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Sample records for caste-specific symbiont policing

  1. Symbiont-mediated protection

    PubMed Central

    Haine, Eleanor R

    2007-01-01

    Despite the fact that all vertically transmitted symbionts sequester resources from their hosts and are therefore costly to maintain, there is an extraordinary diversity of them in invertebrates. Some spread through host populations by providing their hosts with fitness benefits or by manipulating host sex ratio, but some do not: their maintenance in host lineages remains an enigma. In this review, I explore the evolutionary ecology of vertically transmitted symbionts and their impact on host resistance, and provide an overview of the evidence for the three-way interactions between these symbionts, natural enemies and invertebrate hosts. A number of recent empirical and theoretical studies suggest that vertically transmitted symbionts may protect their hosts from pathogens. If this ‘symbiont-mediated protection’ is widespread, it is likely that vertically transmitted symbionts contribute significantly to variation in measures of invertebrate resistance to natural enemies. PMID:18055391

  2. Intrasperm vertical symbiont transmission

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenji; Yukuhiro, Fumiko; Matsuura, Yu; Fukatsu, Takema; Noda, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria are commonly associated with cells and tissues of diverse animals and other organisms, which affect hosts’ biology in a variety of ways. Most of these symbionts are present in the cytoplasm of host cells and maternally transmitted through host generations. The paucity of paternal symbiont transmission is likely relevant to the extremely streamlined sperm structure: the head consisting of condensed nucleus and the tail made of microtubule bundles, without the symbiont-harboring cytoplasm that is discarded in the process of spermatogenesis. Here, we report a previously unknown mechanism of paternal symbiont transmission via an intrasperm passage. In the leafhopper Nephotettix cincticeps, a facultative Rickettsia symbiont was found not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus of host cells. In male insects, strikingly, most sperm heads contained multiple intranuclear Rickettsia cells. The Rickettsia infection scarcely affected the host fitness including normal sperm functioning. Mating experiments revealed both maternal and paternal transmission of the Rickettsia symbiont through host generations. When cultured with mosquito and silkworm cell lines, the Rickettsia symbiont was preferentially localized within the insect cell nuclei, indicating that the Rickettsia symbiont itself must have a mechanism for targeting nucleus. The mechanisms underlying the sperm head infection without disturbing sperm functioning are, although currently unknown, of both basic and applied interest. PMID:24799707

  3. Police. An Experimental Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otero, George G.

    This unit examines four topic areas related to police: rules and enforcement, police discretion, variety of police tasks, and police differences among societies as products of certain social pressures. High-school students learn about the police as an institution that responds to social and historical pressures. Students study police systems in…

  4. Police Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Oklahoma City Police Department developed a computerized communications system, based on Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) 1960-mission control knowledge. JSC furnished information on lighting and other fatigue reducing measures, and provided specifications for equipment and design layouts. JSC also advised OCPD how to avoid communications bottlenecks associated with simultaneous handling of telephone, radio and inner-office transmissions. Oklahoma City saved money in reduced design and engineering costs by utilizing the already developed NASA technology.

  5. Gene expression changes in the tyrosine metabolic pathway regulate caste-specific cuticular pigmentation of termites.

    PubMed

    Masuoka, Yudai; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2016-07-01

    In social insects, all castes have characteristic phenotypes suitable for their own tasks and to engage in social behavior. The acquisition of caste-specific phenotypes was a key event in the course of social insect evolution. However, understanding of the genetic basis and the developmental mechanisms that produce these phenotypes is still very limited. In particular, termites normally possess more than two castes with specific phenotypes (i.e. workers, soldiers, and reproductives), but proximate developmental mechanisms are far from being fully understood. In this study, we focused on the pigmentation of the cuticle as a model trait for caste-specific phenotypes, during the molts of each caste; workers, soldiers, presoldiers (intermediate stage of soldiers), and alates (primary reproductives) in Zootermopsis nevadensis. Expression patterns of cuticular tanning genes (members of the tyrosine metabolic pathway) were different among each molt, and high expression levels of several "key genes" were observed during each caste differentiation. For the differentiation of castes with well-tanned cuticles (i.e. soldiers and alates), all focal genes except DDC in the former were highly expressed. On the other hand, high expression levels of yellow and aaNAT were observed during worker and presoldier molts, respectively, but most other genes in the pathway were expressed at low levels. RNA interference (RNAi) of these key genes affected caste-specific cuticular pigmentation, leading to soldiers with yellowish-white heads and pigmented mandibular tips, presoldiers with partly pigmented head cuticles, and alates with the yellow head capsules. These results suggest that the pigmentation of caste-specific cuticles is achieved by the regulation of gene expression in the tyrosine metabolic pathway. PMID:27125584

  6. Community Policing and the Police Officer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meese, Edwin, III

    1993-01-01

    The new philosophy of police work has been called "community policing," a term that includes problem-solving techniques, strategic use of resources, and increasingly sophisticated investigative capabilities. The success of new policing strategies depends on the ability to recruit, develop, and field a group of officers who understand their roles…

  7. Caste-Specific Differences in Hindgut Microbial Communities of Honey Bees (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Yeoman, Carl J.; Wilson, Brenda A.; White, Bryan A.; Goldenfeld, Nigel; Robinson, Gene E.

    2015-01-01

    Host-symbiont dynamics are known to influence host phenotype, but their role in social behavior has yet to be investigated. Variation in life history across honey bee (Apis mellifera) castes may influence community composition of gut symbionts, which may in turn influence caste phenotypes. We investigated the relationship between host-symbiont dynamics and social behavior by characterizing the hindgut microbiome among distinct honey bee castes: queens, males and two types of workers, nurses and foragers. Despite a shared hive environment and mouth-to-mouth food transfer among nestmates, we detected separation among gut microbiomes of queens, workers, and males. Gut microbiomes of nurses and foragers were similar to previously characterized honey bee worker microbiomes and to each other, despite differences in diet, activity, and exposure to the external environment. Queen microbiomes were enriched for bacteria that may enhance metabolic conversion of energy from food to egg production. We propose that the two types of workers, which have the highest diversity of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of bacteria, are central to the maintenance of the colony microbiome. Foragers may introduce new strains of bacteria to the colony from the environment and transfer them to nurses, who filter and distribute them to the rest of the colony. Our results support the idea that host-symbiont dynamics influence microbiome composition and, reciprocally, host social behavior. PMID:25874551

  8. Physics in Police Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Peter

    1980-01-01

    Described are several techniques and pieces of equipment developed by the Police Scientific Department Branch in its application of physics to police problems. Topics discussed include fingerprints, documents, and photographs. (Author/DS)

  9. Staffing Smaller Police Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, David A.; Colombo, Michael

    2010-01-01

    All aspects of police work are challenging both professionally and personally. Police officers are accustomed to shift work, mandatory overtime, schedule adjustments for training, holidays and disasters, recalls and required off-duty court appearances. Police officers traditionally work eight hours per day, five day weeks (otherwise known as a 5/8…

  10. Insect symbionts in food webs

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Lee M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the bacterial endosymbionts of insects are abundant and diverse, and that they have numerous different effects on their hosts' biology. Here we explore how insect endosymbionts might affect the structure and dynamics of insect communities. Using the obligate and facultative symbionts of aphids as an example, we find that there are multiple ways that symbiont presence might affect food web structure. Many symbionts are now known to help their hosts escape or resist natural enemy attack, and others can allow their hosts to withstand abiotic stress or affect host plant use. In addition to the direct effect of symbionts on aphid phenotypes there may be indirect effects mediated through trophic and non-trophic community interactions. We believe that by using data from barcoding studies to identify bacterial symbionts, this extra, microbial dimension to insect food webs can be better elucidated. This article is part of the themed issue ‘From DNA barcodes to biomes’. PMID:27481779

  11. Insect symbionts in food webs.

    PubMed

    McLean, Ailsa H C; Parker, Benjamin J; Hrček, Jan; Henry, Lee M; Godfray, H Charles J

    2016-09-01

    Recent research has shown that the bacterial endosymbionts of insects are abundant and diverse, and that they have numerous different effects on their hosts' biology. Here we explore how insect endosymbionts might affect the structure and dynamics of insect communities. Using the obligate and facultative symbionts of aphids as an example, we find that there are multiple ways that symbiont presence might affect food web structure. Many symbionts are now known to help their hosts escape or resist natural enemy attack, and others can allow their hosts to withstand abiotic stress or affect host plant use. In addition to the direct effect of symbionts on aphid phenotypes there may be indirect effects mediated through trophic and non-trophic community interactions. We believe that by using data from barcoding studies to identify bacterial symbionts, this extra, microbial dimension to insect food webs can be better elucidated.This article is part of the themed issue 'From DNA barcodes to biomes'. PMID:27481779

  12. Caste-specific visual adaptations to distinct daily activity schedules in Australian Myrmecia ants.

    PubMed

    Narendra, Ajay; Reid, Samuel F; Greiner, Birgit; Peters, Richard A; Hemmi, Jan M; Ribi, Willi A; Zeil, Jochen

    2011-04-22

    Animals are active at different times of the day and their activity schedules are shaped by competition, time-limited food resources and predators. Different temporal niches provide different light conditions, which affect the quality of visual information available to animals, in particular for navigation. We analysed caste-specific differences in compound eyes and ocelli in four congeneric sympatric species of Myrmecia ants, with emphasis on within-species adaptive flexibility and daily activity rhythms. Each caste has its own lifestyle: workers are exclusively pedestrian; alate females lead a brief life on the wing before becoming pedestrian; alate males lead a life exclusively on the wing. While workers of the four species range from diurnal, diurnal-crepuscular, crepuscular-nocturnal to nocturnal, the activity times of conspecific alates do not match in all cases. Even within a single species, we found eye area, facet numbers, facet sizes, rhabdom diameters and ocelli size to be tuned to the distinct temporal niche each caste occupies. We discuss these visual adaptations in relation to ambient light levels, visual tasks and mode of locomotion. PMID:20926444

  13. Caste-specific visual adaptations to distinct daily activity schedules in Australian Myrmecia ants

    PubMed Central

    Narendra, Ajay; Reid, Samuel F.; Greiner, Birgit; Peters, Richard A.; Hemmi, Jan M.; Ribi, Willi A.; Zeil, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Animals are active at different times of the day and their activity schedules are shaped by competition, time-limited food resources and predators. Different temporal niches provide different light conditions, which affect the quality of visual information available to animals, in particular for navigation. We analysed caste-specific differences in compound eyes and ocelli in four congeneric sympatric species of Myrmecia ants, with emphasis on within-species adaptive flexibility and daily activity rhythms. Each caste has its own lifestyle: workers are exclusively pedestrian; alate females lead a brief life on the wing before becoming pedestrian; alate males lead a life exclusively on the wing. While workers of the four species range from diurnal, diurnal-crepuscular, crepuscular-nocturnal to nocturnal, the activity times of conspecific alates do not match in all cases. Even within a single species, we found eye area, facet numbers, facet sizes, rhabdom diameters and ocelli size to be tuned to the distinct temporal niche each caste occupies. We discuss these visual adaptations in relation to ambient light levels, visual tasks and mode of locomotion. PMID:20926444

  14. Evolution of worker policing.

    PubMed

    Olejarz, Jason W; Allen, Benjamin; Veller, Carl; Gadagkar, Raghavendra; Nowak, Martin A

    2016-06-21

    Workers in insect societies are sometimes observed to kill male eggs of other workers, a phenomenon known as worker policing. We perform a mathematical analysis of the evolutionary dynamics of policing. We investigate the selective forces behind policing for both dominant and recessive mutations for different numbers of matings of the queen. The traditional, relatedness-based argument suggests that policing evolves if the queen mates with more than two males, but does not evolve if the queen mates with a single male. We derive precise conditions for the invasion and stability of policing alleles. We find that the relatedness-based argument is not robust with respect to small changes in colony efficiency caused by policing. We also calculate evolutionarily singular strategies and determine when they are evolutionarily stable. We use a population genetics approach that applies to dominant or recessive mutations of any effect size. PMID:26976051

  15. Policing violence in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sena, E

    1999-03-01

    This article is an excerpted summary of a speech on female police and domestic violence. The speech was given by a woman affiliated with the Association of Women Workers at an Oxfam workshop in northern Brazil. This organization successfully lobbied for female police, which resulted in more reports of domestic violence, especially rape. The organization is active in 13 counties. Female police are trained and usually given respect by police chiefs. In one city, in 1997, the appointment of female police resulted in registered reports of 387 cases of violence and hospital reports of 503 cases, of which 14% were child rape. During January-April 1998, there were 126 registered cases and 168 hospital cases. Policewomen formed a partnership over the past 2 years with the Human Rights Group and other popular political groups to train female police about laws. The compulsory course focused on four areas: legal concepts, penalties, and procedures on registration of complaints; the Brazilian Penal Code; civil law; and world judicial bureaucracies. Training includes a 1 month internship with the program's lawyer. Over 20 women have completed the course to date. Training in some cases resulted in greater expertise among the female police than their Police Chiefs. Female police have experienced harassment by local authorities. PMID:12295035

  16. Sex and Caste-Specific Variation in Compound Eye Morphology of Five Honeybee Species

    PubMed Central

    Streinzer, Martin; Brockmann, Axel; Nagaraja, Narayanappa; Spaethe, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Ranging from dwarfs to giants, the species of honeybees show remarkable differences in body size that have placed evolutionary constrains on the size of sensory organs and the brain. Colonies comprise three adult phenotypes, drones and two female castes, the reproductive queen and sterile workers. The phenotypes differ with respect to tasks and thus selection pressures which additionally constrain the shape of sensory systems. In a first step to explore the variability and interaction between species size-limitations and sex and caste-specific selection pressures in sensory and neural structures in honeybees, we compared eye size, ommatidia number and distribution of facet lens diameters in drones, queens and workers of five species (Apis andreniformis, A. florea, A. dorsata, A. mellifera, A. cerana). In these species, male and female eyes show a consistent sex-specific organization with respect to eye size and regional specialization of facet diameters. Drones possess distinctly enlarged eyes with large dorsal facets. Aside from these general patterns, we found signs of unique adaptations in eyes of A. florea and A. dorsata drones. In both species, drone eyes are disproportionately enlarged. In A. dorsata the increased eye size results from enlarged facets, a likely adaptation to crepuscular mating flights. In contrast, the relative enlargement of A. florea drone eyes results from an increase in ommatidia number, suggesting strong selection for high spatial resolution. Comparison of eye morphology and published mating flight times indicates a correlation between overall light sensitivity and species-specific mating flight times. The correlation suggests an important role of ambient light intensities in the regulation of species-specific mating flight times and the evolution of the visual system. Our study further deepens insights into visual adaptations within the genus Apis and opens up future perspectives for research to better understand the timing mechanisms

  17. Sex and caste-specific variation in compound eye morphology of five honeybee species.

    PubMed

    Streinzer, Martin; Brockmann, Axel; Nagaraja, Narayanappa; Spaethe, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Ranging from dwarfs to giants, the species of honeybees show remarkable differences in body size that have placed evolutionary constrains on the size of sensory organs and the brain. Colonies comprise three adult phenotypes, drones and two female castes, the reproductive queen and sterile workers. The phenotypes differ with respect to tasks and thus selection pressures which additionally constrain the shape of sensory systems. In a first step to explore the variability and interaction between species size-limitations and sex and caste-specific selection pressures in sensory and neural structures in honeybees, we compared eye size, ommatidia number and distribution of facet lens diameters in drones, queens and workers of five species (Apis andreniformis, A. florea, A. dorsata, A. mellifera, A. cerana). In these species, male and female eyes show a consistent sex-specific organization with respect to eye size and regional specialization of facet diameters. Drones possess distinctly enlarged eyes with large dorsal facets. Aside from these general patterns, we found signs of unique adaptations in eyes of A. florea and A. dorsata drones. In both species, drone eyes are disproportionately enlarged. In A. dorsata the increased eye size results from enlarged facets, a likely adaptation to crepuscular mating flights. In contrast, the relative enlargement of A. florea drone eyes results from an increase in ommatidia number, suggesting strong selection for high spatial resolution. Comparison of eye morphology and published mating flight times indicates a correlation between overall light sensitivity and species-specific mating flight times. The correlation suggests an important role of ambient light intensities in the regulation of species-specific mating flight times and the evolution of the visual system. Our study further deepens insights into visual adaptations within the genus Apis and opens up future perspectives for research to better understand the timing mechanisms

  18. A complex journey: transmission of microbial symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Bright, Monika; Bulgheresi, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    The perpetuation of symbioses through host generations relies on symbiont transmission. Horizontally transmitted symbionts are taken up from the environment anew by each host generation, and vertically transmitted symbionts are most often transferred through the female germ line. Mixed modes also exist. In this Review we describe the journey of symbionts from the initial contact to their final residence. We provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms that mediate symbiont attraction and accumulation, interpartner recognition and selection, as well as symbiont confrontation with the host immune system. We also discuss how the two main transmission modes shape the evolution of the symbiotic partners. PMID:20157340

  19. Police Patrol Game Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Todd, Ed.

    A packet of game materials, designed to help young people better understand what the law is, what the police officer's duties are, and what pressures and fears the police officers experience daily, is presented. The game, designed for a group of 20 to 35 students, contains: Teacher's Manual, Attitude Survey Master, Observer Evaluation Master,…

  20. Police and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Vic

    The literature on adult education for police is reviewed and criticized. Among the publications that have been influential in debating the need for police education are Charles B. Saunder's "The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society" (1976), which endorses the Presidential Commission on Law Enforcement's recommendations regarding the vital…

  1. Youth and Police.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croddy, Marshall; Hayes, Bill, Ed.; Doggett, Keri, Ed.

    This curriculum unit provides middle-school teachers a series of innovative and easy-to-use lessons for the classroom. Five core lessons give students a background in the role of police in society and issues of community crime and safety, prepare students to take part in the Police Patrol simulation with actual officers, and challenge students to…

  2. Dallas Police Department Youth Services Program: Police Diversion Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallas Police Dept., TX.

    The Youth Section of the Dallas Police Department has instituted an innovative police diversion project entitled the Youth Services Program as an operational unit of the police department. Fourteen civilian counselors supervised by a police lieutenant function as a diversion unit for arrested juveniles between the ages of 10 and 16. Juveniles that…

  3. Characterization of the Core and Caste-Specific Microbiota in the Termite, Reticulitermes flavipes

    PubMed Central

    Benjamino, Jacquelynn; Graf, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    The hindgut of the termite Reticulitermes flavipes harbors a complex symbiotic community consisting of protists, bacteria, and archaea. These symbionts aid in the digestion of lignocellulose from the termite’s wood meal. Termite hindguts were sampled and the V4 hyper-variable region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced and analyzed from individual termites. The core microbiota of worker termites consisted of 69 OTUs at the 97% identity level, grouped into 16 taxa, and together accounted for 67.05% of the sequences from the bacterial community. The core was dominated by Treponema, which contained 36 different OTUs and accounted for ∼32% of the sequences, which suggests Treponema sp. have an important impact on the overall physiology in the hindgut. Bray–Curtis beta diversity metrics showed that hindgut samples from termites of the same colony were more similar to each other than to samples from other colonies despite possessing a core that accounted for the majority of the sequences. The specific tasks and dietary differences of the termite castes could have an effect on the composition of the microbial community. The hindgut microbiota of termites from the alate castes differed from the worker caste with significantly lower abundances of Treponema and Endomicrobia, which dominated the hindgut microbiota in workers and soldiers. Protist abundances were also quantified in the same samples using qPCR of the 18S rRNA gene. Parabasalia abundances dropped significantly in the winged alates and the Oxymonadida abundances dropped in both alate castes. These data suggest that the changes in diet or overall host physiology affected the protist and bacterial populations in the hindgut. The in-depth bacterial characterization and protist quantification in this study sheds light on the potential community dynamics within the R. flavipes hindgut and identified a large and complex core microbiota in termites obtained from multiple colonies and castes. PMID:26925043

  4. Characterization of the Core and Caste-Specific Microbiota in the Termite, Reticulitermes flavipes.

    PubMed

    Benjamino, Jacquelynn; Graf, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    The hindgut of the termite Reticulitermes flavipes harbors a complex symbiotic community consisting of protists, bacteria, and archaea. These symbionts aid in the digestion of lignocellulose from the termite's wood meal. Termite hindguts were sampled and the V4 hyper-variable region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced and analyzed from individual termites. The core microbiota of worker termites consisted of 69 OTUs at the 97% identity level, grouped into 16 taxa, and together accounted for 67.05% of the sequences from the bacterial community. The core was dominated by Treponema, which contained 36 different OTUs and accounted for ∼32% of the sequences, which suggests Treponema sp. have an important impact on the overall physiology in the hindgut. Bray-Curtis beta diversity metrics showed that hindgut samples from termites of the same colony were more similar to each other than to samples from other colonies despite possessing a core that accounted for the majority of the sequences. The specific tasks and dietary differences of the termite castes could have an effect on the composition of the microbial community. The hindgut microbiota of termites from the alate castes differed from the worker caste with significantly lower abundances of Treponema and Endomicrobia, which dominated the hindgut microbiota in workers and soldiers. Protist abundances were also quantified in the same samples using qPCR of the 18S rRNA gene. Parabasalia abundances dropped significantly in the winged alates and the Oxymonadida abundances dropped in both alate castes. These data suggest that the changes in diet or overall host physiology affected the protist and bacterial populations in the hindgut. The in-depth bacterial characterization and protist quantification in this study sheds light on the potential community dynamics within the R. flavipes hindgut and identified a large and complex core microbiota in termites obtained from multiple colonies and castes. PMID:26925043

  5. Bacterial symbionts and natural products

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Jason M.; Clardy, Jon

    2011-01-01

    The study of bacterial symbionts of eukaryotic hosts has become a powerful discovery engine for chemistry. This highlight looks at four case studies that exemplify the range of chemistry and biology involved in these symbioses: a bacterial symbiont of a fungus and a marine invertebrate that produce compounds with significant anticancer activity, and bacterial symbionts of insects and nematodes that produce compounds that regulate multilateral symbioses. In the last ten years, a series of shocking revelations – the molecular equivalents of a reality TV show’s uncovering the true parents of a well known individual or a deeply hidden family secret – altered the study of genetically encoded small molecules, natural products for short. These revelations all involved natural products produced by bacterial symbionts, and while details differed, two main plot lines emerged: parentage, in which the real producers of well known natural products with medical potential were not the organisms from which they were originally discovered, and hidden relationships, in which bacterially produced small molecules turned out to be the unsuspected regulators of complex interactions. For chemists, these studies led to new molecules, new biosynthetic pathways, and an understanding of the biological functions these molecules fulfill. PMID:21594283

  6. Evolution: Welcome to Symbiont Prison.

    PubMed

    Kiers, E Toby; West, Stuart A

    2016-01-25

    Can egalitarian partnerships exist in nature? A new study demonstrates how protist hosts use and abuse their algal symbionts depending on their needs. While this relationship allows protists to survive in low nutrient conditions, it leaves little room for algal retaliation. PMID:26811890

  7. Genome-Scale Variation of Tubeworm Symbionts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robidart, J.; Felbeck, H.

    2005-12-01

    Hydrothermal vent tubeworms are completely dependent on their bacterial symbionts for nutrition. Despite this dependency, many studies have concluded that bacterial symbionts are acquired anew from the environment, every generation rather than the more reliable mode of symbiont transmission from parent directly to offspring. Ribosomal 16S sequences have shown little variation of symbiont phylogeny from worm to worm, but higher resolution genome-scale analyses have found that there is genomic heterogeneity between symbionts from worms in different environments. What genes can be "spared," while resulting in an intact symbiosis? Have symbionts from one environment gained physiological capabilities that make them more fit in that environment? In order to answer these questions, subtractive hybridization was used on symbionts of Riftia pachyptila tubeworms from different environments to gain insight into which genes are present in one symbiont and absent in the other. Many genes were found to be unique to each symbiont and these results will be presented. This technique will be applied to answer many fundamental questions regarding microbial symbiont evolution to a specific physico-chemical environment, to a different host species, and more.

