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1

Model a Catchment Basin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to introduce what a catchment basin is and how it works. Students will make a 3-dimensional model of a catchment basin to understand how water moves through the basin and explore how water is affected when there are changes in the basin.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

2

Preliminary results of hydrological impact studies for catchments of central and lower Danube basin - project CLAVIER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary hydrological impact related results of the Project CLAVIER - CLimate ChAnge and Variability: Impact on Central and Eastern EuRope concerning mostly Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria.The CLAVIER project is supported by the European Commission's 6th Framework Programme (contract number 037013) as a three-year Specific Targeted Research Project from 09/2006 to 08/2009 under the Thematic Sub-Priority "Global Change and Ecosystems". The hydrological impact task of the project is aimed at the production of future hydrological scenarios based on the output of regional climate models. Analysis of the simulation results received by hydrological models serves as direct or indirect input for water management DSSs: VITUKI-NHFS and VIDRA conceptual hydrological models were used to produce long term hydrological series. Mostly Tisza River Basin (the largest - by drainage basin size - tributary of the Danube) and its sub-catchments have been studied with special emphasis on Upper Tisza and Mures/Maros rivers. Separately the Arges basin drained by the lower Danube was also covered. The catchments comprising river systems are situated in various climatological and geo-morphological settings across the region. The hydrological models used in CLAVIER project require 0.1 degree grid resolution meteorologial input data. Since the REMO 5.9 dataset was only available in 0.25 degree resolution, a downscaling procedure based on elevation distribution functions was performed by VITUKI in order to get a dataset in the needed resolution. REMO5.9-ERA40 (1961 - 2000) and REMO5.9-A1B (1951 - 2050) produced by the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg was further processed. The original error corrected dataset was provided by WegCenter, Graz and INHGA, Bucharest. Transient simulations were carried out covering the period 1951 - 2050. Validation was related to the period 1984 - 2000. The use of physically based models is supplemented with the application of a continuous stochastic simulation model (a hybrid Markov-chain type model - Szilágyi et al 2005) to produce climate effect reports for a the selected basins with different types of hydrological regimes and flood problems including the interaction of basins of different runoff production significance and the coincidence and superposition of flood waves. Statistical characteristics of periods 1961-1990 and 2021-2050 were compared. Preliminary results indicate in most cases slight decrease of annual mean flow throughout the region, with significant spatial variability. Some new features in winter and spring flood behaviour are also detected.

Matreata, M.; Corbus, C.; Csik, A.; Gauzer, B.; Gnandt, B.; Mattányi, Z.; Balint, G.

2009-04-01

3

Analyzing catchment behavior through catchment modeling in the Gilgel Abay, Upper Blue Nile River Basin, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding catchment hydrological processes is essential for water resources management, in particular in data scarce regions. The Gilgel Abay catchment (a major tributary into Lake Tana, source of the Blue Nile) is undergoing intensive plans for water management, which is part of larger development plans in the Blue Nile basin in Ethiopia. To obtain a better understanding of the water

S. Uhlenbrook; Y. Mohamed; A. S. Gragne

2010-01-01

4

Analyzing catchment behavior through catchment modeling in the Gilgel Abay, Upper Blue Nile River Basin, Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding catchment hydrological processes is essential for water resources management, in particular in data scarce regions. The Gilgel Abay catchment (a major tributary into Lake Tana, source of the Blue Nile) is undergoing intensive plans for water management, which is part of larger development plans in the Blue Nile basin in Ethiopia. To obtain a better understanding of the water balance dynamics and runoff generation mechanisms and to evaluate model transferability, catchment modeling has been conducted using the conceptual hydrological model HBV. Accordingly, the catchment of the Gilgel Abay has been divided into two gauged sub-catchments (Upper Gilgel Abay and Koga) and the un-gauged part of the catchment. All available data sets were tested for stationarity, consistency and homogeneity and the data limitations (quality and quantity) are discussed. Manual calibration of the daily models for three different catchment representations, i.e. (i) lumped, (ii) lumped with multiple vegetation zones, and (iii) semi-distributed with multiple vegetation and elevation zones, showed good to satisfactory model performances with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies Reff > 0.75 and > 0.6 for the Upper Gilgel Abay and Koga sub-catchments, respectively. Better model results could not be obtained with manual calibration, very likely due to the limited data quality and model insufficiencies. Increasing the computation time step to 15 and 30 days improved the model performance in both sub-catchments to Reff > 0.8. Model parameter transferability tests have been conducted by interchanging parameters sets between the two gauged sub-catchments. Results showed poor performances for the daily models (0.30 < Reff < 0.67), but better performances for the 15 and 30 days models, Reff > 0.80. The transferability tests together with a sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulations (more than 1 million model runs per catchment representation) explained the different hydrologic responses of the two sub-catchments, which seems to be mainly caused by the presence of dambos in Koga sub-catchment. It is concluded that daily model transferability is not feasible, while it can produce acceptable results for the 15 and 30 days models. This is very useful for water resources planning and management, but not sufficient to capture detailed hydrological processes in an ungauged area.

Uhlenbrook, S.; Mohamed, Y.; Gragne, A. S.

2010-10-01

5

Isotope hydrology of catchment basins: lithogenic and cosmogenic isotopic systems  

SciTech Connect

A variety of physical processes affect solute concentrations within catchment waters. The isotopic compositions of the solutes can indicate which processes have determined the observed concentrations. These processes together constitute the physical history of the water. Many solutes in natural waters are derived from the interaction between the water and the rock and/or soil within the system - these are termed `lithogenic` solutes. The isotopic compositions of these solutes provide information regarding rock-water interactions. Many other solutes have their isotopic compositions determined both within and outside of the catchment - i.e., in addition to being derived from catchment rock and soil, they are solutes that are also transported into the catchment. Important members of this group include solutes that have isotopic compositions produced by atomic particle interactions with other nuclides. The source of the atomic particles can be cosmic radiation (producing `cosmogenic` nuclides in the atmosphere and land surface), anthropogenic nuclear reactions (producing `thermonuclear` nuclides), or radioactive and fission decay of naturally-occurring elements, principally {sup 238}U (producing `in-situ` lithogenic nuclides in the deep subsurface). Current language usage often combines all of the atomic particle-produced nuclides under the heading `cosmogenic nuclides`, and for simplicity we will often follow that usage here, although always indicating which variety is being discussed. This paper addresses the processes that affect the lithogenic and cosmogenic solute concentrations in catchment waters, and how the isotopic compositions of the solutes can be used in integrative ways to identify these processes, thereby revealing the physical history of the water within a catchment system. The concept of a `system` is important in catchment hydrology. A catchment is the smallest landscape unit that can both participate in all of the aspects of the hydrologic cycle and also be treated as a mostly closed system for mass balance considerations. It is the near closure of the system that permits well- constrained chemical mass balance calculations to be made. These calculations generally focus of lithogenic solutes, and therefore in our discussions of lithogenic nuclides in the paper, the concept of chemical mass balance in a nearly dosed system will play an important role. Examination of the isotopic compositions of solutes provides a better understanding of the variety of processes controlling mass balance. It is with this approach that we examined the variety of processes occurring within the catchment system, such as weathering and soil production, generation of stormflow and streamflow (hydrograph separation), movement of soil pore water, groundwater flow, and the overall processes involved with basinal water balance. In this paper, the term `nuclide` will be used when referring to a nuclear species that contains a particular number of protons and neutrons. The term is not specific to any element. The term `isotope` will be used to distinguish nuclear species of a given element (atoms with the same number of protons). That is to say, there are many nuclides in nature - for example, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 87}Sr, {sup 238}U; the element has four naturally-occurring isotopes - {sup 87}Sr, and {sup 88}Sr. This paper will first discuss the general principles that underlie the study of lithogenic and cosmogenic nuclides in hydrology, and provide references to some of the more important studies applying these principles and nuclides. We then turn in the second section to a discussion of their specific applications in catchment- scale systems. The final section of this paper discusses new directions in the application of lithogenic and cosmogenic nuclides to catchment hydrology, with some thoughts concerning possible applications that still remain unexplored.

Nimz, G. J., LLNL

1998-06-01

6

The impact of urban development on hydrologic regime from catchment to basin scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the role of urban spatial development on hydrologic response at both catchment (sub-grid) and river basin (between grid) scales in central Indiana. At the catchment scale, effective impervious area (EIA) was estimated using high density urban area and the patch size of low density urban area. The impact of urban spatial arrangement on floods was investigated using

Guoxiang Yang; Laura C. Bowling; Keith A. Cherkauer; Bryan C. Pijanowski

2011-01-01

7

[Molecular-phylogenetic analysis of cyclopoids (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) from Lake Baikal and its water catchment basin].  

PubMed

Baikalian cyclopoids represent one of the richest endemic faunas of freshwater cyclopoid copepods. The genus Diacyclops Kiefer, 1927 is the most numerous by species number in the lake. In this work, molecular-phylogenetic analysis of 14 species and 1 sub-species from Lake Baikal and its water catchment basin is performed. The regions of mitochondrial cytochrom-oxydase I (COI) and of nuclear small-subunit 18S rRNA were used as evolution markers. In the obtained set of nucleotide sequences of COT gene, an effect of synonymous substitution saturation is revealed. Baikalian representatives of the genus Diacyclops form at phylogenetic schemes by two markers a monophyletic griup, it suggest their origin from a common ancestral form. Preliminary estimate of the age of this group is 20-25 My. PMID:21261066

Ma?or, T Iu; Sheveleva, N G; Sukhanova, L V; Timoshkin, O A; Kiril'chik, S V

2010-11-01

8

Coupling catchment hydrology and landscape evolution: Interactive effects on hydrograph and basin shape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The catchment hydrologic response to rainfall and the evolution of the river basin network and landscape morphology are closely linked phenomena, albeit active over different temporal scales. While the relation between hydrograph shape and catchment form has long been hypothesized, little is yet understood about the evolution of the basin hydrologic response with catchment age or geomorphic condition. Similarly, the long-term morphologic changes and feedbacks associated with a spatially-variable, evolving runoff response are still unknown. Understanding the complex interaction between basin hydrology and geomorphology was an important pursuit during Michael J. Kirkby's scientific career. In this study, we describe the interactive effects and feedbacks between the basin hydrograph (hydrologic response) and shape (geomorphic response) utilizing two state-of-the-art models: the Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD) and the TIN-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS). We first illustrate the changes occurring in the basin hydrograph, variable source area and channel network as the catchment evolves. We then describe how the spatially-explicit hydrologic response from various mechanisms and its associated moisture field directly impacts the erosion and subsequently the basin shape. Quantitative comparisons are then made between a set of interactive and non-interactive simulations for idealized conditions. Our ultimate goal is to highlight the need for coupling distributed simulations of catchment hydrology and geomorphology for investigating the interaction between basin and hydrograph shape.

Vivoni, E. R.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Bras, R. L.

2003-12-01

9

UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, PRELIMINARY BASIN EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this paper was to provide a process and a plan by which the Environmental Protection Agency can insure that water quality goals established in the Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 are met in the waters of the Upper Snake Basin (17040201, 17040206, 170...

10

Rainfall, runoff and sediment transport relations in a mesoscale mountainous catchment: The River Isábena (Ebro basin)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relations between rainfall, runoff and suspended sediment transport in the Isábena basin during a quasi-average hydrological year. The Isábena is a mesoscale river basin that drains a mountainous area comprising patches of highly erodible materials (badlands). The paper includes an analysis of the different hydrological and sedimentary responses of the catchment to a similar rainfall. Thirty-four

J. A. López-Tarazón; R. J. Batalla; D. Vericat; J. C. Balasch

2010-01-01

11

Catchment basin self-avoiding simulated annealing for global optimization method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a generic global minimization algorithm which can escape from catchment basins on the 3N-dimensional potential energy surface. The essential idea is to combine the simulated annealing with our recently developed history-penalized basin filling method. In this work, we present the most energetically favorable configurations of all Lennard-Jones (LJ) clusters up to 60 atoms, including the most challenging 38-atom

Minghai Li; Xi Lin

2010-01-01

12

Isotope hydrology of catchment basins: lithogenic and cosmogenic isotopic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of physical processes affect solute concentrations within catchment waters. The isotopic compositions of the solutes can indicate which processes have determined the observed concentrations. These processes together constitute the physical history of the water. Many solutes in natural waters are derived from the interaction between the water and the rock and\\/or soil within the system - these are

Nimz

1998-01-01

13

Regionalising a meso-catchment scale conceptual model for river basin management in the semi-arid environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meso-scale catchments are often of great interest for water resources development and for development interventions aimed at uplifting rural livelihoods. However, in Sub-Saharan Africa IWRM planning in such catchments, and the basins they form part of, are often ungauged or constrained by poor data availability. Regionalisation of a hydrological model presents opportunities for prediction in ungauged basins and catchments. This study regionalises HBVx, derived from the conceptual hydrological model HBV, in the semi-arid Mzingwane Catchment, Limpopo Basin, Zimbabwe. Fifteen meso-catchments were studied, including three that were instrumented during the study. Discriminant analysis showed that the characteristics of catchments in the arid agro-ecological Region V were significantly different from those in semi-arid Region IV. Analysis of flow duration curves statistically separated sub-perennial catchments from (sub-)ephemeral catchments. Regionalised parameter sets for HBVx were derived from means of parameters from the sub-perennial catchments, the (sub-)ephemeral catchments and all catchments. The parameter sets that performed best in the regionalisation are characterised by slow infiltration with moderate/fast “overland flow”. These processes appear more extreme in more degraded catchments. This is points to benefits to be derived from conservation techniques that increase infiltration rate and from runoff farming. Faster, and possibly greater, sub-surface contribution to streamflow is expected from catchments underlain by granitic rocks. Calibration and regionalisation were more successful at the dekad (10 days) time step than when using daily or monthly data, and for the sub-perennial catchments than the (sub-)ephemeral catchments. However, none of the regionalised parameter sets yielded C NS ? 0.3 for half of the catchments. The HBVx model thus does offer some assistance to river basin planning in semi-arid basins, particularly for predicting flows in ungauged catchments at longer time steps, such as for water allocation purposes. However, the model is unreliable for more ephemeral and drier catchments. Without more reliable and longer rainfall and runoff data, regionalisation in semi-arid ephemeral catchments will remain highly challenging.

Love, David; Uhlenbrook, Stefan; van der Zaag, Pieter

14

Spatial characterization of the Baltic sea drainage basin and its unmonitored catchments.  

PubMed

We present an updated, harmonized hydrologic base map of the entire Baltic Sea Drainage Basin (BSDB), including 634 subdrainage basins. The updated map has a level of detail approximately 5 to 10 times higher than the current standard and includes various spatial-aggregation possibilities of relevance for water management. All 634 subdrainage basins and their various spatial aggregations are characterized in terms of population, land cover, drainage density, and slope. We identify, quantify, and characterize, in particular, drainage basins that are unmonitored with regard to the combination of water-flow and nutrient-concentration measurements needed to monitor coastal nutrient and pollutant loading. Results indicate that out of a total BSDB population of 84 239 000 in 2002, 24% lived in unmonitored coastal drainage basins that cover 13% of the total BSDB area. A more detailed analysis of Swedish catchments indicates that Sweden has a particularly large proportion of unmonitored coastal catchment areas (20% of the total Swedish area) with high population pressures (55% of the total Swedish population), when compared with average conditions for the whole BSDB. In general, the investigated characteristics of unmonitored coastal basins vary and differ largely from those in adjacent monitored drainage basins within the BSDB. PMID:16989505

Hannerz, Fredrik; Destouni, Georgia

2006-08-01

15

The Madrid Basin aquifer: Preliminary isotopic reconnaissance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The northwestern part of the Madrid Basin is underlain by an aquifer 6000 km 2 in surface and having a thickness of 200-2000 m of unconsolidated silt and clayey sands, overlying a fractured basement complex which forms groundwater basins and barriers. The basin's fill materials are Miocene-Pliocene and were deposited in a continental environment of alluvial fans. Important urban areas such as Madrid, Toledo and Guadalajara are within the limits of this aquifer. The aquifer is characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity is ˜0.5-1 m/day. The corresponding vertical conductivities are ˜100 times less. An attempt has been made to corroborate a three-dimensional groundwater flow model proposed previously for this aquifer by using the environmental isotopes of carbon ( 14C) and oxygen ( 18O). Preliminary work, which the authors completed to date, has strongly supported the model but only in some areas. The homogeneity of the stable-isotope composition observed in the groundwater and its similarity to the composition of recent precipitation indicate that the environmental and meteorological conditions during infiltration, even of the oldest waters, were not very different from those of the present.

Vera, Fernando López; Lerman, Juan Carlos; Muller, Anthony B.

1981-12-01

16

A participatory approach for Integrated River Basin Management in the Elbe catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a qualitative analysis of a series of in-depth interviews with governmental and non-governmental institutions (NGOs). Within the EUROCAT 1 project this methodology of participatory approach, aiming to scope the present perceptions about environmental issues and possible strategies for environmental improvement, is applied to the study of the Elbe catchment for the first time. In this frame, an Advisory Board (AB) was created, with the aim of giving insights into conflicting interests in the river catchment and guidelines for river basin management. Focus of the Elbe case study is the issue of nutrient enrichment (from the catchment) and the induced eutrophication of the coastal waters (the German Bight). Specifically, regarding this topic, the possible reduction of eutrophication in the German Bight by a (policy driven) decrease in nutrient inputs from the catchment area is analysed. Different measures for reducing the input of nutrients from the catchment, and ultimately preventing eutrophication of the coastal waters are considered. In this context, the members of the AB were asked about the efficiency and feasibility of different measures and the criteria for choosing 'better' management solutions among the possible ones. Although there is a general agreement about the necessity of reducing nutrient emissions, some members of the AB perceive other environmental issues (e.g. altered morphodynamics) as more relevant than nutrient enrichment. Voluntary cooperation, eco-efficiency and 'trans-sectoral' communication are the key concepts mentioned as being indispensable for integrated management. The (public) acceptance of measures for nutrient reduction have to find its way through compromises and social equity, allowing for win-win solutions among different groups of interests and balanced spatial division of costs and benefits. EUROpean CATchments, Project N° EVK1-CT-2000-00044 ( http://www.iia-cnr.unical.it/EUROCAT/project.htm).

Nunneri, C.; Hofmann, J.

