho, G A

    2001-12-01

    Comparative studies have convincingly demonstrated that the pattern and timing of tooth emergence are highly correlated with life-history variables and brain size. Conversely, a firm relationship between molar formation time and life-history variables has not yet been established. It seems counterintuitive that one aspect of dental development should be correlated with life-history variables, whereas the other should not. In order to shed light on this apparent discrepancy this study analyzed all data on primate molar crown formations available in the published literature in relation to life-history variables, brain size, and female body mass. Crown formation times were found to be particularly highly correlated with both female body mass and brain size. Species that depart from the overall brain/body allometry by being relatively large-bodied, e.g., Gorilla gorilla and later Theropithecus oswaldi, also have shorter molar crown formation times than expected. The reverse is not found for species that depart from the overall brain/body allometry due to their larger brains, i.e., Homo sapiens. This finding is interpreted within an evolutionary and ecological framework. Specifically, by focusing on ecological commonalities, a scenario is proposed which may allow predictions to be made about the evolutionary history of other extinct primates also. If confirmed in future studies, crown formation time may again become a powerful tool in evolutionary enquiry. PMID:11748692

  11. Laser pediatric crowns performed without anesthesia: a contemporary technique.

    PubMed

    Jacboson, B; Berger, J; Kravitz, R; Patel, P

    2003-01-01

    Extensive caries resulting in the need for a stainless steel crown in primary teeth may now be prepared with the use of the WaterlaseTM YSGG Laser, (Biolase) hard and soft-tissue laser. The use of the laser eliminates the need for local anesthesia, thereby providing optimal patient comfort and compliance. PMID:14604135

  12. Evolution of the mandibular third premolar crown in early Australopithecus.

    PubMed

    Delezene, Lucas K; Kimbel, William H

    2011-06-01

    The Pliocene hominins Australopithecus anamensis and Australopithecus afarensis likely represent ancestor-descendent taxa--possibly an anagenetic lineage--and capture significant change in the morphology of the canine and mandibular third premolar (P(3)) crowns, dental elements that form the canine honing complex in nonhuman catarrhines. This study focuses on the P(3) crown, highlighting plesiomorphic features in A. anamensis. The A. afarensis P(3) crown, in contrast, is variable in its expression of apomorphic features that are characteristic of geologically younger hominins. Temporal variation characterizes each taxon as well. The A. anamensis P(3) from Allia Bay, Kenya expresses apomorphic character states, shared with A. afarensis, which are not seen in the older sample of A. anamensis P(3)s from Kanapoi, Kenya, while spatiotemporal differences in shape exist within the A. afarensis hypodigm. The accumulation of derived features in A. afarensis results in an increased level of P(3) molarisation. P(3) molarisation did not evolve concurrent with postcanine megadontia and neither did the appearance of derived aspects of P(3) occlusal form coincide with the loss of canine honing in hominins, which is apparent prior to the origin of the genus Australopithecus. A. afarensis P(3) variation reveals the independence of shape, size, and occlusal form. The evolution of the P(3) crown in early Australopithecus bridges the wide morphological gap that exists between geologically younger hominins on the one hand and extant apes and Ardipithecus on the other. PMID:21481921

  13. The nature of urinary casts

    PubMed Central

    McQueen, E. G.

    1962-01-01

    The composition of hyaline casts has been investigated. The major constituent appears to be the urinary mucoprotein described by Tamm and Horsfall. Small amounts only of serum proteins are present. Neither the amounts excreted nor the concentration of Tamm-Horsfall protein appeared to determine the rate of cast formation. The only invariable association of hyaline cast formation was with the presence of significant amounts of serum proteins in the urine. In vitro it was found that aqueous solutions of serum albumin were particularly effective in producing precipitation of Tamm-Horsfall protein. This interaction was inhibited in normal urine but occurred to a greater extent in nephrotic urine and is suggested as the possible mechanism of hyaline cast formation. Images PMID:16810981

  14. Advanced casting: Today and tomorrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mietrach, D.

    The state of aluminum casting technology in terms of processes, component sizes, design and material-scientific data as well as mechanical characteristics was established during visits to foundries in the USA, Canada, France, Italy, Great Britain and the Federal Republic of Germany. Components of the primary structure of Tornado and ALPHA aircraft, (pylon, intake floor) classified according to the degree of difficulty during casting, were used to compare existing designs (riveted sheet metal and machined parts) and cast versions with regard to cost reduction and technical reliability. Visual inspection, dimensional checks, chemical composition analysis, penetrant tests, X-ray tests, metallographic investigations, and tensile tests were carried out. Cost savings of 25% and weight savings of 20% can be achieved by using castings.

  15. Casting Using A Polystyrene Pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Peter; Guenther, Bengamin; Vranas, Thomas; Veneris, Peter; Joyner, Michael

    1993-01-01

    New technique for making metal aircraft models saves significant amount of time and effort in comparison with conventional lost-wax method. Produces inexpensive, effective wind-tunnel models. Metal wind-tunnel model cast by use of polystyrene pattern.

  16. Manufacturing techniques for titanium aluminide based alloys and metal matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, Kunal B.

    Dual phase titanium aluminides composed vastly of gamma phase (TiAl) with moderate amount of alpha2 phase (Ti3Al) have been considered for several high temperature aerospace and automobile applications. High specific strength coupled with good high temperature performance in the areas of creep and oxidation resistance makes titanium aluminides "materials of choice" for next generation propulsion systems. Titanium alumnides are primarily being considered as potential replacements for Ni-based superalloys in gas turbine engine components with aim of developing more efficient and leaner engines exhibiting high thrust-to-weight ratio. Thermo-mechanical treatments have shown to enhance the mechanical performance of titanium aluminides. Additionally, small additions of interstitial elements have shown further and significant improvement in the mechanical performance of titanium alumnide alloys. However, titanium aluminides lack considerably in room temperature ductility and as a result manufacturing processes of these aluminides have greatly suffered. Traditional ingot metallurgy and investment casting based methods to produce titanium aluminide parts in addition to being expensive, have also been unsuccessful in producing titanium aluminides with the desired mechanical properties. Hence, the manufacturing costs associated with these methods have completely outweighed the benefits offered by titanium aluminides. Over the last two decades, several powder metallurgy based manufacturing techniques have been studied to produce titanium aluminide parts. These techniques have been successful in producing titanium aluminide parts with a homogeneous and refined microstructure. These powder metallurgy techniques also hold the potential of significant cost reduction depending on the wide market acceptance of titanium aluminides. In the present study, a powder metallurgy based rapid consolidation technique has been used to produce near-net shape parts of titanium aluminides. Micron

  17. 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing Single Titanium Dental Implants: A Prospective Multicenter Study with 3 Years of Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This prospective 3-year follow-up clinical study evaluated the survival and success rates of 3DP/AM titanium dental implants to support single implant-supported restorations. After 3 years of loading, clinical, radiographic, and prosthetic parameters were assessed; the implant survival and the implant-crown success were evaluated. Eighty-two patients (44 males, 38 females; age range 26–67 years) were enrolled in the present study. A total of 110 3DP/AM titanium dental implants (65 maxilla, 45 mandible) were installed: 75 in healed alveolar ridges and 35 in postextraction sockets. The prosthetic restorations included 110 single crowns (SCs). After 3 years of loading, six implants failed, for an overall implant survival rate of 94.5%; among the 104 surviving implant-supported restorations, 6 showed complications and were therefore considered unsuccessful, for an implant-crown success of 94.3%. The mean distance between the implant shoulder and the first visible bone-implant contact was 0.75 mm (±0.32) and 0.89 (±0.45) after 1 and 3 years of loading, respectively. 3DP/AM titanium dental implants seem to represent a successful clinical option for the rehabilitation of single-tooth gaps in both jaws, at least until 3-year period. Further, long-term clinical studies are needed to confirm the present results. PMID:27313616

  18. 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing Single Titanium Dental Implants: A Prospective Multicenter Study with 3 Years of Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Tunchel, Samy; Blay, Alberto; Kolerman, Roni; Mijiritsky, Eitan; Shibli, Jamil Awad

    2016-01-01

    This prospective 3-year follow-up clinical study evaluated the survival and success rates of 3DP/AM titanium dental implants to support single implant-supported restorations. After 3 years of loading, clinical, radiographic, and prosthetic parameters were assessed; the implant survival and the implant-crown success were evaluated. Eighty-two patients (44 males, 38 females; age range 26-67 years) were enrolled in the present study. A total of 110 3DP/AM titanium dental implants (65 maxilla, 45 mandible) were installed: 75 in healed alveolar ridges and 35 in postextraction sockets. The prosthetic restorations included 110 single crowns (SCs). After 3 years of loading, six implants failed, for an overall implant survival rate of 94.5%; among the 104 surviving implant-supported restorations, 6 showed complications and were therefore considered unsuccessful, for an implant-crown success of 94.3%. The mean distance between the implant shoulder and the first visible bone-implant contact was 0.75 mm (±0.32) and 0.89 (±0.45) after 1 and 3 years of loading, respectively. 3DP/AM titanium dental implants seem to represent a successful clinical option for the rehabilitation of single-tooth gaps in both jaws, at least until 3-year period. Further, long-term clinical studies are needed to confirm the present results. PMID:27313616

  19. Moldless casting by laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, Marc A.; Shannon, G. J.; Steen, William M.

    1997-09-01

    The principle of laser cladding involves the use of high power carbon-dioxide lasers and powder deposition technology to provide wear and corrosion resistant surface coatings to engineering components. By injecting metal powder into a laser generated melt pool on a moving substrate a solidified metal track can be produced. Deposition of successive tracks produces a multi-layer build. Laser direct casting (LDC) utilizes a coaxial nozzle enabling consistent omnidirectional deposition to produce 3D components from a selection of metal powders. The influence of the principal process parameters over the process features namely, powder catchment efficiency, beam shape and build rates are presented with several successfully generated 3D components. Nickel, stainless steel and satellite powders were deposited at laser powders of 0.4 to 1.4 kW and speeds of 500 to 1000 mm/min achieving build rates of 3 to 9 mm3/s. Fully dense metallurgical structures have been produced with no cracking or porosity and powder catchment efficiencies up to 85% have been achieved.

  20. Brief communication: Molar development and crown areas in early Australopithecus.

    PubMed

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Ramirez Rozzi, Fernando V; Wood, Bernard A; Bromage, Timothy G

    2012-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that the hypodigms representing the two earliest Australopithecus (Au. anamensis and Au. afarensis) form an ancestor-descendant lineage. Understanding the details of this possible transition is important comparative evidence for assessing the likelihood of other examples of ancestor-descendant lineages within the hominin clade. To this end we have analyzed crown and cusp base areas of high resolution replicas of the mandibular molars of Au. anamensis (Allia Bay and Kanapoi sites) and those of Au. afarensis (Hadar, Laetoli, and Maka). We found no statistically significant differences in crown areas between these hypodigms although the mean of M(1) crowns was smaller in Au. anamensis, being the smallest of any Australopithecus species sampled to date. Intraspecies comparison of the areas of mesial cusps for each molar type using Wilcoxon signed rank test showed no differences for Au. anamensis. Significant differences were found between the protoconid and metaconid of Au. afarensis M(2)s and M(3)s. Furthermore, the area formed by the posterior cusps as a whole relative to the anterior cusps showed significant differences in Au. afarensis M(1)s and in Au. anamensis M(2)s but no differences were noted for M(3)s of either taxon. Developmental information derived from microstructural details in enamel shows that M(1) crown formation in Au. anamensis is similar to Pan and shorter than in H. sapiens. Taken together, these data suggests that the overall trend in the Au. anamensis-Au. afarensis transition may have involved a moderate increase in M(1) crown areas with relative expansion of distal cusps. PMID:22623291

  1. Process for Producing a Cast Article from a Hypereutectic Aluminum-Silicon Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Chen, Po-Shou (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A process for making a cast article from an aluminum alloy includes first casting an article from an alloy having the following composition, in weight percent: Silicon (Si) 14.0-25.0, Copper (CU) 5.5-8.0, Iron (Fe) 0-0.8, Magnesium (Mg) 0.5-1.5, Nickel (Ni) 0.05-1.2, Manganese (Mn) 0-1.0, Titanium (Ti) 0.05-1.2, Zirconium (Zr) 0.12-1.2, Vanadium (V) 0.05-1.2, Zinc (Zn) 0-0.9, Phosphorus (P) 0.001-0.1, Aluminum, balance. In this alloy the ration of Si:Mg is 15-35, and the ratio of Cu:Mg is 4-15. After an article is cast from the alloy, the cast article is aged at a temperature within the range of 400 F to 500 F for a time period within the range of four to 16 hours. It has been found especially advantageous if the cast article is first exposed to a solutionizing step prior to the aging step. This solutionizing step is carried out by exposing the cast article to a temperature within the range of 875 F to 1025 F for a time period of fifteen minutes to four hours. It has also been found to be especially advantageous if the solutionizing step is followed directly with a quenching step, wherein the cast article is quenched in a quenching medium such as water at a temperature within the range of 120 F to 300 F. The resulting cast article is highly suitable in a number of high temperature applications, such as heavy-duty pistons for internal combustion engines.

  2. Compaction of Titanium Powders

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen J. Gerdemann; Paul D. Jablonski

    2010-11-01

    Accurate modeling of powder densification has been an area of active research for more than 60 years. The earliest efforts were focused on linearization of the data because computers were not readily available to assist with curve-fitting methods. In this work, eight different titanium powders (three different sizes of sponge fines <150 μm, <75 μm, and < 45 μm; two different sizes of a hydride-dehydride [HDH] <75 μm and < 45 μm; an atomized powder; a commercially pure [CP] Ti powder from International Titanium Powder [ITP]; and a Ti 6 4 alloy powder) were cold pressed in a single-acting die instrumented to collect stress and deformation data during compaction. From these data, the density of each compact was calculated and then plotted as a function of pressure. The results show that densification of all the powders, regardless of particle size, shape, or chemistry, can be modeled accurately as the sum of an initial density plus the sum of a rearrangement term and a work-hardening term. These last two terms are found to be a function of applied pressure and take the form of an exponential rise.

  3. Electrorotation of titanium microspheres.

    PubMed

    Arcenegui, Juan J; Ramos, Antonio; García-Sánchez, Pablo; Morgan, Hywel

    2013-04-01

    Electrorotation (ROT) data for solid titanium micrometer-sized spheres in an electrolyte are presented for three different ionic conductivities, over the frequency range of 10 Hz to 100 kHz. The direction of rotation was found to be opposite to the direction of rotation of the electric field vector (counterfield electrorotation), with a single rotation peak. The maximum rotation rate occurs at a frequency of the order of the reciprocal RC time constant for charging the particle double layer capacitance through the resistor of the electrolyte bulk. A model for the electrical torque acting on a metallic sphere is presented, using a constant phase element impedance to describe the metal/electrolyte interface. The titanium spheres are much denser than the electrolyte and rest on the bottom substrate. Therefore, the electrical and viscous torques near a wall are considered in the analysis. Good agreement is found between the predicted and measured rotational speed as a function of frequency. Theory shows that there is no effect of induced charge electroosmotic flow on the ROT, as observed experimentally. PMID:23348799

  4. Biocompatibility of Titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namavar, Fereydoon; Sabirianov, Renat; Marton, Denes; Rubinstein, Alexander; Garvin, Kevin

    2012-02-01

    Titanium is the material of choice for orthopaedic applications because of its known biocompatibility. In order to enhance osteogenic properties of the Ti implants, it is necessary to understand the origin of its biocompatibility. We addresses the origin of Ti biocompatibility through (1) theoretical modeling, (2) the precise determination of Ti surface chemistry by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), (3) and the study of fibronectin adsorption as a function of Ti (near) surface chemistry by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We compare the protein adsorption on Ti with the native oxide layer and the one coated by TiO2 in anatase phase using ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD). We show that the thin native sub-stoichiometric titanium oxide layer is crucial for biocompatibility of Ti surface. This is due to the enhancement of the non-specific adsorption of proteins which mediate cell adhesion. Improving the surface oxide quality, i.e. fabricating stoichiometric TiO2 (using IBAD) as well as nanoengineering the surface topology that matches its dimensions to that of adhesive proteins, is crucial for increased protein adsorption and, as a result, further increases biocompatibility of Ti implant materials.