  8. Comparative metagenomics of Daphnia symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Weihong; Nong, Guang; Preston, James F; Ben-Ami, Frida; Ebert, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    Background Shotgun sequences of DNA extracts from whole organisms allow a comprehensive assessment of possible symbionts. The current project makes use of four shotgun datasets from three species of the planktonic freshwater crustaceans Daphnia: one dataset from clones of D. pulex and D. pulicaria and two datasets from one clone of D. magna. We analyzed these datasets with three aims: First, we search for bacterial symbionts, which are present in all three species. Second, we search for evidence for Cyanobacteria and plastids, which had been suggested to occur as symbionts in a related Daphnia species. Third, we compare the metacommunities revealed by two different 454 pyrosequencing methods (GS 20 and GS FLX). Results In all datasets we found evidence for a large number of bacteria belonging to diverse taxa. The vast majority of these were Proteobacteria. Of those, most sequences were assigned to different genera of the Betaproteobacteria family Comamonadaceae. Other taxa represented in all datasets included the genera Flavobacterium, Rhodobacter, Chromobacterium, Methylibium, Bordetella, Burkholderia and Cupriavidus. A few taxa matched sequences only from the D. pulex and the D. pulicaria datasets: Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and Delftia. Taxa with many hits specific to a single dataset were rare. For most of the identified taxa earlier studies reported the finding of related taxa in aquatic environmental samples. We found no clear evidence for the presence of symbiotic Cyanobacteria or plastids. The apparent similarity of the symbiont communities of the three Daphnia species breaks down on a species and strain level. Communities have a similar composition at a higher taxonomic level, but the actual sequences found are divergent. The two Daphnia magna datasets obtained from two different pyrosequencing platforms revealed rather similar results. Conclusion Three clones from three species of the genus Daphnia were found to harbor a rich community of symbionts. These

  9. Campus Policing: The Nature of University Police Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordner, Diane C.; Petersen, David M.

    Various aspects of campus police work are described, including the actual duties of officers, staff selection and training, and the larger issues of law enforcement. The urban university police is the focus, and comparisons are made to the organization and activities of other urban police forces. Also considered is the local context for different…

  10. Exploring symbiont management in lichens.

    PubMed

    Grube, Martin; Spribille, Toby

    2012-07-01

    Lichens are unique among fungal symbioses in that their mycelial structures are compact and exposed to the light as thallus structures. The myriad intersections of unique fungal species with photosynthetic partner organisms (green algae in 90% of lichens) produce a wide variety of diverse shapes and colours of the fully synthesized lichen thallus when growing in nature. This characteristic complex morphology is, however, not achieved in the fungal axenic state. Even under ideal environmental conditions, the lichen life cycle faces considerable odds: first, meiotic spores are only produced on well-established thalli and often only after achieving considerable age in a stable environment, and second, even then in vivo resynthesis requires the presence of compatible algal strains where fungal spores germinate. Many lichen species have evolved a way around the resynthesis bottleneck by producing asexual propagules for joint propagation of symbionts. These different dispersal strategies ostensibly shape the population genetic structure of lichen symbioses, but the relative contributions of vertical (joint) and horizontal (independent) symbiont transmission have long eluded lichen evolutionary biologists. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Dal Grande et al. (2012) close in on this question with the lung lichen, Lobaria pulmonaria, a flagship species in the conservation of old growth forests. By capitalizing on available microsatellite markers for both fungal and algal symbionts, they show that while vertical transmission is the predominant mode of reproduction, horizontal transmission is demonstrable and actively shapes population genetic structure. The resulting mixed propagation system is a highly successful balance of safe recruitment of symbiotic clones and endless possibilities for fungal recombination and symbiont shuffling. PMID:22916345

  11. Symbiont infection affects aphid defensive behaviours.

    PubMed

    Dion, Emilie; Polin, Sarah Erika; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Outreman, Yannick

    2011-10-23

    Aphids harbour both an obligate bacterial symbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, and a wide range of facultative ones. Facultative symbionts can modify morphological, developmental and physiological host traits that favour their spread within aphid populations. We experimentally investigated the idea that symbionts may also modify aphid behavioural traits to enhance their transmission. Aphids exhibit many behavioural defences against enemies. Despite their benefits, these behaviours have some associated costs leading to reduction in aphid reproduction. Some aphid individuals harbour a facultative symbiont Hamiltonella defensa that provides protection against parasitoids. By analysing aphid behaviours in the presence of parasitoids, we showed that aphids infected with H. defensa exhibited reduced aggressiveness and escape reactions compared with uninfected aphids. The aphid and the symbiont have both benefited from these behavioural changes: both partners reduced the fitness decrements associated with the behavioural defences. Such symbiont-induced changes of behavioural defences may have consequences for coevolutionary processes between host organisms and their enemies. PMID:21490007

  12. Police Selection and Career Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunnette, Marvin D.; Motowidlo, Stephan J.

    Research was conducted to develop the Police Career Index (PCI) and the regional assessment center exercises to provide a total personnel evaluation system to help police departments screen applicants, evaluate on-the-job performance of officers eligible for promotion, and gauge a person's suitability for police work. The PCI is based on actual…

  13. Employing Civilians for Police Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Alfred I.; And Others

    The study describes the experiences of 13 police departments where civilians were used in jobs normally performed by police officers. The findings are based on interviews with 158 people including police managers, officers in charge of civilian employees, and the civilians themselves. Two types of activities were surveyed: (1) the employment of…

  14. Predictors of Police Suicide Ideation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Violanti, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Further inquiry into processes that lead to suicide in the police occupation is necessary. Suicide ideation in police officers and possible correlates associated with such ideation is explored in this paper. The focus was on psychologically traumatic police work experiences, the development of posttraumatic stress (PTSD) in officers, and the…

  15. Swapping symbionts in spittlebugs: evolutionary replacement of a reduced genome symbiont.

    PubMed

    Koga, Ryuichi; Moran, Nancy A

    2014-06-01

    Bacterial symbionts that undergo long-term maternal transmission experience elevated fixation of deleterious mutations, resulting in massive loss of genes and changes in gene sequences that appear to limit efficiency of gene products. Potentially, this dwindling of symbiont functionality impacts hosts that depend on these bacteria for nutrition. One evolutionary escape route is the acquisition of a novel symbiont with a robust genome and metabolic capabilities. Such an acquisition has occurred in an ancestor of Philaenus spumarius, the meadow spittlebug (Insecta: Cercopoidea), which has replaced its ancient association with the tiny genome symbiont Zinderia insecticola (Betaproteobacteria) with an association with a symbiont related to Sodalis glossinidius (Gammaproteobacteria). Spittlebugs feed exclusively on xylem sap, a diet that is low both in essential amino acids and in sugar or other substrates for energy production. The new symbiont genome has undergone proliferation of mobile elements resulting in many gene inactivations; nonetheless, it has selectively maintained genes replacing functions of its predecessor for amino-acid biosynthesis. Whereas ancient symbiont partners typically retain perfectly complementary sets of amino-acid biosynthetic pathways, the novel symbiont introduces some redundancy as it retains some pathways also present in the partner symbionts (Sulcia muelleri). Strikingly, the newly acquired Sodalis-like symbiont retains genes underlying efficient routes of energy production, including a complete TCA cycle, potentially relaxing the severe energy limitations of the xylem-feeding hosts. Although evolutionary replacements of ancient symbionts are infrequent, they potentially enable evolutionary and ecological novelty by conferring novel metabolic capabilities to host lineages. PMID:24401857

  16. Swapping symbionts in spittlebugs: evolutionary replacement of a reduced genome symbiont

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Ryuichi; Moran, Nancy A

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial symbionts that undergo long-term maternal transmission experience elevated fixation of deleterious mutations, resulting in massive loss of genes and changes in gene sequences that appear to limit efficiency of gene products. Potentially, this dwindling of symbiont functionality impacts hosts that depend on these bacteria for nutrition. One evolutionary escape route is the acquisition of a novel symbiont with a robust genome and metabolic capabilities. Such an acquisition has occurred in an ancestor of Philaenus spumarius, the meadow spittlebug (Insecta: Cercopoidea), which has replaced its ancient association with the tiny genome symbiont Zinderia insecticola (Betaproteobacteria) with an association with a symbiont related to Sodalis glossinidius (Gammaproteobacteria). Spittlebugs feed exclusively on xylem sap, a diet that is low both in essential amino acids and in sugar or other substrates for energy production. The new symbiont genome has undergone proliferation of mobile elements resulting in many gene inactivations; nonetheless, it has selectively maintained genes replacing functions of its predecessor for amino-acid biosynthesis. Whereas ancient symbiont partners typically retain perfectly complementary sets of amino-acid biosynthetic pathways, the novel symbiont introduces some redundancy as it retains some pathways also present in the partner symbionts (Sulcia muelleri). Strikingly, the newly acquired Sodalis-like symbiont retains genes underlying efficient routes of energy production, including a complete TCA cycle, potentially relaxing the severe energy limitations of the xylem-feeding hosts. Although evolutionary replacements of ancient symbionts are infrequent, they potentially enable evolutionary and ecological novelty by conferring novel metabolic capabilities to host lineages. PMID:24401857

  17. Insect's intestinal organ for symbiont sorting.

    PubMed

    Ohbayashi, Tsubasa; Takeshita, Kazutaka; Kitagawa, Wataru; Nikoh, Naruo; Koga, Ryuichi; Meng, Xian-Ying; Tago, Kanako; Hori, Tomoyuki; Hayatsu, Masahito; Asano, Kozo; Kamagata, Yoichi; Lee, Bok Luel; Fukatsu, Takema; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo

    2015-09-15

    Symbiosis has significantly contributed to organismal adaptation and diversification. For establishment and maintenance of such host-symbiont associations, host organisms must have evolved mechanisms for selective incorporation, accommodation, and maintenance of their specific microbial partners. Here we report the discovery of a previously unrecognized type of animal organ for symbiont sorting. In the bean bug Riptortus pedestris, the posterior midgut is morphologically differentiated for harboring specific symbiotic bacteria of a beneficial nature. The sorting organ lies in the middle of the intestine as a constricted region, which partitions the midgut into an anterior nonsymbiotic region and a posterior symbiotic region. Oral administration of GFP-labeled Burkholderia symbionts to nymphal stinkbugs showed that the symbionts pass through the constricted region and colonize the posterior midgut. However, administration of food colorings revealed that food fluid enters neither the constricted region nor the posterior midgut, indicating selective symbiont passage at the constricted region and functional isolation of the posterior midgut for symbiosis. Coadministration of the GFP-labeled symbiont and red fluorescent protein-labeled Escherichia coli unveiled selective passage of the symbiont and blockage of E. coli at the constricted region, demonstrating the organ's ability to discriminate the specific bacterial symbiont from nonsymbiotic bacteria. Transposon mutagenesis and screening revealed that symbiont mutants in flagella-related genes fail to pass through the constricted region, highlighting that both host's control and symbiont's motility are involved in the sorting process. The blocking of food flow at the constricted region is conserved among diverse stinkbug groups, suggesting the evolutionary origin of the intestinal organ in their common ancestor. PMID:26324935

  18. Symbiont survival and host-symbiont disequilibria under differential vertical transmission.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, M S; Arnold, J; Asmussen, M A

    2000-01-01

    Interspecific genetic interactions in host-symbiont systems raise intriguing coevolutionary questions and may influence the effectiveness of public health and management policies. Here we present an analytical and numerical investigation of the effects of host genetic heterogeneity in the rate of vertical transmission of a symbiont. We consider the baseline case with a monomorphic symbiont and a single diallelic locus in its diploid host, where vertical transmission is the sole force. Our analysis introduces interspecific disequilibria to quantify nonrandom associations between host genotypes and alleles and symbiont presence/absence. The transient and equilibrium behavior is examined in simulations with randomly generated initial conditions and transmission parameters. Compared to the case where vertical transmission rates are uniform across host genotypes, differential transmission (i) increases average symbiont survival from 50% to almost 60%, (ii) dramatically reduces the minimum average transmission rate for symbiont survival from 0.5 to 0.008, and (iii) readily creates permanent host-symbiont disequilibria de novo, whereas uniform transmission can neither create nor maintain such associations. On average, heterozygotes are slightly more likely to carry and maintain the symbiont in the population and are more randomly associated with the symbiont. Results show that simple evolutionary forces can create substantial nonrandom associations between two species. PMID:10757775

  19. Police Communications: Humans and Hardware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zannes, Estelle

    This volume presents an overview of police communications and analyzes the relationships between the people and hardware in the police system. Chapters discuss the development and use of such communication devices as the telegraph, telephone, and computers; the role of mass media, feedback, and communicative settings in human communication;…

  20. The Law and Private Police.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, James S.; Wildhorn, Sorrel

    This report is one of a series of five describing a 16-month study of the nature and extent of the private police industry in the United States, its problems, its present regulation, and how the law impinges on it. A general discussion of the sources of legal limitations upon private police activities and personnel and sources of legal powers is…

  1. Police Stress: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, J. T. Skip, Comp.; And Others

    The need to perform effectively under stress is a concern in many professions. For police officers and managers, who make split-second life and death decisions, the problem takes on added significance. The annotated documents compiled are in three sections: an overview to describe types and effects of stresses, police stress causal factors, and…

  2. Do Bacterial Symbionts Govern Aphid's Dropping Behavior?

    PubMed

    Lavy, Omer; Sher, Noa; Malik, Assaf; Chiel, Elad

    2015-06-01

    Defensive symbiosis is amongst nature's most important interactions shaping the ecology and evolution of all partners involved. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris (Hemiptera: Aphididae), harbors one obligatory bacterial symbiont and up to seven different facultative symbionts, some of which are known to protect the aphid from pathogens, natural enemies, and other mortality factors. Pea aphids typically drop off the plant when a mammalian herbivore approaches it to avoid incidental predation. Here, we examined whether bacterial symbionts govern the pea aphid dropping behavior by comparing the bacterial fauna in dropping and nondropping aphids of two A. pisum populations, using two molecular techniques: high-throughput profiling of community structure using 16 S reads sequenced on the Illumina platform, and diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We found that in addition to the obligatory symbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, the tested colonies of A. pisum harbored the facultative symbionts Serratia symbiotica, Regiella insecticola and Rickettsia, with no significant differences in infection proportions between dropping and nondropping aphids. While S. symbiotica was detected by both techniques, R. insecticola and Rickettsia could be detected only by diagnostic PCR. We therefore conclude that A. pisum's dropping behavior is not affected by its bacterial symbionts and is possibly affected by other factors. PMID:26313964

  3. 32 CFR 637.17 - Police Intelligence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Police Intelligence. 637.17 Section 637.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.17 Police Intelligence. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals or groups of individuals in an...

  4. 32 CFR 637.17 - Police Intelligence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Police Intelligence. 637.17 Section 637.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.17 Police Intelligence. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals or groups of individuals in an...

  5. 32 CFR 637.17 - Police Intelligence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Police Intelligence. 637.17 Section 637.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.17 Police Intelligence. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals or groups of individuals in an...

  6. 32 CFR 637.17 - Police Intelligence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Police Intelligence. 637.17 Section 637.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.17 Police Intelligence. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals or groups of individuals in an...

  7. 32 CFR 637.17 - Police Intelligence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Police Intelligence. 637.17 Section 637.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.17 Police Intelligence. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals or groups of individuals in an...

  8. The Organizational Determinants of Police Arrest Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Allison T.; MacDonald, John M.; Manz, Patrick W.

    2006-01-01

    A limited amount of research has examined the relationship between characteristics of police organizations and policing styles. In particular, few studies have examined the link between organizational structures and police officer arrest decisions. Wilson's (1968) pioneering case study of police organizations suggested that individual police…

  9. Racial Disparity in Police Contacts

    PubMed Central

    Crutchfield, Robert D.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; McGlynn, Anne; Catalano, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Criminologists agree the race disparity in arrests cannot be fully explained by differences in criminal behavior. We examine social environment factors that may lead to racial differences in police contact in early adolescence, including family, peers, school, and community. Data are from 331 8th-grade students. Blacks were almost twice as likely as Whites to report a police contact. Blacks reported more property crime but not more violent crime than Whites. Police contacts were increased by having a parent who had been arrested, a sibling involved in criminal activity, higher observed reward for negative behavior, having school disciplinary actions, and knowing adults who engaged in substance abuse or criminal behavior. Race differences in police contacts were partially attributable to more school discipline. PMID:24363956

  10. Children spontaneously police adults' transgressions.

    PubMed

    Heyman, Gail D; Chiu Loke, Ivy; Lee, Kang

    2016-10-01

    Maintaining social order requires the policing of transgressions. Prior research suggests that policing emerges early in life, but little is known about children's engagement in such behavior in live interactions where there is uncertainty about the consequences. In this study, 4- to 11-year-old children (N=158) witnessed an unfamiliar adult confederate intentionally destroy another adult's property. Of interest was whether children would engage in policing behavior by protesting to the transgressor or by spontaneously reporting the transgression to a third party. Some children engaged in these behaviors spontaneously; nearly half (42%) protested the transgression, and 27% reported it without being prompted. Even when children did not spontaneously report the transgression, they almost always reported it when asked directly. The findings show that children commonly engage in policing even in the face of potentially negative consequences. PMID:27295206

  11. An ancient but promiscuous host-symbiont association between Burkholderia gut symbionts and their heteropteran hosts.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Fukatsu, Takema

    2011-03-01

    Here, we investigated 124 stinkbug species representing 20 families and 5 superfamilies for their Burkholderia gut symbionts, of which 39 species representing 6 families of the superfamilies Lygaeoidea and Coreoidea were Burkholderia-positive. Diagnostic PCR surveys revealed high frequencies of Burkholderia infection in natural populations of the stinkbugs, and substantial absence of vertical transmission of Burkholderia infection to their eggs. In situ hybridization confirmed localization of the Burkholderia in their midgut crypts. In the lygaeoid and coreoid stinkbugs, development of midgut crypts in their alimentary tract was coincident with the Burkholderia infection, suggesting that the specialized morphological configuration is pivotal for establishment and maintenance of the symbiotic association. The Burkholderia symbionts were easily isolated as pure culture on standard microbiological media, indicating the ability of the gut symbionts to survive outside the host insects. Molecular phylogenetic analysis showed that the gut symbionts of the lygaeoid and coreoid stinkbugs belong to a β-proteobacterial clade together with Burkholderia isolates from soil environments and Burkholderia species that induce plant galls. On the phylogeny, the stinkbug-associated, environmental and gall-forming Burkholderia strains did not form coherent groups, indicating host-symbiont promiscuity among these stinkbugs. Symbiont culturing revealed that slightly different Burkholderia genotypes often coexist in the same insects, which is also suggestive of host-symbiont promiscuity. All these results strongly suggest an ancient but promiscuous host-symbiont relationship between the lygaeoid/coreoid stinkbugs and the Burkholderia gut symbionts. Possible mechanisms as to how the environmentally transmitted promiscuous symbiotic association has been stably maintained in the evolutionary course are discussed. PMID:20882057

  12. Symbiont-mediated functions in insect hosts

    PubMed Central

    Su, Qi; Zhou, Xiaomao; Zhang, Youjun

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial endosymbionts occur in a diverse array of insect species and are usually rely within the vertical transmission from mothers to offspring. In addition to primary symbionts, plant sap-sucking insects may also harbor several diverse secondary symbionts. Bacterial symbionts play a prominent role in insect nutritional ecology by aiding in digestion of food or supplementing nutrients that insect hosts can’t obtain sufficient amounts from a restricted diet of plant phloem. Currently, several other ecologically relevant traits mediated by endosymbionts are being investigated, including defense toward pathogens and parasites, adaption to environment, influences on insect-plant interactions, and impact of population dynamics. Here, we review recent theoretical predictions and experimental observations of these traits mediated by endosymbionts and suggest that clarifying the roles of symbiotic microbes may be important to offer insights for ameliorating pest invasiveness or impact. PMID:23710278

  13. Policing Diversity: Examining Police Resistance to Training Reforms for Transgender People in Australia.

    PubMed

    Miles-Johnson, Toby

    2016-01-01

    Using field notes collected from participant observation of Australian police officers training to work with the transgender community, the current research builds on previous work examining social identity theory (Tajfel, 2010) to explain how one training program implemented to educate police about transgender people challenges police culture. This research determines that police culture, training procedures, and stereotypes of gender are equally influential on police perceptions of all transgender people. Overall, the results indicate that negative police perceptions toward police training reforms strengthen in-group identity of police, and negative out-group perceptions of transgender people. PMID:26241052

  14. Potential applications of insect symbionts in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Berasategui, Aileen; Shukla, Shantanu; Salem, Hassan; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Symbiotic interactions between insects and microorganisms are widespread in nature and are often the source of ecological innovations. In addition to supplementing their host with essential nutrients, microbial symbionts can produce enzymes that help degrade their food source as well as small molecules that defend against pathogens, parasites, and predators. As such, the study of insect ecology and symbiosis represents an important source of chemical compounds and enzymes with potential biotechnological value. In addition, the knowledge on insect symbiosis can provide novel avenues for the control of agricultural pest insects and vectors of human diseases, through targeted manipulation of the symbionts or the host-symbiont associations. Here, we discuss different insect-microbe interactions that can be exploited for insect pest and human disease control, as well as in human medicine and industrial processes. Our aim is to raise awareness that insect symbionts can be interesting sources of biotechnological applications and that knowledge on insect ecology can guide targeted efforts to discover microorganisms of applied value. PMID:26659224

  15. [Unintentional gunshot during police intervention].

    PubMed

    Janssen, W; Kulle, K J; Gehl, A; Püschel, K

    2001-01-01

    33 cases of unintentional handgun use by police officers during operation since 1983 in Northern Germany have been evaluated. These cases have been selected from our own investigations and from prosecutors' and police departments' files and records. It was intended to find out criteria for forensic expertise. The unintended use of a handgun was always influenced in a decisive and causal manner by the behaviour of the delinquents (resistance, assault, escape). The confrontation of the police officer with the violence of aggressive offenders was of immediate importance for triggering the shot in various kinds of police operation. Sensorically caused, reflex muscle contractions as a consequence of a great effort, a loss of balance or fright when simultaneously protecting oneself with weapon in hand can be made responsible for the unvoluntary shot. In 10 cases (30%) persons were injured, 2 times lethally. As a whole, the consequences were of random nature, they could be explained by the series of actions in each case. The type and technical state of the weapons in use have not influenced the unintentional use. A behaviour of the police officers offending against the legally required care was stated in two of the investigated cases. Considering our investigations and the many policemen killed in duty we state that securing oneself in time with a weapon at the ready in critical phases of operations cannot be successfully replaced by any other method of self defense. PMID:11304920

  16. Lifestyle Evolution in Cyanobacterial Symbionts of Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Burgsdorf, Ilia; Slaby, Beate M.; Handley, Kim M.; Haber, Markus; Blom, Jochen; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Hentschel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The “Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum” group includes different clades of cyanobacteria with high 16S rRNA sequence identity (~99%) and is the most abundant and widespread cyanobacterial symbiont of marine sponges. The first draft genome of a “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group member was recently published, providing evidence of genome reduction by loss of genes involved in several nonessential functions. However, “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” includes a variety of clades that may differ widely in genomic repertoire and consequently in physiology and symbiotic function. Here, we present three additional draft genomes of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum,” each from a different clade. By comparing all four symbiont genomes to those of free-living cyanobacteria, we revealed general adaptations to life inside sponges and specific adaptations of each phylotype. Symbiont genomes shared about half of their total number of coding genes. Common traits of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” members were a high abundance of DNA modification and recombination genes and a reduction in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, and signal transduction mechanisms. Moreover, these symbionts were characterized by a reduced number of antioxidant enzymes and low-weight peptides of photosystem II compared to their free-living relatives. Variability within the “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group was mostly related to immune system features, potential for siderophore-mediated iron transport, and dependency on methionine from external sources. The common absence of genes involved in synthesis of residues, typical of the O antigen of free-living Synechococcus species, suggests a novel mechanism utilized by these symbionts to avoid sponge predation and phage attack. PMID:26037118

  17. Lifestyle Evolution in Cyanobacterial Symbionts of Sponges

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Burgsdorf, Ilia; Slaby, Beate M.; Handley, Kim M.; Haber, Markus; Blom, Jochen; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Hentschel, Ute; Steindler, Laura

    2015-06-02

    The “Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum” group includes different clades of cyanobacteria with high 16S rRNA sequence identity (~99%) and is the most abundant and widespread cyanobacterial symbiont of marine sponges. The first draft genome of a “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group member was recently published, providing evidence of genome reduction by loss of genes involved in several nonessential functions. However, “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” includes a variety of clades that may differ widely in genomic repertoire and consequently in physiology and symbiotic function. Here, we present three additional draft genomes of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum,” each from a different clade. By comparing all fourmore » symbiont genomes to those of free-living cyanobacteria, we revealed general adaptations to life inside sponges and specific adaptations of each phylotype. Symbiont genomes shared about half of their total number of coding genes. Common traits of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” members were a high abundance of DNA modification and recombination genes and a reduction in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, and signal transduction mechanisms. Moreover, these symbionts were characterized by a reduced number of antioxidant enzymes and low-weight peptides of photosystem II compared to their free-living relatives. Variability within the “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group was mostly related to immune system features, potential for siderophore-mediated iron transport, and dependency on methionine from external sources. The common absence of genes involved in synthesis of residues, typical of the O antigen of free-living Synechococcus species, suggests a novel mechanism utilized by these symbionts to avoid sponge predation and phage attack.« less

  18. Lifestyle Evolution in Cyanobacterial Symbionts of Sponges

    SciTech Connect

    Burgsdorf, Ilia; Slaby, Beate M.; Handley, Kim M.; Haber, Markus; Blom, Jochen; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Hentschel, Ute; Steindler, Laura

    2015-06-02

    The “Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum” group includes different clades of cyanobacteria with high 16S rRNA sequence identity (~99%) and is the most abundant and widespread cyanobacterial symbiont of marine sponges. The first draft genome of a “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group member was recently published, providing evidence of genome reduction by loss of genes involved in several nonessential functions. However, “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” includes a variety of clades that may differ widely in genomic repertoire and consequently in physiology and symbiotic function. Here, we present three additional draft genomes of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum,” each from a different clade. By comparing all four symbiont genomes to those of free-living cyanobacteria, we revealed general adaptations to life inside sponges and specific adaptations of each phylotype. Symbiont genomes shared about half of their total number of coding genes. Common traits of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” members were a high abundance of DNA modification and recombination genes and a reduction in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, and signal transduction mechanisms. Moreover, these symbionts were characterized by a reduced number of antioxidant enzymes and low-weight peptides of photosystem II compared to their free-living relatives. Variability within the “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group was mostly related to immune system features, potential for siderophore-mediated iron transport, and dependency on methionine from external sources. The common absence of genes involved in synthesis of residues, typical of the O antigen of free-living Synechococcus species, suggests a novel mechanism utilized by these symbionts to avoid sponge predation and phage attack.