2005-02-01

17

Role of river bank erosion in sediment budgets of catchments within the Loire river basin (France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying volumes of sediments produced on hillslopes or in channels and transported or stored within river systems is necessary to establish sediment budgets. If research efforts on hillslope erosion processes have led to a relatively good understanding and quantification of local sources, in-channel processes remain poorly understood and quasi inexistent in global budgets. However, profound landuse changes and agricultural practices have altered river functioning, caused river bank instability and stream incision. During the past decades in France, river channelization has been perfomed extensively to allow for new agricultural practices to take place. Starting from a recent study on the quantification of sediment fluxes for catchments within the Loire river basin (Gay et al. 2013), our aim is to complete sediment budgets by taking into account various sources and sinks both on hillslope and within channel. The emphasis of this study is on river bank erosion and how bank erosion contributes to global budgets. A model of bank retreat is developed for the entire Loire river basin. In general, our results show that bank retreat is on average quite low with approximately 1 cm.yr-1. However, a strong variability exists within the study area with channels displaying values of bank retreat up to ~10 cm.yr-1. Our results corroborate those found by Landemaine et al. in 2013 on a small agricultural catchment. From this first step, quantification of volumes of sediment eroded from banks and available for transport should be calculated and integrated in sediment budgets to allow for a better understanding of basin functioning. Gay A., Cerdan O., Delmas M., Desmet M., Variability of sediment yields in the Loire river basin (France): the role of small scale catchments (under review). Landemaine V., Gay A., Cerdan O., Salvador-Blanes S., Rodriguez S. Recent morphological evolution of a headwater stream in agricultural context after channelization in the Ligoire river (France) (in prep)

Gay, Aurore; Cerdan, Olivier; Poisvert, Cecile; Landemaine, Valentin

2014-05-01

18

View of former preliminary sedimentation basin, looking east from south ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of former preliminary sedimentation basin, looking east from south side of low-lift pumping station. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

19

Estimation of Catchment Transit Time in Fuji River Basin by using an improved Tank model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an important parameter that reflects the characteristics of catchments, the catchment transit time (CTT) has been given much more widely attentions especially in recent years. The CTT is defined as the time water spends travelling through a catchment to the stream network [1], and it describes how catchments retain and release water and solutes and thus control geochemical and biogeochemical cycling and contamination persistence [2]. The objectives of the present study are to develop a new approach for estimating CTT without prior information on such TTD functions and to apply it to the Fuji River basin in the Central Japan Alps Region. In this study, an improved Tank model was used to compute mean CTT and TTD functions simultaneously. It involved water fluxes and isotope mass balance. Water storage capacity in the catchment, which strongly affects CTT, is reflected in isotope mass balance more sensitively than in water fluxes. A model calibrated with observed discharge and isotope data is used for virtual age tracer computation to estimate CTT. This model does not only consider the hydrological data and physical process of the research area but also reflects the actual TTD with considering the geological condition, land use and the other catchment-hydrological conditions. For the calibration of the model, we used river discharge record obtained by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transportation, and are collecting isotope data of precipitation and river waters monthly or semi-weekly. Three sub-catchments (SC1~SC3) in the Fuji River basin was selected to test the model with five layers: the surface layer, upper-soil layer, lower-soil layer, groundwater aquifer layer and bedrock layer (Layer 1- Layer 5). The evaluation of the model output was assessed using Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), root mean square error-observations standard deviation ratio (RSR), and percent bias (PBIAS). Using long time-series of discharge records for calibration, the simulated discharge basically satisfied requirements of reproducing water fluxes and their balance, while improvements in parameter estimations relating to isotope mass balance is necessary. Water balance and isotopes balance have been exercised in abundant simulations by using Mont-Carlo method, and the optimal parameters combination generated reliable result. Later, we figured out the temporal-variant MTT as well as the degree of influence that brought by precipitation event, where the results showed inverse relationship between precipitation amount and MTT value. Reference: [1] Jeffrey. J. McDonnell, Kevin J. McGuire, Aggarwal, P., et al. 2010. How old is stream water? Open questions in catchment transit time conceptualization, modeling and analysis. Hydro. Process. 24, 1745-1754. [2] Kevin J. McGuire, Jeffrey J. McDonnell. 2006. A review and evaluation of transit time modeling. Journal of Hydrology. 330, 543-563.

Wenchao, M.; Yamanaka, T.; Wakiyama, Y.; Wang, P.

2013-12-01

20

Continuous simulation modelling for design flood estimation in South Africa: Preliminary investigations in the Thukela catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several recent literature reviews highlight the need for improvements in procedures for design flood estimation [Cordery, I., Pilgrim, D.H., 2000. The state of the art of flood prediction. In: Parker, D.J. (Ed.), Floods. vol. II. Routledge, London, UK, pp. 185-197; Smithers, J.C., Schulze, R.E., 2001. Design runoff estimation: a review with references to practices in South Africa. In: Tenth South African National Hydrological Symposium. SANCIAHS, Pietermaritzburg, RSA]. In general, these reviews indicate that internationally the trend is to adopt a continuous simulation modeling approach for design flood estimation. The continuous simulation modelling (CSM) approach to design flood estimation has many advantages and has the potential to overcome many of the limitations of the often used design event approach. A pilot study into the development of a continuous simulation modelling system for design flood estimation is being undertaken in the Thukela catchment in South Africa. Preliminary studies using the ACRU agrohydrological modelling system are detailed in this paper and include investigations into the appropriate scale and levels of soil and land cover information required for use in a CSM approach for design flood estimation. Results indicate that CSM with the ACRU model requires quaternary catchments to be further divided into sub-quaternary catchments, and that using area weighted soils and land cover information gives better results than using modal soils information or single dominant soil or land cover information.

Chetty, Kershani; Smithers, Jeff

21

Towards seasonal hydrological forecasting in mountain catchments: preliminary results from the APRIL project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The APRIL project aims at addressing the long term quantitative prediction of monthly discharge from mountain catchments and setting up a system which can then be used operationally. More specifically, its objectives are: - To investigate the potential of EO products (snow cover extent, vegetation and soil moisture statust) and weather/climatic variables for the prediction of water streamflow from mountain catchments - To develop a robust methodology for the long term quantitative forecast of montly discharge from EO and weather/climatic data - To build a fully operational system for seasonal hydrological forecasting. This contribution illustrates the general concept of the project as well as some preliminary results. Water discharge in mountain catchments is physically related to antecedent snow cover and climatology (precipitation, temperature). Other factors may play a role, such as vegetation/soil status and topography. Historical discharge measurements and earth observation (EO) data are a valuable source for inferring the quantitative relationship between the discharge and its predictors using appropriate techniques. The prediction is based on the Support Vector Regression (SVR)technique, a state of the art machine learning regression method with good intrinsic generalization ability and robustness. In the contribution we present and discuss results of a preliminary analysis on water discharge prediction ( with lead time of 1 to 3 months) in South Tyrol, Italy. Despite the use of a limited set of predictors (among which mainly snow cover area), the results are encouraging. The analysis is in the process of being extended at different spatial scales, which will give the possibility to investigate different aspects of the problem and develop different prediction systems; by updating on the current developments, the contribution discusses also perspectives and current limitations towards the set up of a fully operational seasonal hydrological forecasting system in Europe.

Pistocchi, Alberto; Mazzoli, Paolo; Bagli, Stefano; Notarnicola, Claudia; Pasolli, Luca

2013-04-01

22

Ecosystem based river basin management planning in critical water catchment in Mongolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developing the ecosystem based adaptation strategies to maintain water security in critical water catchments in Mongolia would be very significant. It will be base by reducing the vulnerability. "Ecosystem Based adaptation" is quite a new term in Mongolia and the ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. To strengthen equitable economic development, food security, climate resilience and protection of the environment, the implementation of sustainable river basin management in critical water catchments is challenging in Mongolia. The Ulz river basin is considered one of the critical water catchments due to the temperature has increased by in average 1.30Ñ over the period 1976 to 2011. It is more intense than the global warming rate (0.740C/100 years) and a bit higher than the warming rate over whole Mongolia as well. From long-term observations and measurements it is clear that Ulz River has low water in a period of 1970-1980 and since the end of 1980s and middle of 1990s there were dominated years of the flood. However, under the influence of the global warming, climate changes of Mongolia and continuation of drought years with low water since the end of 1990s until today river water was sharply fallen and dried up. For the last ten years rivers are dried up and annual mean run-off is less by 3-5 times from long term mean value. The Ulz is the transboundary river basin and taking its origin from Ikh and Baga Burd springs on territory of Norovlin soum of Khentii province that flows through Khentii and Dornod provinces to the northeast, crossing the state border it flows in Baruun Tari located in Tari Lake concavity in Russia. Based on the integrative baseline study on the 'The Ulz River Basin Environmental and Socioeconomic condition', ecosystem based river basin management was planned. 'Water demand Calculator 3' (WDC) software was used to estimate water demand and calculate water use balance in 2015, 2021. The result of the water balance estimation shows that water consumption-use will be increased 3 times in the river basin by 2021. As the water consumption-use source, surface water - 6.4 % and groundwater is 93.6 percent. The current consumption of the mining sector is shares 71 percent of the total users; it would be 82 percent in 2021. However, the livestock water consumption-use is 27 percent of the current demand; it would be decrease up to 16 percent in 2021. Ecosystem based approach IWRM plan would be efficient to the local resident to adapt the climate change situation. Thus, the results of the research study on the river basin ecosystem services and values are the base of the planning.

Tugjamba, Navchaa; Sereeter, Erdenetuul; Gonchigjav, Sarantuya

2014-05-01

23

Applicability of LOICZ catchment coast continuum in a major Caribbean basin: The Magdalena River, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the Land Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ)-Basins approach, the Magdalena River Project (MRP) is an interdisciplinary research, which aims to improve the scientific understanding of the linkages between the Magdalena drainage basin and its associated coastal environments. The MRP is an outgrowth of the initial regional planning that resulted from the LOICZ South American Basins (SamBas) and Caribbean Basins (CariBas) studies on land use and hydrological changes during approximately the past century in tropical and temperate benchmark river basins. The results of the MRP presented in this article show that the extent of land-cover change and erosion within the catchment has increased over the last 10-20 yr. The overall increasing trends in sediment load on a regional scale may be attributed to a range of anthropogenic influences including: a 40% decrease in forests over a 20-yr period; a 65% increase in agricultural and pasture; poor practices of land use; mining; and increasing rates of urbanization. These increasing trends in sediment load coincide with the overall decline of live coral cover in a 145-km 2 coral reef complex in the Caribbean Sea. In addition, the impacts of heavy sediment loads and freshwater discharges have greatly contributed not only to the total disappearance of coral formations but also to a considerable reduction in abundance of seagrass beds in Cartagena Bay and neighbouring areas. The synthesis and analysis presented in this article are just first steps toward understanding the natural and human-induced factors that have produced the observed patterns of water discharge and sediment load of the Magdalena River into the Caribbean Sea, and to relating these processes to the impact on coastal ecosystems.

Restrepo, Juan D.

2008-04-01

24

Analysis of annual dissolved-solids loading from selected natural and irrigated catchments in the Upper Colorado River Basin, 1974-2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dissolved-solids loading from 17 natural catchments and 14 irrigated catchments in the Upper Colorado River Basin was examined for the period from 1974 through 2003. In general, dissolved-solids loading increased and decreased concurrently in natural and irrigated catchments but at different magnitudes. Annually, the magnitude of loading in natural catchments changed about 10 percent more, on average, than in irrigated catchments. Measures of variability, or spread, indicate that natural catchments had 35 percent greater annual variability in loading than irrigated catchments. Precipitation and dissolved-solids loads were positively correlated in natural catchments, and a weak positive correlation was determined for irrigated catchments. A weak negative correlation between temperature and dissolved-solids load was determined for both natural and irrigated catchments. In irrigated catchments, the dissolved-solids load response to an above-average precipitation period from 1982 through 1987 generally lagged behind that in the natural catchments. On average, irrigated catchments with reservoir storage had the largest normalized maximum annual loads during the wet period.

Kenney, Terry A.; Gerner, Steven J.; Buto, Susan G.

2012-01-01

25

Preliminary Data on Atmospheric Aerosol of the Amazon Basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Preliminary distributions of the trace-elements Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V and Fe in the atmospheric aerosol of the Amazon Basin have been determined through samples collected from August 23 to September 2 of 1980, at a remote place located in the Ama...

C. M. Q. Orsini P. E. Artaxo Netto M. H. Tabacniks

1981-01-01

26

Catchment modeling and model transferability in upper Blue Nile Basin, Lake Tana, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding spatial and temporal distribution of water resources has an important role for water resource management. To understand water balance dynamics and runoff generation mechanisms at the Gilgel Abay catchment (a major tributary into lake Tana, source of Blue Nile, Ethiopia) and to evaluate model transferability, catchment modeling was conducted using the conceptual hydrological model HBV. The catchment of the

A. S. Gragne; S. Uhlenbrook; Y. Mohammed; S. Kebede

2008-01-01

27

Plantation Forestry and Peak Flow Responses in Experimental Catchments and Large River Basins in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use changes are inextricably linked to water resources and the consequences of such changes are a problem faced by water managers and governments across the world. This particular study considers the impact of changes in plantation forest cover on the hydrological response, with a specific focus on the issue of peak flow conditions and variation. The research still in progress is focused in small catchments and large river basins of Chile. The analysis of the data and the preparation of this document were carried out within the framework of the INCO- CT2004-510739 EPIC FORCE Project. EPIC FORCE aims to improve the integrated management of forest and water resources at the river basin scale through the development of policies based on sound science, focusing on extreme rainfall/snowmelt events. The focus areas are four Latin American countries (Costa Rica, Ecuador, Chile and Argentina.), which represent a range of humid forest and rainfall/snowmelt regimes with major flood and erosion problems and which suffer from a lack of integrated water and forest policies. Much of the controversy surrounding changes in peak flows following forest treatment arises from uncertainty over the response from different sizes of storms; whilst most studies agree that mean peak flow generally increases (even for only a short period) in the post harvesting period, there have been a number of different conclusions regarding influence of forest cover on peak flows from small storms compared with the flows from large events. In Chile, this research is been carried out in experimental catchments (less than 1 km2) and in large river basins (greater than 94 and up to 1,545 km2). Results from La Reina (34.4 ha), where peak flows from the pre-harvesting period (years 1997 to 1999, plantation of Pinus radiata established in 1977 covering the 79.5% of the area) were compared with those from the post- harvesting period (plantation clearcut between end of 1999 and first months of 2000 and replaced by an Eucalyptus nitens plantation) show that in average peak flows increased by 32% after forest removal. Analyzing pre and post-harvesting peak flows from different sizes of rainfall events (rainfall "small" events from 5 to 10 mm, "medium" events from 10 to 50 mm, and "large" events greater than 50 mm), the median of the peak flows increased by 67% for the small events and 32% for the large events. Besides, comparing the pre-harvesting condition with each of the years of the post-harvesting period (years 2000 to 2005), the analysis showed that in all cases post-harvesting peak flows were still significantly higher than before forest clearing. Decreases in annual runoff were noticed in the large river basins where forested area almost doubled between the beginnings of the 1970 up to present. These decreases in annual runoff are well explained by the increases in evapotranspiration capacity of the new planted forests, calculated using the Zhang model and through direct measurements done in experimental plots by the authors. However, the increases in planted area within these large river basins seem not to affect peak flows, as peak flows from the "pre plantation development period" were not statistically different from those of the "post plantation development" one. This research is allowing the generation of evidence based management proposals to support forest certification processes of Chilean companies.

Iroume, A.; Huber, A.

2007-05-01

28

Geo-referenced modelling of metal concentrations in river basins at the catchment scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. Introduction The European Water Framework Directive demands the good ecological and chemical state of surface waters [1]. This implies the reduction of unwanted metal concentrations in surface waters. To define reasonable environmental target values and to develop promising mitigation strategies a detailed exposure assessment is required. This includes the identification of emission sources and the evaluation of their effect on local and regional surface water concentrations. Point source emissions via municipal or industrial wastewater that collect metal loads from a wide variety of applications and products are important anthropogenic pathways into receiving waters. Natural background and historical influences from ore-mining activities may be another important factor. Non-point emissions occur via surface runoff and erosion from drained land area. Besides deposition metals can be deposited by fertilizer application or the use of metal products such as wires or metal fences. Surface water concentrations vary according to the emission strength of sources located nearby and upstream of the considered location. A direct link between specific emission sources and pathways on the one hand and observed concentrations can hardly be established by monitoring alone. Geo-referenced models such as GREAT-ER (Geo-referenced Regional Exposure Assessment Tool for European Rivers) deliver spatially resolved concentrations in a whole river basin and allow for evaluating the causal relationship between specific emissions and resulting concentrations. This study summarizes the results of investigations for the metals zinc and copper in three German catchments. 2. The model GREAT-ER The geo-referenced model GREAT-ER has originally been developed to simulate and assess chemical burden of European river systems from multiple emission sources [2]. Emission loads from private households and rainwater runoff are individually estimated based on average consumption figures, runoff rates and the site-specific population and surface area (roof, gutter, street) connected to the local sewer system. For emissions from industry and mine drainage quantitative data on average annual loads are collected. WWTP effluent loads additionally consider average removal during wastewater treatment. Runoff from non-point sources such as agricultural areas and unsealed soils is estimated from average wash-off rates per area multiplied with the total area drained into a specified river reach of the river system. Groundwater infiltration is considered in quantities equal to the base flow in the respective river stretch. The model simulates the steady-state concentration distribution in the whole river basin considering transport and removal processes in the river system. The only major removal process for metals in surface water is sedimentation. Simulations have been carried out exemplary for zinc and copper in the German river basins Main (27,292 km2), Ruhr (4,485 km2) and Sieg (2,832 km2). 3. Results and discussion Model estimations of effluent loads for selected WWTPs agreed well with available surveillance data so that the emission module outcome can be assumed as appropriate starting point for surface water modeling. A detailed comparison of simulated surface water concentrations with monitoring data was performed for zinc in the Ruhr river basin. Good agreement between monitoring data and model simulations was achieved at 20 monitoring sites in the Ruhr River and its major tributaries. GREAT-ER was able to simulate zinc concentrations in surface waters based on estimation of loads from several emission sources and via different emission pathways. A wide applicability of the model was corroborated by successful simulations of zinc concentrations in the Main river basin and simulations for copper in both catchments. The functionality of the model allows for running scenarios with different emission assumptions that can be easily compared. Such case studies can be used to demonstrate the effect of specific mitigation strategies such as improved treatment of ra

Hüffmeyer, N.; Berlekamp, J.; Klasmeier, J.

2009-04-01

29

Major ion chemistry, weathering processes and water quality assessment in upper catchment of Damodar River basin, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical characteristics of surface, groundwater and mine water of the upper catchment of the Damodar River basin were\\u000a studied to evaluate the major ion chemistry, geochemical processes controlling water composition and suitability of water\\u000a for domestic, industrial and irrigation uses. Water samples from ponds, lakes, rivers, reservoirs and groundwater were collected\\u000a and analysed for pH, EC, TDS, F, Cl,

Abhay Kumar Singh; G. C. Mondal; Suresh Kumar; T. B. Singh; B. K. Tewary; A. Sinha

2008-01-01

30

Basin-scale availability of salmonid spawning gravel as influenced by channel type and hydraulic roughness in mountain catchments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general framework is presented for examining the effects of channel type and associated hydraulic roughness on salmonid spawning-gravel availability in mountain catchments. Digital elevation models are coupled with grain-size pre- dictions to provide basin-scale assessments of the potential extent and spatial pattern of spawning gravels. To demonstrate both the model and the significance of hydraulic roughness, we present a

John M. Buffington; David R. Montgomery; Harvey M. Greenberg

2004-01-01

31

Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Surficial Geology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This tabular data set represents the area of surficial geology types in square meters compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data set is the "Digital data set describing surficial geology in the conterminous US" (Clawges and Price, 1999).The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2008). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

2010-01-01

32

Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments in Selected Major River Basins: Population Density, 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This data set represents the average population density, in number of people per square kilometer multiplied by 10 for the year 2000, compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data set is the 2000 Population Density by Block Group for the Conterminous United States (Hitt, 2003). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) RF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

2010-01-01

33

Unusual seasonal patterns and inferred processes of nitrogen retention in forested headwater catchments of the Upper Susquehanna basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Susquehanna River provides two-thirds of the annual nitrogen (N) load to the Chesapeake Bay, and atmospheric deposition is a major contributor to the basin's N inputs. Yet, there are few measurements of the retention of atmospheric N in the Upper Susquehanna's forested headwaters. We characterized the amount, form (nitrate, ammonium, and dissolved organic nitrogen), isotopic composition (del18O- and del15N-nitrate), and seasonality of stream N over two years from 8-15 small forested headwater catchments of the Susquehanna Basin. We expected high rates of N retention and seasonal nitrate patterns typical of other seasonally snow-covered catchments: dormant season peaks and growing season minima. Annual nitrate exports were approximately 0.1-0.7 kg N ha-1 y-1, and correlated positively with the percent of catchment free from historical agriculture. DON export averaged 0.6 +/- 0.1 kg N ha-1 y-1. All catchments had high rates of N retention but with atypical seasonal nitrate patterns, consisting of summer peaks, fall crashes, and modest rebounds during the dormant season. The fall nitrate crash coincided with carbon inputs at leaffall, indicating in-stream heterotrophic uptake. Stream del18O-nitrate values indicated microbial nitrification as the dominant source of stream nitrate, with modest contributions directly from precipitation in early stages of snowmelt. Three hypothesized sources of summer nitrate peaks include: delayed release of nitrate flushed to groundwater at snowmelt, weathering of geologic N, and increased net nitrate production. Measurements of shale del15N as well as soil, well-, and springwater nitrate within one catchment point toward a summer increase in net nitrification in surface soils. Rather than plant demand, processes governing the production, retention, and hydrologic transport of nitrate in surface mineral soils may drive the unusual nitrate seasonality in this and other systems, and provide insights on N retention in general.