  5. Titanium in 1980

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkler, Ward W.

    1981-04-01

    Much attention is being focused on the availability and use of non-fuel minerals in the United States. Because of the rapid increase in demand since 1978, titanium has been one of the much-publicized metals in this group. Sponge producers are now expanding sponge manufacturing plants to meet this greater demand, and it now appears that there could be a surplus of sponge in 1981. A delay in airplane purchases caused by severe operating losses of the airlines could have a significant effect on mill product shipments in 1981. However, there is no reason to believe that titanium has reached maturity as a structural aerospace or industrial metal. While it is unreasonable to anticipate that demand will continue to grow at the same rate experienced between 1978 and 1980, new greenfield capacity will nevertheless be required in the early 1980s. Two basic issues must be resolved before such ventures become reality: 1) choice of process; and 2) method for financing, either public or private. Both will be the subject of study and debate in 1981.

  6. MnBr₂/18-crown-6 coordination complexes showing high room temperature luminescence and quantum yield.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, David; Kuzmanoski, Ana; Feldmann, Claus

    2016-04-21

    The reaction of manganese(ii) bromide and the crown ether 18-crown-6 in the ionic liquid [(n-Bu)3MeN][N(Tf)2] under mild conditions (80-130 °C) resulted in the formation of three different coordination compounds: MnBr2(18-crown-6) (), Mn3Br6(18-crown-6)2 () and Mn3Br6(18-crown-6) (). In general, the local coordination and the crystal structure of all compounds are driven by the mismatch between the small radius of the Mn(2+) cation (83 pm) and the ring opening of 18-crown-6 as a chelating ligand (about 300 pm). This improper situation leads to different types of coordination and bonding. MnBr2(18-crown-6) represents a molecular compound with Mn(2+) coordinated by two bromine atoms and only five oxygen atoms of 18-crown-6. Mn3Br6(18-crown-6)2 falls into a [MnBr(18-crown-6)](+) cation - with Mn(2+) coordinated by six oxygen atoms and Br - and a [MnBr(18-crown-6)MnBr4](-) anion. In this anion, Mn(2+) is coordinated by five oxygen atoms of the crown ether as well as by two bromine atoms, one of them bridging to an isolated (MnBr4) tetrahedron. Mn3Br6(18-crown-6), finally, forms an infinite, non-charged [Mn2(18-crown-6)(MnBr6)] chain. Herein, 18-crown-6 is exocyclically coordinated by two Mn(2+) cations. All compounds show intense luminescence in the yellow to red spectral range and exhibit remarkable quantum yields of 70% (Mn3Br6(18-crown-6)) and 98% (Mn3Br6(18-crown-6)2). The excellent quantum yield of Mn3Br6(18-crown-6)2 and its differentiation from MnBr2(18-crown-6) and Mn3Br6(18-crown-6) can be directly correlated to the local coordination. PMID:26956783

  7. Method and apparatus for controlling an earthworking implement to preserve a crown on a road surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staub, Michael D. (Inventor); Alster, Louis G. (Inventor); Lundquist, Steve D. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for controlling an earthworking implement on an earthworking machine to preserve a crown on the surface of a road, including determining the position of the crown on the road surface, choosing a sloped grade on one side of the crown, positioning the earthworking implement on the sloped grade so that a first end of the earthworking implement is on the road surface. The processor determines a desired position of a second end of the earthworking implement so that the second end overlaps the crown and the earthworking implement does not cut the crown.

  8. The effect of silica-containing binders on the titanium/face coat reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Frueh, C.; Poirier, D.R.; Maguire, M.C.

    1996-11-01

    The interactions of CP-Ti and Ti-6Al-4V with investment molds containing alumina/silica and yttria/silica face coat systems were studied. Containerless melting in a vacuum was employed and small test samples were made by drop casting into the molds. The effects of the face coat material and mold preheat temperatures on the thickness of the alpha case on the castings were evaluated with microhardness and microprobe measurements. It was found that the thickness of the alpha case was the same, whether a yttria/silica or alumina/silica face coat was used, indicating that the silica binder reacted with the titanium. Hence, the use of expensive refractories, such as yttria, represents an unnecessary cost when combined with a silica binder. It was also found that the alloyed titanium castings had a thinner alpha case than those produced from CP-Ti, which suggests that the thickness of the alpha case depends on the crystal structure of the alloy during cooling from high temperatures. Furthermore, castings made in small yttria crucibles used as molds exhibited little or no alpha case.

  9. OsCAND1 is required for crown root emergence in rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; He, Fen-Fang; Ma, Xiao-Xia; Mao, Chuan-Zao; Hodgman, Charlie; Lu, Chun-Gui; Wu, Ping

    2011-03-01

    Crown roots are main components of the fibrous root system and important for crops to anchor and absorb water and nutrition. To understand the molecular mechanisms of crown root formation, we isolated a rice mutant defective in crown root emergence designated as Oscand1 (named after the Arabidopsis homologous gene AtCAND1). The defect of visible crown root in the Oscand1 mutant is the result of cessation of the G2/M cell cycle transition in the crown root meristem. Map-based cloning revealed that OsCAND1 is a homolog of Arabidopsis CAND1. During crown root primordium development, the expression of OsCAND1 is confined to the root cap after the establishment of fundamental organization. The transgenic plants harboring DR5::GUS showed that auxin signaling in crown root tip is abnormal in the mutant. Exogenous auxin application can partially rescue the defect of crown root development in Oscand1. Taken together, these data show that OsCAND1 is involved in auxin signaling to maintain the G2/M cell cycle transition in crown root meristem and, consequently, the emergence of crown root. Our findings provide new information about the molecular regulation of the emergence of crown root in rice. PMID:20978084

  10. Molten titanium flow in a mesh cavity by the flow visualization technique.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, K; Okawa, S; Miyakawa, O; Nakano, S; Shiokawa, N; Kobayashi, M

    1991-12-01

    The tracer element molten (TEM) method, which provides titanium flow visualization in a mold cavity, was applied to investigate the flow in a mesh pattern. When a pressure casting machine was used, most of the mesh rods were composed of many solidification layers, which implied that the flow was laminar and almost steady. When a centrifugal casting machine was used, the flow was almost irregular and a stack of solidification layers was observed in only a few segments. These results indicate that the flow was turbulent. In a complicated cavity, such as a mesh pattern, pressure rather than centrifugal force acts as an effective casting force. Therefore, in such a cavity, favorable castability can be achieved with high pressure and laminar flow. PMID:1820837

  11. Titan Casts Revealing Shadow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-05-01

    A rare celestial event was captured by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory as Titan -- Saturn's largest moon and the only moon in the Solar System with a thick atmosphere -- crossed in front of the X-ray bright Crab Nebula. The X-ray shadow cast by Titan allowed astronomers to make the first X-ray measurement of the extent of its atmosphere. On January 5, 2003, Titan transited the Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion that was observed to occur in the year 1054. Although Saturn and Titan pass within a few degrees of the Crab Nebula every 30 years, they rarely pass directly in front of it. "This may have been the first transit of the Crab Nebula by Titan since the birth of the Crab Nebula," said Koji Mori of Pennsylvania State University in University Park, and lead author on an Astrophysical Journal paper describing these results. "The next similar conjunction will take place in the year 2267, so this was truly a once in a lifetime event." Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Chandra's observation revealed that the diameter of the X-ray shadow cast by Titan was larger than the diameter of its solid surface. The difference in diameters gives a measurement of about 550 miles (880 kilometers) for the height of the X-ray absorbing region of Titan's atmosphere. The extent of the upper atmosphere is consistent with, or slightly (10-15%) larger, than that implied by Voyager I observations made at radio, infrared, and ultraviolet wavelengths in 1980. "Saturn was about 5% closer to the Sun in 2003, so increased solar heating of Titan may account for some of this atmospheric expansion," said Hiroshi Tsunemi of Osaka University in Japan, one of the coauthors on the paper. The X-ray brightness and extent of the Crab Nebula made it possible to study the tiny X-ray shadow cast by Titan during its transit. By using Chandra to precisely track Titan's position, astronomers were able to measure a shadow one arcsecond in

  12. Fracture resistance of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing-generated composite resin-based molar crowns.

    PubMed

    Harada, Akio; Nakamura, Keisuke; Kanno, Taro; Inagaki, Ryoichi; Örtengren, Ulf; Niwano, Yoshimi; Sasaki, Keiichi; Egusa, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether different fabrication processes, such as the computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system or the manual build-up technique, affect the fracture resistance of composite resin-based crowns. Lava Ultimate (LU), Estenia C&B (EC&B), and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic IPS e.max press (EMP) were used. Four types of molar crowns were fabricated: CAD/CAM-generated composite resin-based crowns (LU crowns); manually built-up monolayer composite resin-based crowns (EC&B-monolayer crowns); manually built-up layered composite resin-based crowns (EC&B-layered crowns); and EMP crowns. Each type of crown was cemented to dies and the fracture resistance was tested. EC&B-layered crowns showed significantly lower fracture resistance compared with LU and EMP crowns, although there was no significant difference in flexural strength or fracture toughness between LU and EC&B materials. Micro-computed tomography and fractographic analysis showed that decreased strength probably resulted from internal voids in the EC&B-layered crowns introduced by the layering process. There was no significant difference in fracture resistance among LU, EC&B-monolayer, and EMP crowns. Both types of composite resin-based crowns showed fracture loads of >2000 N, which is higher than the molar bite force. Therefore, CAD/CAM-generated crowns, without internal defects, may be applied to molar regions with sufficient fracture resistance. PMID:25683749

  13. Impact of a Core Ferrule Design on Fracture Resistance of Teeth Restored with Cast Post and Core

    PubMed Central

    Chaaban, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the influence of a contra bevel on the fracture resistance of teeth restored with cast post and core. Materials and Methods. Sixty plastic analogues of an upper incisor were endodontically treated and prepared with 6° internal taper and 2 mm of ferrule in order to receive a cast post and core. The prepared samples were divided into two groups (n = 30); the first group serves as control while the second group was prepared with an external 30° bevel on the buccal and lingual walls. All samples crowned were exposed to a compressive load at 130° to their long axis until fractures occurred. Fracture resistance loads were recorded and failure modes were also observed. Mann-Whitney test was carried out to compare the two groups. Results. Mean failure loads for the groups were, respectively, 1038.69 N (SD ±243.52 N) and 1078.89 N (SD ±352.21 N). Statistically, there was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.7675 > 0.05). Conclusion. In the presence of a ferrule and a crown in the anterior teeth, adding a secondary ferrule to the cast post and core will not increase the resistance to fracture. PMID:27419202

  14. Fillability of Thin-Wall Steel Castings

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Voigt; Joseph Bertoletti; Andrew Kaley; Sandi Ricotta; Travis Sunday

    2002-07-30

    The use of steel components is being challenged by lighter nonferrous or cast iron components. The development of techniques for enhancing and ensuring the filability of thin-wall mold cavities is most critical for thinner wall cast steel production. The purpose of this research was to develop thin-wall casting techniques that can be used to reliably produce thin-wall castings from traditional gravity poured sand casting processes. The focus of the research was to enhance the filling behavior to prevent misrunds. Experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of various foundry variables on the filling of thin section steel castings. These variables include casting design, heat transfer, gating design, and metal fluidity. Wall thickness and pouring temperature have the greatest effect on casting fill. As wall thickness increases the volume to surface area of the casting increases, which increases the solidification time, allowing the metal to flow further in thicker sect ions. Pouring time is another significant variable affecting casting fill. Increases or decreases of 20% in the pouring time were found to have a significant effect on the filling of thin-wall production castings. Gating variables, including venting, pouring head height, and mold tilting also significantly affected thin-wall casting fill. Filters offer less turbulent, steadier flow, which is appropriate for thicker castings, but they do not enhance thin-wall casting fill.

  15. Beta titanium alloys and their role in the titanium industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bania, Paul J.

    1994-07-01

    The class of titanium alloys generically referred to as the beta alloys is arguably the most versatile in the titanium family. Since these alloys offer the highest strength-to-weight ratios and deepest hardenability of all titanium alloys, one might expect them to compete favorably for a variety of aerospace applications. To the contrary, however, except for one very successful application (Ti-13V-11Cr-3Al on the SR-71), the beta alloys have remained a very small segment of the industry. As a perspective on this situation, this article reviews some past and present applications of titanium alloys. It also descibes some unique new alloys and applications that promise to reverse historical trends.

  16. Cast adrift: Gortex cast liners allow greater patient activity.

    PubMed

    Dubowitz, Gerald; Miller, Deborah M

    2003-01-01

    Extremity fractures are a common injury, with nearly 1.5 million cases reported in the United States in 1998. Treatment often involves lengthy periods of immobilization. This report outlines the use of a Gortex cast liner by a subject who was able to engage in swimming and scuba diving during the healing process. We report that a Gortex cast liner may be considered for an active patient who is keen to return to limited activities during fracture healing. Apparently because of a lack of knowledge of their existence, physicians currently are underutilizing this method of casting in active patients. The use of Gortex liners elsewhere has been reported to have higher patient and physician satisfaction in both use and performance, with no reported detrimental effects on outcome. PMID:14518627

  17. Instant Casting Movie Theater: The Future Cast System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maejima, Akinobu; Wemler, Shuhei; Machida, Tamotsu; Takebayashi, Masao; Morishima, Shigeo

    We have developed a visual entertainment system called “Future Cast” which enables anyone to easily participate in a pre-recorded or pre-created film as an instant CG movie star. This system provides audiences with the amazing opportunity to join the cast of a movie in real-time. The Future Cast System can automatically perform all the processes required to make this possible, from capturing participants' facial characteristics to rendering them into the movie. Our system can also be applied to any movie created using the same production process. We conducted our first experimental trial demonstration of the Future Cast System at the Mitsui-Toshiba pavilion at the 2005 World Exposition in Aichi Japan.

  18. Microstructural characterization of as-cast Cr-B alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gigolotti, J.C.J.; Chad, V.M. Faria, M.I.S.T.; Coelho, G.C.; Nunes, C.A.; Suzuki, P.A.

