Science.gov

Sample records for cat eye syndrome

  1. Severe Psychomotor Delay in a Severe Presentation of Cat-Eye Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jedraszak, Guillaume; Receveur, Aline; Andrieux, Joris; Mathieu-Dramard, Michèle; Copin, Henri; Morin, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Cat-eye syndrome is a rare genetic syndrome of chromosomal origin. Individuals with cat-eye syndrome are characterized by the presence of preauricular pits and/or tags, anal atresia, and iris coloboma. Many reported cases also presented with variable congenital anomalies and intellectual disability. Most patients diagnosed with CES carry a small supernumerary bisatellited marker chromosome, resulting in partial tetrasomy of 22p-22q11.21. There are two types of small supernumerary marker chromosome, depending on the breakpoint site. In a very small proportion of cases, other cytogenetic anomalies are reportedly associated with the cat-eye syndrome phenotype. Here, we report a patient with cat-eye syndrome caused by a type 1 small supernumerary marker chromosome. The phenotype was atypical and included a severe developmental delay. The use of array comparative genomic hybridization ruled out the involvement of another chromosomal imbalance in the neurological phenotype. In the literature, only a few patients with cat-eye syndrome present with a severe developmental delay, and all of the latter carried an atypical partial trisomy 22 or an uncharacterized small supernumerary marker chromosome. Hence, this is the first report of a severe neurological phenotype in cat-eye syndrome with a typical type 1 small supernumerary marker chromosome. Our observation clearly complicates prognostic assessment, particularly when cat-eye syndrome is diagnosed prenatally. PMID:25648072

  2. Interstitial duplication of proximal 22q: Phenotypic overlap with cat eye syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, J.H.M.; Asamoah, A.; Wagstaff, J.

    1995-01-16

    We describe a child with downslanting palpebral fissures, preauricular malfunctions, congenital heart defect (total anomalous pulmonary venous return), unilateral absence of a kidney, and developmental delay with an apparent interstitial duplication of proximal 22q. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis showed duplication of the IGLC locus, and C-banding of the duplicated region was negative. The duplication appears to involve 22q11.2-q12. Although the child has neither colobomas nor microphthalmia, he shows phenotypic overlap with with the cat eye syndrome, which is caused by a supernumerary bisatellited chromosome arising from inverted duplication of the short arm and proximal long arm of chromosome 22. Further molecular studies of this patient should help to define the regions responsible for the manifestations of cat eye syndrome. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Anatomical Asplenia in Cat Eye Syndrome: An Expansion of the Disease Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Chellapandian, DeepakBabu; Schneider, Adele

    2013-01-01

    We report a patient with Cat eye syndrome (CES) associated with anatomical asplenia. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no prior reports of this association. Screening for asplenia in CES is potentially important, as asplenia places patients at increased risk for life-threatening bacterial infections. Hence patients with CES without a spleen may require the same routine precautions as any other asplenic patients, with penicillin prophylaxis and immunizations to protect against encapsulated organisms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and Neisseria meningitidis. PMID:23691403

  4. Dynamic mosaicism involving an unstable supernumerary der(22) chromosome in cat eye syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Urioste, M.; Visedo, G.; Sanchis, A.; Sentis, C.; Villa, A.; Ludena, P.; Hortigueela, J.L.; Martinez-Frias, M.L.; Fernandez-Piqueras, J.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have studied a girl, her sister and her mother who had a supernumerary marker chromosome in mosaicism. The marker was studied by cytogenetic methods and nonisotopic in situ hybridization with the single D22S9 DNA probe which maps to 22q11. The supernumerary chromosome was derived from chromosome 22 and it did not present the same morphology in all the cells. At least 5 distinct types of the marker chromosome were detected and some of them were probably derived from each other (dynamic mosaicism). The proposita had an MCA pattern consistent with mild cat eye syndrome, while her sister and her mother had some of the manifestations described in this syndrome. A specific correlation could be established between phenotype and karyotype. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Molecular characterization of the marker chromosome associated with cat eye syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Mears, A.J.; McDermid, H.E. ); Duncan, A.M.V. ); Budarf, M.L.; Emanuel, B.S.; Sellinger, B. ); Siegel-Bartelt, J. ); Greenberg, C.R. )

    1994-07-01

    Cat eye syndrome (CES) is associated with a supernumerary bisatellited marker chromosome which is derived from duplicated regions of 22pter-22q11.2. In this study the authors have used dosage and RFLP analyses on 10 CES patients with marker chromosomes, by using probes to five loci mapped to 22q11.2. The sequences recognized by the probes D22S9, D22S43, and D22S57 are in four copies in all patients, but the sequences at the more distal loci, D22S36 and D22S75, are duplicated only in some individuals. D22S36 is present in three copies in some individuals, and D22S75 is present in two copies in the majority of cases. Only three individuals have a duplication of the most distal locus examined (D22S75), and these individuals have the largest marker chromosomes identified in this study. From the dosage analysis it was found that the marker chromosomes are variable in size and can be asymmetric in nature. There is no obvious correlation between the severity of the phenotype and the size of the duplication. The distal boundary of the CES critical region (D22S36) is proximal to that of DiGeorge syndrome, a contiguous-gene-deletion syndrome of 22q11.2. 35 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Minute supernumerary ring chromosome 22 associated with cat eye syndrome: Further delineation of the critical region

    SciTech Connect

    Mears, A.J.; McDermid, H.E.; El-Shanti, H.

    1995-09-01

    Cat eye syndrome (CES) is typically associated with a supernumerary bisatellited marker chromosome (inv dup 22pter-22q11.2) resulting in four copies of this region. We describe an individual showing the inheritance of a minute supernumerary double ring chromosome 22, which resulted in expression of all cardinal features of CES. The size of the ring was determined by DNA dosage analysis and FISH analysis for five loci mapping to 22q11.2. The probes to the loci D22S9, D22S43, and ATP6E were present in four copies, whereas D22S57 and D22S181 were present in two copies. This finding further delineates the distal boundary of the critical region of CES, with ATP6E being the most distal duplicated locus identified. The phenotypically normal father and grandfather of the patient each had a small supernumerary ring chromosome and demonstrated three copies for the loci D22S9, D22S43, and ATP6E. Although three copies of this region have been reported in other cases with CES features, it is possible that the presence of four copies leads to greater susceptibility. 35 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Long-range mapping and construction of a YAC contig within the cat eye syndrome critical region

    SciTech Connect

    Riazi, M.A.; Mears, A.J.; McDermid, H.E.

    1994-09-01

    Cat eye syndrome is characterized cytogenetically by the presence of a supernumerary marker chromosome derived from duplicated regions of 22pter-22q11.2. In order to study this syndrome, we have mapped and cloned within the CES critical region (CESCR) in 22q11.2. A long-range map was constructed using probes previously mapped to the CESCR by somatic cell hybrids. The map spans from probes LN63 to D22S36 and covers approximately 3 Mb. Probes within the region were used to isolate YACs, producing a contig of approximately 1.5 Mb (cLN63-D22S57). DNA studies of a cat eye patient with an unusual marker chromosome refined the minimal critical region proximal to D22S57, indicating that most of the CESCR is now cloned. The physical map will allow us to further delineate the CESCR and isolate genes in the region. Towards this end, we have performed {open_quotes}exon-trapping{close_quotes}on a cosmid, CN63, in this region. A 250 bp exon was isolated which maps to the CESCR and has no homology in GenBank. Further characterization of the gene containing this exon is in progress.

  8. The Cat's Eye Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows one of the most complex planetary nebulae ever seen, NGC 6543, nicknamed the 'Cat's Eye Nebula.' Hubble reveals surprisingly intricate structures including concentric gas shells, jets of high-speed gas and unusual shock-induced knots of gas. Estimated to be 1,000 years old, the nebula is a visual 'fossil record' of the dynamics and late evolution of a dying star. A preliminary interpretation suggests that the star might be a double-star system. The suspected companion star also might be responsible for a pair of high-speed jets of gas that lie at right angles to this equatorial ring. If the companion were pulling in material from a neighboring star, jets escaping along the companion's rotation axis could be produced. These jets would explain several puzzling features along the periphery of the gas lobes. Like a stream of water hitting a sand pile, the jets compress gas ahead of them, creating the 'curlicue' features and bright arcs near the outer edge of the lobes. The twin jets are now pointing in different directions than these features. This suggests the jets are wobbling, or precessing, and turning on and off episodically. This color picture, taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2, is a composite of three images taken at different wavelengths. (red, hydrogen-alpha; blue, neutral oxygen, 6300 angstroms; green, ionized nitrogen, 6584 angstroms). The image was taken on September 18, 1994. NGC 6543 is 3,000 light- years away in the northern constellation Draco. The term planetary nebula is a misnomer; dying stars create these cocoons when they lose outer layers of gas. The process has nothing to do with planet formation, which is predicted to happen early in a star's life.

  9. Absence of {lambda} immunoglobulin sequences on the supernumerary chromosome of the {open_quotes}cat eye{close_quotes} syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Hough, C.A.; White, B.N.; Holden, J.J.A.

    1995-09-11

    The supernumerary bisatellited chromosome causing the {open_quotes}cat eye{close_quotes} syndrome (CES) is of chromosome 22 origin and consists of an inverted duplication of the 22pter{r_arrow}22q11.2 region. To determine the extent of involvement of band q11.2 on the bisatellited chromosome, copy number assessment of sequences homologous to cloned {lambda} immunoglobulin ({lambda} Ig) gene region probes was carried out on DNA from individuals with CES using densitometric analysis of Southern blots. None of the 10 {lambda} Ig sequences studied was found in increased copy number in DNA from any of the 10 CES individuals tested, indicating that these sequences are not present on the supernumerary chromosome. The breakpoints involved in the generation of the bisatellited supernumerary chromosome associated with CES are therefore proximal to the {lambda} Ig gene region. 20 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  10. Down Syndrome: Eye Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... life expectancy. Do children with Down syndrome have eye problems? Individuals with Down syndrome are at increased ... When should children with Down syndrome receive an eye exam? The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that ...

  11. Hypereosinophilic syndrome in two cats.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Matsuura, Shinobu; Fujino, Yasuhito; Nakajima, Mayumi; Takahashi, Masashi; Nakashima, Ko; Sakai, Yusuke; Uetsuka, Koji; Ohno, Koichi; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2008-10-01

    Two cats showing chronic vomiting, diarrhea and weight loss were found to have leukocytosis with marked eosinophilia. Both cats were diagnosed with hypereosinophilic syndrome by the findings of increased eosinophils and their precursors in the bone marrow, eosinophilic infiltration into multiple organs, and exclusion of other causes for eosinophilia. Although cytoreductive chemotherapy with hydroxycarbamide and prednisolone was performed, these two cats died 48 days and 91 days after the initial presentation. PMID:18981665

  12. Making a Cat's Eye in a Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovsek, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Three plain mirrors, perpendicular to each other, reflect a beam of light back into the direction it came from. An activity is suggested where pupils can employ this feature of perpendicular mirrors and make their own corner cube retroreflector--a kind of cat's eye. (Contains 7 figures and 1 footnote.)

  13. Dry eye syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... of dry eyes include: Dry environment or workplace (wind, air conditioning) Sun exposure Smoking or second-hand ... NOT smoke and avoid second-hand smoke, direct wind, and air conditioning. Use a humidifier, especially in ...

  14. Down Syndrome: Eye Problems

    MedlinePlus

    American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus Home About AAPOS Patient Info Resources Allied Health News & Events Meetings J AAPOS American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus Eye Terms ...

  15. Dry eye syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... particles that have gotten in. A healthy tear film on the eye is necessary for good vision. ... exam Diagnostic staining of the cornea and tear film Measurement of tear film break-up time (TBUT) ...

  16. Sufism in the Novel: "Cat's Eyes"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miniawi, Nayera

    2013-01-01

    "Cat's Eyes" is a novel about suffering and endurance, early marriage, spirituality and the sanctuary it provides, and Sufism in particular. It uses certain motifs to depict the psychological suffering of a young girl, caused by her conservative father and unsatisfactory marriage, which persists until she finally reaches a moment of…

  17. Radioactivity of neutron-irradiated cat's-eye chrysoberyls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, S. M.; Tay, T. S.

    1999-04-01

    The recent report of marketing of radioactive chrysoberyl cat's-eyes in South-East Asian markets has led us to use an indirect method to estimate the threat to health these color-enhanced gemstones may pose if worn close to skin. We determined the impurity content of several cat's-eye chrysoberyls from Indian States of Orissa and Kerala using PIXE, and calculated the radioactivity that would be generated from these impurities and the constitutional elements if a chrysoberyl was irradiated by neutrons in a nuclear reactor for color enhancement. Of all the radioactive nuclides that could be created by neutron irradiation, only four ( 46Sc, 51Cr, 54Mn and 59Fe) would not have cooled down within a month after irradiation to the internationally accepted level of specific residual radioactivity of 2 nCi/g. The radioactivity of 46Sc, 51Cr and 59Fe would only fall to this safe limit after 15 months and that of 54Mn could remain above this limit for several years.

  18. Epidemiology of the eye worm Thelazia callipaeda in cats from southern Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Motta, B; Nägeli, F; Nägeli, C; Solari-Basano, F; Schiessl, B; Deplazes, P; Schnyder, M

    2014-07-14

    Thelazia callipaeda is a spiruroid nematode of dogs, cats and wild carnivores transmitted by zoophilic drosophilid Phortica flies and found in an increasing number of European countries. In cats the disease is diagnosed sporadically. This study presents an epidemiological investigation of feline thelaziosis, performed in southern Ticino, Switzerland, an endemic area for T. callipaeda. Between January 2009 and July 2011 2171 cats, having outdoor access and presenting for various reasons, were examined by in-depth eye examinations, and clinical and anamnestic data were collected. The overall prevalence of T. callipaeda in the study area was 0.8% (17/2171 cats, 95% confidence interval: 0.5-1.3%). Among cats showing ocular illness, the prevalence was 9.2% (11/120, CI: 4.7-15.8%). Cats with eye worms had no international travel history and were significantly more often diagnosed between June and December than during other months. With one exception, one single eye per cat was infested, each harboring between 1 and 10 eye worms (arithmetic mean: 2.8 per cat). One cat presented with conjunctivitis and ulcers, seven with conjunctivitis only and 3 with a mildly increased lacrimation, while 6 cats were asymptomatic. Significantly more male than female cats had eye worms and cats older than one year were overrepresented. No pure-bred cats were infested. This study confirms the establishment of this potentially zoonotic parasite in cats from the study area. Due to the clinical relevance and pain caused by the infestations, increased disease awareness and in depth eye examination for the detection of T. callipaeda in cats are recommended, even in absence of obvious clinical signs, in order to initiate appropriate anthelmintic treatment. PMID:24810375

  19. Large incidence angle and defocus influence cat's eye retro-reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lai-xian; Sun, Hua-yan; Zhao, Yan-zhong; Yang, Ji-guang; Zheng, Yong-hui

    2014-11-01

    Cat's eye lens make the laser beam retro-reflected exactly to the opposite direction of the incidence beam, called cat's eye effect, which makes rapid acquiring, tracking and pointing of free space optical communication possible. Study the influence of cat's eye effect to cat's eye retro-reflector at large incidence angle is useful. This paper analyzed the process of how the incidence angle and focal shit affect effective receiving area, retro-reflected beam divergence angle, central deviation of cat's eye retro-reflector at large incidence angle and cat's eye effect factor using geometrical optics method, and presented the analytic expressions. Finally, numerical simulation was done to prove the correction of the study. The result shows that the efficiency receiving area of cat's eye retro-reflector is mainly affected by incidence angle when the focal shift is positive, and it decreases rapidly when the incidence angle increases; the retro-reflected beam divergence and central deviation is mainly affected by focal shift, and within the effective receiving area, the central deviation is smaller than beam divergence in most time, which means the incidence beam can be received and retro-reflected to the other terminal in most time. The cat's eye effect factor gain is affected by both incidence angle and focal shift.

  20. The Cat Cry Syndrome (5p-) in Adolescents and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niebuhr, E.

    1971-01-01

    Summarized are clinical findings (including chromosome analysis and dermatoglyphics, as well as cytogenic findings in relatives) on five female and three male patients (age 15 years or older) with the cat cry or cri du chat syndrome. (KW)

  1. Fast cat-eye effect target recognition based on saliency extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Ren, Jianlin; Wang, Xingbin

    2015-09-01

    Background complexity is a main reason that results in false detection in cat-eye target recognition. Human vision has selective attention property which can help search the salient target from complex unknown scenes quickly and precisely. In the paper, we propose a novel cat-eye effect target recognition method named Multi-channel Saliency Processing before Fusion (MSPF). This method combines traditional cat-eye target recognition with the selective characters of visual attention. Furthermore, parallel processing enables it to achieve fast recognition. Experimental results show that the proposed method performs better in accuracy, robustness and speed compared to other methods.

  2. Hypereosinophilic syndrome in cats: a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    McEwen, S A; Valli, V E; Hulland, T J

    1985-07-01

    The clinical, clinicopathological and pathological findings in three cats with hypereosinophilic syndrome are described. The cats chosen for the study had marked eosinophilia and evidence of tissue infiltration by eosinophils. Necropsies were performed on two cats, biopsy and blood samples were provided for the third cat. At necropsy, there was diffuse reddening of femoral bone marrow with ulceration and thickening of the duodenum. The livers had an enhanced lobular pattern with multiple, white, 1-3 mm nodules throughout the parenchyma. One cat had splenomegaly and the other had several enlarged, white, firm lymph nodes. Histopathologically, there was eosinophil infiltration of intestine, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, adrenal medulla and beneath the endocardium. Ultrastructurally, the eosinophils from lymph node and bone marrow of cat II were morphologically normal. The rigid criteria for eosinophilic leukemia were not fulfilled by these cases and the etiology of the eosinophilia in each case is not known. Possible pathogenic mechanisms are discussed. PMID:4041970

  3. Dry eye syndrome among computer users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajta, Aurora; Turkoanje, Daniela; Malaescu, Iosif; Marin, Catalin-Nicolae; Koos, Marie-Jeanne; Jelicic, Biljana; Milutinovic, Vuk

    2015-12-01

    Dry eye syndrome is characterized by eye irritation due to changes of the tear film. Symptoms include itching, foreign body sensations, mucous discharge and transitory vision blurring. Less occurring symptoms include photophobia and eye tiredness. Aim of the work was to determine the quality of the tear film and ocular dryness potential risk in persons who spend more than 8 hours using computers and possible correlations between severity of symptoms (dry eyes symptoms anamnesis) and clinical signs assessed by: Schirmer test I, TBUT (Tears break-up time), TFT (Tear ferning test). The results show that subjects using computer have significantly shorter TBUT (less than 5 s for 56 % of subjects and less than 10 s for 37 % of subjects), TFT type II/III in 50 % of subjects and type III 31% of subjects was found when compared to computer non users (TFT type I and II was present in 85,71% of subjects). Visual display terminal use, more than 8 hours daily, has been identified as a significant risk factor for dry eye. It's been advised to all persons who spend substantial time using computers to use artificial tears drops in order to minimize the symptoms of dry eyes syndrome and prevents serious complications.

  4. Eye development genes and known syndromes.

    PubMed

    Slavotinek, Anne M

    2011-12-01

    Anophthalmia and microphthalmia (A/M) are significant eye defects because they can have profound effects on visual acuity. A/M is associated with non-ocular abnormalities in an estimated 33-95% of cases and around 25% of patients have an underlying genetic syndrome that is diagnosable. Syndrome recognition is important for targeted molecular genetic testing, prognosis and for counseling regarding recurrence risks. This review provides clinical and molecular information for several of the commonest syndromes associated with A/M: Anophthalmia-Esophageal-Genital syndrome, caused by SOX2 mutations, Anophthalmia and pituitary abnormalities caused by OTX2 mutations, Matthew-Wood syndrome caused by STRA6 mutations, oculofaciocardiodental syndrome and Lenz microphthalmia caused by BCOR mutations, Microphthalmia Linear Skin pigmentation syndrome caused by HCCS mutations, Anophthalmia, pituitary abnormalities, polysyndactyly caused by BMP4 mutations and Waardenburg anophthalmia caused by mutations in SMOC1. In addition, we briefly discuss the ocular and extraocular phenotypes associated with several other important eye developmental genes, including GDF6, VSX2, RAX, SHH, SIX6 and PAX6. PMID:22005280

  5. Cat-eye effect target recognition with single-pixel detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Weijian; Li, Li; Zhang, Xiaoyue

    2015-12-01

    A prototype of cat-eye effect target recognition with single-pixel detectors is proposed. Based on the framework of compressive sensing, it is possible to recognize cat-eye effect targets by projecting a series of known random patterns and measuring the backscattered light with three single-pixel detectors in different locations. The prototype only requires simpler, less expensive detectors and extends well beyond the visible spectrum. The simulations are accomplished to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed prototype. We compared our results to that obtained from conventional cat-eye effect target recognition methods using area array sensor. The experimental results show that this method is feasible and superior to the conventional method in dynamic and complicated backgrounds.

  6. Analytical beam-width characteristics of distorted cat-eye reflected beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yanzhong; Shan, Congmiao; Zheng, Yonghui; Zhang, Laixian; Sun, Huayan

    2015-02-01

    The analytical expression of beam-width of distorted cat-eye reflected beam under far-field condition is deduced using the approximate three-dimensional analytical formula for oblique detection laser beam passing through cat-eye optical lens with center shelter, and using the definition of second order moment, Gamma function and integral functions. The laws the variation of divergence angle and astigmatism degree of the reflected light with incident angle, focal shift, aperture size, and center shelter ratio are established by numerical calculation, and physical analysis. The study revealed that the cat-eye reflected beam is like a beam transmitted and collimated by the target optical lens, and has the same characteristics as that of Gaussian beam. A proper choice of positive focal shift would result in a divergence angle smaller than that of no focal shift. The astigmatism is mainly caused by incidence angle.

  7. Oral Mucosa Bleeding Times of Normal Cats and Cats with Chediak-Higashi Syndrome or Hageman Trait (Factor XII Deficiency).

    PubMed

    Parker, M T; Collier, L L; Kier, A B; Johnson, G S

    1988-01-01

    A commercially available, disposable blade in a spring-loaded cassette was used to measure oral mucosa bleeding times (OMBT) of ketamine/acepromazine-anesthetized cats. The OMBT were determined in cats homozygous for Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS, n = 7), cats heterozygous for CHS (n = 6), and cats homozygous for Hageman factor (factor XII) deficiency (n = 5). In addition, OMBT were determined in three groups of normal cats: random-source cats (n = 14), inbred normal relatives of the cats with CHS (n = 7), and inbred normal relatives of Hageman factor deficient cats (n = 9). No significant differences were found in the OMBT of the three groups of normal cats. The mean OMBT for all 30 normal cats was 1.9 minutes +/- 0.5 minutes s.d. Compared to the normal cats, those homozygous for CHS had significantly prolonged OMBT (14.1 +/- 3.3 minutes; p < 0.05). The mean OMBT of cats heterozygous for CHS (2.6 +/- 0.8 minutes) was also significantly longer than the OMBT of the combined normal group. The mean OMBT of the CHS heterozygotes, however, was not significantly longer than that of their normal relatives (OMBT = 1.8 +/- 0.5 minutes), probably because of the low number of cats in this subgroup of normals. As expected, the OMBT of cats homozygous for Hageman factor deficiency (2.3 +/- 0.3 minutes) were not significantly prolonged. PMID:15162339

  8. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome at a Singapore eye clinic

    PubMed Central

    Seng Lee, Jason Kian; Ying Wong, Elizabeth Poh; Ho, Su Ling

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the demographics of pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXF) and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PXG) in a Singapore hospital eye outpatient clinic. Methods A retrospective study of 93 consecutive patients (146 eyes) with PXF was undertaken by a single ophthalmologist over a period of 37 months (July 1, 2006, to July 31, 2009). Results Ninety-three (2.8%) of 3,297 patients seen during the study period were diagnosed with PXF. Forty-three (46.2%) of the 93 PXF patients were male. Indians were 5.04 times more likely to develop PXF than Chinese (P<0.001, 95% confidence interval 3.05–8.33), while Malays were 2.22 times more likely to develop PXF as compared with Chinese (P=0.029, 95% CI 1.08–4.55). Twenty-two (23.7%) of the 93 PXF patients had PXG at the time of diagnosis. There was no statistically significant difference in mean age between PXF and PXG patients. There was a larger proportion of males with PXG than females (P<0.001). Conclusion PXF is not infrequent in elderly Singapore eye clinic patients, and is more likely to occur in Indians than in Chinese. In the Singapore eye clinic setting, males may be more likely to develop PXG, although larger studies will be required to confirm this. PMID:26366055

  9. Neutral modes of a two-dimensional vortex and their link to persistent cat's eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, M. R.; Gilbert, Andrew D.; Bassom, Andrew P.

    2008-02-01

    This paper considers the relaxation of a smooth two-dimensional vortex to axisymmetry after the application of an instantaneous, weak external strain field. In this limit the disturbance decays exponentially in time at a rate that is linked to a pole of the associated linear inviscid problem (known as a Landau pole). As a model of a typical vortex distribution that can give rise to cat's eyes, here distributions are examined that have a basic Gaussian shape but whose profiles have been artificially flattened about some radius rc. A numerical study of the Landau poles for this family of vortices shows that as rc is varied so the decay rate of the disturbance moves smoothly between poles as the decay rates of two Landau poles cross. Cat's eyes that occur in the nonlinear evolution of a vortex lead to an axisymmetric azimuthally averaged profile with an annulus of approximately uniform vorticity, rather like the artificially flattened profiles investigated. Based on the stability of such profiles it is found that finite thickness cat's eyes can persist (i.e., the mean profile has a neutral mode) at two distinct radii, and in the limit of a thin flattened region the result that vanishingly thin cat's eyes only persist at a single radius is recovered. The decay of nonaxisymmetric perturbations to these flattened profiles for larger times is investigated and a comparison made with the result for a Gaussian profile.

  10. Erratum: Chandra Reveals the X-Ray Glint in the Cat's Eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, You-Hua; Guerrero, Martín A.; Gruendl, Robert A.; Williams, Rosa M.; Kaler, James B.

    2001-06-01

    In the Letter ``Chandra Reveals the X-Ray Glint in the Cat's Eye'' by You-Hua Chu, Martín A. Guerrero, Robert A. Gruendl, Rosa M. Williams, & James B. Kaler (ApJ, 553, L69 [2001]), the second reference to Guerrero et al. is missing the volume number. It should read ``ApJ, 553, L55.''

  11. Echo scintillation Index affected by cat-eye target's caliber with Cassegrain lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Cong-miao; Sun, Hua-yan; Zhao, Yan-zhong; Zheng, Yong-hui

    2015-10-01

    The optical aperture of cat-eye target has the aperture averaging effect to the active detecting laser of active laser detection system, which can be used to identify optical targets. The echo scintillation characteristics of the transmission-type lens target have been studied in previous work. Discussing the differences of the echo scintillation characteristics between the transmission-type lens target and Cassegrain lens target can be helpful to targets classified. In this paper, the echo scintillation characteristics of Cat-eye target's caliber with Cassegrain lens has been discussed . By using the flashing theory of spherical wave in the weak atmospheric turbulence, the annular aperture filter function and the Kolmogorov power spectrum, the analytic expression of the scintillation index of the cat-eye target echo of the horizontal path two-way transmission was given when the light is normal incidence. Then the impact of turbulence inner and outer scale to the echo scintillation index and the analytic expression of the echo scintillation index at the receiving aperture were presented using the modified Hill spectrum and the modified Von Karman spectrum. Echo scintillation index shows the tendency of decreasing with the target aperture increases and different ratios of the inner and outer aperture diameter show the different echo scintillation index curves. This conclusion has a certain significance for target recognition in the active laser detection system that can largely determine the target type by largely determining the scope of the cat-eye target which depending on echo scintillation index.

  12. Phantom Eye Syndrome: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Andreotti, Agda M.; Goiato, Marcelo C.; Pellizzer, Eduardo P.; Pesqueira, Aldiéris A.; Guiotti, Aimée M.; Gennari-Filho, Humberto; dos Santos, Daniela M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to describe the main features of phantom eye syndrome in relation to their possible causes, symptoms, treatments, and influence of eye amputation on quality of life of anophthalmic patients. For this, a bibliographical research was performed in Pubmed database using the following terms: “eye amputation,” “eye trauma,” “phantom eye syndrome,” “phantom pain,” and “quality of life,” associated or not. Thirteen studies were selected, besides some relevant references contained in the selected manuscripts and other studies hallowed in the literature. Thus, 56 articles were included in this review. The phantom eye syndrome is defined as any sensation reported by the patient with anophthalmia, originated anophthalmic cavity. In phantom eye syndrome, at least one of these three symptoms has to be present: phantom vision, phantom pain, and phantom sensations. This syndrome has a direct influence on the quality of life of the patients, and psychological support is recommended before and after the amputation of the eyeball as well as aid in the treatment of the syndrome. Therefore, it is suggested that, for more effective treatment of phantom eye syndrome, drug therapy should be associated with psychological approach. PMID:25548790

  13. Phantom eye syndrome: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Andreotti, Agda M; Goiato, Marcelo C; Pellizzer, Eduardo P; Pesqueira, Aldiéris A; Guiotti, Aimée M; Gennari-Filho, Humberto; dos Santos, Daniela M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to describe the main features of phantom eye syndrome in relation to their possible causes, symptoms, treatments, and influence of eye amputation on quality of life of anophthalmic patients. For this, a bibliographical research was performed in Pubmed database using the following terms: "eye amputation," "eye trauma," "phantom eye syndrome," "phantom pain," and "quality of life," associated or not. Thirteen studies were selected, besides some relevant references contained in the selected manuscripts and other studies hallowed in the literature. Thus, 56 articles were included in this review. The phantom eye syndrome is defined as any sensation reported by the patient with anophthalmia, originated anophthalmic cavity. In phantom eye syndrome, at least one of these three symptoms has to be present: phantom vision, phantom pain, and phantom sensations. This syndrome has a direct influence on the quality of life of the patients, and psychological support is recommended before and after the amputation of the eyeball as well as aid in the treatment of the syndrome. Therefore, it is suggested that, for more effective treatment of phantom eye syndrome, drug therapy should be associated with psychological approach. PMID:25548790

  14. Effect of prostaglandins on the blood-aqueous barrier of the perfused cat eye.

    PubMed

    van Alphen, G W; Wilhelm, P

    1978-01-01

    With a technique of direct visualization of the arterially perfused cat eye, the pressure head may be chosen so that fluorescein added to the perfusate just barely stains the ciliary processes. After addition of PGE1, PGE2, PGF2alpha arachidonic acid, or indomethacin, with or without PG's, no more dye emerged from the processes. The addition of acetylcholine in the eserinized eye floods the processes with dye, apparently affecting the pore size of the blood-aqueous barrier; PG's may slightly inhibit, rather than facilitate, the emergence of fluorescein from the processes. It is speculated that in the cat PG's elevate pressure and protein content by backflow from the circle of Hovius, which is the equivalent of Schlemm's canal. PMID:621127

  15. Cat-eye target imaging system research and dual-channel DSP implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zheng; Zhang, Haiyang; Shi, Guang; Han, Lei; Zhao, Changming

    2013-09-01

    In modern warfare, well-equipped and trained snipers have become a mortal malady for the combat troops. How to accurately, timely and quickly find and destroy snipers becomes a research focus of national military experts. In order to effectively detect faint echo signal of cat-eye target and get the snipers' position information in the detection area, a small size of dual-channel active laser detection system with monochrome and color Charge-couple Devices(CCD) is designed, which is based on the laser imaging principle of cat-eye effect, associated tests are also conducted. The dual-channel video capture can obtain more information of target area, while taking advantage of the high sensitivity of monochrome CCD will also provide more accurate grayscale information for the video image processing. In order to achieve the miniaturization of system, we choose a video processing board whose size is only 54mm*90mm as hardware platform to complete the algorithm. For verifying the feasibility and accuracy of algorithm, we ultimately build a full set of experimental detection system. The test results show that the system can accurately detect and mark typical cat-eye target from background under different distances, which verifies the rationality and validity of the proposed system and has certain practicality and promotion in the active laser detection system research areas.

  16. Effect of passive eye movement on retinogeniculate transmission in the cat.

    PubMed

    Lal, R; Friedlander, M J

    1990-03-01

    1. The nature and time window of interaction between passive phasic eye movement signals and visual stimuli were studied for dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNd) neurons in the cat. Extracellular recordings were made from single neurons in layer A of the left LGNd of anesthetized paralyzed cats in response to a normalized visual stimulus presented to the right eye at each of several times of movement of the left eye. The left eye was moved passively at a fixed amplitude and velocity while varying the movement onset time with respect to the visual stimulus onset in a randomized and interleaved fashion. Visual stimuli consisted of square-wave modulated circular spots of appropriate contrast, sign, and size to elicit an optimal excitatory response when placed in the neurons' receptive-field (RF) center. 2. Interactions were analyzed for 78 neurons (33 X-neurons, 43 Y-neurons, and 2 physiologically unclassified neurons) on 25-65 trials of identical visual stimuli for each of eight times of eye movement. 3. Sixty percent (47/78) of the neurons tested had a significant eye movement effect (ANOVA, P less than 0.05) on some aspect of their visual response. Of these 47 neurons, 42 (89%) had a significant (P less than 0.05) effect of an appropriately timed eye movement on the number of action potentials, 36 (77%) had a significant effect on the mean peak firing rate, and 31 (66%) were significantly affected as evaluated by both criteria. 4. The eye movement effect on the neurons' visual responses was primarily facilitatory. Facilitation was observed for 37 (79%) of the affected neurons. For 25 of these 37 neurons (68%), the facilitation was significant (P less than 0.05) as evaluated by both criteria (number of action potentials and mean peak firing rate). Ten (21%) of the affected neurons had their visual response significantly inhibited (P less than 0.05). 5. Sixty percent (46/78) of the neurons were tested for the effect of eye movement on both visually elicited

  17. A spectrum of hypereosinophilic syndromes exemplified by six cats with eosinophilic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, M

    1981-03-01

    Of six cats with eosinophilic enteritis, two had lesions confined to the intestinal tract, and four had varied disseminated eosinophilic infiltration of other organs. The lesions in these cats are similar to those of the hypereosinophilic syndrome in man. A feline hypereosinophilic syndrome is proposed, consisting of eosinophilic enteritis, disseminated eosinophilic disease, and eosinophilic leukemia. PMID:7467078

  18. Severe dry-eye syndrome following external beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, J.T.; Bova, F.J.; Million, R.R.

    1994-11-15

    There are limited data in the literature on the probability of dry-eye complications according to radiotherapy dose. This study investigates the risk of radiation-induced severe dry-eye syndrome in patients in whom an entire orbit was exposed to fractionated external beam irradiation. Between October 1964 and May 1989, 33 patients with extracranial head and neck tumors received irradiation of an entire orbit. Most patients were treated with {sup 60}Co. The dose to the lacrimal apparatus was calculated at a depth of 1 cm from the anterior skin surface, the approximate depth of the major lacrimal gland. The end point of the study was severe dry-eye syndrome sufficient to produce visual loss secondary to corneal opacification, ulceration, or vascularization. Twenty patients developed severe dry-eye syndrome. All 17 patients who received dose {ge}57Gy developed severe dry-eye syndrome. Three (19%) of 16 patients who received doses {ge}45 Gy developed severe dry-eye syndrome; injuries in the latter group were much more slower to develop (4 to 11 years) than in the higher dose group, in whom corneal vascularization and opacification were usually pronounced within 9-10 months. There were no data for the range of doses between 45.01 and 56.99 Gy. The data did not suggest an increased risk of severe dry-eye syndrome with increasing age. Data from the current series and the literature are combined to construct a sigmoid dose response curve. The incidence of injury increases from 0% reported after doses {ge}30 Gy to 100% after doses {ge}57 Gy. 13 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Dancing Eye Syndrome associated with spontaneous recovery and normal neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Ki Pang, K; Lynch, Bryan J; Osborne, John P; Pike, Michael G

    2010-03-01

    Five patients with spontaneously recovering Dancing Eye Syndrome/Opsoclonus Myoclonus Syndrome are described. Age at presentation ranged from 4 to 19 months. Four had symptoms of fever and a coryzal illness within days to a few weeks prior to the onset. One of the 4 also had varicella zoster 4 weeks before presentation. All had opsoclonus, myoclonus/ataxia and irritability. Associated infective agents identified were Coxsackie virus and rotavirus. Spontaneous improvement of symptoms started within 9 days of presentation and total duration of illness ranged from 10 to 24 days. Developmental progress at follow-up was normal in all cases. A range of immunomodulatory therapies have been advocated for the treatment of Dancing Eye Syndrome/Opsoclonus Myoclonus Syndrome. However, in some children, early spontaneous recovery may occur, an observation which should be borne in mind when designing therapeutic trials in this condition. PMID:19541513

  20. The role of tropomyosin-related kinase receptors in neurotrophin-induced rapid eye movement sleep in the cat.

    PubMed

    Yamuy, J; Ramos, O; Torterolo, P; Sampogna, S; Chase, M H

    2005-01-01

    The microinjection of nerve growth factor and neurotrophin-3 into the rostro-dorsal pontine tegmentum of the cat evokes a state that is comparable to naturally-occurring rapid eye movement sleep. Using two experimental paradigms, we tested the hypothesis that neurotrophin high-affinity receptors (trkA and trkC, tropomyosin-related kinase A and C, respectively) mediate this effect. First, trk and fos immunohistochemistry were combined to determine whether tyrosine kinase receptor-containing neurons in the dorsal pontine tegmentum are active in cats that exhibit long-lasting periods of rapid eye movement sleep following the local microinjection of nerve growth factor. During approximately two hours of recording, nerve growth factor-treated cats spent 59.8% of the time in a rapid eye movement sleep-like state; vehicle-injected (control) animals remained in quiet wakefulness and non-rapid eye movement sleep. Whereas control and nerve growth factor-treated cats exhibited a similar mean number of trkA- and trkC-immunoreactive neurons in the dorsal pontine tegmentum, the number of trkA- and trkC-immunoreactive neurons that expressed Fos, i.e. double-labeled cells that are presumably activated, was significantly larger in cats that were injected with nerve growth factor. Axon terminals contained tyrosine kinase receptor immunoreactivity in this region; many were apposed to Fos-immunoreactive neurons. In addition, patterns of tyrosine kinase receptor and Fos immunoreactivity similar to those observed in nerve growth factor-injected cats were present, in conjunction with long-lasting rapid eye movement sleep, following the microinjection of carbachol into the dorsal pons. In a second series of studies, nerve growth factor or neurotrophin-3 was injected alone or after K-252a, a blocker of tyrosine kinase receptors, into the rostro-dorsal pontine tegmentum. Nerve growth factor or neurotrophin-3 alone produced, with a mean latency of 4 min, a rapid eye movement sleep-like state

  1. Cats

    MedlinePlus

    ... found on the skin of people and animals. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the same bacterium that has become resistant to some antibiotics. Cats and other animals often can carry MRSA ...

  2. Composite Image of the Cat's Eye From Chandra X-Ray Observatory and Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Left image: The x-ray data from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO) has revealed a bright central star surrounded by a cloud of multimillion-degree gas in the planetary nebula known as the Cat's Eye. This CXO image, where the intensity of the x-ray emission is correlated to the brightness of the orange coloring, captures the expulsion of material from a star that is expected to collapse into a white dwarf in a few million years. The intensity of x-rays from the central star was unexpected, and it is the first time astronomers have seen such x-ray emission from the central star of a planetary nebula. Right image: An image of Cat's Eye taken by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). By comparing the CXO data with that from the HST, researchers are able to see where the hotter, x-ray emitting gas appears in relation to the cooler material seen in optical wavelengths by the HST. The CXO team found that the chemical abundance in the region of hot gas (its x-ray intensity is shown in purple) was not like those in the wind from the central star and different from the outer cooler material (the red and green structures.) Although still incredibly energetic and hot enough to radiate x-rays, CXO shows the hot gas to be somewhat cooler than scientists would have expected for such a system. CXO image credit: (NASA/UIUC/Y. Chu et al.) HST image credit: (NASA/HST)

  3. An animal model for the XXY Klinefelter's syndrome in man: tortoiseshell and calico male cats.

    PubMed

    Centerwall, W R; Benirschke, K

    1975-09-01

    A review of the chromosome findings in 25 male tortoiseshell or calico (T-C) cats showed a variety of aneuploidy, polyploidy, mosaicism, and chimerism. An XXY-complement was included in the chromosome makeup of 16 of the 25 cats. Almost all of these cats were sterile. Testicular pathologic changes, when recorded, appeared comparable with that of human XXY Klinefelter's syndrome. The findings in 2 male T-C cats were presented as representative models of XXY Klinefelter's syndrome in man. Other findings in human Klinefelter's syndrome have not been looked for in the feline models, but a plan for this is underway. A review also was made of the historical steps leading to our present understanding of the Klinefelter syndrome including the role of Felis catus. An explanation of cat coat-color genetics clarified why "black" and sex-linked "orange" coloration can appear together normally in XX females and in rare males with 2 different X chromosomes. Thus, male T-C cats were only convenient indicators of underlying sex-chromosome aberrations which were occurring completely independent of coloration. PMID:1163864

  4. Experimental immune complex glomerulonephritis and the nephrotic syndrome in cats immunised with cationised bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Nash, A S; Mohammed, N A; Wright, N G

    1990-11-01

    Membranous nephropathy was induced in four cats by repeated intravenous injections of 120 mg cationic bovine serum albumin (BSA, pI 9.5). All four cats developed diffuse granular deposits of IgG and C3 along the glomerular capillary walls as early as five weeks which persisted until the end of the experiment at 17 weeks. Ultrastructural studies revealed many subepithelial electron dense deposits. Two cats developed severe proteinuria and the nephrotic syndrome characterised by hypoalbuminaemia and oedema. An additional four cats received repeated injections of unmodified native BSA (pI 4.5) and remained basically normal. This is the first report of membranous nephropathy and the nephrotic syndrome in an experimental animal model which, unlike other animal models, is subject to the spontaneously occurring disease. PMID:2148430

  5. Epidemiology of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis in cats hospitalized in a veterinary teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Babyak, Jonathan M; Sharp, Claire R

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the epidemiology of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis in cats hospitalized in a veterinary teaching hospital. DESIGN Observational study. ANIMALS 246 client-owned cats. PROCEDURES During a 3-month period, daily treatment records were evaluated for all hospitalized cats. Information extracted included signalment, temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, diagnostic test results, diagnosis, duration of hospitalization, and outcome (survival or death). Cats were classified into 1 of 4 disease categories (sepsis [confirmed infection and SIRS], infection [confirmed infection without SIRS], noninfectious SIRS [SIRS without a confirmed infection], and no SIRS [no SIRS or infection]). RESULTS Of the 246 cats, 26 and 3 were hospitalized 2 and 3 times, respectively; thus, 275 hospitalizations were evaluated. When SIRS was defined as the presence of ≥ 2 of 4 SIRS criteria, 17 cats had sepsis, 16 had infections, 81 had noninfectious SIRS, and 161 were classified in the no SIRS category at hospital admission. The prevalence of sepsis at hospital admission was 6.2 cases/100 admissions. Four cats developed sepsis while hospitalized, resulting in a sepsis incidence rate of 1.5 cases/100 hospital admissions. Four of 17 cats with sepsis at hospital admission and 3 of 4 cats that developed sepsis while hospitalized died or were euthanized, resulting in a mortality rate of 33.3% for septic cats; 239 hospitalizations resulted in survival, 28 resulted in euthanasia, and 8 resulted in death. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that many hospitalized cats have evidence of SIRS and some have sepsis. In cats, sepsis is an important clinical entity with a high mortality rate. PMID:27308883

  6. Acute carpal tunnel syndrome of the hand following a cat bite

    PubMed Central

    Sbai, Mohamed Ali; Dabloun, Slim; Benzarti, Sofien; Khechimi, Myriam; Jenzeri, Abdesselem; Maalla, Riadh

    2015-01-01

    Cat bites at the hand are common situation in emergency departments. Neglected or poorly supported, these lesions sometimes lead to serious injuries that may compromise the function of the hand. Pasteurellamultocida is the most offending germ in these lesions, despite their sensitivity to antibiotics; it can sometimes lead to deep infections involving the skin, bones and joints. Acute carpal tunnel syndrome is exceptional after cat bite. We report a case of a 56 Year old female presenting with an acute carpal tunnel syndrome associated with compartment syndrome of the right hand 6 days after a cat bite of her right thumb. The patient was treated by surgery to relieve the median nerve. Microbiology identified PasteurellaMultocida. PMID:26421101

  7. Mechanisms of seizure suppression during rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep in cats.

    PubMed

    Shouse, M N; Siegel, J M; Wu, M F; Szymusiak, R; Morrison, A R

    1989-12-29

    REM sleep is the most antiepileptic state in the sleep-wake cycle for human generalized epilepsy, yet the neural mechanism is unknown. This study verified the antiepileptic properties of REM sleep in feline generalized epilepsy and also isolated the responsible factors. Conclusions are based on 20 cats evaluated for generalized EEG and motor seizure susceptibility before and after dissociation of specific REM sleep components. Bilateral electrolytic lesions of the medial-lateral pontine tegmentum created a syndrome of REM sleep without atonia. Systemic atropine created a syndrome of REM sleep without thalamocortical EEG desynchronization. Identical results were obtained in two seizure models, systemic penicillin epilepsy and electroconvulsive shock. (1) Normal REM sleep retarded the spread of EEG seizure discharges and had even more potent anticonvulsant effects. (2) Selective loss of 'sleep paralysis' (skeletal muscle atonia) during REM abolished REM sleep protection against myoclonus and convulsions without affecting generalized EEG paroxysms. (3) Conversely, selective loss of thalamocortical EEG desychronization abolished REM sleep protection against generalized EEG seizures without affecting clinical motor accompaniment. These results suggest that the descending brainstem pathways which mediate lower motor neuron inhibition also protect against generalized motor seizures during REM sleep. Protection against spread of EEG paroxysms is governed by a separate mechanism, presumably the ascending brainstem pathways mediating intense thalamocortical EEG desynchronization during REM sleep. PMID:2598045

  8. Modeling of micro cat's eye retroreflectors using a matrix-based three-dimensional ray tracing technique.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bing-jun; Chao, Keng-hsing; Tsai, Jui-che

    2012-09-01

    In this paper we develop a three-dimensional (3D) ray tracing tool based on the ABCD ray transfer matrices. With symmetric optical components and under paraxial approximation, two sets of 2×2 ABCD matrices, each for a two-dimensional subspace, can be used to describe the 3D ray propagation completely. Compared to commercial ray-tracing software packages, our tool requires no tedious drawing, and the results for various conditions, such as different device dimensions and incident angles, can be easily obtained by simply changing the parameter values used for the calculation. We have employed this matrix-based 3D ray tracing tool to model cat's eye retroreflectors. The cat's eye performance, including the retroreflection efficiency, acceptance angle (i.e., field of view), and beam divergence and deviation, is fully studied. The application of this 3D ray tracing technique can be further extended to other optical components. PMID:22945148

  9. Performance of hybrid, diffraction, and continuously coupled cat-eye resonators with kinetically enhanced copper vapor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bijendra; Subramaniam, V. V.; Daultabad, Shankar; Ghodke, Dharmraj; Chakraborty, Ashim

    2010-09-01

    New resonators, namely the hybrid cat-eye resonator (HCER), diffraction-coupled cat-eye resonator (DCCER), and continuously coupled cat-eye resonator (CCCER) are demonstrated for the first time here in a kinetically enhanced copper vapor laser with high optical extraction of 70 to 80%, low beam divergence ~0.15 mrad (approximately five times the diffraction limit), and high misalignment tolerance ~5 to 6 mrad achieved simultaneously from each of these configurations. The laser used in the experiment is a 45- to 47-mm bore, 50-W kinetically enhanced copper vapor laser. In the case of HCER, the laser beam divergence reduces to about 0.12 mrad (~30-fold reduction) in an unstable direction and about 0.5 mrad (approximately seven-fold reduction) in a stable direction with average beam power of about 35 W, which is ~70% of 50-W maximum set power of the laser. In the DCCER configuration, laser power achieved is about ~37 W (75% of 50-W laser power) with beam divergence of about 0.17 mrad and misalignment tolerance of ~5 mrad. In CCCER, the output power of about 40 W (80% of 50-W laser power) is achieved with beam divergence of about 0.1 mrad (approximately three to four times the diffraction limit).

  10. Intestinal T-cell lymphoma with severe hypereosinophilic syndrome in a cat.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Masashi; Tsuboi, Masaya; Fujino, Yasuhito; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Ohno, Koichi; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2012-08-01

    A Japanese domestic long-hair cat of about 8 years of age was presented with vomiting and hematochezia and was found to have significant hypereosinophilia. Bone marrow aspiration revealed moderate increases of eosinophilic lineages. Histopathological examination revealed mild eosinophilic and epitheliotropic T-lymphocytic infiltrations in the duodenum. Although the cat remained asymptomatic with only prednisolone administration, the cat presented with hematemesis, weight loss, and severe anorexia 512 days after the initial presentation. Subsequently, gastrointestinal perforation developed, and the cat died on Day 536. Histopathological examination of autopsy specimens revealed mixed cellular infiltration including eosinophils and neoplastic lymphocytes in the intestinal lymph nodes, intestine, liver, spleen, and pancreas. Immunohistochemical examination supports a diagnosis of intestinal T-cell lymphoma with severe hypereosinophilic syndrome. PMID:22452876

  11. [Dry eye syndrome. Occupational risk factors, valuation and prevention].