  19. Citizen participation in police crisis intervention activities.

    PubMed

    Baumann, D J; Schultz, D F; Brown, C; Paredes, R; Hepworth, J

    1987-08-01

    A naturalistic experiment tested the proposition that police time could be saved in nondangerous crisis intervention calls through the use of citizen participants. Results showed that police officers who used citizen intervention spent less time per call than officers who did not. However, police time was not saved in family disturbance calls. Family disturbance control group calls were rated by police as having a higher degree of physical danger present than other calls. PMID:3673956

  20. Blue Lies and Police Placebos: The Moralities of Police Lying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klockars, Carl B.

    1984-01-01

    The concession that the lie is preferred over force as a means of social control forms the basis for the morality of policy lying, i.e., in any situation in which police have a legitimate right to use force they acquire a moral right to achieve the same ends by lying. (RM)

  1. Mentoring First Year Police Constables: Police Mentors' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Mark A.; McKenzie, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Mentoring as a tool for the support and development of novices in many organisations has been considered a putative success. Nevertheless, the literature reveals a paucity of reporting of the mentoring strategies used within the policing profession within Australia. This paper aims to focus on what mentoring is and how it is deployed from…

  2. Police Abuse: The Most Volatile Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotomayor, Ernie

    1982-01-01

    Describes cases of police abuse of Hispanics in the United States, particularly in the Southwest; examines how community groups and Hispanic organizations are working for the prosecution of abusive law enforcement officers; and discusses improving relations between the police and the community and joint efforts to minimize police abuse in some…

  3. Technology-Enabled Crime, Policing and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuade, Sam

    2006-01-01

    Crime, policing and security are enabled by and co-evolve with technologies that make them possible. As criminals compete with security and policing officials for technological advantage perpetually complex crime, policing and security results in relatively confusing and therefore unmanageable threats to society. New, adaptive and ordinary crimes…

  4. Police Attitudes toward Domestic Violence Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, T. K.; Shannon, Lisa; Walker, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Police attitudes are important in facilitating a sense of safety and comfort in women seeking justice-system support for protection from partner violence. This study examined police attitudes toward sanctions and treatment for domestic violence offenders compared with other violent and nonviolent offenders. In addition, police attitudes toward…

  5. Client Confidentiality in Police Social Work Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Patrick Almond; Lutkus, Anita M.

    1985-01-01

    Results of a survey that questioned police social workers regarding the protection of client confidentiality in police settings revealed several problems related to the unique character of the setting and to the identification of social workers with the goals and practices of police. Results raise questions about the protection of client…

  6. Police Brutality--the New Epidemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Ruben; Martinez, Douglas R.

    1978-01-01

    Recently, incidents of police abuse against Hispanics have increased so rapidly that the phenomenon has been called an epidemic. Of special concern to Hispanic leaders is the lack of Federal intervention in these police brutality cases. A list of 56 documented cases involving police brutality against Hispanics is included. (Author/NQ)

  7. Central Police Dispatch: An Exemplary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, John J.

    The document presents a description of the Central Police Dispatch (PCD) system of Muskegon County, Michigan. The CPD, a civilian-staffed organization, is concerned with the regionalization of police services and improved police communications. The development of the CPD is traced from the Muskegon Interlocal Public Agency (1969-72) to the present…

  8. New Zealand Police and Restorative Justice Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfree, L. Thomas, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    In New Zealand, selected sworn police officers called youth aid officers participate in discussions and deliberations concerning the actions required to restore the sense of community balance upset by the actions of juvenile offenders. The author explores a representative sample of all sworn police officers serving in the New Zealand Police,…

  9. Perceived Threat Associated with Police Officers and Black Men Predicts Support for Policing Policy Reform

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Allison L.; Haas, Ingrid J.

    2016-01-01

    Racial disparities in policing and recent high-profile incidents resulting in the deaths of Black men have ignited a national debate on policing policies. Given evidence that both police officers and Black men may be associated with threat, we examined the impact of perceived threat on support for reformed policing policies. Across three studies we found correlational evidence that perceiving police officers as threatening predicts increased support for reformed policing practices (e.g., limiting the use of lethal force and matching police force demographics to those of the community). In contrast, perceiving Black men as threatening predicted reduced support for policing policy reform. Perceived threat also predicted willingness to sign a petition calling for police reform. Experimental evidence indicated that priming participants to associate Black men with threat could also reduce support for policing policy reform, and this effect was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice. Priming participants to associate police officers with threat did not increase support for policing policy reform. Results indicate that resistance to policing policy reform is associated with perceiving Black men as threatening. Moreover, findings suggest that publicizing racially charged police encounters, which may conjure associations between Black men and threat, could reduce support for policing policy reform. PMID:27462294

  10. Perceived Threat Associated with Police Officers and Black Men Predicts Support for Policing Policy Reform.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Allison L; Haas, Ingrid J

    2016-01-01

    Racial disparities in policing and recent high-profile incidents resulting in the deaths of Black men have ignited a national debate on policing policies. Given evidence that both police officers and Black men may be associated with threat, we examined the impact of perceived threat on support for reformed policing policies. Across three studies we found correlational evidence that perceiving police officers as threatening predicts increased support for reformed policing practices (e.g., limiting the use of lethal force and matching police force demographics to those of the community). In contrast, perceiving Black men as threatening predicted reduced support for policing policy reform. Perceived threat also predicted willingness to sign a petition calling for police reform. Experimental evidence indicated that priming participants to associate Black men with threat could also reduce support for policing policy reform, and this effect was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice. Priming participants to associate police officers with threat did not increase support for policing policy reform. Results indicate that resistance to policing policy reform is associated with perceiving Black men as threatening. Moreover, findings suggest that publicizing racially charged police encounters, which may conjure associations between Black men and threat, could reduce support for policing policy reform. PMID:27462294

  11. Special-Purpose Public Police.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, James S.; Wildhorn, Sorrel

    This report is the last in a series of five describing a 16-month study of the nature and extent of the police industry in the United States, its problems, its present regulation, and how the law impinges on it. In this volume, certain types of public forces not having general law-enforcement responsibilities are described, including reserve…

  12. Police close unsolved 'climategate' investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavender, Gemma

    2012-09-01

    Police in Norfolk in the UK have closed an investigation into the hacking of e-mails at the University of East Anglia's Climate Research Unit (CRU) after admitting that they will not be able to find the hackers who broke into CRU computer servers.

  13. Police-Teacher Partnership Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendleton, Murray

    Several years ago the police department of Waterford, Connecticut and the local school administration viewed with great alarm the increasing tendency of school age youth to mistrust and misunderstand the criminal justice system. A program entitled "Freedom and the Law" was developed in response to this concern. The project was designed to meet a…

  14. FBI Police Executive Fellowship Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    In the immediate aftermath of 9/11, FBI Director Robert Mueller, III, established the Office of Law Enforcement Coordination to help ensure more effective information-sharing between the Bureau and state, local and tribal law enforcement agencies. One of the hallmarks of this focused effort to enhance communication is the Police Executive…

  15. A microsampling method for genotyping coral symbionts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, D. W.; Fitt, W. K.; Schmidt, G. W.

    2008-06-01

    Genotypic characterization of Symbiodinium symbionts in hard corals has routinely involved coring, or the removal of branches or a piece of the coral colony. These methods can potentially underestimate the complexity of the Symbiodinium community structure and may produce lesions. This study demonstrates that microscale sampling of individual coral polyps provided sufficient DNA for identifying zooxanthellae clades by RFLP analyses, and subclades through the use of PCR amplification of the ITS-2 region of rDNA and denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis. Using this technique it was possible to detect distinct ITS-2 types of Symbiodinium from two or three adjacent coral polyps. These methods can be used to intensely sample coral-symbiont population/communities while causing minimal damage. The effectiveness and fine scale capabilities of these methods were demonstrated by sampling and identifying phylotypes of Symbiodinium clades A, B, and C that co-reside within a single Montastraea faveolata colony.

  16. The Calyptogena magnifica chemoautotrophic symbiont genome

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, I.L.; Woyke, T.; Auchtung, T.A.; Dilly, G.F.; Dutton,R.J.; Fisher, M.C.; Fontanez, K.M.; Lau, E.; Stewart, F.J.; Richardson,P.M.; Barry, K.W.; Saunders, E.; Detter, J.C.; Wu, D.; Eisen, J.A.; Cavanaugh, C.M.

    2007-03-01

    Chemoautotrophic endosymbionts are the metabolic cornerstone of hydrothermal vent communities, providing invertebrate hosts with nearly all of their nutrition. The Calyptogena magnifica (Bivalvia: Vesicomyidae) symbiont, Candidatus Ruthia magnifica, is the first intracellular sulfur-oxidizing endosymbiont to have its genome sequenced, revealing a suite of metabolic capabilities. The genome encodes major chemoautotrophic pathways as well as pathways for biosynthesis of vitamins, cofactors, and all 20 amino acids required by the clam.

  17. "Just Being Mean to Somebody Isn't a Police Matter": Police Perspectives on Policing Cyberbullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broll, Ryan; Huey, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Increasing public awareness of cyberbullying, coupled with several highly publicized youth suicides linked to electronic bullying, have led lawmakers and politicians to consider new criminal legislation specifically related to cyberbullying. However, little is known about how the police currently respond to cyberbullying, and it is not clear…

  18. Multiple Symbiont Acquisition Strategies as an Adaptive Mechanism in the Coral Stylophora pistillata

    PubMed Central

    Byler, Kristen A.; Carmi-Veal, Maya; Fine, Maoz; Goulet, Tamar L.

    2013-01-01

    In obligate symbioses, the host’s survival relies on the successful acquisition and maintenance of symbionts. Symbionts can either be transferred from parent to offspring via direct inheritance (vertical transmission) or acquired anew each generation from the environment (horizontal transmission). With vertical symbiont transmission, progeny benefit by not having to search for their obligate symbionts, and, with symbiont inheritance, a mechanism exists for perpetuating advantageous symbionts. But, if the progeny encounter an environment that differs from that of their parent, they may be disadvantaged if the inherited symbionts prove suboptimal. Conversely, while in horizontal symbiont acquisition host survival hinges on an unpredictable symbiont source, an individual host may acquire genetically diverse symbionts well suited to any given environment. In horizontal acquisition, however, a potentially advantageous symbiont will not be transmitted to subsequent generations. Adaptation in obligate symbioses may require mechanisms for both novel symbiont acquisition and symbiont inheritance. Using denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time PCR, we identified the dinoflagellate symbionts (genus Symbiodinium) hosted by the Red Sea coral Stylophora pistillata throughout its ontogenesis and over depth. We present evidence that S. pistillata juvenile colonies may utilize both vertical and horizontal symbiont acquisition strategies. By releasing progeny with maternally derived symbionts, that are also capable of subsequent horizontal symbiont acquisition, coral colonies may acquire physiologically advantageous novel symbionts that are then perpetuated via vertical transmission to subsequent generations. With symbiont inheritance, natural selection can act upon the symbiotic variability, providing a mechanism for coral adaptation. PMID:23555721

  19. Earthworm ecology affects the population structure of their Verminephrobacter symbionts.

    PubMed

    Viana, Flávia; Jensen, Christopher Erik; Macey, Michael; Schramm, Andreas; Lund, Marie Braad

    2016-05-01

    Earthworms carry species-specific Verminephrobacter symbionts in their nephridia (excretory organs). The symbionts are vertically transmitted via the cocoon, can only colonize the host during early embryonic development, and have co-speciated with their host for about 100 million years. Although several studies have addressed Verminephrobacter diversity between worm species, the intra-species diversity of the symbiont population has never been investigated. In this study, symbiont population structure was examined by using a multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) approach on Verminephrobacter isolated from two contrasting ecological types of earthworm hosts: the high population density, fast reproducing compost worms, Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida, and the low-density, slow reproducing Aporrectodea tuberculata, commonly found in garden soils. Three distinct populations were investigated for both types and, according to MLST analysis of 193 Verminephrobacter isolates, the symbiont community in each worm individual was very homogeneous. The more solitary A. tuberculata carried unique symbiont populations in 9 out of 10 host individuals, whereas the symbiont populations in the social compost worms were homogeneous across host individuals from the same population. These data suggested that host ecology shaped the population structure of Verminephrobacter symbionts. The homogeneous symbiont populations in the compost worms led to the hypothesis that Verminephrobacter could be transferred bi-parentally or via leaky horizontal transmission in high-density, frequently mating worm populations. PMID:27040820

  20. Housekeeping Mutualisms: Do More Symbionts Facilitate Host Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Lemer, Sarah; Leray, Matthieu; Mills, Suzanne C.; Osenberg, Craig W.

    2012-01-01

    Mutualisms often involve one host supporting multiple symbionts, whose identity, density and intraguild interactions can influence the nature of the mutualism and performance of the host. However, the implications of multiple co-occurring symbionts on services to a host have rarely been quantified. In this study, we quantified effects of decapod symbionts on removal of sediment from their coral host. Our field survey showed that all common symbionts typically occur as pairs and never at greater abundances. Two species, the crab Trapezia serenei and the shrimp Alpheus lottini, were most common and co-occurred more often than expected by chance. We conducted a mesocosm experiment to test for effects of decapod identity and density on sediment removal. Alone, corals removed 10% of sediment, but removal increased to 30% and 48% with the presence of two and four symbionts, respectively. Per-capita effects of symbionts were independent of density and identity. Our results suggest that symbiont density is restricted by intraspecific competition. Thus, increased sediment removal from a coral host can only be achieved by increasing the number of species of symbionts on that coral, even though these species are functionally equivalent. Symbiont diversity plays a key role, not through added functionality but by overcoming density limitation likely imposed by intraspecific mating systems. PMID:22523536

  1. [Doctor's attendance in police custody].

    PubMed

    Chariot, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Medical examination is a right for every person detained in police custody in France. Examination of detainees usually takes place in the police station so that the doctor can assess the conditions in which the detainee is being held. In some cases, such as type I diabetes care, detainees need to be examined and treated in a hospital. Doctors are subject to a duty of care and prevention. Description of recent traumatic injuries is part of the doctor's mission. They should prescribe any ongoing treatment which needs to be continued, as well as any emergency treatment required. Custody officers may monitor the detainee and administer medication. Doctor's opinion should be given in a national standard document. If the doctor considers that the custody conditions are disgraceful, they may refuse to express an opinion as to whether the detainee is fit for custody. PMID:22838282

  2. Magnetosome-containing bacteria living as symbionts of bivalves

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Suzanne C; Laurich, Jason R; Batstone, Rebecca T; McCuaig, Bonita; Elliott, Alexander; Poduska, Kristin M

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria containing magnetosomes (protein-bound nanoparticles of magnetite or greigite) are common to many sedimentary habitats, but have never been found before to live within another organism. Here, we show that octahedral inclusions in the extracellular symbionts of the marine bivalve Thyasira cf. gouldi contain iron, can exhibit magnetic contrast and are most likely magnetosomes. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, T. cf. gouldi symbionts group with symbiotic and free-living sulfur-oxidizing, chemolithoautotrophic gammaproteobacteria, including the symbionts of other thyasirids. T. cf. gouldi symbionts occur both among the microvilli of gill epithelial cells and in sediments surrounding the bivalves, and are therefore facultative. We propose that free-living T. cf. gouldi symbionts use magnetotaxis as a means of locating the oxic–anoxic interface, an optimal microhabitat for chemolithoautotrophy. T. cf. gouldi could acquire their symbionts from near-burrow sediments (where oxic–anoxic interfaces likely develop due to the host's bioirrigating behavior) using their superextensile feet, which could transfer symbionts to gill surfaces upon retraction into the mantle cavity. Once associated with their host, however, symbionts need not maintain structures for magnetotaxis as the host makes oxygen and reduced sulfur available via bioirrigation and sulfur-mining behaviors. Indeed, we show that within the host, symbionts lose the integrity of their magnetosome chain (and possibly their flagellum). Symbionts are eventually endocytosed and digested in host epithelial cells, and magnetosomes accumulate in host cytoplasm. Both host and symbiont behaviors appear important to symbiosis establishment in thyasirids. PMID:24914799

  3. Symbiont-supplemented maternal investment underpinning host's ecological adaptation.

    PubMed

    Kaiwa, Nahomi; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Nikoh, Naruo; Tanahashi, Masahiko; Moriyama, Minoru; Meng, Xian-Ying; Maeda, Taro; Yamaguchi, Katsushi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Ito, Motomi; Fukatsu, Takema

    2014-10-20

    Maternal investment for offspring's growth and survival is widespread among diverse organisms. Vertical symbiont transmission via maternal passage is also pivotal for offspring's growth and survival in many organisms. Hence, it is expected that vertical symbiont transmission may coevolve with various organismal traits concerning maternal investment in offspring. Here we report a novel phenotypic syndrome entailing morphological, histological, behavioral, and ecological specializations for maternal investment and vertical symbiont transmission in stinkbugs of the family Urostylididae. Adult females develop huge ovaries exaggerated for polysaccharide excretion, possess novel ovipositor-associated organs for vertical transmission of a bacterial symbiont ("Candidatus Tachikawaea gelatinosa"), and lay eggs covered with voluminous symbiont-supplemented jelly. Newborns hatch in midwinter, feed solely on the jelly, acquire the symbiont, and grow during winter. In spring, the insects start feeding on plant sap, wherein the symbiont localizes to a specialized midgut region and supplies essential amino acids deficient in the host's diet. The reduced symbiont genome and host-symbiont cospeciation indicate their obligate association over evolutionary time. Experimental deprivation of the jelly results in nymphal mortality, whereas restoration of the jelly leads to recovered nymphal growth, confirming that the jelly supports nymphal growth in winter. Chemical analyses demonstrate that the galactan-based jelly contains a sufficient quantity of amino acids to sustain nymphal growth to the third instar. The versatile biological roles of the symbiont-containing egg-covering jelly highlight intricate evolutionary interactions between maternal resource investment and vertical symbiont transmission, which are commonly important for offspring's growth, survival, and ecological adaptation. PMID:25264255

  4. Magnetosome-containing bacteria living as symbionts of bivalves.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Suzanne C; Laurich, Jason R; Batstone, Rebecca T; McCuaig, Bonita; Elliott, Alexander; Poduska, Kristin M

    2014-12-01

    Bacteria containing magnetosomes (protein-bound nanoparticles of magnetite or greigite) are common to many sedimentary habitats, but have never been found before to live within another organism. Here, we show that octahedral inclusions in the extracellular symbionts of the marine bivalve Thyasira cf. gouldi contain iron, can exhibit magnetic contrast and are most likely magnetosomes. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, T. cf. gouldi symbionts group with symbiotic and free-living sulfur-oxidizing, chemolithoautotrophic gammaproteobacteria, including the symbionts of other thyasirids. T. cf. gouldi symbionts occur both among the microvilli of gill epithelial cells and in sediments surrounding the bivalves, and are therefore facultative. We propose that free-living T. cf. gouldi symbionts use magnetotaxis as a means of locating the oxic-anoxic interface, an optimal microhabitat for chemolithoautotrophy. T. cf. gouldi could acquire their symbionts from near-burrow sediments (where oxic-anoxic interfaces likely develop due to the host's bioirrigating behavior) using their superextensile feet, which could transfer symbionts to gill surfaces upon retraction into the mantle cavity. Once associated with their host, however, symbionts need not maintain structures for magnetotaxis as the host makes oxygen and reduced sulfur available via bioirrigation and sulfur-mining behaviors. Indeed, we show that within the host, symbionts lose the integrity of their magnetosome chain (and possibly their flagellum). Symbionts are eventually endocytosed and digested in host epithelial cells, and magnetosomes accumulate in host cytoplasm. Both host and symbiont behaviors appear important to symbiosis establishment in thyasirids. PMID:24914799

  5. Exploring New Territory: Police Organizational Responses to Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Catherine

    1996-01-01

    This paper compares the results of different models of police intervention in child sexual abuse cases in New South Wales, Australia. Data suggest that specialist police units in which police manage the full investigation provide a more comprehensive service than those where the police response is fragmented among units within the police force.…

  6. Understanding Community Policing as an Innovation: Patterns of Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morabito, Melissa Schaefer

    2010-01-01

    In the 1980s and 1990s, community policing was viewed by many as a radical innovation in the field of policing, with the vast majority of police agencies reporting to have adopted the approach. Despite its overwhelming popularity, most police agencies did not adopt the central elements of community policing. This study examines patterns of…

  7. 28 CFR 92.9 - Publicizing the Police Recruitment Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Publicizing the Police Recruitment... ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Recruitment Program Guidelines § 92.9 Publicizing the Police... the affected geographic area. The methods for publicizing the Police Recruitment programs may...

  8. 28 CFR 92.9 - Publicizing the Police Recruitment Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Publicizing the Police Recruitment... ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Recruitment Program Guidelines § 92.9 Publicizing the Police... the affected geographic area. The methods for publicizing the Police Recruitment programs may...

  9. 28 CFR 92.9 - Publicizing the Police Recruitment Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Publicizing the Police Recruitment... ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Recruitment Program Guidelines § 92.9 Publicizing the Police... the affected geographic area. The methods for publicizing the Police Recruitment programs may...

  10. 28 CFR 92.9 - Publicizing the Police Recruitment Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Publicizing the Police Recruitment... ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Recruitment Program Guidelines § 92.9 Publicizing the Police... the affected geographic area. The methods for publicizing the Police Recruitment programs may...

  11. 28 CFR 92.9 - Publicizing the Police Recruitment Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Publicizing the Police Recruitment... ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Recruitment Program Guidelines § 92.9 Publicizing the Police... the affected geographic area. The methods for publicizing the Police Recruitment programs may...