    2008-01-15

    Accurate knowledge of several Me-B (Me - Metal) phase diagrams are important to evaluate higher order systems such as Me-Si-B ternaries. This work presents results of microstructural characterization of as-cast Cr-B alloys which are significant to assess the liquid compositions associated to most of the invariant reactions of this system. Alloys of different compositions were prepared by arc melting pure Cr and B pressed powder mixtures under argon atmosphere in a water-cooled copper crucible with non-consumable tungsten electrode and titanium getter. The phases were identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), using back-scattered electron (BSE) image mode and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In general, a good agreement was found between our data and those from the currently accepted Cr-B phase diagram.

  19. Impact Toughness and Heat Treatment for Cast Aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method for transforming a cast component made of modified aluminum alloy by increasing the impact toughness coefficient using minimal heat and energy. The aluminum alloy is modified to contain 0.55%-0.60% magnesium, 0.10%-0.15% titanium or zirconium, less than 0.07% iron, a silicon-tomagnesium product ratio of 4.0, and less than 0.15% total impurities. The shortened heat treatment requires an initial heating at 1,000deg F. for up to I hour followed by a water quench and a second heating at 350deg F. to 390deg F. for up to I hour. An optional short bake paint cycle or powder coating process further increase.

  20. Hydrogen in titanium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wille, G W; Davis, J W

    1981-04-01

    The titanium alloys that offer properties worthy of consideration for fusion reactors are Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-Si (Ti-6242S) and Ti-5Al-6Sn-2Zr-1Mo-Si (Ti-5621S). The Ti-6242S and Ti-5621S are being considered because of their high creep resistance at elevated temperatures of 500/sup 0/C. Also, irradiation tests on these alloys have shown irradiation creep properties comparable to 20% cold worked 316 stainless steel. These alloys would be susceptible to slow strain rate embrittlement if sufficient hydrogen concentrations are obtained. Concentrations greater than 250 to 500 wppm hydrogen and temperatures lower than 100 to 150/sup 0/C are approximate threshold conditions for detrimental effects on tensile properties. Indications are that at the elevated temperature - low hydrogen pressure conditions of the reactors, there would be negligible hydrogen embrittlement.

  1. Modeling tree crown dynamics with 3D partial differential equations.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Robert; Letort, Véronique; Cournède, Paul-Henry

    2014-01-01

    We characterize a tree's spatial foliage distribution by the local leaf area density. Considering this spatially continuous variable allows to describe the spatiotemporal evolution of the tree crown by means of 3D partial differential equations. These offer a framework to rigorously take locally and adaptively acting effects into account, notably the growth toward light. Biomass production through photosynthesis and the allocation to foliage and wood are readily included in this model framework. The system of equations stands out due to its inherent dynamic property of self-organization and spontaneous adaptation, generating complex behavior from even only a few parameters. The density-based approach yields spatially structured tree crowns without relying on detailed geometry. We present the methodological fundamentals of such a modeling approach and discuss further prospects and applications. PMID:25101095

  2. [Application of low noble alloys in telescoped crowns].

    PubMed

    Susulić, T

    1989-01-01

    It is known that low noble alloys (Hera SG, Aurea-Heraus, Stabilor-Degussa, Midgold-Bego etc.) are used woredwide for the preparation of prosthetic constructions. For this reason attempts to produce low noble alloys with the properties equal to those of more expensive high noble alloys, are justified, as they are cheap and available to a great number of patients. The Yugoslav producer of dental materials "Zlatarna Celje" has produced a low noble alloy named Midor S. The comparative investigations of resistance to the mouth, performed at the University School of Dentistry in Ljubljana and in the Laboratory of Metallurgy of "Zlatarna Celje", have shown that this alloy was more resistant to corrosion than 22 karat, high noble alloy. In our Department Mikdor S was experimentally tested on telescoped crowns. The obtained results showed the satisfactory hardness and resistance to attrition between the internal and external crowns within the limits of tolerance which made it suitable for use. PMID:2489991

  3. Fabrication of all-ceramic crowns by a new method.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Takayuki; Kakimoto, Kazutoshi; Takahashi, Kazuya; Komasa, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    A new method of all-ceramic production using alumina coping has been developed. The present study investigates the influence of secondary firing (glass infiltration firing) conditions. Samples of porcelain build-up without secondary firing were also assessed. The suitability of coping that included secondary firing was found to be affected by the rate of temperature increase during the secondary firing. However, cracking developed in the fired porcelain if porcelain was built up onto secondarily-fired coping. In contrast, cracking did not occur with coping that was not secondarily fired. The bending strength after porcelain build-up was 70 MPa or higher, suggesting the possibility of clinical applications as an anterior crown. These findings establish that this is method of producing all-ceramic crowns that allows for low-cost manufacture in a short period of about 1 h. PMID:27041020

  4. Crown Gall Disease and Hairy Root Disease 1

    PubMed Central

    Gelvin, Stanton B.

    1990-01-01

    The neoplastic diseases crown gall and hairy root are incited by the phytopathogenic bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes, respectively. Although the molecular mechanism of T-DNA transfer to the plant most likely is the same for both species, the physiological basis of tumorigenesis is fundamentally different. Crown gall tumors result from the over-production of the phytohormones auxin and cytokinin specified by A. tumefaciens T-DNA genes. Although the T-DNA of some Riplasmids of A. rhizogenes contains auxin biosynthetic genes, these loci are not always necessary for hairy root formation. Recent experiments suggest that hairy root tumors result from the increased sensitivity of transformed cells to endogenous auxin levels. An understanding of hairy root tumorigenesis will likely result in an increased knowledge of plant developmental processes. Images Figure 1 PMID:16667272

  5. Brazing titanium to stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batista, R. I.

    1980-01-01

    Titanium and stainless-steel members are usually joined mechanically for lack of any other effective method. New approach using different brazing alloy and plating steel member with nickel resolves problem. Process must be carried out in inert atmosphere.

  6. Magnesium-lithium casting alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latenko, V. P.; Silchenko, T. V.; Tikhonov, V. A.; Maltsev, V. P.; Korablin, V. P.

    1974-01-01

    The strength properties of magnesium-lithium alloys at room, low, and high temperatures are investigated. It is found that the alloys may have practical application at ambient temperatures up to 100 C, that negative temperatures have a favorable influence on the alloy strength, and that cyclic temperature variations have practically no effect on the strength characteristics. The influence of chemical coatings on corrosion resistance of the MgLi alloys is examined. Several facilities based on pressure casting machines, low-pressure casting machines, and magnetodynamic pumps were designed for producing MgLi alloy castings. Results were obtained for MgLi alloys reinforced with fibers having a volumetric content of 15%.

  7. Electric field gradient and electronic properties of crown thioether compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Filipe Camargo Dalmatti Alves; Nascimento, Rafael Rodrigues Do; Gonçalves, Marcos Brown; Cottenier, Stefaan; Caldas, Marília Junqueira; Petrilli, Helena Maria

    2010-04-01

    We compare published TDPAC experiments on 111Cd in the crown thioether C6H12S3AgCl with ab-initio electronic structure calculations performed within the framework of the Density Functional Theory using the Projector Augmented Wave method. We conclude from this comparison that the Cd atom at the very moment of the TDPAC experiment is positively charged, and we point out to a methodological difference between reproducing experimental electric-field gradients in molecules versus solid metals.

  8. Increasing the thermopower of crown-ether-bridged anthraquinones.

    PubMed

    Ismael, Ali K; Grace, Iain; Lambert, Colin J

    2015-11-01

    We investigate strategies for increasing the thermopower of crown-ether-bridged anthraquinones. The novel design feature of these molecules is the presence of either () crown-ether or () diaza-crown-ether bridges attached to the side of the current-carrying anthraquinone wire. The crown-ether side groups selectively bind alkali-metal cations and when combined with TCNE or TTF dopants, provide a large phase-space for optimising thermoelectric properties. We find that the optimum combination of cations and dopants depends on the temperature range of interest. The thermopowers of both and are negative and at room temperature are optimised by binding with TTF alone, achieving thermpowers of -600 μV K(-1) and -285 μV K(-1) respectively. At much lower temperatures, which are relevant to cascade coolers, we find that for , a combination of TTF and Na(+) yields a maximum thermopower of -710 μV K(-1) at 70 K, whereas a combination of TTF and Li(+) yields a maximum thermopower of -600 μV K(-1) at 90 K. For , we find that TTF doping yields a maximum thermopower of -800 μV K(-1) at 90 K, whereas at 50 K, the largest thermopower (of -600 μV K(-1)) is obtain by a combination TTF and K(+) doping. At room temperature, we obtain power factors of 73 μW m(-1) K(-2) for (in combination with TTF and Na(+)) and 90 μW m(-1) K(-2) for (with TTF). These are higher or comparable with reported power factors of other organic materials. PMID:26426840

  9. Taphonomic aspects of crowned hawk-eagle predation on monkeys.

    PubMed

    Sanders, William J; Trapani, Josh; Mitani, John C

    2003-01-01

    This study provides a taphonomic analysis of prey accumulations of crowned hawk-eagles (Stephanoaetus coronatus) from Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda, collected over 37 months from below nests of two eagle pairs. Crowned hawk-eagles are powerful predators capable of killing animals much larger than themselves, and are significant predators of cercopithecoid monkeys in forest habitats throughout sub-Saharan Africa. At Ngogo, 81% of the individuals in the kill sample are monkeys. Redtail monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius) are particularly well represented in the sample, making up 66% of monkeys identified to species. Despite an impressive killing apparatus, crowned hawk-eagles are fastidious eaters that inflict far less damage to bone than mammalian predators. Examination of skeletal material from the Ngogo kill sample reveals that crania, hindlimb elements, and scapulae survive predation better than do other bones. Crania of adults are typically complete and accompanied by mandibles, while crania of young individuals are usually dissociated from mandibles and lack basicrania and faces. Long bones are often whole or show minimal damage. Thin bones, such as crania and innominates, are marked by numerous nicks, punctures, and "can-opener" perforations. Scapular blades are heavily raked and shattered. Along with the strong preference for cercopithecoids, these distinct patterns of bone survival and damage indicate the feasibility of recognizing specific taphonomic signatures of large raptors in fossil assemblages. Berger and Clarke (1995) hypothesized that crowned hawk-eagles or similar large raptors were principally responsible for the accumulation of the late Pliocene fossil fauna from Taung, South Africa, including the type infant skull of Australopithecus africanus. The results of our study suggest that the faunal composition and type of damage to the hominid skull and other bone from Taung are consistent with the predatory activities of large raptors. More

  10. Secondary Li battery incorporating 12-Crown-4 ether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (Inventor); Distefano, Salvador (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A rechargeable lithium battery which utilizes a polyethylene oxide (PEO) solid polymeric electrolyte complexed with a lithium salt is disclosed. The conductivity is increased an order of magnitude and interfacial charge transfer resistance is substantially decreased by incorporating a minor amount of 12-Crown-4 ether in the PEO-lithium salt solid electrolyte film. Batteries containing the improved electrolyte permit operation at a lower temperature with improved efficiency.

  11. In-cylinder flows of a motored four-stroke engine with flat-crown and slightly concave-crown pistons

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, R.F.; Yang, H.S.; Yeh, C.-N.

    2008-04-15

    The temporal and spatial evolution processes of the in-cylinder flow structures and turbulence intensities in the symmetry and offset planes of a motored four-valve, four-stroke engine during the intake and compression strokes are diagnosed by using a particle image velocimeter. Two pistons of different crown shapes (flat-crown and slightly concave-crown pistons) are studied. The inception, establishment, and evolution of the tumbling vortical flow structures during the intake and compression strokes are clearly depicted. Quantitative strengths of the rotating vortical flow motions are presented by a dimensionless parameter, the tumble ratio, which can represent the mean angular velocity of the vortices in the target plane. The turbulence intensity of the in-cylinder flow is also calculated by using the measured time-varying velocity data. The results show that the flat-crown piston induces higher bulk-averaged tumble ratio and turbulence intensity than the slightly concave-crown piston does because the tumble ratio and turbulence generated by the flat-crown piston in the offset planes during the compression stroke are particularly large. The engine with the flat-crown piston also presents larger torque and power outputs and lower hydrocarbon emission than that with the slightly concave-crown piston. This might be caused by the enhanced combustion in the engine cylinder due to the stronger tumble ratio and turbulence intensity. (author)

  12. Energy Consumption of Die Casting Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jerald Brevick; clark Mount-Campbell; Carroll Mobley

    2004-03-15

    Molten metal processing is inherently energy intensive and roughly 25% of the cost of die-cast products can be traced to some form of energy consumption [1]. The obvious major energy requirements are for melting and holding molten alloy in preparation for casting. The proper selection and maintenance of melting and holding equipment are clearly important factors in minimizing energy consumption in die-casting operations [2]. In addition to energy consumption, furnace selection also influences metal loss due to oxidation, metal quality, and maintenance requirements. Other important factors influencing energy consumption in a die-casting facility include geographic location, alloy(s) cast, starting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting machine, related equipment (robots, trim presses), and downstream processing (machining, plating, assembly, etc.). Each of these factors also may influence the casting quality and productivity of a die-casting enterprise. In a die-casting enterprise, decisions regarding these issues are made frequently and are based on a large number of factors. Therefore, it is not surprising that energy consumption can vary significantly from one die-casting enterprise to the next, and within a single enterprise as function of time.

  13. Microstructural Changes Due to Friction Stir Processing of Investment-Cast Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilchak, A. L.; Juhas, M. C.; Williams, J. C.

    2007-02-01

    Friction stir processing (FSP) was used to modify the coarse fully lamellar microstructure on the surface of investment-cast and hot isostatically pressed (HIP) Ti-6Al-4V plate. The α colony and platelet structure in the base material (BM) was refined such that the effective slip length was reduced from the α colony size of the BM, several hundred microns, to that of fine equiaxed primary α grains that are on the order of 1 μm. This change in the microstructure resulting from FSP is expected to increase fatigue crack initiation resistance making it beneficial for titanium components for aerospace applications. The as-cast coarse lamellar microstructure has superior fatigue crack growth resistance compared to other microstructures that can be obtained by thermomechanical processing. Thus, it is likely that an increase in fatigue life is obtainable by FSP. Given the growing interest in friction stir welding (FSW) and FSP of titanium alloys, we believe some consistent microstructural descriptors will help avoid confusion. Accordingly, we propose terminology to standardize the descriptions of the microstructures created during FSP and FSW of titanium alloys. We also describe the microstructure changes that occur in the stir zone (SZ), transition zone (TZ), and heat-affected zone (HAZ) during FSP of Ti-6Al-4V.

  14. Titanium/gold process characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Fajardo, L.S.

    1991-11-01

    Characterization of the titanium/gold (Ti/Au) deposition process used at the Allied-Signal Inc., Albuquerque Microelectronics Operation (AMO) was performed. Tests were conducted to set up evaporation parameters, correlate titanium and gold thicknesses to sheet resistance, improve thickness uniformity, and reduce frontside contamination of deposit material on product wafers. The Ti/Au process is the final step in the production of integrated circuits (ICs) at the AMO wafer fabrication facility. 3 figs.