Goodale, C. L.; Thomas, S. A.; Fredriksen, G.; Elliott, E. M.; Flinn, K. M.; Butler, T. J.

2008-12-01

34

Comparison of Late Quaternary Climate Development Between the Niger Catchment Area and the Amazon Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inorganic terrigenous fraction of marine sediments offers a great number of different and well established proxy parameters to investigate the development of continental climate. In this study we present high resolution records of terrigenous source elements from the Niger River and the Amazon River fans. Sediment cores are well dated by radiocarbon measurements. Elemental records from both regions reveal strong evidence for rapid continental climate change over the last 18.000 years, especially during last deglaciation. While major changes obviously occure nearly simultaneously, the timing of shorter events is clearly offset between the two regions. In addition, significant differences can be recorded for the development of the sedimentary terrigenous composition during the Late Holocene. While element ratios indicates increasing arid conditions in catchment area of the Niger since the end of the last African Humid Period at about 5.5 kyr ago, in consistency with other studies increasing humid conditions prevail in the Amazon Basin during the Holocene. This opposing climate development could be caused by the discussed E-W SST contrasts due to variations in the thermohaline circulation within the tropical Atlantic. However, in order to support our findings in marine sediments and because we know that the terrigenous fraction in marine sediments contains to a certain degree a filtered climatic information due to Land-ocean transport and depositinal processes, we try to verify information from the marine records by additional information from the adjacent region like on sea and lake level fluctuations.

Zabel, M.; Ettwein, V.; Maslin, M.; Schneider, R. R.

2003-04-01

35

Catchment modeling and model transferability in upper Blue Nile Basin, Lake Tana, Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding spatial and temporal distribution of water resources has an important role for water resource management. To understand water balance dynamics and runoff generation mechanisms at the Gilgel Abay catchment (a major tributary into lake Tana, source of Blue Nile, Ethiopia) and to evaluate model transferability, catchment modeling was conducted using the conceptual hydrological model HBV. The catchment of the Gigel Abay was sub-divided into two gauged sub-catchments (Upper Gilgel Abay, UGASC, and Koga, KSC) and one ungauged sub-catchment. Manual calibration of the daily models for three different catchment representations (CRs): (i) lumped, (ii) lumped with multiple vegetation zones, and (iii) semi-distributed with vegetations zone and elevation zones, showed good to satisfactory model performance (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency values, Reff>0.75 and >0.6, respectively, for UGASC and KSC). The change of the time step to fifteen and thirty days resulted in very good model performances in both sub-catchments (Reff>0.8). The model parameter transferability tests conducted on the daily models showed poor performance in both sub-catchments, whereas the fifteen and thirty days models yielded high Reff values using transferred parameter sets. This together with the sensitivity analysis carried out after Monte Carlo simulations (1 000 000 model runs) per CR explained the reason behind the difference in hydrologic behaviors of the two sub-catchments UGASC and KSC. The dissimilarity in response pattern of the sub-catchments was caused by the presence of dambos in KSC and differences in the topography between UGASC and KSC. Hence, transferring model parameters from the view of describing hydrological process was found to be not feasible for all models. On the other hand, from a water resources management perspective the results obtained by transferring parameters of the larger time step model were acceptable.

Gragne, A. S.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Mohammed, Y.; Kebede, S.

2008-03-01

36

Realism test of a topography driven conceptual model (FLEX-Topo) in nested catchments of the Heihe River Basins, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although elevation data are globally available and many models do take topographical information into account, here it is demonstrated that topography is still an under-exploiting source of information in hydrological models . Based on the recently proposed modelling approach (FLEX-Topo) a semi-distributed topographic driven conceptual model (FLEXT), has been developed and tested in two nested catchments of the Heihe river basin. The model uses four topographical properties (i.e. Height Above the Nearest Drainage (HAND), absolute elevation, slope and aspect) to make a hydrological landscape classification which correspond with the dominant rainfall-runoff processes of these landscapes, to which a conceptual model structure is attributed. To analyses the additional information provided by the landscape classification, the performance of the FLEXT model is compared to a completely lumped hydrological models (FLEXL) and a semi-distributed model (FLEXD). All models have been calibrated and validated at the catchment outlet. Additionally, the models were evaluated in two nested sub-catchments. FLEXT performs substantially better than the other two models especially in the two nested sub-catchments during validation. It is especially better equipped to represent rainfall-runoff events during the dry season, which supports the following hypotheses: (1) topography can be used to distinguish different landscape elements with different hydrological function; (2) the model structure of the FLEXT is much better equipped to represent hydrological signatures than a lumped or semi-distributed model, and hence has a more realistic model structure and parameterization. The hydrograph components of the calibration(a), split-sample validation(b) and nested sub-catchments validation(c,d), of the FLEXT model

Gao, H.; Savenije, H.; Hrachowitz, M.; Fenicia, F.; Gharari, S.

2013-12-01

37

Groundwater vulnerability assessment in Jaworzynka's Valley catchment basin (Tatra Mountains, Poland)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the research an attempt was made to assess an intrinsic groundwater vulnerability to contamination in Tatra Mountains (Poland. Assessment of the degree of hazard of permeating pollutions from land surface directly to the ground water table was the main target of the research. The Jaworzynka's Valley in West Tatra Mountains was chosen as the exact research area. Jaworzynka's Valley is a typical karst catchment basin. Location of study area wasn't accidental, because in the north part of the valley there is a well which is being used as drinking water intake for the whole Zakopane City. This is the reason, why the quality of ground water is so important. The method used in this research, entitled KARSTIC, wasn't applied in Poland before. This is a parametric method of groundwater vulnerability assessment. KARSTIC is a modification of much better known DRASTIC method, specialized for specific karst terrain. KARSTIC method created by A. Davis and others (1994), was used for the first time, during a research in the Black Hills Mountains, USA. Research in Jaworzynka's Valley was based on the Black Hills study. In order to apply this method in Tatra Mountains, it was necessary to make a few changes in relation to original area. Applying KARSTIC method consists of successive stages. Schematization of hydrogeological conditions is an inseparable part of KARSTIC method. The first step bases on collecting all of available data such as maps, databases and documentations. Next stage consists of classifying all parameters employed in this method and then assigning a ratings and weights for this parameters. Subsequently it is necessary to use a mathematical formula, named Pollution Potential Index, which presents a ground water vulnerability in each point. The final step is visualization on the ground water vulnerability map. The result of research displays the high vulnerability in close proximity of the drinking water intake. The most vulnerable areas in Jaworzynka's Valley are spring-beds, consequence of very intensive karst development. The rest of research terrain was classified as medium and low vulnerable. KARSTIC method didn't show caves in the valley as high vulnerable, which is certainly incorrect, proving the method to be insufficiently detailed in such cases. During the research, it turned out that using this method in highmountains terrains is not simple. Even a definition of aquifer in highmountains karst areas is difficult (aquifer is not continuous layer and also depth to water is frequently changing). Therefore author decided to continue research about ground water vulnerability assessment in Tatra Mountains, but in a much more detailed form.

Cypel, M.

2012-04-01

38

The Immatsiak network of groundwater wells in a small catchment basin in the discontinuous permafrost zone of Northern Quebec, Canada: A unique opportunity for monitoring the impacts of climate change on groundwater (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During a summer drilling campaign in 2012, a network of nine groundwater monitoring wells was installed in a small catchment basin in a zone of discontinuous permafrost near the Inuit community of Umiujaq in Northern Quebec, Canada. This network, named Immatsiak, is part of a provincial network of groundwater monitoring wells to monitor the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources. It provides a unique opportunity to study cold region groundwater dynamics in permafrost environments and to assess the impacts of permafrost degradation on groundwater quality and availability as a potential source of drinking water. Using the borehole logs from the drilling campaign and other information from previous investigations, an interpretative cryo-hydrogeological cross-section of the catchment basin was produced which identified the Quaternary deposit thickness and extent, the depth to bedrock, the location of permafrost, one superficial aquifer located in a sand deposit, and another deep aquifer in fluvio-glacial sediments and till. In the summer of 2013, data were recovered from water level and barometric loggers which were installed in the wells in August 2012. Although the wells were drilled in unfrozen zones, the groundwater temperature is very low, near 0.4 °C, with an annual variability of a few tenths of a degree Celsius at a depth of 35 m. The hydraulic head in the wells varied as much as 6 m over the last year. Pumping tests performed in the wells showed a very high hydraulic conductivity of the deep aquifer. Groundwater in the wells and surface water in small thermokarst lakes and at the catchment outlet were sampled for geochemical analysis (inorganic parameters, stable isotopes of oxygen (?18O) and hydrogen (?2H), and radioactive isotopes of carbon (?14C), hydrogen (tritium ?3H) and helium (?3He)) to assess groundwater quality and origin. Preliminary results show that the signature of melt water from permafrost thawing is observed in the geochemistry of groundwater and surface water at the catchment outlet. Following synthesis of the available information, including a cryo-hydrogeophysical investigation in progress, a three-dimensional hydrogeological conceptual and numerical model of the catchment basin will be developed. According to different scenarios of climate change, the potential of using groundwater as a sustainable resource in northern regions will be assessed by simulating the present and future impacts of climate change on this groundwater system.

Fortier, R.; Lemieux, J.; Molson, J. W.; Therrien, R.; Ouellet, M.; Bart, J.

2013-12-01

39

Monitoring of fluvial transport in small upland catchments – methods and preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In April 2011 a study was initiated, financed from resources of the Polish National Science Centre, entitled: ‘Rainstorm prediction and mathematic modelling of their environmental and social-economical effects’ (No. NN/306571640). The study, implemented by a Polish-American team, covers meteorological research, including: (1) monitoring of single cell storms developing in various synoptic situations, (2) detection of their movement courses, and (3) estimation of parameters of their rain field. Empirical studies, including hydrological and geomorphological measurements, are conducted in objects researched thoroughly in physiographic terms (experimental catchments) in the Lublin region (SE Poland), distinguished by high frequency of occurrence of the events described. For comparative purposes, studies are also carried out on selected model areas in the lower course of the Mississippi River valley (USA), in a region with high frequency of summer rainstorms. For detailed studies on sediment transport processes during rainstorm events, catchments of low hydrological rank and their sub-catchments in a cascade system were selected. For the basic, relatively uniform geomorpho logical units distinguished this way, erosion and deposition balance of material transported was determined. The aim of work was to determine influence of weather condition on fluvial transport rate in small catchment with low hydrological order

Janicki, Grzegorz; Rodzik, Jan; Chabudzi?ski, ?ukasz; Franczak, ?ukasz; Si?uch, Marcin; St?pniewski, Krzysztof; Dyer, Jamie L.; Ko?odziej, Grzegorz; Maciejewska, Ewa

2014-06-01

40

Groundwater storage change in the Ngadda Catchment of the Lake Chad Basin using GRACE and ground truth data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study is to analyze groundwater storage variations in the Ngadda Catchment located in the southwestern edge of Lake Chad Basin using Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data. We collected monthly total water storage data from GRACE and monthly soil moisture data from Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) for the period of 2005 - 2009 with the spatial resolution of 1 and 0.25 degrees. We assumed surface water contributions to be negligible in the study area. The estimated groundwater storage changes were compared to the ground truth groundwater depth data collected in 2005 and 2009. The challenge of the present study is sparseness of the ground truth data in space and time. The study area is one of the data poor regions in the world due to the limited accessibility to the area. Different geostatistical techniques such as Kriging, Thiessen polygons, and Bayesian updating were applied to overcome such sparseness and modeling uncertainty under different scales and resolution. The study shows a significant increase of groundwater storage in the Ngadda catchment during the study period. Uncertainty is significant though depending on the size of the model and modeling technique. The study discusses advantages of using remote sensing data in data poor regions and how geostatistical techniques can be applied to deal with modeling uncertainty.

Skaskevych, A.; Lee, J.

2013-12-01

41

River water quality of the River Cherwell: an agricultural clay-dominated catchment in the upper Thames Basin, southeastern England.  

PubMed

The water quality of the River Cherwell and a tributary of it, the Ray, are described in terms of point and diffuse sources of pollution, for this rural area of the upper Thames Basin. Point sources of pollution dominate at the critical ecological low flow periods of high biological activity. Although the surface geology is predominantly clay, base flow is partly supplied from springs in underlying carbonate-bearing strata, which influences the water quality particularly with regards to calcium and alkalinity. The hydrogeochemistry of the river is outlined and the overall importance of urban point sources even in what would normally be considered to be rural catchments is stressed in relation to the European Unions Water Framework Directive. Issues of phosphorus stripping at sewage treatment works are also considered: such stripping on the Cherwell has reduced phosphorus concentrations by about a factor of two, but this is insufficient for the needs of the Water Framework Directive. PMID:16253306

Neal, Colin; Neal, Margaret; Hill, Linda; Wickham, Heather

2006-05-01

42

Environmental isotopic and hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater from the Sandspruit Catchment, Berg River Basin, South Africa.  

PubMed

The Sandspruit catchment (a tributary of the Berg River) represents a drainage system, whereby saline groundwater with total dissolved solids (TDS) up to 10,870 mg/l, and electrical conductivity (EC) up to 2,140 mS/m has been documented. The catchment belongs to the winter rainfall region with precipitation seldom exceeding 400 mm/yr, as such, groundwater recharge occurs predominantly from May to August. Recharge estimation using the catchment water-balance method, chloride mass balance method, and qualified guesses produced recharge rates between 8 and 70 mm/yr. To understand the origin, occurrence and dynamics of the saline groundwater, a coupled analysis of major ion hydrochemistry and environmental isotopes (?(18)O, ?(2)H and (3)H) data supported by conventional hydrogeological information has been undertaken. These spatial and multi-temporal hydrochemical and environmental isotope data provided insight into the origin, mechanisms and spatial evolution of the groundwater salinity. These data also illustrate that the saline groundwater within the catchment can be attributed to the combined effects of evaporation, salt dissolution, and groundwater mixing. The salinity of the groundwater tends to vary seasonally and evolves in the direction of groundwater flow. The stable isotope signatures further indicate two possible mechanisms of recharge; namely, (1) a slow diffuse type modern recharge through a relatively low permeability material as explained by heavy isotope signal and (2) a relatively quick recharge prior to evaporation from a distant high altitude source as explained by the relatively depleted isotopic signal and sub-modern to old tritium values. PMID:24552734

Naicker, S; Demlie, M

2014-01-01

43

Sediment budget for five millennia of tillage in the Rockenberg catchment (Wetterau loess basin, Germany)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-cultivated loess landscapes of central Europe provide the opportunity to explore the long-term perspective on the evolution human-natural sediment systems that are driven by human-caused soil erosion processes. A balance of spatially non-uniform sediment production, sedimentation and delivery was developed to highlight the quantitative dimensions and functioning of anthropogenic sediment redistribution in an undulating loess catchment of temperate Europe. The presented long-term perspective relies on analysing pedostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic field data from 728 corings across ˜10-km2, GIS-based data processing, and the analysis of data uncertainty. For a period of 5000 years of tillage, anthropogenic sediment production equals ˜9425 t ha-1, of which 62% still reside as colluvial sediment on the catchment's hillsides. The valley floors fulfil a sediment-conveyor function through transporting 77% of the sediment received from the hillsides. Whole-catchment yield to the contiguous higher-order valley is 29% of the amount of anthropogenic sediment production. The average catchment-scale depth of soil truncation is 0.64 m while the remaining anthropogenic sediment cover has an average thickness of 0.46 m (effective surface denudation: ˜0.18 m). The long-term integral net erosion rate is ˜0.5 t ha-1 a-1 because of extensive sediment retention on hillsides. The inherited human imprint on the soilscape, eventually, can be judged as beneficial rather than detrimental: the ubiquitous cover of humic colluvia generally is more suitable for intense cultivation than pristine pedostratigraphies. The sediment budget, although build from a historic perspective, also provides a plausible reference for realistic objectives of managing the soil erosion problem in human-natural sediment systems.

Houben, Peter

2012-10-01

44

Nitrogen Removal in Valley Bottom Wetlands: Assessment in Headwater Catchments Distributed throughout a Large Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the reduction of nutrient loading between uplands and streams is sometimes considered evidence of the effect of wetlands act- ing as buffer zones, the influence of valley bottom wetlands (VBWs) on NO3 2 loading has seldom been assessed at the catchment scale.The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of VBWs on NO3 2 concentrationsinstreamsintheBrittanyregionofFrance.Weanalyzed the spatial

Olivier Montreuil; Philippe Merot

2006-01-01

45

Properties and development of channel calcretes in a mountain catchment, Tabernas Basin, southeast Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonpedogenic channel calcretes of up to 3.5 m thick occur in a number of locations across the Tabernas Basin in Almer??a Province, southeast Spain. They represent the last major phase of late Quaternary calcium carbonate cementation to affect this semiarid drainage basin. Channel calcretes are situated within the basal parts of sequences of Results indicate that all channel calcretes are

David J. Nash; Roger F. Smith

2003-01-01

46

Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Average Atmospheric (Wet) Deposition of Inorganic Nitrogen, 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This tabular data set represents the average atmospheric (wet) deposition, in kilograms per square kilometer, of inorganic nitrogen for the year 2002 compiled for every catchment for MRB_E2RF1 of Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data set for wet deposition was from the USGS's raster data set atmospheric (wet) deposition of inorganic nitrogen for 2002 (Gronberg, 2005). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every catchment of MRB_E2RF1 catchments for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

2010-01-01

47

Isotope methods as a tool to characterize nitrate origin and transport in Kocinka catchment (central Poland): preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kocinka catchment with 258 km2 of surface area is one of the Soils2Sea project (BONUS programme) case studies. One of the main scientific objectives of this project is to analyze how changes in land use and climate may affect the nutrient load to the Baltic Sea. Hydrogeological conditions in the Kocinka catchment are determined by Quaternary glacial till and glacifluvial sands and gravels underlain by karstic-fractured limestones which compose the Upper Jurassic Major Groundwater Basin (MGWB 326), one of four most important groundwater reservoirs in Poland. Pollution with nitrates is the most important threat to groundwater quality in this groundwater body. The concentration of nitrate in some wells, in the southern part of Kocinka catchment where outcrops of Jurassic limestones occur, exceeds the maximum permissible level of 50 mgNO3/L and constantly increases. A prerequisite for measures to reduce NO3 loads to the groundwater body is identification of sources of nitrate pollution. The working hypothesis links the high nitrate concentrations with the leaking sewage system in Czestochowa city and its surroundings but agricultural sources cannot be excluded as 66% of Kocinka catchment area is used agriculturally. A dedicated study employing environmental tracers was launched with the main aim of quantifying the pathways and dynamic of groundwater flow in the aquifer. Tritium was found throughout the system but its concentrations vary considerably. Decrease of tritium contents with depth in the aquifer was observed in one of wells. This points to active recharge and characteristic time scales of groundwater flow in order of years to several decades. To identify the origin of nitrate pollution nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of dissolved nitrate was analyzed in a number of wells with high nitrate concentrations. The isotopic composition of dissolved nitrates does not confirm the hypothesis on the decisive role of urban sewage in nitrate pollution. The isotope date point to agriculture as the main source of NO3. The isotopic data provided no evidences for natural denitrification in the aquifer. However, only water samples with considerable amounts of nitrates were analyzed for 15N and 18O. On the other hand, low NO3 concentrations in the deeper part of aquifer can be due to denitrification or long residence time of this water. Acknowledgements. The work was carried out as part of the project Soils2Sea in BONUS programme and the statutory funds of the AGH University of Science and Technology (project No.11.11.140.026 and 11.11.220.01).