  12. Comparative genomics of vesicomyid clam (Bivalvia: Mollusca) chemosynthetic symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Irene LG; Girguis, Peter R; Cavanaugh, Colleen M

    2008-01-01

    Background The Vesicomyidae (Bivalvia: Mollusca) are a family of clams that form symbioses with chemosynthetic gamma-proteobacteria. They exist in environments such as hydrothermal vents and cold seeps and have a reduced gut and feeding groove, indicating a large dependence on their endosymbionts for nutrition. Recently, two vesicomyid symbiont genomes were sequenced, illuminating the possible nutritional contributions of the symbiont to the host and making genome-wide evolutionary analyses possible. Results To examine the genomic evolution of the vesicomyid symbionts, a comparative genomics framework, including the existing genomic data combined with heterologous microarray hybridization results, was used to analyze conserved gene content in four vesicomyid symbiont genomes. These four symbionts were chosen to include a broad phylogenetic sampling of the vesicomyid symbionts and represent distinct chemosynthetic environments: cold seeps and hydrothermal vents. Conclusion The results of this comparative genomics analysis emphasize the importance of the symbionts' chemoautotrophic metabolism within their hosts. The fact that these symbionts appear to be metabolically capable autotrophs underscores the extent to which the host depends on them for nutrition and reveals the key to invertebrate colonization of these challenging environments. PMID:19055818

  13. Standard methods for research on apis mellifera gut symbionts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gut microbes can play an important role in digestion, disease resistance, and the general health of animals, but little is known about the biology of gut symbionts in Apis mellifera. This paper is part of a series on honey bee research methods, providing protocols for studying gut symbionts. We desc...

  14. Standard methods for research on Apis mellifera gut symbionts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gut microbes can play an important role in digestion, disease resistance, and the general health of animals, but little is known about the biology of gut symbionts in Apis mellifera. This paper is part of a series on honey bee research methods, providing protocols for studying gut symbionts. We desc...

  15. Secondary bacterial symbiont community in aphids responds to plant diversity.

    PubMed

    Zytynska, Sharon E; Meyer, Sebastian T; Sturm, Sarah; Ullmann, Wiebke; Mehrparvar, Mohsen; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2016-03-01

    Biodiversity is important for ecosystem functioning and biotic interactions. In experimental grasslands, increasing plant species richness is known to increase the diversity of associated herbivores and their predators. If these interactions can also involve endosymbionts that reside within a plant or animal host is currently unknown. In plant-feeding aphids, secondary bacterial symbionts can have strong fitness effects on the host, e.g. resistance to natural enemies or fungal pathogens. We examined the secondary symbiont community in three species of aphid, each feeding on a unique host plant across experimental plots that varied in plant species richness. Aphids were collected in May and June, and the symbiont community identified using species-specific PCR assays. Aphis fabae aphids were found to host six different symbiont species with individual aphids co-hosting up to four symbionts. Uroleucon jaceae and Macrosiphum rosae hosted two and three symbiont species, respectively. We found that, at the aphid population level, increasing plant species richness increased the diversity of the aphid symbiont community, whereas at the individual aphid level, the opposite was found. These effects are potentially driven by varying selective pressures across different plant communities of varying diversities, mediated by defensive protection responses and a changing cost-benefit trade-off to the aphid for hosting multiple secondary symbionts. Our work extends documented effects of plant diversity beyond visible biotic interactions to changes in endosymbiont communities, with potentially far-reaching consequences to related ecosystem processes. PMID:26603858

  16. Olenid trilobites: The oldest known chemoautotrophic symbionts?

    PubMed Central

    Fortey, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Late Cambrian to early Ordovician trilobites, the family Olenidae, were tolerant of oxygen-poor, sulfur-rich sea floor conditions, and a case is made that they were chemoautotrophic symbionts. Olenids were uniquely adapted to this habitat in the Lower Paleozoic, which was widespread in the Late Cambrian over Scandinavia. This life habit explains distinctive aspects of olenid morphology: wide thoraces and large numbers of thoracic segments, thin cuticle and, in some species, degenerate hypostome, and the occasional development of brood pouches. Geochemical and field evidence is consistent with this interpretation. Olenids occupied their specialized habitat for 60 million years until their extinction at the end of the Ordovician. PMID:10841557

  17. Why Community Oriented Policing Has Failed and the Rise of Policing through Practical Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Eric S.

    2008-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Justice (www.usdoj.gov), Community Policing is defined as: "The focus on crime and social disorder through the delivery of police services that includes aspects of traditional law enforcement, as well as prevention, problem-solving, community engagement, and partnerships. The community policing model balances…

  18. Police Attitudes toward Policing Partner Violence against Women: Do They Correspond to Different Psychosocial Profiles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gracia, Enrique; Garcia, Fernando; Lila, Marisol

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed whether police attitudes toward policing partner violence against women corresponded with different psychosocial profiles. Two attitudes toward policing partner violence were considered--one reflecting a general preference for a conditional law enforcement (depending on the willingness of the victim to press charges against the…

  19. The rules for symbiont community assembly change along a mutualism-parasitism continuum.

    PubMed

    Skelton, James; Doak, Sam; Leonard, Meredith; Creed, Robert P; Brown, Bryan L

    2016-05-01

    Symbiont community assembly is driven by host-symbiont and symbiont-symbiont interactions. The effects that symbionts exert on their hosts are often context-dependent, and existing theoretical frameworks of symbiont community assembly do not consider the implications of variable outcomes to assembly processes. We hypothesized that symbiont-symbiont interactions become increasingly important along a parasitism/mutualism continuum because; (i) negative outcomes favour host resistance which in turn reduces symbiont colonization and subsequently reduce symbiont-symbiont interactions, whereas (ii) positive host outcomes favour tolerance and consequently higher symbiont colonization rates, leading to stronger interactions among symbionts. We found support for this hypothesis in the cleaning symbiosis between crayfish and ectosymbiotic branchiobdellidan worms. The symbiosis between crayfish and their worms can shift from parasitism/commensalism to mutualism as crayfish age. Here, field surveys identified changes in worm density, diversity and composition that were concomitant to changing symbiosis outcomes. We conducted several laboratory experiments and behavioural assays to relate patterns from the field to their likely causal processes. Young crayfish typically hosted only two relatively small worm species. Older crayfish hosted two additional larger species. In laboratory experiments, young crayfish exhibited a directed grooming response to all worm species, but were unable to remove small species. Conversely, adult crayfish did not exhibit grooming responses to any worm species. Relaxed grooming allowed the colonization of large worm species and initiated symbiont-symbiont intraguild predation that reduced the abundance and altered the behaviour of small worm species. Thus, the dominant processes of symbiont community assembly shifted from host resistance to symbiont-symbiont interactions through host ontogeny and a concomitant transition towards mutualism. This work

  20. Experimental replacement of an obligate insect symbiont.

    PubMed

    Moran, Nancy A; Yun, Yueli

    2015-02-17

    Symbiosis, the close association of unrelated organisms, has been pivotal in biological diversification. In the obligate symbioses found in many insect hosts, organisms that were once independent are permanently and intimately associated, resulting in expanded ecological capabilities. The primary model for this kind of symbiosis is the association between the bacterium Buchnera and the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum). A longstanding obstacle to efforts to illuminate genetic changes underlying obligate symbioses has been the inability to experimentally disrupt and reconstitute symbiont-host partnerships. Our experiments show that Buchnera can be experimentally transferred between aphid matrilines and, furthermore, that Buchnera replacement has a massive effect on host fitness. Using a recipient pea aphid matriline containing Buchnera that are heat sensitive because of an allele eliminating the heat shock response of a small chaperone, we reduced native Buchnera through heat exposure and introduced a genetically distinct Buchnera from another matriline, achieving complete replacement and stable inheritance. This transfer disrupted 100 million years (∼ 1 billion generations) of continuous maternal transmission of Buchnera in its host aphids. Furthermore, aphids with the Buchnera replacement enjoyed a dramatic increase in heat tolerance, directly demonstrating a strong effect of symbiont genotype on host ecology. PMID:25561531

  1. The Cincinnati Police-Juvenile Attitude Project; A Demonstration Project in Police-Teacher Curriculum Development to Improve Police-Juvenile Relations. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincinnati Univ., OH.

    This is a curriculum guide for junior high school students and police trainees. It is designed to improve police-juvenile relations through juvenile attitude change and police understanding. Units have been developed for social studies teachers pertaining to the law and law enforcement and for police trainees dealing with the nature of the early…

  2. A History of the Houston Police Department.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Thomas A.

    The story of the Houston (Texas) Police Department is a study of times and changes in the fourth largest city in the United States. This history of the Houston Police Department (HPD) examines the Department's beginnings in 1837. The HPD hired its first black officers in 1873. The Department purchased its first patrol car in 1910. In 1930 the…

  3. Computer Assisted Instruction Program for Police Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brightman, Richard W.

    A project was devised to develop study materials for a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) course in police training, to develop computerized case problems, and to evaluate the effectiveness of the learning materials as compared with conventional classroom instruction in the same subject areas. Both an experimental group (police cadets at Golden…

  4. Cheating in the Classroom: Beyond Policing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    Regrettably, cheating is widespread on all levels of our educational system. Effective monitoring and judicial review processes that ensure that students who cheat are subjected to appropriate disciplinary action are essential. However, policing is not enough. We must go beyond policing to change the culture of the classroom in ways that…

  5. Racially Biased Policing: Determinants of Citizen Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzer, Ronald; Tuch, Steven A.

    2005-01-01

    The current controversy surrounding racial profiling in America has focused renewed attention on the larger issue of racial bias by the police. Yet little is known about the extent of police racial bias and even less about public perceptions of the problem. This article analyzes recent national survey data on citizens' views of and reported…

  6. Addicted? Reduced host resistance in populations with defensive symbionts.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Julien; Cogni, Rodrigo; Cao, Chuan; Smith, Sophie; Illingworth, Christopher J R; Jiggins, Francis M

    2016-06-29

    Heritable symbionts that protect their hosts from pathogens have been described in a wide range of insect species. By reducing the incidence or severity of infection, these symbionts have the potential to reduce the strength of selection on genes in the insect genome that increase resistance. Therefore, the presence of such symbionts may slow down the evolution of resistance. Here we investigated this idea by exposing Drosophila melanogaster populations to infection with the pathogenic Drosophila C virus (DCV) in the presence or absence of Wolbachia, a heritable symbiont of arthropods that confers protection against viruses. After nine generations of selection, we found that resistance to DCV had increased in all populations. However, in the presence of Wolbachia the resistant allele of pastrel-a gene that has a major effect on resistance to DCV-was at a lower frequency than in the symbiont-free populations. This finding suggests that defensive symbionts have the potential to hamper the evolution of insect resistance genes, potentially leading to a state of evolutionary addiction where the genetically susceptible insect host mostly relies on its symbiont to fight pathogens. PMID:27335421

  7. Addicted? Reduced host resistance in populations with defensive symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Cogni, Rodrigo; Cao, Chuan; Smith, Sophie; Illingworth, Christopher J. R.; Jiggins, Francis M.

    2016-01-01

    Heritable symbionts that protect their hosts from pathogens have been described in a wide range of insect species. By reducing the incidence or severity of infection, these symbionts have the potential to reduce the strength of selection on genes in the insect genome that increase resistance. Therefore, the presence of such symbionts may slow down the evolution of resistance. Here we investigated this idea by exposing Drosophila melanogaster populations to infection with the pathogenic Drosophila C virus (DCV) in the presence or absence of Wolbachia, a heritable symbiont of arthropods that confers protection against viruses. After nine generations of selection, we found that resistance to DCV had increased in all populations. However, in the presence of Wolbachia the resistant allele of pastrel—a gene that has a major effect on resistance to DCV—was at a lower frequency than in the symbiont-free populations. This finding suggests that defensive symbionts have the potential to hamper the evolution of insect resistance genes, potentially leading to a state of evolutionary addiction where the genetically susceptible insect host mostly relies on its symbiont to fight pathogens. PMID:27335421

  8. The symbiont side of symbiosis: do microbes really benefit?

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Justine R.; Gerardo, Nicole M.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial associations are integral to all eukaryotes. Mutualism, the interaction of two species for the benefit of both, is an important aspect of microbial associations, with evidence that multicellular organisms in particular benefit from microbes. However, the microbe’s perspective has largely been ignored, and it is unknown whether most microbial symbionts benefit from their associations with hosts. It has been presumed that microbial symbionts receive host-derived nutrients or a competition-free environment with reduced predation, but there have been few empirical tests, or even critical assessments, of these assumptions. We evaluate these hypotheses based on available evidence, which indicate reduced competition and predation are not universal benefits for symbionts. Some symbionts do receive nutrients from their host, but this has not always been linked to a corresponding increase in symbiont fitness. We recommend experiments to test symbiont fitness using current experimental systems of symbiosis and detail considerations for other systems. Incorporating symbiont fitness into symbiosis research will provide insight into the evolution of mutualistic interactions and cooperation in general. PMID:25309530

  9. Insect’s intestinal organ for symbiont sorting

    PubMed Central

    Ohbayashi, Tsubasa; Takeshita, Kazutaka; Kitagawa, Wataru; Nikoh, Naruo; Koga, Ryuichi; Meng, Xian-Ying; Tago, Kanako; Hori, Tomoyuki; Hayatsu, Masahito; Asano, Kozo; Kamagata, Yoichi; Lee, Bok Luel; Fukatsu, Takema; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo

    2015-01-01

    Symbiosis has significantly contributed to organismal adaptation and diversification. For establishment and maintenance of such host–symbiont associations, host organisms must have evolved mechanisms for selective incorporation, accommodation, and maintenance of their specific microbial partners. Here we report the discovery of a previously unrecognized type of animal organ for symbiont sorting. In the bean bug Riptortus pedestris, the posterior midgut is morphologically differentiated for harboring specific symbiotic bacteria of a beneficial nature. The sorting organ lies in the middle of the intestine as a constricted region, which partitions the midgut into an anterior nonsymbiotic region and a posterior symbiotic region. Oral administration of GFP-labeled Burkholderia symbionts to nymphal stinkbugs showed that the symbionts pass through the constricted region and colonize the posterior midgut. However, administration of food colorings revealed that food fluid enters neither the constricted region nor the posterior midgut, indicating selective symbiont passage at the constricted region and functional isolation of the posterior midgut for symbiosis. Coadministration of the GFP-labeled symbiont and red fluorescent protein-labeled Escherichia coli unveiled selective passage of the symbiont and blockage of E. coli at the constricted region, demonstrating the organ’s ability to discriminate the specific bacterial symbiont from nonsymbiotic bacteria. Transposon mutagenesis and screening revealed that symbiont mutants in flagella-related genes fail to pass through the constricted region, highlighting that both host’s control and symbiont’s motility are involved in the sorting process. The blocking of food flow at the constricted region is conserved among diverse stinkbug groups, suggesting the evolutionary origin of the intestinal organ in their common ancestor. PMID:26324935

  10. Representational Difference Analysis (RDA) reveals differential expression of conserved as well as novel genes during caste-specific development of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) ovary.

    PubMed

    Humann, Fernanda C; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2011-08-01

    In highly eusocial insects, such as the honey bee, Apis mellifera, the reproductive bias has become embedded in morphological caste differences. These are most expressively denoted in ovary size, with adult queens having large ovaries consisting of 150-200 ovarioles each, while workers typically have only 1-20 ovarioles per ovary. This morphological differentiation is a result of hormonal signals triggered by the diet change in the third larval instar, which eventually generate caste-specific gene expression patterns. To reveal these we produced differential gene expression libraries by Representational Difference Analysis (RDA) for queen and worker ovaries in a developmental stage when cell death is a prominent feature in the ovarioles of workers, whereas all ovarioles are maintained and extend in length in queens. In the queen library, 48% of the gene set represented homologs of known Drosophila genes, whereas in the worker ovary, the largest set (59%) were ESTs evidencing novel genes, not even computationally predicted in the honey bee genome. Differential expression was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR for a selected gene set, denoting major differences for two queen and two worker library genes. These included two unpredicted genes located in chromosome 11 (Group11.35 and Group11.31, respectively) possibly representing long non-coding RNAs. Being candidates as modulators of ovary development, their expression and functional analysis should be a focal point for future studies. PMID:21477651

  11. Saprotrophic fungal mycorrhizal symbionts in achlorophyllous orchids

    PubMed Central

    Martos, Florent; Perry, Brian A; Padamsee, Mahajabeen; Roy, Mélanie; Pailler, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Mycoheterotrophic plants are achlorophyllous plants that obtain carbon from their mycorrhizal fungi. They are usually considered to associate with fungi that are (1) specific of each mycoheterotrophic species and (2) mycorrhizal on surrounding green plants, which are the ultimate carbon source of the entire system. Here we review recent works revealing that some mycoheterotrophic plants are not fungal-specific, and that some mycoheterotrophic orchids associate with saprophytic fungi. A re-examination of earlier data suggests that lower specificity may be less rare than supposed in mycoheterotrophic plants. Association between mycoheterotrophic orchids and saprophytic fungi arose several times in the evolution of the two partners. We speculate that this indirectly illustrates why transition from saprotrophy to mycorrhizal status is common in fungal evolution. Moreover, some unexpected fungi occasionally encountered in plant roots should not be discounted as ‘molecular scraps’, since these facultatively biotrophic encounters may evolve into mycorrhizal symbionts in some other plants. PMID:20061806

  12. Symbiont-mediated RNA interference in insects

    PubMed Central

    Whitten, Miranda M. A.; Facey, Paul D.; Del Sol, Ricardo; Fernández-Martínez, Lorena T.; Evans, Meirwyn C.; Mitchell, Jacob J.; Bodger, Owen G.

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) methods for insects are often limited by problems with double-stranded (ds) RNA delivery, which restricts reverse genetics studies and the development of RNAi-based biocides. We therefore delegated to insect symbiotic bacteria the task of: (i) constitutive dsRNA synthesis and (ii) trauma-free delivery. RNaseIII-deficient, dsRNA-expressing bacterial strains were created from the symbionts of two very diverse pest species: a long-lived blood-sucking bug, Rhodnius prolixus, and a short-lived globally invasive polyphagous agricultural pest, western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis). When ingested, the manipulated bacteria colonized the insects, successfully competed with the wild-type microflora, and sustainably mediated systemic knockdown phenotypes that were horizontally transmissible. This represents a significant advance in the ability to deliver RNAi, potentially to a large range of non-model insects. PMID:26911963

  13. Symbiont-mediated RNA interference in insects.

    PubMed

    Whitten, Miranda M A; Facey, Paul D; Del Sol, Ricardo; Fernández-Martínez, Lorena T; Evans, Meirwyn C; Mitchell, Jacob J; Bodger, Owen G; Dyson, Paul J

    2016-02-24

    RNA interference (RNAi) methods for insects are often limited by problems with double-stranded (ds) RNA delivery, which restricts reverse genetics studies and the development of RNAi-based biocides. We therefore delegated to insect symbiotic bacteria the task of: (i) constitutive dsRNA synthesis and (ii) trauma-free delivery. RNaseIII-deficient, dsRNA-expressing bacterial strains were created from the symbionts of two very diverse pest species: a long-lived blood-sucking bug, Rhodnius prolixus, and a short-lived globally invasive polyphagous agricultural pest, western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis). When ingested, the manipulated bacteria colonized the insects, successfully competed with the wild-type microflora, and sustainably mediated systemic knockdown phenotypes that were horizontally transmissible. This represents a significant advance in the ability to deliver RNAi, potentially to a large range of non-model insects. PMID:26911963

  14. Genome Evolution in the Obligate but Environmentally Active Luminous Symbionts of Flashlight Fish.

    PubMed

    Hendry, Tory A; de Wet, Jeffrey R; Dougan, Katherine E; Dunlap, Paul V

    2016-01-01

    The luminous bacterial symbionts of anomalopid flashlight fish are thought to be obligately dependent on their hosts for growth and share several aspects of genome evolution with unrelated obligate symbionts, including genome reduction. However, in contrast to most obligate bacteria, anomalopid symbionts have an active environmental phase that may be important for symbiont transmission. Here we investigated patterns of evolution between anomalopid symbionts compared with patterns in free-living relatives and unrelated obligate symbionts to determine if trends common to obligate symbionts are also found in anomalopid symbionts. Two symbionts, "Candidatus Photodesmus katoptron" and "Candidatus Photodesmus blepharus," have genomes that are highly similar in gene content and order, suggesting genome stasis similar to ancient obligate symbionts present in insect lineages. This genome stasis exists in spite of the symbiont's inferred ability to recombine, which is frequently lacking in obligate symbionts with stable genomes. Additionally, we used genome comparisons and tests of selection to infer which genes may be particularly important for the symbiont's ecology compared with relatives. In keeping with obligate dependence, substitution patterns suggest that most symbiont genes are experiencing relaxed purifying selection compared with relatives. However, genes involved in motility and carbon storage, which are likely to be used outside the host, appear to be under increased purifying selection. Two chemoreceptor chemotaxis genes are retained by both species and show high conservation with amino acid sensing genes, suggesting that the bacteria may actively seek out hosts using chemotaxis toward amino acids, which the symbionts are not able to synthesize. PMID:27389687

  15. Defensive insect symbiont leads to cascading extinctions and community collapse.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Dirk; Kehoe, Rachel; van Veen, Fj Frank; McLean, Ailsa; Godfray, H Charles J; Dicke, Marcel; Gols, Rieta; Frago, Enric

    2016-07-01

    Animals often engage in mutualistic associations with microorganisms that protect them from predation, parasitism or pathogen infection. Studies of these interactions in insects have mostly focussed on the direct effects of symbiont infection on natural enemies without studying community-wide effects. Here, we explore the effect of a defensive symbiont on population dynamics and species extinctions in an experimental community composed of three aphid species and their associated specialist parasitoids. We found that introducing a bacterial symbiont with a protective (but not a non-protective) phenotype into one aphid species led to it being able to escape from its natural enemy and increase in density. This changed the relative density of the three aphid species which resulted in the extinction of the two other parasitoid species. Our results show that defensive symbionts can cause extinction cascades in experimental communities and so may play a significant role in the stability of consumer-herbivore communities in the field. PMID:27282315

  16. [Aerobic fitness in police officers].

