Science.gov

Sample records for casting

  1. Urinary casts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tubular epithelial casts; Waxy casts; Casts in the urine; Fatty casts; Red blood cell casts; White blood ... The urine sample you provide may need to be from your first morning urine. The sample needs to be ...

  2. Casting Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Michael D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Three articles discuss (1) casting technology as it relates to industry, with comparisons of shell casting, shell molding, and die casting; (2) evaporative pattern casting for metals; and (3) high technological casting with silicone rubber. (JOW)

  3. Investment casting

    SciTech Connect

    Bidwell, H.T.

    1996-04-01

    Materials and manufacturing technologies for investment casting have made impressive gains over the past several years, resulting in higher productivity, shorter lead times, and superior castings. To improve efficiency, investment casters have applied total quality control methods, new management concepts, and computer controls. Management and production efficiency improvements have been critical factors in maintaining and expanding market share.

  4. Hair casts

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Sweta S.; Parmar, Kirti S.; Shah, Bela J.

    2014-01-01

    Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions, which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis. PMID:25396168

  5. Electromagnetic casting

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.W.; Kageyama, R.; Deepak; Cook, D.P.; Prasso, D.C.; Nishioka, S.

    1995-12-31

    Electromagnetic casting (EMC) is a technology that is used extensively in the aluminum industry to cast ingots with good surface finish for subsequent rolling into consumer product. The paper reviews briefly some investigations from the eighties wherein models for EMC were developed. Then more recent work is examined wherein more realistic 3D models have been developed, the traditional studies of electromagnetic and magnetohydrodynamic phenomena have been supplemented with research on heat transport, and the stability of the metal free surface has been examined. The paper concludes with three generalizations concerning modeling that may have wider applicability than EMC.

  6. Project CAST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles County Board of Education, La Plata, MD. Office of Special Education.

    The document outlines procedures for implementing Project CAST (Community and School Together), a community-based career education program for secondary special education students in Charles County, Maryland. Initial sections discuss the role of a learning coordinator, (including relevant travel reimbursement and mileage forms) and an overview of…

  7. Casting methods

    DOEpatents

    Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.

    2012-12-18

    A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.

  8. Casting materials

    DOEpatents

    Chaudhry, Anil R. (Xenia, OH); Dzugan, Robert (Cincinnati, OH); Harrington, Richard M. (Cincinnati, OH); Neece, Faurice D. (Lyndurst, OH); Singh, Nipendra P. (Pepper Pike, OH)

    2011-06-14

    A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

  9. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    SciTech Connect

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  10. LLNL casting technology

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.B.; Comfort, W.J. III

    1994-01-01

    Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US compentiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective, experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

  11. Improving Metal Casting Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Don Sirois, an Auburn University research associate, and Bruce Strom, a mechanical engineering Co-Op Student, are evaluating the dimensional characteristics of an aluminum automobile engine casting. More accurate metal casting processes may reduce the weight of some cast metal products used in automobiles, such as engines. Research in low gravity has taken an important first step toward making metal products used in homes, automobiles, and aircraft less expensive, safer, and more durable. Auburn University and industry are partnering with NASA to develop one of the first accurate computer model predictions of molten metals and molding materials used in a manufacturing process called casting. Ford Motor Company's casting plant in Cleveland, Ohio is using NASA-sponsored computer modeling information to improve the casting process of automobile and light-truck engine blocks.

  12. INTERIOR VIEW WITH LARGE PIPE CASTING MACHINE CASTING A 48' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH LARGE PIPE CASTING MACHINE CASTING A 48' PIPE OPERATOR SPRAYING A POWDER TO HELP SOLIDIFY THE PIPE BEING CENTRIFUGALLY CAST. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Pipe Casting & Testing Area, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  13. Casting in Sport

    PubMed Central

    DeCarlo, Mark; Malone, Kathy; Darmelio, John; Rettig, Arthur

    1994-01-01

    Attempts by sports medicine professionals to return high school athletes with hand and wrist injuries to competition quickly and safely have been the source of confusion and debate on many playing fields around the country. In addition to the differing views regarding the appropriateness of playing cast usage in high school football, a debate exists among sports medicine professionals as to which material is best suited for playing cast construction. Materials used in playing cast construction should be hard enough to provide sufficient stabilization to the injured area and include adequate padding to absorb blunt impact forces. The purpose of the biomechanical portion of this investigation was to attempt to determine the most appropriate materials for use in constructing playing casts for the hand and wrist by assessing different materials for: 1) hardness using a Shore durometer, and 2) ability to absorb impact using a force platform. Results revealed that RTV11 and Scotchcast were the “least hard” of the underlying casting materials and that Temper Stick foam greatly increased the ability of RTV11 to absorb impact. Assessment of the mechanical properties of playing cast materials and review of current developments in high school football rules are used to aid practitioners in choosing the most appropriate materials for playing cast construction. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2.Fig 3. PMID:16558257

  14. Clean Metal Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  15. Method of casting aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01

    The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm.sup.3 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of alcogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent.

  16. Method of casting aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Poco, J.F.

    1993-09-07

    The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm[sup 3] to 0.6 g/cm[sup 3]. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of aerogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent. 2 figures.

  17. Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a high sludge factor, particularly a high level of Fe, measures must be taken to prevent the formation of large hardspots. For this kind of alloy, the Fe content should be kept at its lowest allowable level and the Mn content should be at its highest possible level. If there are problems in die filling, measures other than changing the alloy chemistry need to be considered first. In terms of alloy chemistry, the elements that form high temperature compounds must be kept at their lowest allowable levels. The alloys should not have machining problems when appropriate machining techniques and machining parameters are used.

  18. Salvaged castings and methods of salvaging castings with defective cast cooling bumps

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Robert Alan (Simpsonville, SC); Schaeffer, Jon Conrad (Greenville, SC); Lee, Ching-Pang (Cincinnati, OH); Abuaf, Nesim (Lincoln City, OR); Hasz, Wayne Charles (Pownal, VT)

    2002-01-01

    Castings for gas turbine parts exposed on one side to a high-temperature fluid medium have cast-in bumps on an opposite cooling surface side to enhance heat transfer. Areas on the cooling surface having defectively cast bumps, i.e., missing or partially formed bumps during casting, are coated with a braze alloy and cooling enhancement material to salvage the part.

  19. Hickey, C8206_all casts Hickey, C8206_all casts, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, C8206_all casts Hickey, C8206_all casts, page 1 #12;Hickey, C8206_all casts Hickey, C8206_all casts, page 2 #12;Hickey, C8206_all casts Hickey, C8206_all casts, page 3 #12;Hickey, C8206_all casts Hickey, C8206_all casts, page 4 #12;Hickey, C8206_all casts Hickey, C8206_all casts, page 5 #12

  20. Simulation of Dimensional Changes in Steel Casting

    E-print Network

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Simulation of Dimensional Changes in Steel Casting Shouzhu (Hans) Ou and Christoph Beckermann Pattern allowances in casting of steel are predicted using the casting simulation software MAGMASOFT to predict dimensional changes occurring during solidification and cooling of a steel casting

  1. Method for casting polyethylene pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, R. M., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Short lengths of 7-cm ID polyethylene pipe are cast in a mold which has a core made of room-temperature-vulcanizable (RTV) silicone. Core expands during casting and shrinks on cooling to allow for contraction of the polyethylene.

  2. Sealing micropores in thin castings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mersereau, G. A.; Nitzschke, G. O.; Ochs, H. L.; Sutch, F. S.

    1981-01-01

    Microscopic pores in thin-walled aluminum castings are sealed by impregnation pretreatment. Technique was developed for investment castings used in hermetically sealed chassic for electronic circuitry. Excessively high leakage rates were previously measured in some chassis.

  3. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOEpatents

    Scribner, Kenneth J. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants.

  4. Hair Casts or Pseudonits

    PubMed Central

    França, Katlein; Villa, Ricardo Tadeu; Silva, Isabella Rezende; de Carvalho, Cristine Almeida; Bedin, Valcinir

    2011-01-01

    Hair casts or pseudonits are thin, elongated, cylindrical concretions that encircle the hair shaft and can be easily dislodged. A case of pseudonits in a 9-year-old girl is reported. Though not unusual, false diagnoses are common. PMID:22223977

  5. AMCC casting development, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    PCC successfully cast and performed nondestructive testing, FPI and x-ray, on seventeen AMCC castings. Destructive testing, lab analysis and chemical milling, was performed on eleven of the castings and the remaining six castings were shipped to NASA or Aerojet. Two of the six castings shipped, lots 015 and 016, were fully processed per blueprint requirements. PCC has fully developed the gating and processing parameters of this part and feels the part could be implemented into production, after four more castings have been completed to ensure the repeatability of the process. The AMCC casting has been a technically challenging part due to its size, configuration, and alloy type. The height and weight of the wax pattern assembly necessitated the development of a hollow gating system to ensure structural integrity of the shell throughout the investment process. The complexity in the jacket area of the casting required the development of an innovative casting technology that PCC has termed 'TGC' or thermal gradient control. This method of setting up thermal gradients in the casting during solidification represents a significant process improvement for PCC and has been successfully implemented on other programs. The alloy, JBK75, is a relatively new alloy in the investment casting arena and required our engineering staff to learn the gating, processing, and dimensional characteristics of the material.

  6. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOEpatents

    Scribner, K.J.

    1985-01-29

    Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

  7. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOEpatents

    Scribner, K.J.

    1985-11-26

    Disclosed is an improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

  8. Computer cast blast modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, S.; McGill, M.; Preece, D.S.

    1994-12-31

    Cast blasting can be designed to utilize explosive energy effectively and economically for coal mining operations to remove overburden material. This paper compares two blast models known as DMC (Distinct Motion Code) and SABREX (Scientific Approach to Breaking Rock with Explosives). DMC applies discrete spherical elements interacted with the flow of explosive gases and the explicit time integration to track particle motion resulting from a blast. The input to this model includes multi-layer rock properties, and both loading geometry and explosives equation-of-state parameters. It enables the user to have a wide range of control over drill pattern and explosive loading design parameters. SABREX assumes that heave process is controlled by the explosive gases which determines the velocity and time of initial movement of blocks within the burden, and then tracks the motion of the blocks until they come to a rest. In order to reduce computing time, the in-flight collisions of blocks are not considered and the motion of the first row is made to limit the motion of subsequent rows. Although modelling a blast is a complex task, the advance in computer technology has increased the computing power of small work stations as well as PC (personal computers) to permit a much shorter turn-around time for complex computations. The DMC can perform a blast simulation in 0.5 hours on the SUN SPARC station 10-41 while the new SABREX 3.5 produces results of a cast blast in ten seconds on a 486-PC. Predicted percentage of cast and face velocities from both computer codes compare well with the measured results from a full scale cast blast.

  9. LOST FOAM CASTING OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Qingyou; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton; Sklad, Philip S; Currie, Kenneth; Abdelrahman, Mohamed; Vondra, Fred; Walford, Graham; Nolan, Dennis J

    2007-01-01

    The lost foam casting process has been successfully used for making aluminum and cast iron thin walled castings of complex geometries. Little work has been carried out on cast magnesium alloys using the lost foam process. The article describes the research activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Tennessee Technological University on lost foam casting of magnesium alloys. The work was focused on castings of simple geometries such as plate castings and window castings. The plate castings were designed to investigate the mold filling characteristics of magnesium and aluminum alloys using an infrared camera. The pate castings were then characterized for porosity distribution. The window castings were made to test the castability of the alloys under lost foam conditions. Significant differences between lost foam aluminum casting and lost foam magnesium casting have been observed.

  10. High density tape casting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr. (inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A system is provided for casting thin sheets (or tapes) of particles bound together, that are used for oxygen membranes and other applications, which enables the particles to be cast at a high packing density in a tape of uniform thickness. A slurry contains the particles, a binder, and a solvent, and is cast against the inside walls of a rotating chamber. Prior to spraying the slurry against the chamber walls, a solvent is applied to a container. The solvent evaporates to saturate the chamber with solvent vapor. Only then is the slurry cast. As a result, the slurry remains fluid long enough to spread evenly over the casting surface formed by the chamber, and for the slurry particles to become densely packed. Only then is the chamber vented to remove solvent, so the slurry can dry. The major novel feature is applying solvent vapor to a rotating chamber before casting slurry against the chamber walls.

  11. Cast dielectric composite linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Sanders, David M. (Livermore, CA); Sampayan, Stephen (Manteca, CA); Slenes, Kirk (Albuquerque, NM); Stoller, H. M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-10

    A linear accelerator having cast dielectric composite layers integrally formed with conductor electrodes in a solventless fabrication process, with the cast dielectric composite preferably having a nanoparticle filler in an organic polymer such as a thermosetting resin. By incorporating this cast dielectric composite the dielectric constant of critical insulating layers of the transmission lines of the accelerator are increased while simultaneously maintaining high dielectric strengths for the accelerator.

  12. Casting Equipment. Casting and Angling Skills Series. Instructor Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staton, Robert D., Jr.

    Part of a series of self-contained instructional units designed by the Missouri Department of Conservation to teach Missourians how to use outdoor resources wisely and skillfully, the instructor manual, the first in the casting and angling series, is intended both as a reference book on casting equipment and as an introduction to the sport.…

  13. 14 CFR 23.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...the method of inspection used; and (2) Need not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable casting factor. (c) Critical castings. For each casting whose failure...

  14. 14 CFR 29.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...the method of inspection used; and (2) Need not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable casting factor. (c) Critical castings. For each casting whose failure...

  15. 14 CFR 23.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...the method of inspection used; and (2) Need not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable casting factor. (c) Critical castings. For each casting whose failure...

  16. 14 CFR 25.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...the method of inspection used; and (2) Need not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable casting factor. (c) Critical castings. For each casting whose failure...

  17. 14 CFR 27.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...the method of inspection used; and (2) Need not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable casting factor. (c) Critical castings. For each casting whose failure...

  18. 14 CFR 27.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...the method of inspection used; and (2) Need not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable casting factor. (c) Critical castings. For each casting whose failure...

  19. 14 CFR 25.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...the method of inspection used; and (2) Need not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable casting factor. (c) Critical castings. For each casting whose failure...

  20. 14 CFR 29.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...the method of inspection used; and (2) Need not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable casting factor. (c) Critical castings. For each casting whose failure...

  1. 14 CFR 23.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...the method of inspection used; and (2) Need not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable casting factor. (c) Critical castings. For each casting whose failure...

  2. 14 CFR 25.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...the method of inspection used; and (2) Need not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable casting factor. (c) Critical castings. For each casting whose failure...

  3. 14 CFR 25.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...the method of inspection used; and (2) Need not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable casting factor. (c) Critical castings. For each casting whose failure...

  4. 14 CFR 29.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...the method of inspection used; and (2) Need not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable casting factor. (c) Critical castings. For each casting whose failure...

  5. 14 CFR 23.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...the method of inspection used; and (2) Need not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable casting factor. (c) Critical castings. For each casting whose failure...

  6. 14 CFR 27.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...the method of inspection used; and (2) Need not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable casting factor. (c) Critical castings. For each casting whose failure...

  7. 14 CFR 29.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...the method of inspection used; and (2) Need not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable casting factor. (c) Critical castings. For each casting whose failure...

  8. 14 CFR 27.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...the method of inspection used; and (2) Need not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable casting factor. (c) Critical castings. For each casting whose failure...

  9. When Your Child Needs a Cast

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hard bandage that's usually made of material like fiberglass or plaster. Casts keep bones in place while ... water. Plaster of Paris casts are heavier than fiberglass casts and don't hold up as well ...

  10. Prototype casting fabrication by stereolithography

    SciTech Connect

    Cromwell, W.E.

    1992-03-01

    The evolution of the new technology of producing CAD models by ultraviolet solidification of resin materials (``STEREOLITHOGRAPHY``) continues to progress. The potential application area of rigid fabrication of prototype investment castings is becoming more feasible as we continue to successfully yield experimental castings by the ``SHELL`` processing method. This supplemental (to 11/90 publication) report briefly reviews the original project objectives, activities related to these objectives since November 1990, and progress made through December 1991. We discuss several new case studies involving new resin materials (and other materials) tested along with investment casting processing results. The most recent success, the processing of the highly complex ``C`` HOUSING design by the ``shell`` mold process in both aluminum and steel, will be discussed. This is considered a major breakthrough toward establishing this new technology as a viable approach to the rapid development of prototype investment castings, employing the most common aerospace (precision) cast process. Our future planning calls for expanding the study to help the investment casting industry in refining related processing techniques and to continue our evaluation of new resins suitable for the casting process. Present project planning calls for the completion of this study by the third quarter FY93 or sooner. We believe that with the continued excellent cooperation of our casting supplier study team and an accelerated effort by resin materials producers to further refine related materials, we can achieve all objectives during the planned time frame.

  11. Prototype casting fabrication by stereolithography

    SciTech Connect

    Cromwell, W.E.

    1992-03-01

    The evolution of the new technology of producing CAD models by ultraviolet solidification of resin materials ( STEREOLITHOGRAPHY'') continues to progress. The potential application area of rigid fabrication of prototype investment castings is becoming more feasible as we continue to successfully yield experimental castings by the SHELL'' processing method. This supplemental (to 11/90 publication) report briefly reviews the original project objectives, activities related to these objectives since November 1990, and progress made through December 1991. We discuss several new case studies involving new resin materials (and other materials) tested along with investment casting processing results. The most recent success, the processing of the highly complex C'' HOUSING design by the shell'' mold process in both aluminum and steel, will be discussed. This is considered a major breakthrough toward establishing this new technology as a viable approach to the rapid development of prototype investment castings, employing the most common aerospace (precision) cast process. Our future planning calls for expanding the study to help the investment casting industry in refining related processing techniques and to continue our evaluation of new resins suitable for the casting process. Present project planning calls for the completion of this study by the third quarter FY93 or sooner. We believe that with the continued excellent cooperation of our casting supplier study team and an accelerated effort by resin materials producers to further refine related materials, we can achieve all objectives during the planned time frame.

  12. Biotransformation and ToxCast

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major focus in toxicology research is the development of in vitro methods to predict in vivo chemical toxicity. Within the EPA ToxCast program, a broad range of in vitro biochemical and cellular assays have been deployed to profile the biological activity of 320 ToxCast Phase I...

  13. Lost-Soap Aluminum Casting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihalow, Paula

    1980-01-01

    Lost-wax casting in sterling silver is a costly experience for the average high school student. However, this jewelry process can be learned at no cost if scrap aluminum is used instead of silver, and soap bars are used instead of wax. This lost-soap aluminum casting process is described. (Author/KC)

  14. Casting Freedom, 1860-1862

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Thomas Crawford, an American Sculptor, created the full-size figure of Freedom in clay. Molds were made, from which a full-size positive plaster model was cast in five main sections. This model is on view today in the basement rotunda of the Russell Senate Office Building. Clark Mills was a self-taught American sculptor with experience in casting

  15. Chameleon foreCAST

    E-print Network

    Philippe Brax; Axel Lindner; Konstantin Zioutas

    2012-01-24

    Dark energy models, such as the chameleon, where the acceleration of the expansion of the universe results from the dynamics of a scalar field coupled to matter, suffer from the potential existence of a fifth force. Three known mechanisms have been proposed to restore General Relativity in the solar system and the laboratory, which are the symmetron/Damour-Polyakov effect, the Vainshtein property and the chameleon screening. Here, we propose to probe the existence of chameleons in the laboratory, considering their particle physics consequences. We envisage the resonant and non-resonant production of chameleons in the sun and their back-conversion into X-ray photons in a solar helioscope pipe such as the one used by CAST. A detection of these X-rays would indicate the existence of chameleons. We focus on a template model for the solar magnetic field: a constant magnetic field in a narrow shell surrounding the tachocline. The X-ray photons in a helioscope pipe obtained from back-conversion of the chameleons created inside the sun have a spectrum which is peaked in the sub-keV region, just below the actual sensitivity range of the present axion helioscopes. Nevertheless they are detectable by present day magnetic helioscopes like CAST and Sumico, which were built originally for solar axions. We also propose a chameleon-through-a-wall experiment whereby X-ray photons from a synchroton radiation source could be converted into chameleons inside a dipole magnet, then pass a wall which is opaque to X-rays before being back-converted into X-ray photons in a second magnet downstream. We show that this could provide a direct signature for the existence of chameleon particles.

  16. Sixty Years of Casting Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John

    2015-11-01

    The 60 years of solidification research since the publication of Chalmer's constitutional undercooling in 1953 has been a dramatic advance of understanding which has and continues to be an inspiration. In contrast, 60 years of casting research has seen mixed fortunes. One of its success stories relates to improvements in inoculation of gray irons, and another to the discovery of spheroidal graphite iron, although both of these can be classified as metallurgical rather than casting advances. It is suggested that true casting advances have dated from the author's lab in 1992 when a critical surface turbulence condition was defined for the first time. These last 20 years have seen the surface entrainment issues of castings developed to a sufficient sophistication to revolutionize the performance of light alloy and steel foundries. However, there is still a long way to go, with large sections of the steel and Ni-base casting industries still in denial that casting defects are important or even exist. The result has been that special ingots are still cast poorly, and shaped casting operations have suffered massive losses. For secondary melted and cast materials, electro-slag remelting has the potential to be much superior to expensive vacuum arc remelting, which has cost our aerospace and defense industries dearly over the years. This failure to address and upgrade our processing of liquid metals is a serious concern, since the principle entrainment defect, the bifilm, is seen as the principle initiator of cracks in metals; in general, bifilms are the Griffith cracks that initiate failures by cracking. A new generation of crack resistant metals and engineering structures can now be envisaged.

  17. Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll

    DOEpatents

    Williams, R.S.; O`Malley, R.J.; Sussman, R.C.

    1997-07-29

    A strip caster for producing a continuous strip includes a tundish for containing a melt, a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls and devices for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces of the casting rolls with a powder flux material. The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin for receiving the melt through a teeming tube thereby establishing a meniscus between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line to a sealing chamber. A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550 C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll. 3 figs.

  18. Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Robert S. (Fairfield, OH); O'Malley, Ronald J. (Miamisburg, OH); Sussman, Richard C. (West Chester, OH)

    1997-01-01

    A strip caster (10) for producing a continuous strip (24) includes a tundish (12) for containing a melt (14), a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls (22) and devices (29) for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces (44) of the casting rolls with a powder flux material (56). The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin (18) for receiving the melt through a teeming tube (16) thereby establishing a meniscus (20) between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line (28) to a sealing chamber (26). A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550.degree. C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll.

  19. Strip casting apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Robert S. (Plum, PA); Baker, Donald F. (Hempfield, PA)

    1988-01-01

    Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip.

  20. Investment casting design of experiment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, R.

    1997-10-01

    Specific steps in the investment casting process were analyzed in a designed experiment. The casting`s sensitivity to changes in these process steps was experimentally determined Dimensional and radiographic inspection were used to judge the sensitivity of the casting. Thirty-six castings of different pedigrees were poured and measured. Some of the dimensional inspection was conducted during the processing. It was confirmed that wax fixturing, number of gates, gate location, pour and mold temperature, pour speed, and cooling profile all affected the radiographic quality of the casting. Gate and runner assembly techniques, number of gates, and mold temperature affect the dimensional quality of the casting.

  1. Titan Casts Revealing Shadow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-05-01

    A rare celestial event was captured by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory as Titan -- Saturn's largest moon and the only moon in the Solar System with a thick atmosphere -- crossed in front of the X-ray bright Crab Nebula. The X-ray shadow cast by Titan allowed astronomers to make the first X-ray measurement of the extent of its atmosphere. On January 5, 2003, Titan transited the Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion that was observed to occur in the year 1054. Although Saturn and Titan pass within a few degrees of the Crab Nebula every 30 years, they rarely pass directly in front of it. "This may have been the first transit of the Crab Nebula by Titan since the birth of the Crab Nebula," said Koji Mori of Pennsylvania State University in University Park, and lead author on an Astrophysical Journal paper describing these results. "The next similar conjunction will take place in the year 2267, so this was truly a once in a lifetime event." Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Chandra's observation revealed that the diameter of the X-ray shadow cast by Titan was larger than the diameter of its solid surface. The difference in diameters gives a measurement of about 550 miles (880 kilometers) for the height of the X-ray absorbing region of Titan's atmosphere. The extent of the upper atmosphere is consistent with, or slightly (10-15%) larger, than that implied by Voyager I observations made at radio, infrared, and ultraviolet wavelengths in 1980. "Saturn was about 5% closer to the Sun in 2003, so increased solar heating of Titan may account for some of this atmospheric expansion," said Hiroshi Tsunemi of Osaka University in Japan, one of the coauthors on the paper. The X-ray brightness and extent of the Crab Nebula made it possible to study the tiny X-ray shadow cast by Titan during its transit. By using Chandra to precisely track Titan's position, astronomers were able to measure a shadow one arcsecond in diameter, which corresponds to the size of a dime as viewed from about two and a half miles. Illustration of Crab, Titan's Shadow and Chandra Illustration of Crab, Titan's Shadow and Chandra Unlike almost all of Chandra's images which are made by focusing X-ray emission from cosmic sources, Titan's X-ray shadow image was produced in a manner similar to a medical X-ray. That is, an X-ray source (the Crab Nebula) is used to make a shadow image (Titan and its atmosphere) that is recorded on film (Chandra's ACIS detector). Titan's atmosphere, which is about 95% nitrogen and 5% methane, has a pressure near the surface that is one and a half times the Earth's sea level pressure. Voyager I spacecraft measured the structure of Titan's atmosphere at heights below about 300 miles (500 kilometers), and above 600 miles (1000 kilometers). Until the Chandra observations, however, no measurements existed at heights in the range between 300 and 600 miles. Understanding the extent of Titan's atmosphere is important for the planners of the Cassini-Huygens mission. The Cassini-Huygens spacecraft will reach Saturn in July of this year to begin a four-year tour of Saturn, its rings and its moons. The tour will include close flybys of Titan that will take Cassini as close as 600 miles, and the launching of the Huygens probe that will land on Titan's surface. Chandra's X-ray Shadow of Titan Chandra's X-ray Shadow of Titan "If Titan's atmosphere has really expanded, the trajectory may have to be changed." said Tsunemi. The paper on these results has been accepted and is expected to appear in a June 2004 issue of The Astrophysical Journal. Other members of the research team were Haroyoski Katayama (Osaka University), David Burrows and Gordon Garmine (Penn State University), and Albert Metzger (JPL). Chandra observed Titan from 9:04 to 18:46 UT on January 5, 2003, using its Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer instrument. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for the Office of Space Science, NASA Headquarters,

  2. Fillability of Thin-Wall Steel Castings

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Voigt; Joseph Bertoletti; Andrew Kaley; Sandi Ricotta; Travis Sunday

    2002-07-30

    The use of steel components is being challenged by lighter nonferrous or cast iron components. The development of techniques for enhancing and ensuring the filability of thin-wall mold cavities is most critical for thinner wall cast steel production. The purpose of this research was to develop thin-wall casting techniques that can be used to reliably produce thin-wall castings from traditional gravity poured sand casting processes. The focus of the research was to enhance the filling behavior to prevent misrunds. Experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of various foundry variables on the filling of thin section steel castings. These variables include casting design, heat transfer, gating design, and metal fluidity. Wall thickness and pouring temperature have the greatest effect on casting fill. As wall thickness increases the volume to surface area of the casting increases, which increases the solidification time, allowing the metal to flow further in thicker sect ions. Pouring time is another significant variable affecting casting fill. Increases or decreases of 20% in the pouring time were found to have a significant effect on the filling of thin-wall production castings. Gating variables, including venting, pouring head height, and mold tilting also significantly affected thin-wall casting fill. Filters offer less turbulent, steadier flow, which is appropriate for thicker castings, but they do not enhance thin-wall casting fill.

  3. Energy Consumption of Die Casting Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jerald Brevick; clark Mount-Campbell; Carroll Mobley

    2004-03-15

    Molten metal processing is inherently energy intensive and roughly 25% of the cost of die-cast products can be traced to some form of energy consumption [1]. The obvious major energy requirements are for melting and holding molten alloy in preparation for casting. The proper selection and maintenance of melting and holding equipment are clearly important factors in minimizing energy consumption in die-casting operations [2]. In addition to energy consumption, furnace selection also influences metal loss due to oxidation, metal quality, and maintenance requirements. Other important factors influencing energy consumption in a die-casting facility include geographic location, alloy(s) cast, starting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting machine, related equipment (robots, trim presses), and downstream processing (machining, plating, assembly, etc.). Each of these factors also may influence the casting quality and productivity of a die-casting enterprise. In a die-casting enterprise, decisions regarding these issues are made frequently and are based on a large number of factors. Therefore, it is not surprising that energy consumption can vary significantly from one die-casting enterprise to the next, and within a single enterprise as function of time.

  4. Casting propellant in rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roach, J. E.; Froehling, S. C. (inventors)

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for casting a solid propellant in the casing of a rocket engine having a continuous wall with a single opening which is formed by leaves of a material which melt at a temperature of the propellant and with curved edges concentric to the curvature of the spherical casing. The leaves are inserted into the spherical casing through the opening forming a core having a greater width than the width of the single opening and with curved peripheral edges. The cast propellant forms a solid mass and then heated to melt the leaves and provide a central opening with radial projecting flutes.

  5. INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE COOLING A 20' IRON PIPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE COOLING A 20' IRON PIPE PRIOR TO EXTRACTION FROM CASTING MACHINE. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  6. INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 4" DUCTILE IRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 4" DUCTILE IRON PIPE BEING EXTRACTED FROM CASTING MACHINE - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  7. INTERIOR VIEW OF CASTING MACHINE WITH 4' DUCTILE IRON PIPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF CASTING MACHINE WITH 4' DUCTILE IRON PIPE BEING WEIGHED ON SCALES AT CASTING MACHINE. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  8. 14 CFR 25.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction General § 25.621 Casting factors. (a... except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid systems and do not...

  9. 14 CFR 29.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.621 Casting factors. (a... castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid systems and do not...

  10. Prediction of Microporosity in Shrouded Impeller Castings

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, S. Nelson, C.D.

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Morris Bean and Company was to link computer models of heat and fluid flow with previously developed quality criteria for the prediction of microporosity in a Al-4.5% Cu alloy shrouded impeller casting. The results may be used to analyze the casting process design for the commercial production of 206 o alloy shrouded impeller castings. Test impeller castings were poured in the laboratory for the purpose of obtaining thermal data and porosity distributions. Also, a simulation of the test impeller casting was conducted and the results validated with porosity measurements on the test castings. A comparison of the predicted and measured microporosity distributions indicated an excellent correlation between experiments and prediction. The results of the experimental and modeling studies undertaken in this project indicate that the quality criteria developed for the prediction of microporosity in Al-4.5% Cu alloy castings can accurately predict regions of elevated microporosity even in complex castings such as the shrouded impeller casting. Accordingly, it should be possible to use quality criteria for porosity prediction in conjunction with computer models of heat and fluid flow to optimize the casting process for the production of shrouded impeller castings. Since high levels of microporosity may be expected to result in poor fatigue properties, casting designs that are optimized for low levels of microporosity should exhibit superior fatigue life.

  11. Overview of ToxCast

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2007, EPA launched ToxCast™ in order to develop a cost-effective approach for prioritizing the toxicity testing of large numbers of chemicals in a short period of time. Using data from state-of-the-art high throughput screening (HTS) bioassays developed in the pharmaceutical i...

  12. Tape casting of magnesium oxide.

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, Alicia; Corral, Erica L.; Loehman, Ronald E.; Bencoe, Denise Nora; Reiterer, Markus; Shah, Raja A.

    2008-02-01

    A tape casting procedure for fabricating ceramic magnesium oxide tapes has been developed as a method to produce flat sheets of sintered MgO that are thin and porous. Thickness of single layer tapes is in the range of 200-400 {micro}m with corresponding surface roughness values in the range of 10-20 {micro}m as measured by laser profilometry. Development of the tape casting technique required optimization of pretreatment for the starting magnesium oxide (MgO) powder as well as a detailed study of the casting slurry preparation and subsequent heat treatments for sintering and final tape flattening. Milling time of the ceramic powder, plasticizer, and binder mixture was identified as a primary factor affecting surface morphology of the tapes. In general, longer milling times resulted in green tapes with a noticeably smoother surface. This work demonstrates that meticulous control of the entire tape casting operation is necessary to obtain high-quality MgO tapes.

  13. Graphite Formation in Cast Iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    In the first phase of the project it was proven that by changing the ratio between the thermal gradient and the growth rate for commercial cast iron samples solidifying in a Bridgman type furnace, it is possible to produce all types of graphite structures, from flake to spheroidal, and all types of matrices, from ferritic to white at a certain given level of cerium. KC-135 flight experiments have shown that in a low-gravity environment, no flotation occurs even in spheroidal graphite cast irons with carbon equivalent as high as 5%, while extensive graphite flotation occurred in both flake and spheroidal graphite cast irons, in high carbon samples solidified in a high gravity environment. This opens the way for production of iron-carbon composite materials, with high carbon content (e.g., 10%) in a low gravity environment. By using KC-135 flights, the influence of some basic elements on the solidification of cast iron will be studied. The mechanism of flake to spheroidal graphite transition will be studied, by using quenching experiments at both low and one gravity for different G/R ratios.

  14. Molding A Cast Metals Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumble, Dale E.

    1975-01-01

    The cast metals program, a two-year associate degree program, at Muskegon Community College, Musegon, Michigan operates in close cooperation with the local foundry industry to provide a background for entry-level technical jobs and for continued studies toward a four-year degree. (EA)

  15. Math: Objectives Guide. Project CAST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles County Board of Education, La Plata, MD. Office of Special Education.

    The guide lists math objectives needed for independent living by secondary special education students. One of a series of Project CAST (Community and School Together) life skills manuals, the guide outlines basic competencies in terms of goal statements, behavioral objectives, and specialized vocabulary for the following areas: money, making…

  16. Advanced Lost Foam Casting Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Charles E. Bates; Harry E. Littleton; Don Askeland; Taras Molibog; Jason Hopper; Ben Vatankhah

    2000-11-30

    This report describes the research done under the six tasks to improve the process and make it more functional in an industrial environment. Task 1: Pattern Pyrolysis Products and Pattern Properties Task 2: Coating Quality Control Task 3: Fill and Solidification Code Task 4: Alternate Pattern Materials Task 5: Casting Distortion Task 6: Technology Transfer

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF IRON CASTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling of ductile iron casting in green sand molds with phenolic isocyanate cores and in phenol-formaldehyde bound shell molds did not provide definitive proof that environmentally hazardous organic emission occur. Both molding systems produced the same type of major emissions,...

  18. Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995 Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995 Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995, page 1 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995 Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995, page 2 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995 Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995, page 3 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995 Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995, page 4 #12;Hickey, W8009C

  19. Prototype casting fabrication by stereolithography

    SciTech Connect

    Cromwell, W.E.

    1990-11-01

    A new product development technology is emerging which could have a major impact on the investment casting industry. It's identified by several names, the most common of which is STEREOLITHOGRAPHY.'' This technology involves a three-dimensional printing process which will yield plastic parts (polymer models) from solid, surface, or wireframe CAD files. The concept links a CAD database to a process which guides a laser beam to solidify liquid photo-curable polymer into a programmed shaped. The process can produce models in far less time and at far less cost than can be done by other known (conventional) model producing methods. Parts that would normally require weeks or months to prototype with conventional processes can be produced in a matter of hours by Stereolithography. The Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division, is engaged in a development project (funded by the Department of Energy) which is aimed at establishing this process as a practical, expedient, and cost-effective method fabricating prototype investment castings. The early phases of the project include procurement of a special designed test unit for several companies (Service Centers) involved in fabrication of models. These models are produced in various materials and used in experimental casting programs being conducted with four casting suppliers (two ferrous and two non-ferrous). This presentation will cover the objectives of the project and the results obtained up to this time. We will also briefly review future plans for the continuation of the project, until this new technology has been proven as a viable process for rapid development of investment castings.

  20. Land-based turbine casting initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, B.A.; Spicer, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    To meet goals for the ATS program, technical advances developed for aircraft gas turbine engines need to be applied to land-based gas turbines. These advances include directionally solidified and single crystal castings, alloys tailored to exploit these microstructures, complex internal cooling schemes, and coatings. The proposed program to scale aircraft gas turbine casting technology up to land based gas turbine size components is based on low sulfur alloys, casting process development, post-cast process development, and establishing casting defect tolerance levels. The inspection side is also discussed.

  1. Process development of thin strip steel casting

    SciTech Connect

    Sussman, R.C.; Williams, R.S.

    1990-12-01

    An important new frontier is being opened in steel processing with the emergence of thin strip casting. Casting steel directly to thin strip has enormous benefits in energy savings by potentially eliminating the need for hot reduction in a hot strip mill. This has been the driving force for numerous current research efforts into the direct strip casting of steel. The US Department of Energy initiated a program to evaluate the development of thin strip casting in the steel industry. In earlier phases of this program, planar flow casting on an experimental caster was studied by a team of engineers from Westinghouse Electric corporation and Armco Inc. A subsequent research program was designed as a fundamental and developmental study of both planar and melt overflow casting processes. This study was arranged as several separate and distinct tasks which were often completed by different teams of researchers. An early task was to design and build a water model to study fluid flow through different designs of planar flow casting nozzles. Another important task was mathematically modeling of melt overflow casting process. A mathematical solidification model for the formation of the strip in the melt overflow process was written. A study of the material and conditioning of casting substrates was made on the small wheel caster using the melt overflow casting process. This report discusses work on the development of thin steel casting.

  2. Prediction of Part Distortion in Die Casting

    SciTech Connect

    R. Allen Miller

    2005-03-30

    The die casting process is one of the net shape manufacturing techniques and is widely used to produce high production castings with tight tolerances for many industries. An understanding of the stress distribution and the deformation pattern of parts produced by die casting will result in less deviation from the part design specification, a better die design and eventually more productivity and cost savings. This report presents methods that can be used to simulate the die casting process in order to predict the deformation and stresses in the produced part and assesses the degree to which distortion modeling is practical for die casting at the current time. A coupled thermal-mechanical finite elements model was used to simulate the die casting process. The simulation models the effect of thermal and mechanical interaction between the casting and the die. It also includes the temperature dependant material properties of the casting. Based on a designed experiment, a sensitivity analysis was conducted on the model to investigate the effect of key factors. These factors include the casting material model, material properties and thermal interaction between casting and dies. To verify the casting distortion predictions, it was compared against the measured dimensions of produced parts. The comparison included dimensions along and across the parting plane and the flatness of one surface.

  3. Emulsion based cast booster - a priming system

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.N.; Mishra, A.K.

    2005-07-01

    This paper explores the potential of emulsion based cast booster to be used as primer to initiate bulk delivered emulsion explosives used in mines. An attempt has been made for comparative study between conventional cast booster and emulsion based cast booster in terms of the initiation process developed and their capability to develop and maintain the stable detonation process in the column explosives. The study has been conducted using a continuous velocity of detonation (VOD) measuring instrument. During this study three blasts have been monitored. In each blast two holes have been selected for study, the first hole being initiated with conventional cast booster while the other one with emulsion based cast booster. The findings of the study advocates that emulsion based cast booster is capable of efficient priming of bulk delivered column explosive with stable detonation process in the column. Further, the booster had advantages over the conventional PETN/TNT based cast booster. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab., 1 photo.