Zurek, Anna; Wachniew, Przemyslaw; Witczak, Stanislaw; Rozanski, Kazimierz; Kania, Jaroslaw

2014-05-01

48

Analysis of catchment behavior using residence time distributions with application to the Thuringian Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Residence time distribution (RTD), as presented e.g. by Botter et al., are a novel mathematical framework for a quantitative characterization of hydrological systems. These distributions contain information about water storage, flow pathways and water sources and therefore improve the classical hydrograph methods by allowing both nonlinear as well as time-dependent dynamics. In our study we extend this previous works by applying this theoretical framework on real-world heterogeneous catchments. To that end we use a catchment-scale hydrological model (mHM) and apply the approach of Botter et al. to each spatial grid cell of mHM. To facilitate the coupling we amended Botter's approach by introducing additional fluxes (like runoff from unsaturated zone) and specifying the structure of the groundwater zone. By virtue of this coupling we could then make use of the realistic hydrological fluxes and state variables as provided by mHM. This allowed us to use both observed (precipitation, temperature, soil type etc.) and modeled data sets and asses their impact on the behavior of the resulting RTD's. We extended the aforementioned framework to analyze large catchments by including geomorphic effect due to the actual arrangement of subcatchments around the channel network using the flood routing algorithm of mHM. Additionally we study dependencies of the stochastic characteristics of RTD's on the meteorological and hydrological processes as well as on the morphological structure of the catchment. As a result we gained mean residence times (MRT) of base flow and groundwater flow on the mesoscale (4km x 4km). We compare the spatial distribution of MRT's with land cover and soil moisture maps as well as driving forces like precipitation and temperature. Results showed that land cover is a major predictor for MRT's whereas its impact on the mean evapotranspiration time was much lower. Additionally we determined the temporal evolution of mean travel times by using time series of all relevant hydrological processes (observed as well as modeled by mHM) from 1960-2010. Our analysis revealed the strong regularity of the catchment dynamics over long time periods. The strong seasonal changes of MRT's, usually modeled by sine-wave approach, could be approximated by sawtooth-wave model. Our future work will be focused on comparing of our numerical results with realistic data from tracer experiments and isotope measurements.

Prykhodko, Vladyslav; Heße, Falk; Kumar, Rohini; Samaniego, Luis; Attinger, Sabine

2014-05-01

49

Simulating wind-affected snow accumulations at catchment to basin scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In non-forested mountain regions, wind plays a dominant role in determining snow accumulation and melt patterns. A new, computationally efficient algorithm for distributing the complex and heterogeneous effects of wind on snow distributions was developed. The distribution algorithm uses terrain structure, vegetation, and wind data to adjust commonly available precipitation data to simulate wind-affected accumulations. This research describes model development and application in three research catchments in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in southwest Idaho, USA. All three catchments feature highly variable snow distributions driven by wind. The algorithm was used to derive model forcings for Isnobal, a mass and energy balance distributed snow model. Development and initial testing took place in the Reynolds Mountain East catchment (0.36 km2) where R2 values for the wind-affected snow distributions ranged from 0.50 to 0.67 for four observation periods spanning two years. At the Upper Sheep Creek catchment (0.26 km2) R2 values for the wind-affected model were 0.66 and 0.70. These R2 values matched or exceeded previously published cross-validation results from regression-based statistical analyses of snow distributions in similar environments. In both catchments the wind-affected model accurately located large drift zones, snow-scoured slopes, and produced melt patterns consistent with observed streamflow. Models that did not account for wind effects produced relatively homogenous SWE distributions, R2 values approaching 0.0, and melt patterns inconsistent with observed streamflow. The Dobson Creek (14.0 km2) application incorporated elevation effects into the distribution routine and was conducted over a two-dimensional grid of 6.67 × 105 pixels. Comparisons with satellite-derived snow-covered-area again demonstrated that the model did an excellent job locating regions with wind-affected snow accumulations. This final application demonstrated that the computational efficiency and modest data requirements of this approach are ideally suited for large-scale operational applications.

Winstral, Adam; Marks, Danny; Gurney, Robert

2013-05-01

50

Evaluation and inter-comparison of Global Climate Models’ performance over Katonga and Ruizi catchments in Lake Victoria basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional impact assessments of climate change on hydrological extremes require robust examinations of climate model simulations. The climate models may satisfy mean statistics but fail to reproduce extreme quantiles which are crucial for applications of climate change impact analysis on water resources. Through statistical analysis, this paper evaluates and inter-compares the performance of Global Climate Model (GCM) simulations for their ability to predict changes in hydrological extremes for given locations or catchments in the Nile basin. Two catchments were considered: Katonga and Ruizi catchments in the Lake Victoria basin. Models that differ significantly from the observed extremes were considered unreliable for impact assessments on hydrological extremes. A graphical approach (rainfall quantile/frequency analysis), which allows for easy spotting of discordant models, in combination with several statistics, was used to evaluate 18 GCM control simulations against observed rainfall data. Standard deviation, coefficient of variation and root mean squared error (about the mean) of the observed rainfall, were used to derive error margins against which GCM simulations were evaluated. Model results outside the error margins were considered inconsistent with the observed rainfall. Model inter-comparison was also carried out for the rainfall change projections till the 2050s and 2090s through analysis of perturbations and percentage changes based on A1B, A2, and B1 SRES scenarios. It is noted that the GCM outputs are more consistent in reproducing rainfall signatures at annual aggregation level than at monthly aggregation levels with tendency of overestimation of the rainfall depths but with significant variation among different GCM simulations. The GCMs perform better in reproducing rainfall frequency with higher return periods compared with lower return periods. Most of the GCMs perform better for the wet months than the drier months. The GCMs CGCM3.2a, CM3.O, CM4.1, PCM1, CGCM3.1T47, MIROC3.2.HIRES, CCSM3.0 and FGOALS, are the most inconsistent with the observed rainfall for both catchments. Good performing models are MK3.5, MK3.0, ECHAM5, CM2.1U.H2 and CM2.0. In general, most GCMs perform poorly for both catchments. This signals the need for significant improvements in the rainfall modelling of the climate models for the study region. There is no strong evidence to suggest that GCM performance improves with higher spatial resolution. Models which are highly inconsistent with other models in reproducing the observed rainfall are not necessarily inconsistent with other models in the future projections. Differences in projections for the A1B, B2, and B1 scenarios were found to be smaller than the differences between the GCM simulations.

Nyeko-Ogiramoi, P.; Ngirane-Katashaya, G.; Willems, P.; Ntegeka, V.

51

Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Basin Characteristics, 2002 Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: tabular digital data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This tabular data set represents basin characteristics for the year 2002 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). These characteristics are reach catchment shape index, stream density, sinuosity, mean elevation, mean slope and number of road-stream crossings. The source data sets are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) RF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011) and the U.S. Census Bureau's TIGER/Line Files (U.S. Census Bureau,2006). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

2010-01-01

52

Landslide hazard and risk mapping at catchment scale in the Arno River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the methodologies adopted and the outcomes obtained in the analysis of landslide risk in the basin of the Arno\\u000a River (Central Italy) in the framework of a project sponsored by the Basin Authority of the Arno River, started in the year\\u000a 2002 and completed at the beginning of 2005. In particular, a complete set of methods and applications

F. Catani; N. Casagli; L. Ermini; G. Righini; G. Menduni

2005-01-01

53

Preliminary Simulations of CO2 Transport in the Dolostone Formations in the Ordos Basin, China.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes preliminary 2-D reactive-transport simulations on the injection, storage and transport of supercritical CO2 in dolostone formations in the Ordos Basin in China. The purpose of the simulations was to evaluate the role that basin hete...

S. Carroll T. Wolery Y. Hao

2009-01-01

54

Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Average Saturation Excess-Overland Flow, 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This tabular data set represents the average value of saturation overland flow, in percent of total streamflow, compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data set is Saturation Overland Flow Estimated by TOPMODEL for the Conterminous United States (Wolock, 2003). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

2010-01-01

55

Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Normalized Atmospheric Deposition for 2002, Nitrate (NO3)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This tabular data set represents the average normalized (wet) deposition, in kilograms per square kilometer multiplied by 100, of Nitrate (NO3) for the year 2002 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of the Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). Estimates of NO3 deposition are based on National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) measurements (B. Larsen, U.S. Geological Survey, written. commun., 2007). De-trending methods applied to the year 2002 are described in Alexander and others, 2001. NADP site selection met the following criteria: stations must have records from 1995 to 2002 and have a minimum of 30 observations. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

2010-01-01

56

Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Normalized Atmospheric Deposition for 2002, Total Inorganic Nitrogen  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This tabular data set represents the average normalized atmospheric (wet) deposition, in kilograms per square kilometer multiplied by 100, of Total Inorganic Nitrogen for the year 2002 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). Estimates of Total Inorganic Nitrogen deposition are based on National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) measurements (B. Larsen, U.S. Geological Survey, written. commun., 2007). De-trending methods applied to the year 2002 are described in Alexander and others, 2001. NADP site selection met the following criteria: stations must have records from 1995 to 2002 and have a minimum of 30 observations. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

2010-01-01

57

Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments in Selected Major River Basins of the Conterminous United States: Contact Time, 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This tabular data set represents the average contact time, in units of days, compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). Contact time, as described in Vitvar and others (2002), is defined as the baseflow residence time in the subsurface. The source data set was the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) 1-kilometer grid for the conterminous United States (D.M. Wolock, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2008). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) RF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

2010-01-01

58

Seismic Response of a Sedimentary Basin: Preliminary Results from Strong Motion Downhole Array in Taipei Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Strong Motion Downhole Array (SMDA) is an array of 32 triggered strong motion broadband seismometers located at eight sites in Taipei Basin. Each site features three to five co-located three-component accelerometers--one at the surface and an additional two to four each down independent boreholes. Located in the center of Taipei Basin is Taipei City and the Taipei metropolitan area, the capital of Taiwan and home to more than 7 million residents. Taipei Basin is in a major seismic hazard area and is prone to frequent large earthquakes producing strong ground motion. This unique three-dimension seismic array presents new frontiers for seismic research in Taiwan and, along with it, new challenges. Frequency-dependent and site-specific amplification of seismic waves from depth to surface has been observed: preliminary results indicate that the top few tens of meters of sediment--not the entire thickness--are responsible for significant frequency-dependent amplification; amplitudes of seismic waves at the surface may be as much as seven times that at depth. Dominant amplification frequencies are interpreted as quarter-wavelength constructive interference between the surface and major interfaces in the sediments. Using surface stations with known orientation as a reference, borehole seismometer orientations in these data--which are unknown, and some of which vary considerably from event to event--have been determined using several methods. After low-pass filtering the strong motion data, iteratively rotating the two horizontal components from an individual borehole station and cross-correlating them with that from a co-located surface station has proven to be very effective. In cases where the iterative cross-correlation method does not provide a good fit, rotating both surface and borehole stations to a common axis of maximum seismic energy provides an alternative approach. The orientation-offset of a borehole station relative to the surface station may be estimated by iteratively rotating the horizontal components of both and calculating the time-integral of the amplitude squared of each component; the difference in orientation between the maximum at the surface and at depth indicates the difference in orientation of the seismometers. After the horizontal orientations of borehole seismometers are correctly resolved, these data can be used in various scientific studies. Up-going and reflected down-going shear waves can be clearly identified, providing an excellent dataset for the study of interval velocity and seismic Q, localized shear wave splitting, and anisotropy. Further refinement of the geophysical structure of Taipei Basin and Northern Taiwan is also possible by combining data from the SMDA with that from the large array of surface stations maintained by the Central Weather Bureau.

Young, B.; Chen, K.; Chiu, J.

2013-12-01

59

Estimation of the Relative Severity of Floods in Small Ungauged Catchments for Preliminary Observations on Flash Flood Preparedness: A Case Study in Korea  

PubMed Central

An increase in the occurrence of sudden local flooding of great volume and short duration has caused significant danger and loss of life and property in Korea as well as many other parts of the World. Since such floods usually accompanied by rapid runoff and debris flow rise quite quickly with little or no advance warning to prevent flood damage, this study presents a new flash flood indexing methodology to promptly provide preliminary observations regarding emergency preparedness and response to flash flood disasters in small ungauged catchments. Flood runoff hydrographs are generated from a rainfall-runoff model for the annual maximum rainfall series of long-term observed data in the two selected small ungauged catchments. The relative flood severity factors quantifying characteristics of flood runoff hydrographs are standardized by the highest recorded maximum value, and then averaged to obtain the flash flood index only for flash flood events in each study catchment. It is expected that the regression equations between the proposed flash flood index and rainfall characteristics can provide the basis database of the preliminary information for forecasting the local flood severity in order to facilitate flash flood preparedness in small ungauged catchments.

Kim, Eung Seok; Choi, Hyun Il

2012-01-01

60

Bromine species fluxes from Lake Constance’s catchment, and a preliminary lake mass balance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bromine was historically termed a cyclic salt in terrestrial freshwater environments due to its perceived conservative cycling between the oceans and the continents. This basic assumption has been challenged recently, with evidence that bromine is involved in dynamic chemical cycles in soils and freshwaters. We present here a study on dissolved bromine species (bromide, organically bound bromine, DOBr) concentrations and fluxes as well as sediment trap bromine levels and fluxes in Lake Constance, a large lake in southern Germany. Water samples were obtained from all major and some minor inflows and outflows over one year, where-after dissolved bromine species were measured by a combination of ICP-MS and ion chromatography coupled to an ICP-MS (IC-ICP-MS). Sediment traps were deployed at two locations for two years with Br, Ti and Zr levels being measured by ?-XRF. 190 t yr -1 of total dissolved bromine (TDBr) was delivered to the lake via 14 rivers and precipitation, with the rivers Alpenrhein (84 t TDBr yr -1) and the Schussen (50 t TDBr yr -1) providing the largest sources. The estimated particulate bromine flux contributed an extra 24-26 t Br yr -1. In comparison, only 40 t TDBr yr -1 was deposited to the lake's catchment by precipitation, and thus ˜80% of the riverine TDBr flux came from soils and rocks. Bromide was the dominant species accounting for, on average, 78% of TDBr concentrations and 93% of TDBr flux to the lake. Despite some high concentrations in the smaller lowland rivers, DOBr was only a minor component of the total riverine bromine flux (˜12 t yr -1, 7%), most of which came from the rivers Schussen, Bregenzer Ach and Argen. In contrast, most of the bromine in the sediment traps was bound to organic matter, and showed a clear seasonal pattern in concentrations, with a maximum in winter and minimum in summer. The summer minimum is thought to be due to dilution of a high Br autochthonous component by low bromine mineral and organic material from the catchment, which is supported by Ti, Zr and Br/C org data. In the lake bromine was irreversibly lost to the sediments, with best flux estimates based on mass-balance and sediment trap data of +50-90 ?g Br m -2 d -1. Overall, it appears that bromine is not simply a cyclic salt in the case of Lake Constance, with a clear geological component and dynamic lacustrine biogeochemistry.

Gilfedder, B. S.; Petri, M.; Wessels, M.; Biester, H.

2011-06-01

61

Major ion chemistry, weathering processes and water quality assessment in upper catchment of Damodar River basin, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical characteristics of surface, groundwater and mine water of the upper catchment of the Damodar River basin were studied to evaluate the major ion chemistry, geochemical processes controlling water composition and suitability of water for domestic, industrial and irrigation uses. Water samples from ponds, lakes, rivers, reservoirs and groundwater were collected and analysed for pH, EC, TDS, F, Cl, HCO3, SO4, NO3, Ca, Mg, Na and K. In general, Ca, Na, Mg, HCO3 and Cl dominate, except in samples from mining areas which have higher concentration of SO4. Water chemistry of the area reflects continental weathering, aided by mining and other anthropogenic impacts. Limiting groundwater use for domestic purposes are contents of TDS, F, Cl, SO4, NO3 and TH that exceed the desirable limits in water collected from mining and urban areas. The calculated values of SAR, RSC and %Na indicate good to permissible use of water for irrigation. High salinity, %Na, Mg-hazard and RSC values at some sites limit use for agricultural purposes.

Singh, Abhay Kumar; Mondal, G. C.; Kumar, Suresh; Singh, T. B.; Tewary, B. K.; Sinha, A.

2008-04-01

62

Preliminary catalog of the sedimentary basins of the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

One hundred forty-four sedimentary basins (or groups of basins) in the United States (both onshore and offshore) are identified, located, and briefly described as part of a Geographic Information System (GIS) data base in support of the Geologic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration National Assessment Project (Brennan and others, 2010). This catalog of basins is designed to provide a check list and basic geologic framework for compiling more detailed geologic and reservoir engineering data for this project and other future investigations.

Coleman, James L., Jr.; Cahan, Steven M.

2012-01-01

63

Quantitative catchment profiling to apportion faecal indicator organism budgets for the Ribble system, the UK's sentinel drainage basin for Water Framework Directive research.  