    PubMed

    Capodaglio, E M; Imbriani, M; Criffò, A; Tronconi, E

    1996-01-01

    According to act n. 626, individual assessment of fitness and absence of contraindications for carrying on a job is fundamental. We considered a group of 44 Urban Police officers (36 males, 8 females), age 39.7 +/- 9.1, whose principal job requirement is a good energetic and motor availability, for a fitness evaluation through a submaximal treadmill test, with subsequent steps of 6 minutes. During the test, physiological variables (VO2, VE, QR through a metabograph, Hr trough an Ec-monitor and Pa through a manual sphygmomanometer) and subjective evaluations of fatigue and dyspnea were monitored. Studying the individual variables trend it was possible to identify the critical metabolic level that was easily tolerated by each individual. This level, an average of 6.8 MET corresponding to a heavy activity, is an endurance predictor and can be utilized in subsequent controls. PMID:9312450

  17. Bacterial Symbionts of a Devastating Coffee Plant Pest, the Stinkbug Antestiopsis thunbergii (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, Yu; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Serracin, Mario; Tulgetske, Genet M.; Miller, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Stinkbugs of the genus Antestiopsis, so-called antestia bugs or variegated coffee bugs, are notorious pests of coffee plants in Africa. We investigated the symbiotic bacteria associated with Antestiopsis thunbergii, a major coffee plant pest in Rwanda. PCR, cloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of bacterial genes identified four distinct bacterial lineages associated with A. thunbergii: a gammaproteobacterial gut symbiont and symbionts representing the genera Sodalis, Spiroplasma, and Rickettsia. In situ hybridization showed that the gut symbiont densely occupied the lumen of midgut crypts, whereas the Sodalis symbiont, the Spiroplasma symbiont, and the Rickettsia symbiont sparsely and sporadically infected various cells and tissues. Diagnostic PCR survey of 154 A. thunbergii individuals collected at 8 localities in Rwanda revealed high infection frequencies (100% for the gut symbiont, 51.3% for the Sodalis symbiont, 52.6% for the Spiroplasma symbiont, and 24.0% for the Rickettsia symbiont). These results suggest that the gut symbiont is the primary symbiotic associate of obligate nature for A. thunbergii, whereas the Sodalis symbiont, the Spiroplasma symbiont, and the Rickettsia symbiont are the secondary symbiotic associates of facultative nature. We observed high coinfection frequencies, i.e., 7.8% of individuals with quadruple infection with all the symbionts, 32.5% with triple infections with the gut symbiont and two of the secondary symbionts, and 39.6% with double infections with the gut symbiont and any of the three secondary symbionts, which were statistically not different from the expected coinfection frequencies and probably reflected random associations. The knowledge of symbiotic microbiota in A. thunbergii will provide useful background information for controlling this devastating coffee plant pest. PMID:24727277

  18. Bacterial symbionts of a devastating coffee plant pest, the stinkbug Antestiopsis thunbergii (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Yu; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Serracin, Mario; Tulgetske, Genet M; Miller, Thomas A; Fukatsu, Takema

    2014-06-01

    Stinkbugs of the genus Antestiopsis, so-called antestia bugs or variegated coffee bugs, are notorious pests of coffee plants in Africa. We investigated the symbiotic bacteria associated with Antestiopsis thunbergii, a major coffee plant pest in Rwanda. PCR, cloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of bacterial genes identified four distinct bacterial lineages associated with A. thunbergii: a gammaproteobacterial gut symbiont and symbionts representing the genera Sodalis, Spiroplasma, and Rickettsia. In situ hybridization showed that the gut symbiont densely occupied the lumen of midgut crypts, whereas the Sodalis symbiont, the Spiroplasma symbiont, and the Rickettsia symbiont sparsely and sporadically infected various cells and tissues. Diagnostic PCR survey of 154 A. thunbergii individuals collected at 8 localities in Rwanda revealed high infection frequencies (100% for the gut symbiont, 51.3% for the Sodalis symbiont, 52.6% for the Spiroplasma symbiont, and 24.0% for the Rickettsia symbiont). These results suggest that the gut symbiont is the primary symbiotic associate of obligate nature for A. thunbergii, whereas the Sodalis symbiont, the Spiroplasma symbiont, and the Rickettsia symbiont are the secondary symbiotic associates of facultative nature. We observed high coinfection frequencies, i.e., 7.8% of individuals with quadruple infection with all the symbionts, 32.5% with triple infections with the gut symbiont and two of the secondary symbionts, and 39.6% with double infections with the gut symbiont and any of the three secondary symbionts, which were statistically not different from the expected coinfection frequencies and probably reflected random associations. The knowledge of symbiotic microbiota in A. thunbergii will provide useful background information for controlling this devastating coffee plant pest. PMID:24727277

  19. FTO Views on the Community Policing Skills of Probationary Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasson, Tyler

    2012-01-01

    Community policing is an approach to policing that goes beyond responding to emergency calls and incorporates the needs of specific communities into the entire fabric of the police force. The Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) has made changes at the level of training to proactively create a more professional and community-oriented police…

  20. 32 CFR 637.4 - Military Police and the USACIDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Military Police and the USACIDC. 637.4 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.4 Military Police and the USACIDC. (a) The military police or the USACIDC are authorized to investigate allegations...

  1. 32 CFR 637.4 - Military Police and the USACIDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Military Police and the USACIDC. 637.4 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.4 Military Police and the USACIDC. (a) The military police or the USACIDC are authorized to investigate allegations...

  2. 32 CFR 635.17 - Military Police Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Military Police Report. 635.17 Section 635.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.17 Military Police Report. (a... received or observed by military police. (2) Serve as a record of all military police and military...

  3. 32 CFR 635.17 - Military Police Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Military Police Report. 635.17 Section 635.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.17 Military Police Report. (a... received or observed by military police. (2) Serve as a record of all military police and military...

  4. 32 CFR 637.4 - Military Police and the USACIDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Police and the USACIDC. 637.4 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.4 Military Police and the USACIDC. (a) The military police or the USACIDC are authorized to investigate allegations...

  5. 32 CFR 637.4 - Military Police and the USACIDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Military Police and the USACIDC. 637.4 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.4 Military Police and the USACIDC. (a) The military police or the USACIDC are authorized to investigate allegations...

  6. 32 CFR 635.17 - Military Police Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Military Police Report. 635.17 Section 635.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.17 Military Police Report. (a... received or observed by military police. (2) Serve as a record of all military police and military...

  7. 32 CFR 635.17 - Military Police Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Police Report. 635.17 Section 635.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.17 Military Police Report. (a... received or observed by military police. (2) Serve as a record of all military police and military...

  8. 32 CFR 635.17 - Military Police Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Military Police Report. 635.17 Section 635.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.17 Military Police Report. (a... received or observed by military police. (2) Serve as a record of all military police and military...

  9. 32 CFR 637.4 - Military Police and the USACIDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Military Police and the USACIDC. 637.4 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.4 Military Police and the USACIDC. (a) The military police or the USACIDC are authorized to investigate allegations...

  10. Tracking Transmission of Apicomplexan Symbionts in Diverse Caribbean Corals

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Nathan L.; Ritson-Williams, Raphael; Coffroth, Mary Alice; Miller, Margaret W.; Fogarty, Nicole D.; Santos, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    Symbionts in each generation are transmitted to new host individuals either vertically (parent to offspring), horizontally (from exogenous sources), or a combination of both. Scleractinian corals make an excellent study system for understanding patterns of symbiont transmission since they harbor diverse symbionts and possess distinct reproductive modes of either internal brooding or external broadcast spawning that generally correlate with vertical or horizontal transmission, respectively. Here, we focused on the under-recognized, but apparently widespread, coral-associated apicomplexans (Protista: Alveolata) to determine if symbiont transmission depends on host reproductive mode. Specifically, a PCR-based assay was utilized towards identifying whether planula larvae and reproductive adults from brooding and broadcast spawning scleractinian coral species in Florida and Belize harbored apicomplexan DNA. Nearly all (85.5%; n = 85/89) examined planulae of five brooding species (Porites astreoides, Agaricia tenuifolia, Agaricia agaricites, Favia fragum, Mycetophyllia ferox) and adults of P. astreoides were positive for apicomplexan DNA. In contrast, no (n = 0/10) apicomplexan DNA was detected from planulae of four broadcast spawning species (Acropora cervicornis, Acropora palmata, Pseudodiploria strigosa, and Orbicella faveolata) and rarely in gametes (8.9%; n = 5/56) of these species sampled from the same geographical range as the brooding species. In contrast, tissue samples from nearly all (92.0%; n = 81/88) adults of the broadcast spawning species A. cervicornis, A. palmata and O. faveolata harbored apicomplexan DNA, including colonies whose gametes and planulae tested negative for these symbionts. Taken together, these data suggest apicomplexans are transmitted vertically in these brooding scleractinian coral species while the broadcast spawning scleractinian species examined here acquire these symbionts horizontally. Notably, these transmission patterns are

  11. Policing Matters: Addressing the Controversial Issue of Policing Through Education for Reconciliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusack, Mella

    2009-05-01

    Policing is widely held to constitute a contentious issue in classrooms on both sides of the border on the island of Ireland, despite the fact that the ongoing peace process has led to a normalising of cross-border policing relationships. The Education for Reconciliation Project works with teachers and members of the two police services to produce teaching/learning modules on law and policing for use in Citizenship Education classrooms. This paper examines the commonly-held teacher perception of policing as a controversial issue and the reasons why these perceptions exist. It takes into consideration the opinion that it is time for schools to begin work on policing, and investigates the implications for practice.

  12. A shift to parasitism in the jellyfish symbiont Symbiodinium microadriaticum

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Joel L; Wilcox, Thomas P

    2005-01-01

    One of the outstanding and poorly understood examples of cooperation between species is found in corals, hydras and jellyfish that form symbioses with algae. These mutualistic algae are mostly acquired infectiously from the seawater and, according to models of virulence evolution, should be selected to parasitize their hosts. We altered algal transmission between jellyfish hosts in the laboratory to examine the potential for virulence evolution in this widespread symbiosis. In one experimental treatment, vertical transmission of algae (parent to offspring) selected for symbiont cooperation, because symbiont fitness was tied to host reproduction. In the other treatment, horizontal transmission (infectious spread) decoupled symbiont fitness from the host, potentially allowing parasitic symbionts to spread. Fitness estimates revealed a striking shift to parasitism in the horizontal treatment. The horizontally transmitted algae proliferated faster within hosts and had higher dispersal rates from hosts compared to the vertical treatment, while reducing host reproduction and growth. However, a trade-off was detected between harm caused to hosts and symbiont fitness. Virulence trade-offs have been modelled for pathogens and may be critical in stabilising ‘infectious’ symbioses. Our results demonstrate the dynamic nature of this symbiosis and illustrate the potential ease with which beneficial symbionts can evolve into parasites. PMID:16615208

  13. Role Learning for Police Recruits; Some Problems in the Process of Preparation for the Uncertainties of Police Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, John Harold

    The recruit training program of the New York City Police Department was studied to identify and clarify organizational and social psychological problems pertaining to the legality of police actions, prestige of police officers, interpersonal methods effective in police work, and organizational factors in the department. Data were obtained from…

  14. Dispersal of a defensive symbiont depends on contact between hosts, host health, and host size.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Skylar R; Boyle, Lindsey J; Belden, Lisa K; Wojdak, Jeremy M

    2015-10-01

    Symbiont dispersal is necessary for the maintenance of defense mutualisms in space and time, and the distribution of symbionts among hosts should be intricately tied to symbiont dispersal behaviors. However, we know surprisingly little about how most defensive symbionts find and choose advantageous hosts or what cues trigger symbionts to disperse from their current hosts. In a series of six experiments, we explored the dispersal ecology of an oligochaete worm (Chaetogaster limnaei) that protects snail hosts from infection by larval trematode parasites. Specifically, we determined the factors that affected net symbiont dispersal from a current "donor" host to a new "receiver" host. Symbionts rarely dispersed unless hosts directly came in contact with one another. However, symbionts overcame their reluctance to disperse across the open environment if the donor host died. When hosts came in direct contact, net symbiont dispersal varied with both host size and trematode infection status, whereas symbiont density did not influence the probability of symbiont dispersal. Together, these experiments show that symbiont dispersal is not a constant, random process, as is often assumed in symbiont dispersal models, but rather the probability of dispersal varies with ecological conditions and among individual hosts. The observed heterogeneity in dispersal rates among hosts may help to explain symbiont aggregation among snail hosts in nature. PMID:25964062

  15. "Police Wouldn't Give You No Help": Female Offenders on Reporting Sexual Assault to Police.

    PubMed

    Carbone-Lopez, Kristin; Slocum, Lee Ann; Kruttschnitt, Candace

    2016-03-01

    Sexual assault remains one of the most underreported violent crimes. When victims report, they often are dissatisfied with the police response. The factors influencing one's decision to invoke the law have been widely examined. However, less research examines (a) how the victim's criminality affects this decision and (b) women offenders' characterization of their reporting decisions. We use mixed methods to explore the factors related to an offender's decision to report sexual victimization to police and consider their descriptions of police response when they do report the crime. Our findings provide insight into the gendered relations between offenders and police. PMID:26354039

  16. The Baron and His Celestial Police

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.

    1988-03-01

    Baron Franz Xaver von Zach (1754 - 1832) helped launch the first scientific journals and conferences. By pooling two dozen observers into the "Celestial Police," he hoped to find a planet between Mars and Jupiter.

  17. The Police Role in an Urban Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garmire, Bernard L.

    1972-01-01

    As a model for reform and reorganization, the author recommends the division of the contemporary police organization into two agencies, one with law enforcement function, one with community service function. Initial steps to be taken are outlined. (JB)

  18. The Information-Seeking Behavior of Police Officers in Turkish National Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guclu, Idris

    2011-01-01

    A current trend that has emerged as a result of the information age is information-seeking behavior. From individuals to large social institutions, information-seeking behavior is utilized to attain a wide variety of goals. This body of work investigates the information-seeking behaviors of police officers who work in police stations in the…

  19. Quality or quantity: is nutrient transfer driven more by symbiont identity and productivity than by symbiont abundance?

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Christopher J; Thacker, Robert W; Baker, David M; Fogel, Marilyn L

    2013-01-01

    By forming symbiotic interactions with microbes, many animals and plants gain access to the products of novel metabolic pathways. We investigated the transfer of symbiont-derived carbon and nitrogen to the sponges Aplysina cauliformis, Aplysina fulva, Chondrilla caribensis, Neopetrosia subtriangularis and Xestospongia bocatorensis, all of which host abundant microbial populations, and Niphates erecta, which hosts a sparse symbiont community. We incubated sponges in light and dark bottles containing seawater spiked with 13C- and 15N-enriched inorganic compounds and then measured 13C and 15N enrichment in the microbial (nutrient assimilation) and sponge (nutrient transfer) fractions. Surprisingly, although most sponges hosting abundant microbial communities were more enriched in 13C than N. erecta, only N. subtriangularis was more enriched in 15N than N. erecta. Although photosymbiont abundance varied substantially across species, 13C and 15N enrichment was not significantly correlated with photosymbiont abundance. Enrichment was significantly correlated with the ratio of gross productivity to respiration (P:R), which varied across host species and symbiont phylotype. Because irradiance impacts P:R ratios, we also incubated A. cauliformis in 13C-enriched seawater under different irradiances to determine whether symbiont carbon fixation and transfer are dependent on irradiance. Carbon fixation and transfer to the sponge host occurred in all treatments, but was greatest at higher irradiances and was significantly correlated with P:R ratios. Taken together, these results demonstrate that nutrient transfer from microbial symbionts to host sponges is influenced more by host–symbiont identities and P:R ratios than by symbiont abundance. PMID:23407307

  20. Quality or quantity: is nutrient transfer driven more by symbiont identity and productivity than by symbiont abundance?

    PubMed

    Freeman, Christopher J; Thacker, Robert W; Baker, David M; Fogel, Marilyn L

    2013-06-01

    By forming symbiotic interactions with microbes, many animals and plants gain access to the products of novel metabolic pathways. We investigated the transfer of symbiont-derived carbon and nitrogen to the sponges Aplysina cauliformis, Aplysina fulva, Chondrilla caribensis, Neopetrosia subtriangularis and Xestospongia bocatorensis, all of which host abundant microbial populations, and Niphates erecta, which hosts a sparse symbiont community. We incubated sponges in light and dark bottles containing seawater spiked with (13)C- and (15)N-enriched inorganic compounds and then measured (13)C and (15)N enrichment in the microbial (nutrient assimilation) and sponge (nutrient transfer) fractions. Surprisingly, although most sponges hosting abundant microbial communities were more enriched in (13)C than N. erecta, only N. subtriangularis was more enriched in (15)N than N. erecta. Although photosymbiont abundance varied substantially across species, (13)C and (15)N enrichment was not significantly correlated with photosymbiont abundance. Enrichment was significantly correlated with the ratio of gross productivity to respiration (P:R), which varied across host species and symbiont phylotype. Because irradiance impacts P:R ratios, we also incubated A. cauliformis in (13)C-enriched seawater under different irradiances to determine whether symbiont carbon fixation and transfer are dependent on irradiance. Carbon fixation and transfer to the sponge host occurred in all treatments, but was greatest at higher irradiances and was significantly correlated with P:R ratios. Taken together, these results demonstrate that nutrient transfer from microbial symbionts to host sponges is influenced more by host-symbiont identities and P:R ratios than by symbiont abundance. PMID:23407307

  1. Symbiont transmission entails the risk of parasite infection.

    PubMed

    Salem, Hassan; Onchuru, Thomas O; Bauer, Eugen; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Like many animals, firebugs (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae) rely on behavioural adaptations to successfully endow their offspring with microbial mutualists. To transmit the nutritionally beneficial Coriobacteriaceae symbionts, female firebugs smear egg surfaces with symbiont-containing faecal droplets that are subsequently ingested by newly hatched nymphs through active probing to initiate infection. Alternatively, the symbionts can be acquired horizontally through contact with faeces of infected conspecifics. Here, we report that these adaptations ensuring successful transmission of bacterial symbionts among firebugs are exploited by the specialized trypanosomatid parasite Leptomonas pyrrhocoris. Using comparative transcriptomics, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and controlled bioassays, we demonstrate that the transmission cycle of L. pyrrhocoris mirrors that of the bacterial mutualists, with high efficiency for both vertical and horizontal transmission. This indicates that the parasite capitalizes on pre-existing behavioural adaptations (egg smearing and probing) to facilitate its own transfer within host populations, adaptations that likely evolved to initiate and maintain an association with beneficial gut symbionts. Thus, the transmission of mutualistic microbes across host generations can entail a significant risk of co-transmitting pathogens or parasites, thereby exerting selective pressures on the host to evolve more specific mechanisms of transfer. PMID:26673937

  2. The biogeography and phylogeny of unicellular cyanobacterial symbionts in sponges from Australia and the Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Usher, K M; Fromont, J; Sutton, D C; Toze, S

    2004-08-01

    The distribution, host associations, and phylogenetic relationships of the unicellular cyanobacterial symbionts of selected marine sponges were investigated with direct 16s rDNA sequencing. The results indicate that the symbionts of the marine sponges Aplysina aerophoba, Ircinia variabilis, and Petrosia ficiformis from the Mediterranean, four Chondrilla species from Australia and the Mediterranean, and Haliclona sp. from Australia support a diversity of symbionts comprising at least four closely related species of Synechococcus. These include the symbionts presently described as Aphanocapsa feldmannii from P. ficiformis and Chondrilla nucula. A fifth symbiont from Cymbastela marshae in Australia is an undescribed symbiont of sponges, related to Oscillatoria rosea. One symbiont, Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum, was found in diverse sponge genera in the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian, Pacific, and Southern oceans, whereas others were apparently more restricted in host association and distribution. These results are discussed in terms of the biodiversity and biogeographic distributions of cyanobacterial symbionts. PMID:15546037

  3. Factors limiting the spread of the protective symbiont HAMILTONELLA DEFENSA in the aphid APHIS CRACCIVORA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many insects are associated with heritable facultative symbionts that mediate important ecological interactions, including host protection against natural enemies. Despite such benefits, facultative symbionts are commonly found at intermediate frequencies in surveyed populations. The cowpea aphid,...

  4. Genetic diversity in cyanobacterial symbionts of thalloid bryophytes.

    PubMed

    Rikkinen, Jouko; Virtanen, Viivi

    2008-01-01

    Two species of thalloid liverworts, Blasia pusilla and Cavicularia densa, form stable symbioses with nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria. Both bryophytes promote the persistence of their cyanobacterial associations by producing specialized gemmae, which facilitate the simultaneous dispersal of the host and its nitrogen-fixing symbionts. Here the genetic diversity of cyanobacterial symbionts of Blasia and Cavicularia is examined. The results indicate that the primary symbionts of both bryophytes are closely related and belong to a specific group of symbiotic Nostoc strains. Related strains have previously been reported from hornworts and cycads, and from many terricolous cyanolichens. The evolutionary origins of all these symbioses may trace back to pre-Permian times. While the laboratory strain Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73102 has been widely used in experimental studies of bryophyte-Nostoc associations, sequence-identical cyanobionts have not yet been identified from thalloid liverworts in the field. PMID:18325923

  5. Metagenomic Analysis of Microbial Symbionts in a Gutless Worm

    SciTech Connect

    Woyke, Tanja; Teeling, Hanno; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Hunteman, Marcel; Richter, Michael; Gloeckner, Frank Oliver; Boeffelli, Dario; Barry, Kerrie W.; Shapiro, Harris J.; Anderson, Iain J.; Szeto, Ernest; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Mussmann, Marc; Amann, Rudolf; Bergin, Claudia; Ruehland, Caroline; Rubin, Edward M.; Dubilier, Nicole

    2006-05-01

    Symbioses between bacteria and eukaryotes are ubiquitous, yet our understanding of the interactions driving these associations is hampered by our inability to cultivate most host-associated microbes. Here we use a metagenomic approach to describe four co-occurring symbionts from the marine oligochaete Olavius algarvensis, a worm lacking a mouth, gut and nephridia. Shotgun sequencing and metabolic pathway reconstruction revealed that the symbionts are sulphur-oxidizing and sulphate-reducing bacteria, all of which are capable of carbon fixation, thus providing the host with multiple sources of nutrition. Molecular evidence for the uptake and recycling of worm waste products by the symbionts suggests how the worm could eliminate its excretory system, an adaptation unique among annelid worms. We propose a model that describes how the versatile metabolism within this symbiotic consortium provides the host with an optimal energy supply as it shuttles between the upper oxic and lower anoxic coastal sediments that it inhabits.

  6. Police investigations: discretion denied yet undeniably exercised

    PubMed Central

    Belur, J.; Tilley, N.; Osrin, D.; Daruwalla, N.; Kumar, M.; Tiwari, V.

