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Sample records for cataract mental retardation

  1. Two sisters with mental retardation, cataract, ataxia, progressive hearing loss, and polyneuropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Begeer, J H; Scholte, F A; van Essen, A J

    1991-01-01

    Two sisters are described with a disorder characterised by mental retardation, congenital cataract, progressive spinocerebellar ataxia, sensorineural deafness, and signs of peripheral neuropathy. Progressive hearing loss, ataxia, and polyneuropathy became evident in the third decade. The differential diagnosis of this syndrome is discussed including the syndromes described by Berman et al and Koletzko et al. PMID:1661780

  2. Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, Dominick P.; And Others

    Evidence today indicates that the causes of mental retardation are biological, psychological, and social in origin and that a combination of these causes frequently occur in a single individual. Mental retardation is identified clinically by the presence of several signs that include, but are not limited to, a significant impairment of…

  3. Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumeister, Alfred A., Ed.

    Thirteen papers by different authors consider the application of research findings and theoretical formulations to the practical appraisal and treatment of mental retardation. All suggest methods for shaping appropriate and adaptive behaviors in retarded individuals. The papers include "Definition, Diagnosis, and Classification" by D.W. Brison,…

  4. Introduction to Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arc of the United States, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to define mental retardation and answer questions related to this topic. According to the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR), mental retardation is a disability that occurs before age 18. It is characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviors as expressed in…

  5. THE MENTALLY RETARDED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JORDAN, THOMAS E.

    THIS BOOK PROVIDES A GUIDE TO THE BASIC CONCEPTS AND ISSUES IN THE FIELD OF MENTAL RETARDATION. THERE ARE MANY SOURCES OR CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION AND THE FOLLOWING TYPES ARE EXPLAINED--(1) GENETIC OR CHEMICAL DISORDERS, (2) BIRTH TRAUMA, (3) SUBSEQUENT ACCIDENTS OR DISEASE, AND (4) ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES. IT IS NOTED THAT MOST CASES INVOLVE…

  6. Mental Retardation in Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Michael; And Others

    This monograph presents a general introduction to the history, classification, and characteristics of mental retardation. It begins with a discussion of the history of mental retardation from ancient Greece and Rome to the present. The beginnings of special education are traced to the early 19th century in Europe. Major influences in treatment of…

  7. Vignettes in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissey, Marie Skodak

    1983-01-01

    The use of the family history chart and the "Binet-Simon Scale" to study mental retardation in the early 20th century are considered, along with the implications of this practice. With the thesis that mental retardation was primarily familial and hereditary, limiting reproduction and segregation were viewed as appropriate approaches. (SEW)

  8. Consanguinity and mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, T; Narayan, J

    1991-04-01

    Consanguinity among parents as a cause of mental retardation in their children is debatable. The present study was conducted to find out the effect of consanguinity on mental retardation where the causative factor is not established. A total of 517 mentally retarded persons and their families were studied out of which 160 were born of consanguineous marriage and 357 were of non-consanguineous marriage. The results indicated that, when there is a history of mental retardation in the family and if the parents are consanguineously married, the risk of mental retardation in the offspring is significantly high (chi 2 = 11.52; P less than 0.001). Among the consanguineously married families, the blood relationship of uncle-niece seems to have the highest risk of affecting the offsprings. The implications are discussed in detail. PMID:2072392

  9. Preventing Mental Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Fotheringham, John B.

    1974-01-01

    Influences producing mental retardation can be divided into three categories: inherited factors, health problems and social-emotional influences. This article outlines steps which can be taken to reduce the first two categories, both pre and postnatally. PMID:20469133

  10. Vignettes in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissey, Marie Skodak

    1983-01-01

    Described are turn-of-the-century (1900) efforts of E. Johnstone, Vineland Training School for the mentally retarded; H. Goddard, psychologist (also at Vineland); and C. Davenport, Carnegie Foundation biological laboratory, Coldspring Harbor; to identify the roles of genetic heredity and environmental impact, and thus to eradicate or ameliorate…

  11. Epidemiology of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heber, Rick

    Prevalence data on mental retardation is presented including international estimates on general prevalence, age directions, geographical variations within the United States, racial and ethnic variations, economic class distributions, family variations, and population distribution in institutions. Statistics are also provided in areas of specific…

  12. Educable Mentally Retarded, Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suo, Minnie Alice; Willemin, Helen

    Intended for teachers of special classes of educable mentally retarded children aged 6 to 8 (mental age = 3.5 to 4.9), the guide stresses skills necessary to the development of physical, personal and social, and vocational competency. An introduction defines philosophy and goals, outlines the educable mentally retarded program and the readiness…

  13. The Mentally Retarded in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunewald, Karl

    Described are residential and educational services provided for mentally retarded (MC) children and adults in Sweden. Normalization is the focus of the services which make maximum use of mental and physical capacities to reduce the handicap of mental retardation. Described are general principles, and four stages involving development of services…

  14. Teaching the Educable Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Harold D.

    The text discusses the behavior, evaluation, and education of mentally retarded children. Harold D. Love presents an overview of the retarded, a description of intelligence and personality tests, and a historical survey of retardation; Virginia Cantrell reviews the educational philosophies and methods of Itard, Seguin, and Montessori. Shirley K.…

  15. THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROME, L.; STERN, J.

    DATA FROM RECENT COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE ASSEMBLED, INCLUDING MATERIAL ON ETIOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS. AREAS COVERED ARE (1) GENETIC CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) DISORDERS OF GESTATION, (3) BIRTH INJURY, (4) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTNATAL CAUSES OF MENTAL…

  16. China's Approach to Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hittman, Stephan

    History, tradition, culture, and superstition have played significant roles in influencing Chinese attitudes toward the mentally retarded. China's overwhelmingly rural, agricultural society has made it dependent upon a huge force of semi-skilled and unskilled labor, to which the retarded are capable of contribution. The stress on self-reliance,…

  17. Realidades Acerca de la Deficiencia Mental = Facts about Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Mental Health and Mental Retardation, Austin.

    This document consists of two booklets, one in Spanish and one in English, both covering the same text: the characteristics of mentally retarded individuals, the prevalence of mentally retarded persons in Texas, causes of mental retardation, prevention possibilities, and services available to mentally retarded persons in Texas. A distinction is…

  18. Auto cannibalism in mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rohit; Mina, Shaily; Sachdeva, Ankur

    2014-01-01

    Mental retardation (MR) deems an individual more vulnerable to psychopathologies. The individual may develop an array of behavioral disturbances manifesting themselves in the form of aggressive and destructive conduct, violent fits of anger, stereotyped, or self-injuring behavior. Self-injurious behavior is heterogeneous in nature ranging from mild to severe variant. We report a case of a 7-year-old boy with MR with self-inflicted severe oral injuries of cannibalistic nature presenting as cleft lip and palate. A more extensive research is needed on the problem behaviors in mentally retarded patients for early detection and effective and timely intervention leading to a better outcome. PMID:24891909

  19. [Sterilization of mentally retarded women].

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, W; Petersen, P; Schneider, J

    1982-07-01

    Seven mentally retarded women were sterilized in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Medical School Hannover between 1.6.74 and 1.6.81. The decision to operate proceeded only after careful consideration by the director of the clinic. Each case was documented with proof that improvement of the mental situation was unprobable and that sterilization seemed highly desirable. In spite of strong reservation the sterilization of a mentally retarded may medically and ethically be justified in exceptional cases. The operation seems possible by the following: The sterilization may only be performed if the patient does not obviously refuse it. Diagnosis and prognosis of the mental handicap must undoubtedly be proven. If the patient cannot judge the consequence of the operation the legal guardian must decide for her. The court must consent in these cases. Regarding legal theory the decision by the guardian is an open question. PMID:6922080

  20. Books for Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincinnati - Hamilton County Public Library, OH.

    Presented is an annotated list of approximately 300 books for educable (EMR) and trainable mentally retarded (TMR) children and adolescents, 6 to 15 years of age. Books are arranged in the following groups for EMR students: Group I contains approximately 84 entries for students 6 to 9 years of age; Group II lists approximately 81 stories and books…

  1. Transportation and the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

    Reported were the results of a contract that involved identification, description, and categorization of the nature of transportation problems for the mentally retarded by means of analysis of existing studies, two surveys, and an inventory of specialized programs and systems operating in the United States. One major problem was found to be…

  2. Detection of Malingered Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shandera, Anne L.; Berry, David T. R.; Clark, Jessica A.; Schipper, Lindsey J.; Graue, Lili O.; Harp, Jordan P.

    2010-01-01

    In a cross-validation of results from L. O. Graue et al. (2007), standard psychological assessment instruments, as well as tests of neurocognitive and psychiatric feigning, were administered under standard instructions to 24 participants diagnosed with mild mental retardation (MR) and 10 demographically matched community volunteers (CVH). A 2nd…

  3. HANDBOOK OF MENTAL RETARDATION SYNDROMES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARTER, CHARLES H.

    THE CLINICAL SYNDROMES WHICH CONTRIBUTE TO THE PRODUCTION OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE DESCRIBED BY SIGNS, SYMPTOMS, AND ETIOLOGY. SYNDROMES TREATED ARE (1) PRENATAL AND POSTNATAL INFECTIONS, (2) PRENATAL INTOXICATION AND ALLERGIC REACTIONS, (3) PRENATAL TRAUMA, PHYSICAL AGENTS, OR INTOXICATION, (4) BIRTH INJURIES, (5) POSTNATAL POISONS AND ALLERGIC…

  4. Dichotic Stimulation and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosley, James L.; Virbancic, Mirna I.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews literature on the use of dichotic stimulation in individuals with mental retardation, and examines how noninvasive dichotic stimulation relates to hemisphere lateralization. Common findings are discussed concerning direction and magnitude of ear asymmetries, patterns of intrusion errors, and speech lateralization of Down…

  5. Genetic Counseling in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Peter

    The task of the genetic counselor who identifies genetic causes of mental retardation and assists families to understand risk of recurrence is described. Considered are chromosomal genetic disorders such as Down's syndrome, inherited disorders such as Tay-Sachs disease, identification by testing the amniotic fluid cells (amniocentresis) in time…

  6. Mental Retardation: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poser, Charles M., Ed.

    A collection of writings by 17 authors, the text includes the following discussions: general principles of diagnosis and management of mental retardation, neurologic evaluation of the infant and child, psychological evaluation, educational information, and treatment of pseudoretardation, communicative disorders, and metabolic and endocrine causes.…

  7. The Mentally Retarded Offender: Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilit, Jeffrey; And Others

    An annotated bibliography of approximately 150 books and articles on the mentally retarded offender as well as 30 nonannotated entries are provided. Topics covered include such areas as characteristics of mentally retarded delinquents, rehabilitation of the retarded offender, community services for retarded persons, rights of the mentally…

  8. Endocrine Disorders Associated with Mental Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Churku Mohan

    1980-01-01

    Endocrine disorders associated with mental retardation are described in relation to clinical characteristics, pathogenesis, diagnostic procedures, and treatment. Some endocrine disorders, particularly hypothyroidism, nephrogenic-diabetes insipidus, and hypoglycemic conditions, are frequently associated with mental retardation. Early diagnosis and prompt and proper management reduce mortality and the incidence of mental retardation associated with endocrine disorders. PMID:7392067

  9. Mental Retardation: Prevention Strategies That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

    The report by the President's Committee on Mental Retardation reviews the current state of knowledge in the area of biological and environmental prevention of mental retardation and describes programs on the frontiers of research or service delivery. Section I examines programs that are effectively preventing mental retardation through biomedical…

  10. THE TEACHER OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHARNEY, LEON; LACROSSE, EDWARD

    BASIC INFORMATION IS PROVIDED FOR PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS OF MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN. THE FIRST FOUR CHAPTERS ARE DEVOTED TO CLASSROOM CONDITIONS, PARENTAL ATTITUDES, AND TEACHER-PUPIL INTERACTION IN THE SPECIAL CLASS FOR RETARDATES. CHAPTER ONE GIVES A GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED CHILD AS HE APPEARS TO THE TEACHER. CHAPTER TWO…

  11. Innovations in Vocational Rehabilitation and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, George E., Ed.

    Conference proceedings of the Vocational Rehabilitation Subdivision Meetings held at the American Association on Mental Deficiency contain discussions of innovative aspects of vocational rehabilitation and mental retardation. In the area of training rehabilitation counselors, George Baroff describes the Mental Retardation Training Institute in…

  12. Orthopaedic Problems of the Mentally Retarded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSweeney, Anthony

    1972-01-01

    Problems encountered by orthopedic surgeons treating the mentally retarded are identified, and cooperation among pediatricians, psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, and orthopedic surgeons is recommended. (GW)

  13. Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    The relationship between low elevated lead absorption and mild mental retardation was investigated in 40 rural children (preschool to grade 12) without demonstrable cause for their retardation. Trace mineral analysis of hair samples from Ss and a control group (N=20) indicated the mean hair lead concentrations for the retarded Ss were considerably…

  14. Identifying Depression in Students with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stough, Laura M.; Baker, Lynn

    1999-01-01

    Offers guidelines to teachers for identifying depression in students with mental retardation. Discusses prevalence and symptoms of depression, causes of depression, difficulty of diagnosis in students with mental retardation, detecting symptoms in the classroom, treatment of depression, and psychological services. Inserts list ideas for helping…

  15. Teaching Language Arts to Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Janet K.

    Suggestions are made for teaching language arts to mentally retarded children. The nature of language arts, the effect of mental retardation on the learning of language arts, and the need for home-school cooperation are treated. Also described are language arts areas, the school program, methods of beginning instruction, speech training,…

  16. Arm Tremor, Tardive Dyskinesia, and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Emmerik, R. E. A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The arm tremor of adults (n=32) diagnosed as having mental retardation and/or tardive dyskinesia was examined through an analysis of the acceleration properties of several arm postures. The degree of arm acceleration was increased in all subjects compared to a control group without mental retardation. Effects of neuroleptic medication were noted.…

  17. Assertiveness Training and the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granat, Jay P.

    1978-01-01

    This article reviews some of the basic principles of assertiveness training and explains the application of this treatment to the habilitation of mentally retarded adults. It presents qualitative data regarding the value of assertiveness training in a counseling group of mentally retarded persons and proposes several guidelines for counselors.…

  18. Body Awareness in Children with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Johan; Dedroog, Inge

    2009-01-01

    The body awareness of 124 toddlers with mental retardation and of 124 children developing normally matched to them on age and gender was examined. Twenty-nine of the children with mental retardation were diagnosed as Down syndrome (DS). The "Pointing and Naming" Test of Berges and Lezine [Berges, J., & Lezine, I. (1978). "Test d'imitation de…

  19. Mental Retardation: Update 2002. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hourcade, Jack

    This digest provides an overview of mental retardation in children and adults. It begins by discussing the definition of mental retardation and the three components that are required for an accurate diagnosis: an IQ score of approximately 70 or below, a determination of deficits in adaptive behavior, and origins of the disability prior to age 18.…

  20. Residential Facilities for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumeister, Alfred A., Ed.; Butterfield, Earl, Ed.

    The handbook on residential institutions, for professionals and students in the field of mental retardation, attempts to interpret the institution as a part of the culture which it serves, avoiding emotional responses but suggesting formulas for change. Characteristics of contemporary institutions for the mentally retarded are examined and…

  1. Poverty and Mental Retardation: A Causal Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Rodger L.

    The incidence of mental retardation among the poor and the reasons for such high prevalence are the focus of the text which is based largely on the state of New Jersey. Mental retardation is viewed as a social pathology which thrives in the ghetto; the effects of poverty and racial prejudice are explored as are the assessment of intelligence and…

  2. Counseling the Mentally Retarded: A Psychoeducational Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spragg, Paul A.

    The paper suggests that a cognitive or psychoeducational perspective is valuable in counseling mentally retarded individuals. Psychoeducational considerations in pretreatment assessment, with an emphasis on process rather than product, are noted; and it is explained that counseling of mentally retarded persons can be enhanced through the use of…

  3. Noncitizen: Plight of the Mentally Retarded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skarnulis, Ed

    1974-01-01

    Mentally retarded citizens have been denied their human and civil rights, not only by the public, but by professionals--including social workers. The author claims that most programs for the mentally retarded are, at best, dehumanizing. Professionals have an ethical obligation to refuse to refer children to such programs. (Author)

  4. Toward a positive psychology of mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Dykens, Elisabeth M

    2006-04-01

    Researchers and practitioners alike have long focused on the external life conditions, adaptive behavior, and inclusion of persons with mental retardation. Using breakthroughs in positive psychology, this article proposes a new research agenda focused on the positive, internal states of those with mental retardation. It shows how major movements in the mental retardation field--quality of life, dual diagnosis, personality motivation, and families--have succeeded in some arenas but failed to address happiness and well-being. Examples of happiness--of positive emotions, flow, strengths, and virtues--are offered in people with genetic causes of mental retardation. Complexities related to etiology, measurement, flow, and a meaningful life are described, as is the vital role that mental retardation can play in the emerging science of positive psychology. PMID:16719637

  5. Care Of The Mentally Retarded

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, J.

    1979-01-01

    Mental retardation is a clinical syndrome, not an intellectual defect or brain disease per se. As such, physicians should not participate in the downgrading labelling of moron, idiot and imbecile. Such labelled people are difficult to relate to and this results in the concept of 'nil expectations' in which the whole of society participates. Maladaptation in this syndrome is more related to poor environmental input than to basic organic defect, and is a family problem. The family doctor is in an ideal situation to help the family handle the problems of anger, shame, guilt, rejection. If aware of his own feelings, he should also be the coordinator of the physical needs of the child and the alternatives available for maximal input. Imagesp1344-a PMID:21297810

  6. Trends in Classification Usage in the Mental Retardation Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald L.; Kaufmann, Steve

    1991-01-01

    A total of 685 articles in "Mental Retardation,""American Journal of Mental Deficiency," and "American Journal on Mental Retardation" from 1980 through 1989 were examined. The mental retardation classification system developed by the American Association on Mental Retardation was used in over 50 percent of the articles, whereas the American…

  7. Epidemiological issues in mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Fryers, T

    1987-12-01

    The basic epidemiological issues have not changed fundamentally in 30 years but emphases are different. Clarity of concept and definition is essential; we need several definitions for different purposes, and should distinguish global criteria defining groups in some way specifically 'retarded' and partial criteria defining groups not exclusive to retardation. Of global definitions, we can distinguish Intellectual Impairment based on IQ, Learning Disability based on educational criteria, and Mental Handicap or Retardation based on service or administrative criteria. The first and second may be co-terminous for children. The first and third are usually co-terminous below a certain IQ level, conventionally 50, as SII and SMH/R. This is not so for higher ability groups: MII and MMR are conceived and defined differently, and suit different research purposes. There may be much unknown need because there have been so few studies of total IQ defined groups above 50. Although organic and psychological factors are very important, the study of MMR needs to recognize its primarily social nature, reflecting determinants of selection into MMR status in legal, organizational and professional structures, activities and attitudes characteristic of particular communities and cultures. If the primary focus is on aetiological factors, natural history, and preventive possibilities, study group should be aetiologically defined and preferably not limited to MR. The same applies to specific impairments, disabilities, diseases, behaviours and disadvantages. The services are also susceptible to epidemiological approaches, descriptive, analytic, interventionist and evaluative, but little is yet available on agency structure and function, professional activities, attitudes and training, legal contexts, and financial constraints. Rigorous outcome studies would greatly benefit rapidly developing services. We know quite a lot about the distribution and associations of SII/SMR, though more is

  8. Mental Retardation, Selected Conference Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheerenberger, R.C., Ed.

    A compilation of selected papers includes the following: comprehensive diagnostic services; pediatric aspects of diagnosis; psychological evaluation of the severely retarded; use of social competency devices; diagnosis of the adult retarded; programing for the severely retarded; nursery school experiences for the trainable; a practical approach to…

  9. Video Tape and the Mentally Retarded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisbord, H. F.

    1972-01-01

    Three uses of video tape recordings with the mentally retarded; discussed briefly are staff training or teacher education, parental involvement in the child's education, and therapeutic uses by psychiatrists and psychologists. (CB)

  10. Job Enrichment and the Mentally Retarded Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jerry L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The effect of job enrichment on the production rate of 14 mentally retarded adult workers was evaluated. Job enrichment led to increases in standard rates of production for high IQ Ss and lower rates for low IQ Ss. (Author)

  11. Sterilization of Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Thomas E.; Andersen, H. Frank

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the historical, legal, and ethical concerns regarding sterilization for persons with mental retardation and offers guidelines to help counsel individuals with disabilities or their families regarding decision making about sterilization. (DB)

  12. Political Philosophy and the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanovich, Keith E.

    The effects of Social Darwinism, eugenics, and contemporary political conservatism on the status of advocacy efforts for the mentally retarded are reviewed. Provided are historical sketches of Social Darwinism, which viewed the retarded as members of an inferior race, and eugenics, which argued for sterilization of the "genetically unfit". The…

  13. Mental Retardation's Two Cultures of Behavioral Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    1994-01-01

    This survey of nine journals identified two distinct cultures in mental retardation research: classification by level of retardation (usually by psychologists and special educators) or etiology (usually by geneticists and psychiatric researchers). The paper discusses varied effects that genetic etiology may have on behavior, issues in reconciling…

  14. Teaching Physical Education to Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Patricia A.

    Methods for teaching physical education activities and skills to mentally retarded children are presented. General objectives are listed and the physical education program is outlined. Hints are offered for teaching the retarded child; and basic skills and rhythms are described. The following are then described; rhythm games, a volleyball unit and…

  15. Computational Errors of Mentally Retarded Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janke, Robert W.

    1980-01-01

    Examined computational errors made by educable mentally retarded students on the arithmetic subtest of the Wide Range Achievement Test. Retarded students had a lower percent of grouping and inappropriate inversion errors and a higher percent of incorrect operation errors than regular students had in Engelhardt's study. (Author)

  16. Anterior cervical hypertrichosis and mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Thienpont, Bernard; Vermeesch, Joris; Devriendt, Koen

    2006-07-01

    Anterior cervical hypertrichosis or hairy throat is a rare dysmorphic sign described in a total of 19 patients so far. The association with a number of additional features has been reported, including mental retardation. We report on another patient with this condition who also had moderate mental retardation, mildly dysmorphic facial features, obesity, hypermetropia and additional hair anomalies (low dorsal hair line on the neck, lumbosacral hypertrichosis). Karyotype and array comparative genomic hybridization analysis at 1 Mb resolution were normal. PMID:16760744

  17. Mental Retardation. Fact Sheet = El Retraso Mental. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on mental retardation is written in both English and Spanish. It begins with a vignette of a 15-year-old boy with mental retardation. Mental retardation is briefly explained as are some causes of mental retardation. It notes that a diagnosis of mental retardation looks at two things: first, the ability of a person's brain to learn,…

  18. Mental Illness in Persons with Mental Retardation: ARC Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Linda R.; Wimmer, Sharon

    This brief factsheet presents information on mental illness in mentally retarded persons. The most prevalent disorders found in this population are schizophrenia, organic brain syndrome, adjustment disorders, personality disorders, depression, and behavioral problems. Few standardized methods of assessment exist for the diagnosis of mental illness…

  19. Intrauterine radiation exposures and mental retardation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.

    1988-08-01

    Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures.

  20. X linked mental retardation: a clinical guide

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, F L

    2006-01-01

    Mental retardation is more common in males than females in the population, assumed to be due to mutations on the X chromosome. The prevalence of the 24 genes identified to date is low and less common than expansions in FMR1, which cause Fragile X syndrome. Systematic screening of all other X linked genes in X linked families with mental retardation is currently not feasible in a clinical setting. The phenotypes of genes causing syndromic and non‐syndromic mental retardation (NLGN3, NLGN4, RPS6KA3(RSK2), OPHN1, ATRX, SLC6A8, ARX, SYN1, AGTR2, MECP2, PQBP1, SMCX, and SLC16A2) are first discussed, as these may be the focus of more targeted mutation analysis. Secondly, the relative prevalence of genes causing only non‐syndromic mental retardation (IL1RAPL1, TM4SF2, ZNF41, FTSJ1, DLG3, FACL4, PAK3, ARHGEF6, FMR2, and GDI) is summarised. Thirdly, the problem of recurrence risk where a molecular genetics diagnosis has not been made and what proportion of the male excess of mental retardation is due to monogenic disorders of the X chromosome are discussed. PMID:16118346

  1. Repair Behaviors of Children with and without Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scudder, Rosalind R.; Tremain, Deborah Hobbs

    1992-01-01

    Communication repair behaviors of 10 children with mental retardation (ages 11-13) and 10 mental age-matched children without mental retardation were examined. The children with mental retardation did not respond as often and rarely used details to expand their utterances. Results have implications for the development of conversational skills in…

  2. Sterilization of the Mentally Ill and the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors, Washington, DC.

    Reported were the results of a survey on the sterilization of the mentally ill and the mentally retarded. Thirty-three states responded to the survey. It was found that 17 states have a sterilization statute, but the existence of the statute was explained not to mean that the procedure was used. Sixteen states responded that they did not have a…

  3. Mental Health and Mental Retardation Services in Nevada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, J. S.; And Others

    Summarized are the findings and recommendations of a 2-year study of all major mental health, and mental retardation, alcohol, and drug abuse services and programs in Nevada. Fourteen chapters are given to the following topics (sample subtopics are in parentheses): description of the survey (scope of the project); summary and recommendations…

  4. Jean Piaget Archives Bibliography on Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Susie; And Others

    This bibliography lists all entries from the Jean Piaget Archives Catalogues dealing with mental retardation. The list, including almost 200 entries, encompasses four works by Piaget himself, one collaboration, and 189 works by other authors. Entries are arranged in order by their publication in one of the 12 catalogues of the archives, providing…

  5. Computer Assisted Instruction for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Providence Coll., RI.

    Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) for the mentally retarded is described; the advantages of CAI (which generally follows the pattern of programed instruction) are listed; and the roles of the teacher and the student are summarized. The coursewriter is explained, and its use as an experimental tool discussed. Guidelines are given covering…

  6. Language Transference by Mentally Retarded Spanish Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Carol

    In an investigation of language transference vs. language interference, 12 trainable mentally retarded Spanish speakers (5 to 9 years old) were trained to name in English objects previously identified receptively and objects not previously identified receptively in Spanish. Results indicated no significant difference in the number of words learned…

  7. Implementing Programs for Trainable Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Indianapolis.

    Guidelines for the development of programs for trainable mentally retarded children are presented. Major task areas identified are the family group, communication skills, physical development, socialization, recreational interests and skills, and preparation for work oriented activity. Six papers are presented: precision teaching and behavior…

  8. Improving Outcomes for Workers with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornes, Sandra; Rocco, Tonette S.; Rosenberg, Howard

    2008-01-01

    This research presents an analysis of factors predicting job retention, job satisfaction, and job performance of workers with mental retardation. The findings highlight self-determination as a critical skill in predicting the three important employee outcomes. The study examined a hypothesized job retention model and the outcome of the three…

  9. Noncompliant Behavior of People with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Rex G.

    1993-01-01

    This literature review on antecedents, behaviors, and consequences in the noncompliant behavior of people with mental retardation found that noncompliance is more likely when instructions are vague or task demands are too difficult and that noncompliance responds well to programs utilizing combinations of social and tangible rewards. (Author/JDD)

  10. Teaching the Mentally Retarded Job Interviewing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinnell, Jr., Richard M.; Lieberman, Alice

    1977-01-01

    Examined the most effective usage of videotape in job interview skill training for 24 mentally retarded young adults utilizing the microcounseling model of instruction. Data revealed the microcounseling model is most effective with the two skill areas of eye contact and body posture regardless of the method of videotape utilization. (Author)

  11. Mental Retardation: Past, Present and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissey, Marie Skodak

    1975-01-01

    Notes that two developments had major impacts on policies towards the mentally retarded between the 1880s and the 1920s: (1) the swing toward the eugenics-heredity-genetics movement, and (2) the development of individual intelligence testing. (Author/JM)

  12. Euthanasia and Mental Retardation: Suggesting the Unthinkable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Russell

    1989-01-01

    The article examines current opinions toward euthanasia of persons with mental retardation in light of the history of public and professional attitudes. It also discusses the rejection of euthanasia on moral and religious grounds, and notes the use of lifelong incarceration, based on eugenics principles, to accomplish similar ends. (DB)

  13. STUDYING LEARNING PATTERNS IN MENTAL RETARDATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CANDLAND, DOUGLAS K.; MANNING, SIDNEY ALPERN

    FIVE EXPERIMENTS WERE CONDUCTED IN AN ATTEMPT TO ISOLATE SPECIFIC LEARNING PATTERNS IN CHILDREN OF VARYING DEGREES OF MENTAL RETARDATION AND TO CONTRIBUTE TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE PHYLOGENETIC DEVELOPMENT OF INTELLIGENCE. FACTORS STUDIED WERE THOSE KNOWN TO INFLUENCE LEARNING IN NORMAL CHILDREN AND ADULTS--KIND OF REINFORCEMENT (VERBAL OR…

  14. Ophthalmologic Screening of Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Joel G.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Ophthalmological screening was conducted on 113 clients in a work activity center for adults with mental retardation. Abnormalities that were neither refractive nor strabismic were found in 32 percent of clients. Findings suggest the value of conducting screenings in settings familiar to such clients. (Author/DB)

  15. Vocational Horticulture for Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, William H.; And Others

    The study explored methods and techniques for training mentally retarded adults to perform gardening tasks. A total of 31 subjects ages 21 to 48 (IQ range 32-89) participated in the study, which consisted of three phases. In an initial pilot study, experimentation without subjects resulted in the development of modified tools (e.g., notched…

  16. Aging, Mental Retardation and Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, James H.

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to provide an overview of what physical fitness is and how it relates to people with mental retardation. Questions address the following topics: the fitness movement; a definition of physical fitness; the different components of physical fitness (muscle strength and endurance, flexibility, body…

  17. PARENT ATTITUDES IN REARING MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEICHMAN, NATHAN S.; WILLENBERG, ERNEST P.

    POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF REARING MENTAL RETARDATES WERE IDENTIFIED AND MEASURED DURING THIS STUDY BY EXAMINATIONS OF PARENTAL ATTITUDES AND HOW THESE ATTITUDES OFTEN AFFECT THE DAILY BEHAVIOR AND LEARNING READINESS OF CHILDREN WHILE IN SCHOOL. BEHAVIORAL FACTORS OF THE INDIVIDUAL CHILD WERE ANALYZED AND COMPARED WITH STATISTICS COVERING…

  18. Cardiovascular Risk Factor Levels in Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, James H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Comparison of cardiovascular risk factors (blood lipids, obesity, and smoking) in 329 adults with mental retardation residing in various settings with subjects in the Framingham Offspring Study found that adults with mental retardation had cardiovascular risk profiles similar to those of individuals without mental retardation. (Author/DB)

  19. The Problem of Typological Thinking in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelb, Steven A.

    1997-01-01

    Asserts that typological thinking, the belief that individual differences diverge around an underlying type of essence, has persisted regarding mental retardation and prevents the appreciation of individual differences and human dignity in the mental retardation field. Past and present controversies over the definition of mental retardation are…

  20. Attitudes of High School Students toward Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krajewski, Junean; Flaherty, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    The attitudes of 144 high school students toward individuals with mental retardation were examined using the Mental Retardation Attitude Inventory-Revised. Results indicated that gender and frequency of contact both influenced attitudes. Females and students with more frequent contacts with individuals with mental retardation indicated more…

  1. Conjunctive Visual Search in Individuals with and without Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlin, Michael; Chrysler, Christina; Sullivan, Kate

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the basic visual and cognitive abilities of individuals with mental retardation is critical for understanding the basis of mental retardation and for the design of remediation programs. We assessed visual search abilities in individuals with mild mental retardation and in MA- and CA-matched comparison groups. Our…

  2. Neuropsychological Profiles of Persons with Mental Retardation and Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Glen A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the use of neuropsychological tests to assist in the differential diagnosis of dementia among persons with mental retardation. The author compared performances of persons with mental retardation and dementia ("n" = 10) to persons with mental retardation without dementia ("n" = 12). Participants were matched by IQ (mild or…

  3. Motor Task Persistence of Children with and without Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozub, Francis M.; Porretta, David L.; Hodge, Samuel R.

    2000-01-01

    Task persistence by 31 children (ages 9-13) with and without mental retardation during two challenging motor tasks was investigated. A main effect was found for group affiliation: children without mental retardation attempted more trials over three sessions. Results indicated children with mental retardation were less persistent than typical…

  4. Guidelines for Library Services for People with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Specialized and Cooperative Library Agencies, Chicago, IL.

    This guide is designed to assist all libraries, including school, public, academic, and specialized libraries such as prison and institutional libraries, to better serve the needs of people of all ages who are mentally retarded. An overview provides a definition of mental retardation, places services for people with mental retardation in…

  5. Serving Young Children Whose Parents Are Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Eleanor W.; Bakley, Sue

    1989-01-01

    The article reviews the cognitive and social/emotional characteristics associated with mental retardation, the literature on parents with mental retardation, and the interaction between these characteristics in relation to child abuse and neglect. Three case studies of mentally retarded parents illustrate the range of problems and needs service…

  6. [Curing mental retardation: searching for balance].

    PubMed

    Harel, Sharon; Jenna, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Mental retardation (MR) occurs in 2 to 3 % of the general population and is still not therapeutically addressed. Milder forms of MR result from deficient synaptogenesis and/or impaired synaptic plasticity during childhood. These alterations would result from disequilibrium in signalling pathways regulating the balance between long term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD) in certain neurons such as hippocampus neurons. To provide mentally retarded children with increased cognitive abilities, novel experimental approaches are currently being developed to characterize signalling status associated with MR and to identify therapeutic targets that would restore lost equilibrium. Several studies also highlighted the major role played by molecular switches like kinases, phosphatases, small G proteins and their regulators in the coordination and integration of signalling pathways associated with synaptic plasticity. These proteins may therefore constitute promising therapeutic targets for a number of cognitive deficiencies. PMID:21299965

  7. Older Mentally Retarded Persons: Demographic Profile and Service Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

    An overview is presented on current knowledge about elderly mentally retarded persons. Definitional and incidence issues are addressed, and support is voiced for use of a lower cut-off for the beginning of old age among the retarded than for the general population. Conflicting findings of age-related differences in mentally retarded adults are…

  8. Eyewitness Memory and Suggestibility in Children with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Lucy A.; Gudjonsson, Gisli H.

    1999-01-01

    A study compared how well 31 children (ages 11-12) with mental retardation, 19 age-matched (CA) children, and 21 mental-age (MA) matched children were able to recall a staged event one day later. Children with mental retardation were more suggestible in response to closed misleading questions than were CA children. (Contains references.)…

  9. Theories on Criminality and Mental Retardation Project CAMIO, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Jimmy R.; Friel, Charles M.

    This historical review of theories on criminality and mental retardation is part of Project CAMIO (Correctional Administration and the Mentally Incompetent Offender), a Texas study to determine the incidence of criminal incarceration of the mentally retarded (MR) and to identify laws, procedures, and practices which affect the prosecution and…

  10. Spiritual and religious need of mentally retarded persons.

    PubMed

    Carder, M M

    1984-06-01

    Describes the special spiritual and religious needs of the mentally retarded, at the same time proclaiming the necessity of thinking of them firstly as persons. Gives specific illustrations of how the spiritual and religious needs of the mentally retarded may be met by peers, chaplains, and family members. Offers a personal testimony on how the mentally retarded can contribute to the growth and insight of the caregiver. PMID:10266989

  11. Comparison of Families of Children with Mental Retardation and Families of Children without Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Zigler, Edward

    1993-01-01

    This commentary on EC 605 926 states that families of children with severe mental retardation or autism have problems that might be considered "the same, only more so" compared to issues faced by families with nonhandicapped children, and therefore solutions might involve magnifications of solutions being suggested to help all parents. (JDD)

  12. Evaluation of Still Picture Telephone for Mentally Retarded Persons. Telematics and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodin, Jane; Bjorck-Akesson, Eva

    This study examined the benefit of using a visual telecommunication system for Sweden's children and adults with mild to moderate mental retardation and speech difficulties. The Panasonic Image Communication Unit connects to standard modular telephones and includes a camera and monitor for the transfer of pictures. Units were placed in eight…

  13. A mentally retarded patient with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rabia, K; Khoo, Em

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most incapacitating forms of mental disorder that runs a chronic and relapsing course. It typically starts in adolescence or early adulthood and can be life-long. It is more common in people with learning disabilities than in the general population. Its prodromal features include depression, anxiety, suspiciousness, social isolation and bizarre behaviour. It may result in significant functional, social and economic impairments. The care of patients with schizophrenia places a considerable burden on all carers including patient's family, health and social services. Treatment includes pharmacotherapy and psychosocial interventions. In this case report we describe a thirteen-year-old patient with schizophrenia who has a background history of mental retardation. PMID:25606140

  14. Cataracts

    MedlinePlus

    ... has become cloudy, this is called a cataract. Vision problems with cataracts If your vision has become ... regularly for any changes. Cataract surgery for clearer vision When a cataract causes bothersome vision problems that ...

  15. Cataract

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Cataract What Is a Cataract? Click for more information A Clouding of the ... cannot spread from one eye to the other. Cataracts and Aging Most cataracts are related to aging. ...

  16. Cataracts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevalent Cases of Cataract (in thousands) by Age, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity Cataract is more likely to ... Prevalent Cases of Cataract (in thousands) by Age, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity Projections for Cataract (2010-2030- ...

  17. Oral rehabilitation and management of mentally retarded.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Jitender; Khetan, Jitendra; Gupta, Sarika; Tomar, Deepak; Singh, Meenakshi

    2015-01-01

    High level of periodontal problems of dental caries are frequently observed in mentally handicapped children. This group of patients presents various problems when they face dental treatments. Identification of such population and providing them affordable oral health care is the new concept. A systematic method for identification and screening of persons with mental retardation has been developed and is being followed. Cost and fear are the most commonly cited barriers to dental care. Physical or mental may lead to deterioration in self-care, and oral care state have a low priority. Risk factors are inter-related and are often barriers to oral health. With advancements in today's world sufficient information and support is available for each and every individual to lead a healthy life which include the access to the oral health care. Factors such as fear, anxiety and dental phobia plays a vital role in acceptance of dental care and also the delaying of dental care. Lack of knowledge of oral and dental disease, awareness or oral need, oral side-effects of medication and organization of dental services are highlighted in the literature. All health personnel should receive training to support the concept of primary oral health care. Training about dealing with such mentally handicapped people should be addressed urgently among the health professionals. PMID:25738098

  18. Oral Rehabilitation and Management of Mentally Retarded

    PubMed Central

    Khetan, Jitendra; Gupta, Sarika; Tomar, Deepak; Singh, Meenakshi

    2015-01-01

    High level of periodontal problems of dental caries are frequently observed in mentally handicapped children. This group of patients presents various problems when they face dental treatments. Identification of such population and providing them affordable oral health care is the new concept. A systematic method for identification and screening of persons with mental retardation has been developed and is being followed. Cost and fear are the most commonly cited barriers to dental care. Physical or mental may lead to deterioration in self-care, and oral care state have a low priority. Risk factors are inter-related and are often barriers to oral health. With advancements in today’s world sufficient information and support is available for each and every individual to lead a healthy life which include the access to the oral health care. Factors such as fear, anxiety and dental phobia plays a vital role in acceptance of dental care and also the delaying of dental care. Lack of knowledge of oral and dental disease, awareness or oral need, oral side-effects of medication and organization of dental services are highlighted in the literature. All health personnel should receive training to support the concept of primary oral health care. Training about dealing with such mentally handicapped people should be addressed urgently among the health professionals. PMID:25738098

  19. Mental Retardation: The Search for Cures. Research Monograph Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menolascino, Frank J.; Neman, Ronald

    The booklet describes the Association for Retarded Citizens' (ARC's) goal of coordinating efforts to seek a cure for mental retardation. Cures are defined as any intervention that would significantly increase intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior beyond the upper level of retardation. It is explained that because of the variety of causes…

  20. Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mild Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    To investigate the relation between low level lead absorption and mild mental retardation, hair lead concentrations were compared in a group of 40 mildly retarded children "etiology unknown" with a control group of 20 children. Children with probable cause for retardation were excluded from the sample as were children with a history of lead…

  1. Inter-relationship among degree of mental retardation, living arrangements, and dental health in adults with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Gabre, P; Gahnberg, L

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the inter-relationship among the degree of mental retardation, the way of living, and dental health in adults with mental retardation. One hundred and thirty-two adults between the ages of 21 and 40 years who were mentally retarded were examined on two occasions, one year apart. All subjects had had regular dental care for at least 10 years. The clinical examinations included bite-wing radiographs and were made by the same dentist. The degree of mental retardation was assessed by a professional psychologist. The results show that the degree of mental retardation as well as living arrangements are factors influencing the dental health of persons with mental retardation. Subjects who were mildly retarded had higher caries incidence and caries prevalence compared with subjects with moderate or severe mental retardation. From a preventive dental health perspective, special attention should be focused on subjects with mild mental retardation who are not living in institutions. PMID:9582703

  2. Further Evidence for Cognitive Inertia of Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Norman R.; Dulaney, Cynthia L.

    1991-01-01

    Forty young adults with mental retardation (MR) were compared to 40 young adults without mental retardation in tests examining postpractice interference effects in naming colors of Stroop words. The study concluded that practice developed automatized reading suppression responses which held greater cognitive inertia for longer periods among MR…

  3. Classification of Residential Facilities for Mentally Retarded People. Brief #24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, B. K.; Lakin, K. C.

    This paper describes the development of a taxonomy of residential facilities for mentally retarded people based on program model, size, and operation. Data are presented on the use of the classification system in a national survey of 15,633 residential facilities for mentally retarded persons in the United States. Program models are defined…

  4. Carbamazepine-Induced Hyponatremia in Patients with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastner, Ted; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study of 40 patients with mental retardation receiving carbamazepine found hyponatremia in only 5 percent of these patients and found a statistically, but not clinically, significant decrease in serum sodium levels in patients receiving anticonvulsant polytherapy. Results support the use of this drug with patients with mental retardation and…

  5. 45 CFR 1308.10 - Eligibility criteria: Mental retardation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DISABILITIES Health Services Performance Standards § 1308.10 Eligibility criteria: Mental retardation. (a) A... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Eligibility criteria: Mental retardation. 1308.10... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH...

  6. Behavioral Treatment of Aggression in the Mentally Retarded: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldstein, Jerome H.

    The paper reviews 34 behavioral treatment studies (1967-1983) examining reduction of aggressive behavior in mentally retarded people. Research reviewed was limited to treatment of physically aggressive responses such as hits, kicks, bites, chokes, scratches, and throwing objects by persons designated as mentally retarded. Among results reported…

  7. Nutrition and Mental Retardation. An Annotated Bibliography, 1964-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Ninfa Saturnino

    This annotated bibliography is primarily organized for nutritionists. It presents selected articles published from 1964 to the present. All aspects of nutrition in mental retardation are covered excepting inborn errors of metabolism. Sections are included on: (1) nutrition, birthweight, and mental retardation; (2) nutrition, growth, and mental…

  8. Arizona's Comprehensive Plan to Help the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Health, Phoenix. Mental Retardation Section.

    To help combat mental retardation, 136 recommendations are made for the following: establishment by statute of a division of mental retardation, an advisory council, and a coordinating council of agencies; changes in laws governing the Arizona Children's Colony, additional public school legislation, and a study of civil and criminal law; immediate…

  9. Association between the Diagnosis of Mental Retardation and Socioeconomic Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slone, Michelle; Durrheim, Kevin; Lachman, Peter; Kaminer, Debra

    1998-01-01

    An examination of clinical data from the regional hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, over four years for 538 children with a diagnosis of mental retardation found mild mental retardation referrals were underrepresented in low socioeconomic areas and that paramedical agencies were the primary referral source in these areas. (Author/CR)

  10. Development of the Fear Survey for Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Sylvia Z.; Lukenbill, James F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the fear survey for adults with mental retardation (FSAMR) and provides initial evidence of its psychometric properties. The FSAMR was designed to be sensitive to the assessment needs of individuals with mental retardation. The items were developed through open-ended interviews, a review of existing…

  11. Adaptive Behavior Malingering in Legal Claims of Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadlubek, Renee Marie

    2012-01-01

    In 2002, the Supreme Court ruled that it is unconstitutional to put people with mental retardation to death for capital crimes ("Atkins v. Virginia," 2002). Justice Scalia dissented, suggesting that mental retardation is a condition easy to feign. The current study examined whether participants provided with the definition of mental…

  12. Family Problem-Solving with Children Who Have Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Frank J; Harter, Kristina S. M.; Costigan, Catherine L.

    2004-01-01

    Problem-solving discussions were observed within families of children with mental retardation and multiple comparison groups (total N = 162 families). As expected, parents were more persistent and directive with their children who had mental retardation, but they also avoided negative exchanges with these children. These patterns did not spillover…

  13. Psychopharmacology and Mental Retardation: A 10 Year Review (1990- 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Bamburg, Jay W.; Mayville, Erik A.; Pinkston, Jim; Bielecki, Joanne; Kuhn, David; Smalls, Yemonja; Logan, James R.

    2000-01-01

    Review of the literature on psychopharmacology and mental retardation from 1990-1999 found most studies had major methodological flaws. Also, most drug administrations were not based in science, were not evaluated appropriately, and generally did not follow best practices for treatment of persons with mental retardation. A table lists the studies…

  14. Newborn Screening To Prevent Mental Retardation. The Arc Q & A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    This information fact sheet on screening newborns to prevent mental retardation defines newborn screening and outlines how screening is performed. It discusses the six most common disorders resulting in mental retardation for which states most commonly screen. These include phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism, galactosemia, maple syrup…

  15. Programs for Preventing the Causes of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliphant, Peter S.; And Others

    This monograph, which reports findings from the New Jersey Governor's Council on the Prevention of Mental Retardation, discusses the scope of mental retardation (MR), its causes, identification of people at risk, and prevention methods. The Council cites several cost-effective prevention programs, such as vaccination programs and prenatal care…

  16. Implicit Learning in Children and Adolescents with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinter, Annie; Detable, Christelle

    2003-01-01

    A study compared the implicit learning of 58 children (ages 7-14) with mental retardation and 53 controls (ages 3-8). Individuals with mental retardation modified their behavior after an implicit training procedure similar to the controls. The effect of implicit learning did not vary as a function of IQ or age. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  17. CEC Selected Convention Papers; Annual International Convention: Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children, Arlington, VA.

    The following articles on mental retardation are provided: translating research findings into classroom activity; camping programs; a measurement device for educable mentally retarded adolescents on their self-concept as a worker; an investigation of the Doman-Delacato Theory in a trainable program in the public schools; and problems of sex…

  18. Pre-Professional Training in Mental Retardation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lown, Irving C., Jr.

    To interest students in mental retardation health services careers, 10 eligible prebaccalaureate students were selected to participate in a 10-week summer training program. The first 2 weeks involved orientation to informational and training aspects of mental retardation and exposure to the health services related disciplines of recreational and…

  19. Defining Mental Retardation: A Matter of Life or Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichten, William; Simon, Elliot W.

    2007-01-01

    Because persons with mental retardation cannot be executed for murder, the diagnosis becomes a life and death matter. The American Association on Mental Retardation (now the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities) and other associations agree that IQ alone is an insufficient criterion and adaptive functioning also…

  20. 45 CFR 1308.10 - Eligibility criteria: Mental retardation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DISABILITIES Health Services Performance Standards § 1308.10 Eligibility criteria: Mental retardation. (a) A child is classified as mentally retarded who exhibits significantly sub-average intellectual functioning and exhibits deficits in adaptive behavior which adversely affect learning. Adaptive behavior...

  1. PUBLIC PROVISION FOR THE MENTALLY RETARDED IN THE UNITED STATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEST, HARRY

    WRITTEN FROM THE STANDPOINT OF THE SOCIOLOGIST OR SOCIAL SCIENTIST, THIS BOOK REPORTS DATA OBTAINED FROM STATISTICAL RESEARCH ON MENTAL RETARDATES. ITS CHIEF PURPOSE IS THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED AND PROVISIONS MADE FOR THEM IN THE UNITED STATES. DISCUSSION OF THE GENERAL CONDITION COVERS DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION, ETIOLOGY,…

  2. Ocular findings among mentally retarded children in Finland.

    PubMed

    Tuppurainen, K

    1983-08-01

    The distribution of refractive errors, astigmatism, anisometropia, visual acuity and organic ophthalmic diseases were determined among 149 Finnish mentally retarded (IQ less than 70) children, aged 9-10 years. The case group was classified in 3 categories according to the degree of mental retardation. The control group (n = 100) was selected by random sampling. PMID:6637425

  3. Defining Mental Retardation and Ensuring Access to the General Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of trends in the American Association on Mental Retardation's definition of mental retardation notes a shift toward a support paradigm and a definition stressing the interaction between a person's independent functioning and the various contexts of the person's life. The current definition is seen to promote greater access to the…

  4. School Behavior Problems of Mentally Retarded and Normal Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullinan, Douglas; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Female elementary, middle, and high school students (N=146) identified as educable mentally retarded were rated on the Quay-Peterson Behavior Problem Checklist by their teachers. Normal females were also rated for comparison. Analyses indicated that mentally retarded females exceeded normal females on the Conduct Disorder, Personality Problem, and…

  5. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38...

  6. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38...

  7. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38...

  8. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38...

  9. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38...

  10. Muscle Fatigue during Intermittent Exercise in Individuals with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zafeiridis, Andreas; Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Dipla, Konstantina; Salonikidis, Konstantinos; Karra, Chrisanthi; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2010-01-01

    This study examined fatigue profile during intermittent exercise in 10 men with mild to moderate mental retardation (MR) and 10 men without mental retardation (C). They performed 4 x 30 s maximal knee extensions and flexions with 1-min rest on an isokinetic dynamometer. Peak torque of flexors (PTFL) and extensors (PTEX), total work (TW), and…

  11. TERMINOLOGY AND CONCEPTS IN APPRAISING THE MENTALLY RETARDED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LORGE, IRVING; AND OTHERS

    THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO MINIMIZE THE VARIABILITY IN LEGAL AND EDUCATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED. A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW WAS MADE OF THE SEMANTIC VARIATIONS IN THE DEFINITION OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED IN TERMS OF FUNCTIONAL ADEQUACY FOR EDUCATION, TRAINING, OR CUSTODIAL CARE. THE METHOD INVOLVED THE REVIEW OF STATUTES AND…

  12. Physical Trauma as an Etiological Agent in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angle, Carol R., Ed.; Bering, Edgar A., Jr., Ed.

    The conference on Physical Trauma as a Cause of Mental Retardation dealt with two major areas of etiological concern - postnatal and perinatal trauma. Following two introductory statements on the problem of and issues related to mental retardation (MR) after early trauma to the brain, five papers on the epidemiology of head trauma cover…

  13. Reactions to the Labels "Institutionalized" and "Mentally Retarded" by Retarded and Nonretarded Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gibbons, Barbara N.

    The effects of labels, "mentally retarded" and "institutionalized" on the evaluations and causal attributions of nonretarded persons, and on the social distance preferences of EMR persons, were assessed. In addition, each group was asked to predict the likelihood of a labeled (mentally retarded) or a nonlabeled target person achieving success at a…

  14. Cytogenetic Findings in Mentally Retarded Iranian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, F; Mahjoubi, F; Manouchehry, F; Razazian, F; Mortezapour, F; Rahnama, M

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a cytogenetic study on 865 individuals with idiopathic mental retardation (MR) who were admitted to the Cytogenetics Department of the Iran Blood Transfusion Organisation (IBTO) Research Centre, Tehran, Iran; these were performed on blood samples using conventional staining methods. Chromosome anomalies were identified in 205 of the patients (23.6%). The majority were Down’s syndrome cases (n = 138). In 33 males, a positive fragile X anomaly was found. The remainder (n = 34) had other chromosomal abnormalities including structural chromosome aberrations (n = 23), marker chromosomes with an unknown origin (n = 3), sex chromosome aneuploidy (n = 6) and trisomy 18 (n = 2). The contribution of chromosome aberrations to the cause of MR in this group of patients is discussed. PMID:24052729

  15. Cataract

    MedlinePlus

    A cataract is a clouding of the lens in your eye. It affects your vision. Cataracts are very common in older people. By age ... than half of all Americans either have a cataract or have had cataract surgery. A cataract can ...

  16. Residential Programming for Mentally Retarded Persons. Volume I, Prevailing Attitudes and Practices in the Field of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Retarded Children, Arlington, TX. South Central Regional Office.

    The first of a series of four booklets on residential programing for the mentally retarded reviews for parents the prevailing definitions, attitudes and practices in the field. Mental retardation is defined as subaverage functioning which originates during the developmental period and is associated with impairment in adaptive behavior. The need…

  17. Cataracts

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Cataracts Information for adults A A A The gray, ... this dilated pupil displays the appearance typical of cataract. Overview A cataract is any clouding of the ...

  18. Mental Retardation: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 8 = El Retraso Mental; Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interstate Research Associates, McLean, VA.

    This fact sheet on mental retardation is offered in both English and Spanish. First it provides the federal definition of mental retardation and discusses components of the definition. Causes of mental retardation are briefly noted, and incidence figures are provided. Typical characteristics of people with mental retardation are mentioned.…

  19. Outpatient Services for Mentally Ill Retarded Clients in a Community Mental Health Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Arthur Stephenson, Jr.

    Although Community Mental Health Centers (CMHCs) are mandated to serve all clients requiring mental health services including those who are mentally retarded, it appears that many CMHCs have no programs designed to address the needs of the retarded. This paper describes a financially sound outpatient program which provides psychological and…

  20. Mental Rotation of Unfamiliar Stimuli by Teenagers with Mental Retardation: Role of Feature Salience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courbois, Yannick; Oross, Stephen, III; Clerc, Jerome

    2007-01-01

    Teenagers with mental retardation and two groups of children without mental retardation matched on MA or CA carried out mental rotation tasks of unfamiliar stimuli. Three shapes composed of four arms were used. For each shape, there was a version with a salient feature (F+), and a version with no salient feature (F-). Results showed that teenagers…

  1. Cataracts

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Cataracts Basic Facts & Information What are Cataracts? The lens of the eye is a clear ... in the US. The Most Common Types of Cataracts Cataracts are categorized depending on their location. They ...