  15. Reliability of metalloceramic and zirconia-based ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Silva, N R F A; Bonfante, E A; Zavanelli, R A; Thompson, V P; Ferencz, J L; Coelho, P G

    2010-10-01

    Despite the increasing utilization of all-ceramic crown systems, their mechanical performance relative to that of metal ceramic restorations (MCR) has yet to be determined. This investigation tested the hypothesis that MCR present higher reliability over two Y-TZP all-ceramic crown systems under mouth-motion fatigue conditions. A CAD-based tooth preparation with the average dimensions of a mandibular first molar was used as a master die to fabricate all restorations. One 0.5-mm Pd-Ag and two Y-TZP system cores were veneered with 1.5 mm porcelain. Crowns were cemented onto aged (60 days in water) composite (Z100, 3M/ESPE) reproductions of the die. Mouth-motion fatigue was performed, and use level probability Weibull curves were determined. Failure modes of all systems included chipping or fracture of the porcelain veneer initiating at the indentation site. Fatigue was an acceleration factor for all-ceramic systems, but not for the MCR system. The latter presented significantly higher reliability under mouth-motion cyclic mechanical testing. PMID:20660796

  16. Plant responses to Agrobacterium tumefaciens and crown gall development

    PubMed Central

    Gohlke, Jochen; Deeken, Rosalia

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease on various plant species by introducing its T-DNA into the genome. Therefore, Agrobacterium has been extensively studied both as a pathogen and an important biotechnological tool. The infection process involves the transfer of T-DNA and virulence proteins into the plant cell. At that time the gene expression patterns of host plants differ depending on the Agrobacterium strain, plant species and cell-type used. Later on, integration of the T-DNA into the plant host genome, expression of the encoded oncogenes, and increase in phytohormone levels induce a fundamental reprogramming of the transformed cells. This results in their proliferation and finally formation of plant tumors. The process of reprogramming is accompanied by altered gene expression, morphology and metabolism. In addition to changes in the transcriptome and metabolome, further genome-wide (“omic”) approaches have recently deepened our understanding of the genetic and epigenetic basis of crown gall tumor formation. This review summarizes the current knowledge about plant responses in the course of tumor development. Special emphasis is placed on the connection between epigenetic, transcriptomic, metabolomic, and morphological changes in the developing tumor. These changes not only result in abnormally proliferating host cells with a heterotrophic and transport-dependent metabolism, but also cause differentiation and serve as mechanisms to balance pathogen defense and adapt to abiotic stress conditions, thereby allowing the coexistence of the crown gall and host plant. PMID:24795740

  17. In vitro study of fracture strength of provisional crown materials

    PubMed Central

    Sayin, Gulsum; Kara, Ozlem

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this report was to evaluate the effect of the fabrication method and material type on the fracture strength of provisional crowns. MATERIALS AND METHODS A master model with one crown (maxillary left second premolar) was manufactured from Cr-Co alloy. The master model was scanned, and the data set was transferred to a CAD/CAM unit (Yenamak D50, Yenadent Ltd, Istanbul, Turkey) for the Cercon Base group. For the other groups, temporary crowns were produced by direct fabrication methods (Imident, Temdent, Structur Premium, Takilon, Systemp c&b II, and Acrytemp). The specimens were subjected to water storage at 37℃ for 24 hours, and then they were thermocycled (TC, 5000×, 5-55℃) (n=10). The maximum force at fracture (Fmax) was measured in a universal test machine at 1 mm/min. Data was analyzed by non-parametric statistics (α=.05). RESULTS Fmax values varied between 711.09-1392.1 N. In the PMMA groups, Takilon showed the lowest values (711.09 N), and Cercon Base showed the highest values (959.59 N). In the composite groups, Structur Premium showed the highest values (1392.1 N), and Acrytemp showed the lowest values (910.05 N). The composite groups showed significantly higher values than the PMMA groups (P=.01). CONCLUSION Composite-based materials showed significantly higher fracture strengths than PMMA-based materials. The CAD-CAM technique offers more advantages than the direct technique. PMID:25722834

  18. Study of an NC system of machining crown gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaogang; Wang, Huaqing; Yan, Jian; Gao, Shenyou

    2005-12-01

    Crown gear couplings are usually used in metallurgy and steel rolling equipments, which is manufactured by duplicating processing in common. The method makes the manipulator work hard, and the efficiency is low. The machining precision is limited to the shape of the mold and it is difficult to control the movement of machines table. This work stated an NC system to use hobbing machine. It consists of an industrial control computer, grating sensor, servo- motor and its driver source, servo driver card and other I/O equipments of inputting and outputting. The grating sensor was installed in the axial direction to trace the instantaneous position of gob rest. The radial movement of the machine table was controlled by a servomotor. When the computer captures the axial signal, this system controls the machine table by moving ahead or backwards according to the calculated value of interpolation theory. Thus, two dimensions (axial and radial) associated movement was realized while the crown gear was processed. The feature of the system is that a grating sensor used in the axial direction replaces the servomotor. By making a little change in the mechanism of the machine, NC can be implement and its redesign cost is very low. The design software has an interpolation function for a circular arc and line. The system has been used on a Y1380 gear hobbing machine, and the correlative software of machining crown gear has been designed as well. Satisfactory results have been obtained, showing facility and reliability in practical operation.

  19. Mapping of the oat crown rust resistance gene Pc91.

    PubMed

    McCartney, C A; Stonehouse, R G; Rossnagel, B G; Eckstein, P E; Scoles, G J; Zatorski, T; Beattie, A D; Chong, J

    2011-02-01

    Crown rust is an important disease of oat caused by Puccinia coronata Corda f. sp. avenae Eriks. Crown rust is efficiently and effectively managed through the development of resistant oat varieties. Pc91 is a seedling crown rust resistance gene that is highly effective against the current P. coronata population in North America. The primary objective of this study was to develop DNA markers linked to Pc91 for purposes of marker-assisted selection in oat breeding programs. The Pc91 locus was mapped using a population of F7-derived recombinant inbred lines developed from the cross 'CDC Sol-Fi'/'HiFi' made at the Crop Development Centre, University of Saskatchewan. The population was evaluated for reaction to P. coronata in field nurseries in 2008 and 2009. Pc91 mapped to a linkage group consisting of 44 Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers. DArTs were successfully converted to sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. Five robust SCARs were developed from three non-redundant DArTs that co-segregated with Pc91. SCAR markers were developed for different assay systems, such that SCARs are available for agarose gel electrophoresis, capillary electrophoresis, and Taqman single nucleotide polymorphism detection. The SCAR markers accurately postulated the Pc91 status of 23 North American oat breeding lines. PMID:20862449

  20. Immediate maxillary lateral incisor implants with nonocclusal loading provisional crowns.

    PubMed

    Peñarrocha, Miguel; Lamas, Joana; Peñarrocha, Maria; Garcia, Berta

    2008-01-01

    This clinical report series describes a treatment modality involving immediately placed dental implants in maxillary lateral incisor sites using noncemented immediate provisional crowns retained with calcinable copings (prosthetic complement used in preparing the metal for the definitive prosthesis). Ten implants were placed in eight patients for the replacement of maxillary lateral incisors: two immediate and eight corresponding to cases of agenesis. All were subjected to immediate rehabilitation with provisional acrylic resin crowns in nonocclusal loading. One implant failed 3 weeks after placement due to acute local trauma. The other nine remained functional within the mouth, with normal clinical and radiological characteristics after a minimum of 12-month follow-up. Immediate placement of implant fixed provisional restorations retained by friction in maxillary lateral incisors offers an esthetic solution, eliminates the need for a removable provisional restoration, and avoids implant failures associated with excess cement or screw loosening. Moreover, in the case of extractions, immediate placement and provisionalization of implants in maxillary lateral incisors can effectively optimize the peri-implant esthetic results by maintaining the existing hard and soft tissue architecture of the replaced tooth. As no cement or screws are required, and the provisional crowns are placed in nonocclusal loading, the risk of complications is minimized. PMID:17927733

  1. Reliability of Metalloceramic and Zirconia-based Ceramic Crowns

    PubMed Central

    Silva, N.R.F.A.; Bonfante, E.A.; Zavanelli, R.A.; Thompson, V.P.; Ferencz, J.L.; Coelho, P.G.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the increasing utilization of all-ceramic crown systems, their mechanical performance relative to that of metal ceramic restorations (MCR) has yet to be determined. This investigation tested the hypothesis that MCR present higher reliability over two Y-TZP all-ceramic crown systems under mouth-motion fatigue conditions. A CAD-based tooth preparation with the average dimensions of a mandibular first molar was used as a master die to fabricate all restorations. One 0.5-mm Pd-Ag and two Y-TZP system cores were veneered with 1.5 mm porcelain. Crowns were cemented onto aged (60 days in water) composite (Z100, 3M/ESPE) reproductions of the die. Mouth-motion fatigue was performed, and use level probability Weibull curves were determined. Failure modes of all systems included chipping or fracture of the porcelain veneer initiating at the indentation site. Fatigue was an acceleration factor for all-ceramic systems, but not for the MCR system. The latter presented significantly higher reliability under mouth-motion cyclic mechanical testing. PMID:20660796

  2. Stable Alkali-Metal Complexes of Hybrid Disila-Crown Ethers.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Kirsten; Buchner, Magnus R; Thiele, Günther; von Hänisch, Carsten

    2016-05-01

    The complexation ability of hybrid disilane and ethylene containing crown ether ring systems was analyzed using 1,2-disila[12]crown-4 (1), 1,2-disila[15]crown-5 (2), 1,2-disila[18]crown-6 (3), and 1,2,7,8-tetrasila[12]crown-4 (7). Alkali-metal complexes (Li(+), Na(+), K(+)) were obtained and analyzed via X-ray diffraction. The complex stability of [Li(1,2-disila[12]crown-4)](+) and [Li(1,2,7,8-tetrasila[12]crown-4)](+) was determined, in relation to the lithium complex of [12]crown-4, by density functional theory (DFT) calculations employing the BP86/def2-TZVP level of theory. In solution, the exchange of lithium cations between pure [12]crown-4 and hybrid [12]crown-4 is on even terms, as has been shown from the relative binding affinity of compounds 1 and 7 by means of dynamic proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. PMID:27082743

  3. Simulation of clinical fractures for three different all-ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Oilo, Marit; Kvam, Ketil; Gjerdet, Nils R

    2014-06-01

    Comparison of fracture strength and fracture modes of different all-ceramic crown systems is not straightforward. Established methods for reliable testing of all-ceramic crowns are not currently available. Published in-vitro tests rarely simulate clinical failure modes and are therefore unsuited to distinguish between the materials. The in-vivo trials usually lack assessment of failure modes. Fractographic analyses show that clinical crowns usually fail from cracks initiating in the cervical margins, whereas in-vitro specimens fail from contact damage at the occlusal loading point. The aim of this study was to compare three all-ceramic systems using a clinically relevant test method that is able to simulate clinical failure modes. Ten incisor crowns of three types of all-ceramic systems were exposed to soft loading until fracture. The initiation and propagation of cracks in these crowns were compared with those of a reference group of crowns that failed during clinical use. All crowns fractured in a manner similar to fracture of the clinical reference crowns. The zirconia crowns fractured at statistically significantly higher loads than alumina and glass-ceramic crowns. Fracture initiation was in the core material, cervically in the approximal areas. PMID:24698209

  4. Incisor crown bending strength correlates with diet and incisor curvature in anthropoid primates.

    PubMed

    Deane, Andrew S

    2015-02-01

    Anthropoid incisors are large relative to the postcanine dentition and function in the preprocessing of food items. Previous analyses of anthropoid incisor allometry and shape demonstrate that incisor morphology is correlated with preferred foods and that more frugivorous anthropoids have larger and more curved incisors. Although the relationship between incisal crown curvature and preferred foods has been well documented in extant and fossil anthropoids, the functional significance of curvature variation has yet to be conclusively established. Given that an increase in crown curvature will increase maximum linear crown dimensions, and bending resistance is a function of linear crown dimensions, it is hypothesized that incisor crown curvature functons to increase incisor crown resistance to bending forces. This study uses beam theory to calculate the mesiodistal and labiolingual bending strengths of the maxillary and mandibular incisors of hominoid and platyrrhine taxa with differing diets and variable degrees of incisal curvature. Results indicate that bending strength correlates with incisal curvature and that frugivores have elevated incisor bending resistance relative to folivores. Maxillary central incisor bending strengths further discriminate platyrrhine and hominoid hard- and soft-object frugivores suggesting this crown is subjected to elevated occlusal loading relative to other incisors. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that incisor crown curvature functions to increase incisor crown resistance to bending forces but does not preclude the possibility that incisor bending strength is a composite function of multiple dentognathic variables including, but not limited to, incisor crown curvature. PMID:25156755

  5. Simulation of clinical fractures for three different all-ceramic crowns

    PubMed Central

    Øilo, Marit; Kvam, Ketil; Gjerdet, Nils R

    2014-01-01

    Comparison of fracture strength and fracture modes of different all-ceramic crown systems is not straightforward. Established methods for reliable testing of all-ceramic crowns are not currently available. Published in-vitro tests rarely simulate clinical failure modes and are therefore unsuited to distinguish between the materials. The in-vivo trials usually lack assessment of failure modes. Fractographic analyses show that clinical crowns usually fail from cracks initiating in the cervical margins, whereas in-vitro specimens fail from contact damage at the occlusal loading point. The aim of this study was to compare three all-ceramic systems using a clinically relevant test method that is able to simulate clinical failure modes. Ten incisor crowns of three types of all-ceramic systems were exposed to soft loading until fracture. The initiation and propagation of cracks in these crowns were compared with those of a reference group of crowns that failed during clinical use. All crowns fractured in a manner similar to fracture of the clinical reference crowns. The zirconia crowns fractured at statistically significantly higher loads than alumina and glass-ceramic crowns. Fracture initiation was in the core material, cervically in the approximal areas. PMID:24698209

  6. Synthesis and fluorescence properties of divalent europium-poly(methacrylate containing crown ether structure) complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Higashiyama, N.; Nakamura, H.; Mishima, T.; Shiokawa, J.; Adachi, G. )

    1991-02-01

    This paper reports on divalent europium complexes with poly(methacrylate containing crown ether structure)s, poly(crown ether)s, prepared and their fluorescence properties studied. The polymers used were poly(15-crown-5-methyl methacrylate) (PMA15C5), copoly(15- crown-5-methyl methacrylate-X) (copoly(MA15C5-X)); (X = MMA, EMA, BMA, 2-methoxyethyl methacrylate (MAGI) 3,6,9,12,15- pentaoxahexadecyl methacrylate (MAG5)), poly(18-crown-6- methyl methacrylate) (PMA18C6), and copoly(18-crown-6-methyl methacrylate-MMA) (copoly(MA18C6-MMA)), which were obtained by bulk polymerization. The fluorescence properties of Eu{sup 2+} polymers activated by complexing Eu{sup 2+} ions with crown ether groups were measured in powder form. The Eu{sup 2+}-poly (crown ether)s irradiated by UV light generally gave blue bright emission in the region of 420-465 nm. It was Eu{sup 2+}-copoly(Ma15C5-X); (X = MMA, EMA, and MAG1) that showed the largest emission intensity among the Eu{sup 2+} polymers, and its emission intensity was ca. 20% of that for CaWO{sub 4}:Pb (NBS1026) whose quantum efficiency is about 76%. The intensities of emission for the Eu{sup 2+} polymers containing 15-crown-5 were much larger than that for the ones containing 18-crown-6.