    2014-01-01

    Police investigations involve determining whether a crime has been committed, and if so what type of crime, who has committed it and whether there is the evidence to charge the perpetrators. Drawing on fieldwork in Delhi and Mumbai, this paper explores how police investigations unfolded in the specific context of women’s deaths by burning in India. In particular, it focuses on the use of discretion despite its denial by those exercising it. In India, there are distinctive statutes relating to women’s suspicious deaths, reflecting the widespread expectation that the bride’s family will pay a dowry to the groom’s family and the tensions to which this may on occasion give rise in the early years of a marriage. Often, there are conflicting claims influencing how the woman’s death is classified. These in turn affect police investigation. The nature and direction of police discretion in investigating women’s deaths by burning reflect in part the unique nature of the legislation and the particular sensitivities in relation to these types of death. They also highlight processes that are liable to be at work in any crime investigation. It was found that police officers exercised unacknowledged discretion at seven specific points in the investigative process, with potentially significant consequences for the achievement of just outcomes: first response, recording the victim’s ‘dying declaration’, inquest, registering of the ‘First Information Report’, collecting evidence, arrest and framing of the charges. PMID:26376482

  7. Evolutionary replacement of obligate symbionts in an ancient and diverse insect lineage.

    PubMed

    Koga, Ryuichi; Bennett, Gordon M; Cryan, Jason R; Moran, Nancy A

    2013-07-01

    Many insect groups depend on ancient obligate symbioses with bacteria that undergo long-term genomic degradation due to inactivation and loss of ancestral genes. Sap-feeding insects in the hemipteran suborder Auchenorrhyncha show complex symbioses with at least two obligate bacterial symbionts, inhabiting specialized host cells (bacteriocytes). We explored the symbiotic relationships of the spittlebugs (Auchenorrhyncha: Cercopoidea) using phylogenetic and microscopy methods. Results show that most spittlebugs contain the symbionts Sulcia muelleri (Bacteroidetes) and Zinderia insecticola (Betaproteobacteria) with each restricted to its own bacteriocyte type. However, the ancestral Zinderia symbiont has been replaced with a novel symbiont closely related to Sodalis glossinidius (Enterobacteriaceae) in members of the ecologically successful spittlebug tribe Philaenini. At least one spittlebug species retains Sulcia and Zinderia, but also has acquired a Sodalis-like symbiont, possibly representing a transitional stage in the evolutionary succession of symbioses. Phylogenetic analyses including symbionts of other Auchenorrhyncha lineages suggest that Zinderia, like Sulcia, descends from an ancestral symbiont present in the common ancestor of Auchenorrhyncha. This betaproteobacterial symbiont has been repeatedly replaced by other symbionts, such as the Sodalis-like symbiont of spittlebugs. Symbiont replacement may offer a route for hosts to escape dependence on an ancient, degraded and potentially inefficient symbiont. PMID:23574391

  8. Policing sexuality in a modern state hospital.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, T

    1989-01-01

    In 1985 a grand jury was convened by the district attorney to investigate conditions at the Rochester (N.Y.) Psychiatric Center following the center's decision not to notify police of the sodomy of a patient by another patient. The grand jury brought no civil or criminal indictments, but the incident touched off a wave of negative publicity about the hospital and prompted local police and the district attorney to demand that the hospital report any incident of sexual activity involving a mentally incompetent patient. As a result, the hospital instituted a stringent policy requiring extensive investigation and physical examination of patients found having sex. This article discusses legal and clinical issues that were raised by the incident, the impact of public scrutiny on the policing of patient sexuality. The negative aspects of overreporting sexual activity at a state hospital are described. PMID:2912842

  9. Occupational stress among senior police officers.

    PubMed

    Brown, J; Cooper, C; Kirkcaldy, B

    1996-02-01

    From a survey of over 500 senior UK police officers completing the occupational stress inventory, it was observed that those serving in England and Wales exhibited the highest job stress related to structure and climate, co-worker relationships and their managerial role. There were no inter-regional differences on the individual difference variables, Type A behaviour, locus of control, or on physical health measures. Superintendents in Scotland used coping methods least frequently including domestic/home support, time management and social support, the latter strategy being most used by Northern Ireland officers. Findings relating job stress to job satisfaction were inconsistent with other police populations. Results are discussed in the context of organizational reform in the police service. PMID:8852019

  10. Guidelines -- Cooperation Between School Officials and Police Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nedurian, Vram, Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses police-school relations in different situations -- (1) investigations in schools, (2) interrogations of suspects in schools, (3) arrest by police, (4) searches on school property, (5) law violations during school hours, and (6) prosecution of crimes (JF)

  11. POLICE STATION LOOKING SOUTH WEST, HOSPITAL BUILDING IN BACKGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    POLICE STATION LOOKING SOUTH WEST, HOSPITAL BUILDING IN BACKGROUND - New York State Soldiers & Sailors Home, Police and Voluntary Service, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 76 Veterans Avenue, Bath, Steuben County, NY

  12. Ultrastructure, molecular phylogenetics, and chlorophyll a content of novel cyanobacterial symbionts in temperate sponges.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Patrick M; López-Legentil, Susanna; Turon, Xavier

    2012-10-01

    Marine sponges often harbor photosynthetic symbionts that may enhance host metabolism and ecological success, yet little is known about the factors that structure the diversity, specificity, and nature of these relationships. Here, we characterized the cyanobacterial symbionts in two congeneric and sympatric host sponges that exhibit distinct habitat preferences correlated with irradiance: Ircinia fasciculata (higher irradiance) and Ircinia variabilis (lower irradiance). Symbiont composition was similar among hosts and dominated by the sponge-specific cyanobacterium Synechococcus spongiarum. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene sequences revealed that Mediterranean Ircinia spp. host a specific, novel symbiont clade ("M") within the S. spongiarum species complex. A second, rare cyanobacterium related to the ascidian symbiont Synechocystis trididemni was observed in low abundance in I. fasciculata and likewise corresponded to a new symbiont clade. Symbiont communities in I. fasciculata exhibited nearly twice the chlorophyll a concentrations of I. variabilis. Further, S. spongiarum clade M symbionts in I. fasciculata exhibited dense intracellular aggregations of glycogen granules, a storage product of photosynthetic carbon assimilation rarely observed in I. variabilis symbionts. In both host sponges, S. spongiarum cells were observed interacting with host archeocytes, although the lower photosynthetic activity of Cyanobacteria in I. variabilis suggests less symbiont-derived nutritional benefit. The observed differences in clade M symbionts among sponge hosts suggest that ambient irradiance conditions dictate symbiont photosynthetic activity and consequently may mediate the nature of host-symbiont relationships. In addition, the plasticity exhibited by clade M symbionts may be an adaptive attribute that allows for flexibility in host-symbiont interactions across the seasonal fluctuations in light and temperature characteristic of

  13. 32 CFR 635.5 - Police Intelligence/Criminal Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Police Intelligence/Criminal Information. 635.5... Intelligence/Criminal Information. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals.... If police intelligence is developed to the point where it factually establishes a criminal...

  14. 32 CFR 635.5 - Police Intelligence/Criminal Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Police Intelligence/Criminal Information. 635.5... Intelligence/Criminal Information. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals.... If police intelligence is developed to the point where it factually establishes a criminal...

  15. 32 CFR 635.5 - Police Intelligence/Criminal Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Police Intelligence/Criminal Information. 635.5... Intelligence/Criminal Information. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals.... If police intelligence is developed to the point where it factually establishes a criminal...

  16. 32 CFR 635.5 - Police Intelligence/Criminal Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Police Intelligence/Criminal Information. 635.5... Intelligence/Criminal Information. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals.... If police intelligence is developed to the point where it factually establishes a criminal...

  17. 32 CFR 635.5 - Police Intelligence/Criminal Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Police Intelligence/Criminal Information. 635.5... Intelligence/Criminal Information. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals.... If police intelligence is developed to the point where it factually establishes a criminal...

  18. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 15: Police Traffic Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 15 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on police traffic services. The purpose and objectives of a police services program are described. Federal authority in the areas of highway safety and policies regarding a police traffic…

  19. Researchers Study Police Brutality against Hispanics and Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Roberto

    1993-01-01

    Research on police brutality against ethnic groups is increasing, particularly in Latino communities. Findings suggest a pattern of abuse, often without evidence of a crime and without appropriate review of police action. It is suggested that abuse will abate only when police departments operate openly and undergo public scrutiny. (MSE)

  20. A New Campus Police Agency: A Florida Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parfitt, Rick

    2012-01-01

    Campus policing is a geographically focused police practice and the epitome of community oriented policing. Campus law enforcement agencies deal not only with a racially, ethnically, and culturally diverse population, they also deal with populations that change dramatically every year. While some campuses are enclaves unto themselves, many are…

  1. A Model for Police Assistance to Rape Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Jerrold J.

    Noting that an increasing number of rape victims who seek alternatives to police procedures do so because of the insensitive behavior of the investigating police officer, this paper provides a model of interpersonal communication skills that will enable police officers to better relate to and support the victims of rape. The areas covered in the…

  2. Using Online Study Groups to Prepare Police Promotional Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Bonnie L.

    2013-01-01

    Quality policing requires selecting and retaining the best and the brightest officers and supporting their advancement into the leadership ranks of police organizations. This study investigates two aspects of police promotional testing: identifying and understanding the barriers to participation in the promotional process and the use of online…

  3. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Police officers and firefighters. 404.1212... May Be Covered § 404.1212 Police officers and firefighters. (a) General. For Social Security coverage purposes under section 218 of the Act, a police officer's or firefighter's position is any position...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Police officers and firefighters. 404.1212... May Be Covered § 404.1212 Police officers and firefighters. (a) General. For Social Security coverage purposes under section 218 of the Act, a police officer's or firefighter's position is any position...

  5. 32 CFR 635.20 - Military Police Codes (MPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.20 Military Police... attached military police units are notified for mobilization, relocation, activation, or inactivation....

  6. 32 CFR 635.20 - Military Police Codes (MPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.20 Military Police... attached military police units are notified for mobilization, relocation, activation, or inactivation....

  7. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Police officers and firefighters. 404.1212... May Be Covered § 404.1212 Police officers and firefighters. (a) General. For Social Security coverage purposes under section 218 of the Act, a police officer's or firefighter's position is any position...

  8. Neighborhood Context and Police Vigor: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobol, James J.; Wu, Yuning; Sun, Ivan Y.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a partial test of Klinger's ecological theory of police behavior using hierarchical linear modeling on 1,677 suspects who had encounters with police within 24 beats. The current study used data from four sources originally collected by the Project on Policing Neighborhoods (POPN), including systematic social observation,…

  9. 32 CFR 635.20 - Military Police Codes (MPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.20 Military Police... attached military police units are notified for mobilization, relocation, activation, or inactivation....

  10. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Police officers and firefighters. 404.1212... May Be Covered § 404.1212 Police officers and firefighters. (a) General. For Social Security coverage purposes under section 218 of the Act, a police officer's or firefighter's position is any position...

  11. 32 CFR 635.20 - Military Police Codes (MPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.20 Military Police... attached military police units are notified for mobilization, relocation, activation, or inactivation....

  12. 32 CFR 635.20 - Military Police Codes (MPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.20 Military Police... attached military police units are notified for mobilization, relocation, activation, or inactivation....

  13. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Police officers and firefighters. 404.1212... May Be Covered § 404.1212 Police officers and firefighters. (a) General. For Social Security coverage purposes under section 218 of the Act, a police officer's or firefighter's position is any position...

  14. Social Work Education and Police in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovai, Betty

    2007-01-01

    The contribution of social work education to the professional capacity development of police officers commenced in 1974 when the Diploma in Police Studies was introduced at the University of Papua New Guinea under the Social Work Programme. In 2001, a study was conducted to assess the impact of social work education on police officers. The study…

  15. Designing a Management Development Course for Police Inspectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Bob

    1989-01-01

    A course for recently promoted police inspectors in England and Wales has three stages: precourse identification of learning objectives, six weeks of instruction, and four months of "learning through work." Five phases of instruction include role and context of police work, management skills, relations within the police organization, community…

  16. Evidence for specificity in symbiont-conferred protection against parasitoids

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Ailsa H. C.; Godfray, H. Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    Many insects harbour facultative symbiotic bacteria, some of which have been shown to provide resistance against natural enemies. One of the best-known protective symbionts is Hamiltonella defensa, which in pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) confers resistance against attack by parasitoid wasps in the genus Aphidius (Braconidae). We asked (i) whether this symbiont also confers protection against a phylogenetically distant group of parasitoids (Aphelinidae) and (ii) whether there are consistent differences in the effects of bacteria found in pea aphid biotypes adapted to different host plants. We found that some H. defensa strains do provide protection against an aphelinid parasitoid Aphelinus abdominalis. Hamiltonella defensa from the Lotus biotype provided high resistance to A. abdominalis and moderate to low resistance to Aphidius ervi, while the reverse was seen from Medicago biotype isolates. Aphids from Ononis showed no evidence of symbiont-mediated protection against either wasp species and were relatively vulnerable to both. Our results may reflect the different selection pressures exerted by the parasitoid community on aphids feeding on different host plants, and could help explain the maintenance of genetic diversity in bacterial symbionts. PMID:26136451

  17. Evidence of horizontal gene transfer between obligate leaf nodule symbionts.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Carbó, Marta; Sieber, Simon; Dessein, Steven; Wicker, Thomas; Verstraete, Brecht; Gademann, Karl; Eberl, Leo; Carlier, Aurelien

    2016-09-01

    Bacteria of the genus Burkholderia establish an obligate symbiosis with plant species of the Rubiaceae and Primulaceae families. The bacteria, housed within the leaves, are transmitted hereditarily and have not yet been cultured. We have sequenced and compared the genomes of eight bacterial leaf nodule symbionts of the Rubiaceae plant family. All of the genomes exhibit features consistent with genome erosion. Genes potentially involved in the biosynthesis of kirkamide, an insecticidal C7N aminocyclitol, are conserved in most Rubiaceae symbionts. However, some have partially lost the kirkamide pathway due to genome erosion and are unable to synthesize the compound. Kirkamide synthesis is therefore not responsible for the obligate nature of the symbiosis. More importantly, we find evidence of intra-clade horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events affecting genes of the secondary metabolism. This indicates that substantial gene flow can occur at the early stages following host restriction in leaf nodule symbioses. We propose that host-switching events and plasmid conjugative transfers could have promoted these HGTs. This genomic analysis of leaf nodule symbionts gives, for the first time, new insights in the genome evolution of obligate symbionts in their early stages of the association with plants. PMID:26978165

  18. Chemotypic diversity of epichloae, fungal symbionts of grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The epichloid fungi - comprising sexual Epichlo€e species and asexual Neotyphodium species - are symbionts of cool-season grasses (subfamily Po0oideae), mostly vertically transmissible (seedborne), and well known for production of anti-herbivore alkaloids. Four classes of alkaloids are known to be p...

  19. A nuptially transmitted Ichthyosproean symbiont of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, harbors a symbiont that has spores with a thick, laminated wall and infects the fat body and ventral nerve chord of adult and larval beetles. In adult males, there is heavy infection of the epithelial cells of the testes and between testes lobes with occasional...

  20. Chemotypic diversity of epichloae, fungal symbionts of grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The epichloid fungi - comprising sexual Epichlo€e species and asexual Neotyphodium species - are symbionts of cool-season grasses (subfamily Po€oideae), mostly vertically transmissible (seedborne), and well known for production of anti-herbivore alkaloids. Four classes of alkaloids are known to be p...

  1. Host-Symbiont Interactions: Male-Killers Exposed.

    PubMed

    Larracuente, Amanda M; Meller, Victoria H

    2016-05-23

    Male-killing is one strategy used by maternally transmitted bacterial symbionts to boost transmission and spread in populations. In Drosophila melanogaster, Spiroplasma target males by hijacking an essential, male-limited epigenetic process. A new study reveals clues to the mode of killing. PMID:27218854

  2. Policing Alcohol and Related Crimes on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Andrea N.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that college students drink alcohol frequently and heavily. This can compromise their health and well-being. Student drinking is also tied to crime. While prior work explores the nature and extent of crimes involving alcohol on campus, to date no study has examined how police handle these incidents or crime generally. This study…

  3. Child Welfare Workers, Police, and Child Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shireman, Joan; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Uses three different samples of child abuse and neglect complaints drawn from the files of a juvenile court, a child welfare agency, and a police department, to investigate the factors which contribute to the decision to remove a child from his/her family. (Author/CM)

  4. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Reliance on the Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaible, Lonnie M.; Hughes, Lorine A.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary theories suggest that, due to limited access and generalized distrust, residents of disadvantaged neighborhoods are relatively unlikely to report matters to police. Although existing studies reveal few ecological differences in crime reporting, findings may be limited to victim/offense subsets represented in aggregated victimization…

  5. School Disruptions: Tips for Educators and Police.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. Community Relations Service.

    This brochure briefly outlines a few basic steps for school and police officials to take in developing a joint approach to problems of school disruption. Section 1, "Preventing Disruptions," consists of three parts that focus in turn on conducting a needs assessment, develping joint preventive measures, and planning for a disruption. Section 2,…

  6. Police Science Program Survey: Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. National Origin Desegregation Project (LAU).

    A study, involving two independent surveys and a transcript analysis, was conducted to determine the background characteristics, attitudes, and needs of students enrolled in police science programs at Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC). The first survey, which focused on personal characteristics and course enrollment data, was distributed in…

  7. Sensational Roots: The Police Court Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francke, Warren

    Part of a broader inquiry into "Investigative Exposure in the Nineteenth Century: The Journalistic Heritage of the Muckrakers," this study traces the evolving reportorial techniques and literary style that gave journalism its form--a form combining strengths and flaws, freedom and inhibitions. Before nineteenth century police court reporting was…

  8. Factors Influencing Career Choice among Police Recruits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative, non-experimental study examined the career choice factors of 154 (n = 154) police recruits to determine a correlation of age group generation to the five career choice factors presented in the Sibson Reward of Work Model. Law enforcement agencies faced a shortage of viable candidates to fill vacant positions. While extensive…

  9. New Careers Police-Community Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Development Corp., Washington, DC.

    Prepared under authority of the Economic Opportunity Act, this New Careers report offers suggestions on how police departments can improve relations with inner city disadvantaged residents (usually minority groups) by using hard core unemployed community members to close the information gap on both sides, provide community services, relieve the…

  10. Campus Police Benefit by Automating Training Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvin, Bob

    2008-01-01

    Making sure law enforcement officers are current with their professional training has always been a top priority of police departments whether they must protect a city or a college campus. However, as training has expanded with many new certification categories, tracking all of these for each officer has grown more complex. This has prompted many…

  11. Cryptic diversity and symbiont interactions in rock-posy lichens.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Kraichak, Ekaphan; Vondrak, Jan; Nelsen, Matthew P; Sohrabi, Mohammad; Perez-Ortega, Sergio; St Clair, Larry L; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2016-06-01

    Identifying factors that influence species interactions is central to research in symbiotic systems. While lichens represent iconic models of symbiosis and play important roles in understanding the biology of symbiotic interactions, patterns of interactions in lichen symbionts and mechanisms governing these relationships are not well characterized. This is due, in part to the fact that current taxonomic approaches for recognizing diversity in lichen symbionts commonly fail to accurately reflect actual species diversity. In this study, we employed DNA-based approaches to circumscribed candidate species-level lineages in rock-posy lichen symbionts (mycobiont=Rhizoplaca s. lat. species; photobiont=Trebouxia species). Our results revealed a high degree of cryptic diversity in both the myco- and photobionts in these lichens. Using the candidate species circumscribed here, we investigated the specificity of the symbionts toward their partners and inferred the relative importance of various factors influencing symbiont interactions. Distinct mycobiont species complexes, ecozones, and biomes are significantly correlated with the occurrence of photobiont OTUs, indicating that complex interactions among mycobiont lineages, ecogeography, and microhabitat determine interactions between photobionts and their mycobionts in lichen symbiosis. One-to-one specificity between mycobiont and photobiont species was not found, with the exception of R. maheui that associated with a single Trebouxia OTU that was not found with other Rhizoplaca s. lat. species. We estimated the most recent common ancestor of the core Rhizoplaca group at c. 62.5Ma, similar in age to the diverse parmelioid core group in the well-studied family Parmeliaceae. However, in contrast to Parmeliaceae, species in Rhizoplaca were found to associate with a narrow range of photobionts. Our study provides important perspectives into species diversity and interactions in iconic lichen symbiotic systems and establishes a

  12. Police Encounters, Mental Illness and Injury: An Exploratory Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Amy N.; Morabito, Melissa; Watson, Amy C.

    2010-01-01

    Police encounters are believed to be particularly dangerous for people with mental illness and police officers. Despite widespread concern among advocates, researchers and police professionals, little is known about the details of these interactions including the occurrence of injuries. In the current study, we explore injuries to people with mental illness and officers to determine the extent to which situational and individual factors predict injuries. Findings suggest that injuries during police calls involving persons with mental illness are infrequent and rarely require medical attention. Predictors of injuries in these calls are similar to those in police encounters with the general population. PMID:21113331

  13. Survivors' trauma and departmental response following deaths of police officers.

    PubMed

    Violanti, J M

    1995-10-01

    It was hypothesized that satisfaction with supportive reactions of the police department following the on-duty death of an officer helps to ameliorate traumatic stress in surviving spouses. This hypothesis is based on the premise that the police-work group is cohesive and provides a psychological safety net for the surviving spouse. A secondary analysis was conducted of data obtained from 162 surviving police spouses. Analysis indicated that spouses' reported satisfaction with the department was significantly associated with lower trauma stress scores. These findings suggest that police departments should formulate policy to provide assistance to spouses surviving duty-related police deaths. PMID:8559888

  14. Characterizing Perceived Police Violence: Implications for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Hannah; Moore, Lisa; Gruskin, Sofia; Krieger, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    Despite growing recognition of violence’s health consequences and the World Health Organization’s recent classification of police officers’ excessive use of force as a form of violence, public health investigators have produced scant research characterizing police-perpetrated abuse. Using qualitative data from a study of a police drug crackdown in 2000 in 1 New York City police precinct, we explored 40 injection drug using and 25 non–drug using precinct residents’ perceptions of and experiences with police-perpetrated abuse. Participants, particularly injection drug users and non–drug using men, reported police physical, psychological, and sexual violence and neglect; they often associated this abuse with crackdown-related tactics and perceived officer prejudice. We recommend that public health research address the prevalence, nature, and public health implications of police violence. PMID:15226128

  15. Insect Gut Symbiont Susceptibility to Host Antimicrobial Peptides Caused by Alteration of the Bacterial Cell Envelope*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Son, Dae Woo; Kim, Chan-Hee; Cho, Jae Hyun; Marchetti, Roberta; Silipo, Alba; Sturiale, Luisa; Park, Ha Young; Huh, Ye Rang; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Fukatsu, Takema; Molinaro, Antonio; Lee, Bok Luel

    2015-01-01

    The molecular characterization of symbionts is pivotal for understanding the cross-talk between symbionts and hosts. In addition to valuable knowledge obtained from symbiont genomic studies, the biochemical characterization of symbionts is important to fully understand symbiotic interactions. The bean bug (Riptortus pedestris) has been recognized as a useful experimental insect gut symbiosis model system because of its cultivatable Burkholderia symbionts. This system is greatly advantageous because it allows the acquisition of a large quantity of homogeneous symbionts from the host midgut. Using these naïve gut symbionts, it is possible to directly compare in vivo symbiotic cells with in vitro cultured cells using biochemical approaches. With the goal of understanding molecular changes that occur in Burkholderia cells as they adapt to the Riptortus gut environment, we first elucidated that symbiotic Burkholderia cells are highly susceptible to purified Riptortus antimicrobial peptides. In search of the mechanisms of the increased immunosusceptibility of symbionts, we found striking differences in cell envelope structures between cultured and symbiotic Burkholderia cells. The bacterial lipopolysaccharide O antigen was absent from symbiotic cells examined by gel electrophoretic and mass spectrometric analyses, and their membranes were more sensitive to detergent lysis. These changes in the cell envelope were responsible for the increased susceptibility of the Burkholderia symbionts to host innate immunity. Our results suggest that the symbiotic interactions between the Riptortus host and Burkholderia gut symbionts induce bacterial cell envelope changes to achieve successful gut symbiosis. PMID:26116716

  16. Symbiont-driven sulfur crystal formation in a thiotrophic symbiosis from deep-sea hydrocarbon seeps

    PubMed Central

    Eichinger, Irmgard; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Schmid, Markus; Fisher, Charles R; Bright, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The siboglinid tubeworm Sclerolinum contortum symbiosis inhabits sulfidic sediments at deep-sea hydrocarbon seeps in the Gulf of Mexico. A single symbiont phylotype in the symbiont-housing organ is inferred from phylogenetic analyses of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (16S rRNA) gene and fluorescent in situ hybridization. The phylotype we studied here, and a previous study from an arctic hydrocarbon seep population, reveal identical 16S rRNA symbiont gene sequences. While sulfide is apparently the energy source for the symbionts (and ultimately the gutless host), both partners also have to cope with its toxicity. This study demonstrates abundant large sulfur crystals restricted to the trophosome area. Based on Raman microspectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis, these crystals have the same S8 sulfur configuration as the recently described small sulfur vesicles formed in the symbionts. The crystals reside adjacent to the symbionts in the trophosome. This suggests that their formation is either extra- or intracellular in symbionts. We propose that formation of these crystals provides both energy-storage compounds for the symbionts and serves the symbiosis by removing excess toxic sulfide from host tissues. This symbiont-mediated sulfide detoxification may have been crucial for the establishment of thiotrophic symbiosis and continues to remain an important function of the symbionts. PMID:24992535

  17. Differential temporal changes of primary and secondary bacterial symbionts and whitefly host fitness following antibiotic treatments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chang-Rong; Shan, Hong-Wei; Xiao, Na; Zhang, Fan-Di; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Yin-Quan; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Where multiple symbionts coexist in the same host, the selective elimination of a specific symbiont may enable the roles of a given symbiont to be investigated. We treated the Mediterranean species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex by oral delivery of the antibiotic rifampicin, and then examined the temporal changes of its primary symbiont "Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum" and secondary symbiont "Ca. Hamiltonella defensa" as well as host fitness for three generations. In adults treated with rifampicin (F0), the secondary symbiont was rapidly reduced, approaching complete disappearance as adults aged. In contrast, the primary symbiont was little affected until later in the adult life. In the offspring of these adults (F1), both symbionts were significantly reduced and barely detectable when the hosts reached the adult stage. The F1 adults laid few eggs (F2), all of which failed to hatch. Mating experiments illustrated that the negative effects of rifampicin on host fitness were exerted via female hosts but not males. This study provides the first evidence of differential temporal reductions of primary and secondary symbionts in whiteflies following an antibiotic treatment. Studies that disrupt functions of bacterial symbionts must consider their temporal changes. PMID:26510682

  18. Inheritance patterns of secondary symbionts during sexual reproduction of pea aphid biotypes.

    PubMed

    Peccoud, Jean; Bonhomme, Joël; Mahéo, Frédérique; de la Huerta, Manon; Cosson, Olivier; Simon, Jean-Christophe