  2. Activational Peaking in Educable and Trainable Mentally Retarded Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gargiulo, Richard M.; Uno, Tad

    1977-01-01

    A study involving 10 educable and 10 trainable mentally retarded adolescents indicated that levels of intellectual functioning influenced patterns of autonomic activation as measured by magnitude of the galvanic skin response. (CL)

  3. Horticultural Careers for Persons with Mental Retardation. Expanding Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dehart-Bennett, Mary E.; Relf, Diane

    1990-01-01

    Horticulture careers provide therapeutic, rewarding employment for persons with mental retardation. Rehabilitation experts should become aware of the potential employment opportunities in horticulture so that individuals with disabilities can receive the training and job placement support they need. (Author)

  4. Fire Safety Training with Adults Who Are Profoundly Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Rosamond; Roll, David

    1985-01-01

    An intensive fire safety training program for profoundly mentally retarded institutionalized persons resulted in a significant decrease in mean evacuation time and gradual substitution of verbal for physical prompts. (CL)

  5. Hierarchical Semantic Organization in Educable Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Nila N.; Johnson, N. S.

    1979-01-01

    Investigates the extent to which educable mentally retarded (EMR) children make functional use of a hierarchical class inclusion system in a memory retrieval task that does not have experimenter-imposed input organization. (MP)

  6. Forgotten Children: Maltreated Children of Mentally Retarded Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, Lucy S.

    1978-01-01

    Presented is a case study of a family in which mentally retarded parents abused their two normal children. Arthur Retlaw and Associates, Inc., Suite 2080, 1603 Orrington Avenue, Evanston, Illinois 60201. (CL)

  7. Aerobic Dance and the Mentally Retarded--A Winning Combination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Bonnie J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a study on an experimental dance program for mentally retarded children show that these children can improve in physical fitness and that success through physical activities can enhance their generally poor self-concept. (JN)

  8. Perceptual-Motor Attributes of Mentally Retarded Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cratty, Bryant J.

    To evaluate six perceptual-motor attributes of trainable and educable mentally retarded children, a battery of tests was constructed which included body perception, gross agility, balance, locomotor ability, throwing, and tracking; 83 retarded subjects provided reliability data, and their scores, with those of 120 additional subjects, provided…

  9. Mental Retardation. Selected Articles from the Rehabilitation Record.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehabilitation Services Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Presented are six articles on residential living, vocational education, employment recreation, deinstitutionalization, and workshop experience of mentally retarded children and adults. K. Grunewald discusses the planning of housing for five- to eight person groups of retarded children and adults in varying kinds of residential facilities in Sweden…

  10. Recreation for the Mentally Retarded: A Handbook for Ward Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    Designed primarily for use by ward personnel in residential facilities for the mentally retarded, the manual presents an overview of recreational services. Four papers introduce the importance of recreation and consider approaches for its provision: "Why Recreation?" (W. Lawler); "The Role of the Attendant in Providing Recreation for the Retarded"…

  11. Serial Memory Span Thresholds of Normal and Mentally Retarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumeister, Alfred A.

    1974-01-01

    Educable mental retardates and normal grade school students were presented seven classes of materials in both visual and auditory modalities for the determination of immediate memory span thresholds. Major conclusions included auditory presentation produces higher thresholds than visual, and retarded children may employ different processing…

  12. Communication Problems in Mental Retardation: Diagnosis and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillywhite, Herold S.; Bradley, Doris P.

    Discussed are the problems of communication in mental retardation with an introductory background and definition of this problem, including the etiological factors and general characteristics. A presentation of diagnostic methods leads into discussions of the problem of medical-dental management and educational management of the retarded child.…

  13. Genetic Causes of Mental Retardation. ARC Q&A #101-50.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize what is known about the genetic causes of mental retardation. Questions and answers address the following topics: what genetics is; how a person's genes can cause mental retardation; how often mental retardation is inherited (up to 60 percent of severe mental retardation has genetic…

  14. Molecular and comparative genetics of mental retardation.

    PubMed Central

    Inlow, Jennifer K; Restifo, Linda L

    2004-01-01

    Affecting 1-3% of the population, mental retardation (MR) poses significant challenges for clinicians and scientists. Understanding the biology of MR is complicated by the extraordinary heterogeneity of genetic MR disorders. Detailed analyses of >1000 Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database entries and literature searches through September 2003 revealed 282 molecularly identified MR genes. We estimate that hundreds more MR genes remain to be identified. A novel test, in which we distributed unmapped MR disorders proportionately across the autosomes, failed to eliminate the well-known X-chromosome overrepresentation of MR genes and candidate genes. This evidence argues against ascertainment bias as the main cause of the skewed distribution. On the basis of a synthesis of clinical and laboratory data, we developed a biological functions classification scheme for MR genes. Metabolic pathways, signaling pathways, and transcription are the most common functions, but numerous other aspects of neuronal and glial biology are controlled by MR genes as well. Using protein sequence and domain-organization comparisons, we found a striking conservation of MR genes and genetic pathways across the approximately 700 million years that separate Homo sapiens and Drosophila melanogaster. Eighty-seven percent have one or more fruit fly homologs and 76% have at least one candidate functional ortholog. We propose that D. melanogaster can be used in a systematic manner to study MR and possibly to develop bioassays for therapeutic drug discovery. We selected 42 Drosophila orthologs as most likely to reveal molecular and cellular mechanisms of nervous system development or plasticity relevant to MR. PMID:15020472

  15. Mental retardation and prenatal methylmercury toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Trasande, L.; Schechter, C.B.; Haynes, K.A.; Landrigan, P.J.

    2006-03-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a developmental neurotoxicant; exposure results principally from consumption of seafood contaminated by mercury (Hg). In this analysis, the burden of mental retardation (MR) associated with methylmercury exposure in the 2000 U.S. birth cohort is estimated, and the portion of this burden attributable to mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants is identified. The aggregate loss in cognition associated with MeHg exposure in the 2000 U.S. birth cohort was estimated using two previously published dose-response models that relate increases in cord blood Hg concentrations with decrements in IQ. MeHg exposure was assumed not to be correlated with native cognitive ability. Previously published estimates were used to estimate economic costs of MR caused by MeHg. Downward shifts in IQ resulting from prenatal exposure to MeHg of anthropogenic origin are associated with 1,566 excess cases of MR annually (range: 376-14,293). This represents 3.2% of MR cases in the US (range: 0.8%-29.2%). The MR costs associated with decreases in IQ in these children amount to $2.0 billion/year (range: $0.5-17.9 billion). Hg from American power plants accounts for 231 of the excess MR cases year (range: 28-2,109), or 0.5% (range: 0.06%-4.3%) of all MR. These cases cost $289 million (range: $35 million-2.6 billion). Toxic injury to the fetal brain caused by Hg emitted from coal-fired power plants exacts a significant human and economic toll on American children.

  16. BRIEF IN-PATIENT FAMILY INTERVENTION IN MENTAL RETARDATION

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, H.S.; Girimaji, S.R.; Gandhi, D.H.; Raju, K. Maruthai; Rao, P. Madhu; Nardev, G.

    1988-01-01

    SUMMARY A novel programme of intervention - brief inpatient family intervention - was formulated to impart the training skills to the parents of mentally retarded children to optimise the development of their retarded child. During the period of this study. 106 mentally retarded children with different socio-demographic backgrounds and degrees of handicap participated in this programme, with encouraging results. The individualised management plan, spread over 2 weeks of inpatient stay, included intensive counselling, training of the parents in techniques of multisensory stimulation, speech, motor, and self-help skills training, behaviour modification and medical management, as required. The programme could serve as a suitable model for professionals working with the mentally retarded, to implement with limited resources. PMID:21927322

  17. Oral Health of Institutionalized Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurek, George H.; Reid, William H.

    1993-01-01

    Residents (n=702) of Texas Department of Mental Health and Mental Retardation institutions were given dental examinations, and findings were compared with data from 1,077 residents 9 years earlier. Data were analyzed for oral pathology, unmet dental needs, contribution of dental care to habilitation, and effectiveness of the dental service system.…

  18. The Mentally Retarded and the Law Project CAMIO, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Jimmy R.; Friel, Charles M.

    Reviewed are statutory and case laws affecting arrest, prosecution, and treatment of the mentally retarded (MR) offender as part of Project CAMIO, (Correctional Administration and the Mentally Incompetent Offender), a Texas study to determine the incidence of criminal incarceration of the MR and to identify laws, procedures, and practices which…

  19. Recreation's Role in the Rehabilitation of the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Larry L., Ed.

    The monograph presents the proceedings from a conference sponsored by the Rehabilitation Research and Training Center in Mental Retardation of the University of Oregon (held May 19-21, 1969). Topics concerning recreation's role in the rehabilitation of the mentally handicapped include the following: the role of therapeutic recreation specialists,…

  20. Family, Environmental and Developmental Variables in Mental Retardation: A Multi-Dimensional Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggert, Dietrich

    1982-01-01

    To assess the mental abilities of mentally retarded children, 100 tests were tried out on more than 350 German Ss and the TBGB ("Test-batterie fur geistig behinderte Kinder"Test battery for mentally retarded children") was developed. (SW)

  1. Factors affecting social integration of noninstitutionalized mentally retarded adults.

    PubMed

    Reiter, S; Levi, A M

    1980-07-01

    The social integration of noninstitutionalized moderately and mildly mentally retarded young adults was investigated. A group of moderately and mildly retarded adults (study group) was compared with a group of borderline retarded (control group) adults on employability, behavior at work, social integration and social skills, personality, and self-concept. Findings indicated that the study group was less well integrated at work and in society than was the control group and showed lack of social skills. The retarded adults who had nonretarded friends showed better social-educational skills than did the other subjects. Findings suggest that even retarded individuals who grow up in the community need help in order to become socially independent. The existence of a special social club for retarded adults was found to fulfill the functions of a sheltered framework. Participants in the club showed more positive self-concepts; however, the club did not seem to prepare them for social integration in the general community. PMID:7446566

  2. Retraso Mental. Traduccion de ERIC EC Digest #528. (Mental Retardation. Translation of ERIC EC Digest #528).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins-Shepard, Charlotte

    This fact sheet presents basic information on mental retardation for Spanish-speaking educators and others. First, definitions from the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR) are presented. The fact sheet then analyzes how the new AAMR definitions differ from earlier ones,…

  3. Postnatal Organic Causes of Mental Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, G. G.

    1962-01-01

    A study of 1137 retarded children from Western Ontario revealed 129 (11.3%) in whom retardation was first noted after a specific postnatal event. Eighty-three of these were boys. The most common cause of postnatal cerebral injury in this series was a syndrome of unknown etiology characterized by the sudden onset of fever, convulsions and coma which occurred in 45 patients. The nature of this syndrome is discussed and the necessity for early treatment emphasized. Other postnatal causes of retardation are classified according to frequency, as encephalitis, accidents, meningitis and a miscellaneous group consisting of epilepsy and tumours. PMID:13907577

  4. Current Issues in Mental Retardation and Human Development: Selected Papers from the 1970 Staff Development Conferences of the President's Committee on Mental Retardation (Washington, D.C., 1971).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedman, Donald J., Ed.

    Six papers discuss some of the current issues in the field of mental retardation and human development. Epidemiology of mental retardation from a sociological and clinical point of view is analyzed by Jane R. Mercer, based on studies of mental retardation in the community in Pomona, California. The role of genetics and intra-uterine diagnosis of…

  5. Mental retardation and developmental disabilities influenced by environmental neurotoxic insults.

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, S R

    2000-01-01

    This paper sets a framework for the discussion of neurotoxicity as a potentially major contributor to the etiology of many types of mental retardation and developmental disabilities. In the past the literatures on developmental neurotoxicology and on mental retardation have evolved independently, yet we know that the developing brain is a target for neurotoxicity in the developing central nervous system through many stages of pregnancy as well as during infancy and early childhood. Our definitions and theories of mental retardation and developmental disabilities affect the models of neurotoxicity we espouse. For instance, models of developmental risk in neurotoxicology have guided environmental regulation to reduce the likelihood of neurotoxic effects. On the other hand, models of developmental risk for mental retardation aim not only at primary prevention,but also at secondary and tertiary prevention through early intervention. In the future, dynamic models of neuroplasticity based on the study of gene-brain-behavior relationships are likely to guide our views of developmental neurotoxicology and prevention of mental retardation and other disabilities. PMID:10852834

  6. Cataract.

    PubMed

    Lam, Dennis; Rao, Srinivas K; Ratra, Vineet; Liu, Yizhi; Mitchell, Paul; King, Jonathan; Tassignon, Marie-José; Jonas, Jost; Pang, Chi P; Chang, David F

    2015-01-01

    Cataract is the leading cause of reversible blindness and visual impairment globally. Blindness from cataract is more common in populations with low socioeconomic status and in developing countries than in developed countries. The only treatment for cataract is surgery. Phacoemulsification is the gold standard for cataract surgery in the developed world, whereas manual small incision cataract surgery is used frequently in developing countries. In general, the outcomes of surgery are good and complications, such as endophthalmitis, often can be prevented or have good ouctomes if properly managed. Femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery, an advanced technology, can automate several steps; initial data show no superiority of this approach over current techniques, but the results of many large clinical trials are pending. The greatest challenge remains the growing 'backlog' of patients with cataract blindness in the developing world because of lack of access to affordable surgery. Efforts aimed at training additional cataract surgeons in these countries do not keep pace with the increasing demand associated with ageing population demographics. In the absence of strategie that can prevent or delay cataract formation, it is important to focus efforts and resources on developing models for efficient delivery of cataract surgical services in underserved regions. For an illustrated summary of this Primer, visit: http://go.nature.com/eQkKll. PMID:27188414

  7. People with mental retardation as witnesses in court: a review.

    PubMed

    Kebbell, M R; Hatton, C

    1999-06-01

    Evidence concerning eyewitness testimony given by people with mental retardation in court was reviewed. Despite general perceptions that people with mental retardation make incompetent witnesses, available evidence suggests that they can provide accurate accounts of witnessed events. The accounts are usually less complete than those provided by the general population and are greatly influenced by the methods of questioning. The sparse available evidence suggests that cross-examination methods may lead to memory distortion. The use of closed, complex, and leading questions and the absence of aids to recall may have a particularly adverse effect on people with mental retardation. Resulting errors could lead to a false conviction or acquittal. Future policy and research in this much neglected area were discussed. PMID:10473337

  8. MENTAL RETARDATION ACTIVITIES OF THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC. Secretary's Committee on Mental Retardation.

    MENTAL RETARDATION ACTIVITIES OF THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE ARE REVIEWED. THE ROSTER OF THE SECRETARY'S COMMITTEE ON MENTAL RETARDATION IS PROVIDED. THE INTRODUCTION CONTAINS INFORMATION CONCERNING (1) THE COORDINATION OF MENTAL RETARDATION PROGRAMS THROUGH THE COMMITTEE, (2) THE SIX PIECES OF 1966 MENTAL RETARDATION…

  9. PERSONALITY PATTERN OF PARENTS OF MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN1

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, G.K.

    1984-01-01

    SUMMARY Parents of fifty mentally retarded children were studied for their personality pattern with the help of Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire. In fathers and mothers separately, none of the personality traits were observed to vary at statistically significant level in relation to the degree of retardation in their child, but both the parents of mildly retarded children obtained higher score on scale of anxiety, phobia and depression. Analysis of different factors when compared for fathers and mothers together, revealed a higher degree of neurotic traits in mothers. PMID:21965955

  10. Do the Mentally Retarded Have Poor Memory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Norman R.

    1978-01-01

    A reevaluation of a number of experiments suggests that normal and retarded persons differ on short-term memory tasks from the time of initial stimulus exposure. The hypothesis that memory differences are due to differential encoding as a result of more adequate rehearsal by the normal subjects is unacceptable. (Author/BW)

  11. Abandoning the Myth of Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the concept underlying the term metal retardation and the effort to define it in a way that is scientifically accurate and in a way that promotes greater sensitivity to the needs of people described by the term which has been continuous for centuries. The author states that a scientifically sound and…

  12. Teaching Laundry Skills to Mentally Retarded Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuvo, Anthony J.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Five moderately and mildly retarded students (19 to 21 years old) were taught to sort garments to be laundered and to use a clothes washer and dryer. Rapid acquisition and maintenance of the laundry skills were obtained through praise and response contingent feedback as a consequence for behavior. (Author/CL)

  13. [Validity of care assessment in disabled and mentally retarded children].

    PubMed

    Häussler, M; Streit, A; Strassburg, H-M

    2002-10-01

    16 children with spastic cerebral palsy and 25 mentally retarded children were assessed via the scales "Self-Care" and "Mobility" of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI). Age-adjusted PEDI scores were compared with the classification according to the three levels of the German statutory nursing insurance. Good correlations and highly significant dependence were found in children with spastic cerebral palsy but no dependence was seen in mentally retarded children. Apparently, assessment guidelines of the German statutory nursing insurance do not guarantee a valid assessment in all disabled children. In conclusion, future assessments of nursing needs in children should employ standardised assessment methods. PMID:12375229

  14. Teaching banking skills to mildly mentally retarded adolescents.

    PubMed

    Aeschleman, S R; Gedig, K S

    1985-01-01

    In this study, two experiments evaluated a classroom training program designed to teach basic banking skills to three mildly mentally retarded adolescents. The participants were taught to open savings and checking accounts during Experiment I and to conduct banking transactions during Experiment II. The banking transaction skills acquired in Experiment II maintained at high levels and generalized to two novel environments for two participants, whereas moderate generalization and maintenance scores were obtained by the third participant. The average performance of the mentally retarded participants compared favorably with the scores obtained by 10 college student volunteers in both the percentage of correct responses and the pattern of incorrect responses. PMID:4073890

  15. Afghan children and mental retardation: information, advocacy and prospects.

    PubMed

    Miles, M

    1997-11-01

    The family and community situation of children with mental retardation (learning difficulties/disabilities) is discussed within the Afghan cultural heritage and the current realities of civil war and refugee villages. Some formal services are being developed for children with physical and visual impairments. Mental retardation and hearing impairments are comparatively neglected, as skills are lacking and progress tends to be much slower. Some casual integration occurs in ordinary schools and kindergartens, which should be supported. Experiences in family counselling can be developed and also extended by enlisting indigenous counsellors and healers. The major strategy for the foreseeable future will be support and enhancement of family resources. PMID:9416446

  16. Biochemical screening for inherited metabolic disorders in the mentally retarded.

    PubMed

    Henderson, H E; Goodman, R; Schram, J; Diamond, E; Daneel, A

    1981-11-01

    A biochemical screening programme for the detection of inherited metabolic disease was carried out on urine and blood samples from inmates of the Alexandra Institute for the mentally retarded, Cape Town. Of the 1087 patients screened, positive results for phenylketonuria were obtained in 3, for cystinuria in 2 and for Hartnup disease in 1. The overall frequency of metabolic disorders was 0,6%. It is evident that genetic metabolic disease as detected by current screening procedures makes only a small contribution to the overall burden of mental retardation. PMID:6795726

  17. The Mentally Retarded Child and His Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Richard, Ed.; Dobson, James C., Ed.

    Described as a text for students in college courses of all disciplines relating to the mentally handicapped (education, medicine, psychology, rehabilitation and others), the collection of papers contains two introductory articles on the origins of intelligence and the meaning of mental handicaps. Eight papers devoted to the biological factors in…

  18. Spontaneous Rehearsal by Mildly Mentally Retarded Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Lisa A.; Bray, Norman W.

    1985-01-01

    The use of a rehearsal strategy by 10-, 12-, and 14-year-old mildly mentally retarded children and adolescents (N=39) was investigated using a self-paced recall readiness task. The task allowed Ss to study items in any order as many times as desired. Each group used rehearsal, as indicated by increasing study time patterns and the number of…

  19. Motor Fitness of Mentally Retarded Boys to National Age Norms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brace, D. K.

    The study compared the physical fitness of 65 mentally retarded boys (mean age 14-years, mean IQ 60) at Austin (Texas) State School with national age scales for boys of the same chronological ages on the American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation Youth Fitness Test, which measures strength, speed, agility, power,…

  20. Psychological Aspects of Sleep Disorders in Children with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David T.

    This paper reviews literature and clinical experiences on the neurobiological and psychological aspects of sleep in children with mental retardation. The lack of a universal, operational definition of sleep disorders is noted, and a study is cited in which 61% of a group of 20 children (ages 2-13) with developmental disabilities were found to have…

  1. Fragile X Syndrome: A Common Etiology of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, R. Curtis; Simensen, Richard J.

    A clinical population of 39 families affected by fragile X syndrome, a sex-linked form of mental retardation, is described. Physical aspects, including such common features as prominent jaw and simple ears, are noted along with psychological aspects such as different mean IQs among various age groups. Findings of intellectual evaluation did not…

  2. Project Job: Vocational Training Program for Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 1983

    1983-01-01

    A vocational training program for trainable mentally retarded youth and adults provided instruction on functional skills, travel training, and independent living skills in addition to supervised performance in part time jobs in the community. The program expanded into small business subsidiaries for boat cleaning and detailing and marine serving.…

  3. Varieties of Repetitive Behavior in Autism: Comparisons to Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodfish, James W.; Symons, Frank J.; Parker, Dawn E.; Lewis, Mark H.

    2000-01-01

    A study compared specific repetitive behaviors in 32 adults with autism with 34 controls with mental retardation. The occurrence of each behavior category, except dyskinesias, was higher in individuals with autism and they showed a greater number of topographies of stereotypy and compulsions. Repetitive behavior severity also predicated autism…

  4. Standards for Residential Facilities for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals, Chicago, IL.

    Presented are standards for residential facilities for the mentally retarded that were developed by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals. The accreditation process is said to have two major objects: setting standards for services and determining the degree to which a specific services complies with the designated standards. The…

  5. Advance Organizer Strategy for Educable Mentally Retarded and Regular Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Moon K.

    The study examined the effects of an advance organizer on the learning and retention of facts and concepts obtained from a sound film by educable mentally retarded (N=30) and regular children (N=30) in a mainstreamed secondary public school class. Also examined was the interaction between the advance organizer and ability levels of the Ss. Results…

  6. A Job Retention Model for Individuals with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornes, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    This structured literature review examines the literature and addresses issues of job retention for adult workers with moderate to mild mental retardation (MR), investigating the relationships between work-related social behaviors, self-determination, person-job congruency of individuals with MR, and their job performance and job satisfaction with…

  7. Automation in Vocational Training of the Mentally Retarded. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Henry; And Others

    Various uses of automation in teaching were studied with mentally retarded (IQ 70 to 90) and/or emotionally disturbed (IQ 80 to 90) youth aged 16 to 20. Programed instruction was presented by six audiovisual devices and techniques: the Devereux Model 50 Teaching Aid, the Learn-Ease Teaching Device, the Mast Teaching Machine, the Graflex…

  8. MEASUREMENT OF THE EDUCABILITY OF SEVERELY MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GRACE, ALONZO; AND OTHERS

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO INVESTIGATE A TESTING METHOD FOR OBTAINING OBJECTIVE, QUANTIFIED, PREDICTIVE MEASURES OF EDUCABILITY FOR MENTAL RETARDATES. THE METHOD WAS DESIGNED TO MEASURE ABILITIES ON WHICH EDUCATION DEPENDS--NAMELY, THE ABILITY TO LEARN UNDER TRAINING, TO TRANSFER THE TRAINING, AND TO RETAIN THE LEARNING. TWO SAMPLES WERE…

  9. A Bibliography of Bibliographies on Mental Retardation, 1963-June 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Lawrence, Comp.

    Presented is a bibliography of over 100 bibliographies (published in 1963-1975) intended for social workers, teachers, and other professionals working in the field of mental retardation. Entries are arranged alphabetically by author or contributing organization under the following categories: general references, biochemistry, care of the mentally…

  10. Sexual preferences and recidivism of sex offenders with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Rice, Marnie E; Harris, Grant T; Lang, Carol; Chaplin, Terry C

    2008-12-01

    By some accounts, sex offenders with mental retardation commit sex offenses against children because the offenders lack sexual knowledge or are socially and intellectually immature rather than because of sexually deviant interests. By other accounts, these offenders exhibit pedophilic sexual interests. In this study, phallometrically determined sexual interests, recidivism, and choices of victims of 69 sex offenders with mental retardation are examined and compared with those of 69 sex offenders of average or higher IQ. Consistent with hypotheses, sex offenders with mental retardation exhibit more deviant preferences for prepubertal children, male children, and young children than do the comparison offenders. They are also more likely to have had a prepubertal victim, a prepubertal male victim, and a very young victim. They are no more likely than the comparison offenders to exhibit preferences for extremely coercive sex with children or to exhibit deviant adult activity preferences, nor are they more likely to recidivate violently. Results support the idea that pedophilia is a disorder of neurodevelopment and point to the importance of risk assessments that include assessing sexual preferences among sex offenders with mental retardation. PMID:19020337

  11. Genetic Issues in Mental Retardation, 1996-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genetic Issues in Mental Retardation, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This document consists of the first six issues of a newsletter, which discusses current knowledge about and concerns related to genetics and mental retardation. The second issue addresses the problem of genetic discrimination. The third issue considers genetic testing, screening, and counseling. The fourth issue addresses genetic privacy issues.…

  12. Maturational Rate of Tokyo Children with and without Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Gunilla W.; Katoda, Hiroshi

    1993-01-01

    Comparison of growth rates and menarcheal age for groups of boys and girls, ages 6 to 15, in Tokyo (Japan) found that children with mental retardation had a smaller growth spurt during puberty but did not differ in maturational rate defined by age at pubertal height spurt or age at menarche. (Author/DB)

  13. Strategies for Teaching Students with Mild to Severe Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gable, Robert A., Ed.; Warren, Steven F., Ed.

    This collection of papers presents strategies for teaching students with mental retardation. An introduction by Robert A. Gable and Steven F. Warren titled "The Enduring Value of Instructional Research" reviews problems besetting special education instructional research and outlines the papers' approach to the field from both an empirical research…

  14. WORK EXPERIENCE EDUCATION FOR THE EDUCABLE MENTALLY RETARDED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HUTCHINSON, LINN

    THE WORK EXPERIENCE EDUCATION PROGRAM FOR THE EDUCABLE MENTALLY RETARDED IS DESIGNED TO PREPARE THE STUDENT FOR ECONOMIC SELF-SUFFICIENCY IN THE ADULT WORLD. THE PROGRAM AIMS TO DEVELOP COMPETENCY IN PERSONAL HABITS, ACADEMIC SKILLS, AND SOCIAL RELATIONS. EACH STUDENT IN THE SPECIAL WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAM PROFITS BY OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION,…

  15. Space for the Mentally Retarded in South Dakota. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Dept. of Health, Pierre. Mental Retardation Planning Office.

    The 10 priority recommendations for aiding the mentally retarded in South Dakota are presented. Summaries are provided of recommendations for federal and state legislative action and for state agencies, communities, state medical and hospital associations, and private organizations. The State and the method of planning are discussed; mental…

  16. Persons with Mental Retardation: A Forgotten Minority in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWeaver, Kevin L.; Kropf, Nancy P.