    PubMed

    Vicente-Herrero, M T; Ramírez-Iñiguez de la Torre, M V; Terradillos-García, M J; López González, Á A

    2014-03-01

    Dry eye syndrome in the workplace is associated with new ways of working, with increasing use of screens and electronic devices and environmental conditions encountered in modern office designs and other environments. Also affect occupational exposure to ionizing radiation, chemicals or atmospheric dust with increased ocular dryness. The study of pathophysiological aspects and laboral causality of the dry eye, must be to develop joint task in Occupational Health, Public Health in coordination with and responsible for the national health system, which would involve primary and secondary preventive measures more effective and proper diagnosis, control and monitoring of the disease, A better knowledge of occupational hazards and actions agreed and coordinated between occupational physicians, preventers, primary care physicians and specialist physicians, such as ophthalmology, will get results much more effective when earlier and optimize available resources. PMID:23993023

  12. Brainstem glycinergic neurons and their activation during active (rapid eye movement) sleep in the cat.

    PubMed

    Morales, F R; Sampogna, S; Rampon, C; Luppi, P H; Chase, M H

    2006-09-29

    It is well established that, during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, somatic motoneurons are subjected to a barrage of inhibitory synaptic potentials that are mediated by glycine. However, the source of this inhibition, which is crucial for the maintenance and preservation of REM sleep, has not been identified. Consequently, the present study was undertaken to determine in cats the location of the glycinergic neurons, that are activated during active sleep, and are responsible for the postsynaptic inhibition of motoneurons that occurs during this state. For this purpose, a pharmacologically-induced state of active sleep (AS-carbachol) was employed. Antibodies against glycine-conjugated proteins were used to identify glycinergic neurons and immunocytochemical techniques to label the Fos protein were employed to identify activated neurons. Two distinct populations of glycinergic neurons that expressed c-fos were distinguished. One population was situated within the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis (NRGc) and nucleus magnocellularis (Mc) in the rostro-ventral medulla; this group of neurons extended caudally to the ventral portion of the nucleus paramedianus reticularis (nPR). Forty percent of the glycinergic neurons in the NRGc and Mc and 25% in the nPR expressed c-fos during AS-carbachol. A second population was located in the caudal medulla adjacent to the nucleus ambiguus (nAmb), wherein 40% of the glycinergic cells expressed c-fos during AS-carbachol. Neither population of glycinergic cells expressed c-fos during quiet wakefulness or quiet (non-rapid eye movement) sleep. We suggest that the population of glycinergic neurons in the NRGc, Mc, and nPR participates in the inhibition of somatic brainstem motoneurons during active sleep. These neurons may also be responsible for the inhibition of sensory and other processes during this state. It is likely that the group of glycinergic neurons adjacent to the nucleus ambiguus (nAmb) is responsible for the active

  13. Nitric oxide facilitates GABAergic neurotransmission in the cat oculomotor system: a physiological mechanism in eye movement control

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-López, Bernardo; Escudero, Miguel; Estrada, Carmen

    2002-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) synthesis by prepositus hypoglossi (PH) neurons is necessary for the normal performance of horizontal eye movements. We have previously shown that unilateral injections of NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors into the PH nucleus of alert cats produce velocity imbalance without alteration of the eye position control, both during spontaneous eye movements and the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). This NO effect is exerted on the dorsal PH neuropil, whose fibres increase their cGMP content when stimulated by NO. In an attempt to determine whether NO acts by modulation of a specific neurotransmission system, we have now compared the oculomotor effects of NOS inhibition with those produced by local blockade of glutamatergic, GABAergic or glycinergic receptors in the PH nucleus of alert cats. Both glutamatergic antagonists used, 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV) and 2,3-dihydro-6-nitro-7-sulphamoyl-benzo quinoxaline (NBQX), induced a nystagmus contralateral to that observed upon NOS inhibition, and caused exponential eye position drift. In contrast, bicuculline and strychnine induced eye velocity alterations similar to those produced by NOS inhibitors, suggesting that NO oculomotor effects were due to facilitation of some inhibitory input to the PH nucleus. To investigate the anatomical location of the putative NO target neurons, the retrograde tracer Fast Blue was injected in one PH nucleus, and the brainstem sections containing Fast Blue-positive neurons were stained with double immunohistochemistry for NO-sensitive cGMP and glutamic acid decarboxylase. GABAergic neurons projecting to the PH nucleus and containing NO-sensitive cGMP were found almost exclusively in the ipsilateral medial vestibular nucleus and marginal zone. The results suggest that the nitrergic PH neurons control their own firing rate by a NO-mediated facilitation of GABAergic afferents from the ipsilateral medial vestibular nucleus. This self-control mechanism could play an important role

  14. Androgen Deficiency and Dry Eye Syndrome in the Aging Male

    PubMed Central

    Azcarate, Patrick M.; Venincasa, Vincent D.; Feuer, William; Stanczyk, Frank; Schally, Andrew V.; Galor, Anat

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the relationship between androgen levels and subjective and objective measures of dry eye syndrome (DES). Methods. A total of 263 male patients from the Miami Veterans Affairs Medical Center eye clinic aged ≥50 were recruited for this prospective cross-sectional study. Patients completed Dry Eye Questionnaire 5, underwent tear film evaluation, and had serum androgen levels measured. The correlations between androgen levels, DES composite scores, DES symptoms, and global, lipid, and aqueous tear film parameters were evaluated. Results. Two hundred sixty-three patients with a mean age of 69 (50–95) were examined. There was no linear association between composite DES scores (generated using latent class analysis) and androgen levels. However, eyes with high DES scores (0.95–1.0) had higher levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (P = 0.03) and lower levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) (P = 0.02), androstenedione (A) (P = 0.02), and androstane-3α,17β-diol glucuronide (P = 0.03) compared to eyes with intermediate (0.05–0.95) or low (0–0.05) scores. There were no strong correlations between tear film measures and androgen levels. Regarding global parameters, a weak inverse correlation was found between corneal staining and A (r = −0.17, P = 0.009). For lipid parameters, a weak correlation existed between tear breakup time (TBUT) and A (r = 0.15, P = 0.02). When considering aqueous and lipid deficiency independently, the association between TBUT and A existed only with aqueous tear deficiency (r = 0.66, P = 0.002). Regarding aqueous parameters, a weak correlation existed between Schirmer test and DHEAS (r = 0.13, P = 0.047) and A (r = 0.21, P = 0.001). Conclusions. There was a weak correlation between higher levels of androstenedione and healthier global, lipid, and aqueous tear film parameters. PMID:24994872

  15. Chandra Reveals The X-Ray Glint In The Cat's Eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    SAN DIEGO -- Scientists have discovered a glowing bubble of hot gas and an unexpected X-ray bright central star within the planetary nebula known as the Cat's Eye using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. The new results, presented today at the American Astronomical Society meeting, provide insight into the ways that stars like our Sun end their lives. Scientists believe they are witnessing the expulsion of material from a star that is in the last stages of its existence as a normal star. Material shed by the star is flying away at a speed of about 4 million miles per hour, and the star itself is expected to collapse to become a white dwarf star in a few million years. The X-ray data from the Cat's Eye Nebula, also known as NGC 6543, clearly show a bright central star surrounded by a cloud of multimillion-degree gas. By comparing the Chandra data with those from the Hubble Space Telescope, researchers are able to see where the hotter, X-ray emitting gas appears in relation to the cooler material seen in optical wavelengths by Hubble. "Despite the complex optical appearance of the nebula, the X-ray emission illustrates unambiguously that the hot gas in the central bubble is driving the expansion of the optical nebula," said You-Hua Chu of the University of Illinois and lead author of the paper submitted to the Astrophysical Journal. "The Chandra data will help us to better understand how stars similar to our Sun produce planetary nebulas and evolve into white dwarfs as they grow old." With Chandra, astronomers measured the temperature of the central bubble of X-ray emitting material, and this presents a new puzzle. Though still incredibly energetic and hot enough to emit X-rays, this hot gas is cooler than scientists would have expected from the stellar wind that has come to stagnation from the initial high speed of 4 million miles per hour. At first, the researchers thought that the cooler, outer shell might have mixed with the energetic material closer to the

  16. Group G streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome in three cats.

    PubMed

    Taillefer, Mylène; Dunn, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    Three 8-week-old kittens were presented with a history of acute, generalized weakness and severe fever. One cat was dead upon presentation, and necropsy findings were supportive of a group G Streptococcus spp. septicemia. During their clinical courses, two of the three kittens developed a progressive, marked swelling of one or more limbs. One moribund and severely hypothermic cat was euthanized a few hours after presentation, and necropsy was also supportive of a group G Streptococcus spp. septicemia. One kitten recovered. Group G streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome was suspected because of the fulminant progression of the septicemia. PMID:15347623

  17. Angiogenin for the Diagnosis and Grading of Dry Eye Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won Soo; Wee, Sung Wook; Lee, Seung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the properties of angiogenin (ANG) as a potential tool for the diagnosis and grading of dry eye syndrome (DES) by analyzing tear protein profiles. Methods Tear samples were collected with capillary tubes from 52 DES patients and 29 normal individuals as controls. Tear protein profiles were analyzed with an immunodot blot assay as a screening test. To confirm that the tear ANG levels were in inverse proportion to the disease severity grade, the ANG and lactoferrin (LF) tear contents of normal controls and DES patients were compared in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results In the immunodot blot assay, the ANG area was lower in patients with grades 3 and 4 DES than in normal controls. The areas of basic fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor β2, and interleukin 10 were significantly greater than those of normal controls only in grade 4 DES patients, but these proteins were not linearly correlated with dry eye severity. Upon enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis, the mean concentrations of ANG and LF decreased significantly as dry eye severity increased, except between grades 1 and 2. In addition, the ratios of ANG and LF to total tear proteins were correlated significantly with DES severity. Conclusions ANG level was significantly lower in DES patients than in normal controls, and was significantly correlated with the worsening severity of DES, except between grades 1 and 2, as was LF. Therefore, ANG may be a useful measure of DES severity through proteomic analysis. PMID:27247515

  18. Use of krypton laser stimulation in the treatment of dry eye syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kecik, Tadeusz; Switka-Wieclawska, Iwona; Ciszewska, Joanna; Portacha, Lidia

    1991-08-01

    We''d like to present the use of krypton laser stimulation in the treatment of dry eye syndrom. 10 patients with dry eye syndrom were treated with irradiation of the lacrimal gland. Schirmer test and break up time were performed before and after therapy. After 10 days of treatment we observed higher value of secreted tear amount.

  19. Using Percentile Schedules to Increase Eye Contact in Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Scott S.; Maynes, Natalee P.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2009-01-01

    Aversion to eye contact is a common behavior of individuals diagnosed with Fragile X syndrome (FXS); however, no studies to date have attempted to increase eye-contact duration in these individuals. In this study, we employed a percentile reinforcement schedule with and without overcorrection to shape eye-contact duration of 6 boys with FXS.…

  20. Hypereosinophilic paraneoplastic syndrome in a cat with intestinal T cell lymphosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Barrs, V R; Beatty, J A; McCandlish, I A; Kipar, A

    2002-09-01

    A 10-year-old, neutered female, domestic shorthair cat was presented with a recent history of weight loss, polydipsia, diarrhoea and vomiting. On physical examination, intestinal thickening and mesenteric lymph node enlargement were apparent. Clinical investigations revealed peripheral blood eosinophilia, eosinophilic abdominal effusion and eosinophilic mesenteric lymphadenitis. There was a temporary response to treatment with glucocorticoids but signs progressed and the cat was euthanased. On histology, there was eosinophilic infiltration and fibroplasia of intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes. Large aggregates of neoplastic round cells in the intestine and lymph nodes were identified as T lymphocytes using immunohistochemistry. A diagnosis of intestinal T cell lymphosarcoma was made. This case demonstrates that hypereosinophilic paraneoplastic syndrome may occur in cats with lymphosarcoma. Eosinophil chemotaxis may be a response to the production of interleukin-5 by neoplastic lymphocytes. PMID:12238505

  1. Endogenous excitatory drive to the respiratory system in rapid eye movement sleep in cats

    PubMed Central

    Orem, John; Lovering, Andrew T; Dunin-Barkowski, Witali; Vidruk, Edward H

    2000-01-01

    A putative endogenous excitatory drive to the respiratory system in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep may explain many characteristics of breathing in that state, e.g. its irregularity and variable ventilatory responses to chemical stimuli. This drive is hypothetical, and determinations of its existence and character are complicated by control of the respiratory system by the oscillator and its feedback mechanisms. In the present study, endogenous drive was studied during apnoea caused by mechanical hyperventilation. We reasoned that if there was a REM-dependent drive to the respiratory system, then respiratory activity should emerge out of the background apnoea as a manifestation of the drive. Diaphragmatic muscle or medullary respiratory neuronal activity was studied in five intact, unanaesthetized adult cats who were either mechanically hyperventilated or breathed spontaneously in more than 100 REM sleep periods. Diaphragmatic activity emerged out of a background apnoea caused by mechanical hyperventilation an average of 34 s after the onset of REM sleep. Emergent activity occurred in 60 % of 10 s epochs in REM sleep and the amount of activity per unit time averaged approximately 40 % of eupnoeic activity. The activity occurred in episodes and was poorly related to pontogeniculo-occipital waves. At low CO2 levels, this activity was non-rhythmic. At higher CO2 levels (less than 0.5 % below eupnoeic end-tidal percentage CO2 levels in non-REM (NREM) sleep), activity became rhythmic. Medullary respiratory neurons were recorded in one of the five animals. Nineteen of twenty-seven medullary respiratory neurons were excited in REM sleep during apnoea. Excited neurons included inspiratory, expiratory and phase-spanning neurons. Excitation began about 43 s after the onset of REM sleep. Activity increased from an average of 6 impulses s−1 in NREM sleep to 15.5 impulses s−1 in REM sleep. Neuronal activity was non-rhythmic at low CO2 levels and became rhythmic when levels

  2. Biological activities of Leptodeira annulata (banded cat-eyed snake) venom on vertebrate neuromuscular preparations.

    PubMed

    Torres-Bonilla, Kristian A; Schezaro-Ramos, Raphael; Floriano, Rafael Stuani; Rodrigues-Simioni, Léa; Bernal-Bautista, Manuel H; Alice da Cruz-Höfling, Maria

    2016-09-01

    The physiological properties of colubrid snake venoms are largely unknown and less frequently investigated. In this study, we assessed the enzymatic properties and biological activities of Leptodeira annulata (banded cat-eyed snake) venom, an opistoglyphous snake from Colombia. The proteolytic, phospholipase A2 and amidolytic activities are assessed using colorimetric assays and the biological activities were analyzed in avian and mammalian neuromuscular preparations. L. annulata venom caused neuromuscular blockade in chick biventer cervicis (BC) preparations (40± 15% and 50± 3% of twitch reduction for 30 and 100 μg/ml, respectively; p < 0.05) following 120 incubation; 10 μg/ml of venom did not induce blockade. There was a mild reduction in contracture response to exogenous acetylcholine (110 μM) in BC preparations exposed to 10 and 30 μg of venom/ml (∼4% and ∼32% of reduction, respectively, p > 0.05, n = 4) compared to basal values whereas the highest concentration (100 μg/ml) abolished it after 120 min. The venom caused a significant reduction in contracture response elicited by KCl (∼58 and ∼90 of reduction for 30 and 100 μg/ml, respectively, p < 0.05, n = 4). In mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND) preparations, L. annulata venom induced a progressive muscle membrane depolarization [from -85.9 ± 1.6 mV (t0) to -72.2 ± 2.9 mV (t120), p < 0.05, n = 4); the postsynaptic receptors remained functional as shown by carbachol-induced depolarization. The morphological analyses showed a concentration-dependent number of pathological states in muscle fibers from both BC and PND preparations pre-exposed to venom. The venom showed high proteolytic activity and low phospholipase A2 activity; there was no evidence for serine protease activity. These results indicate that the neuromuscular effect induced by L. annulata venom resulted from damaged muscle fibers that lead to the blockade of twitches response. The findings suggest

  3. A COLQ Missense Mutation in Sphynx and Devon Rex Cats with Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Abitbol, Marie; Hitte, Christophe; Bossé, Philippe; Blanchard-Gutton, Nicolas; Thomas, Anne; Martignat, Lionel; Blot, Stéphane; Tiret, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    An autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder characterized by skeletal muscle weakness, fatigability and variable electromyographic or muscular histopathological features has been described in the two related Sphynx and Devon Rex cat breeds (Felis catus). Collection of data from two affected Sphynx cats and their relatives pointed out a single disease candidate region on feline chromosome C2, identified following a genome-wide SNP-based homozygosity mapping strategy. In that region, we further identified COLQ (collagen-like tail subunit of asymmetric acetylcholinesterase) as a good candidate gene, since COLQ mutations were identified in affected humans and dogs with endplate acetylcholinesterase deficiency leading to a synaptic form of congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS). A homozygous c.1190G>A missense variant located in exon 15 of COLQ, leading to a C397Y substitution, was identified in the two affected cats. C397 is a highly-conserved residue from the C-terminal domain of the protein; its mutation was previously shown to produce CMS in humans, and here we confirmed in an affected Sphynx cat that it induces a loss of acetylcholinesterase clustering at the neuromuscular junction. Segregation of the c.1190G>A variant was 100% consistent with the autosomal recessive mode of inheritance of the disorder in our cat pedigree; in addition, an affected, unrelated Devon Rex cat recruited thereafter was also homozygous for the variant. Genotyping of a panel of 333 cats from 14 breeds failed to identify a single carrier in non-Sphynx and non-Devon Rex cats. Finally, the percentage of healthy carriers in a European subpanel of 81 genotyped Sphynx cats was estimated to be low (3.7%) and 14 control Devon Rex cats were genotyped as wild-type individuals. Altogether, these results strongly support that the neuromuscular disorder reported in Sphynx and Devon Rex breeds is a CMS caused by a unique c.1190G>A missense mutation, presumably transmitted through a founder effect, which

  4. Eye tracking and fear recognition deficits in Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Francesca; Seigal, Anna; MacAskill, Andrew; Corden, Ben; Lawrence, Kate; Skuse, David H

    2006-01-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a chromosomal disorder of X-monosomy in females. A minority have impaired social responsiveness, poor discrimination of facial emotions (especially fear), and abnormal amygdala-cortical connectivity. We tested the hypothesis that abnormal gaze fixation, especially with the eye region of faces, would be associated with these features, in a similar pattern to that seen in subjects with autism. Furthermore, since these features tend to be more striking in TS women whose X chromosome is maternal in origin, we also predicted that there may be a difference within the Turner's group according to parental origin of the single X. Adults with 45,X karyotype and age and IQ matched 46,XX women were recruited and tested. Facial fear recognition was significantly worse in 45,X females than controls, but there were no group differences according to parental origin of their single X chromosome. Subsequently, we tested 45,X and 46,XX women using a remote eye-tracking device, as they viewed photographs of emotional human faces. Striking differences in scanpaths were found between the TS and controls, and within the TS group, but not according to parental origin of the X chromosome. These findings provide novel evidence for abnormal face processing in some women with TS, and indicate a potential neural mechanism underlying the difficulties in some key aspects of social cognition. PMID:18633792

  5. The primary vascular dysregulation syndrome: implications for eye diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Vascular dysregulation refers to the regulation of blood flow that is not adapted to the needs of the respective tissue. We distinguish primary vascular dysregulation (PVD, formerly called vasospastic syndrome) and secondary vascular dysregulation (SVD). Subjects with PVD tend to have cold extremities, low blood pressure, reduced feeling of thirst, altered drug sensitivity, increased pain sensitivity, prolonged sleep onset time, altered gene expression in the lymphocytes, signs of oxidative stress, slightly increased endothelin-1 plasma level, low body mass index and often diffuse and fluctuating visual field defects. Coldness, emotional or mechanical stress and starving can provoke symptoms. Virtually all organs, particularly the eye, can be involved. In subjects with PVD, retinal vessels are stiffer and more irregular, and both neurovascular coupling and autoregulation capacity are reduced while retinal venous pressure is often increased. Subjects with PVD have increased risk for normal-tension glaucoma, optic nerve compartment syndrome, central serous choroidopathy, Susac syndrome, retinal artery and vein occlusions and anterior ischaemic neuropathy without atherosclerosis. Further characteristics are their weaker blood–brain and blood-retinal barriers and the higher prevalence of optic disc haemorrhages and activated astrocytes. Subjects with PVD tend to suffer more often from tinnitus, muscle cramps, migraine with aura and silent myocardial ischaemic and are at greater risk for altitude sickness. While the main cause of vascular dysregulation is vascular endotheliopathy, dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system is also involved. In contrast, SVD occurs in the context of other diseases such as multiple sclerosis, retrobulbar neuritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia and giant cell arteritis. Taking into consideration the high prevalence of PVD in the population and potentially linked pathologies, in the current article, the authors provide

  6. Dorsal spinous process impingement syndrome ('kissing spine') in a cat: imaging appearance and surgical management.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Quintana, Rodrigo; Lindley, Samantha; Sullivan, Martin; Penderis, Jacques; Wessmann, Annette

    2011-08-01

    Spinal pain is an important clinical presentation in feline patients, but the underlying causes can often be difficult to elucidate. Dorsal spinous process impingement syndrome ('kissing spine' or in human patients 'Baastrup syndrome') is a significant cause of spinal pain in equine and human patients and radiographically is characterised by a close approximation of adjacent spinous processes with reactive bone sclerosis affecting these spinous processes. In this report we describe the first reported case of dorsal spinous process impingement syndrome in a cat causing spinal pain, and successful surgical management of the syndrome. The affected cat presented at 5 years of age for evaluation of a 7-month history of progressive thoracolumbar pain. Radiographs revealed close approximation of the dorsal spinous processes of the seventh, eighth and ninth thoracic vertebrae (T7, T8 and T9), with associated reactive bone sclerosis. Surgical resection of the T8 dorsal spinous process resulted in complete resolution of the clinical signs with no evidence of recurrence 9 months after surgery. PMID:21723173

  7. Effects of eye movement with functional electrical stimulation on balance in stroke patients with neglect syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Park, Si-Eun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to determine whether eye movement in conjunction with functional electrical stimulation (FES) could improve balance ability in stroke patients with neglect syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects consisted of 15 stroke patients with neglect syndrome. The intervention was eye movement in conjunction with FES. The program was conducted 5 times per week, for 6 weeks. Static balance (eyes-open and eyes-closed) and dynamic balance were measured before and after testing. [Results] In measurement of static balance, subjects showed significant differences in sway length and sway area when examined in the eyes-open condition, but not the eyes-closed condition. In measurement of dynamic balance, the subjects showed significant differences in limit of stability (forward/backward and left/right). [Conclusion] These results indicate that eye movement in conjunction with FES had a positive effect on the static and dynamic balance in the eyes-open condition, but not in the eyes-closed condition of stroke patients with neglect syndrome. Further studies should therefore investigate various interventions in stroke patients with neglect syndrome. PMID:27313375

  8. Effects of eye movement with functional electrical stimulation on balance in stroke patients with neglect syndrome.

    PubMed

    Park, Si-Eun

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to determine whether eye movement in conjunction with functional electrical stimulation (FES) could improve balance ability in stroke patients with neglect syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects consisted of 15 stroke patients with neglect syndrome. The intervention was eye movement in conjunction with FES. The program was conducted 5 times per week, for 6 weeks. Static balance (eyes-open and eyes-closed) and dynamic balance were measured before and after testing. [Results] In measurement of static balance, subjects showed significant differences in sway length and sway area when examined in the eyes-open condition, but not the eyes-closed condition. In measurement of dynamic balance, the subjects showed significant differences in limit of stability (forward/backward and left/right). [Conclusion] These results indicate that eye movement in conjunction with FES had a positive effect on the static and dynamic balance in the eyes-open condition, but not in the eyes-closed condition of stroke patients with neglect syndrome. Further studies should therefore investigate various interventions in stroke patients with neglect syndrome. PMID:27313375

  9. Dry Eye Syndrome and Allergic Conjunctivitis in the Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Akil, Handan; Celik, Fatih; Ulas, Fatih; Kara, Ilknur Surucu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the comorbidity of dry eye syndrome (DES) and changes in corneal curvature in children with allergies. Materials and Methods: This prospective, comparative, and observational interventional study included 49 patients, who presented to the Ophthalmology Clinic of a State Hospital in Turkey. There were 25 patients with clinically diagnosed seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (AC) (with complaints of itching and papilla formation of conjunctiva; AC group) and 24 healthy children (control group). There with no significant differences in age between groups. Using the ocular surface disease index (OSDI) questionnaire, we performed tear film break-up time (BUT), central reflex tear meniscus height (TMH-R) measurement, Schirmer test on both groups and evaluated keratometry (K1, K2) and spherical equivalent (SE). Results: Patients ranged in age from 6 to 18 years (median age, 11.79 years; 46.9% male; 53.1% female). The papillary reaction was severe in 10% of patients with AC. The prevalence of dry eye in children with AC was 12%. There was no statistically significant difference between groups for K1, K2, and SE (P > 0.05, all comparisons). BUT was statistically different (P = 0.004) between groups, indicating that a higher OSDI the tear film BUT was lower (ρ = 0.567). Statistically, significant negative moderate correlations were found between papillary reaction and the Schirmer test, BUT, and TMH-R (ρ = 0.454, −0.412, −0.419, and P = 0.001, 0.003, 0.002, respectively) Conclusions: The evaluation of pediatric patients with AC requires further attention to ensure an adequate diagnosis of DES. PMID:26692719

  10. Myasthenia gravis and congenital myasthenic syndromes in dogs and cats: A history and mini-review.

    PubMed

    Shelton, G Diane

    2016-06-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a disorder of neuromuscular transmission in which muscle weakness results from an autoantibody mediated depletion of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) at the neuromuscular junction. Myasthenia gravis occurs spontaneously in dogs and cats, and as in human MG, an autoimmune response against nicotinic AChRs has been demonstrated and autoantibodies against AChRs implicated in the pathogenesis. While both species are affected with MG, there are distinct differences in clinical presentations and frequency of spontaneous remission. Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMSs) are hereditary disorders of neuromuscular transmission resulting in structural or functional defects of the neuromuscular junction. The clinical presentation and pathogenesis of a CMS in Jack Russell terriers was first described in the 1970's and 1980s and has since been reported in a few other breeds. Mutations have been reported in CHRNE, COLQ and CHAT in canine CMS. A form of COLQ deficient CMS has recently been reported in cats. PMID:27080328

  11. Suspected Central Anticholinergic Syndrome Related to Cycloplegic Eye Drop in a Premature Baby

    PubMed Central

    Bedirli, Nurdan; Akgün, Fatma; Hondur, Ahmet; Işık, Berrin

    2012-01-01

    The therapeutic approach for the central anticholinergic syndrome after application of cycloplegic eye drops in a premature infant patient who was scheduled for laser photocoagulation under general anesthesia is reviewed in the light of the relevant literature. PMID:25207025

  12. Holmium laser use in the treatment of selected dry eye syndrome complications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kecik, Dariusz; Kecik, Tadeusz; Kasprzak, Jan; Kecik, Mariusz

    1996-03-01

    The authors present initial results of treatment selected complications of dry eye syndrome with holmium laser. The lacrimal puncta obliteration and coagulation of the corneal ulcer surface were done.

  13. Metabolic syndrome risk factors and dry eye syndrome: a Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ye-Lei; Cheng, Ya-Lan; Ren, Yu-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Ning; Shentu, Xing-Chao

    2016-01-01

    AIM To explore the relationship between metabolic risk factors and dry eye syndrome (DES). METHODS Retrieved studies on the association of metabolic syndrome risk factors (hypertension, hyperglycemia, obesity, and hyperlipidemia) and DES were collected from PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library in December 2015. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were pooled to evaluate the final relationship. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to diagnostic criteria of DES. RESULTS Nine cross-sectional studies and three case-control studies were included in this Meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that people with hypertension, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia had a higher risk of suffering from DES (P<0.05), especially the typical DES symptoms. On the other hand, obesity did not increase the risk of DES. CONCLUSION The present Meta-analysis suggests that all metabolic risk factors except obesity were risk factors for DES. PMID:27500114

  14. Time Course of Visual Attention in Infant Categorization of Cats versus Dogs: Evidence for a Head Bias as Revealed through Eye Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Paul C.; Doran, Matthew M.; Reiss, Jason E.; Hoffman, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous looking time studies have shown that infants use the heads of cat and dog images to form category representations for these animal classes. The present research used an eye-tracking procedure to determine the time course of attention to the head and whether it reflects a preexisting bias or online learning. Six- to 7-month-olds were…

  15. Compulsive Behavior and Eye Blink in Prader-Willi Syndrome: Neurochemical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holsen, Laura; Thompson, Travis

    2004-01-01

    Compulsive behavior in Prader-Willi syndrome is well-documented, though the neurochemical basis of these behaviors remains unknown. We studied a group of 16 people with Prader-Willi syndrome and a comparison group of 19 people with intellectual disability. Using eye-blink rate as an indirect measure of central nervous system dopamine, we found a…

  16. Disturbances of saccadic eye movements in monkeys during development of MPTP-induced syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tereshchenko, L V; Yudin, A G; Kuznetsov, YuB; Latanov, A V; Shul'govskii, V V

    2002-02-01

    Changes in the amplitude and dynamic parameters of purposive saccades were studied in monkeys with MPTP-induced Parkinson-like syndrome. Lengthening of saccade latency, decreased maximum velocity of eye movements, and impaired saccade accuracy were observed at the early stages MPTP-syndrome. Different disturbances of large- and small-scale saccades were found. PMID:12428290

  17. Eye-Movement Patterns of Readers with Down Syndrome during Sentence-Processing: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl; Zardan, Nathalie; Colas, Annie; Ghio, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Eye movements were examined to determine how readers with Down syndrome process sentences online. Participants were 9 individuals with Down syndrome ranging in reading level from Grades 1 to 3 and a reading-level-matched control group. For syntactically simple sentences, the pattern of reading times was similar for the two groups, with longer…

  18. A morphologic and morphometric analysis of the aqueous outflow system of the developing cat eye.

    PubMed

    Richardson, T M; Marks, M S; Ausprunk, D H; Miller, M

    1985-07-01

    The cellular and tissue changes accompanying the development and growth of the aqueous outflow system of the cat were investigated by quantitative light microscopy and by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. As in primates, the trabecular beams and sheets of the cat aqueous outflow system developed by reorganization of cells and extracellular matrix within the tissue filling the anterior chamber angle recess. Enlargement and coalescence of intercellular spaces gave rise to intertrabecular channels. From 3 to 9 days after birth, communications were established between the anterior chamber and intertrabecular spaces by perforation and resorption of tissue which initially covered the angle apex and appeared to be a peripheral extension of Descement's membrane and the corneal endothelium. Macrophage-like cells could be involved in this process. A rapid increase in the volume of the intertrabecular spaces and in the number of trabecular cells coincided with the opening of the trabecular meshwork to the anterior chamber. The trabecular meshwork grew 150-fold in volume from birth to adulthood, mainly as a result of a similar-fold expansion of its connective tissue components. The volume of the intertrabecular spaces increased 24-fold and trabecular cell number increased 14-fold during this same period. The disproportionate increase in volume of the various components of the trabecular meshwork was responsible for the decreased cell density and rarefaction displayed by this tissue as development progressed. Development of the aqueous outflow system of the cat is thus a complex, but highly co-ordinated, process, that depends on continued proliferation of cells and extracellular matrix, a progressive ordering of these components, and selective atrophy and removal of specific tissue components. PMID:4029285

  19. "Cat-gras" delusion: a unique misidentification syndrome and a novel explanation.

    PubMed

    Darby, R Ryan; Caplan, David

    2016-01-01

    ABSRACT Capgras syndrome is a distressing delusion found in a variety of neurological and psychiatric diseases where a patient believes that a family member, friend, or loved one has been replaced by an imposter. Patients recognize the physical resemblance of a familiar acquaintance but feel that the identity of that person is no longer the same. Here we describe a 73-year-old male with right posterior frontal and bilateral anterior-medial frontal damage from prior brain trauma with a similar delusion of an imposter replacing his pet cat. Misidentification syndromes for animals, as opposed to humans, have been rarely reported. Neuropsychological testing showed deficits in executive processing and memory retrieval with prominent intrusions and false positive responses. The delusional belief content in Capgras syndrome has been hypothesized to result from loss of an emotional or autonomic response to familiar stimuli, from theory of mind deficits, or from loss of self-environment distinctions. We instead propose that Capgras delusions result from a dysfunction in linking external stimuli with retrieved internal autobiographical memories pertaining to that object. This leads to an erroneously learned identity that persists as a specific delusional belief. PMID:26765326

  20. Membranous glomerulonephropathy and nephrotic syndrome associated with iatrogenic metallic mercury poisoning in a cat.

    PubMed

    Shull, R M; Stowe, C M; Osborne, C A; O'Leary, T P; Vernier, R L; Hammer, R F

    1981-02-01

    The nephrotic syndrome, characterized by nonselective proteinuria, hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and ascites, was observed in a 10-month-old male cat. Profound glomerular changes and renal tubular changes appear to have been induced by iatrogenic chronic exposure to metallic mercury originally contained in a rectal thermometer. Large concentrations of mercury were present in the kidneys, liver, spleen, and urine. Evaluation of glomeruli by immunofluorescent microscopy revealed interrupted granular deposition of immuno-globulin G and the third component of complement in glomerular capillary walls and the mesangium. Electron microscopic evaluation of glomeruli revealed diffuse alterations in glomerular basement membranes and visceral epithelial cells. Small electron dense deposits were observed in capillary walls, but they were not characteristic of immune complexes. The mechanism(s) responsible for the mercury induced glomerulonephropathy in this patient could not be determined on the basis of available data. PMID:7257162

  1. Clinical spectrum of eye malformations in four patients with Mowat-Wilson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bourchany, A; Giurgea, I; Thevenon, J; Goldenberg, A; Morin, G; Bremond-Gignac, D; Paillot, C; Lafontaine, P O; Thouvenin, D; Massy, J; Duncombe, A; Thauvin-Robinet, C; Masurel-Paulet, A; Chehadeh, S El; Huet, F; Bron, A; Creuzot-Garcher, C; Lyonnet, S; Faivre, L

    2015-07-01

    Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS) is a rare genetic syndrome characterized by a specific facial gestalt, intellectual deficiency, Hirschsprung disease and multiple congenital anomalies. Heterozygous mutations or deletions in the zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox2 gene (ZEB2) cause MWS. ZEB2 encodes for Smad-interacting protein 1, a transcriptional co-repressor involved in TGF-beta and BMP pathways and is strongly expressed in early stages of development in mice. Eye abnormalities have rarely been described in patients with this syndrome. Herein, we describe four patients (two males and two females; mean age 7 years) with MWS and eye malformations. Ocular anomalies included, iris/retinal colobomas, atrophy or absence of the optic nerve, hyphema, and deep refraction troubles, sometimes with severe visual consequences. All eye malformations were asymmetric and often unilateral and all eye segments were affected, similarly to the nine MWS cases with ophthalmological malformations previously reported (iris/chorioretinal/optic disc coloboma, optic nerve atrophy, retinal epithelium atrophy, cataract, and korectopia). In human embryo, ZEB2 is expressed in lens and neural retina. Using the present report and data from the literature, we set out to determine whether or not the presence of eye manifestations could be due to specific type or location of mutations. We concluded that the presence of eye malformations, although a rare feature in MWS, should be considered as a part of the clinical spectrum of the condition. PMID:25899569

  2. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachments associated to Stickler syndrome in a tertiary eye care center in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alshahrani, Saeed T; Ghazi, Nicola G; Al-Rashaed, Saba

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the clinical findings and outcomes of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in Stickler syndrome on affected and fellow eyes that underwent prophylactic retinopexy. Patients and methods Chart review of 70 eyes (62 patients). Incidence of RRD, postoperative visual acuity, and risk factors were evaluated. Results Twenty-two patients (35%) had RRD in the fellow eye, 37% of the eyes had cataract, 93% had macular detachment, 50% had proliferative vitreoretinopathy, and 41% had posterior vitreous detachment. Success rates were: 60% of patients after scleral buckling; 57.1% after pars plana vitrectomy; and 75% after combined scleral buckling and pars plana vitrectomy. Sixty-one (93.8%) of patients had successful surgery (including second surgery). Silicone oil tamponade was significantly associated with final anatomic outcome, with a protective odds ratio of 0.11 (P=0.027). Visual acuity improved in 54% of eyes and decreased in 5%. Statistically significant associations were present for eyes with final visual acuity ≥20/200, and total retinal detachment (P<0.001); preoperative cataract (P=0.023); and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (P<0.001). RRD developed in 16/44 eyes despite laser prophylaxis. Conclusion Prophylactic retinopexy was not beneficial for Stickler syndrome patients. Success of primary surgery for RRD remains low. The primary surgery should be vitrectomy combined with scleral buckling and silicone oil tamponade. PMID:26730175

  3. Eye Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergencies Cardiac Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Eye Emergencies Marfan syndrome significantly increases your risk of ... light-sensitive membrane in the back of the eye (the retina) from its supporting layers. It is ...

  4. The pink eye syndrome does not impair tuber fresh cut wound-related responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato tuber pink eye (PE) syndrome is a costly physiological disorder that results in corruption of the native periderm, susceptibility to infection, water vapor loss and associated shrinkage, roughened and cracked tuber surfaces, and various related blemishes and defects. PE results in aberra...

  5. Looking at Movies and Cartoons: Eye-Tracking Evidence from Williams Syndrome and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riby, D.; Hancock, P. J. B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Autism and Williams syndrome (WS) are neuro-developmental disorders associated with distinct social phenotypes. While individuals with autism show a lack of interest in socially important cues, individuals with WS often show increased interest in socially relevant information. Methods: The current eye-tracking study explores how…

  6. [Polaroid oscopic diagnosis of early corneal dystrophic changes in dry eye syndrome].

    PubMed

    Sokolovskiĭ, G A; Safonova, T N; Siplivyĭ, V I; Sosnovskiĭ, V V

    2010-01-01

    The current methods widely used in ophthalmology to examine patients to diagnose the dry eye syndrome and to trace the course of a process are invasive. Both the Norn test using stains and the Schirmer test with the filter paper strips being inserted are stimuli that affect the rate of tear generation, which misrepresents the data obtainable. The developed procedures for examining the eye in polarized light permit one to considerably reduce the invasiveness of patient examination. The study indicated the high efficiency and diagnostic value of the proposed procedures in the examination of patients with the dry eye syndrome. Polarization filters available in the standard kit of up-to-date slit lamps make it possible to use the proposed procedures without any modification of ophthalmological equipment in wide clinical practice. PMID:21105375

  7. Nitrergic ventro-medial medullary neurons activated during cholinergically induced active (rapid eye movement) sleep in the cat.

    PubMed

    Pose, I; Sampogna, S; Chase, M H; Morales, F R

    2011-01-13

    The rostral ventro-medial medullary reticular formation is a complex structure that is involved with a variety of motor functions. It contains glycinergic neurons that are activated during active (rapid eye movement (REM)) sleep (AS); these neurons appear to be responsible for the postsynaptic inhibition of motoneurons that occurs during this state. We have reported that neurons in this same region contain nitric oxide (NO) synthase and that they innervate brainstem motor pools. In the present study we examined the c-fos expression of these neurons after carbachol-induced active sleep (C-AS). Three control and four experimental cats were employed to identify c-fos expressing nitrergic neurons using immunocytochemical techniques to detect the Fos protein together with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-diaphorase activity. The classical neurotransmitter content of the nitrergic cells in this region was examined through the combination of immunocytochemical techniques for the detection of glutamate, glycine, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), tyrosine hydroxilase (TH) or GABA together with nNOS. During C-AS, there was a 1074% increase in the number of nitrergic neurons that expressed c-fos. These neurons did not contain glycine, ChAT, TH or GABA, but a subpopulation (15%) of them displayed glutamate-like immunoreactivity. Therefore, some of these neurons contain both an excitatory neurotransmitter (glutamate) and an excitatory neuromodulator (NO); the neurotransmitter content of the rest of them remains to be determined. Because some of the nitrergic neurons innervate brainstem motoneurons it is possible that they participate in the generation of tonic and excitatory phasic motor events that occur during AS. We also suggest that these nitrergic neurons may be involved in autonomic regulation during this state. In addition, because NO has trophic effects on target neurons, the present findings represent the

  8. Single-plane compensatory phase shift of head and eye oscillations in infantile nystagmus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Evangelos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Anastasopoulos, Dimitri

    2011-09-15

    A 43-year-old man with infantile nystagmus syndrome complained of "head tremor" that would occur during attempted reading. Three-dimensional, combined eye and head recordings were performed with the magnetic search coil technique in two conditions: 1) looking straight-ahead under photopic conditions without a particular attentional focus and 2) reading a simple text held one meter away. A mainly vertical-horizontal spontaneous nystagmus was evident in both conditions, whereas head nodding emerged in the second condition. The head oscillated only in the vertical plane and concomitant analysis of eye and head displacement revealed a counterphase, compensatory pattern of the first harmonic of the INS waveform. This was verified by the significant negative peak of the crosscorrelogram at zero lag. Eye-in-space (gaze) displacement during nystagmic oscillations was thereby reduced suggesting a central adaptive behavior that may have evolved to partly compensate for the abnormal eye movements during reading. PMID:21665224

  9. Iodide iontophoresis as a treatment for dry eye syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Horwath-Winter, J; Schmut, O; Haller-Schober, E-M; Gruber, A; Rieger, G

    2005-01-01

    Background/aims: Among the causes related to the development or perpetuation and aggravation of dry eye disease, oxidative reactions may have a role in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Antioxidants, such as iodide, have shown a strong effect in preventing the oxidative damage to constituents of the anterior part of the eye. In this clinical trial the effectiveness of iodide iontophoresis and iodide application without current in moderate to severe dry eye patients was compared. Methods: 16 patients were treated with iodide iontophoresis and 12 patients with iodide application without current for 10 days. Subjective improvement, frequency of artificial tear application, tear function parameters (break up time, Schirmer test without local anaesthesia), vital staining (fluorescein and rose bengal staining) as well as impression cytology of the bulbar conjunctiva were evaluated before treatment, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after treatment. Results: A reduction in subjective symptoms, frequency of artificial tear substitute application, and an improvement in certain tear film and ocular surface factors could be observed in both groups. A stronger positive influence was seen after application of iodide with current (iontophoresis), as observed in a distinct improvement in break up time, fluorescein and rose bengal staining, and in a longer duration of this effect compared with the non-current group. No significant change in Schirmer test results and impression cytology were observed in both groups. Conclusions: Iodide iontophoresis has been demonstrated to be a safe and well tolerated method of improving subjective and objective dry eye factors in patients with ocular surface disease. PMID:15615744

  10. Contribution of Social and Information-Processing Factors to Eye-Gaze Avoidance in Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Melissa M.; Abbeduto, Leonard; Schroeder, Susan; Serlin, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    The influence of social and information-processing demands on eye-gaze avoidance in individuals with fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, or typical development were examined by manipulating those demands in a structured-language task. Participants with fragile X syndrome exhibited more gaze avoidance than did those in the comparison groups, but no…

  11. Stockholm syndrome manifestation of Munchausen: an eye-catching misnomer.

    PubMed

    Spuijbroek, Esther J; Blom, Nicole; Braam, Arjan W; Kahn, David A

    2012-07-01

    A young woman hospitalized herself for a picture resembling Stockholm syndrome (becoming a willing captive in a cult, sympathetic to the leader). After a short period of time, it became clear that she had used a false identity and had invented the story, leading to diagnoses of both Munchausen syndrome and dissociative identity disorder. Despite a long period of treatment, she eventually suicided. The authors examine the coexistence of these two unusual disorders and their possible shared etiologies in this complex case. PMID:22805905

  12. Extended release of hyaluronic acid from hydrogel contact lenses for dry eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maulvi, Furqan A; Soni, Tejal G; Shah, Dinesh O

    2015-01-01

    Current dry eye treatment includes delivering comfort enhancing agents to the eye via eye drops, but low residence time of eye drops leads to low bioavailability. Frequent administration leads to incompliance in patients, so there is a great need for medical device such as contact lenses to treat dry eye. Studies in the past have demonstrated the efficacy of hyaluronic acid (HA) in the treatment of dry eyes using eye drops. In this paper, we present two methods to load HA in hydrogel contact lenses, soaking method and direct entrapment. The contact lenses were characterized by studying their optical and physical properties to determine their suitability as extended wear contact lenses. HA-laden hydrogel contact lenses prepared by soaking method showed release up to 48 h with acceptable physical and optical properties. Hydrogel contact lenses prepared by direct entrapment method showed significant sustained release in comparison to soaking method. HA entrapped in hydrogels resulted in reduction in % transmittance, sodium ion permeability and surface contact angle, while increase in % swelling. The impact on each of these properties was proportional to HA loading. The batch with 200-μg HA loading showed all acceptable values (parameters) for contact lens use. Results of cytotoxicity study indicated the safety of hydrogel contact lenses. In vivo pharmacokinetics studies in rabbit tear fluid showed dramatic increase in HA mean residence time and area under the curve with lenses in comparison to eye drop treatment. The study demonstrates the promising potential of delivering HA through contact lenses for the treatment of dry eye syndrome. PMID:26176811

  13. Efficacy of laser stimulation of the lacrimal gland and collagen punctual occlusion in the treatment of dry-eye syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switka-Wieclawska, Iwona; Kecik, Tadeusz; Ciszewska, Joanna

    1997-10-01

    In this study we would like to monitor the tear secretion during a 7 day period of temporary intracanalicular occlusion and laser stimulation of lacrimal gland in a small group of female suffering of dry eye syndrome.

  14. Outbreak of dysautonomia (Key-Gaskell syndrome) in a closed colony of pet cats.

    PubMed

    Cave, T A; Knottenbelt, C; Mellor, D J; Nunn, F; Nart, P; Reid, S W J

    2003-09-27

    Six of eight pet cats in a closed colony developed overt signs of dysautonomia over a period of seven days; two of them died and one was euthanased. Dysautonomia was confirmed histopathologically in two of these cats, and in the others the diagnosis was based on the characteristic clinical and radiographic findings. In the two apparently unaffected cats abnormal oesophageal motility was demonstrated by fluoroscopy, suggesting that there may be a subclinical form of the disease. The surviving cats had higher and more variable heart rates (mean 165 bpm) than the non-survivors (mean 121 bpm). PMID:14567662

  15. Williams syndrome and its cognitive profile: the importance of eye movements

    PubMed Central

    Van Herwegen, Jo

    2015-01-01

    People with Williams syndrome (WS), a rare neurodevelopmental disorder that is caused by a deletion on the long arm of chromosome 7, often show an uneven cognitive profile with participants performing better on language and face recognition tasks, in contrast to visuospatial and number tasks. Recent studies have shown that this specific cognitive profile in WS is a result of atypical developmental processes that interact with and affect brain development from infancy onward. Using examples from language, face processing, number, and visuospatial studies, this review evaluates current evidence from eye-tracking and developmental studies and argues that domain general processes, such as the ability to plan or execute saccades, influence the development of these domain-specific outcomes. Although more research on eye movements in WS is required, the importance of eye movements for cognitive development suggests a possible intervention pathway to improve cognitive abilities in this population. PMID:26082669

  16. Pathogenesis of the dry eye syndrome observed by optical coherence tomography in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kray, Oya; Lenz, Markus; Spöler, Felix; Kray, Stefan; Kurz, Heinrich

    2011-06-01

    Three dimensional optical coherence tomography (OCT) is introduced as a valuable tool to analyze the pathogenesis of corneal diseases. Here, OCT in combination with a novel in vitro model for the dry eye syndrome enables an improved understanding of the underlying damaging process of the ocular surface. En-face OCT projections indicate a deep structural damage of the epithelium and anterior stroma by osmotic forces.

  17. Efficacy of Several Therapeutic Agents in a Murine Model of Dry Eye Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Servet; Kulualp, Kadri

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we used 56 female BALB/c mice with induced dry eye syndrome to evaluate the therapeutic effects of formal saline (FS), sodium hyaluronate (SH), diclofenac sodium (DS), olopatadine (OP), retinoic acid (RA), fluoromethanole (FML), cyclosporine A (CsA), and doxycycline hyclate (DH). All subjects were kept in an evaporative 'dry eye cabinet' for the assessment of blink rate, tear production, tear break-up time, and impression cytology prior to (baseline) and during weeks 2, 4, and 6 of the study. The right eyes of all subjects were treated topically with 5 μL of the test agent twice daily during weeks 2 through 6. Impression cytology and tear break-up time differed between time points in all groups and differed between groups at weeks 4 and 6. Blink rate differed by time point only in the FS, FML, and DH groups. Tear production according to the phenol red cotton thread test differed by time point for all groups except RA, CsA, and DH and differed between groups only at week 6. Among the compounds tested in the present study, DS and CsA were the most effective therapeutic agents in our mouse model of dry eye syndrome; these agents likely exert their therapeutic effect through their antiinflammatory activity. PMID:27053565

  18. The Effect of Persistent Vortices on Boundary Layer Behavior in Turbulent Flow along a Kelvin-Stuart Cat's Eyes Wavy Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmedagic, Amir

    The vortex persistence theory predicts that the addition of a sufficiently strong, stationary vortex near a wall will reduce the wall fluxes in turbulent flows. To test the theory flow visualization and hot-wire experiments in a water tunnel at moderate Reynolds number reveal that a persistent vortex will relaminarize the boundary layer along wavy even in the presence of freestream turbulence. This result is consistent with Dawson who found similar boundary layer behavior using a von Karman separatrix shaped wavy wall, and Balle, who's results showed laminar wall heat fluxes under stationary vortices using the von Karman wavy wall. Based on Dawson's flow visualization, and following Balle's analogy, the separatrix of a Kelvin-Stuart Cat's Eyes flow pattern was replaced with a solid wavy wall to stabilize the vortices shed by an array of half-delta vortex generators just upstream of the leading edge of the wavy wall. The correct angle of the array allows for persistent vortices to traverse along the grooves of the wavy wall, and displacing the array even slightly yields different turbulent fluxes. The present flow visualization and hot-wire anemometry results suggest that using the cat's eyes wavy wall gives better relaminarization properties than the von Karman shaped wavy wall, which can have many real world applications.

  19. Comparison of Two Methods for Composite Score Generation in Dry Eye Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    See, Craig; Bilonick, Richard A.; Feuer, William; Galor, Anat

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To compare two methods of composite score generation in dry eye syndrome (DES). Methods. Male patients seen in the Miami Veterans Affairs eye clinic with normal eyelid, corneal, and conjunctival anatomy were recruited to participate in the study. Patients filled out the Dry Eye Questionnaire 5 (DEQ5) and underwent measurement of tear film parameters. DES severity scores were generated by independent component analysis (ICA) and latent class analysis (LCA). Results. A total of 247 men were included in the study. Mean age was 69 years (SD 9). Using ICA analysis, osmolarity was found to carry the largest weight, followed by eyelid vascularity and meibomian orifice plugging. Conjunctival injection and tear breakup time (TBUT) carried the lowest weights. Using LCA analysis, TBUT was found to be best at discriminating healthy from diseased eyes, followed closely by Schirmer's test. DEQ5, eyelid vascularity, and conjunctival injection were the poorest at discrimination. The adjusted correlation coefficient between the two generated composite scores was 0.63, indicating that the shared variance was less than 40%. Conclusions. Both ICA and LCA produced composite scores for dry eye severity, with weak to moderate agreement; however, agreement for the relative importance of single diagnostic tests was poor between the two methods. PMID:23942971

  20. Eyes on MEGDEL: distinctive basal ganglia involvement in dystonia deafness syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wortmann, Saskia B; van Hasselt, Peter M; Barić, Ivo; Burlina, Alberto; Darin, Niklas; Hörster, Friederike; Coker, Mahmut; Ucar, Sema Kalkan; Krumina, Zita; Naess, Karin; Ngu, Lock H; Pronicka, Ewa; Riordan, Gilian; Santer, Rene; Wassmer, Evangeline; Zschocke, Johannes; Schiff, Manuel; de Meirleir, Linda; Alowain, Mohammed A; Smeitink, Jan A M; Morava, Eva; Kozicz, Tamas; Wevers, Ron A; Wolf, Nicole I; Willemsen, Michel A

    2015-04-01

    Pediatric movement disorders are still a diagnostic challenge, as many patients remain without a (genetic) diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pattern recognition can lead to the diagnosis. MEGDEL syndrome (3-MethylGlutaconic aciduria, Deafness, Encephalopathy, Leigh-like syndrome MIM #614739) is a clinically and biochemically highly distinctive dystonia deafness syndrome accompanied by 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, severe developmental delay, and progressive spasticity. Mutations are found in SERAC1, encoding a phosphatidylglycerol remodeling enzyme essential for both mitochondrial function and intracellular cholesterol trafficking. Based on the homogenous phenotype, we hypothesized an accordingly characteristic MRI pattern. A total of 43 complete MRI studies of 30 patients were systematically reevaluated. All patients presented a distinctive brain MRI pattern with five characteristic disease stages affecting the basal ganglia, especially the putamen. In stage 1, T2 signal changes of the pallidum are present. In stage 2, swelling of the putamen and caudate nucleus is seen. The dorsal putamen contains an "eye" that shows no signal alteration and (thus) seems to be spared during this stage of the disease. It later increases, reflecting progressive putaminal involvement. This "eye" was found in all patients with MEGDEL syndrome during a specific age range, and has not been reported in other disorders, making it pathognomonic for MEDGEL and allowing diagnosis based on MRI findings. PMID:25642805

  1. Surgical treatment of dry eye syndrome: conjunctival graft of the minor salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Güerrissi, Jorge Orlando; Belmonte, Javier

    2004-01-01

    Despite the availability of efficient tear substitutes, many patients with dry eye syndrome experience severe corneal injuries and a subsequent loss of vision. Surgical techniques using mayor salivary glands to provide a substitute for tears have been reported; with this technique the drainage of saliva goes into the conjunctival fornix, permitting corneal and conjunctival humidification. The authors describe a new surgical approach in which minor salivary glands are autotransplanted into the conjunctival fornix by means of a graft of the intraoral mucosa-transporting salivary glands. This approach was used in a 56-year-old woman with a 2-year history of refractory and pharmacologically untreatable dry eye syndrome caused by Sjögren's syndrome. The right eye had more severe corneal and conjunctival lesions than did the contralateral one, so the treatment was planned in the right eye only. A weekly follow-up during the first 6 months confirmed the significant improvement of dry eye symptoms in the surgically treated eye. Three months after surgery, a biopsy was performed in the minor salivary gland graft, and the histologic findings revealed the presence of glandular acinus, duct with mucin content, and lymphocyte infiltration. The significant improvement obtained in this patient suggests that the secretion from the grafted salivary minor glands was better in promoting homeostasis of the ocular surface than are artificial tears. This may be explained by: (1) The lacrimal and salivary secretions contain biologically active constituents that may protect from infection and promote normal growth epithelium; (2) The secreted mucin is thought to coat the epithelial surface, reducing the high surface tension of the eye wetted by aqueous tears; (3) The thick secretions of the minor gland might act in reducing the evaporation of the underlying tear layer and form a hydrophobic barrier along the lid margin that can retain the lid margin tear string and prevent its flow onto

  2. Severity of dry eye syndrome is related to anti-dsDNA autoantibody in systemic lupus erythematosus patients without secondary Sjogren syndrome: A cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Alexander; Chen, Hung-Ta; Hwang, Yih-Hsiou; Chen, Yi-Tsun; Hsiao, Ching-Hsi; Chen, Hung-Chi

    2016-07-01

    There are as many as one-third of the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients who suffer from dry eye syndrome. To this date, dry eye syndrome in SLE patients is believed to be caused by secondary Sjogren syndrome (sSS). However, there is increasing evidence for possible independency of dry eye syndrome and sSS in patients suffering from autoimmune diseases. The purpose of this retrospective observational case series was to identify SLE patients without sSS who had dry eye syndrome, examine the correlation of different autoantibodies and dry eye severity, and determine the cause of dry eye in these patients.We included 49 consecutive SLE patients with dry eye who visited our dry eye clinic. In order to rule out sSS, these patients were all negative for anti-Sjogren's-syndrome-related antigen A and B (anti-SSA/SSB) and had no oral symptoms. Each patient's lupus activity was determined by serological tests including antidouble-stranded DNA antibody (anti-dsDNA), complement levels (C3, C4), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and antinuclear antibody (ANA). Severity of dry eye syndrome was determined by corneal sensation (KSen), superficial punctuate keratopathy (SPK), Schirmer-I test (Schirmer), and tear film break-up time (TBUT). The autoantibodies and the dry eye parameters in each group were tested using the χ test or the Mann-Whitney U test for normally distributed or skewed data, respectively.The anti-dsDNA showed significant correlations with KSen (P < 0.001), SPK (P < 0.001), and Schirmer (P = 0.042) but not TBUT. The C3 showed significant correlations with KSen (P < 0.001), SPK (P < 0.001), and Schirmer (P = 0.014) but not TBUT. No correlations of dry eye parameters were observed between C4, ESR, and ANA.The major finding of this study was that the severity of dry eye syndrome in SLE patients without sSS was strongly correlated with anti-dsDNA and C3 but not with C4, ESR, and ANA. PMID:27428227

  3. Severity of dry eye syndrome is related to anti-dsDNA autoantibody in systemic lupus erythematosus patients without secondary Sjogren syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Alexander; Chen, Hung-Ta; Hwang, Yih-Hsiou; Chen, Yi-Tsun; Hsiao, Ching-Hsi; Chen, Hung-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There are as many as one-third of the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients who suffer from dry eye syndrome. To this date, dry eye syndrome in SLE patients is believed to be caused by secondary Sjogren syndrome (sSS). However, there is increasing evidence for possible independency of dry eye syndrome and sSS in patients suffering from autoimmune diseases. The purpose of this retrospective observational case series was to identify SLE patients without sSS who had dry eye syndrome, examine the correlation of different autoantibodies and dry eye severity, and determine the cause of dry eye in these patients. We included 49 consecutive SLE patients with dry eye who visited our dry eye clinic. In order to rule out sSS, these patients were all negative for anti-Sjogren's-syndrome-related antigen A and B (anti-SSA/SSB) and had no oral symptoms. Each patient's lupus activity was determined by serological tests including antidouble-stranded DNA antibody (anti-dsDNA), complement levels (C3, C4), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and antinuclear antibody (ANA). Severity of dry eye syndrome was determined by corneal sensation (KSen), superficial punctuate keratopathy (SPK), Schirmer-I test (Schirmer), and tear film break-up time (TBUT). The autoantibodies and the dry eye parameters in each group were tested using the χ2 test or the Mann–Whitney U test for normally distributed or skewed data, respectively. The anti-dsDNA showed significant correlations with KSen (P < 0.001), SPK (P < 0.001), and Schirmer (P = 0.042) but not TBUT. The C3 showed significant correlations with KSen (P < 0.001), SPK (P < 0.001), and Schirmer (P = 0.014) but not TBUT. No correlations of dry eye parameters were observed between C4, ESR, and ANA. The major finding of this study was that the severity of dry eye syndrome in SLE patients without sSS was strongly correlated with anti-dsDNA and C3 but not with C4, ESR, and ANA. PMID:27428227

  4. Eye Gaze During Face Processing in Children and Adolescents with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Bronwyn; Debbane, Martin; Ottet, Marie-Christine; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Zesiger, Pascal; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Eliez, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurogenetic syndrome with high risk for the development of psychiatric disorder. There is interest in identifying reliable markers for measuring and monitoring socio-emotional impairments in 22q11DS during development. The current study investigated eye gaze as a potential marker during a…

  5. The effects of feral cats on insular wildlife: the Club-Med syndrome

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steve C.; Danner, Raymond M.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic cats have been introduced to many of the world‘s islands where they have been particularly devastating to insular wildlife which, in most cases, evolved in the absence of terrestrial predatory mammals and feline diseases. We review the effects of predation, feline diseases, and the life history characteristics of feral cats and their prey that have contributed to the extirpation and extinction of many insular vertebrate species. The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is a persistent land-based zoonotic pathogen hosted by cats that is known to cause mortality in several insular bird species. It also enters marine environments in cat feces where it can cause the mortality of marine mammals. Feral cats remain widespread on islands throughout the world and are frequently subsidized in colonies which caretakers often assert have little negative effect on native wildlife. However, population genetics, home range, and movement studies all suggest that there are no locations on smaller islands where these cats cannot penetrate within two generations. While the details of past vertebrate extinctions were rarely documented during contemporary time, a strong line of evidence is emerging that the removal of feral cats from islands can rapidly facilitate the recolonization of extirpated species, particularly seabirds. Islands offer unique, mostly self-contained ecosystems in which to conduct controlled studies of the effects of feral cats on wildlife, having implications for continental systems. The response of terrestrial wildlife such as passerine birds, small mammals, and herptiles still needs more thorough long-term monitoring and documentation after the removal of feral cats.