PubMed

Under the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) 20/60/EC and the US Federal Water Pollution Control Act 2002 management of water quality within river drainage basins has shifted from traditional point-source control to a holistic approach whereby the overall contribution of point and diffuse sources of pollutants has to be considered. Consequently, there is a requirement to undertake source-apportionment studies of pollutant fluxes within catchments. The inclusion of the Bathing Water Directive (BWD), under the list of 'protected areas' in the WFD places a requirement to control sources of faecal indicator organisms within catchments in order to achieve the objectives of both the BWD (and its revision - 2006/7/EC) and the WFD. This study was therefore initiated to quantify catchment-derived fluxes of faecal indicator compliance parameters originating from both point and diffuse sources. The Ribble drainage basin is the single UK sentinel WFD research catchment and discharges to the south of the Fylde coast, which includes a number of high profile, historically non-compliant, bathing waters. Faecal indicator concentrations (faecal coliform concentrations are reported herein) were measured at 41 riverine locations, the 15 largest wastewater treatment works (WwTWs) and 15 combined sewer overflows (CSOs) across the Ribble basin over a 44-day period during the 2002 bathing season. The sampling programme included targeting rainfall-induced high flow events and sample results were categorised as either base flow or high flow. At the riverine sites, geometric mean faecal coliform concentrations showed statistically significant elevation at high flow compared to base flow. The resultant faecal coliform flux estimates revealed that over 90% of the total organism load to the Ribble Estuary was discharged by sewage related sources during high flow events. These sewage sources were largely related to the urban areas to the south and east of the Ribble basin, with over half the load associated with the relatively small subcatchment of the River Douglas. The majority of this load was attributed to two WwTWs that discharge through a common outfall close to the tidal limit of this catchment. Budgets adjusted to accommodate the impact of proposed UV disinfection of these effluents showed that the load from these sources would be reduced significantly during base flow conditions. However, during high flow events loads would still remain high due to the operation of storm sewage overflows from stormwater retention tanks. The study identified untreated storm sewage spills from urban infrastructure and WwTW stormwater retention tanks as the dominant component of the high flow flux of faecal indicators to receiving waters of the Fylde coast and the associated bathing waters. PMID:18082929

Stapleton, C M; Wyer, M D; Crowther, J; McDonald, A T; Kay, D; Greaves, J; Wither, A; Watkins, J; Francis, C; Humphrey, N; Bradford, M

2008-06-01

64

Integrating dynamic ecohydrological relations with the catchment response: A multi-scale hydrological modeling effort in a monsoonal regime basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal vegetation changes highly affect the energy and hydrologic fluxes in semiarid regions around the world. Accounting for different water use strategies among drought-deciduous ecosystems is important for understanding how these exploit the temporally brief and localized rainfall pulses of the North American Monsoon (NAM). Furthermore, quantifying these plant-water relations can help elucidate the spatial patterns of ecohydrological processes at catchment scale in the NAM region. In this effort, we focus on the San Miguel river basin (~ 3500 km2) in Sonora, Mexico, which exhibits seasonal vegetation greening that varies across ecosystems organized along mountain fronts. To assess the spatial variability of ecohydrological conditions, we relied on diverse tools that included multi-temporal remote sensing observations, model-based meteorological forcing, ground-based water and energy flux measurements and hydrologic simulations carried out at multiple scales. We evaluated the impact of seasonal vegetation dynamics on evapotranspiration (ET), its partitioning into soil evaporation (E) and plant transpiration (T), as well as their spatiotemporal patterns over the course of the NAM season. We utilized ground observations of soil moisture and evapotranspiration estimated by the eddy covariance method at two sites, as well as inferences of ET partitioning from stable isotope measurements, to test the numerical simulations. We found that ecosystem phenological differences lead to variations in the time to peak in transpiration during a season and in the overall seasonal ratio of transpiration to evapotranspiration (T/ET). A sensitivity analysis of the numerical simulations revealed that vegetation cover and the soil moisure threshold at which stomata close exert strong controls on the seasonal dominance of transpiration or evaporation. The dynamics of ET and its partitioning are then mapped spatially revealing that mountain front ecosystems utilize water differently. The results of this study aid in understanding how variations in water use and phenological strategies affect how soil water is returned to the atmosphere with implications on the watershed runoff response.

Mendez-Barroso, L. A.; Vivoni, E.; Robles-Morua, A.; Yepez, E. A.; Rodriguez, J. C.; Watts, C.; Saiz-Hernandez, J.

2013-05-01

65

Lacustrine groundwater discharge (LGD) to a closed- basin lake - a concept for estimating the effects of a changing catchment on the lake water balance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the water balance of closed-basin lakes, which are common in young glacial landscapes of the North German Plains, groundwater is an important term beside precipitation and evaporation. A quantification of groundwater impacts on the lake water balance is still a challenge although there is a broad spectrum of methods from point measurements over integrative methods to numerical modelling approaches. All modelling approaches rely on a fixed lake catchment. This might be an adequate assumption for steady state estimations and catchments in hilly and mountainous landscapes but it is not for the long run in flat terrain such as the North German Plains. Of course, the calculation of the temporal development of a water balance requires the availability of time series of groundwater levels and lake water stages. Such hydraulic data set covering more than 50 years with a monthly resolution is available for the Lake Stechlin area. A former study already pointed out that the lake catchment differs between wet an dry years, but in that study no estimation of the water balance was conducted. We present a three dimensional conceptual model, which is based on the time series of the hydraulic data, additional geological and geomorphological information as well as estimations of spatial and temporal groundwater recharge rates within the area. At first, a geological model is established on the basis of about 50 drill logs. Based on hydraulic head data the temporal development of the catchment size is determined and the maximum and minimum area for groundwater exfiltration into the lake and surface water infiltration into the aquifer are derived. In the end, the annual varying catchment size is combined to the annual varying groundwater recharge to get an annual "steady state" estimation of the lake water balance. This model is the basis for further numerical modelling.

Pöschke, Franziska; Lewandowski, Jörg; Nützmann, Gunnar

2014-05-01

66

Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: NLCD 2001 Tree Canopy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This tabular data set represents the mean percent tree canopy from the Canopy Layer of the National Land Cover Dataset 2001 (LaMotte and Wieczorek, 2010), compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data set represents tree canopy percentage for the conterminous United States for 2001. The Canopy Layer of the National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte; Andrew E.

2010-01-01

67

Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: NLCD 2001 Imperviousness  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This tabular data set represents the mean percent impervious surface from the Imperviousness Layer of the National Land Cover Dataset 2001, (LaMotte and Wieczorek, 2010), compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data set represents imperviousness for the conterminous United States for 2001. The Imperviousness Layer of the National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002;Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

2010-01-01

68

Snow Accumulation and Spring Melt Rates of Bogs and Fens in the North Granny Creek Catchment Basin, Hudson Bay Lowlands, Ontario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hudson Bay Lowlands contain one of the most extensive, contiguous peatland complexes in the world. Interlinked patterned peatlands developed in this region because of the cool climate, low-gradient topography and an underlying layer of low conductivity marine sediments. There is currently little research regarding the mechanisms that control runoff and surface water connectivity in this region, especially the functions of different peatland types on runoff production and flow pathways. Runoff generation in these systems is dependent on several factors such as soil and pool storage capacity, snow accumulation and melt rates, and peatland morphometry. Snowmelt accounts for a major portion of total annual runoff in this region and the timing of the melt will determine effective runoff production from a peatland catchment. One of the objectives of this project is to identify the processes and mechanisms that generate spring snowmelt runoff in different peatland types (i.e. bogs and fens) and quantify the relative contribution of each type in a peatland-dominated catchment basin. This research is being conducted in a 30 km2 catchment basin located near the DeBeers Victor diamond mine, located 90 km west of Attawapiskat, Ontario. The North Granny Creek basin is located approximately 3 km from the mine pit and is comprised of several peatland types and forms. The surface hydrology of this area is expected to be affected by groundwater depressurization due to dewatering of the mine pit by deep groundwater pumping wells. Effects of this activity on surface hydrology could possibly include increased soil storage capacity due to drier conditions and decreased melt rates due to reduced inputs of warm groundwater. Surface water connectivity is usually at a maximum in the spring because of a relatively impermeable frost table and low soil storage capacity which reduces infiltration. These effects of melt will not be observed uniformly over the entire catchment because of the differing hydrological properties of peatland types. Fens are expected to experience melt quicker than bogs and will receive and convey most of the runoff waters. Snow survey data from the springs of 2008 and 2009 coupled with stream discharge measurements will be used to determine the characteristics of different peatland types that control snow accumulation, melt rates and runoff production and their respective contributions. Since it is expected that the surface hydrology of this area will change over time because of groundwater depressurization it is important to develop a base line characterization of runoff generation and flowpaths within and between peatland types. An examination of snow accumulation and melt characteristics is necessary in northern peatland complexes to fully understand the response of these environments to changes in hydrology.

Cook, C. F.; Price, J. S.

2009-05-01

69

Effects of Catchment and Riparian Landscape Setting on Water Chemistry and Seasonal Evolution of Water Quality in the Upper Han River Basin, China  

PubMed Central

Six-year (2005–2010) evolution of water chemistry (Cl?, NO3?, SO42?, HCO3?, Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) and their interactions with morphological properties (i.e., slope and area), land cover, and hydrological seasonality were examined to identify controlling factors and processes governing patterns of stream water quality in the upper Han River, China. Correlation analysis and stepwise multiple regression models revealed significant correlations between ions (i.e., Cl?, SO42?, Na+ and K+) and land cover (i.e., vegetation and bare land) over the entire catchment in both high- and low-flow periods, and in the buffer zone the correlation was much more stronger in the low-flow period. Catchment with steeper slope (>15°) was negatively correlated with major ions, largely due to multicollinearity of basin characteristics. Land cover within the buffer zone explained slightly less of major elements than at catchment scale in the rainy season, whereas in the dry season, land cover along the river networks in particular this within 100 m riparian zone much better explained major elements rather than this over the entire catchment. Anthropogenic land uses (i.e., urban and agriculture) however could not explain water chemical variables, albeit EC, TDS, anthropogenic markers (Cl?, NO3?, SO42), Na+, K+ and Ca2+ significantly increased during 2005–2010, which was corroborated by principal component analyses (PCA) that indicated anthropogenic inputs. Observations demonstrated much higher solute concentrations in the industrial-polluted river. Our results suggested that seasonal evolution of water quality in combined with spatial analysis at multiple scales should be a vital part of identifying the controls on spatio-temporal patterns of water quality.

Li, Siyue; Xia, Xiaoling; Tan, Xiang; Zhang, Quanfa

2013-01-01

70

Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: NLCD 2001 Land Use and Land Cover  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This tabular data set represents the estimated area of land use and land cover from the National Land Cover Dataset 2001 (LaMotte, 2008), compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of the Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data set represents land use and land cover for the conterminous United States for 2001. The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5) and the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins.

Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

2010-01-01

71

Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Artificial Drainage (1992) and Irrigation (1997)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This tabular data set represents the estimated area of artifical drainage for the year 1992 and irrigation types for the year 1997 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data sets were derived from tabular National Resource Inventory (NRI) data sets created by the National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1995, 2000). Artificial drainage is defined as subsurface drains and ditches. Irrigation types are defined as gravity and pressure. Subsurface drains are described as conduits, such as corrugated plastic tubing, tile, or pipe, installed beneath the ground surface to collect and/or convey drainage. Surface drainage field ditches are described as graded ditches for collecting excess water. Gravity irrigation source is described as irrigation delivered to the farm and/or field by canals or pipelines open to the atmosphere; and water is distributed by the force of gravity down the field by: (1) A surface irrigation system (border, basin, furrow, corrugation, wild flooding, etc.) or (2) Sub-surface irrigation pipelines or ditches. Pressure irrigation source is described as irrigation delivered to the farm and/or field in pump or elevation-induced pressure pipelines, and water is distributed across the field by: (1) Sprinkle irrigation (center pivot, linear move, traveling gun, side roll, hand move, big gun, or fixed set sprinklers), or (2) Micro irrigation (drip emitters, continuous tube bubblers, micro spray or micro sprinklers). NRI data do not include Federal lands and are thus excluded from this dataset. The tabular data for drainage were spatially apportioned to the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD, Kerie Hitt, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2005) and the tabular data for irrigation were spatially apportioned to an enhanced version of the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCDe, Nakagaki and others, 2007). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

2010-01-01

72

Baseflow and stormflow metal fluxes from two small agricultural catchments in the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay Basin, United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Annual yields (fluxes per unit area) of Al, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Co, As and Se were estimated for two small non-tidal stream catchments on the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay, United States - a poorly drained dissected-upland watershed in the Nanticoke River Basin, and a well-drained feeder tributary in the lower reaches of the Chester River Basin. Both watersheds are dominated by agriculture. A hydrograph-separation technique was used to determine the baseflow and stormflow components of metal yields, thus providing important insights into the effects of hydrology and climate on the transport of metals. Concentrations of suspended-sediment were used as a less-costly proxy of metal concentrations which are generally associated with particles. Results were compared to other studies in Chesapeake Bay and to general trends in metal concentrations across the United States. The study documented a larger than background yield of Zn and Co from the upper Nanticoke River Basin and possibly enriched concentrations of As, Cd and Se from both the upper Nanticoke River and the Chesterville Branch (a tributary of the lower Chester River). The annual yield of total Zn from the Nanticoke River Basin in 1998 was 18,000 g/km2/a, and was two to three times higher than yields reported from comparable river basins in the region. Concentrations of Cd also were high in both basins when compared to crustal concentrations and to other national data, but were within reasonable agreement with other Chesapeake Bay studies. Thus, Cd may be enriched locally either in natural materials or from agriculture.

Miller, C. V.; Foster, G. D.; Majedi, B. F.

2003-01-01

73

Preliminary analysis of ERTS-relayed water resources data in the Delaware River Basin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary analysis of ERTS-DCS data from water-resources stations in the Delaware River Basin indicates that the Data-Collection System is performing well. Data-Collections Platforms have been successfully interfaced with five stream-gaging station and three ground-water observation wells and are being interfaced with 12 water-quality monitors in the basin. Data are being relayed during four or five ERTS orbital passes per day, which is within the design specifications of the ERTS-DCS.

Paulson, R. W.

1973-01-01

74

Two Preliminary SRTM DEMs Within the Amazon Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital topography provides important measures, such as hillslope lengths and flow path networks, for understanding hydrologic and geomorphic processes (e.g., runoff response to land use change and floodplain inundation volume). Two preliminary Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation models of Manaus (1S to 5S and 59W to 63W) and Rondonia (9S to 12S and 61W to 64W) were received from NASA JPL in August 2002. The "PI Processor" produced these initial DEM segments and we are using them to assess the initial accuracy of the interferometrically derived heights and for hydrologic research. The preliminary SRTM derived absolute elevations across the Amazon floodplain in the Cabaliana region generally range from 5 to 15 m with reported errors of 1 to 3 m. This region also includes some preliminary elevations that are erroneously negative. However, topographic contours on 1:100,000 scale quadrangles of 1978 to 1980 vintage indicate elevations of 20 to 30 m. Because double-bounce travel paths are possible over the sparsely vegetated and very-flat 2400 sq-km water surface of the Balbina reservoir near Manaus, it serves to identify the relative accuracy of the SRTM heights. Here, cell-to-cell height changes are generally 0 to 1 m and changes across a ~100 km transect rarely exceed 3 m. Reported errors throughout the transect range from 1 to 2 m with some errors up to 5 m. Deforestation in Rondonia is remarkably clear in the C-band DEM where elevations are recorded from the canopy rather than bare earth. Here, elevation changes are ~30 m (with reported 1 to 2 m errors) across clear-cut areas. Field derived canopy heights are in agreement with this change. Presently, we are deriving stream networks in the Amazon floodplain for comparison with our previous network extraction from JERS-1 SAR mosaics and for hydrologic modeling.

Alsdorf, D.; Hess, L.; Melack, J.; Dunne, T.; Mertes, L.; Ballantine, A.; Biggs, T.; Holmes, K.; Sheng, Y.; Hendricks, G.

2002-12-01

75

Preliminary Study of the Uranium Potential of the Triassic Sanford Basin and Colon Cross Structure, North Carolina.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A preliminary geologic investigation was conducted to determine if Triassic sedimentary rocks of the Sanford basin and Colon cross structure in North Carolina are favorable hosts for uranium deposits. Rocks of adjacent Carolina slate belt were also examin...

C. H . Lee

1978-01-01

76

Lower Permian Dry Mountain trough, eastern Nevada: preliminary basin analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Lower Permian Dry Mountain trough (DMT) is one of several basins that developed during the Late Pennsylvanian to Permian along the western edge of the North American continent. A tectonic mechanism has been suggested for the subsidence of the DMT, possibly due to reactivation of the Antler orogenic belt during the waning stages of Ancestral Rocky Mountain deformation. The DMT records marked subsidence with the appearance during the Artinskian (latest Wolfcampian) of a deeper water facies that consists of thin-bedded silty micrites and micritic mudstones rich in radiolarians and sponge spicules, characterized by a relative abundance of ammonoids, and rarer conodonts and Nereites ichnofacies trace fossils. Taxa recovered from a distinctive concretionary horizon at various locations provide an Artinskian datum on which to palinspastically reconstruct the DMT paleogeography. These taxa include ammonoids: Uraloceras, Medlicottia, Marathonites, Crimites, Metalegoceras, properrinitids; and conodonts: Neogondolella bisselli, Sweetognathus whitei, S. behnkeni, and Diplognathodus stevensi. The western margin facies of the DMT consists of Permian Carbon Ridge/Garden Valley Formations. Here, lowermost black Artinskianage euxinic micrites, considered a potential source rock for petroleum generation, are overlain by base-of-slope carbonate apron deposits, which, in turn, are overlain by base-of-slope carbonate apron deposits, which, in turn, are overlain by a thick, eastwardly prograding conglomerate wedge. Seismic profiles across Diamond Valley indicate a 3.0-4.6-km thick Tertiary sequence above the Paleozoic strata.

Schwarz, D.L.; Snyder, W.S.; Spinosa, C.

1987-08-01

77

A framework of parameter uncertainty analysis based on hydro-catchments: Application of the VIC model to the Gila River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research was to apply a parameter uncertainty framework based on geographic proximity to the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model within the Gila River Basin (New Mexico and Arizona, USA). The framework aimed to address the following two questions: (1) What are the effects of hydro-catchment (categorized as humid, semi-humid, and dry) to calibrated parameters? and (2) What is the influence of confidence interval with distributed calibrated parameters based on these hydro-catchment? The implementation allows for a more accurate considering of topographic heterogeneity and the sensitivity of parameter to specific hydrograph period. The framework was applied using the VIC model based on sub-grids and an evaluation of the model performance using an integrated GLUE (generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation) scheme under different sets of parameters within a Monte Carlo framework; not a unique global optimum parameter set for the entire watershed as is traditionally applied with this type of exercise. The modified approach shows promising results and the resulting parameter distributions are substantially different than those obtained through traditional uncertainty approaches.

Jia, L.; Stone, M. C.

2013-12-01

78

Estimation of design floods in ungauged catchments using a regional index flood method. A case study of Lake Victoria Basin in Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliable estimation of flood magnitudes corresponding to required return periods, vital for structural design purposes, is impacted by lack of hydrological data in the study area of Lake Victoria Basin in Kenya. Use of regional information, derived from data at gauged sites and regionalized for use at any location within a homogenous region, would improve the reliability of the design flood estimation. Therefore, the regional index flood method has been applied. Based on data from 14 gauged sites, a delineation of the basin into two homogenous regions was achieved using elevation variation (90-m DEM), spatial annual rainfall pattern and Principal Component Analysis of seasonal rainfall patterns (from 94 rainfall stations). At site annual maximum series were modelled using the Log normal (LN) (3P), Log Logistic Distribution (LLG), Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) and Log Pearson Type 3 (LP3) distributions. The parameters of the distributions were estimated using the method of probability weighted moments. Goodness of fit tests were applied and the GEV was identified as the most appropriate model for each site. Based on the GEV model, flood quantiles were estimated and regional frequency curves derived from the averaged at site growth curves. Using the least squares regression method, relationships were developed between the index flood, which is defined as the Mean Annual Flood (MAF) and catchment characteristics. The relationships indicated area, mean annual rainfall and altitude were the three significant variables that greatly influence the index flood. Thereafter, estimates of flood magnitudes in ungauged catchments within a homogenous region were estimated from the derived equations for index flood and quantiles from the regional curves. These estimates will improve flood risk estimation and to support water management and engineering decisions and actions.