    1992-01-01

    A model for including information about persons with mental retardation in the social work curriculum is presented. The model focuses on (1) a micro perspective, concerning the individual, family system, and group membership; and (2) a macro perspective, regarding service planning, administration, evaluation, and community organization. (MSE)

  17. Coping Styles among Mothers of Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, Marty Wyngaarden

    This paper describes the use of various coping strategies of mothers of adult children with mental retardation, and examines whether there is a relation between specific styles of coping and maternal characteristics and personal well-being. A group of 349 mothers completed the "Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced" scale. On average,…

  18. Enhancing Free-Recall Rates of Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlin, Michael T.; Soraci, Sal A.; Dennis, Nancy A.; Chechile, Nicholas A.; Loiselle, Raquel C.

    2001-01-01

    This study with 16 adolescents with mental retardation compared free-recall rates under two encoding conditions: (1) fade-in, initially presenting pictures out of focus then slowly fading them into focus; and (2) fade-out, slowly blurring originally clear pictures. Results indicated that free-recall rates were greater for the fade-in items for…

  19. Economic Competency: Implications for Programs for the Educable Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsley, Ronald F.; Kokaska, Charles

    1975-01-01

    One of the major objectives of programing for the educable mentally retarded is the development of the individual's economic competency or efficiency. In order to reinforce this objective it is necessary that classroom activities employ real money and that some type of work experience be provided so that students learn to manage a given amount of…

  20. Mental Retardation FY 1983. Special Report to Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The paper reviews mental retardation research activities of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHHD) and the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke (NINCDS). Research activities are cited to illustrate the scope of NICHHD's efforts in a variety of biomedial areas. Activities are…

  1. Characterization of Mental Retardation and Autism in Children's Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyches, Tina Taylor; Prater, Mary Anne; Cramer, Sharon F.

    2001-01-01

    A study involving 12 books, six picture books and six chapter books, examined how individuals with mental retardation and autism are depicted in children's literature. Results indicate characters were portrayed as making more choices in their lives and were educated in more inclusive environments than in an earlier study. (Contains references.)…

  2. Helping by Siblings of Children with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannah, Mary Elizabeth; Midlarsky, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Our purpose for conducting this investigation was to extend the research on the help that siblings of children with mental retardation give to their brothers and sisters to include not only custodial care, but also other forms of helping behavior, such as emotional support, tangible aid, and information giving. We compared 100 siblings (50 with…

  3. Phonological Reading Skills Acquisition by Children with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners, Frances A.; Rosenquist, Celia J.; Sligh, Allison C.; Atwell, Julie A.; Kiser, Tanya

    2006-01-01

    Twenty children with mental retardation (MR), age 7-12, completed a phonological reading skills program over approximately 10 weeks. As a result of the instruction, they were better able to sound out learned and transfer words compared to a control group matched on age, IQ, nonword reading, language comprehension, and phonemic awareness. Final…

  4. Practitioner Review: Psychopharmacology in Children and Adolescents with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handen, Benjamin L.; Gilchrist, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Background: The use of psychotropic medication to treat children and adults with mental retardation (MR) has a long and extensive history. There are no identified medications to address specific cognitive deficits among persons with MR. Instead, psychotropic medications are used to treat specific behavioral symptoms and/or psychiatric syndromes.…

  5. An Adult Education Program for Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starnes, Jean; Damron, Imogene

    This curriculum guide is intended for use with mentally retarded adults who are enrolled in adult basic education classes. The curriculum provides guidelines to improve students' competencies in three main areas: general functioning skills and independence (transportation, interpersonal relationships, health and safety, goal setting, planning and…

  6. The New Morbidity and the Prevention of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumeister, Alfred A.

    1988-01-01

    Efforts to prevent mental retardation have been encumbered by lack of scientific and technical knowledge, vague understanding of incidence and prevalence, and scarcity of resources to implement effective public policies. Scientific and social progress toward prevention has pursued a wavelike, erratic course, driven primarily by prevailing social,…

  7. Mental Retardation Policy and Research: The Unfulfilled Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumeister, Alfred A.

    1981-01-01

    The author cites reasons for the negligible impact of research on public policy regarding mental retardation. He suggests that research is secondary to economic, political, and social factors, and that the research enterprise is fragmented and uncoordinated and is not oriented toward the need of policy makers. (Author/CL)

  8. Career Development for Adolescents and Young Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, John; Milson, Amy; Cocco, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Career development activities by professional school counselors at the elementary, middle, and high school levels can help students with mental retardation make meaningful career choices as adults. School counselors can be advocates and providers of career development activities that link the individualized educational process for students with…

  9. Career Development and Adults with Moderate to Severe Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, John; Cocco, Karen

    Lifelong career development activities may assist persons with more severe forms of mental retardation in achieving occupational tenure. Occupational tenure is important if individuals are to move away from a succession of entry-level employment. Adaptive career development strategies and techniques may prevent job dissatisfaction and poor…

  10. Japanese Studies on Attitudes towards Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tachibana, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Kanji

    2002-01-01

    Review of Japanese studies on attitudes toward persons with mental retardation first notes origins in increased support for special classes in schools. Reported findings focus on items most affecting attitude differences, gender differences, effect of contact, educational differences, and age differences. A unique sociological study in a fishery…

  11. Art Integration: A Teaching Program for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Special Education Curriculum Development Center.

    To aid the teacher of the mentally retarded in integrating art into other subject areas, two sample projects and two five-lesson units with core activities, one on clothing and one on the state of Iowa, are presented. In addition, suggestions for teachers are listed along with the expectations of normal children and the basics of good art.…

  12. International Summit on Prevention of Mental Retardation from Biomedical Causes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Jean, Ed.

    Proceedings from the International Summit on Prevention of Mental Retardation from Biomedical Causes are provided. After a list of participants and summary of the highlights of the conference, the keynote address by H. Moser is presented. The following 13 papers are provided along with workshop recommendations and a list of main points elicited…

  13. Vocational Language Project for Secondary Trainable Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronk, Cynthia; And Others

    This project was designed to develop a vocational language program for secondary trainable mentally retarded students based on an analysis of the concepts needed for entry and continuation in vocational training programs and related jobs. Twenty-five students from the Ebensburg State School in Pennsylvania participated in the project. The three…

  14. Families of Children with Mental Retardation: Effective Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Delar K.

    This paper discuses the findings of a research study that compared 191 families of children with spina bifida and 145 families of children with mental retardation. Findings include: (1) mothers of children with developmental disabilities (DD) perceived that they experienced more poor health/mood problems than the mothers of children with Spina…

  15. Molecular Genetic Approaches to Human Diseases Involving Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latt, Samuel A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Recombinant DNA techniques provide new approaches to the diagnosis and analysis of inherited human diseases associated with mental retardation, such as Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, phenylketonauria, the Fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, and those associated with deletions or duplications of subchromosomal regions. (Author/CL)

  16. IQ and the Death Penalty: Verifying Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Denis William

    Whether or not subjects can simulate mental retardation, a consideration that has implications in criminal cases, was studied using 21 adult Caucasian males between 20 and 30 years of age, largely comprised of students and staff employees of the University of New Mexico. Subjects were asked to give genuine and simulated responses to two major test…

  17. Psychological Effects on the Family of a Mentally Retarded Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Dorothy S.

    The paper discusses the birth of a mentally retarded infant in terms of initial parent reactions, adjustment, decision to institutionalize, psychological effect on the mother, psychological effect on the father, impact on the marriage, and impact on siblings. The birth is a traumatic experience for the parents and can result in initial feelings of…

  18. Home Care and Management of the Mentally Retarded Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vulpe, Shirley German

    The manual details a behavioral and developmental assessment procedure, treatment techniques and method of planning home training programs for mentally retarded children. Focus is on normal preschool development up through 5 years of age. Aims are to help the child function at maximum level by providing practical suggestions to parents for…

  19. Sexual Health and Behavior of Mentally Retarded Pupils in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsutsumi, Angela Aparecida

    2009-01-01

    Sex education has always been a controversial topic. Although sex education at schools has improved in general, sex education for mentally retarded pupils still encounters prejudice and conservatism as a result of several misconceptions about the subject. This research was performed in the form of a survey of opinions about sex education in…

  20. Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy in Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Jerry R.; Bodfish, James W.

    2000-01-01

    Medical records of residents of a facility for persons with mental retardation from January 1, 1978, through December 31, 1997, were analyzed to identify incidence of sudden unexpected death for 180 individuals with and 125 without comorbid epilepsy. Eighty deaths were identified, with 55 occurring in those with epilepsy. (Contains 15 references.)…

  1. Usng Information Processing Strategies for Early Identification of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vietze, Peter M.; Coates, Deborah

    1986-01-01

    Seven techniques for measuring information processing in infants are proposed to aid in the early identification of mental retardation. The techniques are based on conditioning, attentional, and manual exploration paradigms and could be combined into an assessment battery more valid than current infant IQ tests in predicting later disability.…

  2. Assessing the Work Personalities of Mentally Retarded Adults. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofquist, Lloyd H.; Dawis, Rene V.

    A series of studies were conducted to modify the General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB) and the Minnesota Importance Questionnaire (MIQ) for use with mentally retarded individuals. Modification of the GATB consisted of eliminating answer sheets, increasing practice, individual administration, untimed administration, removal of verbally loaded items,…

  3. Northeastern State College Camping Program for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northeastern State Univ., Tahlequah, OK.

    Operating on the principle of meeting community needs and the desire to build a realistic practicum experience for special education majors, Northeastern State College began a special camping program for mentally retarded children. The program provides the special education student with the opportunity of direct experience in working with the…

  4. Administrative Issues in Institutions for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleland, Charles C.; Swartz, Jon D.

    Designed primarily for administrators of both public and private institutions for the mentally retarded, the volume offers guidelines for coping with three areas of modification of institutional image, daily operational problems concerning manpower and equipment, and future demands upon institutions. Brief exercises following some of the readings…

  5. Individuals with Mental Retardation from the Perspective of Turkish People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Güner Yildiz, Nevin

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive study examined the attitude of Turkish people towards the mentally retarded. The working group was composed of 329 male and female staff in various places of employment in Eskisehir provincial center, 87 non-working women living in Eskisehir provincial center and 49 non-working women living in Mugla provincial center. Research…

  6. Older Caregivers of Adults with Mental Retardation: Service Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Jean L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between service utilization and characteristics of older parents and other caregivers, their dependents with mental retardation, and their ability to provide care. Caregivers' assessment of current ability to provide care was significantly related to amount of service use, but caregiver and dependent…

  7. PHENYLKETONURIA, AN INHERITED METABOLIC DISORDER ASSOCIATED WITH MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CENTERWALL, WILLARD R.; CENTERWALL, SIEGRIED A.

    ADDRESSED TO PUBLIC HEALTH WORKERS AND PHYSICIANS IN GENERAL PRACTICE, THE PAMPHLET INTRODUCES METHODS OF DETECTING AND MANAGING PHENYLKETONURIA, AN INHERITED METABOLIC DISORDER ASSOCIATED WITH MENTAL RETARDATION. INFORMATION, UPDATED FROM THE 1961 EDITION, IS INCLUDED ON THE INCIDENCE AND GENETICS, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND CLINICAL COURSE OF THE…

  8. The Psychopathological Model of Mental Retardation: Theoretical and Therapeutic Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Malfa, Giampaolo; Campigli, Marco; Bertelli, Marco; Mangiapane, Antonio; Cabras, Pier Luigi

    1997-01-01

    Describes a new integrated bio-psycho-social model of etiology for mental retardation. Discusses the problems with current models and the ability of the "universe line" model to integrate data from different research areas, especially cognitive and psychopathologic indicators. Addresses implications of this theoretical approach. (Author/CR)

  9. RECREATION FOR THE MENTALLY RETARDED--A COMMUNITY BASED PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BIRENBAUM, ARNOLD; SCHWARTZ, ARTHUR L.

    THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE OF THIS 3-YEAR RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT WAS TO TEST THE FEASIBILITY OF EXTENDING THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF COMMUNITY WORK AGENCIES IN NEW YORK TO INCLUDE THE MENTALLY RETARDED. THE 13 PARTICIPATING GROUP WORK AGENCIES RECEIVED FINANCIAL SUPPORT WAS WELL AS CONSULTATIVE, INTAKE, AND PROFESSIONAL TRAINING SERVICES FROM…

  10. Relationships between Facial Discrimination and Social Adjustment in Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojahn, Johannes; Esbensen, Anna J.; Hoch, Theodore A.

    2006-01-01

    Sixty-two adults with mental retardation of heterogeneous etiology performed four facial emotion discrimination tasks and two facial nonemotion tasks. Staff members familiar with the participants completed measures of social adjustment (the Socialization and Communication domains of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and the Social Performance…

  11. Injury Prevalence among Children and Adolescents with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slayter, Elspeth M.; Garnick, Deborah W.; Kubisiak, Joanna M.; Bishop, Christine E.; Gilden, Daniel M.; Hakim, Rosemarie B.

    2006-01-01

    Childhood injuries lead to increased morbidity and result in significant costs to public insurance programs. People with mental retardation, most of whom are covered by Medicaid, are at high risk for injury, which has implications for community inclusion, a central policy goal. Medicaid data from inpatient, outpatient, and long-term care settings…

  12. Increasing Wearing of Prescription Glasses in Individuals with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLeon, Iser G.; Hagopian, Louis P.; Rodriguez-Catter, Vanessa; Bowman, Lynn G.; Long, Ethan S.; Boelter, Eric W.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated an intervention for promoting wearing of prescription glasses in 4 individuals with mental retardation who had refused to wear their glasses previously. Distraction through noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) increased independent glasses wearing for 1 of the 4 participants. An intervention consisting of NCR, response cost, and…

  13. Features of Autism in Rett Syndrome and Severe Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount, Rebecca H.; Charman, Tony; Hastings, Richard P.; Reilly, Sheena; Cass, Hilary

    2003-01-01

    The Autism Behavior Checklist measured autistic symptoms in 15 girls (ages 11-16) with Rett Syndrome (RS) and 14 with severe mental retardation. Girls with RS scored higher on the Sensory and Relating subscales. There were no differences on the Body and Object Use, Language, and Social and Self-Help subscales. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  14. Mental Retardation: Topics of Today--Issues of Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyen, Edward L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    The monograph examines issues affecting the future of handicapped people generally, and mentally retarded people specifically. E. Meyen introduces the volume and describes how the issues were identified. H. Turnbull and P. Barber, in "Perspectives on Public Policy," discuss such issues as defederalization, redefinition of handicaps, and…

  15. Fragile X Syndrome: A Common Etiology of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, R. Curtis; Simensen, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    The article describes physical, intellectual, and psychological characteristics of members of 29 families (N=129) affected either directly or as carriers of fragile X syndrome (a form of mental retardation). Little correlation was found between tested intellect and frequency of fragile sites on the chromosome. (Author/JW)

  16. A Plea for Consideration of Ecological Validity in the Experimental Psychology of Mental Retardation: A Guest Editorial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Penelope H.; Baumeister, Alfred A.

    1977-01-01

    The authors contend that the experimental psychology of mental retardation suffers from methatheoretical and methodological weaknesses, preeminently the failure to consider the ecology of mental retardation. (CL)

  17. Weight Survey on Adult Persons with Mental Retardation Living in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hove, Oddbjorn

    2004-01-01

    Prevalence of underweight and obesity were investigated in 282 mentally retarded persons living on the West Coast of Norway. Data collected in this survey suggest that people with severe mental retardation were more likely to be underweight and people with mild mental retardation were more likely to be obese. Compared to persons of average…

  18. Mental Retardation Activities of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1970

    Introduced by discussions of the coordination of mental retardation programs, a summary of activities, and a list of the Secretary's Committee on Mental Retardation for 1969, the pamphlet reports the activities of the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare in mental retardation. Activities described include those of the Health Services…

  19. Contextually Influenced Patterns of Play-Developmental Age Associations for Preschoolers with and without Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, D. Michael

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present data demonstrating the differential pattern of association among play behaviors and developmental age that emerge for children with and without mental retardation across play situations. Seventeen preschool children with mental retardation and 17 preschool children without mental retardation were matched on…

  20. Similarities and Differences in Addition Strategies of Children with and without Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Lisa F.; Fletcher, Kathryn, L.; Bray, Norman W.; Grupe, Lisa A.

    2004-01-01

    This microgenetic study investigated similarities and differences in use and discovery of addition strategies in children with and without mild mental retardation across 24 sessions. Nine children with mild mental retardation in third through fifth grade classrooms and 14 children without mental retardation in kindergarten classrooms were tested…

  1. Diagnostic test for prenatal identification of Down's syndrome and mental retardation and gene therapy therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Desmond J.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2000-01-01

    A a diagnostic test useful for prenatal identification of Down syndrome and mental retardation. A method for gene therapy for correction and treatment of Down syndrome. DYRK gene involved in the ability to learn. A method for diagnosing Down's syndrome and mental retardation and an assay therefor. A pharmaceutical composition for treatment of Down's syndrome mental retardation.

  2. Mental Retardation Activities of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, January 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC. Secretary's Committee on Mental Retardation.

    The report describes the current mental retardation activities of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (DHEW). Discussed in the introductory section are the coordination of mental retardation programs and the categories of mental retardation activities of the Department: preventive services, basic and supportive services, training of…

  3. Mental Retardation Activities of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC. Office of Mental Retardation Coordination.

    Briefly described are eight mental retardation programs of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Coordination is thought to be the most cricial factor in successful administration of the mental retardation programs. The mental retardation activities of the Department are arranged according to categories of preventive services, basic…

  4. Mental Retardation: Definition, Classification, and Systems of Supports. 10th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckasson, Ruth; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon; Buntinx, Wil H. E.; Coulter, David L.; Craig, Ellis M.; Reeve, Alya; Schalock, Robert L.; Snell, Martha E.; Spitalnik, Deborah M.; Spreat, Scott; Tasse, Marc J.

    This manual, the 10th edition of a regularly published definition and classification work on mental retardation, presents five key assumptions upon which the definition of mental retardation is based and a theoretical model of five essential dimensions that explain mental retardation and how to use the companion system. These dimensions include…

  5. Cataracts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quiz: Do You Need a Flu Shot? Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Cataracts KidsHealth > ... she takes time to help him with his homework. Lately, though, Jake's noticed that Grandma Fran has ...

  6. Cataract

    MedlinePlus

    ... Colors that seem faded Glare - headlights, lamps or sunlight may seem too bright. You may also see ... a hat with a brim to block ultraviolet sunlight may help to delay cataracts. NIH: National Eye ...

  7. Age of Majority and Mental Retardation: A Position Statement of the Division on Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Pam; Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Guy, Barbara; Martin, James

    2001-01-01

    This position statement of the Council for Exceptional Children's Division on Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities outlines federal regulations governing the transfer of legal rights to students with disabilities at the state-mandated age of majority. It discusses the importance of informed consent, self-determination and student…

  8. Gifted Children as Tutors of Educable Mental Retardates. Mental Retardation Training Program Technical Report Series 68-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Valerie A.

    Nine gifted fifth grade students received a 2-week training program, tutored 36 educable mentally retarded (EMR) first grade students for 12 weeks, and later gave responses on an attitude scale (as did 15 gifted nonparticipating controls). During training the experimental Ss were taught to use materials such as readiness books and a flannel board,…

  9. The abilities of children with mental retardation to remember personal experiences: implications for testimony.

    PubMed

    Michel, M K; Gordon, B N; Ornstein, P A; Simpson, M A

    2000-09-01

    Investigated the abilities of children with mental retardation to remember the details of a personally experienced event. A simulated health check was administered to 20 children with mental retardation and 40 normally developing children, half matched on mental age (MA) and half matched on chronological age (CA) with the children with mental retardation. The children's memory was assessed immediately after the health check and 6 weeks later. Overall, the children with mental retardation accurately recalled the health check features, provided detail, and resisted misleading questions about features that did not occur. The group with mental retardation performed similarly to the MA matches on virtually all of the memory variables. The children with mental retardation performed worse than the CA matches on most of the memory variables, although they were able to recall a similar number of features. The findings are discussed in terms of the ability of children with mental retardation to provide accurate testimony. PMID:10969429

  10. Teaching Mental Abacus Calculation to Students with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Hong

    2006-01-01

    The abacus is a calculating tool that has been used in Asia for thousands of years. Mental abacus calculation is a skill in which an abacus image in the mind is used without the actual physical manipulation of the abacus. Using this method, people can perform extremely rapid and accurate mental calculations. Research indicates that abacus training…

  11. X chromosome inactivation and X-linked mental retardation

    SciTech Connect

    Willard, H.F. |

    1996-07-12

    The expression of X-linked genes in females heterozygous for X-linked defects can be modulated by epigenetic control mechanisms that constitute the X chromosome inactivation pathway. At least four different effects have been found to influence, in females, the phenotypic expression of genes responsible for X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). First, non-random X inactivation, due either to stochastic or genetic factors, can result in tissues in which one cell type (for example, that in which the X chromosome carrying a mutant XLMR gene is active) dominates, instead of the normal mosaic cell population expected as a result of random X inactivation. Second, skewed inactivation of the normal X in individuals carrying a deletion of part of the X chromosome has been documented in a number of mentally retarded females. Third, functional disomy of X-linked genes that are expressed inappropriately due to the absence of X inactivation has been found in mentally retarded females with structurally abnormal X chromosomes that do not contain the X inactivation center. And fourth, dose-dependent overexpression of X-linked genes that normally {open_quotes}escape{close_quotes} X inactivation may account for the mental and developmental delay associated with increasing numbers of otherwise inactive X chromosomes in individuals with X chromosome aneuploidy. 53 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Slogans and Euphemisms: The Functions of Semantics in Mental Health and Mental Retardation Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachrach, Leona L.

    The paper examines the way in which semantics relates to policies of deinstitutionalization of persons with mental illness and mental retardation. Different understandings of common terms in the field are illustrated and it is suggested that the government plays many games, both number games and word games, in dealing with homeless people, migrant…

  13. Discontinuation of Neuroleptics in Community-Dwelling Individuals with Mental Retardation and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    Sixty-eight community-dwelling individuals with mental retardation and mental illness were discontinued from neuroleptics. Those with a psychotic disorder were significantly more likely to be restarted on neuroleptics at 3 months and 12 months. Not having a history of delusions was significantly associated with remaining neuroleptic-free at 3…

  14. Program Evaluation of the Reorganization of Mental Health, Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Legislature, Des Moines.

    The report evaluates Iowa's reorganization of mental health and mental retardation (MH/MR) services. Evaluation methods include a policy analysis of legislation, interviews with agency staff and consumer representatives, review of MH/MR Commission and Developmental Disabilities (DD) Council meetings, an opinion survey of county auditors, and…

  15. Mental retardation and learning disabilities: conceptual and applied issues.

    PubMed

    Polloway, E A; Patton, J R; Smith, T E; Buck, G H

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between mental retardation and learning disabilities is clouded by conceptual issues and current practices in applied (i.e., educational and noneducational) settings. In this article, we initially discuss whether mental retardation can be considered a concomitant disability associated with learning disabilities or whether these two disabilities are mutually exclusive categories. Conceptual issues related to this question are then reviewed to provide a perspective for viewing these two traditional areas of exceptionality. Emerging areas of concern in term of definition, classification, etiology, and lifelong issues are addressed. Attention is then given to applied issues that have a direct effect on the lives of individuals with disabilities. Specific topics include educational curricula, instruction, inclusion, and adult services and supports. PMID:9146096

  16. Fetishistic Transvestism in a Patient with Mental Retardation and Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Velayudhan, Rajmohan; Khaleel, Asfia; Sankar, Nideesh; Kumar, Manoj; Kazhungil, Firoz; Raghuram, Thazhe Mangool

    2014-01-01

    Fetishistic transvestism is a disorder of sexual preference associated with fantasies and sexual urges to dress in opposite gender clothing as a means of arousal and as an adjunct to masturbation and coitus. The disorder has been reported in people with learning disabilities. The disorder has been reported in a young male with dull normal intelligence. Transvestism though has been described in schizophrenia and psychosis and fetishism has been described in the course of simple schizophrenia, there are no reports of fetishistic transvestism in a patient with mental retardation and psychosis. A case of fetishistic transvestism in a patient with mental retardation and psychosis with treatment and relevant review of literature is reported. PMID:24860226

  17. Court upholds conviction in rape of mentally retarded boy.

    PubMed

    1999-06-25

    An Ohio appeals court upheld the conviction of an HIV-positive man convicted of kidnapping and raping a 17-year-old mentally retarded boy. The defendant had appealed his conviction, claiming that disclosure of his HIV status prejudiced the jury against him. The appeals court found that the statements about his HIV infection were relevant testimony, although some prejudice may conceivably arise. Details from the original trial and appellate hearing are provided. PMID:11367289

  18. State of Ohio Curriculum Guide for Moderately Mentally Retarded Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Maxine.

    Provided is a curriculum guide based on the lifelong learning needs of moderately retarded persons. Behavioral objectives are identified at each of six levels of functioning which approximate the mental age levels of 1.5, 3.0, 5.0, 7.0, 8.0, and 8.0 + (adult) years. Sections cover the following persisting life problem areas: (1) developing the…

  19. Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents with ASD without Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caamaño, Marta; Boada, Leticia; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Moreno, Carmen; Llorente, Cloe; Moreno, Dolores; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes subclinical psychopathology in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) without mental retardation with no comorbid disorder, assessed by an extensive general psychopathology interview. The K-SADS-PL was administered to a group of 25 patients with ASD (mean age = 12.80 ± 2.86 years) and 25 healthy controls…

  20. Metabolic disease in mental retardation: a study in Texas.

    PubMed

    Farrell, G; Johnson, R; Fabre, L; Farmer, R; Pellizzari, E; Stephenson, M

    1971-05-01

    Reported are the results of a study of patients admitted to the State Schools for the Mentally Retarded in Texas, over a two-year period from 1968-1970. Of 2029 cases, 185 were found on a detection battery screening to have possible metabolic disease. The report summarizes the findings on 93 cases studied in the metabolic ward at the Texas Research Institute. PMID:5173196

  1. Spanish-Speaking Pupils Classified as Educable Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, John T.; Plakos, John

    A total of 47 pupils enrolled in grades 3-8 was selected for this study. Of these pupils, 17 were from a rural area and 30 were from an urban area. The pupils selected had to (1) be of Mexican descent, (2) be currently enrolled in educable mentally retarded (EMR) classes, and (3) have evidenced a problem in using the English language due to their…

  2. Fragile X Mental Retardation Syndrome: Structure of the KH1-KH2 Domains of Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Valverde,R.; Poznyakova, I.; Kajander, T.; Venkatraman, J.; Regan, L.

    2007-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is the most common form of inherited mental retardation in humans, with an estimated prevalence of about 1 in 4000 males. Although several observations indicate that the absence of functional Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) is the underlying basis of Fragile X syndrome, the structure and function of FMRP are currently unknown. Here, we present an X-ray crystal structure of the tandem KH domains of human FMRP, which reveals the relative orientation of the KH1 and KH2 domains and the location of residue Ile304, whose mutation to Asn is associated with a particularly severe incidence of Fragile X syndrome. We show that the Ile304Asn mutation both perturbs the structure and destabilizes the protein.

  3. Assessing mental status in persons with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Hamer, B A

    1998-05-01

    When assessing a client, avoid abstract questions, instead ask concrete, open-ended questions. All clients should be assessed for risk of suicide, elopement, or a danger to self or others. Be aware of underlying causes or confounding variables that may affect a client's mental status. PMID:9604839

  4. Socio-Behavioral Study Center for Mental Retardation. Terminal Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific State Hospital, Pomona, CA.