  6. Effect of Eye Mask on Sleep Quality in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Daneshmandi, Mohammad; Neiseh, Fatemeh; SadeghiShermeh, Mehdi; Ebadi, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep is one of the basic human needs and sleep deprivation causes nu-merous adverse effects on the human body and mind. Due to reduced sleep quality in patients with acute coronary syndrome, this study was carried out to determine the effect of eye mask on sleep quality in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Methods: In this two-group controlled clinical trial, sixty patients with acute coronary syndrome in the coronary care units of Baqiyatallah Hospital in Tehran in 2010 were selected by purposeful sampling method and randomly allocated to two groups of case and control. In the case group, in the second night stay, the intervention of eye mask was done per night and by using the Petersburg's sleep quality index; sleep quality was evaluated during and at the end of hospitalization. Then data were analyzed by paired t-test, independent t-test, Spearman and Pearson's correlation coefficient and SPSS software version 19. Results: Total sleep quality score of the case group was significantly decreased after intervention (4.86 ± 1.88) from before intervention (10.46 ± 4.09) (p < 0.000). In addi-tion, total score of sleep quality after intervention in the case group (4.86 ± 1.88) was significant different from the control group (8.43 ± 1.97) (p < 0.005). Conclusion: Using eye mask, as an economical and uncomplicated method, can improve sleep quality in patients with acute coronary syndrome in the coronary care units and can be used as an alternative method of treatment instead of drug therapy. PMID:25276688

  7. Chronologic Presentation of a Severe Case of Progressive Hemifacial Atrophy (Parry-Romberg Syndrome) with the Loss of an Eye

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Mesut; Sel Yilmaz, Ceyda; Kurtaran, Hanifi; Gunduz, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Progressive hemifacial atrophy, also known as Parry-Romberg syndrome, is a slowly advancing degenerative disease that mostly affects the cutaneous, subcutaneous fatty tissue, muscle tissue, and bone structures on one side of the face. We describe the chronological progression of this very rare syndrome from early childhood until adulthood in a patient who developed severe atrophy and lost one eye. We also discuss the aetiology and pathophysiology of this syndrome. PMID:25506017

  8. Prevalence of eye signs in congenital rubella syndrome in South India: A role for population screening

    PubMed Central

    Vijayalakshmi, P; Rajasundari, T Amala; Prasad, Noela Marie; Prakash, S Karthik; Narendran, Kalpana; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Muthukkaruppan, V R; Lalitha, Prajna; Brown, David W G

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) resulting from maternal rubella infection, especially in the first trimester, affects an estimated 100 000 infants each year worldwide. Immunisation has reduced its occurrence in the developed world, though it remains a problem in countries with poor immunisation coverage. This population‐based study was aimed at screening children below 5 years of age for ocular signs suspicious of CRS. Methods Suspected CRS cases were recruited from hospital and outreach services of the Aravind Eye Care System over a 24‐month period. Clinical confirmation was based on the fulfilment of the World Health Organization (WHO) definition, and laboratory confirmation was based on a positive test for IgM antibody. Results Children under 5 years of age (n = 51 548) with ocular complaints were screened for eye signs suspicious of CRS; CRS compatible signs were detected in 1.92% (1090) children. Of these suspects (299), 27.42% were subsequently confirmed clinically according to WHO definition, and (46) 4.2% were serologically (Laboratory) confirmed. Of all the eye signs evaluated for screening, cataracts were the most sensitive (80.43%). Conclusions Cataracts among children have a high sensitivity for detecting CRS in India. It is the only clinical eye finding that has a high enough sensitivity and specificity to be useful as a screening tool for CRS. PMID:17947267

  9. Dry Eye Syndrome in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: Prevalence, Etiology, and Clinical Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinyuan; Zhao, Lin; Deng, Shijing; Sun, Xuguang; Wang, Ningli

    2016-01-01

    There has been substantial progress in our understanding of the ocular surface system/lacrimal function unit in the past 15 years. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, more commonly referred to as dry eye syndrome (DES), is the most frequently encountered condition and diabetes mellitus (DM) has been identified as one of the leading causes of DES. Poor glycemic control affects both the anterior and the posterior segments of the eye and increasing prevalence of diabetes-associated DES (DMDES) has been reported in recent years. The pathogenesis and specific features of DMDES remain uncertain and interventions are limited to those used in DES. This review outlines the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and the current preventive and treatment strategies for diabetes-related DES. PMID:27213053

  10. [Comparison of local acetylcysteine and artificial tears in the management of dry eye syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pokupec, Rajko; Petricek, Igor; Sikić, Jakov; Bradić, Mirna; Popović-Suić, Smiljka; Petricek, Goranka

    2005-01-01

    Dry eye syndrome is a common clinical entity causing difficulties to many people, especially the elderly. Standard substitution therapy with artificial tears may frequently prove inadequate, thus any new treatment modality is highly welcome. The syndrome implies lacrimal hyperosmolality, which in turn results in mucus accumulation in the conjunctival sac causing additional irritation. Locally applied acetylcysteine, a mucolytic, regulates mucus secretion and reduces mucus accumulation. The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of artificial tear therapy and therapy with local acetylcysteine. The study included 32 patients with the symptoms and signs of dry eye attending our department between March 20 and May 9, 2003. All study patients were on long-term substitution therapy with artificial tears. Upon evaluation of subjective discomforts and objective signs, the patients were switched from artificial tear therapy (Isopto-Tears, Alcon, with polyvinyl alcohol as active ingredient) to therapy with locally applied acetylcysteine (Brunac, Bruschettini). All parameters were re-evaluated at 2-week control visit. Thirty of 32 patients (94%) completed the study with control visit. Of these, 18 (60%) patients reported reduction of subjective discomforts, ten (33%) patients observed no change, and two (7%) patients experienced more discomforts with acetylcysteine than with artificial tear therapy. On objective sign evaluation, 12 (40%) patients showed less discomforts, unchanged condition was recorded in 13 (43%) patients, and five (17%) patients had more discomforts as compared with artificial tear therapy. A statistically significant difference (p=0.05) between artificial tear therapy and acetylcysteine therapy was found for the subjective symptom score but not for the objective sign score. Therapy with acetylcysteine proved more efficient than artificial tears in reducing subjective symptoms but had no effect on the objective signs of dry eye syndrome. The

  11. [New method for treatment of chronic blepharitis associated with dry eye syndrome].

    PubMed

    Safonova, T N; Zabegaĭlo, A O; Fedorov, A A; Lukisheva, O V

    2014-01-01

    A new combined method for treatment of chronic blepharitis associated with dry eye syndrome is developed. A total of 25 patients were enrolled. The treatment implied the use of artificial tears, Restasis, and Blephasteam spectacle frame. The course included 20 procedures on daily basis. The monitoring period was 1 year. A pronounced anti-inflammatory, reparative, and moistening effect as well as stabilization of the precorneal film was achieved in short time. Owing to the combined approach, negative side effects (such as burning, conjunctival irritation, and fluctuating vision) were minimized. Repeated treatment courses maintained the positive therapeutic effect and prolongated the remission. PMID:24684070

  12. Syndrome of arachnodactyly, disturbance of cranial ossification, protruding eyes, feeding difficulties, and mental retardation

    SciTech Connect

    Kosztolanyi, G.; Weisenbach, J.; Mehes, K.

    1995-09-11

    We have evaluated an infant with a striking combination of craniofacial anomalies, arachnodactyly, and severe developmental failure. She died at the age of 5 months during a recurrent apneic episode. She also had protruding eyes, downward slant of palpebral fissures, short upturned nose, midface hypoplasia, micrognathia, extreme underdevelopment of the epiglottis, and severe feeding difficulties. The patient closely resembled four other previously reported patients. It is suggested that these five patients represent the same malformation syndrome, a well-recognizable separate entity. Our patient also had a pericentric inversion of chromosome 10; a possible association of this with the phenotype cannot be excluded. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. Contrasting expressions of aggressive behavior released by lesions of the central nucleus of the amygdala during wakefulness and rapid eye movement sleep without atonia in cats.

    PubMed

    Zagrodzka, J; Hedberg, C E; Mann, G L; Morrison, A R

    1998-06-01

    Whether damage to the central nucleus of the amygdala (Ace) contributes to the predatorylike attack sometimes observed in rapid eye movement sleep without atonia (REM-A), created in cats by bilateral pontine lesions, was examined. Such lesions eliminate REM sleep skeletal muscle atonia and release elaborate behavior. Unilateral damage to the Ace alone increased affective defensive aggressive behavior toward humans and conspecifics without altering predatory behavior in wakefulness. Pontine lesions added at loci normally not leading to aggression induced predatorylike attacks in REM-A as well as the waking affective defense. Alterations of autonomic activity, the absence of relevant environmental stimuli in REM-A, or both may explain the state-related differences. PMID:9676975

  14. A randomized controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acids in dry eye syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Rahul; Kumar, Prachi; Kumar, Manjushrii; Mehra, Namrata; Mishra, Anurag

    2013-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the role of dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids in dry eye syndrome. METHODS A prospective, interventional, placebo controlled, double blind randomized trial was done at two referral eye centers. Two hundred and sixty-four eyes of patients with dry eye were randomized to receive one capsule (500mg) two times a day containing 325mg EPA and 175mg DHA for 3 months (omega-3 group). The omega-3 group was compared to a group of patients (n=254) who received a placebo (placebo group). There were 4 patient visits (at baseline, 1 month, 2 months and 3 months). On each visit, recording of corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), slit lamp examination and questionnaire based symptom evaluation and scoring was done. A symptomatic score of 0-6 was mild, 6.1-12 moderate and 12.1-18 severe dry eye. Response to intervention was monitored by routine tear function tests like Schirmer I test, tear film break-up time (TBUT), Rose Bengal staining and most notably, conjunctival impression cytology. RESULTS Sixty-five percent of patients in the omega-3 group and 33% of patients in placebo group had significant improvement in symptoms at 3 months (P=0.005). There was a significant change in both Schirmer's test value and TBUT values in the omega-3 group (P<0.001), both comparisons. However, there was a larger drift in TBUT values in omega-3 than the placebo group, in comparison to Schirmer's test values. The mean TBUT score was 2.54±2.34 in the omega-3 group and 0.13±0.16 in placebo group, respectively. The mean reduction in symptom score in omega-3 group was 2.02±0.96 as compared to 0.48±0.22 in placebo group (P<0.001). Despite a slight increase mean score, the Schirmer scores did not correlate well with symptomatic improvement. CONCLUSION Omega-3 fatty acids have a definite role for dry eye syndrome. The benefit seems to be more marked in conditions such as blepharitis and meibomian gland disease. The role of omega fatty acids in tear production and

  15. Unraveling the Pathophysiology of Sjogren Syndrome-Associated Dry Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Cuong Q.; Peck, Ammon B.

    2010-01-01

    Sjogren syndrome (SS) is one of the most common autoimmune diseases. Early clinical manifestations of SS are primarily decreased tear and saliva secretion, leading to dry eye and dry mouth syndromes, but in its later stages, it can become systemic, even resulting in B cell lymphomas. The use of new animal models, coupled with new technologies, is providing exciting insights into the pathogenesis, genetic predisposition, and, possibly, early diagnosis of SS. This article reviews newly described features of SS identified in experimental animal models and their relationship to human disease. New technologies, such as genomics and proteomics, may permit identification of potential candidate genes and biomarkers for disease diagnosis. Current studies using appropriate animal models in parallel with studies of human subjects is rapidly establishing a foundation for new intervention strategies that go beyond merely treating symptoms. PMID:19214349

  16. Making the diagnosis of Sjögren’s syndrome in patients with dry eye

    PubMed Central

    Beckman, Kenneth A; Luchs, Jodi; Milner, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a chronic and progressive systemic autoimmune disease that often presents initially with symptoms of dry eye and dry mouth. Symptoms are often nonspecific and develop gradually, making diagnosis difficult. Patients with dry eye complaints warrant a step-wise evaluation for possible SS. Initial evaluation requires establishment of a dry eye diagnosis using a combination of patient questionnaires and objective ocular tests, including inflammatory biomarker testing. Additional work-up using the Schirmer test and tear film break-up time can differentiate between aqueous-deficient dry eye (ADDE) and evaporative dry eye. The presence of ADDE should trigger further work-up to differentiate between SS-ADDE and non-SS-ADDE. There are numerous non-ocular manifestations of SS, and monitoring for SS-related comorbid findings can aid in diagnosis, ideally in collaboration with a rheumatologist. The clinical work-up of SS can involve a variety of tests, including tear function tests, serological tests for autoantibody biomarkers, minor salivary gland and lacrimal gland biopsies. Examination of classic SS biomarkers (SS-A/Ro, SS-B/La, antinuclear antibody, and rheumatoid factor) is a convenient and non-invasive way of evaluating patients for the presence of SS, even years prior to confirmed diagnosis, although not all SS patients will test positive, particularly those with early disease. Recently, newer biomarkers have been identified, including autoantibodies to salivary gland protein-1, parotid secretory protein, and carbonic anhydrase VI, and may allow for earlier diagnosis of SS. A diagnostic test kit is commercially available (Sjö®), incorporating these new biomarkers along with the classic autoantibodies. This advanced test has been shown to identify SS patients who previously tested negative against traditional biomarkers only. All patients with clinically significant ADDE should be considered for serological assessment for SS, given the

  17. Making the diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome in patients with dry eye.

    PubMed

    Beckman, Kenneth A; Luchs, Jodi; Milner, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic and progressive systemic autoimmune disease that often presents initially with symptoms of dry eye and dry mouth. Symptoms are often nonspecific and develop gradually, making diagnosis difficult. Patients with dry eye complaints warrant a step-wise evaluation for possible SS. Initial evaluation requires establishment of a dry eye diagnosis using a combination of patient questionnaires and objective ocular tests, including inflammatory biomarker testing. Additional work-up using the Schirmer test and tear film break-up time can differentiate between aqueous-deficient dry eye (ADDE) and evaporative dry eye. The presence of ADDE should trigger further work-up to differentiate between SS-ADDE and non-SS-ADDE. There are numerous non-ocular manifestations of SS, and monitoring for SS-related comorbid findings can aid in diagnosis, ideally in collaboration with a rheumatologist. The clinical work-up of SS can involve a variety of tests, including tear function tests, serological tests for autoantibody biomarkers, minor salivary gland and lacrimal gland biopsies. Examination of classic SS biomarkers (SS-A/Ro, SS-B/La, antinuclear antibody, and rheumatoid factor) is a convenient and non-invasive way of evaluating patients for the presence of SS, even years prior to confirmed diagnosis, although not all SS patients will test positive, particularly those with early disease. Recently, newer biomarkers have been identified, including autoantibodies to salivary gland protein-1, parotid secretory protein, and carbonic anhydrase VI, and may allow for earlier diagnosis of SS. A diagnostic test kit is commercially available (Sjö(®)), incorporating these new biomarkers along with the classic autoantibodies. This advanced test has been shown to identify SS patients who previously tested negative against traditional biomarkers only. All patients with clinically significant ADDE should be considered for serological assessment for SS, given the

  18. Brown Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Does Brown syndrome cause eye problems besides abnormal eye movements? Some children with Brown syndrome have poor binocular ... In the congenital form of Brown syndrome, the eye movement problem is usually constant and unlikely to resolve ...

  19. A new autosomal dominant eye and lung syndrome linked to mutations in TIMP3 gene

    PubMed Central

    Meunier, Isabelle; Bocquet, Béatrice; Labesse, Gilles; Zeitz, Christina; Defoort-Dhellemmes, Sabine; Lacroux, Annie; Mauget-Faysse, Martine; Drumare, Isabelle; Gamez, Anne-Sophie; Mathieu, Cyril; Marquette, Virginie; Sagot, Lola; Dhaenens, Claire-Marie; Arndt, Carl; Carroll, Patrick; Remy-Jardin, Martine; Cohen, Salomon Yves; Sahel, José-Alain; Puech, Bernard; Audo, Isabelle; Mrejen, Sarah; Hamel, Christian P.

    2016-01-01

    To revisit the autosomal dominant Sorsby fundus dystrophy (SFD) as a syndromic condition including late-onset pulmonary disease. We report clinical and imaging data of ten affected individuals from 2 unrelated families with SFD and carrying heterozygous TIMP3 mutations (c.572A > G, p.Y191C, exon 5, in family 1 and c.113C > G, p.S38C, exon 1, in family 2). In family 1, all SFD patients older than 50 (two generations) had also a severe emphysema, despite no history of smoking or asthma. In the preceding generation, the mother died of pulmonary emphysema and she was blind after the age of 50. Her two great-grandsons (<20 years), had abnormal Bruch Membrane thickness, a sign of eye disease. In family 2, eye and lung diseases were also associated in two generations, both occurred later, and lung disease was moderate (bronchiectasis). This is the first report of a syndromic SFD in line with the mouse model uncovering the role of TIMP3 in human lung morphogenesis and functions. The TIMP3 gene should be screened in familial pulmonary diseases with bronchiectasis, associated with a medical history of visual loss. In addition, SFD patients should be advised to avoid tobacco consumption, to practice sports, and to undergo regular pulmonary examinations. PMID:27601084

  20. A new autosomal dominant eye and lung syndrome linked to mutations in TIMP3 gene.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Isabelle; Bocquet, Béatrice; Labesse, Gilles; Zeitz, Christina; Defoort-Dhellemmes, Sabine; Lacroux, Annie; Mauget-Faysse, Martine; Drumare, Isabelle; Gamez, Anne-Sophie; Mathieu, Cyril; Marquette, Virginie; Sagot, Lola; Dhaenens, Claire-Marie; Arndt, Carl; Carroll, Patrick; Remy-Jardin, Martine; Cohen, Salomon Yves; Sahel, José-Alain; Puech, Bernard; Audo, Isabelle; Mrejen, Sarah; Hamel, Christian P

    2016-01-01

    To revisit the autosomal dominant Sorsby fundus dystrophy (SFD) as a syndromic condition including late-onset pulmonary disease. We report clinical and imaging data of ten affected individuals from 2 unrelated families with SFD and carrying heterozygous TIMP3 mutations (c.572A > G, p.Y191C, exon 5, in family 1 and c.113C > G, p.S38C, exon 1, in family 2). In family 1, all SFD patients older than 50 (two generations) had also a severe emphysema, despite no history of smoking or asthma. In the preceding generation, the mother died of pulmonary emphysema and she was blind after the age of 50. Her two great-grandsons (<20 years), had abnormal Bruch Membrane thickness, a sign of eye disease. In family 2, eye and lung diseases were also associated in two generations, both occurred later, and lung disease was moderate (bronchiectasis). This is the first report of a syndromic SFD in line with the mouse model uncovering the role of TIMP3 in human lung morphogenesis and functions. The TIMP3 gene should be screened in familial pulmonary diseases with bronchiectasis, associated with a medical history of visual loss. In addition, SFD patients should be advised to avoid tobacco consumption, to practice sports, and to undergo regular pulmonary examinations. PMID:27601084

  1. Intraoperative and Immediate Postoperative Outcomes of Cataract Surgery using Phacoemulsification in Eyes with and without Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Arun K; Shankar, P Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Background: To compare the intraoperative and immediate postoperative behavior and complications in eyes with pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome with eyes having senile cataract without PEX during cataract surgery using phacoemulsification (PKE). Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, 68 eyes of 68 patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 (test) comprised 34 eyes with immature senile cataract with PEX and Group 2 (control) included 34 eyes with immature senile cataract without PEX and any coexisting ocular pathology. Phacoemulsification (modern cataract surgery) was performed on both groups through stop and chop technique and comparative analysis of the incidence of intraoperative and immediate postoperative complications was made. Results: There was no significant difference in rates of intraoperative complications between PEX (2.9%) and Control (0%) group. The mean pupil diameter was significantly smaller in Group 1 (p<0.001). No eye in either group had phacodonesis. 58.8% of eyes in Group 1 and 29.4% in Group 2 had a harder cataract (nuclear sclerosis) ≥ grade 3 (p=0.017). PKE was performed in all eyes with cataract in both groups. Intraoperative complication (zonular dialysis (dehiscence) was encountered in only 2.9% (1 case) of eyes with PEX. PC (posterior capsule) tear (rent) with vitreous loss was seen in 2.9% eyes of Group 1 and none in Group 2. Postoperatively, IOP (intraocular pressure) and aqueous flare response were comparable between the groups. Significantly higher inflammatory cell response was observed in Group 1 (p=0.014). BCVA (best corrected visual acuity) using Snellen chart with pinhole on postoperative day1 was significantly better in the control group compared to the group with PEX (p=0.027). Conclusion: Phacoemulsification can be safely performed by experienced hands in cataractous eyes with PEX. The incidence of intraoperative and immediate post-operative complications in eyes with PEX was not significantly different

  2. Quantifying naturalistic social gaze in fragile X syndrome using a novel eye tracking paradigm.

    PubMed

    Hall, Scott S; Frank, Michael C; Pusiol, Guido T; Farzin, Faraz; Lightbody, Amy A; Reiss, Allan L

    2015-10-01

    A hallmark behavioral feature of fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the propensity for individuals with the syndrome to exhibit significant impairments in social gaze during interactions with others. However, previous studies employing eye tracking methodology to investigate this phenomenon have been limited to presenting static photographs or videos of social interactions rather than employing a real-life social partner. To improve upon previous studies, we used a customized eye tracking configuration to quantify the social gaze of 51 individuals with FXS and 19 controls, aged 14-28 years, while they engaged in a naturalistic face-to-face social interaction with a female experimenter. Importantly, our control group was matched to the FXS group on age, developmental functioning, and degree of autistic symptomatology. Results showed that participants with FXS spent significantly less time looking at the face and had shorter episodes (and longer inter-episodes) of social gaze than controls. Regression analyses indicated that communication ability predicted higher levels of social gaze in individuals with FXS, but not in controls. Conversely, degree of autistic symptoms predicted lower levels of social gaze in controls, but not in individuals with FXS. Taken together, these data indicate that naturalistic social gaze in FXS can be measured objectively using existing eye tracking technology during face-to-face social interactions. Given that impairments in social gaze were specific to FXS, this paradigm could be employed as an objective and ecologically valid outcome measure in ongoing Phase II/Phase III clinical trials of FXS-specific interventions. PMID:26079280

  3. A clinical study on "Computer vision syndrome" and its management with Triphala eye drops and Saptamrita Lauha.

    PubMed

    Gangamma, M P; Poonam; Rajagopala, Manjusha

    2010-04-01

    American Optometric Association (AOA) defines computer vision syndrome (CVS) as "Complex of eye and vision problems related to near work, which are experienced during or related to computer use". Most studies indicate that Video Display Terminal (VDT) operators report more eye related problems than non-VDT office workers. The causes for the inefficiencies and the visual symptoms are a combination of individual visual problems and poor office ergonomics. In this clinical study on "CVS", 151 patients were registered, out of whom 141 completed the treatment. In Group A, 45 patients had been prescribed Triphala eye drops; in Group B, 53 patients had been prescribed the Triphala eye drops and SaptamritaLauha tablets internally, and in Group C, 43 patients had been prescribed the placebo eye drops and placebo tablets. In total, marked improvement was observed in 48.89, 54.71 and 06.98% patients in groups A, B and C, respectively. PMID:22131717

  4. Effect of eye movements and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation on balance and head alignment in stroke patients with neglect syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Park, Si-Eun; Min, Kyung-Ok; Lee, Sang-Bin; Choi, Wan-Suk; Kim, Soon-Hee

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of eye movements and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) on patients with neglect syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly allocated to 2 groups: the eye movements (EM) group; and the PNF with eye movements (PEM) group. The program was conducted five times each week for 6 weeks. Balance (both static and dynamic) and head alignment (craniovertebral angle and cranial rotation angle) were measured before and after testing. [Results] In measurements of static balance, the EM group showed significant improvement in sway length and sway area when examined in the eyes-open condition, but not when examined in the eyes-closed condition. The PEM group showed significant improvement when examined under both conditions. In the assessment of dynamic balance, both groups showed significant improvement in measurements of sway areas. With respect to head alignment, there were no significant differences pre- and post-testing in either the craniovertebral angle or the cranial rotation angle in the EM group, but the PEM group showed significant differences in both measurements. [Conclusion] These results suggest that in stroke patients with neglect syndrome, PNF with eye movements, rather than eye movements alone, has a greater positive effect on balance and head alignment. PMID:27065550

  5. Effect of eye movements and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation on balance and head alignment in stroke patients with neglect syndrome.

    PubMed

    Park, Si-Eun; Min, Kyung-Ok; Lee, Sang-Bin; Choi, Wan-Suk; Kim, Soon-Hee

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of eye movements and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) on patients with neglect syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly allocated to 2 groups: the eye movements (EM) group; and the PNF with eye movements (PEM) group. The program was conducted five times each week for 6 weeks. Balance (both static and dynamic) and head alignment (craniovertebral angle and cranial rotation angle) were measured before and after testing. [Results] In measurements of static balance, the EM group showed significant improvement in sway length and sway area when examined in the eyes-open condition, but not when examined in the eyes-closed condition. The PEM group showed significant improvement when examined under both conditions. In the assessment of dynamic balance, both groups showed significant improvement in measurements of sway areas. With respect to head alignment, there were no significant differences pre- and post-testing in either the craniovertebral angle or the cranial rotation angle in the EM group, but the PEM group showed significant differences in both measurements. [Conclusion] These results suggest that in stroke patients with neglect syndrome, PNF with eye movements, rather than eye movements alone, has a greater positive effect on balance and head alignment. PMID:27065550

  6. The Correlation of Routine Tear Function Tests and Conjunctival Impression Cytology in Dry Eye Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prachi; Kumar, Manoj; Ranjan, Somesh; Kumar, Manjushri; Verma, Pratima

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To establish the strength of the association between routine tear function tests and conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) and to determine whether they simulate the morphological and cytological changes that occur on the ocular surface in dry eye. What are the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values of these tests when CIC is considered the gold standard? Methods The tear film profile included tear film break up time (TBUT), Schirmer's-1, Rose Bengal scores (RBS), and impression cytology. CIC samples were obtained from the inferior bulbar conjunctiva and stained with periodic acid-Schiff and counter stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Results The mean Schirmer's value was 11.66 ± 5.90 in patients and 17.17 ± 2.97 in controls (p < 0.001). The mean TBUT in participants was 8.88 ± 3.54 and 13.53 ± 2.12 in controls (p < 0.001). Patients had a mean goblet cell density (GCD) of 490 ± 213, while the value for controls was 1,462 ± 661 (p < 0.001). Abnormal CIC was observed in 46.7% cases of dry eye and in 32.8% of controls. The correlation coefficient (L) for Schirmer's was 0.2 and 0.24 for participants and controls, respectively, while TBUT values were 0.26 and 0.38, RBS were 0.5 and 0.5, and GCD was 0.8 and 0.6 in cases and controls, respectively. Conclusions GCD, RBS, and TBUT were better predictors of morphological and cytological changes in the conjunctiva than Schirmer's in dry eye syndrome. The sensitivity of tear function tests in diagnosing dry eye was TBUT > Schirmer's > RBS, and the specificity was Schirmer's > TBUT > RBS in decreasing order when CIC was considered the gold standard. PMID:24688254

  7. Comparative randomised active drug controlled clinical trial of a herbal eye drop in computer vision syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Pranab Kr; Bairagi, Debasis; Roy, Sudipta; Majumder, Nilay Kr; Paul, Ratish Ch; Bagchi, Sunil Ch

    2005-07-01

    A comparative double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of a herbal eye drop (itone) was conducted to find out its efficacy and safety in 120 patients with computer vision syndrome. Patients using computers for more than 3 hours continuously per day having symptoms of watering, redness, asthenia, irritation, foreign body sensation and signs of conjunctival hyperaemia, corneal filaments and mucus were studied. One hundred and twenty patients were randomly given either placebo, tears substitute (tears plus) or itone in identical vials with specific code number and were instructed to put one drop four times daily for 6 weeks. Subjective and objective assessments were done at bi-weekly intervals. In computer vision syndrome both subjective and objective improvements were noticed with itone drops. Itone drop was found significantly better than placebo (p<0.01) and almost identical results were observed with tears plus (difference was not statistically significant). Itone is considered to be a useful drug in computer vision syndrome. PMID:16366195

  8. Neuronal mechanisms of active (rapid eye movement) sleep induced by microinjections of hypocretin into the nucleus pontis oralis of the cat.

    PubMed

    Xi, M-C; Chase, M H

    2006-06-19

    Hypocretinergic (orexinergic) neurons in the hypothalamus project to the nucleus pontis oralis, a nucleus which plays a crucial role in the generation of active (rapid eye movement) sleep. We recently reported that the microinjection of hypocretin into the nucleus pontis oralis of chronically-instrumented, unanesthetized cats induces a behavioral state that is comparable to naturally-occurring active sleep. The present study examined the intracellular signaling pathways underlying the active sleep-inducing effects of hypocretin. Accordingly, hypocretin-1, a protein kinase C inhibitor and a protein kinase A inhibitor were injected into the nucleus pontis oralis in selected combinations in order to determine their effects on sleep and waking states of chronically instrumented, unanesthetized cats. Microinjections of hypocretin-1 into the nucleus pontis oralis elicited active sleep with a short latency. However, a pre-injection of bisindolylmaleimide-I, a protein kinase C-specific inhibitor, completely blocked the active sleep-inducing effects of hypocretin-1. The combined injection of bisindolylmaleimide-I and hypocretin-1 significantly increased the latency to active sleep induced by hypocretin-1; it also abolished the increase in the time spent in active sleep induced by hypocretin-1. On the other hand, the injection of 2'5'-dideoxyadenosine, an adenylyl cyclase inhibitor, did not block the occurrence of active sleep by hypocretin-1. We conclude that the active sleep-inducing effect of hypocretin in the nucleus pontis oralis is mediated by intracellular signaling pathways that act via G-protein stimulation of protein kinase C. PMID:16533574

  9. A deletion in FOXN1 is associated with a syndrome characterized by congenital hypotrichosis and short life expectancy in Birman cats.

    PubMed

    Abitbol, Marie; Bossé, Philippe; Thomas, Anne; Tiret, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    An autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by congenital hypotrichosis and short life expectancy has been described in the Birman cat breed (Felis silvestris catus). We hypothesized that a FOXN1 (forkhead box N1) loss-of-function allele, associated with the nude phenotype in humans, mice and rats, may account for the syndrome observed in Birman cats. To the best of our knowledge, spontaneous mutations in FOXN1 have never been described in non-human, non-rodent mammalian species. We identified a recessive c.1030_1033delCTGT deletion in FOXN1 in Birman cats. This 4-bp deletion was associated with the syndrome when present in two copies. Percentage of healthy carriers in our French panel of genotyped Birman cats was estimated to be 3.2%. The deletion led to a frameshift and a premature stop codon at position 547 in the protein. In silico, the truncated FOXN1 protein was predicted to lack the activation domain and critical parts of the forkhead DNA binding domain, both involved in the interaction between FOXN1 and its targets, a mandatory step to promote normal hair and thymic epithelial development. Our results enlarge the panel of recessive FOXN1 loss-of-function alleles described in mammals. A DNA test is available; it will help owners avoid matings at risk and should prevent the dissemination of this morbid mutation in domestic felines. PMID:25781316

  10. A Deletion in FOXN1 Is Associated with a Syndrome Characterized by Congenital Hypotrichosis and Short Life Expectancy in Birman Cats

    PubMed Central

    Abitbol, Marie; Bossé, Philippe; Thomas, Anne; Tiret, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    An autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by congenital hypotrichosis and short life expectancy has been described in the Birman cat breed (Felis silvestris catus). We hypothesized that a FOXN1 (forkhead box N1) loss-of-function allele, associated with the nude phenotype in humans, mice and rats, may account for the syndrome observed in Birman cats. To the best of our knowledge, spontaneous mutations in FOXN1 have never been described in non-human, non-rodent mammalian species. We identified a recessive c.1030_1033delCTGT deletion in FOXN1 in Birman cats. This 4-bp deletion was associated with the syndrome when present in two copies. Percentage of healthy carriers in our French panel of genotyped Birman cats was estimated to be 3.2%. The deletion led to a frameshift and a premature stop codon at position 547 in the protein. In silico, the truncated FOXN1 protein was predicted to lack the activation domain and critical parts of the forkhead DNA binding domain, both involved in the interaction between FOXN1 and its targets, a mandatory step to promote normal hair and thymic epithelial development. Our results enlarge the panel of recessive FOXN1 loss-of-function alleles described in mammals. A DNA test is available; it will help owners avoid matings at risk and should prevent the dissemination of this morbid mutation in domestic felines. PMID:25781316

  11. Inhibition of Return in Response to Eye Gaze and Peripheral Cues in Young People with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marotta, Andrea; Pasini, Augusto; Ruggiero, Sabrina; Maccari, Lisa; Rosa, Caterina; Lupianez, Juan; Casagrande, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of return (IOR) reflects slower reaction times to stimuli presented in previously attended locations. In this study, we examined this inhibitory after-effect using two different cue types, eye-gaze and standard peripheral cues, in individuals with Asperger's syndrome and typically developing individuals. Typically developing…

  12. The Importance of the Eye Area in Face Identification Abilities and Visual Search Strategies in Persons with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falkmer, Marita; Larsson, Matilda; Bjallmark, Anna; Falkmer, Torbjorn

    2010-01-01

    Partly claimed to explain social difficulties observed in people with Asperger syndrome, face identification and visual search strategies become important. Previous research findings are, however, disparate. In order to explore face identification abilities and visual search strategies, with special focus on the importance of the eye area, 24…

  13. Do Faces Capture the Attention of Individuals with Williams Syndrome or Autism? Evidence from Tracking Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riby, Deborah M.; Hancock, Peter J. B.

    2009-01-01

    The neuro-developmental disorders of Williams syndrome (WS) and autism can reveal key components of social cognition. Eye-tracking techniques were applied in two tasks exploring attention to pictures containing faces. Images were (i) scrambled pictures containing faces or (ii) pictures of scenes with embedded faces. Compared to individuals who…

  14. Risk factors for corneal endothelial cell loss by cataract surgery in eyes with pseudoexfoliation syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Yumi; Nejima, Ryohei; Mori, Yosai; Sakisaka, Toshihiro; Minami, Keiichiro; Miyata, Kazunori; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with decreases in corneal endothelial cell density (ECD) resulting from cataract surgery in eyes with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX). Methods The clinical records of 78 eyes of 78 patients with PEX who had undergone cataract surgery were reviewed. ECD was measured preoperatively and at 3 months postoperatively with specular microscopy. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the factors that were significantly related to the rate of ECD loss. Explanatory variables included age, preoperative ECD, pupil diameter, cataract grade, concomitance of glaucoma or diabetes mellitus, preoperative anterior chamber depth, surgery time, total time and power of ultrasound, performance of intraoperative pupillary enlargement manipulation, and postoperative aqueous flare intensity at 1 week and 1 month. Results ECD before and after surgery was 2,464±337 cells/mm2 and 2,400±347 cells/mm2, respectively, with an ECD loss rate of 2.6%±5.1% (mean ± SD). Multiple regression analysis revealed that ECD loss was significantly associated with the cataract grade (P=0.019) and preoperative anterior chamber depth (P=0.023). Conclusion With modern small incision cataract surgery, the ECD loss varied with surgical invasions due to severe cataract and shallow anterior chamber, and the presence of PEX was least affected. PMID:27621588

  15. Membranous nephropathy in sibling cats.

    PubMed

    Nash, A S; Wright, N G

    1983-08-20

    Membranous nephropathy was diagnosed in two sibling cats from the same household. Both cases presented with the nephrotic syndrome but 33 months elapsed before the second cat became ill, by which time the first cat had been in full clinical remission for over a year. PMID:6623883

  16. Case Report: Explantation of A Binkhorst Iridocapsular Lens >30 Years After Implantation in an Eye With Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, Adriano; Moreno-Montañés, Javier; Sabater, Alfonso L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An 86-year-old man with a Binkhorst 2-loop intraocular lens (IOL) that was implanted in the pupillary sphincter 33 years earlier was examined. The pupil of the implanted eye with the Binkhorst IOL was irregular and the eye had pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome. Pupillary erosion resulted from rubbing of the IOL edge against the pupillary sphincter with PEX material. The IOL was removed because of visual distortion and intense pseudophakodonesis. Gross and light microscopic analyses showed no irido-fibro-lenticular adhesions over the lens or fragments of iris tissue attached to the lens. Scanning electron microscopy showed several pores of different sizes. No inflammatory cells were present, suggesting that the IOL was well tolerated. The case suggested that the pupillary ruff was not a good location for implantation of an IOL in an eye with PEX. Caution is recommended before implanting or suturing an IOL close to the pupillary border in eyes with PEX during cataract surgery. PMID:26313806

  17. Progression of glomerulonephritis to end-stage kidney disease in a cat with nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kamiie, Junichi; Haishima, Atsuko; Inoue, Kaoru; Ogihara, Kikumi; Ono, Mihoko; Yasuno, Kyohei; Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Aihara, Naoyuki; Ohmuro, Tamio; Shirota, Kinji

    2011-01-01

    A percutaneous renal biopsy was performed on a 3-year-old female Japanese domestic cat with pleural effusion, mild azotemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypercholesterolemia, and proteinuria. Glomerular lesions included mild diffuse hypercellularity and numerous capsular adhesions with segmental sclerosis/hyalinosis of glomerular tufts. Electron microscopy revealed many subendothelial dense deposits with characteristic outer protrusion of glomerular basement membrane. Diffuse and global granular deposits of IgG and C3 were detected along the capillary walls. Tubulo-interstitial changes were mild at the time of biopsy, but progression of the disease was predicted because of the many capsular adhesions of the glomerular tufts. The cat was fed a prescription diet without any other specific or symptomatic therapy after renal biopsy, and died 43 weeks after the biopsy. At necropsy, extensive tubulo-interstitial fibrosis and mononuclear cell infiltration had developed throughout the cortex and outer medulla, and most glomeruli had extensive global sclerosis or obsolescence with less prominent depositions of IgG and C3. PMID:20823662

  18. A DETAILED MORPHO-KINEMATIC MODEL OF THE ESKIMO, NGC 2392: A UNIFYING VIEW WITH THE CAT'S EYE AND SATURN PLANETARY NEBULAE

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Diaz, Ma. T.; Lopez, J. A.; Steffen, W.; Richer, M. G. E-mail: jal@astrosen.unam.mx E-mail: richer@astrosen.unam.mx

    2012-12-20

    The three-dimensional and kinematic structure of the Eskimo nebula, NGC 2392, has been notoriously difficult to interpret in detail given its complex morphology, multiple kinematic components and its nearly pole-on orientation along the line of sight. We present a comprehensive, spatially resolved, high-resolution, long-slit spectroscopic mapping of the Eskimo planetary nebula. The data consist of 21 spatially resolved, long-slit echelle spectra tightly spaced over the Eskimo and along its bipolar jets. This data set allows us to construct a velocity-resolved [N II] channel map of the nebula with a resolution of 10 km s{sup -1} that disentangles its different kinematic components. The spectroscopic information is combined with Hubble Space Telescope images to construct a detailed three-dimensional morpho-kinematic model of the Eskimo using the code SHAPE. With this model we demonstrate that the Eskimo is a close analog to the Saturn and the Cat's Eye nebulae, but rotated 90 Degree-Sign to the line of sight. Furthermore, we show that the main characteristics of our model apply to the general properties of the group of elliptical planetary nebulae with ansae or FLIERS, once the orientation is considered. We conclude that this kind of nebula belongs to a class with a complex common evolutionary sequence of events.

  19. LOOKING DEEP INTO THE CAT'S EYE: STRUCTURE AND ROTATION IN THE FAST WIND OF THE PN CENTRAL STAR OF NGC 6543

    SciTech Connect

    Prinja, R. K.; Massa, D. L.; Cantiello, M.

    2012-11-10

    We present HST/STIS time-series spectroscopy of the central star of the 'Cat's Eye' planetary nebula NGC 6543. Intensive monitoring of the UV lines over a 5.8 hr period reveals well-defined details of large-scale structure in the fast wind, which are exploited to provide new constraints on the rotation rate of the central star. We derive characteristics of the line profile variability that support a physical origin due to corotating interaction regions (CIRs) that are rooted at the stellar surface. The recurrence time of the observed spectral signatures of the CIRs is used to estimate the rotation period of the central star and, adopting a radius between 0.3 and 0.6 R{sub Sun} constrains the rotational velocity to the range 54 km s{sup -1} {<=} v{sub rot} {<=} 108 km s{sup -1}. The implications of these results for single star evolution are discussed based on models calculated here for low-mass stars. Our models predict a subsurface convective layer in NGC 6543 which we argue to be causally connected to the occurrence of structure in the fast wind.

  20. Dry Eye Syndrome Risks in Patients With Fibromyalgia: A National Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao-Hsien; Yang, Tse-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Chih-Sheng; Lin, Wei-Ming; Kuo, Chia-Nan; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    The coexistence of fibromyalgia (FM) and dry eye syndrome (DES) has been previously reported. However, there are few studies on how patients with FM may develop concomitant DES. Patients with chronic widespread pain, like FM, chronic fatigue syndrome, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), was concerned for the rheumatic or psychosomatic disorders which might adequately reflect the long-term risk of DES. We retrieved data on FM patients from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan covering the years 2000 to 2011. Our FM population consisted of 25,777 patients versus 103,108 patients in the non-FM group: the overall incidence of DES in these populations was 7.37/10,000 and 4.81/10,000, respectively. Male FM patients had a higher incidence of DES, with a 1.39-fold DES risk for males and a 1.45-fold for females after adjustment for confounding factor. Notably, FM patients aged ≤49 years had an elevated 80% risk of DES compared with the non-FM group. Without comorbidities, FM patients had an approximately 1.40-fold risk of DES than those without FM. The additive effects of FM and IBS or FM and sleep disturbance were pointed out that the risk for DES would be elevated when the FM patients with IBS or sleep disturbance. FM patients have a higher incidence of DES than that of non-FM patients. They carry long-term DES risks from a relatively young age, particularly those with psychiatric problems. Risk stratification for a timely psychiatric medication intervention and risk modifications are not intended. PMID:26825913

  1. Comparative randomised controlled clinical trial of a herbal eye drop with artificial tear and placebo in computer vision syndrome.

    PubMed

    Biswas, N R; Nainiwal, S K; Das, G K; Langan, U; Dadeya, S C; Mongre, P K; Ravi, A K; Baidya, P

    2003-03-01

    A comparative randomised double masked multicentric clinical trial has been conducted to find out the efficacy and safety of a herbal eye drop preparation, itone eye drops with artificial tear and placebo in 120 patients with computer vision syndrome. Patients using computer for at least 2 hours continuosly per day having symptoms of irritation, foreign body sensation, watering, redness, headache, eyeache and signs of conjunctival congestion, mucous/debris, corneal filaments, corneal staining or lacrimal lake were included in this study. Every patient was instructed to put two drops of either herbal drugs or placebo or artificial tear in the eyes regularly four times for 6 weeks. Objective and subjective findings were recorded at bi-weekly intervals up to six weeks. Side-effects, if any, were also noted. In computer vision syndrome the herbal eye drop preparation was found significantly better than artificial tear (p < 0.01). No side-effects were noted by any of the drugs. Both subjective and objective improvements were observed in itone treated cases. So, itone can be considered as a useful drug in computer vision syndrome. PMID:14603980

  2. Punctal plug: a medical device to treat dry eye syndrome and for sustained drug delivery to the eye.

    PubMed

    Yellepeddi, Venkata K; Sheshala, Ravi; McMillan, Hannah; Gujral, Chirag; Jones, David; Raghu Raj Singh, Thakur

    2015-07-01

    Punctal plugs (PPs) are miniature medical implants that were initially developed for the treatment of dry eyes. Since their introduction in 1975, many PPs made from different materials and designs have been developed. PPs, albeit generally successful, suffer from drawbacks such as epiphora and suppurative canaliculitis. To overcome these issues intelligent designs of PPs were proposed (e.g. SmartPLUG™ and Form Fit™). PPs are also gaining interest among pharmaceutical scientists for sustaining drug delivery to the eye. This review aims to provide an overview of PPs for dry eye treatment and drug delivery to treat a range of ocular diseases. It also discusses current challenges in using PPs for ocular diseases. PMID:25668579

  3. Gamma-Band Modulation and Coherence in the EEG by Involuntary Eye Movements in Patients in Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Balazs, Susanne; Kermanshahi, Kazem; Binder, Heinrich; Rattay, Frank; Bodis-Wollner, Ivan

    2016-07-01

    Gamma power and coherence in the electroencephalogram increase in healthy individuals in association with voluntary eye movements, saccades. Patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome show repetitive involuntary eye movements that are similar to saccades but progress at a much lower speed. In the present study, we explored the changes in gamma power and coherence related to these eye movements and investigated whether any relationship to the patients' clinical status could be found that would indicate first neurophysiological signs of recovery. To this end, we assessed the clinical status and registered classical scalp electroencephalography with 19 surface electrodes and electro-oculogram of 45 consecutive patients at admission and at 4 weekly intervals. Slow gamma activity (in the frequency range of 37-40 Hz) was analyzed before, during, and after eye movements (pre, -intra and post-eye movement) by means of "continuous wavelet transform." We graded recovery using clinical behavioral scales, taking into account the variables, age, gender, recovery (yes or no), as well as the patients diagnoses (traumatic brain injury, hypoxia, hemorrhage, infection). Statistical evaluation was performed using DataLab, R, and Kruskal-Wallis methods. Based on the clinical status, we distinguished between recovering and chronic groups of patients. In comparison with the chronic group, the recovering group showed significantly higher gamma power over the posterior electrodes and significant higher values of coherence in the gamma-band activity during the presaccadic period of eye movements. We suggest that our findings on the onset of involuntary eye movements in the recovering group of patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome indicates a first neurophysiological sign of favorable prognosis. PMID:26346965

  4. Impression conjunctival cytology in sicca syndrome - correlations between clinical and histological findings related to dry eye severity.

    PubMed

    Mocanu, Carmen LuminiŢa; Jurja, Sanda; Deca, Andreea Gabriela; Bîrjovanu, Florica; Olaru, Andrei; Popa, Denissa Greta; Ştefănescu-Dima, Alin Ştefan; Mănescu, Maria Rodica

    2016-01-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca represents a progressive deterioration of ocular surface produced by a deficient secretion of lachrymal film (quantitative disorder) or excessive tear evaporation (qualitative disorder). The cytological analysis of conjunctival impression in 42 patients with dry eye syndrome established a strong correlation between the clinical grade of severity of disease and the grade of squamous metaplasia, including goblet cell loss. The cellular anomalies were represented by modifications of keratinization, epithelial cells' anisocytosis, anisochromia, the nuclear condensation and the cytoplasmic vacuolization. Pyknotic nuclei and anucleated cells were only seen in the most severe dry eye. The modifications in epithelial cells and conjunctival goblet cells reveal cellular sufferance, with an evident parallelism between these anomalies and clinico-functional signs in dry eye. Conjunctival impression provides an easy and quick identification of the lachrymal film alterations with high specificity and sensitivity, giving valuable information about the qualitative disorder. PMID:27151708

  5. Low Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels Are Associated with Dry Eye Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sam Young; Bae, Seok Hyun; Shin, Young Joo; Park, Shin Goo; Hwang, Sang-Hee; Hyon, Joon Young; Wee, Won Ryang

    2016-01-01

    Background Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a common tear film and ocular surface disease that results in discomfort, visual disturbance, and tear film instability with potential damage to the ocular surface. Systemic diseases associated with DES include diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, depression, anxiety, thyroid disease, allergic diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic pain syndrome, and hyperlipidemia. Interestingly, it has been found that most of these are associated with low levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) or inadequate sunlight exposure. Methods In this cross-sectional data analysis, noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥19 years (N = 17,542) who participated in Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2012 were included. Information regarding duration of sunlight exposure was collected from the survey participants. Serum 25(OH)D and zinc levels were measured. The confounding variables were age, gender, sunlight exposure time, region of residence, obesity, serum 25(OH)D level, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, depression, thyroid disorder, atopic dermatitis, history of ocular surgery, regular exercise, and walking exercise. Results Mean serum 25(OH)D levels of subjects with and without DES were 16.90 ± 6.0 and 17.52 ± 6.07 (p<0.001). Inadequate sunlight exposure time (odds ratio [OR], 1.554; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.307–1.848), urban residence (OR, 1.669; 95% CI, 1.456–1.913), indoor occupation (OR, 1.578; 95% CI, 1.389–1.814), and low serum 25(OH)D level (OR, 1.158; 95% CI, 1.026–1.308) were the risk factors for DES. After adjusting for age, sex, obesity, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, depression, thyroid disorder, atopic dermatitis, history of ocular surgery, regular exercise, and occupation, low serum 25(OH)D level (OR, 1.178; 95% CI, 1.010–1.372) and deficient sunlight exposure time (OR, 1.383; 95% CI, 1.094–1.749) were the risk factors for diagnosed DES. Conclusion Low serum 25

  6. Actinomyces endogenous endophthalmitis in a cat following multiple dental extractions.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, Hans D; Ward, Daniel A; Whittemore, Jacqueline C; Lyons, Jeremiah A

    2013-11-01

    An 8-year-old, brachycephalic, mixed breed cat underwent full mouth tooth extractions for the treatment of tooth root abscessation. Subsequently, the cat developed anterior uveitis refractory to topical therapy that eventually necessitated enucleation. Actinomyces species were isolated from both the tooth root abscesses and the anterior chamber after enucleation. Histopathology of the enucleated eye revealed panophthalmitis with abundant intralesional bacteria morphologically consistent with Actinomyces. Between the time of tooth root extraction and enucleation (20 weeks), the cat was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism and treated with oral steroids for inflammatory bowel syndrome. We believe this report represents a rare case of endogenous endophthalmitis secondary to dental disease, possibly precipitated by concurrent immunosuppression. PMID:23281798

  7. Comparison of Whole Eye vs. First-Surface Astigmatism in Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Knowlton, Rachel; Marsack, Jason D.; Leach, Norman E.; Herring, Ralph J.; Anderson, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have structural differences in the cornea and lens, as compared to the general population. This study investigates objectively measured refractive and corneal astigmatism, as well as calculated internal astigmatism in subjects with and without DS. Methods Refractive (Grand Seiko autorefraction) and anterior corneal astigmatism (difference between steep and flat keratometry obtained with Zeiss Atlas corneal topography) were measured in 128 subjects with DS (mean age = 24.8±8.7 yrs) and 137 controls without DS (mean age = 24.9±9.9 yrs), with 1 eye randomly selected for analysis per subject. Refractive astigmatism and corneal astigmatism were converted to vector notation (J0, J45) to calculate internal astigmatism (Refractive – Corneal) and then converted back to minus cylinder form. Results Mean refractive astigmatism was significantly greater in subjects with DS than controls (−1.94±1.30DC vs −0.66±0.60DC, t=−10.16, p<0.001), as was mean corneal astigmatism (1.70±1.04DC vs 1.02±0.63DC, t=6.38, p<0.001) and mean internal astigmatism (−1.07±0.68DC vs −0.77±0.41DC, t=−4.21, p<0.001). A positive linear correlation between corneal and refractive astigmatism was observed for both study populations for both the J0 and J45 vectors (p<0.001 for all comparisons, R2 range = 0.31 to 0.74). The distributions of astigmatism orientation differed significantly between the two study populations when compared across all three types of astigmatism (Chi-Square, p<0.001). Conclusions This study demonstrates that corneal astigmatism is predictive of overall refractive astigmatism in individuals with DS, as it is in the general population. The greater magnitudes of astigmatism and wider variation of astigmatism orientation in individuals with DS for refractive, corneal, and calculated internal astigmatism is likely attributable to previously reported differences in the structure of the cornea and internal optical components

  8. Strength of evidence for the effects of feral cats on insular wildlife: The Club Med Syndrome Part II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Various types of evidence have been promulgated as proof for the effects of feral cats on wildlife, typically including numerous studies on predation inferred from diet, mortality attributed to pathogens, and photographic or videographic documentation. The strength of these types of evidence is often short of conclusive. For example, studies of predation inferred from diet provide weak evidence for two reasons: 1) they cannot differentiate depredation from scavenging by feral cats, and 2) they cannot address population-level effects on wildlife because it is rarely understood if mortality acts in compensatory or additive manner. Likewise, pathogens may cause mortality of individuals, but population-level effects of pathogens are rarely known. Photographic or videographic documentation provides direct ‘smoking gun’ evidence that may be useful for positive identification of depredation by cats, or identification of prey designated as threatened or endangered species. However, the most direct and compelling evidence comes from examples where feral cats have been entirely removed from islands. In many cases, several species of seabirds as well as other wildlife have recovered after the complete removal of cats. Where possible, the experimental removal of cats would provide the most conclusive proof of effects on wildlife populations. In other cases where cat removal is not feasible, modeling based on predation rates and life history parameters of species may be the only means of assessing population-level effects on wildlife. Understanding population-level effects of feral cats on wildlife will ultimately be necessary to resolve long-standing wildlife management issues.