  4. Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9 Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9 Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9, page 1 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9 Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9, page 2 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9 Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9, page 3 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9 Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9, page 4 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9 Hickey, W8009C, casts

  5. Pressure rig for repetitive casting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Peter (inventor); Hutto, William R. (inventor); Philips, Albert R. (inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention is a pressure rig for repetitive casting of metal. The pressure rig performs like a piston for feeding molten metal into a mold. Pressure is applied to an expandable rubber diaphragm which expands like a balloon to force the metal into the mold. A ceramic cavity which holds molten metal is lined with blanket-type insulating material, necessitating only a relining for subsequent use and eliminating the lengthy cavity preparation inherent in previous rigs. In addition, the expandable rubber diaphragm is protected by the insulating material thereby decreasing its vulnerability to heat damage. As a result of the improved design the life expectancy of the pressure rig contemplated by the present invention is more than doubled. Moreover, the improved heat protection has allowed the casting of brass and other alloys with higher melting temperatures than possible in the conventional pressure rigs.

  6. Search for chameleons with CAST

    E-print Network

    Anastassopoulos, V; Aune, S; Barth, K; Belov, A; Bräuninger, H; Cantatore, G; Carmona, J M; Cetin, S A; Christensen, F; Collar, J I; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Desch, K; Dermenev, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Fanourakis, G; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Friedrich, P; Galán, J; García, J A; Gardikiotis, A; Garza, J G; Gazis, E N; Geralis, T; Giomataris, I; Hailey, C; Haug, F; Hasinoff, M D; Hofmann, D H H; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; Jakobsen, A; Jakov?i?, K; Kaminski, J; Karuza, M; Kavuk, M; Kr?mar, M; Krieger, C; Krüger, A; Laki?, B; Laurent, J M; Liolios, A; Ljubi?i?, A; Luzón, G; Neff, S; Ortega, I; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovarov, M J; Raffelt, G; Riege, H; Rosu, M; Ruz, J; Savvidis, I; Solanki, S K; Vafeiadis, T; Villar, J A; Vogel, J K; Yildiz, S C; Zioutas, K; Brax, P; Lavrentyev, I; Upadhye, A

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present a search for (solar) chameleons with the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). This novel experimental technique, in the field of dark energy research, exploits both the chameleon coupling to matter ($\\beta_{\\rm m}$) and to photons ($\\beta_{\\gamma}$) via the Primakoff effect. By reducing the X-ray detection energy threshold used for axions from 1$\\,$keV to 400$\\,$eV CAST became sensitive to the converted solar chameleon spectrum which peaks around 600$\\,$eV. Even though we have not observed any excess above background, we can provide a 95% C.L. limit for the coupling strength of chameleons to photons of $\\beta_{\\gamma}\\!\\lesssim\\!10^{11}$ for $1<\\beta_{\\rm m}<10^6$.

  7. Search for chameleons with CAST

    E-print Network

    V. Anastassopoulos; M. Arik; S. Aune; K. Barth; A. Belov; H. Bräuninger; G. Cantatore; J. M. Carmona; S. A. Cetin; F. Christensen; J. I. Collar; T. Dafni; M. Davenport; K. Desch; A. Dermenev; C. Eleftheriadis; G. Fanourakis; E. Ferrer-Ribas; P. Friedrich; J. Galán; J. A. García; A. Gardikiotis; J. G. Garza; E. N. Gazis; T. Geralis; I. Giomataris; C. Hailey; F. Haug; M. D. Hasinoff; D. H. H. Hoffmann; F. J. Iguaz; I. G. Irastorza; J. Jacoby; A. Jakobsen; K. Jakov?i?; J. Kaminski; M. Karuza; M. Kavuk; M. Kr?mar; C. Krieger; A. Krüger; B. Laki?; J. M. Laurent; A. Liolios; A. Ljubi?i?; G. Luzón; S. Neff; I. Ortega; T. Papaevangelou; M. J. Pivovarov; G. Raffelt; H. Riege; M. Rosu; J. Ruz; I. Savvidis; S. K. Solanki; T. Vafeiadis; J. A. Villar; J. K. Vogel; S. C. Yildiz; K. Zioutas; P. Brax; I. Lavrentyev; A. Upadhye

    2015-03-16

    In this work we present a search for (solar) chameleons with the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). This novel experimental technique, in the field of dark energy research, exploits both the chameleon coupling to matter ($\\beta_{\\rm m}$) and to photons ($\\beta_{\\gamma}$) via the Primakoff effect. By reducing the X-ray detection energy threshold used for axions from 1$\\,$keV to 400$\\,$eV CAST became sensitive to the converted solar chameleon spectrum which peaks around 600$\\,$eV. Even though we have not observed any excess above background, we can provide a 95% C.L. limit for the coupling strength of chameleons to photons of $\\beta_{\\gamma}\\!\\lesssim\\!10^{11}$ for $1<\\beta_{\\rm m}<10^6$.

  8. Search for chameleons with CAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastassopoulos, V.; Arik, M.; Aune, S.; Barth, K.; Belov, A.; Bräuninger, H.; Cantatore, G.; Carmona, J. M.; Cetin, S. A.; Christensen, F.; Collar, J. I.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Desch, K.; Dermenev, A.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Friedrich, P.; Galán, J.; García, J. A.; Gardikiotis, A.; Garza, J. G.; Gazis, E. N.; Geralis, T.; Giomataris, I.; Hailey, C.; Haug, F.; Hasinoff, M. D.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Jacoby, J.; Jakobsen, A.; Jakov?i?, K.; Kaminski, J.; Karuza, M.; Kavuk, M.; Kr?mar, M.; Krieger, C.; Krüger, A.; Laki?, B.; Laurent, J. M.; Liolios, A.; Ljubi?i?, A.; Luzón, G.; Neff, S.; Ortega, I.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Raffelt, G.; Riege, H.; Rosu, M.; Ruz, J.; Savvidis, I.; Solanki, S. K.; Vafeiadis, T.; Villar, J. A.; Vogel, J. K.; Yildiz, S. C.; Zioutas, K.; Brax, P.; Lavrentyev, I.; Upadhye, A.

    2015-10-01

    In this work we present a search for (solar) chameleons with the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). This novel experimental technique, in the field of dark energy research, exploits both the chameleon coupling to matter (?m) and to photons (??) via the Primakoff effect. By reducing the X-ray detection energy threshold used for axions from 1 keV to 400 eV CAST became sensitive to the converted solar chameleon spectrum which peaks around 600 eV. Even though we have not observed any excess above background, we can provide a 95% C.L. limit for the coupling strength of chameleons to photons of ?? ?1011 for 1

  9. Tape casting of lanthanum chromite

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, M.W.; Armstrong, T.R.; Smith, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are currently being developed for a variety of applications such as stationary on-site power plants and cogeneration. The effects of process additives, ball milling, and solids loading were evaluated for tape casting suspensions of glycine-nitrate-synthesized La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.31}CrO{sub 3} powder. An optimized formulation was obtained based on rheological characterization, electrokinetic sonic amplitude measurements, qualitative examination of green tapes, and the sintered microstructure. The tape casting formulation incorporated 66:34 methyl ethyl ketone/ethyl alcohol solvent, an aliphatic phosphate ester dispersant, and 80 wt% (35 vol%) solids. The best binder/plasticizer system was 12 wt% (15 vol%) poly(isobutyl methacrylate) and 5 wt% (6.3 vol%) benzyl butyl phthalate plasticizer (binder:plasticizer = 2.3). Cast tapes were sintered at 1300 C for 2 h, producing a bulk density of 96.2% theoretical, with linear shrinkage of 22% and an approximate grain size of 1.3 {micro}m.

  10. Gating of Permanent Molds for ALuminum Casting

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang

    2004-03-30

    This report summarizes a two-year project, DE-FC07-01ID13983 that concerns the gating of aluminum castings in permanent molds. The main goal of the project is to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. The approach taken was determine how the vertical type gating systems used for permanent mold castings can be designed to fill the mold cavity with a minimum of damage to the quality of the resulting casting. It is evident that somewhat different systems are preferred for different shapes and sizes of aluminum castings. The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. The project highlights the characteristic features of gating systems used in permanent mold aluminum foundries and recommends gating procedures designed to avoid common defects. The study also provides direct evidence on the filling pattern and heat flow behavior in permanent mold castings.

  11. Clean Cast Steel Technology, Phase IV

    SciTech Connect

    Charles E. Bates

    2003-02-24

    The objective of the Clean Cast Steel Technology Program was to improve casting product quality by removing or minimizing oxide defects and to allow the production of higher integrity castings for high speed machining lines. Previous research has concentrated on macro-inclusions that break, chip, or crack machine tool cutters and drills and cause immediate shutdown of the machining lines. The overall goal of the project is to reduce the amount of surface macro-inclusions and improve the machinability of steel castings. Macro-inclusions and improve the machinability of steel castings. Macro-inclusions have been identified by industrial sponsors as a major barrier to improving the quality and marketability of steel castings.

  12. Method for casting thin metal objects

    DOEpatents

    Pehrson, Brandon P; Moore, Alan F

    2015-04-14

    Provided herein are various embodiments of systems for casting thin metal plates and sheets. Typical embodiments include layers of mold cavities that are oriented vertically for casting the metal plates. In some embodiments, the mold cavities include a beveled edge such that the plates that are cast have a beveled edge. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled with a molten metal through an open horizontal edge of the cavity. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled through one or more vertical feed orifices. Further disclosed are methods for forming a thin cast metal plate or sheet where the thickness of the cast part is in a range from 0.005 inches to 0.2 inches, and the surface area of the cast part is in a range from 16 square inches to 144 square inches.

  13. A Benchmark Study on Casting Residual Stress

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Eric M.; Watkins, Thomas R; Schmidlin, Joshua E; Dutler, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Stringent regulatory requirements, such as Tier IV norms, have pushed the cast iron for automotive applications to its limit. The castings need to be designed with closer tolerances by incorporating hitherto unknowns, such as residual stresses arising due to thermal gradients, phase and microstructural changes during solidification phenomenon. Residual stresses were earlier neglected in the casting designs by incorporating large factors of safety. Experimental measurement of residual stress in a casting through neutron or X-ray diffraction, sectioning or hole drilling, magnetic, electric or photoelastic measurements is very difficult and time consuming exercise. A detailed multi-physics model, incorporating thermo-mechanical and phase transformation phenomenon, provides an attractive alternative to assess the residual stresses generated during casting. However, before relying on the simulation methodology, it is important to rigorously validate the prediction capability by comparing it to experimental measurements. In the present work, a benchmark study was undertaken for casting residual stress measurements through neutron diffraction, which was subsequently used to validate the accuracy of simulation prediction. The stress lattice specimen geometry was designed such that subsequent castings would generate adequate residual stresses during solidification and cooling, without any cracks. The residual stresses in the cast specimen were measured using neutron diffraction. Considering the difficulty in accessing the neutron diffraction facility, these measurements can be considered as benchmark for casting simulation validations. Simulations were performed using the identical specimen geometry and casting conditions for predictions of residual stresses. The simulation predictions were found to agree well with the experimentally measured residual stresses. The experimentally validated model can be subsequently used to predict residual stresses in different cast components. This enables incorporation of the residual stresses at the design phase along with external loads for accurate predictions of fatigue and fracture performance of the cast components.

  14. Directional Solidification of Nodular Cast Iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, P. A.; Stefanescu, D. M.; Hendrix, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    Cerium enhances formation of graphite nodules. Preliminary experiments in directional solidification of cast iron shows quantitative correlation of graphite microstructure with growth rate and thermal gradient, with sufficient spheroidizing element to form spheroidal graphite under proper thermal conditions. Experimental approach enables use of directional solidification to study solidification of spheriodal-graphite cast iron in low gravity. Possible to form new structural materials from nodular cast iron.

  15. Microstructured metal molds fabricated via investment casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Andrew H.; King, William P.

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes an investment casting process to produce aluminum molds having integrated microstructures. Unlike conventional micromolding tools, the aluminum mold was large and had complex curved surfaces. The aluminum was cast from curved microstructured ceramic molds which were themselves cast from curved microstructured rubber. The aluminum microstructures had an aspect ratio of 1:1 and sizes ranging from 25 to 50 µm. Many structures were successfully cast into the aluminum with excellent replication fidelity, including circular, square and triangular holes. We demonstrate molding of large, curved surfaces having surface microstructures using the aluminum mold.

  16. Release of ToxCastDB and ExpoCastDB databases

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has released two databases - the Toxicity Forecaster database (ToxCastDB) and a database of chemical exposure studies (ExpoCastDB) - that scientists and the public can use to access chemical toxicity and exposure data. ToxCastDB users can search and download data from over 50...

  17. Spray casting project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Churnetski, S.R.; Thompson, J.E.

    1996-08-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step.

  18. Yield Improvement in Steel Casting (Yield II)

    SciTech Connect

    Richard A. Hardin; Christoph Beckermann; Tim Hays

    2002-02-18

    This report presents work conducted on the following main projects tasks undertaken in the Yield Improvement in Steel Casting research program: Improvement of Conventional Feeding and Risering Methods, Use of Unconventional Yield Improvement Techniques, and Case Studies in Yield Improvement. Casting trials were conducted and then simulated using the precise casting conditions as recorded by the participating SFSA foundries. These results present a statistically meaningful set of experimental data on soundness versus feeding length. Comparisons between these casting trials and casting trials performed more than forty years ago by Pellini and the SFSA are quite good and appear reasonable. Comparisons between the current SFSA feeding rules and feeding rules based on the minimum Niyama criterion reveal that the Niyama-based rules are generally less conservative. The niyama-based rules also agree better with both the trials presented here, and the casting trails performed by Pellini an d the SFSA years ago. Furthermore, the use of the Niyama criterion to predict centerline shrinkage for horizontally fed plate sections has a theoretical basis according to the casting literature reviewed here. These results strongly support the use of improved feeding rules for horizontal plate sections based on the Niyama criterion, which can be tailored to the casting conditions for a given alloy and to a desired level of soundness. The reliability and repeatability of ASTM shrinkage x-ray ratings was investigated in a statistical study performed on 128 x-rays, each of which were rated seven different times. A manual ''Feeding and Risering Guidelines for Steel Castings' is given in this final report. Results of casting trials performed to test unconventional techniques for improving casting yield are presented. These use a stacked arrangement of castings and riser pressurization to increase the casting yield. Riser pressurization was demonstrated to feed a casting up to four time s the distance of a non-pressurized riser, and can increase casting yield by decreasing the required number of risers. All case studies for this projects were completed and compiled into an SFSA Technical Report that is submitted part of this Final Report

  19. Energy use in selected metal casting facilities - 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Eppich, Robert E.

    2004-05-01

    This report represents an energy benchmark for various metal casting processes. It describes process flows and energy use by fuel type and processes for selected casting operations. It also provides recommendations for improving energy efficiency in casting.

  20. Casting fine grained, fully dense, strong inorganic materials

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Sam W.; Spencer, Larry S.; Phillips, Michael R.

    2015-11-24

    Methods and apparatuses for casting inorganic materials are provided. The inorganic materials include metals, metal alloys, metal hydrides and other materials. Thermal control zones may be established to control the propagation of a freeze front through the casting. Agitation from a mechanical blade or ultrasonic energy may be used to reduce porosity and shrinkage in the casting. After solidification of the casting, the casting apparatus may be used to anneal the cast part.

  1. 14 CFR 25.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Casting factors. 25.621 Section 25.621 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction General § 25.621 Casting factors. (a) General. The factors, tests, and...

  2. 14 CFR 29.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Casting factors. 29.621 Section 29.621 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.621 Casting factors. (a) General. The factors, tests, and...

  3. Processing of IN-718 Lattice Block Castings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan G.

    2002-01-01

    Recently a low cost casting method known as lattice block casting has been developed by JAM Corporation, Wilmington, Massachusetts for engineering materials such as aluminum and stainless steels that has shown to provide very high stiffness and strength with only a fraction of density of the alloy. NASA Glenn Research Center has initiated research to investigate lattice block castings of high temperature Ni-base superalloys such as the model system Inconel-718 (IN-718) for lightweight nozzle applications. Although difficulties were encountered throughout the manufacturing process , a successful investment casting procedure was eventually developed. Wax formulation and pattern assembly, shell mold processing, and counter gravity casting techniques were developed. Ten IN-718 lattice block castings (each measuring 15-cm wide by 30-cm long by 1.2-cm thick) have been successfully produced by Hitchiner Gas Turbine Division, Milford, New Hampshire, using their patented counter gravity casting techniques. Details of the processing and resulting microstructures are discussed in this paper. Post casting processing and evaluation of system specific mechanical properties of these specimens are in progress.

  4. Slip casting and nitridation of silicon powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiko, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Powdered Silicon was slip-cast with a CaSO4 x 0.5H2O mold and nitrided in a N atm. containing 0 or 5 vol. % H at 1000 to 1420 deg. To remove the castings, the modeling faces were coated successively with an aq. salt soap and powdered cellulose containing Na alginate, and thus prevented the sticking problem.

  5. Iron/Phosphorus Alloys for Continuous Casting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufresne, E. R.

    1986-01-01

    Continuous casting becomes practicable because of reduced eutectic temperature. Experimental ferrous alloy has melting point about 350 degrees C lower than conventional steels, making possible to cast structural members and eliminating need for hot rolling. Product has normal metal structure and good physical properties. Process used to make rails, beams, slabs, channels, and pipes.

  6. The CAST (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jo; Scott, Fiona; Stott, Carol; Allison, Carrie; Bolton, Patrick; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brayne, Carol

    2005-01-01

    The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST) is a parental questionnaire to screen for autism spectrum conditions. In this validation study, the CAST was distributed to 1925 children aged 5-11 in mainstream Cambridgeshire schools. A sample of participants received a full diagnostic assessment, conducted blind to screen status. The sensitivity of…

  7. BMM SHAKEOUT AND VIBRATING CONVEYOR TRANSPORT SAND AND CASTINGS TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BMM SHAKEOUT AND VIBRATING CONVEYOR TRANSPORT SAND AND CASTINGS TO SEPARATIONS SCREENS. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Shaking, Degating & Sand Systems, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  8. Final report on Expendable Pattern Casting Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The Expendable Pattern Casting (EPC) process is a potential casting process breakthrough which could dramatically improve the competitiveness of the US foundry industry. Cooperatively supported by US Industry and the Department of Energy and managed by the American Foundrymen's Society, a project was started in May 1989 to develop and optimize expendable pattern casting technology. Four major tasks were conducted in the first phase of the project. Those tasks involved: (1) reviewing published literature to determine the major problems in the EPC process, (2) evaluating factors influencing sand flow and compaction, (3) evaluating and comparing factors influencing sand flow and compaction, (3) evaluating and comparing casting precision obtained in the EPC process with that obtained in other processes, and (4) identifying critical parameters that control dimensional precision and defect formation in EP castings. 26 refs., 27 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Subcritical Measurments Multiple HEU Metal Castings

    SciTech Connect

    Mihalczo, John T; Archer, Daniel E; Wright, Michael C; Mullens, James Allen

    2008-01-01

    Experiments with the standard annular highly enriched uranium (HEU) metal castings at the Y-12 National Security Complex were performed in which up to five castings ({approx}90 kg) were assembled in a tightly packed array with minimal spacing between castings. The fission chain multiplication process was initiated by a time-tagged {sup 252}Cf spontaneously fissioning neutron source or by time and directionally tagged neutrons from a small portable DT neutron generator. The prompt neutron time behavior was measured with plastic scintillation detectors sensitive to the fast neutron (>1 MeV) and gamma ray without distinction. These experiments were performed to provide data to benchmark methods for the calculation of the prompt neutron time behavior. Previous measurements with a single casting have been reported. This paper presents the experimental results for multiple castings.

  10. The role of water in slip casting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccauley, R. A.; Phelps, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    Slips and casting are considered in terms of physical and colloidal chemistry. Casting slips are polydisperse suspensions of lyophobic particles in water, whose degree of coagulation is controlled by interaction of flocculating and deflocculating agents. Slip casting rate and viscosity are functions of temperature. Slip rheology and response to deflocculating agents varies significantly as the kinds and amounts of colloid modifiers change. Water is considered as a raw material. Various concepts of water/clay interactions and structures are discussed. Casting is a de-watering operation in which water moves from slip to cast to mold in response to a potential energy termed moisture stress. Drying is an evaporative process from a free water surface.

  11. CTD015Hickey, W8009C, casts 15-26 Hickey, W8009C, casts 15-26, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    CTD015Hickey, W8009C, casts 15-26 Hickey, W8009C, casts 15-26, page 1 #12;CTD015Hickey, W8009C, casts 15-26 Hickey, W8009C, casts 15-26, page 2 #12;CTD016Hickey, W8009C, casts 15-26 Hickey, W8009C, casts 15-26, page 3 #12;CTD016Hickey, W8009C, casts 15-26 Hickey, W8009C, casts 15-26, page 4 #12;CTD017

  12. CTD027Hickey, W8009C, casts 27-33 Hickey, W8009C, casts 27-33, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    CTD027Hickey, W8009C, casts 27-33 Hickey, W8009C, casts 27-33, page 1 #12;CTD027Hickey, W8009C, casts 27-33 Hickey, W8009C, casts 27-33, page 2 #12;CTD027Hickey, W8009C, casts 27-33 Hickey, W8009C, casts 27-33, page 3 #12;CTD027Hickey, W8009C, casts 27-33 Hickey, W8009C, casts 27-33, page 4 #12;CTD027

  13. Bioinspired Design: Magnetic Freeze Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Michael Martin

    Nature is the ultimate experimental scientist, having billions of years of evolution to design, test, and adapt a variety of multifunctional systems for a plethora of diverse applications. Next-generation materials that draw inspiration from the structure-property-function relationships of natural biological materials have led to many high-performance structural materials with hybrid, hierarchical architectures that fit form to function. In this dissertation, a novel materials processing method, magnetic freeze casting, is introduced to develop porous scaffolds and hybrid composites with micro-architectures that emulate bone, abalone nacre, and other hard biological materials. This method uses ice as a template to form ceramic-based materials with continuously, interconnected microstructures and magnetic fields to control the alignment of these structures in multiple directions. The resulting materials have anisotropic properties with enhanced mechanical performance that have potential applications as bone implants or lightweight structural composites, among others.

  14. NWIS MEASUREMENTS FOR URANIUM METAL ANNULAR CASTINGS

    SciTech Connect

    MATTINGLY, J.K.; VALENTINE, T.E.; MIHALCZO, J.T.

    1998-03-13

    This report describes measurements performed with annular uranium metal castings of different enrichments to investigate the use of {sup 252}Cf-source-driven noise analysis measurements as a means to quantify the amount of special nuclear material (SNM) in the casting. This work in FY 97 was sponsored by the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and the DOE Office of Technology Development Programs. Previous measurements and calculational studies have shown that many of the signatures obtained from the source-driven measurement are very sensitive to fissile mass. Measurements were performed to assess the applicability of this method to standard annular uranium metal castings at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant under verification by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) using the Nuclear Weapons Identification System (NWIS) processor. Before the measurements with different enrichments, a limited study of source-detector-casting moderator configurations was performed to enhance the correlated information. These configurations consisted of a casting with no reflector and with various thicknesses of polyethylene reflectors up to 10.16 cm in 2.54 cm steps. The polyethylene moderator thickness of 7.62 cm was used for measurements with castings of different enrichments reported here. The sensitivity of the measured parameters to fissile mass was investigated using four castings each with a different enrichment. The high sensitivity of this measurement method to fissile mass and to other material and configurations provides some advantages over existing safeguards methods.

  15. AMCC casting development. Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Combustion Chamber Casting (AMCC) has been a technically challenging part due to its size, configuration, and alloy type. The height and weight of the wax pattern assembly necessitated the development of a hollow gating system to ensure structural integrity of the shell throughout the investment process. The complexity in the jacket area of the casting required the development of an innovative casting technology that PCC has termed 'TGC' or Thermal Gradient Control. This method, of setting up thermal gradients in the casting during solidification, represents a significant process improvement for PCC and has been successfully implemented on other programs. Metallurgical integrity of the final four castings was very good. Only the areas of the parts that utilized 'TGC Shape & Location System #2' showed any significant areas of microshrinkage when evaluated by non-destructive tests. Alumina oxides detected by FPI on the 'float' surfaces (top sid surfaces of the casting during solidification) of the part were almost entirely less than the acceptance criteria of .032 inches in diameter. Destructive chem mill of the castings was required to determine the effect of the process variables used during the processing of these last four parts (with the exception of the 'Shape & Location of TGC' variable).

  16. Characterization of Technetium Speciation in Cast Stone

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Wang, Guohui; Westsik, Joseph H.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-11-11

    This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-31 Support Program (EMSP) subtask, “Production and Long-Term Performance of Low Temperature Waste Forms” to provide additional information on technetium (Tc) speciation characterization in the Cast Stone waste form. To support the use of Cast Stone as an alternative to vitrification for solidifying low-activity waste (LAW) and as the current baseline waste form for secondary waste streams at the Hanford Site, additional understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone is needed to predict the long-term Tc leachability from Cast Stone and to meet the regulatory disposal-facility performance requirements for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Characterizations of the Tc speciation within the Cast Stone after leaching under various conditions provide insights into how the Tc is retained and released. The data generated by the laboratory tests described in this report provide both empirical and more scientific information to increase our understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone and its release mechanism under relevant leaching processes for the purpose of filling data gaps and to support the long-term risk and performance assessments of Cast Stone in the IDF at the Hanford Site.

  17. Methods for Casting Subterranean Ant Nests

    PubMed Central

    Tschinkel, Walter R.

    2010-01-01

    The study of subterranean ant nests has been impeded by the difficulty of rendering their structures in visible form. Here, several different casting materials are shown to make perfect casts of the underground nests of ants. Each material (dental plaster, paraffin wax, aluminum, zinc) has advantages and limitations, which are discussed. Some of the materials allow the recovery of the ants entombed in the casts, allowing a census of the ants to be connected with features of their nest architecture. The necessary equipment and procedures are described in the hope that more researchers will study this very important aspect of ant natural history. PMID:20673073

  18. Improved Slip Casting Of Ceramic Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, Gregory M.; Vasquez, Peter; Hicks, Lana P.

    1994-01-01

    Improved technique of investment slip casting developed for making precise ceramic wind-tunnel models. Needed in wind-tunnel experiments to verify predictions of aerothermodynamical computer codes. Ceramic materials used because of their low heat conductivities and ability to survive high temperatures. Present improved slip-casting technique enables casting of highly detailed models from aqueous or nonaqueous solutions. Wet shell molds peeled off models to ensure precise and undamaged details. Used at NASA Langley Research Center to form superconducting ceramic components from nonaqueous slip solutions. Technique has many more applications when ceramic materials developed further for such high-strength/ temperature components as engine parts.

  19. GRINDING ROOM AT SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BESSEMER FOUNDRY SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GRINDING ROOM AT SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BESSEMER FOUNDRY SHOWING WHEELABORATOR THAT IMPALE SHOT AT TUMBLING CASTINGS TO REMOVE EXCESS SURFACE METALS AND SAND; ANNEALING OVENS TO HEAT CERTAIN CASTINGS TO ACHIEVE A DESIRED CHARACTERISTIC; AND GRINDING WHEELS USED TO REMOVE GATES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Grinding & Shipping, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  20. Basic Casting from A to Z. Student's Instruction Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zebco, Tulsa, OK.

    A profusely illustrated student instruction booklet contains step-by-step directions and diagrams for learning four basic casting techniques. Separate sections cover basic spin-casting, spinning, bait-casting, and fly-casting. Each section details recommended equipment (reel, rod, line, plug, tackle, lures, leaders, flies), describes specific…

  1. Modeling and control of casting and welding processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kou, S.; Mehrabian, R.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains papers divided among the following sections: process monitor and control in welding; plasma processing and refining; strip casting; modelling of welding processes; CAD/CAM in casting; investment and die casting; ingot, continuous and other shape casting; and rapid solidification and microstructural evolution.

  2. Diabetic Neuropathy: What is a Total Contact Cast?

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Diabetic Neuropathy | What is a Total Contact Cast? What is a total contact cast? A total contact cast is a cast used to treat ulcers (serious, deep sores) on a person’s foot. It consists of a fiberglass shell that fits around your leg and foot very ...

  3. WinMod: An expert advisor for investment casting

    SciTech Connect

    Bivens, H.P.; Williamson, G.A. Jr.; Luger, G.F.; Erdmann, R.G.; Maguire, M.C.; Baldwin, M.D.; Anderson, D.J.

    1998-04-01

    Investment casting is an important method for fabricating a variety of high quality components in mechanical systems. Cast components, unfortunately, have a large design and gate/runner build time associated with their fabrication. In addition, casting engineers often require many years of actual experience in order to consistently pour high quality castings. Since 1989, Sandia National Laboratories has been investigating casting technology and software that will reduce the time overhead involved in producing quality casts. Several companies in the casting industry have teamed up with Sandia to form the FASTCAST Consortium. One result of this research and the formation of the FASTCAST consortium is the creation of the WinMod software, an expert casting advisor that supports the decision making process of the casting engineer through visualization and advice to help eliminate possible casting defects.

  4. Advanced lost foam from casting technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, C. E.; Littleton, H. E.; Askeland, D.; Griffin, J.; Miller, B. A.; Sheldon, D. S.

    1996-05-01

    Previous research made significant advances in understanding the Lost Foam Casting (LFC) Process and clearly identified areas where additional research was needed to improve the process and make it more functional in an industrial environment. The current project focused on five areas listed as follows: Task 1: Precision Pattern Production Task 2: Pattern Coating Consistency Task 3: Sand Fill and Compaction Effects Task 4: Pattern Gating Task 5: Mechanical Properties of Castings. This report summarizes the work done under the current contract in all five areas in the period of October 1, 1994 through December 31, 1995. Twenty-eight (28) companies jointly participate in the project. These companies represent a variety of disciplines, including pattern designers, pattern producers, coating manufacturers, plant design companies, compaction equipment manufacturers, casting producers, and casting buyers.

  5. 14 CFR 29.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...support structural loads. (b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in paragraphs (c) and...not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable...

  6. 14 CFR 23.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...support structural loads. (b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in paragraphs (c) and...not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable...

  7. 14 CFR 25.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...support structural loads. (b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in paragraphs (c) and...not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable...

  8. 14 CFR 27.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...support structural loads. (b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in paragraphs (c) and...not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable...

  9. Preparation of iron castings for enameling

    SciTech Connect

    Mironenko, V.V.; Naletov, A.S.; Paladich, V.V.

    1983-01-01

    This article investigates the conditions of formation of a strong metallic bond between 08 steel and molten cast iron and of obtaining a low-carbon (ferritic) layer on the surface of a sheathed casting on the side of the iron. Points out that the quality of enameling depends not only upon the composition of the enamel but also upon the structure, composition, and properties of the metal being enameled. The results of the investigation are being used as the basis of a new method of producing cast iron enameled fittings with a surface low-carbon layer. Finds that the strength of the cast iron was increased by 1.5 times and the soundness of the enamel coating by 4 times using the new method.

  10. Beryllium-aluminum alloys for investment castings

    SciTech Connect

    Nachtrab, W.T.; Levoy, N.

    1997-05-01

    Beryllium-aluminum alloys containing greater than 60 wt % beryllium are very favorable materials for applications requiring light weight and high stiffness. However, when produced by traditional powder metallurgical methods, these alloys are expensive and have limited applications. To reduce the cost of making beryllium-aluminum components, Nuclear Metals Inc. (NMI) and Lockheed Martin Electronics and Missiles have recently developed a family of patented beryllium-aluminum alloys that can be investment cast. Designated Beralcast, the alloys can achieve substantial weight savings because of their high specific strength and stiffness. In some cases, weight has been reduced by up to 50% over aluminum investment casting. Beralcast is now being used to make thin wall precision investment castings for several advanced aerospace applications, such as the RAH-66 Comanche helicopter and F-22 jet fighter. This article discusses alloy compositions, properties, casting method, and the effects of cobalt additions on strength.

  11. Joint CQSE and CASTS Seminar Weekly Seminar

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yih-Min

    Joint CQSE and CASTS Seminar Weekly Seminar Dec. 23, 2011 (Friday) TIME Dec. 23, 14:30 ~ 15 evaluated around the future lightcone of the joint measurement by Alice. The distortion of the quantum state

  12. Vacuum casting of thick polymeric films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Moacanin, J.

    1979-01-01

    Bubble formation and layering, which often plague vacuum-evaporated films, are prevented by properly regulating process parameters. Vacuum casting may be applicable to forming thick films of other polymer/solvent solutions.

  13. Thermal transport properties of grey cast irons

    SciTech Connect

    Hecht, R.L.; Dinwiddie, R.B.; Porter, W.D.; Wang, Hsin

    1996-10-01

    Thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of grey cast iron have been measured as a function of graphite flake morphology, chemical composition, and position in a finished brake rotor. Cast iron samples used for this investigation were cut from ``step block`` castings designed to produce iron with different graphite flake morphologies resulting from different cooling rates. Samples were also machined from prototype alloys and from production brake rotors representing a variation in foundry practice. Thermal diffusivity was measured at room and elevated temperatures via the flash technique. Heat capacity of selected samples was measured with differential scanning calorimetry, and these results were used to calculate the thermal conductivity. Microstructure of the various cast iron samples was quantified by standard metallography and image analysis, and the chemical compositions were determined by optical emission spectroscopy.

  14. The Feasibility of Casting Sculpture in Kirksite

    E-print Network

    Fox, Lewis Howard

    1968-01-01

    can be used effectively, the negative patterns must first be cast or machined in copper or aluminum. BIBLIOGRAPHY Books ASM Handbook Committee. Metals Handbook, Vol. I and Vol. II. Metals Park, Ohio: American Society for Metals, 1961. Hofman, H... INTRODUCTION Kirksite is one of the brand names given to the various zinc die-casting alloys. Kirksite consists of 91 percent zinc, 4 percent aluminum, 4 percent copper, and 1 percent magnesium. It is a bluish- white metal commonly used commercially...

  15. Arc Casting Intermetallic Alloy (Materials Preparation Center)

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Arc casting of intermetallic (La-Ni-Sn) AB5 alloy used for metal hydride hydrogen storage. Upon solidification the Sn is partially rejected and increases in concentration in the remaining liquid. Upon completing solidification there is a great deal of internal stress in the ingot. As the ingot cools further the stress is relieved. This material was cast at the Ames Laboratorys Materials Preparation Center http://www.mpc.ameslab.gov

  16. Computed Tomography For Internal Inspection Of Castings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna, Timothy L.

    1995-01-01

    Computed tomography used to detect internal flaws in metal castings before machining and otherwise processing them into finished parts. Saves time and money otherwise wasted on machining and other processing of castings eventually rejected because of internal defects. Knowledge of internal defects gained by use of computed tomography also provides guidance for changes in foundry techniques, procedures, and equipment to minimize defects and reduce costs.

  17. Combination Of Investment And Centrifugal Casting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creeger, Gordon A.

    1994-01-01

    Modifications, including incorporation of centrifugal casting, made in investment-casting process reducing scrap rate. Used to make first- and second-stage high-pressure-fuel-turbopump nozzles, containing vanes with thin trailing edges and other thin sections. Investment mold spun for short time while being filled, and stopped before solidification occurs. Centrifugal force drives molten metal into thin trailing edges, ensuring they are filled. With improved filling, preheat and pour temperatures reduced and solidification hastened so less hot tearing.

  18. Preparation of iron castings for enameling

    SciTech Connect

    Mironenko, V.V.; Naletov, A.S.; Paladich, V.V.

    1983-01-01

    The quality of enameling depends not only upon the composition of the enamel but also upon the structure, composition and properties of the metal being enameled. An increase in enameling quality and in the properties of enameled cast iron parts may be obtained by surface sheathing of cast iron parts with 08 low-carbon steel. The authors have investigated the conditions of formation of a strong metallic bond between 08 steel and molten cast iron and of obtaining a low-carbon layer on the surface of a sheathed casting on the side of the iron. On the basis of the experimental data, a nomogram was drawn making it possible to determine the production conditions of the process. The results of the investigation are being used as the basis of a new method of producing cast iron enameled fittings with a surface low-carbon layer. The method developed specifies the preparation of halves of a thin-walled hollow nonremovable core of 08 sheet steel, diffusion butt welding of the halves prepared, shot peening, placement of the cores in the sand mold and pouring of iron at 1430-1460/sup 0/C. Production tests of experimental housings for valves showed the effectiveness of the new method in comparison with the traditional. The strength of the cast iron was increased by 1.5 times and the soundness of the enamel coating by 4 times.

  19. Reinforcement of Aluminum Castings with Dissimilar Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Q

    2004-01-07

    The project ''Reinforcement of Aluminum Casting with Dissimilar Metal'' was a Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Cummins Inc. This project, technologies have been developed to reinforce aluminum castings with steel insert. Defect-free bond between the steel insert and the aluminum casting has been consistently obtained. The push-out experiment indicated that the bond strength is higher than that of the Al-Fin method. Two patents have been granted to the project team that is comprised of Cummins Inc. and ORNL. This report contains four sections: the coating of the steel pins, the cast-in method, microstructure characterization, and the bond strength. The section of the coating of the steel pins contains coating material selection, electro-plating technique for plating Cu and Ni on steel, and diffusion bonding of the coatings to the steel. The section of cast-in method deals with factors that affecting the quality of the metallurgical bond between the coated steel and the aluminum castings. The results of microstructure characteristics of the bonding are presented in the microstructure characterization section. A push-out experiment and the results obtained using this method is described in the section of bond strength/mechanical property.

  20. Silica exposure in hand grinding steel castings.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, D; Froehlich, P A; Gressel, M G; Hall, R M; Clark, N J; Bost, P; Fischbach, T

    1992-01-01

    Exposure to silica dust was studied in the grinding of castings in a steel foundry that used conventional personal sampling methods and new real-time sampling techniques developed for the identification of high-exposure tasks and tools. Approximately one-third of the personal samples exceeded the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommended exposure limit for crystalline silica, a fraction similar to that identified in other studies of casting cleaning. Of five tools used to clean the castings, the tools with the largest wheels, a 6-in. grinder and a 4-in. cutoff wheel, were shown to be the major sources of dust exposure. Existing dust control consisted of the use of downdraft grinding benches. The size of the casting precluded working at a distance close enough to the grates of the downdraft benches for efficient capture of the grinding dust. In addition, measurements of air recirculated from the downdraft benches indicated that less than one-half of the respirable particles were removed from the contaminated airstream. Previous studies have shown that silica exposures in the cleaning of castings can be reduced or eliminated through the use of mold coatings, which minimize sand burn-in on the casting surface; by application of high-velocity, low-volume exhaust hoods; and by the use of a nonsilica molding aggregate such as olivine. This study concluded that all these methods would be appropriate control options. PMID:1317091

  1. Apollo 14 composite casting demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This program assisted in the design and implementation of the composite casting demonstration for the Apollo 14 mission. Both flight and control samples were evaluated. Some conclusions resulting from a comparison of the flight and control samples were: (1) Solidification in neither the flight nor control samples was truly directional. (2) Apparent intermittent contact of the melt with the container in the flight samples led to unusual nucleation and growth structures. (3) There was greater uniformity, on a macro scale, of both pores and structural features in the flight sample; presumably the result of the reduced gravity conditions. (4) It seems quite feasible to produce enhanced dispersions of gases and dense phases in a melt which is solidified in reduced gravity. (5) A two-stage heating/cooling cycle may help directional solidification. (6) Sample materials should be selected from materials in which the dispersant fully wets the matrix material. (7) Experiments should be conducted in two modes: (1) where the melt is in good thermal contact with the container, and (2) where the melt is in a free-float condition.