    The terminal progress report of the Socio-Behavioral Study Center for Mental Retardation summarizes research activities and results of the Center's three major programs. The Community Research Program studied the epidemiological aspects of mental retardation in the community, including identification and classification of retardates, investigation…

  5. Mental Retardation: The Known and the Unknown. Information as of February 1, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

    The report of the President's Committee on Mental Retardation deals with three goal areas: minimum occurrence of disability, adequate and humane service systems, and assurance of full citizenship for the retarded. Considered in an initial section are the background, definition, prevalence, and incidence of mental retardation. Reviewed is research…

  6. Developmental Differences in the Symptomatology of Psychiatric Inpatients with and without Mild Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Marion; Zigler, Edward

    1995-01-01

    The symptomatology of 93 psychiatric inpatients with mild mental retardation was compared with that of a matched sample of inpatients without mental retardation. Patients with retardation displayed more outwardly directed and less inwardly directed symptoms; more symptoms involving action than thought; and psychotic symptom pictures which more…

  7. A Plea for Consideration of Ecological Validity in the Experimental Psychology of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Penelope H.; Baumeister, Alfred A.

    1983-01-01

    Problems with experimental research on mental retardation include: (1) difficulties with defining mental retardation; (2) neglect in demonstrating causal relationships; and (3) reliance on methodology not necessarily appropriate for defining the criteria of retardation. The author advocates abandoning definitions based on intelligence tests and…

  8. Validity of the Schizophrenia Diagnosis of the Psychopathology Instrument for Mentally Retarded Adults (PIMRA): A Comparison of Schizophrenic Patients with and without Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linaker, Olav M.; Helle, Jon

    1994-01-01

    This study found that the schizophrenia subscale of the Psychopathology Instrument for Mentally Retarded Adults was a valid quantitative measure of schizophrenia if one item was removed from the scale. Comparison with a nonretarded population indicated that mentally retarded patients had less delusions and more incoherence and flat affect. They…

  9. Mental Retardation Activities of the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC. Secretary's Committee on Mental Retardation.

    The coordination of mental retardation programs in the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (DHEW) and 1968 mental retardation legislation are reviewed. Departmental activities summarized include those of the Health Services and Mental Health Administration, National Institutes of Health, Office of Education, Social and Rehabilitation…

  10. Problems of sensory integration in the mentally retarded child and their implications for the physiotherapist.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, R J; Bullock, M I; Burns, Y R

    1978-09-01

    Affecting some 2.5-3.5% of the general population (Smith, 1971), mental retardation is an important national health, social and economic problem, with only four disabling conditions (cancer, arthritis, cardiac disease and mental illness) having higher incidence (Love, 1973). Of these conditions only mental retardation is prevalent in the early developmental period of life. PMID:25025806

  11. [X-linked alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome].

    PubMed

    Wada, Takahito

    2009-04-01

    X-linked alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome (ATR-X syndrome, OMIM #301040) is one of the syndromes associated with abnormal epigenetic gene regulation, including ICF(DNMT3B), Rett (MECP2), Rubinstein-Taybi (CBP), Coffin-Lowry (RSK2), and Sotos (NSD1) syndromes. It is a syndromic form of X-linked mental retardation, which affects males and is characterized by profound mental retardation, mild HbH disease (alpha-thalassemia), facial dysmorphism, skeletal abnormalities, and autistic behavior. ATR-X syndrome is caused by a mutation in the ATRX gene on the X chromosome (Xq13), which encodes ATRX protein, belonging to the SNF2 family of chromatin-remodeling proteins. The protein has two functionally important domains: an ADD (ATRX-DNMT3-DNMT3L) domain at the N-terminus, and chromatin-remodeling domain in the C-terminal half, where the ATRX gene mutations of most ATR-X patients reside. Perturbation in DNA methylation in the rDNA genes was repored in ATR-X patients, and ATRX protein is presumed to be involved in the establishment and maintenance of DNA methylation. Based on its various clinical phenotypes, the expressions of many genes, including alpha globin genes, seem to be abnormally regulated in ATR-X patients. However, the precise mechanism involving ATRX protein remains to be elucidated. Epigenetics can link environmental and genetic causes of many pathological conditions. The genes, which are abnormally regulated by a perturbed epigenetic mechanism, are, in themselves, structurally normal, and the elucidation of their mechanism may lead to the development of appropriate therapy. PMID:19489441

  12. Low cost organization of a mental retardation facility staff library.

    PubMed

    Payne, E

    1985-01-01

    A mental retardation facility staff library of 700 volumes required complete organization. Two restraining factors were lack of personnel and limited funds. A plan was developed to classify titles according to Library of Congress, with the subject heading catalog predominantly based on Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). A cataloging service was located which produced custom card sets and book labels from CATLINE and MARC computer databases. Where necessary, MARC records were edited to alter LC subject headings to MeSH terminology. Organization was accomplished at an average cost per title of less than $1.50. PMID:10269914

  13. Towards Defining Adequate Lithium Trials for Individuals with Mental Retardation and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Use of lithium with mentally retarded individuals with psychiatric conditions and/or behavior disturbances is discussed. The paper describes components of an adequate clinical trial and reviews case studies and double-blind cases. The paper concludes that aggression is the best indicator for lithium use, and reviews treatment parameters and…

  14. Cytogenetic analysis in a large series of children with non-syndromic mental retardation

    PubMed Central

    Bouhjar, Inesse Ben Abdallah; Gmidène, Abir; Mougou-Zrelli, Soumaya; Hannachi, Hanene; Soyah, Najla; Gadour, Naoufel; Harrabi, Imed; Elghezal, Hatem; Saad, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Mental retardation affects 1–3% of the population. To evaluate the implication of chromosomal abnormalities in the etiology of mental retardation, 1420 patients with non-syndromic mental retardation recruited at the department of cytogenetics of Farhat Hached hospital (Sousse, Tunisia) between January 2005 and December 2009, were analyzed using standard cytogenetic techniques. Age ranged between 3 and 18 years with a median of 8 years. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 7.8% of patients and an increased prevalence of chromosome anomalies was observed in patients when the mental retardation is associated with a severe degree of intellectual disability, facial dysmorphic features and/or congenital malformations or epilepsy.

  15. Proceedings of the Conference on Nutrition and Mental Retardation (Ann Arbor, Michigan, February 10-11, 1971).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Ninfa Saturnino, Ed.

    The conference, planned primarily for nutritionists and dieticians, dealt with the role of nutrition in the prevention and management of mental retardation. Proceedings include an overview of mental retardation, an examination of nutrition manpower needs in the fields of mental health and mental retardation on both the national and state levels,…

  16. Increased Lead and Cadmium Burdens among Mentally Retarded Children and Children with Borderline Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between subtoxic metal levels and mild mental retardation and borderline intelligence was investigated through comparison of hair metal concentrations in 135 secondary students with mild retardation or borderline intelligence. Children in the retarded/borderline group had significantly higher lead and cadmium concentrations.…

  17. Training in Social and Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills for Mildly and Moderately Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castles, Elaine E.; Glass, Carol R.

    1986-01-01

    Effectiveness of social-skills training, interpersonal problem-solving training, and a combination in improving social competence of 33 moderately and mildly mentally retarded adults was evaluated. Treated Ss improved on role-play tests of social skills and moderately retarded treated Ss improved relative to moderately retarded controls on the…

  18. Primacy Effects in Short-Term Memory with the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detterman, Douglas K.

    This paper reports on two experiments conducted in an attempt to extend findings by Ellis which suggest a rehearsal deficit in mentally retarded subjects. In experiment one, mentally retarded subjects saw nine stimuli in a serial position probe task for either two, four, or six seconds each. Performances for the two and four second-per-item rates…

  19. Evaluation of a Weight Loss Treatment Program for Individuals with Mild Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sailer, Angela B.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Johnson, Brigitte; Zetocha, Kim; Egemo, Kristin; Hegstad, Holly

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is a major problem for people in the United States. Individuals with mental retardation also are prone to obesity. The most successful programs for treating obesity typically are treatment packages consisting of multiple behavioral components. Research in the area of weight loss and mental retardation has not evaluated programs for…

  20. Dyskinetic Movement Disorder among Adults with Mental Retardation: Phenomenology and Co-occurrence with Stereotypy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodfish, James W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The occurrence of dyskinetic movement disorder and its co-occurrence with stereotypic behavior among adults with mental retardation were studied in 98 adults with mental retardation. Results indicated that stereotypic movement disorder was associated with increased dyskinesia scores and that dyskinesia and stereotypy may be related by common…

  1. Role Playing and Behavior Modification: A Demonstration with Mentally Retarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchan, L. Gerald; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Within the last few years a "new wave" of therapeutic techniques for teaching the mentally retarded has emerged in this country. Describes how the behavior of two demonstration groups of mentally retarded children utilize the accomodations of role playing and behavior modification to develop social skills. (Author/RK)

  2. Access to Generic Substance Abuse Services for Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lottman, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    Investigated access to generic substance abuse services for persons with mental retardation. Telephone survey of chemical dependency treatment agencies revealed that agencies accepting mentally retarded clients differed significantly from nonaccepting agencies in their perceived difficulty in integrating these clients and in their acceptance of…

  3. Veridical and False Pictorial Memory in Individuals with and without Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlin, Michael T.; Toglia, Michael P.; Wakeford, Yvonne; Jakway, Allison; Sullivan, Kate; Hasel, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Veridical and false pictorial recognition were assessed in individuals with mental retardation; groups were matched for MA and CA. Pictures were viewed in either a generative or static format at acquisition. The individuals with mental retardation and those in the MA-matched group had higher rates of false memories for critical items and lower hit…

  4. Self-Reported Fears in Hispanic Youth with Mental Retardation: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Sylvia Z.; Nguyen, Trang; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    1998-01-01

    A study assessed fears experienced by 48 Hispanic youth (ages 10-21) with mental retardation. Although differences were found in the content of fears across age and gender groups, the number and intensity of fears did not differ from those of their non-Hispanic peers with mental retardation. (Author/CR)

  5. Body-Rocking and Other Habits of College Students and Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkson, Gershon; Rafaeli-Mor, Nilly; Tarnovsky, Sofia

    1999-01-01

    A comparison on the body-rocking of 21 college students and 22 individuals with mental retardation found a greater proportion of the people with mental retardation were less sensitive to situational factors, demonstrated atypical collateral behaviors, engaged in less leg-kicking, and executed their body-rocking with larger amplitudes. (Author/CR)

  6. Outpatient Psychotherapy for Adults with Mental Retardation and Concomitant Psychopathology: Research and Clinical Imperatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nezu, Christine M.; Nezu, Arthur M.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews literature concerning effective outpatient psychotherapy alternatives for adults with mental retardation. Focuses on psychodynamic, behavioral, and group psychotherapy approaches for those with dual diagnosis of mental retardation and psychological difficulties. Offers research agenda for future directions and includes model of clinical…

  7. Medical Diagnostic Consultation concerning Mental Retardation: An Analogue Study of School Psychologists' Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodrich, David L.; Tarbox, Jennifer; Balles, John; Gorin, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Recent research of relevance to school psychologists suggests that the cause, or etiology, of mental retardation can be established by medical diagnosticians in approximately one-half of cases. In the current study, 109 practicing school psychologists considered a hypothetical case of an elementary student with mental retardation and indicated…

  8. Essential Characteristics of Self-Determined Behavior of Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehmeyer, Michael L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This article proposes a definition and model of self-determination for individuals with mental retardation. Self-determined behavior is seen as autonomous, self-regulated, based on psychological empowerment, and self-realizing. Evaluation of the definition with individuals with mental retardation indicated that measures of essential…

  9. Residential Programming for Mentally Retarded Persons. Volume III, Developmental Programming in the Residential Facility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Retarded Children, Arlington, TX. South Central Regional Office.

    The third of four booklets on residential programing for the mentally retarded is intended to help parents evaluate residential services and participate in decisions about program design and implementation. Areas of appropriate program emphasis are indicated for different age groups and for the various degrees of mental retardation from profound…

  10. Clozapine in Three Individuals with Mild Mental Retardation and Treatment-Refractory Psychiatric Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    Although clozapine is a drug specifically approved for people with schizophrenia, it has not been systematically evaluated with dually diagnosed individuals having mental retardation. This article reviews the drug's use in the general population, discusses potential difficulties in prescribing it for individuals with mental retardation, and…

  11. Reply to Barnett's Comments on the Definition and Classification of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Zigler, Edward

    1986-01-01

    The authors respond to a critique of their article proposing low IQ as the sole defining characteristics of mental retardation and address such issues as social versus intellectual definitions, the role of social adaptation in defining mental retardation, the relevance of diverse definitions to research and practice, and the nature-nurture…

  12. School Psychologists' Perceptions and Experiences regarding Students with Mental Retardation and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Paula J.

    2010-01-01

    An exploration of use and believed effectiveness of interventions as well as personal interest and perceived effectiveness in working with (1) students with average IQs and depression, (2) students with mental retardation, and (3) students with both mental retardation and depression was conducted via a nationwide survey of 131 school…

  13. Mental Retardation and Grief Following a Death Loss: Information for Families and Other Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luchterhand, Charlene

    This booklet is designed to assist those who may be in a situation of consoling a person with mental retardation who has either just lost a parent or friend or is near to someone whose death is imminent. The first part of the booklet explores why it is important that people with mental retardation know about the death. It provides guidance on how…

  14. Shaping with Visual Feedback and Token Reinforcement: Effects on Voice Volume Changes in Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieber, Carrie; Gurski, John C.

    In an attempt to confirm earlier results with a group of mentally retarded females, 12 mentally retarded institutionalized adults (8 male, 4 female) were trained to either reduce (Loud group) or increase (Soft group) their voice volumes with a combination of visual feedback and token reinforcement. The feedback unit provided a binary light on-off…

  15. The Impact of Automated Expert Assistance on the Training of Mental Retardation Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hile, Matthew G.; Campbell, Donna M.

    This paper describes the use of an automated performance support system, the Mental Retardation-Expert (MR-E), in the training of 16 student clinicians to think "functionally" about undesirable behaviors of persons with mental retardation or developmental disabilities (MR/DD). The MR-E models human expertise in behavioral diagnosis and treatment,…

  16. Institutionalization, Involuntary Sterilization, and Mental Retardation: Profiles from the History of the Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David J.; Polloway, Edward A.

    1993-01-01

    This study analyzes data on 212 individuals with mental retardation who were sterilized while residents of the Central Virginia Training Center and discharged from the facility between 1969 and 1989. The analysis includes gender, age at and date of sterilization, level of mental retardation, and location of subsequent discharge. (Author/JDD)

  17. Effects of Physical Training and Calcium Intake on Bone Mineral Density of Students with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of physical training and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with mental retardation. Forty mentally retarded boys (age 7-10 years old) were randomly assigned to four groups (no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake and physical activity): training groups with or…

  18. Recognition of Facial Emotional Expressions from Moving and Static Displays by Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Natalie K.; Hall, Laura J.; Shinkfield, Alison J.

    1999-01-01

    Adults (N=24) with and without mental retardation were shown moving and static videotaped and photographic displays of posed emotional expressions. Individuals with mental retardation were significantly poorer at identifying anger, fear, disgust, and surprise. Both groups performed significantly better on the moving as opposed to the static…

  19. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein Regulates Heterosynaptic Plasticity in the Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Steven A.; Hoeffer, Charles A.; Klann, Eric; Nguyen, Peter V.

    2011-01-01

    Silencing of a single gene, FMR1, is linked to a highly prevalent form of mental retardation, characterized by social and cognitive impairments, known as fragile X syndrome (FXS). The FMR1 gene encodes fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which negatively regulates translation. Knockout of Fmr1 in mice results in enhanced long-term…

  20. Prevalence of Chronic Medical Conditions in Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison with the General Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapell, Deborah; Nightingale, Beryle; Rodriguez, Ana; Lee, Joseph H.; Zigman, Warren B.; Schupf, Nicole

    1998-01-01

    A study interviewed caregivers and reviewed medical records of 278 adults with mental retardation with and without Down syndrome. The adults with mental retardation had age-related disorders comparable to those in the general population, but there was an increased frequency of thyroid disorders, nonischemic heart disorders, and sensory impairment.…

  1. Hepatitis B Infection in a Day School of Mentally Retarded Students: Transmission from Students to Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remis, Robert S.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Teaching Staff in day schools for mentally retarded students with direct classroom contact may carry an occupational risk of HBV infection. A seroepidemiologic study associated the prevalence of HBV markers with classroom contact with an HBsAg-positive student, duration of employment at school, and previous work with mentally retarded individuals.…

  2. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasite Infections among Individuals with Mental Retardation in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schupf, Nicole; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Prevalence of intestinal parasite infection among program participants of the New York State Office of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities for 1986-87 was estimated at 7.3%, suggesting that management of parasitic infection is improving. Males and individuals with severe/profound mental retardation were twice as likely to have…

  3. Capital Punishment and Offenders with Mental Retardation: Response to the Penry Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calnen, Terrence; Blackman, Leonard S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper responds to a court brief of amici curiae asserting that mental retardation reduces culpability in capital offenses. The paper argues that the position makes unwarranted categorical assumptions about mental retardation, fails to consider individualized and situation-specific determinants of culpability, and undermines respect and value…

  4. Mental Retardation and the Problem of "Normality": Self-Determination and Identity Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David

    2007-01-01

    The meaning of the category and concept of mental retardation is explored through the words of a fictional character, and the accounts of real people who have been injured and stigmatized by the label. Examples of the extremes to which people have gone to avoid or escape the term mental retardation are provided. The classification of retardation…

  5. Teachers' and Mothers' Assessment of Social Skills of Students with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cifci Tekinarslan, Ilknur; Sazak Pinar, Elif; Sucuoglu, Bulbin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the assessment results of social skills of students with mental retardation by their teachers and mothers through relational model by using descriptive statistics. The research group in this study consisted of mothers and teachers of 562 children with mental retardation aged between 6 and 12 who enrolled in…

  6. Patterns of Behavioral Adjustment and Maladjustment in Mental Retardation: Comparison of Children with and without ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Deborah A.; Lachar, David; Loveland, Katherine A.; Santos, Cynthia W.; Faria, Laura P.; Azzam, Pierre N.; Hentges, Beth A.; Cleveland, Lynne A.

    2000-01-01

    A study compared the behavioral adjustment of 48 children (mean age=11) with mental retardation and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 47 children with mental retardation. The children with ADHD had significantly more symptoms of depression, family conflict, noncompliance, anxiety, hyperactivity, inadequate social skills, and…

  7. Psychometric Properties of ADHD Rating Scales among Children with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael L.; Fee, Virginia E.; Jones, Christie J.

    2004-01-01

    The validity of hyperactivity rating scales in children with mental retardation was evaluated. Forty-eight children with mental retardation were rated by parents, teachers and teaching assistants on rating scales measuring Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) as part of a related investigation. In addition, direct observations were…

  8. Awareness among Family Members Having Children with Mental Retardation on Relevant Legislations in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuppusamy, Balabaskar; Narayan, Jayanthi; Nair, Deepa

    2012-01-01

    In India, Acts and legislations are in place for persons with mental retardation. Three major Acts namely Rehabilitation Council of India Act (1992), Persons with Disabilities (Equal opportunities, protection of rights and full participation) Act (1995) and National Trust for welfare of persons with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental retardation and…

  9. The Neuropsychology of Facial Identity and Facial Expression in Children with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Oswald, Donald P.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Ellis, Cynthia R.; Sage, Monica; Ferris, Jennifer R.

    2005-01-01

    We indirectly determined how children with mental retardation analyze facial identity and facial expression, and if these analyses of identity and expression were controlled by independent cognitive processes. In a reaction time study, 20 children with mild mental retardation were required to determine if simultaneously presented photographs of…

  10. Differential Expression of Toy Play by Preschoolers with and without Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, D. Michael

    2006-01-01

    Analyses of the peak and predominant toy play of 17 preschool children with mental retardation and 17 preschool children without mental retardation are presented. Groups were matched on developmental age and sex and observed during both a home-based independent play situation and classroom-based free play. Results are presented for 1) a comparison…

  11. Responses and Sustained Interactions in Children with Mental Retardation and Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Carlos T.; Fein, Deborah; Wolf, Julie; Jones, Garland; Hauck, Margaret; Waterhouse, Lynn; Feinstein, Carl

    2003-01-01

    A study compared 19 children with autism and 14 children with mental retardation (ages 2-11), on sustained interactions and responses to social bids. Children with autism produced fewer positive responses and more "no responses" than children with mental retardation. Both groups were more likely to make positive responses to adults. (Contains…

  12. Families and Mental Retardation: A Collection of Notable AAMR Journal Articles across the 20th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blacher, Jan, Ed.; Baker, Bruce L., Ed.

    This volume brings together 32 papers on families and mental retardation. The papers were first published in journals of the American Association on Mental Retardation and date from 1935 through 1999. The papers are divided into four units within which the papers are presented chronologically. Essays introduce each unit. The first unit,…

  13. Evaluating Psychotropic Drugs in People with Mental Retardation: Where Are the Social Validity Data?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; LeSage, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Journal articles dealing with drug treatment of individuals with mental retardation were examined to determine treatment goals and outcomes of treating behavior problems. Analysis of articles published from 1987 to 1993 in 5 major journals revealed that none of the 68 articles concerned with the psychopharmacology of mental retardation reported…

  14. Mindfulness Training Assists Individuals with Moderate Mental Retardation to Maintain Their Community Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Adkins, Angela D.; Singh, Judy; Singh, Ashvind N.

    2007-01-01

    The mindfulness procedure "Meditation on the Soles of the Feet" can help individuals with mild mental retardation control aggressive behavior. In this study, our aim was to teach this mindfulness technique, using a multiple baseline design, to 3 individuals with moderate mental retardation who were at risk of losing their community placements…

  15. Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Adults With Mental Retardation Living in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hove, Oddbjorn

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of eating disorders among 311 adults with mental retardation living in the West Coast of Norway was investigated. Reports stemming from a questionnaire completed by health workers were the data source. Diagnostic criteria adapted for persons with mental retardation were used. The main finding was that 27% of cases showed indices of…

  16. Performance Variability of Educable Mentally Retarded Boys on a Novel Kicking Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porretta, David L.

    Baumeister's (1968) hypothesis that mentally retarded children exhibit depressed levels of performance and greater intra-individual variability when compared to intellectually non-handicapped children of similar chronological age was investigated. Eight 10-year-old educable mentally retarded boys and 16 non-handicapped boys, matched by either…

  17. Mental Retardation Research Funding Trends of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumeister, Alfred A.; Berkson, Gershon

    1982-01-01

    The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development is the federal agency with the explicit legislative mandate to support mental retardation research. Examination of funding trends within that institute over the past 10 years reveals a steady and linear decline in relative support for mental retardation research. (Author)

  18. Specific Patterns of Cognitive Abilities in Young Children with Mild Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Kathryn L.; Blair, Clancy; Scott, Marcia S.; Bolger, Kerry E.

    2004-01-01

    Whereas a wealth of research has examined cognitive abilities of groups of individuals with mild mental retardation (MMR), less research has investigated potential differences in cognitive performance among individuals with mental retardation (Baumeister, 1997). The present study was an exploratory analysis of variability in performance of…

  19. Social Interactions in the Neighborhood: Cultural Approach to Social Integration of Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvez, Marcel

    1993-01-01

    Community integration of individuals with mental retardation in Treguier, Brittany (France) was examined. A grid-group typology of cultural regimes was employed to measure change in social status as reflected in social interactions. Each regime linked the presence of individuals with mental retardation to shared values in a community and produced…

  20. Art for the Mentally Retarded: Methodology and Techniques for a Broad Based Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelchner, Thomas A.

    Many aspects of discipline-based art education (DBAE) can be used with mentally retarded students and the effects of this approach can be exciting and fulfilling for them. Art criticism activities improve mentally retarded students' visual awareness, verbal skills, and ability to think independently. They are able to progress through the steps of…

  1. Comparison between Nonhandicapped and Mentally Retarded Workers: Why They Lose Their Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reasons why 133 competitively employed nonhandicapped and 8 mentally retarded food service workers lost their jobs were compared. The majority of mentally retarded workers lost their jobs for productivity reasons, with some associated secondary social problems while the nonhandicapped lost their jobs for both social and production problems.…

  2. A Closer Look at Interpersonal Decision-Making in Adults with and without Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickson, Linda; Golden, Harriet; Khemka, Ishita; Urv, Tiina; Yamusah, Salifu

    1998-01-01

    In two experiments, participants with and without mental retardation listened to vignettes depicting situations in which a protagonist was faced with a decision involving either a peer or an authority figure. Decision-making tasks were considerably more difficult for the participants with mental retardation. Women in both studies outperformed men.…

  3. Assessment of Seizures and Related Symptomatology in Persons with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayville, Erik A.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2004-01-01

    Seizures can be debilitating across a number of physical, social, occupational, and personal variables. Given the deficits in all of these areas frequently present in persons with mental retardation, effective assessment and subsequent treatment of seizures is a primary goal for individuals with both mental retardation and epilepsy. To thoroughly…

  4. THE MENTALLY RETARDED CHILD, A PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH. MCGRAW-HILL SERIES IN PSYCHOLOGY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROBINSON, HALBERT B.; ROBINSON, NANCY M.