Nobert, Joel; Mugo, Margaret; Gadain, Hussein

79

Preliminary assessment of tree mortality near F- and H-area seepage basins  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary assessment was conducted to evaluate factors that may have been responsible for the vegetation damage that has occurred in groundwater seeps downslope from the F- and H-area seepage basins. The factors that were considered included altered hydrology, toxicity from hazardous chemical constituents associated with seepage basin operation, and toxicity from non-hazardous constituents associated with basin operation. It was concluded that the observed damage was not likely to have resulted from altered hydrologic conditions or hazardous constituents associated with basin operation. Insufficient information is currently available to determine definitively which of the non-hazardous constituents, alone or in concert, were responsible for the observed vegetation damage. The most likely explanation, however, is that elevated Na, pH, and conductivity is outcropping seep water are responsible for tree mortality. All three of these factors will return to ambient levels over a period of several years when basin operation ceases. Faster remediation can be achieved using lime at the seep line.

Loehle, C; Gladden, J

1988-01-28

80

Mass balance and decontamination times of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in rural nested catchments of an early industrialized region (Seine River basin, France).  

PubMed

Accumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils and their subsequent release in rivers constitute a major environmental and public health problem in industrialized countries. In the Seine River basin (France), some PAHs exceed the target concentrations, and the objectives of good chemical status required by the European Water Framework Directive might not be achieved. This investigation was conducted in an upstream subcatchment where atmospheric fallout (n=42), soil (n=33), river water (n=26) and sediment (n=101) samples were collected during one entire hydrological year. PAH concentrations in atmospheric fallout appeared to vary seasonally and to depend on the distance to urban areas. They varied between 60 ng·L(-1) (in a remote site during autumn) and 2,380 ng·L(-1) (in a built-up area during winter). PAH stocks in soils of the catchment were estimated based on land use, as mean PAH concentrations varied between 110 ng·g(-1) under woodland and 2,120 ng·g(-1) in built-up areas. They ranged from 12 to 220 kg·km(-2). PAH contamination in the aqueous phase of rivers remained homogeneous across the catchment (72 ± 38 ng·L(-1)). In contrast, contamination of suspended solid was heterogeneous depending on hydrological conditions and population density in the drainage area. Moreover, PAH concentrations appeared to be higher in sediment (230-9,210 ng·g(-1)) than in the nearby soils. Annual mass balance calculation conducted at the catchment scale showed that current PAH losses were mainly due to dissipation (biodegradation, photo-oxidation and volatilization) within the catchments (about 80%) whereas exports due to soil erosion and riverine transport appeared to be of minor importance. Based on the calculated fluxes, PAHs appeared to have long decontamination times in soils (40 to 1,850 years) thereby compromising the achievement of legislative targets. Overall, the study highlighted the major role of legacy contamination that supplied the bulk of PAHs that are still found nowadays in the environment. PMID:24176709

Gateuille, David; Evrard, Olivier; Lefevre, Irène; Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Alliot, Fabrice; Chevreuil, Marc; Mouchel, Jean-Marie

2014-02-01

81

SUGAR CANE GROWING AND CATTLE GRAZING AS DRIVERS TO WETLAND DEGRADATION IN UGANDA: A case of upper river Ruizi and Iguluibi catchments Lake Victoria basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: This study was conducted with in the framework of the VLIR-OI project with the aim of making contributions to the Diagnosis and Remediation of Land Degradation Processes in the Riparian Zone of Lake Victoria Uganda in view of reducing sediment pollution of the Lake Waters with a special focus on the upper river Ruiz and Iguluibi catchments. The study seeks to investigate Sugarcane growing and cattle grazing as drivers to wetland degradation in light of the current farming systems and practices and their contributions to land degradation and pollution of the Lake Victoria waters. Vegetation especially wetlands improves the resistance to erosion. The removal of riparian vegetation tends to accelerate surface erosion as a result of human activities. Increased erosion with in the catchments due to clearing of wetlands for sugarcane growing and cattle grazing has caused adverse increased sedimentation, degraded the water quality, and reduced the water productivity of the Lake Victoria Basin. Methods: We conducted a qualitative and quantitative study to investigate Sugarcane growing and cattle grazing as drivers to wetland degradation in Uganda in light of the current farming systems and practices and their socio-economic contributions to wetland degradation and pollution of the Lake Victoria waters. Focus group discussions, key informant interviews, semi structured interviews and observations were undertaken with the relevant stakeholders in the community. Results: Findings reveal that in Iguluibi catchment, sugarcane growing is now a major activity indicating land use change since the 1990s. Community members said when planting sugarcane all vegetations including all trees are cut leaving the land bare to allow the tractor to clear the land for cultivation. This has left the land bare without any natural vegetation with increased erosion hence eventually loss of soil fertility and increased sediment pollution to the Lake Victoria waters. As a result of land loosing fertility upland, due to erosion and runoff, most community members have resorted to wetlands for agricultural practices with in the catchment and this has hardly left any natural vegetation to protect the soil and increased runoff to Lake Victoria hence sediment pollution of the lake waters. In the Ruizi catchment, many valleys, the natural vegetation has been cut and the land has been turned into pastureland. The massive expansion of livestock keeping into the low lands mainly covered by wetlands is relatively new (over the last 20 years). Burning of rangelands is a common practice and seasonal swamps are grazed during the dry season This change of land use as far as farming practice is concerned has had a big impact on the water levels of the River Ruizi systems in a number of ways for example: the wetland filter system for sediments and sediment fixed nutrients is compromised; lowering of the water storage capacity of the papyrus swamps as a consequence of drainage, hence surface lowering; river bank erosion of the Ruizi by livestock coming into the river for drinking; pollution of the River Ruizi by livestock defecating into the water while drinking. Due to overstocking of the steep slopes by livestock, the low lands are overgrazed which has resulted in soil erosion, that is, mainly sheet and rill erosion, mass movement below cattle tracks, and stone movement by cattle trampling. The steep slope grazing area has generated substantial runoff, the concentrated flow of which causes gullies that cut through the banana groves. Conclusion Vegetation management of riparian areas especially wetlands in Uganda should conserve and maintain adequate ecological balance of the Lake by reducing on nutrient-loaded fluxes from the riparian zone into the Lake Victoria basin.

Nakiyemba Were, Alice; Isabirye, Moses; Mathijs, Erik; Deckers, Jozef; Poesen, Jean

2010-05-01

82

The challenges of catchment hydrological modelling in the Himalayan region: a case study from the Dudh Kosi River basin of Eastern Nepal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catchment-scale hydrological modelling in the Himalayan region suffers from multiple issues that affect our ability to represent the hydrological dynamics of a river system. Due to a lack of monitoring infrastructure, especially in the high-altitude areas, the spatial distribution of precipitation is essentially unknown. Therefore, the regionalization of precipitation in river basins is a challenging task that has implications in the modelling approach at different levels. This paper explores the uncertainty in modelled discharge using different precipitation input datasets in the glaciated catchment of the Dudh Kosi River basin in Eastern Nepal (3712 km2). The basin hosts some of the world's highest mountain peaks, including Mt Everest. Six precipitation stations, which cover mostly the lowland area of the basin, give a station density of one station per 618 km2. First, we examine precipitation dynamics in the study area based on the observed data. Second, the process-oriented distributed J2000 hydrological model is applied in the Dudh Kosi River basin. Third, the model is run with APHRODITE-(V1003R1), CPC-RFE-(2.0) and TRMM-(V7) precipitation products to compare observed and modelled discharge. Nearly 82% of the precipitation occurs during the monsoon season (June - September), and the limited station observations suggest that there is non-uniform distribution of precipitation in which the underlying topography has a great influence. The maximum precipitation occurred at the station which is located on the middle hills region, followed by the station located at the foothills of the Higher Himalaya. Compared to the observed precipitation, the TRMM product is found to be 7% less than the observed data, whereas the other two products were up to 35% less. The model was applied with the six stations data and the regionalization was carried out using Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) method to simulate the hydrograph. The model was first applied between 1985-1997 in which the model simulates the hydrograph with a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.85, a logarithm Nash-Sutcliffe of 0.93, and a coefficient of determination of 0.85. To apply the model during the recent period (2002-2007) when the rainfall products are available, the model was run with the same parameter sets. With observational inputs, high flows are underestimated for some years between 2002 and 2007. Out of the three products, the TRMM generates a better hydrograph, but Percentage BIAS (PBIAS) is -26%, compared to --17% with observed station data between 2002 and 2007. The APHRODITE and CPC-RFE datasets result in discharges that are underestimated by 47% and 51% respectively. The model results based on the three precipitation products suggest that discharge underestimation is due primarily to precipitation input. The lack of precipitation information brings additional challenges to hydrological modelling in the Himalayan region and future research should focus on precipitation observations and dynamics in high-altitude areas. Key words: Catchment hydrology, Himalayan region, J2000 hydrological model, Precipitation pattern

Nepal, Santosh; Bajracharya, Sagar R.; Shea, Joseph; Wahid, Shahriar M.; Shrestha, Arun B.; Flügel, Wolfgang-Albert

2014-05-01

83

Preliminary investigation of oil and source rock organic geochemistry from selected Tertiary basins of Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selected samples of crude oils and extracts from source rocks obtained from six Thailand Tertiary basins of the central plain and of the Gulf of Thailand regions were examined for geochemical properties and molecular compositions. Analyses were performed using GC, C?GC?MS and carbon isotope mass spectrometry. Though these results should be viewed as preliminary, the results are significant in terms of a regional understanding of the petroleum geochemistry of Thailand. Results from bulk geochemical properties and biomarker assemblages characterize derivatives of organic sources deposited in lacustrine environments. The organic matter is mainly derived from algae with varying amounts of higher plant material. However, an observed variation in the pristane/phytane ratios among the samples may imply differences in depositional oxicity. On the other hand, basinal differences in sedimentation rates, or in the oxygen concentration of the varying waters and/or sediment pore-waters resulted in spatial heterogeneities in the quantity and degree of preservation of the organic matter. In addition, a degree of physical separation between these paleo-lacustrine environments is indicated by differences in paleosalinity, e.g. the hypersaline biomarker, gammacerane, which is restricted to samples from the offshore Gulf of Thailand basins. Maturity parameters for these Tertiary oils and source rock extracts were determined using biomarker analyses of T s/T m, 22S/22S + 22R C 31 hopane, C 30 moretane/hopane, 20R/20S + 20R C 29 sterane, and aromatic compounds. Though the samples demonstrate an overall relatively low level of maturity as specified by the biomarker index, a degree of individual basinal variability is also distinguishable. The observed differences in the maturity values indicate regional heterogeneity among the basin thermal histories, suggesting differences in geothermal gradients and/or in the basin subsidence rates.

Lawwongngam, Kulwadee; Philp, R. P.

84

Analysis of Eocene depositional environments - Preliminary TM and TIMS results, Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Both Landsat TM and aircraft Thermal IR Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data have been used to map the lithofacies of the Wind River Basin's Eocene physical and biological environments. Preliminary analyses of these data have furnished maps of a fault contact boundary and a complex network of fluvial ribbon channel sandstones. The synoptic view thereby emerging for Eocene fluvial facies clarifies the relationships of ribbon channel sandstones to fossil-bearing overbank/floodplain facies and certain peleosols. The utility of TM and TIMS data is thereby demonstrated.

Stucky, Richard K.; Krishtalka, Leonard; Redline, Andrew D.; Lang, Harold R.

1987-01-01

85

Crop yield risk analysis and mitigation of smallholder farmers at quaternary catchment level: Case study of B72A in Olifants river basin, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, Sub-Sahara is experiencing increased frequency of disasters either as floods or droughts which depletes the scarce resources available to sustain increasing populations. Success in preventing food shortages in the African continent can only be achieved by understanding the vulnerability and risk of the majority of smallholder farmers under rainfed and supplementary irrigation coupled with appropriate interventions. Increased frequency of floods, droughts and dry spells pose an increasing threat to the smallholder farmers’ food security and water resources availability in B72A quaternary catchment of the Olifants river basin in South Africa. This paper links maize crop yield risk and smallholder farmer vulnerability arising from droughts by applying a set of interdisciplinary indicators (physical and socio-economic) encompassing gender and institutional vulnerabilities. For the study area, the return period of droughts and dry spells was 2 years. The growing season for maize crop was 121 days on average. Soil water deficit during critical growth stages may reduce potential yields by up to 62%, depending on the length and severity of the moisture deficit. To minimize grain yield loss and avoid total crop failures from intra-seasonal dry spells, farmers applied supplementary irrigation either from river water or rainwater harvested into small reservoirs. Institutional vulnerability was evidenced by disjointed water management institutions with lack of comprehension of roles of higher level institutions by lower level ones. Women are most hit by droughts as they derived more than 90% of their family income from agriculture activities. An enhanced understanding of the vulnerability and risk exposure will assist in developing technologies and policies that conform to the current livelihood strategies of smallholder, resource-constrained farmers. Development of such knowledge base for a catchment opens avenues for computational modeling of the impacts of different types of disasters under different scenarios.

Magombeyi, Manuel S.; Taigbenu, Akpofure E.

86

Impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows in 134 catchments in the River Rhine basin using an ensemble of bias-corrected regional climate simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows were analysed for 134 sub-catchments covering the River Rhine basin upstream of the Dutch-German border. Three seasonality indices for low flows were estimated, namely the seasonality ratio (SR), weighted mean occurrence day (WMOD) and weighted persistence (WP). These indices are related to the discharge regime, timing and variability in timing of low flow events respectively. The three indices were estimated from: (1) observed low flows; (2) simulated low flows by the semi-distributed HBV model using observed climate as input; (3) simulated low flows using simulated inputs from seven combinations of General Circulation Models (GCMs) and Regional Climate Models (RCMs) for the current climate (1964-2007); (4) simulated low flows using simulated inputs from seven combinations of GCMs and RCMs for the future climate (2063-2098) including three different greenhouse gas emission scenarios. These four cases were compared to assess the effects of the hydrological model, forcing by different climate models and different emission scenarios on the three indices. Significant differences were found between cases 1 and 2. For instance, the HBV model is prone to overestimate SR and to underestimate WP and simulates very late WMODs compared to the estimated WMODs using observed discharges. Comparing the results of cases 2 and 3, the smallest difference was found for the SR index, whereas large differences were found for the WMOD and WP indices for the current climate. Finally, comparing the results of cases 3 and 4, we found that SR decreases substantially by 2063-2098 in all seven sub-basins of the River Rhine. The lower values of SR for the future climate indicate a shift from winter low flows (SR > 1) to summer low flows (SR < 1) in the two Alpine sub-basins. The WMODs of low flows tend to be earlier than for the current climate in all sub-basins except for the Middle Rhine and Lower Rhine sub-basins. The WP values are slightly larger, showing that the predictability of low flow events increases as the variability in timing decreases for the future climate. From comparison of the error sources evaluated in this study, it is obvious that different RCMs/GCMs have a larger influence on the timing of low flows than different emission scenarios. Finally, this study complements recent analyses of an international project (Rhineblick) by analysing the seasonality aspects of low flows and extends the scope further to understand the effects of hydrological model errors and climate change on three important low flow seasonality properties: regime, timing and persistence.

Demirel, M. C.; Booij, M. J.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

2013-10-01

87

SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF DRY SPELLS A spatial and temporal rainfall analysis of the Pangani basin and Makanya catchment, Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rainfall and soil moisture are key parameters for food production and which are spatial and temporal variable. In a ever growing world the stress on water for food production increases. Farmers especially in semi arid regions with rain fed agriculture are more often forced to make away from "A" locations where water is available to water scares "B" or worse locations. Obliged by availability of arable land, tradition, customs, natural 6th sense or farmers cleverness. To improve agricultural yields a better water resource planning ,supported by system knowledge, is needed. This study describes a Markov bases dry spell tool which can fulfil in this need. By making use of Markov properties of rainfall, the temporal variability has been analysed. Plotting the derived seasonal transition probabilities vs. the rainfall amount a spatial variable power function could be derived. The spatial and temporal knowledge of rainfall was combined in the Markov based dry spell tool. For a given probability the tool provides a dry spell map. The dry spell tool is a powerful tool to assess vulnerability of dry spells based on meteorological data. The meteorological dry spell in combination with the agricultural dry spell length or critical dry spell length, which is determined by soil and vegetation characteristics, risk maps of an area to the vulnerability of dry spells could be made. The tool was applied in a case study in the Makanya catchment and showed: Compared to the lower middle part of the catchment, high altitude parts of the catchment receive higher amounts of rainfall, have shorter meteorological dry spells and are more resilient to dry spells due to their soil and vegetation characteristics. As a result one can state that farmers living in mountainous areas are blessed by their location. They receive more rain and have lower probability of long dry spells, higher probability of crop success and a higher probability of high yields, in contrast to the farmers in the valley. However, the latter have a chance at making a living as well. The opportunity is, next to the more traditional water management strategies (improving irrigation etc.), to develop new water management strategies (rainwater harvesting, improvement of soil characteristics and decrease of transpiration fluxes) to bridge or decrease the vulnerability of meteorological dry spells.

Fischer, B. M. C.; Savenije, H. H. G. H. H. G.

2009-04-01

88

Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Nutrient Application (Phosphorus and Nitrogen) for Fertilizer and Manure Applied to Crops (Cropsplit), 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This tabular data set represents the estimated amount of phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers applied to selected crops for the year 2002, compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data set is based on 2002 fertilizer data (Ruddy and others, 2006) and tabulated by crop type per county (Alexander and others, 2007). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for MRB_E2RF1 catchments for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

2010-01-01

89

Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Nutrient Inputs from Fertilizer and Manure, Nitrogen and Phosphorus (N&P), 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This tabular data set represents the total amount of nitrogen and phosphorus, in kilograms for the year 2002, compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of the Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data set is County-Level Estimates of Nutrient Inputs to the Land Surface of the Conterminous United States, 1982-2001 (Ruddy and others, 2006). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

2010-01-01

90

A Combined Methodology for Transboundary River Basin Management in Europe. Application in The Nestos–Mesta Catchment Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water management has been the focus of research, not only because of water scarcity, but also as a result of its sharing across\\u000a national boundaries. Approximately 40% of the global population lives in tranboundary water basins, shared by more than one\\u000a country, emphasizing the need for concerted management of transboundary water bodies and harmonization of policies. Under\\u000a this view, water

Y. Mylopoulos; E. Kolokytha; E. Kampragou; D. Vagiona

2008-01-01

91

Quantification of water and sediment yield from small catchment in open mining areas: experience and results from Poro nickel mining basin in New Caledonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water management in mining environments is a major challenge of the mining projects. In New Caledonia large areas have been excavated for Nickel mining since the end of the 19th century. In the past, the bad management of the water and coarse sediments left scars in the landscape and management problems in the channel reaches downstream. Nowadays, open mining techniques no longer yield coarse material out of the mining areas but the management of water and fine sediment remains a difficult question as the suspended sediments reach the very fragile environment of the lagoon. In addition, in many areas, it threatens human activities in the downstream rivers. In order to quantify and understand the formation of runoff, erosion and sediment transport in small mining watersheds the "Hydromine" project was initiated in 2008 by the New Caledonia government (DAVAR) with the collaboration of the University of New Caledonia (UNC) and later with the scientific support of Irstea Grenoble. The questions addressed by this project are: - What is the response (water and sediments) of a mining watershed to a rainfall input? - What factors control this response? - What are the processes involved? And which are dominant in the various hydrometeorological situations? - What are the characteristics of the transported materials? - What is the efficiency of mitigation works in the mining area? Two small embedded catchments (0.09 and 0.30 km²) are monitored for measuring rainfall, runoff and fine sediment transport in the mining area of Poro, East cost of New Caledonia. Elevation ranges from 197 to 366 m.a.s.l. The slope are steep (36 % in average but locally up to 130%) and the vegetation cover is very low (20% for the larger basin, 0% for the headwater basin). Rainfall-runoff and discharge-sediment concentration (SSC) relationship were analysed at the event and annual time scale. As a result, we pointed out the main factors that influence the response of the basins to a rainfall event: rainfall depth, rainfall intensity in fifteen minutes and in two hours, peak discharge, runoff coefficient, dry time duration before the event and flood duration. The calculation of suspended sediment yield (SSY) at different time scales gives an evaluation of the pollution delivered to the creeks and lagoon and of the water management and sediment trap efficiency. An extreme rainfall event (December 25th, 2011) of 500 mm in 26 hours yielded downstream more suspended sediment than all the floods of the previous monitored period. This highlights the threshold effects in runoff and erosion response in these open mining areas.