  2. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    E-print Network

    Garza, J G; Calvet, D; Castel, J F; Christensen, F E; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Decker, T; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Galán, J; García, J A; Giomataris, I; Hill, R M; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jakobsen, A C; Jourde, D; Mirallas, H; Ortega, I; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M J; Ruz, J; Tomás, A; Vafeiadis, T; Vogel, J K

    2015-01-01

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10$^{-6}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10$^{-7}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as ...

  3. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    E-print Network

    J. G. Garza; S. Aune; D. Calvet; J. F. Castel; F. E. Christensen; T. Dafni; M. Davenport; T. Decker; E. Ferrer-Ribas; J. Galán; J. A. García; I. Giomataris; R. M. Hill; F. J. Iguaz; I. G. Irastorza; A. C. Jakobsen; D. Jourde; H. Mirallas; I. Ortega; T. Papaevangelou; M. J. Pivovaroff; J. Ruz; A. Tomás; T. Vafeiadis; J. K. Vogel

    2015-03-17

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10$^{-6}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10$^{-7}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as the strategies to further reduce the background level. Finally, we will describe the R&D paths to achieve sub-keV energy thresholds, which could broaden the physics case of axion helioscopes.

  4. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garza, J. G.; Aune, S.; Aznar, F.; Calvet, D.; Castel, J. F.; Christensen, F. E.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Decker, T.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galán, J.; García, J. A.; Giomataris, I.; Hill, R. M.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Jakobsen, A. C.; Jourde, D.; Mirallas, H.; Ortega, I.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Ruz, J.; Tomás, A.; Vafeiadis, T.; Vogel, J. K.

    2015-11-01

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10-6 counts/keV/cm2/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10-7 counts/keV/cm2/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as the strategies to further reduce the background level. Finally, we will describe the R&D paths to achieve sub-keV energy thresholds, which could broaden the physics case of axion helioscopes.

  5. Neutron radiography inspection of investment castings.

    PubMed

    Richards, W J; Barrett, J R; Springgate, M E; Shields, K C

    2004-10-01

    Investment casting, also known as the lost wax process, is a manufacturing method employed to produce near net shape metal articles. Traditionally, investment casting has been used to produce structural titanium castings for aero-engine applications with wall thickness less than 1 in (2.54 cm). Recently, airframe manufacturers have been exploring the use of titanium investment casting to replace components traditionally produced from forgings. Use of titanium investment castings for these applications reduces weight, cost, lead time, and part count. Recently, the investment casting process has been selected to produce fracture critical structural titanium airframe components. These airframe components have pushed the traditional inspection techniques to their physical limits due to cross sections on the order of 3 in (7.6 cm). To overcome these inspection limitations, a process incorporating neutron radiography (n-ray) has been developed. In this process, the facecoat of the investment casting mold material contains a cocalcined mixture of yttrium oxide and gadolinium oxide. The presence of the gadolinium oxide, allows for neutron radiographic imaging (and eventual removal and repair) of mold facecoat inclusions that remain within these thick cross sectional castings. Probability of detection (POD) studies have shown a 3 x improvement of detecting a 0.050 x 0.007 in2 (1.270 x 0.178 mm2) inclusion of this cocalcined material using n-ray techniques when compared to the POD using traditional X-ray techniques. Further, it has been shown that this n-ray compatible mold facecoat material produces titanium castings of equal metallurgical quality when compared to the traditional materials. Since investment castings can be very large and heavy, the neutron radiography facilities at the University of California, Davis McClellan Nuclear Radiation Center (UCD/MNRC) were used to develop the inspection techniques. The UCD/MNRC has very unique facilities that can handle large parts up to 39 ft (12 m) in length and 13 ft (4 m) high weighing up to 5000 lbs (2300 kg). These handling systems are robotically driven. The neutron radiographic system consists of a highly thermalized neutron beam. The neutron beam has an intensity of 5.6 x 10(6) n/cm2 s, with a L/D = 200 at a power of 2 MW. A divergent beam collimator is used which provides a beam of approximately 22 in (56 cm) in diameter at the film plane. A vacuum cassette with a gadolinium vapor deposited screen is used to collect the image. Exposure times can be as short as 3 min, or up to 30 min. PMID:15246417

  6. National Metal Casting Research Institute final report. Volume 2, Die casting research

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, D.

    1994-06-01

    Four subprojects were completed: development and evaluation of die coatings, accelerated die life characterization of die materials, evaluation of fluid flow and solidification modeling programs, selection and characterization of Al-based die casting alloys, and influence of die materials and coatings on die casting quality.

  7. Methods and apparatus for manufacturing monocrystalline cast silicon and monocrystalline cast silicon bodies for photovoltaics

    DOEpatents

    Stoddard, Nathan G

    2014-01-14

    Methods and apparatuses are provided for casting silicon for photovoltaic cells and other applications. With such methods and apparatuses, a cast body of monocrystalline silicon may be formed that is free of, or substantially free of, radially-distributed impurities and defects and having at least two dimensions that are each at least about 35 cm is provided.

  8. Methods and apparatuses for manufacturing monocrystalline cast silicon and monocrystalline cast silicon bodies for photovoltaics

    DOEpatents

    Stoddard, Nathan G. (Gettysburg, PA)

    2011-11-01

    Methods and apparatuses are provided for casting silicon for photovoltaic cells and other applications. With such methods and apparatuses, a cast body of monocrystalline silicon may be formed that is free of, or substantially free of, radially-distributed impurities and defects and having at least two dimensions that are each at least about 35 cm is provided.

  9. Precision Casting via Advanced Simulation and Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A two-year program was conducted to develop and commercially implement selected casting manufacturing technologies to enable significant reductions in the costs of castings, increase the complexity and dimensional accuracy of castings, and reduce the development times for delivery of high quality castings. The industry-led R&D project was cost shared with NASA's Aerospace Industry Technology Program (AITP). The Rocketdyne Division of Boeing North American, Inc. served as the team lead with participation from Lockheed Martin, Ford Motor Company, Howmet Corporation, PCC Airfoils, General Electric, UES, Inc., University of Alabama, Auburn University, Robinson, Inc., Aracor, and NASA-LeRC. The technical effort was organized into four distinct tasks. The accomplishments reported herein. Task 1.0 developed advanced simulation technology for core molding. Ford headed up this task. On this program, a specialized core machine was designed and built. Task 2.0 focused on intelligent process control for precision core molding. Howmet led this effort. The primary focus of these experimental efforts was to characterize the process parameters that have a strong impact on dimensional control issues of injection molded cores during their fabrication. Task 3.0 developed and applied rapid prototyping to produce near net shape castings. Rocketdyne was responsible for this task. CAD files were generated using reverse engineering, rapid prototype patterns were fabricated using SLS and SLA, and castings produced and evaluated. Task 4.0 was aimed at developing technology transfer. Rocketdyne coordinated this task. Casting related technology, explored and evaluated in the first three tasks of this program, was implemented into manufacturing processes.

  10. Advanced Pattern Material for Investment Casting Applications

    SciTech Connect

    F. Douglas Neece Neil Chaudhry

    2006-02-08

    Cleveland Tool and Machine (CTM) of Cleveland, Ohio in conjunction with Harrington Product Development Center (HPDC) of Cincinnati, Ohio have developed an advanced, dimensionally accurate, temperature-stable, energy-efficient and cost-effective material and process to manufacture patterns for the investment casting industry. In the proposed technology, FOPAT (aFOam PATtern material) has been developed which is especially compatible with the investment casting process and offers the following advantages: increased dimensional accuracy; increased temperature stability; lower cost per pattern; less energy consumption per pattern; decreased cost of pattern making equipment; decreased tooling cost; increased casting yield. The present method for investment casting is "the lost wax" process, which is exactly that, the use of wax as a pattern material, which is then melted out or "lost" from the ceramic shell. The molten metal is then poured into the ceramic shell to produce a metal casting. This process goes back thousands of years and while there have been improvements in the wax and processing technology, the material is basically the same, wax. The proposed technology is based upon an established industrial process of "Reaction Injection Molding" (RIM) where two components react when mixed and then "molded" to form a part. The proposed technology has been modified and improved with the needs of investment casting in mind. A proprietary mix of components has been formulated which react and expand to form a foam-like product. The result is an investment casting pattern with smooth surface finish and excellent dimensional predictability along with the other key benefits listed above.

  11. Predicting Pattern Tooling and Casting Dimensions for Investment Casting - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S

    2005-09-01

    The investment casting process allows the production of complex-shape parts and close dimensional tolerances. One of the most important phases in the investment casting process is the design of the pattern die. Pattern dies are used to create wax patterns by injecting wax into dies. The wax patterns are used to create a ceramic shell by the application of a series of ceramic coatings, and the alloy is cast into the dewaxed shell mold (Fig. 1.1). However, the complexity of shape and the close dimensional tolerances required in the final casting make it difficult to determine tooling dimensions. The final linear dimension of the casting depends on the cumulative effects of the linear expansions or contractions in each step of the investment casting process (Fig. 1.2). In most cases, the mold geometry or cores restrict the shrinkage of the pattern or the cast part, and the final casting dimensions may be affected by time-dependent processes such as viscoelastic deformation of the wax, and viscoplastic creep and plastic deformations of the shell and alloy. The pattern die is often reworked several times to produce castings whose dimensions are within acceptable tolerances. To date, investment casting technology has been based on hands-on training and experience. Technical literature is limited to experimental, phenomenological studies aimed at obtaining empirical correlations for quick and easy application in industry. The goal of this project was to predict casting dimensions for investment castings in order to meet blueprint nominal during the first casting run. Several interactions have to be considered in a coupled manner to determine the shrinkage factors: these are the die-wax, wax-shell, and shell-alloy interactions (as illustrated in Fig. 1.3). In this work, the deformations of the die-wax and shell-alloy systems were considered in a coupled manner, while the coupled deformation of the wax-shell system was not considered. Future work is needed in order to deliver to industry a computer program in which all three systems are coupled for determining the dimensions of the wax pattern, the shell mold, and casting in a sequential but coupled manner.

  12. Microstructure of thin-wall ductile iron castings

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, Omer N.; Schrems, Karol K.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Druschitz, A.P.

    2001-10-01

    The automotive industry is seeking to replace current car parts made of aluminum and iron castings with thin wall (down to 2 mm) iron castings to reduce the cost and weight of automobiles. The mechanical properties of thin wall ductile iron castings are affected strongly by the thickness of the castings. The thinner castings cool at a faster rate, and microstructural features that form during solidification, and subsequently, transform in the solid state, are strongly dependent on a geometrical parameter related to the ratio of surface area-to-volume of the casting. As this ratio becomes larger, castings cool faster. As a result, the nodule count on the observation plane of the specimens increases dramatically (>2000 nodules/mm2 in most specimens), i.e. as the thickness of castings decreases. Also, the matrix of the thin walled ductile iron castings becomes more ferritic as the ratio of surface area-to-volume decreases.

  13. Superplasticity in Rapidly Solidified White Cast Irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruano, Oscar A.; Eiselstein, Lawrence E.; Sherby, Oleg D.

    1982-10-01

    Superplastic properties of three different composition white cast irons were investigated in the temperature range of 630 to 725 °C. Fine structures consisting of 1 to 2 ?m ferrite grains were developed in these materials by consolidation of rapidly solidified powders at intermediate temperatures below the A1 critical temperature. Tensile elongations of 1410 pct were found for a 3.0 pct C + 1.5 pct Cr white cast iron, 940 pct for a 3.0 pct C white cast iron, and 480 pct for a 2.4 pct C white cast iron when tested at 700 °C and at a strain rate of 1 pct per minute. The superplastic white cast irons exhibited a high strain rate sensitivity exponent, m, of 0.5 and activation energies for plastic flow were found to be nearly equal to the activation energy for grain boundary self-diffusion in iron. These observations are in agreement with the creep behavior of superplastic materials controlled by grain boundary diffusion.

  14. INDIAN CASTE SYSTEM: HISTORICAL AND PSYCHOANALYTIC VIEWS.

    PubMed

    Vallabhaneni, Madhusudana Rao

    2015-12-01

    This paper elucidates the historical origins and transformations of India's caste system. Surveying the complex developments over many centuries, it points out that three positions have been taken in this regard. One suggests that the caste one is born into can be transcended within one's lifetime by performing good deeds. The other declares caste to be immutable forever. And, the third says that one can be reborn into a higher caste if one lives a virtuous life. Moving on to the sociopolitical realm, the paper notes how these positions have been used and exploited. The paper then attempts to anchor the existence and purpose of the Hindu caste system in Freud's ideas about group psychology and Klein's proposals of splitting and projective identification. The paper also deploys the large group psychology concepts of Volkan and the culturally nuanced psychoanalytic anthropology of Roland and Kakar. It concludes with delineating some ameliorative strategies for this tragic problem in the otherwise robust democratic society of India. PMID:26611129

  15. Modeling microstructure development in gray cast irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goettsch, David D.; Dantzig, Jonathan A.

    1994-05-01

    Recent years have seen increasing use of solidification process modeling as a tool to aid in the analysis and elimination of manufacturing defects in castings. Grain size and other microstructural features such as second-phase morphology and distribution are the primary factors in determining the mechanical properties in cast metals. In this work, a representation of nucleation and growth kinetics for gray cast irons, based on a statistical description of the microstructure, has been coupled with a commercial finite-element method code for transient heat-flow calculation to determine microstructure. Features predicted include eutectic cell size, fractions of gray and white iron, graphite morphology, percent pearlite, percent ferrite, and pearlite spacing. The predicted microstructure can then be used to determine the strength and fatigue properties using published correlations. The theoretical development and results of the finite-elementbased model will be discussed and compared with experimental results.

  16. Composites for Advanced Space Transportation Systems (CASTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. G., Jr. (compiler)

    1979-01-01

    A summary is given of the in-house and contract work accomplished under the CASTS Project. In July 1975 the CASTS Project was initiated to develop graphite fiber/polyimide matrix (GR/PI) composite structures with 589K (600 F) operational capability for application to aerospace vehicles. Major tasks include: (1) screening composites and adhesives, (2) developing fabrication procedures and specifications, (3) developing design allowables test methods and data, and (4) design and test of structural elements and construction of an aft body flap for the Space Shuttle Orbiter Vehicle which will be ground tested. Portions of the information are from ongoing research and must be considered preliminary. The CASTS Project is scheduled to be completed in September 1983.

  17. Cast Aluminum Alloy for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2003-01-01

    Originally developed by NASA as high performance piston alloys to meet U.S. automotive legislation requiring low exhaust emission, the novel NASA alloys now offer dramatic increase in tensile strength for many other applications at elevated temperatures from 450 F (232 C) to about 750 F (400 C). It is an ideal low cost material for cast automotive components such as pistons, cylinder heads, cylinder liners, connecting rods, turbo chargers, impellers, actuators, brake calipers and rotors. It can be very economically produced from conventional permanent mold, sand casting or investment casting, with silicon content ranging from 6% to 18%. At high silicon levels, the alloy exhibits excellent dimensional stability, surface hardness and wear resistant properties.

  18. On the damping capacity of cast irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovin, S. A.

    2012-07-01

    The treatment of experimental data on the amplitude-dependent internal friction (ADIF) in terms of various theoretical models has revealed a staged character and the main mechanisms of the processes of energy dissipation in graphite with increasing amplitude of vibrations upon cyclic loading. It is shown that the level of the damping capacity of lamellar cast iron depends on the relationship between the elastic and strength characteristics of graphite and the matrix phase. In cast irons with a rigid matrix structure (pearlite, martensite), the energy dissipation is determined by the volume fraction and morphology of the initial graphite phase. In cast irons with a softer metallic phase (ferrite), the contact interaction of graphite inclusions with the matrix and the properties of the matrix introduce additional sources of high damping.

  19. A new casting defect healing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, E.S.; Reddoch, T.W.; Viswanathan, S.

    1997-01-01

    A new technology is presented for healing of defects in 356 aluminium alloys that provides economic upgrading of these cast alloys. It uses pneumatic isostatic forging (PIF) to produce high quality Al alloys products with enhanced mechanical properties uniform throughout the part, allowing higher design allowables and increased usage of Al alloy castings. The fundamental mechanism underlying PIF is a single mode plastic deformation process that uses isostatic application of pressures for 10-30 seconds at temperature. The process can be integrated in-line with other production operations, i.e., using the latent heat from the previous casting step. Results of applying the PIF process indicate lower cost and significant improvement in mechanical properties that rival and often exceed corresponding properties of other technologies like hot isostatic pressing and related processes. This process offers many advantages that are described in this paper in addition to presenting case histories of property enhancement by PIF and the mechanism responsible for property enhancement.

  20. Using recycled superalloys in precision casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambergts, M.; Drapier, J. M.

    1984-04-01

    The recycling of cast scrap is not uniquely justified by fear of difficulties in supplying primary metals or by care to preserve the relationship limited natural supplies of certain of these materials: it is imperative that the smelter minimize costs. Recyling can, however, lead to a deterioration of the metallurgical properties of precision cast superalloys and to a certain chemical contamination that can affect the service life of cast parts. Recycling can be introduced only after careful control of all the consequences. The influence of recycling on composition (trace elements), solidification behavior, microstructure, and mechanical properties was investigated in various nickel alloys such as IN 100, IN 728, and Mar-M-002. Cobalt alloys such as X45 and W152 were also studied. Particular emphasis is given to inclusion content and to the tendency to microporosity. The technical occurrence and economics of an eventual hot isostatic compression cycle is evaluated.

  1. Mathematical Modeling of Surface Roughness of Castings Produced Using ZCast Direct Metal Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhabra, M.; Singh, R.

    2015-04-01

    Aim of this investigation is to develop a mathematical model for predicting surface roughness of castings produced using ZCast process by employing Buckingham's ?-theorem. A relationship has been proposed between surface roughness of castings and shell wall thickness of the shell moulds fabricated using 3D printer. Based on model, experiments were performed to obtain the surface roughness of aluminium, brass and copper castings produced using ZCast process based on 3D printing technique. Based on experimental data, three best fitted third-degree polynomial equations have been established for predicting the surface roughness of castings. The predicted surface roughness values were then calculated using established best fitted equations. An error analysis was performed to compare the experimental and predicted data. The average prediction errors obtained for aluminium, brass and copper castings are 10.6, 2.43 and 3.12 % respectively. The obtained average surface roughness (experimental and predicted) values of castings produced are acceptable with the sand cast surface roughness values range (6.25-25 µm).

  2. Compound cast product and method for producing a compound cast product

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, Thomas N. (3987 Murray Highlands Cir., Murrysville, PA 15668-1747); Viswanathan, Srinath (1104 Albermarle La., Knoxville, TN 37923)

    2002-09-17

    A compound cast product is formed in a casting mold (14) having a mold cavity (16) sized and shaped to form the cast product. A plurality of injectors (24) is supported from a bottom side (26) of the casting mold (14). The injectors (24) are in fluid communication with the mold cavity (16) through the bottom side (26) of the casting mold (14). A molten material holder furnace (12) is located beneath the casting mold (14). The holder furnace (12) defines molten material receiving chambers (36) configured to separately contain supplies of two different molten materials (37, 38). The holder furnace (12) is positioned such that the injectors (24) extend downward into the receiving chamber (36). The receiving chamber (36) is separated into at least two different flow circuits (51, 52). A first molten material (37) is received in a first flow circuit (51), and a second molten material (38) is received into a second flow circuit (52). The first and second molten materials (37, 38) are injected into the mold cavity (16) by the injectors (24) acting against the force of gravity. The injectors (24) are positioned such that the first and second molten materials (37, 38) are injected into different areas of the mold cavity (16). The molten materials (37, 38) are allowed to solidify and the resulting compound cast product is removed from the mold cavity (16).

  3. Modeling of casting microstructures and defects

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.B.; Summers, L.T.; Eckels, D.J.; Sahai, V.

    1997-09-26

    Casting is an ancient art that has been a trial-and-error process for more than 4000 years. To predict the size, shape, and quality of a cast product, casting manufacturers typically cast full-size prototypes. If one part of the process is done incorrectly, the entire process is repeated until an acceptable product is achieved. One way to reduce the time, cost, and waste associated with casting is to use computer modeling to predict not only the quality of a product on the macro- scale, such as distortion and part shape, but also on the micro-scale such as grain defects. Modeling of solidification is becoming increasingly feasible with the advent of parallel computers. There are essentially two approaches to solidification modeling.The first is that of macro-modeling where heat transfer codes model latent heat release during solidification as a constant and based solely on the local temperature. This approach is useful in predicting large scale distortion and final part shape. The second approach, micro-modeling, is more fundamental. The micro-models estimate the latent heat release during solidification using nucleation and grain growth kinetics. Micro-models give insight into cast grain morphology and show promise in the future to predict engineering properties such as tensile strength. The micro-model solidification kinetics can be evaluated using first principles or they can be evaluated using experiments. This work describes an implementation of a micro-model for uranium which uses experimental results to estimate nucleation and growth kinetics.

  4. Fluxing agent for metal cast joining

    DOEpatents

    Gunkel, Ronald W. (Lower Burrell, PA); Podey, Larry L. (Greensburg, PA); Meyer, Thomas N. (Murrysville, PA)

    2002-11-05

    A method of joining an aluminum cast member to an aluminum component. The method includes the steps of coating a surface of an aluminum component with flux comprising cesium fluoride, placing the flux coated component in a mold, filling the mold with molten aluminum alloy, and allowing the molten aluminum alloy to solidify thereby joining a cast member to the aluminum component. The flux preferably includes aluminum fluoride and alumina. A particularly preferred flux includes about 60 wt. % CsF, about 30 wt. % AlF.sub.3, and about 10 wt. % Al.sub.2 O.sub.3.

  5. Pressure slip casting of silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, H.J.

    1995-09-01

    This paper discusses the potential of pressure slip casting for components made of technical ceramic materials. The tests carried out on pressure slip casting and pressure filtration of silicon nitride show that the highest green density will be obtained if a slurry is used which is completely deflocculated and does not contain any binding agent. Penetration of fine particles into the porous plastic mould cannot be completely prevented but can be reduced to a large extent by the proper selection of the pressure-time regime.

  6. 75 FR 70900 - Certain Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ...Certain Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and the People's Republic...construction castings (``castings'') from Brazil, Canada, and the People's Republic...CVD'') order on castings from Brazil would likely lead to continuation or...

  7. 40 CFR 464.40 - Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory. 464.40 Section...MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Casting Subcategory § 464.40 Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory. The...

  8. 40 CFR 464.40 - Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory. 464.40 Section...MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Casting Subcategory § 464.40 Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory. The...

  9. 40 CFR 464.40 - Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory. 464.40 Section...MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Casting Subcategory § 464.40 Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory. The...

  10. 40 CFR 464.40 - Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory. 464.40 Section...MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Casting Subcategory § 464.40 Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory. The...

  11. 40 CFR 464.20 - Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory. 464.20 Section...MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper Casting Subcategory § 464.20 Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory. The...

  12. 40 CFR 464.20 - Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory. 464.20 Section...MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper Casting Subcategory § 464.20 Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory. The...

  13. 40 CFR 464.20 - Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory. 464.20 Section...MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper Casting Subcategory § 464.20 Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory. The...

  14. 40 CFR 464.20 - Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory. 464.20 Section...MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper Casting Subcategory § 464.20 Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory. The...

  15. 40 CFR 464.20 - Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory. 464.20 Section...MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper Casting Subcategory § 464.20 Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory. The...

  16. 40 CFR 464.40 - Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory. 464.40 Section...MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Casting Subcategory § 464.40 Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory. The...

  17. Identification of a pheromone regulating caste differentiation in termites

    E-print Network

    Keller, Laurent

    Identification of a pheromone regulating caste differentiation in termites Kenji Matsuuraa,1 power. Identification of a volatile pheromone regulating caste differentiation in a termite provides verylittleprogressinthechemicalidentificationofinhibitoryqueen pheromones. In termites, which evolved eusociality independently of Hymenoptera, the existence

  18. 22 CFR 121.10 - Forgings, castings, and machined bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... STATES MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles § 121.10 Forgings, castings, and machined bodies. The U.S. Munitions List controls as defense articles those forgings, castings, and other unfinished products, such...

  19. OVERVIEW LOOKING SOUTH OF CONTAINMENT SYSTEM (TOP), SLAB CASTING MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW LOOKING SOUTH OF CONTAINMENT SYSTEM (TOP), SLAB CASTING MACHINE AND RUN OUT WITH TRAVELING TORCH. MACHINE IS CASTING IN TWIN MOLD. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Continuous Caster, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

  20. The industrial ecology of the iron casting industry

    E-print Network

    Jones, Alissa J. (Alissa Jean)

    2007-01-01

    Metal casting is an energy and materials intensive manufacturing process, which is an important U.S. industry. This study analyzes iron casting, in particular, for possible improvements that will result in greater efficiencies ...

  1. Heritability of anthropometric phenotypes in caste populations of Visakhapatnam, India

    E-print Network

    Arya, Rector; Duggirala, R.; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Puppala, Sobah; Modem, Saileela; Busi, Bhaskara R.; Crawford, Michael H.

    2002-06-01

    In this study, we used anthropometric data from six Andhra caste populations to examine heritability patterns of 23 anthropometric phenotypes (linear, craniofacial, and soft tissue measures) with special reference to caste differences. We obtained...

  2. Edinburgh College of Art : cast collection and architecture 

    E-print Network

    Stoica, Ruxandra-Iulia; Stewart, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    The Edinburgh Cast Collection comprises 265 plaster casts of Antique, Renaissance, and Gothic statues, bas reliefs, and architectural passages held at the Edinburgh College of Art and the University of Edinburgh. The plaster ...

  3. Enhancements in Magnesium Die Casting Impact Properties

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Yulong Zhu; Srinath Viswanathan; Shafik Iskander

    2000-06-30

    The need to produce lighter components in transportation equipment is the main driver in the increasing demand for magnesium castings. In many automotive applications, components can be made of magnesium or aluminum. While being lighter, often times the magnesium parts have lower impact and fatigue properties than the aluminum. The main objective of this study was to identify potential improvements in the impact resistance of magnesium alloys. The most common magnesium alloys in automotive applications are AZ91D, AM50 and AM60. Accordingly, these alloys were selected as the main candidates for the study. Experimental quantities of these alloys were melted in an electrical furnace under a protective atmosphere comprising sulfur hexafluoride, carbon dioxide and dry air. The alloys were cast both in a permanent mold and in a UBE 315 Ton squeeze caster. Extensive evaluation of tensile, impact and fatigue properties was conducted at CWRU on permanent mold and squeeze cast test bars of AZ91, AM60 and AM50. Ultimate tensile strength values between 20ksi and 30ksi were obtained. The respective elongations varied between 25 and 115. the Charpy V-notch impact strength varied between 1.6 ft-lb and 5 ft-lb depending on the alloy and processing conditions. Preliminary bending fatigue evaluation indicates a fatigue limit of 11-12 ksi for AM50 and AM60. This is about 0.4 of the UTS, typical for these alloys. The microstructures of the cast specimens were investigated with optical and scanning electron microscopy. Concomitantly, a study of the fracture toughness in AM60 was conducted at ORNL as part of the study. The results are in line with values published in the literature and are representative of current state of the art in casting magnesium alloys. The experimental results confirm the strong relationship between aluminum content of the alloys and the mechanical properties, in particular the impact strength and the elongation. As the aluminum content increases from about 5% in AM50 to over 9% in AZ91, more of the intermetallic Mg17Al12 is formed in the microstructure. For instance, for 15 increase in the aluminum content from AM50 to AM60, the volume fraction of eutectic present in the microstructure increases by 35%! Eventually, the brittle Mg17Al12 compound forms an interconnected network that reduces ductility and impact resistance. The lower aluminum in AM50 and AM60 are therefore a desirable feature in applications that call for higher impact resistance. Further improvement in impact resistance depends on the processing condition of the casting. Sound castings without porosity and impurities will have better mechanical properties. Since magnesium oxidizes readily, good melting and metal transfer practices are essential. The liquid metal has to be protected from oxidation at all times and entrainment of oxide films in the casting needs to be prevented. In this regard, there is evidence that us of vacuum to evacuate air from the die casting cavity can improve the quality of the castings. Fast cooling rates, leading to smaller grain size are beneficial and promote superior mechanical properties. Micro-segregation and banding are two additional defect types often encountered in magnesium alloys, in particular in AZ91D. While difficult to eliminate, segregation can be minimized by careful thermal management of the dies and the shot sleeve. A major source of segregation is the premature solidification in the shot sleeve. The primary solid dendrites are carried into the casting and form a heterogeneous structure. Furthermore, during the shot, segregation banding can occur. The remedies for this kind of defects include a hotter shot sleeve, use of insulating coatings on the shot sleeve and a short lag time between pouring into the shot sleeve and the shot.

  4. Reinforcing a Spica Cast With a Fiberglass Bar.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Sonia; Kang, Kevin; Lee, Mark C

    2015-11-01

    Hip spica casting is used in the treatment of femur fractures and hip dysplasia in children 1 to 6 years old. A bar connecting the legs of the cast has been shown to improve cast integrity and assist in patient transport. We present a simple and low-cost technique that can be used to create a connecting bar and that can be performed with readily available casting materials. PMID:26566556

  5. New methods and materials for molding and casting ice formations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Richter, G. Paul

    1987-01-01

    This study was designed to find improved materials and techniques for molding and casting natural or simulated ice shapes that could replace the wax and plaster method. By utilizing modern molding and casting materials and techniques, a new methodology was developed that provides excellent reproduction, low-temperature capability, and reasonable turnaround time. The resulting casts are accurate and tough.

  6. 49 CFR 192.275 - Cast iron pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cast iron pipe. 192.275 Section 192.275...Other Than by Welding § 192.275 Cast iron pipe. (a) Each caulked bell and spigot joint in cast iron pipe must be sealed with mechanical...

  7. 46 CFR 153.239 - Use of cast iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of cast iron. 153.239 Section 153.239 Shipping COAST...Cargo Containment Systems § 153.239 Use of cast iron. (a) Cast iron used in a cargo containment system must meet the...

  8. 49 CFR 192.275 - Cast iron pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cast iron pipe. 192.275 Section 192.275...Other Than by Welding § 192.275 Cast iron pipe. (a) Each caulked bell and spigot joint in cast iron pipe must be sealed with mechanical...

  9. 46 CFR 153.239 - Use of cast iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of cast iron. 153.239 Section 153.239 Shipping COAST...Cargo Containment Systems § 153.239 Use of cast iron. (a) Cast iron used in a cargo containment system must meet the...

  10. 46 CFR 153.239 - Use of cast iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of cast iron. 153.239 Section 153.239 Shipping COAST...Cargo Containment Systems § 153.239 Use of cast iron. (a) Cast iron used in a cargo containment system must meet the...

  11. 49 CFR 192.755 - Protecting cast-iron pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Protecting cast-iron pipelines. 192.755 Section 192...Maintenance § 192.755 Protecting cast-iron pipelines. When an operator has knowledge...support for a segment of a buried cast-iron pipeline is disturbed: (a)...

  12. 46 CFR 153.239 - Use of cast iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of cast iron. 153.239 Section 153.239 Shipping COAST...Cargo Containment Systems § 153.239 Use of cast iron. (a) Cast iron used in a cargo containment system must meet the...

  13. 49 CFR 192.755 - Protecting cast-iron pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Protecting cast-iron pipelines. 192.755 Section 192...Maintenance § 192.755 Protecting cast-iron pipelines. When an operator has knowledge...support for a segment of a buried cast-iron pipeline is disturbed: (a)...

  14. 49 CFR 192.275 - Cast iron pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cast iron pipe. 192.275 Section 192.275...Other Than by Welding § 192.275 Cast iron pipe. (a) Each caulked bell and spigot joint in cast iron pipe must be sealed with mechanical...

  15. 49 CFR 192.275 - Cast iron pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cast iron pipe. 192.275 Section 192.275...Other Than by Welding § 192.275 Cast iron pipe. (a) Each caulked bell and spigot joint in cast iron pipe must be sealed with mechanical...

  16. 49 CFR 192.755 - Protecting cast-iron pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Protecting cast-iron pipelines. 192.755 Section 192...Maintenance § 192.755 Protecting cast-iron pipelines. When an operator has knowledge...support for a segment of a buried cast-iron pipeline is disturbed: (a)...

  17. 49 CFR 192.755 - Protecting cast-iron pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Protecting cast-iron pipelines. 192.755 Section 192...Maintenance § 192.755 Protecting cast-iron pipelines. When an operator has knowledge...support for a segment of a buried cast-iron pipeline is disturbed: (a)...

  18. 46 CFR 153.239 - Use of cast iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of cast iron. 153.239 Section 153.239 Shipping COAST...Cargo Containment Systems § 153.239 Use of cast iron. (a) Cast iron used in a cargo containment system must meet the...

  19. 49 CFR 192.275 - Cast iron pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cast iron pipe. 192.275 Section 192.275...Other Than by Welding § 192.275 Cast iron pipe. (a) Each caulked bell and spigot joint in cast iron pipe must be sealed with mechanical...

  20. 49 CFR 192.755 - Protecting cast-iron pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Protecting cast-iron pipelines. 192.755 Section 192...Maintenance § 192.755 Protecting cast-iron pipelines. When an operator has knowledge...support for a segment of a buried cast-iron pipeline is disturbed: (a)...

  1. Clean Cast Steel Technology - Machinability and Technology Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    C. E. Bates; J. A. Griffin

    2000-05-01

    There were two main tasks in the Clean Cast Steel Technology - Machinability and Technology Transfer Project. These were (1) determine the processing facts that control the machinability of cast steel and (2) determine the ability of ladle stirring to homogenize ladle temperature, reduce the tap and pouring temperatures, and reduce casting scrap.

  2. Modeling of Reoxidation Inclusion Formation During Filling of Steel Castings

    E-print Network

    Beckermann, Christoph

    1 Modeling of Reoxidation Inclusion Formation During Filling of Steel Castings Kent D. Carlson cycle of inclusions during the filling of steel castings. There are two ways that inclusions can the final location and characteristics of reoxidation inclusions in steel castings. Carlson, K

  3. Simulation of Reoxidation Inclusion Formation in Steel Casting

    E-print Network

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Simulation of Reoxidation Inclusion Formation in Steel Casting Antonio J. Melendez, Kent D. Carlson the formation of reoxidation inclusions in carbon and low-alloy steel castings. A model is developed are conducted using radiographs of cast steel weld plates. The limit of resolution in the radiographs is about 1

  4. Sensor-Based Assessment of Cast Placement and Removal

    PubMed Central

    MAAG, Anne-Lise D.; LAUFER, Shlomi; KWAN, Calvin; COHEN, Elaine R.; LENHART, Rachel L.; STORK, Natalie C.; HALANSKI, Matthew A.; PUGH, Carla M.

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate pressure during the application of a cast is critical to provide adequate stabilization of fractures. Force-sensing resistors (FSR) were used to measure pressure during cast placement and removal. The data demonstrated a signature pattern of skin pressure during the different steps of cast placement and removal. This reproducible signal provides validity evidence for our model. PMID:24732518

  5. Sensor-based assessment of cast placement and removal.

    PubMed

    Maag, Anne-Lise D; Laufer, Shlomi; Kwan, Calvin; Cohen, Elaine R; Lenhart, Rachel L; Stork, Natalie C; Halanski, Matthew A; Pugh, Carla M

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate pressure during the application of a cast is critical to provide adequate stabilization of fractures. Force-sensing resistors (FSR) were used to measure pressure during cast placement and removal. The data demonstrated a signature pattern of skin pressure during the different steps of cast placement and removal. This reproducible signal provides validity evidence for our model. PMID:24732518

  6. Modelling the dip coating process for hot metal castings

    E-print Network

    McGuinness, Mark

    Modelling the dip coating process for hot metal castings Mark J. McGuinness #3; A.J. Roberts y epoxy powder. The powder sticks and melts onto the hot casting, forming a #12;lm that ows then sets. The uidised bed allows the casting to easily penetrate the powder, and gives the powder access to all surfaces

  7. The effect on cast post dimensions of casting investment and airborne particle abrasion.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Danya; German, Matthew J; Wassell, Robert W

    2011-09-01

    Cast posts can sometimes prove difficult to seat fully during fitting. This study compared two different liquid/water dilutions for phosphate bonded investment and the effect of controlled airborne particle abrasion on resulting post diameter. After measuring polymeric post patterns (n = 18), 3 groups were invested using concentrated solution and 3 groups using dilute solution. After casting they were weighed and remeasured then exposed to airborne particle abrasion. Both solutions produced oversized cast posts. Mean diameter reduction during airborne particle abrasion was 8 microm/10s taking an average of 41s to reach precast size. Where a post pattern fits tightly, airborne particle abrasion for 70s should reduce the casting sufficiently to accommodate the cement lute. PMID:22645794

  8. Graphite formation in cast iron, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, D. M.; Fiske, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    Several types of cast irons are directionally solidified aboard the KC-135 aircraft. Also, control samples are run on Earth for comparison. Some of these samples are unusable because of various mechanical problems; the analysis and the interpretation of results on the samples that are run successfully is discussed.

  9. Casting the Spirit: A Handmade Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutenberg, Mona

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses how an art therapist working in a hospital palliative care unit has incorporated a ritual of hand casting to help bring closure to dying patients and family members who are grieving as death approaches. The finished hand sculptures depict the hands of the patients and, sometimes, of their loved ones. They are faithful and…

  10. Carburizer Effect on Cast Iron Solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janerka, Krzysztof; Kondracki, Marcin; Jezierski, Jan; Szajnar, Jan; Stawarz, Marcin

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the effect of carburizing materials on cast iron solidification and crystallization. The studies consisted of cast iron preparation from steel scrap and different carburizers. For a comparison, pig iron was exclusively used in a solid charge. Crystallization analysis revealed the influence of the carburizer material on the crystallization curves as well as differences in the solidification paths of cast iron prepared with the use of different charge materials. The carburizers' influence on undercooling during the eutectic crystallization process was analyzed. The lowest undercooling rate was recorded for the melt with pig iron, then for synthetic graphite, natural graphite, anthracite, and petroleum coke (the highest undercooling rate). So a hypothesis was formulated that eutectic cells are created most effectively with the presence of carbon from pig iron (the highest nucleation potential), and then for the graphite materials (crystallographic similarity with the carbon precipitation in the cast iron). The most difficult eutectic crystallization is for anthracite and petroleum coke (higher undercooling is necessary). This knowledge can be crucial when the foundry plant is going to change the solid charge composition replacing the pig iron by steel scrap and the recarburization process.

  11. Feature Analysis of ToxCast Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    ToxCast was initiated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to prioritize environmental chemicals for toxicity testing. Phase I generated data for 309 unique chemicals, mostly pesticide actives, that span diverse chemical feature/property space, as determined by quantu...

  12. Gelcasting Alumina Cores for Investment Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Janney, M A; Klug, F J

    2001-01-01

    General Electric currently uses silica investment casting cores for making superalloy turbine blades. The silica core technology does not provide the degree of dimensional control needed for advanced turbine system manufacture. The sum of the various process variables in silica core manufacturing produces cores that have more variability than is allowed for in advanced, power-generation gas turbine airfoils.

  13. Modal Vibration Analysis of Large Castings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werlink, Rudolph J.; Margasahayam, Ravi N.