    PRESENTING A PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH TO MENTAL RETARDATION, THIS TEXT BEGINS WITH A DISCUSSION OF THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE, PROBLEMS OF DEFINITION, AND THE CURRENT STATUS OF THE FIELD OF MENTAL RETARDATION. A SECTION ON ETIOLOGY AND SYNDROMES PRESENTS INFORMATION ON GENETIC FACTORS AND GENETIC SYNDROMES AND THE PHYSICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL…

  5. Characteristics of Persons with Mental Retardation and HIV/AIDS Infection in a Statewide Medicaid Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walkup, James; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Crystal, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    A study compared the characteristics of 119 HIV-infected persons with mental retardation to those of 8,175 HIV-infected persons in New Jersey. Compared to others, individuals with mental retardation were more likely to be female, Black, and have injection drug use as a route of infection. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  6. Effects of Age, Gender, and Causality on Perceptions of Persons with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panek, Paul E.; Jungers, Melissa K.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of age, gender, and causality on the perceptions of persons with mental retardation. Participants rated individuals with mental retardation using a semantic differential scale with three factors: activity, evaluation, and potency. Target individuals in each scenario varied on the variables of age (8, 20, 45),…

  7. The Croydon Assessment of Learning Study: Prevalence and Educational Identification of Mild Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew; Chadwick, Oliver; Gringras, Paul; Wood, Nicky; Higgins, Siobhan; Maney, Julie-Ann; Karia, Nisha; Iqbal, Huma; Moore, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Background: Mild mental retardation is an enduring and impairing condition. Its prevalence has varied widely across different studies from 0.5 to over 8%, with higher rates in completely ascertained samples. The current study estimates the prevalence of low IQ in the mental retardation range (intellectual disability) in a population sample and…

  8. Allocation of Attention and Effect of Practice on Persons with and without Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oka, Kohei; Miura, Toshiaki

    2008-01-01

    Persons with mild and moderate mental retardation and CA-matched persons without mental retardation performed a dual-task, "pencil-and-paper task" (Baddeley, Della Sala, Gray, Papagno, & Spinnler (1997). Testing central executive functioning with a pencil-and-paper test. In Rabbit (Ed.), Methodology of Frontal and Executive Function (pp. 61-80).…

  9. Mental Retardation and the Law: A Report on Status of Current Court Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Paul; Beck, Ronna Lee

    Included in the report are summaries of four new cases and updated information on 38 cases regarding legal issues in mental retardation. Featured is a review of cases dealing with liability of judges and lawyers in violating the rights of mentally retarded persons. Other issues addressed (with sample court case in parentheses) include commitment…

  10. Clinical Study of the Effects of Age on the Physical Health of Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Sally-Ann

    1998-01-01

    Physical disorders and pharmacotherapy for 134 people with mental retardation (ages 65 years and older) living in the United Kingdom were compared to 73 younger adults with mental retardation. Results showed the older group had higher rates of urinary incontinence, immobility, hearing impairments, arthritis, hypertension, and cerebrovascular…

  11. Detection of Metabolic Disorders among Selectively Screened People with Idiopathic Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Michael B.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Fifty-eight people (ages 2 to 66) receiving residential or other services for idiopathic mental retardation were evaluated for evidence of metabolic disease. Five (8%) demonstrated symptoms pointing to specific genetic metabolic defects, suggesting the need for evaluation of other similar populations with idiopathic mental retardation. (Author/DB)

  12. Psychopathology and Mental Retardation: An Italian Epidemiological Study Using the PIMRA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Malfa, Giampaolo; Notarelli, Antonella; Hardoy, Maria Carolina; Bertelli, Marco; Cabras, Pier Luigi

    1997-01-01

    The incidence of psychopathology was studied in 176 Italian adults with mental retardation. Prevalence of answers relating to anxiety, tendency to live apart, and body complaints in individuals with mild mental retardation was documented. For people with severe intellectual impairments, mood disturbance with inconsistent behaviors was more…

  13. Role for Animal Research in the Investigation of Human Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Britt

    1994-01-01

    A general learning impairment model and a reasoning insight model, both in rats, were reviewed for parallels to theories of human cognitive deficiency, leading to the conclusion that animal models of the cognitive deficiency states of mental retardation are underutilized and that human mental retardation researchers would benefit from greater…

  14. Utilization of Computer Technology To Facilitate Money Management by Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Daniel K.; Stock, Steven E.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes results of an initial investigation of the utility of a specially designed money management software program for improving management of personal checking accounts for individuals with mental retardation. Use with 19 adults with mental retardation indicated the software resulted in significant reduction in check writing and…

  15. Infectious Diseases as Causes of Mental Retardation and Other Concomitant Neurological Sequelae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iivanainen, Matti; Lahdevirta, Juhani

    1988-01-01

    Examination of 1,000 Finnish patients with mental retardation indicated that infectious diseases were the only cause of mental retardation in 11.1 percent and a contributory cause in a further 1.5 percent. Among the former group of 111 patients, the causative infectious disease operated prenatally in 18 percent and perinatally/postnatally in 82…

  16. Sexual Abuse and Exploitation of Children and Adults with Mental Retardation and Other Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharinger, Deborah; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Issues in the sexual abuse and exploitation of individuals with mental retardation are discussed, including sociolegal considerations of special protection from abuse and neglect, incidence of sexual abuse, increased vulnerability of individuals with mental retardation, nature of the abuse, initial and long-term effects, professional response, and…

  17. Establishing mental retardation in capital cases: a potential matter of life and death.

    PubMed

    Baroff, G S

    1991-12-01

    Psychological test obstacles to gaining the acceptance of a diagnosis of mental retardation in criminal defendants was described, and the use of the Revised Beta intelligence test with defendants who may be retarded was questioned. A possible modification of the adaptive behavior criterion for criminal defendants was suggested, and some thoughts on the appropriateness of the death penalty for persons with mental retardation were offered. PMID:1775075

  18. Science and students with mental retardation: An analysis of curriculum features and learner characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scruggs, Thomas E.; Mastropieri, Margo A.

    Although much research has been conducted on the learning characteristics of individuals with mental retardation, science learning of such individuals has received far less attention. In this investigation, students with mental retardation were observed over a 2-year period, in order to determine how the characteristics of mental retardation manifested themselves in the context of inquiry-oriented, hands-on science curriculum. Analysis of all relevant data sources, including observations and field notes, videotape and audiotape recordings, student products, and interviews, suggested that several characteristics commonly attributed to students with mild mental retardation were observed to interact with the science curriculum. These characteristics included attention, semantic memory, logical reasoning, and outerdirectedness. However, teachers were skilled at adapting instruction to meet the special needs of these learners. Implications for teaching science to students with mental retardation are provided.

  19. Estimation of energy stores of mentally retarded individuals.

    PubMed

    Litchford, M D

    1987-03-01

    Average caloric intake over 6 days, age, sex, height, weight, mid arm circumference, and triceps skinfold were determined for 31 females and 49 males ages 17 to 36 living in a residential care facility for mentally retarded persons. Ideal body weight, body mass index (W/H2), percentiles for arm muscle area, arm fat area, and triceps skinfold were determined to interpret the anthropometric measurements. Pearson r correlation coefficients were calculated to compare relative merits of ideal body weight, body mass index, percentile for arm muscle area, arm fat area, and triceps skinfold as an estimation of energy stores. Correlations suggest that body mass index is a more practical tool for estimation of energy stores. PMID:3565496

  20. Generalizing articulation training with trainable mentally retarded subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Murdock, J Y; Garcia, E E; Hardman, M L

    1977-01-01

    A multiple-baseline technique was used to evaluate generalization effects during articulation training with trainable mentally retarded subjects. Four target words were selected for each subject on the basis of whether the subject could articulate the word correctly when it was modelled but could not articulate the word correctly in response to a picture of it. Five different settings were selected for generalization probing and training for each subject. In Setting 1, Experimenter 1 initiated training sequentially on all four target words for each subject. Other experimenters probed for correct articulation generalization in four other settings. Training was initiated in these four other settings sequentially only if correct responding failed to generalize to a setting. Results indicated that it was necessary to initiate training on at least three of the four selected target words in at least one additional setting with an additional trainer before correct responding generalized to untrained settings. PMID:599115

  1. Research with the mentally retarded and mentally ill: rights and duties versus compelling state interest.

    PubMed

    Davis, A J; Mahon, K A

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines the assumptions underlying the ethical reasoning involved when the natural right to informed consent has been violated. Ramifications of the compelling need of the state to protect society by overriding the rights of individual freedom receive special attention. Specifically these issues are addressed: natural rights versus state's rights to preserve rights, state's rights versus parental autonomy, rights and duties versus paternalism, self interest and self survival versus the common good, coercion versus progress in research, and benefit versus cost. Building on these ethical considerations, the authors present a theoretical framework for ethical decision making with research involving the mentally retarded and the mentally ill. PMID:6561212

  2. Persons with Mental Retardation and Related Conditions in Mental Retardation Facilities: Selected Findings from the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey. Project Report 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakin, K. Charlie; And Others

    This report presents statistics on residential facilities for the mentally retarded and on the residents themselves, derived from the Institutional Population Component of the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES). Part 1 presents an overview of the NMES and discusses previous efforts to survey persons residing in mental retardation…

  3. The self-esteem and anxiety of children with and without mentally retarded siblings

    PubMed Central

    Saban, Fatma; Arıkan, Duygu

    2013-01-01

    Background: The study was carried out with the aim of determining the factors affecting and to evaluate anxiety situations and self-esteem of children with and without mentally retarded siblings. Materials and Methods: The sampling included 227 healthy children: 108 of them have mental retarded sibling and 119 of them do not have mental retarded sibling. The context of this study consisted of 15-18 year of age healthy children with mentally retarded siblings and 15-18 year of aged healthy children having at least one sibling between the dates February 15st and June 26st 2010. Personal Information Form, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Trait Anxiety Scale were used. Results: It was found out that trait anxiety of 17-18 aged of children with mental retarded sibling (47.04 ± 7.3) was higher than that of the children without mental retarded siblings (44.05 ± 11.23) (P < 0.05). It was observed that self-esteem of children with mentally retarded sibling was not affected from the handicap of their siblings (P > 0.05). Trait anxiety score averages of children with mentally retarded sibling and experience some difficulties due to his or her siblings's handicap (47.00 ± 7.76) were found higher than those of those of the children without any problem with the environment (42.61 ± 7.48) (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Although the average score of trait anxiety and self-esteem in both groups were not significant different, score of trait anxiety for children with mentally disabled siblings was higher in comparison. It was concluded that anxiety of children with and without mentally retarded siblings increased as self-esteem of these children decreased. PMID:24523782

  4. Mental retardation, acromegalic face, and megalotestes in two half-brothers: a specific form of X-linked mental retardation without fra(X) (q)?

    PubMed

    Tariverdian, G; Froster-Iskenius, U; Deuschl, G; Wolff, G

    1991-01-01

    We describe a family with two half-brothers affected with severe mental retardation. The phenotype in the affected individuals is characterized by apparent acromegaly, profound mental retardation, and hyperactivity. The mother has analogous but less severe facial anomalies and mild mental impairment. Screening for fra(X) (q) was negative in peripheral lymphocytes using methotrexate for fra(X) enhancement. The clinical findings in our patients are similar to those described by Fryns et al. [1986] in two patients with acquired lesions of the central nervous system. CT investigations in one of our patients showed areas of hyperdensity in the pontine region and a small subarachnoid cyst. The pedigree suggests X-linked inheritance. The association of apparent acromegaly, CNS anomalies, megalotestes, and mental retardation in this family supports the hypothesis that a distinct syndrome may exist with phenotype anomalies more severe than those characteristic for the Martin-Bell syndrome but without fragile X. PMID:2018059

  5. Appraising children for mental retardation: the usefulness and limitations of IQ testing.

    PubMed

    Freeman, B J

    1978-02-01

    As a result of their unique relationship with families, pediatricians are often faced with the difficult task of counseling the parents of a mentally retarded child. For this reason it is important that he understand the nature of the tools used to evaluate the retarded. Since the IQ test is still the most commonly used tool to assess presence or absence of retardation, this paper has briefly reviewed the concepts of intelligence, the IQ, and their interrelationships and their usefulness when evaluating the mentally retarded child. PMID:630783

  6. Group Psychotherapy with Mentally Retarded Adults: Issues Related to Design, Implementation, and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfadt, Al

    1991-01-01

    This article describes how a social systems approach to psychopathology can be applied to treatment goals in group psychotherapy with mentally retarded individuals. Treatment models blending behavioral and psychodynamic interventions are covered. Suggestions for maintaining cost-effective linkages between mental health and mental retardation…

  7. A Vocational Program and Skill Assessment for Severe/Profound Mentally Retarded and Emotionally Disturbed Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setbacken, S. K.

    A prevocational/vocational training program for mentally retarded adults who also have emotional disturbances expanded its curriculum to incorporate self-help, social/affective, communication, community life, and vocational skills. Residents are trained in a variety of work options: bench work task, horticultural tasks, janitorial skills, basic…

  8. Stimulus Overselectivity: A Common Feature in Autism and Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovaas, O. Ivar; Wilhelm, Hannelore

    1976-01-01

    Overselective attention in discrimination between picture cards was investigated with three groups of children with different IQ levels: 10 severely retarded (IQ = 29 - 51, CA = 9.6 - 18 years), 10 moderately retarded (IQ = 56 - 85, CA = 12.8 - 16.3 years), and 10 non-retarded (CA = 10 - 12 years). (Author/IM)

  9. Lymphedema-lymphangiectasia-mental retardation (Hennekam) syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Van Balkom, Inge D C; Alders, Mariel; Allanson, Judith; Bellini, Carlo; Frank, Ulrich; De Jong, Greetje; Kolbe, Ingeborg; Lacombe, Didier; Rockson, Stan; Rowe, Peter; Wijburg, Frits; Hennekam, Raoul C M

    2002-11-01

    The Hennekam syndrome is an infrequently reported heritable entity characterized by lymphedema, lymphangiectasia, and developmental delay. Here we add an additional 8 patients, and compare their findings to the 16 cases from the literature. The lymphedema is usually congenital, can be markedly asymmetrical, and, often, gradually progressive. Complications such as erysipelas are common. The lymphangiectasias are present in the intestines, but have also been found in the pleura, pericardium, thyroid gland, and kidney. Several patients have demonstrated congenital cardiac and blood vessel anomalies, pointing to a disturbance of angiogenesis in at least some of the patients. Facial features are variable, and are chiefly characterized, in a typical patient, by a flat face, flat and broad nasal bridge, and hypertelorism. Facial features are thought to mirror the extent of intrauterine facial lymphedema, or may be caused by lymphatic obstruction that affects the early migration of neural crest tissue. Other anomalies have included glaucoma, dental anomalies, hearing loss, and renal anomalies. The psychomotor development varies widely, even within a single family, from almost normal development to severe mental retardation. Convulsions are common. The existence of 10 familial cases, equal sex ratio, increased parental consanguinity rate (4/20 families), and absence of vertical transmission are consistent with an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. It seems likely that most (but not all) manifestations of the entity can be explained as sequences of impaired prenatal and postnatal lymphatic flow, suggesting that the causative gene(s) should have a major function in lymphangiogenesis. PMID:12376947

  10. [Role of the mentally retarded graduates of special schools].

    PubMed

    Jaque Valenzuela, G

    1984-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to establish approaches that match a scientific knowledge of the role played by the mentally retarded person who has completed his studies at a Special School. The idea is to learn if he is able to play differents roles in the society, to form a family, to integrate himself in a stable job and to incorporate and participate in a responsive manner in different social groups. Thus, they have been compared with a normal group of similar characteristics. The principal results of the study have shown: Once the person has completed his studies at a special school which used every effort for rehabilitating and capaciting the individual for a responsible social development in life, to enable him to perform a remunerated activity, he discovers that he is "stigmatized", that it is very difficult to find work and of course to be incorporated to the occupational structure. This contributes to the person's anxiety and an increasing insecurity which derives in isolation and lack of social interchange with other people and transform him into a marginal person. PMID:6535376

  11. Mental retardation in a boy with anterior cervical hypertrichosis.

    PubMed

    Corona-Rivera, J Román; González-Abarca, Sergio; Hernández-Rocha, Juan; García-Cruz, Diana; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo

    2005-05-15

    Anterior cervical hypertrichosis (ACH) is a rare form of localized hypertrichosis with 15 previously reported cases. ACH has been considered to be a dominant phenotype, either X-linked or autosomal [OMIM 600457]. ACH was associated with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) in one family, in which the proband also exhibited severe chorioretinal degeneration and optic atrophy, probably as a different entity [OMIM 239840]. A Mexican boy with congenital ACH associated with moderate mental retardation, abnormal EEG, mild microcephaly, hypertrichosis on the back, and hallux valgus is presented here. An equal sex ratio found in 16 reported cases as well as the suggestion of a paternal age effect in one report appear most consistent with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance for this trait. It remains unclear if isolated ACH, ACH-HMSN, or other associated findings reported in patients with ACH, including unusual features found in our case, are part of ACH or fortuitous associations, due to the small number of affected patients and different ascertainment biases present in previous reports. PMID:15800907

  12. Use of the Dexamethasone Suppression Test with Mentally Retarded Persons: Review and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolkowitz, Owen M.

    1990-01-01

    Studies on the use of the Dexamethasone Suppression Test to detect depression are described, with special emphasis on use of the test with children, demented elderly persons, and mentally retarded persons. (Author/JDD)

  13. Capital punishment and offenders with mental retardation: response to the Penry brief.

    PubMed

    Calnen, T; Blackman, L S

    1992-05-01

    The Supreme Court recently decided that the death penalty as it applies to persons with mental retardation is not a violation of constitutional protection from cruel and unusual punishment as long as juries consider the convicted person's disabilities during trial proceedings. Advocates for persons with mental retardation have argued that because their disability reduces culpability in capital offenses, the death penalty is always inappropriate. In this paper we argued that the latter position makes unwarranted categorical assumptions about mental retardation, fails to consider the individualized and situation-specific determinants of culpability for a capital offense, and undermines the very assumptions required to restore respect and value for citizens with mental retardation as participants in society. PMID:1344935

  14. Veridical and false pictorial memory in individuals with and without mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Carlin, Michael T; Toglia, Michael P; Wakeford, Yvonne; Jakway, Allison; Sullivan, Kate; Hasel, Lisa

    2008-05-01

    Veridical and false pictorial recognition were assessed in individuals with mental retardation; groups were matched for MA and CA. Pictures were viewed in either a generative or static format at acquisition. The individuals with mental retardation and those in the MA-matched group had higher rates of false memories for critical items and lower hit rates than did their CA-matched peers. The mental retardation group demonstrated an acquiescent response bias (i.e., high novel false-alarm rate). When data were corrected for this bias, those with mental retardation had significantly lower hit rates but equivalent false-alarm rates to the MA-matched participants. Results are discussed in terms of pictorial distinctiveness and within the frameworks of activation monitoring and fuzzy trace theory. PMID:18407722

  15. Evaluation and Planning for the Secondary Educable Mentally Retarded: One Method and Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Walter

    1972-01-01

    Described are the Vocational Interest and Sophistication Assessment and the Vocational Information and Training Assessment, two tools used in evaluating specific job knowledge and interest of secondary educable mentally retarded students. (KW)

  16. Use of Psychotropic Drugs by Mentally Retarded Adults in Community Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agran, Martin; Martin, James E.

    1982-01-01

    Research on psychotropic drug use by the mentally retarded and associated behavioral toxicity is reviewed, and suggestions for future research are offered, with implications for community based service delivery. (SEW)

  17. A closer look at interpersonal decision-making in adults with and without mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Hickson, L; Golden, H; Khemka, I; Urv, T; Yamusah, S

    1998-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the interpersonal decision-making performance of women and men with and without mental retardation. In Experiment 1, adults with mental retardation listened to either short or long vignettes depicting situations in which a female or male protagonist was faced with a decision involving either a peer or authority figure. In Experiment 2, adults without mental retardation were presented with long versions of the vignettes. As expected, the task was considerably more difficult for the participants with mental retardation, possibly because of differences in their ability to fully comprehend the social situations. Women in both studies outperformed men. Results suggest that emotional and motivational factors may have contributed to these differences. PMID:9833653

  18. Prehospitalization Preparation for Institutionalized People with Mental Retardation: A Nursing Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Diane M.

    1986-01-01

    A program developed by the nursing department at Fernald State School (Massachusetts) prepares nurses to develop prehospital admission teaching programs for mentally retarded persons. Two case studies indicate that the program's emphasis on an interdisciplinary team approach is successful. (CB)

  19. The Judged, Not the Judges. An Insiders' View of Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdan, Robert; Taylor, Steven

    1976-01-01

    Presents the edited transcripts of some of the discussions authors held over the past year with a 26-year-old man labeled mentally retarded by his family, school teachers, and others in his life. (Author/AM)

  20. Semantic and Acoustic Processing in Free and Cued Recall by Educable Mentally Retarded Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar, Harvey H.; Glidden, Laraine Masters

    1977-01-01

    Investigated were the abilities of 98 educable mentally retarded adolescents to encode and retrieve words using semantic and acoustic cues in a free and cued recall task. Available from: Ablex Publishing Corporation, 355 Chestnut Street, Norwood, New Jersey 07648. (CL)

  1. Assessment Issues, Placement Litigation, and the Future of Mild Mental Retardation Classification and Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschly, Daniel J.

    1988-01-01

    The article examines issues concerning mild mental retardation (MMR) classification and programing including placement bias litigation, MMR diagnostic construct and classification criteria, general intellectual functioning, adaptive behavior, sociocultural status, pseudo reforms through changes in assessment, the Learning Potential Assessment…

  2. Critique of Sensory Integration Therapy and Its Application in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendt, Robert E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A critical review of studies on the use of sensory integration therapy with mentally retarded persons found inadequate experimental design and statistical procedures to support use of this therapy and interpretation of research results. (Author/DB)

  3. Growth, Hypothalamic Function, and Brain Ventricle Size in Mentally Retarded Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leisti, S.; Iianainen, M.

    1978-01-01

    To determine whether moderate enlargement of the third brain ventricle or the temporal horns of the lateral ventricles was associated with hypothalamic dysfunction, 15 mentally retarded Ss (ages 12-25 years) with such characteristics were studies. (DLS)

  4. Involuntary Euthanasia and Current Attempts to Define Persons with Mental Retardation as Less Than Human.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lusthaus, Evelyn W.

    1985-01-01

    The author examines current attempts to define mentally retarded persons as less than human and suggests that these ideologies are being used to justify euthanasia practices and to formulate euthanasia policies. (CL)

  5. Psychoeducational Issues in Educable Mental Retardates: Dependency and Learning. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheinkopf, Sylvia

    Examined was the relationship between dependency behavior and learning in educable mentally retarded (EMR) children. Population included 120 subjects equally divided by sex into two groups of retardates and normals and subdivided into socially reinforced and non-reinforced Ss. The task measured overt or instrumental dependency (ID). Electronic…

  6. Short-Term Memory of Children with Mental Retardation: Structural Defects or Control Deficits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katims, David S.

    The short-term memory of 24 retarded and 24 nonretarded individuals, aged 10 to 14, under conditions of restricted cognitive strategy use was investigated. An attempt was made to determine whether short-term memory difficulties of persons with mental retardation are caused by deficits in voluntary cognitive strategies, such as the organization and…

  7. Do the Mentally Retarded Drink? A Study of Their Alcohol Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishef, Curtis H.

    1986-01-01

    With deinstitutionalization of the retarded, there is greater opportunity for them to be subjected to possible misuse of alcoholic products. Findings indicated that the mentally retarded population under study did not differ significantly from the general public as far as the number of problems associated with consumption of alcoholic beverages.…

  8. Nonspecific Mental Retardation in British Columbia as Ascertained through a Registry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Diana S.; Baird, Patricia A.

    1983-01-01

    Findings from the British Columbia Health Surveillance Registry revealed information about the age specific prevalence of mental retardation with no known etiology; association of mild and profound retardation with microcephalus, hydrocephalus, cerebral palsy, or epilepsy; and survival rates. (Author/CL)

  9. Comments on "Brain Size and Cerebral Glucose Metabolic Rate in Nonspecific Mental Retardation and Down Syndrome."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willerman, Lee; Schultz, Robert T.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between mental retardation and brain size is discussed. Research suggests that a common path for many otherwise idiopathic mild retardation cases (genetic or environmental) could be small brain size, indicating reduced information processing capacity. Suggestions are made for further research on neuron number. (SLD)

  10. Issues in Fertility Control for Mentally Retarded Female Adolescents: II. Parental Attitudes toward Sterilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passer, Alice; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Interviews with 69 parents of mentally retarded adolescents revealed that 46 percent had considered sterilization for their daughters. Interest in sterilization especially correlated with increased severity of retardation and with difficulty teaching menstrual hygiene. Few parents supported either an extremely restrictive or permissive position.…

  11. Mental Retardation and the Law: A Report on Status of Current Court Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

    Presented by the President's Committee on Mental Retardation are an analysis of architectural barriers and a summary of new state cases, updated information on previously reported cases, and a listing of cases all concerned with the legal rights of the retarded. Architectural barriers are considered in terms of statutory actions and constitutional…

  12. Dynamic Characteristics of Saccadic Eye Movements in Normal and Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Teruko; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of saccadic eye movements in 10 normal and 10 mentally retarded children (ages 13-15) suggested that retarded children may have difficulty in visual orientation. They followed a visual target on fewer than 50 percent of the trials, displaying frequent undershoot patterns and an average rising latency that was much longer than that of…

  13. Decreasing Self-Stimulating Behaviors with the Profoundly Mentally Retarded, While Acknowledging Obstacles and Frustrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Susan J.; Solimani, Genevieve

    Two studies examined different treatment procedures to suppress self-stimulating behaviors with the profoundly mentally retarded. In experiment 1, a fine mist of cold water from a spray bottle was applied to the neck of a teenaged student in a class for the profoundly retarded. The intervention was very successful in reducing inappropriate humming…

  14. Mental Retardation and Emotional Disorders: A Test for Increased Vulnerability to Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nucci, Maria; Reiss, Steven

    1987-01-01

    Effects of stress-producing conditions on 36 mentally retarded and 36 nonretarded persons (ages 20-53) before performing a counting task were measured. Contrary to stereotypes that predicted retarded subjects' performance would be more vulnerable to stress, results showed that mild but measurable levels of stress improved performance for both…

  15. Effects of Visual Cues upon the Vocational Task Performance of Students with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James E.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This study compared use of trainer demonstrations and use of visual cues across varying difficulties of task, by 20 mentally retarded secondary-aged students. Results found that photographs and line drawings were more effective with mildly/moderately retarded students than demonstrations when working with complex tasks. No differences were found…

  16. Disorders of Communication: Investigating the Development of Language of Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jon F.; Chapman, Robin S.

    1984-01-01

    Research conducted at the Waisman Center on Mental Retardation and Human Development over the past 10 years documents the multidimensional nature of language development in retarded and nonretarded populations. Advances in research methodology will allow large-scale indepth studies of the lexical, semantic, syntactic, and pragmatic aspects of…

  17. The Need for Applied Social Science Research in Mental Retardation: A Preliminary Memorandum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dybwad, Gunnar

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, originally published in 1959, the author, at the time executive director of the National Association for Retarded Children, offers his thoughts on applied social science research in mental retardation. The editor's introduction notes that Dybwad sets forth a research agenda which was extremely forward looking in 1959 and remains…

  18. A COMPARISON OF THE EMPIRICAL VALIDITY OF SIX TESTS OF ABILITY WITH EDUCABLE MENTAL RETARDATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUELLER, MAX W.

    AN INVESTIGATION OF THE VALIDITY OF INTELLIGENCE AND OTHER TESTS USED IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF RETARDED CHILDREN WAS PERFORMED. EXPERIMENTAL SAMPLES CONSISTED OF 101 CHILDREN SELECTED FROM SPECIAL CLASSES FOR EDUCABLE MENTALLY RETARDED (EMR) WHOSE AGES RANGED FROM 6.9 TO 10 YEARS AND WHOSE IQ SCORES RANGED FROM 50 TO 80. THE TESTS EVALUATED WERE (1)…

  19. Report from the Pre Congress Seminar on Special Education and Rehabilitation of the Mentally Retarded 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsson, Hans, Ed.; Sletved, Henning, Ed.

    The proceedings of the Pre Congress Seminar on Special Education and Rehabilitation of the Mentally Retarded (Denmark, 1973) contains 15 author contributed papers on early education. Discussed are the following topics related to retardation: early education and integration, assessment and programing, effects of developmental training, curriculum…

  20. A Guide to Curriculum Adjustment for Mentally Retarded Children. Bulletin, 1936, No. 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaman, Florence N.; Hollingworth, Leta S.; Berry, Charles Scott; Kugler, Edna M.; Bryne, May E.; Moore, Thomas V.; Dickson, Virgil E.; Post, Meta Anderson; Greene, Ransom A.; Race, Henrietta V.; Hoff, Lillian M.; Schlotter, Bertha E.; Wygant, Alice W.

    1936-01-01

    This handbook is a cooperative project, the outcome of a conference called by the United States Office of Education to consider the problems of curriculum adjustment for mentally retarded children. The members of the conference are the joint authors of this bulletin. In October 1934, 13 leaders in the education of retarded children, working in…

  1. Mentally Retarded Young Adults as Interviewers: Further Exploration of a Technique to Evaluate Social Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Phillip J.; James, Leonard E.