  9. An eye on nutrition: The role of vitamins, essential fatty acids, and antioxidants in age-related macular degeneration, dry eye syndrome, and cataract.

    PubMed

    McCusker, Meagen M; Durrani, Khayyam; Payette, Michael J; Suchecki, Jeanine

    2016-01-01

    Visual impairment is a global epidemic. In developing countries, nutritional deficiency and cataracts continue to be the leading cause of blindness, whereas age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cataracts are the leading causes in developed nations. The World Health Organization has instituted VISION 2020: "The Right to Sight" as a global mission to put an end to worldwide blindness. In industrialized societies, patients, physicians, researchers, nutritionists, and biochemists have been looking toward vitamins and nutrients to prevent AMD, cataracts, and dry eye syndrome (DES). Nutrients from the AREDS2 study (lutein, zeaxanthin, vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc, copper, eicosapentanoic acid [EPA], and docosahexanoic acid [DHA]) set forth by the National Institutes of Health remain the most proven nutritional therapy for reducing the rate of advanced AMD. Omega-3 fatty acids, especially DHA, have been found to improve DES in randomized clinical trials. Conflicting results have been seen with regard to multivitamin supplementation on the prevention of cataract. PMID:26903189

  10. Severe Dry Eye Syndrome After Radiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Bhandare, Niranjan; Moiseenko, Vitali; Song, William Y.; Morris, Christopher G.; Bhatti, M. Tariq; Mendenhall, William M.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence of severe dry eye syndrome (DES) after external beam radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer and its dependence on the parameters relevant to external beam radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The present retrospective study included 78 patients treated for primary extracranial head-and-neck tumors between 1965 and 2000, whose lacrimal apparatus/entire globe was exposed to fractionated external beam radiotherapy. The dose received by the major lacrimal gland was used for analysis. The end point of the present study was the ophthalmologic diagnosis of severe DES leading to vision compromise. Results: Of the 78 patients, 40 developed severe DES leading to visual compromise. The incidence of DES increased steadily from 6% at 35-39.99 Gy to 50% at 45-49.99 Gy and 90% at 60-64.99 Gy. With a mean of 0.9 years (range, 1 month to 3 years), the latency of DES was observed to be a function of the total dose and the dose per fraction. On univariate and multivariate analysis, the total dose (p < .0001 and p < .0001, respectively) and dose per fraction (p {<=} .0001 and p = .0044, respectively) were significant. However, age, gender, and the use of chemoradiotherapy were not. The actuarial analysis indicated a 5-year probability of freedom from DES of 93% for doses <45 Gy, 29% for 45-59.9 Gy, and 3% doses {>=}60 Gy. A logistic normal tissue complication probability model fit to our data obtained a dose of 34 and 38 Gy corresponding to a 5% and 10% incidence of DES. Conclusion: With a dose of 34 Gy corresponding to a 5% incidence of DES, the risk of severe DES increased, and the latency decreased with an increase in the total dose and dose per fraction to the lacrimal gland. The effect of chemoradiotherapy and hyperfractionation on the risk of DES needs additional investigation.

  11. Managing Sjögren’s Syndrome and non-Sjögren Syndrome dry eye with anti-inflammatory therapy

    PubMed Central

    Coursey, Terry G; de Paiva, Cintia S

    2014-01-01

    Dry eye from Sjögren’s syndrome is a multifactorial disease that results in dysfunction of the lacrimal functional unit. Studies have shown changes in tear composition, including inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and metalloproteinase. T-lymphocytes have been shown to increase in the conjunctiva and lacrimal glands in patient and animal models. This inflammation is in part responsible for the pathogenesis of the disease, which results in symptoms of eye irritation, ocular surface epithelial disease, and loss of corneal barrier function. There are a number of anti-inflammatory approaches for treating this disease. The current study reviews details of immune response and anti–inflammatory therapies used to control this disease. PMID:25120351

  12. Tear proteomic analysis of Sjögren syndrome patients with dry eye syndrome by two-dimensional-nano-liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Sheng, Minjie; Li, Jianhua; Yan, Guoquan; Lin, Anjuan; Li, Min; Wang, Weifang; Chen, Yihui

    2014-01-01

    We examined the tear film proteome of patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and dry eye syndrome (group A), patients with dry eye symptoms (group B) and normal volunteers (group C). Tear samples were pooled from 8 subjects from each group and were subjected to two-dimensional-nano-liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (2D-nano-LC-MS/MS). The tear breakup time for group A was significantly reduced compared with group B and C (P < 0.001). Group A (Schirmer I test, 2.13 ± 2.38 mm/5 min) had markedly lower tear volume than group B (5.94 ± 4.75 mm/5 min) and C (14.44 ± 6.57 mm/5 min) (P < 0.001). Group A had significantly higher normalized tear protein content (1.8291 ± 0.2241 μg/mm) than group B (1.0839 ± 0.1120 μg/mm) (P = 0.001) and C (0.2028 ± 0.0177 μg/mm) (P = 0.001). The 2D-nano-LC-MS/MS analysis identified a total of 435 proteins, including 182 (54.8%), 247 (74.4%) and 278 (83.7%) in group A, B, and C, respectively, with 56 (16.7%) proteins including defensin α1, clusterin and lactotransferrin unique to group A. In conclusion, dry eye syndrome in SS patients is associated with an altered proteomic profile with dysregulated expression of proteins involved in a variety of important cellular process including inflammation, immunity, and oxidative stress. PMID:25159733

  13. Use of preservative-free hyaluronic acid (Hylabak(®)) for a range of patients with dry eye syndrome: experience in Russia.

    PubMed

    Brjesky, Vladimir Vsevolodovich; Maychuk, Yury Fedorovich; Petrayevsky, Alexey Vladimirovich; Nagorsky, Peter Gerrievich

    2014-01-01

    Artificial tear preparations are important in the management of dry eye syndrome. We present the findings from four recently published studies conducted in Russia assessing Hylabak(®) (marketed as Hyabak(®) in Europe), a preservative-free hyaluronic acid preparation, for the treatment of dry eye syndrome. All studies had an open, noncomparative design, but one compared the findings with those from 25 patients treated with Tear Naturale(®) in previous studies. A total of 134 children and adults were enrolled, and the etiologies of dry eye syndrome included contact lens use, intensive office work, adenovirus eye infection, postmenopausal status, persistent meibomian blepharitis, Sjögren's syndrome, phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation, and refractive surgery. The patients were treated with Hylabak for 2 weeks to 2 months. All studies showed that Hylabak resulted in marked improvement as assessed by subjective sensations/complaints, Schirmer's test, Norn's test, impression cytology and biomicroscopy, staining, and tear osmolarity. Greater benefits were also reported compared with Tear Naturale, including a faster onset of action. Hylabak was well tolerated. In conclusion, Hylabak provided rapid and safe relief from the signs and symptoms of dry eye syndrome, as well as improvement in objective measures, in a wide range of patients. PMID:24970995

  14. Learning about Cri du Chat Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... chat syndrome - also known as 5p- syndrome and cat cry syndrome - is a rare genetic condition that ... du chat syndrome usually include a high-pitched cat-like cry, mental retardation, delayed development, distinctive facial ...

  15. The use of oral recombinant feline interferon omega in two cats with type II diabetes mellitus and concurrent feline chronic gingivostomatitis syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Feline Chronic Gingivostomatitis Syndrome (FCGS) is a common disease in clinical practice. Among the therapeutic options available, long-acting corticosteroids are frequently used due to their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. Although they may improve the clinical symptoms, they can lead to a progressive form of the disease that becomes refractory to treatment. Furthermore, their direct relationship with type II diabetes mellitus (DM) is well known. Consequently, these drugs are controversial and not recommended for routine management of FCGS. Recombinant feline interferon-omega (rFeIFN-ω) is an immunomodulatory compound. Recently, its daily oral administration has been shown to be successful in treating refractory cases of FCGS. This case study describes two clinical cases of type II DM complicated by FCGS. Both animals were calicivirus positive and they had been previously treated with long-acting corticosteroids, which may have been the major cause of DM. The two cats were treated with glargine insulin (Lantus, starting dose 1 IU/cat twice daily (BID)), achieving remission 10 and 18 weeks later respectively. Considering the difficulty with control of FCGS in these animals, an oral daily dose of rFeIFN-ω was started as an alternative to long-acting corticosteroids. In both cats oral clinical signs gradually improved and 60 days after the start of therapy the owners reported a significant relief of pain during mastication. According to the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case report that describes the successful use of rFeIFN-ω in the management of FCGS in type II diabetic cats, in which long-acting corticosteroids are contraindicated. PMID:24153100

  16. The use of oral recombinant feline interferon omega in two cats with type II diabetes mellitus and concurrent feline chronic gingivostomatitis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Leal, Rodolfo O; Gil, Solange; Brito, Maria Tv; McGahie, David; Niza, Maria Mre; Tavares, Luís

    2013-01-01

    Feline Chronic Gingivostomatitis Syndrome (FCGS) is a common disease in clinical practice. Among the therapeutic options available, long-acting corticosteroids are frequently used due to their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. Although they may improve the clinical symptoms, they can lead to a progressive form of the disease that becomes refractory to treatment. Furthermore, their direct relationship with type II diabetes mellitus (DM) is well known. Consequently, these drugs are controversial and not recommended for routine management of FCGS. Recombinant feline interferon-omega (rFeIFN-ω) is an immunomodulatory compound. Recently, its daily oral administration has been shown to be successful in treating refractory cases of FCGS. This case study describes two clinical cases of type II DM complicated by FCGS. Both animals were calicivirus positive and they had been previously treated with long-acting corticosteroids, which may have been the major cause of DM. The two cats were treated with glargine insulin (Lantus, starting dose 1 IU/cat twice daily (BID)), achieving remission 10 and 18 weeks later respectively. Considering the difficulty with control of FCGS in these animals, an oral daily dose of rFeIFN-ω was started as an alternative to long-acting corticosteroids. In both cats oral clinical signs gradually improved and 60 days after the start of therapy the owners reported a significant relief of pain during mastication. According to the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report that describes the successful use of rFeIFN-ω in the management of FCGS in type II diabetic cats, in which long-acting corticosteroids are contraindicated. PMID:24153100

  17. Mouse Models for the Dissection of CHD7 Functions in Eye Development and the Molecular Basis for Ocular Defects in CHARGE Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gage, Philip J.; Hurd, Elizabeth A.; Martin, Donna M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose CHARGE syndrome (Coloboma of the eye, Heart defects, Atresia of the choanae, Retardation of growth and/or development, Genital and/or urinary tract abnormalities, and Ear abnormalities and deafness) is the second-leading cause of deaf-blindness after Usher syndrome. Heterozygous mutations in CHD7 cause CHARGE syndrome in 70% to 90% of patients. We tested the hypothesis that tissue-specific mutant mice provide models for molecularly dissecting CHD7 functions during eye development. Methods The conditional Chd7flox allele was mated together with tissue-specific Cre transgenes. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the normal CHD7 pattern in the early eye primordia and to assess Chd7 mutants for expression of region-specific protein markers. Results CHD7 is present in the neural ectoderm and surface ectoderm of the eye. Deletion from neural and surface ectoderm results in severely dysmorphic eyes generally lacking recognizable optic cup structures and small lenses. Deletion from the neural ectoderm results in similar defects. Deletion from the surface ectoderm results in eyes with smaller lenses. Lens tissue and the major subdivisions of the neural ectoderm are present following conditional deletion of Chd7 from the neural ectoderm. Closure of the optic fissure depends on the Chd7 gene dose within the neural ectoderm. Conclusions Eye development requires CHD7 in multiple embryonic tissues. Lens development requires CHD7 in the surface ectoderm, whereas optic cup and stalk morphogenesis require CHD7 in the neural ectoderm. CHD7 is not absolutely required for specification of the major subdivisions within the neural ectoderm. As in humans, normal eye development in mice is sensitive to Chd7 haploinsufficiency. These data indicate the Chd7 mutant mice are models for determining the molecular etiology of ocular defects in CHARGE syndrome. PMID:26670829

  18. Solvent/Detergent Virally Inactivated Serum Eye Drops Restore Healthy Ocular Epithelium in a Rabbit Model of Dry-Eye Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Ching-Li; Chen, Zhi-Yu; Renn, Ting-Yi; Hsiao, Shun-Hung; Burnouf, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Application of autologous serum eye drops (SEDs) is a recognized means to treat severe dry-eye syndrome (DES). Due to the inconvenience and difficulty of preparing SEDs from some patients, producing SEDs from allogeneic blood donations is gaining popularity. A major safety concern associated with allogeneic blood is virus transmission. We therefore herein evaluated the possibility of applying a solvent/detergent (S/D) treatment to inactivate viruses and studied the impacts of such treatment of SEDs to resolve DES in a rabbit model. Sera prepared from the blood of five rabbits were pooled and divided into two sub-pools. One was untreated (SEDs), while the other was virally-inactivated with 1% Tri-n-butyl phosphate/1% Triton X-45 at 31°C for 1 h (S/D-SEDs). DES was induced in rabbits using 0.1% benzalkonium chloride (BAC). Rabbits were divided into five groups of two rabbits each. One group was untreated (control), three were treated twice daily for 3 weeks using PBS, SEDs, or S/D-SEDs, and the last received an additional 0.1% BAC (as the negative control). The DES condition was determined by measuring aqueous tear secretion (Schirmer’s test), corneal fluorescein staining, a corneal histologic examination, TUNEL stain apoptosis, and corneal inflammatory marker (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, and IL-6) expressions. We first confirmed that SEDs and S/D-SEDs had similar protein profiles and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β contents. Animal experiments showed that tear secretion did not significantly differ between the SED and S/D-SED groups but was significantly higher than in the PBS group. Eye fluorescein staining revealed dramatic improvements in epithelial defects in groups treated with SEDs or S/D-SEDs, and hematoxylin/eosin staining revealed microscopic epithelial layers similar to those of the untreated controls. Inflammatory markers and TUNEL studies showed that healthy epithelium had been restored in groups treated with SEDs or S

  19. Solvent/Detergent Virally Inactivated Serum Eye Drops Restore Healthy Ocular Epithelium in a Rabbit Model of Dry-Eye Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ching-Li; Chen, Zhi-Yu; Renn, Ting-Yi; Hsiao, Shun-Hung; Burnouf, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Application of autologous serum eye drops (SEDs) is a recognized means to treat severe dry-eye syndrome (DES). Due to the inconvenience and difficulty of preparing SEDs from some patients, producing SEDs from allogeneic blood donations is gaining popularity. A major safety concern associated with allogeneic blood is virus transmission. We therefore herein evaluated the possibility of applying a solvent/detergent (S/D) treatment to inactivate viruses and studied the impacts of such treatment of SEDs to resolve DES in a rabbit model. Sera prepared from the blood of five rabbits were pooled and divided into two sub-pools. One was untreated (SEDs), while the other was virally-inactivated with 1% Tri-n-butyl phosphate/1% Triton X-45 at 31°C for 1 h (S/D-SEDs). DES was induced in rabbits using 0.1% benzalkonium chloride (BAC). Rabbits were divided into five groups of two rabbits each. One group was untreated (control), three were treated twice daily for 3 weeks using PBS, SEDs, or S/D-SEDs, and the last received an additional 0.1% BAC (as the negative control). The DES condition was determined by measuring aqueous tear secretion (Schirmer's test), corneal fluorescein staining, a corneal histologic examination, TUNEL stain apoptosis, and corneal inflammatory marker (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, and IL-6) expressions. We first confirmed that SEDs and S/D-SEDs had similar protein profiles and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β contents. Animal experiments showed that tear secretion did not significantly differ between the SED and S/D-SED groups but was significantly higher than in the PBS group. Eye fluorescein staining revealed dramatic improvements in epithelial defects in groups treated with SEDs or S/D-SEDs, and hematoxylin/eosin staining revealed microscopic epithelial layers similar to those of the untreated controls. Inflammatory markers and TUNEL studies showed that healthy epithelium had been restored in groups treated with SEDs or S

  20. Lacrimal Proline Rich 4 (LPRR4) Protein in the Tear Fluid Is a Potential Biomarker of Dry Eye Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Aluru, Saijyothi Venkata; Agarwal, Shweta; Srinivasan, Bhaskar; Iyer, Geetha Krishnan; Rajappa, Sivakumar M.; Tatu, Utpal; Padmanabhan, Prema; Subramanian, Nirmala; Narayanasamy, Angayarkanni

    2012-01-01

    Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a complex, multifactorial, immune-associated disorder of the tear and ocular surface. DES with a high prevalence world over needs identification of potential biomarkers so as to understand not only the disease mechanism but also to identify drug targets. In this study we looked for differentially expressed proteins in tear samples of DES to arrive at characteristic biomarkers. As part of a prospective case-control study, tear specimen were collected using Schirmer strips from 129 dry eye cases and 73 age matched controls. 2D electrophoresis (2DE) and Differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE) was done to identify differentially expressed proteins. One of the differentially expressed protein in DES is lacrimal proline rich 4 protein (LPRR4). LPRR4 protein expression was quantified by enzyme immune sorbent assay (ELISA). LPRR4 was down regulated significantly in all types of dry eye cases, correlating with the disease severity as measured by clinical investigations. Further characterization of the protein is required to assess its therapeutic potential in DES. PMID:23272196

  1. Characterization of the serological biomarkers associated with Sjögren’s syndrome in patients with recalcitrant dry eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Matossian, Cynthia; Micucci, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose was to characterize the biomarkers associated with Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) identified in the serological samples of patients with recalcitrant dry eye disease; additionally, the modalities utilized in the treatment of dry eye disease were evaluated for subsets of patients with and without SS. Patients and methods Data for this retrospective, single-center, pilot study were based on a chart review of 48 sequential patients with recalcitrant dry eye who were evaluated for SS via serological analysis. Data presented include the presence of the autoantibodies identified through the serological biomarker analysis and identification of the concurrent dry eye treatment modalities. Results Eleven out of 48 patients (23%) tested positive for biomarkers associated with SS. Autoantibodies for salivary protein-1, parotid secretory protein 1, and carbonic anhydrase VI, markers associated with the early development of SS, were detected in 91% (ten out of eleven) of the patients who tested positive for SS, whereas 27% (three out of eleven) of patients tested positive for the traditional SS markers, SS-A and/or SS-B. Common treatment modalities utilized in SS patients included omega-3 supplements (82%), topical cyclosporine (74%), and artificial tear solutions (64%), as compared to omega-3 supplements (80%), hot-mask therapy (77%), and artificial tear solutions (77%), in SS-negative patients. Conclusion Evaluation for salivary protein-1, parotid secretory protein 1, and carbonic anhydrase VI biomarkers allows for identification of a subset of patients with biomarkers associated with SS that may not be identified through the traditional assessments (SS-A/SS-B). Earlier recognition of SS biomarkers allows for a confirmatory diagnosis and appropriate management of this systemic, progressive condition. PMID:27499612

  2. A case of acute reversible Charles Bonnet syndrome following postsurgical unilateral eye patch placement.

    PubMed

    Khadavi, Nicole Miriam; Lew, Helen; Goldberg, Robert Alan; Mancini, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    A fully alert 70-year-old male with no significant medical or psychiatric history presented for surgical follow-up after uncomplicated right lower eyelid cicatricial ectropion surgery with postoperative unilateral, eye patch placement complaining of visual hallucinations. Preoperative unaided visual acuity was 20/20 in each eye. The patient described simple, nonformed and complex, formed images that were both static and animated. The images included crystal-like formations that appeared to bubble, green leaves against a vivid magenta backdrop, and an isolated hallucination of a lifelike plant with trembling leaves. These hallucinations began 2 days postoperatively and persisted 2 days following eye patch removal. The patient perceived the hallucinations multiple times a day over the 7-day period, without a stereotyped pattern. The images occurred when the eyes were open and ceased when they were closed. They were prompted by looking at a blank wall or white surface. The patient consistently recognized these images as unreal. They typically persisted for 1 to 2 minutes and could be extinguished by looking away. There were no associated auditory hallucinations, psychosis, or delirium and no history of visual, cognitive, or neurological deficit. The patient denied the use of hallucinogenic medications, including analgesics, or the initiation of any new medications. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of acute reversible CBS following unilateral eye patch placement. CBS may be a frightening postsurgical consequence of eye patch placement. It is important that the ophthalmic surgeon be aware of the potential for development of CBS and offer appropriate referral and reassurance should it occur. PMID:20551853

  3. Cri du chat syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome who wish to become pregnant may consider genetic counseling. Alternative Names Chromosome 5p deletion syndrome; 5p minus syndrome; Cat cry syndrome References Bacino CA, Lee B. Cytogenetics. ...

  4. Treatment of Dry Eye Syndrome with Orally Administered CF101: Data from a Phase 2 Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Avni, Isaac; Garzozi, Hanna J.; Barequet, Irina S.; Segev, Fanni; Varssano, David; Sartani, Gil; Chetrit, Noa; Bakshi, Erez; Zadok, David; Tomkins, Oren; Litvin, Gilad; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Fishman, Sari; Harpaz, Zivit; Farbstein, Motti; Bar Yehuda, Sara; Silverman, Michael H.; Kerns, William D.; Bristol, David R.; Cohn, Ilan; Fishman, Pnina

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the safety and efficacy of CF101, an A3 adenosine receptor agonist, in patients with moderate-to-severe dry eye syndrome Design Phase 2, multicenter, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Participants 68 patients completed the study, 35 patients in the placebo group and 33 patients in the CF101 group. Intervention Patients were orally treated with either 1 mg CF101 pills or matching vehicle-filled placebo pills, given twice daily for 12 weeks, followed by a 2-week post-treatment observation. Main Outcome Measures Efficacy an improvement of >25% over baseline at week 12 in one of the following parameters: (a) tear break-up time (BUT); (b) superficial punctate keratitis assessed by fluorescein staining (FS); (c) Schirmer tear test 1 (ST1). Safety clinical laboratory safety tests, ophthalmic examinations, intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements, electrocardiographic evaluations, vital sign measurements and monitoring of adverse events. Results A statistically significant increase in the proportion of patients who achieved more than 25% improvement in the corneal staining and in the clearance of corneal staining was noted between the CF101-treated group and the placebo group. Treatment with CF101 resulted in a statistically significant improvement in the mean change from baseline at week 12 of the corneal staining, BUT, and tear meniscus (TM) height in the CF101-treated group CF101 was well tolerated and exhibited an excellent safety profile with no serious adverse events. A statistically significant decrease from baseline was observed in the IOP of the CF101-treated group in comparison with the placebo group. Conclusions CF101, given orally, induced a statistically significant improvement in the corneal staining and an improvement in the BUT and TM in patients with moderate-to-severe dry eye syndrome. The drug was very well tolerated. These data and the anti-inflammatory characteristic of CF101 support further study

  5. Effect of Korean Red Ginseng supplementation on dry eye syndrome in glaucoma patients – A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Hyoung Won; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Sangah; Kim, Minkyo; Lee, Naeun; Hong, Samin; Seong, Gong Je; Kim, Chan Yun

    2014-01-01

    Background Many patients with glaucoma have difficulty using antiglaucoma eye drops because of dry eye symptom. In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we evaluated the effect of Korean Red Ginseng on dry eye syndrome in patients with glaucoma treated with antiglaucoma eye drops. Methods Forty-nine participants were allocated to the Korean Red Ginseng (3 g/day; n = 24) or placebo (n = 25) groups for 8 weeks. Tear film stability, fluorescein corneal staining, conjunctival hyperemia, tear production, grade of meibomian gland dysfunction, and dry eye questionnaire (Ocular Surface Disease Index) were evaluated at baseline and on completion of the treatment. Results Almost all patients displayed dry eye symptoms and signs at baseline. After the 8-week intervention, Korean Red Ginseng supplementation significantly improved the tear film stability and total Ocular Surface Disease Index score, as compared to placebo (p < 0.01). Conclusion Korean Red Ginseng supplementation may provide an additional treatment option for dry eye and patients with glaucoma using antiglaucoma eye drops. PMID:25535471

  6. Dry Eyes and Mouth? You May Have Sjögren's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... tears can help with dry eye. Sips of water and sugar-free candies can help with dry mouth. Because ... Choices Links Easing Sjögren’s Symptoms Take sips of water for dry mouth. Use sugar-free candies and gums. Use artificial tears for ...

  7. Two families with isolated cat cry without the cri-du-chat syndrome phenotype have an inherited 5p15.3 deletion: Delineation of the larynx malformation region

    SciTech Connect

    Gersh, M.; Overhauser, J.; Pasztor, L.M.

    1994-09-01

    The cri-du-chat syndrome is a contiguous gene syndrome that results from a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p). Patients present with a cat-like cry at birth that is usually considered diagnostic of this syndrome. Additional features of the syndrome include failure to thrive, microcephaly, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, hypotonia, and severe mental retardation. We report on two families in which the patients with 5p deletions have only the characteristic cat-like cry with normal to mildly delayed development. One family has three children with varying levels of developmental delay and a deletion of 5p15.3 that was inherited from the father. The second family has a mother and daughter both presenting with a cat-like cry and normal intelligence. A de novo deletion in a patient with isolated cat cry and mild developmental delay was also identified. The precise locations of the deletions in each family were determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization using lambda phage, cosmids, and YAC clones. Cryptic translocations and mosaicism were not detected in the parents transmitting the deletion. All of the deletion breakpoints map distal to the previously defined cri-du-chat critical region. A YAC contig has been constructed for the chromosomal region implicated in the larynx malformation. DNA clones mapping in this region will be useful diagnostic tools for delineating 5p deletions that result in the typical features of cri-du-chat syndrome with deletions that result in the isolated cat-like cry feature which is associated with a better prognosis.

  8. Acupuncture Therapy Is More Effective Than Artificial Tears for Dry Eye Syndrome: Evidence Based on a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lei; Yu, Hong; Song, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background. The efficacy of acupuncture in dry eye syndrome patients remains controversial. Methods. Pubmed, Ovid, Cochrane libraries, CNKI, Wanfang, and CQVIP databases were electronically searched until October 1, 2014. Outcomes including tear break-up time (BUT), Schirmer I test (SIT), and cornea fluorescein staining (CFS) were analyzed. A meta-analysis was performed using both fixed- and random-effects models based on heterogeneity across studies. Results. Seven studies were included in this study; 198 and 185 patients were randomly treated with acupuncture and artificial tears, respectively. The overall BUT of patients in acupuncture group was significantly longer than that of the artificial tears group after treatment (P < 0.00001). The SIT was significantly higher in the acupuncture group than that in the artificial tears group after treatment (P = 0.001). The CFS of patients in acupuncture group was significantly improved compared to that in artificial group (P < 0.0001). Conclusions. Acupuncture therapy is effective for the dry eye patients, partly better than artificial tear treatment. PMID:25960747

  9. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral antioxidant supplement therapy in patients with dry eye syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jehn-Yu; Yeh, Po-Ting; Hou, Yu-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of oral antioxidant supplementation in the treatment of patients with dry eye syndrome (DES). Methods A prospective, randomized, double-blinded study compared the effects of an antioxidant supplement (containing anthocyanosides, astaxanthin, vitamins A, C, and E, and several herbal extracts, including Cassiae semen and Ophiopogonis japonicus) with placebo on patients with DES. We assessed dry eye symptoms, visual acuity, Schirmer’s test, tear film breakup time, cornea and conjunctiva fluorescein staining, serum anti-SSA/anti-SSB antibodies, and the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in tears. The supplementation period was 8 weeks and patients were followed up every 4 weeks for 16 weeks. A linear mixed model was used to compare the groups, while within-group differences were tested by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results Forty-three patients, 20 and 23 in treatment and placebo groups, respectively, completed the study. Liver and renal functions were normal. Diastolic blood pressure decreased in the treatment group. There were no significant differences in systolic blood pressure, dry eye symptoms, serum anti-SSA and anti-SSB, visual acuity, intraocular pressure, or fluorescein corneal staining between the groups. Tear film breakup time scores and Schirmer’s test without topical anesthesia significantly improved in the treatment group. Tear ROS level differed between the groups and decreased after treatment. Overall subjective impression revealed a significant improvement with treatment compared with placebo. Conclusion Oral antioxidant supplementations may increase tear production and improve tear film stability by reducing tear ROS. The vegetable-based antioxidant supplement used in this study is safe and can be utilized as an adjuvant therapy to conventional artificial tear therapy for patients with DES. PMID:27274185

  10. Long-Term Outcome of Treatment with Topical Corticosteroids for Severe Dry Eye Associated with Sjögren's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyun Ho; Ji, Yong Sok; Sung, Mi Sun; Kim, Kyung Keun

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study was performed to analyze the long-term outcome of topical corticosteroid treatment for severe dry eye associated with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Patients who had severe dry eye associated with SS were topically treated with loteprednol etabonate 0.5% (group A, n=66) or fluorometholone 0.1% (group B, n=67) twice daily and were followed up for 2 years. Visual acuity (VA), intraocular pressure (IOP), Schirmer test, tear film breakup time (BUT), keratoepitheliopathy, and symptom scores were measured at baseline and 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after treatment. VA and IOP were not changed significantly during follow-up in either group. Schirmer test results, keratoepitheliopathy, and symptom scores at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months (p<0.05) and tear film BUT at 12, 18, and 24 months (p<0.05) significantly improved after treatment compared with baseline in both groups. No significant differences between the groups were found in any parameter during follow-up. At 24 months, the number of patients with IOP elevation of more than 2 mmHg compared with baseline was 4 in group A (6.1%) and 9 in group B (13.4%). The mean IOP in these patients was lower in group A than in group B (15.00±0.82 mmHg versus 16.50±1.12 mmHg; p=0.04). Long-term application of low-dose topical corticosteroids is effective for controlling signs and symptoms of chronic, severe dry eye associated with SS. Loteprednol etabonate 0.5% may have a lower risk for IOP elevation than fluorometholone 0.1%. PMID:25914877

  11. Post Filtering Surgery Globe Massage-induced Keratoconus in an Eye with Iridocorneal Endothelial Syndrome: A Case Report and Literature Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    Fakhraie, Ghasem; Vahedian, Zakieh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To report a case of unilateral post trabeculectomy globe massage-induced keratoconus (KCN). Case Report: A 52-year-old lady with a history of trabeculectomy due to iridocorneal endothelial syndrome in her right eye was instructed to massage her globe to control gradual rise of intraocular pressure 1.5 years after surgery. The patient experienced high astigmatism and marked inferior corneal steepening after 3 years of globe massage. The left eye was normal in all aspects. Findings in different visual examinations were compatible with the diagnosis of unilateral KCN in the right eye of our patient. Conclusion: Chronic forceful frequent eye rubbing particularly with fingertips can be assumed to be the most important causative factor for KCN formation in this patient. PMID:27621792

  12. Klebsiella pneumoniae Renal Abscess Syndrome: A Rare Case with Metastatic Involvement of Lungs, Eye, and Brain

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Fayez S.; Pandey, Ambarish

    2013-01-01

    We describe a rare case of Klebsiella pneumoniae renal abscess with metastatic spread leading to endopthalmitis, pulmonary cavitary lesions, and cerebral emboli in a 41-year-old Hispanic female with diabetes mellitus who presented with a four-to-five-day history of fevers, headache, eye pain, and vomiting. She was treated with IV antibiotics and made a gradual but full recovery. PMID:23984128

  13. [Efficacy of physiotherapy and hygienic procedures in treatment of adults and children with chronic blepharitis and dry eye syndrome].

    PubMed

    Prozornaia, L P; Brzhevskiĭ, V V

    2013-01-01

    110 patients aged from 3 to 42 years old were examined to estimate the efficacy of chronic blepharitis treatment: 50 patients with chronic blepharitis and dry eye syndrome (DES), 28 with DES due to computer vision syndrome and 32 with isolated chronic blepharitis. All patients received eyelid massage. If the secretion was too thick and difficult to evacuate from meibomian glands then duct probing was performed. In addition a complex of hygienic procedures was performed using phytoproducts ("Geltec-Medika", Russia): blepharoshampoo, blepharolotion, blepharogel 1 and 2. Moist warm pads (with blepharolotion and calendula extraction) were applied on the eyelids in 25 patients. Massage and probing of meibomian gland ducts and hygienic procedures were showed to be effective in management of clinical signs of chronic blepharitis including coexisting DES. Moist warm pads improve efficacy of background therapy in patients with meibomian gland hypofunction and have no effect in blepharitis with excessive meibomian gland secretion. Eyelid hygiene was showed to be effective in adults and children as well including infants. PMID:23879027

  14. Reliability of Eye Tracking and Pupillometry Measures in Individuals with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farzin, Faraz; Scaggs, Felicia; Hervey, Crystal; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Hessl, David

    2011-01-01

    Recent insight into the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of fragile X syndrome (FXS) has led to the proposal and development of new pharmaceutical treatment strategies, and the initiation of clinical trials aimed at correcting core symptoms of the developmental disorder. Consequently, there is an urgent and critical need for outcome…

  15. "Hungry Eyes": Visual Processing of Food Images in Adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, A. P. F.; Dykens, E. M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder associated with intellectual disabilities, compulsivity, hyperphagia and increased risks of life-threatening obesity. Food preferences in people with PWS are well documented, but research has yet to focus on other properties of food in PWS, including composition and suitability for…

  16. Audiovisual Speech Perception and Eye Gaze Behavior of Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saalasti, Satu; Katsyri, Jari; Tiippana, Kaisa; Laine-Hernandez, Mari; von Wendt, Lennart; Sams, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Audiovisual speech perception was studied in adults with Asperger syndrome (AS), by utilizing the McGurk effect, in which conflicting visual articulation alters the perception of heard speech. The AS group perceived the audiovisual stimuli differently from age, sex and IQ matched controls. When a voice saying /p/ was presented with a face…

  17. Synergistic Effect of Artificial Tears Containing Epigallocatechin Gallate and Hyaluronic Acid for the Treatment of Rabbits with Dry Eye Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ya-Jung; Chen, Zhi-Yu; Fang, Hsu-Wei; Chen, Ko-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a common eye disease. Artificial tears (AT) are used to treat DES, but they are not effective. In this study, we assessed the anti-inflammatory effect of AT containing epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and hyaluronic acid (HA) on DES. Human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) were used in the WST-8 assay to determine the safe dose of EGCG. Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated HCECs showing inflammation were treated with EGCG/HA. The expression of IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α was assessed by real-time PCR and AT physical properties such as the viscosity, osmolarity, and pH were examined. AT containing EGCG and HA were topically administered in a rabbit DES model established by treatment with 0.1% benzalkonium chloride (BAC). Tear secretion was assessed and fluorescein, H&E, and TUNEL staining were performed. Inflammatory cytokine levels in the corneas were also examined. The non-toxic optimal concentration of EGCG used for the treatment of HCECs in vitro was 10 μg/mL. The expression of several inflammatory genes, including IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α, was significantly inhibited in inflamed HCECs treated with 10 μg/mL EGCG and 0.1% (w/v) HA (E10/HA) compared to that in inflamed HCECs treated with either EGCG or HA alone. AT containing E10/HA mimic human tears, with similar osmolarity and viscosity and a neutral pH. Fluorescence examination of the ocular surface of mouse eyes showed that HA increased drug retention on the ocular surface. Topical treatment of DES rabbits with AT plus E10/HA increased tear secretion, reduced corneal epithelial damage, and maintained the epithelial layers and stromal structure. Moreover, the corneas of the E10/HA-treated rabbits showed fewer apoptotic cells, lower inflammation, and decreased IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels. In conclusion, we showed that AT plus E10/HA had anti-inflammatory and mucoadhesive properties when used as topical eye drops and were effective for treating DES in rabbits. PMID:27336157

  18. Wakayama symposium: role of canonical Notch signaling in conjucntival goblet cell differentiation and dry eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Yang

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes a recent finding regarding the intrinsic canonical Notch signaling pathway in regulating normal ocular surface morphogenesis and its role in the pathogenesis of goblet cell deficiency-associated keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS, or dry eye). Specifically, we used novel transgenic mice to investigate the mechanism of how the Notch1 activation may serve as the upstream control of expression of transcription factors Krüppel-like factors 4 or 5 (Klf4 or Klf5) which in turn controls goblet cell differentiation and activates mucin 5/ac synthesis during ocular surface morphogenesis. PMID:26818247

  19. Three percent diquafosol ophthalmic solution as an additional therapy to existing artificial tears with steroids for dry-eye patients with Sjögren's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yokoi, N; Sonomura, Y; Kato, H; Komuro, A; Kinoshita, S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the long-term results of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution as an alternative therapy to existing ophthalmic solutions, including topical immunosuppression, for the treatment of dry eye in patients with Sjögren's syndrome. Methods This study involved 14 female dry-eye patients (mean age: 62.4 years) with Sjögren's syndrome who insufficiently responded to their current therapy. In all patients, 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution was administered six times daily for 12 months in substitution for artificial tears and sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution. Their use of corticosteroid eye drops remained unchanged from that prior to the treatment with diquafosol sodium. The subjective symptoms assessed, and ocular signs including tear meniscus radius and the tear film breakup time, and ocular-surface epithelial damage score were examined at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, and 12 months after initiating treatment. Results Among the subjective symptoms, significant improvement was obtained in dryness at 2 months post treatment, in eye fatigue at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 12 months post treatment, and in pain at 1, 2, 6, and 12 months post treatment. Difficulty in opening the eye, foreign body sensation, and redness were also significantly ameliorated at various time-points. The tear meniscus radius and the tear film breakup time were significantly improved throughout the observation period, and the corneal epithelial staining scores were significantly decreased at 3 months post treatment. Conclusions In dry-eye patients with Sjögren's syndrome, treatment with 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution improved both symptoms and signs, and that effectiveness was maintained for 12 months. PMID:26160526

  20. Cat Batiks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buban, Marcia H.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses an art activity where fourth-grade students created backgrounds using melted paraffin and a variety of paints for their cat batik/collage. Explains that after the students created their backgrounds, they assembled their paper cats for the collage using smaller shapes glued together and wax to add texture for fur. (CMK)

  1. Managing the child with a diagnosis of Moebius syndrome: more than meets the eye.

    PubMed

    McKay, Victoria H; Touil, Leila L; Jenkins, Dagan; Fattah, Adel Y

    2016-09-01

    Moebius syndrome (MBS) is a congenital, non-progressive facial and abducens nerve palsy in the presence of full vertical gaze and may be associated with limb abnormalities and craniofacial dysmorphisms. MBS is now defined as a disorder of rhombencephalic maldevelopment and recent gene discoveries have shown this to be a dominant disorder in a subset of patients. Accurate diagnosis and management by a multidisciplinary team with expertise in congenital facial palsy is paramount. PMID:26868039

  2. Choroidal abnormalities and masquerade syndromes confounding the diagnosis of laser-induced eye injuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacker, Henry D.; Zwick, Harry; Brown, Jeremiah, Jr.; Dicks, Ronald; Cheramie, Rachel; Stuck, Bruce E.

    2005-04-01

    The diagnosis of a laser-induced eye injury occurring in occupational or military environments is often complicated by confounding symptoms, the possibility of pre-existing pathology, and/or a lack of visual deficits that can be clearly associated with a specific incident. Two recent cases are described that illustrate the importance of a thorough differential diagnosis when coexisting retinal pathologies are present with potentially different (e.g. laser or disease) etiologies. Indocyanine green angiography (ICG) and ocular coherence tomography (OCT) used in combination with standard ophthalmic imaging can provide helpful insights as to the etiology of these lesions. Vascular choroidal abnormalities such as hemangiomas or occult histoplasmosis infection can produce findings that can mimic the leakage that may be evident from neovascular membranes associated with laser injury. Further evaluation with OCT and conventional fluorescein angiography (FA) is helpful to look for the classic signature of retinal disruption and retinal pigment layer changes that are often present in association with laser injury. Furthermore, a careful situational assessment of a potential laser exposure is important to confirm the diagnosis of laser-induced eye injury.

  3. Understanding Symptoms and Quality of Life in Patients With Dry Eye Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barabino, Stefano; Labetoulle, Marc; Rolando, Maurizio; Messmer, Elisabeth M

    2016-07-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) is one of the most common reasons for patients (particularly those over the age of 50) to seek ophthalmic care. There is a wide array of causes for DED that can induce an alteration of the ocular surface system and determine the chronicity of the disease, including low blink rates (eg, computer use), systemic and topical drugs, autoimmune diseases, contact lens wear, and cataract and refractive surgery. Patients with dry eye experience numerous symptoms that can reduce their productivity and overall quality of life. This article presents the results of a roundtable focused on patients' symptoms. The goal was to better understand the symptoms reported by patients, the possible effects on visual function, the consequences on the quality of life, and the methodologies that can be used to measure and monitor symptoms in clinical practice and in clinical studies. The discrepancies between clinical signs and symptoms reported in some cases are considered in the context of the ocular surface system. PMID:27224876

  4. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Dry Eye Syndrome: Differential Effects of Vitamin D on Ocular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jee, Donghyun; Kang, Seungbum; Yuan, Changzheng; Cho, Eunyoung; Arroyo, Jorge G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and dry eye syndrome (DES), and to evaluate the differential effect of vitamin D on ocular diseases including age-related macular disease (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), cataract, and DES. Methods A total of 16,396 participants aged >19 years were randomly selected from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. All participants participated in standardized interviews, blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D level evaluations, and comprehensive ophthalmic examinations. DES was defined by a history of clinical diagnosis of dry eyes by a physician. The association between vitamin D and DES was compared to the associations between vitamin D and AMD, DR, cataract, and DES from our previous studies. Results The odds of DES non-significantly decreased as the quintiles of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels increased (quintile 5 versus 1, OR = 0.85, 95%CI: 0.55–1.30, P for trend = 0.076) after adjusting for potential confounders including age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, smoking status, and sunlight exposure times. The relative odds of DES (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.30–1.64) and cataract (OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.59–0.99) were relatively high, while those of DR (OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.18–0.76) and late AMD (OR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.12–0.81) were lower in men. Conclusions The present study does not support an association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and DES. The preventive effect of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D may be more effective for DR and late AMD than it is for cataract and DES. PMID:26894581

  5. Clinical study to assess the efficacy of Keshanjana and Netra Parisheka in the management of Shushkakshipaka (dry eye syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Vardhan, Prabhakar; Dhiman, Kartar Singh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a common ophthalmic problem predominantly affecting middle-aged and elderly people. It is a disease of deficient or deranged tears and ocular surface disorder producing symptoms of discomfort, visual disturbance, and tears film instability. Shushkakshipaka, an etymologically and clinically similar entity to DES, is defined in Ayurveda as the disease affecting all parts of the eye characterized by Paka (inflammation) due to Shuskatva (dryness) caused by altered coherence of Ashru (tears) with ocular surface or due to lack of Ashru. Aim: To compare the effect of Keshanjana and Netra Parisheka in Shushkakshipaka with artificial tear drops (carboxy methyl cellulose [CMC]). Materials and Methods: To search a safe, potent and cost-effective Ayurvedic treatment for DES, a randomized comparative clinical trial was conducted on 32 patients. Patients were divided in two groups 15 in group I and 17 in group II. Group I treated with artificial tear drop four times a day for topical use and group II treated with combination therapy of Keshanjana applied topically once a day and Netra Prisheka was done thrice a day. Results: The effect of Ayurvedic management was found to be equivalent to the standard therapy, although the trial drugs provided more relief in foreign body sensation, burning sensation, dryness, pain, photophobia, itching, crusting, stuck eyelids, tear meniscus, conjunctival congestion, Schirmer I test, and tear film break-up time (TUBT). The standard therapy provided more relief than trial drugs in mucous discharges, transiently blurred vision, redness, and the presence of mucin debris in tear film. Conclusion: Keshanjana and Netra Parisheka can be used as a potent, safe and cost-effective treatment to ameliorate the symptoms of DES. PMID:26664237

  6. 'Moya' than meets the eye: neurofibromatosis type 1 associated with Moyamoya syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tan, R M; Chng, S M; Seow, W T; Wong, J; Lim, C C

    2008-04-01

    Moyamoya syndrome (MMS) is an uncommon association of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). We describe a seven-year-old chinese girl with NF1 and unilateral MMS with multiple hyperintensities on T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. The ischaemic lesions in the ipsilateral white matter were hypointense on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MR images, in contrast to the hyperintense "unidentified bright objects" (UBOs) of NF1. Neuroradiologists should be aware of associated MMS in NF1 patients, and distinguish the effects of ischaemia from UBOs, especially on FLAIR MR imaging. PMID:18418511

  7. Expression and regulation of LOXL1 and elastin-related genes in eyes with exfoliation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wiggs, Janey L; Pasquale, Louis R

    2014-01-01

    Variants in LOXL1 are significantly associated with exfoliation syndrome (XFS), however the impact of the associated variants on disease development is not yet understood. Initially the associated missense changes, R141L and G153D, were considered to be pathogenic alleles. Flipping of the risk allele in certain populations for both missense variants provided strong evidence that these missense changes are not biologically significant and suggest that other LOXL1 variant(s), in linkage disequilibrium with these missense variants, predispose to exfoliation syndrome by affecting gene expression or protein function. Several lines of evidence support dysregulation of LOXL1 gene expression as a contributing factor to disease development. First, in the German population the R141L (rs1048661) risk allele reduced LOXL1 expression by 20%. Second, haplotype analysis identified a risk haplotype that includes including R141L, G153D, as well as a LOXL1 promoter region variant previously shown to reduce gene expression (rs16958477). Third, the LOXL1 risk haplotype influences gene expression induced by disease-associated factors TGF-B1, oxidative stress, UV light and hypoxia. Finally, a LOXL1 null mouse has some features of XFS suggesting that decreased enzyme activity contributes to predisposition to the disease. Collectively, these results suggest that dysregulation of LOXL1 expression is a contributing factor to exfoliation disease development. PMID:25275910

  8. The Association between Symptoms of Dry Eye Syndrome and Metabolic Outcome in a General Population in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Dry eye syndrome (DES) is recognized as a public health concern. One of the pathophysiologies in the development of DES is inflammation, and metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is highly prevalent in the general population, is a well-known chronic and systemic inflammatory condition. Despite the increasing interest regarding a relationship between DES and MetS, information is lacking on the association between DES and MetS and its individual components. We investigated the association between DES symptoms and MetS and its components among adults aged ≥ 19 years using population-based data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V. A sample group of 15,294 adults (42.67% men and 57.33% women) completed household interviews in which they provided blood (for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, and glucose) and anthropometric measurements (including waist circumference, weight, and height) to define MetS. We also collected information regarding sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors. The survey results showed that 11.50% of men and 22.35% of women experienced DES and 5.30% of patients had both DES and diagnosis of MetS, including 204 men and 606 women. Thus, no significant difference was observed between DES and the diagnosis of MetS according to sex (P = 0.4008 in men; P = 0.0804 in women); however, a significant association was observed between DES and hypertriglyceridemia in women (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01–1.29). Therefore, hypertriglyceridemia might be an important factor in the association between DES and MetS. Further longitudinal research is needed to evaluate this relationship. PMID:27366012

  9. The Association between Symptoms of Dry Eye Syndrome and Metabolic Outcome in a General Population in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Won; Park, Jong Woon

    2016-07-01

    Dry eye syndrome (DES) is recognized as a public health concern. One of the pathophysiologies in the development of DES is inflammation, and metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is highly prevalent in the general population, is a well-known chronic and systemic inflammatory condition. Despite the increasing interest regarding a relationship between DES and MetS, information is lacking on the association between DES and MetS and its individual components. We investigated the association between DES symptoms and MetS and its components among adults aged ≥ 19 years using population-based data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V. A sample group of 15,294 adults (42.67% men and 57.33% women) completed household interviews in which they provided blood (for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, and glucose) and anthropometric measurements (including waist circumference, weight, and height) to define MetS. We also collected information regarding sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors. The survey results showed that 11.50% of men and 22.35% of women experienced DES and 5.30% of patients had both DES and diagnosis of MetS, including 204 men and 606 women. Thus, no significant difference was observed between DES and the diagnosis of MetS according to sex (P = 0.4008 in men; P = 0.0804 in women); however, a significant association was observed between DES and hypertriglyceridemia in women (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01-1.29). Therefore, hypertriglyceridemia might be an important factor in the association between DES and MetS. Further longitudinal research is needed to evaluate this relationship. PMID:27366012

  10. Before your very eyes: illness, agency, and the management of Tourette Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Buckser, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    In this article, I examine the ways that people with Tourette Syndrome (TS) manage the motor and vocal tics characteristic of this neurological disorder. To mitigate the powerful stigmas associated with TS, individuals must either remove tics from public view or strive to recast the way that they are perceived. Drawing on ethnographic research with TS sufferers in Indiana, I elaborate three strategies by which this is done, strategies referred to here as displacement, misattribution, and contextualization. These processes strongly affect both the symptoms themselves and the subjective experience of the illness. They also affect the perception of TS in the larger culture, associating the disease with florid symptoms like cursing--symptoms that, although not at all typical of TS, are the ones most resistant to these kinds of management. These patterns highlight how individual agency may actively shape the cultural construction of illness. PMID:18717365

  11. Dancing Eyes Dancing Feet Syndrome-A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Saravanan, S; V, Sriramakrishnan; M, Radha

    2014-01-01

    Opsoclonus Myoclonus (OMS) is a rare neurological disorder which appears to be the result of an autoimmune dysfunction. It is an extremely rare condition, affecting as few as 1 in 10,000,000 people every year. It affects 2 to 3% of children. Opsoclonus Myoclonus, which manifests itself as post infectious encephalopathy, occasionally along with HIV infection, post Streptococcal infection, West Nile virus encephalitis and Rickettsial infection, most often presents as a paraneoplastic syndrome, which is especially caused by occult neuroblastoma which is commonly seen in childhood and occurs in adults in relation to breast cancer and small cell lung cancer. In this study, two adult post infectious cases which had rare manifestations, have been presented. The cases were managed by using corticosteroids. PMID:24995204

  12. Dancing eyes dancing feet syndrome-a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Jasminekalyani, P; Saravanan, S; V, Sriramakrishnan; M, Radha

    2014-05-01

    Opsoclonus Myoclonus (OMS) is a rare neurological disorder which appears to be the result of an autoimmune dysfunction. It is an extremely rare condition, affecting as few as 1 in 10,000,000 people every year. It affects 2 to 3% of children. Opsoclonus Myoclonus, which manifests itself as post infectious encephalopathy, occasionally along with HIV infection, post Streptococcal infection, West Nile virus encephalitis and Rickettsial infection, most often presents as a paraneoplastic syndrome, which is especially caused by occult neuroblastoma which is commonly seen in childhood and occurs in adults in relation to breast cancer and small cell lung cancer. In this study, two adult post infectious cases which had rare manifestations, have been presented. The cases were managed by using corticosteroids. PMID:24995204

  13. Efficacy of polyunsaturated fatty acids for dry eye syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Wu, Yan; Li, Guigang; Wang, Juan; Li, Xinyu

    2014-10-01

    Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a common ocular disease that significantly affects the quality of life. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been used to treat DES; however, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of PUFA therapy yield discordant results. The objective of this study was to clarify the effects of PUFAs on DES through meta-analysis of all relevant RCTs. To do so, a comprehensive search of PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Science, and unpublished data was conducted. The changes in clinical and laboratory examinations, symptomatic scores, and rates of relevant symptoms were analyzed. Nine RCTs were included in the current meta-analysis. Compared with placebo, PUFA supplementation was not related to changes in tear film break-up time (weighted mean difference [WMD], 0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.05 to 0.72), Schirmer's test score (WMD, 0.32; 95%CI, -0.23 to 0.86), or lissamine green staining score (WMD, -0.77; 95%CI, -1.66 to 0.12). However, significant reductions were detected in the symptom score on the ocular surface disease index (WMD, -2.26; 95%CI, -4.44 to -0.08) and in the rate of cells positive for human leukocyte antigen DR (WMD, -5.80; 95%CI, -8.62 to -2.97). This comprehensive meta-analysis supports the use of PUFA supplementation as a potential effective therapy for DES. PMID:25236365

  14. Induction of rapid eye movement sleep by the microinjection of nerve growth factor into the pontine reticular formation of the cat.