    2009-01-01

    The art of experimental modal vibration analysis (MVA) has been extended to apply to large castings. This extension was made to enable the use of experimental MVA as a relatively inexpensive, simple means of assessing the internal structural integrity of tread shoes of crawler transporters used to move spacecraft to the launch pad at Kennedy Space Center. Each tread shoe is made from cast iron and weighs about a ton (has a mass .907 kg). The present extended version of experimental MVA could also be applied to other large castings. It could be especially useful to manufacturers as a means of rapidly discriminating against large castings that contain unacceptably large concentrations of internal defects. The use of experimental MVA to assess structural integrity is not new. What are new here are those aspects of the extension of experimental MVA that pertain to the application of MVA to objects so massive that it may not be practical or cost effective to mount them in special test fixtures that impose special test boundary conditions to test them in place under normal conditions of use.

  14. Cast Stainless Steel Ferrite and Grain Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Ruud, Clayton O.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Meyer, Ryan M.; Mathews, Royce; Diaz, Aaron A.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2012-09-01

    In-service inspection requirements dictate that piping welds in the primary pressure boundary of light-water reactors be subject to a volumetric examination based on the rules contained within the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI. The purpose of the inspection is the reliable detection and accurate sizing of service-induced degradation and/or material flaws introduced during fabrication. The volumetric inspection is usually carried out using ultrasonic testing (UT) methods. However, the varied metallurgical macrostructures and microstructures of cast austenitic stainless steel piping and fittings, including statically cast stainless steel and centrifugally cast stainless steel (CCSS), introduce significant variations in the propagation and attenuation of ultrasonic energy. These variations complicate interpretation of the UT responses and may compromise the reliability of UT inspection. A review of the literature indicated that a correlation may exist between the microstructure and the delta ferrite content of the casting alloy. This paper discusses the results of a recent study where the goal was to determine if a correlation existed between measured and/or calculated ferrite content and grain structure in CCSS pipe.

  15. An Update on ToxCast

    EPA Science Inventory

    In its first phase, ToxCast™ is profiling over 300 well-characterized chemicals (primarily pesticides) in over 400 HTS endpoints. These endpoints include biochemical assays of protein function, cell-based transcriptional reporter assays, multi-cell interaction assays, transcripto...

  16. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water - Web cast

    EPA Science Inventory

    Web cast presentation covered six topics: (1) Arsenic Chemistry, (2) Technology Selection/Arsenic Demonstration Program, (3) Case Study 1, (4) Caser Study 2, (5) Case Study 3, and (6) Media Regeneration Project. The presentation was considered a training session and consist of m...

  17. Characterization of Bimetallic Castings with an Austenitic Working Surface Layer and an Unalloyed Cast Steel Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel, Tomasz

    2014-05-01

    The paper presents the technology of bimetallic castings based on the founding method of layer coating directly in the cast process of the so-called method of mold cavity preparation. The prepared castings consist of two fundamental parts, i.e., the base and the working surface layer. The base part of the bimetallic casting is typical foundry material, i.e., unalloyed cast steel, whereas the working layer is a plate of austenitic alloy steel sort X2CrNi 18-9. The quality of the joint between the base part and the working layer was evaluated on the basis of ultrasonic non-destructive testing and structure examinations containing metallographic macro- and microscopic studies with the use of a light microscope (LOM) with microhardness measurements and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with microanalysis of the chemical composition (energy dispersive spectroscopy—EDS). On the basis of the obtained results it was confirmed that the decisive phenomena needed to create a permanent joint between the two components of the bimetallic casting are carbon and heat transport in the direction from the high-carbon and hot base material which was poured into the mold in the form of liquid metal to the low-carbon and cold material of the working layer which was placed in the mold cavity in the form of a monolithic insert.

  18. Method of making an apertured casting. [using duplicate mold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terray, A. (inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An apertured casting is made by first forming a duplicate in the shape of the finished casting, positioning refractory metal bodies such as wires in the duplicate at points corresponding to apertures or passageways in finished products, forming a ceramic coating on the duplicate, removing the duplicate material, firing the ceramic in a vacuum or inert atmosphere, vacuum casting the metal in the ceramic form, removing the ceramic form, heating the cast object in an atmospheric furnace to oxidize the refractory metal bodies and then leaching the oxidized refractory bodies from the casting with a molten caustic agent or acid solution.

  19. Caste in 21st Century India: Competing Narratives

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Sonalde; Dubey, Amaresh

    2012-01-01

    Recent debates regarding inclusion of caste in 2011 Census have raised questions about whether caste still matters in modern India. Ethnographic studies of the mid-20th century identified a variety of dimensions along which caste differentiation occurs. At the same time, whether this differentiation translates into hierarchy remains a contentious issue as does the persistence of caste, given the economic changes of the past two decades. Using data from a nationally representative survey of 41,554 households conducted in 2005, this paper examines the relationship between social background and different dimensions of well-being. The results suggest continued persistence of caste disparities in education, income and social networks. PMID:22736803

  20. Metallic Fuel Casting Development and Parameter Optimization Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    R.S. Fielding; J. Crapps; C. Unal; J.R. Kennedy

    2013-03-01

    One of the advantages of metallic fuel is the abilility to cast the fuel slugs to near net shape with little additional processing. However, the high aspect ratio of the fuel is not ideal for casting. EBR-II fuel was cast using counter gravity injection casting (CGIC) but, concerns have been raised concerning the feasibility of this process for americium bearing alloys. The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program has begun developing gravity casting techniques suitable for fuel production. Compared to CGIC gravity casting does not require a large heel that then is recycled, does not require application of a vacuum during melting, and is conducive to re-usable molds. Development has included fabrication of two separate benchscale, approximately 300 grams, systems. To shorten development time computer simulations have been used to ensure mold and crucible designs are feasible and to identify which fluid properties most affect casting behavior and therefore require more characterization.

  1. An investigation of squeeze-cast alloy 718

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamwell, W. R.

    1993-01-01

    Alloy 718 billets produced by the squeeze-cast process have been evaluated for use as potential replacements for propulsion engine components which are normally produced from forgings. Alloy 718 billets were produced using various processing conditions. Structural characterizations were performed on 'as-cast' billets. As-cast billets were then homogenized and solution treated and aged according to conventional heat-treatment practices for this alloy. Mechanical property evaluations were performed on heat-treated billets. As-cast macrostructures and microstructures varied with squeeze-cast processing parameters. Mechanical properties varied with squeeze-cast processing parameters and heat treatments. One billet exhibited a defect free, refined microstructure, with mechanical properties approaching those of wrought alloy 718 bar, confirming the feasibility of squeeze-casting alloy 718. However, further process optimization is required, and further structural and mechanical property improvements are expected with process optimization.

  2. Die Casting Part Distortion: Prediction and Attenuation

    SciTech Connect

    Dr, R. Allen Miller

    2002-02-12

    The goal of this research was to predict the part deformation and residual stresses after ejection from the die and cooling to room temperature. A finite element model was built to achieve this goal and several modeling techniques were investigated throughout this research. Die-casting is a very complex process and the researchers are faced with a large number of hard to solve physical problems when modeling the process. Several assumptions are made in our simulation model. The first significant assumption is the instantaneous cavity filling. This means that the cavity filling stage is not considered in our model. Considering the cavity filling stage increases the modeling complexity as a result of different flow patterns. expected in the shot sleeve, gate, runner and different cavity features. The flow of gas from the cavity through the vents is another problem that is ignored in our model as a result of this assumption. Our second assumption is that the cast metal has uniform temperature distribution inside the cavity, at the starting point of simulation. This temperature is assumed to be over liquidus limit, i.e. the solid fraction is 0.0% of the cast metal. The third assumption is due to ABAQUS (commercial software used in this research) limitations. ABAQUS cannot deal with multi-phase models; therefore we use solid elements to define the casting instead of multi-phase (liquid/solid) elements. Liquid elements can carry the hydrostatic pressure from the shot sleeve and apply it on the cavity surfaces, while the solid elements do not have this capability. To compensate for this assumption we add the cavity pressure as a boundary condition and apply it on the cavity surface separately from the part. Another issue with this assumption is that, liquid casting can follow the cavity shape when it distorts. With the use of solid elements to represent the casting during its liquid state, it loses this capability to follow the cavity. Several techniques were tested to overcome this problem.

  3. Comparison of residual stresses in sand- and chill casting of ductile cast iron wind turbine main shafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonne, M. R.; Frandsen, J. O.; Hattel, J. H.

    2015-06-01

    In this work, simulations of pouring, solidification and cooling, and residual stress evolution of sand and chill cast wind turbine main shafts is performed. The models are made in the commercial software MAGMAsoft. As expected, the cooling rate of the sand casting is shown to be much lower than for the chill casting, resulting in a very course microstructure. From the simulations the nodule count is found to be 17 nodules per mm2 and 159 nodules per mm2 for the sand and chill casting, respectively, in the critical region of the main bearing seat. This is verified from nodule counts performed on the real cast main shafts. Residual stress evaluations show an overall increase of the maximum principal stress field for the chill casting, which is expected. However, the stresses are found to be in compression on the surface of the chill cast main shaft, which is unforeseen.

  4. Solar axion search with the CAST experiment

    E-print Network

    CAST Collaboration; E. Arik; S. Aune; D. Autiero; K. Barth; A. Belov; B. Beltrán; S. Borghi; F. S. Boydag; H. Bräuninger; G. Cantatore; J. M. Carmona; S. A. Cetin; J. I. Collar; T. Dafni; M. Davenport; L. Di Lella; O. B. Dogan; C. Eleftheriadis; N. Elias; G. Fanourakis; E. Ferrer-Ribas; H. Fischer; J. Franz; J. Galán; E. Gazis; T. Geralis; I. Giomataris; S. Gninenko; H. Gómez; M. Hasinoff; F. H. Heinsius; I. Hikmet; D. H. H. Hoffmann; I. G. Irastorza; J. Jacoby; K. Jakov?i?; D. Kang; T. Karageorgopoulou; M. Karuza; K. Königsmann; R. Kotthaus; M. Kr?mar; K. Kousouris; M. Kuster; B. Laki?; C. Lasseur; A. Liolios; A. Ljubi?i?; V. Lozza; G. Lutz; G. Luzón; D. Miller; J. Morales; T. Niinikoski; A. Nordt; A. Ortiz; T. Papaevangelou; M. J. Pivovaroff; A. Placci; G. Raiteri; G. Raffelt; H. Riege; A. Rodríguez; J. Ruz; I. Savvidis; Y. Semertzidis; P. Serpico; S. K. Solanki; R. Soufli; L. Stewart; M. Tsagri; K. van Bibber; J5D. Villar; J. Vogel; L. Walckiers; K. Zioutas

    2008-10-10

    The CAST (CERN Axion Solar Telescope) experiment is searching for solar axions by their conversion into photons inside the magnet pipe of an LHC dipole. The analysis of the data recorded during the first phase of the experiment with vacuum in the magnet pipes has resulted in the most restrictive experimental limit on the coupling constant of axions to photons. In the second phase, CAST is operating with a buffer gas inside the magnet pipes in order to extent the sensitivity of the experiment to higher axion masses. We will present the first results on the $^{4}{\\rm He}$ data taking as well as the system upgrades that have been operated in the last year in order to adapt the experiment for the $^{3}{\\rm He}$ data taking. Expected sensitivities on the coupling constant of axions to photons will be given for the recent $^{3}{\\rm He}$ run just started in March 2008.

  5. Volatile Species Retention During Metallic Fuel Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Randall S. Fielding; Douglas L. Proter

    2013-10-01

    Metallic nuclear fuels are candidate transmutation fuel forms for advanced fuel cycles. Through the operation of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II metallic nuclear fuels have been shown to be robust and easily manufactured. However, concerns have been raised concerning loss of americium during the casting process because of its high vapor pressure. In order to address these concerns a gaseous diffusion model was developed and a series of experiments using both manganese and samarium as surrogates for americium were conducted. The modeling results showed that volatility losses can be controlled to essentially no losses with a modest overpressure. Experimental results also showed volatile species retention down to no detectable losses through overpressure, although the loss values varied from the model results the same trend was seen. Bases on these results it is very probably that americium losses through volatility can be controlled to no detectable losses through application of a modest overpressure during casting.

  6. Phase Transformation in Cast Superaustenitic Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Nathaniel Steven Lee Phillips

    2006-12-12

    Superaustenitic stainless steels constitute a group of Fe-based alloys that are compositionally balanced to have a purely austenitic matrix and exhibit favorable pitting and crevice corrosion resistant properties and mechanical strength. However, intermetallic precipitates such as sigma and Laves can form during casting or exposure to high-temperature processing, which degrade the corrosion and mechanical properties of the material. The goal of this study was to accurately characterize the solid-solid phase transformations seen in cast superaustenitic stainless steels. Heat treatments were performed to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formations in alloys CN3MN and CK3MCuN. Microstructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, WDS). The equilibrium microstructures, composed primarily of sigma and Laves within purely austenitic matrices, showed slow transformation kinetics. Factors that determine the extent of transformation, including diffusion, nucleation, and growth, are discussed.

  7. Volatile species retention during metallic fuel casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielding, Randall S.; Porter, Douglas L.

    2013-10-01

    Metallic nuclear fuels are candidate transmutation fuel forms for advanced fuel cycles. Through the operation of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II metallic nuclear fuels have been shown to be robust and easily manufactured. However, concerns have been raised concerning loss of americium during the casting process because of its high vapor pressure. In order to address these concerns a gaseous diffusion model was developed and a series of experiments using both manganese and samarium as surrogates for americium were conducted. The modeling results showed that volatility losses can be controlled to essentially no losses with a modest overpressure. Experimental results also showed volatile species retention down to no detectable losses through overpressure, and although the loss values varied from the model results the same trend was seen. Based on these results it is very probable that americium losses through volatility can be controlled to no detectable losses through application of a modest overpressure during casting.

  8. Process for slip casting textured tubular structures

    DOEpatents

    Steinlage, Greg A. (West Lafayette, IN); Trumble, Kevin P. (West Lafayette, IN); Bowman, Keith J. (West Lafayette, IN)

    2002-01-01

    A process for centrifugal slip casting a textured hollow tube. A slip made up of a carrier fluid and a suspended powder is introduced into a porous mold which is rotated at a speed sufficient to create a centrifugal force that forces the slip radially outward toward the inner surface of the mold. The suspended powder, which is formed of particles having large dimensional aspect ratios such as particles of superconductive BSCCO, settles in a textured fashion radially outward toward the mold surface. The carrier fluid of the slip passes by capillary action radially outward around the settled particles and into the absorbent mold. A layer of mold release material is preferably centrifugally slip cast to cover the mold inner surface prior to the introduction of the BSCCO slip, and the mold release layer facilitates removal of the BSCCO greenbody from the mold without fracturing.

  9. Mold For Casting Radius-Inspection Specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, Robert N.

    1988-01-01

    Thin replicas viewed on comparator without sectioning. New mold machined from piece of transparent poly(methyl methacrylate). Fits around base of post. Two slots machined into inner surface form channels for casting inspection sections. Bottom of mold fits flush against surface around bottom of post. When surface slanted, mold automatically aligns in proper orientation. Time required to inspect elliptical radii located at bottoms of series of small posts reduced from 18 hours to 3 hours.

  10. Efficient Runner Networks for Investment Castings

    SciTech Connect

    GIVLER,RICHARD C.; SAYLORS,DAVID B.

    2000-07-18

    We present a computational method that finds an efficient runner network for an investment casting, once the gate locations have been established. The method seeks to minimize a cost function that is based on total network volume. The runner segments are restricted to lie in the space not occupied by the part itself. The collection of algorithms has been coded in C and runner designs have been computed for several real parts, demonstrating substantial reductions in rigging volume.

  11. Fiber reinforcement of investment cast parts

    SciTech Connect

    Nolte, M.; Neussl, E.; Schaedlich-Stubenrauch, J.; Sahm, P.R.

    1993-12-31

    For 3 years now the Foundry-Institute (Giesserei-Institut) of the Aachen Institute of Technology has worked on the development of a new, low-cost production process for longfiber-reinforced light alloy components. The process baseline is oriented on the precision casting process in its investment casting mode, also known as lost wax process. The investment casting process is well known as a typical near-net-shape process for the manufacture of high-quality cast components, predominantly for applications in the aerospace industry (structured components, turbine blades and parts etc.) and enjoys significant growth rates during the last decades. After preliminary studies on the modification of single process substeps R & D work concentrated on the final-shape production of Al-components (Al-alloys A356, A357, 201 etc.) reinforced with long ceramic fibers. Both SiC and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based fibers of several producers were used. Main interest focuses on techniques for a selective reinforcement of main stress sections. Without using conventional sintered preforms the fibers are infiltrated with molten metal under a support pressure of less than 1 MPa. Combined with a new developed wax pattern technique test specimens with a nearly homogeneous fiber distribution were produced. In addition, even reactive matrix alloys did not lead to destructive interface reactions. In most cases sufficient bonding between fibers and matrix could be observed. Following to these positive tendencies a considerable improvement of mechanical properties could be measured for longfiber reinforced Al-alloys. Both tensile strength and elastic modulus could be increased up to 100% compared with the unreinforced matrix alloy. Latest work concentrated on the production of small representative components for potential applications.

  12. Thin sheet casting with electromagnetic pressurization

    SciTech Connect

    Walk, Steven R.; Slepian, R. Michael; Nathenson, Richard D.; Williams, Robert S.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus, method and system for the casting of thin strips or strips of metal upon a moving chill block that includes an electromagnet located so that molten metal poured from a reservoir onto the chill block passes into the magnetic field produced by the electromagnet. The electromagnet produces a force on the molten metal on said chill block in the direction toward said chill block in order to enhance thermal contact between the molten metal and the chill block.

  13. Comparison of Lost Foam Casting of AM60B Alloy and A356 Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Qingyou; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton; Sklad, Philip S; Currie, Kenneth; Vondra, Fred; Abdelrahman, Mohamed; Walford, Graham; Nolan, Dennis J; Nedkova, Teodora

    2007-01-01

    The article describes the research activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Tennessee Technological University on lost foam casting of magnesium alloys. The work was focused on castings of simple geometries such as plate castings and window castings in order to compare the difference in castability between magnesium alloys and aluminum alloy using the lost foam casting process. Significant differences between lost foam aluminum casting and lost foam magnesium casting have been observed.

  14. Influence of casting solvent on phenyl ordering at the surface of spin cast polymer thin films.

    PubMed

    Myers, John N; Zhang, Chi; Chen, Chunyan; Chen, Zhan

    2014-06-01

    Controlling the surface molecular structure of spin cast polymer films is important for the rational design of surface properties. However, the relationship between spin casting parameters and film surface molecular structure is poorly understood. We report that the surface molecular structure of spin cast homopolymers which contain phenyl groups is influenced by the solvent aromaticity, investigated by a nonlinear optical spectroscopy, sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy. When phenyl groups were located in a linear polymer backbone, spin casting with aromatic solvents enhanced the phenyl SFG signal relative to when a non-aromatic solvent was used which suggests that the aromatic solvent induced the surface phenyl groups to be more ordered and/or to lie more perpendicular to the film surface. In addition, when alkyl structures were believed to be present at the solvent/air interface, alkyl structures were observed at the film/air interface which suggests that molecular structure at the solvent/air interface was carried to the film surface. The effects of solvent aromaticity on phenyl ordering at spin cast film surfaces can be explained by different molecular structures of polymer chains at solvent/air interfaces, preferential solvation of functional groups during evaporation, and re-orientation of bulky side groups at the polymer film/air interface. PMID:24703669

  15. The Simulation of Magnesium Wheel Low Pressure Die Casting Based on PAM-CAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yinghong; Wang, Yingchun; Li, Dayong; Zeng, Xiaoqin

    2004-06-01

    Magnesium is the lightest metal commonly used in engineering, with various excellent characteristics such as high strength and electromagnetic interference shielding capability. Particularly, the usage of magnesium in automotive industry can meet better the need to reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. Nowadays, most current magnesium components in automobiles are made by die casting. In this paper, commercial software for die casting, PAM-CAST™, was utilized to simulate the low pressure die casting process of magnesium wheel. Through calculating temperature field and velocity field during filling and solidification stages, the evolution of temperature distribution and liquid fraction was analyzed. Then, the potential defects including the gas entrapments in the middle of the spokes, shrinkages between the rim and the spokes were forecasted. The analytical results revealed that the mold geometry and die casting parameters should be improved in order to get the sound magnesium wheel. The reasons leading to these defects were also analyzed and the solutions to eliminate them were put forward. Furthermore, through reducing the pouring velocity, the air gas entrapments and partial shrinkages were eliminated effectively.

  16. Seal welded cast iron nuclear waste container

    DOEpatents

    Filippi, Arthur M. (Pittsburgh, PA); Sprecace, Richard P. (Murrysville, PA)

    1987-01-01

    This invention identifies methods and articles designed to circumvent metallurgical problems associated with hermetically closing an all cast iron nuclear waste package by welding. It involves welding nickel-carbon alloy inserts which are bonded to the mating plug and main body components of the package. The welding inserts might be bonded in place during casting of the package components. When the waste package closure weld is made, the most severe thermal effects of the process are restricted to the nickel-carbon insert material which is far better able to accommodate them than is cast iron. Use of nickel-carbon weld inserts should eliminate any need for pre-weld and post-weld heat treatments which are a problem to apply to nuclear waste packages. Although the waste package closure weld approach described results in a dissimilar metal combination, the relative surface area of nickel-to-iron, their electrochemical relationship, and the presence of graphite in both materials will act to prevent any galvanic corrosion problem.

  17. Fisher Matrix Preloaded — FISHER4CAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, Bruce A.; Fantaye, Yabebal; Hlozek, Renée; Kotze, Jacques

    The Fisher Matrix is the backbone of modern cosmological forecasting. We describe the Fisher4Cast software: A general-purpose, easy-to-use, Fisher Matrix framework. It is open source, rigorously designed and tested and includes a Graphical User Interface (GUI) with automated LATEX file creation capability and point-and-click Fisher ellipse generation. Fisher4Cast was designed for ease of extension and, although written in Matlab, is easily portable to open-source alternatives such as Octave and Scilab. Here we use Fisher4Cast to present new 3D and 4D visualizations of the forecasting landscape and to investigate the effects of growth and curvature on future cosmological surveys. Early releases have been available at since mid-2008. The current release of the code is Version 2.2 which is described here. For ease of reference a Quick Start guide and the code used to produce the figures in this paper are included, in the hope that it will be useful to the cosmology and wider scientific communities.

  18. CAST: An Inspiring Axion Helioscope ala Sikivie

    SciTech Connect

    Zioutas, K.; Anastassopoulos, V.; Tsagri, M.; Semertzidis, Y.; Papaevangelou, T.

    2010-08-30

    CAST is a data taking axion helioscope using a recycled LHC test magnet, CERN's detector technology and cryogenics expertise. An imaging X-ray telescope improves substantially the detection sensitivity and axion-ID. Massive axion-like particles of the Kaluza-Klein type were first introduced to explain the paradox of the hot corona, which is even hotter at locations overlying magnetic spots. This is suggesting that the CAST detection principle might be at work there, but being somehow modified and performing better. Remarkably, the density profile of the Sun allows for resonance crossing (m{sub axion}c{sup 2{approx_equal}}h{omega}{sub plasma}), which axion helioscopes are aiming to reach. The restless Sun favours this occasionally even further. Then, such processes can give rise to a chimera of converted axions or the like, making the Sun appear, within known physics, as mysterious and unpredictable as it is. CAST axion limits were used to conclude also for the hidden sector paraphotons. This is then suggestive for novel helioscopes for exotica like paraphotons, chameleons, etc. Pierre Sikivie's pioneering idea was to use a magnetic field as a catalyst to transform particles from the dark sector to ours, and vice versa.

  19. Physical Simulation of Investment Casting of Complex Shape Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimian, Mehdi; Milenkovic, Srdjan; Maestro, Laura; De Azua, Aitor Eguidazu Ruiz; Sabirov, Ilchat

    2015-05-01

    Development of investment casting process has been a challenge for manufacturers of complex shape parts. Numerous experimental casting trials are typically carried out to determine the optimum casting parameters for fabrication of high-quality products. In this work, it is demonstrated that physical simulation of investment casting can successfully predict microstructure and hardness in as-cast complex shape parts. The physical simulation tool consists of a thermal model and melting/solidification experiments in thermo-mechanical simulator. The thermal model is employed to predict local cooling rate during solidification at each point of a casting. Melting/solidification experiments are carried out under controlled cooling rates estimated by the thermal model. Microstructural and mechanical characterization of the solidified specimens is performed; the obtained results predict the local microstructure and mechanical properties of the casting. This concept is applied to investment casting of complex shape nozzle guide vanes from Mar-M247 Ni-based superalloy. Experimental casting trials are performed and the outcomes of physical simulation tool are validated against experimental results. It is shown that phase composition, secondary dendrite arm spacing, grain size, ?/ ?' eutectic size and volume fraction, size and shape of carbide particles, and local microhardness can be predicted at each point of the casting via physical simulation.

  20. Centrifugal Casting Features/Metallurgical Characterization of Aluminum Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Chirita, G.; Soares, D.; Cruz, D.; Silva, F. S.; Stefanescu, I.

    2008-02-15

    This paper deals with the study of centrifugal effects on aluminium castings under high G values. Most of the studies in this domain (FGMs obtained by centrifugal casting) deal with functionally graded composites reinforced with a solid phase such as silicon particles or others. However, in this study it will be shown that unreinforced aluminium alloys may be significantly influenced by the centrifugal effect and that functionally graded castings are also obtained. It has been observed that the centrifugal effect may increase in some alloys, depending on the relative position in the castings, the rupture strength by approx. 50%, and rupture strain by about 300%, as compared to the gravity casting technique. The Young's modulus may also increase by about 20%. It has also been reported that in vertical centrifugal castings there are mainly three aspects that affect the components thus obtained, namely: fluid dynamics; vibration (inherent to the system); and centrifugal force. These features have a different effect on the castings depending on the aluminium alloy. In this paper, an analysis of the most important effects of the centrifugal casting process on metallurgical features is conducted. A solidification characterization at several points along the mould will be made in order to have an accurate idea of both the fluid dynamics inside the mould during the casting and the solidification behavior in different parts of the component. These two analyses will be related to the metallurgical properties (phase distribution; SDAS; eutectic silicon content and shape, pores density and shape) along the component and mainly along the direction of the centrifugal pressure. A comparison between castings obtained by both centrifugal casting technique and gravity casting technique is made for reference (gravity casting)

  1. Hickey, W8009C, casts 10-14,14A Hickey, W8009C, casts 10-14,14A, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, W8009C, casts 10-14,14A Hickey, W8009C, casts 10-14,14A, page 1 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 10-14,14A Hickey, W8009C, casts 10-14,14A, page 2 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 10-14,14A Hickey, W8009C, casts 10-14,14A, page 3 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 10-14,14A Hickey, W8009C, casts 10-14,14A, page 4 #12

  2. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2014-02-28

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leachability indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the l

  3. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-10-02

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

  4. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-09-17

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

  5. Method and mold for casting thin metal objects

    SciTech Connect

    Pehrson, Brandon P; Moore, Alan F

    2014-04-29

    Provided herein are various embodiments of systems for casting thin metal plates and sheets. Typical embodiments include layers of mold cavities that are oriented vertically for casting the metal plates. In some embodiments, the mold cavities include a beveled edge such that the plates that are cast have a beveled edge. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled with a molten metal through an open horizontal edge of the cavity. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled through one or more vertical feed orifices. Further disclosed are methods for forming a thin cast metal plate or sheet where the thickness of the cast part is in a range from 0.005 inches to 0.2 inches, and the surface area of the cast part is in a range from 16 square inches to 144 square inches.

  6. Acquired localised hypertrichosis in a Chinese child after cast immobilisation.

    PubMed

    Yuen, M W; Lai, Loretta K P; Chan, P F; Chao, David V K

    2015-08-01

    Hypertrichosis refers to excessive hair growth that is independent of any androgen effect. Hypertrichosis could be congenital or acquired, localised or generalised. The phenomenon of acquired localised hypertrichosis following cast application for a fracture is well known to orthopaedic surgeons, but is rarely encountered by primary care physicians. We describe a 28-month-old Chinese boy who had fracture of right leg as a result of an injury. He had a cast applied by an orthopaedic surgeon as treatment. On removal of the cast 6 weeks later, he was noticed to have significant hair growth on his right leg compared with the left leg. The patient was reassessed 3 months after removal of the cast. The hypertrichosis resolved completely with time. This patient was one of the youngest among the reported cases of acquired localised hypertrichosis after cast application. We illustrate the significance of management of post-cast-acquired localised hypertrichosis in the primary care setting. PMID:26238136

  7. Predictable seating of the single-unit cast restoration.

    PubMed

    Davis, R D

    1991-08-01

    Prior to cementation, a cast restoration must be clinically evaluated in a number of critical areas. The proximal contacts and internal surface of the casting, as well as centric and excursive occlusion, require assessment and generally require adjustment before cementation. The time necessary to accomplish these adjustments is not predictable. A technique is presented that permits the majority of these adjustments to be completed in the laboratory, thus minimizing the clinical time required to seat the casting. PMID:1882057

  8. Cast prosthesis removal using ultrasonics and a thermoplastic resin adhesive.

    PubMed

    Parreira, F R; O'Connor, R P; Hutter, J W

    1994-03-01

    Nonsurgical endodontic procedures are routinely performed on teeth with existing cast restorations. The internal anatomy of the tooth and location of the root canals may be obscured by a crown or fixed partial denture. Tooth morphology and canal location may, therefore, be better visualized without the cast restoration in place. This article describes a conservative technique to remove an existing cast restoration to facilitate nonsurgical root canal treatment. PMID:7996088

  9. Advanced precision expendable pattern casting technology. 1994 Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Casting technology is described. The following areas are reported on: precision pattern production; pattern coating; sand fill and compaction; pattern gating; mechanical properties; and technology transfer efforts.

  10. Microporosity Prediction and Validation for Ni-based Superalloy Castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, J.; Beckermann, C.; Carlson, K.; Hirvo, D.; Bell, K.; Moreland, T.; Gu, J.; Clews, J.; Scott, S.; Couturier, G.; Backman, D.

    2015-06-01

    Microporosityin high performance aerospace castings can reduce mechanical properties and consequently degrade both component life and durability. Therefore, casting engineers must be able to both predict and reduce casting microporosity. A dimensionless Niyama model has been developed [1] that predicts local microporosity by accounting for local thermal conditions during casting as well as the properties and solidification characteristics of the cast alloy. Unlike the well-known Niyama criterion, application of the dimensionless Niyama model avoids the need to find a threshold Niyama criterion below which shrinkage porosity forms - a criterion which can be determined only via extensive alloy dependent experimentation. In the present study, the dimensionless Niyama model is integrated with a commercial finite element casting simulation software, which can now more accurately predict the location-specific shrinkage porosity volume fraction during solidification of superalloy castings. These microporosity predictions are validated by comparing modelled results against radiographically and metallographically measured porosity for several Ni-based superalloy equiaxed castings that vary in alloy chemistry with a focus on plates of changing draft angle and thickness. The simulation results agree well with experimental measurements. The simulation results also show that the dimensionless Niyama model can not only identify the location but also the average volume fraction of microporosity distribution in these equiaxed investment cast Ni-based superalloy experiments of relatively simple geometry.

  11. Japanese R&D on new cast alloys and materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, H.W.

    1996-05-01

    On the basis of observations of the JTEC team, it appears that Japanese universities and research institutes are leading long-term R&D thrusts for development of new materials casting technologies. Significant efforts include amorphous metals, intermetallics, application of MHD in continuous casting of steel, and energy efficient furnace technology. Industrial R&D seems focused more on process improvements than on new product technologies, but significant efforts in new cast materials included cast metal matrix composites, materials substitutions for thinner wall products, and advanced ceramic products for foundry industry applications.

  12. Tribological Properties of Al-SiC Metal Matrix Composites: A Comparison Between Sand Cast and Squeeze Cast Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S.; Sahoo, P.; Sutradhar, G.

    2014-10-01

    Tribological behaviour of Al-SiC metal matrix composites prepared using two different fabrication techniques, viz. sand cast and squeeze cast techniques are studied in a multi- tribotester (TR-25, DUCOM, India) under dry sliding conditions and ambient atmosphere for varying volume fraction of reinforcement, applied load and sliding speed. Friction increases with increase in applied load and sliding speed and volume fraction of reinforcement. Wear test results show increased wear rates at higher load and speed, while increase in SiC volume fraction yields decrease in wear rate. Corrosion study conducted in 3.5 % NaCl solution shows that squeeze cast composites have better corrosion resistance than sand cast composites. Vickers's microhardness test shows improved hardness properties for squeeze cast composites compared to sand cast ones. The microstructure study of wear tracks reveals domination of abrasive wear with minor traces of adhesive wear.

  13. Modeling Coal Seam Damage in Cast Blasting

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, S.H.; Preece, D.S.

    1998-11-23

    A discrete element computer program named DMC_BLAST (Distinct Motion Code) has been under development since 1987 for modeling rock blasting (Preece & Taylor, 1989). This program employs explicit time integration and uses spherical or cylindrical elements that are represented as circles in two dimensions. DMC_BLAST calculations compare favorably with data from actual bench blasts (Preece et al, 1993). Coal seam chilling refers to the shattering of a significant portion of the coal leaving unusable fines. It is also refereed to as coal damage. Chilling is caused during a blast by a combination of explosive shock energy and movement of the adjacent rock. Chilling can be minimized by leaving a buffer zone between the bottom of the blastholes and the coal seam or by changing the blast design to decrease the powder factor or by a combination of both. Blast design in coal mine cast blasting is usually a compromise between coal damage and rock fragmentation and movement (heave). In this paper the damage to coal seams from rock movement is examined using the discrete element computer code DMC_BLAST. A rock material strength option has been incorporated into DMC_BLAST by placing bonds/links between the spherical particles used to model the rock. These bonds tie the particles together but can be broken when the tensile, compressive or shear stress in the bond exceeds the defined strength. This capability has been applied to predict coal seam damage, particularly at the toe of a cast blast where drag forces exerted by movement of the overlying rock can adversely effect the top of the coal at the bench face. A simulation of coal mine cast blasting has been performed with special attention being paid to the strength of the coal and its behavior at t he bench face during movement of the overlying material.

  14. Initial solidification phenomena in continuous casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badri, Adam

    Continuous casting is the main process route for the mass production of steel today, yielding in excess of 560 million tons annually, corresponding to 80% of total steel production worldwide. As with any process, as improvements are introduced and quality is enhanced, there is the ever greater push to reduce problems that were once minor. The restrictions on quality for certain products require that defects be kept to a minimum. Currently, the industry has developed a wealth of experience in how to deal with slabs with oscillation marks. However, these practices are circumventions of the symptoms of the problems, not solutions for the causes. By understanding the formation mechanism, one can then develop practices based on a logical consideration oft he causes. The goals of this current work were to develop a mold simulator that could replicate the surface quality of industrial slabs. The techniques developed allowed for a more detailed examination of the heat transfer interactions during continuous casting, such that the variations of heat flux due to irregular solidification could be observed. It is shown that the mechanisms proposed in the literature are not individually sufficient for the formation of an oscillation mark, but several are necessary and must occur in concert for one to form. A mechanism is proposed for the formation of oscillation marks based upon the experimental results. This hypothesis is formulated as a series of necessary conditions that must be satisfied for an oscillation mark to be formed. This hypothesis is described, and shown to be in agreement with the trends observed and reported in the literature. It can explain both the overflow- and depression-type mark seen in industrial slabs. Additionally, this hypothesis was successfully used as a method of predicting the locations of oscillation marks on cast shells based upon the mold heat transfer measurements.

  15. Evaluation of the Inertness of Investment Casting Molds Using Both Sessile Drop and Centrifugal Casting Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xu; Yuan, Chen; Green, Nick; Withey, Paul

    2013-02-01

    The investment casting process is an economic production method for engineering components in TiAl-based alloys and offers the benefits of a near net-shaped component with a good surface finish. An investigation was undertaken to develop three new face coat systems based on yttria, but with better sintering properties. These face coat systems were mainly based on an yttria-alumina-zirconia system (Y2O3-0.5 wt pct Al2O3-0.5 wt pct ZrO2), an yttria-fluoride system (Y2O3-0.15 wt pct YF3), and an yttria-boride system (Y2O3-0.15 wt pct B2O3). After sintering, the chemical inertness of the face coat was first tested and analyzed using a sessile drop test through the metal wetting behavioral change for each face coat surface. Then, the interactions between the shell and metal were studied by centrifugal investment casting TiAl bars. Although the sintering aids in yttria can decrease the chemical inertness of the face coat, the thickness of the interaction layer in the casting was less than 10 ?m; therefore, these face coats still can be possible face coat materials for investment casting TiAl alloys.

  16. Phase Transformations in Cast Duplex Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon-Jun Kim

    2004-12-19

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) constitute both ferrite and austenite as a matrix. Such a microstructure confers a high corrosion resistance with favorable mechanical properties. However, intermetallic phases such as {sigma} and {chi} can also form during casting or high-temperature processing and can degrade the properties of the DSS. This research was initiated to develop time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagrams of two types of cast duplex stainless steels, CD3MN (Fe-22Cr-5Ni-Mo-N) and CD3MWCuN (Fe-25Cr-7Ni-Mo-W-Cu-N), in order to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formation. The alloys were heat treated isothermally or under controlled cooling conditions and then characterized using conventional metallographic methods that included tint etching, and also using electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). The kinetics of intermetallic-phase ({sigma} + {chi}) formation were analyzed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (MA) equation in the case of isothermal transformations and a modified form of this equation in the case of continuous cooling transformations. The rate of intermetallic-phase formation was found to be much faster in CD3MWCuN than CD3MN due mainly to differences in the major alloying contents such as Cr, Ni and Mo. To examine in more detail the effects of these elements of the phase stabilities; a series of eight steel castings was designed with the Cr, Ni and Mo contents systematically varied with respect to the nominal composition of CD3MN. The effects of varying the contents of alloying additions on the formation of intermetallic phases were also studied computationally using the commercial thermodynamic software package, Thermo-Calc. In general, {sigma} was stabilized with increasing Cr addition and {chi} by increasing Mo addition. However, a delicate balance among Ni and other minor elements such as N and Si also exists. Phase equilibria in DSS can be affected by local composition fluctuations in the cast alloy. This may cause discrepancy between thermodynamic prediction and experimental observation.

  17. Method and apparatus for strip casting

    DOEpatents

    Follstaedt, Donald W. (Middletown, OH); Powell, John C. (Pittsburgh, PA); Sussman, Richard C. (West Chester, OH); Williams, Robert S. (Fairfield, OH)

    1991-01-01

    Casting nozzles will provide improved flow conditions with the parameters controlled according to the present invention. The gap relationships between the nozzle slot and exit orifice must be controlled in combination with converging exit passageway to provide a smooth flow without shearing and turbulence in the stream. The nozzle lips are also rounded to improve flow and increase refractory life of the lips of the nozzle. The tundish walls are tapered to provide improve flow for supplying the melt to the nozzle. The nozzle is located about 45.degree. below top dead center for optimum conditions.

  18. Method and apparatus for strip casting

    DOEpatents

    Follstaedt, D.W.; Powell, J.C.; Sussman, R.C.; Williams, R.S.