    A review of the literature indicated a recognition that interview behavior was critical to job placement and successful employment. Previous research, however, has not specified either the structure of inverview training with the mildly retarded or the outcomes of those programs. In a recent study, 29 of 40 mentally retarded young adults filled…

  2. Some Aspects of Mental Retardation. A Training Guide for the Vocational Rehabilitation Counselor. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, William R.

    Presented for vocational counselors is an overview of mental retardation, including the definition, and etiology. Described are the prenatal factors of heredity (including familial retardation and cranial anomalies), infections (including syphilis and encephalitis), radiation, blood group incompatibility, and unknown or variable etiological…

  3. The American Psychiatric Association's resource document on mental retardation and capital sentencing: implementing Atkins v. Virginia.

    PubMed

    Bonnie, Richard J

    2004-01-01

    State legislatures need guidance in implementing the United States Supreme Court's decision in Atkins v. Virginia barring execution of mentally retarded offenders. In this Resource Document, the American Psychiatric Association's Council on Psychiatry and Law, the component charged with developing policies and positions relating to forensic psychiatry, recommends statutory language addressing the definition of mental retardation, procedures relating to its assessment, and qualifications of testifying experts. PMID:15515919

  4. How self-determined are people with mental retardation? The National Consumer Survey.

    PubMed

    Wehmeyer, M L; Metzler, C A

    1995-04-01

    Although there is a growing acknowledgement that individuals with disabilities have the right to individual self-determination, people with mental retardation have been among the last for whom these issues have been addressed, despite calls to do so over the last 20 years. In this article, we examined the importance of self-determination for all people and reported the outcomes of a national survey that provides evidence regarding the self-determination of Americans with mental retardation. PMID:7760724

  5. A Preliminary Study/Survey for Demonstration Community Housing Programs for the Adult Mentally Retarded, Physically Handicapped and Mentally Ill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Thomas W., Jr.; Hyman, Milton

    A study was conducted for the Michigan State Housing Development Authority to gather background data necessary to initiate prototype community housing for mentally and physically handicapped independent adults. In an extensive survey and analysis of the literature and existing facilities, the problem of mental retardation, including legislation…

  6. Effects of Different Variations of Mental and Physical Practice on Sport Skill Learning in Adolescents with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemayattalab, Rasool; Movahedi, Ahmadreza

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of five variations of imagery and physical practice on learning of Basketball free throws in adolescents with mental retardation (AWMR). Forty AWMR were randomly assigned to five groups and performed a variation of practice: physical practice, mental practice, physical practice followed by…

  7. The Impact of Mental Health Issues on Students with Mental Retardation: The Relationship of Teacher Report of Symptoms, Adaptive Functioning, and School Outcomes for Adolescents with Mild Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Jennifer Adams

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of mental health issues, adaptive functioning, and school outcomes for students with mild mental retardation (MMR). Mental health (MH) was measured using the Teacher Report Form (TRF) of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). Teachers also completed the Adaptive Behavior Inventory…

  8. The Number of Mentally Retarded--A Result of Steps Taken by Society? Changes in the Age Structure among Mentally Retarded Persons in Sweden 1973-1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallner, Teut

    1988-01-01

    From 1973 to 1983 the number and proportion of mentally retarded persons in the total population of Sweden has not changed, but there are fewer children and young persons and more adults. The changes are hypothetically attributed to prenatal diagnosis, improved obstetrical techniques, and the introduction of antibiotics in 1948. (Author/VW)

  9. A Practical Guide for Teaching the Mentally Retarded to Swim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    A guide for teaching the retarded to swim begins with a general discussion of retardation, the need for individualization, and staff qualifications. Factors discussed in program organization and administration include community agencies, staff training, examples of records and forms, and first aid procedures. Suggested methods consider perceptual…

  10. Mortality of people with mental retardation in California with and without Down syndrome, 1986-1991.

    PubMed

    Strauss, D; Eyman, R K

    1996-05-01

    Mortality of people with mental retardation receiving services in California was examined. The large population (N = 118,653) enabled us to work directly with mortality rates at specific ages. Up to about age 35, mortality rates of people with Down syndrome were comparable to those of people with mental retardation due to other causes. Subsequently, the increase was much more rapid in the group with Down syndrome. Mortality rates of individuals with Down syndrome doubled every 6.4 years compared to 9.6 years for people without Down syndrome. Life tables were constructed; the remaining life expectancy of a 1-year-old child with Down syndrome with mild/moderate retardation was 55 years and with profound mental retardation, 43 years. PMID:8735577

  11. Development of a Behavior-Analytic Questionnaire Precising Four Functions of Self-Injurious Behavior in the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauck, Friedrich

    1985-01-01

    A functional questionnaire on self-injurious behavior of mentally retarded children was examined for social validation by principals of special schools for the retarded. Results were considered promising for developing the questionnaire in the form chosen. (CL)

  12. Applied Behavior Analysis: Its Impact on the Treatment of Mentally Retarded Emotionally Disturbed People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Coe, David A.

    1992-01-01

    This article reviews applications of the applied behavior analysis ideas of B. F. Skinner and others to persons with both mental retardation and emotional disturbance. The review examines implications of behavior analysis for operant conditioning and radical behaviorism, schedules of reinforcement, and emotion and mental illness. (DB)

  13. A Psychometric Evaluation of a Swedish Version of the Psychopathology Inventory for Mentally Retarded Adults (PIMRA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafsson, Carina; Sonnander, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Given the difficulties with symptom identification and the assessment of mental health problems in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) there has been a focus on the development of relevant assessment schedules for persons with ID. A Swedish version of the psychopathology inventory for mentally retarded adults (PIMRA, informant version), an…

  14. Unrealized Potential: Differing Employment Outcomes for Individuals with Mental Retardation and Other Disability Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fesko, Sheila Lynch; Temelini, David; Graham, Audrey

    This brief discusses outcomes of a study that investigated the employment and job search practices used with individuals with mental retardation to those used with individuals with mental illness, sensory impairments, and physical impairments. Survey participants included 568 employment staff and 303 individuals with disabilities from community…

  15. Book of Proceedings of Workshops Held on Physical Education for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Univ. for Women, Columbus.

    Proceedings are presented from three workshops concerning physical education for the mentally retarded held at Mississippi State University, University of Mississippi, and University of Southern Mississippi in 1967. Topics covered in the workshops include program development of physical education with the mentally handicapped, reports of research…

  16. Visual Scanning Patterns of Adolescents with Mental Retardation during Tracing and Copying Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamon, Tetsuji; Fujita, Tsugumichi Peter

    1994-01-01

    Visual scanning patterns of 17 students with mental retardation and control groups matched for chronological or mental age were recorded during visuomotor tasks. Results suggested that subjects paid more attention to penpoints than to the succeeding or passed points of a model line, indicating that they have a poorer ability to process more than…

  17. Nonambulatory persons with profound mental retardation: physical, developmental, and behavioral characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kobe, F H; Mulick, J A; Rash, T A; Martin, J

    1994-01-01

    Although profound mental retardation is generally associated with various organic etiologies that result in substantial cognitive and behavioral deficits, little is known about specific subgroups of persons with profound mental retardation. This study presents data on the physical, developmental, and behavioral characteristics of a group of 203 nonambulatory persons with profound mental retardation residing within a specialized service setting. The results indicate that nonambulatory persons with profound mental retardation have a high prevalence of physical and medical problems along with high rates of self-injurious, stereotypic, and aggressive behavior. Assessment results from the Stanford-Binet (L-M), Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Mental Scale, and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale reveal a high degree of variability in cognitive and adaptive functioning. However, developmental age-equivalent scores of cognitive ability, communication, daily living, socialization, and motor skills for the group fell below the 1-year level. The data illustrate the complexity of needs in providing habilitative services to nonambulatory persons with profound mental retardation. PMID:7871230

  18. Third year Evaluation of a Model Home-Based Program for Severely Orthopedically Impaired/Mentally Retarded Children & Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Merrill L.

    The Orthopedic Homebound Program was meant to prevent the institutionalization of orthopedically impaired, mentally retarded children and to involve parents in their training. The program was proposed and managed by the Shawnee Hills Community Mental Health/Mental Retardation Center in rural West Virginia. Each child's developmental needs were…

  19. Applied behavior analysis: its impact on the treatment of mentally retarded emotionally disturbed people.

    PubMed

    Matson, J L; Coe, D A

    1992-01-01

    Laboratory research on behavior analysis proved to be useful in establishing principles of learning with many relevant applications for people. Early efforts in the applied behavior analysis area proved to be particularly successful with mentally retarded persons. Self-help skills received much of the earliest attention, but another area that became quite fruitful for study was dual diagnosis--mental health problems of mentally retarded individuals. This paper reviews some of the early works of Skinner and his colleagues and the implications of this work on the rapidly developing subdiscipline of dual diagnosis. Current status and future trends are discussed. PMID:1574625

  20. Of Atkins and men: deviations from clinical definitions of mental retardation in death penalty cases.

    PubMed

    Blume, John H; Johnson, Sheri Lynn; Seeds, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Under Atkins v. Virginia, the Eighth Amendment exempts from execution individuals who meet the clinical definitions of mental retardation set forth by the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and the American Psychiatric Association. Both define mental retardation as significantly subaverage intellectual functioning accompanied by significant limitations in adaptive functioning, originating before the age of 18. Since Atkins, most jurisdictions have adopted definitions of mental retardation that conform to those definitions. But some states, looking often to stereotypes of persons with mental retardation, apply exclusion criteria that deviate from and are more restrictive than the accepted scientific and clinical definitions. These state deviations have the effect of excluding from Atkins's reach some individuals who plainly fall within the class it protects. This article focuses on the cases of Roger Cherry, Jeffrey Williams, Michael Stallings, and others, who represent an ever-growing number of individuals inappropriately excluded from Atkins. Left unaddressed, the state deviations discussed herein permit what Atkins does not: the death-sentencing and execution of some capital defendants who have mental retardation. PMID:19845060

  1. Arch fingerprints, hypotonia, and areflexia associated with X linked mental retardation.

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, R E; Häne, B; Arena, J F; May, M; Lawrence, L; Lubs, H A; Schwartz, C E

    1997-01-01

    A syndrome with distinctive facies, poor muscle tone, absent deep tendon reflexes, tapered fingers, excessive fingerprint arches, genu valgum and mild-moderate mental retardation has occurred in four males in two generations of a white family of European ancestry. The facies are characterised by square configuration, tented upper lip, and thickening of the helices, upper eyelids, and alae nasi. At birth and at maturity, growth (head circumference, height, weight) of affected males is comparable to or greater than unaffected male sibs. Moderate impairment of cognitive function was documented (IQ scores between 40-51). Carriers show no heterozygote manifestations. This X linked condition appears to be different from other syndromes with mental retardation, although there are certain similarities with the alpha thalassaemia-mental retardation syndrome (ATR-X). Linkage analysis found tight linkage to DXS1166 and DXS995 in Xq13 and Xq21 respectively. Images PMID:9192265

  2. Predicting needs for special education resources for mental retardation from birth defects records.

    PubMed Central

    Brewster, M A; Kirby, R S; Feild, C R; Cunniff, C M

    1992-01-01

    Planning of service delivery systems for children with special health care needs would be enhanced by knowledge of numbers of cases anticipated in defined geographic areas. A method is described for predicting numbers of children who will likely have mental retardation sufficient to require special education services, based on the birth prevalence of birth defects and clinicians' estimates of the likelihood of mental retardation associated with each specific birth defect. This method is applied to the 1980-82 birth cohort of a 28-county area of south and central Arkansas, and it is compared with special education enrollment data for children ages 6 to 8 in academic year 1988-89. According to this estimate, children with birth defects may account for 32 to 56 percent of the cases of mental retardation among 6- to 8-year-olds reported by the public schools. PMID:1594739

  3. The effects of two physical fitness programs designed for mentally retarded adults.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, D L; Reid, G; Seidl, C

    1988-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to design a systematic program of fitness training that enhances physical fitness of mentally retarded adults in sheltered workshops. The first phase of the study was a six-month program conducted by physical education graduate students while the second phase was four months in duration and led by workshop employees. Instructors followed a manual containing 48 lesson plans that were specifically prepared for mentally retarded participants. The physical fitness programs were evaluated using the Canadian Standardized Test of Fitness. MANOVA results revealed that both the six-month and four-month programs increased the physical fitness of the mentally retarded workers, although cardiovascular endurance improved only as a function of the four-month program. PMID:3359364

  4. Importance of perceived similarity in improving children's attitudes toward mentally retarded peers.

    PubMed

    Siperstein, G N; Chatillon, A C

    1982-03-01

    Effects of perceived similarity on fifth- and sixth-grade children's attitudes toward mentally retarded peers were examined. Children were selected from schools that contained segregated classes of retarded pupils (exposed setting) and schools that had no retarded pupils enrolled (nonexposed). Attitudes were defined in terms of children's affective feelings and behavioral intentions. Results showed that children responded more positively toward a retarded target who was depicted as similar to them than toward one who was not. Unexpectedly, the positive effects of perceived similarity were observed only among children in the exposed schools. Also, girls were more positive toward a female target than boys were to a male target, regardless of whether the target was perceived as similar. The importance of developing strategies based on theories of interpersonal attraction to improve children's attitudes toward their retarded peers was discussed. PMID:7124799

  5. Effects of practice on recognition memory of mildly mentally retarded adults.

    PubMed

    Phillips, C J; Nettelbeck, T

    1984-05-01

    The effect of practice on recognition memory of mildly mentally retarded adults was investigated in two experiments using the Sternberg (1969) memory scanning paradigm. In Experiment 1, the slope and zero intercept for item-recognition functions under both fixed- and varied-set procedures decreased over seven sessions of practice among retarded adults and nonretarded children, remaining relatively constant among nonretarded adults. Because performance of only retarded subjects had not yet reached asymptote, Experiment 2 provided these subjects with additional practice at the same task (varied-set procedure only). After extended practice, slopes in the retarded group were near those for both nonretarded groups; therefore, although the generally poorer performance of retarded adults in this task may reflect some structural impairment, the initial level of deficiency is reduced by practice. PMID:6742005

  6. Estimation of Energy Stores of Mentally Retarded Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litchford, Mary Demarest

    1987-01-01

    The study sought to identify reliable measurements for estimating energy stores of retarded adults (N=80) and possible correlations between energy intakes and obesity. Among results were a lack of significant correlations between caloric intake and anthropometric measures (e.g., tricepts skinfold). Body mass index is suggested as a more practical…

  7. Aerobic Fitness for the Severely and Profoundly Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Dan

    1981-01-01

    The booklet discusses the aerobic fitness capacities of severely/profoundly retarded students and discusses approaches for improving their fitness. An initial section describes a method for determining the student's present fitness level on the basis of computations of height, weight, blood pressure, resting pulse, and Barach Index and Crampton…

  8. A Physical Education Evaluation for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Albert

    A physical education evaluation was constructed which was flexible enough to measure the varying degrees of retardation. Validity was determined by submitting the test to a jury of experts. Reliability was ascertained by administering the same test to the same students three times with two week intervals between testing. Objectivity was determined…

  9. Teaching Intermittent Self-Catheterization Skills to Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarnowski, Kenneth J.; Drabman, Ronald S.

    1987-01-01

    In an A-B design with replication, the efficacy of a behavioral training program for teaching two mildly retarded six-year-old children intermittent self-catheterization skills was demonstrated. Component skills were task-analyzed and trained via a graduated prompting procedure. (Author/DB)

  10. Teaching Computation/Shopping Skills to Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Long, Sue

    1986-01-01

    Three moderately/mildly retarded adults were trained in adaptive community skills. Treatment involved instructions, performance feedback, social reinforcement, in-vivo modeling, self-evaluation, and social and tangible reinforcement. Rapid and dramatic improvements occurred soon after treatment began. Skills generalized to other shopping…

  11. Parents' Attitudes toward Sterilization of Their Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Lucille; Zarfas, Donald E.

    1982-01-01

    One hundred fifty-seven parents' attitudes toward sterilization and the sexuality of their retarded offspring were identified. Parent and child characteristics associated with these attitudes were investigated. Findings indicated that parents substantially concurred with the principle of sterilization (71 percent for involuntary, 67 percent for…

  12. Effects of Expectancy on Verbal Behavior of Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Patty; Lazar, Alfred L.

    Examined were the effects of high expectancy and non-expectancy conditions on the verbal behavior of 12 moderately and mildly retarded children (3-16 years old). Six experimental Ss were exposed to a condition in which experimenters expressed expectation of achievement on the Children's Apperception Test. Comparisons of verbalization revealed…

  13. EDUCABLE MENTALLY RETARDED PROJECT, ORANGE COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WALDEN, ROYCE B.

    PREPARED BY TEACHERS OF THE RETARDED, THIS CURRICULUM GUIDE OUTLINES AN ELEMENTARY ACTIVITY UNIT ON HOME AND COMMUNITY LIVING AND A SECONDARY UNIT ON THE CITRUS INDUSTRY. INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ARE LISTED. ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDELINES ON CLASS UNITS, STUDENT PLACEMENT, AND TEACHER QUALIFICATIONS ARE INCLUDED. (MY)

  14. Increasing self-determination: teaching people with mental retardation to evaluate residential options.

    PubMed Central

    Faw, G D; Davis, P K; Peck, C

    1996-01-01

    The community living preferences of 4 institutionalized adults with mild mental retardation were identified using photographs that depicted a variety of residential characteristics. Individuals then were taught to obtain information regarding their preferences during tours of community group homes, to report that information to their social workers, and to evaluate the homes based on the information obtained. A multiple baseline across participants design showed that all 4 participants substantially increased their skills at asking questions, reporting information, and evaluating homes. the results indicate that people with mental retardation can take an active role in major lifestyle decisions that others have typically made for them. PMID:8682735

  15. The Human Genome Project and Mental Retardation: An Educational Program. Final Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Sharon

    1999-05-03

    The Arc, a national organization on mental retardation, conducted an educational program for members, many of whom have a family member with a genetic condition causing mental retardation. The project informed members about the Human Genome scientific efforts, conducted training regarding ethical, legal and social implications and involved members in issue discussions. Short reports and fact sheets on genetic and ELSI topics were disseminated to 2,200 of the Arc's leaders across the country and to other interested individuals. Materials produced by the project can e found on the Arc's web site, TheArc.org.

  16. Chromosomal abnormalities in mentally retarded children in the Konya region--Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cora, T; Demirel, S; Acar, A

    2000-01-01

    Etiology of mental retardation is diverse. 120 Students from 11 special training, education, and rehabilitation subclasses were investigated cytogenetically for determining the contribution of chromosomal abnormalities to mild mental retardation. 23 of the 120 children (19%) had chromosomal abnormalities: thirteen cases a classical trisomy 21 (the male:female ratio was 9:4), three a balanced autosomal reciprocal translocation, one a pericentric inversion of chromosome 9, and six fragile-X syndrome (The male:female ratio was 5:1). PMID:10756429

  17. Speech acts: sampling the social construction of mental retardation in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Danforth, S; Navarro, V

    1998-02-01

    A sample of speech acts in everyday discourse referring to persons or events having to do with the term mental retardation was analyzed in order to investigate the belief that language use both constructs and reflects cultural norms that define the social roles of persons reduced to object status through categorical membership. Speech acts gathered suggest four emergent themes: the discourse of category membership, the dichotomy of normal and abnormal, issues of place and space, and fear. These themes were explicated from a social constructionist perspective, displaying the way speech acts construct mental retardation and subvert individuals with the label into demeaned and ridiculed objects of cultural fear. PMID:9492516

  18. An analysis of Snoezelen equipment to reinforce persons with severe or profound mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Matson, Johnny L; Bamburg, Jay W; Smalls, Yemonja

    2004-01-01

    Systematically developing methods of reinforcement for persons with severe and profound mental retardation has only recently received a good deal of attention. This topic is important since professionals in the field often have difficulty identifying sufficient numbers of positive stimuli. Snoezelen equipment as reinforcement for individuals with severe and profound mental retardation was evaluated because of the promise it holds for this population. Types of Snoezelen equipment which were most often approached and most reinforcing for these persons were identified. Implications of the findings for future assessment and treatment are discussed. PMID:14733978

  19. Counseling Parents of Mentally Retarded Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fils, David H.; Attwell, Arthur A.

    Written in question and answer form, the guide for parents of mentally handicapped children provides information in the areas of health and medical concerns, assessment of the child's mental ability, parent-child-family relationships, education, psychological and psychiatric adjustments of both child and parent, improving communication, and…

  20. Sexual Abuse of the Mentally Retarded Patient: Medical and Legal Analysis for the Primary Care Physician

    PubMed Central

    Morano, Jamie P.

    2001-01-01

    The primary care physician has a vital role in documenting and preventing sexual abuse among the mentally retarded populations in our community. Since the current national trend is to integrate citizens with mental retardation into the community away from institutionalized care, it is essential that all physicians have a basic understanding of the unique medical and legal ramifications of their clinical diagnoses. As the legal arena is currently revising laws concerning rights of sexual consent among the mentally retarded, it is essential that determinations of mental competency follow national standards in order to delineate clearly any instance of sexual abuse. Clinical documentation of sexual abuse and sexually transmitted disease is an important part of a routine examination since many such individuals are indeed sexually active. Legal codes adjudicating sexual abuse cases of the mentally retarded often offer scant protection and vague terminology. Thus, medical documentation and physician competency rulings form a solid foundation for future work toward legal recourse for the abused. PMID:15014610

  1. Stemming the Tide of Overrepresentation: Ensuring Accurate Certification of African American Students in Programs for the Mentally Retarded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebersole, Judy L.; Kapp, Stephen A.

    2007-01-01

    African American youths are often overrepresented in programs for the mentally retarded. Possible explanations for this phenomenon include stereotypes related to abilities, different social and educational environments, and problems of instrumentation used in identifying mental retardation. This study reviewed the files of all first- through…

  2. Nature of Adaptive Behavior Deficits among Individuals Who Are Moderately-Severely Mentally Retarded in the West Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ahmad M.

    1989-01-01

    Results of assessing the adaptive behavior of 200 individuals classified as mentally retarded and living in the West Bank region of the Middle East suggest that the nature and development of adaptive behavior of the mentally retarded in Third World areas may not conform to expected trends. (Author/DB)

  3. Family Support Services and Residential Options for the Mentally Retarded in the U.S.: New Service Paradigms and Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Elizabeth

    This report outlines emerging paradigms of service for mentally retarded adults emerging from a nationwide search for innovative programs and practices. It was prompted by the consistent finding of a Pennsylvania longitudinal study that mentally retarded school completers tend to live indefinitely with parents or guardians. The study found the…

  4. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities: 1981 Research Programs of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The monograph reviews federal research activities and progress in biomedical and behavioral/social science research in mental retardation. Activities represent the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities branch. The following categories are addressed in terms of biomedical…

  5. A Study of the Community Adjustment of Deinstitutionalized Mentally Retarded Persons. Volume VI. Executive Summary: Findings and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Ruth; And Others

    The last of a six-volume series on community adjustment of deinstitutionalized mentally retarded people provides a summary of the study's findings and policy recommendations. Findings are described for each of the five preceeding volumes (sample findings in parentheses): a review of the literature (mentally retarded persons have made reasonably…

  6. Bone Mineral Density and Respiratory Muscle Strength in Male Individuals with Mental Retardation (with and without Down Syndrome)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Silva, Vinicius Zacarias Maldaner; Barros, Jonatas de Franca; de Azevedo, Monique; de Godoy, Jose Roberto Pimenta; Arena, Ross; Cipriano, Gerson, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the respiratory muscle strength (RMS) in individuals with mental retardation (MR), with or without Down Syndrome (DS), and its association with bone mineral density (BMD). Forty-five male individuals (15 with DS, 15 with mental retardation (MR) and 15 apparently healthy controls), aged 20-35, participated in…

  7. A Criterion Validity Study of the Schizophrenia Subscale of the Psychopathology Instrument for Mentally Retarded Adults (PIMRA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiezy, Naomi B.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The validity of the schizophrenia subscale of the Psychopathology Instrument for Mentally Retarded Adults (PIMRA) was evaluated with 65 adults having mild to moderate mental retardation as well as either schizophrenia, depression, or no psychopathology. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted, as were interrater reliability analyses.…

  8. Attitudes toward Acceptable Socio-Sexual Behaviors for Persons with Mental Retardation: Implications for Normalization and Community Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Matthew N.; Anthony, Aaron; Leimkuhl, Trisha T.; Skillman, Gemma D.

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated attitudinal discrepancies among non-disabled community members regarding the acceptability of socio-sexual expression for persons with and without mental retardation. Overall, discrepancies between adults with and without mental retardation primarily concern attitudes toward marriage and parenthood. Older adults, both…

  9. An Evaluation of in Vivo Desensitization and Video Modeling to Increase Compliance with Dental Procedures in Persons with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conyers, Carole; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Peterson, Blake; Gubin, Amber; Jurgens, Mandy; Selders, Andrew; Dickinson, Jessica; Barenz, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Fear of dental procedures deters many individuals with mental retardation from accepting dental treatment. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of two procedures, in vivo desensitization and video modeling, for increasing compliance with dental procedures in participants with severe or profound mental retardation. Desensitization…

  10. Importance of Parents' Expectations and Beliefs in the Educational Participation of Children with Mental Retardation in Kenya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutua, N. Kagendo

    2001-01-01

    A study involving 351 Kenyan children with mental retardation found six predictors of educational participation: parents' beliefs about appropriateness of education for the child, about social acceptance of the child, about segregation, and about worthlessness of education of children with mental retardation, parents' level of education, and…

  11. Comparison of Direct Instruction and Problem Solving Approach in Teaching Social Skills to Children with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagseven Emecen, Deniz

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed at comparing the effectiveness and efficiency of direct instruction and problem solving approaches in teaching social skills to children with mental retardation. The design was adapted alternating treatment design. The subjects of the study consist of a girl and a boy between the ages of 11 and 13 who are mentally retarded. In…

  12. Investigation of the Effectiveness of the Story-Map Method on Reading Comprehension Skills among Students with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isikdogan, Necla; Kargin, Tevhide

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the story-map technique on reading comprehension skills among students with mild mental retardation. The research group consisted of 14 students with mild mental retardation. The students in the research group were chosen from students who attended to an elementary school and a…

  13. Evaluation of a Decision-Making Curriculum Designed to Empower Women with Mental Retardation to Resist Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khemka, Ishita; Hickson, Linda; Reynolds, Gillian

    2005-01-01

    The effectiveness of an abuse-prevention curriculum, designed to empower women with mental retardation to become effective decision-makers able to protect themselves against abuse was examined. Thirty-six women with mental retardation were randomly assigned to either an intervention or a control group. Results indicate that the performance of the…

  14. Proceedings of a National Multicultural Seminar on Mental Retardation among Minority Disadvantaged Populations (Norfolk, Virginia, October 10-12, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

    The National Multicultural Seminar on Mental Retardation among Minority Disadvantaged Populations was initiated in response to concern about the root causes of mental retardation especially in mild forms which tend to be more prevalent and more devastating among persons living in depressed, disrupted, and impoverished environments. Nineteen papers…

  15. Dietary Habits and Nutritional Status in Mentally Retarded Children and Adolescents: A Study from North Western India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathur, Manju; Bhargava, Rachna; Benipal, Ramandeep; Luthra, Neena; Basu, Sabita; Kaur, Jasbinder; Chavan, B. S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare the dietary habits and nutritional status of mentally retarded (MR) and normal (NG) subjects and to examine the relationship between the dietary habits and nutritional status and the level of mental retardation in the MR group. Method: A case control design was utilized: 117 MR (random sampling) and 100 NG (quota sampling)…

  16. Comparison of Risperidone and Methylphenidate for Reducing ADHD Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Moderate Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filho, Alceu Gomes Correia; Bodanese, Rafael; Silva, Tatiana Laufer; Alvares, Julia Paglioza; Aman, Michael; Rohde, Luis Augusto

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the short-term efficacy and tolerability of risperidone and methylphenidate for reducing symptoms related to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents with moderate mental retardation. Method: In a 4-week, single-blind, parallel-group trial, 45 subjects with moderate mental retardation and…

  17. The Mentally Retarded: Their Special Training Needs. Manpower Research Bulletin Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Lloyd

    Approximately 3.3 million of the almost 6 million Americans estimated to be mentally retarded in 1963 were of working age from 16 to 64. This group was expected to increase to 3.7 million by 1970. A study of 2,500 young men rejected from military service for mental reasons found only two-thirds of these in the labor force as compared to 95 percent…

  18. Age-related increases in motivation among children with mental retardation and MA- and CA-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Blair, C; Greenberg, M; Crnic, K

    2001-11-01

    Child positive affect and task orientation in response to a series of cognitively demanding puzzle tasks were assessed at two time points separated by a 12-month interval in children with mild mental retardation and MA- and CA-matched controls (age range 1 to 5 years). At the first assessment, children with mild mental retardation exhibited mastery behavior appropriate for MA but not CA. At the second assessment, the goal-directed behavior of children with mild mental retardation was no different from that of both the MA and CA controls. Correlates of motivation were similar for children with mild mental retardation and typically developing children. Implications for the developmental study of children with mild mental retardation are discussed. PMID:11708937

  19. Self-Injurious Behavior within the Menstrual Cycle of Women with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Derek V.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Catamenial and behavioral records of nine women with mental retardation who exhibited self-injurious behavior (SIB) were analyzed for six months. Analysis confirmed that SIB was cyclic across the menstrual cycle, with the highest frequency occurring in the early follicular and late follicular phases. (Author/JDD)

  20. Curriculum Guide: Educable Mentally Retarded, Elementary Program; Little Rock Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock. Special Education Section.