Mathys, Nicolle; Allenbach, Michel; Wottling, Geoffroy; Carpentier, Laureen; Freydier, Perrine; Navarrot, Lucie

2014-05-01

92

Preliminary assessment of channel stability and bed-material transport in the Coquille River basin, southwestern Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report summarizes a preliminary study of bed-material transport, vertical and lateral channel changes, and existing datasets for the Coquille River basin, which encompasses 2,745 km2 (square kilometers) of the southwestern Oregon coast. This study, conducted to inform permitting decisions regarding instream gravel mining, revealed that:

Jones, Krista L.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Wallick, J. Rose

2012-01-01

93

Preliminary Assessment of Basin-Induced Amplification of Weak Ground Motion in Pahrump Valley, Nevada-California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sedimentary basins can increase the magnitude and extend the duration of seismic shaking. This potential is investigated for Pahrump Valley, Nevada-California, by comparing the waveforms and spectra of weak ground motion recorded in the city of Pahrump, Nevada, to those recorded in the nearby mountains. Preliminary results, based upon a few events, suggest significant amplification (5x or more relative to

R. E. Abbott

2003-01-01

94

Modeling soil moisture patterns in a microscale forest catchment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigates the spatial variability of the soil moisture on the microscale forest Wüstebach (27 ha) basin. A fully-integrated surface-subsurface flow model is applied to the Wüstebach headwater catchment in Germany which is a tributary to the Erkensruhr river and has a catchment size of about 27 ha. The catchment which is part of the Eifel national park is

G. Sciuto; B. Diekkrüger; H. Bogena; U. Rosenbaum; D. Dwersteg

2010-01-01

95

Preliminary Simulations of CO2 Transport in the Dolostone Formations in the Ordos Basin, China  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes preliminary 2-D reactive-transport simulations on the injection, storage and transport of supercritical CO{sub 2} in dolostone formations in the Ordos Basin in China. The purpose of the simulations was to evaluate the role that basin heterogeneity, permeability, CO{sub 2} flux, and geochemical reactions between the carbonate geology and the CO{sub 2} equilibrated brines have on the evolution of porosity and permeability in the storage reservoir. The 2-D simulation of CO{sub 2} injection at 10{sup 3} ton/year corresponds to CO{sub 2} injection at a rate of 3 x 10{sup 5} ton/year in a 3-D, low permeable rock. An average permeability of 10 md was used in the simulation and reflects the upper range of permeability reported for the Ordos Basin Majiagou Group. Transport and distribution of CO{sub 2} between in the gas, aqueous, and solid phases were followed during a 10-year injection phase and a 10-year post injection phase. Our results show that CO{sub 2} flux and the spatial distribution of reservoir permeability will dictate the transport of CO{sub 2} in the injection and post injection phases. The injection rate of supercritical CO{sub 2} into low permeable reservoirs may need to be adjusted to avoid over pressure and mechanical damage to the reservoir. Although it should be noted that 3-D simulations are needed to more accurately model pressure build-up in the injection phase. There is negligible change in porosity and permeability due to carbonate mineral dissolution or anhydrite precipitation because a very small amount of carbonate dissolution is required to reach equilibrium with respect these phases. Injected CO{sub 2} is stored largely in supercritical and dissolved phases. During the injection phase, CO{sub 2} is transport driven by pressure build up and CO{sub 2} buoyancy.

Hao, Y; Wolery, T; Carroll, S

2009-04-30

96

Congo Basin Streamflow characterization using multi-source satellite-derived data: Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Congo Basin in Central Africa has the second largest discharge of any river system, second only to the Amazon Basin. As such, it is considered a potential and strategic asset for supplying not only fresh water but also clean energy through hydropower generation. However, very little of Congo River Basin hydrology is known. Indeed, the basin hydrometeorological network is deteriorating and has a small number of gauges unevenly distributed throughout the Congo watershed. In such cases where in situ data are scarce, remote sensing can be used to quantify rainfall pattern and river flow regime. In default of contributing to quantification exercises, limited ground data available can be used for validation work. To better understand hydrological processes in the Congo River Basin, a 2009 NASA funded project entitled “Hydrological Response to Land Cover and Land Use Change in the Congo Basin” exploits remote sensing capabilities coupled with large scale hydrological modeling. Temporal and terrestrial satellite-based data are ingested into the USGS Geospatial Streamflow Model (GeoSFM) for daily flow generation. The reliance on remotely sensed data to replace or supplement ground data for this hydrological application necessitates rigorous validation of these products. As TRMM Satellite rainfall estimates are being used in this study in place of gauge observations, ground precipitation data reported in existing nationally-held datasets from 33 meteorological stations are used for validation purposes. Initial research on the Congo Basin compared streamflow estimated with GeoSFM against available current and historical streamflow data. While initial results were promising, some discrepancies were revealed, attributed to the accuracy of the input data and the non-calibration of the model. A key finding was that the existing parameterization of land cover using coarse resolution data is inadequate to accurately characterize rainfall-runoff processes in the Congo. As part of the NASA project, the important question of improving the agreement between modeled flows from satellite-derived data and observed flow data from hydrometric field stations is addressed. To evaluate the GeoSFM performance, the model is run using coarse resolution (Land Cover Land Use) LCLU and DEM inputs and then using improved region-specific high spatial resolution inputs. Intercomparisons are made to evaluate improvement to streamflow characterization based on improved input data. Improved streamflow is a key for establishing the setting for a high-performance calibration process for the Congo. Changing the parameter values used in the model until a satisfactory agreement between simulated and the recorded variables is obtained is an integral part of modeling. However, in order to produce realistic parameters values and a sufficiently calibrated model, the calibration requires the finest baseline simulated streamflow data possible. A poster will present our preliminary results.

Munzimi, Y.; Hansen, M. C.; Asante, K. O.

2010-12-01

97

The effects of soil properties on the turbidity of catchment soils from the Yongdam dam basin in Korea.  

PubMed

Environmental concerns have been raised that suspended solids in turbid water adversely affect human health, and that their removal increases in the cost of water treatment. The Yongdam dam reservoir, located in the southwestern region of Korea, is severely affected by inflowing turbid water after storms. In this study, soil samples were collected from 37 sites in the Yongdam upstream basin to investigate mineralogical and environmental factors associated with the turbidity potential of soils in water environments. Turbidity potential was estimated by measuring the turbidity of soil-suspension solutions after settling for 24 h. The mineralogy of the soils was dominated by four minerals-quartz, microcline, albite, and muscovite-with lesser amounts of hornblende, chlorite, kaolinite, illite, and mixed layer illite. The quartz content was the most variable of the soil mineralogy among the collected samples. Principal-components analysis (PCA) was used to examine relationships between turbidity potential and other soil properties. The variables considered in the PCA included turbidity potential, quartz content, albite content, mean size of soil particles, clay content, clay mineral content, zeta potential, conductivity, and pH of the soil-suspension solution. The first two components of the PCA explained 52% of the overall variation of the selected variables. The first component was possibly explained by physical properties such as the size of the soil particles; the second was correlated with chemical properties of the soils, for example dissolution and extent of weathering. Closer examination of the PCA results revealed that the quartz content of the soils was negatively correlated with their turbidity potential. A linear correlation (r = 0.63) was obtained between measured turbidity potential and that predicted using multiple regression analysis based on the content of clay-sized particles, clay minerals, and quartz, and the conductivity of the soil-suspension solution. PMID:18473181

Hur, Jin; Jung, Myung Chae

2009-06-01

98

A preliminary assessment of the spatial sources of contemporary suspended sediment in the Ohio River basin, United States, using water quality data from the NASQAN programme in a source tracing procedure  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reliable information on catchment scale suspended sediment sources is required to inform the design of management strategies for helping abate the numerous environmental issues associated with enhanced sediment mobilization and off-site loadings. Since sediment fingerprinting techniques avoid many of the logistical constraints associated with using more traditional indirect measurement methods at catchment scale, such approaches have been increasingly reported in the international literature and typically use data sets collected specifically for sediment source apportionment purposes. There remains scope for investigating the potential for using geochemical data sets assembled by routine monitoring programmes to fingerprint sediment provenance. In the United States, routine water quality samples are collected as part of the US Geological Survey's revised National Stream Quality Accounting Network programme. Accordingly, the geochemistry data generated from these samples over a 10-year period (1996-2006) were used as the basis for a fingerprinting exercise to assess the key tributary sub-catchment spatial sources of contemporary suspended sediment transported by the Ohio River. Uncertainty associated with the spatial source estimates was quantified using a Monte Carlo approach in conjunction with mass balance modelling. Relative frequency weighted means were used as an alternative way of summarizing the spatial source contributions, thereby avoiding the need to use confidence limits. The results should be interpreted in the context of the routine, but infrequent nature, of the suspended sediment samples used to assemble geochemistry as a basis for the sourcing exercise. Nonetheless, the study demonstrates how routine monitoring samples can be used to provide some preliminary information on sediment provenance in large drainage basins. ?? 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Zhang, Y. S.; Collins, A. L.; Horowitz, A. J.

2012-01-01

99

Catchment Hydrogeochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From September 18 to 21, 1989, the American Geophysical Union (AGU) sponsored a Chapman Conference on Hydrogeochemical Responses of Forested Catchments. Approximately 130 hydrologists, geochemists, soil scientists, ecologists, and other scientists involved in research on forested catchments presented results of their investigations and discussed the state of knowledge regarding hydrological and geochemical processes that control catchment response. Within the field of catchment hydrogeochemistry, the focus of geochemists has been to attain an understanding of the basic processes which govern the interactions between water and rocks, whereas the focus of hydrologists has been to determine rates of flow along different flow paths through a catchment. Of course, geochemists are well aware that the explanation of temporal variation of the chemical composition of surface and ground waters requires knowledge of flow paths and residence times of water as well as of chemical processes per se, and hydrologists know that flow generation mechanisms can be identified most efficiently in the field by using information about the geochemical history of waters. Nevertheless, cross-discipline communication has not been as pervasive as desirable for rapid advancement of the science. The Chapman Conference, organized by two of us (M. Robbins Church and George M. Hornberger), brought hydrologists and geochemists together to discuss recent significant contributions with the hope that progress in the future would be speeded up by the interdisciplinary information exchange.

Church, M. Robbins; Hornberger, George M.; Sorooshian, Soroosh

1990-12-01

100

Tool for defining catchment similarity matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is important to classify catchments for many reasons, for example, for prediction in ungauged basins, model parameterization and watershed development. There have been many studies on catchment classification, but no silver bullet exists for choosing the most relevant measure of catchment similarity. The aim of this study is to explore a new measure of similarity among catchments, using a data depth function. We used a similarity measure called "Depth-Depth plot" (DD-plot) which measures similarity in the catchment flow dynamics in multiple dimension. The area under the convex hull of DD-plot can be used as similarity matrix to any clustering technique. In this study we used Affinity propagation (AP) clustering algorithm for grouping the similar catchments. Catchment classifications based on flow and physical characteristics were compared. We evaluate whether the similarity based on depth-depth plots provides a better basis for transferring parameter sets of a hydrological model between catchments. We used a case study of 21 catchments located in the Bay of Plenty region in the North Island of New Zealand. The catchments have a wide range of topographic properties, response behaviours and geological features. The TopNet hydrological model was calibrated for all the catchments and the transferability of model parameters among the similar catchments was tested by transferring the parameters from within the cluster group and outside the group. The results of parameter transferred with in group based on Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient are promising. Results also show that clustering based on our proposed depth-depth measure, catchment characteristics, flow, and flow indices are different. The catchment classification of this study can be used to improve regional flood forecasting capabilities.

Singh, Shailesh Kumar; McMillan, Hilary; Bárdossy, András; Fateh, Chebana

2014-05-01

101

Preliminary seismicity and focal mechanisms for the southern Great Basin of Nevada and California: January 1992 through September 1992  

SciTech Connect

The telemetered southern Great Basin seismic network (SGBSN) is operated for the Department of Energy`s Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The US Geological Survey, Branch of Earthquake and Landslide Hazards, maintained this network until September 30, 1992, at which time all operational and analysis responsibilities were transferred to the University of Nevada at Reno Seismological Laboratory (UNRSL). This report contains preliminary earthquake and chemical explosion hypocenter listings and preliminary earthquake focal mechanism solutions for USGS/SGBSN data for the period January 1, 1992 through September 30, 1992, 15:00 UTC.

Harmsen, S.C.

1994-06-01

102

Congo Basin Streamflow characterization using multi-source satellite-derived data: Preliminary Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Congo Basin in Central Africa has the second largest discharge of any river system, second only to the Amazon Basin. As such, it is considered a potential and strategic asset for supplying not only fresh water but also clean energy through hydropower generation. However, very little of Congo River Basin hydrology is known. Indeed, the basin hydrometeorological network is

Y. Munzimi; M. C. Hansen; K. O. Asante

2010-01-01

103

Preliminary Crater Retention Ages for an Expanded Inventory of Large Lunar Basins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Based on LOLA topography and a new crustal thickness model, the number of candidate lunar basins greater than 300 km in diameter is at least a factor 2 larger than the traditional number based on photogeology alone, and may be as high as 95. Preliminary N(50) crater retention ages for this population of candidate basins shows two distinct peaks. Frey [1] suggested, based on Clementine-era topography (ULCN2005) and a crustal thickness model based on Lunar Prospector data [2], that there could be as many as 98 lunar basins greater than 300 km diameter. Many of the weaker cases have not stood up to recent testing [3,4,5] using LOLA data and a newer crustal thickness model based on Kaguya gravity data and LOLA topography data [6]. As described in companion abstracts [4,5], we have deleted from the earlier inventory 1 more named feature (Sikorsky- Rittenhouse; LOLA data show that its diameter is actually less than 300 km), 11 Quasi-Circular Depressions (QCDs) identified in the ULCN topography, and 11 Circular Thin Areas (CTAs) found in the earlier crustal thickness model [2]. We did this by repeating the scoring exercise originally done in [1] but with the new data [4,5]. Topographic Expression (TE) and Crustal Thickness Expression (CTE) scores were determined for each candidate on a scale of 0 to 5 (5 being a strong, circular signature, 0 for those with no discernible circular topographic or crustal thickness signature). These scores are added together to produce a Summary Score which has a range of 0 to 10. We eliminated all candidates with a Summary Score less than 3, as well as other cases where, for example, the TE went to zero because what looked like a single large circular QCD in the lower resolution ULCN data was in fact a cluster of smaller deep impacts readily apparent in the newer higher resolution LOLA data. This process reduced the original inventory from 98 to 75 candidates.

Frey, H. V.

2012-01-01

104

Hydrogeological Characteristics of a Karst Mountainous Catchment in the Northwest of Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a preliminary assessment of the hydrogeological characteristics of a karst mountainous catchment, the Suoi Muoi River catchment, in the northwest of Vietnam. The catchment is loca ted at 600 -700 m a.s.l. and covers an area of 284 km. Exposed limestone occupies 32% of the total catchment area. Various types of assessments have been carried out, including

V. T. TAM; T. M. N. VU; O. BATELAAN

105

Preliminary results of seismic structures in the central basin of South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detailed deep seismic structure of spreading ridge in the central oceanic basin contains key informations of formation and evolution processes, which provides a solid foundation for discussion of formation and evolution 'framework' and deep geodynamics mechanism of the South China Sea (SCS). Three-dimensional (3D) Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS) survey was carried out for the first time which covered the central relic spreading ridge and Zhenbei-Huangyan volcanic chain. The comprehensive seismic record sections of 39 OBSs have recorded a few of clear and reliable P-wave seismic phases, such as Pg, Pn and PmP. These seismic arrivals provide strong constrains for the modelling of detailed 2D and 3D velocity structures. Here we will present the preliminary 2D and 3D results to discuss the nature of the oceanic crust near the central spreading ridge and genetic relationship between the magma chambers beneath the spreading ridge and the later volcanic chains. This research was granted by the Natural Science Foundation of China ( 91028002, 41176053, 41076029).

Zhao, M.; Qiu, X.; Wang, J.; He, E.; Zhang, J.

2013-12-01

106

Impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows in 134 catchments in the River Rhine basin using an ensemble of bias-corrected regional climate simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows are analysed for 134 sub-catchments covering the River Rhine basin upstream of the Dutch-German border. Three seasonality indices for low flows are estimated, namely seasonality ratio (SR), weighted mean occurrence day (WMOD) and weighted persistence (WP). These indices are related to the discharge regime, timing and variability in timing of low flow events respectively. The three indices are estimated from: (1) observed low flows; (2) simulated low flows by the semi distributed HBV model using observed climate; (3) simulated low flows using simulated inputs from seven climate scenarios for the current climate (1964-2007); (4) simulated low flows using simulated inputs from seven climate scenarios for the future climate (2063-2098) including different emission scenarios. These four cases are compared to assess the effects of the hydrological model, forcing by different climate models and different emission scenarios on the three indices. The seven climate scenarios are based on different combinations of four General Circulation Models (GCMs), four Regional Climate Models (RCMs) and three greenhouse gas emission scenarios. Significant differences are found between cases 1 and 2. For instance, the HBV model is prone to overestimate SR and to underestimate WP and simulates very late WMODs compared to the estimated WMODs using observed discharges. Comparing the results of cases 2 and 3, the smallest difference is found in the SR index, whereas large differences are found in the WMOD and WP indices for the current climate. Finally, comparing the results of cases 3 and 4, we found that SR has decreased substantially by 2063-2098 in all seven subbasins of the River Rhine. The lower values of SR for the future climate indicate a shift from winter low flows (SR > 1) to summer low flows (SR < 1) in the two Alpine subbasins. The WMODs of low flows tend to be earlier than for the current climate in all subbasins except for the Middle Rhine and Lower Rhine subbasins. The WP values are slightly larger, showing that the predictability of low flow events increases as the variability in timing decreases for the future climate. From comparison of the uncertainty sources evaluated in this study, it is obvious that the RCM/GCM uncertainty has the largest influence on the variability in timing of low flows for future climate.