    1991-11-12

    Casting nozzles will provide improved flow conditions with the parameters controlled according to the present invention. The gap relationships between the nozzle slot and exit orifice must be controlled in combination with converging exit passageway to provide a smooth flow without shearing and turbulence in the stream. The nozzle lips are also rounded to improve flow and increase refractory life of the lips of the nozzle. The tundish walls are tapered to provide improve flow for supplying the melt to the nozzle. The nozzle is located about 45[degree] below top dead center for optimum conditions. 2 figures.

  19. Electromagnetic continuous casting project: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Battles, J.E.; Rote, D.M.; Misra, B.; Praeg, W.F.; Hull, J.R.; Turner, L.R.; Shah, V.L.; Lari, R.J.; Gopalsami, N.; Wiencek, T.

    1988-10-01

    This report describes the work on development of an electromagnetic casting process for steel, which was carried out at Argonne National Laboratory between January 1985 and December 1987. This effort was concerned principally with analysis and design work on magnet technology, liquid metal feed system, coolant system, and sensors and process controllers. Experimentation primarily involved (1) electromagnetic studies to determine the conditions and controlling parameters for stable levitation and (2) feed-system studies to establish important parameters that control and influence fluid flow from the liquid metal source to the caster. 73 refs., 91 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Sputtered protective coatings for die casting dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Nieh, C. Y.; Wallace, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    This investigation determined whether selected ion beam sputtered coatings on H-13 die steel would have the potential of improving the thermal fatigue behavior of the steel used as a die in aluminum die casting. The coatings were selected to test candidate insulators and metals capable of providing protection of the die surface. The studies indicate that 1 micrometer thick W and Pt coatings reduced the thermal fatigue more than any other coating tested and are candidates to be used on a die surface to increase die life.

  1. Continuation of Crosscutting Technology Development at Cast

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan

    2012-03-31

    This Final Technical Report describes progress made on the sub-projects awarded in the Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-05NT42457: Continuation of Crosscutting Technology Development at Center for Advanced Separation Technologies (CAST). The final reports for each sub-project are attached in the appendix. Much of the research to be conducted with Cooperative Agreement funds will be longer-term, high-risk, basic research and will be carried out in five broad areas: a) Solid-solid separation b) Solid-liquid separation c) Chemical/Biological Extraction d) Modeling and Control, and e) Environmental Control.

  2. Spall behavior of cast iron with varying microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Plume, Gifford; Rousseau, Carl-Ernst

    2014-07-21

    The spall strength of cast iron with varying microstructures has been investigated using plate impact at moderate speed. Stress history measurements were made with manganin stress gauges embedded between the back face of the specimen and a low impedance polycarbonate backing. Five separate cast irons were tested. Four of these consisted of gray cast iron with graphite in flake form, with three classified as Type VII A2 and the fourth containing a bimodal distribution of Types VII A4 and VII D8. The fifth casting consisted of ductile cast iron with graphite in nodular form, classified as Type I, size class 5. The spall strength for the Type VII A2 gray cast irons varied between 40 and 370?MPa, and that of the additional gray cast iron, between 410 and 490?MPa. The spall strength of the ductile cast iron fell within the range of 0.94–1.2?GPa. It is shown that the spall strength is linked to the damage level at the spall plane, where an increased level of tensile stress is required to generate higher levels of damage. Post mortem analysis was performed on the recovered samples, revealing the graphite phase to be the primary factor governing the spall fracture of cast irons, where crack nucleation is directly correlated to the debonding of graphite from the metal matrix. The average length of graphite found within a casting is linked to the material's strength, where strength increases as a function of decreasing length. The morphology and mean free path of graphite precipitates further govern the subsequent coalescence of initiated cracks to form a complete fracture plane. In cases where graphite spacing is large, increased energy level is required to complete the fracture process. A secondary factor governing the spall fracture of cast irons has also been linked to the microstructure of the metal matrix, with pearlite yielding higher spall strengths than free ferrite.

  3. 40 CFR 466.20 - Applicability; description of the cast iron basis material subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the cast iron basis material subcategory. 466.20...PORCELAIN ENAMELING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cast Iron Basis Material Subcategory § 466.20 Applicability; description of the cast iron basis material subcategory....

  4. 75 FR 67395 - Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and China; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ...731-TA-262, 263, and 265 (Third Review)] Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada...the countervailing duty order on heavy iron construction castings from Brazil, the antidumping duty order on heavy iron construction castings from Canada,...

  5. 40 CFR 466.20 - Applicability; description of the cast iron basis material subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the cast iron basis material subcategory. 466.20...PORCELAIN ENAMELING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cast Iron Basis Material Subcategory § 466.20 Applicability; description of the cast iron basis material subcategory....

  6. 40 CFR 466.20 - Applicability; description of the cast iron basis material subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the cast iron basis material subcategory. 466.20...PORCELAIN ENAMELING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cast Iron Basis Material Subcategory § 466.20 Applicability; description of the cast iron basis material subcategory....

  7. 40 CFR 466.20 - Applicability; description of the cast iron basis material subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the cast iron basis material subcategory. 466.20...PORCELAIN ENAMELING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cast Iron Basis Material Subcategory § 466.20 Applicability; description of the cast iron basis material subcategory....

  8. 40 CFR 466.20 - Applicability; description of the cast iron basis material subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the cast iron basis material subcategory. 466.20...PORCELAIN ENAMELING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cast Iron Basis Material Subcategory § 466.20 Applicability; description of the cast iron basis material subcategory....

  9. 40 CFR 420.60 - Applicability; description of the continuous casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.60 Applicability; description of the continuous casting subcategory. The provisions...treatment works resulting from the continous casting of molten steel into...

  10. 40 CFR 420.60 - Applicability; description of the continuous casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.60 Applicability; description of the continuous casting subcategory. The provisions...treatment works resulting from the continous casting of molten steel into...

  11. 75 FR 49945 - Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ...Review)] Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and China AGENCY: United States...orders on iron construction castings from Brazil, Canada, and China...orders on iron construction castings from Brazil, Canada, and China would likely...

  12. 75 FR 54596 - Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review: Heavy Iron Construction Castings from Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ...Heavy Iron Construction Castings from Brazil AGENCY: Import Administration, International...heavy iron construction castings from Brazil pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff...order on iron construction castings from Brazil pursuant to section 751(c) of the...

  13. 75 FR 23295 - Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ...Review)] Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and China AGENCY: United States...heavy'' iron construction castings from Brazil, the antidumping duty order on ``heavy...orders on iron construction castings from Brazil and...

  14. 40 CFR 464.10 - Applicability; description of the aluminum casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... aluminum casting subcategory. 464.10 Section 464.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Aluminum Casting Subcategory § 464.10 Applicability; description of the aluminum casting... the introduction of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works resulting from aluminum...

  15. 40 CFR 464.10 - Applicability; description of the aluminum casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... aluminum casting subcategory. 464.10 Section 464.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Aluminum Casting Subcategory § 464.10 Applicability; description of the aluminum casting... the introduction of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works resulting from aluminum...

  16. 40 CFR 464.10 - Applicability; description of the aluminum casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... aluminum casting subcategory. 464.10 Section 464.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Aluminum Casting Subcategory § 464.10 Applicability; description of the aluminum casting... the introduction of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works resulting from aluminum...

  17. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  18. Directional solidification of white cast iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. S.; Verhoeven, J. D.

    1996-08-01

    Several studies of the ledeburite eutectic (Fe-Fe3C), in pure Fe-C alloys have shown that it has a lamellar morphology under plane front growth conditions. The structure of ledeburite in white cast irons, Fe-C-Si, consists of a rod morphology. It is generally not possible to produce plane front growth of Fe-C-Si eutectic alloys in the Fe-Fe3C form, because at the slow growth rates required for plane front growth, the Fe3C phase is replaced by graphite. By using small additions of Te, the growth of graphite was suppressed, and the plane front growth of the ledeburite eutectic in Fe-C-Si alloys was carried out with Si levels up to 1 wt pct. It was found that the growth morphology became a faceted rod morphology at 1 wt pct Si, but in contrast to the usual rod morphology of white cast irons, the rod phase was Fe3C rather than iron. It was shown that the usual rod morphology only forms at the sides of the two-phase cellular or dendritic growth fronts in Fe-C-Si alloys. Possible reasons for the inability of plane front directional solidification to produce the usual rod morphology in Fe-C-Si alloys are discussed. Also, data are presented on the spacing of the lamellar eutectic in pure Fe-C ledeburite, which indicates that this system does not follow the usual ?2 V = constant relation of regular eutectics.

  19. Advanced Lost Foam Casting Technology - Phase V

    SciTech Connect

    Wanliang Sun; Harry E. Littleton; Charles E. Bates

    2004-04-29

    Previous research, conducted under DOE Contracts DE-FC07-89ID12869, DE-FC07-93ID12230 and DE-FC07-95ID113358 made significant advances in understanding the Lost Foam Casting (LFC) Process and clearly identified areas where additional developments were needed to improve the process and make it more functional in industrial environments. The current project focused on eight tasks listed as follows: Task 1--Computational Model for the Process and Data Base to Support the Model; Task 2--Casting Dimensional Accuracy; Task 3--Pattern Production; Task 4--Improved Pattern Materials; Task 5--Coating Control; Task 6--In-Plant Case Studies; Task 7--Energy and the Environmental Data; and Task 8--Technology Transfer. This report summarizes the work done on all tasks in the period of October 1, 1999 through September 30, 2004. The results obtained in each task and subtask are summarized in this Executive Summary and details are provided in subsequent sections of the report.

  20. Heat Treatment Procedure Qualification for Steel Castings

    SciTech Connect

    Professor Robert C. Voigt

    2003-02-02

    The science of heat treatment has been well studied and is the basis from which existing specifications and practices for the heat treatment of steel castings have been developed. Although these existing specifications address the general needs of steel castings to be heat-treated, they do not take into account the variability in the parameters that govern the processes. The need for a heat treatment qualification procedure that accounts for this variability during heat treatment is an important step toward heat treatment quality assurance. The variability in temperatures within a heat treatment furnace is one such variable that a foundry has to contend with in its day-to-day activity. Though specifications indicate the temperatures at which a particular heat treatment has to be conducted, heat treatment specifications do not adequately account for all aspects of heat treatment quality assurance. The heat treatment qualification procedure will comprise of a robust set of rules and guidelines that ensure that foundries will still be able to operate within the set of constraints imposed on them by non-deterministic elements within the processes.

  1. Aluminum Alloy and Article Cast Therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Chen, Po-Shou (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A cast article from an aluminum alloy, which has improved mechanical properties at elevated temperatures, has the following composition in weight percent: Silicon 14 - 25.0, Copper 5.5 - 8.0, Iron 0.05 - 1.2, Magnesium 0.5 - 1.5, Nickel 0.05 - 0.9, Manganese 0.05 - 1.0, Titanium 0.05 - 1.2, Zirconium 0.05 - 1.2, Vanadium 0.05 - 1.2, Zinc 0.05 - 0.9, Phosphorus 0.001 - 0.1, and the balance is Aluminum, wherein the silicon-to-magnesium ratio is 10 - 25, and the copper-to-magnesium ratio is 4 - 15. The aluminum alloy contains a simultaneous dispersion of three types of Al3X compound particles (X=Ti, V, Zr) having a LI2, crystal structure, and their lattice parameters are coherent to the aluminum matrix lattice. A process for producing this cast article is also disclosed, as well as a metal matrix composite, which includes the aluminum alloy serving as a matrix and containing up to about 60% by volume of a secondary filler material.

  2. Shallow water model for horizontal centrifugal casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohá?ek, J.; Kharicha, A.; Ludwig, A.; Wu, M.

    2012-07-01

    A numerical model was proposed to simulate the solidification process of an outer shell of work roll made by the horizontal centrifugal casting technique. Shallow water model was adopted to solve the 2D average flow dynamics of melt spreading and the average temperature distribution inside the centrifugal casting mould by considering the centrifugal force, Coriolis force, viscous force due to zero velocity on the mould wall, gravity, and energy transport by the flow. Additionally, a 1D sub-model was implemented to consider the heat transfer in the radial direction from the solidifying shell to the mould. The solidification front was tracked by fulfilling the Stefan condition. Radiative and convective heat losses were included from both, the free liquid surface and the outer wall of the mould. Several cases were simulated with the following assumed initial conditions: constant height of the liquid metal (10, 20, and 30 mm), uniform temperature of the free liquid surface (1755 K). The simulation results have shown that while the solidification front remained rather flat, the free surface was disturbed by waves. The amplitude of waves increased with the liquid height. Free surface waves diminished as the solidification proceeded.

  3. Horizontal electromagnetic casting of thin metal sheets

    DOEpatents

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Lari, Robert J. (Aurora, IL); Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL); Turner, Larry R. (Naperville, IL)

    1988-01-01

    Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically suspending molten metal deposited within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled to form a solid metal sheet. Magnetic flux increases as the molten metal sheet moves downward and decreases as the molten metal sheet moves upward to stabilize the sheet and maintain it in equilibrium as it is linearly displaced and solidified by cooling gases. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet by means of either metal sheet engaging rollers or brushes on the solidified metal, and by means of an electrode in the vessel containing the molten metal thereby providing a return path for the eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the AC coil generated magnetic flux. Variation in the geometry of the conducting shield allows the magnetic flux between the metal sheet and the conducting shield to be varied and the thickness in surface quality of the metal sheet to be controlled. Side guards provide lateral containment for the molten metal sheet and stabilize and shape the magnetic field while a leader sheet having electromagnetic characteristics similar to those of the metal sheet is used to start the casting process and precedes the molten metal sheet through the magnet and forms a continuous sheet therewith. The magnet may be either U-shaped with a single racetrack coil or may be rectangular with a pair of facing bedstead coils.

  4. Software Computes Tape-Casting Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Henry C., III

    2003-01-01

    Tcast2 is a FORTRAN computer program that accelerates the setup of a process in which a slurry containing metal particles and a polymeric binder is cast, to a thickness regulated by a doctor blade, onto fibers wound on a rotating drum to make a green precursor of a metal-matrix/fiber composite tape. Before Tcast2, setup parameters were determined by trial and error in time-consuming multiple iterations of the process. In Tcast2, the fiber architecture in the final composite is expressed in terms of the lateral distance between fibers and the thickness-wise distance between fibers in adjacent plies. The lateral distance is controlled via the manner of winding. The interply spacing is controlled via the characteristics of the slurry and the doctor-blade height. When a new combination of fibers and slurry is first cast and dried to a green tape, the shrinkage from the wet to the green condition and a few other key parameters of the green tape are measured. These parameters are provided as input to Tcast2, which uses them to compute the doctor-blade height and fiber spacings needed to obtain the desired fiber architecture and fiber volume fraction in the final composite.

  5. Energy Saving Melting andRevert Reduction Technology (E0SMARRT): Predicting Pattern Tooling and Casting Dimension for Investment Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Cannell; Dr. Mark Samonds; Adi Sholapurwalla; Sam Scott

    2008-11-21

    The investment casting process is an expendable mold process where wax patterns of the part and rigging are molded, assembled, shelled and melted to produce a ceramic mold matching the shape of the component to be cast. Investment casting is an important manufacturing method for critical parts because of the ability to maintain dimensional shape and tolerances. However, these tolerances can be easily exceeded if the molding components do not maintain their individual shapes well. In the investment casting process there are several opportunities for the final casting shape to not maintain the intended size and shape, such as shrinkage of the wax in the injection tool, the modification of the shape during shell heating, and with the thermal shrink and distortion in the casting process. Studies have been completed to look at the casting and shell distortions through the process in earlier phases of this project. Dr. Adrian Sabau at Oak Ridge National Labs performed characterizations and validations of 17-4 PH stainless steel in primarily fused silica shell systems with good agreement between analysis results and experimental data. Further tasks provided material property measurements of wax and methodology for employing a viscoelastic definition of wax materials into software. The final set of tasks involved the implementation of the findings into the commercial casting analysis software ProCAST, owned and maintained by ESI Group. This included: o the transfer of the wax material property data from its raw form into separate temperature-dependent thermophysical and mechanical property datasets o adding this wax material property data into an easily viewable and modifiable user interface within the pre-processing application of the ProCAST suite, namely PreCAST o and validating the data and viscoelastic wax model with respect to experimental results

  6. 8. VIEW OF A MOLD FOR PRECISION CASTING. THE MOLD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF A MOLD FOR PRECISION CASTING. THE MOLD WAS USED IN FOUNDRY OPERATIONS THAT CAST PLUTONIUM EITHER AS INGOTS SUITABLE FOR ROLLING AND FURTHER WROUGHT PROCESSING OR INTO SHAPES AMENABLE TO DIRECT MACHINING OPERATIONS. (5/6/59) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  7. AUTOMATED MALLEABLE ANNEALING OVENS SLOWLY HEAT AND COOL CASTINGS AS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMATED MALLEABLE ANNEALING OVENS SLOWLY HEAT AND COOL CASTINGS AS THEY MOVE IN BINS ALONG TRACKS IN THE OVEN BOTTOM IN THE MALLEABLE ANNEALING BUILDING. THIS PROCESS TRANSFORMS BRITTLE WHITE IRON CASTINGS INTO SOFTER, STRONGER MALLEABLE IRON. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Malleable Annealing Building, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  8. Properties of a hybrid plaster-fibreglass cast

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Mark N.; Yen, David

    2000-01-01

    Objective To examine the suitability of a plaster-fibreglass hybrid cast for orthopedic applications, comparing them to plaster of Paris (POP) and fibreglass constructs. Method Groups of 10 standardized hybrid, POP and fibreglass casts were studied. An Instron servo-hydraulic system was used to test the casts in 3-point bending and shear. Outcome measures Strength, stiffness, weight, thickness and cost of the 3 types of cast, and shear strength at the interface between the POP and fibreglass in the hybrid casts. Results The hybrid casts were twice as strong as the POP constructs, were stiffer and weighed 14% less but were thicker and cost 2.5 times more. They were almost as strong as and less than half the cost of the fibreglass constructs but were thicker, not as stiff, and weighed 42% more. The shear strength of the POP–fibreglass interface in the hybrid casts was higher than the 3-point bending strength of this construct by a factor of 3. Conclusions Plaster-fibreglass hybrid casts should be considered for orthopedic use on the basis of their strength, stiffness, weight and cost, combined with their acknowledged advantages of good moulding ability and water resistance. PMID:11045095

  9. Heat treatment study of aluminum casting alloy M45

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovoy, C. V.

    1967-01-01

    Study determines the heat treatment cycle of aluminum casting alloy M-45 which will increase the strength levels of the alloy while maintaining optimum stress corrosion resistance. Evidence indicates that present production castings are overaged too severely to take full advantage of the strength of the alloy.

  10. Rapid Tooling via Investment Casting and Rapid Prototype Patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, Michael D.

    1999-06-01

    The objective of this work to develop the materials processing and design technologies required to reduce the die development time for metal mold processes from 12 months to 3 months, using die casting of Al and Mg as the example process. Sandia demonstrated that investment casting, using rapid prototype patterns produced from Stereo lithography or Selective laser Sintering, was a viable alternative/supplement to the current technology of machining form wrought stock. A demonstration die insert (ejector halt) was investment cast and subsequently tested in the die casting environment. The stationary half of the die insert was machined from wrought material to benchmark the cast half. The two inserts were run in a die casting machine for 3,100 shots of aluminum and at the end of the run no visible difference could be detected between the cast and machined inserts. Inspection concluded that the cast insert performed identically to the machined insert. Both inserts had no indications of heat checking or degradation.

  11. Morphological castes in a vertebrate M. J. O'Riain*

    E-print Network

    Danchin, Etienne

    breeding vertebrates. The evolution of castes in a mammal and insects represents a striking example of convergent evolution for enhanced fecundity in societies characterized by high reproductive skew insects, castes (6). In societies of mammals with a reproductive division of labor, the breeding female

  12. Casting Porosity-Free Grain Refined Magnesium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Schwam, David

    2013-08-12

    The objective of this project was to identify the root causes for micro-porosity in magnesium alloy castings and recommend remedies that can be implemented in production. The findings confirm the key role played by utilizing optimal gating and risering practices in minimizing porosity in magnesium castings.?

  13. GUIDES TO POLLUTION PREVENTION: METAL CASTING AND HEAT TREATING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This guide provides an overview of the major waste generating process of metal casting and heat treating operations and presents options for reducing this waste through source reduction and recycling. ost waste generated by the metal casting, or foundry, industry is from melting ...

  14. Application of New Feeding Rules To Risering of Steel Castings

    E-print Network

    Beckermann, Christoph

    , from anecdotal evidence and the experiences of foundrymen, from foundry trials of plate castings [1 type, amount of superheat), and to allow the foundry engineer to increase casting yield by tailoring throughout the foundry industry. A brief listing of the current SFSA rules for determining the feeding

  15. A future vision for the investment casting industry

    SciTech Connect

    Zanner, F.J.; Maguire, M.C.

    1993-11-01

    All of American industry is being subjected to increased competitive pressures due to customer needs for shorter cycle times and better quality. The investment casting industry could be in a unique position to satisfy these needs by incorporating several emerging technologies into production processes. The inherent versatility and flexibility of casting make it a truly agile manufacturing process. Because of its compatibility with new rapid prototyping technologies, investment casting could be one of the key vehicles in the new ``art to part`` paradigm. Recently, dramatic advances have been made in the quality of wax and plastic patterns, parts, and tooling by investment casting on time scales unheard of today. Because design and acquisition of tooling contributes heavily to the lead time for any market, these advances will strengthen the position of investment casting manufacturers and customers, and create opportunities in traditional and non-tradition markets. Key to achieving this goal is to use the technology to remove uncertainties from investment casting process. To do this, we must collectively build the infrastructure to enable investment casting companies to make parts right the first time, every time. Integration of mature and on-the-horizon technologies will make this revolution possible and create large growth in markets for investment castings.

  16. Filtration efficiency in casting of a complexly alloyed nickel melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorov, V. V.; Iskhodzhanova, I. V.; Rigin, V. E.; Folomeikin, Yu. I.

    2012-12-01

    The use of a cellular ceramic filter is shown to be effective for casting nickel superalloys in vacuum, including superalloys cast using wastes. As a result of filtration, the volume fraction of nonmetallic inclusions and their sizes and quantity in a metal decrease.

  17. 126. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING CAST SHED NO. 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    126. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING CAST SHED NO. 2, FURNACE NO. 2, STOVES, POWER HOUSE, STACKS, FURNACE NO. 1 CAST SHED. FURNACE NO. 2 IS IN PROCESS OF RESTORATION. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  18. Probabilistic modeling of solidification grain structure in investment castings

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhya, G.K.; Yu, K.O.; Layton, M.A.; Paul, A.J.

    1995-12-31

    A probabilistic approach for modeling the evolution of grain structure in investment castings has been developed. The approach differs from the classical Monte Carlo simulations of microstructural evolution in that it uses the results from a heat transfer simulation of the investment casting process for determining the probabilities of nucleation and growth. The model was used to predict the solidification grain structure in castings. The model is quasi-3D, since it uses the information from a 3D simulation of heat transfer to predict the grain structure developed in any 2D-section of the casting. Structural transitions such as columnar/equiaxed transition can also be predicted, using suitable transition criteria. Results from the model have been validated by comparison with actual micrographs from experimental investment castings. In the first case, simulations were performed for a simple plate shaped casting of superalloy Rene 77. The effects of mold insulation as well as metal pour and mold preheat temperatures on the grain size of the casting were studied. In the second example, the casting of a complex-shaped jet engine component made of superalloy IN718 was simulated. Simulation results were seen to match very well with experiments.

  19. LUNG MODEL CASTING TECHNIQUES FOR INTERSPECIES MORPHOMETRIC COMPARISONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Techniques have been developed for casting both solid and hollow lung models from lung specimens. These techniques have been used to make casts of rat, rabbit, baboon, and human lungs and may be used for other species. An air line at a positive pressure of 25 cm of water is conne...

  20. Prediction of Reoxidation Inclusion Composition in Casting of Steel

    E-print Network

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Prediction of Reoxidation Inclusion Composition in Casting of Steel Liang Wang and Christoph ABSTRACT A model is developed to calculate the composition of reoxidation inclusions in steel casting. It is assumed that oxygen is continually absorbed by the steel during pouring. The software package Thermo

  1. Prediction of Reoxidation Inclusion Composition in Casting of Steel

    E-print Network

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Prediction of Reoxidation Inclusion Composition in Casting of Steel LIANG WANG and CHRISTOPH pouring of steel castings. The software package Thermo-Calc is used to obtain the inclusion phase fractions and compositions as a function of the temperature and oxygen content of the steel. Oxygen

  2. RAW COPPER SLABS USED IN CASTING OPERATIONS AT BUFFALO PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RAW COPPER SLABS USED IN CASTING OPERATIONS AT BUFFALO PLANT OF AMERICAN BRASS COMPANY. MATERIALS STORAGE FOR THE CAST SHOP NOW OCCUPIES A PORTION OF THE ORIGINAL BRASS MILL BUILT BY THE BUFFALO COPPER AND BRASS ROLLING MILL IN 1906-07 AND EXPANDED IN 1911. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  3. 91. VIEW NORTHWEST OF SCRAP HOUSE AND CAST HOUSE, BUILDINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    91. VIEW NORTHWEST OF SCRAP HOUSE AND CAST HOUSE, BUILDINGS 101 AND 72; BUILDING 101 IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH HOUSED SCRAP METAL CLEANING AND PROCESSING FACILITIES; BUILDING 72 AT RIGHT CENTER HOUSED MELTING FURNACES AND CONTINUOUS CASTING MACHINERY - Scovill Brass Works, 59 Mill Street, Waterbury, New Haven County, CT

  4. An adjustable, cast based, fully restrictive surgical guide.

    PubMed

    Stumpel, Lambert J

    2015-05-01

    The 3D Click Guide is a fully restrictive cast-based surgical guide for the placement of dental implants. This in-office system consists of prefabricated parts that are assembled onto a carrier. The 3-dimensional data are derived from a dental cast in combination with a periapical radiograph or cone-beam computed tomography data. PMID:25858213

  5. VIEW OF HARRIS BALER FROM ROOF OF CASTING AND METALS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF HARRIS BALER FROM ROOF OF CASTING AND METALS STORAGE OFFICE, LOOKING TOWARD CAST SHOP, THIS MACHINE WAS INSTALLED C. 1975. ITS CREW INCLUDES AN OPERATOR, A HELPER AND A JITNEY DRIVER. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  6. Two from One Casting. Art Education: 6681.20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilf, Anne

    Two From One Casting is a studio course dealing with exploratory applications of casting methods and materials for students in grades 7 through 12 who wish to make permanent those creations easily destroyed by time or negligence. Course rationale, enrollment guidelines, objectives, outline of content, descriptions of activities and procedures,…

  7. Capabilities and Integration Potential of Current Casting Design Software

    E-print Network

    Beckermann, Christoph

    , iterative procedure. Heavy design dependence is placed on a few, experienced mold and pattern makers and their potential for integration. The casting design functions considered include: pattern design (locationCapabilities and Integration Potential of Current Casting Design Software ( A Preliminary Report) D

  8. Relationship Between Casting Distortion, Mold Filling, and Interfacial Heat Transfer in Sand Molds

    SciTech Connect

    J. K. Parker; K. A. Woodbury; T. S. Piwonka; Y. Owusu

    1999-09-30

    This project sought to determine the relationship between casting dimensions and interfacial heat transfer in aluminum alloy sand castings. The program had four parts; measurement of interfacial heat transfer coefficients in resin bonded and green sand molds, the measurement of gap formation in these molds, the analysis of castings made in varying gatings, orientations and thicknesses, and the measurement of residual stresses in castings in the as-cast and gate removed condition. New values for interfacial heat transfer coefficients were measured, a novel method for gap formation was developed, and the variation of casting dimensions with casting method, gating, and casting orientation in the mold was documented.

  9. Grain Refinement of Permanent Mold Cast Copper Base Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    M.Sadayappan; J.P.Thomson; M.Elboujdaini; G.Ping Gu; M. Sahoo

    2005-04-01

    Grain refinement is a well established process for many cast and wrought alloys. The mechanical properties of various alloys could be enhanced by reducing the grain size. Refinement is also known to improve casting characteristics such as fluidity and hot tearing. Grain refinement of copper-base alloys is not widely used, especially in sand casting process. However, in permanent mold casting of copper alloys it is now common to use grain refinement to counteract the problem of severe hot tearing which also improves the pressure tightness of plumbing components. The mechanism of grain refinement in copper-base alloys is not well understood. The issues to be studied include the effect of minor alloy additions on the microstructure, their interaction with the grain refiner, effect of cooling rate, and loss of grain refinement (fading). In this investigation, efforts were made to explore and understand grain refinement of copper alloys, especially in permanent mold casting conditions.

  10. Method and apparatus for planar drag strip casting

    DOEpatents

    Powell, J.C.; Campbell, S.L.

    1991-11-12

    The present invention is directed to an improved process and apparatus for strip casting. The combination of a planar flow casting nozzle positioned back from the top dead center position with an attached nozzle extension, provides an increased level of casting control and quality. The nozzle extension provides a means of containing the molten pool above the rotating substrate to increase the control of molten metal at the edges of the strip and increase the range of coating thicknesses which may be produced. The level of molten metal in the containment means is regulated to be above the level of melt supplying the casting nozzle which produces a condition of planar drag flow with the casting substrate prior to solidification. 5 figures.

  11. Method and apparatus for planar drag strip casting

    DOEpatents

    Powell, John C. (Pittsburgh, PA); Campbell, Steven L. (Middletown, OH)

    1991-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved process and apparatus for strip casting. The combination of a planar flow casting nozzle positioned back from the top dead center position with an attached nozzle extension, provides an increased level of casting control and quality. The nozzle extension provides a means of containing the molten pool above the rotating substrate to increase the control of molten metal at the edges of the strip and increase the range of coating thicknesses which may be produced. The level of molten metal in the containment means is regulated to be above the level of melt supplying the casting nozzle which produces a condition of planar drag flow with the casting substrate prior to solidification.

  12. Prediction of ALLOY SHRINKAGE FACTORS FOR THE INVESTMENT CASTING PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S

    2006-01-01

    This study deals with the experimental measurements and numerical predictions of alloy shrinkage factors (SFs) related to the investment casting process. The dimensions of the A356 aluminum alloy casting were determined from the numerical simulation results of solidification, heat transfer, fluid dynamics, and deformation phenomena. The investment casting process was carried out using wax patterns of unfilled wax and shell molds that were made of fused silica with a zircon prime coat. The dimensions of the die tooling, wax pattern, and casting were measured, in order to determine the actual tooling allowances. Several numerical simulations were carried out, to assess the level of accuracy for the casting shrinkage. The solid fraction threshold, at which the transition from the fluid dynamics to the solid dynamics occurs, was found to be important in predicting shrinkage factors (SFs). It was found that accurate predictions were obtained for all measued dimensions when the shell mold was considered a deformable material.

  13. Tensile-property characterization of thermally aged cast stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Michaud, W.F.; Toben, P.T.; Soppet, W.K.; Chopra, O.K.

    1994-02-01

    The effect of thermal aging on tensile properties of cast stainless steels during service in light water reactors has been evaluated. Tensile data for several experimental and commercial heats of cast stainless steels are presented. Thermal aging increases the tensile strength of these steels. The high-C Mo-bearing CF-8M steels are more susceptible to thermal aging than the Mo-free CF-3 or CF-8 steels. A procedure and correlations are presented for predicting the change in tensile flow and yield stresses and engineering stress-vs.-strain curve of cast stainless steel as a function of time and temperature of service. The tensile properties of aged cast stainless steel are estimated from known material information, i.e., chemical composition and the initial tensile strength of the steel. The correlations described in this report may be used for assessing thermal embrittlement of cast stainless steel components.

  14. Tensile-property characterization of thermally aged cast stainless steels.

    SciTech Connect

    Michaud, W. F.; Toben, P. T.; Soppet, W. K.; Chopra, O. K.; Energy Technology

    1994-03-03

    The effect of thermal aging on tensile properties of cast stainless steels during service in light water reactors has been evaluated. Tensile data for several experimental and commercial heats of cast stainless steels are presented. Thermal aging increases the tensile strength of these steels. The high-C Mo-bearing CF-8M steels are more susceptible to thermal aging than the Mo-free CF-3 or CF-8 steels. A procedure and correlations are presented for predicting the change in tensile flow and yield stresses and engineering stress-vs.-strain curve of cast stainless steel as a function of time and temperature of service. The tensile properties of aged cast stainless steel are estimated from known material information, i.e., chemical composition and the initial tensile strength of the steel. The correlations described in this report may be used for assessing thermal embrittlement of cast stainless steel components.

  15. The Influence of Casting Conditions on the Microstructure of As-Cast U-10Mo Alloys: Characterization of the Casting Process Baseline

    SciTech Connect

    Nyberg, Eric A.; Joshi, Vineet V.; Lavender, Curt A.; Paxton, Dean M.; Burkes, Douglas

    2013-12-13

    Sections of eight plate castings of uranium alloyed with 10 wt% molybdenum (U-10Mo) were sent from Y-12 to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for microstructural characterization. This report summarizes the results from this study.

  16. Gating of Permanent Molds for Aluminum Casting

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes a two-year project, DE-FC07-011D13983 that concerns the gating of aluminum castings in permanent molds. The main goal of the project is to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. The approach taken was to determine how the vertical type gating systems used for permanent mold castings can be designed to fill the mold cavity with a minimum of damage to the quality of the resulting casting. It is evident that somewhat different systems are preferred for different shapes and sizes of aluminum castings. The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. The project highlights the characteristic features of gating systems used in permanent mold aluminum foundries and recommends gating procedures designed to avoid common defects. The study also provides direct evidence on the filling pattern and heat flow behavior in permanent mold castings. Equipment and procedure for real time X-Ray radiography of molten aluminum flow into permanent molds have been developed. Other studies have been conducted using water flow and behavior of liquid aluminum in sand mold using real time photography. This investigation utilizes graphite molds transparent to X-Rays making it possible to observe the flow pattern through a number of vertically oriented grating systems. These have included systems that are choked at the base of a rounded vertical sprue and vertical gating systems with a variety of different ingates into the bottom of a mold cavity. These systems have also been changed to include gating systems with vertical and horizontal gate configurations. Several conclusions can be derived from this study. A sprue-well, as designed in these experiments, does not eliminate the vena contracta. Because of the swirling at the sprue-base, the circulating metal begins to push the entering metal stream toward the open runner mitigating the intended effect of the sprue-well. Improved designs of sprue-wells should be evaluated. In order for a runner extension to operate efficiently, it must have a small squared cross-section. If it is tapered, the first metal to enter the first metal to enter the system is not effectively trapped. If the cross section is large, there is less turbulence when the aluminum enters the mold cavity in comparison to the smaller cross sectioned, squared runner. However, a large runner reduces yield. In bottom-feeding gating systems, a filter can significantly improve the filling of the casting. The filter helps to slow the metal flow rate enough to reduce jetting into the mold cavity. In top feeding gating systems, a filter can initially slow the metal flow rate, but because the metal drops after passing the filter, high velocities are achieved during free fall when a filter is in place. Side feeding gating systems provide less turbulent flow into the mold cavity. The flow is comparable to a bottom-feeding gating system with a filter. Using properly designed side-gating system instead of a bottom-feeding system with a filter can potentially save the cost of the filter. Rough coatings promote better fill than smooth coatings. This conclusion seems at first counter intuitive. One tends to assume a rough coating creates more friction resistance to the flow of molten metal. In actuality the molten aluminum stream flows inside an oxide film envelope. When this film rests on top of the ridges of a rough coating the microscopic air pockets between the coating and the oxide film provide more thermal insulation than in a smooth coating. This insulation promotes longer feeding distances in the mold as demonstrated in the experiments. Much of this work is applicable to vertically parted sand molds as well, although the heat transfer conditions do vary from a metal mold generally used in permanent molding of aluminum. The flow measurements were conducted using graphite molds and real time X-Ray radiography recorded at a rate of 30 images per second through those molds. The facilities at Arrow Aluminum Foundry were used in the study. The resu

  17. Methods and apparatuses for manufacturing geometric multicrystalline cast silicon and geometric multicrystalline cast silicon bodies for photovoltaics

    DOEpatents

    Stoddard, Nathan G

    2015-02-10

    Methods and apparatuses are provided for casting silicon for photovoltaic cells and other applications. With such methods and apparatuses, a cast body of geometrically ordered multi-crystalline silicon may be formed that is free or substantially free of radially-distributed impurities and defects and having at least two dimensions that are each at least about 10 cm is provided.

  18. Marked Calpastatin (CAST) Depletion in Alzheimer’s Disease Accelerates Cytoskeleton Disruption and Neurodegeneration: Neuroprotection by CAST Overexpression

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Mala V.; Mohan, Panaiyur S.; Peterhoff, Corrinne M.; Yang, Dun-Sheng; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Stavrides, Philip H.; Campbell, Jabbar; Chen, Yuanxin; Jiang, Ying; Paskevich, Peter A.; Cataldo, Anne M.; Haroutunian, Vahram; Nixon, Ralph A.

    2010-01-01

    Increased activity of calpains is implicated in synaptic dysfunction and neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The molecular mechanisms responsible for increased calpain activity in AD are not known. Here, we demonstrate that disease progression is propelled by a marked depletion of the endogenous calpain inhibitor, calpastatin (CAST), from AD neurons, which is mediated by caspase-1, caspase-3, and calpains. Initial CAST depletion focally along dendrites coincides topographically with calpain II and ERK 1/2 activation, tau cleavage by caspase-3, and tau and neurofilament hyperphosphorylation. These same changes, together with cytoskeletal proteolysis and neuronal cell death, accompany CAST depletion after intrahippocampal kainic acid administration to mice, and are substantially reduced in mice overexpressing human CAST. Moreover, CAST reduction by shRNA in neuronal cells causes calpain-mediated death at levels of calcium-induced injury that are sublethal to cells normally expressing CAST. Our results strongly support a novel hypothesis that CAST depletion by multiple abnormally activated proteases accelerates calpain dysregulation in AD leading to cytoskeleton disruption and neurodegeneration. CAST mimetics may, therefore, be neuroprotective in AD. PMID:19020018

  19. Development of low-temperature high-strength integral steel castings for offshore construction by casting process engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sang-Sub; Mun, Jae-Chul; Kim, Tae-Won; Kang, Chung-Gil

    2014-12-01

    In casting steels for offshore construction, manufacturing integral casted structures to prevent fatigue cracks in the stress raisers is superior to using welded structures. Here, mold design and casting analysis were conducted for integral casting steel. The laminar flow of molten metal was analyzed and distributions of hot spots and porosities were studied. A prototype was subsequently produced, and air vents were designed to improve the surface defects caused by the release of gas. A radiographic test revealed no internal defects inside the casted steel. Evaluating the chemical and mechanical properties of specimens sampled from the product revealed that target values were quantitatively satisfied. To assess weldability in consideration of repair welding, the product was machined with grooves and welded, after which the mechanical properties of hardness as well as tensile, impact, and bending strengths were evaluated. No substantive differences were found in the mechanical properties before and after welding.