  7. Continuous production of titanium powder

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Oden, Laurence L.; White, Jack C.

    1997-01-01

    Although incremental improvements have been made to the Kroll process since its inception in 1948, the process in use today remains essentially the same batch process developed by Dr. Kroll and perfected by the U.S. Bureau of Mines. In this process, titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) is reduced by magnesium to produce titanium metal. There are two major limitations to the Kroll process: (1) it is a batch process; and (2) the reduction of TiCl4 proceeds so rapidly that the sponge formed is an interlocking dendritic mass with inclusions of magnesium, magnesium salts and titanium subchloride that must undergo several purification steps before the metal is suitable for use. The Albany Research Center (ARC), formerly the U.S. Bureau of Mines, has investigated a new, continuous titanium metal production process in which a titanium powder is produced in a bath of molten salt. In this process, the rate of the reduction reaction was slowed and controlled by diluting the reactants with molten chloride salts. The diluted reactant streams were combined in a continuous stirred tank reactor, operated much like a crystallizer. New titanium metal forms on the already present small Ti particles. When the Ti particles become too large to remain suspended in solution, they fall to the bottom of the reactor and are removed. Initial experiments show promise but problems remain in obtaining the required purity and uniform particle size.

  8. Casting propellant in rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roach, J. E.; Froehling, S. C. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for casting a solid propellant in the casing of a rocket engine having a continuous wall with a single opening which is formed by leaves of a material which melt at a temperature of the propellant and with curved edges concentric to the curvature of the spherical casing. The leaves are inserted into the spherical casing through the opening forming a core having a greater width than the width of the single opening and with curved peripheral edges. The cast propellant forms a solid mass and then heated to melt the leaves and provide a central opening with radial projecting flutes.

  9. Cementite Solidification in Cast Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coronado, J. J.; Sinatora, A.; Albertin, E.

    2014-06-01

    Two hypereutectic cast irons (5.01 pct Cr and 5.19 pct V) were cast and the polished surfaces of test pieces were deep-etched and analyzed via scanning electron microscopy. The results show that graphite lamellae intersect the cementite and a thin austenite film nucleates and grows on the cementite plates. For both compositions, graphite and cementite can coexist as equilibrium phases, with the former always nucleating and growing first. The eutectic carbides grow from the austenite dendrites in a direction perpendicular to the primary plates.

  10. Low cost titanium--myth or reality

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, Paul C.; Hartman, Alan D.; Hansen, Jeffrey S.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium, and titanium cost has prevented its use in non-aerospace applications including the automotive and heavy vehicle industries.

  11. Processing and characterization of in-situ aluminum bronze titanium carbide composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillai, Balathandan S.

    The present study was carried out to develop a process for manufacturing in-situ aluminum bronze titanium carbide (TiC) friction drums using the centrifugal casting method and to characterize the material under optimum performance. The in-situ method of manufacturing is based on the reactive gas injection technique (RGI). The gas used in this study is high purity methane (CH 4). It was found that the methane gas injection time into the molten bath of aluminum bronze alloyed with titanium promotes the formation of titanium carbide (TiC) in the bronze matrix. The maximum amount of TiC incorporated in the matrix was 3.1 wt.%. This lead to 11.5 wt.% incorporation of TiC in the inner diameter of centrifugal castings as carbide particles drifted towards this region due to the centrifugal forces and their relatively low density. The hardness and strength of these composites when compared with the as cast condition was improved by heat treatment. However, the alloy ductility was decreased at the expense of the strength. It was found that the wear resistance properties of the composites were superior to those of pure cast and heat treated aluminum bronze currently in use. Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy indicated that the composite surfaces did not scratch deeply when wearing against a hardened 4340 steel. The wear resistance of the as cast aluminum bronze was inferior to that of heat treated one. Moreover, the heat treated aluminum bronze showed a lack of high abrasion resistance. The frictional coefficient was relatively low for the as cast aluminum bronze as a result of adhesive wear behavior for the load and speed chosen in this present investigation. The corrosion studies showed that these composites do not lead to improved corrosion resistance in marine water environments. Apparently, there is a galvanic corrosion of TiC to bronze. In addition, pitting was observed on the corroded surfaces and increased with the volume fraction of TiC. Model validation was

  12. INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 4" DUCTILE IRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 4" DUCTILE IRON PIPE BEING EXTRACTED FROM CASTING MACHINE - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  13. INTERIOR VIEW OF CASTING MACHINE WITH 4' DUCTILE IRON PIPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF CASTING MACHINE WITH 4' DUCTILE IRON PIPE BEING WEIGHED ON SCALES AT CASTING MACHINE. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  14. INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 4' DUCTILE IRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 4' DUCTILE IRON PIPE BEING CENTRIFUGALLY CAST, AS OPERATOR WATCHES TO ENSURE QUALITY. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  15. INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE COOLING A 20' IRON PIPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE COOLING A 20' IRON PIPE PRIOR TO EXTRACTION FROM CASTING MACHINE. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  16. CIR Casting System for making transtibial sockets.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yeongchi; Casanova, Hector R; Reisinger, Kim D; Smith, William K; Childress, Dudley S

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes a new casting system for transtibial socket fabrication. Like the earlier CIR Sand Casting System, the CIR Casting System is based on the 'dilatancy' principle that is similar to the packaging process for coffee beans by which loose beans become a solid mass when a vacuum is applied. The main difference from the CIR Sand Casting System is that the CIR Casting System uses light-weight, polystyrene beads in place of silica sand as the primary material for casting the negative mold. The formed negative mold can be converted into a positive sand model for modification and socket formation. With the new plaster-less casting system, the prosthetist can fabricate a transtibial prosthesis in about one hour. It reduces the set-up cost, overall weight and size of the casting system, and increases portability for service in remote areas. The System also creates minimal waste and is energy-conserving and environmentally-friendly. PMID:19235060

  17. Properties of electroslag castings: Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.

    1984-11-01

    This part of several reports to be published on the properties of electroslag castings of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo, 9 Cr-1 Mo, and type 316 stainless steel describes the properties of three electroslag-cast valve bodies of type 316 stainless steel. These castings were electroslag cast at the University of British Columbia in Canada from ORNL-supplied electrodes. The castings have been characterized for surface finish, cracking, solidification structure, chemical analysis, hardness, ferrite distribution, tensile properties, Charpy impact properties, and creep properties. Tensile data on these castings were compared with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code minimum values for sand castings. The creep data were compared with the data on sand castings and the ASME code minimum curve for wrought material. 29 figures, 7 tables.

  18. Omega phase formation in titanium and titanium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, G.T. III; Morris, C.E.; Lawson, A.C.

    1992-05-01

    Although the response of titanium alloys to dynamic loading is receiving increased attention in the literature (particularly in the area of shear-band formation), a more limited experimental database exists concerning the detailed structure/property relationships of titanium alloys subjected to shock loading. In this study, preliminary results concerning the influence of alloy chemistry on the property of omega-phase formation and its structure in three titanium alloys are presented. The influence of shock-wave deformation on the phase stability and substructure evolution of high-purity (low-interstitial) titanium, A-70 (3700 ppm oxygen) titanium, and Ti-6Al-4V were probed utilizing real-time velocity interferometry (VISAR) and ``soft`` shock-recovery techniques. VISAR wave profiles of shock-loaded high-purity titanium revealed the omega-phase pressure-induced transition to occur at approximately 10.4 GPa. Wave profile measurements on A-70 Ti shocked to pressures up to 35 GPa and Ti-6Al-4V shocked to pressures up to 25 GPa exhibited no evidence of a three-wave structure indicative of a pressure-induced phase transition. Neutron and X-ray diffractometry and TEM analysis confirmed the presence of retained {omega}-phase in the electrolytic-Ti and the absence of {omega}-phase in the shock-recovered A-70 Ti and Ti-6Al-4V. Suppression of the {alpha}-{omega} phase transition in A-70 Ti, containing a high interstitial oxygen content, is seen to simultaneously correlate with suppression of deformation twinning. Neutron diffraction was used to measure the in-situ bulk lattice constants and volume fraction of the {alpha} and {omega} phases in the recovered high-purity titanium samples that were shock loaded. The influence of alloy content on the kinetics of formation/retention of {omega}-phase and substructure evolution is discussed and contrasted in light of previous literature studies.

  19. Cast Haas-type RME appliance: A case report.

    PubMed

    Cozzani, Mauro; Fontana, Mattia; Cozzani, Paolo; Bertelli, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in the initial stages of occlusal development has become a routine procedure in orthodontic practice. The increase of the transverse dimensions of the maxilla in the mixed dentition can be carried out by a rapid palatal expander that exploits primary teeth as anchorage to minimize any negative effects on permanent teeth. This case report demonstrates the use of a modified Haas-type RME appliance in a Caucasian girl 7 years 6 months of age with a maxillary transverse deficiency, unilateral crossbite, dental midline deviation, and maxillary anterior dental crowding. The patient was treated with a modified Haas-type RME appliance composed of a six-band metal-cast structure with a partial occlusal covering that was bonded to the primary teeth using glass-ionomer cement. Clinicians see advantages in terms of speed of application and patient compliance by taking a single impression. Stability and retention of the appliance improve thanks to custom-made metal casting and the risks of decementation minimize via the use of glass-ionomer cement. Moreover, the fabrication in inert titanium, hypoallergenic resin, and laser soldering means patients with allergies can use it. The results demonstrate that the expansion carried out on primary teeth is followed by permanent molars and remains stable. PMID:22022696

  20. Effect of ferrite on cast stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Nadezhdin, A.; Cooper, K. ); Timbers, G. . Kraft Pulp Division)

    1994-09-01

    Premature failure of stainless steel castings in bleach washing service is attributed to poor casting quality high porosity and to a high ferrite content, which makes the castings susceptible to corrosion by hot acid chloride solutions. A survey of the chemical compositions and ferrite contents of corrosion-resistant castings in bleach plants at three pulp mills found high [delta]-ferrite levels in the austenitic matrix due to the improper balance between austenite and ferrite stabilizers.

  1. 14 CFR 27.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... approved specifications. Paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section apply to structural castings except... structural loads. (b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in paragraphs (c) and (d... at an ultimate load corresponding to a casting factor of 1.25; and (ii) The deformation...

  2. 14 CFR 27.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... approved specifications. Paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section apply to structural castings except... structural loads. (b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in paragraphs (c) and (d... at an ultimate load corresponding to a casting factor of 1.25; and (ii) The deformation...

  3. 14 CFR 29.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... approved specifications. Paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section apply to structural castings except... structural loads. (b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in paragraphs (c) and (d... at an ultimate load corresponding to a casting factor of 1.25; and (ii) The deformation...

  4. 14 CFR 29.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... approved specifications. Paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section apply to structural castings except... structural loads. (b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in paragraphs (c) and (d... at an ultimate load corresponding to a casting factor of 1.25; and (ii) The deformation...

  5. 14 CFR 27.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... approved specifications. Paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section apply to structural castings except... structural loads. (b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in paragraphs (c) and (d... at an ultimate load corresponding to a casting factor of 1.25; and (ii) The deformation...

  6. 14 CFR 29.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... approved specifications. Paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section apply to structural castings except... structural loads. (b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in paragraphs (c) and (d... at an ultimate load corresponding to a casting factor of 1.25; and (ii) The deformation...

  7. 14 CFR 29.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... approved specifications. Paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section apply to structural castings except... structural loads. (b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in paragraphs (c) and (d... at an ultimate load corresponding to a casting factor of 1.25; and (ii) The deformation...

  8. 14 CFR 27.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... approved specifications. Paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section apply to structural castings except... structural loads. (b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in paragraphs (c) and (d... at an ultimate load corresponding to a casting factor of 1.25; and (ii) The deformation...

  9. Chimerical categories: caste, race, and genetics.

    PubMed

    Sabir, Sharjeel

    2003-12-01

    Is discrimination based on caste equivalent to racism? This paper explores the complex relationship between genetic, race and caste. It also discusses the debate over the exclusion of a discussion of caste-based discrimination at the 2001 World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance held in Durban, South Africa. PMID:14768649

  10. Pressure distribution in centrifugal dental casting.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, J P

    1978-02-01

    Equations are developed for liquid metal pressure in centrifugal dental casting, given the instantaneous rotational velocity, density, and certain dimensions of the casting machine and casting pattern. A "reference parabola" is introduced making the fluid pressure concept more understandable. A specially designed specimen demonstrates experimentally the reference parabola at freezing. PMID:355283

  11. Prediction of Microporosity in Shrouded Impeller Castings

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, S. Nelson, C.D.

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Morris Bean and Company was to link computer models of heat and fluid flow with previously developed quality criteria for the prediction of microporosity in a Al-4.5% Cu alloy shrouded impeller casting. The results may be used to analyze the casting process design for the commercial production of 206 o alloy shrouded impeller castings. Test impeller castings were poured in the laboratory for the purpose of obtaining thermal data and porosity distributions. Also, a simulation of the test impeller casting was conducted and the results validated with porosity measurements on the test castings. A comparison of the predicted and measured microporosity distributions indicated an excellent correlation between experiments and prediction. The results of the experimental and modeling studies undertaken in this project indicate that the quality criteria developed for the prediction of microporosity in Al-4.5% Cu alloy castings can accurately predict regions of elevated microporosity even in complex castings such as the shrouded impeller casting. Accordingly, it should be possible to use quality criteria for porosity prediction in conjunction with computer models of heat and fluid flow to optimize the casting process for the production of shrouded impeller castings. Since high levels of microporosity may be expected to result in poor fatigue properties, casting designs that are optimized for low levels of microporosity should exhibit superior fatigue life.

  12. Casting Freedom, 1860-1862

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Thomas Crawford, an American Sculptor, created the full-size figure of Freedom in clay. Molds were made, from which a full-size positive plaster model was cast in five main sections. This model is on view today in the basement rotunda of the Russell Senate Office Building. Clark Mills was a self-taught American sculptor with experience in casting…

  13. Tape casting of magnesium oxide.

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, Alicia; Corral, Erica L.; Loehman, Ronald E.; Bencoe, Denise Nora; Reiterer, Markus; Shah, Raja A.

    2008-02-01

    A tape casting procedure for fabricating ceramic magnesium oxide tapes has been developed as a method to produce flat sheets of sintered MgO that are thin and porous. Thickness of single layer tapes is in the range of 200-400 {micro}m with corresponding surface roughness values in the range of 10-20 {micro}m as measured by laser profilometry. Development of the tape casting technique required optimization of pretreatment for the starting magnesium oxide (MgO) powder as well as a detailed study of the casting slurry preparation and subsequent heat treatments for sintering and final tape flattening. Milling time of the ceramic powder, plasticizer, and binder mixture was identified as a primary factor affecting surface morphology of the tapes. In general, longer milling times resulted in green tapes with a noticeably smoother surface. This work demonstrates that meticulous control of the entire tape casting operation is necessary to obtain high-quality MgO tapes.