    PubMed

    Yamuy, J; Morales, F R; Chase, M H

    1995-05-01

    Nerve growth factor is an endogenous protein which belongs to the neurotrophin family of trophic factors. According to the neurotrophic hypothesis, neurotrophins are synthetized by target tissues and regulate the survival and phenotype of their innervating neurons. Whereas these trophic molecules have been mainly thought to be involved in developmental processes, their existence in the central nervous system of the adult animal suggests that they may play a role in neuronal physiology. Recently, it has been reported that neurons that express messenger RNA for two neurotrophins, namely brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3, are located medial to the locus coeruleus and ventral to the fourth ventricle. This area corresponds to the latero-dorsal tegmental nucleus, which contains cholinergic neurons that have been implicated in the generation of rapid eye movement sleep. In turn, the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus is reciprocally connected with the nucleus pontis oralis in the rostrodorsal pontine reticular formation, which is an area that is involved in the initiation of the physiological patterns of activity that define the state of rapid eye movement sleep. Scattered neurons in the nucleus pontis oralis express the low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor which also binds the other neurotrophins with similar affinity. In addition, neurons in the area of the nucleus pontis oralis have been reported to express a subtype of the neurotrophin high affinity receptors. These membrane receptors, independently or in combination with the low affinity receptors, have been proposed to mediate the delayed, long-term effects of neurotrophins.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7637879

  15. Exploring inhibitory deficits in female premutation carriers of fragile X syndrome: through eye movements.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Annie L; Cornish, Kim; Kraan, Claudine; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Bradshaw, John L; Hocking, Darren R; Archibald, Alison D; Cohen, Jonathan; Trollor, Julian N; Fielding, Joanne

    2014-03-01

    There is evidence which demonstrates that a subset of males with a premutation CGG repeat expansion (between 55 and 200 repeats) of the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene exhibit subtle deficits of executive function that progressively deteriorate with increasing age and CGG repeat length. However, it remains unclear whether similar deficits, which may indicate the onset of more severe degeneration, are evident in female PM-carriers. In the present study we explore whether female PM-carriers exhibit deficits of executive function which parallel those of male PM-carriers. Fourteen female fragile X premutation carriers without fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome and fourteen age, sex, and IQ matched controls underwent ocular motor and neuropsychological tests of select executive processes, specifically of response inhibition and working memory. Group comparisons revealed poorer inhibitory control for female premutation carriers on ocular motor tasks, in addition to demonstrating some difficulties in behaviour self-regulation, when compared to controls. A negative correlation between CGG repeat length and antisaccade error rates for premutation carriers was also found. Our preliminary findings indicate that impaired inhibitory control may represent a phenotype characteristic which may be a sensitive risk biomarker within this female fragile X premutation population. PMID:24424424

  16. Overlapping irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease: less to this than meets the eye?

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, Eamonn M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Though distinct in terms of pathology, natural history and therapeutic approach, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have some features in common. These include shared symptomatology and largely similar demographics. However, in most instances, clinical presentation, together with laboratory, imaging and endoscopic findings will readily permit the differentiation of active IBD from IBS. More problematic is the situation where a subject with IBD, in apparent remission, continues to complain of symptoms which, in aggregate, satisfy commonly employed criteria for the diagnosis of IBS. Access to methodologies, such the assay for levels of calprotectin in feces, now allows identification of ongoing inflammation in some such individuals and prompts appropriate therapy. More challenging is the IBD patient with persisting symptoms and no detectable evidence of inflammation; is this coincident IBS, IBS triggered by IBD or an even more subtle level of IBD activity unrecognized by available laboratory or imaging methods? Arguments can be advanced for each of these proposals; lacking definitive data, this issue remains unresolved. The occurrence of IBS-type symptoms in the IBD patient, together with some data suggesting a very subtle level of ‘inflammation‘ or ‘immune activation‘ in IBS, raises other questions: is IBS a prodromal form of IBD; and are IBS and IBD part of the spectrum of the same disease? All of the available evidence indicates that the answer to both these questions should be a resounding ‘no’. Indeed, the whole issue of overlap between IBS and IBD should be declared moot given their differing pathophysiologies, contrasting natural histories and divergent treatment paths. The limited symptom repertoire of the gastrointestinal tract may well be fundamental to the apparent confusion that has, of late, bedeviled this area. PMID:26929782

  17. Anesthesia & Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur in individuals with Down syndrome than their peers without Down syndrome. An awareness of these more ... of the eyes, ears, and joints - just like peers without Down syndrome. What About Down Syndrome Is ...

  18. Effects of Labeling and Pointing on Object Gaze in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome: An Eye-Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Mastergeorge, Ann M.; McDuffie, Andrea S.; Kover, Sara T.; Hagerman, Randi J.; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    We examined the visual processing of a social learning stimulus and the ways in which visual attention was distributed to objects as well as to the examiner’s face during word learning under conditions that varied only in the presence or absence of a label. The goal of the current study, then, was to evaluate the effects of differentially providing pointing and labeling during exposure to a novel target object in males with fragile X syndrome (FXS) (n = 14, ages 4.33–10.02), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 17, ages 4.04–10.4), or typical development (TD) (n = 18, ages 2.05–5.33). In particular, the present study examined attention to the examiner’s face as well as target and distracter objects that were presented as video stimuli. An eye-tracker captured gaze to the video stimuli as they were shown in order to examine the way in which children with FXS, ASD, or TD distributed their gaze toward the examiner and the objects. Results indicated that no group showed increased gaze toward the target object compared to the distracter object. However, results revealed that participants with FXS showed significantly increased face gaze compared to the novel objects, whereas children with ASD and TD both showed similar amounts of relative gaze toward the face and objects. Furthermore, the act of pointing at the target object was found to increase gaze toward the target objects compared to when there was no pointing in all groups. Together, these findings suggest that social cues like those employed in a word-learning task, when presented with video, may relate to gaze in FXS in context- or task-dependent ways that are distinct from those expected during live interaction. PMID:25062097

  19. Cat scratch disease (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Cat scratch disease is an infectious illness associated with cat scratches, bites, or exposure to cat saliva, causing chronic swelling of the lymph nodes. Cat scratch disease is possibly the most common cause of ...

  20. Cat Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry ... infection does not make cats sick. However, the scratch or bite of an infected cat can cause ...

  1. Cat scratch disease (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Cat scratch disease is an infectious illness associated with cat scratches, bites, or exposure to cat saliva, causing chronic swelling of the lymph nodes. Cat scratch disease is possibly the most common cause of chronic ...

  2. The increase of aqueous tear volume by diquafosol sodium in dry-eye patients with Sjögren's syndrome: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, N; Kato, H; Kinoshita, S

    2016-06-01

    PurposeTo investigate the effect of 3% diquafosol sodium ophthalmic solution (DQS) on aqueous tear volume increase in dry-eye patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS).MethodsIn this pilot study, 17 dry-eye patients with SS (1 male and 16 females; mean age: 66.4 years) were enrolled and underwent topical instillation of two ophthalmic solutions, artificial tears (AT) in one eye and DQS in the fellow eye, in a masked manner. The central lower tear meniscus radius (TMR) curvature was measured before and at 15 min after instillation by video-meniscometry. Simultaneously, all patients self-evaluated their symptoms of wetness and stinging using a visual analog scale (VAS, in millimeters).ResultsTopical instillation of DQS significantly increased the TMR at 15 min (mean: 0.21±0.08 (SD) mm) compared with at baseline (mean: 0.16±0.07 mm) (P<0.001, paired t-test), whereas AT had no effect at baseline (mean: 0.18±0.09 mm) or at 15 min (mean: 0.18±0.09 mm). The visual VAS score of wetness at 15-min post-instillation increased in both groups compared with at baseline. In the DQS-treated eyes, the post-instillation change in TMR from baseline was not correlated with the baseline value of the Schirmer test, corneal staining score, or conjunctival staining score.ConclusionsTopical instillation of DQS increased aqueous tear volume on the ocular surface of dry-eye patients with SS, with its action being independent of lacrimal gland function. PMID:27055679

  3. Spontaneous occurrence of chromosome abnormality in cats.

    PubMed

    THULINE, H C; NORBY, D W

    1961-08-25

    A syndrome in male cats analogous to chromatin-positive Klinefelter's syndrome in human males has been demonstrated. The physical characteristics which suggested an abnormality of chromosome number in cats were "calico" or "tortoise-shell" coat colors in a male. Buccal mucosal smears were found to have "female-type" patterns in two out of 12 such male cats screened, and these two were found to have a diploid chromosome number of 39 rather than the normal 38. Testicular biopsy performed on one revealed an abnormal pattern; no gonadal tissue was found in the other cat with an abnormal chromosome number. These findings indicate that the cat, in addition to the mouse, is available for experimental study of chromosome number abnormalities. PMID:13776765

  4. Usher Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Usher syndrome is an inherited disease that causes serious hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa, an eye disorder ... hearing and vision. There are three types of Usher syndrome: People with type I are deaf from ...

  5. Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Your eyes can get infections from bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Eye infections can occur in different parts of the eye and can affect just one eye or both. Two common eye infections are Conjunctivitis - also known as pinkeye. Conjunctivitis is ...

  6. A randomized crossover study comparing trehalose/hyaluronate eyedrops and standard treatment: patient satisfaction in the treatment of dry eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Bonilla, Juan Carlos; Del Olmo-Jimeno, Alberto; Llovet-Osuna, Fernando; Hernández-Galilea, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye is a common disorder in routine ophthalmological practice, and a better understanding of the complex pathophysiology is leading to improved treatment. Thealoz Duo(®) is a novel artificial tear preparation containing two active ingredients: Trehalose, a naturally occurring disaccharide with anhydrobiotic functions in many organisms, and hyaluronate, a widely distributed anionic glycosaminoglycan polysaccharide with lubricative and water-retaining properties in biological systems. In a randomized, single center, open label, crossover study, 17 adult patients with moderate-to-severe dry eye syndrome were randomized to treatment with Thealoz Duo(®) (combining trehalose and hyaluronic acid) or Systane(®). Patients received 7 days of treatment. The primary efficacy variable was patient satisfaction evaluated by a 0-100 visual analog scale evaluated on days 0 and 7 of treatment. Secondary parameters included ocular surface disease index (OSDI), symptoms of dry eye, ocular staining scores (fluorescein and lissamine green), ocular clinical signs, Schirmer test, tear breakup time, and global efficacy assessed by the patient and the investigator. Seventeen patients were included. Patient satisfaction improved from 44.5±19.0 to 70.2±19.2 mm during Thealoz Duo(®) treatment and from 47.2±23 to 57.1±19.1 mm during Systane(®) treatment (P=0.043, mixed-effects analysis of covariance). Two secondary efficacy parameters (dry eye symptoms and the impact of their symptoms on work) showed statistically significant advantages for Thealoz Duo(®) over Systane(®). There were no statistically significant advantages for Systane(®) over Thealoz Duo(®) for any measured parameter. No adverse events were reported. Thealoz Duo(®) appears to be an effective combination of two active ingredients for the treatment of dry eye and is at least as effective as Systane(®). PMID:25926736

  7. A randomized crossover study comparing trehalose/hyaluronate eyedrops and standard treatment: patient satisfaction in the treatment of dry eye syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pinto-Bonilla, Juan Carlos; del Olmo-Jimeno, Alberto; Llovet-Osuna, Fernando; Hernández-Galilea, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye is a common disorder in routine ophthalmological practice, and a better understanding of the complex pathophysiology is leading to improved treatment. Thealoz Duo® is a novel artificial tear preparation containing two active ingredients: Trehalose, a naturally occurring disaccharide with anhydrobiotic functions in many organisms, and hyaluronate, a widely distributed anionic glycosaminoglycan polysaccharide with lubricative and water-retaining properties in biological systems. In a randomized, single center, open label, crossover study, 17 adult patients with moderate-to-severe dry eye syndrome were randomized to treatment with Thealoz Duo® (combining trehalose and hyaluronic acid) or Systane®. Patients received 7 days of treatment. The primary efficacy variable was patient satisfaction evaluated by a 0–100 visual analog scale evaluated on days 0 and 7 of treatment. Secondary parameters included ocular surface disease index (OSDI), symptoms of dry eye, ocular staining scores (fluorescein and lissamine green), ocular clinical signs, Schirmer test, tear breakup time, and global efficacy assessed by the patient and the investigator. Seventeen patients were included. Patient satisfaction improved from 44.5±19.0 to 70.2±19.2 mm during Thealoz Duo® treatment and from 47.2±23 to 57.1±19.1 mm during Systane® treatment (P=0.043, mixed-effects analysis of covariance). Two secondary efficacy parameters (dry eye symptoms and the impact of their symptoms on work) showed statistically significant advantages for Thealoz Duo® over Systane®. There were no statistically significant advantages for Systane® over Thealoz Duo® for any measured parameter. No adverse events were reported. Thealoz Duo® appears to be an effective combination of two active ingredients for the treatment of dry eye and is at least as effective as Systane®. PMID:25926736

  8. Sjögren's syndrome associated dry eye in a mouse model is ameliorated by topical application of integrin α4 antagonist GW559090.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Ruiz, Laura; Mir, Fayaz A; Turpie, Bruce; Krauss, Achim H; Masli, Sharmila

    2016-02-01

    Sjögren's syndrome is an autoimmune disease associated with inflammation of exocrine glands with clinical manifestations of dry eye and dry mouth. Dry eye in this disease involves inflammation of the ocular surface tissues - cornea and conjunctiva. While systemic blockade of adhesion molecules has been used to treat autoimmune diseases, the purpose of this study was to determine the therapeutic efficacy of topical application of an integrin α4 adhesion molecule antagonist in a mouse model of dry eye associated with Sjögren's syndrome. To assess this spontaneously developed ocular surface inflammation related to Sjögren's syndrome in TSP-1null mice (12 wks) was evaluated. Mice were treated with topical formulations containing 0.1% dexamethasone or 30 mg/ml GW559090 or vehicle control. Corneal fluorescein staining and conjunctival goblet cell density were assessed. Real-time PCR analysis was performed to assess expression of the inflammatory marker IL-1β in the cornea and Tbet and RORγt in the draining lymph nodes. Ocular surface inflammation was detectable in TSP-1null mice (≥12 wk old), which resulted in increased corneal fluorescein staining indicative of corneal barrier disruption and reduced conjunctival goblet cell density. These changes were accompanied by increased corneal expression of IL-1β as compared to WT controls and an altered balance of Th1 (Tbet) and Th17 (RORγt) markers in the draining lymph nodes. Topically applied dexamethasone and GW559090 significantly reduced corneal fluorescein staining compared to vehicle treatment (p = 0.023 and p < 0.001, respectively). This improved corneal barrier integrity upon adhesion molecule blockade was consistent with significantly reduced corneal expression of pro-inflammatory IL-1β compared to vehicle treated groups (p < 0.05 for both treatments). Significant improvement in goblet cell density was also noted in mice treated with 0.1% dexamethasone and GW559090 (p < 0.05 for both). We conclude

  9. Minimal change glomerulopathy in a cat.

    PubMed

    Backlund, Brianna; Cianciolo, Rachel E; Cook, Audrey K; Clubb, Fred J; Lees, George E

    2011-04-01

    A 6-year-old domestic shorthair male castrated cat was evaluated for sudden onset of vomiting and anorexia. A diagnosis of hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) was made, and the cat was treated with imatinib mesylate. The cat had an initial clinical improvement with the normalization of the peripheral eosinophil count. After approximately 8 weeks of treatment, lethargy and anorexia recurred despite the normal eosinophil count and a significant proteinuric nephropathy was identified. Treatment with imatinib was discontinued. Ultrasound guided renal biopsies exhibited histologic, ultrastructural, and immunostaining changes indicative of a minimal change glomerulopathy (MCG) which has not previously been reported in the literature in a cat. The proteinuria and HES initially improved while the cat was treated with more traditional medications; however, both the problems persisted for 30 months that the cat was followed subsequently. Previous studies demonstrating the safety and efficacy of imatinib in cats do not report any glomerular injury or significant adverse drug reactions, and the exact cause of this cat's proteinuric nephropathy is uncertain. Nonetheless, the possibility of an adverse drug reaction causing proteinuria should be considered when initiating treatment with imatinib in a cat. PMID:21414552

  10. Eye redness

    MedlinePlus

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral infection; Conjunctival infection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies and some are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Others are nothing to worry about. ...

  11. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Cancer - Overview Request Permissions Print to PDF Eye Cancer - Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About Us Eye Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Eye Cancer Overview Statistics ...

  12. Eye emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trauma A black eye is usually caused by direct trauma to the eye or face. The bruise ... can cause bruising around the eyes, even without direct injury to the eye. Sometimes, serious damage to ...

  13. Eye pain

    MedlinePlus

    Ophthalmalgia; Pain - eye ... Pain in the eye can be an important symptom of a health problem. Make sure you tell your health care provider if you have eye pain that does not go away. Tired eyes or ...

  14. Loss of Goosecoid-like and DiGeorge syndrome critical region 14 in interpeduncular nucleus results in altered regulation of rapid eye movement sleep

    PubMed Central

    Funato, Hiromasa; Sato, Makito; Sinton, Christopher M.; Gautron, Laurent; Williams, S. Clay; Skach, Amber; Elmquist, Joel K.; Skoultchi, Arthur I.; Yanagisawa, Masashi

    2010-01-01

    Sleep and wakefulness are regulated primarily by inhibitory interactions between the hypothalamus and brainstem. The expression of the states of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep also are correlated with the activity of groups of REM-off and REM-on neurons in the dorsal brainstem. However, the contribution of ventral brainstem nuclei to sleep regulation has been little characterized to date. Here we examined sleep and wakefulness in mice deficient in a homeobox transcription factor, Goosecoid-like (Gscl), which is one of the genes deleted in DiGeorge syndrome or 22q11 deletion syndrome. The expression of Gscl is restricted to the interpeduncular nucleus (IP) in the ventral region of the midbrain–hindbrain transition. The IP has reciprocal connections with several cell groups implicated in sleep/wakefulness regulation. Although Gscl−/− mice have apparently normal anatomy and connections of the IP, they exhibited a reduced total time spent in REM sleep and fewer REM sleep episodes. In addition, Gscl−/− mice showed reduced theta power during REM sleep and increased arousability during REM sleep. Gscl−/− mice also lacked the expression of DiGeorge syndrome critical region 14 (Dgcr14) in the IP. These results indicate that the absence of Gscl and Dgcr14 in the IP results in altered regulation of REM sleep. PMID:20921407

  15. Genetics Home Reference: isolated Duane retraction syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Isolated Duane retraction syndrome is a disorder of eye movement. This condition prevents outward movement of the eye ( ... and in some cases may also limit inward eye movement (toward the nose). As the eye moves inward, ...

  16. [Potential of impression cytology in diagnosis and evaluation of efficacy of pharmacological correction of dry eye syndrome associated with contact lens wearing].

    PubMed

    Egorova, G B; Fedorova, A A; Mitichkina, T S

    2012-01-01

    Potential of impression cytology in diagnosis and evaluation of efficacy of pharmacological correction of dry eye syndrome (DES) associated with contact lens wearing was studied. When wearing contact lenses for a long time DES with tear film instability and reduction of tear production occurs in more than 50% patients. Morphological changes of epithelium of tarsal and bulbar conjunctiva manifest consequently. Impression cytology reveals structural damage of epithelium with keratinization signs and decrease of goblet cells density down to total absence. After tear substitution therapy tear break-up time increased by 65,3% and total tear production by 11,4%. In control impression cytology of tarsal and bulbar conjunctiva during tear substitution therapy the following changes were revealed: recovery of goblet cells density and differentiation, recovery of epithelial structure and reduction of epithelium keratinization. PMID:22741293

  17. Audiogenic reflex seizures in cats

    PubMed Central

    Lowrie, Mark; Bessant, Claire; Harvey, Robert J; Sparkes, Andrew; Garosi, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to characterise feline audiogenic reflex seizures (FARS). Methods An online questionnaire was developed to capture information from owners with cats suffering from FARS. This was collated with the medical records from the primary veterinarian. Ninety-six cats were included. Results Myoclonic seizures were one of the cardinal signs of this syndrome (90/96), frequently occurring prior to generalised tonic–clonic seizures (GTCSs) in this population. Other features include a late onset (median 15 years) and absence seizures (6/96), with most seizures triggered by high-frequency sounds amid occasional spontaneous seizures (up to 20%). Half the population (48/96) had hearing impairment or were deaf. One-third of cats (35/96) had concurrent diseases, most likely reflecting the age distribution. Birmans were strongly represented (30/96). Levetiracetam gave good seizure control. The course of the epilepsy was non-progressive in the majority (68/96), with an improvement over time in some (23/96). Only 33/96 and 11/90 owners, respectively, felt the GTCSs and myoclonic seizures affected their cat’s quality of life (QoL). Despite this, many owners (50/96) reported a slow decline in their cat’s health, becoming less responsive (43/50), not jumping (41/50), becoming uncoordinated or weak in the pelvic limbs (24/50) and exhibiting dramatic weight loss (39/50). These signs were exclusively reported in cats experiencing seizures for >2 years, with 42/50 owners stating these signs affected their cat’s QoL. Conclusions and relevance In gathering data on audiogenic seizures in cats, we have identified a new epilepsy syndrome named FARS with a geriatric onset. Further studies are warranted to investigate potential genetic predispositions to this condition. PMID:25916687

  18. Experimental proliferative glomerulonephritis in the cat.

    PubMed

    Bishop, S A; Stokes, C R; Lucke, V M

    1992-01-01

    A model of chronic serum sickness was used to induce immune-complex glomerulonephritis in seven experimental cats, by daily intravenous inoculation of an increasing dose (5 to 35 mg) of human serum albumin (HSA). At week four, two of the seven animals developed anterior uveitis. At week 23, two different animals developed the subcutaneous oedema characteristic of the nephrotic syndrome (NS), whilst the other five cats appeared clinically normal. The kidneys were examined at necropsy by light microscopy and by transmission electron microscopy. The glomeruli of four animals (three with both proteinuria and uraemia, and one with proteinuria only) showed morphological changes under light microscopy. The abnormalities suggested that a diffuse mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (GN) had been induced in three cats and diffuse membranoproliferative GN induced in another. Ultrastructural studies revealed electron-dense deposits (immune-complexes) in six of the seven cats. Two cats without glomerular abnormalities by light microscopy had mesangial deposits and three cats with mesangial proliferative GN had deposits at mesangial, subendothelial and/or subepithelial sites. The single cat with membranoproliferative GN had deposits at mesangial, subendothelial, subepithelial and intramembranous sites. Immunohistological examination (peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique) showed that HSA and immunoglobulin (IgG and IgM) were deposited in the glomeruli of these cats. Deposits were the most dense in cats with more severe renal lesions. Deposits of IgM were most abundant. An extensive cellular infiltrate, comprising macrophages, neutrophils and plasma cells, was observed only in the four animals which showed abnormalities in glomerular ultrastructure. The disease induced in these cats thus appears to differ from the membranous nephropathy previously described in the cat and bears a close resemblance to immune complex (IC) disease in man. In view of the relatively few specific

  19. Cat-Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... and how do people get it? Cat-scratch disease is an infection caused by a type of bacteria (germs) carried in cat saliva. This bacteria is called Bartonella henselae and can be passed from a cat to a human. Doctors and ... from fleas. Cat-scratch disease is not a severe illness in people who ...

  20. Cat and Dog Bites

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites How should I take care of a bite from a cat or a dog? Whether from a family pet or a neighborhood stray, cat and dog bites are common. Here are some ...

  1. Membranous nephropathy in the cat: a clinical and pathological study.

    PubMed

    Nash, A S; Wright, N G; Spencer, A J; Thompson, H; Fisher, E W

    1979-07-28

    A series of 13 cases of feline membranous nephropathy is presented. Two groups were distinguished clinically; eight cats had the nephrotic syndrome and five others were in renal failure but not nephrotic. The definitive diagnosis was based on histological, immunofluorescence and ultrastructural examinations of renal tissue obtained at renal biopsy or necropsy. Glomerular lesions were classified according to the degree of glomerular change into three distinct groups; mild, moderately severe and advanced. A relationship was established between the mild and moderately severe groups and cats with the nephrotic syndrome, and the advanced group and cats in renal failure. Diuretic therapy was satisfactory in initial control of oedema in the nephrotic cases. Monitoring of previously nephrotic cats for up to three years indicated that the disease is progressive, although in some cases it is sufficiently slow for a cat to live a relatively normal life without continuing treatment. The prognosis for cats presented in renal failure is hopeless. PMID:552741

  2. Effect of Hydroxychloroquine Treatment on Dry Eyes in Subjects with Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome: a Double-Blind Randomized Control Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The effect of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) on dry eye has not been fully determined. This study aimed to compare the 12-week efficacy of HCQ medication with that of a placebo in the management of dry eye in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). A double-blind, randomized control study was conducted in 39 pSS subjects from May 2011 through August 2013. pSS was diagnosed based on the classification criteria of the American-European Consensus Group. Subjects received 300 mg of HCQ or placebo once daily for 12 weeks and were evaluated at baseline, 6, and 12 weeks, with a re-visit at 16 weeks after drug discontinuance. The fluorescein staining score, Schirmer test score, tear film break-up time (TBUT), and ocular surface disease index (OSDI) were measured, and tears and blood were collected for ESR, IL-6, IL-17, B-cell activating factor (BAFF), and Th17 cell analysis. Color testing was performed and the fundus was examined to monitor HCQ complications. Twenty-six subjects completed the follow-up. The fluorescein staining score and Schirmer test score did not differ significantly. The OSDI improved with medication in the HCQ group but was not significantly different between the groups. TBUT, serum IL-6, ESR, serum and tear BAFF, and the proportion of Th17 cells did not change in either group. HCQ at 300 mg daily for 12 weeks has no apparent clinical benefit for dry eye and systemic inflammation in pSS (ClinicalTrials.gov. NCT01601028). PMID:27366013

  3. Effect of Hydroxychloroquine Treatment on Dry Eyes in Subjects with Primary Sjögren's Syndrome: a Double-Blind Randomized Control Study.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Chang Ho; Lee, Hyun Ju; Lee, Eun Young; Lee, Eun Bong; Lee, Won-Woo; Kim, Mee Kum; Wee, Won Ryang

    2016-07-01

    The effect of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) on dry eye has not been fully determined. This study aimed to compare the 12-week efficacy of HCQ medication with that of a placebo in the management of dry eye in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). A double-blind, randomized control study was conducted in 39 pSS subjects from May 2011 through August 2013. pSS was diagnosed based on the classification criteria of the American-European Consensus Group. Subjects received 300 mg of HCQ or placebo once daily for 12 weeks and were evaluated at baseline, 6, and 12 weeks, with a re-visit at 16 weeks after drug discontinuance. The fluorescein staining score, Schirmer test score, tear film break-up time (TBUT), and ocular surface disease index (OSDI) were measured, and tears and blood were collected for ESR, IL-6, IL-17, B-cell activating factor (BAFF), and Th17 cell analysis. Color testing was performed and the fundus was examined to monitor HCQ complications. Twenty-six subjects completed the follow-up. The fluorescein staining score and Schirmer test score did not differ significantly. The OSDI improved with medication in the HCQ group but was not significantly different between the groups. TBUT, serum IL-6, ESR, serum and tear BAFF, and the proportion of Th17 cells did not change in either group. HCQ at 300 mg daily for 12 weeks has no apparent clinical benefit for dry eye and systemic inflammation in pSS (ClinicalTrials.gov. NCT01601028). PMID:27366013

  4. Joubert's syndrome with retinal dysplasia: neonatal tachypnoea as the clue to a genetic brain-eye malformation.

    PubMed Central

    King, M D; Dudgeon, J; Stephenson, J B

    1984-01-01

    Five children with features of Joubert's syndrome and Leber's amaurosis are described. The presenting symptoms were panting tachypnoea in the newborn, prolonged apnoeic attacks in the neonatal period (in both of identical twins), global developmental delay, and failure to develop vision. Three children had multiple hemifacial spasms, such as have been seen in Joubert's syndrome, and the same three had cystic dysplasia of the kidneys. Necropsy confirmed the retinal and renal pathology, together with agenesis of the vermis and brainstem dysgenesis in the identical twins. It is concluded that a gene for Leber's amaurosis may commonly manifest itself as the specific hind brain malformation underlying Joubert's syndrome. In infants with respiratory irregularities (especially rapid panting), hemifacial spasms, or developmental delay, absence of the cerebellar vermis should be specifically sought by ultrasound and computed tomography, and the electroretinogram measured, whether or not impaired vision is clinically evident. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6476867

  5. A Divalent PAMAM-Based Matrix Metalloproteinase/Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor for the Treatment of Dry Eye Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Richichi, B; Baldoneschi, V; Burgalassi, S; Fragai, M; Vullo, D; Akdemir, A; Dragoni, E; Louka, A; Mamusa, M; Monti, D; Berti, D; Novellino, E; De Rosa, G; Supuran, C T; Nativi, C

    2016-01-26

    Synthetic sulfonamide derivatives are a class of potent matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors (MMPI) that have potential for the treatment of diseases related to uncontrolled expression of these enzymes. The lack of selectivity of the large majority of such inhibitors, leading to the inhibition of MMPs in tissues other than the targeted one, has dramatically reduced the therapeutic interest in MMPIs. The recent development of efficient drug delivery systems that allow the transportation of a selected drug to its site of action has opened the way to new perspectives in the use of MMPIs. Here, a PAMAM-based divalent dendron with two sulfonamidic residues was synthesized. This nanomolar inhibitor binds to the catalytic domain of two MMPs as well as to the transmembrane human carbonic anhydrases (hCAs) XII, which is present in the eye and considered an antiglaucoma target. In the animal model of an experimental dry eye, no occurrence of dotted staining in eyes treated with our inhibitor was observed, indicating no symptoms of corneal desiccation. PMID:26692423

  6. The Prevalence of Dry Eye Syndrome’s and the Likelihood to Develop Sjögren’s Syndrome in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Ju-Chuan; Hsu, Chia-An; Li, Yu-Chuan (Jack); Hsu, Min-Huei

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dry eye syndrome (DES) is one of the key clinical features and possibly an early clinical presentation of Sjögren’s syndrome (SS). We explore DES prevalence and assess the likelihood of DES patients to develop SS in Taiwan through the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Methods: Through a cohort comparison study, longitudinal data from the NHIRD (2000 to 2008) in Taiwan was used to probe the prevalence of DES and the odds that DES patients would later develop SS. Results: The prevalence of DES in the present study is 4.87%. The incidence rates of developing SS were 4.8% for the DES group and 1.5% for comparison group. The median age and interquartile range of DES and comparison patients was 49.8 (10) and 48.7 (15) years old, respectively. The crude hazard ratio (with 95% confidence interval) for DES patients to develop SS was 3.13 (3.10–3.50) for the DES group, and the adjusted hazard ratio (with 95% confidence interval) was 3.64 (3.43–3.87). The observation period and interquartile range for DES and comparison patients to develop SS later were 1418 (781–2316) versus 1641 (971–2512) days respectively. Conclusions: DES patients carried a higher risk for developing SS (hazard ratio 3.13) and presented for SS 3.88 years earlier than comparison group patients in this study. PMID:26184245

  7. Eye Wear

    MedlinePlus

    Eye wear protects or corrects your vision. Examples are Sunglasses Safety goggles Glasses (also called eyeglasses) Contact ... jobs and some sports carry a risk of eye injury. Thousands of children and adults get eye ...

  8. Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  9. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  10. Eye Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  11. Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or work ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: cri-du-chat syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... for This Condition 5p deletion syndrome 5p- syndrome cat cry syndrome chromosome 5p- syndrome monosomy 5p Related Information How are genetic conditions and genes named? Additional Information & Resources MedlinePlus ( ...

  13. Dry eye disease after LASIK

    PubMed Central

    Ţuru, L; Alexandrescu, C; Stana, D; Tudosescu, R

    2012-01-01

    LASIK is a surgical tehnique for the correction of refractive errors (myopia, hyperopia, astygmatism). It results in a reshape of the cornea with ocular surface and especially tear film disease. It is a cause for a iatrogenic dry eye syndrome. Neurogenic and inflamatory theory explain this disease. The main therapy of dry eye is the replacement with artificial tears. PMID:22574092

  14. Macro- and microstructure of the superior cervical ganglion in dogs, cats and horses during maturation.

    PubMed

    Fioretto, Emerson Ticona; de Abreu, Rogério Navarro; Castro, Marcelo Fernandes de Souza; Guidi, Wanderley Lima; Ribeiro, Antonio Augusto Coppi Maciel

    2007-01-01

    The superior cervical ganglion (SCG) provides sympathetic input to the head and neck, its relation with mandible, submandibular glands, eyes (second and third order control) and pineal gland being demonstrated in laboratory animals. In addition, the SCG's role in some neuropathies can be clearly seen in Horner's syndrome. In spite of several studies published involving rats and mice, there is little morphological descriptive and comparative data of SCG from large mammals. Thus, we investigated the SCG's macro- and microstructural organization in medium (dogs and cats) and large animals (horses) during a very specific period of the post-natal development, namely maturation (from young to adults). The SCG of dogs, cats and horses were spindle shaped and located deeply into the bifurcation of the common carotid artery, close to the distal vagus ganglion and more related to the internal carotid artery in dogs and horses, and to the occipital artery in cats. As to macromorphometrical data, that is ganglion length, there was a 23.6% increase from young to adult dogs, a 1.8% increase from young to adult cats and finally a 34% increase from young to adult horses. Histologically, the SCG's microstructure was quite similar between young and adult animals and among the 3 species. The SCG was divided into distinct compartments (ganglion units) by capsular septa of connective tissue. Inside each ganglion unit the most prominent cellular elements were ganglion neurons, glial cells and small intensely fluorescent cells, comprising the ganglion's morphological triad. Given this morphological arrangement, that is a summation of all ganglion units, SCG from dogs, cats and horses are better characterized as a ganglion complex rather than following the classical ganglion concept. During maturation (from young to adults) there was a 32.7% increase in the SCG's connective capsule in dogs, a 25.8% increase in cats and a 33.2% increase in horses. There was an age-related increase in the

  15. Dural tear and myelomalacia caused by an airgun pellet in a cat

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, Cristian; Ródenas, Sergio; Pumarola, Martí; Añor, Sònia

    2013-01-01

    An 8-year-old cat was presented with severe neurological deficits secondary to a traumatic cervical spinal cord injury caused by an airgun pellet. This report describes, for the first time, the myelographic findings of a dural rupture in a cat and also describes a bilateral Horner’s syndrome in a cat. PMID:24155462

  16. Dural tear and myelomalacia caused by an airgun pellet in a cat.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Cristian; Ródenas, Sergio; Pumarola, Martí; Añor, Sònia

    2013-07-01

    An 8-year-old cat was presented with severe neurological deficits secondary to a traumatic cervical spinal cord injury caused by an airgun pellet. This report describes, for the first time, the myelographic findings of a dural rupture in a cat and also describes a bilateral Horner's syndrome in a cat. PMID:24155462

  17. Some differences in uveal reactions between cats and rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Ambache, N.; Kavanagh, L.; Whiting, Judith

    1966-01-01

    1. Miosis was observed after enucleation in unopened eyes from normal or atropinized, atropinesterase-free rabbits. Such a phenomenon was not seen in enucleated cat eyes, in which the pupils remained widely dilated, whether atropine had been administered or not. 2. Pre-treatment of the animals with reserpine did not alter this difference between the species. 3. The difference does not appear to be due to absence of irins from the cat iris, since aqueous extracts of cat irides contained a smooth-muscle-contracting activity (cat irin) extractable into ether at pH 3 and therefore consisting of lipid acid(s). 4. The difference is not due to insensitivity of the cat sphincter pupillae muscle to irins, since injections of ether-purified cat or rabbit irins into the anterior chamber of enucleated cat eyes kept at room temperature constricted the pupil; injections of histamine were ineffective. 5. In experiments on animals treated with atropine ± mepyramine I.V., photographic measurements revealed a further difference, namely in the speed of miosis after stroking the iris in vivo. The response started later in the cat, and developed more slowly, but often to a fuller extent than in the rabbit. 6. In a proportion of cat eyes there was little or no change in intraocular pressure after irritation of the iris adequate to induce maximum pupillary constriction; this was so whether mepyramine had been administered or not. 7. Possible reasons for the above species differences are discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 3Fig. 5Fig. 8 PMID:4380012

  18. Cat Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection ... symptoms of CSD, call your doctor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  19. Cat-Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patients Infants and Young Children Publications & Materials Announcements Cat-Scratch Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ( ... play and learn how to attack prey. How cats and people become infected Kitten playing with a ...

  20. Duane Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye muscles. In Duane syndrome, the sixth cranial nerve that controls the lateral rectus muscle (the muscle ... abnormal innervation of a branch from the third cranial nerve, which normally controls the medial rectus muscle (the ...

  1. Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... or problems with their heart, stomach or eyes. Intelligence ranges from low normal to very retarded (slow ... a baby who has Down syndrome will be. Intelligence ranges from low normal to very retarded (slow ...

  2. Waardenburg syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... conditions passed down through families. The syndrome involves deafness and pale skin, hair, and eye color. ... Symptoms may include: Cleft lip (rare) Constipation Deafness (more ... that don't match ( heterochromia ) Pale color skin, hair, and ...

  3. The Syndrome of Frontonasal Dysplasia, Callosal Agenesis, Basal Encephalocele, and Eye Anomalies – Phenotypic and Aetiological Considerations

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    We report ten sporadic cases of Brazilian patients with facial midline defects, callosal agenesis, basal encephalocele, and ocular anomalies. This very rare cluster of anomalies has been well reported before. However, only until recently it is recognized as a syndrome belonging to frontonasal dysplasia spectrum. The ten cases confirm a distinct clinical entity and help to define the phenotype more precisely than previously. Up to now etiology remains unknown, although we conjecture that it is due to a mutation in TGIF gene. PMID:15912188

  4. Getting a CAT Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  5. Exploring different explanations for performance on a theory of mind task in Williams syndrome and autism using eye movements.

    PubMed

    Van Herwegen, Jo; Smith, Tim J; Dimitriou, Dagmara

    2015-01-01

    The current study explored the looking behaviours of young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), Williams syndrome (WS), and typically developing (TD) children while they were administered a low-verbal Theory of Mind (ToM) task. Although ToM performance in both clinical groups was impaired, only participants with WS showed small differences in looking behaviour at the start of the video. Furthermore, while TD children who passed the ToM task looked longer at the original hiding place there was no such contrast in the clinical groups. This shows that looking behaviour in ASD and WS is not necessarily atypical when saliency aspects such as language, background, and colour are removed and that differences in looking behaviour cannot explain ToM performance. PMID:26263406

  6. Dacryocystography in a cat with orbital pneumatosis.

    PubMed

    Meomartino, Leonardo; Pasolini, Maria P; Lamagna, Francesco; Santangelo, Bruna; Mennonna, Giuseppina; Della Valle, Giovanni; Lamagna, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    A 2-year-old neutered male European short-haired cat was presented for a persistent discharge from the scar of previous left eye enucleation, performed 6 months prior by the referring veterinarian. A surgical exploration of the orbit was performed and retained nictitating membrane glandular and conjunctival tissues were removed. Eleven days later, the cat developed an orbital pneumatosis caused by retrograde movement of air through a patent nasolacrimal system and diagnosed by survey radiographic examination of the skull. Nasolacrimal system patency was assessed by dacryocystography performed by injection of iodinated contrast medium under pressure into the orbital cavity. Computed tomography dacryocystography confirmed the radiographic findings. The condition resolved following dacryocystography, possibly as an inflammatory response to the contrast medium. To our knowledge, this is the first case of orbital pneumatosis reported in a cat. PMID:24118801

  7. Pulmonary thromboembolism in cats.

    PubMed

    Schermerhorn, Thomas; Pembleton-Corbett, Julie R; Kornreich, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is rarely diagnosed in cats, and the clinical features of the disease are not well known. PTE was diagnosed at postmortem examination in 17 cats, a prevalence of 0.06% over a 24-year period. The age of affected cats ranged from 10 months to 18 years, although young (<4 years) and old (>10 years) cats were more commonly affected than were middle-aged cats. Males and females were equally affected. The majority of cats with PTE (n = 16) had concurrent disease, which was often severe. The most common diseases identified in association with PTE were neoplasia, anemia of unidentified cause, and pancreatitis. Cats with glomerulonephritis, encephalitis, pneumonia, heart disease, and hepatic lipidosis were also represented in this study. Most cats with PTE demonstrated dyspnea and respiratory distress before death or euthanasia, but PTE was not recognized ante mortem in any cat studied. In conclusion, PTE can affect cats of any age and is associated with a variety of systemic and inflammatory disorders. It is recommended that the same clinical criteria used to increase the suspicion of PTE in dogs should also be applied to cats. PMID:15320593

  8. Laryngeal disease in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Macphail, Catriona

    2014-01-01

    The most common disease process involving the larynx is laryngeal paralysis, which occurs much more frequently in dogs than in cats. Diagnosis of laryngeal paralysis requires close attention to anesthetic plane and coordination of respiratory effort with laryngeal motion. Surgical arytenoid lateralization improves respiration and quality of life in dogs with laryngeal paralysis; however, aspiration pneumonia is a recognized complication, and generalized neuropathy can progress. Laryngeal collapse can result from any cause of chronic upper airway obstruction, but is most often associated with unaddressed brachycephalic airway syndrome. Laryngeal neoplasia, while generally uncommon, occurs more frequently in cats than in dogs. PMID:24268331

  9. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking good care of ... are qualified to perform eye exams. Aging and Vision Changes As you age, it is normal to ...

  10. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in the cells of the retina. ... from other parts of the body. Treatment for eye cancer varies by the type and by how advanced ...

  11. Eye Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  12. Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye and keeps it healthy. previous continue Light, Lens, Action These next parts are really cool, ... the eye. previous continue Rods and Cones Process Light The retina uses special cells called rods and ...

  13. Eye findings in 8 children and a spontaneously aborted fetus with RSH/Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Atchaneeyasakul, L O; Linck, L M; Connor, W E; Weleber, R G; Steiner, R D

    1998-12-28

    We evaluate the ophthalmologic findings in 8 children with RSH/Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) and document abnormal concentrations of cholesterol and cholesterol precursors in the ocular tissues in a case of SLOS. The most common ophthalmologic finding was blepharoptosis, which was found in 6 of 8 patients, with the severity ranging from mild to moderate. None of the patients in the present study demonstrated cataracts; none had amblyopia from blepharoptosis. One patient had a right hypertropia with overaction of the inferior oblique muscle. This patient also had optic atrophy and a second patient had bilateral optic nerve hypoplasia. The importance of these findings to the visual function remains to be defined. Sterol analysis from ocular tissues of an aborted fetus with SLOS showed increased 7- and 8-dehydrocholesterol and a low cholesterol concentration in the retinal pigment epithelium, lens, cornea, and sclera. Routine ophthalmologic examination is indicated in SLOS because of the high incidence of abnormalities, most likely due to the abnormal synthesis of cholesterol and cholesterol precursors in the ocular tissues of these patients, as evidenced by sterol analysis of the ocular tissues in a case of SLOS. PMID:9880216

  14. Cat3vl and Cat3vao cataract mutations on mouse chromosome 10: phenotypic characterization, linkage studies and analysis of candidate genes.

    PubMed

    Löster, J; Immervoll, T; Schmitt-John, T; Graw, J

    1997-12-01

    Cat3vl and Cat3vao are two allelic, dominant cataract mutations that arose independently in the F1 generation after gamma-irradiation of male mice. The cataracts are already present at birth. Examination of the eyes with a slit lamp revealed completely vacuolated lenses in Cat3vl mutants and anteriorly located opacity in Cat3vao mutants. The appearance of the opacities does not differ between the individuals or between heterozygotes and homozygotes. Penetrance of the mutations is complete. Viability and fertility of the mutants are normal except in the case of the Cat3vl homozygotes. Cat3vao was assigned to the distal part of mouse chromosome 10, 3.2 +/- 0.9 cM away from the visible marker Steel (SlgbH). Using polymorphic markers the following locus order was found: D10Mit230-(0.2 +/- 0.1 cM)-Cat3vao-(2.5 +/- 0.6 cM)-D10Mit70. No recombinants were found between Cat3vao and the markers D10Mit4l and D10Mit95 among 921 offspring. The results exclude allelism of Cat3vao with CatLop or To2, which also map to chromosome 10. Candidate genes were tested by examination of their expression in the eye of newborn mice and by analysis of cDNA sequences. So far, negative results have been obtained for the genes encoding the proteoglycans lumican and decorin, the nuclear orphan receptor Tr2-11 and the transcription factor Elk3. Based on syntenic homology of the Cat3 region to the human chromosome 12q, the Cat3 mutants are discussed as mouse models for cornea plana congenita in man. The recovery of the Cat3 mutations demonstrates the importance of the corresponding locus for proper eye development. PMID:9439574

  15. Eye Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Do you have diabetes, and have you noticed any changes in your vision? Yes Over time, too much glucose (sugar) in the ... eye pink, red or irritated, and are there any secretions or mucus from the eye? Yes CONJUNCTIVITIS, also called "PINK EYE," can be caused ...

  16. Eye floaters

    MedlinePlus

    ... eyes are not on the surface of your eyes, but inside them. These floaters are bits of cell debris that drift around ... is the layer in the back of the eye.) If you notice a sudden increase in floaters or if you see floaters along with flashes ...

  17. Toxoplasmosis (and the Eye)

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the intestinal tracts of many animals, particularly cats. Infectious organisms are shed in cat feces, and are introduced into the body by ... is prudent for pregnant women to avoid handling cat litter boxes, cat feces, sandboxes, and any insects ...

  18. Persistent haematuria and proteinuria due to glomerular disease in related Abyssinian cats.

    PubMed

    White, Joanna D; Norris, Jacqueline M; Bosward, Katrina L; Fleay, R; Lauer, Chris; Malik, Richard

    2008-07-01

    Eight cases of glomerular disease in young, related Abyssinian cats are described. Haematuria was the most consistent feature. Six cats developed the nephrotic syndrome. The short-term prognosis was good for cats with haematuria and fair for cats with the nephrotic syndrome as oedema resolved in three of the six cats. Light microscopic examination of renal biopsies from three cats was considered normal or revealed only mild abnormalities. In the three cases subjected to necropsy, histological abnormalities included mild mesangial hypercellularity and adhesions between the glomerular tuft and Bowman's capsule consistent with a focal proliferative glomerulopathy. Further investigation into this glomerulopathy will require ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies to characterise the glomerular abnormality and genetic analyses to investigate its potential to be an inherited disease. Glomerular disease, potentially a familial one, should be considered in the investigation of persistent haematuria or proteinuria in Abyssinian and related cats. PMID:18455462

  19. [The eye and cancer].

    PubMed

    Schalenbourg, Ann; Mantel, Irmela

    2015-12-16

    Cancer involves so rarely the eye that it may be recognized late. The most frequent primary intra-ocular tumours are retinoblastoma in small children and uveal melanoma in adults. Vision loss in systemic cancer has a varied differential diagnosis. Uveal metastases are most often associated with breast cancer, but can herald lung carcinoma. Masquerade syndrome looks like inflammation but represents the ocular involvement of primary CNS non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Systemic cancer drugs, as well as radiotherapy, can cause ocular toxicity, mostly at the retina. In the rare paraneoplastic syndromes, patient's cancer antibodies cross-react with retinal antigens, leading to severe vision loss. When cancer involves the eye, a fast referral into specialized care can significantly improve visual and vital prognosis. PMID:26852556

  20. Visual discrimination learning under switching procedure in visually deprived cats.

    PubMed

    Zernicki, B

    1999-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that fine visual discrimination learning is severely impaired in cats binocularly deprived in the early period of life (BD cats) and also somewhat in control cats reared with open eyes in the limited laboratory environment (C cats) compared with cats reared in a normal rural environment (N cats). It was concluded that visual deprivation impairs perceptual learning. In the present study discriminative stimuli were dissimilar and so the task was perceptually easy, but using a switching procedure made it associatively difficult. In regular trials a gate with a grating pattern was positive and a blank gate negative, whereas in switching trials the meaning of the gates was reversed. The switching stimulus was intermittent light in some stages of training and intermittent tone in others. Learning was severely impaired in BD cats and somewhat in C cats and the deficit was similar under visual and auditory switching. Thus, early visual deprivation impairs associative learning. The impairment probably includes associations between switching stimulus and instrumental responses and configural associations between switching stimulus and discriminative stimuli. PMID:10212071

  1. Eye development.

    PubMed

    Baker, Nicholas E; Li, Ke; Quiquand, Manon; Ruggiero, Robert; Wang, Lan-Hsin

    2014-06-15

    The eye has been one of the most intensively studied organs in Drosophila. The wealth of knowledge about its development, as well as the reagents that have been developed, and the fact that the eye is dispensable for survival, also make the eye suitable for genetic interaction studies and genetic screens. This article provides a brief overview of the methods developed to image and probe eye development at multiple developmental stages, including live imaging, immunostaining of fixed tissues, in situ hybridizations, and scanning electron microscopy and color photography of adult eyes. Also summarized are genetic approaches that can be performed in the eye, including mosaic analysis and conditional mutation, gene misexpression and knockdown, and forward genetic and modifier screens. PMID:24784530

  2. EYE DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Nicholas E.; Li, Ke; Quiquand, Manon; Ruggiero, Robert; Wang, Lan-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    The eye has been one of the most intensively studied organs in Drosophila. The wealth of knowledge about its development, as well as the reagents that have been developed, and the fact that the eye is dispensable for survival, also make the eye suitable for genetic interaction studies and genetic screens. This chapter provides a brief overview of the methods developed to image and probe eye development at multiple developmental stages, including live imaging, immunostaining of fixed tissues, in situ hybridizations, and scanning electron microscopy and color photography of adult eyes. Also summarized are genetic approaches that can be performed in the eye, including mosaic analysis and conditional mutation, gene misexpression and knockdown, and forward genetic and modifier screens. PMID:24784530

  3. That Fat Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  4. Diseases Transmitted by Cats.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Abrahamian, Fredrick M

    2015-10-01

    Humans and cats have shared a close relationship since ancient times. Millions of cats are kept as household pets, and 34% of households have cats. There are numerous diseases that may be transmitted from cats to humans. General modes of transmission, with some overlapping features, can occur through inhalation (e.g., bordetellosis); vector-borne spread (e.g., ehrlichiosis); fecal-oral route (e.g., campylobacteriosis); bite, scratch, or puncture (e.g., rabies); soil-borne spread (e.g., histoplasmosis); and direct contact (e.g., scabies). It is also likely that the domestic cat can potentially act as a reservoir for many other zoonoses that are not yet recognized. The microbiology of cat bite wound infections in humans is often polymicrobial with a broad mixture of aerobic (e.g., Pasteurella, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus) and anaerobic (e.g., Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Bacteroides) microorganisms. Bacteria recovered from infected cat bite wounds are most often reflective of the oral flora of the cat, which can also be influenced by the microbiome of their ingested prey and other foods. Bacteria may also originate from the victim's own skin or the physical environment at the time of injury. PMID:26542039

  5. Eye Injuries at Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating Eye ... Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Eye Injuries at Home Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD ...

  6. Paraneoplastic disorders of eye movements

    PubMed Central

    Wray, Shirley H.; Dalmau, Josep; Chen, Athena; King, Susan; Leigh, R. John

    2011-01-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes affecting the brainstem and cerebellum are reported to cause a variety of abnormalities of eye movements. Recent studies have begun to account for the mechanisms underlying several syndromes, characterized by opsoclonus, slow, or dysmetric saccades, as well as downbeat nystagmus. We provide evidence that upbeat nystagmus in a patient with pancreatic cancer reflected a cerebellar-induced imbalance of otolithic pathways: she showed marked retropulsion, and her nystagmus was dependent on head position, being absent when supine, and suppressed with convergence. In addition to anti-Hu antibodies, we demonstrated antibodies to a novel neuronal cell surface antigen. Taken with other recent studies, our findings suggest that paraneoplastic syndromes arise due to antibodies against surface neuronal antigens, including receptors and channels. Abnormal eye movements in paraneoplastic syndromes offer insights into the pathogenesis of these disorders and the opportunity to test potential therapies, such as new drugs with effects on neuronal channels. PMID:21951005

  7. An Eight-Eyed Version of Hawkins and Shohet's Clinical Supervision Model: The Addition of the Cognitive Analytic Therapy Concept of the "Observing Eye/I" as the "Observing Us"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darongkamas, Jurai; John, Christopher; Walker, Mark James

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes incorporating the concept of the "observing eye/I", from cognitive analytic therapy (CAT), to Hawkins and Shohet's seven modes of supervision, comprising their transtheoretical model of supervision. Each mode is described alongside explicit examples relating to CAT. This modification using a key idea from CAT (in…

  8. Astronaut Preflight Cardiovascular Variables Associated with Vascular Compliance are Highly Correlated with Post-Flight Eye Outcome Measures in the Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) Syndrome Following Long Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otto, Christian; Ploutz-Snyder, R.

    2015-01-01

    The detection of the first VIIP case occurred in 2005, and adequate eye outcome measures were available for 31 (67.4%) of the 46 long duration US crewmembers who had flown on the ISS since its first crewed mission in 2000. Therefore, this analysis is limited to a subgroup (22 males and 9 females). A "cardiovascular profile" for each astronaut was compiled by examining twelve individual parameters; eleven of these were preflight variables: systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, body mass index, percentage body fat, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, use of anti-lipid medication, fasting serum glucose, and maximal oxygen uptake in ml/kg. Each of these variables was averaged across three preflight annual physical exams. Astronaut age prior to the long duration mission, and inflight salt intake was also included in the analysis. The group of cardiovascular variables for each crew member was compared with seven VIIP eye outcome variables collected during the immediate post-flight period: anterior-posterior axial length of the globe measured by ultrasound and optical biometry; optic nerve sheath diameter, optic nerve diameter, and optic nerve to sheath ratio- each measured by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), intraocular pressure (IOP), change in manifest refraction, mean retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) on optical coherence tomography (OCT), and RNFL of the inferior and superior retinal quadrants. Since most of the VIIP eye outcome measures were added sequentially beginning in 2005, as knowledge of the syndrome improved, data were unavailable for 22.0% of the outcome measurements. To address the missing data, we employed multivariate multiple imputation techniques with predictive mean matching methods to accumulate 200 separate imputed datasets for analysis. We were able to impute data for the 22.0% of missing VIIP eye outcomes. We then applied Rubin's rules for collapsing the statistical results across our 200 multiply imputed data sets to assess the canonical

  9. Risk behaviours exhibited by free-roaming cats in a suburban US town.

    PubMed

    Loyd, K A T; Hernandez, S M; Abernathy, K J; Shock, B C; Marshall, G J

    2013-09-28

    Free-roaming cats may experience numerous hazardous encounters in the outdoor environment, including: vehicular accidents, aggression from other animals and exposure to infectious disease. This research quantitatively examined the outdoor activities of 55 owned cats by monitoring pets outfitted with 'KittyCam' video cameras. KittyCams are a type of Crittercam, designed by National Geographic to allow recording of a cat-eye view without disrupting behaviour. We investigated the activities of free-roaming cats in suburban Athens-Clarke County, Georgia, during all four seasons. Research objectives included documenting the type and regularity of risk behaviours exhibited by free-roaming cats and identifying characteristics of pet cats (eg, age, sex, roaming habitat) which predict risky behaviour in the outdoors. The most common risk behaviours exhibited by suburban free-roaming cats included crossing roads (45 per cent of our sample), encountering strange cats (25 per cent), eating and drinking substances away from home (25 per cent), exploring storm drain systems (20 per cent), and entering crawlspaces of houses (20 per cent). Male cats were more likely to engage in risk behaviours than female cats, and older cats engaged in fewer risk behaviours than younger individuals. We hope this information can be used to encourage the public to keep cats indoors more often (with consideration for their indoor quality of life) or supervise them while outdoors. PMID:23913174

  10. Dry Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgery, called punctal cautery, is recommended to permanently close the drainage holes. The procedure helps keep the limited volume of tears on the eye for a longer period of time. In some patients with dry eye, supplements or dietary sources (such as tuna fish) of omega-3 fatty ...