    2014-06-01

    Herbivorous insects frequently harbor bacterial symbionts that affect their ecology and evolution. Aphids host the obligatory endosymbiont Buchnera, which is required for reproduction, together with facultative symbionts whose frequencies vary across aphid populations. These maternally transmitted secondary symbionts have been particularly studied in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, which harbors at least 8 distinct bacterial species (not counting Buchnera) having environmentally dependent effects on host fitness. In particular, these symbiont species are associated with pea aphid populations feeding on specific plants. Although they are maternally inherited, these bacteria are occasionally transferred across insect lineages. One mechanism of such nonmaternal transfer is paternal transmission to the progeny during sexual reproduction. To date, transmission of secondary symbionts during sexual reproduction of aphids has been investigated in only a handful of aphid lineages and 3 symbiont species. To better characterize this process, we investigated inheritance patterns of 7 symbiont species during sexual reproduction of pea aphids through a crossing experiment involving 49 clones belonging to 9 host-specialized biotypes, and 117 crosses. Symbiont species in the progeny were detected with diagnostic qualitative PCR at the fundatrix stage hatching from eggs and in later parthenogenetic generations. We found no confirmed case of paternal transmission of symbionts to the progeny, and we observed that maternal transmission of a particular symbiont species (Serratia symbiotica) was quite inefficient. We discuss these observations in respect to the ecology of the pea aphid. PMID:24382700

  19. Differential temporal changes of primary and secondary bacterial symbionts and whitefly host fitness following antibiotic treatments

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chang-Rong; Shan, Hong-Wei; Xiao, Na; Zhang, Fan-Di; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Yin-Quan; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Where multiple symbionts coexist in the same host, the selective elimination of a specific symbiont may enable the roles of a given symbiont to be investigated. We treated the Mediterranean species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex by oral delivery of the antibiotic rifampicin, and then examined the temporal changes of its primary symbiont “Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum” and secondary symbiont “Ca. Hamiltonella defensa” as well as host fitness for three generations. In adults treated with rifampicin (F0), the secondary symbiont was rapidly reduced, approaching complete disappearance as adults aged. In contrast, the primary symbiont was little affected until later in the adult life. In the offspring of these adults (F1), both symbionts were significantly reduced and barely detectable when the hosts reached the adult stage. The F1 adults laid few eggs (F2), all of which failed to hatch. Mating experiments illustrated that the negative effects of rifampicin on host fitness were exerted via female hosts but not males. This study provides the first evidence of differential temporal reductions of primary and secondary symbionts in whiteflies following an antibiotic treatment. Studies that disrupt functions of bacterial symbionts must consider their temporal changes. PMID:26510682

  20. Understanding regulation of the host-mediated gut symbiont population and the symbiont-mediated host immunity in the Riptortus-Burkholderia symbiosis system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Lee, Jun Beom; Jang, Ho Am; Han, Yeon Soo; Fukatsu, Takema; Lee, Bok Luel

    2016-11-01

    Valuable insect models have tremendously contributed to our understanding of innate immunity and symbiosis. Bean bug, Riptortus pedestris, is a useful insect symbiosis model due to harboring cultivable monospecific gut symbiont, genus Burkholderia. Bean bug is a hemimetabolous insect whose immunity is not well-understood. However, we recently identified three major antimicrobial peptides of Riptortus and examined the relationship between gut symbiosis and host immunity. We found that the presence of Burkholderia gut symbiont positively affects Riptortus immunity. From studying host regulation mechanisms of symbiont population, we revealed that the symbiotic Burkholderia cells are much more susceptible to Riptortus immune responses than the cultured cells. We further elucidated that the immune-susceptibility of the Burkholderia gut symbionts is due to the drastic change of bacterial cell envelope. Finally, we show that the immune-susceptible Burkholderia symbionts are able to prosper in host owing to the suppression of immune responses of the symbiotic midgut. PMID:26774501

  1. A study of stress affecting police officers in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Zukauskas, Gediminas; Ruksenas, Osvaldas; Burba, Benjaminas; Grigaliuniene, Viktorija; Mitchell, Jeffrey T

    2009-01-01

    This research study aims to identify the key stresses encountered by police officers in Lithuania in 2003. A questionnaire was distributed to officers working in police departments throughout Lithuania. The 2003 results were a compared with a similar study carried out among male and female police officers in Lithuania 1999. The stressors determined to have the greatest negative effects were administrative problems, family problems, and an ineffective criminal justice system. Identified consequences of police stress included depression, alcoholism, physical illness, and suicide. Dealing with stressful situations led to more frequent physical illness in female police officers and higher alcohol consumption in male police officers. This paper confirms the findings of previous studies. It adds to the knowledge of the unique stresses affecting police officers. It briefly explores the consequences of stress in police work. Since the study represents a small sample of the 15,000 police officers in Lithuania, caution is urged in the application of the findings to other police departments. PMID:20524505

  2. Host and Symbiont Jointly Control Gut Microbiota during Complete Metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Paul R.; Rolff, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Holometabolous insects undergo a radical anatomical re-organisation during metamorphosis. This poses a developmental challenge: the host must replace the larval gut but at the same time retain symbiotic gut microbes and avoid infection by opportunistic pathogens. By manipulating host immunity and bacterial competitive ability, we study how the host Galleria mellonella and the symbiotic bacterium Enterococcus mundtii interact to manage the composition of the microbiota during metamorphosis. Disenabling one or both symbiotic partners alters the composition of the gut microbiota, which incurs fitness costs: adult hosts with a gut microbiota dominated by pathogens such as Serratia and Staphylococcus die early. Our results reveal an interaction that guarantees the safe passage of the symbiont through metamorphosis and benefits the resulting adult host. Host-symbiont “conspiracies” as described here are almost certainly widespread in holometobolous insects including many disease vectors. PMID:26544881

  3. Host and Symbiont Jointly Control Gut Microbiota during Complete Metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Paul R; Rolff, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Holometabolous insects undergo a radical anatomical re-organisation during metamorphosis. This poses a developmental challenge: the host must replace the larval gut but at the same time retain symbiotic gut microbes and avoid infection by opportunistic pathogens. By manipulating host immunity and bacterial competitive ability, we study how the host Galleria mellonella and the symbiotic bacterium Enterococcus mundtii interact to manage the composition of the microbiota during metamorphosis. Disenabling one or both symbiotic partners alters the composition of the gut microbiota, which incurs fitness costs: adult hosts with a gut microbiota dominated by pathogens such as Serratia and Staphylococcus die early. Our results reveal an interaction that guarantees the safe passage of the symbiont through metamorphosis and benefits the resulting adult host. Host-symbiont "conspiracies" as described here are almost certainly widespread in holometobolous insects including many disease vectors. PMID:26544881

  4. Symbiont acquisition as neoseme: origin of species and higher taxa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bermudes, D.; Margulis, L.

    1987-01-01

    We examine the hypothesis that, in the origin of species and higher taxa of eukaryotes, symbiont acquisition followed by partner integration has been equivalent to neoseme appearance leading to speciation. The formation of stable symbiotic associations involves partner-surface recognition, behavioral and metabolic interaction, and, in some cases, gene product (RNA, protein) and genic (RNA, DNA) integration. This analysis is applied here to examples of neosemes that define specific taxa and to neosemes in plants, fungi, and animals that involve the appearance of new types of tissue. If this hypothesis is correct--if the origin of major genetic variation leading to speciation and even higher taxa may occur through symbiont acquisition and integration--then the analysis of "origins of species and higher taxa" becomes analogous to the study of microbial community ecology.

  5. Symbiosis within Symbiosis: Evolving Nitrogen-Fixing Legume Symbionts.

    PubMed

    Remigi, Philippe; Zhu, Jun; Young, J Peter W; Masson-Boivin, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial accessory genes are genomic symbionts with an evolutionary history and future that is different from that of their hosts. Packages of accessory genes move from strain to strain and confer important adaptations, such as interaction with eukaryotes. The ability to fix nitrogen with legumes is a remarkable example of a complex trait spread by horizontal transfer of a few key symbiotic genes, converting soil bacteria into legume symbionts. Rhizobia belong to hundreds of species restricted to a dozen genera of the Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, suggesting infrequent successful transfer between genera but frequent successful transfer within genera. Here we review the genetic and environmental conditions and selective forces that have shaped evolution of this complex symbiotic trait. PMID:26612499

  6. Phylogeny of ambrosia beetle symbionts in the genus Raffaelea.

    PubMed

    Dreaden, Tyler J; Davis, John M; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Ploetz, Randy C; Soltis, Pamela S; Wingfield, Michael J; Smith, Jason A

    2014-12-01

    The genus Raffaelea was established in 1965 when the type species, Raffaelea ambrosia, a symbiont of Platypus ambrosia beetles was described. Since then, many additional ambrosia beetle symbionts have been added to the genus, including the important tree pathogens Raffaelea quercivora, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, and Raffaelea lauricola, causal agents of Japanese and Korean oak wilt and laurel wilt, respectively. The discovery of new and the dispersal of described species of Raffaelea to new areas, where they can become invasive, presents challenges for diagnosticians as well as plant protection and quarantine efforts. In this paper, we present the first comprehensive multigene phylogenetic analysis of Raffaelea. As it is currently defined, the genus was found to not be monophyletic. On the basis of this work, Raffaelea sensu stricto is defined and the affinities of undescribed isolates are considered. PMID:25457944

  7. Public perceptions of police operations and training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Kathryn J.

    1997-01-01

    New 'less than lethal' technologies being introduced into the law enforcement community will inevitably be challenged in the courts. From local jurisdictions to the highest courts in the land, law suits are filed at an alarming rate. Many are ultimately declared frivolous, but until they are resolved, all require human resources, money, and time to defend. Addressing liability issues head on could help to minimize potential law suits and the drain of our resources. Police administrators utilize education and training as tools to limit potential liability in their day to day operations. One such tool is the 'use of force continuum,' a simplistic progressive formula which identifies levels of action and reaction available to an officer when encountering any situation. Teaching an officer to understand this concept is relatively simple; the ability for that officer to correctly make a decision is more difficult. Determining where a specific action should be placed on the 'grid,' which ranges from 'officer's presence' to 'lethal encounter,' requires an officer to consider possible 'after effects' into the equation. With new attitudes emerging toward police operations, their available weapons, and applied techniques, repeated training will be necessary for this concept to remain effective. Scientists, engineers, manufacturers, and police administrators are responsible for the appropriate placement of new technology on the 'use of force continuum.' Adequate training and education should include detailed tactical, medical, and legal documentation to the police practitioner and to the public. Public education on the weapons and training used by those who 'serve and protect' them is critical to the process of achieving community acceptance and cooperation, ultimately reducing potential liability.

  8. Genomics of "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarium", a Cyanobacterial Sponge Symbiont

    SciTech Connect

    Slaby, Beate M.; Copeland, Alex; Woyke, Tanja; Hentschel, Ute

    2014-03-21

    Marine sponges (Porifera): ancient metazoans of ecological importance, that produce bioactive secondary metabolites and interact with various microorganisms including cyanobacteria1: Marine Synechococcus spp.: cyanobacteria, important contributors to the global carbon cycle and major primary producers in the oceans2 Ca. S. spongiarum: an ecotype of this genus, widespread and abundant symbiont of various marine sponges around the world3, e.g. Aplysina aerophoba

  9. [Occupational stress among female police officers].

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Claudia de Magalhães; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Constantino, Patrícia

    2013-03-01

    The scope of this study is occupational stress among female police officers in Rio de Janeiro. A qualitative approach was initially used (interviews, focal groups and observations) to establish their perceptions regarding gender differences in the performance of police work, the relationship between occupational stress and health issues and the strategies used to mitigate this type of stress. A total of 42 participants including female officers and staff and operational and health professionals were involved. The participants link stress to their daily work, cite a number of symptoms and show how family relationships are affected. Stress originates primarily from work management and organizational issues. Gender discrimination and harassment are also perceived as stressors. Psychic suffering is greater among officers in commanding roles, and operational activities are perceived as more stressful due to the risks involved. Physical exercise is seen as the most effective strategy to mitigate the consequences of stress. The conclusions drawn are that, there is a need for organizational and managerial change from the perspective of gender and investment in preventive measures that can reduce the consequences of stress within the Rio de Janeiro police force. PMID:23546192

  10. Life at the Limits: Capacities of Isolated and Cultured Lichen Symbionts to Resist Extreme Environmental Stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vera, J.-P.; Rettberg, P.; Ott, S.

    2008-10-01

    Lichens are described as a symbiosis formed by a myco- and photobiont, capable of colonizing habitats where their separate symbionts would not be able to survive. Space simulation studies on the separated symbionts of the lichen Xanthoria elegans have been performed to test their capacity to resist the most extreme conditions. The isolated cultured symbiont cells were exposed to different doses of the UV spectrum, and to vacuum. Cultures of both symbionts were analysed by specific vitality tests (LIVE/DEAD-staining detected by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy). Growth capacity of symbiont cultures on different media was analysed after exposure to extreme environmental stresses. The data obtained support the hypothesis that the symbiotic state considerably enhances the ability of the respective symbionts to survive exposure to extreme conditions, including the conditions of space simulation. Species such as X. elegans may, therefore, be suitable for use as model organisms in exobiological studies.

  11. Harold Kirby's symbionts of termites: karyomastigont reproduction and calonymphid taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Kirby, H; Margulis, L

    1994-01-01

    Harold Kirby's brilliant principle of mastigont multiplicity is published here posthumously more than 40 years after it was written. He applies this principle to large multinucleate protist symbionts of termites in establishing the taxonomy of Calonymphids (Family Calonymphidae in Phylum Zoomastigina, Kingdom Protoctista). The nuclei and kinetosomes in these heterotrophic cells are organized into trichomonad-style mastigont units which reproduce independently of cytokinesis to generate nine new Calonympha and nineteen new Stephanonympha species. The total of six genera (Calonympha, Coronympha, Diplonympha, Metacoronympha, Snyderella and Stephanonympha, all symbionts of dry-wood-eating termites, Kalotermitidae) are recognized. With the aid of Michael Yamin, the distribution of all twenty-eight of Kirby's Calonympha and Stephanonympha species are tabulated. In italic type I have annotated this paper to be comprehensible to a wide readership of cell biologists, protistologists and those interested in insect symbionts. Although this extremely original and careful work was not finished when Kirby died suddenly in 1952, I deemed it important and complete enough to finally publish it so that it would not be lost to scientific posterity. PMID:11539876

  12. Harold Kirby's symbionts of termites: karyomastigont reproduction and calonymphid taxonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, H.; Margulis, L.

    1994-01-01

    Harold Kirby's brilliant principle of mastigont multiplicity is published here posthumously more than 40 years after it was written. He applies this principle to large multinucleate protist symbionts of termites in establishing the taxonomy of Calonymphids (Family Calonymphidae in Phylum Zoomastigina, Kingdom Protoctista). The nuclei and kinetosomes in these heterotrophic cells are organized into trichomonad-style mastigont units which reproduce independently of cytokinesis to generate nine new Calonympha and nineteen new Stephanonympha species. The total of six genera (Calonympha, Coronympha, Diplonympha, Metacoronympha, Snyderella and Stephanonympha, all symbionts of dry-wood-eating termites, Kalotermitidae) are recognized. With the aid of Michael Yamin, the distribution of all twenty-eight of Kirby's Calonympha and Stephanonympha species are tabulated. In italic type I have annotated this paper to be comprehensible to a wide readership of cell biologists, protistologists and those interested in insect symbionts. Although this extremely original and careful work was not finished when Kirby died suddenly in 1952, I deemed it important and complete enough to finally publish it so that it would not be lost to scientific posterity.

  13. Bacterial and fungal symbionts of parasitic Dendroctonus bark beetles.

    PubMed

    Dohet, Loïc; Grégoire, Jean-Claude; Berasategui, Aileen; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Biedermann, Peter H W

    2016-09-01

    Bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are one of the most species-rich herbivorous insect groups with many shifts in ecology and host-plant use, which may be mediated by their bacterial and fungal symbionts. While symbionts are well studied in economically important, tree-killing species, little is known about parasitic species whose broods develop in living trees. Here, using culture-dependent and independent methods, we provide a comprehensive overview of the associated bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi of the parasitic Dendroctonus micans, D. punctatus and D. valens, and compare them to those of other tree-inhabiting insects. Despite inhabiting different geographical regions and/or host trees, the three species showed similar microbial communities. Enterobacteria were the most prevalent bacteria, in particular Rahnella, Pantoea and Ewingella, in addition to Streptomyces Likewise, the yeasts Candida/Cyberlindnera were the most prominent fungi. All these microorganisms are widespread among tree-inhabiting insects with various ecologies, but their high prevalence overall might indicate a beneficial role such as detoxification of tree defenses, diet supplementation or protection against pathogens. As such, our results enable comparisons of symbiont communities of parasitic bark beetles with those of other beetles, and will contribute to our understanding of how microbial symbioses facilitate dietary shifts in insects. PMID:27387908

  14. A novel bacterial symbiont in the nematode Spirocerca lupi

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The parasitic nematode Spirocerca lupi (Spirurida: Thelaziidae), the canine esophageal worm, is the causative agent of spirocercosis, a disease causing morbidity and mortality in dogs. Spirocerca lupi has a complex life cycle, involving an obligatory coleopteran intermediate host (vector), an optional paratenic host, and a definitive canid host. The diagnosis of spirocercosis is challenging, especially in the early disease stages, when adult worms and clinical signs are absent. Thus, alternative approaches are needed to promote early diagnosis. The interaction between nematodes and their bacterial symbionts has recently become a focus of novel treatment regimens for other helminthic diseases. Results Using 16S rDNA-based molecular methods, here we found a novel bacterial symbiont in S. lupi that is closely related to Comamonas species (Brukholderiales: Comamonadaceae) of the beta-proteobacteria. Its DNA was detected in eggs, larvae and adult stages of S. lupi. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization technique, we localized Comamonas sp. to the gut epithelial cells of the nematode larvae. Specific PCR enabled the detection of this symbiont's DNA in blood obtained from dogs diagnosed with spirocercosis. Conclusions The discovery of a new Comamonas sp. in S. lupi increase the complexity of the interactions among the organisms involved in this system, and may open innovative approaches for diagnosis and control of spirocercosis in dogs. PMID:22762265

  15. "It's Their Word against Mine": Young People's Attitudes to the Police Complaints Procedure in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Katy; Hamilton, Jennifer; Jarman, Neil

    2005-01-01

    One of the central aims of the police reform process in Northern Ireland has been to increase the legitimacy of the policing structures and police officers amongst those who are served and policed by the Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI). To meet this aim, structures have been created to ensure that the PSNI is accountable to all sections…

  16. A Novel Extracellular Gut Symbiont in the Marine Worm Priapulus caudatus (Priapulida) Reveals an Alphaproteobacterial Symbiont Clade of the Ecdysozoa

    PubMed Central

    Kroer, Paul; Kjeldsen, Kasper U.; Nyengaard, Jens R.; Schramm, Andreas; Funch, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Priapulus caudatus (phylum Priapulida) is a benthic marine predatory worm with a cosmopolitan distribution. In its digestive tract we detected symbiotic bacteria that were consistently present in specimens collected over 8 years from three sites at the Swedish west coast. Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequence, these symbionts comprise a novel genus of the order Rickettsiales (Alphaproteobacteria). Electron microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) identified them as extracellular, elongate bacteria closely associated with the microvilli, for which we propose the name “Candidatus Tenuibacter priapulorum”. Within Rickettsiales, they form a phylogenetically well-defined, family-level clade with uncultured symbionts of marine, terrestrial, and freshwater arthropods. Cand. Tenuibacter priapulorum expands the host range of this candidate family from Arthropoda to the entire Ecdysozoa, which may indicate an evolutionary adaptation of this bacterial group to the microvilli-lined guts of the Ecdysozoa. PMID:27199899

  17. Suicide among German federal and state police officers.

    PubMed

    Schmidtke, A; Fricke, S; Lester, D

    1999-02-01

    Most American studies report higher police officer suicide rates in comparison to age-matched populations. In the Federal Republic of Germany police organizations are comprised of Federal Customs, 16 state police, and 2 federal police organizations. A survey carried out in 1997 yielded higher suicide rates for police officers also in Germany in comparison to rates of the comparable age group (25 per 100,000 vs 20 per 100,000). The most commonly used suicide method was firearms (66-71%). Hypotheses often attribute this high suicidality among police officers to higher work stress than in other professions. Other hypotheses implicate individual variables such as psychiatric illnesses, alcoholism, and interpersonal and marital problems. A transactional model might explain these different views. PMID:10203946

  18. Aphid facultative symbionts reduce survival of the predatory lady beetle Hippodamia convergens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-essential facultative endosymbionts can provide their hosts with protection from parasites, pathogens, and predators. For example, two facultative bacterial symbionts of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum), Serratia symbiotica and Hamiltonella defensa, protect their hosts from parasitism by two species of parasitoid wasp. Previous studies have not explored whether facultative symbionts also play a defensive role against predation in this system. We tested whether feeding on aphids harboring different facultative symbionts affected the fitness of an aphid predator, the lady beetle Hippodamia convergens. Results While these aphid faculative symbionts did not deter lady beetle feeding, they did decrease survival of lady beetle larvae. Lady beetle larvae fed a diet of aphids with facultative symbionts had significantly reduced survival from egg hatching to pupation and therefore had reduced survival to adult emergence. Additionally, lady beetle adults fed aphids with facultative symbionts were significantly heavier than those fed facultative symbiont-free aphids, though development time was not significantly different. Conclusions Aphids reproduce clonally and are often found in large groups. Thus, aphid symbionts, by reducing the fitness of the aphid predator H. convergens, may indirectly defend their hosts’ clonal descendants against predation. These findings highlight the often far-reaching effects that symbionts can have in ecological systems. PMID:24555501

  19. Evolution and Diversity of Facultative Symbionts from the Aphid Subfamily Lachninae▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Gaelen R.; Normark, Benjamin B.; Favret, Colin; Moran, Nancy A.

    2009-01-01

    Many aphids harbor a variety of endosymbiotic bacteria. The functions of these symbionts can range from an obligate nutritional role to a facultative role in protecting their hosts against environmental stresses. One such symbiont is “Candidatus Serratia symbiotica,” which is involved in defense against heat and potentially also in aphid nutrition. Lachnid aphids have been the focus of several recent studies investigating the transition of this symbiont from a facultative symbiont to an obligate symbiont. In a phylogenetic analysis of Serratia symbionts from 51 lachnid hosts, we found that diversity in symbiont morphology, distribution, and function is due to multiple independent origins of symbiosis from ancestors belonging to Serratia and possibly also to evolution within distinct symbiont clades. Our results do not support cocladogenesis of “Ca. Serratia symbiotica” with Cinara subgenus Cinara species and weigh against an obligate nutritional role. Finally, we show that species belonging to the subfamily Lachninae have a high incidence of facultative symbiont infection. PMID:19542349

  20. Population dynamics of multiple symbionts in the hard tick, Dermacentor silvarum Olenev (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Limeng; Li, Lingxia; Liu, Jiannan; Yu, Zhijun; Yang, Xiaohong; Liu, Jingze

    2016-02-01

    Previously, we reported that Coxiella-like, Rickettsia-like and Arsenophonus-like symbionts could simultaneously coexist in Dermacentor silvarum. In this study, we examined their burdens and population dynamics in a single host during the host life cycle using quantitative PCR. Our results showed that multiple symbionts exhibited different abundances and varying trends in the tick host. Coxiella-like and Rickettsia-like symbionts were found at high densities in large quantities that fluctuated with time. This may coincide with oogenesis and mating of the host. Our findings provide insight into symbiont-tick interactions that lay the foundation for future studies. PMID:26565930

  1. Farming termites determine the genetic population structure of Termitomyces fungal symbionts.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Tânia; Fernandes, Cecília; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Korb, Judith; Aanen, Duur K

    2011-05-01

    Symbiotic interactions between macrotermitine termites and their fungal symbionts have a moderate degree of specificity. Consistent with horizontal symbiont transmission, host switching has been frequent over evolutionary time so that single termite species can often be associated with several fungal symbionts. However, even in the few termite lineages that secondarily adopted vertical symbiont transmission, the fungal symbionts are not monophyletic. We addressed this paradox by studying differential transmission of fungal symbionts by alate male and female reproductives, and the genetic population structure of Termitomyces fungus gardens across 74 colonies of Macrotermes bellicosus in four west and central African countries. We confirm earlier, more limited, studies showing that the Termitomyces symbionts of M. bellicosus are normally transmitted vertically and clonally by dispersing males. We also document that the symbionts associated with this termite species belong to three main lineages that do not constitute a monophyletic group. The most common lineage occurs over the entire geographical region that we studied, including west, central and southern Africa, where it is also associated with the alternative termite hosts Macrotermes subhyalinus and Macrotermes natalensis. While Termitomyces associated with these alternative hosts are horizontally transmitted and recombine freely, the genetic population structure of the same Termitomyces associated with M. bellicosus is consistent with predominantly clonal reproduction and only occasional recombination. This implies that the genetic population structure of Termitomyces is controlled by the termite host and not by the Termitomyces symbiont. PMID:21410808

  2. Community Policing and D.A.R.E.: A Practitioner's Perspective. BJA Bulletin. Community Policing Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, David L.