  14. Graphite Formation in Cast Iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    In the first phase of the project it was proven that by changing the ratio between the thermal gradient and the growth rate for commercial cast iron samples solidifying in a Bridgman type furnace, it is possible to produce all types of graphite structures, from flake to spheroidal, and all types of matrices, from ferritic to white at a certain given level of cerium. KC-135 flight experiments have shown that in a low-gravity environment, no flotation occurs even in spheroidal graphite cast irons with carbon equivalent as high as 5%, while extensive graphite flotation occurred in both flake and spheroidal graphite cast irons, in high carbon samples solidified in a high gravity environment. This opens the way for production of iron-carbon composite materials, with high carbon content (e.g., 10%) in a low gravity environment. By using KC-135 flights, the influence of some basic elements on the solidification of cast iron will be studied. The mechanism of flake to spheroidal graphite transition will be studied, by using quenching experiments at both low and one gravity for different G/R ratios.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF IRON CASTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling of ductile iron casting in green sand molds with phenolic isocyanate cores and in phenol-formaldehyde bound shell molds did not provide definitive proof that environmentally hazardous organic emission occur. Both molding systems produced the same type of major emissions,...

  16. Advanced Lost Foam Casting Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Charles E. Bates; Harry E. Littleton; Don Askeland; Taras Molibog; Jason Hopper; Ben Vatankhah

    2000-11-30

    This report describes the research done under the six tasks to improve the process and make it more functional in an industrial environment. Task 1: Pattern Pyrolysis Products and Pattern Properties Task 2: Coating Quality Control Task 3: Fill and Solidification Code Task 4: Alternate Pattern Materials Task 5: Casting Distortion Task 6: Technology Transfer

  17. Forest Crown Cover Estimation in Northern Boreal and Temperate European Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirro, Laura; Hame, Tuomas; Ahola, Heikki; Lonnqvist, Anne

    2012-04-01

    A method for forest crown cover estimation using high resolution optical earth observation data was developed and tested at four study sites in Europe. Crown cover was estimated using the probability estimation method of VTT and Image2006 data. The accuracy of the crown cover predictions was assessed using reference data that were collected by visual interpretation of very high resolution aerial and space borne imagery. The average crown cover values in the reference data varied from 17 % to 86 % and in the predictions from 18 % to 80 %. The absolute root mean square error of the crown cover predictions varied between 14 % and 33 %. The results of the study showed that it is possible to map forest crown cover with twenty to thirty meter spatial resolution optical earth observation data using the single pixel values. However, understanding the variable results at different sites requires further investigation.

  18. Fracture Resistance of Non-Metallic Molar Crowns Manufactured with CEREC 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madani, Dalia A.

    Objectives. To compare fracture strength and fatigue resistance of ceramic (ProCAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent) (C) and resin composite (Paradigm MZ100, 3M/ ESPE) (R) crowns made with CEREC-3D. Methods. A prepared ivorine molar tooth was duplicated to produce 40 identical prepared specimens made of epoxy resin (Viade). Twenty (C) crowns and 20 (R) were cemented to their dies using resin cement. Ten of each group were subjected to compressive loading to fracture. The remaining 10 of each group were subjected to mechanical cyclic loading for 500,000 cycles. The survivors were subjected to compressive loading to fracture. Results. No significant difference in mean fracture load was found between the two materials. However, only 30% of the (C) crowns vs. 100% of the (R) crowns survived the cyclic loading test. Conclusions. (R) crowns demonstrated higher fatigue Resistance than (C) crowns in-vitro and might better resist cracking in-vivo.

  19. Cell response of anodized nanotubes on titanium and titanium alloys.

    PubMed

    Minagar, Sepideh; Wang, James; Berndt, Christopher C; Ivanova, Elena P; Wen, Cuie

    2013-09-01

    Titanium and titanium alloy implants that have been demonstrated to be more biocompatible than other metallic implant materials, such as Co-Cr alloys and stainless steels, must also be accepted by bone cells, bonding with and growing on them to prevent loosening. Highly ordered nanoporous arrays of titanium dioxide that form on titanium surface by anodic oxidation are receiving increasing research interest due to their effectiveness in promoting osseointegration. The response of bone cells to implant materials depends on the topography, physicochemistry, mechanics, and electronics of the implant surface and this influences cell behavior, such as adhesion, proliferation, shape, migration, survival, and differentiation; for example the existing anions on the surface of a titanium implant make it negative and this affects the interaction with negative fibronectin (FN). Although optimal nanosize of reproducible titania nanotubes has not been reported due to different protocols used in studies, cell response was more sensitive to titania nanotubes with nanometer diameter and interspace. By annealing, amorphous TiO2 nanotubes change to a crystalline form and become more hydrophilic, resulting in an encouraging effect on cell behavior. The crystalline size and thickness of the bone-like apatite that forms on the titania nanotubes after implantation are also affected by the diameter and shape. This review describes how changes in nanotube morphologies, such as the tube diameter, the thickness of the nanotube layer, and the crystalline structure, influence the response of cells. PMID:23436766

  20. Diabetic Neuropathy: What is a Total Contact Cast?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Web version Diabetic Neuropathy | What is a Total Contact Cast? What is a total contact cast? A total contact cast is a cast used to treat ulcers ( ... foot--that's why it is called a total contact cast. The cast helps to protect the skin ...

  1. Titanium nanostructures for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, M; Mazare, A; Gongadze, E; Perutkova, Š; Kralj-Iglič, V; Milošev, I; Schmuki, P; A Iglič; Mozetič, M

    2015-02-13

    Titanium and titanium alloys exhibit a unique combination of strength and biocompatibility, which enables their use in medical applications and accounts for their extensive use as implant materials in the last 50 years. Currently, a large amount of research is being carried out in order to determine the optimal surface topography for use in bioapplications, and thus the emphasis is on nanotechnology for biomedical applications. It was recently shown that titanium implants with rough surface topography and free energy increase osteoblast adhesion, maturation and subsequent bone formation. Furthermore, the adhesion of different cell lines to the surface of titanium implants is influenced by the surface characteristics of titanium; namely topography, charge distribution and chemistry. The present review article focuses on the specific nanotopography of titanium, i.e. titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes, using a simple electrochemical anodisation method of the metallic substrate and other processes such as the hydrothermal or sol-gel template. One key advantage of using TiO2 nanotubes in cell interactions is based on the fact that TiO2 nanotube morphology is correlated with cell adhesion, spreading, growth and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, which were shown to be maximally induced on smaller diameter nanotubes (15 nm), but hindered on larger diameter (100 nm) tubes, leading to cell death and apoptosis. Research has supported the significance of nanotopography (TiO2 nanotube diameter) in cell adhesion and cell growth, and suggests that the mechanics of focal adhesion formation are similar among different cell types. As such, the present review will focus on perhaps the most spectacular and surprising one-dimensional structures and their unique biomedical applications for increased osseointegration, protein interaction and antibacterial properties. PMID:25611515

  2. Titanium nanostructures for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, M.; Mazare, A.; Gongadze, E.; Perutkova, Š.; Kralj-Iglič, V.; Milošev, I.; Schmuki, P.; Iglič, A.; Mozetič, M.

    2015-02-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys exhibit a unique combination of strength and biocompatibility, which enables their use in medical applications and accounts for their extensive use as implant materials in the last 50 years. Currently, a large amount of research is being carried out in order to determine the optimal surface topography for use in bioapplications, and thus the emphasis is on nanotechnology for biomedical applications. It was recently shown that titanium implants with rough surface topography and free energy increase osteoblast adhesion, maturation and subsequent bone formation. Furthermore, the adhesion of different cell lines to the surface of titanium implants is influenced by the surface characteristics of titanium; namely topography, charge distribution and chemistry. The present review article focuses on the specific nanotopography of titanium, i.e. titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes, using a simple electrochemical anodisation method of the metallic substrate and other processes such as the hydrothermal or sol-gel template. One key advantage of using TiO2 nanotubes in cell interactions is based on the fact that TiO2 nanotube morphology is correlated with cell adhesion, spreading, growth and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, which were shown to be maximally induced on smaller diameter nanotubes (15 nm), but hindered on larger diameter (100 nm) tubes, leading to cell death and apoptosis. Research has supported the significance of nanotopography (TiO2 nanotube diameter) in cell adhesion and cell growth, and suggests that the mechanics of focal adhesion formation are similar among different cell types. As such, the present review will focus on perhaps the most spectacular and surprising one-dimensional structures and their unique biomedical applications for increased osseointegration, protein interaction and antibacterial properties.

  3. Screw-retained crown restorations of single implants: A step-by-step clinical guide

    PubMed Central

    Assaf, Mohammad; Gharbyeh, Alaa’ Z. Abu

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the clinical steps for preparing a screw-retained crown for the restoration of a single implant. Impression-taking using open-tray technique and delivery of the crown is presented in a step-by-step manner elucidated by detailed photographs. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of screw-retained crowns are discussed in comparison with the cemented restorations. PMID:25512742

  4. Fracture Strength of Aged Monolithic and Bilayer Zirconia-Based Crowns

    PubMed Central

    Lameira, Deborah Pacheco; Silva, Wilkens Aurélio Buarque e; Silva, Frederico Andrade e; De Souza, Grace M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of design and surface finishing on fracture strength of yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) crowns in monolithic (1.5 mm thickness) and bilayer (0.8 mm zirconia coping and 0.7 mm porcelain veneer) configuration after artificial aging. Bovine incisors received crown preparation and Y-TZP crowns were manufactured using CAD/CAM technique, according to the following groups (n = 10): Polished monolithic zirconia crowns (PM); Glazed monolithic zirconia crowns (GM); Bi-layer crowns (BL). Crowns were cemented with resin cement, submitted to artificial aging in a chewing simulator (2.5 million cycles/80 N/artificial saliva/37°C), and tested for fracture strength. Two remaining crowns referring to PM and GM groups were submitted to a chemical composition analysis to measure the level of yttrium after aging. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (P = .05) indicated that monolithic zirconia crowns presented similar fracture strength (PM = 3476.2 N ± 791.7; GM = 3561.5 N ± 991.6), which was higher than bilayer crowns (2060.4 N ± 810.6). There was no difference in the yttrium content among the three surfaces evaluated in the monolithic crowns. Thus, monolithic zirconia crowns present higher fracture strength than bilayer veneered zirconia after artificial aging and surface finishing does not affect their fracture strength. PMID:26576423

  5. Vertical ionisation potentials of a number of crown ethers from charge transfer bands of their EDA complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Sumanta; Sharma, Anubha; Nayak, Sandip K.; Mukherjee, Asok K.

    2002-11-01

    Vertical ionisation potentials ( IDv) of a number of crown ethers, viz. dibenzo-30-crown-10 (Crown 1), benzo-15-crown-5 (Crown 2), dibenzo-24-crown-8 (Crown 3), dicyclohexano-24-crown-8 (Crown 4) and 4'-nitrobenzo-15-crown-5 (Crown 5) are being reported for the first time from a study of EDA interaction of these crown ethers with a number of electron acceptors like C 60, C 70, o-chloranil, p-chloranil, 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanobenzoquinone (DDQ) and pyromellitic diimide (PMD). The study has been carried out in CCl 4 medium by electronic absorption spectroscopy. Charge transfer (CT) absorption bands in the 360-900 nm range have been found in each case (excepting the 60 fullerene-Crown 4 system). The vertical ionisation potentials ( IDv) of all the crown ethers thus determined show a good correlation with those calculated by the semiempirical AM1 method. Of the six acceptors under study the vertical electron affinity of PMD was not found in the literature. This has also been determined from an analysis of the present hνCT data.

  6. Plasma quench production of titanium from titanium tetrachloride

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, J.W.

    1994-10-01

    This project, Plasma Quench Production of Titanium from Titanium Tetrachloride, centers on developing a technique for rapidly quenching the high temperature metal species and preventing back reactions with the halide. The quenching technique chosen uses the temperature drop produced in a converging/diverging supersonic nozzle. The rapid quench provided by this nozzle prevents the back reaction of the halide and metal. The nature of the process produces nanosized particles (10 to 100 nm). The powders are collected by cyclone separators, the hydrogen flared, and the acid scrubbed. Aluminum and titanium powders have been produced in the laboratory-scale device at 1 gram per hour. Efforts to date to scale up this process have not been successful.

  7. Radium separation through complexation by aqueous crown ethers and ion exchange or solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R.; Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Burnett, W.C.

    1997-11-01

    The effect of three water-soluble, unsubstituted crown ethers (15-crown-5 (15C5), 18-crown-6 (18C6) and 21-crown-7 (21C7)) on the uptake of Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra cations by a sulfonic acid cation exchange resin, and on the extraction of the same cations by xylene solutions of dinonylnaphthalenesulfonic acid (HDNNS) from aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions has been investigated. The crown ethers enhance the sorption of the larger cations by the ion exchange resin, thereby improving the resin selectivity over calcium, a result of a synergistic interaction between the crown ether and the ionic functional groups of the resin. Similarly, the extraction of the larger alkaline earth cations into xylene by HDNNS is strongly synergized by the presence of the crown ethers in the aqueous phase. Promising results for intra-Group IIa cation separations have been obtained using each of the three crown ethers as the aqueous ligands and the sulfonic acid cation exchange resin. Even greater separation factors for the radium-calcium couple have been measured with the crown-ethers and HDNNS solutions in the solvent extraction mode. The application of the uptake and extraction results to the development of radium separation schemes is discussed and a possible flowchart for the determination of {sup 226}Ra/{sup 228}Ra in natural waters is presented.

  8. A tree canopy height delineation method based on Morphological Reconstruction—Open Crown Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q.; Jing, L.; Li, Y.; Tang, Y.; Li, H.; Lin, Q.

    2016-04-01

    For the purpose of forest management, high resolution LIDAR and optical remote sensing imageries are used for treetop detection, tree crown delineation, and classification. The purpose of this study is to develop a self-adjusted dominant scales calculation method and a new crown horizontal cutting method of tree canopy height model (CHM) to detect and delineate tree crowns from LIDAR, under the hypothesis that a treetop is radiometric or altitudinal maximum and tree crowns consist of multi-scale branches. The major concept of the method is to develop an automatic selecting strategy of feature scale on CHM, and a multi-scale morphological reconstruction–open crown decomposition (MRCD) to get morphological multi-scale features of CHM by: cutting CHM from treetop to the ground; analysing and refining the dominant multiple scales with differential horizontal profiles to get treetops; segmenting LiDAR CHM using watershed a segmentation approach marked with MRCD treetops. This method has solved the problems of false detection of CHM side-surface extracted by the traditional morphological opening canopy segment (MOCS) method. The novel MRCD delineates more accurate and quantitative multi-scale features of CHM, and enables more accurate detection and segmentation of treetops and crown. Besides, the MRCD method can also be extended to high optical remote sensing tree crown extraction. In an experiment on aerial LiDAR CHM of a forest of multi-scale tree crowns, the proposed method yielded high-quality tree crown maps.

  9. Solvent extraction of lanthanoid picrates with crown ethers: preferential sandwich complexation and unique cation selectivities

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, K.; Okada, S.; Inoue, Y.; Tai, A.; Hakushi, T.

    1988-11-15

    Quantitative solvent extractions of aqueous lanthanoid picrates with 15-crown-5 and 18-crown-6 were conducted at low ionic strength in the absence of background salts. An overwhelming preference for the sandwich complexation and unique cation selectivities were observed. The peak extraction constants were found for samarium with 15-crown-5 (1:2 stoichiometry) and for cerium and praseodymium with 18-crown-6 (1:1 and 1:2 stoichiometries, respectively). The facile sandwich complexation and unique cation selectivities are interpreted in terms of the heavy hydration of lanthanoid ions of high charge density.