  11. Eye Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... the cornea, which focuses light while protecting the eye. After light passes through the cornea, it travels through a ... and have them progress faster. With cataracts, the eye's clear lens clouds, blocking light. To help deal with mild cataracts, you may ...

  12. Transcriptome analysis of the planarian eye identifies ovo as a specific regulator of eye regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lapan, Sylvain W.; Reddien, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Among the millions of invertebrate species with visual systems, the genetic basis of eye development and function is well understood only in Drosophila melanogaster. We describe an eye transcriptome for the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Planarian photoreceptors expressed orthologs of genes required for phototransduction and microvillus structure in Drosophila and vertebrates, and optic pigment cells expressed solute transporters and melanin synthesis enzymes similar to those active in the vertebrate retinal pigment epithelium. Orthologs of several planarian eye genes, such as bestrophin-1 and Usher syndrome genes, cause eye defects in mammals when perturbed and were not previously described to have roles in invertebrate eyes. Five previously undescribed planarian eye transcription factors were required for normal eye formation during head regeneration. In particular, a conserved, transcription factor-encoding ovo gene was expressed from the earliest stages of eye regeneration and was required for regeneration of all cell types of the eye. PMID:22884275

  13. Further evidence of an early critical period in the development of the cat's dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus.

    PubMed

    Sherman, S M; Wilson, J R

    1981-03-01

    The concept of an early postnatal critical period of development for the lateral geniculate nucleus was assessed by determining in adult cats whether previously established properties of geniculate neurons could be altered by varying the cat's visual experience. The analysis was limited to lamina A1 and the binocular segment of lamina A, and the properties studied were the percentage of physiologically recorded Y-cells and cell soma size. Eleven experimental cats in four groups were studied, and three cats reared normally plus three cats reared with continuous monocular lid suture served as controls. Two cats raised first with monocular suture followed by a prolonged period in adulthood with both eyes open had cell size distributions and Y-cell proportions that were indistinguishable from cats raised with continuous monocular suture. Four cats raised first with one eye sutured underwent a reverse suture procedure in adulthood (i.e., the originally sutured eye opened and the other closed) and were maintained in this fashion for a prolonged period. These cats also had geniculate cell size distributions and Y-cell proportions that were indistinguishable from cats raised with continuous monocular suture. Two cats were raised first with binocular suture followed by a prolonged period in adulthood with one eye opened. Their geniculate cell size distributions and Y-cell proportions showed no effect on the adult monocular deprivation and were indistinguishable from previously published data concerning cats raised with continuous binocular suture. Finally, three normally raised cats underwent a prolonged period of monocular suture in adulthood. Their geniculate cell size distributions and Y-cell proportions showed no effects on the adult monocular deprivation. From these data, we conclude that an early critical period of development occurs for geniculate cell sizes and Y-cell proportions. Adult visual environments, whether normal or abnormal, had no detectable effect on

  14. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Programs Training and Jobs Home > Healthy Eyes Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? ... seeing your best. Read more. What are common vision problems? Some of the most common vision problems ...

  15. Eye Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... MD Mar. 01, 2015 Eye allergies, called allergic conjunctivitis , are a common condition that occurs when the ... with tearing and burning. Unlike bacterial or viral conjunctivitis, allergic conjunctivitis is not spread from person to ...

  16. Eye emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... and there is a good chance of recovery. Alkaline substances -- such as lime, lye, drain cleaners, and ... at high speed by machining, grinding, or hammering metal have the highest risk of injuring the eye. ...

  17. Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  18. Black Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aug 30, 2016 Toddlers Most at Risk of Chemical Burns to Eyes Aug 26, 2016 Firework Blinds Teenager, Severs Hand Jun 29, ... at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  19. Aging and Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Eyes Heath and Aging Aging and Your Eyes Steps to Protect Your Eyesight Common Eye Problems ... weight can also help protect your vision. Common Eye Problems The following common eye problems can be ...

  20. Learning about WAGR Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... a rare genetic condition that can affect both boys and girls. Babies born with WAGR syndrome often have eye ... treatment. Surgery may also be done when a boy with WAGR syndrome has undescended testes. When girls with WAGR syndrome have abnormal ovaries, they have ...

  1. Autologous serum eye drops for dry eye

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qing; Angelina, Adla; Zambrano, Andrea; Marrone, Michael; Stark, Walter J; Heflin, Thomas; Tang, Li; Akpek, Esen K

    2014-01-01

    . For both primary and secondary outcomes, we reported mean differences with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for continuous outcomes. Main results We identified four eligible RCTs in which AS was compared with artificial tear treatment or saline in individuals (n = 72 participants) with dry eye of various etiologies (Sjögren’s syndrome-related dry eye, non-Sjögren’s syndrome dry eye and postoperative dry eye induced by laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK)). The quality of the evidence provided by these trials was variable. A majority of the risk of bias domains were judged to have an unclear risk of bias in two trials owing to insufficient reporting of trial characteristics. One trial was considered to have a low risk of bias for most domains while another was considered to have a high risk of bias for most domains. Incomplete outcome reporting and heterogeneity in the participant populations and follow-up periods prevented the inclusion of these trials in a summary meta-analysis. For the primary outcome, improvement in participant-reported symptoms at one month, one trial (12 participants) showed no difference in participant-reported symptoms between 20% AS and artificial tears. Based on the results of two trials in 32 participants, 20% AS may provide some improvement in participant-reported symptoms compared to traditional artificial tears after two weeks of treatment. One trial also showed positive results with a mean difference in tear breakup time (TBUT) of 2.00 seconds (95% CI 0.99 to 3.01 seconds) between 20% AS and artificial tears after two weeks, which were not similar to findings from the other trials. Based on all other objective clinical assessments included in this review, AS was not associated with improvements in aqueous tear production measured by Schirmer’s test (two trials, 33 participants), ocular surface condition with fluorescein (four trials, 72 participants) or Rose Bengal staining (three trials, 60 participants

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Duane-radial ray syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... condition is characterized by a particular problem with eye movement called Duane anomaly (also known as Duane syndrome). ... the improper development of certain nerves that control eye movement. Duane anomaly limits outward eye movement (toward the ...

  3. Cats protecting birds revisited.

    PubMed

    Fan, Meng; Kuang, Yang; Feng, Zhilan

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, we revisit the dynamical interaction among prey (bird), mesopredator (rat), and superpredator (cat) discussed in [Courchamp, F., Langlais, M., Sugihara, G., 1999. Cats protecting birds: modelling the mesopredator release effect. Journal of Animal Ecology 68, 282-292]. First, we develop a prey-mesopredator-superpredator (i.e., bird-rat-cat, briefly, BRC) model, where the predator's functional responses are derived based on the classical Holling's time budget arguments. Our BRC model overcomes several model construction problems in Courchamp et al. (1999), and admits richer, reasonable and realistic dynamics. We explore the possible control strategies to save or restore the bird by controlling or eliminating the rat or the cat when the bird is endangered. We establish the existence of two types of mesopredator release phenomena: severe mesopredator release, where once superpredators are suppressed, a burst of mesopredators follows which leads their shared prey to extinction; and mild mesopredator release, where the mesopredator release could assert more negative impact on the endemic prey but does not lead the endemic prey to extinction. A sharp sufficient criterion is established for the occurrence of severe mesopredator release. We also show that, in a prey-mesopredator-superpredator trophic food web, eradication of introduced superpredators such as feral domestic cats in the BRC model, is not always the best solution to protect endemic insular prey. The presence of a superpredator may have a beneficial effect in such systems. PMID:15998496

  4. Eye tracker.

    PubMed

    Pruehsner, W; Enderle, J D

    1999-01-01

    A device that records saccadic eye movements, the Eye Tracker, is presented in this paper. The Eye Tracker utilizes infra-red technology mounted on fully adjustable goggles to follow eye movements targeted by either a goggles mounted HUD type display or a wall mounted light bank. Output from the goggles is remotely sent to a PC type computer, which leads to device portability. The goggles can also maintain output data in an internal memory for latter download. The user interface is Windows based with the output from the goggles represented as a trace map or plotted points. This output can also be saved or printed for future reference. The user interface can be used on any PC type computer. The device is designed with reference to standard ISO design methodology. Safety in design and final product usage has also been addressed with reference to standard ISO type procedures. Device accuracy is maintained by precise construction of the IR units in the goggles and tight control of cross talk between each IR device plus filtering of ambient light signals. Also, a reset feature is included to maintain equal baseline control. An automatic switching device is included in the goggles to allow the Eye Tracker to "warm up," assuring that equal IR power is delivered for each subject tested. The IR units in the goggles are also modular in case replacement is required. PMID:11143354

  5. Noncongophilic fibrillary glomerulonephritis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Cavana, P; Capucchio, M T; Bovero, A; Ripanti, D; Catalano, D; Scaglione, F E; Miller, J; Blunden, T; Farca, A M

    2008-05-01

    This report describes an uncommon case of nonamyloidotic fibrillary glomerulonephritis. A 5-year-old female European cat was presented with nephrotic syndrome. Serum biochemistry and urinalysis revealed a mild increase in cholesterol, low total protein, severe hypoalbuminemia, and high proteinuria with a high protein-to-creatinine ratio. An histologic examination revealed an interstitial nephritis and a diffuse glomerulonephritis, with multifocal thickening of the Bowman's capsule. Transmission electron microscopy showed widespread fibrillary deposits in the glomerular basement membrane and in the mesangium. These fibrils ranged between 18 and 26 nm in diameter and were Congo red negative, which allowed their differentiation from amyloid. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated expression for immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) within the mesangium. Renal deposits of Congo red-negative amyloid-like fibrils have been described in humans, horses, monkeys, and dogs. This is the first report of noncongophilic fibrillary glomerulopathy in a cat. PMID:18487491

  6. Feline leukaemia virus and its clinical effects in cats.

    PubMed

    Mackey, L

    1975-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection is common among cats where contact is high. The virus can be transmitted readily between cats. It causes a variety of haemopoietic and lymphoid neoplasms; the most common types are alimentary, multicentric and thymic lymphosarcoma and lymphatic leukaemia. The virus is involved in the aetiology of certain other diseases including anaemia, glomerulonephritis and an immunosuppressive syndrome which predisposes cats to intercurrent infections. Many infected cats mount an immune response and do not suffer from any of these. The immune status is shown by serum antibody levels to feline leukaemia virus associated cell membrane antigens. Cats with a titre of 32 or more are most unlikely to suffer any ill effects and may eliminate the virus infection. The outcome of infection in an individual cat depends on the immunological competence of the cat, the dose of virus received and its ability to induce immunosuppression. FeLV infection can be detected by examination of tissues by electron microscopy, and by culture of virus from plasma and other tissues. In the United States, a method is now in use for the detection of leukaemia virus antigen in peripheral blood leukocytes; this is carried out on ordinary blood films. Successful prototype vaccines have been developed against FeLV. This paper describes the natural history of the virus, the diseases in which it is implicated and discusses recently developed diagnostic methods. PMID:163515

  7. Processing deficits in primary visual cortex of amblyopic cats.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kerstin E; Singer, Wolf; Galuske, Ralf A W

    2004-04-01

    Early esotropic squint frequently results in permanent visual deficits in one eye, referred to as strabismic amblyopia. The neurophysiological substrate corresponding to these deficits is still a matter of investigation. Electrophysiological evidence is available for disturbed neuronal interactions in both V1 and higher cortical areas. In this study, we investigated the modulation of responses in cat V1 to gratings at different orientations and spatial frequencies (SFs; 0.1-2.0 cycles/degrees) with optical imaging of intrinsic signals. Maps evoked by both eyes were well modulated at most spatial frequencies. The layout of the maps resembled that of normal cats, and iso-orientation domains tended to cross adjacent ocular dominance borders preferentially at right angles. Visually evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded at SFs ranging from 0.1 to 3.5 cycles/degrees and revealed a consistently weaker eye for the majority of squinting cats. At each SF, interocular differences in VEP amplitudes corresponded well with differences in orientation response and selectivity in the maps. At 0.7-1.3 cycles/ degrees, population orientation selectivity was significantly lower for the weaker eye in cats with VEP differences compared with those with no VEP amplitude differences. In addition, the cutoff SF, above which gratings no longer induced orientation maps, was lower for the weaker eye (> or =1.0 cycles/degrees). These data reveal a close correlation between the loss of visual acuity in amblyopia as assessed by VEPs and the modulation of neuronal activation as seen by optical imaging of intrinsic signals. Furthermore, the results indicate that amblyopia is associated with altered intracortical processing already in V1. PMID:14668297

  8. Morquio syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hearing test Slit-lamp eye exam Skin fibroblast culture X-rays of the long bones, ribs, and spine People with Morquio syndrome should have MRI of the lower skull and upper neck to determine if their upper vertebrae are underdeveloped.

  9. Effects of stressors on the behavior and physiology of domestic cats

    PubMed Central

    Stella, Judi; Croney, Candace; Buffington, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Feline interstitial cystitis (FIC) is a chronic pain syndrome of domestic cats. Cats with FIC have chronic, recurrent lower urinary tract signs (LUTS) and other comorbid disorders that are exacerbated by stressors. The aim of this study was to evaluate behavioral and physiological responses of healthy cats and cats diagnosed with FIC after exposure to a five day stressor. Ten healthy cats and 18 cats with FIC were housed at The Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center (OSUVMC) vivarium. All cats were housed in enriched cages for at least one year prior to the experiment. Cats had daily play time and socialization outside of the cage, food treats and auditory enrichment. The daily husbandry schedule was maintained at a consistent time of day and cats were cared for by two familiar caretakers. During the test days, cats were exposed to multiple unpredictable stressors which included exposure to multiple unfamiliar caretakers, an inconsistent husbandry schedule, and discontinuation of play time, socialization, food treats, and auditory enrichment. Sickness behaviors (SB), including vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia or decreased food and water intake, fever, lethargy, somnolence, enhanced pain-like behaviors, decreased general activity, body care activities (grooming), and social interactions, were recorded daily. Blood samples were collected in the morning, before and after the stress period, for measurement of serum cortisol concentration, leukocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, neutrophil: lymphocyte (N:L) ratio and mRNA for the cytokines interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Overall, the short term stressors led to a significant increase in SB in both healthy cats and cats with FIC, whereas lymphopenia and N:L changes occurred only in FIC cats. Daily monitoring of cats for SB may be a noninvasive and reliable way to assess stress responses and overall welfare of cats housed in cages. PMID:25210211

  10. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... ophthalmology department of a hospital or clinic. Your eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound ...

  11. Cat Scratch Disease (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Cat Scratch Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Cat Scratch Disease Print A A A Text Size ... Doctor en español Enfermedad por arañazo de gato Cat scratch disease is a bacterial infection that a ...

  12. Calcium binding in pigmented and albino eyes.

    PubMed Central

    Dräger, U C

    1985-01-01

    The localization of calcium binding sites in eyes was determined autoradiographically after extracting endogenous Ca from tissue sections and replacing it with 45Ca. The strongest labeling was associated with pigmented tissues due to the high concentration of melanin, which was shown to bind Ca effectively and in a pH-dependent fashion. The second strongest binding was over the tapetum lucidum of the cat eye, and moderate labeling was associated with eye muscles and epithelium and endothelium of the cornea. The neural retina was generally more lightly labeled than the surrounding tissue of the eye; here the plexiform layers stood out in comparison to the nuclear layers, as did a band located internal to the photoreceptor outer segments. The possibility that the Ca buffering capacity of melanin may represent the common denominator for the various neurological defects found in hypopigmentation mutants is discussed. Images PMID:3863122

  13. CAT altitude avoidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B. L. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for indicating the altitude of the tropopause or of an inversion layer wherein clear air turbulence (CAT) may occur, and the likely severity of any such CAT, includes directing a passive microwave radiometer on the aircraft at different angles with respect to the horizon. The microwave radiation measured at a frequency of about 55 GHz represents the temperature of the air at an ""average'' range of about 3 kilometers, so that the sine of the angle of the radiometer times 3 kilometers equals the approximate altitude of the air whose temperature is measured. A plot of altitude (with respect to the aircraft) versus temperature of the air at that altitude, can indicate when an inversion layer is present and can indicate the altitude of the tropopause or of such an inversion layer. The plot can also indicate the severity of any CAT in an inversion layer. If CAT has been detected in the general area, then the aircraft can be flown at an altitude to avoid the tropopause or inversion layer.

  14. Vibrational Schroedinger Cats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kis, Z.; Janszky, J.; Vinogradov, An. V.; Kobayashi, T.

    1996-01-01

    The optical Schroedinger cat states are simple realizations of quantum states having nonclassical features. It is shown that vibrational analogues of such states can be realized in an experiment of double pulse excitation of vibrionic transitions. To track the evolution of the vibrational wave packet we derive a non-unitary time evolution operator so that calculations are made in a quasi Heisenberg picture.

  15. Noonan's Syndrome and Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesterhus, Per; Aarskog, Dagfinn

    1973-01-01

    Thyroid abnormalities were studies in seven boys and three girls, 4- to 17-years-old, with Noonan's syndrome, characterized by mental retardation, ocular anomalies (wide spaced eyes, drooped eye lids, or strabismus), heart lesions, characteristics of Turner's syndrome, and normal karyotypes (chromosome arrangement). (MC)

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Crouzon syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... features of Crouzon syndrome result from the premature fusion of the skull bones. Abnormal growth of these bones leads to wide-set, bulging eyes and vision problems caused by shallow eye sockets; eyes that do not point in the same direction (strabismus); a beaked nose; ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... condition called Crouzon syndrome . Common features include premature fusion of the skull bones, which affects the shape of the head and face; wide-set, bulging eyes due to shallow eye sockets; eyes that do not point in the same direction (strabismus); a small, beaked ...

  18. Dilating Eye Drops

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) ... Loading... Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) ...

  19. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  20. Eye Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  1. Why Do Eyes Water?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? Print ... out of your nose. continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  2. Cat-scratch disease: a wide spectrum of clinical pictures

    PubMed Central

    Mania, Anna; Kemnitz, Paweł; Figlerowicz, Magdalena; Służewski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present an emerging zoonotic disease caused by Bartonella henselae. The wide spectrum of diseases connected with these bacteria varies from asymptomatic cases, to skin inflammation, fever of unknown origin, lymphadenopathy, eye disorders, encephalitis and endocarditis. The reservoirs of B. henselae are domestic animals like cats, guinea pigs, rabbits and occasionally dogs. Diagnosis is most often based on a history of exposure to cats and a serologic test with high titres of the immunoglobulin G antibody to B. henselae. Most cases of cat-scratch disease are self-limited and do not require antibiotic treatment. If an antibiotic is chosen, however, azithromycin has been shown to speed recovery. PMID:26161064

  3. Cat-scratch disease: a wide spectrum of clinical pictures.

    PubMed

    Mazur-Melewska, Katarzyna; Mania, Anna; Kemnitz, Paweł; Figlerowicz, Magdalena; Służewski, Wojciech

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this review is to present an emerging zoonotic disease caused by Bartonella henselae. The wide spectrum of diseases connected with these bacteria varies from asymptomatic cases, to skin inflammation, fever of unknown origin, lymphadenopathy, eye disorders, encephalitis and endocarditis. The reservoirs of B. henselae are domestic animals like cats, guinea pigs, rabbits and occasionally dogs. Diagnosis is most often based on a history of exposure to cats and a serologic test with high titres of the immunoglobulin G antibody to B. henselae. Most cases of cat-scratch disease are self-limited and do not require antibiotic treatment. If an antibiotic is chosen, however, azithromycin has been shown to speed recovery. PMID:26161064

  4. Chediak-Higashi syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... condition may have: Silver hair, light-colored eyes (albinism) Increased infections in the lungs, skin, and mucous ... There is no specific treatment for Chediak-Higashi syndrome. Bone ... the disease appear to have been successful in several patients. ...

  5. [Facial and eye pain - Neurological differential diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Kastrup, O; Diener, H-C; Gaul, C

    2011-12-01

    Head and facial pain are common in neurological practice and the pain often arises in the orbit or is referred into the eye. This is due to the autonomic innervation of the eye and orbit. There are acute and chronic pain syndromes. This review gives an overview of the differential diagnosis and treatment. Idiopathic headache syndromes, such as migraine and cluster headache are the most frequent and are often debilitating conditions. Trigemino-autonomic cephalalgias (SUNCT and SUNA) have to be taken into account, as well as trigeminal neuralgia. Trigemino-autonomic headache after eye operations can be puzzling and often responds well to triptans. Every new facial pain not fitting these categories must be considered symptomatic and a thorough investigation is mandatory including magnetic resonance imaging. Infiltrative and neoplastic conditions frequently lead to orbital pain. As a differential diagnosis Tolosa-Hunt syndrome and Raeder syndrome are inflammatory conditions sometimes mimicking neoplasms. Infections, such as herpes zoster ophthalmicus are extremely painful and require rapid therapy. It is important to consider carotid artery dissection as a cause for acute eye and neck pain in conjunction with Horner's syndrome and bear in mind that vascular oculomotor palsy is often painful. All of the above named conditions should be diagnosed by a neurologist with special experience in pain syndromes and many require an interdisciplinary approach. PMID:22130681

  6. Comparison of telomere length and association with progenitor cell markers in lacrimal gland between Sjögren syndrome and non-Sjögren syndrome dry eye patients

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Motoko; Maida, Yoshiko; Kamoi, Mizuka; Ogawa, Yoko; Shimmura, Shigeto; Masutomi, Kenkichi; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Indicators of aging such as disruption of telomeric function due to shortening may be more frequent in dysfunctional lacrimal gland. The aims of this study were to 1) determine the viability of quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization of telomeres (telo-FISH) for the assessment of telomere length in lacrimal gland in Sjögren and non- Sjögren syndrome patients; and 2) investigate the relationship between progenitor cell markers and telomere length in both groups. Methods Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization with a peptide nucleic acid probe complementary to the telomere repeat sequence was performed on frozen sections from human lacrimal gland tissues. The mean fluorescence intensity of telomere spots was automatically quantified by image analysis as relative telomere length in lacrimal gland epithelial cells. Immunostaining for p63, nucleostemin, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G, member 2 (ABCG2), and nestin was also performed. Results Telomere intensity in the Sjögren syndrome group (6,785.0±455) was significantly lower than that in the non-Sjögren syndrome group (7,494.7±477; p=0.02). Among the samples from the non-Sjögren syndrome group, immunostaining revealed that p63 was expressed in 1–3 acinar cells in each acinar unit and continuously in the basal layer of duct cells. In contrast, in the Sjögren syndrome group, p63 and nucleostemin showed a lower level of expression. ABCG2 was expressed in acinar cells in both sjogren and non-Sjogren syndrome. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that 1) telo-FISH is a viable method of assessing telomere length in lacrimal gland, and 2) telomere length in Sjögren syndrome is shorter and associated with lower levels of expression of p63 and nucleostemin than in non-Sjögren syndrome. PMID:21655359

  7. Cat scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Bozhkov, V; Madjov, R; Plachkov, I; Arnaudov, P; Chernopolsky, P; Krasnaliev, I

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 24,000 people are infected with cat scratch disease (CSD) every year. CSD is caused by the bacteria Bartonella henselae, a gram-negative bacteria most often transmitted to humans through a bite or scratch from an infected cat or kitten. Although CSD is often a benign and self-limiting condition, it can affect any major organ system in the body, manifesting in different ways and sometimes leading to lifelong sequelae. It is a disease that is often overlooked in primary care because of the wide range of symptom presentation and relative rarity of serious complications. It is important for health care providers to recognize patients at risk for CSD, know what laboratory testing and treatments are available, and be aware of complications that may arise from this disease in the future. PMID:25199244

  8. The square cat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putterman, E.; Raz, O.

    2008-11-01

    We present a simple two-dimensional model of a "cat"—a body with zero angular momentum that can rotate itself with no external forces. The model is used to explain the nature of a gauge theory and to illustrate the importance of noncommutative operators. We compare the free-space cat in Newtonian mechanics and the same problem in Aristotelian mechanics at low Reynolds numbers (with the velocity proportional to the force rather than to the acceleration). This example shows the analogy between (angular) momentum in Newtonian mechanics and (torque) force in Aristotelian mechanics. We discuss a topological invariant common to the model in free space and at low Reynolds number.

  9. Big cat genomics.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E

    2005-01-01

    Advances in population and quantitative genomics, aided by the computational algorithms that employ genetic theory and practice, are now being applied to biological questions that surround free-ranging species not traditionally suitable for genetic enquiry. Here we review how applications of molecular genetic tools have been used to describe the natural history, present status, and future disposition of wild cat species. Insight into phylogenetic hierarchy, demographic contractions, geographic population substructure, behavioral ecology, and infectious diseases have revealed strategies for survival and adaptation of these fascinating predators. Conservation, stabilization, and management of the big cats are important areas that derive benefit from the genome resources expanded and applied to highly successful species, imperiled by an expanding human population. PMID:16124868

  10. Retrobulbar lymphoma associated with a ballistic foreign body in a cat.

    PubMed

    Robat, C; Bemelmans, I; Marescaux, L

    2016-04-01

    A seven-year-old domestic shorthair cat, adopted 5 years previously with a corneal perforation of the left eye, was presented for investigation of a left orbital mass. Computed tomography revealed a metallic foreign body within a contrast-enhancing, heterogeneous orbital mass. Large cell lymphoma was diagnosed from a fine needle aspirate. The cat staged negatively and was treated with L-asparaginase, prednisolone and three fractions of radiation therapy. A rapid clinical remission was obtained and the cat remained in remission for 3 years after therapy. This is the first report of large cell lymphoma likely occurring secondary to a foreign body. PMID:26290463

  11. Influence of various anesthetic drugs on the intraocular pressure of cats.

    PubMed

    Hahnenberger, R W

    1976-04-14

    Cats with one normal eye and one eye with experimental glaucoma were trained to tolerate tonometry while conscious. They were then given the general anesthetic agents pentobarbital, ketamine, and CI-744 in the lowest and twice the lowest dosages which permitted tonometry in untrained cats. Pentobarbital lowered intraocular pressure (IOP) by 20-50%. Ketamine raised IOP by about 10%. CI-744 had essentially no effect on IOP. The two conpoments of CI-744, tiletamine (CI-634) and zolazepam (CI-716) were given individually in the doses in which they had been given as part of CI-744. Tiletamine had no effect on IOP, while zolazepam lowered IOP by about 10%. PMID:1083696

  12. Palpebral slant - eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... and syndromes. The most common of these is Down syndrome. People with Down syndrome often also have an epicanthal fold in the ... in some cases, it may be due to: Down syndrome Fetal alcohol syndrome Certain genetic disorders

  13. [Alport's syndrome (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Huismans, H

    1978-05-01

    A case report is given of a 22-years old student (whose brother had Alport's syndrome) with recurrent central corneal swelling and paracentral erosions of the cornea of both eyes. Further signs of beginning Alport's syndrome in this case are disturbance of re-adaptation after dazzling (Mesoptometer) and paracentral scotomata in the visual fields. Remarkable was the small diameter of the disc in both eyes (1.37 mm). Local therapy was Scopolamin-eye-drops, Actihaemyl- and especially Cystein-Gel (2.4%). PMID:672101

  14. Genetics Home Reference: Manitoba oculotrichoanal syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... affecting the eyes (oculo-), hair (tricho-), and anus (-anal). People with Manitoba oculotrichoanal syndrome have widely spaced ... of Manitoba oculotrichoanal syndrome is a narrow anus (anal stenosis) or an anal opening farther forward than ...

  15. [Diabetic eye disease].

    PubMed

    Henriques, José; Vaz-Pereira, Sara; Nascimento, João; Rosa, Paulo Caldeira

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by sustained hyperglycemia leading to macro and microvascular complications. The eye is one of the main organs affected by this disease, being diabetic retinopathy the most well-known microvascular complication and the leading cause of blindness in the working age population. However, diabetic ocular disease is not only characterized by diabetic retinopathy. Other important ocular manifestations of diabetes mellitus include cataract, glaucoma, ischemic optic neuropathy, cranial nerve palsies and recurrent corneal erosion syndrome. Here, we emphasize diabetic retinopathy as the most important and characteristic complication of diabetes mellitus, but also review less well-known complications with the aim to alert and sensitize non-ophthalmologist clinicians that treat diabetic individuals, in order to promote an early diagnosis and treatment of the sight-threatening complications of diabetes. PMID:25817504

  16. Small supernumerary marker chromosomes and their correlation with specific syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Jafari-Ghahfarokhi, Hamideh; Moradi-Chaleshtori, Maryam; Liehr, Thomas; Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Morteza; Teimori, Hossein; Ghasemi-Dehkordi, Payam

    2015-01-01

    A small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) is a structurally abnormal chromosome. It is an additional chromosome smaller than one chromosome most often lacking a distinct banding pattern and is rarely identifiable by conventional banding cytogenetic analysis. The origin and composition of an sSMC is recognizable by molecular cytogenetic analysis. These sSMCs are seen in different shapes, including the ring, centric minute, and inverted duplication shapes. The effects of sSMCs on the phenotype depend on factors such as size, genetic content, and the level of the mosaicism. The presence of an sSMC causes partial tris- or tetrasomy, and 70% of the sSMC carriers are clinically normal, while 30% are abnormal in some way. In 70% of the cases the sSMC is de novo, in 20% it is inherited from the mother, and in 10% it is inherited from the father. An sSMC can be causative for specific syndromes such as Emanuel, Pallister-Killian, or cat eye syndromes. There may be more specific sSMC-related syndromes, which may be identified by further investigation. These 10 syndromes can be useful for genetic counseling after further study. PMID:26322288

  17. Binocular interaction in the cat's superior colliculus.

    PubMed Central

    Berman, N; Blakemore, C; Cynader, M

    1975-01-01

    1. Binocularly driven neurones with small receptive fields near the area centralis were recorded in the cat's superior colliculus. 2. Binocular interaction was tested by stimulating both eyes simultaneously with a single moving stimulus at various retinal disparities. 3. Collicular cells in general showed strong summation or even facilitation when the images of the stimulus were in exact correspondence on the receptive fields, sometimes with occlusion when they were out of register. The range of retinal disparity over which there was additive interaction could be as little as 1 or 2 deg, almost as narrow as for the most precisely tuned neurones in the visual cortex. Even cells with large receptive fields sometimes showed a narrow range of binocular interaction. 4. Non-directional cells generally exhibited weaker summation and broader disparity selectivity than did direction-selective cells. 5. Some neurones with virtually no response to a stimulus in one of the eyes can exhibit marked binocular interaction. Other apparently monocular cells show little or no binocular interaction. 6. The disparity of the centres of the receptive fields was measured after correcting for small eye movements, which were assessed by two different techniques. For 132 cells the measured distribution of horizontal disparity (range 4.5 deg; S.D. 0.93 deg) was significantly broader than that of vertical disparity (range 2.2 deg; S.D. 0.52 deg). Sources of error in these measurements are considered. 7. The results are discussed in relation to the known connexions between visual cortex and superior colliculus and the possible role of the latter in the regulation of eye movements. PMID:1133788

  18. [Correlation of the microbiota and intestinal mucosa in the pathophysiology and treatment of irritable bowel, irritable eye, and irritable mind syndrome].

    PubMed

    Fehér, János; Kovács, Illés; Pacella, Elena; Radák, Zsolt

    2014-09-14

    Accumulating clinical evidence supports co-morbidity of irritable bowel, irritable eye and irritable mind symptoms. Furthermore, perturbation of the microbiota-host symbiosis (dysbiosis) is considered a common pathogenic mechanism connecting gastrointestinal, ocular and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Consequently, maintaining or restoring microbiota-host symbiosis represents a new approach to treat these symptoms or to prevent their relapses. Current treatment approach assigned a primary role to live probiotics alone or in combination with prebiotics to enhance colonization of beneficial bacteria and to strengthen the symbiosis. However, several papers showed major benefits of heat-killed probiotics as compared to their live counterparts on both intestinal and systemic symptoms. Recently, in addition to killing probiotics, in a proof of concept study lysates (fragments) of probiotics in combination with vitamins A, B, D and omega 3 fatty acids were successfully tested. These findings suggested a conceptual change in the approach addressed to both the microbiota and host as targets for intervention. PMID:25194867

  19. Diabetes eye exams

    MedlinePlus

    ... catch problems early if you get regular eye exams. ... diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam every 1 to 2 years by an eye ... problems with your vision. Many can do screening exams for damage from diabetes. Once you have eye ...

  20. The eye as a window to rare endocrine disorders.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Rupali; Chander, Ashish; Jacob, Jubbin J

    2012-05-01

    The human eye, as an organ, can offer critical clues to the diagnosis of various systemic illnesses. Ocular changes are common in various endocrine disorders such as diabetes mellitus and Graves' disease. However there exist a large number of lesser known endocrine disorders where ocular involvement is significant. Awareness of these associations is the first step in the diagnosis and management of these complex patients. The rare syndromes involving the pituitary hypothalamic axis with significant ocular involvement include Septo-optic dysplasia, Kallman's syndrome, and Empty Sella syndrome all affecting the optic nerve at the optic chiasa. The syndromes involving the thyroid and parathyroid glands that have ocular manifestations and are rare include Mc Cune Albright syndrome wherein optic nerve decompression may occur due to fibrous dysplasia, primary hyperparathyroidism that may present as red eye due to scleritis and Ascher syndrome wherein ptosis occurs. Allgrove's syndrome, Cushing's disease, and Addison's disease are the rare endocrine syndromes discussed involving the adrenals and eye. Ocular involvement is also seen in gonadal syndromes such as Bardet Biedl, Turner's, Rothmund's, and Klinefelter's syndrome. This review also highlights the ocular manifestation of miscellaneous syndromes such as Werner's, Cockayne's, Wolfram's, Kearns Sayre's, and Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome. The knowledge of these relatively uncommon endocrine disorders and their ocular manifestations will help an endocrinologist reach a diagnosis and will alert an ophthalmologist to seek specialty consultation of an endocrinologist when encountered with such cases. PMID:22629495

  1. Serum eye drop preparation in Australia: Current manufacturing practice.

    PubMed

    Marks, Denese C; Fisher, Jenny; Mondy, Phillip; Segatchian, Jerard; Dennington, Peta M

    2015-08-01

    Serum eye drops are used to treat diseases such as dry eye syndrome (keratoconjunctivitis sicca), a disease of the surface of the eye that results in an unstable tear film. Patients are referred to the Australian Red Cross Blood Service by ophthalmologists for autologous serum eye drops when other therapies such as artificial tears or topical immunosuppressive agents have failed. In order to manufacture autologous serum eye drops, whole blood is collected from the patients using standard blood collection procedures. The blood is then allowed to clot to produce serum and processed into 20% serum eye drops, which are then returned to the patient for their own use. The eye drops are packaged into a long length of tubing, which is then heat-sealed to produce single-use segments. The demand for serum eye drops in Australia is increasing every year, with a 30% increase in the past 12 months. PMID:26123029

  2. Neurocutaneous syndromes.

    PubMed

    Klar, Nitasha; Cohen, Bernard; Lin, Doris D M

    2016-01-01

    Neurocutaneous syndromes (or phakomatoses) are a diverse group of congenital disorders that encompass abnormalities of neuroectodermal and, sometimes, mesodermal development, hence commonly involving the skin, eye, and central nervous system. These are often inherited conditions and typically present in early childhood or adolescence. Some of the abnormalities and clinical symptoms may, however, be progressive, and there is an increased risk of neoplastic formation in many of the syndromes. As a group, neurocutaneous syndromes are characterized by distinctive cutaneous stigmata and neurologic symptomology, the latter often representing the most devastating and debilitating features of these diseases. Many of these syndromes are markedly heterogeneous in nature as they affect many organ systems. Given the incurable nature of these conditions and the broad spectrum of pathologies they comprise, treatments vary on a case-by-case basis and tend to be palliative rather than curative. With the advances in molecular genetics, however, greater understanding of biologic functions of the gene products and the correlative phenotypic expression is being attained, and this knowledge may guide future therapeutic developments. This chapter focuses on the cutaneous and neurologic pathology with emphasis on neuroimaging of selective neurocutaneous syndromes, including tuberous sclerosis, Sturge-Weber syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, ataxia-telangiectasia, and incontinentia pigmenti. PMID:27432683

  3. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000111.htm Eye muscle repair - discharge To use the sharing features on ... enable JavaScript. You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle problems that ...

  4. Eye muscle repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100062.htm Eye muscle repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ...

  5. Dilating Eye Drops

    MedlinePlus

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Dilating Eye Drops En Español Read in Chinese What are dilating eye drops? Dilating eye drops contain medication to enlarge ( ...

  6. Fluorescent eye test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The fluorescent eye test is useful in determining if there is a scratch or other problem with the surface ... has thoroughly covered the eye a cobalt blue light is then directed on the eye. The light ...

  7. Amblyopia resulting from penalisation: neurophysiological studies of kittens reared with atropinisation of one or both eyes.

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, H.; Tremain, K. E.

    1978-01-01

    Atropinisation of the eyes--a clinical method of treating strabismus called "penalisation"--in developing kittens caused a reduction in the spatial resolving power of cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus driven by the penalised eye, regardless of whether 1 eye or both eyes had been atropinised. However, binocularity of cells in the visual cortex was reduced only in monocularly penalised cats. It appears that sharply focused foveal images are important in the development of good visual acuity but synergy of the inputs to the 2 eyes is required for the development of binocular vision. PMID:629908

  8. [Glomerulonephritis in dogs and cats].

    PubMed

    Reinacher, M; Frese, K

    1991-04-01

    Immunohistology and special staining of plastic sections allow diagnosis and differentiation of subtypes of glomerulonephritis in dogs. Frequency and clinical importance of these forms of glomerulonephritis vary significantly. In cats, glomerulonephritis occurs frequently in FIV-positive cats but is rare in animals suffering from persistent FeLV infection or FIP. PMID:2068715

  9. College Students and Their Cats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Alexander, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-two Siamese and 32 mixed breed cats' personalities were rated by their respective college student owners and compared. Further, the owners' self rated personality traits were correlated with the pets'; significant Siamese and Mixed differences and correlations were obtained. These are the first data to examine breed of cat on a personality…

  10. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  11. Zoonotic Intestinal Trematodes in Stray Cats (Felis catus) from Riverside Areas of the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sung-Shik; Oh, Dae-Sung; Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Sohn, Woon-Mok

    2015-01-01

    The present study was performed to survey the infection status of zoonotic intestinal trematode (ZIT) in stray cats from 5 major riverside areas in the Republic of Korea. Total 400 stray cats were captured with live-traps in riverside areas of Seomjingang (‘gang’ means river) (203 cats) from June to October 2010, and of Yeongsangang (41), Nakdonggang (57), Geumgang (38), and Hangang (61 cats) from June to October 2011, respectively. Small intestines resected from cats were opened with a pair of scissors in a beaker with 0.85% saline and examined with naked eyes and under a stereomicroscope. More than 16 ZIT species were detected in 188 (92.6%) cats from Seomjingang areas, and the number of worms recovered was 111 per cat infected. In cats from riverside areas of Yeongsangang, Nakdonggang, Geumgang, and Hangang, more than 9, 8, 3, and 5 ZIT species were recovered, and the worm burdens were 13, 42, 11, and 56 specimens per infected cat, respectively. As the members of family Heterophyidae, more than 10 species, i.e., Metagonimus spp., Pygidiopsis summa, Heterophyes nocens, Stellantchasmus falcatus, Heterophyopsis continua, Acanthotrema felis, Centrocestus armatus, Procerovum varium, Cryptocotyle concava, and Stictodora lari, were recovered. More than 5 species of echinostomes, i.e., Echinostoma hortense, Echinochasmus japonicus, Echinochasmus sp., Echinoparyphium sp., and unidentified larval echinostomes, were collected. Plagiorchis spp. were detected in cats from areas of Seomjin-gang and Yeongsangang. From the above results, it has been confirmed that stray cats in 5 major riverside areas of Korea are highly infected with various species of ZITs. PMID:25925180

  12. Eyeing Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Jupiter casts a baleful eye toward the moon Ganymede in this enhanced-contrast image from NASA's Cassini spacecraft.

    Jupiter's 'eye', the Great Red Spot, was captured just before disappearing around the eastern edge of the planet. The furrowed eyebrow above and to the left of the spot is a turbulent wake region caused by westward flow that has been deflected to the north and around the Red Spot. The smallest features visible are about 240 kilometers (150 miles) across.

    Within the band south of the Red Spot are a trio of white ovals, high pressure counterclockwise-rotating regions that are dynamically similar to the Red Spot. The dark filamentary features interspersed between white ovals are probably cyclonic circulations and, unlike the ovals, are rotating clockwise.

    Jupiter's equatorial zone stretching across the planet north of the Spot appears bright white, with gigantic plume clouds spreading out from the equator both to the northeast and to the southeast in a chevron pattern. This zone looks distinctly different than it did during the Voyager flyby 21 years ago. Then, its color was predominantly brown and the only white plumes conspicuous against the darker material beneath them were oriented southwest-to-northeast.

    Ganymede is Jupiter's largest moon, about 50 percent larger than our own Moon and larger than the planet Mercury. The visible details in this image are different geological terrains. Dark areas tend to be older and heavily cratered; brighter areas are younger and less cratered. Cassini images of Ganymede and Jupiter's other large moons taken near closest approach on Dec. 30 will have resolutions about four times better than that seen here.

    This image is a color composite of ones taken with different filters by Cassini's narrow-angle camera on Nov. 18, 2000, processed to enhance contrast. Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of

  13. Health and Behavioral Survey of over 8000 Finnish Cats

    PubMed Central

    Vapalahti, Katariina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Joensuu, Tara A.; Tiira, Katriina; Tähtinen, Jaana; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalence of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases, with a prevalence of 28%, and dental calculus and gingivitis (21 and 8%, respectively) were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23%) and asthma (19%). Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems, such as the skin (12%), the urinary system (12%), the digestive tract (11%), eyes (10%), the musculoskeletal system (10%), and genitals of female cats (17%). Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%), tail kink (4%), feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (4%), urinary tract infections (4%), as well as cesarean section (6%) and stillborn kittens (6%) among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher’s exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease, progressive retinal atrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research. PMID:27622188

  14. Health and Behavioral Survey of over 8000 Finnish Cats.

    PubMed

    Vapalahti, Katariina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Joensuu, Tara A; Tiira, Katriina; Tähtinen, Jaana; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalence of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases, with a prevalence of 28%, and dental calculus and gingivitis (21 and 8%, respectively) were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23%) and asthma (19%). Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems, such as the skin (12%), the urinary system (12%), the digestive tract (11%), eyes (10%), the musculoskeletal system (10%), and genitals of female cats (17%). Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%), tail kink (4%), feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (4%), urinary tract infections (4%), as well as cesarean section (6%) and stillborn kittens (6%) among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease, progressive retinal atrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research. PMID:27622188

  15. Idiopathic cystitis in domestic cats--beyond the lower urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Buffington, C A T

    2011-01-01

    Signs of lower urinary tract (LUT) disease in domestic cats can be acute or chronic, and can result from variable combinations of abnormalities within the lumen of the LUT, the parenchyma of the LUT itself, or other organ system(s) that then lead to LUT dysfunction. In the majority of cats with chronic signs of LUT dysfunction, no specific underlying cause can be confirmed after standard clinical evaluation of the LUT, so these cats typically are classified as having idiopathic cystitis. A syndrome in human beings commonly known as interstitial cystitis (IC) shares many features in common with these cats, permitting comparisons between the two species. A wide range of similarities in abnormalities has been identified between these syndromes outside as well as inside the LUT. A variety of potential familial and developmental risk factors also have been identified. These results have permitted generation of the hypothesis that some of these people have a disorder affecting the LUT rather than a disorder of the LUT. This perspective has suggested alternative diagnostic strategies and novel approaches to treatment, at least in cats. The purpose of this review is to summarize research investigations into the various abnormalities present in cats, to compare some of these findings with those identified in human beings, and to discuss how they might modify perceptions about the etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of cats with this disease. Dedication: I dedicate this contribution to Professor Dennis J. Chew, whose collaboration, patience, and support made it all possible. PMID:21564297

  16. Effects of PUVA on the eye

    SciTech Connect

    Backman, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common skin disease which may be treated with 8-methoxy psoralen and long-wave ultraviolet light (PUVA). Eye protection is provided during and after treatment to prevent the development of photokeratitis and cataracts. Fifteen patients, treated with medication and ultraviolet A (UVA) had an initial complete eye examination and a repeat examination after each treatment. No patients developed cataracts but almost one-half of the patients had a mild form of photokeratoconjunctivitis. The ocular manifestations included photophobia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and dry eyes. Tear break-up time was reduced significantly immediately after treatment for two patients but returned to normal 8 hr later. Dermatologists who employ PUVA treatments should be concerned about photokeratoconjunctivitis and the dry-eye ocular manifestations included photophobia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and dry eyes. Tear break-up time was reduced significantly immediately after treatment for two patients but returned to normal 8 hr later. Dermatologists who employ PUVA treatments should be concerned about photokeratoconjunctivitis and the dry-eye ocular manifestations included photophobia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and dry eyes. Tear break-up time was reduced significantly immediately after treatment for two patients but returned to normal 8 hr later. Dermatologists who employ PUVA treatments should be concerned about photokeratoconjunctivitis and the dry-eye syndrome.

  17. Neurolymphomatosis in a cat

    PubMed Central

    SAKURAI, Masashi; AZUMA, Kazushi; NAGAI, Arata; FUJIOKA, Toru; SUNDEN, Yuji; SHIMADA, Akinori; MORITA, Takehito

    2016-01-01

    A 9-year-old male mixed breed cat showed chronic progressive neurological symptoms, which are represented by ataxia and seizures. At necropsy, spinal roots and spinal ganglions at the level of sixth cervical nerve to second thoracic nerve were bilaterally swollen and replaced by white mass lesions. Right brachial plexus and cranial nerves (III, V and VII) were also swollen. A mass lesion was found in the right frontal lobe of the cerebrum. Histologically, neoplastic lymphocytes extensively involved the peripheral nerves, and they infiltrated into the cerebral and spinal parenchyma according to the peripheral nerve tract. Immunohistochemically, most neoplastic lymphocytes were positive for CD20. The clinical and histological features in this case resemble those of neurolymphomatosis in humans. PMID:26960326

  18. Like herding cats.

    PubMed

    Muller-Smith, P

    1997-12-01

    In an effort to be a good manager, it is easy to lose sight of the fact that knowledge workers require a unique approach from their manager. Because nurses are independent and capable individuals that prosper in an environment that recognizes them as knowledge workers, nurse managers often find that traditional management techniques are not sufficient. Trying to manage all of the nurses on a unit as a single group is much like trying to herd cats. It might be less frustrating for the nurse manager to lead gently rather than manage with a firm hand. Warren Bennis suggests that this approach may provide a valuable key to successfully managing in a world of constant change. PMID:9464034

  19. Neurolymphomatosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Masashi; Azuma, Kazushi; Nagai, Arata; Fujioka, Toru; Sunden, Yuji; Shimada, Akinori; Morita, Takehito

    2016-07-01

    A 9-year-old male mixed breed cat showed chronic progressive neurological symptoms, which are represented by ataxia and seizures. At necropsy, spinal roots and spinal ganglions at the level of sixth cervical nerve to second thoracic nerve were bilaterally swollen and replaced by white mass lesions. Right brachial plexus and cranial nerves (III, V and VII) were also swollen. A mass lesion was found in the right frontal lobe of the cerebrum. Histologically, neoplastic lymphocytes extensively involved the peripheral nerves, and they infiltrated into the cerebral and spinal parenchyma according to the peripheral nerve tract. Immunohistochemically, most neoplastic lymphocytes were positive for CD20. The clinical and histological features in this case resemble those of neurolymphomatosis in humans. PMID:26960326

  20. Diagnostic Procedures and Management of Dry Eye

    PubMed Central

    Kaštelan, Snježana; Tomić, Martina; Salopek-Rabatić, Jasminka; Novak, Branko

    2013-01-01

    Dry eye disease or dysfunctional tear syndrome is among the most frequent diagnoses in ophthalmology. It is a multifactorial disease of the ocular surface and tear film which results in ocular discomfort, visual disturbances, and tear instability with potential damage to the cornea and conjunctiva. Risk factors for dry eye syndrome include age, sex (female gender), race, contact lens wear, environment with low humidity, systemic medications, and autoimmune disorders. The aim of this paper is to present the systematic classification, epidemiology, diagnostic procedures, and advances in the management of dry eye disease. The recent improvements in comprehending the underlying etiologic factors will inevitably improve future classifications and diagnostic abilities leading to more effective therapeutic options. Treatment of this highly prevalent condition can drastically improve the quality of life of individuals and prevent damage to the ocular surface. PMID:24024186

  1. Alagille syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Krantz, I D; Piccoli, D A; Spinner, N B

    1997-01-01

    Alagille syndrome (OMIM 118450) is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with abnormalities of the liver, heart, eye, skeleton, and a characteristic facial appearance. Also referred to as the Alagille-Watson syndrome, syndromic bile duct paucity, and arteriohepatic dysplasia, it is a significant cause of neonatal jaundice and cholestasis in older children. In the fully expressed syndrome, affected subjects have intrahepatic bile duct paucity and cholestasis, in conjunction with cardiac malformations (most frequently peripheral pulmonary stenosis), ophthalmological abnormalities (typically of the anterior chamber with posterior embryotoxon being the most common), skeletal anomalies (most commonly butterfly vertebrae), and characteristic facial appearance. Inheritance is autosomal dominant, but expressivity is highly variable. Sibs and parents of probands are often found to have mild expression of the presumptive disease gene, with abnormalities of only one or two systems. The frequency of new mutations appears relatively high, estimated at between 15 and 50%. The disease gene has been mapped to chromosome 20 band p12 based on multiple patients described with cytogenetic or molecular rearrangements of this region. However, the frequency of detectable deletions of 20p12 is low (less than 7%). Progress has been made in the molecular definition of an Alagille syndrome critical region within the short arm of chromosome 20. We will review the clinical, genetic, cytogenetic, and molecular findings in this syndrome. Images PMID:9039994

  2. Eye muscle repair - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ... The extraocular muscles of the eye (external to the eyeball) control the positioning of the eyes. They coordinate of the eye ...

  3. Eating for Your Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stastny, Sherri Nordstrom; Garden-Robinson, Julie

    2011-01-01

    An educational program targeting older adults was developed to increase knowledge regarding nutrition and eye health. With age, the chance for eye disease increases, so prevention is critical. The Eating for Your Eyes program has promoted behavior changes regarding eye health among the participants. This program is easily replicated and use is…

  4. Flammer syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The new term Flammer syndrome describes a phenotype characterized by the presence of primary vascular dysregulation together with a cluster of symptoms and signs that may occur in healthy people as well as people with disease. Typically, the blood vessels of the subjects with Flammer syndrome react differently to a number of stimuli, such as cold and physical or emotional stress. Nearly all organs, particularly the eye, can be involved. Although the syndrome has some advantages, such as protection against the development of atherosclerosis, Flammer syndrome also contributes to certain diseases, such as normal tension glaucoma. The syndrome occurs more often in women than in men, in slender people than in obese subjects, in people with indoor rather than outdoor jobs, and in academics than in blue collar workers. Affected subjects tend to have cold extremities, low blood pressure, prolonged sleep onset time, shifted circadian rhythm, reduced feeling of thirst, altered drug sensitivity, and increased general sensitivity, including pain sensitivity. The plasma level of endothelin-1 is slightly increased, and the gene expression in lymphocytes is changed. In the eye, the retinal vessels are stiffer and their spatial variability larger; the autoregulation of ocular blood flow is decreased. Glaucoma patients with Flammer syndrome have an increased frequency of the following: optic disc hemorrhages, activated retinal astrocytes, elevated retinal venous pressure, optic nerve compartmentalization, fluctuating diffuse visual field defects, and elevated oxidative stress. Further research should lead to a more concise definition, a precise diagnosis, and tools for recognizing people at risk. This may ultimately lead to more efficient and more personalized treatment. PMID:25075228

  5. Familial unilateral Brown syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kenawy, Nihal; Pilz, Daniela T

    2008-01-01

    We present a two-generation family with Brown syndrome. The proband was a six and a half-year-old female who presented with a history of failure of dextro-elevation of her left eye. A full ophthalmic evaluation was consistent with a left Brown syndrome. Family history revealed that her mother was operated on as a child for left Brown syndrome and examination of her four and a half-year-old sibling showed similar affection in the left eye. Autosomal dominant inheritance has been postulated in this condition. To our knowledge this is the first report of three members of a two-generation family with left-sided Brown syndrome. Genetic counseling of Brown syndrome cases is advised; nevertheless, identification of the responsible gene should shed more light on its genetics. PMID:18711279

  6. First Demonstration of Ocular Refractive Change Using Blue-IRIS in Live Cats

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Daniel E.; Brooks, Daniel R.; DeMagistris, Margaret; Xu, Lisen; MacRae, Scott; Ellis, Jonathan D.; Knox, Wayne H.; Huxlin, Krystel R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the efficacy of intratissue refractive index shaping (IRIS) using 400-nm femtosecond laser pulses (blue light) for writing refractive structures directly into live cat corneas in vivo, and to assess the longevity of these structures in the eyes of living cats. Methods. Four eyes from two adult cats underwent Blue-IRIS. Light at 400 nm with 100-femtosecond (fs) pulses were tightly focused into the corneal stroma of each eye at an 80-MHz repetition rate. These pulses locally increased the refractive index of the corneal stroma via an endogenous, two-photon absorption process and were used to inscribe three-layered, gradient index patterns into the cat corneas. The optical effects of the patterns were then tracked using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing. Results. Blue-IRIS patterns locally changed ocular cylinder by −1.4 ± 0.3 diopters (D), defocus by −2.0 ± 0.5 D, and higher-order root mean square (HORMS) by 0.31 ± 0.04 μm at 1 month post-IRIS, without significant changes in corneal thickness or curvature. Refractive changes were maintained for the duration they were tracked, 12 months post-IRIS in one eye, and just more than 3 months in the remaining three eyes. Conclusions. Blue-IRIS can be used to inscribe refractive structures into live cat cornea in vivo that are stable for at least 12 months, and are not associated with significant alterations in corneal thicknesses or radii of curvature. This result is a critical step toward establishing Blue-IRIS as a promising technique for noninvasive vision correction. PMID:24985471

  7. Neural precursors isolated from the developing cat brain show retinal integration following transplantation to the retina of the dystrophic cat.