    A guide for the special education instructional program gives directions, scope and sequence, subject matter skills, and teaching suggestions for educable mentally retarded elementary students. At the primary level, activities are centered around readiness materials, motor and sensory training, personal hygiene, habit training, speech improvement…

  1. The Dexamethasone Suppression Test as an Indication of Depression in Patients with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattes, Jeffrey A.; Amsell, Loren

    1993-01-01

    Administration of the Dexamethasone Suppression Test (DST) for three groups of institutionalized patients with severe/profound mental retardation found that the 12 depressed patients more frequently (though not significantly) had positive DSTs and significantly higher cortisol levels compared with nondepressed patients with and without other…

  2. Competitive Employment for Persons with Mental Retardation: From Research to Practice. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehman, Paul, Ed.; Hill, Janet W., Ed.

    Twenty-one papers address issues related to competitive employment of persons with mental retardation. The papers are grouped into four distinct sections having the following headings: general papers, transition from school to work, parent involvement, and behavioral training strategies. The individual papers are as follows: "Critical Values in…

  3. Assessing Fears and Related Anxieties in Children and Adolescents with Learning Disabilities or Mild Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Morris, Richard J

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine self-reported fears and related anxieties in children and adolescents (7-18 years of age) having learning disabilities (LD) or mild mental retardation (MIMR), and whether these fears and related anxieties differ based on gender and age. Students responded to two well validated instruments, The "Fear…

  4. COGNITIVE FLEXIBILITY TRAINING WITH EDUCABLE RETARDED AND BRIGHT NORMAL CHILDREN OF THE SAME MENTAL AGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CORTER, HAROLD M.; MCKINNEY, JAMES D.

    THE MAJOR PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO DEVELOP A COGNITIVE TRAINING PROGRAM DESIGNED TO INCREASE MENTALLY RETARDED AND NORMAL SUBJECTS' PERFORMANCES ON FLEXIBILITY-TYPE TASKS AND GENERAL INTELLIGENCE TESTS. A TEST BATTERY OF FIVE TESTS (STENCIL DESIGN, EMBEDDED FIGURES, PICTURE ANOMALIES, OBJECT SORTING, AND TELL ABOUT THIS), DESIGNED TO MEASURE…

  5. Generalization of a Sign Language Rehearsal Strategy in Mentally Retarded and Hearing Deficient Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manion, Ian G.; Bucher, Bradley

    1986-01-01

    Five nonverbal severely mentally retarded and three nonverbal deaf children learned to use a sign-rehearsal strategy in one of two memory tasks. Generalization to a simpler task was accomplished for two Ss trained in a more complex task. (Author/CL)

  6. Psychometric Properties of the Mental Retardation Attitude Inventory-Revised in Chinese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, N. Z.; Xiao, F.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examines the psychometric properties of the Mental Retardation Attitude Inventory-Revised (MRAI-R; Antonak & Harth) in Chinese college students. The research questions included: (1) Is the MRAI-R a reliable measure for Chinese college student? (2) Is the MRAI-R related to familiarity with people with intellectual…

  7. Reading Instruction for Students with Mild Mental Retardation: Is There a Best Approach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triller, H. Brian

    This paper reviews what current research says about best practices in reading instruction for students with mild mental retardation. After introducing some key reading issues (such as effects of early reading failure), two principal approaches to reading instruction are discussed: first, the traditional/bottom-up synthetic approach which begins…

  8. A Comparison of Three Methods to Measure Percent Body Fat on Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkett, Lee N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports a study that compared three measures for determining percent body fat in mentally retarded adults (multiple skinfolds and circumference measurements, Infrared Interactance, and Bioelectrical Impedance). Results indicated the Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer and Infrared Interactance Analyzer produced values for percent body fat that were…

  9. Pharmacotherapy of Disruptive Behavior in Mentally Retarded Subjects: A Review of the Current Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassler, Frank; Reis, Olaf

    2010-01-01

    The review presented here describes the state of the art of pharmacological treatment of aggression in subjects with mental retardation (MR) summing up results for both, children and adults. In general, psychopharmacological treatment of disruptive behavior in individuals with MR is similar to the treatment in subjects without MR. Compared to…

  10. Curriculum Guide: Educable Mentally Retarded, Junior High School Program; Little Rock Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock. Special Education Section.

    To help prepare the junior high student for personal and social adjustment, units and activities are geared to provide functional learning experiences in situations that will benefit the educable mentally retarded in his daily life. Units covered in grades 7, 8, and 9 include social studies, functional English, functional mathematics, functional…

  11. Acute Psychiatric Hospital Admissions of Adults and Elderly Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    Examination of the records of 240 inpatients with mental retardation and 7 with autism discharged from a university hospital indicated that elderly adults had more medical problems than did adults, more elderly adults were transferred to a state hospital, and the most common diagnosis in both adults and elderly adults was chronic schizophrenia,…

  12. Fenfluramine and Methylphenidate in Children with Mental Retardation and Borderline IQ: Clinical Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Aman, Michael G.

    1997-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of methylphenidate and different doses of fenfluramine in 30 children (ages 5-14) with mental retardation or borderline IQ and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was conducted. Parents and teachers cited more improvement with fenfluramine; however, fenfluramine had more side effects,…

  13. Enhancing the Recognition and Production of Facial Expressions of Emotion by Children with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Claire A.; Singh, Nirbhay N.

    1995-01-01

    In 2 experiments with 6 boys (ages 12 and 13) having mild and moderate mental retardation, directed rehearsal was used to teach subjects to either recognize or produce 6 basic facial expressions of emotion. Training in both skills was effective, and the recognition training was maintained at 8-week and 12-week assessments following instruction.…

  14. A GUIDE TO ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF CLASSES FOR MENTALLY RETARDED MINORS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ORMOND, LAMAR; AND OTHERS

    THE MENTALLY RETARDED PERSON MUST LEARN TO COPE WITH THE FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS OF DAILY LIVING FROM THE STANDPOINT OF HIS UNIQUE HANDICAP. SOME OF HIS NEEDS INCLUDE LEARNING TO--MAINTAIN A STATE OF PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, LIVE SAFELY, UNDERSTAND HIMSELF, GET ALONG WITH OTHERS, COMMUNICATE IDEAS, USE LEISURE TIME, EARN A LIVING, BE A HOMEMAKER, ENJOY…

  15. Incidence of Excessive/Impacted Cerumen in Individuals with Mental Retardation: A Longitudinal Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crandell, Carl C.; Roeser, Ross J.

    1993-01-01

    This longitudinal study with 117 adults with mental retardation found a considerably higher incidence (28%) of excessive cerumen (ear wax) and cerumen impaction with associated conductive hearing loss in this population than in the general adult population (2-6%). Moreover, a strong propensity for recurrent cerumen impaction was found in these…

  16. An 8 1/2-Year Record: Mentally Retarded Workers in the Federal Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Recruiting and Examining.

    Summarized in this report are efforts employed to secure for mentally retarded persons increased job opportunities in the Federal Service. Before actuating the project, extensive studies and job training programs were conducted, and the information obtained widely disseminated. Services of state vocational rehabilitation departments were used in…

  17. Implementing an Adaptive Physical Education Program for Educable Mentally Retarded Children, Kindergarten through Third Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Mimi

    An adaptive physical education program was implemented for two special classes of educable mentally retarded children, grades K-3 in California. Children from a regular kindergarten class also participated in the program. The program operated for 5 months, with children receiving motor skills training 40 minutes per day, 4 days per week. Analysis…

  18. Effects of Methylphenidate Treatment in Children with Mental Retardation and ADHD: Individual Variation in Medication Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Deborah A.; Lane, David M.; Santos, Cynthia W.; Casat, Charles D.; Jerger, Susan W.; Loveland, Katherine A.; Faria, Laura P.; Mansour, Rosleen; Henderson, Jill A.; Payne, Christa D.; Roache, John D.; Lachar, David; Cleveland, Lynne A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Individual variation in cognitive and behavioral response to methylphenidate (MPH) was investigated in children with mental retardation and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Method: Twenty-four children (mean age 10.9 years, SD = 2.4) participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial with 0.15-, 0.30-, and…

  19. Effectiveness of Emphasizing Reading Skills with the Language Master for Mentally Retarded Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Central Arkansas Education Center, Little Rock.

    The effectiveness of using the Language Master to emphasize reading skills with 10 students (ages 7 to 13 years) in a special class for the mentally retarded was evaluated. Nine behavioral objectives were formulated in the areas of improved word recognition, improved understanding of basic concepts, and improved word attack skills. The…

  20. Teaching Community Survival Skills to Mentally Retarded Adults: A Review and Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James E.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The article reviews research on training mentally retarded adults in the following community survival skills: travel training, money management, meal preparation, clothing and personal care, telephone skill, housekeeping, self-medication, leisure skills, social skills, and conversation. Results are said to indicate the value of behavioral…

  1. Starter Kit: Instructional Activities for Educable and Trainable Mentally Retarded Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drain, Theodore R.; And Others

    Provided are 225 instructional activities for educable and trainable mentally retarded children from primary through secondary levels in the areas of social skills, communication skills, and number skills. Each page of the kit is divided into the following headings: activities (listed from simplest to most difficult), correlated activities (to…

  2. Yellow Book File of Program Procedures in Education for the Mentally Retarded. Administrative Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Dept. of Education, Topeka. Div. of Education Services.

    The document is a brief collection of materials which provide a framework whereby local Kansas education units can individually and collectively identify ways to use the statewide effort to strengthen existing programs of service or develop new approaches at the local level for educating the mentally retarded. Part I introduces the process systems…

  3. Akathisia in Adults with Mental Retardation: Development of the Akathisia Ratings of Movement Scale (ARMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodfish, James W.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Akathisia, a state of uncontrollable motor restlessness, is a side effect of neuroleptic treatment. The prevalence rate of akathisia in 94 adults with mental retardation was estimated to be 5% in neuroleptic-free subjects, 17% in neuroleptic-maintenance subjects, and 25% in neuroleptic-reduction subjects. Akathisia was also related to dyskinesia…

  4. Children on Medication: Volume I. Hyperactivity, Learning Disabilities, and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.

    Intended for caregivers, the book provides basic information about the use of medication for children with hyperactivity, learning disabilities, and mental retardation. The main emphasis is on psychotropic drug use for hyperactivity and aggressiveness. Chapter 1 explains fundamental terms and concepts relating to drug therapy. Major stresses…

  5. Facial Stereotypic Movements and Tardive Dyskinesia in a Mentally Retarded Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, R. L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The facial stereotypies of adults diagnosed as having mental retardation and tardive dyskinesia were examined through a kinematic analysis of videotaped lip and tongue movements. The high degree of movement variability found suggests that low variability of discrete properties of movement kinematics may not be a defining feature of stereotypies.…

  6. Systematic Dyskinesia Examination of Profoundly Mentally Retarded Persons: Cooperation and Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granger, Douglas A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Dyskinesia, abnormal involuntary movements associated with long-term neuroleptic drug use, was evaluated with 344 institutionalized profoundly mentally retarded adults using the Dyskinesia Identification System Condensed User Scale. Results indicated performance deficits on activation tasks associated with intelligence quotients, neuroleptic…

  7. Child Care Training for Adults with Mental Retardation. Volume I: Infants. Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Martha Ufford; And Others

    The volume is intended to help mentally retarded adults learn how to interact with infants and children in a caring and safe manner. The manual may be used by counselors or trainers in one-to-one or small group sessions. Each unit includes line drawings to illustrate proper techniques; the drawings have been designed for the trainees' use and are…

  8. Specialized Treatment for Behavior Problems of Institutionalized Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Kenneth B.; Piersel, Wayne C.

    1992-01-01

    A national survey of 147 institutions for individuals with mental retardation found that 68 percent of the institutions had used at least 1 of 3 specified treatment options to deal with behavior problems. Results indicated that, in comparison to in-house behavior shaping units and mobile intensive treatment teams, specialized outside referral…

  9. Depression and the Onset of Dementia in Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Diana Byrd; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Comparison of 61 adults with Down's syndrome and 43 adults with mental retardation resulting from other causes found that 8 Down's syndrome adults had both depression and declines in functioning, whereas no adults in the other group showed functional declines. Greater severity of depression was related to poor functioning in adults with Down's…

  10. Differences in Cardiovascular Disease Risk between Nondiabetic Adults with Mental Retardation with and without Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draheim, Christopher C.; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.; Williams, Daniel P.

    2002-01-01

    A study compared components of insulin resistance syndrome between 75 adults with Down syndrome and 70 with mental retardation. Women with Down syndrome had lower fasting plasma glucose and lower systolic blood pressure than comparison women. Men with Down syndrome had lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure than comparison men. (Contains…

  11. Effects of Switching from Depakene to Generic Valproic Acid on Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadney, Victor J.; Kraushaar, Kevin W.

    1997-01-01

    Comparison of brand-name Depakene with generic valproic acid medication to control seizures in 64 subjects with mental retardation living in an intermediate care facility found no statistically significant differences in seizures or blood levels. Results suggest use of the generic medication can result in substantial cost savings. (Author/DB)

  12. The Treatment of the Mentally Retarded Offender in the State of North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazar, David Byron

    Two programs developed by the State of North Carolina are described which are designed to provide special services to the mentally retarded incarcerated adult male. Based on results of an assessment of adaptive skills believed relevant to coping in the prison population, coupled with an intellectual quotient (IQ) below 70, offenders may be placed…

  13. Examining a Proposed Job Retention Model for Adult Workers with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornes, Sandra L.

    2008-01-01

    This research provides an analysis of factors predicting job retention (JR), job satisfaction (JS), and job performance (JP) of workers with mental retardation (MR). The findings highlight self-determination as a critical skill in influencing three important employee's outcomes, JR, JS, and JP. The intent of the study was to develop job retention…

  14. The Assessment of Social Functioning in Individuals with Mental Retardation: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielecki, Joanne; Swender, Stephen L.

    2004-01-01

    Social skills deficits and excesses are a defining aspect of mental retardation (MR). Research indicates that there is an established relationship between social skills and maladaptive behaviors. A number of studies demonstrate that the social competence of individuals with MR and comorbid psychopathology can be enhanced with social skills…

  15. Twenty Predictions about the Future of Residential Services in Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfensberger, Wolf

    2011-01-01

    Twenty predictions about the future of residential services to the mentally retarded are presented. These changes imply: (1) an entirely new model of residential services; (2) increasing continuity between residential and nonresidential services; and (3) increasing acceptance of cost-benefit rationales in the decision to offer residential or other…

  16. Picture Activity Schedules and Engagement of Adults with Mental Retardation in a Group Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Michele D.; Sherman, James A.; Sheldon, Jan B.; McAdam, David

    1997-01-01

    A study involving three adults with mental retardation found engagement in typical adult activities was greater when picture schedules were provided. The schedules provided a reminder for the adults and teaching counselors, provided an easy reference to assist them in determining the next activity, and reduced transition time between activities.…

  17. Weight Reduction and Maintenance for Overweight, Mentally Retarded Students, Ages 9-17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Evelyn C.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    This article reports on a study undertaken to determine if overweight, mentally retarded students could safely lose weight and maintain their individual losses through a given time period (six months). School personnel and parents instituted minor changes in nutrition and a simple activity program. (Authors/JMK)

  18. Prevalence and Clinical Correlates of Hypothyroidism in a School for Children with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaswal, Shivani; Kaur, Jasbinder; Chavan, B. S.; Gupta, Seema; Kaur, Harjeet

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Pediatrician is the first contact in the Pathway to Care in children with Mental retardation (MR). Following the recent advancements in the area of molecular genetics, understanding of specific conditions of MR or Developmental Delay (DD) is expanding. Hypothyroidism is a treatable metabolic/endocrinological cause of MR. The aim of this…

  19. Descriptive Assessment of Sleep Patterns among Community-Living Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luiselli, James K.; Magee, Christine; Sperry, James M.; Parker, Shawn

    2005-01-01

    There is little information about the sleep patterns of adults who have mental retardation and are supported in the community. In the present study, direct-care staff recorded sleep behaviors of 59 adults residing in 16 suburban group homes. Based on direct observation and measurement procedures, the adults averaged 7.9 hours of sleep each evening…

  20. Advanced Microscopic Imaging Methods to Investigate Cortical Development and the Etiology of Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydar, Tarik F.

    2005-01-01

    Studies on human patients and animal models of disease have shown that disruptions in prenatal and early postnatal brain development are a root cause of mental retardation. Since proper brain development is achieved by a strict spatiotemporal control of neurogenesis, cell migration, and patterning of synapses, abnormalities in one or more of these…

  1. Effects of Serum Zinc Supplementation on Pica Behavior of Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofts, Ronald H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Of 806 institutionalized adults with mental retardation, 15.5 percent exhibited pica. Fifty-four percent of the pica group had serum zinc levels below normal range, whereas 7 percent of a control group had serum zinc levels below the normal range. After supplementation with chelated zinc, residents had significant reductions in pica. (Author/JDD)

  2. Transition from School to Young Adulthood: Four Case Studies of Young Adults Labelled Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Stephen; Michaelides, Nike

    1993-01-01

    These 4 case studies examine the last years of high school and postschool experiences of 4 21-year-olds labeled mentally retarded. Issues discussed include school compliance with legislation concerning Individualized Education Programs, influence of parental involvement, adult services, and necessary employment supports. (JDD)

  3. The Delivery of Services to Mentally Retarded Persons Living in Rural Areas: Context, Problems and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horejsi, Charles R.

    Strategies and techniques for developing community-based programs for mentally retarded persons in rural areas must take into consideration local circumstances, resources, and characteristics. Rural norms such as overt racial segregation, social conformity, the importance of church, and the stigma of obtaining human services for personal problems…

  4. Assessing Food Preferences among Persons with Profound Mental Retardation: Providing Opportunities to Make Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Marsha B.; Reid, Dennis H.

    1990-01-01

    A procedure enabling 19 adolescents/adults with profound mental retardation to express food and drink preferences was evaluated. Results indicated that active choice making occurred, and caregiver opinion was not predictive of participant preferences. Choices made using the procedure were similar to choices made when less structured opportunities…

  5. The Role of Social Awareness in the Employment Success of Adolescents with Mild Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Rhonda S.; Rojewski, Jay W.

    The role of social awareness in the employment success of adolescents with mild mental retardation was examined in a two-phase study. In phase 1, a set of social awareness descriptors designed to measure the three components of social awareness--sensitivity, insight, and communication--was developed and validated in a five-stage process. In phase…

  6. Families Who Adopt Mentally Retarded Children: Who, Why, and What Happens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glidden, Laraine Masters

    Demographic and background characteristics, pre-adoption motivation, and post-adoptive adjustment of 20 British families who had, among them, adopted 23 mentally retarded children were explored through semi-structured interviews and questionnaires. Children in the sample had been in their adoptive homes an average of 17 months; 48% were under 5…

  7. Turning the Educability Narrative: Samuel A. Kirk at the Intersection of Learning Disability and "Mental Retardation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danforth, Scot; Slocum, Laura; Dunkle, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    It is often assumed that current disability constructs exist in conceptual isolation from one another. This article explores the tangled historical relationship between "mental retardation" and learning disability in the writings and speeches of special education pioneer Samuel A. Kirk. Beginning in the 1950s, Kirk repeatedly told an educability…

  8. Correlates of Long-Term Services among Senior Teachers of the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Hua-Kuo

    This study investigated reasons reported by elementary and junior high school teachers of students with mental retardation for continuing to work in the field of special education. The study thus sought to identify factors that might be helpful in finding ways to reduce the turnover rate of this population of teachers in Taiwan. Interviews with 27…

  9. Medication and Programming in Controlling the Behavior of Mentally Retarded Individuals in Community Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalock, Robert L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    One group (N=22) of community-based mentally retarded clients was initially on psychotropic medication. Their dosage was either increased, decreased, or kept the same following behavioral intervention. A second group (N=19) was placed on psychotropic medication following behavioral intervention. Results indicated that the behavioral-chemical…

  10. Maladaptive Behaviors Related to Adaptive Decline in Aging Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urv, Tiina K.; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

    2003-01-01

    Changes in patterns of maladaptive behavior related to age-associated adaptive declines were investigated in 529 adults with mental retardation (ages 30 to 84), 202 with Down syndrome. Certain maladaptive behaviors were related to the onset of adaptive declines, (e.g., lack of boundaries). Findings suggest similarities in the course of…

  11. Incidence and Temporal Patterns of Adaptive Behavior Change in Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigman, Warren B.; Schupf, Nicole; Urv, Tiina; Zigman, April; Silverman, Wayne

    2002-01-01

    A study found cumulative decline in adaptive behavior and functional skills in 248 adults with Down syndrome increased from less than .04 at age 50, to .67 by 72, whereas decline for 398 adults with mental retardation increased from less than .02 at age 50 to .52 at 88. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  12. A HISTORY OF THE CARE AND STUDY OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KANNER, LEO

    THE HISTORY AND CARE OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED IS TRACED FROM ANTIQUITY TO THE PRESENT. A REVIEW OF MEN WHO ORIGINATED EDUCATIONAL AND INSTITUTIONAL WORK WITH THE FEEBLEMINDED INCLUDES JACOB PEREIRE, JEAN ITARD, JOHANN GUGGENBUEHL, EDOUARD SEGUIN, AND SAMUEL HOWE. PUBLICATIONS BY AND ABOUT THESE MEN ARE LISTED. THE DEVELOPMENT OF INSTITUTIONS IS…

  13. THE EFFECTS OF LISTENING TRAINING ON THE AUDITORY THRESHOLDS OF MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCHLANGER, BERNARD B.

    THE EFFECTS OF LISTENING TRAINING ON THE AUDITORY THRESHOLDS OF MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN WERE DETERMINED. THE EFFECTS OF LISTENING TRAINING AND ITS PROMISE FOR LOWERED THRESHOLDS WERE INVESTIGATED AND EVALUATED FROM CHANGES IN MAGNITUDE SCORES, DIRECTION OF THRESHOLD, INTELLIGENCE, AND BEHAVIORAL CHANGES IN COMMUNICATION ATTITUDES OR RATED BY…

  14. Teaching Interactive Signing in a Dialogue Situation to Mentally Retarded Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keogh, Deborah; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Verbal prompts, modeling, physical guidance, positive reinforcement, fading, and chaining procedures were used to teach two nonverbal individuals (one severely and one moderately mentally retarded) an interactive signing dialogue in a naturalistic setting. Although clients learned to use signed communication, extensive training was required and…

  15. Tourette Syndrome Associated with Mental Retardation: A Single-Subject Treatment Study with Haloperidol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenquist, Peter B.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A study of a 35-year-old woman with severe mental retardation and Tourette syndrome examined the efficacy of haloperidol in the treatment of Tourette syndrome. Results indicate that the haloperidol treatment produced significant reduction of all tic topographies. Improvement was also seen in tic severity, hyperactivity, and compulsive behaviors.…

  16. Vitamin/Mineral Supplements and Intelligence of Institutionalized Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Norman R.; Tomporowski, Phillip D.

    1983-01-01

    Vitamin/mineral supplements were administered to 19 institutionalized mentally retarded adults in a double-blind study over a seven-month period. No changes were observed in IQ nor in adaptive behavior. This was a replication with adults of a previous study of children that had obtained positive results. (Author/CL)

  17. A Crossover Study of Risperidone in Children, Adolescents and Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellings, Jessica A.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Reese, R. Matthew; Valdovinos, Maria G.; Marquis, Janet G.; Fleming, Kandace K.; Schroeder, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    Risperidone has shown safety and efficacy for aggressive and destructive behaviors in short-term studies. This longer-duration study includes a broad sample. Forty subjects, aged 8-56 years (mean=22), all with mental retardation and 36 with autism spectrum disorders participated in this 22-week crossover study, with 24 weeks of open maintenance…

  18. Mental Retardation Genes in Drosophila: New Approaches to Understanding and Treating Developmental Brain Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Restifo, Linda L.

    2005-01-01

    "Drosophila melanogaster" is emerging as a valuable genetic model system for the study of mental retardation (MR). MR genes are remarkably similar between humans and fruit flies. Cognitive behavioral assays can detect reductions in learning and memory in flies with mutations in MR genes. Neuroanatomical methods, including some at single-neuron…

  19. A Taxonomy of Teacher-Defined Problems in the Education of Mentally Retarded Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, John J.; Miller, Donald M.

    A taxonomy of problems in the environment or evident in student behaviors which impede providing the necessary conditions for pupils to learn was developed by teachers of the educable mentally retarded (EMR) in Wisconsin. Of the teachers, 67% or 487 responded to a request to specify five problems along with their causes and successful and…

  20. Toward a Definition of Social Skills: Implications for Adults with Mental Retardation in Employment Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadsey-Rusch, Janis

    This paper proposes a definition of social skills in order to operationalize the components that need to be considered when teaching social skills to individuals with mental retardation in employment settings. It also presents current approaches to teaching social skills in employment settings. Social skills are defined as goal-oriented,…