  20. Method of casting silicon into thin sheets

    DOEpatents

    Sanjurjo, Angel (San Jose, CA); Rowcliffe, David J. (Los Altos, CA); Bartlett, Robert W. (Tucson, AZ)

    1982-10-26

    Silicon (Si) is cast into thin shapes within a flat-bottomed graphite crucible by providing a melt of molten Si along with a relatively small amount of a molten salt, preferably NaF. The Si in the resulting melt forms a spherical pool which sinks into and is wetted by the molten salt. Under these conditions the Si will not react with any graphite to form SiC. The melt in the crucible is pressed to the desired thinness with a graphite tool at which point the tool is held until the mass in the crucible has been cooled to temperatures below the Si melting point, at which point the Si shape can be removed.

  1. TiC reinforced cast Cr steels

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, O.N.; Hawk, J.A.; Schrems, K.K.

    2006-06-01

    A new class of materials, namely TiC-reinforced cast chromium (Cr) steels, was developed for applications requiring high abrasion resistance and good fracture toughness. The research approach was to modify the carbide structure of commercial AISI 440C steel for better fracture resistance while maintaining the already high abrasion resistance. The new alloys contained 12Cr, 2.5–4.5Ti, and 1–1.5C (wt.%) and were melted in a vacuum induction furnace. Their microstructure was composed primarily of a martensitic matrix with a dispersion of TiC precipitates. Modification of TiC morphology was accomplished through changing the cooling rate during solidification. Wear rates of the TiC-reinforced Cr steels were comparable to that of AISI 440C steel, but the impact resistance was much improved.

  2. FInal Report - Investment Casting Shell Cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Von Richards

    2003-12-01

    This project made a significant contribution to the understanding of the investment casting shell cracking problem. The effects of wax properties on the occurrence of shell cracking were demonstrated and can be measured. The properties measured include coefficient of thermal expansion, heating rate and crystallinity of the structure. The important features of production molds and materials properties have been indicated by case study analysis and fractography of low strength test bars. It was found that stress risers in shell cavity design were important and that typical critical flaws were either oversize particles or large pores just behind the prime coat. It was also found that the true effect of fugitive polymer fibers was not permeability increase, but rather a toughening mechanism due to crack deflection.

  3. Casting inorganic structures with DNA molds

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Boulais, Etienne; Hakobyan, Yera; Wang, Wei Li; Guan, Amy; Bathe, Mark; Yin, Peng

    2014-01-01

    We report a general strategy for designing and synthesizing inorganic nanostructures with arbitrarily prescribed three-dimensional shapes. Computationally designed DNA strands self-assemble into a stiff “nano-mold” that contains a user-specified three-dimensional cavity and encloses a nucleating gold “seed”. Under mild conditions, this seed grows into a larger cast structure that fills and thus replicates the cavity. We synthesized a variety of nanoparticles with three nanometer resolution: three distinct silver cuboids with three independently tunable dimensions, silver and gold nanoparticles with diverse cross sections, and composite structures with homo-/heterogeneous components. The designer equilateral silver triangular and spherical nanoparticles exhibited plasmonic properties consistent with electromagnetism-based simulations. Our framework is generalizable to more complex geometries and diverse inorganic materials, offering a range of applications in biosensing, photonics, and nanoelectronics. PMID:25301973

  4. CENTER FOR ADVANCED SEPARATION TECHNOLOGY (CAST) PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Hull, Christopher

    2014-09-30

    The U.S. is the largest producer of mining products in the world. In 2011, U.S. mining operations contributed a total of $232 billion to the nation’s GDP plus $138 billion in labor income. Of this the coal mining industry contributed a total of $97.5 billion to GDP plus $53 billion in labor income. Despite these contributions, the industry has not been well supported with research and development funds as compared to mining industries in other countries. To overcome this problem, the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies (CAST) was established to develop technologies that can be used by the U.S. mining industry to create new products, reduce production costs, and meet environmental regulations.

  5. Erosion of white cast irons and stellite

    SciTech Connect

    Aptekar, S.S.; Kosel, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    The erosion behavior of dual-phase alloys containing large, hard carbides has been investigated. A series of high Cr-Mo white cast irons with a systematic variation of carbide volume fraction (CVF) and powder metallurgy specimens of Stellite 6 were eroded with alumina, crushed quartz and rounded quartz particles. These erodents were chosen because quartz has a hardness between that of the matrix and the Cr-rich carbides, whereas the hardness of alumina is comparable to that of the carbides. In addition, comparison of the results with crushed quartz and alumina allows an evaluation of the effect of particle hardness while the differences between the rounded and crushed quartz results can be attributed to the shape difference. For all erodents and alloys, the dependence of erosion on angle of incidence was weak. With alumina and rounded quartz erodents, the erosion rate increased with increasing CVF, while the reverse was true with crushed quartz. The crushed quartz erodent gave an erosion rate only slightly lower than that of alumina, indicating that the carbide erosion resistance is not a strong function of erodent particle hardness in this range of hardness. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations of the eroded surfaces showed that erosion of the highest-CVF white cast iron alloy with alumina or rounded quartz resulted in depression of the large primary carbides, while with crushed quartz many of the carbides protruded above the matrix. The SEM and erosion rate observations show that with crushed quartz the carbides are more erosion resistant than the eutectic matrix and that the carbides therfore contribute to erosion resistance, while with the other erodents the reverse is true. 17 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Thermal investigation of compound cast steel tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaper, Mirko; Haferkamp, Heinz; Niemeyer, Matthias; Pelz, Christoph; Viets, Roman

    1999-03-01

    Tools for hot forging are exposed to complex stresses during their life-cycle. Therefore, forging dies should have a high wear resistance and toughness on the surface, combined with excellent thermal conductivity in the die body. Hot-work tool steel is appropriate for this application except from its thermal conductance. Hence, a tool consisting of hot-work tool steel in the area of contact and heat-treatable steel as die body is favorable. A smoothly graded microstructure in the joint zone between the two steel alloys is needed to match with the requirements. Fabrication of such functionally graded dies by sand casting exhibits high sensitivity to temperature and geometry dependent parameters. To melt on the inlay's surface must be ensured without destroying this region according to overheat coarsening and mixing of alloying elements. Instead of empirical methods to optimize the process parameters, a thermographic CCD-device is used for visualization of the heat flow while pouring the melt on the inlay. In fact the molten metal flow can be directed homogeneously across the bonding surface at adequate temperatures after evaluation of thermography data. The use of a silica-aerogel sheet as opaque window beneath the inlay in the mold enables systematic development of gating and risering, whereas undesirable scaling of the inlay due to the change of emissivity is retarded. Infrared image sequences clearly demonstrate the influence of different ring gating systems concerning the filling properties. Non-joined cavities may even be classified from image data. Compound cast steel tools have been manufactured and examined in forging trials validating life-cycle prolongation.

  7. The influence of master cast technique on the cast precision of implant-retained fixed prostheses.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Mariana Agustinho; Luthi, Leonardo Flores; Henriques, Guilherme Elias Pessanha

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the precision of three different mold filling techniques in order to obtain a cast simulating a three-unit, implant-retained, fixed prosthesis. Thirty casts (n = 10) were obtained using three different mold filling techniques. Group 1 used a unique fulfillment technique, Group 2 used a two-step fulfillment technique, and Group 3 used a latex cylinder technique. Using a metallic matrix, a titanium substructure was created to simulate a three-unit fixed prosthesis used as reference to evaluate the marginal misfit and tension forces in each cast. The vertical misfit was measured by an optical microscope with an increase of 120X and by an analysis unit using the one-screw test. The tension was quantified using strain gauges. The strain results showed a statistical difference between Group 3 and the other groups. The Tukey test showed no difference between the different treatment groups (p = 0.05). All three techniques were deemed efficient; however, considering that the cylinder latex technique induced less force toward the implants, it is the preferable technique for daily clinical practice. PMID:22414505

  8. Irradiation response of delta ferrite in as-cast and thermally aged cast stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhangbo; Lo, Wei-Yang; Chen, Yiren; Pakarinen, Janne; Wu, Yaqiao; Allen, Todd; Yang, Yong

    2015-11-01

    To enable the life extension of Light Water Reactors (LWRs) beyond 60 years, it is critical to gain adequate knowledge for making conclusive predictions to assure the integrity of duplex stainless steel reactor components, e.g. primary pressure boundary and reactor vessel internal. Microstructural changes in the ferrite of thermally aged, neutron irradiated only, and neutron irradiated after being thermally aged cast austenitic stainless steels (CASS) were investigated using atom probe tomography. The thermal aging was performed at 400 °C for 10,000 h and the irradiation was conducted in the Halden reactor at ?315 °C to 0.08 dpa (5.6 × 1019 n/cm2, E > 1 MeV). Low dose neutron irradiation at a dose rate of 5 × 10-9 dpa/s was found to induce spinodal decomposition in the ferrite of as-cast microstructure, and further to enhance the spinodal decomposition in the thermally aged cast alloys. Regarding the G-phase precipitates, the neutron irradiation dramatically increases the precipitate size, and alters the composition of the precipitates with increased, Mn, Ni, Si and Mo and reduced Fe and Cr contents. The results have shown that low dose neutron irradiation can further accelerate the degradation of ferrite in a duplex stainless steel at the LWR relevant condition.

  9. Development of a CFD code for casting simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murph, Jesse E.

    1993-01-01

    Because of high rejection rates for large structural castings (e.g., the Space Shuttle Main Engine Alternate Turbopump Design Program), a reliable casting simulation computer code is very desirable. This code would reduce both the development time and life cycle costs by allowing accurate modeling of the entire casting process. While this code could be used for other types of castings, the most significant reductions of time and cost would probably be realized in complex investment castings, where any reduction in the number of development castings would be of significant benefit. The casting process is conveniently divided into three distinct phases: (1) mold filling, where the melt is poured or forced into the mold cavity; (2) solidification, where the melt undergoes a phase change to the solid state; and (3) cool down, where the solidified part continues to cool to ambient conditions. While these phases may appear to be separate and distinct, temporal overlaps do exist between phases (e.g., local solidification occurring during mold filling), and some phenomenological events are affected by others (e.g., residual stresses depend on solidification and cooling rates). Therefore, a reliable code must accurately model all three phases and the interactions between each. While many codes have been developed (to various stages of complexity) to model the solidification and cool down phases, only a few codes have been developed to model mold filling.

  10. Development of a thin steel strip casting process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.S.

    1994-04-01

    This is a comprehensive effort to develop direct strip casting to the point where a pilot scale program for casting carbon steel strip could be initiated. All important aspects of the technology were being investigated, however the program was terminated early due to a change in the business strategy of the primary contractor, Armco Inc. (focus to be directed at specialty steels, not low carbon steel). At termination, the project was on target on all milestones and under budget. Major part was casting of strip at the experiment casting facility. A new caster, capable of producing direct cast strip of up to 12 in. wide in heats of 1000 and 3000 lb, was used. A total of 81 1000-1200 lb heats were cast as well as one test heat of 3000 lb. Most produced strip of from 0.016 to 0.085 in. thick. Process reliability was excellent for short casting times; quality was generally poor from modern hot strip mill standards, but the practices necessary for good surface quality were identified.

  11. Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior of Cast Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Teysseyre, Sebastien; Busby, Jeremy T; Was, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Casting of austenitic stainless steels offers the possibility of directly producing large and/or relatively complex structures, such as the first wall shield modules or the diverter cassette for the ITER fusion reactor. Casting offers major cost savings when compared to fabrication via welding of quarter modules machined from large forgings. However, the strength properties of such cast components are typically considered inferior to those of conventionally forged and annealed components. To improve and validate cast stainless steel as a substitute for wrought stainless steel, a development and testing program was initiated, utilizing nitrogen and manganese additions to promote improved performance. This paper focuses on the response of the first set of developmental alloys to neutron-irradiation and susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking. These cast materials may also have applications for different components in light water reactors. Results showed that all steels exhibited irradiation-induced hardening and a corresponding drop in ductility, as expected, although there is still considerable ductility in the irradiated samples. The cast steels all exhibited reduced hardening in comparison to a wrought reference steels, which may be related to a larger grain size. Higher nitrogen contents did not negatively influence irradiation performance. Regarding stress corrosion cracking susceptibility, the large difference in grain size limits the comparison between wrought and cast materials, and inclusions in a reference and archive cast alloy tests complicate analysis of these samples. Results suggest that the irradiated archive heat was more susceptible to cracking than the modified alloys, which may be related to the more complex microstructure. Further, the results suggest that the modified cast steel is at least as SCC resistant as wrought 316LN. The beneficial effect of nitrogen on the mechanical properties of the alloys remains after irradiation and is not detrimental to SCC resistance.

  12. Predicting Pattern Tooling and Casting Dimensions for Investment Casting, Phase III

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S

    2008-04-01

    Efforts during Phase III focused mainly on the shell-alloy systems. A high melting point alloy, 17-4PH stainless steel, was considered. The experimental part of the program was conducted at ORNL and commercial foundries, where wax patterns were injected, molds were invested, and alloys were poured. Shell molds made of fused-silica and alumino-silicates were considered. A literature review was conducted on thermophysical and thermomechanical properties alumino-silicates. Material property data, which were not available from material suppliers, was obtained. For all the properties of 17-4PH stainless steel, the experimental data available in the literature did not cover the entire temperature range necessary for process simulation. Thus, some material properties were evaluated using ProCAST, based on CompuTherm database. A comparison between the predicted material property data and measured property data was made. It was found that most material properties were accurately predicted only over several temperature ranges. No experimental data for plastic modulus were found. Thus, several assumptions were made and ProCAST recommendations were followed in order to obtain a complete set of mechanical property data at high temperatures. Thermal expansion measurements for the 17-4PH alloy were conducted during heating and cooling. As a function of temperature, the thermal expansion for both the alloy and shell mold materials showed different evolution on heating and cooling. Numerical simulations were performed using ProCAST for the investment casting of 17-4PH stainless steel parts in fused silica molds using the thermal expansion obtained on heating and another one with thermal expansion obtained on cooling. Since the fused silica shells had the lowest thermal expansion properties in the industry, the dewaxing phase, including the coupling between wax-shell systems, was neglected. The shell mold was considered to be a pure elastic material. The alloy dimensions were obtained from numerical simulations. For 17-4PH stainless steel parts, the alloy shrinkage factors were over-predicted, as compared with experimental data. Additional R&D focus was placed on obtaining material property data for filled waxes, waxes that are common in the industry. For the first time in the investment casting industry, the thermo-mechanical properties of unfilled and filled waxes were measured. Test specimens of three waxes were injected at commercial foundries. Rheometry measurement of filled waxes was conducted at ORNL. The analysis of the rheometry data to obtain viscoelastic properties was not completed due to the reduction in the budget of the project (approximately 50% funds were received).

  13. Prosthetic management of malpositioned implant using custom cast abutment

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Aishwarya; Ragher, Mallikarjuna; Patil, Sanket; Chatterjee, Debopriya; Dandekeri, Savita; Prabhu, Vishnu

    2015-01-01

    Two cases are reported with malpositioned implants. Both the implants were placed 6–7 months back. They had osseointegrated well with the surrounding bone. However, they presented severe facial inclination. Case I was restored with custom cast abutment with an auto polymerizing acrylic gingival veneer. Case II was restored with custom cast UCLA type plastic implant abutment. Ceramic was directly fired on the custom cast abutments. The dual treatment strategy resulted in functional and esthetic restorations despite facial malposition of the implants. PMID:26538957

  14. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    DOEpatents

    Santella, M.L.; Sikka, V.K.

    1998-03-10

    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and cast in copper chill molds. 3 figs.

  15. Method to prevent/mitigate steam explosions in casting pits

    DOEpatents

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1996-12-24

    Steam explosions can be prevented or mitigated during a metal casting process by the placement of a perforated flooring system in the casting pit. An upward flow of compressed gas through this perforated flooring system is introduced during the casting process to produce a buffer layer between any spilled molten metal and the cooling water in the reservoir. This buffer layer provides a hydrodynamic layer which acts to prevent or mitigate steam explosions resulting from hot, molten metal being spilled into or onto the cooling water. 3 figs.

  16. Freeze Tape Casting of Functionally Graded Porous Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sofie, Stephen W.

    2007-01-01

    Freeze tape casting is a means of making preforms of ceramic sheets that, upon subsequent completion of fabrication processing, can have anisotropic and/or functionally graded properties that notably include aligned and graded porosity. Freeze tape casting was developed to enable optimization of the microstructures of porous ceramic components for use as solid oxide electrodes in fuel cells: Through alignment and grading of pores, one can tailor surface areas and diffusion channels for flows of gas and liquid species involved in fuel-cell reactions. Freeze tape casting offers similar benefits for fabrication of optimally porous ceramics for use as catalysts, gas sensors, and filters.

  17. Prosthetic management of malpositioned implant using custom cast abutment.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Aishwarya; Ragher, Mallikarjuna; Patil, Sanket; Chatterjee, Debopriya; Dandekeri, Savita; Prabhu, Vishnu

    2015-08-01

    Two cases are reported with malpositioned implants. Both the implants were placed 6-7 months back. They had osseointegrated well with the surrounding bone. However, they presented severe facial inclination. Case I was restored with custom cast abutment with an auto polymerizing acrylic gingival veneer. Case II was restored with custom cast UCLA type plastic implant abutment. Ceramic was directly fired on the custom cast abutments. The dual treatment strategy resulted in functional and esthetic restorations despite facial malposition of the implants. PMID:26538957

  18. The use of radiographs in small cast-gold restorations

    SciTech Connect

    Mattingly, S.L.; Podshadley, A.G.; Gullett, C.E.

    1982-07-01

    The rationale for the use of treatment radiographs in the construction of cast-gold restorations has been presented. Radiographs are made in the University of Louisville Fixed Prosthodontics Clinic at the precementation and postcementation stage of treatment when casting margins are inaccessible. Radiographs at this stage of treatment permit detection and correction of a variety of problems that may not be discovered clinically and allow the construction of excellent cast-gold restorations that would be impossible otherwise. Because all radiation safety factors are observed, the amount of radiation a patient receives is minimized.

  19. Design and Analysis for Melt Casting Metallic Fuel Pins

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xiaolong; Clarksean, Randy; Chen, Yitung; Meyer, Mitchell K.

    2002-07-01

    A concept for the casting of metallic fuels pins containing low vapor pressure materials is presented and discussed. The important physics of this concept include the mass transport of americium from the melt, the induction heating and stirring of the melt, plus the casting of long slender fuel rods. This paper discusses and presents preliminary modeling results for the casting of long, slender fuel rods. The model considers the flow of the melt into the molds, heat transfer into the molds, and the impact of process parameters on the formation of the fuel rod. (authors)

  20. An accelerated clinical chairside technique for casting overdenture attachment copings.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Michael D; Campagni, Wayne V

    2011-11-01

    An accelerated technique for casting a direct-pattern post and core restoration for use in fixed prosthodontics has been previously described. Similar techniques for use in removable prosthodontics show potential for clinical use, specifically for the fabrication of radicular stud overdenture attachments and their corresponding copings. The procedure uses a chairside technique and readily available components to fabricate a direct, acrylic resin pattern combining the elements of a cast coping with a fixed radicular attachment. This pattern can subsequently be invested, cast, finished and polished, luted, and attached to the removable prosthesis in a single clinical appointment. PMID:22024184

  1. Shrinkage Prediction for the Investment Casting of Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the alloy shrinkage factors were obtained for the investment casting of 17-4PH stainless steel parts. For the investment casting process, unfilled wax and fused silica with a zircon prime coat were used for patterns and shell molds, respectively. Dimensions of the die tooling, wax pattern, and casting were measured using a Coordinate Measurement Machine in order to obtain the actual tooling allowances. The alloy dimensions were obtained from numerical simulation results of solidification, heat transfer, and deformation phenomena. The numerical simulation results for the shrinkage factors were compared with experimental results.

  2. Method to prevent/mitigate steam explosions in casting pits

    DOEpatents

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi P. (Knoxville, TN)

    1996-01-01

    Steam explosions can be prevented or mitigated during a metal casting process by the placement of a perforated flooring system in the casting pit. An upward flow of compressed gas through this perforated flooring system is introduced during the casting process to produce a buffer layer between any spilled molten metal and the cooling water in the reservoir. This buffer layer provides a hydrodynamic layer which acts to prevent or mitigate steam explosions resulting from hot, molten metal being spilled into or onto the cooling water.

  3. Numerical Simulation of Cast Distortion in Gas Turbine Engine Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inozemtsev, A. A.; Dubrovskaya, A. S.; Dongauser, K. A.; Trufanov, N. A.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper the process of multiple airfoilvanes manufacturing through investment casting is considered. The mathematical model of the full contact problem is built to determine stress strain state in a cast during the process of solidification. Studies are carried out in viscoelastoplastic statement. Numerical simulation of the explored process is implemented with ProCASTsoftware package. The results of simulation are compared with the real production process. By means of computer analysis the optimization of technical process parameters is done in order to eliminate the defect of cast walls thickness variation.

  4. Hanford's Simulated Low Activity Waste Cast Stone Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young

    2013-08-20

    Cast Stone is undergoing evaluation as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanford’s (Washington) high activity waste (HAW) and low activity waste (LAW). This report will only cover the LAW Cast Stone. The programs used for this simulated Cast Stone were gradient density change, compressive strength, and salt waste form phase identification. Gradient density changes show a favorable outcome by showing uniformity even though it was hypothesized differently. Compressive strength exceeded the minimum strength required by Hanford and greater compressive strength increase seen between the uses of different salt solution The salt waste form phase is still an ongoing process as this time and could not be concluded.

  5. A combined experimental and modeling approach to uranium casting

    SciTech Connect

    Korzekwa, D.; Dunn, P.

    1994-08-01

    U casting was studied using a combined experimental and modeling approach; the U is cast into graphite molds using vacuum induction melting. Mold design and process parameters were varied. FLOW-3D and ABAQUS codes were used. Temperature predictions were compared with experimental data from thermcouples in the mold; initial metal and mold temperatures were used in input to FLOW-3D. Fluid flow predictions were validated using static and dynamic radiographic data. Dynamic radiographic videos of gold castings were compared to 3D simulations.

  6. Residual stresses in a cast iron automotive brake disc rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripley, Maurice I.; Kirstein, Oliver

    2006-11-01

    Runout, and consequent juddering and pulsation through the brake pedal, is a multi-million dollar per year warranty problem for car manufacturers. There is some suspicion that the runout can be caused by relaxation of residual casting stresses when the disc is overheated during severe-braking episodes. We report here neutron-diffraction measurements of the levels and distribution of residual strains in a used cast iron brake disc rotor. The difficulties of measuring stresses in grey cast iron are outlined and three-dimensional residual-strain distributions are presented and their possible effects discussed.

  7. X-ray detectors of the CAST experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, S. C.

    2014-03-01

    CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is an experiment probing hypothetical particles: the axions, created in the solar core. Inside the transverse magnetic field of the CAST magnet, axions can be converted into x-rays, and be detected by four x-ray detectors at CAST. The expected x-ray signal in CAST is in 1-10 keV range, intensity depending strongly on the coupling constant of axion-photon conversion ga?, which is expected to be low. This requires CAST to have detectors with very low background levels. The CAST Experiment makes use of three Micromesh Gaseous Structure (micromegas) detectors, which are gaseous detectors, derived from ideas of Multiwire Proportional Chambers (MWPC). CAST Micromegas detectors show perfect stability, good spatial and energy resolution. The intense study on Micromegas has enabled CAST to understand the nature of its background level, and improve it by a factor of 102 over ten years. New detector design, new readout system, better cosmic veto and addition of x-ray telescope will further improve the background in the next data taking of the experiment. The Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) of CAST is a pn-CCD detector with 200 × 64 pixels. The CAST CCD is coupled to an X-ray telescope, focusing all the parallel x-rays into a 9 mm diameter spot. The CCD will be replaced by the InGrid detector, a special manufactured micromegas detector. It is able to detect single electrons, and the low energy capabilities will open new frontiers on search of axions and other exotic particles. Another option is the Silicon Drift Detector (SDD), which is being tested in 2013, and has an energy threshold as low as 250 eV. The CAST experiment is the pioneering helioscope that excludes an important part of axion mass-coupling constant parameter space, and expects to exclude more in the following years. To succeed CAST, a new experiment, the International AXion Observatory (IAXO) is being designed and optimised, comprising the construction of a magnet specially built for axion search as well as new detectors that will enable to improve the actual limits by 1-1.5 orders of magnitude.

  8. Optimization of Squeeze Casting for Aluminum Alloy Parts

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Qingming Chang; Yulong Zhu

    2002-07-30

    This study was initiated with the installation of a new production size UBE 350 Ton VSC Squeeze Casting system in the Metal Casting Laboratory at Case Western University. A Lindberg 75k W electrical melting furnace was installed alongside. The challenge of installation and operation of such industrial-size equipment in an academic environment was met successfully. Subsequently, a Sterling oil die heater and a Visi-Track shot monitoring system were added. A significant number of inserts were designed and fabricated over the span of the project, primarily for squeeze casting different configurations of test bars and plates. A spiral ''ribbon insert'' for evaluation of molten metal fluidity was also fabricated. These inserts were used to generate a broad range of processing conditions and determine their effect on the quality of the squeeze cast parts. This investigation has studied the influence of the various casting variables on the quality of indirect squeeze castings primarily of aluminum alloys. The variables studied include gating design, fill time and fill patter, metal pressure and die temperature variations. The quality of the die casting was assessed by an analysis of both their surface condition and internal soundness. The primary metal tested was an aluminum 356 alloy. In addition to determining the effect of these casting variables on casting quality as measured by a flat plate die of various thickness, a number of test bar inserts with different gating designs have been inserted in the squeeze casting machine. The mechanical properties of these test bars produced under different squeeze casting conditions were measured and reported. The investigation of the resulting properties also included an analysis of the microstructure of the squeeze castings and the effect of the various structural constituents on the resulting properties. The main conclusions from this investigation are as follows: The ingate size and shape are very important since it must remain open until the casting is solidified and pressure is maintained on the solidifying casting. Fanned gates, particularly on the smaller section castings avoid jetting effects at the ingate end. The fan type ingate helps accomplish a rapid fill without high velocities. The molten metal has to fill the cavity before localized solidification occurs. This is best accomplished with a larger ingate to attain rapid filling without excessive velocity or jetting that occurs at high metal velocities. Straight gates are prone to case jetting of the metal stream even a low velocities. Fanned gates allow use of higher fill velocity without excessive jetting. A higher metal pressure provides a more complete fill of the die including improved compensation for solidification shrinkage. With the proper filling pattern, ingates, overflows and die temperature for a given die, very good tensile properties can be attained in squeeze casting. In general, the smaller squeeze castings require higher die temperatures. Computer models using the UES Procast and MagmaSoft finite element software can, after suitable adjustments, predict the flow pattern in the die cavity.

  9. 40 CFR 464.20 - Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... copper casting subcategory. 464.20 Section 464.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Copper Casting Subcategory § 464.20 Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory. The... introduction of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works resulting from copper casting operations...

  10. Advanced lost foam casting quarterly report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Objective is to advance the state of the art in lost foam casting technology, in order to improve the competitiveness of the US metals casting industries. The following tasks are reported on pyrolysis defects and sand distortion, bronze casting technology, steel casting technology, sand filling and compaction, coating technology, precision pattern production, and computational modeling.

  11. Clean ferrous casting technology research. Final technical report, September 29, 1993--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Piwonka, T.S.

    1996-01-01

    This report details results of a 30-month program to develop methods of making clean ferrous castings, i.e., castings free of inclusions and surface defects. The program was divided into 3 tasks: techniques for producing clean steel castings, electromagnetic removal of inclusions from ferrous melts, and study of causes of metal penetration in sand molds in cast iron.

  12. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section...Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by...

  13. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section...Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by...

  14. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section...Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by...

  15. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section...Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by...

  16. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section...Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by...

  17. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  18. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  19. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  20. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  1. Casting a Polyhedron with Directional Uncertainty Hee-kap Ahn Otfried Cheong Rene van Oostrum

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    ££ Abstract Casting is a manufacturing process in which molten material is poured into a cast (mould), which into a cavity inside a mould (cast). After the liquid material has hardened, the mould is opened, and we: is it possible to enclose the object in a mould that can be split into two parts, such that these two cast parts

  2. 40 CFR 464.10 - Applicability; description of the aluminum casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... aluminum casting subcategory. 464.10 Section 464.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Aluminum Casting Subcategory § 464.10 Applicability; description of the aluminum casting subcategory. The... introduction of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works resulting from aluminum casting operations...

  3. 40 CFR 464.10 - Applicability; description of the aluminum casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... aluminum casting subcategory. 464.10 Section 464.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Aluminum Casting Subcategory § 464.10 Applicability; description of the aluminum casting subcategory. The... introduction of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works resulting from aluminum casting operations...

  4. Method of casting articles of a bulk-solidifying amorphous alloy

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Xianghong (Laguna Niguel, CA); Johnson, William L. (Pasadena, CA); Peker, Atakan (Aliso Viejo, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A casting charge of a bulk-solidifying amorphous alloy is cast into a mold from a temperature greater than its crystallized melting temperature, and permitted to solidify to form an article. The oxygen content of the casting charge is limited to an operable level, as excessively high oxygen contents produce premature crystallization during the casting operation. During melting, the casting charge is preferably heated to a temperature above a threshold temperature to eliminate heterogeneous crystallization nucleation sites within the casting charge. The casting charge may be cast from above the threshold temperature, or it may be cooled to the casting temperature of more than the crystallized melting point but not more than the threshold temperature, optionally held at this temperature for a period of time, and thereafter cast.

  5. Method of casting articles of a bulk-solidifying amorphous alloy

    DOEpatents

    Lin, X.; Johnson, W.L.; Peker, A.

    1998-08-25

    A casting charge of a bulk-solidifying amorphous alloy is cast into a mold from a temperature greater than its crystallized melting temperature, and permitted to solidify to form an article. The oxygen content of the casting charge is limited to an operable level, as excessively high oxygen contents produce premature crystallization during the casting operation. During melting, the casting charge is preferably heated to a temperature above a threshold temperature to eliminate heterogeneous crystallization nucleation sites within the casting charge. The casting charge may be cast from above the threshold temperature, or it may be cooled to the casting temperature of more than the crystallized melting point but not more than the threshold temperature, optionally held at this temperature for a period of time, and thereafter cast. 8 figs.

  6. Study of FES/CAST/HGS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Cummings, Rick; Jones, Brian

    1992-01-01

    The microgravity materials processing program has been instrumental in providing the crystal growth community with an experimental environment to better understand the phenomena associated with the growing of crystals. In many applications one may pursue the growth of large single crystals which cannot be grown on earth due to convective driven flows. A microgravity environment is characterized by neither convection of buoyancy. Consequently superior crystals are able to be grown in space. On the other hand, since neither convection nor buoyancy dominates the fluid flow in a microgravity environment, then lesser dominating phenomena can affect crystal growth, such as surface driven flows or diffusion limited solidification. In the case of experiments that are to be flown in space using the Fluid Experiments System (FES), diffusion limited growth should be the dominating phenomenon. The use of holographic and Schlieren optical techniques for studying the concentration gradients in solidification processes has been used by several investigators over the years. The Holographic Ground System (HGS) facility at MSFC has been a primary resource in researching this capability. Consequently scientific personnel have been able to utilize these techniques in both ground based research and in space experiments. An important event in the scientific utilization of the HGS facilities was the TGS (triglycine sulfate) Crystal Growth and the Casting and Solidification Technology (CAST) experiments that were flown on the International Microgravity Lab (IML) mission in March of this year. The preparation and processing of these space observations are the primary experiments reported in this work. This project provides some ground-based studies to optimize on the holographic techniques used to acquire information about the crystal growth processes flown on IML. Since the ground-based studies will be compared with the space-based experimental results, it is necessary to conduct sufficient ground based studies to best determine how the experiment in space worked. The current capabilities in computer based systems for image processing and numerical computation have certainly assisted in those efforts. As anticipated, this study has certainly shown that these advanced computing capabilities are helpful in the data analysis of such experiments.

  7. Mold, flow, and economic considerations in high temperature precision casting

    E-print Network

    Humbert, Matthew S

    2013-01-01

    Casting high temperature alloys that solidify through a noticeable two phase region, specifically platinum-ruthenium alloys, is a particularly challenging task due to their high melting temperature and this necessitates ...

  8. 10. DETAIL OF CAST IRON COLUMN BASE ON FIRST FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL OF CAST IRON COLUMN BASE ON FIRST FLOOR STOREFRONT, SHOWING MANUFACTURER'S STAMP: IOWA IRON WOKS CO. DUBUQUE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Dubuque Seed Company Warehouse, 169-171 Iowa Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  9. Development Program for Natural Aging Aluminum Casting Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Geoffrey K. Sigworth

    2004-05-14

    A number of 7xx aluminum casting alloys are based on the ternary Al-Zn-Mg system. These alloys age naturally to high strength at room temperature. A high temperature solution and aging treatment is not required. Consequently, these alloys have the potential to deliver properties nearly equivalent to conventional A356-T6 (Al-Si-Mg) castings, with a significant cost saving. An energy savings is also possible. In spite of these advantages, the 7xx casting alloys are seldom used, primarily because of their reputation for poor castibility. This paper describes the results obtained in a DOE-funded research study of these alloys, which is part of the DOE-OIT ''Cast Metals Industries of the Future'' Program. Suggestions for possible commercial use are also given.

  10. Advanced lost foam casting technology. 1995 summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, C.E.; Littleton, H.E.; Askeland, D.; Griffin, J.; Miller, B.A.; Sheldon, D.S.

    1996-05-01

    Previous research made significant advances in understanding the Lost Foam Casting (LFC) Process and clearly identified areas where additional research was needed to improve the process and make it more functional in an industrial environment. The current project focused on five areas listed as follows: Task 1: Precision Pattern Production; Task 2: Pattern Coating Consistency; Task 3: Sand Fill and Compaction Effects; Task 4: Pattern Gating; and Task 5: Mechanical Properties of Castings. This report summarizes the work done under the current contract in all five areas. Twenty-eight (28) companies jointly participate in the project. These companies represent a variety of disciplines, including pattern designers, pattern producers, coating manufacturers, plant design companies, compaction equipment manufacturers, casting producers, and casting buyers. This report summarizes the work done in the past two years and the conclusions drawn from the work.

  11. An Energy Savings Model for the Heat Treatment of Castings

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Rong; R. Sisson; J. Morral; H. Brody

    2006-12-31

    An integrated system of software, databases, and design rules have been developed, verified, and to be marketed to enable quantitative prediction and optimization of the heat treatment of aluminum castings to increase quality, increase productivity, reduce heat treatment cycle times and reduce energy consumption. The software predicts the thermal cycle in critical locations of individual components in a furnace, the evolution of microstructure, and the attainment of properties in heat treatable aluminum alloy castings. The model takes into account the prior casting process and the specific composition of the component. The heat treatment simulation modules can be used in conjunction with software packages for simulation of the casting process. The system is built upon a quantitative understanding of the kinetics of microstructure evolution in complex multicomponent alloys, on a quantitative understanding of the interdependence of microstructure and properties, on validated kinetic and thermodynamic databases, and validated quantitative models.

  12. The lost-foam casting of aluminum alloy components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivkumar, S.; Wang, L.; Apelian, D.

    1990-11-01

    In the lost-foam casting process, liquid metal is poured directly onto a refractory-coated, foamed polymer pattern which is buried in loose sand. The polymer pattern undergoes thermal degradation and is gradually replaced by the molten metal, which solidifies and produces the casting. The inherent operating advantages of this innovative technique have generated considerable interest among casting manufacturers. Currently, the process is being utilized to manufacture a wide variety of ferrous and nonferrous components catering primarily to the automotive industry. Because the process is relatively new, there is a compelling need to quantify the influence of process parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties. Furthermore, the interaction of the thermal degradation products with the solidifying metal may produce several unique defects in the casting.

  13. Awareness Programs and Change in Taste-Based Caste Prejudice

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Ritwik; Datta Gupta, Nabanita

    2015-01-01

    Becker's theory of taste-based discrimination predicts that relative employment of the discriminated social group will improve if there is a decrease in the level of prejudice for the marginally discriminating employer. In this paper we experimentally test this prediction offered by Garry Becker in his seminal work on taste based discrimination, in the context of caste in India, with management students (potential employers in the near future) as subjects. First, we measure caste prejudice and show that awareness through a TV social program reduces implicit prejudice against the lower caste and the reduction is sustained over time. Second, we find that the treatment reduces the prejudice levels of those in the left tail of the prejudice distribution - the group which can potentially affect real outcomes as predicted by the theory. And finally, a larger share of the treatment group subjects exhibit favorable opinion about reservation in jobs for the lower caste. PMID:25902290

  14. Awareness programs and change in taste-based caste prejudice.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Ritwik; Datta Gupta, Nabanita

    2015-01-01

    Becker's theory of taste-based discrimination predicts that relative employment of the discriminated social group will improve if there is a decrease in the level of prejudice for the marginally discriminating employer. In this paper we experimentally test this prediction offered by Garry Becker in his seminal work on taste based discrimination, in the context of caste in India, with management students (potential employers in the near future) as subjects. First, we measure caste prejudice and show that awareness through a TV social program reduces implicit prejudice against the lower caste and the reduction is sustained over time. Second, we find that the treatment reduces the prejudice levels of those in the left tail of the prejudice distribution--the group which can potentially affect real outcomes as predicted by the theory. And finally, a larger share of the treatment group subjects exhibit favorable opinion about reservation in jobs for the lower caste. PMID:25902290

  15. 25. Detail of cast iron lamp post base with fluted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Detail of cast iron lamp post base with fluted wooded post at top, located at north end of bridge. VIEW NORTHEAST - Chelsea Street Bridge & Draw Tender's House, Spanning Chelsea River, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  16. 4. INTERIOR, FOUNDRY CA. 1919 SHOWING CASTINGS READY FOR CLEANING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR, FOUNDRY CA. 1919 SHOWING CASTINGS READY FOR CLEANING AND FOUNDRY FLASKS TO RIGHT. - Hardie-Tynes Manufacturing Company, Workshop, 800 Twenty-eighth Street North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  17. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 AND BLAST FURNACE NO. 2. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  18. 67. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CAST HOUSE OR DOROTHY SIX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CAST HOUSE OR DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE LOOKING NORTHEAST. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  19. 56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST HOUSE IN FOREGROUND AND DUSTCATCHER AT RIGHT OF FURNACE (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  20. 13. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF CAST HOUSE No. 1, BLAST FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF CAST HOUSE No. 1, BLAST FURNACE No. 1, AND HOIST HOUSE No. 1. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  1. 3. FOURTH FLOOR OF OIL HOUSE (NOTICE CAST IRON SUPPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. FOURTH FLOOR OF OIL HOUSE (NOTICE CAST IRON SUPPORT POSTS AND OIL PRESS IN THE CENTER) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Oil House, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  2. 42. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is to right of furnace; operator takes temperature of iron in trough during pout. Looking south - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

  3. Casting Simulation of an Austrian Bronze Age Sword Hilt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pola, Annalisa; Mödlinger, Marianne; Piccardo, Paolo; Montesano, Lorenzo

    2015-07-01

    Bronze Age swords with a metal hilt can be considered the peak of Bronze Age casting technologies. To reconstruct the casting techniques used more than 3000 years ago, a metal hilted sword of the Schalenknauf type from Lower Austria was studied with the aid of macroscopic analyses and simulation of mold filling and casting solidification. A three-dimensional model of the hilt was created based on optical scanner measurements performed on a hilt recently discovered during archaeological excavations. Three different configurations of the gating system were considered, two on the pommel disk and one on the knob, and the effect of its location on the formation of casting defects was investigated. Three-dimensional computed tomography was used to detect internal defects, such as gas and shrinkage porosity, which were then compared with those calculated by simulation. The best match between actual and predicted hilt quality demonstrated the location of the gating system, which turned out to be on the pommel disk.