    PubMed

    Klassen, Henry; Schwartz, Philip H; Ziaeian, Boback; Nethercott, Hubert; Young, Michael J; Bragadottir, Ragnheidur; Tullis, Gregory E; Warfvinge, Karin; Narfstrom, Kristina

    2007-01-01

    The cat has served as an important nonrodent research model for neurophysiology and retinal degenerative disease processes, yet very little is known about feline neural precursor cells. To culture these cells and evaluate marker expression, brains were dissected from 45-day-old fetuses, enzymatically dissociated, and grown in the presence of EGF, bFGF and PDGF. Expanded cells widely expressed nestin, Sox2, Ki-67, fusin (CXCR4) and vimentin, while subpopulations expressed A2B5, GFAP, or beta-III tubulin. Precursors prelabeled with BrdU and/or transduced with a recombinant lentivirus that expresses GFP were transplanted subretinally in five dystrophic Abyssinian cats. Two to 4 weeks following surgery, histology showed survival of grafted cells in three of the animals. Labeled cells were found in the neuroretina and RPE layer, as well as in the vitreous and the vicinity of Bruch's membrane. There was no evidence of an immunologic response in any of the eyes. Neural precursor cells can therefore be cultured from the developing cat brain and survive as allografts for up to 4 weeks without immune suppression. The feasibility of deriving and transplanting feline neural precursor cells, combined with the availability of the dystrophic Abyssinian cat, provide a new feline model system for the study of retinal repair. PMID:17565557

  8. [A Brief Description on the origin and evolution of the Section on Eyes in Zheng zhi zhun sheng (Standards for Syndrome Identification and Treatment)].

    PubMed

    Chen, Liping

    2014-11-01

    Compiled by Wang Kentang, Zheng zhi zhun sheng (Standards for Syndrome Identification and Treatment) has 11 versions falling into 4 classes: (1) The first xylographic version of Wanli reign system, including the first carved version of Renyin year or 30(th) year of Wanli (1602) of the Ming Dynasty, the Japanese Kanbun Dynasty 1670 version of Tongtuo Book Store version, the version of Yimao year or 14(th) year of Kangxi reign (1675) of the Qing Dynasty from the Jintan Yu's Sanctum, the revised version of Jimao year or 38(th) year of Kangxi reign (1699) of the Qing Dynasty from the Jintan Yu's Sanctum, and the version of the 25(th) year of Guangxu reign (1899) of the Qing Dynasty from the Shancheng Sanctum of Western Shu (Sichuan), altogether 4 versions; (2) The system of Xiujing Sanctum, including the version of Guichou year or the 58(th) year of Qianlong reign (1793) of the Qing Dynasty from the Kim's version of Xiujing Sanctum, the version of Renchen year or the 18(th) year of Guangxu reign (1892) of the Qing Dynasty from the revised version of Shijing Sanctum of Guangzhou, the xylographic version of Jiuxueshan Sanctum of the Qing Dynasty, altogether 3 versions; (3) The system of Compendium of Illustrated Books, referring to the printing version of the Renchen year or 18(th) year of Guangxu reign (1892) from the Printing House of Shanghai Compendium of Illustrated Book; (4) The xylographic version of Daiyue Building system, referring to the version of Jisi year or 14th year of Qianlong reign (1749) of the Qing Dynasty from the Daiyue Building; (5) The system of Jiusitang Sanctum xylographic version of the Qing Dynasty from Jiaxing, referring to the said version; (6) The system of lithographic versions: Hongbaozhai of Shanghai in 1912 and Saoyeshan Sanctum of Shanghai in 1935. PMID:25620362

  9. Influence of sex hormones and genetic predisposition in Sjögren's syndrome: a new clue to the immunopathogenesis of dry eye disease.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Safinaz; Seamon, Vanessa; Azzarolo, Ana Maria

    2012-03-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration, destruction of lacrimal and salivary glands and the presence of serum autoantibodies. Most women that suffer from SS are post-menopausal however, not all post-menopausal women develop SS, suggesting that other factors, in addition to the decrease in ovarian hormones, are necessary for the development of SS. The purposes of this study were to investigate a) the time course of lymphocytic infiltration and apoptosis in the lacrimal gland after ovariectomy, b) if a predisposed genetic background for SS aggravates the effects of decreasing levels of sex hormones in the lacrimal glands and c) if physiological doses of estrogen or androgen prevent the effects observed after ovariectomy. Six weeks old mice that are genetically predisposed to SS (NOD.B10.H2(b)) and control (C57BL/10) mice were either sham operated, ovariectomized (OVX), OVX + 17β estradiol (E(2)) or OVX + Dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Lacrimal glands were collected at 3, 7, 21 or 30 days after surgery and processed for immunohistochemistry to measure CD4(+), CD8(+) T cells, B220(+) B cells, nuclear DNA degradation and cleaved caspase-3 activity. Quantification of the staining was done by light microscopy and Image Pro Plus software. The results of our study show that lymphocytic infiltration preceded lacrimal gland apoptosis after ovariectomy. Moreover, removal of ovarian sex hormones accelerated these effects in the genetically predisposed animal and these effects were more severe and persistent compared to control animals. In addition, sex hormone replacement at physiological levels prevented these symptoms. The mechanisms by which decreased levels of sex hormones caused lymphocytic infiltration and apoptosis and the interaction of lack of sex hormones with the genetic elements remain to be elucidated. PMID:22227485

  10. Development of infrared thermal imager for dry eye diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Huihua Kenny; Chen, Chih Yen; Cheng, Hung You; Chen, Ko-Hua; Chang, David O.

    2006-08-01

    This study aims at the development of non-contact dry eye diagnosis based on an infrared thermal imager system, which was used to measure the cooling of the ocular surface temperature of normal and dry eye patients. A total of 108 subjects were measured, including 26 normal and 82 dry eye patients. We have observed that the dry eye patients have a fast cooling of the ocular surface temperature than the normal control group. We have developed a simplified algorithm for calculating the temperature decay constant of the ocular surface for discriminating between normal and dry eye. This study shows the diagnostic of dry eye syndrome by the infrared thermal imager system has reached a sensitivity of 79.3%, a specificity of 75%, and the area under the ROC curve 0.841. The infrared thermal imager system has a great potential to be developed for dry eye screening with the advantages of non-contact, fast, and convenient implementation.

  11. Rapid eye movement sleep promotes cortical plasticity in the developing brain

    PubMed Central

    Dumoulin Bridi, Michelle C.; Aton, Sara J.; Seibt, Julie; Renouard, Leslie; Coleman, Tammi; Frank, Marcos G.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep is maximal during early life, but its function in the developing brain is unknown. We investigated the role of rapid eye movement sleep in a canonical model of developmental plasticity in vivo (ocular dominance plasticity in the cat) induced by monocular deprivation. Preventing rapid eye movement sleep after monocular deprivation reduced ocular dominance plasticity and inhibited activation of a kinase critical for this plasticity (extracellular signal–regulated kinase). Chronic single-neuron recording in freely behaving cats further revealed that cortical activity during rapid eye movement sleep resembled activity present during monocular deprivation. This corresponded to times of maximal extracellular signal–regulated kinase activation. These findings indicate that rapid eye movement sleep promotes molecular and network adaptations that consolidate waking experience in the developing brain. PMID:26601213

  12. Comparison of receptive-field organization of the superior colliculus in Siamese and normal cats

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Nancy; Cynader, Max

    1972-01-01

    cats can be activated by stimulation of either eye, while in Siamese cats, 80% of the units studied can be driven only by the contralateral eye. A few monocularly driven units with two separated receptive fields have been observed in Siamese cats. 5. In the left tectum of both breeds, units respond well to left-to-right stimulus movement. The reverse situation obtains in the right tectum. In Siamese cats, units located at the anterior tip of the tectum with their receptive fields located in the visual half-field ipsilateral to the tectum under study respond better to stimulus movement toward the area centralis than away from it. The preferred direction for a tectal unit seems to be determined by its tectal location rather than by the location of its receptive field in the retina. 6. Visual cortex lesions in both breeds increase the responsiveness of tectal units to flashing spots and almost entirely remove the directional selectivity exhibited by tectal units, although units with asymmetric surrounds are still found. In normal cats, the lesions change the ocular dominance distribution, skewing it more strongly toward the contralateral eye. In Siamese cats, the ocular dominance distribution remains unchanged after a visual cortex lesion. 7. The squint commonly exhibited by Siamese cats is regarded as a compensation for the anomalous retinotectal topography. It is suggested that, in the absence of an adaptive modification, the anomalous retinotectal projection would lead to mislocalization in Siamese cats just as it does in frogs and hamsters whose retinotectal projection has been experimentally altered. The convergent strabismus which Siamese cats commonly exhibit may be a cure for the abnormal retinal projections rather than a disease. ImagesFig. 11 PMID:5071401

  13. Acquired retinal folds in the cat.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, A D

    1976-06-01

    Retinal folds were found in 5 cats. The apparent cause of the folding was varied: in 1 cat the folds appeared after a localized retinal detachment; in 2 cats the condition accompanied other intraocular abnormalities associated with feline infectious peritonitis; 1 cat had active keratitis, and the retinal changes were thought to have been injury related; and 1 cat, bilaterally affected, had chronic glomerulonephritis. PMID:945253

  14. Primary hypoadrenocorticism in ten cats.

    PubMed

    Peterson, M E; Greco, D S; Orth, D N

    1989-01-01

    Primary hypoadrenocorticism was diagnosed in ten young to middle-aged cats of mixed breeding. Five of the cats were male, and five were female. Historic signs included lethargy (n = 10), anorexia (n = 10), weight loss (n = 9), vomiting (n = 4), and polyuria (n = 3). Dehydration (n = 9), hypothermia (n = 8), prolonged capillary refill time (n = 5), weak pulse (n = 5), collapse (n = 3), and sinus bradycardia (n = 2) were found on physical examination. Results of initial laboratory tests revealed anemia (n = 3), absolute lymphocytosis (n = 2), absolute eosinophilia (n = 1), and azotemia and hyperphosphatemia (n = 10). Serum electrolyte changes included hyponatremia (n = 10), hyperkalemia (n = 9), hypochloremia (n = 9), and hypercalcemia (n = 1). The diagnosis of primary adrenocortical insufficiency was established on the basis of results of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation tests (n = 10) and endogenous plasma ACTH determinations (n = 7). Initial therapy for hypoadrenocorticism included intravenous administration of 0.9% saline and dexamethasone and intramuscular administration of desoxycorticosterone acetate in oil. Three cats were euthanatized shortly after diagnosis because of poor clinical response. Results of necropsy examination were unremarkable except for complete destruction of both adrenal cortices. Seven cats were treated chronically with oral prednisone or intramuscular methylprednisolone acetate for glucocorticoid supplementation and with oral fludrocortisone acetate or intramuscular injections of repository desoxycorticosterone pivalate for mineralocorticoid replacement. One cat died after 47 days of therapy from unknown causes; the other six cats are still alive and well after 3 to 70 months of treatment. PMID:2469793

  15. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats.

    PubMed

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne; Bennett, Pauleen; Paterson, Mandy; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people's perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (p<0.01). All interactions and caretaking behaviours were more likely to be displayed towards cats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (p<0.05) and included association time, attachment, perceived cat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner "gatekeepers" could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and

  16. Confocal microscopy of the living eye.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, H D; Jester, J V; Essepian, J; Shields, W; Lemp, M A

    1990-01-01

    Confocal microscopy is an imaging paradigm that allows optical sectioning of almost any material with increased axial and lateral spatial resolution and better image contrast. We have applied this technology to the study of the living eye of cats, albino rabbits, and humans. The technique allows in vivo, noninvasive, real time images of the eye at magnifications (630x) which allow resolution of anatomical detail at the cellular level. In this paper we report details of our current instrument techniques and some of our results. The past development, present state-of-the-art, and projected future advances and applications of this novel microscopy are discussed. Preliminary observations are reported for all layers of the cornea, the limbus, and wound-healing responses in single animals. PMID:2407380

  17. On the Trail of a Cosmic Cat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-01-01

    ESO has just released a stunning new image of the vast cloud known as the Cat's Paw Nebula or NGC 6334. This complex region of gas and dust, where numerous massive stars are born, lies near the heart of the Milky Way galaxy, and is heavily obscured by intervening dust clouds. Few objects in the sky have been as well named as the Cat's Paw Nebula, a glowing gas cloud resembling the gigantic pawprint of a celestial cat out on an errand across the Universe. British astronomer John Herschel first recorded NGC 6334 in 1837 during his stay in South Africa. Despite using one of the largest telescopes in the world at the time, Herschel seems to have only noted the brightest part of the cloud, seen here towards the lower left. NGC 6334 lies about 5500 light-years away in the direction of the constellation Scorpius (the Scorpion) and covers an area on the sky slightly larger than the full Moon. The whole gas cloud is about 50 light-years across. The nebula appears red because its blue and green light are scattered and absorbed more efficiently by material between the nebula and Earth. The red light comes predominantly from hydrogen gas glowing under the intense glare of hot young stars. NGC 6334 is one of the most active nurseries of massive stars in our galaxy and has been extensively studied by astronomers. The nebula conceals freshly minted brilliant blue stars - each nearly ten times the mass of our Sun and born in the last few million years. The region is also home to many baby stars that are buried deep in the dust, making them difficult to study. In total, the Cat's Paw Nebula could contain several tens of thousands of stars. Particularly striking is the red, intricate bubble in the lower right part of the image. This is most likely either a star expelling large amount of matter at high speed as it nears the end of its life or the remnant of a star that already has exploded. This new portrait of the Cat's Paw Nebula was created from images taken with the Wide Field

  18. Lasik eye surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000525.htm Lasik eye surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lasik eye surgery permanently changes the shape of the cornea ( ...

  19. Diabetic Eye Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... too high. Over time, this can damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It ... light-sensitive tissue at the back of your eye. You need a healthy retina to see clearly. ...

  20. Fluorescein eye stain

    MedlinePlus

    Abnormal results may point to: Abnormal tear production (dry eye) Blocked tear duct Corneal abrasion (a scratch on ... foreign object in ) Infection Injury or trauma Severe dry eye associated with arthritis (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)

  1. Eye Injuries at Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bureau of Labor Statistics, more than 20,000 workplace eye injuries happen each year. Injuries on the job often ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) reports that workplace eye injuries cost an estimated $300 million a year in ...

  2. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye nausea or vomiting after an eye injury Think Prevention! Kids who play sports should wear protective goggles or unbreakable glasses as needed. Keep chemicals and other potentially dangerous objects out of the reach of children. Reviewed by: ...

  3. Diabetic Eye Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... this can damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It is a leading cause ... surgery, with follow-up care. Two other eye problems can happen to people with diabetes. A cataract ...

  4. Eye muscle repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your child's eyes should look normal a few weeks after the surgery. ... Surgical Approach to the Rectus Muscles. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, ... Hug D, Plummer LS, Stass-Isern M. Disorders of eye movement and ...

  5. Anatomy of the Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Examinations, Adults Patient Eye Examinations, Children Refractive Errors Scientists in the Laboratory Visual Acuity Testing Anatomy of the Eye × Warning message Automatic fallback to the cURL connection method kicked in to handle the request. Result code ...

  6. Patient Eye Examinations - Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Examinations, Adults Patient Eye Examinations, Children Refractive Errors Scientists in the Laboratory Visual Acuity Testing Patient Eye Examinations, Adults × Warning message Automatic fallback to the cURL connection method kicked in to handle the request. Result code ...

  7. Eye muscle repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... and physical exam before the procedure Orthoptic measurements (eye movement measurements) Always tell your child's doctor or nurse: ... D, Plummer LS, Stass-Isern M. Disorders of eye movement and alignment. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson ...

  8. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and comfortable as possible until help arrives. continue Chemical Exposure Many chemicals, even those found around the house, can damage an eye. If your child gets a chemical in the eye and you know what it ...

  9. Diabetes - eye care

    MedlinePlus

    ... dilated eye exam. This is called digital retinal photography. Your eye doctor may ask you to come ... doctor if: You cannot see well in dim light. You have blind spots. You have double vision ( ...

  10. Diabetes and eye disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye that can lead to blindness Macular edema: blurry vision due to fluid leaking into the ... in your retina (neovascularization) or you develop macular edema, treatment is usually needed. Eye surgery is the ...

  11. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye (vitreous hemorrhage) Cancer of the retina ( retinoblastoma ), under the retina, or in other parts of ... Cataract removal Melanoma of the eye Retinal detachment Retinoblastoma Ultrasound Update Date 2/23/2015 Updated by: ...

  12. Toxoplasmosis (and the Eye)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of known infected babies. What happens to the eyes of babies born with congenital toxoplasmosis? The infection ... to further reduce the inflammation. Updated 03/2015 Eye Terms & Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia ...

  13. Sports and Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision ... More Information Optical Illusions Printables Sports and Your Eyes Gear up! If you play sports, you know ...

  14. Diabetes eye exams

    MedlinePlus

    ... are near. Sunlight can damage your eye. Wear dark glasses or shade your eyes until the effects ... to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein ...

  15. Anatomy of the Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... it becomes red or pink. This is called conjunctivitis or “pinkeye”. Lacrimal Gland: The lacrimal gland produces tears that ... Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) ...

  16. Eye - foreign object in

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002084.htm Eye - foreign object in To use the sharing features on this ... Blinking The eye will often flush out small objects, like eyelashes and sand, through blinking and tearing. ...

  17. Genetic testing in domestic cats

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    Varieties of genetic tests are currently available for the domestic cat that support veterinary health care, breed management, species identification, and forensic investigations. Approximately thirty-five genes contain over fifty mutations that cause feline health problems or alterations in the cat’s appearance. Specific genes, such as sweet and drug receptors, have been knocked-out of Felidae during evolution and can be used along with mtDNA markers for species identification. Both STR and SNP panels differentiate cat race, breed, and individual identity, as well as gender-specific markers to determine sex of an individual. Cat genetic tests are common offerings for commercial laboratories, allowing both the veterinary clinician and the private owner to obtain DNA test results. This article will review the genetic tests for the domestic cat, and their various applications in different fields of science. Highlighted are genetic tests specific to the individual cat, which are a part of the cat’s genome. PMID:22546621

  18. Dry Eye in Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Villani, Edoardo; Strologo, Marika Dello; Pichi, Francesco; Luccarelli, Saverio V.; De Cillà, Stefano; Serafino, Massimiliano; Nucci, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this comparative cross-sectional study was to investigate the use of standardized clinical tests for dry eye in pediatric patients with active and quiet vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) and to compare them with healthy children. We recruited 35 active VKC, 35 inactive VKC, and 70 age-matched control healthy subjects. Each child underwent a complete eye examination, including visual analog scale symptoms assessment, biomicroscopy, fluorescein break-up time (BUT), corneal fluorescein and conjunctival lissamine green staining, corneal esthesiometry, Schirmer test with anesthetic, and meibomian glands inspection and expression. Active VKC patients showed significantly increased symptoms and signs of ocular surface disease, compared with the other 2 groups. Inactive VKC patients, compared with control subjects, showed increased photophobia (P < 0.05; Mann-Whitney U test), conjunctival lissamine green staining and Schirmer test values, and reduced BUT and corneal sensitivity [P < 0.05 by analysis of variance (ANOVA) least significant difference posthoc test for BUT and Schirmer; P < 0.001 by Mann-Whitney U test for lissamine green staining and corneal sensitivity]. Our results confirm the association between VKC and short-BUT dry eye. This syndrome seems to affect the ocular surface in quiescent phases too, determining abnormalities in tear film stability, epithelial cells integrity, and corneal nerves function. The very long-term consequences of this perennial mechanism of ocular surface damage have not been fully understood yet. PMID:26496269

  19. Sjogren's syndrome: a rheumatic disorder with prominent respiratory manifestations.

    PubMed

    Bardana, E J; Montanaro, A

    1990-01-01

    Sjogren's syndrome is an autoimmune condition with extraordinary and unique involvement in the eyes and respiratory tract. These patients frequently present or are referred to an allergist for evaluation. Recognition of the syndrome is critical for effective management. PMID:2404432

  20. A neurophysiological determination of the vertical horopter in the cat and owl.

    PubMed

    Cooper, M L; Pettigrew, J D

    1979-03-01

    We have undertaken a determination of the vertical horopter in two species by simultaneously mapping the receptive field positions of binocular cortical neurons at various elevations along the zero azimuthal meridians. In the paralyzed cat our recordings show that the zero meridians of the two eyes are parallel and vertical under paralysis. Slit-pupil photographs demonstrate that paralysis induces an average net intorsin of 9 degrees between the two eyes. Correction back to the unparalyzed state results in the zero meridians themselves being out-torted with respect to each other. Since the two eyes' zero meridians define physiologically the positions of corresponding retinal points, this out-torsion results in a vertical horopter in the mid-sagittal plane which is tilted away from the alert, unparalyzed cat. The limited eye movements of the owl permit the use of an unparalyzed preparation; it is therefore possible to avoid the problem of the cyclotorsion under paralysis which occurs in the cat. The results of our physiological analysis in the burrowing owl (Speotyto cunicularia) also reveal a tilted horopter in this terrestrial avian species. PMID:762277

  1. Get Your Eyes Tested

    MedlinePlus

    ... over age 40 Have a family history of glaucoma Have diabetes People with diabetes may need eye exams more ... or if you have a family member with diabetes or an eye disease. Eye diseases like glaucoma can lead to vision loss and blindness if ...

  2. Dwarf Eye Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Johns Hopkins researchers at the Wilmer Eye Institute have discovered what appears to be the first human gene mutation that causes extreme farsightedness. The researchers report that nanophthalmos, Greek for "dwarf eye," is a rare, potentially blinding disorder caused by an alteration in a gene called MFRP that helps control eye growth and…

  3. Retrospective analysis of the Draize test for serious eye damage/eye irritation: importance of understanding the in vivo endpoints under UN GHS/EU CLP for the development and evaluation of in vitro test methods.

    PubMed

    Adriaens, Els; Barroso, João; Eskes, Chantra; Hoffmann, Sebastian; McNamee, Pauline; Alépée, Nathalie; Bessou-Touya, Sandrine; De Smedt, Ann; De Wever, Bart; Pfannenbecker, Uwe; Tailhardat, Magalie; Zuang, Valérie

    2014-03-01

    For more than two decades, scientists have been trying to replace the regulatory in vivo Draize eye test by in vitro methods, but so far only partial replacement has been achieved. In order to better understand the reasons for this, historical in vivo rabbit data were analysed in detail and resampled with the purpose of (1) revealing which of the in vivo endpoints are most important in driving United Nations Globally Harmonized System/European Union Regulation on Classification, Labelling and Packaging (UN GHS/EU CLP) classification for serious eye damage/eye irritation and (2) evaluating the method's within-test variability for proposing acceptable and justifiable target values of sensitivity and specificity for alternative methods and their combinations in testing strategies. Among the Cat 1 chemicals evaluated, 36-65 % (depending on the database) were classified based only on persistence of effects, with the remaining being classified mostly based on severe corneal effects. Iritis was found to rarely drive the classification (<4 % of both Cat 1 and Cat 2 chemicals). The two most important endpoints driving Cat 2 classification are conjunctiva redness (75-81 %) and corneal opacity (54-75 %). The resampling analyses demonstrated an overall probability of at least 11 % that chemicals classified as Cat 1 by the Draize eye test could be equally identified as Cat 2 and of about 12 % for Cat 2 chemicals to be equally identified as No Cat. On the other hand, the over-classification error for No Cat and Cat 2 was negligible (<1 %), which strongly suggests a high over-predictive power of the Draize eye test. Moreover, our analyses of the classification drivers suggest a critical revision of the UN GHS/EU CLP decision criteria for the classification of chemicals based on Draize eye test data, in particular Cat 1 based only on persistence of conjunctiva effects or corneal opacity scores of 4. In order to successfully replace the regulatory in vivo Draize eye test, it will

  4. Spatial Stream Segregation by Cats.

    PubMed

    Javier, Lauren K; McGuire, Elizabeth A; Middlebrooks, John C

    2016-06-01

    Listeners can perceive interleaved sequences of sounds from two or more sources as segregated streams. In humans, physical separation of sound sources is a major factor enabling such stream segregation. Here, we examine spatial stream segregation with a psychophysical measure in domestic cats. Cats depressed a pedal to initiate a target sequence of brief sound bursts in a particular rhythm and then released the pedal when the rhythm changed. The target bursts were interleaved with a competing sequence of bursts that could differ in source location but otherwise were identical to the target bursts. This task was possible only when the sources were heard as segregated streams. When the sound bursts had broad spectra, cats could detect the rhythm change when target and competing sources were separated by as little as 9.4°. Essentially equal levels of performance were observed when frequencies were restricted to a high, 4-to-25-kHz, band in which the principal spatial cues presumably were related to sound levels. When the stimulus band was restricted from 0.4 to 1.6 kHz, leaving interaural time differences as the principal spatial cue, performance was severely degraded. The frequency sensitivity of cats in this task contrasts with that of humans, who show better spatial stream segregation with low- than with high-frequency sounds. Possible explanations for the species difference includes the smaller interaural delays available to cats due to smaller sizes of their heads and the potentially greater sound-level cues available due to the cat's frontally directed pinnae and higher audible frequency range. PMID:26993807

  5. Scanning mid-IR laser apparatus with eye tracking for refractive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telfair, William B.; Yoder, Paul R., Jr.; Bekker, Carsten; Hoffman, Hanna J.; Jensen, Eric F.

    1999-06-01

    A robust, real-time, dynamic eye tracker has been integrated with the short pulse mid-infrared laser scanning delivery system previously described. This system employs a Q- switched Nd:YAG laser pumped optical parametric oscillator operating at 2.94 micrometers. Previous ablation studies on human cadaver eyes and in-vivo cat eyes demonstrated very smooth ablations with extremely low damage levels similar to results with an excimer. A 4-month healing study with cats indicated no adverse healing effects. In order to treat human eyes, the tracker is required because the eyes move during the procedure due to both voluntary and involuntary motions such as breathing, heartbeat, drift, loss of fixation, saccades and microsaccades. Eye tracking techniques from the literature were compared. A limbus tracking system was best for this application. Temporal and spectral filtering techniques were implemented to reduce tracking errors, reject stray light, and increase signal to noise ratio. The expanded-capability system (IRVision AccuScan 2000 Laser System) has been tested in the lab on simulated eye targets, glass eyes, cadaver eyes, and live human subjects. Circular targets ranging from 10-mm to 14-mm diameter were successfully tracked. The tracker performed beyond expectations while the system performed myopic photorefractive keratectomy procedures on several legally blind human subjects.

  6. Treatment of chronic dry eye: focus on cyclosporine

    PubMed Central

    Kymionis, George D; Bouzoukis, Dimitrios I; Diakonis, Vassilios F; Siganos, Charalambos

    2008-01-01

    To review the current treatment of chronic dry eye syndrome, focusing on cyclosporine A (CsA), a systematic literature search was performed using PubMed databases in two steps. The first step was oriented to articles published for dry eye. The second step was focused on the use of CsA in dry eye. A manual literature search was also undertaken based on citations in the published articles. The knowledge on the pathogenesis of dry eye syndrome has changed dramatically during the last few years. Inflammation and the interruption of the inflammatory cascade seem to be the main focus of the ophthalmologic community in the treatment of dry eye, giving the anti-inflammatory therapy a new critical role. The infiltration of T-cells in the conjuctiva tissue and the presence of cytokines and proteasis in the tear fluid were the main reason introducing the use of immunomodulator agents such as corticosteroids, cyclosporine, and doxycicline in order to treat dry eye syndrome. CsA emulsion is approved by the FDA for the treatment of dry eye, while clinical trials of this agent have demonstrated efficacy and safety of CsA. CsA seems to be a promising treatment against dry eye disease. New agents focused on the inflammatory pathogenesis of this syndrome in combination with CsA may be the future in the quest of treating dry eye. More studies are needed to determine the efficacy, safety, timing, and relative cost/effect of CsA. PMID:19668437

  7. Aging: A Predisposition to Dry Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Hindman, Holly B.

    2014-01-01

    Dry eye syndrome is a disease of the ocular surface and tear film that is prevalent in older adults. Even though the degree of visual acuity loss in dry eye patients is commonly mild-to-moderate, in the aging population, this minimal change in visual status can lead to a significant decrease in visual function and quality of life. A healthy ocular surface is maintained by appropriate tear production and tear drainage, and deficiencies in this delicate balance can lead to dryness. In the aging eye, risk factors such as polypharmacy, androgen deficiency, decreased blink rates, and oxidative stress can predispose the patient to developing dry eye that is frequently more severe, has higher economic costs, and leads to worse consequences to the well-being of the patient. Understanding why elderly patients are at higher risk for developing dry eyes can provide insights into the diagnosis and management of the growing number of older adults struggling with dry eye and minimize the burden of disease on our aging population. PMID:25197560

  8. The paradox of Schrodinger's cat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villars, C. N.

    1986-07-01

    Erwin Schrodinger first described the thought-experiment which has since become known as 'the paradox of Schrodinger's cat' 51 years ago. In recent years, popular accounts of quantum mechanics have tended to adopt one or other of the philosophically most extreme solutions to this paradox, i.e. the consciousness hypothesis or the many worlds interpretation. The author attempts to redress the balance by describing what he takes to be the orthodox solution to the paradox which explains the paradox, without recourse to such counterintuitive notions as a cat simultaneously dead and alive or a universe continually splitting into multiple worlds, as being due to a misapplication of the quantum formalism.

  9. Unusual hyperparathyroidism in a cat.

    PubMed

    Gnudi, G; Bertoni, G; Luppi, A; Cantoni, A M

    2001-01-01

    A 5 month-old, male, domestic short hair cat was presented with inappetence and vomiting. it was depressed and reluctant to move. The cat had difficulties in keeping the standing position and grossly deformed thighs. Lytic changes and disruption of normal architecture of the bone were observed, involving mainly the femoral diaphyses. An inverse Ca/P ratio and kidney failure were diagnosed. The possibility of whether the bone changes could have been related to primary or secondary renal hyperparathyroidism is discussed. PMID:11405269

  10. [Measurement of electrooculogram in the cat].

    PubMed

    Sakai, H; Mitsui, Y

    1995-06-01

    In humans, the light peak/dark trough ratio (L/D ratio or Arden ratio) of the electrooculogram (EOG) is conventionally used as an index to estimate the function of the retinal pigment epithelium, but it is rarely in animals. We obtained stable EOG recording in the cat under general anesthesia during light and dark adaptations by applying mechanical forced duction of approximately 3.0 mm in width to one eye of an animal. In five animals, voltages of the dark baseline, the light peak, and dark trough were 580-1,800 (mean, 1,312 microV), 825-2,660 microV (mean, 1,881 microV) and 415-1,480 microV (mean, 1,030 microV), respectively. The L/D ratio in the five animals was 1.70-1.99 (mean, 1.83), similar to that in humans. The present results suggest that the EOG recording by forced duction in experimental animals can be developed into another method to evaluate the retinal pigment epithelial function, particularly to evaluate its potential disorder induced by fluoroquinolones. PMID:7611001

  11. Clinical characteristics of CHARGE syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ahn, B S; Oh, S Y

    1998-12-01

    CHARGE syndrome, first described by Pagon, was named for its six major clinical features. They are: coloboma of the eye, heart defects, atresia of the choanae, retarded growth and development including CNS anomalies, genital hypoplasia and/or urinary tract anomalies, and ear anomalies and/or hearing loss. We experienced three cases of CHARGE syndrome who displayed ocular coloboma, heart defects, retarded growth and development, and external ear anomalies, and we also review the previously reported literature concerning CHARGE syndrome. PMID:10188375

  12. Toxoplasmosis: An Important Message for Cat Owners

    MedlinePlus

    ... a s t is O : wAnneIrmsportant What role do cats play in the spread of toxoplasmosis? Cats get Toxoplasma infection by eating infected rodents, birds ... animals, or anything contaminated with feces from another cat that is shedding the microscopic parasite in its ...

  13. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  14. Evidence for a distinct region causing a cat-like cry in patients with 5p deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Gersh, M.; Goodart, S.A.; Overhauser, J.

    1995-06-01

    The cri-du-chat syndrome is a contiguous gene syndrome that results from a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p). Patients present with a cat-like cry at birth, which is usually considered diagnostic of this syndrome. Additional features of the syndrome include failure to thrive, microcephaly, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, hypotonia, and severe mental retardation. We report on four families in which patients with 5p deletions have only the characteristic cat-like cry, with normal to mildly delayed development. The precise locations of the deletions in each family were determined by FISH using lambda phage and cosmic clones. All of the deletion breakpoints map distal to a chromosomal region that is implicated with the facial features and severe mental and developmental delay in the cri-du-chat syndrome. DNA clones mapping in the chromosomal region associated with the cat-like cry feature will be useful diagnostic tools. They will allow for the distinction between 5p deletions that will result in the severe delay observed in most cri-du-chat syndrome patients and those deletions that result in the isolated cat-like cry feature, which is associated with a better prognosis. 19 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. A strange cat in Dublin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac

    2012-11-01

    Not many life stories in physics involve Nazis, illicit sex, a strange cat and the genetic code. Thus, a new biography of the great Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger is always of interest, and with Erwin Schrödinger and the Quantum Revolution, veteran science writer John Gribbin does not disappoint.

  16. Lessons from the Cheshire Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinberg, Donna

    2012-01-01

    "If you don't know where you're going, any road will take you there." This oft-cited but not-quite-accurate quote is from the Lewis Carroll's classic children's tale, Alice in Wonderland. In Carroll's altered reality, the conversation between the disoriented Alice and the mysterious Cheshire Cat actually went like this: "Would you tell me, please,…

  17. Chyloabdomen in a mature cat.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, K L

    2001-01-01

    A mature, castrated male cat presented with progressive lethargy and a severely distended abdomen. Abdominal radiographs, abdominocentesis, and evaluation of the fluid obtained led to a diagnosis of chyloabdomen. The underlying pathology, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment associated with this disease are discussed. PMID:11360862

  18. Assessing CAT Test Security Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Qing; Zhang, Jinming; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2006-01-01

    In addition to its precision superiority over nonadaptive tests, another known advantage of computerized adaptive tests (CATs) is that they can be offered on a continuous basis. This is advantageous to examinees in terms of flexibility of test scheduling, as well as advantageous to schools and other testing centers in terms of both space and…

  19. CATS Data and Information Page

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-10-05

    ... of atmospheric aerosols and clouds from the International Space Station (ISS).   CATS will provide vertical profiles at three ... with nearly a three-day repeat cycle.  For the first time, it will allow scientist to study diurnal (day-to-night) changes in cloud ...

  20. A CAT scan for cells

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a team of scientists from Berkeley Lab, Stanford University, and the University of California, San Francisco used Berkeley Lab's National Center for X-ray Tomography to capture the changes that occur when Candida albicans is exposed to a new and promising antifungal therapy. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2009/12/10/cat-scan-cells/

  1. Anterior eye development and ocular mesenchyme

    PubMed Central

    Cvekl, Aleš; Tamm, Ernst R.

    2007-01-01

    Summary During development of the anterior eye segment, cells that originate from the surface epithelium or the neuroepithelium need to interact with mesenchymal cells, which predominantly originate from the neural crest. Failures of proper interaction result in a complex of developmental disorders such Peters’ anomaly, Axenfeld-Rieger’s syndrome or aniridia. Here we review the role of transcription factors that have been identified to be involved in the coordination of anterior eye development. Among these factors is PAX6, which is active in both epithelial and mesenchymal cells during ocular development, albeit at different doses and times. We propose that PAX6 is a key element that synchronizes the complex interaction of cell types of different origin, which are all needed for proper morphogenesis of the anterior eye. We discuss several molecular mechanisms that might explain the effects of haploinsufficiency of PAX6 and other transcription factors, and the broad variation of the resulting phenotypes. PMID:15057935

  2. Four-Month-Old Infants' Visual Investigation of Cats and Dogs: Relations with Pet Experience and Attentional Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovack-Lesh, Kristine A.; McMurray, Bob; Oakes, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the eye-movements of 4-month-old infants (N = 38) as they visually inspected pairs of images of cats or dogs. In general, infants who had previous experience with pets exhibited more sophisticated inspection than did infants without pet experience, both directing more visual attention to the informative head regions of the animals,…

  3. Strabismus genetics across a spectrum of eye misalignment disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ye, XC; Pegado, V; Patel, MS; Wasserman, WW

    2014-01-01

    Eye misalignment, called strabismus, is amongst the most common phenotypes observed, occurring in up to 5% of individuals in a studied population. While misalignment is frequently observed in rare complex syndromes, the majority of strabismus cases are non-syndromic. Over the past decade, genes and pathways associated with syndromic forms of strabismus have emerged, but the genes contributing to non-syndromic strabismus remain elusive. Genetic testing for strabismus risk may allow for earlier diagnosis and treatment, as well as decreased frequency of surgery. We review human and model organism literature describing non-syndromic strabismus, including family, twin, linkage, and gene expression studies. Recent advances in the genetics of Duane retraction syndrome are considered, as relatives of those impacted show elevated familial rates of non-syndromic strabismus. As whole genome sequencing efforts are advancing for the discovery of the elusive strabismus genes, this overview is intended to support the interpretation of the new findings. PMID:24579652

  4. Sjogren's Syndrome Information Page

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is the prognosis? Sjögren's syndrome can damage vital organs of the body with symptoms that may remain stable, worsen, or go into remission. Some people may experience only the mild symptoms of dry eyes and mouth, while others go through cycles of good health followed by severe disease. Many ...

  5. Kenny-Caffe syndrome.

    PubMed

    Churesigaew, S

    1994-10-01

    Kenny-Caffe Syndrome is rarely found. From 1966-1993 only 22 cases were reported worldwide. The author presented a case of Kenny-Caffe Syndrome who showed typical findings, i.e. short stature, small slender long bones with medullary stenosis, thickened cortex of the long bones, hypocalcemia with tetany at 1 month of age, hyperphosphatemia, hyperopia of both eyes and normal IQ. A review of the literature summarizing the clinical and laboratory findings of this syndrome is also presented. PMID:7745379

  6. Gaze shifts and fixations dominate gaze behavior of walking cats

    PubMed Central

    Rivers, Trevor J.; Sirota, Mikhail G.; Guttentag, Andrew I.; Ogorodnikov, Dmitri A.; Shah, Neet A.; Beloozerova, Irina N.

    2014-01-01

    Vision is important for locomotion in complex environments. How it is used to guide stepping is not well understood. We used an eye search coil technique combined with an active marker-based head recording system to characterize the gaze patterns of cats walking over terrains of different complexity: (1) on a flat surface in the dark when no visual information was available, (2) on the flat surface in light when visual information was available but not required, (3) along the highly structured but regular and familiar surface of a horizontal ladder, a task for which visual guidance of stepping was required, and (4) along a pathway cluttered with many small stones, an irregularly structured surface that was new each day. Three cats walked in a 2.5 m corridor, and 958 passages were analyzed. Gaze activity during the time when the gaze was directed at the walking surface was subdivided into four behaviors based on speed of gaze movement along the surface: gaze shift (fast movement), gaze fixation (no movement), constant gaze (movement at the body’s speed), and slow gaze (the remainder). We found that gaze shifts and fixations dominated the cats’ gaze behavior during all locomotor tasks, jointly occupying 62–84% of the time when the gaze was directed at the surface. As visual complexity of the surface and demand on visual guidance of stepping increased, cats spent more time looking at the surface, looked closer to them, and switched between gaze behaviors more often. During both visually guided locomotor tasks, gaze behaviors predominantly followed a repeated cycle of forward gaze shift followed by fixation. We call this behavior “gaze stepping”. Each gaze shift took gaze to a site approximately 75–80 cm in front of the cat, which the cat reached in 0.7–1.2 s and 1.1–1.6 strides. Constant gaze occupied only 5–21% of the time cats spent looking at the walking surface. PMID:24973656

  7. Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-06-30

    The parallel analysis toolkit (ParCAT) provides parallel statistical processing of large climate model simulation datasets. ParCAT provides parallel point-wise average calculations, frequency distributions, sum/differences of two datasets, and difference-of-average and average-of-difference for two datasets for arbitrary subsets of simulation time. ParCAT is a command-line utility that can be easily integrated in scripts or embedded in other application. ParCAT supports CMIP5 post-processed datasets as well as non-CMIP5 post-processed datasets. ParCAT reads and writes standard netCDF files.

  8. Feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus infections in a cat with lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Shelton, G H; McKim, K D; Cooley, P L; Dice, P F; Russell, R G; Grant, C K

    1989-01-15

    Lymphoma was diagnosed in a 7-year-old domestic cat found to be infected with FeLV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). The cat was affected by chronic disorders suggestive of immunosuppression, including gingivitis, periodontitis, keratitis, and abscesses. Despite treatment, peripheral keratitis of the left eye progressed, resulting in uveitis, chronic glaucoma, and eventual corneal rupture. Microscopic retinal and optic disk pathologic processes also were suspected. Abnormal jaw movements that were believed to be indicative of neurologic disease were observed. Approximately 17 months later, the cat developed generalized lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and bilateral renomegaly. Lymphoblastic lymphoma and glomerulonephritis were diagnosed histologically. Manganese- and magnesium-dependent reverse transcriptase activity were detected in supernatants from lymph node and spleen mononuclear cell cultures, suggesting T-lymphocyte infection with FeLV and FIV. PMID:2537274

  9. Prevention of Eye Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Pashby, Tom

    1981-01-01

    In Canada 30,000 people are registered as blind; in one third of these, blindness might have been avoided. Prevention is the key to reducing the number of eye injuries and blind eyes. The role of the family physician in early identification of treatable conditions and in the education of patients is discussed, but responsibility for prevention belongs to all physicians. The success of prevention is seen in the great reduction in eye injuries in industry and sports since eye protectors have been commonly used. However, many dangers to the eyes are either not recognized or are not taken seriously enough. This paper discusses some of the common causes of serious eye injuries in the home, in sports and in industry. Imagesp464-aFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:21289691

  10. Evaluation of the electroencephalogram in young cats

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Melissa J.; Williams, D. Colette; Vite, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterize the electroencephalogram (EEG) in young cats. Animals 23 clinically normal cats. Procedures Cats were sedated with medetomidine hydrochloride and butorphanol tartrate at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks of age and an EEG was recorded. Recordings were visually inspected for electrical continuity, interhemispheric synchrony, amplitude and frequency of background electrical activity, and frequency of transient activity. Computer-aided analysis was used to perform frequency spectral analysis and to calculate absolute and relative power of the background activity at each age. Results Electrical continuity was evident in cats ≥ 4 weeks old, and interhemispheric synchrony was evident in cats at all ages evaluated. Analysis of amplitude of background activity and absolute power revealed significant elevations in 6-week-old cats, compared with results for 2-, 20-, and 24-week-old cats. No association between age and relative power or frequency was identified. Transient activity, consisting of sleep spindles and K complexes, was evident at all ages, but spike and spike or wave discharges were observed in cats at 2 weeks of age. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Medetomidine and butorphanol were administered in accordance with a sedation protocol that allowed investigators to repeatedly obtain EEG data from cats. Age was an important consideration when interpreting EEG data. These data on EEG development in clinically normal cats may be used for comparison in future studies conducted to examine EEGs in young cats with diseases that affect the cerebral cortex. PMID:21355743

  11. Dry Eye in Pediatric Contact Lens Wearers

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Katie L.; Walline, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether children who wear contact lenses truly have fewer dry eye complaints than adults. Methods Ninety-four pediatric contact lens wearers, ages 8 to 14 years, were recruited and given the Contact Lens Dry Eye Questionnaire (CLDEQ) short form. The survey is designed to diagnose dry eye syndrome by obtaining information on the frequency of dryness and light sensitivity and their corresponding intensity levels within the first two hours of putting in the lenses, in the middle of the day, and at the end of the day. The responses were scored by multiplying the frequency by the average intensity and a constant. A composite score was calculated by subtracting the photophobia score from the dryness score, and the results were compared to adult samples from the literature. The questionnaire also asked whether the subject thought he/she had dry eyes while wearing contact lenses. Subjects that thought they had dry eyes and had a CLDEQ composite score >0.03 were diagnosed with dry eye. Subjects who were unsure if they dry eye or said they did not have dry eye but scored >1.29 were also diagnosed with dry eye. Results The average (± SD) age of the sample was 11.7 ± 1.5 years, 56.4% were female, 59.6% were white, and 19.1% were black. The mean (± SD) CLDEQ composite score was 0.25 ±0.50 (range= -1.20 to 1.45). In the literature, the adult mean (± SD) CLDEQ composite score was 1.02 ±0.80 (range= -0.74 to 4.50). Of the 94 surveys collected, 4.3% of children were categorized with dry eye compared to 56.2% of adults who completed the CLDEQ survey in the adult study. Conclusions Pediatric contact lens wearers have fewer complaints about dry eyes than adult contact lens wearers, which may be due to improved tear film, differences in reporting of symptoms, or modality of contact lens wear. PMID:21060258

  12. Intervertebral disc extrusion in six cats.

    PubMed

    Knipe, M F; Vernau, K M; Hornof, W J; LeCouteur, R A

    2001-09-01

    Existing reports concerning intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) have focused almost exclusively on dogs, although a small number of individual case reports of IVDD of cats has been published. The medical records of six cats with IVDD were reviewed. Radiographic studies confirmed narrowed intervertebral disc spaces, mineralised intervertebral discs, and one or more extradural compressive lesions of the spinal cord in each cat. All disc extrusions were located in the thoracolumbar region. Surgical decompression of the spinal cord was achieved in all cats by means of hemilaminectomy and removal of compressive extradural material confirmed to be degenerative disc material. Good to excellent neurological recovery was noted in five of the six cats included in this report. Based on this review, it appears that IVDD of cats has many similarities to IVDD of dogs, and that healthy cats with acute intervertebral disc extrusion(s) respond favourably to surgical decompression of the spinal cord. PMID:11876633

  13. Duane Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... the other eye • Upshoot or downshoot-with certain eye movements, the eye may occasionally deviate upward or downward ... of the abnormal nerves, surgery cannot restore normal eye movement. However, surgery can (and usually does) substantially improve ...

  14. Brown Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... be needed for optimal management. updated 03/2015 Eye Terms & Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy ...

  15. Sturge-Weber syndrome.

    PubMed

    Comi, Anne M

    2015-01-01

    Sturge-Weber syndrome is the third most common neurocutaneous disorder, after neurofibromatosis and tuberous sclerosis, and impacts approximately 1 in 20000 live births. Sturge-Weber syndrome is not inherited, but rather occurs exclusively sporadically, in both males and females and in all races and ethnic backgrounds. Sturge-Weber syndrome presents at birth with a capillary malformation on the face (port-wine birthmark) with later diagnosis of abnormal vasculature in the eye and the brain which result in a range of complications. The underlying somatic mosaic mutation causing both Sturge-Weber syndrome and isolated port-wine birthmarks was recently discovered and is an activating mutation in GNAQ. When a newborn presents with a facial port-wine birthmark on the upper face, that child has a 15-50% risk of developing Sturge-Weber syndrome brain and/or eye involvement, depending on the extent of the birthmark, and close monitoring and appropriate screening is essential for early diagnosis and optimal treatment. Treatment options include laser therapy for lightening of the birthmark, eye drops and surgery for glaucoma management, and aggressive anticonvulsant treatment, low dose aspirin, and neurosurgery where necessary. Future possible treatments based upon new knowledge of the somatic mutation and downstream pathways are currently being considered and studied. PMID:26564078

  16. Hemorrhagic Occlusive Retinal Vasculitis After First Eye Cataract Surgery Without Subsequent Second Eye Involvement.

    PubMed

    Balducci, Nicole; Savini, Giacomo; Barboni, Piero; Ducoli, Pietro; Ciardella, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    A case of monocular postoperative hemorrhagic occlusive retinal vasculitis (HORV) after uncomplicated bilateral cataract surgery is described. HORV is a severe syndrome that leads to painless visual loss after uncomplicated cataract surgery. The same surgical procedure was adopted in both eyes except for the use of intracameral vancomycin, which was injected only in the eye that developed HORV. Diffuse retinal ischemia with vascular sheathing and intraretinal hemorrhages were detected during the fourth postoperative day. Despite treatment, the patient developed severe neovascular glaucoma. This case supports the causative role of vancomycin in the pathogenesis of HORV and suggests avoiding it for chemoprophylaxis. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:764-766.]. PMID:27548454

  17. The Fecal Microbiome in Cats with Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Suchodolski, Jan S.; Foster, Mary L.; Sohail, Muhammad U.; Leutenegger, Christian; Queen, Erica V.; Steiner, Jörg M.; Marks, Stanley L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21) and cats with acute (n = 19) or chronic diarrhea (n = 29) and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration), while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001) altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or therapeutic

  18. Concurrent somatotroph and plurihormonal pituitary adenomas in a cat.

    PubMed

    Sharman, Mellora; FitzGerald, Louise; Kiupel, Matti

    2013-10-01

    An 8-year-old, male neutered, domestic longhair cat was referred for investigation of insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus. Routine haematology, serum biochemistry, urinalysis (including culture), total T4 and urine creatinine:cortisol ratio were unremarkable, but markedly increased insulin-like growth factor-1 concentration was identified and a pituitary mass was subsequently documented. The cat was treated conservatively with the dopamine agonist L-deprenyl and was re-presented 16 months later for worsening polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, marked lumbar muscle atrophy, development of a pendulous abdomen and marked thinning of the abdominal skin. Hyperadrenocorticism was diagnosed based on abdominal ultrasonography, dexamethasone suppression testing and endogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The cat was treated with trilostane (30 mg q24h PO) and showed some clinical improvement, but developed an opportunistic fungal infection and skin fragility syndrome 4.5 months after commencing treatment, and was euthanased. A double-pituitary adenoma comprising a discrete somatotroph adenoma and a separate plurihormonal adenoma (positive immunoreactivity for ACTH, melanocyte-stimulating hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone) was identified on post-mortem examination. These two pituitary adenomas were suspected to have arisen as independent neoplastic entities with the plurihormonal tumour either being clinically silent at the initial presentation or having developed over the subsequent 16 months. PMID:23553410

  19. Comparative analysis of the domestic cat genome reveals genetic signatures underlying feline biology and domestication.