  10. Extracting oil palm crown from WorldView-2 satellite image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korom, A.; Phua, M.-H.; Hirata, Y.; Matsuura, T.

    2014-02-01

    Oil palm (OP) is the most commercial crop in Malaysia. Estimating the crowns is important for biomass estimation from high resolution satellite (HRS) image. This study examined extraction of individual OP crown from a WorldView-2 image using twofold algorithms, i.e., masking of Non-OP pixels and detection of individual OP crown based on the watershed segmentation of greyscale images. The study site was located in Beluran district, central Sabah, where matured OPs with the age ranging from 15 to 25 years old have been planted. We examined two compound vegetation indices of (NDVI+1)*DVI and NDII for masking non-OP crown areas. Using kappa statistics, an optimal threshold value was set with the highest accuracy at 90.6% for differentiating OP crown areas from Non-OP areas. After the watershed segmentation of OP crown areas with additional post-procedures, about 77% of individual OP crowns were successfully detected in comparison to the manual based delineation. Shape and location of each crown segment was then assessed based on a modified version of the goodness measures of Möller et al which was 0.3, indicating an acceptable CSGM (combined segmentation goodness measures) agreements between the automated and manually delineated crowns (perfect case is '1').

  11. Extracting Oil Palm Crown from WorldView-2 Satellite Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korom, A.; Phua, M.-H.; Hirata, Y.; Matsuura, T.

    2014-02-01

    Oil palm (OP) is the most commercial crop in Malaysia. Estimating the crowns is important for biomass estimation from high resolution satellite (HRS) image. This study examined extraction of individual OP crown from a WorldView-2 image using twofold algorithms, i.e., masking of Non-OP pixels and detection of individual OP crown based on the watershed segmentation of greyscale images. The study site was located in Beluran district, central Sabah, where matured OPs with the age ranging from 15 to 25 years old have been planted. We examined two compound vegetation indices of (NDVI+1)*DVI and NDII for masking non-OP crown areas. Using kappa statistics, an optimal threshold value was set with the highest accuracy at 90.6% for differentiating OP crown areas from Non-OP areas. After the watershed segmentation of OP crown areas with additional post-procedures, about 77% of individual OP crowns were successfully detected in comparison to the manual based delineation. Shape and location of each crown segment was then assessed based on a modified version of the goodness measures of [14] which was 0.3, indicating an acceptable CSGM (combined segmentation goodness measures) agreements between the automated and manually delineated crowns (perfect case is '1').

  12. Mechanical evaluation of a soft cast material.

    PubMed

    Zmurko, M G; Belkoff, S M; Herzenberg, J E

    1997-08-01

    In this study, the structural and material properties of a new semi-rigid material, Scotchcast SoftCast (SCS), were compared to the properties of two rigid materials, plaster of paris (POP) and Scotchcast Plus (SCP). Cylinders and flat beams made from 4, 6, 8, and 10 layers of each casting material were tested in three-point bending and diametrical compression. Initial stiffness and yield force values of SCS casts were significantly lower than for casts of SCP and POP made of the same number of layers. Casts made from SCS may be indicated for non-rigid applications, but not where rigid immobilization is required. PMID:9263288

  13. Titanium pigmentation. An electron probe microanalysis study

    SciTech Connect

    Dupre, A.; Touron, P.; Daste, J.; Lassere, J.; Bonafe, J.L.; Viraben, R.

    1985-05-01

    A patient had an unusual pigmentary disease induced by titanium dioxide. The use of a topical cream containing titanium dioxide caused a xanthomalike appearance on the patient's penis. Electron probe microanalysis was valuable in establishing the cause of this balanitis.

  14. Method for Surface Texturing Titanium Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention teaches a method of producing a textured surface upon an arbitrarily configured titanium or titanium alloy object for the purpose of improving bonding between the object and other materials such as polymer matrix composites and/or human bone for the direct in-growth of orthopaedic implants. The titanium or titanium alloy object is placed in an electrolytic cell having an ultrasonically agitated solution of sodium chloride therein whereby a pattern of uniform "pock mark" like pores or cavities are produced upon the object's surface. The process is very cost effective compared to other methods of producing rough surfaces on titanium and titanium alloy components. The surface textures produced by the present invention are etched directly into the parent metal at discrete sites separated by areas unaffected by the etching process. Bonding materials to such surface textures on titanium or titanium alloy can thus support a shear load even if adhesion of the bonding material is poor.

  15. Implant overdenture using Konus telescope on one-piece implant: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, Chikahiro; Kobayashi, Mariko; Okamoto, Naoko; Hosoi, Toshio; Kurtz, Kenneth S; Murata, Toshiyuki

    2009-12-01

    An implant-retained Konus (tapered double crown) telescopic complete overdenture was fabricated for a mandibular edentulous patient. The Konus telescopic overdenture coping crowns and framework assembly were cast with commercially pure (CP) titanium, joined using laser welding and placed on four one-piece implants. Sufficient retention and stability were obtained using this method. PMID:20158062

  16. Prediction of Part Distortion in Die Casting

    SciTech Connect

    R. Allen Miller

    2005-03-30

    The die casting process is one of the net shape manufacturing techniques and is widely used to produce high production castings with tight tolerances for many industries. An understanding of the stress distribution and the deformation pattern of parts produced by die casting will result in less deviation from the part design specification, a better die design and eventually more productivity and cost savings. This report presents methods that can be used to simulate the die casting process in order to predict the deformation and stresses in the produced part and assesses the degree to which distortion modeling is practical for die casting at the current time. A coupled thermal-mechanical finite elements model was used to simulate the die casting process. The simulation models the effect of thermal and mechanical interaction between the casting and the die. It also includes the temperature dependant material properties of the casting. Based on a designed experiment, a sensitivity analysis was conducted on the model to investigate the effect of key factors. These factors include the casting material model, material properties and thermal interaction between casting and dies. To verify the casting distortion predictions, it was compared against the measured dimensions of produced parts. The comparison included dimensions along and across the parting plane and the flatness of one surface.

  17. Process development of thin strip steel casting

    SciTech Connect

    Sussman, R.C.; Williams, R.S.

    1990-12-01

    An important new frontier is being opened in steel processing with the emergence of thin strip casting. Casting steel directly to thin strip has enormous benefits in energy savings by potentially eliminating the need for hot reduction in a hot strip mill. This has been the driving force for numerous current research efforts into the direct strip casting of steel. The US Department of Energy initiated a program to evaluate the development of thin strip casting in the steel industry. In earlier phases of this program, planar flow casting on an experimental caster was studied by a team of engineers from Westinghouse Electric corporation and Armco Inc. A subsequent research program was designed as a fundamental and developmental study of both planar and melt overflow casting processes. This study was arranged as several separate and distinct tasks which were often completed by different teams of researchers. An early task was to design and build a water model to study fluid flow through different designs of planar flow casting nozzles. Another important task was mathematically modeling of melt overflow casting process. A mathematical solidification model for the formation of the strip in the melt overflow process was written. A study of the material and conditioning of casting substrates was made on the small wheel caster using the melt overflow casting process. This report discusses work on the development of thin steel casting.

  18. Lightweight Protective Coatings For Titanium Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedemann, Karl E.; Taylor, Patrick J.; Clark, Ronald K.

    1992-01-01

    Lightweight coating developed to protect titanium and titanium aluminide alloys and titanium-matrix composite materials from attack by environment when used at high temperatures. Applied by sol-gel methods, and thickness less than 5 micrometers. Reaction-barrier and self-healing diffusion-barrier layers combine to protect titanium alloy against chemical attack by oxygen and nitrogen at high temperatures with very promising results. Can be extended to protection of other environmentally sensitive materials.

  19. Process for reproducibly preparing titanium subhydride

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.S.

    1982-01-05

    Titanium subhydride is produced in a reactor by heating a selected amount of finely divided titanium compound at a selected temperature for a selected period of time under dynamic vacuum conditions. Hydrogen is removed substantially uniformly from each powder grain and there is produced a subhydride of substantially uniform titanium-hydrogen composition. Selection of the amount, temperature and time produces a subhydride of selected titanium hydrogen composition.

  20. Process for reproducibly preparing titanium subhydride

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Richard S.

    1982-01-01

    Titanium subhydride is produced in a reactor by heating a selected amount of finely divided titanium compound at a selected temperature for a selected period of time under dynamic vacuum conditions. Hydrogen is removed substantially uniformly from each powder grain and there is produced a subhydride of substantially uniform titanium-hydrogen composition. Selection of the amount, temperature and time produces a subhydride of selected titanium-hydrogen composition.

  1. Emulsion based cast booster - a priming system

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.N.; Mishra, A.K.

    2005-07-01

    This paper explores the potential of emulsion based cast booster to be used as primer to initiate bulk delivered emulsion explosives used in mines. An attempt has been made for comparative study between conventional cast booster and emulsion based cast booster in terms of the initiation process developed and their capability to develop and maintain the stable detonation process in the column explosives. The study has been conducted using a continuous velocity of detonation (VOD) measuring instrument. During this study three blasts have been monitored. In each blast two holes have been selected for study, the first hole being initiated with conventional cast booster while the other one with emulsion based cast booster. The findings of the study advocates that emulsion based cast booster is capable of efficient priming of bulk delivered column explosive with stable detonation process in the column. Further, the booster had advantages over the conventional PETN/TNT based cast booster. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab., 1 photo.

  2. Fracture Strength of Endodontically Treated Teeth Restored with Casting Post and Core and Glass-Fiber with Composite Core

    PubMed Central

    Saatian, Sedigheh

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Prefabricated metal and ceramic posts can be used with different kinds of core materials as an alternative to the conventional casting post and cores. It is unclear how these post and core systems can withstand different kind of forces in the mouth. The purpose of this study was to compare the fracture strength of endodontically treated, crowned maxillary incisors restored with casting post and cores and glass- fiber post with composite core and to evaluate their mode of fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty caries free, human maxillary central incisors with incisoapical length of 23 ± 1 mm were divided into two groups. After root canal treatment procedures and decronation of teeth 2mm above cementoenamel junction, Grope 1 was restored with glass- fiber posts and composite cores and group 2 received casting post and cores. Teeth were prepared with a circumferential shoulder including a 1-2 mm ferrule and 0.5 mm bevel; all posts were cemented with an adhesive resin and teeth were restored with complete coverage crowns. Loads were applied at an angle of 135 degrees using a universal testing machine. Compression force was applied until the specimens fractured. RESULTS: The median fracture strengths of groups 1 and 2 were 459 and 686 respectively (p<0.5). In group I, all fractures occurred in incisal third of roots. In groups II, 40% of fractures were in apical third and middle of roots. CONCLUSION: Within the limitation of this study, the results suggested that glass fiber with composite cores can be used as an alternative to cast posts and cores in anterior teeth when creating 2mm ferrule effect was possible in normal occlusion. Clinical trial is required to verify these in vitro results. PMID:24470803

  3. On the radiation stability of crown ethers in ionic liquids.

    SciTech Connect

    Shkrob, I.; Marin, T.; Dietz, M.

    2011-04-14

    Crown ethers (CEs) are macrocyclic ionophores used for the separation of strontium-90 from acidic nuclear waste streams. Room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are presently being considered as replacements for traditional molecular solvents employed in such separations. It is desirable that the extraction efficacy obtained with such solvents should not deteriorate in the strong radiation fields generated by decaying radionuclides. This deterioration will depend on the extent of radiation damage to both the IL solvent and the CE solute. While radiation damage to ILs has been extensively studied, the issue of the radiation stability of crown ethers, particularly in an IL matrix, has not been adequately addressed. With this in mind, we have employed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to study the formation of CE-related radicals in the radiolysis of selected CEs in ILs incorporating aromatic (imidazolium and pyridinium) cations. The crown ethers have been found to yield primarily hydrogen loss radicals, H atoms, and the formyl radical. In the low-dose regime, the relative yield of these radicals increases linearly with the mole fraction of the solute, suggesting negligible transfer of the excitation energy from the solvent to the solute; that is, the solvent has a 'radioprotective' effect. The damage to the CE in the loading region of practical interest is relatively low. Under such conditions, the main chemical pathway leading to decreased extraction performance is protonation of the macrocycle. At high radiation doses, sufficient to increase the acidity of the IL solvent significantly, such proton complexes compete with the solvent cations as electron traps. In this regime, the CEs will rapidly degrade as the result of H abstraction from the CE ring by the released H atoms. Thus, the radiation dose to which a CE/IL system is exposed must be maintained at a level sufficiently low to avoid this regime.

  4. Basal ganglia—thalamus and the “crowning enigma”

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Munoz, Marianela; Arbuthnott, Gordon W.

    2015-01-01

    When Hubel (1982) referred to layer 1 of primary visual cortex as “… a ‘crowning mystery’ to keep area-17 physiologists busy for years to come …” he could have been talking about any cortical area. In the 80’s and 90’s there were no methods to examine this neuropile on the surface of the cortex: a tangled web of axons and dendrites from a variety of different places with unknown specificities and doubtful connections to the cortical output neurons some hundreds of microns below. Recently, three changes have made the crowning enigma less of an impossible mission: the clear presence of neurons in layer 1 (L1), the active conduction of voltage along apical dendrites and optogenetic methods that might allow us to look at one source of input at a time. For all of those reasons alone, it seems it is time to take seriously the function of L1. The functional properties of this layer will need to wait for more experiments but already L1 cells are GAD67 positive, i.e., inhibitory! They could reverse the sign of the thalamic glutamate (GLU) input for the entire cortex. It is at least possible that in the near future normal activity of individual sources of L1 could be detected using genetic tools. We are at the outset of important times in the exploration of thalamic functions and perhaps the solution to the crowning enigma is within sight. Our review looks forward to that solution from the solid basis of the anatomy of the basal ganglia output to motor thalamus. We will focus on L1, its afferents, intrinsic neurons and its influence on responses of pyramidal neurons in layers 2/3 and 5. Since L1 is present in the whole cortex we will provide a general overview considering evidence mainly from the somatosensory (S1) cortex before focusing on motor cortex. PMID:26582979

  5. Unicuspid and bicuspid tooth crown formation in squamates.

    PubMed

    Handrigan, Gregory R; Richman, Joy M

    2011-12-15

    The molecular and developmental factors that regulate tooth morphogenesis in nonmammalian species, such as snakes and lizards, have received relatively little attention compared to mammals. Here we describe the development of unicuspid and bicuspid teeth in squamate species. The simple, cone-shaped tooth crown of the bearded dragon and ball python is established at cap stage and fixed in shape by the differentiation of cells and the secretion of dental matrices. Enamel production, as demonstrated by amelogenin expression, occurs relatively earlier in squamate teeth than in mouse molars. We suggest that the early differentiation in squamate unicuspid teeth at cap stage correlates with a more rudimentary tooth crown shape. The leopard gecko can form a bicuspid tooth crown despite the early onset of differentiation. Cusp formation in the gecko does not occur by the folding of the inner enamel epithelium, as in the mouse molar, but by the differential secretion of enamel. Ameloblasts forming the enamel epithelial bulge, a central swelling of cells in the inner enamel epithelium, secrete amelogenin at cap stage, but cease to do so by bell stage. Meanwhile, other ameloblasts in the inner enamel epithelium continue to secrete enamel, forming cusp tips on either side of the bulge. Bulge cells specifically express the gene Bmp2, which we suggest serves as a pro-differentiation signal for cells of the gecko enamel organ. In this regard, the enamel epithelial bulge of the gecko may be more functionally analogous to the secondary enamel knot of mammals than the primary enamel knot. PMID:21932327

  6. Fabrication of Porous Copper with Directional Pores by Continuous Casting Technique Through Thermal Decomposition of Hydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ide, Takuya; Tsunemi, Akihiro; Nakajima, Hideo

    2014-08-01

    Lotus-type porous copper with aligned long cylindrical pores was fabricated by continuous casting technique through thermal decomposition method (TDM) in an argon atmosphere of 0.1 MPa. A pellet of titanium hydride was supplied into molten copper with adjusting the time interval to maintain the constant concentration of hydrogen to be dissolved in the melt, when the transfer velocity of the unidirectional solidification is changed. Long lotus-type porous copper slabs were fabricated with constant solidification velocity. The effect of the transfer velocity on the porosity and pore size was investigated. The average pore diameter was independent of the transfer velocity, but the porosity is slightly dependent on the velocity. It is apparent that the continuous casting technique can be applicable for production of lotus metals through TDM.