  4. Bifilm Defects in Ni-Based Alloy Castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John; Tiryakio?lu, Murat

    2012-08-01

    The Ni-base superalloys, which are normally melted and cast in a vacuum, entrain their surface-oxide film during turbulent pouring of the melt; unfortunately at this time, this process is universally practiced for investment castings of these materials. The entrained film becomes a bifilm crack automatically, so that cast alloys have a large population of cracks that controls their failure behavior. The problems of the growth of single crystals and the welding of polycrystalline alloys are reviewed to illustrate the central role of bifilms in the cracking of turbine blades, the heat-affected zones of welds, and the reliability of properties. It has been demonstrated that improved gravity pouring systems can reduce these problems significantly, but only countergravity filling of molds is expected to result in defect-free castings. Recent cases in which turbine blades failed in service are examined, and the central role of bifilm defects in these failures is discussed.

  5. BRASS FOUNDRY MACHINE ROOM USED TO MACHINE CAST BRONZE PIECES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRASS FOUNDRY MACHINE ROOM USED TO MACHINE CAST BRONZE PIECES FOR VALVES AND PREPARE BRONZE VALVE BODIES FOR ASSEMBLY. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Brass Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  6. 56. DETAIL OF BASE OF STEEL WINDMILL TOWER WITH CAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. DETAIL OF BASE OF STEEL WINDMILL TOWER WITH CAST IRON HAND PUMP OVER WELL HEAD ON HIGHWAY L44 IN IOWA JUST EAST OF NEBRASKA CITY, NEBRASKA. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  7. DETAIL VIEW OF BASE OF CAST IRON TOWER SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF BASE OF CAST IRON TOWER SHOWING THE FABRICATING MARK OF STARBUCK IRON WORKS, TROY, NY - Bidwell Bar Suspension Bridge & Stone Toll House, Near Lake Oroville (moved from fork of Feather River), Oroville, Butte County, CA

  8. Methodology for Fine Art formulation applied to investment casting moulds 

    E-print Network

    Ibrahim, Ahmad Rashdi Yan

    This research concerns the development of a methodology for formulation in Fine Art, Design and Craft practice. The methodology is applied to the choosing of formulations for bronze and glass investments casting moulds ...

  9. Adjustable hinge permits movement of knee in plaster cast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maley, W. E.

    1967-01-01

    Metal knee hinge with an adjustable sleeve worn on the outside of a leg cast facilitates movement of the knee joint. This helps eliminate stiffness of the knee and eliminates bulkiness and adjustment difficulty.

  10. Marry for What? Caste and Mate Selection in Modern India

    E-print Network

    Banerjee, Abhijit

    This paper analyzes how preferences for a noneconomic characteristic (e.g., caste) can affect equilibrium patterns of matching, and empirically evaluates this in the context of middle-class Indian arranged marriages. We ...

  11. Sculpture, detail view of cast iron lamps, with scale (note: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Sculpture, detail view of cast iron lamps, with scale (note: "'J.L. Mott, Ironworks, NY" stamp on the base) - National Park Seminary, Bounded by Capitol Beltway (I-495), Linden Lane, Woodstove Avenue, & Smith Drive, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  12. Modeling in welding, hot powder forming, and casting

    SciTech Connect

    Karlsson, L.

    1997-12-31

    This reference work provides thorough coverage of the theoretical foundations of thermomechanical modeling of welding, hot powder forming and casting processes, which also can be applied to modeling of the heat treatment and forging of solids. Information on finite element modeling methods will assist design engineers in taking manufacturing processes into consideration to minimize residual stresses and deformation in the design of mechanical components. Content includes: thermomechanical modeling; thermal modeling of welds; mechanical modeling of welding and residual stresses in welds; metallurgical and mechanical consequences of phase transformations in numerical simulations of welding processes; predicting and measuring methods of two and three-dimensional residual stresses by using inherent strain as a parameter; hot isostatic pressing; hot powder forging; modeling of heat transfer, fluid flow and thermodynamics in casting; stresses in castings; and thermomechanical modeling in casting with experimental validation.

  13. Microstructure of thin-wall ductile iron castings

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, Omer N.; Schrems, Karol K.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2003-01-01

    Step plate castings with section thicknesses of 1.5 mm to 6 mm and individual (single) castings with section thicknesses of 2 mm to 6 mm were produced using a ductile iron chemistry. Microstructures of these thin wall ductal iron castings were characterized quantitatively using an image analyzer. Matrix structure (amount of pearlite, ferrite, and massive carbides) and graphite structure (volume fraction, nodule size, nodule content, and nodularity) were investigated as a function of section thickness. Pearlite content, nodule count, and nodularity increased with decreasing section thickness, whereas the nodule size decreased. Nodule content exceeded 2000 nodules per mm{sup 2} at the thinnest sections. Statistical analysis was performed to investigate the effect of casting parameters on the microstructure.

  14. Casting Stainless-Steel Models Around Pressure Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Peter; Micol, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Survivability of thin-wall stainless-steel tubing increased to nearly 100 percent. Improves state of art in pressure-model castings and reduces cost associated with machining complete model from stainless-steel blank.

  15. Predicting Pattern Tooling and Casting Dimensions for Investment Casting, Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Cannell; Adrian S. Sabau

    2005-09-30

    The investment casting process allows the production of complex-shape parts and close dimensional tolerances. One of the most important phases in the investment casting process is the design of the pattern die. Pattern dies are used to create wax patterns by injecting wax into dies. The first part of the project involved preparation of reports on the state of the art at that time for all the areas under consideration (die-wax, wax-shell, and shell-alloy). The primary R&D focus during Phase I was on the wax material since the least was known about it. The main R&D accomplishments during this phase were determination of procedures for obtaining the thermal conductivity and viscoelastic properties of an unfilled wax and validating those procedures. Phase II focused on die-wax and shell-alloy systems. A wax material model was developed based on results obtained during the previous R&D phase, and a die-wax model was successfully incorporated into and used in commercial computer programs. Current computer simulation programs have complementary features. A viscoelastic module was available in ABAQUS but unavailable in ProCAST, while the mold-filling module was available in ProCAST but unavailable in ABAQUS. Thus, the numerical simulation results were only in good qualitative agreement with experimental results, the predicted shrinkage factors being approximately 2.5 times larger than those measured. Significant progress was made, and results showed that the testing and modeling of wax material had great potential for industrial applications. Additional R&D focus was placed on one shell-alloy system. The fused-silica shell mold and A356 aluminum alloy were considered. The experimental part of the program was conducted at ORNL and commercial foundries, where wax patterns were injected, molds were invested, and alloys were poured. It was very important to obtain accurate temperature data from actual castings, and significant effort was made to obtain temperature profiles in the shell mold. A model for thermal radiation within the shell mold was developed, and the thermal model was successfully validated using ProCAST. Since the fused silica shells had the lowest thermal expansion properties in the industry, the dewaxing phase, including the coupling between wax-shell systems, was neglected. The prefiring of the empty shell mold was considered in the model, and the shell mold was limited to a pure elastic material. The alloy dimensions were obtained from numerical simulations only with coupled shell-alloy systems. The alloy dimensions were in excellent quantitative agreement with experimental data, validating the deformation module. For actual parts, however, the creep properties of the shell molds must also be obtained, modeled, and validated.

  16. Methods for manufacturing geometric multi-crystalline cast materials

    DOEpatents

    Stoddard, Nathan G

    2013-11-26

    Methods are provided for casting one or more of a semi-conductor, an oxide, and an intermetallic material. With such methods, a cast body of a geometrically ordered multi-crystalline form of the one or more of a semiconductor, an oxide, and an intermetallic material may be formed that is free or substantially free of radially-distributed impurities and defects and having at least two dimensions that are each at least about 10 cm.

  17. Methods for manufacturing monocrystalline or near-monocrystalline cast materials

    DOEpatents

    Stoddard, Nathan G

    2014-04-29

    Methods are provided for casting one or more of a semiconductor, an oxide, and an intermetallic material. With such methods, a cast body of a monocrystalline form of the one or more of a semiconductor, an oxide, and an intermetallic material may be formed that is free of, or substantially free of, radially-distributed impurities and defects and having at least two dimensions that are each at least about 35 cm.

  18. Cast Metal Coalition Research and Development Closeout Report

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, D.

    2000-08-01

    The Cast Metal Coalition, composed of more than 22 research providers and universities and 149 industrial partners, has completed a four-year research and development partnership with the Department of Energy. This report provides brief summaries of the 29 projects performed by the Coalition. These projects generated valuable information in such aspects of the metals industry as process prediction technologies, quality control, improved alloys, product machinability, and casting process improvements.

  19. Microstructures and properties of aluminum die casting alloys

    SciTech Connect

    M. M. Makhlouf; D. Apelian; L. Wang

    1998-10-01

    This document provides descriptions of the microstructure of different aluminum die casting alloys and to relate the various microstructures to the alloy chemistry. It relates the microstructures of the alloys to their main engineering properties such as ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, elongation, fatigue life, impact resistance, wear resistance, hardness, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. Finally, it serves as a reference source for aluminum die casting alloys.

  20. Procedure for flaw detection in cast stainless steel

    DOEpatents

    Kupperman, David S. (Oak Park, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A method of ultrasonic flaw detection in cast stainless steel components incorporating the steps of determining the nature of the microstructure of the cast stainless steel at the site of the flaw detection measurements by ultrasonic elements independent of the component thickness at the site; choosing from a plurality of flaw detection techniques, one such technique appropriate to the nature of the microstructure as determined and detecting flaws by use of the chosen technique.

  1. Extended Leach Testing of Simulated LAW Cast Stone Monoliths

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.; Williams, Benjamin D.; Jung, H. B.; Wang, Guohui

    2015-07-09

    This report describes the results from long-term laboratory leach tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate the release of key constituents from monoliths of Cast Stone prepared with four simulated low-activity waste (LAW) liquid waste streams. Specific objectives of the Cast Stone long-term leach tests described in this report focused on four activities: 1. Extending the leaching times for selected ongoing EPA-1315 tests on monoliths made with LAW simulants beyond the conventional 63-day time period up to 609 days reported herein (with some tests continuing that will be documented later) in an effort to evaluate long-term leaching properties of Cast Stone to support future performance assessment activities. 2. Starting new EPA-1315 leach tests on archived Cast Stone monoliths made with four LAW simulants using two leachants (deionized water [DIW] and simulated Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) Site vadose zone pore water [VZP]). 3. Evaluating the impacts of varying the iodide loading (starting iodide concentrations) in one LAW simulant (7.8 M Na Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) Average) by manufacturing new Cast Stone monoliths and repeating the EPA-1315 leach tests using DIW and the VZP leachants. 4. Evaluating the impacts of using a non-pertechnetate form of Tc that is present in some Hanford tanks. In this activity one LAW simulant (7.8 M Na HTWOS Average) was spiked with a Tc(I)-tricarbonyl gluconate species and then solidified into Cast Stone monoliths. Cured monoliths were leached using the EPA-1315 leach protocol with DIW and VZP. The leach results for the Tc-Gluconate Cast Stone monoliths were compared to Cast Stone monoliths pertechnetate.

  2. Materials processing threshold report: 2. Use of low gravity for cast iron process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankhouser, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    Potential applications of a low gravity environment of interest to the commercial producers of cast iron were assessed to determine whether low gravity conditions offer potential opportunities to producers for improving cast iron properties and expanding the use of cast irons. The assessment is limited to the gray and nodular types of iron, however, the findings are applicable to all cast irons. The potential advantages accrued through low gravity experiments with cast irons are described.

  3. Restoring Functional Areas of Continuously Casted Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brezinová, Janette; Balog, Peter; Vi?áš, Ján

    2012-12-01

    the paper proposes the fourth restoration of a roller in continuous casting production lines which can enhance production efficiency and lowers costs. The roller was forged from the material 24CrMoV55 - DIN 17240. The roller has been restored three times and is chosen for further restoration. The roller was restored by submerged arc welding (SAW) where the first layer was made from UP-5-200-CZ wire and the covering layers made from UP-5-45-CZ wire. Quality of the weld deposits were evaluated by measuring the hardness, mixing the weld with basic material and by setting the basic mechanical properties in the critical under-weld deposit area. Structures of the weld deposits were evaluated by light microscopy and their chemical composition was determined by EDX analysis. Based on experiments it can be concluded that rollers can be restored for the fourth time, but the limiting factor is the extent of damage.

  4. Heat Treatment Procedure Qualification for Steel Castings

    SciTech Connect

    Mariol Charles; Nicholas Deskevich; Vipin Varkey; Robert Voigt; Angela Wollenburg

    2004-04-29

    Heat treatment practices used by steel foundries have been carefully studied as part of comprehensive heat treatment procedure qualification development trials. These studies highlight the relationships between critical heat treatment process control parameters and heat treatment success. Foundry heat treatment trials to develop heat treatment procedure qualifications have shed light on the relationship between heat treatment theory and current practices. Furnace load time-temperature profiles in steel foundries exhibit significant differences depending on heat treatment equipment, furnace loading practice, and furnace maintenance. Time-temperature profiles of furnace control thermocouples can be very different from the time-temperature profiles observed at the center of casting loads in the furnace. Typical austenitization temperatures and holding times used by steel foundries far exceed what is required for transformation to austenite. Quenching and hardenability concepts were also investigated. Heat treatment procedure qualification (HTPQ) schema to demonstrate heat treatment success and to pre-qualify other alloys and section sizes requiring lesser hardenability have been developed. Tempering success is dependent on both tempering time and temperature. As such, furnace temperature uniformity and control of furnace loading during tempering is critical to obtain the desired mechanical properties. The ramp-up time in the furnace prior to the establishment of steady state heat treatment conditions contributes to the extent of heat treatment performed. This influence of ramp-up to temperature during tempering has been quantified.

  5. Crane Washington: A model for metal casting

    SciTech Connect

    Helzer, S.C.; DeVaul, D.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes activities that occurred over a six-year period at the Crane Valves foundry in Washington, Iowa. The authors believe that the methodology used to achieve energy savings and operating efficiencies can serve as a model for the metal casting industry. Achievements of this study have their roots in the company's commitment to grow its foundry operations despite strong foreign competition. Reducing manufacturing costs while retaining project quality emerged as the key to achieving this goal. In this context Crane-Washington agreed to participate in the first Total Assessment Audit (TAA) performed in the nation. The TAA (1992--93) identified capital and non-capital improvement initiatives, as well as the springboard for the Process Method Management (PM{sup 2}) Demonstration Project (1993--95); and three year follow up. TAA findings indicated that the PM{sup 2} process of improving operations at Crane-Washington focus on a total quality management program to minimize internal scrap rates and associated costs. The PM{sup 2} model for improving foundry efficiencies was integral to the firm's organizational structure and job responsibilities; work instruction and employee training; quality audit and testing procedures; raw materials specifications; and equipment maintenance specifications. The success of a system like PM{sup 2} is the seeking out and gaining control of the variables that impact the basic operations of melting, molding, core making, and finishing.

  6. Cast-to-shape electrokinetic trapping medium

    DOEpatents

    Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Franklin, Elizabeth (Rolla, MO); Prickett, Zane T. (Golden, CO); Artau, Alexander (Pleasanton, CA)

    2006-05-30

    A three-dimensional microporous polymer network material, or monolith, cast-to-shape in a microchannel. The polymer monolith, produced by a phase separation process, is capable of trapping and retaining charged protein species from a mixture of charged and uncharged species under the influence of an applied electric field. The retained charged protein species are released from the porous polymer monolith by a pressure driven flow in the substantial absence of the electric field. The pressure driven flow is independent of direction and thus neither means to reverse fluid flow nor a multi-directional flow field is required, a single flow through the porous polymer monolith can be employed, in contrast to prior art systems. The monolithic polymer material produced by the invention can function as a chromatographic medium. Moreover, by virtue of its ability to retain charged protein species and quantitatively release the retained species the porous polymer monolith can serve as a means for concentrating charged protein species from, for example, a dilute solution.

  7. Cast-to-shape electrokinetic trapping medium

    SciTech Connect

    Shepodd, Timothy J.; Franklin, Elizabeth; Prickett, Zane T.; Artau, Alexander

    2004-08-03

    A three-dimensional microporous polymer network material, or monolith, cast-to-shape in a microchannel. The polymer monolith, produced by a phase separation process, is capable of trapping and retaining charged protein species from a mixture of charged and uncharged species under the influence of an applied electric field. The retained charged protein species are released from the porous polymer monolith by a pressure driven flow in the substantial absence of the electric field. The pressure driven flow is independent of direction and thus neither means to reverse fluid flow nor a multi-directional flow field is required, a single flow through the porous polymer monolith can be employed, in contrast to prior art systems. The monolithic polymer material produced by the invention can function as a chromatographic medium. Moreover, by virtue of its ability to retain charged protein species and quantitatively release the retained species the porous polymer monolith can serve as a means for concentrating charged protein species from, for example, a dilute solution.

  8. ToxCast: Developing Predictive Signatures of Chemically Induced Toxicity (Developing Predictive Bioactivity Signatures from ToxCasts HTS Data)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ToxCast, the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s chemical prioritization research program, is developing methods for utilizing computational chemistry, bioactivity profiling and toxicogenomic data to predict potential for toxicity and prioritize limited testing resour...

  9. Letter Report: LAW Simulant Development for Cast Stone Screening Test

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Renee L.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Swanberg, David J.; Eibling, Russell E.; Cozzi, Alex; Lindberg, Michael J.; Josephson, Gary B.; Rinehart, Donald E.

    2013-03-27

    More than 56 million gallons of radioactive and hazardous waste are stored in 177 underground storage tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the wastes and immobilize them in a glass waste form. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into a small volume of high-level waste (HLW) containing most of the radioactivity and a larger volume of low-activity waste (LAW) containing most of the nonradioactive chemicals. The HLW will be converted to glass in the HLW vitrification facility for ultimate disposal at an offsite federal repository. At least a portion (~35%) of the LAW will be converted to glass in the LAW vitrification facility and will be disposed of onsite at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The pretreatment and HLW vitrification facilities will have the capacity to treat and immobilize the wastes destined for each facility. However, a second facility will be needed for the expected volume of additional LAW requiring immobilization. A cementitious waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide the required additional LAW immobilization capacity. The Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. The Cast Stone waste form and immobilization process must be tested to demonstrate that the final Cast Stone waste form can comply with waste acceptance criteria for the IDF disposal facility and that the immobilization processes can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. Further, the waste form must be tested to provide the technical basis for understanding the long term performance of the waste form in the IDF disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support risk assessment and performance assessment (PA) analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the waste disposal in the IDF. A testing program was developed in fiscal year (FY) 2012 describing in some detail the work needed to develop and qualify Cast Stone as a waste form for the solidification of Hanford LAW (Westsik et al. 2012). Included within Westsik et al. (2012) is a section on the near-term needs to address Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-062-40ZZ. The objectives of the testing program to be conducted in FY 2013 and FY 2014 are to: • Determine an acceptable formulation for the LAW Cast Stone waste form. • Evaluate sources of dry materials for preparing the LAW Cast Stone. • Demonstrate the robustness of the Cast Stone waste form for a range of LAW compositions. • Demonstrate the robustness of the formulation for variability in the Cast Stone process. • Provide Cast Stone contaminant release data for PA and risk assessment evaluations. The first step in determining an acceptable formulation for the LAW Cast Stone waste form is to conduct screening tests to examine expected ranges in pretreated LAW composition, waste stream concentrations, dry-materials sources, and mix ratios of waste feed to dry blend. A statistically designed test matrix will be used to evaluate the effects of these key parameters on the properties of the Cast Stone as it is initially prepared and after curing. The second phase of testing will focus on selection of a baseline Cast Stone formulation for LAW and demonstrating that Cast Stone can meet expected waste form requirements for disposal in the IDF. It is expected that this testing will use the results of the screening tests to define a smaller suite of tests to refine the composition of the baseline Cast Stone formulation (e.g. waste concentration, water to dry mix ratio, waste loading).

  10. Applying inverse technique for identification of thermal resistance between cast and mould during permanent casting of metals

    SciTech Connect

    Skorek, J.

    1997-07-01

    Identification of thermal resistance between cast and mould during permanent casting of metals is the subject of present paper. Mathematically, analyzed boundary problem of heat conduction belongs to the group of inverse problems. Inverse problems belong to the class of ill posed problems. It means, that solution of the problem is usually extremely sensitive on inaccuracies of input data, e.g., measurements errors. To stabilize the solution, special mathematical techniques have to be applied. Several methods are used to stabilize solution of inverse problems. The most widely used are regularization method and the least squares methods. Presented work shows the possibility of applying of the least squares adjustment methods for identification of boundary transient heat fluxes and temperature within the body. Two versions of the method: standard and with a priori data are analyzed. Second method was effectively used for calculation of thermal resistance between cast and mould during permanent casting of aluminum alloys. Temperature measurements come from the experiments with the solidification of several grades of aluminum alloys. Different thickness of the cast and different kinds of mould coatings were analyzed. Several other factors (for example a mould preheating) was also considered. Influence of the analyzed parameters on the process of solidification during permanent casting is discussed.

  11. Casting evaluation of U-Zr alloy system fuel slug for SFR prepared by injection casting method

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Hoon; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Lee, Chan-Bock

    2013-07-01

    Metal fuel slugs of U-Pu-Zr alloys for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) have conventionally been fabricated by a vacuum injection casting method. Recently, management of minor actinides (MA) became an important issue because direct disposal of the long-lived MA can be a long-term burden for a tentative repository up to several hundreds of thousand years. In order to recycle transuranic elements (TRU) retained in spent nuclear fuel, remote fabrication capability in a shielded hot cell should be prepared. Moreover, generation of long-lived radioactive wastes and loss of volatile species should be minimized during the recycled fuel fabrication step. In order to prevent the evaporation of volatile elements such as Am, alternative fabrication methods of metal fuel slugs have been studied applying gravity casting, and improved injection casting in KAERI, including melting under inert atmosphere. And then, metal fuel slugs were examined with casting soundness, density, chemical analysis, particle size distribution and microstructural characteristics. Based on these results there is a high level of confidence that Am losses will also be effectively controlled by application of a modest amount of overpressure. A surrogate fuel slug was generally soundly cast by improved injection casting method, melted fuel material under inert atmosphere.

  12. Soldier caste influences on candidate primer pheromone levels and juvenile hormone-dependent caste differentiation in workers of the termite Reticulitermes flavipes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caste systems and the division of labor they make possible are common underlying features of all social insects. Multiple extrinsic factors have been shown to impact caste differentiation; for example, primer pheromones are chemical signaling molecules produced by certain castes that impact developm...

  13. A Hypothesis for Cast Iron Microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John

    2009-12-01

    The various microstructures of cast irons are reviewed, including carbidic and graphite forms (flake, compacted, spheroidal, and undercooled, etc.), exploring whether the presence of externally introduced defects in the form of oxide double films (bifilms) in suspension in melts seem to provide, for the first time, a uniform explanation for all the structures and their properties. Silica-rich oxide bifilms provide the substrates on which oxysulfide particles form, nucleating graphite. The presence of the film provides the favored substrate over which graphite grows, which leads to the development of flake graphite. The addition of limited Mg to form compacted graphite destroys all but a remnant of the silica-rich bifilms. The oxide film remnant is stabilized by the presence of the graphite nucleus, which causes the graphite to grow unidirectionally in a filamentary form. The addition of excess Mg destroys all traces of the oxide bifilms, leaving only the original nuclei, around which graphite is now free to entirely enclose, initiating the spherical growth mode. Undercooled graphite is the true coupled growth form, nucleated at even lower temperatures in the absence of favorable film substrates in suspension; the graphite adopts a continuous growth mode in a matrix of austenite. Carbides in mottled and white irons form on the oxide bifilms that often lie along grain and interdendritic boundaries, which explains the apparent brittleness of these strong, hard phases. In most cases of nonspheroidal growth modes (flake and misshaped spheroids), it is proposed that the impairment of the mechanical properties of irons is not strongly determined by graphite morphology but by the presence of oxide bifilms. Spheroidal graphite iron has the potential for high properties because of the absence of bifilms.

  14. Macrovoid Defect Growth during Evaporative Casting of Polymeric Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, A. R.; Khare, V. P.; Zartman, J.; Krantz, W. B.; Todd, P.

    2003-01-01

    Macrovoid (MV) formation is a significant problem in evaporatively cast polymeric membranes. MVs are large, elongated or teardrop-shaped pores (10-50 micron) that can impair membrane structural integrity. Although MVs have been extensively studied, there is no general agreement on the mechanisms governing MV growth. Recently, our research group has formulated the solutocapillary convection (SC) hypothesis, which contends that MV growth involves three principal forces: a Marangoni force generated by surface tension gradients within the MV interface, a viscous drag force, and a gravitationally induced body force. Two sets of complementary experiments were conducted to test the SC hypothesis. Ground-based videomicroscopy flow-visualization (VMFV) was utilized to measure the flow velocities at the MV-casting solution interface and deep within the casting solution. The measurements were performed with casting solutions containing 10 wt% cellulose acetate (CA), 30 wt% H2O, 60 wt% acetone, and 200- ppm TiO2 particles for flow visualization, and the surface tension was controlled by surfactant addition. Qualitatively, the experiments indicated that MV growth occurs in three distinct phases: (1) a very rapid initial growth period, (2) a much slower growth phase, and (3) absorption of selected MVs into the expanding demixed region. The presence of tracer particles inside the MVs suggests the presence of a convective flow, which transfers the particles from the bulk solution to the MV interior. Although the VMFV experiments did not establish any surfactant effect on the interfacial velocities, a statistically significant effect on the MV number density was observed. In the second set of experiments, membranes were cast aboard a KC-135 aircraft under 0-g and 2-g conditions. Despite careful attention to the design and fabrication of the membrane casting apparatus (MCA), several problems were encountered, the most significant of which was the contamination of the casting solution by the activated carbon particles used for solvent absorption.

  15. Yield improvement and defect reduction in steel casting

    SciTech Connect

    Kent Carlson

    2004-03-16

    This research project investigated yield improvement and defect reduction techniques in steel casting. Research and technology development was performed in the following three specific areas: (1) Feeding rules for high alloy steel castings; (2) Unconventional yield improvement and defect reduction techniques--(a) Riser pressurization; and (b) Filling with a tilting mold; and (3) Modeling of reoxidation inclusions during filling of steel castings. During the preparation of the proposal for this project, these areas were identified by the High Alloy Committee and Carbon and Low Alloy Committee of the Steel Founders' Society of America (SFSA) as having the highest research priority to the steel foundry industry. The research in each of the areas involved a combination of foundry experiments, modeling and simulation. Numerous SFSA member steel foundries participated in the project through casting trials and meetings. The technology resulting from this project will result in decreased scrap and rework, casting yield improvement, and higher quality steel castings produced with less iteration. This will result in considerable business benefits to steel foundries, primarily due to reduced energy and labor costs, increased capacity and productivity, reduced lead-time, and wider use and application of steel castings. As estimated using energy data provided by the DOE, the technology produced as a result of this project will result in an energy savings of 2.6 x 10{sup 12} BTU/year. This excludes the savings that were anticipated from the mold tilting research. In addition to the energy savings, and corresponding financial savings this implies, there are substantial environmental benefits as well. The results from each of the research areas listed above are summarized.

  16. An association between the Calpastatin (CAST) gene and keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohui; Bykhovskaya, Yelena; Tang, Yongming G.; Picornell, Yoana; Haritunians, Talin; Aldave, Anthony J.; Szczotka-Flynn, Loretta; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Taylor, Kent D.; Rabinowitz, Yaron S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Keratoconus is a genetically heterogeneous corneal dystrophy. Previously, we performed two genome-wide linkage scans in a four generation autosomal dominant pedigree and repeatedly mapped a keratoconus locus to a genomic region located on chromosome 5q overlapping the gene encoding the inhibitor of calpains, calpastatin (CAST). To test whether variants in CAST gene are involved in genetic susceptibility to keratoconus we performed genetic testing of polymorphic markers in CAST gene in family and case-control panels of patients with keratoconus. Methods We genotyped SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) located in CAST gene in 262 patients in 40 Caucasian keratoconus families and in a Caucasian case-control panel with 304 cases and 518 controls. Generalized estimating equation models accounting for familial correlations implemented in GWAF program were used for association testing in families. Logistic regression models implemented in PLINK were performed to test associations in case-control samples. Results Genetic testing of first set of seven SNPs in familial samples revealed two tentative nominally significant markers (rs4869307 p=0.03; rs27654: p=0.07). Additional genotyping of twelve tightly spaced SNPs identified CAST SNP rs4434401 to be associated with keratoconus in both familial and case-control panels with p values of 0.005 and 0.05, respectively; and with combined meta p value of familial and case-control cohorts of 0.002, or, after Bonferroni correction, 0.04. Conclusions Linkage analysis and genetic association support involvement of CAST gene in the genetic susceptibility to keratoconus. In-silico analysis of CAST expression suggests differential regulation of calpain/calpastatin system in cornea as a potential mechanism of functional defect. PMID:23449483

  17. Secondary Waste Cast Stone Waste Form Qualification Testing Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2012-09-26

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the 56 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions for vitrification and disposal. The LAW will be converted to glass for final disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Cast Stone – a cementitious waste form, has been selected for solidification of this secondary waste stream after treatment in the ETF. The secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. This secondary waste Cast Stone waste form qualification testing plan outlines the testing of the waste form and immobilization process to demonstrate that the Cast Stone waste form can comply with the disposal requirements. Specifications for the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form have not been established. For this testing plan, Cast Stone specifications are derived from specifications for the immobilized LAW glass in the WTP contract, the waste acceptance criteria for the IDF, and the waste acceptance criteria in the IDF Permit issued by the State of Washington. This testing plan outlines the testing needed to demonstrate that the waste form can comply with these waste form specifications and acceptance criteria. The testing program must also demonstrate that the immobilization process can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. This testing plan also outlines the testing needed to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support performance assessment analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form in the IDF

  18. Method of reducing the green density of a slip cast article

    DOEpatents

    Mangels, John A. (Flat Rock, MI); Dickie, Ray A. (Birmingham, MI)

    1985-01-01

    The method disclosed in this specification is one of reducing the green density of an article cast in a slip casting operation. The article is cast from a casting slip containing silicon metal particles, yttrium containing particles, and a small amount of a fluoride salt which is effective to suppress flocculation of the silicon metal particles by y.sup.+3 ions derived from the yttrium containing particles. The method is characterized by the following step. A small amount of compound which produces a cation which will partly flocculate the particles of silicon metal is added to the casting slip. The small amount of this compound is added so that when the casting slip is slip cast into a casting mold, the partly flocculated particles of silicon will interrupt an otherwise orderly packing of the particles of silicon and particles of yttrium. In this manner, the green density of the slip cast article is reduced and the article may be more easily nitrided.

  19. The potential of centrifugal casting for the production of near net shape uranium parts

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, E.

    1993-09-01

    This report was written to provide a detailed summary of a literature survey on the near net shape casting process of centrifugal casting. Centrifugal casting is one potential casting method which could satisfy the requirements of the LANL program titled Near Net Shape Casting of Uranium for Reduced Environmental, Safety and Health Impact. In this report, centrifugal casting techniques are reviewed and an assessment of the ability to achieve the near net shape and waste minimization goals of the LANL program by using these techniques is made. Based upon the literature reviewed, it is concluded that if properly modified for operation within a vacuum, vertical or horizontal centrifugation could be used to safely cast uranium for the production of hollow, cylindrical parts. However, for the production of components of geometries other than hollow tubes, vertical centrifugation could be combined with other casting methods such as semi-permanent mold or investment casting.

  20. Effect of Rotational Speeds on the Cast Tube During Vertical Centrifugal Casting Process on Appearance, Microstructure, and Hardness Behavior for Al-2Si Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shailesh Rao, A.; Tattimani, Mahantesh S.; Rao, Shrikantha S.

    2015-04-01

    The flow of molten metal plays a crucial role in determining casting quality. During rotation of the mold, melt flow around its inner circumference determines the final configurations and properties of the cast tube. In this paper, Al-2Si alloy is cast in the vertical mold at the various rotational speeds of the mold. The uniform cylinder tube is formed at a rotational speed of 1000 rpm, while before and beyond this speed, irregular-shaped cast tube is formed. Finally, fine structured grain size with high hardness value is found in uniform cast tube compared with others.

  1. The Effects of Casting Porosity on the Tensile Behavior of Investment Cast 17-4PH Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susan, D. F.; Crenshaw, T. B.; Gearhart, J. S.

    2015-08-01

    The effect of casting porosity on the mechanical behavior of investment cast 17-4PH stainless steel was studied as well as the effect of heat treatment on the alloy's sensitivity to casting defects. Interdendritic porosity, formed during solidification and shrinkage of the alloy, reduces the yield strength and ultimate tensile strength roughly in proportion to the reduction in load bearing cross-section. The effects of casting porosity on ductility (% strain, % reduction in area) are more severe, in agreement with research on other alloy systems. In this study, 10% porosity reduced the ductility of 17-4PH stainless steel by almost 80% for the high-strength H925 condition. Tensile testing at -10°C (263 K) further reduces the alloy ductility with and without pores present. In the lower strength H1100 condition, the ductility is higher than the H925 condition, as expected, and somewhat less sensitive to porosity. By measuring the area % porosity on the fracture surface of tensile specimens, the trend in failure strain versus area % porosity was obtained and analyzed using two methods: an empirical approach to determine an index of defect susceptibility with a logarithmic fit and an analytical approach based on the constitutive stress-strain behavior and critical strain concentration in the vicinity of the casting voids. The applicability of the second method depends on the amount of non-uniform strain (necking) and, as such, the softer H1100 material did not correlate well to the model. The behavior of 17-4PH was compared to previous work on cast Al alloys, Mg alloys, and other cast materials.

  2. Experimental Determination of Heat Transfer Within the Metal/Mold Gap in a DC Casting Mold: Part II. Effect of Casting Metal, Mold Material, and Other Casting Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Arvind; Bainbridge, Ian F.

    2013-07-01

    Extensive experimental studies were conducted to quantify the effect of different parameters that can affect the heat transfer from the metal to the mold during the steady-state phase of DC casting. In the first part previously published, the experimental technique was established and results were reported for the effect of gas type (atmosphere within the mold) and the gap between the metal and the mold. The results showed the significant effect of gas thermal conductivity and the metal-mold gap on the mold wall heat transfer coefficient. In this second publication on heat transfer in the mold wall region of a DC casting mold, the results from the effect of casting temperature, gas flow rate, casting alloy, mold material, and the mold insert material on the mold wall heat transfer coefficient are described. The experiments reported in the current paper show that these additional factors tested do not affect the heat flux through the mold wall to the same extent as the gap size or the gas type. The heat transfer coefficient changes by less than 5 pct when casting temperature is changed by ±25 K, less than 15 pct when the gas flow rate within the metal-mold gap flows at up to 3 LPM, and approximately 30 pct when the mold material is changed from stainless steel to AA601 to copper. Similar results were obtained when different insert materials were used. These results are explained with the help of an electrical analogy of heat transfer and are consistent with the heat transfer theory.

  3. Feasibility of a braided composite for orthopedic bone cast.

    PubMed

    Evans, Katherine R; Carey, Jason P

    2013-01-01

    A tubular braided composite bone cast for improving the efficiency and quality of bone fracture treatment is investigated. Finite element analysis was used to evaluate stress concentrations in fracture sites supported with plate and tubular casts. The stress in a plated bone is 768 % of that in a whole bone at the same location, while it is only 47 % in a bone with a tubular cast. Three unbroken synthetic humeri were mechanically tested using an in-vitro long bone testing procedure developed in-house to find their stiffness at 20° and 60° abduction; these were found to be 116.8 ± 1.5 N/mm and 20.63 ± 0.02 N/mm, respectively. A 2 cm gap osteotomy was cut through the diaphysis in each bone. The bones were casted with a Kevlar/Cold cure composite, with calculated braid angles and thicknesses that Closely matched bone propoerties. The stiffness tests were repeated, and the results were within 10 % of the unbroken bone. This novel method of bone casting is promising if other clinical challenges can be minimized. PMID:23459455

  4. Metal Penetration in Sand Molds for Steel Castings: Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, J.O.; Stefanescu, D.M.; Lane, A.M.; Schreiber, W.C.; Owens, M.; Piwonka, T.S.

    1996-04-01

    Case studies of samples of penetration provided by consortium members showed examples of mechanical-type penetration defects and of what appeared to be chemical penetration. Sessile drop experiments of various mold substrate materials using carbon, stainless, and Mn steels showed that Mn steel wets silica strongly, indicating that silica is not a suitable mod material for this family of alloys. Contact angles were lower for steels than for cast irons. Magnesite appeared to be the best overall mold material, although zircon flour also performed well. A simplified 1-D model was developed which predicts the diffusion rates which could cause chemical penetration. It shows that, contrary to the case in cast iron, chemical penetration is a possibility in medium and low carbon steels, as diffusion of C to the casting surface may not always occur quickly enough to protect the surface from an oxidizing reaction. The mass spectrometer gas chromatograph train was modified for accurately determining the water content of gas at the mold/metal interface. Initial gas measurements indicated that the gas generated at the interface in steel castings is 80% H2-20% CO, instead of the 50% H2- 50% CO mixture found in cast iron.

  5. Investigation of structural collapse in unidirectionally freeze cast collagen scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Clearfield, Drew; Wei, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Though unidirectional freeze casting is a facile method for the production of structurally anisotropic biomedical scaffolds, challenges exist in optimizing the drying process that are often overlooked. In particular, structural collapse may occur if the material's frozen-state glass transition temperature (Tg') is exceeded. It was discovered that unidirectionally freeze cast collagen matrices were highly deformed following lyophilization, rendering them incapable of further use. In this study, modulated differential scanning calorimetry was performed to identify Tg's of unidirectionally freeze cast collagen scaffolds, and product temperatures during sublimation were recorded. It was observed that cast matrices from 0.5 to 0.05 M acetic acid (HAc) sublimed at a lyophilizer shelf temperature of -25 °C underwent structural collapse and exceeded their Tg's for the majority of the drying cycle. The use of a low pH suspension (0.5 M HAc) promoted the formation of a non-porous surface, which in turn contributed to the increase of the product temperature above its Tg' during drying. This study has revealed that use of a low shelf temperature (-40 °C) and a low HAc concentration (0.05 M) is effective in maintaining product temperatures under Tg' thereby preventing collapse in unidirectionally freeze cast collagen scaffolds. PMID:26676861

  6. Rapid prototyping: A paradigm shift in investment casting

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.; Maguire, M.C.; Baldwin, M.D.; Pardo, B.T.

    1996-09-01

    The quest for fabricating complex metal parts rapidly and with minimal cost has brought rapid prototyping (RP) processes to the forefront of the investment casting industry. Relatively recent advances in DTM Corporation`s selective laser sintering (SLS) and 3D Systems stereolithography (SL) processes have had a significant impact on the overall quality of patterns produced using these rapid prototyping processes. Sandia National Laboratories uses patterns generated from rapid prototyping processes to reduce the cycle time and cost of fabricating prototype and small lot production parts in support of a program called FASTCAST. The SLS process is used to fabricate patterns from materials such as investment casting wax, polycarbonate, and a new material called TrueForm PM{trademark}. With the timely introduction of each of these materials, the quality of patterns fabricated has improved. The development and implementation of SL QuickCast{trademark} software has enabled this process to produce highly accurate patterns for use in investment casting. This paper focuses on the successes with these new pattern materials and the infrastructure required to cast rapid prototyping patterns successfully. In addition, a brief overview of other applications of rapid prototyping at Sandia will be discussed.