    PubMed

    Montague, Michael J; Li, Gang; Gandolfi, Barbara; Khan, Razib; Aken, Bronwen L; Searle, Steven M J; Minx, Patrick; Hillier, LaDeana W; Koboldt, Daniel C; Davis, Brian W; Driscoll, Carlos A; Barr, Christina S; Blackistone, Kevin; Quilez, Javier; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Alkan, Can; Thomas, Gregg W C; Hahn, Matthew W; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; O'Brien, Stephen J; Wilson, Richard K; Lyons, Leslie A; Murphy, William J; Warren, Wesley C

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the genetic changes that distinguish domestic cat populations from their wild progenitors. Here we describe a high-quality domestic cat reference genome assembly and comparative inferences made with other cat breeds, wildcats, and other mammals. Based upon these comparisons, we identified positively selected genes enriched for genes involved in lipid metabolism that underpin adaptations to a hypercarnivorous diet. We also found positive selection signals within genes underlying sensory processes, especially those affecting vision and hearing in the carnivore lineage. We observed an evolutionary tradeoff between functional olfactory and vomeronasal receptor gene repertoires in the cat and dog genomes, with an expansion of the feline chemosensory system for detecting pheromones at the expense of odorant detection. Genomic regions harboring signatures of natural selection that distinguish domestic cats from their wild congeners are enriched in neural crest-related genes associated with behavior and reward in mouse models, as predicted by the domestication syndrome hypothesis. Our description of a previously unidentified allele for the gloving pigmentation pattern found in the Birman breed supports the hypothesis that cat breeds experienced strong selection on specific mutations drawn from random bred populations. Collectively, these findings provide insight into how the process of domestication altered the ancestral wildcat genome and build a resource for future disease mapping and phylogenomic studies across all members of the Felidae. PMID:25385592

  20. Comparative analysis of the domestic cat genome reveals genetic signatures underlying feline biology and domestication

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Gandolfi, Barbara; Khan, Razib; Aken, Bronwen L.; Searle, Steven M. J.; Minx, Patrick; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Davis, Brian W.; Driscoll, Carlos A.; Barr, Christina S.; Blackistone, Kevin; Quilez, Javier; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Alkan, Can; Thomas, Gregg W. C.; Hahn, Matthew W.; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Wilson, Richard K.; Lyons, Leslie A.; Murphy, William J.; Warren, Wesley C.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the genetic changes that distinguish domestic cat populations from their wild progenitors. Here we describe a high-quality domestic cat reference genome assembly and comparative inferences made with other cat breeds, wildcats, and other mammals. Based upon these comparisons, we identified positively selected genes enriched for genes involved in lipid metabolism that underpin adaptations to a hypercarnivorous diet. We also found positive selection signals within genes underlying sensory processes, especially those affecting vision and hearing in the carnivore lineage. We observed an evolutionary tradeoff between functional olfactory and vomeronasal receptor gene repertoires in the cat and dog genomes, with an expansion of the feline chemosensory system for detecting pheromones at the expense of odorant detection. Genomic regions harboring signatures of natural selection that distinguish domestic cats from their wild congeners are enriched in neural crest-related genes associated with behavior and reward in mouse models, as predicted by the domestication syndrome hypothesis. Our description of a previously unidentified allele for the gloving pigmentation pattern found in the Birman breed supports the hypothesis that cat breeds experienced strong selection on specific mutations drawn from random bred populations. Collectively, these findings provide insight into how the process of domestication altered the ancestral wildcat genome and build a resource for future disease mapping and phylogenomic studies across all members of the Felidae. PMID:25385592

  1. A tortoiseshell male cat: chromosome analysis and histologic examination of the testis.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, A S; Berg, L C; Almstrup, K; Thomsen, P D

    2014-01-01

    Tortoiseshell coat color is normally restricted to female cats due to X-linkage of the gene that encodes the orange coat color. Tortoiseshell male cats do, however, occur at a low frequency among tortoiseshell cats because of chromosome aberrations similar to the Klinefelter syndrome in man: the extra X chromosome of a 39,XXY karyotype introduces the possibility of an orange and a non-orange allele which produce the mixture of orange and non-orange coat spotting known as tortoiseshell. We analyzed the chromosome complement of a fibroblast culture and did histological examinations of testicular tissue from a tortoiseshell male cat referred to us. Chromosome analysis using RBA-banding consistently revealed a 39,XXY karyotype. Histological examinations of testis biopsies from this cat showed degeneration of the tubules, hyperplasia of the interstitial tissue, and complete loss of germ cells. Immunostaining using anti-vimentin and anti-VASA (DDX4) showed that only Sertoli cells and no germ cells were observed in the testicular tubules. As no sign of spermatogenesis was detected, we conclude that this is a classic case of a sterile, male tortoiseshell cat with a 39,XXY chromosome complement. PMID:24335095

  2. Current Approach to Dry Eye Disease.

    PubMed

    Valim, Valéria; Trevisani, Virginia Fernandes Moça; de Sousa, Jacqueline Martins; Vilela, Verônica Silva; Belfort, Rubens

    2015-12-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that causes tear film instability with potential damage to the ocular surface. The prevalence of dry eye in the world population ranges from 6 to 34 %. It is more common in those aged over 50, and affects mainly women. Since the introduction of the Schirmer's test in 1903, other tests have been developed to evaluate dry eye, such as biomicroscopy, the tear film breakup time (BUT), vital dyes (lissamine green and rose bengal), fluorescein, leaf fern test, corneal sensitivity test, conjunctiva impression cytology, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and tear osmolarity measurement. Although there is no gold standard, it is advisable to combine at least two tests. Strategies for treating DED have recently been modified and include patient education, tear substitute, corticosteroids, secretagogues, fatty acids, immunomodulators, occlusion of lacrimal puncta surgery and, tarsorrhaphy. Biological therapy and new topical immunomodulators such as tacrolimus, tofacitinib and IL-1 receptor inhibitor are being tested. In this review, the evaluation tests for dry eye are compared and the main studies on treatment are presented, with emphasis on studies in patients with Sjögren's syndrome. The authors propose an approach for the management of dry eye. PMID:25081064

  3. Differences between vocalization evoked by social stimuli in feral cats and house cats.

    PubMed

    Yeon, Seong C; Kim, Young K; Park, Se J; Lee, Scott S; Lee, Seung Y; Suh, Euy H; Houpt, Katherine A; Chang, Hong H; Lee, Hee C; Yang, Byung G; Lee, Hyo J

    2011-06-01

    To investigate how socialization can affect the types and characteristics of vocalization produced by cats, feral cats (n=25) and house cats (n=13) were used as subjects, allowing a comparison between cats socialized to people and non-socialized cats. To record vocalization and assess the cats' responses to behavioural stimuli, five test situations were used: approach by a familiar caretaker, by a threatening stranger, by a large doll, by a stranger with a dog and by a stranger with a cat. Feral cats showed extremely aggressive and defensive behaviour in most test situations, and produced higher call rates than those of house cats in the test situations, which could be attributed to less socialization to other animals and to more sensitivity to fearful situations. Differences were observed in the acoustic parameters of feral cats in comparison to those of house cats. The feral cat produced significantly higher frequency in fundamental frequency, peak frequency, 1st quartile frequency, 3rd quartile frequency of growls and hisses in agonistic test situations. In contrast to the growls and hisses, in meow, all acoustic parameters like fundamental frequency, first formant, peak frequency, 1st quartile frequency, and 3rd quartile frequency of house cats were of significantly higher frequency than those of feral cats. Also, house cats produced calls of significantly shorter in duration than feral cats in agonistic test situations. These results support the conclusion that a lack of socialization may affect usage of types of vocalizations, and the vocal characteristics, so that the proper socialization of cat may be essential to be a suitable companion house cat. PMID:21443933

  4. Experimental cochlear hydrops in cats.

    PubMed

    Eby, T L

    1986-11-01

    An experimental model of cochlear hydrops was created in cats. Ten cats underwent surgical procedures to obliterate the saccule, and their temporal bones were studied by light microscopy after sacrifice at 10 weeks. In one group the saccules were destroyed by maceration and aspiration. However, in these ears the saccular lumens were not obliterated and endolymphatic hydrops did not develop. Obliteration of the saccules was achieved in the second group after fascia was introduced into the area of the injured saccules. Cochlear endolymphatic hydrops was a consistent finding in these ears except when a fistula of the membranous labyrinth was present. However, in addition to fibrosis and new bone formation in the vestibules there were also degenerative changes in the hair cells, tectorial membranes, and striae vasculares of these cochleae. The results supported the longitudinal flow theory of endolymph and are consistent with the reported examples of cochlear endolymphatic hydrops in man. PMID:3812642

  5. Eosinophilic leukaemia in a cat.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Hassan; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi; Esmaelli, Hossein; Khoshnegah, Javad

    2007-12-01

    A 14-year-old female domestic shorthair cat was presented to Tehran University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for a persistent fever, anorexia, intermittent vomiting, weight loss and weakness. The main clinical signs were pale mucous membranes, dehydration and splenomegaly. The complete blood count and serum biochemistry tests revealed non-regenerative anaemia, thrombocytopenia and increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test for feline leukaemia virus was negative. Blood film and bone marrow examination revealed a large number of immature eosinophils with variable sizes and numbers of faintly azurophilic granules. Cytochemical staining of blood film demonstrated 70% positive cells for ALP activity. Four percent CD34 positive cells were detected by flow cytometry. As eosinophilic leukaemia is difficult to identify by light microscopy, well-defined diagnostic criteria and the use of flow cytometry and cytochemical staining can improve the ability to correctly diagnose this type of leukaemia in cats. PMID:17669677

  6. Review: The Lacrimal Gland and Its Role in Dry Eye

    PubMed Central

    Conrady, Christopher D.; Joos, Zachary P.; Patel, Bhupendra C. K.

    2016-01-01

    The human tear film is a 3-layered coating of the surface of the eye and a loss, or reduction, in any layer of this film may result in a syndrome of blurry vision and burning pain of the eyes known as dry eye. The lacrimal gland and accessory glands provide multiple components to the tear film, most notably the aqueous. Dysfunction of these glands results in the loss of aqueous and other products required in ocular surface maintenance and health resulting in dry eye and the potential for significant surface pathology. In this paper, we have reviewed products of the lacrimal gland, diseases known to affect the gland, and historical and emerging dry eye therapies targeting lacrimal gland dysfunction. PMID:27042343

  7. Review: The Lacrimal Gland and Its Role in Dry Eye.

    PubMed

    Conrady, Christopher D; Joos, Zachary P; Patel, Bhupendra C K

    2016-01-01

    The human tear film is a 3-layered coating of the surface of the eye and a loss, or reduction, in any layer of this film may result in a syndrome of blurry vision and burning pain of the eyes known as dry eye. The lacrimal gland and accessory glands provide multiple components to the tear film, most notably the aqueous. Dysfunction of these glands results in the loss of aqueous and other products required in ocular surface maintenance and health resulting in dry eye and the potential for significant surface pathology. In this paper, we have reviewed products of the lacrimal gland, diseases known to affect the gland, and historical and emerging dry eye therapies targeting lacrimal gland dysfunction. PMID:27042343

  8. Tear dynamics and dry eye.

    PubMed

    Tsubota, K

    1998-10-01

    Tears undergo four processes: production by the lacrimal gland, distribution by blinking, evaporation from the ocular surface and drainage through the nasolacrimal duct. Abnormalities in any of these steps can cause dry eye. There are two kinds of tear production, basic and reflex, which can be distinguished from each other by the Schirmer test with nasal stimulation. Reflex tearing is important because it supplies such essential components as EGF and vitamin A, whose deficiency may cause squamous metaplasia. There is no reflex tearing in Sjogren's syndrome because of destruction of the lacrimal gland. In cases of diminished or absent reflex tearing, topical autologous serum is the treatment of choice. Even when there is adequate tear production, insufficient distribution, such as occurs with the decreased blinking associated with the use of video display terminals (VDT), may cause dry eye. Any process or activity that suppresses blinking interferes with tear distribution. Tear evaporation increases under certain conditions and in some diseases. When the exposed ocular surface area is increased, such as in VDT work, tear evaporation increases. Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) also causes increased tear evaporation by altering the quality of the oily layer in tears. Tear evaporation can be suppressed by using a warm compresser or a humidifier, narrowing the palpebral fissure, or wearing protective eyeglasses. The tear clearance rate is measured by fluorescein dye dilution in the conjunctiva. When the tear clearance is low, inflammatory cytokines or preservatives accumulate in the conjunctival sac, resulting in ocular surface diseases. Frequent use of artificial tears without preservative is the key treatment. A differential diagnosis of the abnormalities of tear dynamics can give us a proper understanding of the pathogenesis of dry eye. With this knowledge, we can formulate an efficient therapeutic approach. PMID:9777650

  9. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats

    PubMed Central

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people’s perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (p<0.01). All interactions and caretaking behaviours were more likely to be displayed towards cats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (p<0.05) and included association time, attachment, perceived cat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner “gatekeepers” could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and

  10. Videos from the National Eye Institute: Eye Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Vision Videos from the National Eye Institute: Eye Diseases Past ... the early detection of eye disease. Share these videos with friends, family and colleagues. www.nei.nih. ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Encyclopedia: Vision Problems Health Topic: Vision Impairment and Blindness Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) ... and Microphthalmia Educational Resources (3 links) Kids Health: Blindness MalaCards: sox2 anophthalmia syndrome MalaCards: sox2-related eye ...

  12. Radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.; Hays, M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1984-03-01

    Eleven cats with hyperthyroidism were treated with radioactive iodine (/sup 131/I). Previous unsuccessful treatments for hyperthyroidism included hemithyroidectomy (2 cats) and an antithyroid drug (7 cats). Two cats had no prior treatment. Thyroid scans, using technetium 99m, showed enlargement and increased radionuclide accumulation in 1 thyroid lobe in 5 cats and in both lobes in 6 cats. Serum thyroxine concentrations were high and ranged from 4.7 to 18 micrograms/dl. Radioactive iodine tracer studies were used to determine peak radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) and effective and biological half-lives. Activity of /sup 131/I administered was calculated from peak RAIU, effective half-life, and estimated thyroid gland weight. Activity of /sup 131/I administered ranged from 1.0 to 5.9 mCi. The treatment goal was to deliver 20,000 rad to hyperactive thyroid tissue. However, retrospective calculations based on peak RAIU and effective half-life obtained during the treatment period showed that radiation doses actually ranged from 7,100 to 64,900 rad. Complete ablation of the hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue and a return to euthyroidism were seen in 7 cats. Partial responses were seen in 2 cats, and 2 cats became hypothyroid. It was concluded that /sup 131/I ablation of thyroid tumors was a reasonable alternative in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats. The optimal method of dosimetry remains to be determined.

  13. Treatment of chronically FIV-infected cats with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid

    PubMed Central

    McDonnel, Samantha J; Liepnieks, Molly L.; Murphy, Brian G

    2014-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a naturally-occurring, large animal model of lentiviral-induced immunodeficiency syndrome, and has been used as a model of HIV pathogenesis and therapeutic interventions. HIV reservoirs in the form of latent virus remain the primary roadblock to viral eradication and cure, and FIV has been previously established an animal model of lentiviral latency. The goal of this study was to determine whether administration of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) to aviremic, chronically FIV-infected cats would induce latent viral reactivation in vivo. A proof-of-concept experiment in a Transwell co-culture system demonstrated the ability of SAHA to reactivate latent virus which was replication competent and able to infect naïve cells. Oral SAHA (250 mg/m2) was administered with food to four asymptomatic, experimentally FIV-infected cats and one uninfected control cat, and a limited pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis was performed. A statistically significant increase in cell-associated FIV RNA was detected in the cat with the greatest serum SAHA exposure, and cell-free viral RNA was detected at one time point in the three cats that achieved the highest levels of SAHA in serum. Interestingly, there was a significant decrease in viral DNA burden at 2 hours post drug administration in the same three cats. Though the sample size is small and the drug response was modest, this study provides evidence that in vivo treatment of FIV-infected cats with the HDACi SAHA can induce viral transcriptional reactivation, which may be dependent upon the concentration of SAHA achieved in blood. Importantly, alternative putative antilatency therapy drugs, and multimodal drug combinations, could be studied in this in vivo system. The FIV/cat model provides a unique opportunity to test novel therapeutic interventions aimed at eradicating latent virus in vivo. PMID:24954265

  14. Photorefraction of the Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Photorefraction is a method to easily estimate the refractive state of the eye. The principle of photorefraction involves projecting light into the eye during flash photography and then examining the paths of light that emerge from the pupil after scattering on the back portion of the interior of the eyeball (fundus). We will explain the optical…

  15. Eye tissues study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchin, Valery V.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Maksimova, Irina L.; Sinichkin, Yurii P.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Genina, Elina A.; Lakodina, Nina A.

    2001-08-01

    Theoretical and in vitro and in vivo experimental study of spectral and polarization characteristics of the human and rabbit eye tissues are presented. The possibility of control of optical properties of eye cornea, lens and sclera is discussed and realized experimentally for glucose solution as the refractive index matching factor.

  16. Preventing Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. 01, 2016 Protecting your eyes from injury is one of the most basic things you can do to keep your vision healthy throughout your life. You may be somewhat aware of the possible ...

  17. Lasik eye surgery - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100206.htm Lasik eye surgery - series To use the sharing features ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Laser Eye Surgery A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  18. Diabetes and eye disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the back of the inner eye. It changes light and images that enter the eye into nerve signals, which are sent to the brain. Diabetic retinopathy is a main cause of decreased vision or blindness in Americans 20 to 74 years old. People with type 1 or type 2 ...

  19. Fluorescein eye stain

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye. The health care provider then shines a blue light at your eye. Any problems on the surface of the cornea will be stained by the dye and appear green under the blue light. The provider can determine the location and ...

  20. Understanding pink eye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pink eye (PE) is a physiological tuber disorder that can result in serious processing complications and storage losses. The earliest external symptoms consist of an ephemeral pinkish discoloration around tuber eyes, predominately at the bud end of the tuber. These pinkish areas can then develop into...

  1. An Eye for Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostwald, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity as an excellent starting point for investigations related to the eye. Involves making a simple model of the vertebrate eye to illustrate the formation of an upside-down image on the retina by the lens. Links to investigations in numerous science disciplines including astronomy, genetics, biology, earth science, and…

  2. Smoking and Eye Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Health Apr. 14, 2014 Avoiding smoking and second hand smoke — or quitting if you are a smoker — are ... influence your eyes’ health. And tobacco smoke, including second-hand smoke, is an irritant that worsens dry eye , a ...

  3. Eye burning - itching and discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergies or hay fever Infections, bacterial or viral ( conjunctivitis or pink eye) Chemical irritants (such as chlorine ... to help with allergies. Pink eye or viral conjunctivitis causes a red or bloodshot eye and excessive ...

  4. The effect of dorzolamide 2% on circadian intraocular pressure in cats with primary congenital glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Sigle, Kelly J; Camaño-Garcia, Gabriel; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Betts, Daniel M; Kuehn, Markus H; McLellan, Gillian J

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the extent of fluctuation in circadian intraocular pressure (IOP) and the efficacy of topical dorzolamide 2% q 8h in lowering IOP and blunting circadian fluctuation in IOP in glaucomatous cats. Animals Studied 7 adult cats with primary congenital glaucoma (PCG). Procedures Measurements of IOP and pupil diameter were obtained for both eyes (OU) of each cat q 4h for 12 days. Cats were housed in a laboratory animal facility with a 12 hour light:dark cycle. Baseline values were established for 2 days. For the next 5 days, placebo (1.4% polyvinyl alcohol) was administered OU q 8h. Dorzolamide 2% (Trusopt, Merck and Co., Inc., West Point, PA) was then administered OU q 8h for a further 5 days. A multivariate mixed linear model was fitted to the data, with parameters estimated from a Bayesian perspective. The 4am time point was selected as the reference for the purposes of comparisons. Results Estimated mean IOP for the reference time point pre-treatment was symmetric (about 33mmHg OU). In all cats, IOP was significantly lower during the diurnal phase, relative to the 4 am measurements, with highest IOP observed 2-6h after the onset of the dark-phase. Circadian fluctuations in IOP were dampened during the treatment period. There was a significant decrease in IOP in all cats during the dorzolamide treatment period (estimated mean for the treatment period reference =17.9 mmHg OU). Conclusion Topical dorzolamide 2% q 8 h is effective in reducing IOP and IOP fluctuation in cats with PCG. PMID:21923823

  5. A review of feral cat control.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Sheilah A

    2008-08-01

    Animal overpopulation including feral cats is an important global problem. There are many stakeholders involved in the feral cat debate over 'what to do about the problem', including those who consider them a nuisance, the public at risk from zoonotic disease, people who are concerned about the welfare of feral cats, those concerned with wildlife impacts, and the cats themselves. How best to control this population is controversial and has ranged from culling, relocation, and more recently 'trap neuter return' (TNR) methods. Data support the success of TNR in reducing cat populations, but to have a large impact it will have to be adopted on a far greater scale than it is currently practised. Non-surgical contraception is a realistic future goal. Because the feral cat problem was created by humans, concerted educational efforts on responsible pet ownership and the intrinsic value of animals is an integral part of a solution. PMID:17913531

  6. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia felis in Humans, Cats, and Cat Fleas in Bangladesh, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rajib; Paul, Shyamal Kumar; Hossain, Muhammad Akram; Ahmed, Salma; Mahmud, Muhammad Chand; Nasreen, Syeda Anjuman; Ferdouse, Faria; Sharmi, Rumana Hasan; Ahamed, Farid; Ghosh, Souvik; Urushibara, Noriko; Aung, Meiji Soe; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2016-05-01

    High prevalence of Rickettsia felis in patients with fever of unknown origin was revealed in the north-central Bangladesh from 2012 to 2013. Subsequently, in this study, prevalence of R. felis in cats and cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), together with febrile patients, was studied by PCR detection of 17 kDa antigen gene and DNA sequencing. R. felis was detected in 28% (28/100) and 21% (14/68) of cat blood and cat flea samples, respectively, whereas 42% (21/50) of patients were positive for R. felis. R. felis-positive cat fleas were detected at significantly higher rate on R. felis-positive cats. The results suggested a potential role of cats and cat fleas for transmission of R. felis to humans in Bangladesh. PMID:26901499

  7. Axial pattern skin flaps in cats.

    PubMed

    Remedios, A M; Bauer, M S; Bowen, C V; Fowler, J D

    1991-01-01

    The major direct cutaneous vessels identified in the cat include the omocervical, thoracodorsal, deep circumflex iliac, and caudal superficial epigastric arteries. Axial pattern skin flaps based on the thoracodorsal and caudal superficial epigastric arteries have been developed in cats. Rotation of these flaps as islands allows skin coverage to the carpus and metatarsus, respectively. The thoracodorsal and caudal superficial epigastric flaps provide a practical, one-step option in the reconstruction of large skin defects involving the distal extremities of cats. PMID:2011063

  8. Incidence of pyometra in Swedish insured cats.

    PubMed

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Ström Holst, Bodil; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta

    2014-07-01

    Pyometra is a clinically relevant problem in intact female cats and dogs. The etiology is similar in both animal species, with the disease caused by bacterial infection of a progesterone-sensitized uterus. Here, we studied pyometra in cats with the aim to describe the incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age and breed. The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance or life insurance claims or both in cats insured in a Swedish insurance database from 1999 to 2006. The mean incidence rate (IR) for pyometra was about 17 cats per 10,000 cat years at risk (CYAR). Cats with pyometra were diagnosed at a median age of 4 years and a significant breed effect was observed. The breed with the highest IR (433 cats per 10,000 CYAR) was the Sphynx, and other breeds with IR over 60 cats per 10,000 CYAR were Siberian cat, Ocicat, Korat, Siamese, Ragdoll, Maine coon, and Bengal. Pyometra was more commonly diagnosed with increasing age, with a marked increase in cats older than 7 years. The mean case fatality rate in all cats was 5.7%, which is slightly higher than corresponding reports in dogs of 3% to 4%. Geographical location (urban or rural) did not affect the risk of developing the disease. The present study provides information of incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age, breed, and urban or rural geographical location. These data may be useful for designing cat breeding programs in high-risk breeds and for future studies of the genetic background of the disease. PMID:24726694

  9. Cats and Toxoplasma: implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Dabritz, H A; Conrad, P A

    2010-02-01

    Cats are popular as pets worldwide because they are easy to care for and provide companionship that enriches the lives of human beings. Little attention has been focused on their potential to contaminate the environment with zoonotic pathogens. One such pathogen, the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, rarely causes clinical manifestations in cats or immunocompetent humans; however, it can have serious adverse effects on human foetuses and immunocompromised patients. Many human infections are believed to be acquired from eating undercooked or raw meat, such as pork and lamb (Tenter et al. Int. J. Parasitol., 30, 2000, 1217; Dubey et al. J. Parasitol. 91, 2005, 1082). However, the prevalence of T. gondii infection in human populations that do not consume meat or eat it well-cooked suggests that the acquisition of infection from the environment, via oocysts in soil, water or on uncooked vegetables, is also important (Rawal. Trans. Royal Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 53, 1959, 61; Roghmann et al. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 60, 1999, 790; Chacin-Bonilla et al. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 65, 2001, 131). In the past 20 years, two changes occurred that significantly increased the size of the cat population in the USA. Pet cat ownership grew from 50 million to 90 million animals, and animal welfare activists created feeding stations for abandoned and free-roaming cats. As many cat owners allow their cats to deposit faeces outside and cats maintained in colonies always defecate outside, ample opportunity exists for T. gondii oocysts to enter the environment and be transmitted to humans. Prevention efforts should focus on educating cat owners about the importance of collecting cat faeces in litter boxes, spaying owned cats to reduce overpopulation, reducing the numbers of feral cats and promoting rigorous hand hygiene after gardening or soil contact. PMID:19744306

  10. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  11. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  12. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  13. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  14. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  15. PHACE syndrome with lip haemangioma, microphthalmos and persistent fetal vasculature.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Lipika; Nayak, Bhagabat; Sinha, Gautam; Khokhar, Sudarshan

    2016-01-01

    An 11-month-old baby girl presented with white reflex in her left eye. On examination, there was a 6.5×5 mm(2)haemangioma present over her face involving on her lower lip. Systemic examinations were within normal limits. The left eye was small, with an axial length of 16.08 mm and had a cataract. Ultrasonography of the left eye was suggestive of the presence of a vascular stalk, persistent hyperplasia of a primary vitreous, or persistent fetal vasculature with vitreous haemorrhage. On MRI, the left eye was small with vitreous haemorrhage. Left eye lens aspiration was performed and the bleeding vascular stalk behind the lens was cauterised with diathermy. The right eye was normal. The patient was diagnosed as having PHACE syndrome (Posterior fossa malformations, Hemangiomas, Arterial anomalies, Coarctation of the aorta and other cardiac defects, and Eye abnormalities syndrome). On follow-up, she was able to follow light with her left eye. PMID:27033295

  16. VISTA Captures Celestial Cat's Hidden Secrets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-04-01

    The Cat's Paw Nebula, NGC 6334, is a huge stellar nursery, the birthplace of hundreds of massive stars. In a magnificent new ESO image taken with the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) at the Paranal Observatory in Chile, the glowing gas and dust clouds obscuring the view are penetrated by infrared light and some of the Cat's hidden young stars are revealed. Towards the heart of the Milky Way, 5500 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Scorpius (the Scorpion), the Cat's Paw Nebula stretches across 50 light-years. In visible light, gas and dust are illuminated by hot young stars, creating strange reddish shapes that give the object its nickname. A recent image by ESO's Wide Field Imager (WFI) at the La Silla Observatory (eso1003) captured this visible light view in great detail. NGC 6334 is one of the most active nurseries of massive stars in our galaxy. VISTA, the latest addition to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Chilean Atacama Desert, is the world's largest survey telescope (eso0949). It works at infrared wavelengths, seeing right through much of the dust that is such a beautiful but distracting aspect of the nebula, and revealing objects hidden from the sight of visible light telescopes. Visible light tends to be scattered and absorbed by interstellar dust, but the dust is nearly transparent to infrared light. VISTA has a main mirror that is 4.1 metres across and it is equipped with the largest infrared camera on any telescope. It shares the spectacular viewing conditions with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), which is located on the nearby summit. With this powerful instrument at their command, astronomers were keen to see the birth pains of the big young stars in the Cat's Paw Nebula, some nearly ten times the mass of the Sun. The view in the infrared is strikingly different from that in visible light. With the dust obscuring the view far less, they can learn much more about how these stars form and develop in their first

  17. Receptive fields of simple cells in the cat striate cortex

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, P. O.; Coombs, J. S.; Henry, G. H.

    1973-01-01

    1. The excitatory and inhibitory components in the receptive fields of unimodal simple cells in the striate cortex of the cat anaesthetized with nitrous oxide have been described using slits of light and single light-dark edges as stimuli. 2. There is a small excitatory region (excitatory complex) centrally located in the receptive field that is made up of various combinations and spatial arrangements of subliminal excitatory and discharge subregions or centres. 3. The subliminal excitatory centres were revealed by a binocular facilitation technique. The excitability of the cell was raised by repeated stimulation via one eye while the neurone was tested with single edges via the other eye. 4. The subliminal excitatory and discharge centres are each specifically activated by only one type of edge, light-dark or dark-light, and then only in one direction of motion. All the subregions in the excitatory complex have the same optimal stimulus orientation. 5. Inhibitory components in the receptive field were identified by stimulating the cell with bars of light and single edges against an artificial background discharge produced by repeated stimulation separately applied either to the same eye (monocular conditioning) or to the other eye (binocular conditioning). There are powerful inhibitory sidebands to either side of the excitatory complex and these inhibitory regions merge to include the excitatory complex when stimulus orientation is angled away from the optimal. 6. Excitation is highly stimulus specific whereas inhibition is non-specific. 7. The organization of the two receptive fields of a binocularly discharged cell can be closely similar. 8. The attempt is made to translate the concept of subliminal excitatory and discharge centres into specific neural mechanisms involving both the geniculo-cortical input and various intracortical circuits. 9. These new developments call for only minor modifications to the model we have proposed for the organization of the

  18. [Treatment of eye allergies].

    PubMed

    Kari, Osmo; Saari, K Matti

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal atopic conjunctivitis is treated with antihistamines, cromoglycate and short courses of corticosteroids, in severe cases with subcutaneous or sublingual immunotherapy. Chronic conjunctivitis requires year-round treatment with mast cell stabilizers, antihistamines or topical corticosteroids. Long-term treatment of atopic blepharoconjunctivitis consists of tacrolimus or pimecrolimus cream. For atopic keratoconjunctivitis corticosteroid and, if necessary, cyclosporine eye drops are needed. First-line therapy of vernal conjunctivitis involves mast cell stabilizers and, if necessary, corticosteroid eye drops. Treatment of non-allergic eosinophilic conjunctivitis involves mast cell stabilizers, corticosteroid and, if necessary, cyclosporine eye drops. PMID:22428383

  19. Eye-Safe Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Laser infrared radar (lidar) undergoing development harmless to human eyes, consists almost entirely of solid-state components, and offers high range resolution. Operates at wavelength of about 2 micrometers. If radiation from such device strikes eye, almost completely absorbed by cornea without causing damage, even if aimed directly at eye. Continuous-wave light from laser oscillator amplified and modulated for transmission from telescope. Small portion of output of oscillator fed to single-mode fiber coupler, where mixed with return pulses. Intended for remote Doppler measurements of winds and differential-absorption measurements of concentrations of gases in atmosphere.

  20. Proteinuria in dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Leyenda; Langston, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Proteinuria is defined as the presence of protein in the urine. Normally, circulating serum proteins are blocked by the glomerulus due to size and/or charge. Any small proteins that pass through a healthy glomerulus are reabsorbed by the renal tubules or broken down by renal tubular epithelial cells. Persistent proteinuria, in the absence of lower urinary tract disease or reproductive tract disease, is usually an indication of renal damage or dysfunction. Less commonly persistent proteinuria can be caused by increased circulating levels of low molecular weight proteins. This article reviews mechanisms of proteinuria in dogs and cats and discusses the importance of screening for and ultimately treating proteinuria. PMID:23204582

  1. Proteinuria in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Harley, Leyenda; Langston, Cathy

    2012-06-01

    Proteinuria is defined as the presence of protein in the urine. Normally, circulating serum proteins are blocked by the glomerulus due to size and/or charge. Any small proteins that pass through a healthy glomerulus are reabsorbed by the renal tubules or broken down by renal tubular epithelial cells. Persistent proteinuria, in the absence of lower urinary tract disease or reproductive tract disease, is usually an indication of renal damage or dysfunction. Less commonly persistent proteinuria can be caused by increased circulating levels of low molecular weight proteins. This article reviews mechanisms of proteinuria in dogs and cats and discusses the importance of screening for and ultimately treating proteinuria. PMID:23204582

  2. Endocrine diseases in dogs and cats: similarities and differences with endocrine diseases in humans.

    PubMed

    Rijnberk, Ad; Kooistra, Hans S; Mol, Jan A

    2003-08-01

    Over several millennia, humans have created hundreds of dog and cat breeds by selective breeding, including fixation of mutant genes. The domestic dog is unique in the extent of its variation in height, weight and shape as well as its behavior. It is primarily the relatively long persistence of high levels of growth hormone (GH) release at a young age that accounts for the large body size in giant breeds of dogs. Several of the endocrine diseases of humans are also known to occur as similar entities in dogs and cats. With some variations, this is true for conditions such as diabetes mellitus and the hypofunction syndromes of the thyroid and adrenal cortex. Also, the hyperfunction syndromes of hypercortisolism and hyperparathyroidism in dogs and cats have many similarities with their human counterparts. The exception seems to be Graves' disease. This condition, which is due to production of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-receptor antibodies, has not been observed in dogs and cats. The very common form of hyperthyroidism in cats is due to toxic adenomas. In the 1980s it was discovered that in dogs exogenous progestins and endogenous progesterone can induce GH excess. This GH excess originates form the mammary gland and may give rise to acromegaly and insulin resistance. GH production by the mammary gland is not unique to the dog. It has become clear that cats and humans also express the GH gene in the mammary gland. There is increasing evidence that this locally produced GH not only plays a role in the morphologic changes of the mammary gland associated with the ovarian cycle and gestation, but that it is also involved in the development of breast cancer. In dogs, induction of mammary GH production by progestin administration allows for treatment of GH deficiency. PMID:12914747

  3. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-07-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats' impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on "predation awareness" campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom. PMID:26306163

  4. Adrenocortical suppression in cats given megestrol acetate.

    PubMed

    Chastain, C B; Graham, C L; Nichols, C E

    1981-12-01

    Megestrol acetate was given orally to 8 cats at a dose of 2.5 mg every other day for 2 weeks and to 8 cats at a dose of 5.0 mg every day for 2 weeks. Four cats were designated nontreated controls. Pre-ACTH-stimulated plasma concentrations of cortisol (hydrocortisone) and ACTH-stimulated cortisol and tolerance to large-dose glucose infusion (IV) were determined on each of the 20 cats given megestrol acetate. Cats were restrained with acepromazine maleate and ketamine hydrochloride during blood sample collection and large-dose glucose infusion. Adrenocortical function and tolerance to large-dose glucose infusion were reevaluated for 4 weeks--after 1st and 2nd weeks of megestrol acetate treatment of the treated groups, and after 1st and 2nd weeks when treatment was stopped (ie, experiment weeks 3 and 4). Each week a cat from the control group and 2 cats from the 2 treated groups were selected to determine the changes occurring during the experiment for that week; after collection of plasma samples, each week's 5 selected cats were euthanatized and necropsied. Significant impairment of adrenocortical function and alteration of adrenocortical morphology occurred with both treated groups. The most severe adrenocortical alterations occurred in the cats 1 week after megestrol acetate was no longer given (ie, experiment week 3). Megestrol acetate-induced adrenocortical suppression contributed to the death of 1 cat. It was concluded that if stress occurs to cats on treatment or soon after treatment with megestrol acetate, glucocorticoids should be supplemented. The effects of megestrol acetate on glucose tolerance were overshadowed by the unforeseen intolerance caused by chemical restraint with acepromazine maleate and ketamine hydrochloride. PMID:6280517

  5. Respiratory nematodes in cat populations of Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Cesare, Angela; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Grillotti, Eleonora; Manzocchi, Simone; Perrucci, Stefania; Beraldo, Paola; Cazzin, Stefania; De Liberato, Claudio; Barros, Luciano A; Simonato, Giulia; Traversa, Donato

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of common respiratory parasites of domestic cats (the metastrongyloid "cat lungworm" Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and the trichuroid Capillaria aerophila) and of neglected respiratory nematodes of felids (Troglostrongylus brevior, Angiostrongylus chabaudi and Oslerus rostratus) was here evaluated in two and three geographical sites of Northern and Central Italy, respectively. In 2014-2015, individual fecal samples of 868 domestic cats were examined microscopically and genetically, and epidemiological data related to parasitic infections were evaluated as possible risk factors by binary logistic regression models. The most common parasite was A. abstrusus in both mono- and poli-specific infections, followed by T. brevior and C. aerophila, while cats scored negative for other parasites. Cats positive for A. abstrusus (1.9-17 % infection rate) and C. aerophila (0.9-4.8 % infection rate) were found in all examined sites, while cats scored positive for T. brevior (1-14.3 % infection rate) in four sites. Also, T. brevior was here found for the first time in a domestic cat from a mountainous area of Northern Italy. The occurrence of lungworms was statistically related to the presence of respiratory signs and more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. Cats living in site C of Central Italy resulted statistically more at risk of infection for lungworms than cats living in the other study sites, while animals ageing less than 1 year were at more risk for troglostrongylosis. Finally, the presence of lungworms was more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. These results are discussed under epidemiological and clinical points of views. PMID:26319524

  6. Diabetic Eye Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Education Program Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Spanish-language ... FAQ Watch out for your vision! Glossary Resources Glaucoma Glaucoma Home How Much Do You Know? What ...

  7. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Choosing Safe Toys this Holiday Dec 02, 2015 Digital Glasses For Lazy Eye Nov 19, 2015 Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About ...

  8. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Choosing Safe Toys this Holiday Dec 02, 2015 Digital Glasses For Lazy Eye Nov 19, 2015 Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About ...

  9. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Choosing Safe Toys this Holiday Dec 02, 2015 Digital Glasses For Lazy Eye Nov 19, 2015 Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About ...

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses ...

  11. Fungal Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Fungal Eye Infections Recommend on ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch File Formats Help: How do ...

  12. Using Eye Makeup

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a moving vehicle. Do not separate your mascara-clumped lashes with sharp items. If you tend ... all eye makeup at night before sleeping, especially mascara that can stick to the lashes. Brush a ...

  13. Anatomy of the Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Anatomy of the Eye En Español Read in Chinese External (Extraocular) Anatomy Extraocular Muscles: There are six muscles that are ...

  14. Melanoma of the eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... modified July 9, 2015. www.cancer.gov/types/eye/hp/intraocular-melanoma-treatment-pdq . Accessed October 7, 2015. Read ... by: Yi-Bin Chen, MD, Leukemia/Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Also reviewed ...

  15. Eye Injuries in Sports

    MedlinePlus

    ... these injuries can be prevented. Overall, basketball and baseball cause the most eye injuries, followed by water ... involve body contact. Some high-risk sports are baseball, basketball, hockey, football, lacrosse, tennis and other racquet ...

  16. PHACE(S) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Heyer, Geoffrey L

    2015-01-01

    PHACE(S) syndrome is a neurocutaneous disorder of unknown etiology. The acronym refers to the commonest features of PHACE: posterior fossa malformations, large facial hemangiomas, cerebral arterial anomalies, cardiovascular anomalies, and eye anomalies. When ventral developmental defects such as sternal clefting or supraumbilical raphe occur, the PHACES acronym may be used. The hallmark feature of PHACE is the presence of one or more large facial infantile hemangiomas that occupy at least one facial segment. Infantile hemangiomas differ from the capillary malformation (port wine stain) of Sturge-Weber syndrome, and the arteriovenous malformation of Wyburn-Mason syndrome, distinguishing PHACE syndrome from other neurocutaneous disorders with red birthmarks. The true incidence of PHACE has not yet been established. Girls are more commonly affected than boys. Cerebral vascular anomalies are probably the most common extracutaneous feature. Given that several organ systems are involved, a multidisciplinary approach to disease surveillance and treatment is advised. PMID:26564079

  17. Tracking errors of a logical qubit comprised of superpositions of cat states in a superconducting resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrenko, A.; Ofek, N.; Heeres, R.; Reinhold, P.; Liu, Y.; Leghtas, Z.; Vlastakis, B.; Frunzio, L.; Jiang, Liang; Mirrahimi, M.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    QEC schemes involve redundantly encoding a qubit into a larger space of states that has symmetry properties that allow one to measure error syndromes. Traditional approaches involve encodings that employ large numbers of physical qubits, enhancing decay rates significantly and requiring considerable hardware overhead to realize. A hardware-efficient proposal, which we term the cat code, sheds much of this complexity by encoding a qubit in superpositions of cat states in a superconducting resonator, which has one dominant error syndrome: single photon loss. As these cat states are eigenstates of photon number parity, the loss of a photon changes the parity without corrupting the encoded information. In a superconducting cQED architecture, we demonstrate that we track these errors in real-time with repeated single shot parity measurements and map their occurrence onto applications of a unitary rotation of an arbitrary encoded state in the logical space. Our results illustrate the utility of long-lived resonators in the context of a full QEC system by highlighting the advantages of employing the cat code to suppress decoherence.

  18. [Straight in the eyes].

    PubMed

    Diop, E; Beylot, V; Berta, C; Dugardin, C; Aigle, L

    2015-01-01

    This case report about a young French soldier hit in the eye by a spitting cobra in the Central African Republic prompts us to review the potential toxicity of this venom to the eyes and the management of this injury. The initial phase is simple to implement, but is often performed badly or not at all because unknown. It is a condition, however, for optimal recovery of the cornea. PMID:26067984

  19. Renal leiomyosarcoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Evans, Dawn; Fowlkes, Natalie

    2016-05-01

    Renal leiomyosarcoma was diagnosed in a 10-year-old Domestic Shorthair cat with a 3-year history of clinically managed, chronic renal disease. Sudden death was preceded by a brief episode of mental dullness and confusion. At postmortem examination, the gross appearance of the left kidney was suggestive of hydronephrosis, and a nephrolith was present in the contralateral kidney. However, histology revealed an infiltrative, poorly differentiated, spindle cell sarcoma bordering the grossly cavitated area. Neoplastic cells were immunoreactive for vimentin and smooth muscle actin, which led to a diagnosis of renal leiomyosarcoma; neoplastic cells were not immunoreactive for desmin. Leiomyosarcoma arising in the kidney is a rare occurrence in humans and an even rarer occurrence in veterinary medicine with no prior cases being reported in cats in the English literature. The macroscopic appearance of the tumor at postmortem examination was misleadingly suggestive of hydronephrosis as a result of the large cavitation and may be similar to particularly unusual cases of renal leiomyosarcomas in humans that have a cystic or cavitated appearance. PMID:26975352

  20. Reproductive patterns of pedigree cats.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, I

    1987-07-01

    A survey of Brisbane catteries was carried out to investigate reproductive patterns of pedigree cats. Eighteen breeders supplied data on 751 litters with a total of 3171 kittens covering the Persian, Chinchilla, Siamese, Burmese and Abyssinian breeds. The overall sex ratio at birth was 100 males to 92 females. There was a significant seasonal effect on sex ratio with litters conceived during the wet season (September to February) producing more males than expected and litters conceived during the dry season producing more females than expected. Litter size and breed had no significant effect on the sex ratio. The average litter size varied with the breed with the most prolific being the Burmese (5.0) then the Siamese (4.5), Persian (3.9), Abyssinian (3.5) and Chinchilla (2.8). The average litter size was smaller for the first litter than for the subsequent 3 litters. The maximum average litter size was reached at 6 years with only a moderate decline thereafter. There was a seasonal fluctuation in births with the greatest numbers being born in spring and the least in late autumn. Longhair cats showed a more marked seasonal distribution of births than the shorthairs which reproduced for most of the year, particularly the Burmese breed. PMID:3675409

  1. Eye Protection in Educational Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Div. of Vocational Education.

    Intended to help reduce the number of school eye injuries in New Jersey, this document begins with a brief review of existing legislation regarding eye protection in educational institutions and a list of elements essential in an eye safety program. Second, eye protection equipment is examined in terms of: the advantages of safety spectacles over…

  2. Eye Safety. Mississippi Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    This manual is designed to help industrial arts teachers eliminate student eye injuries within industrial arts programs. Presented first is Mississippi eye safety law. Following a discussion of eye protection equipment, illustrations of eye protection devices are provided. Guidelines are set forth for selecting shade numbers for welding filters.…

  3. Post-strabismus surgery aqueous misdirection syndrome.

    PubMed

    Angmo, Dewang; Nayak, Bhagabat; Gupta, Viney

    2015-01-01

    A 24-year-old man was referred to the glaucoma clinic of our tertiary eye care centre in view of uncontrolled intraocular pressure (IOP) in the left eye despite maximal medication. The patient had undergone left eye cosmetic squint surgery 1 month before (medial rectus resection 9 mm and lateral rectus recession 12 mm) for congenital third nerve palsy. Post-squint surgery, the patient developed pain and was being managed symptomatically. However, 1 week later, he developed diffuse corneal oedema and severe pain, and was readmitted for management in the same hospital. He presented to our centre with an IOP of 16 mm Hg in the right eye and 58 mm Hg in the left eye. We made a diagnosis of left eye post-strabismus surgery aqueous misdirection syndrome, and performed left eye core vitrectomy with 360° goniosynechialysis and ultimately a trabeculectomy to reduce IOP. PMID:26243745

  4. Quantitation of specific antibodies bound to feline leukemia virus in the plasma of pet cats.

    PubMed

    Snyder, H W; Singhal, M C; Yoshida, L H; Jones, F R

    1985-08-01

    A method is described for determining levels of circulating immune complexes (CIC) composed of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigens and corresponding antibodies in plasma of persistently-infected pet cats. The procedure is based on the ability of high-titered heterologous anti-FeLV serum to chase cat anti-FeLV IgG from dissociated CIC by successfully competing for binding of free antigen. The eluted cat antibody is then collected and quantitated. In a study of cats in the process of clearing persistent FeLV infections, measured levels of FeLV-specific CIC correlated well with fluctuating levels of free FeLV antigen and antibody. The Raji cell assay for CIC in those cats was of comparatively little value in following the clearance of the virus, presumably because that assay does not distinguish between CIC containing viral and those containing non-viral antigens. The method described can be adapted to studies of specific immune complexes associated with a variety of syndromes, provided that the antigen eliciting the immune response is known. PMID:2995795

  5. Quantum Computer Games: Schrodinger Cat and Hounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren

    2012-01-01

    The quantum computer game "Schrodinger cat and hounds" is the quantum extension of the well-known classical game fox and hounds. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. "Schrodinger cat and hounds" demonstrates the effects of superposition, destructive and constructive interference, measurements and…

  6. Evaluating "Cat Country": The Humor within Satire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chung-chien Karen

    2010-01-01

    Satire, as a mode, is not frequently employed in Chinese narratives. "Cat Country," or "Mao Cheng Ji," written by Lao She (pen name of Shu Qing Chun, 1898--1966) has come under much attack of its literary values. Whereas most critics have no doubt that this work sets out to satirize China through the portrayal of a society of cats on Mars, the…

  7. Cool Cats: Feline Fun with Abstract Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2002-01-01

    Presents a lesson that teaches students about abstract art in a fun way. Explains that students draw cats, learn about the work of Pablo Picasso, and, in the style of Picasso, combine the parts of the cats (tail, legs, head, body) together in unconventional ways. (CMK)

  8. Human Serum Eye Drops in Eye Alterations: An Insight and a Critical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    De Pascale, Maria Rosaria; Lanza, Michele; Sommese, Linda; Napoli, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Human serum contains a physiological plethora of bioactive elements naturally released by activated platelets which might have a significant effect on the regeneration of corneal layers by stimulating the cell growth. This mechanism supported the use of human serum eye drops in some ocular diseases associated with dystrophic changes and alterations of the tear film, such as persistent corneal epithelial defects and dry eye syndrome. We focused our effort on potential benefits and limitations of the use of human serum eye drops when conventional therapies failed. We reviewed the recent literature by reporting published studies from 2010 to 2014. Despite the limited evaluated study populations, most of the clinical studies have confirmed that serum eye drop therapy is effective in corneal healing by reducing ocular symptom, particularly during the short-term follow-up. In addition, three recent published studies have shown the efficacy of the serum eye drop therapy in comparison to traditional ones in intractable patients. Besides, reported ongoing clinical studies confirmed the open debate regarding the use of biologic tools for cornea regeneration. Results from these studies might open novel challenges and perspectives in the therapy of such refractory patients. PMID:26504592

  9. An isolated epizootic of hemorrhagic-like fever in cats caused by a novel and highly virulent strain of feline calicivirus.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, N C; Elliott, J B; Glasgow, A; Poland, A; Keel, K

    2000-05-11

    An isolated epizootic of a highly fatal feline calicivirus (FCV) infection, manifested in its severest form by a systemic hemorrhagic-like fever, occurred over a 1-month period among six cats owned by two different employees and a client of a private veterinary practice. The infection may have started with an unowned shelter kitten that was hospitalized during this same period for a severe atypical upper respiratory infection. The causative agent was isolated from blood and nasal swabs from two cats; the electron microscopic appearance was typical for FCV and capsid gene sequencing showed it to be genetically similar to other less pathogenic field strains. An identical disease syndrome was recreated in laboratory cats through oral inoculation with tissue culture grown virus. During the course of transmission studies in experimental cats, the agent was inadvertently spread by caretakers to an adjoining room containing a group of four normal adult cats. One of the four older cats was found dead and a second was moribund within 48-72h in spite of symptomatic treatment; lesions in these animals were similar to those of the field cats but with the added feature of severe pancreatitis. The mortality in field cats, deliberately infected laboratory cats, and inadvertently infected laboratory cats ranged from 33-50%. This new isolate of calicivirus, named FCV-Ari, was neutralized at negligible to low titer by antiserum against the universal FCV-F9 vaccine strain. Cats orally immunized with FCV-F9, and then challenge-exposed shortly thereafter with FCV-Ari, developed a milder self-limiting form of disease, indicating partial protection. However, all of the field cats, including the three that died, had been previously immunized with parenteral FCV-F9 vaccine. FCV-Ari caused a disease that was reminiscent of Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease, a highly fatal calicivirus infection of older rabbits. PMID:10781727

  10. The Marfan Syndrome: A Booklet for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhardt, Barbara A.

    This booklet explains characteristics of Marfan Syndrome, an inherited disorder of connective tissue which can be life-threatening if untreated. Medical problems affecting various parts of the body such as the heart, the skeleton, the eyes and the skin associated with Marfan Syndrome are discussed. Possible medical emergencies are identified.…

  11. The Marfan Syndrome [and] Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyeritz, Reed E.; Conant, Julia

    This introduction to the Marfan syndrome, a heritable disorder of connective tissue primarily affecting the bones and ligaments, eyes, cardiovascular system, and lungs, is intended for a general audience. The question-and-answer format was chosen by individuals with the syndrome to reflect their major questions and concerns. It incorporates the…

  12. Down Syndrome: A Current Perspective. Bulletin 1762.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    This informational document is intended to help answer questions commonly asked by families, professionals, and the general public concerning Down Syndrome. Medical problems associated with Down Syndrome include heart conditions, upper respiratory disorders, ear infections and hearing loss, vision/eye problems, cervical problems, and…

  13. [Meibomian gland disfunction in computer vision syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pimenidi, M K; Polunin, G S; Safonova, T N

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews ethiology and pathogenesis of dry eye syndrome due to meibomian gland disfunction (MDG). It is showed that blink rate influences meibomian gland functioning and computer vision syndrome development. Current diagnosis and treatment options of MDG are presented. PMID:21395003

  14. Syndrome-Associated Tumors by Organ System.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Raul S; Riddle, Nicole D

    2016-06-01

    Certain tumors suggest the possibility of a patient harboring a genetic syndrome, particularly in children. Syndrome-associated tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract, gynecologic tract, heart, lungs, brain, eye, endocrine organs, and hematopoietic system will be briefly discussed. PMID:27617151

  15. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-01-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats’ impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on “predation awareness” campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom. PMID:26306163

  16. Feral Cats: Too Long a Threat to Hawaiian Wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steven C.; Banko, Paul C.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Domestic cats (Felis catus) were first brought to Hawai`i aboard sailing ships of European explorers and colonists. The job of these predators was to control mice and rats on the ships during the long voyages. As in other places, cats were taken in and adopted by the families of Hawai`i and soon became household pets known as popoki. But cats have always been very well equipped to live and hunt on their own. On tropical archipelagos like the Hawaiian Islands where no other predatory mammals of comparable size existed, abundant and naive prey were particularly easy game, and cats soon thrived in the wild. Although the details of when cats first came to live in the wild remain little known, adventurers, writers, and naturalists of the day recorded some important observations. Feral cats were observed in remote wilderness around K?ilauea volcano on Hawai`i Island as early as 1840 by explorer William Brackenridge. Mark Twain was so impressed by the great abundance of cats when he visited Honolulu in 1866 that he reported his observations in the Sacramento Union newspaper, which were later reprinted in his book Roughing It: I saw... tame cats, wild cats, singed cats, individual cats, groups of cats, platoons of cats, companies of cats, regiments of cats, armies of cats, multitudes of cats, millions of cats...

  17. Alagille syndrome: clinical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Maha; Kamath, Binita M; Chitayat, David

    2016-01-01

    Alagille syndrome is an autosomal dominant, complex multisystem disorder characterized by the presence of three out of five major clinical criteria: cholestasis with bile duct paucity on liver biopsy, congenital cardiac defects (with particular involvement of the pulmonary arteries), posterior embryotoxon in the eye, characteristic facial features, and butterfly vertebrae. Renal and vascular abnormalities can also occur. Inter- and intrafamilial variabilities in the clinical manifestations are common. We reviewed the clinical features and management as well as the molecular basis of Alagille syndrome. PMID:27418850

  18. Alagille syndrome: clinical perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Maha; Kamath, Binita M; Chitayat, David

    2016-01-01

    Alagille syndrome is an autosomal dominant, complex multisystem disorder characterized by the presence of three out of five major clinical criteria: cholestasis with bile duct paucity on liver biopsy, congenital cardiac defects (with particular involvement of the pulmonary arteries), posterior embryotoxon in the eye, characteristic facial features, and butterfly vertebrae. Renal and vascular abnormalities can also occur. Inter- and intrafamilial variabilities in the clinical manifestations are common. We reviewed the clinical features and management as well as the molecular basis of Alagille syndrome. PMID:27418850

  19. The injured eye

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Eye injuries come at a high cost to society and are avoidable. Ocular blast injuries can be primary, from the blast wave itself; secondary, from fragments carried by the blast wind; tertiary; due to structural collapse or being thrown against a fixed object; or quaternary, from burns and indirect injuries. Ballistic eye protection significantly reduces the incidence of eye injuries and should be encouraged from an early stage in Military training. Management of an injured eye requires meticulous history taking, evaluation of vision that measures the acuity and if there is a relative pupillary defect as well as careful inspection of the eyes, under anaesthetic if necessary. A lateral canthotomy with cantholysis should be performed immediately if there is a sight-threatening retrobulbar haemorrhage. Systemic antibiotics should be prescribed if there is a suspected penetrating or perforating injury. A ruptured globe should be protected by an eye shield. Primary repair of ruptured globes should be performed in a timely fashion. Secondary procedures will often be required at a later date to achieve sight preservation. A poor initial visual acuity is not a guarantee of a poor final result. The final result can be predicted after approximately 3–4 weeks. Future research in eye injuries attempts to reduce scarring and neuronal damage as well as to promote photoreceptor rescue, using post-transcriptional inhibition of cell death pathways and vaccination to promote neural recovery. Where the sight has been lost sensory substitution of a picture from a spectacle mounted video camera to the touch receptors of the tongue can be used to achieve appreciation of the outside world. PMID:21149360

  20. Recent developments on dry eye disease treatment compounds

    PubMed Central

    Colligris, Basilio; Alkozi, Hanan Awad; Pintor, Jesus

    2013-01-01

    Dry eye syndrome is a common tears and ocular surface multifactorial disease, described by changes in the ocular surface epithelia related to reduced tears quantity and ocular surface sensitivity, leading to inflammatory reaction. Managing the eye inflammation proved helpful to patients with dry eye disease and current treatment is based on the use of topically applied artificial tear products/lubricants, tear retention management, stimulation of tear secretion and using anti-inflammatory drugs. In this article we revise the corresponding literature and patents assembling the new treatment approaches of novel and future pharmaceutical compounds destined for the dry eye disease treatment. The most frequent categories of compounds presented are secretagogues and anti-inflammatory drugs. These compounds are the research outcome of novel therapeutic strategies designed to reduce key inflammatory pathways and restore healthy tear film. PMID:24526854