  7. Grain-oriented segmentation of images of porous structures using ray casting and curvature energy minimization.

    PubMed

    Lee, H-G; Choi, M-K; Lee, S-C

    2015-02-01

    We segment an image of a porous structure by successively identifying individual grains, using a process that requires no manual initialization. Adaptive thresholding is used to extract an incomplete edge map from the image. Then, seed points are created on a rectangular grid. Rays are cast from each point to identify the local grain. The grain with the best shape is selected by energy minimization, and the grain is used to update the edge map. This is repeated until all the grains have been recognized. Tests on scanning electron microscope images of titanium oxide and aluminium oxide show that their process achieves better results than five other contour detection techniques. PMID:25430498

  8. Mechanical properties of titanium connectors.

    PubMed

    Neo, T K; Chai, J; Gilbert, J L; Wozniak, W T; Engelman, M J

    1996-01-01

    The tensile mechanical properties of welded titanium joints were studied, and intact titanium was used as controls. Welded joints were fabricated with either a stereographic laser-welding technique or a gas tungsten arc welding technique. The effect of heat treatment following a simulated porcelain application was also investigated. Heat-treated laser welds had significantly lower ultimate tensile strengths. Heat treatment had no effect on the modulus of elasticity or elongation, but generally significantly decreased the yield strength of the titanium specimens. The gas tungsten are welding specimens had significantly higher yield strengths and elastic moduli than the other two groups. The elongation of the control specimens was significantly greater than the elongation of the gas tungsten arc welding specimens, which was in turn significantly higher than that of the laser-welded specimens. PMID:8957877

  9. Photonuclear reactions on titanium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Belyshev, S. S.; Dzhilavyan, L. Z.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Kapitonov, I. M.; Kuznetsov, A. A. Orlin, V. N.; Stopani, K. A.

    2015-03-15

    The photodisintegration of titanium isotopes in the giant-dipole-resonance energy region is studied by the photon-activation method. Bremsstrahlung photons whose spectrum has the endpoint energy of 55 MeV is used. The yields and integrated cross sections are determined for photoproton reactions on the titanium isotopes {sup 47,48,49,50}Ti. The respective experimental results are compared with their counterparts calculated on the basis of the TALYS code and a combined photonucleon-reaction model. The TALYS code disregards the isospin structure of the giant dipole resonance and is therefore unable to describe the yield of photoproton reactions on the heavy titanium isotopes {sup 49,50}Ti.

  10. Adaptive mesh refinement in titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Colella, Phillip; Wen, Tong

    2005-01-21

    In this paper, we evaluate Titanium's usability as a high-level parallel programming language through a case study, where we implement a subset of Chombo's functionality in Titanium. Chombo is a software package applying the Adaptive Mesh Refinement methodology to numerical Partial Differential Equations at the production level. In Chombo, the library approach is used to parallel programming (C++ and Fortran, with MPI), whereas Titanium is a Java dialect designed for high-performance scientific computing. The performance of our implementation is studied and compared with that of Chombo in solving Poisson's equation based on two grid configurations from a real application. Also provided are the counts of lines of code from both sides.

  11. 21 CFR 73.2575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.2575 Section 73.2575 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2575 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive titanium dioxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  12. 21 CFR 73.3126 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.3126 Section 73.3126 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3126 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive titanium dioxide (CAS Reg. No. 13463-67-7), Color Index No. 77891,...

  13. 40 CFR 180.1195 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Titanium dioxide. 180.1195 Section 180.1195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS... Titanium dioxide. Titanium dioxide (CAS Reg. No. 13463-67-7) is exempted from the requirement of...

  14. 21 CFR 73.3126 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.3126 Section 73.3126 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3126 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive titanium dioxide (CAS Reg. No. 13463-67-7), Color Index No. 77891,...

  15. 21 CFR 73.3126 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.3126 Section 73.3126 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3126 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive titanium dioxide (CAS Reg. No. 13463-67-7), Color Index No. 77891,...

  16. 21 CFR 73.2575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.2575 Section 73.2575 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2575 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive titanium dioxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  17. 21 CFR 73.3126 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.3126 Section 73.3126 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3126 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive titanium dioxide (CAS Reg. No. 13463-67-7), Color Index No. 77891,...

  18. 21 CFR 73.2575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.2575 Section 73.2575 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2575 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive titanium dioxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  19. 21 CFR 73.1575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.1575 Section 73.1575 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1575 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additive titanium dioxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  20. 21 CFR 73.1575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.1575 Section 73.1575 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1575 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additive titanium dioxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  1. 21 CFR 73.1575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.1575 Section 73.1575 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1575 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additive titanium dioxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  2. 21 CFR 73.1575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.1575 Section 73.1575 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1575 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additive titanium dioxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1195 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Titanium dioxide. 180.1195 Section 180.1195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS... Titanium dioxide. Titanium dioxide (CAS Reg. No. 13463-67-7) is exempted from the requirement of...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1195 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Titanium dioxide. 180.1195 Section 180.1195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS... Titanium dioxide. Titanium dioxide is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance for residues in or...

  5. 21 CFR 73.2575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.2575 Section 73.2575 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2575 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive titanium dioxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1195 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Titanium dioxide. 180.1195 Section 180.1195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS... Titanium dioxide. Titanium dioxide is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance for residues in or...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1195 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Titanium dioxide. 180.1195 Section 180.1195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS... Titanium dioxide. Titanium dioxide is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance for residues in or...

  8. 21 CFR 73.3126 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.3126 Section 73.3126 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3126 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive titanium dioxide (CAS Reg. No. 13463-67-7), Color Index No. 77891,...

  9. 21 CFR 73.1575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.1575 Section 73.1575 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1575 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additive titanium dioxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  10. 21 CFR 73.2575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.2575 Section 73.2575 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2575 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive titanium dioxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  11. Provisional Crown Dislodgement during Scuba Diving: A Case of Barotrauma

    PubMed Central

    Gulve, Meenal Nitin; Gulve, Nitin Dilip

    2013-01-01

    Changes in ambient pressure, for example, during flying, diving, or hyperbaric oxygen therapy, can lead to barotrauma. Although it may seem that this issue was neglected in dental education and research in recent decades, familiarity with and understanding of these facts may be of importance for dental practitioners. We report the case of a patient who experienced barotrauma involving dislodgement of a provisional crown during scuba diving. Patients who are exposed to pressure changes as a part of their jobs or hobbies and their dentists should know the causes of barotrauma. In addition, the clinician must be aware of the possible influence of pressure changes on the retention of dental components. PMID:23984113

  12. Crown ether derivative assisted growth of oriented polyaniline nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Haibing; Cheng, Daming; Lam, Peisuan; Chan, Hardy Sze On

    2006-08-01

    We report a chemical route to synthesize oriented arrays of conducting polyaniline (PANI) nanotubes (60-150 nm in diameter and a few micrometres in length) by hydrogen-bonding directionality in the presence of a crown ether derivative (CE-SO3K) and ammonium persulfate (APS) in HCl solution. The morphology of the oriented PANI nanotubes was confirmed by SEM and TEM images. The effects of reaction conditions on the morphology of the resultant PANI nanostructures were studied. The chemical and electronic structures of the PANI nanotubes were also studied by FTIR and UV-vis spectrometry, respectively.

  13. Extraction of actinides and nitric acid by crown ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Rozen, A.M.; Nikolotova, Z.I.; Kartasheva, N.A.; Luk'yanenko, N.G.; Bogatskii, A.V.

    1982-10-01

    This work studied the extraction of thorium nitrate, and an extraction isotherm of uranyl nitrate was obtained; the distribution of HNO/sub 3/ was studied over a wide range of acidity (up to 18M), which uses different concepts on the mechanism of the process. The extraction of Pu(VI) and Np(IV) was studied up to a 12 M acidity; two crown ethers had not previously been used for the extraction of the actinides. A quantitative description of the equilibria studied is given, and the influence of the structure of the ethers on the complex formation is discussed.

  14. Infrared Imagery of Crown-Fire Dynamics during FROSTFIRE.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coen, Janice; Mahalingam, Shankar; Daily, John

    2004-09-01

    A thorough understanding of crown-fire dynamics requires a clear picture of the three-dimensional winds in and near the fire, including the flaming combustion zone and the convective updrafts produced by the fire. These observations and analyses present a unique high-spatial-resolution and high-temporal-resolution perspective of the motions within crown fires propagating up a forested 20° slope under light winds of 3 m s-1 during the FROSTFIRE experiment in interior Alaska. The purpose of this work is to calculate combustion-zone winds and examine mechanisms for the rapid propagation of crown fires. An infrared imager was used to detect high-temperature regions produced by incandescent soot particles in and near the fire and to produce a sequence of high-frequency (60 Hz), high-resolution (0.375 m × 0.8 m) two-dimensional images of temperature. An image-flow-analysis technique was applied to these data to derive wind fields in the image plane. Maximum updrafts of 32 60 m s-1 accompany maximum downdrafts of 18 30 m s-1. Horizontal wind speeds of 12 28 m s-1 show strong inflow into the base of the convective updrafts and imply recirculation of air and incomplete combustion products from the fire. Motions were more complex than a single large convective plume or many buoyant tree-scale plumes rising separately. Instead, repeated examples of narrow flaming fingers, representing a scale larger than individual trees, initially burst upslope along the ground for tens of meters at speeds up to 28 48 m s-1 before turning upward. These bursts exceeded ambient environmental winds, those considered to be driving the fire, by a factor of 10 and were low enough to propagate the crown fire actively by both igniting and preheating/ drying canopy fuel ahead of the fire. Average spread rates were 0.75 1.11 m s-1, with a peak 10-s spread rate of 1.26 m s-1. This powerful, dynamic mechanism of fire spread could explain firefighter reports of being overtaken by

  15. Rapid Self-Assembly of Uranyl Polyhedra into Crown Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Sigmon, Ginger E.; Burns, Peter C.

    2011-06-22

    Clusters built from 32 uranyl peroxide polyhedra self-assemble and crystallize within 15 min after combining uranyl nitrate, ammonium hydroxide, and hydrogen peroxide in aqueous solution under ambient conditions. These novel crown-shaped clusters are remarkable in that they form so quickly, have extraordinarily low aqueous solubility, form with at least two distinct peroxide to hydroxyl ratios, and form in very high yield. The clusters, which have outer diameters of 23 Å, topologically consist of eight pentagons and four hexagons. Their rapid formation and low solubility in aqueous systems may be useful properties at various stages in an advanced nuclear energy system.

  16. Provisional Crown Dislodgement during Scuba Diving: A Case of Barotrauma.

    PubMed

    Gulve, Meenal Nitin; Gulve, Nitin Dilip

    2013-01-01

    Changes in ambient pressure, for example, during flying, diving, or hyperbaric oxygen therapy, can lead to barotrauma. Although it may seem that this issue was neglected in dental education and research in recent decades, familiarity with and understanding of these facts may be of importance for dental practitioners. We report the case of a patient who experienced barotrauma involving dislodgement of a provisional crown during scuba diving. Patients who are exposed to pressure changes as a part of their jobs or hobbies and their dentists should know the causes of barotrauma. In addition, the clinician must be aware of the possible influence of pressure changes on the retention of dental components. PMID:23984113

  17. Generation of a crowned pinion tooth surface by a plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Zhang, J.; Handschuh, R. F.

    1988-01-01

    The topology of a crowned spur pinion tooth surface that reduces the level of transmission errors due to misalignment is described. The geometry of the modified pinion tooth surface and of the regular involute gear tooth surface is discussed. The tooth contact analysis between the meshing surfaces is also described. Generating a modified pinion tooth surface by a plane whose motion is controlled by a 5-degree-of-freedom system is investigated. The numerical results included indicate that the transmission error remains low as the gears are misaligned.

  18. Thermal Stir Welds in Titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonda, Richard W.; Knipling, Keith E.; Pilchak, Adam L.

    2016-01-01

    Although conventional friction stir welding (FSW) has proven unsuccessful in joining thick sections of alpha and near-alpha titanium alloys, thermal stir welding, a variant of the FSW process in which an external heat source is used to preheat the workpiece, is demonstrated to be able to reliably join 12.3-mm-thick plates of CP titanium. This paper describes the microstructures and textures that develop in these thermal stir welds. The observed microstructure was used to reconstruct the high-temperature microstructure and texture present during the welding process and therefore reveal the genesis of the welding structures.

  19. Pressure rig for repetitive casting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Peter (Inventor); Hutto, William R. (Inventor); Philips, Albert R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention is a pressure rig for repetitive casting of metal. The pressure rig performs like a piston for feeding molten metal into a mold. Pressure is applied to an expandable rubber diaphragm which expands like a balloon to force the metal into the mold. A ceramic cavity which holds molten metal is lined with blanket-type insulating material, necessitating only a relining for subsequent use and eliminating the lengthy cavity preparation inherent in previous rigs. In addition, the expandable rubber diaphragm is protected by the insulating material thereby decreasing its vulnerability to heat damage. As a result of the improved design the life expectancy of the pressure rig contemplated by the present invention is more than doubled. Moreover, the improved heat protection has allowed the casting of brass and other alloys with higher melting temperatures than possible in the conventional pressure rigs.

  20. MHD technology in aluminum casting

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinichenko, I.

    1984-08-01

    The use of MHD technology in aluminum casting is discussed. Associates of the Latvian Academy of Sciences Institute of Physics developed magnetohydrodynamic units for the Siberian plant. A MHD unit made it possible to free five persons from heavy work at the plant. Labor productivity doubled in this section. With the aid of the magnetic field, the alloy silumin is obtained in only three hours. Specialists of the Irkutsk affiliate of the All-Union Scientific Research and Design Institute of the Aluminum, Magnesium and Electrode Industry are convinced that MHD technology has a bright future. However, this will necessitate the development of new MHD technology for different types of casting facilities, with their specific features taken into account.