  7. Feasibility of a Braided Composite for Orthopedic Bone Cast

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Katherine R; Carey, Jason P

    2013-01-01

    A tubular braided composite bone cast for improving the efficiency and quality of bone fracture treatment is investigated. Finite element analysis was used to evaluate stress concentrations in fracture sites supported with plate and tubular casts. The stress in a plated bone is 768 % of that in a whole bone at the same location, while it is only 47 % in a bone with a tubular cast. Three unbroken synthetic humeri were mechanically tested using an in-vitro long bone testing procedure developed in-house to find their stiffness at 20° and 60° abduction; these were found to be 116.8 ± 1.5 N/mm and 20.63 ± 0.02 N/mm, respectively. A 2 cm gap osteotomy was cut through the diaphysis in each bone. The bones were casted with a Kevlar/Cold cure composite, with calculated braid angles and thicknesses that Closely matched bone propoerties. The stiffness tests were repeated, and the results were within 10 % of the unbroken bone. This novel method of bone casting is promising if other clinical challenges can be minimized. PMID:23459455

  8. Computational algorithms to simulate the steel continuous casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-López, A.; Soto-Cortés, G.; Palomar-Pardavé, M.; Romero-Romo, M. A.; Aguilar-López, R.

    2010-10-01

    Computational simulation is a very powerful tool to analyze industrial processes to reduce operating risks and improve profits from equipment. The present work describes the development of some computational algorithms based on the numerical method to create a simulator for the continuous casting process, which is the most popular method to produce steel products for metallurgical industries. The kinematics of industrial processing was computationally reproduced using subroutines logically programmed. The cast steel by each strand was calculated using an iterative method nested in the main loop. The process was repeated at each time step (? t) to calculate the casting time, simultaneously, the steel billets produced were counted and stored. The subroutines were used for creating a computational representation of a continuous casting plant (CCP) and displaying the simulation of the steel displacement through the CCP. These algorithms have been developed to create a simulator using the programming language C++. Algorithms for computer animation of the continuous casting process were created using a graphical user interface (GUI). Finally, the simulator functionality was shown and validated by comparing with the industrial information of the steel production of three casters.

  9. Producing Foils From Direct Cast Titanium Alloy Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, T. A.; Gaspar, T. A.; Sukonnik, I. M.; Semiatan, S. L.; Batawi, E.; Peters, J. A.; Fraser, H. L.

    1996-01-01

    This research was undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility of producing high-quality, thin-gage, titanium foil from direct cast titanium strip. Melt Overflow Rapid Solidification Technology (MORST) was used to cast several different titanium alloys into 500 microns thick strip, 10 cm wide and up to 3 m long. The strip was then either ground, hot pack rolled or cold rolled, as appropriate, into foil. Gamma titanium aluminide (TiAl) was cast and ground to approximately 100 microns thick foil and alpha-2 titanium aluminide (Ti3AI) was cast and hot pack rolled to approximately 70 microns thick foil. CP Ti, Ti6Al2Sn4Zr2Mo, and Ti22AI23Nb (Orthorhombic), were successfully cast and cold-rolled into good quality foil (less than 125 microns thick). The foils were generally fully dense with smooth surfaces, had fine, uniform microstructures, and demonstrated mechanical properties equivalent to conventionally produced titanium. By eliminating many manufacturing steps, this technology has the potential to produce thin gage, titanium foil with good engineering properties at significantly reduced cost relative to conventional ingot metallurgy processing.

  10. Correlation between macroscopic porosity location and liquid metal pressure in centrifugal casting technique.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, T K; Schulman, A; Nielsen, J P; Shalita, S

    1981-01-01

    Radiographic analysis of uniform cylindrical castings fabricated by the centrifugal casting technique has revealed that the macroscopic porosity is dependent on the location of the sprue attachment to the casting. This is attributed to the significant pressure gradient associated with the centrifugal casting technique. The pressure gradient results in different heat transfer rates at portions of the castings near and away from the free surface of the button. Consequently, the macroscopic porosity is invariably at portions of the casting close to the free surface of the button. In addition, some optimized sprue-reservoir combinations could be predicted and proved, based on this pressure gradient concept. PMID:7002971

  11. Twin-belt continuous caster with containment and cooling of the exiting cast product for enabling high-speed casting of molten-center product

    DOEpatents

    Dykes, Charles D. (303 Shore Rd., Milton, VT); Daniel, Sabah S. (303 Shore Rd., Pittsburgh, PA); Wood, J. F. Barry (303 Shore Rd., Burlington, VT 05401)

    1990-02-20

    In continuously casting molten metal into cast product by a twin-belt machine, it is desirable to achieve dramatic increases in speed (linear feet per minute) at which cast product exits the machine, particularly in installations where steel cast product is intended to feed a downstream regular rolling mill (as distinct from a planetary mill) operating in tandem with the twin-belt caster. Such high-speed casting produces product with a relatively thin shell and molten interior, and the shell tends to bulge outwardly due to metallostatic head pressure of the molten center. A number of cooperative features enable high-speed, twin-belt casting: (1) Each casting belt is slidably supported adjacent to the caster exit pulley for bulge control and enhanced cooling of cast product. (2) Lateral skew steering of each belt provides an effective increase in moving mold length plus a continuity of heat transfer not obtained with prior art belt steering apparatus. (3) The exiting slab is contained and supported downstream from the casting machine to prevent bulging of the shell of the cast product, and (4) spray cooling is incorporated in the exit containment apparatus for secondary cooling of cast product.

  12. Effect of flask vibration time on casting integrity, Surface Penetration and Coating Inclusion in lost foam casting of Al-Si Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Karimian, Majid; Idris, M. H.; Ourdjini, A.; Muthu, Kali

    2011-01-17

    The paper presents the result of an experimental investigation conducted on medium aluminum silicon alloy casting- LM6, using no-vacuum assisted lost foam casting process. The study is directed for establishing the relationship between the flask vibrations times developed for molded sample on the casting integrity, surface penetration and coating inclusion defects of the casting. Four different flask vibration times namely 180, 120, 90 and 60 sec. were investigated. The casting integrity was investigated in terms of fulfilling in all portions and edges. The surface penetration was measured using optical microscope whilst image analyzer was used to quantify the percentage of coating inclusion in the casting. The results show that vibration time has significant influence on the fulfilling as well as the internal integrity of the lost foam casting. It was found that the lower vibration time produced comparatively sound casing.

  13. Effect of flask vibration time on casting integrity, Surface Penetration and Coating Inclusion in lost foam casting of Al-Si Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimian, Majid; Idris, M. H.; Ourdjini, A.; Muthu, Kali

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the result of an experimental investigation conducted on medium aluminum silicon alloy casting- LM6, using no-vacuum assisted lost foam casting process. The study is directed for establishing the relationship between the flask vibrations times developed for molded sample on the casting integrity, surface penetration and coating inclusion defects of the casting. Four different flask vibration times namely 180, 120, 90 and 60 sec. were investigated. The casting integrity was investigated in terms of fulfilling in all portions and edges. The surface penetration was measured using optical microscope whilst image analyzer was used to quantify the percentage of coating inclusion in the casting. The results show that vibration time has significant influence on the fulfilling as well as the internal integrity of the lost foam casting. It was found that the lower vibration time produced comparatively sound casing.

  14. 75 FR 54595 - Certain Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and the People's Republic of China: Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ...Certain Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and the People's Republic...certain iron construction castings from Brazil, Canada, and the People's Republic...certain iron construction castings from Brazil, Canada, and the PRC pursuant to...

  15. Heat treatment in high Cr white cast iron Nb alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farah, A. F.; Crnkovic, O. R.; Canale, L. C. F.

    2001-02-01

    Wear resistance of high Cr white cast irons can be improved by means of heat treatment. This type of cast iron alloy may present a microstructure with retained austenite. The amount of retained austenite changes with the applied heat treatment, which will have an influence on wear properties. The purpose of this work was to study the influence of several parameters such as quenching and tempering temperatures and subzero treatment in the wear performance of the high Cr white cast iron Nb alloy. In this way, the performance was evaluated using pin-on-disc abrasion test. The worn surface was examined by scanning electron microscopy, and the main wear mechanisms were identified. The microstructural characterization was also performed with carbide identification. This Fe alloy has proven to be good for applications in mining and alcohol-sugar industries.

  16. CAST-10-2/DOA 2 Airfoil Studies Workshop Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Edward J. (compiler); Hill, Acquilla S. (compiler)

    1989-01-01

    During the period of September 23 through 27, 1988, the Transonic Aerodynamics Division at the Langely Research Center hosted an International Workshop on CAST-10-2/DOA 2 Airfoil Studies. The CAST-10 studies were the outgrowth of several cooperative study agreements among the NASA, the NAE of Canada, the DLR of West Germany, and the ONERA of France. Both theoretical and experimental CAST-10 airfoil results that were obtained form an extensive series of tests and studies, were reviewed. These results provided an opportunity to make direct comparisons of adaptive wall test section (AWTS) results from the NASA 0.3-meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel and ONERA T-2 AWTS facilities with conventional ventilated wall wind tunnel results from the Canadian high Reynolds number two-dimensional test facility. Individual papers presented during the workshop are included.

  17. Feasibility Study for Casting of High Temperature Refractory Superalloy Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated the feasibility of using conventional casting technique to fabricate refractory wires reinforced superalloy composites. These composites were being developed for advanced rocket engine turbine blades and other high temperature applications operating up to 2000 F. Several types of refractory metal wires such as W- Th, W-Re, Mo-Hf-C and W-HF-C reinforced waspaloy were experimentally cast and heat treated at 2000 F up to 48 hrs. Scanning electron microscope analysis was conducted in regions adjacent to the wire-matrix interface to determine the reaction zone and chemical compatibility resulting from material interdiffusion. It was concluded that fabrication using conventional casting may be feasible because the wire-matrix reaction zone thickness was comparable to similar composites produced by arc-sprayed monotape with hot isostatic pressing technique, Moreover, it was also found that the chemical compatibility could be improved significantly through a slight modification of the superalloy matrix compositions.

  18. Advanced Lost Foam Casting technology: 1997 summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    Previous research made significant advances in understanding the Lost Foam Casting (LFC) Process and clearly identified areas where additional research was needed to improve the process and make it more functional in an industrial environment. The current project focused on eight tasks listed as follows: Task 1--pyrolysis defects and sand distortion; Task 2--bronze casting technology; Task 3--steel casting technology; Task 4--sand filling and compaction; Task 5--coating technology; Task 6--precision pattern production; Task 7--computational modeling; and Task 8--project management and technology transfer. This report summarizes the work done under the current contract in all eight tasks in the period of October 1, 1995 through December 31, 1997.

  19. Fabrication of cast particle-reinforced metals via pressure infiltration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klier, E. M.; Mortensen, A.; Cornie, J. A.; Flemings, M. C.

    1991-01-01

    A new casting process for fabrication of particle-reinforced metals is presented whereby a composite of particulate reinforcing phase in metal is first produced by pressure infiltration. This composite is then diluted in additional molten metal to obtain the desired reinforcement volume fraction and metal composition. This process produces a pore-free as-cast particulate metal-matrix composite. This process is demonstrated for fabrication of magnesium-matrix composites containing SiC reinforcements of average diameter 30, 10 and 3 microns. It is compared with the compocasting process, which was investigated as well for similar SiC particles in Mg-10 wt pct Al, and resulted in unacceptable levels of porosity in the as-cast composite.

  20. Development of a CFD code for casting simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murph, Jesse E.

    1992-01-01

    The task of developing a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to accurately model the mold filling phase of a casting operation was accomplished in a systematic manner. First the state-of-the-art was determined through a literature search, a code search, and participation with casting industry personnel involved in consortium startups. From this material and inputs from industry personnel, an evaluation of the currently available codes was made. It was determined that a few of the codes already contained sophisticated CFD algorithms and further validation of one of these codes could preclude the development of a new CFD code for this purpose. With industry concurrence, ProCAST was chosen for further evaluation. Two benchmark cases were used to evaluate the code's performance using a Silicon Graphics Personal Iris system. The results of these limited evaluations (because of machine and time constraints) are presented along with discussions of possible improvements and recommendations for further evaluation.

  1. Aluminum-Based Cast In Situ Composites: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramod, S. L.; Bakshi, Srinivasa R.; Murty, B. S.

    2015-06-01

    In situ composites are a class of composite materials in which the reinforcement is formed within the matrix by reaction during the processing. In situ method of composite synthesis has been widely followed by researchers because of several advantages over conventional stir casting such as fine particle size, clean interface, and good wettability of the reinforcement with the matrix and homogeneous distribution of the reinforcement compared to other processes. Besides this, in situ processing of composites by casting route is also economical and amenable for large scale production as compared to other methods such as powder metallurgy and spray forming. Commonly used reinforcements for Al and its alloys which can be produced in situ are Al2O3, AlN, TiB2, TiC, ZrB2, and Mg2Si. The aim of this paper is to review the current research and development in aluminum-based in situ composites by casting route.

  2. Fragment Impact Characterisation of Melt-Cast and PBX Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Malcolm D.; Haskins, Peter J.; Briggs, Richard I.; Stennett, Chris; Fellows, Justin; Cheese, Philip J.; DERA Team

    2001-06-01

    In this paper we report new experimental results on the shock to detonation transition characteristics of the melt-cast explosive RDX/TNT 60:40, and two PBX explosives, one containing RDX, and the other HMX, with HTPB as the binder in both cases. These experiments employed right-regular cylindrical steel projectiles impacting charges covered by either steel or aluminium barrier plates. Response curves were generated giving the threshold impact velocity for prompt shock initiation as a function of barrier thickness. The results of these experiments showed some general trends. Firstly, the melt-cast explosive was generally more shock sensitive than the PBX formulations. The PBX compositions showed similar shock sensitivities; despite the RDX based material having a higher percentage of nitramine (88compared to the HMX material (85appeared to have at least one discontinuity. For the melt-cast explosive this appeared at thicker barriers than for the PBX formulations. The result

  3. Multi-scale simulation of ductile iron casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, J.

    2015-06-01

    It has been well known that addition of rare earth elements was indispensable for production of ductile cast iron. The addition reduces solidification shrinkage. However there are still ambiguities in understanding the mechanism and predicting the casting defects. A possible explanation for the reduction of shrinkage is that the addition of rare earth promotes expansion of castings due to the graphite formation, which is related to cooling rate. In this study, the effect of rare earth addition was considered as a function of cooling rate and solidification shrinkage rate was determined by the macro-scale simulation. In the meso-scale and the micro-scale simulations, distribution of graphite nodules was compared with the experimental results. The multi-scale simulation result well reproduced the experimental results.

  4. Microstructures of ancient and modern cast silver–copper alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Northover, S.M.; Northover, J.P.

    2014-04-01

    The microstructures of modern cast Sterling silver and of cast silver objects about 2500 years old have been compared using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Microstructures of both ancient and modern alloys were typified by silver-rich dendrites with a few pools of eutectic and occasional cuprite particles with an oxidised rim on the outer surface. EBSD showed the dendrites to have a complex internal structure, often involving extensive twinning. There was copious intragranular precipitation within the dendrites, in the form of very fine copper-rich rods which TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM and STEM suggest to be of a metastable face-centred-cubic (FCC) phase with a cube–cube orientation relationship to the silver-rich matrix but a higher silver content than the copper-rich ? in the eutectic. Samples from ancient objects displayed a wider range of microstructures including a fine scale interpenetration of the adjoining grains not seen in the modern material. Although this study found no unambiguous evidence that this resulted from microstructural change produced over archaeological time, the copper supersaturation remaining after intragranular precipitation suggests that such changes, previously proposed for wrought and annealed material, may indeed occur in ancient silver castings. - Highlights: • Similar twinned structures and oxidised surfaces seen in ancient and modern cast silver • General precipitation of fine Cu-rich rods apparently formed by discontinuous precipitation is characteristic of as-cast silver. • The fine rods are cube-cube related to the matrix in contrast with the eutectic. • The silver-rich phase remains supersaturated with copper. • Possibly age-related grain boundary features seen in ancient cast silver.

  5. Integrated numerical modeling of the complete casting process

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, P.; Bailey, C.; Cross, M.; Pericleous, K.

    1995-12-31

    For computational models of the casting process to be successfully exploited in the manufacture of high quality products, the complete casting environment needs to be addressed--not only the mould, but also the running system, the location of feeders and chills, and any other components that may affect final quality. The ability to handle complex geometry as well as different material types is therefore a prerequisite to a successful model. Furthermore, the actual casting process itself offers great challenges; it combines the physics of fluid flow, heat transfer, change of phase and thermal residual stress development. None of these events can be treated in isolation as they interact with each other in a complex manner. As such, the model must possess a true multi-physics capability. With these challenges in mind the authors have developed an integrated software environment that addresses the above issues. This paper presents results obtained for real castings, which show: (1) fluid flow analysis with a free surface of the mould cavity filling; (2) thermal analysis of solidification and latent heat evolution; (3) fluid flow analysis of free convection currents generated due to temperature gradients in the liquid metal; (4) deformation, hence stress analysis to predict the geometrical soundness of the cast shape and the residual stress, and (5) macroscopic porosity formation. For a model of this complexity to be of any value to the foundry industry, its findings must be carefully validated. For this reason the results are compared against measurements obtained on castings specifically developed by the industrial collaborators for this purpose.

  6. Modeling the thin-slab continuous-casting mold

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, T.G. . Applied Superconductivity Group); Dantzig, J.A. . Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering)

    1994-06-01

    A three-dimensional mathematical model has been developed to compute the thermomechanical state in the mold of thin-slab continuous casters. The thin-slab mold differs from those used in conventional slab casters in that the upper portion of the broad side walls defines a funnel-shaped chamber which allows the nozzle to be submerged into the liquid metal. The chamber converges with distance down the mold, reducing to the rectangular cross section of the finished casting near the mold exit. The new mold, along with casting speeds up to 6 m/min, allows slabs to be cast 50--60 mm thick, compared with 150 to 350 mm in conventional continuous slab casting. However, the mold shape and high casting speed lead to higher mold temperatures and shorter mold life than are found in conventional slab casters. In this article, the author develop mathematical models of the process to determine the role of various process parameters in determining the mold life. Finite-element analysis is used to determine the temperatures in the mold and cast slab, and these data are then used in an elastic-viscoplastic analysis to investigate the deformation of the mold wall in service. Cyclic inelastic strains up to 1.75 pct are found in a region below the meniscus along the funnel edge. These large strains result from the combination of locally high temperatures coupled with geometric restraint of the mold. The deformation leads to short mold life because of thermal fatigue cracking of the mold. The computed locations and time to failure of the mold in fatigue agree very well with observations of the appearance of mold surface cracks in an operating caster. The models are also used to develop an improved mold design.

  7. Ultra Large Castings to Produce Low Cost Aluminum Vehicle Structures

    SciTech Connect

    T. N. Meyer; M. J. Kinosz; E. M. Bradac; M. Mbaye; J. T. Burg; M. A. Klingensmith

    1999-04-26

    Through a cooperative effort with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT), Alcoa is developing a casting process to produce ultra large thin wall components. The casting process is a low pressure, metal mold, multiport injection vertical casting process. The specific system for demonstration of the process is located at Alcoa's Technology Center and will be capable of producing parts extending 3 M long, 1.7 M wide and 0.4 M high. For example, single castings of car floor pan frames or side wall aperture structures are candidates for this installation. This shall provide a major opportunity to reduce the cost of lightweight transportation vehicle structures by (a) reducing the components or part count and (b) reducing the cost of assembly. To develop and demonstrate the process, an inner panel of the Chrysler minivan liftgate will be first produced on this system. Through computer analyses, the cast inner panel design was developed to satisfy both structural performance and casting process requirements. Currently, this is an 11 part assembly of steel components. At the time of this abstract, the numerous system components are in various phases of fabrication and site preparation is fully underway, with system shakedown beginning in the second quarter of 1999. Successful demonstration of caster system operation is anticipated to occur during the third quarter and production of a high quality product during the fourth quarter. Although the process is targeted toward reducing the cost of lightweight trucks, buses and autos, consideration is being given to application in the aircraft industry.

  8. CASTING DEFECT MODELING IN AN INTEGRATED COMPUTATIONAL MATERIALS ENGINEERING APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S

    2015-01-01

    To accelerate the introduction of new cast alloys, the simultaneous modeling and simulation of multiphysical phenomena needs to be considered in the design and optimization of mechanical properties of cast components. The required models related to casting defects, such as microporosity and hot tears, are reviewed. Three aluminum alloys are considered A356, 356 and 319. The data on calculated solidification shrinkage is presented and its effects on microporosity levels discussed. Examples are given for predicting microporosity defects and microstructure distribution for a plate casting. Models to predict fatigue life and yield stress are briefly highlighted here for the sake of completion and to illustrate how the length scales of the microstructure features as well as porosity defects are taken into account for modeling the mechanical properties. Thus, the data on casting defects, including microstructure features, is crucial for evaluating the final performance-related properties of the component. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work was performed under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the Nemak Inc., and Chrysler Co. for the project "High Performance Cast Aluminum Alloys for Next Generation Passenger Vehicle Engines. The author would also like to thank Amit Shyam for reviewing the paper and Andres Rodriguez of Nemak Inc. Research sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office, as part of the Propulsion Materials Program under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC. Part of this research was conducted through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's High Temperature Materials Laboratory User Program, which is sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program.

  9. Thermal conductivity of cast iron: Models and analysis of experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helsing, Johan; Grimvall, Göran

    1991-08-01

    Cast iron can be viewed as a composite material. We use effective medium and other theories for the overall conductivity of a composite, expressed in the conductivities, the volume fractions, and the morphology of the constituent phases, to model the thermal conductivity of grey and white cast iron and some iron alloys. The electronic and the vibrational contributions to the conductivities of the microconstituents (alloyed ferrite, cementite, pearlite, graphite) are discussed, with consideration of the various scattering mechanisms. Our model gives a good account of measured thermal conductivities at 300 K. It is easily extended to describe the thermal conductivity of other materials characterized by having several constituent phases of varying chemical composition.

  10. Use of duplex stainless steel castings in control valves

    SciTech Connect

    Gossett, J.L.

    1996-07-01

    Duplex stainless steels have enjoyed rapidly increasing popularity in recent years. For numerous reasons the availability of these alloys in the cast form has lagged behind the availability of the wrought form. Commercial demand for control valves in these alloys has driven development of needed information to move into production. A systematic approach was used to develop specifications, suppliers and weld procedures. Corrosion, stress corrosion cracking (SCC), sulfide stress cracking (SSC) and hardness results are also presented for several alloys including; CD3MN (UNS J92205), CD4MCu (UNS J93370) and CD7MCuN (cast UNS S32550).

  11. Tape-cast sensors and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Mukundan, Rangachary (Santa Fe, NM); Brosha, Eric L. (Los Alamos, NM); Garzon, Fernando H. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2009-08-18

    A method of making electrochemical sensors in which an electrolyte material is cast into a tape. Prefabricated electrodes are then partially embedded between two wet layers of the electrolyte tape to form a green sensor, and the green sensor is then heated to sinter the electrolyte tape around the electrodes. The resulting sensors can be used in applications such as, but not limited to, combustion control, environmental monitoring, and explosive detection. A electrochemical sensor formed by the tape-casting method is also disclosed.

  12. VIEW OF INTERIOR OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, CENTERVILLE FOUNDRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF INTERIOR OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, CENTERVILLE FOUNDRY SHOWING MOLD MAKING WITH PNEWMATIC JOLT SQUEEZE COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINES THAT INDIVIDUALLY MADE EITHER A COPE OR DRAG AND A SMALL WHEELED MATCHPLATE JOLT-SQUEEZE MACHINE THAT COMPRESSED AN ENTIRE MOLD AT A SINGLE TIME USING A DOUBLE-SIDED PATTERN (MATCHPLATE). ALSO SHOWN ARE RAILED PALLET CAR CONVEYORS THAT CARRIED COMPLETED MOLDS FROM MOLDING MACHINES TO POURING AREAS WHERE WORKERS USED SMALL OVERHEAD CRANE TO LIFT JACKETS AND WEIGHTS ONTO THE MOLDS TO HOLD THEM TOGETHER WHILE POURING. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Centerville Foundry, 101 Airport Road, Centreville, Bibb County, AL

  13. Texturing polymer surfaces by transfer casting. [cardiovascular prosthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.; Weigand, A. J.; Sovey, J. S. (inventors)

    1982-01-01

    A technique for fabricating textured surfaces on polymers without altering their surface chemistries is described. A surface of a fluorocarbon polymer is exposed to a beam of ions to texture it. The polymer which is to be surface-roughened is then cast over the textured surface of the fluorocarbon polymer. After curing, the cast polymer is peeled off the textured fluorocarbon polymer, and the peeled off surface has negative replica of the textured surface. The microscopic surface texture provides large surface areas for adhesive bonding. In cardiovascular prosthesis applications the surfaces are relied on for the development of a thin adherent well nourished thrombus.

  14. Culture And Politics of Caste in the Himalayan Kingdom

    E-print Network

    Pandey, Tulsi Ram

    2005-01-01

    not mean that Nepal was declared a secular state. Nepal's identity as a Hindu Kingdom was kept intact by provisions of all constitutions formed during this period. All the constitutions required the country to be governed by a Hindu monarch. However... , such an interaction also contributed to erode the rigidity of those values even among members of caste groups as their behaviors were influenced by the cultures of non-caste people. However, the Nepali state at least from the late 14'h to mid 20'h century projected...

  15. Evaluation of residual stress gradients in ductile cast iron using critical refracted longitudinal (Lcr) wave technique 

    E-print Network

    Pfluger, Ron Atlan

    1995-01-01

    Critically refracted longitudinal (LCR) waves have been investigated as a possible technique for the evaluation of the residual stress gradients present in ductile iron castings. Residual stresses are likely to develop in ductile cast iron during...

  16. Improving the Efficiency of Die Casting Machine Hydraulic Systems with the Retrofit of Adjustable Frequency Drives 

    E-print Network

    Ambs, L.; Kosanovic, D.; Edberg, C.

    1999-01-01

    Die casting is a common method of light metal processing which is used to produce accurately dimensioned, sharply defined metal parts. Most die casting machines in use today utilize a complex hydraulic system to perform the necessary work required...

  17. 49 CFR 192.489 - Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines. 192.489 Section 192.489 Transportation...Corrosion Control § 192.489 Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines. (a) General...

  18. 49 CFR 192.369 - Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. 192.369 Section 192.369 Transportation... § 192.369 Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. (a) Each service line...

  19. 49 CFR 192.369 - Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. 192.369 Section 192.369 Transportation... § 192.369 Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. (a) Each service line...

  20. 49 CFR 192.489 - Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines. 192.489 Section 192.489 Transportation...Corrosion Control § 192.489 Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines. (a) General...

  1. 49 CFR 192.489 - Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 false Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines. 192.489 Section 192.489 Transportation...Corrosion Control § 192.489 Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines. (a) General...

  2. 49 CFR 192.489 - Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines. 192.489 Section 192.489 Transportation...Corrosion Control § 192.489 Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines. (a) General...

  3. 49 CFR 192.369 - Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. 192.369 Section 192.369 Transportation... § 192.369 Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. (a) Each service line...

  4. 49 CFR 192.489 - Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines. 192.489 Section 192.489 Transportation...Corrosion Control § 192.489 Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines. (a) General...

  5. 49 CFR 192.369 - Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. 192.369 Section 192.369 Transportation... § 192.369 Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. (a) Each service line...

  6. 49 CFR 192.369 - Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. 192.369 Section 192.369 Transportation... § 192.369 Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. (a) Each service line...

  7. Significant Energy and Material Reductions in the Continuous Casting of Certain Copper Alloys 

    E-print Network

    Nielson, W. D.

    1994-01-01

    This project addresses the continuous casting of barstock in certain copper alloys. A superheated reservoir of molten alloy is maintained in a continuously heated holding furnace (tundish) during casting. These tundishes are currently heated...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.703 - Requirements for cast-in-place concrete.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Requirements for cast-in-place concrete. 1926.703 Section 1926...HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Concrete and Masonry Construction § 1926...Requirements for cast-in-place concrete. (a) General requirements...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.703 - Requirements for cast-in-place concrete.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Requirements for cast-in-place concrete. 1926.703 Section 1926...HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Concrete and Masonry Construction § 1926...Requirements for cast-in-place concrete. (a) General requirements...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.703 - Requirements for cast-in-place concrete.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Requirements for cast-in-place concrete. 1926.703 Section 1926...HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Concrete and Masonry Construction § 1926...Requirements for cast-in-place concrete. (a) General requirements...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.703 - Requirements for cast-in-place concrete.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Requirements for cast-in-place concrete. 1926.703 Section 1926...HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Concrete and Masonry Construction § 1926...Requirements for cast-in-place concrete. (a) General requirements...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.703 - Requirements for cast-in-place concrete.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Requirements for cast-in-place concrete. 1926.703 Section 1926...HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Concrete and Masonry Construction § 1926...Requirements for cast-in-place concrete. (a) General requirements...

  13. 75 FR 20387 - Contech Castings, LLC, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Reported...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... workers are engaged in activities related to the production of aluminum and magnesium die casted component... who were adversely affected by increased imports of aluminum and magnesium die casted component...

  14. Improving the manufacturing yield of investment cast turbine blades through robust design

    E-print Network

    Margetts, David (David Lawrence)

    2008-01-01

    The manufacturing of turbine blades is often outsourced to investment casting foundries by aerospace companies that design and build jet engines. Aerospace companies have found that casting defects are an important cost ...

  15. Myosin gene expression and protein abundance in different castes of the Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus) is an important worldwide pest, each year causing millions of dollars in structural damage and control costs. Termite colonies are composed of several phenotypically distinct castes. Termites utilize these multiple castes to efficiently perf...

  16. Peculiarities of producing decorative articles by the method of lost foam casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utyev, Oleg; Lukyanchenko, Anna

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the method of lost foam casting performed with consumable patterns. The dependence of the fluidity of the silumin on the polystyrene's characteristics, casting temperature and the pattern's parameters is revealed. Recommendations regarding the application of various polystyrene types for artistic casting are provided.

  17. Study of the pore structure of ceramics prepared by the slip casting method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzman, I. Y.; Dobysh, A. V.

    1984-01-01

    The porosity of the slip cast Si3N4 is similar to that of pressed Si3N4 formed at 2500 kg/sq cm. The porosity of cast Si oxynitride is equivalent to that of samples stressed at 10,000 kg/sq cm. Crucibles formed from these materials by slip casting have high thermal shock and corrosion resistance.

  18. 49 CFR 192.373 - Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. 192.373 Section 192.373 Transportation...and Service Lines § 192.373 Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. (a) Cast or ductile iron...

  19. 49 CFR 192.373 - Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. 192.373 Section 192.373 Transportation...and Service Lines § 192.373 Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. (a) Cast or ductile iron...

  20. 49 CFR 192.373 - Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. 192.373 Section 192.373 Transportation...and Service Lines § 192.373 Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. (a) Cast or ductile iron...

  1. 49 CFR 192.373 - Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. 192.373 Section 192.373 Transportation...and Service Lines § 192.373 Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. (a) Cast or ductile iron...

  2. 49 CFR 192.373 - Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. 192.373 Section 192.373 Transportation...and Service Lines § 192.373 Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. (a) Cast or ductile iron...

  3. An Analysis of Industrial Technology Curriculum and Its Significance to the Casting Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, Roger Emmett

    The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent industrial technology programs are training technologists in light of the needs of the casting industry. To determine the type of curriculum needed to prepare individuals for entry into the casting industry, and to study industrial technology programs as they relate to metal casting,…

  4. Statistical analysis of the mechanical properties of thin walled ductile iron castings

    SciTech Connect

    Schrems, Karol K.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Dogan, Omer N.; Druschitz, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    Ductile iron castings have long been used in the automotive market. Ductile iron is inexpensive to produce and has desirable fracture resistance and mechanical properties. However, the weight of ductile iron is driving an effort to reduce wall thickness in order to increase fuel economy. Traditionally, cast iron has been cast into thick, bulky shapes. Reducing the section size of cast iron can be done, but pushes foundry practice into new areas. A consortium of foundries, foundry suppliers, and automotive manufacturers has been pursuing the use of thin walled ductile cast iron. This paper investigates the mechanical behavior of three experimental heats of thin-wall castings in order to evaluate property trends and limits. Castings as thin as 1.7 mm (0.07 in) have been successfully cast. The study was designed to investigate the effects of thickness and different casting heats on the dependent variables of ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, elongation-to-failure, reduction in area, and hardness. The ultimate tensile strength of the castings is found to increase as the casting thickness decreases. Conversely, the elongation-to-failure is found to decrease as the casting thickness decreases. Heat-to-heat differences were found, but they were usually within the scatter of the data.

  5. SIMULATION OF STRESSES DURING CASTING OF BINARY MAGNESIUM-ALUMINUM ALLOYS M.G. Pokorny1

    E-print Network

    Beckermann, Christoph

    SIMULATION OF STRESSES DURING CASTING OF BINARY MAGNESIUM-ALUMINUM ALLOYS M.G. Pokorny1 , C, Geesthacht, Germany Keywords: Magnesium Alloys, Casting, Stress Simulation Abstract A visco-plastic deformation model is used to predict thermal stresses during casting of binary Mg-Al alloys. The predictions

  6. Magnetic freeze casting inspired by nature Michael M. Porter a,n

    E-print Network

    McKittrick, Joanna

    Magnetic freeze casting inspired by nature Michael M. Porter a,n , Michael Yeh b , James Strawson b 2012 Accepted 13 July 2012 Available online 21 July 2012 Keywords: Bio-inspired Freeze casting Magnetic alignment Ceramic scaffold a b s t r a c t Magnetic field aligned freeze casting is a novel method

  7. Bioinspired composites from freeze casting with clathrate hydrates Steven E. Naleway a,

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Marc A.

    Bioinspired composites from freeze casting with clathrate hydrates Steven E. Naleway a Bioinspired Freeze casting Ceramic matrix composite Mechanical behavior a b s t r a c t Freeze casting with isopropanol (IPA)­H2O as a freezing agent has shown the potential to create porous scaffolds with enlarged

  8. Magnetic freeze casting inspired by nature Michael M. Porter a,n

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Marc A.

    Magnetic freeze casting inspired by nature Michael M. Porter a,n , Michael Yeh b , James Strawson b 2012 Accepted 13 July 2012 Keywords: Bio-inspired Freeze casting Magnetic alignment Ceramic scaffold a b s t r a c t Magnetic field aligned freeze casting is a novel method to fabricate porous

  9. FLATNESS BASED OPEN LOOP CONTROL FOR THE TWIN ROLL STRIP CASTING

    E-print Network

    Ollivier, François

    casting to produce thin strips (1-60 mm thickness). Among lower investment and pro- duction costs, thinFLATNESS BASED OPEN LOOP CONTROL FOR THE TWIN ROLL STRIP CASTING PROCESS Ch. Fleck ,1 Th. Paulus ,2, D-52074 Aachen, Germany Abstract: Strip casting technology is the most recent innovative steel

  10. Characterization of Ni-Cr alloys using different casting techniques and molds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Teng, Fu-Yuan; Hung, Chun-Cheng

    2014-02-01

    This study differentiated the mechanical properties of nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) alloys under various casting techniques (different casting molds and casting atmospheres). These techniques were sampled by a sand mold using a centrifugal machine in ambient air (group I) and electromagnetic induction in an automatic argon castimatic casting machine (group II). The specimen casting used a graphite mold by a castimatic casting machine (group III). The characteristics of the Ni-Cr alloys, yield and ultimate tensile strength, bending modulus, microhardness, diffraction phase, grindability, ability to spring back, as well as ground microstructure and pattern under different casting conditions were evaluated. The group III specimens exhibited the highest values in terms of strength, modulus, hardness, and grindability at a grind rate of 500 rpm. Moreover, group III alloys exhibited smaller grain sizes, higher ability to spring back, and greater ductility than those casted by sand investment (groups I and II). The main factor, "casting mold," significantly influenced all mechanical properties. The graphite mold casting of the Ni-Cr dental alloys in a controlled atmosphere argon casting system provided an excellent combination of high mechanical properties and good ability to spring back, and preserved the ductile properties for application in Ni-Cr porcelain-fused system. The results can offer recommendations to assist a prosthetic technician in selecting the appropriate casting techniques to obtain the desired alloy properties. PMID:24411373

  11. FLATNESS BASED OPEN LOOP CONTROL FOR THE TWIN ROLL STRIP CASTING

    E-print Network

    Ollivier, François

    casting to produce thin strips (1­60 mm thickness). Among lower investment and pro­ duction costs, thinFLATNESS BASED OPEN LOOP CONTROL FOR THE TWIN ROLL STRIP CASTING PROCESS Ch. Fleck #,1 Th. Paulus, Steinbachstr. 54, D­52074 Aachen, Germany Abstract: Strip casting technology is the most recent innovative

  12. 40 CFR 721.10667 - Slimes and sludges, aluminum and iron casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste. 721.10667 Section 721.10667 Protection of Environment... iron casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... and iron casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste (PMN P-12-560; CAS No. 1391739-82-4;...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10667 - Slimes and sludges, aluminum and iron casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste. 721.10667 Section 721.10667 Protection of Environment... iron casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... and iron casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste (PMN P-12-560; CAS No. 1391739-82-4;...

  14. SIMULATION OF POROSITY AND HOT TEARS IN A SQUEEZE CAST MAGNESIUM CONTROL ARM

    E-print Network

    Beckermann, Christoph

    SIMULATION OF POROSITY AND HOT TEARS IN A SQUEEZE CAST MAGNESIUM CONTROL ARM K.D. Carlson1 , C: Magnesium Alloys, Casting, Shrinkage Porosity, Hot Tears, Modeling Abstract Simulations are performed and hot tears in squeeze casting of magnesium alloys. Introduction Both shrinkage porosity and hot tears

  15. Distortion of a Steel Cylinder Casting with a Core D. Galles and C. Beckermann

    E-print Network

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Distortion of a Steel Cylinder Casting with a Core D. Galles and C. Beckermann Mechanical, are studied through a series of in situ casting trials in which a low-carbon steel cylinder with a core to thermal contractions of the steel. 1. Introduction The final dimensions of a steel casting are commonly

  16. The Current State of Casting Yield: Results from the 1997 Steel Founders'

    E-print Network

    Beckermann, Christoph

    The Current State of Casting Yield: Results from the 1997 Steel Founders' Society of America The results of a casting yield survey of steel foundries taken in the first quarter of 1997 are presented. Data collected in the survey includes the average, best case, and worst case castings yields for steel

  17. 40 CFR 464.40 - Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the zinc... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Casting Subcategory § 464.40 Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory. The provisions of...

  18. 40 CFR 464.40 - Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability; description of the zinc... Zinc Casting Subcategory § 464.40 Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory. The... introduction of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works resulting from zinc casting operations...

  19. 40 CFR 464.40 - Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability; description of the zinc... Zinc Casting Subcategory § 464.40 Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory. The... introduction of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works resulting from zinc casting operations...

  20. 40 CFR 464.40 - Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability; description of the zinc... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Casting Subcategory § 464.40 Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory. The provisions of...