    Community policing and Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) are evolving initiatives that can respond to changing social problems and demands. However, many of the challenges faced by both programs arise out of the fundamentals of human nature. Among the greatest barriers to overcome are: (1) the resistance to change that affects law…

  3. Homosexuality and police terror in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yuzgun, A

    1993-01-01

    Being a way of sexual living as old as human history, homosexuality occupies an interesting place in the life of the Turkish people of the Republic of Turkey. This has been so since the days of the glorious Ottoman Empire. In the year 1987, instead of investigating the roots of homosexuality, the pressing need has become to present a particular view of homosexuality in Turkey today. To be more specific, there is a need to explain the problems of Turkish homosexuals and suggest certain vital solutions. Our country is constantly endeavoring to become "westernized" and it is claimed that steps are being taken toward that modernization. Despite this fact, homosexuals are confronted with such great problems that it is not difficult to justify those who say that there is no democracy in Turkey. I will try to explain these problems with documentary evidence and without exaggeration. In doing so, I shall make use of new material in my book, published under the title of Homosexuality in Turkey: Yesterday, Today. Beginning in March of 1986, we compiled a list of the attitudes of the police toward gays, involving pressure and cruelty that can be qualified as torture. Despite this situation, instead of being more democratic and humane, in April 1987 the police force employed terror tactics against homosexuals in Istanbul. This was "the straw that broke the camel's back." Soon after this act of oppression, 18 gays, acting on our suggestions, sued the police for the first time. They then submitted a petition to the Attorney-General and later launched a hunger strike in Taksim Square. These represent movements of importance in the political history of Turkey. From now on homosexuals, too, will have the right to speak out in political affairs. PMID:8505535

  4. Abundant toxin-related genes in the genomes of beneficial symbionts from deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussels.

    PubMed

    Sayavedra, Lizbeth; Kleiner, Manuel; Ponnudurai, Ruby; Wetzel, Silke; Pelletier, Eric; Barbe, Valerie; Satoh, Nori; Shoguchi, Eiichi; Fink, Dennis; Breusing, Corinna; Reusch, Thorsten Bh; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schilhabel, Markus B; Becher, Dörte; Schweder, Thomas; Markert, Stephanie; Dubilier, Nicole; Petersen, Jillian M

    2015-01-01

    Bathymodiolus mussels live in symbiosis with intracellular sulfur-oxidizing (SOX) bacteria that provide them with nutrition. We sequenced the SOX symbiont genomes from two Bathymodiolus species. Comparison of these symbiont genomes with those of their closest relatives revealed that the symbionts have undergone genome rearrangements, and up to 35% of their genes may have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Many of the genes specific to the symbionts were homologs of virulence genes. We discovered an abundant and diverse array of genes similar to insecticidal toxins of nematode and aphid symbionts, and toxins of pathogens such as Yersinia and Vibrio. Transcriptomics and proteomics revealed that the SOX symbionts express the toxin-related genes (TRGs) in their hosts. We hypothesize that the symbionts use these TRGs in beneficial interactions with their host, including protection against parasites. This would explain why a mutualistic symbiont would contain such a remarkable 'arsenal' of TRGs. PMID:26371554

  5. 78 FR 26656 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Police Check...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... Collection; Comments Requested: Police Check Inquiry and Pre-Screening Qualifications Certification ACTION... existing collection of information. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Police Check Inquiry and...

  6. Widespread expression of conserved small RNAs in small symbiont genomes

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Allison K; Degnan, Patrick H

    2014-01-01

    Genome architecture of a microbe markedly changes when it transitions from a free-living lifestyle to an obligate symbiotic association within eukaryotic cells. These symbiont genomes experience numerous rearrangements and massive gene loss, which is expected to radically alter gene regulatory networks compared with those of free-living relatives. As such, it remains unclear whether and how these small symbiont genomes regulate gene expression. Here, using a label-free mass-spec quantification approach we found that differential protein regulation occurs in Buchnera, a model symbiont with a reduced genome, when it transitions between two distinct life stages. However, differential mRNA expression could not be detected between Buchnera life stages, despite the presence of a small number of putative transcriptional regulators. Instead a comparative analysis of small RNA expression profiles among five divergent Buchnera lineages, spanning a variety of Buchnera life stages, reveals 140 novel intergenic and antisense small RNAs and 517 untranslated regions that were significantly expressed, some of which have been conserved for ∼65 million years. In addition, the majority of these small RNAs exhibit both sequence covariation and thermodynamic stability, indicators of a potential structural RNA role. Together, these data suggest that gene regulation at the post-transcriptional level may be important in Buchnera. This is the first study to empirically identify Buchnera small RNAs, and we propose that these novel small RNAs may facilitate post-transcriptional regulation through translational inhibition/activation, and/or transcript stability. Ultimately, post-transcriptional regulation may shape metabolic complementation between Buchnera and its aphid host, thus impacting the animal's ecology and evolution. PMID:25012903

  7. A ribosome-inactivating protein in a Drosophila defensive symbiont.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Phineas T; Peng, Fangni; Boulanger, Martin J; Perlman, Steve J

    2016-01-12

    Vertically transmitted symbionts that protect their hosts against parasites and pathogens are well known from insects, yet the underlying mechanisms of symbiont-mediated defense are largely unclear. A striking example of an ecologically important defensive symbiosis involves the woodland fly Drosophila neotestacea, which is protected by the bacterial endosymbiont Spiroplasma when parasitized by the nematode Howardula aoronymphium. The benefit of this defense strategy has led to the rapid spread of Spiroplasma throughout the range of D. neotestacea, although the molecular basis for this protection has been unresolved. Here, we show that Spiroplasma encodes a ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) related to Shiga-like toxins from enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and that Howardula ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is depurinated during Spiroplasma-mediated protection of D. neotestacea. First, we show that recombinant Spiroplasma RIP catalyzes depurination of 28S rRNAs in a cell-free assay, as well as Howardula rRNA in vitro at the canonical RIP target site within the α-sarcin/ricin loop (SRL) of 28S rRNA. We then show that Howardula parasites in Spiroplasma-infected flies show a strong signal of rRNA depurination consistent with RIP-dependent modification and large decreases in the proportion of 28S rRNA intact at the α-sarcin/ricin loop. Notably, host 28S rRNA is largely unaffected, suggesting targeted specificity. Collectively, our study identifies a novel RIP in an insect defensive symbiont and suggests an underlying RIP-dependent mechanism in Spiroplasma-mediated defense. PMID:26712000

  8. A ribosome-inactivating protein in a Drosophila defensive symbiont

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Phineas T.; Peng, Fangni; Boulanger, Martin J.; Perlman, Steve J.

    2016-01-01

    Vertically transmitted symbionts that protect their hosts against parasites and pathogens are well known from insects, yet the underlying mechanisms of symbiont-mediated defense are largely unclear. A striking example of an ecologically important defensive symbiosis involves the woodland fly Drosophila neotestacea, which is protected by the bacterial endosymbiont Spiroplasma when parasitized by the nematode Howardula aoronymphium. The benefit of this defense strategy has led to the rapid spread of Spiroplasma throughout the range of D. neotestacea, although the molecular basis for this protection has been unresolved. Here, we show that Spiroplasma encodes a ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) related to Shiga-like toxins from enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and that Howardula ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is depurinated during Spiroplasma-mediated protection of D. neotestacea. First, we show that recombinant Spiroplasma RIP catalyzes depurination of 28S rRNAs in a cell-free assay, as well as Howardula rRNA in vitro at the canonical RIP target site within the α-sarcin/ricin loop (SRL) of 28S rRNA. We then show that Howardula parasites in Spiroplasma-infected flies show a strong signal of rRNA depurination consistent with RIP-dependent modification and large decreases in the proportion of 28S rRNA intact at the α-sarcin/ricin loop. Notably, host 28S rRNA is largely unaffected, suggesting targeted specificity. Collectively, our study identifies a novel RIP in an insect defensive symbiont and suggests an underlying RIP-dependent mechanism in Spiroplasma-mediated defense. PMID:26712000

  9. Widespread expression of conserved small RNAs in small symbiont genomes.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Allison K; Degnan, Patrick H

    2014-12-01

    Genome architecture of a microbe markedly changes when it transitions from a free-living lifestyle to an obligate symbiotic association within eukaryotic cells. These symbiont genomes experience numerous rearrangements and massive gene loss, which is expected to radically alter gene regulatory networks compared with those of free-living relatives. As such, it remains unclear whether and how these small symbiont genomes regulate gene expression. Here, using a label-free mass-spec quantification approach we found that differential protein regulation occurs in Buchnera, a model symbiont with a reduced genome, when it transitions between two distinct life stages. However, differential mRNA expression could not be detected between Buchnera life stages, despite the presence of a small number of putative transcriptional regulators. Instead a comparative analysis of small RNA expression profiles among five divergent Buchnera lineages, spanning a variety of Buchnera life stages, reveals 140 novel intergenic and antisense small RNAs and 517 untranslated regions that were significantly expressed, some of which have been conserved for ∼65 million years. In addition, the majority of these small RNAs exhibit both sequence covariation and thermodynamic stability, indicators of a potential structural RNA role. Together, these data suggest that gene regulation at the post-transcriptional level may be important in Buchnera. This is the first study to empirically identify Buchnera small RNAs, and we propose that these novel small RNAs may facilitate post-transcriptional regulation through translational inhibition/activation, and/or transcript stability. Ultimately, post-transcriptional regulation may shape metabolic complementation between Buchnera and its aphid host, thus impacting the animal's ecology and evolution. PMID:25012903

  10. A symbiont's dispersal strategy: condition-dependent dispersal underlies predictable variation in direct transmission among hosts.

    PubMed

    Skelton, James; Creed, Robert P; Brown, Bryan L

    2015-11-22

    Direct horizontal transmission of pathogenic and mutualistic symbionts has profound consequences for host and symbiont fitness alike. While the importance of contact rates for transmission is widely recognized, the processes that underlie variation in transmission during contact are rarely considered. Here, we took a symbiont's perspective of transmission as a form of dispersal and adopted the concept of condition-dependent dispersal strategies from the study of free-living organisms to understand and predict variation in transmission in the cleaning symbiosis between crayfish and ectosymbiotic branchiobdellidan worms. Field study showed that symbiont reproductive success was correlated with host size and competition among worms for microhabitats. Laboratory experiments demonstrated high variability in transmission among host contacts. Moreover, symbionts were more likely to disperse when host size and competition for microhabitat created a fitness environment below a discrete minimum threshold. A predictive model based on a condition-dependent symbiont dispersal strategy correctly predicted transmission in 95% of experimental host encounters and the exact magnitude of transmission in 67%, both significantly better than predictions that assumed a fixed transmission rate. Our work provides a dispersal-based understanding of symbiont transmission and suggests adaptive symbiont dispersal strategies can explain variation in transmission dynamics and complex patterns of host infection. PMID:26559953

  11. Heritability of symbiont density reveals distinct regulatory mechanisms in a tripartite symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Jasmine F; Gobin, Bruno; Hughes, William O H

    2016-04-01

    Beneficial eukaryotic-bacterial partnerships are integral to animal and plant evolution. Understanding the density regulation mechanisms behind bacterial symbiosis is essential to elucidating the functional balance between hosts and symbionts. Citrus mealybugs, Planococcus citri (Risso), present an excellent model system for investigating the mechanisms of symbiont density regulation. They contain two obligate nutritional symbionts, Moranella endobia, which resides inside Tremblaya princeps, which has been maternally transmitted for 100-200 million years. We investigate whether host genotype may influence symbiont density by crossing mealybugs from two inbred laboratory-reared populations that differ substantially in their symbiont density to create hybrids. The density of the M. endobia symbiont in the hybrid hosts matched that of the maternal parent population, in keeping with density being determined either by the symbiont or the maternal genotype. However, the density of the T. princeps symbiont was influenced by the paternal host genotype. The greater dependency of T. princeps on its host may be due to its highly reduced genome. The decoupling of T. princeps and M. endobia densities, in spite of their intimate association, suggests that distinct regulatory mechanisms can be at work in symbiotic partnerships, even when they are obligate and mutualistic. PMID:27099709

  12. Excess algal symbionts increase the susceptibility of reef corals to bleaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunning, Ross; Baker, Andrew C.

    2013-03-01

    Rising ocean temperatures associated with global climate change are causing mass coral bleaching and mortality worldwide. Understanding the genetic and environmental factors that mitigate coral bleaching susceptibility may aid local management efforts to help coral reefs survive climate change. Although bleaching susceptibility depends partly on the genetic identity of a coral's algal symbionts, the effect of symbiont density, and the factors controlling it, remain poorly understood. By applying a new metric of symbiont density to study the coral Pocillopora damicornis during seasonal warming and acute bleaching, we show that symbiont cell ratio density is a function of both symbiont type and environmental conditions, and that corals with high densities are more susceptible to bleaching. Higher vulnerability of corals with more symbionts establishes a quantitative mechanistic link between symbiont density and the molecular basis for coral bleaching, and indicates that high densities do not buffer corals from thermal stress, as has been previously suggested. These results indicate that environmental conditions that increase symbiont densities, such as nutrient pollution, will exacerbate climate-change-induced coral bleaching, providing a mechanistic explanation for why local management to reduce these stressors will help coral reefs survive future warming.

  13. Metatranscriptomics reveal differences in in situ energy and nitrogen metabolism among hydrothermal vent snail symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, J G; Beinart, R A; Stewart, F J; Delong, E F; Girguis, P R

    2013-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of chemoautotrophic symbioses at hydrothermal vents, our understanding of the influence of environmental chemistry on symbiont metabolism is limited. Transcriptomic analyses are useful for linking physiological poise to environmental conditions, but recovering samples from the deep sea is challenging, as the long recovery times can change expression profiles before preservation. Here, we present a novel, in situ RNA sampling and preservation device, which we used to compare the symbiont metatranscriptomes associated with Alviniconcha, a genus of vent snail, in which specific host–symbiont combinations are predictably distributed across a regional geochemical gradient. Metatranscriptomes of these symbionts reveal key differences in energy and nitrogen metabolism relating to both environmental chemistry (that is, the relative expression of genes) and symbiont phylogeny (that is, the specific pathways employed). Unexpectedly, dramatic differences in expression of transposases and flagellar genes suggest that different symbiont types may also have distinct life histories. These data further our understanding of these symbionts' metabolic capabilities and their expression in situ, and suggest an important role for symbionts in mediating their hosts' interaction with regional-scale differences in geochemistry. PMID:23619306

  14. Forever competent: deep-sea bivalves are colonized by their chemosynthetic symbionts throughout their lifetime.

    PubMed

    Wentrup, Cecilia; Wendeberg, Annelie; Schimak, Mario; Borowski, Christian; Dubilier, Nicole

    2014-12-01

    Symbiotic bivalves at hydrothermal vents and cold seeps host chemosynthetic bacteria intracellularly in gill cells. In bivalves, the gills grow continuously throughout their lifetime by forming new filaments. We examined how newly developed gill tissues are colonized in bivalves with horizontal and vertical symbiont transmission (Bathymodiolus mussels versus a vesicoymid clam) using fluorescence in situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy. Symbiont colonization was similar in mussels and clams and was independent of the transmission modes. Symbionts were absent in the growth zones of the gills, indicating that symbionts colonize newly formed gill filaments de novo after they are formed and that gill colonization is a continuous process throughout the host's lifetime. Symbiont abundance and distribution suggested that colonization is shaped by the developmental stage of host cells. Self-infection, in which new gill cells are colonized by symbionts from ontogenetically older gill tissues, may also play a role. In mussels, symbiont infection led to changes in gill cell structure similar to those described from other epithelial cells infected by intracellular pathogens, such as the loss of microvilli. A better understanding of the factors that affect symbiont colonization of bivalve gills could provide new insights into interactions between intracellular bacteria and epithelial tissues. PMID:25142549

  15. Bleaching susceptibility and mortality of corals are determined by fine-scale differences in symbiont type

    PubMed Central

    Sampayo, E. M.; Ridgway, T.; Bongaerts, P.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.

    2008-01-01

    Coral bleaching has been identified as one of the major contributors to coral reef decline, and the occurrence of different symbionts determined by broad genetic groupings (clades A–H) is commonly used to explain thermal responses of reef-building corals. By using Stylophora pistillata as a model, we monitored individual tagged colonies in situ over a two-year period and show that fine level genetic variability within clade C is correlated to differences in bleaching susceptibility. Based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the internal transcribed spacer region 2, visual bleaching assessments, symbiont densities, host protein, and pulse amplitude modulated fluorometry, we show that subcladal types C78 and C8/a are more thermally tolerant than C79 and C35/a, which suffered significant bleaching and postbleaching mortality. Although additional symbiont types were detected during bleaching in colonies harboring types C79 and C35/a, all colonies reverted back to their original symbionts postbleaching. Most importantly, the data propose that the differential mortality of hosts harboring thermally sensitive versus resistant symbionts rather than symbiont shuffling/switching within a single host is responsible for the observed symbiont composition changes of coral communities after bleaching. This study therefore highlights that the use of broad cladal designations may not be suitable to describe differences in bleaching susceptibility, and that differential mortality results in a loss of both symbiont and host genetic diversity and therefore represents an important mechanism in explaining how coral reef communities may respond to changing conditions. PMID:18645181

  16. Interpersonal Violence Cases Reported to the Police: A Nigerian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okulate, Gbenga T.

    2005-01-01

    The study involves 204 cases of interpersonal assault reported to the police during a period of 1 year. The patterns of domestic violence and community violence involving friends, neighbors, and strangers are described. The most common type of violence reported to the police is community interpersonal violence in which victims are mostly females…

  17. Fostering Student Police Officers' Creativity in Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zascerinska, Jelena; Aleksejeva, Ludmila

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The modern issues of global developmental trends require contemporary police officers to become more cognizant and more responsive to the emerging needs of human safety in the constantly changing environment. Education provides student police officers with the appropriate skills and competences for innovation based on creativity.…

  18. Forging New Links. Police, Communities and the Drug Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drug Strategies, Washington, DC.

    To examine new approaches to drug law enforcement, this report presents a number of police programs that emphasize prevention of drug use or disruption of drug transactions. The report is based on extensive interviews with police chiefs and officers, criminologists, criminal justice management consultants, U.S. Department of Justice personnel, and…

  19. Employee Drug Testing Policies in Police Departments. Research in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, J. Thomas; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The development of drug testing policies and the implementation of drug testing procedures involve legal, ethical, medical, and labor relations issues. To learn how police departments are addressing the problem of drug use and drug testing of police officers, the National Institute of Justice sponsored a telephone survey of 33 major police…

  20. Problems in Communicating the Suspect's Rights in Interpreted Police Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakane, Ikuko

    2007-01-01

    At first glance, communicating a suspect's rights in police interviews appears to be a straightforward task. However, it is more complex than it appears. In particular, for suspects who come from different cultural backgrounds or legal systems and who rely on interpreters in police interviews, ensuring a thorough understanding of their rights and…

  1. "Policing Schools" Strategies: A Review of the Evaluation Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrosino, Anthony; Guckenburg, Sarah; Fronius, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Background: Schools experience a wide range of crime and disorder, victimizing students and staff, and undermining attempts to create a safe and orderly environment for student learning. Police have long established programs with schools, but there has been no systematic review of evaluations of these programs, outside of police-led prevention…

  2. Private Police in the United States: Findings and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, James S.; Wildhorn, Sorrel

    This report is the first in a series of five describing a 16-month study of the nature and extent of the private police industry in the United States, its problems, its present regulation, and how the law impinges on it. Intended for use by the private police industry and by the governmental agencies that regulate it, as well as by the general…

  3. Police-Juvenile Diversion: An Alternative to Prosecution. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Jack R.; Rothenberger, Dale M.

    This manual is the outcome of a one-year study of police action to divert youthful offenders from the juvenile justice system, an action advocated by every major commission examining the system since the early sixties. The manual is intended to guide police, social service agencies, and other concerned individuals and organizations through the…

  4. Factors Affecting the Musculoskeletal Symptoms of Korean Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Taek-Sang; Jeon, Woo-Jin; Lee, Jin-Gu; Seok, Jong-Min; Cho, Jae-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    ] This study was conducted to investigate efficient, systematic management of the Korean police and to examine the status and prevention of musculoskeletal disorders in Korean police officers. [Subjects and Methods] A survey of police officers (353 subjects) who visited the National Police Hospital from March 2013 to May 2013 was conducted using a structured questionnaire. [Results] The incidence of pain was 44.2% in the shoulder, 41.4% in the waist, 31.2% in the neck, 26.1% in the legs/foot, 16.7% in the hand/wrist/finger, and 14.7% in the arm/elbow. The comparative risk of the relevant part factors was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. The shoulder had a 4.87 times higher risk in police lieutenants compared with those under the rank of corporal and a 1.78 times higher risk in people with chronic diseases than those without chronic diseases. The arm/elbow had a 2.37 times higher risk in people who exercised than those who did not exercise and a 1.78 times higher risk in people with a chronic disease than those without chronic diseases. Generally, people with a chronic disease showed a higher risk than those without chronic diseases. [Conclusion] The results of this study could be useful as basic data for improvement of police welfare, specialized treatment for the health safety of the police, and efficient management of police resources. PMID:25013298

  5. Bullying in Schools: Problem-Oriented Guides for Police Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Rana

    This guide summarizes knowledge about how the police can help reduce bullying and violence in schools and provides measures to assess the effectiveness of problem-solving efforts. The guide draws on research findings and police practice from the U.S., the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Netherlands, and Scandinavia. In section…

  6. The Charge of Thought-Policing in Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poyraz, Suzan

    2006-01-01

    A phrase used for internal criticism within leftist movements in the 70s and 80s, "politically correct," has now become equivalent to "thought policing" in the minds of many professional academicians. Taking University of Toronto as an example, this essay questions whether the thought policing (as enforcement of political correctness) accusation…

  7. Police Training in Sexual Assault Response: Comparison of Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonsway, Kimberly A.

    Although police officers are routinely criticized for their negative attitudes and behavior toward sexual assault victims, few programs are described in the literature which educate and train officers to improve their actions in this area. This neglect is addressed in this study, in which three classes of police recruits are examined: (1) a…

  8. 6. GENERAL VIEW OF INTERNAL POLICE POST IN FOREGROUND AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GENERAL VIEW OF INTERNAL POLICE POST IN FOREGROUND AND MILITARY POLICE POST IN BACKGROUND ALONG ENTRANCE ROAD, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Manzanar War Relocation Center, Owens Valley off U.S. Highway 395, 6 miles South of Independence, Independence, Inyo County, CA

  9. 1. LOOKING WESTSOUTHWEST WITH MILITARY POLICE POST AT LEFT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING WESTSOUTHWEST WITH MILITARY POLICE POST AT LEFT AND MT. WILLIAMSON IN BACKGROUND. POST HELD ENTRANCE SIGN TO MANZANAR. THIS VIEW REPLICATES A PHOTOGRAPH BY ANSEL ADAMS, PUBLISHED IN THE BOOK MANZANAR. - Manzanar War Relocation Center, Military Police Post, Independence, Inyo County, CA

  10. Workdays. A Day in the Life of...Police Constables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Hazel

    One of a series of work-based interviews about occupations in Australia, this booklet presents an interview with 13 young women police constables about their jobs. The following questions are answered: what police constables do, what they do on the job, how they handle job stress and relationships, what they do and don't like about it, what kind…