Demirel, M. C.; Booij, M. J.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

2013-05-01

107

Deep seismic reflection profiling of sedimentary basins offshore Brazil: Geological objectives and preliminary results in the Sergipe Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first deep seismic reflection profiles offshore Brazil were acquired in Campos Basin and processed to 10 s TWT in 1984. Starting in 1989, Petrobrás acquired an extensive data set of deep seismic profiles using special acquisition equipment capable of effectively penetrating through the sedimentary layers and imaging the whole crustal architecture. These deep (18 s TWT) seismic reflection profiles extend across the Atlantic-type marginal basins, from the platform to the deepwater province, presently considered frontier regions for petroleum exploration. This work addresses the geological objectives of a deep seismic profile in the Sergipe Basin and discusses the results obtained by integrating regional seismic, gravity and magnetic data. When combined, these data provide evidence that deep seismic reflectors observed in the Sergipe Basin are related to intracrustal-upper mantle structures rather than sedimentary features. The deep seismic reflection profile in the Sergipe Basin also suggests that, rather than a non-volcanic passive margin, the deepwater extension of this basin is marked by several magmatic structures, including thick wedges of seaward-dipping reflectors and volcanic plugs. These magmatic features are associated with basinforming processes resulting from lithospheric extension during the breakup of Gondwana in the Early Cretaceous and subsequent emplacement of oceanic crust. These results are compared to the crustal scale structures observed in the Campos Basin, in the southeastern margin of Brazil. The interpretation of the deep structure of these basins indicates that final separation between the South American and African plates formed passive margins characterized by different patterns of crustal attenuation underlying the rift blocks.

Mohriak, Webster Ueipass; Lira Rabelo, JoséHenrique; De Matos, Renato Darros; De Barros, Mozart C.

1995-12-01

108

Preliminary report on coal pile, coal pile runoff basins, and ash basins at the Savannah River Site: effects on groundwater  

SciTech Connect

Coal storage piles, their associated coal pile runoff basins and ash basins could potentially have adverse environmental impacts, especially on groundwater. This report presents and summarizes SRS groundwater and soil data that have been compiled. Also, a result of research conducted on the subject topics, discussions from noted experts in the field are cited. Recommendations are made for additional monitor wells to be installed and site assessments to be conducted.

Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1997-04-28

109

Inferring the effect of catchment complexity on mesoscale hydrologic response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of catchment complexity on hydrologic and hydrochemical catchment response was characterized in the mesoscale Dill catchment (692 km2), Germany. This analysis was developed using multivariate daily stream concentration and discharge data at the basin outlet, in connection with less frequently sampled catchment-wide end-member chemistries. The link between catchment-wide runoff sources and basin output was observed through a combination of concentration-discharge (C-Q) analysis and multivariate end-member projection. Subsurface stormflow, various groundwater and wastewater sources, as well as urban surface runoff emerged in catchment output chemistry. Despite the identification of multiple sources, several runoff sources observed within the catchment failed to display consistent links with the output chemistry. This failure to associate known source chemistry with outlet chemistry may have resulted from a lack of hydraulic connectivity between sources and basin outlet, from different arrival times of subbasin-scale runoff contributions, and also from an overlap of source chemistries that subsumed discrete runoff sources in catchment output. This combination of catchment heterogeneity and complexity simply suggests that the internal spatial organization of the catchment impeded the application of lumped mixing calculations at the 692 km2 outlet. Given these challenges, we suggest that in mesoscale catchment research, the potential effects of spatial organization should be included in any interpretation of highly integrated response signals, or when using those signals to evaluate numerical rainfall-runoff models.

FröHlich, Holger L.; Breuer, Lutz; Vaché, Kellie B.; Frede, Hans-Georg

2008-09-01

110

Terrasar-X Insar Processing in Northern Bohemian Coal Basin Using Corner Reflectors (preliminary Results)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The area of Northern Bohemian coal basin is rich in brown coal. Part of it is undermined, but large areas were mined using open-pit mines. There are numerous reclaimed waste dumps here, with a horse racetrack, roads and in some cases also houses. However, on most of the waste dumps, there are forests, meadows and fields. Above the coal basin, there are the Ore mountains which are suspected to be sliding down to the open mines below them. We installed 11 corner reflectors in the area and monitor them using the TerraSAR-X satellite. One of the reflectors is situated in the area of radar layover, therefore it cannot be processed. We present preliminary results of monitoring the remaining corner reflectors, with the use of 7 TerraSAR-X scenes acquired between June and December 2011. We process whole scene crops, as well as the artificial reflector information alone. Our scene set contains interferometric pairs with perpendicular baselines reaching from 0 to 150 m. Such a configuration allows us to distinguish deformations from DEM errors, which are usual when the SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) DEM (X-band) is used for Stripmap data. Unfortunately, most of the area of interest is decorrelated due to vegetation that covers both the Ore mountains and the reclaimed waste dumps. We had to enlarge the scene crop in order to be able to distinguish deformations from the atmospheric delay. We are still not certain about the stability of some regions. For the installed artificial reflectors, the expected deformations are in the order of mm/year. Generally, deformations in the area of interest may reach up to about 5 cm/year for the Erv?nice corridor (a road and railway built on a waste dump). When processing artificial corner reflector information alone, we check triangular sums and perform the processing for all possible point combinations - and that allows us to correct for some unwrapping errors. However, the problem is highly ambiguous.

Hlavá?ová, I.; Halounová, L.; Svobodová, K.

2012-07-01

111

Preliminary results of high resolution magneto-biostratigraphy of continental sequences in Chapala Basin, Southwestern Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chapala Lake is south from Guadalajara, Jalisco State (Southwestern Mexico). Belongs to a series of Pliocenic lakes along the Mexican Volcanic Belt. It is localized in the Chapala rift, and the entire area is controlled by the tectonic setting of the Colima, Tepic and Chapala rifts, constituting the triple junction rift-rift-rift. The deposits studied belong to volcanosedimentary sequences, composed by lacustrine and fluvial associations alternated with units of ash and pumice. The faunistic component reported consists at least of 27 mammals species, and the sediments were there're in have to work with special attention for seek rodents by handpicking. Probably these rodents will be the clue to determine the deposits correlation. Core demagnetization shows that they are low-coercivity magnetic minerals like magnetite or Ti-magnetite. It was verified that the characteristic magnetization corresponds to MNRp and the inversion test resulted good. Rodents are represented by Geomynae, Sigmondontinae and Sciurinae. The Geomynae family is the most common, and the faunistic association indicates Blancan age. This also allows a correlation with the polarity pattern in the GSS between 3,6 and 2,6 Ma. Actually, is known that this kind of studies in continental sequences supported with paleontological record of vertebrates could give us a more precised calibration of the age of such deposits. Allowing better understanding of the evolution of these mammals and their path trough geological record. This work shows the preliminary results of rodents palaeontology and high resolution magneto-stratigraphy in the units from to Chapala Basin.

Mendez Cardenas, D. L.; Benammi, M.

2007-05-01

112

TOC fluctuations in a humic lake as related to catchment acidification, season and climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of fluctuations in total organic carbon (TOC) were performedin both the reference basin and the acidified basin of experimental LakeSkjervatjern, in order to separate effects of various catchment and in-lakeprocesses. Nearly five years of catchment acidification did not inducesignificant changes in TOC. TOC concentrations was not related clearly toprecipitation or runoff. In both basins, there was a regular, seasonal

Dag O. Hessen; Egil T. Gjessing; Johan Knulst; Eirik Fjeld

1997-01-01

113

Managing the impact of gold panning activities within the context of integrated water resources management planning in the Lower Manyame SubCatchment, Zambezi Basin, Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Riverbed alluvial gold panning activities are a cause for degradation of river channels and banks as well as water resources, particularly through accelerated erosion and siltation, in many areas of Zimbabwe. The lower Manyame sub-catchment located in the Northern part of the country is one such area. This study analysed the implications of cross-sectoral coordination of the management of panning

Nonhlanhla Zwane; David Love; Zvikomborero Hoko; Dennis Shoko

2006-01-01

114

SUGAR CANE GROWING AND CATTLE GRAZING AS DRIVERS TO WETLAND DEGRADATION IN UGANDA: A case of upper river Ruizi and Iguluibi catchments Lake Victoria basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: This study was conducted with in the framework of the VLIR-OI project with the aim of making contributions to the Diagnosis and Remediation of Land Degradation Processes in the Riparian Zone of Lake Victoria Uganda in view of reducing sediment pollution of the Lake Waters with a special focus on the upper river Ruiz and Iguluibi catchments. The study

Alice Nakiyemba Were; Moses Isabirye; Erik Mathijs; Jozef Deckers; Jean Poesen

2010-01-01

115

Integration of shelf evolution and river basin models to simulate Holocene sediment dynamics of the Humber Estuary during periods of sea-level change and variations in catchment sediment supply.  

PubMed

Three modelling elements and sedimentary evidence provide an understanding of sediment characteristics, river basin processes, tidal regimes and sea-level changes to explain sediment supply to the Humber Estuary through the Holocene (the last 10,000 years). An upscaled cellular catchment model simulates water and sediment fluxes from river basins, illustrating significant variations in response to climate change, especially precipitation and vegetation changes, principally deforestation. Much of the sediment mobilised remains in stores within the catchment and only a small fraction reaches the Humber tidal system. An empirical model helps to explain sediment erosion, transport and deposition from the offshore and coastal zones through the Holocene and sea-level rise caused the transgression of the continental shelf of the North Sea. Comparison with the sediment fill of the lowlands around of the Humber estuary, that represent the extent of the estuary during the Holocene, demonstrates that most of the fill (approximately 95-98%) was derived from non-fluvial sources. A shelf evolution model, with reconstructions of sea level, palaeogeography and palaeobathymetry for 1,000 year time steps through the Holocene predicts significant changes in tidal regimes, first over wide areas of the coast as the transgression of the continental shelf progresses. The most significant changes occur with the inner reaches of the palaeo-estuaries, especially those of the Humber and the Fenland. Throughout the mid-Holocene they are characterised by significantly lower tidal ranges (MWHST approximately 2.5 m less than present) and low tidal currents. The simulated patterns of tidal currents concur with the transport of fine grain sediment from the coastal zone into the estuaries. The major tidal range changes revise estimates of late Holocene and ongoing relative sea and land level changes. PMID:14499561

Shennan, Ian; Coulthard, Tom; Flather, Roger; Horton, Ben; Macklin, Mark; Rees, John; Wright, Matt

2003-10-01

116

Preliminary potential-field constraints on the geometry of the San Fernando basin, Southern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gravity and magnetic data provide new insights on the structural underpinnings of the San Fernando Basin region, which may be important to ground motion models. Gravity data indicate that a deep basin (>5 km) underlies the northern part of the San Fernando Valley; this deep basin is required to explain the lowest gravity values over the Mission Hills thrust fault. Gravity modeling, constrained by well data and density information, shows that the basin may reach a thickness of 8 km, coinciding with the upper termination of the 1994 Northridge earthquake mainshock rupture. The basin is deeper than previous estimates by 2 to 4 km; this estimate is the result of high densities for the gravels of the Pliocene-Pleisocene Saugus Formation. The geometry of the southern margin of the deep basin is not well-constrained by the gravity data, but may dip to the south. Recently acquired seismic data along the LARSE (Los Angeles Regional Seismic Experiment) II profile may provide constraints to determine the location and attitude of the basin edge. Gravity and aeromagnetic models across the eastern margin of the San Fernando Valley indicate that the Verdugo fault may dip to the southwest along its southern extent and therefore have a normal fault geometry whereas it clearly has a thrust fault geometry along its northern strand.

Langenheim, Victoria E.; Griscom, Andrew; Jachens, R. C.; Hildenbrand, T. G.

2000-01-01

117

Runoff and solute mobilization processes in a semiarid headwater catchment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Runoff and solute transport processes contributing to streamflow were determined in a small headwater catchment in the eastern Murray-Darling Basin of Australia using hydrometric and tracer methods. Streamflow and electrical conductivity were monitored from two gauges draining a portion of the upper catchment area (UCA) and a saline scalded area, respectively. Runoff in the UCA was related to the formation

Justin D. Hughes; Shahbaz Khan; Russell S. Crosbie; Stuart Helliwell; David L. Michalk

2007-01-01

118

Preliminary Evaluation of Recent Movement on Structures within the Santa Monica Basin, Offshore Southern California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A joint study by the Geological Survey of Canada and U.S. Geological Survey of the submarine turbidite systems formed in the Santa Monica Basin of the California continental borderland provides limited observation of previously mapped fault systems genera...

W. R. Normark, D. J. W. Piper

1998-01-01

119

Preliminary Stratigraphic Cross Sections of Oil Shale in the Eocene Green River Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Oil shale units in the Eocene Green River Formation are shown on two east-west stratigraphic sections across the Uinta Basin in northeastern Utah. Several units have potential value for recovery of shale oil, especially the Mahogany oil shale zone, which is a high grade oil shale that can be traced across most of the Uinta Basin and into the Piceance Basin in northwestern Colorado. Many thin medium to high grade oil shale beds above the Mahogany zone can also be traced for many miles across the basin. Several units below the Mahogany that have slow velocities on sonic logs may be low grade oil shale. These may have value as a source for shale gas.

Dyni, John R.

2008-01-01

120

Runoff responses to forest thinning at plot and catchment scales in a headwater catchment draining Japanese cypress forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryWe examined the effect of forest thinning on runoff generation at plot and catchment scales in headwater basins draining a Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) forest. We removed 58.3% of the stems (corresponding to 43.2% of the basal area) in the treated headwater basin (catchment M5), and left the control catchment (M4) untreated. In both catchments, we monitored overland flow from hillslope plots and stream runoff from catchments at basin outlets over a 2-year pre-thinning period and a 2-year post-thinning period. Paired catchment analysis revealed that annual catchment runoff increased 240.7 mm after thinning. Delayed runoff increased significantly, while quick runoff followed similar patterns in the pre- and post-thinning periods. Flow duration in the ephemeral channel in catchment M5 increased from 56.9% in the pre-thinning period to 73.3% in the post-thinning period. Despite the changes in hydrological responses at the catchment scale, increases in overland flow were not significant. The increased availability of water in the soil matrix, caused by decreased interception loss and evapotranspiration, increased base flow after thinning. Based on the summarized data of previous studies together with this study, the effects of forest thinning on increases in runoff were less than partial harvesting in which the managed areas were concentrated within a watershed. We demonstrated that the effect of forest thinning was strongly scale dependent, an important finding for optimizing water and forest management in forested watersheds.

Dung, Bui Xuan; Gomi, Takashi; Miyata, Shusuke; Sidle, Roy C.; Kosugi, Kenichiro; Onda, Yuichi

2012-06-01

121

Preliminary Assessment of Basin-Induced Amplification of Weak Ground Motion in Pahrump Valley, Nevada-California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sedimentary basins can increase the magnitude and extend the duration of seismic shaking. This potential is investigated for Pahrump Valley, Nevada-California, by comparing the waveforms and spectra of weak ground motion recorded in the city of Pahrump, Nevada, to those recorded in the nearby mountains. Preliminary results, based upon a few events, suggest significant amplification (5x or more relative to a rock site) at frequencies ranging from 4 to 15 Hz, depending on the location of the basin station. The Pahrump Valley is located approximately 50 km WNW of Las Vegas. Gravity data suggest that the city of Pahrump sits atop a narrow, approximately 5 km deep sub-basin in the valley. The city of Pahrump has seen tremendous growth in recent years (over 200% population increase in 10 years) and the growth rate is increasing. Several nearby fault systems represent a seismic hazard to the population of Pahrump and its neighboring communities; the most notable hazard is from the Pahrump Valley Fault Zone which runs along the western edge of Pahrump Valley. Proximity to the more active Death Valley and Furnace Creek Fault Zones, both less than 50 km distant, and possible future underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site, 75 km to the north, also represent a potential hazard.

Abbott, R. E.

2003-12-01

122

A new perspective on catchment storage gained from a nested catchment experiment in Luxembourg (Europe)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent hydrological process research focussed on how much water a catchment can store and how these catchments store and release water. Storage can be a valuable metric for catchment description, inter-comparison, and classification. Further storage controls catchment mixing, non-linearities in rainfall-runoff transformation and eco-hydrological processes. Various methods exist to determine catchment storage (e.g. natural tracer, soil moisture and groundwater data, hydrological models). Today it remains unclear what parts of the catchment storage are measured with the different models. Here we present a new hydrometric approach to answer the question how much water a catchment can store. We tested our approach in a dense hydro-climatological monitoring network that encompasses 16 recording streamgauges and 21 pluviographs in the Alzette River basin in Luxembourg (Europe). Catchment scales are ranging from 0.47 to 285 km2 and they have clean- and mixed combinations of distinct geologies ranging from schists to marls, sandstone, dolomite and limestone. Previous investigations in the area of interest have shown that geology largely controls winter runoff coefficients. Here, we focus at how catchment geology is ultimately affecting catchment storage. We used the approach of Sayama et al. (2011) to compute catchment dynamic storage changes for each winter season over the period 2002-2012 (based on precipitation as input; discharge and evapotranspiration as output). We determined dynamic storage changes for each winter semester (October to March) in all 16 catchments over the period 2002-2012. At the beginning of each hydrological winter season, all catchments showed similar trends in storage change. A few weeks into the winter season, catchments with lowest permeability (e.g. marls) started to plateau. The highest storage values were reached several months later in the season in catchments dominated by permeable substrate (e.g. sandstone). For most catchments, we found strong correlations between baseflow prior to the recharge period (i.e. at initiation of the total storage calculations) and the seasonal maximum value of the total storage change calculations. In order to determine the maximum storage potential for each catchment, we fitted a trendline through the annual 'initial baseflow - maximum storage' populations. By extrapolating these trendlines to zero flow conditions, we obtained the maximum storage potential. Our results show that these maximum storage values clearly tend to be larger in catchments dominated by permeable substrate, compared to areas underlain by impermeable bedrock. In the latter, average filling ratios were found to be substantially higher (exceeding 80%) than in catchments dominated by permeable substrate (approximately 40%). These findings were confirmed by average seasonal winter runoff coefficients that are substantially higher in catchments dominated by impermeable bedrock (Pfister et al., in prep.). Our new approach allows a fast assessment of storage potential in catchments based on discharge, precipitation and evapotranspiration data. Pfister L. et al. 2014: Catchment storage, baseflow isotope signatures and basin geology: Is there a connection? In preparation. Sayama, T., McDonnell, J.J., Dhakal, A., Sullivan, K., 2011. How much water can a watershed store ? Hydrological Processes 25, 3899-3908.

Pfister, Laurent; Klaus, Julian; Hissler, Christophe; François Iffly, Jean; Gourdol, Laurent; Martinez-Carreras, Nuria; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

2014-05-01

123

Preliminary test of the wet oxidation of organics in basin F wastewater at Rocky Mountain Arsenal  

SciTech Connect

Various decontamination processes are candidate for treatment of wastewater from several sources at RMA. Wet oxidation is a unit operation that involves oxidation of organic materials with gaseous oxygen in the presence of liquid water at temperatures between about 400 degree and 700 degree F. Waste from basin F at RMA has several percent organics content. It was used for the initial wet oxidation experiment because the wet oxidation rate is proportional to the concentration of organics. The extent of oxidation obtained in this first trial was about 78 percent of the basin F cod in 60 minutes (74 percent in 30 minutes).

Lawless, H.L.

1978-04-01

124

Soil erosion prediction at the basin scale using the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) in a catchment of Sicily (southern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil erosion by water is a serious problem in southern Italy, particularly in Sicily which is one of the Italian administrative regions prone to desertification. Soil erosion not only affects soil quality, in terms of agricultural productivity, but also reduces the availability of water in reservoirs. This study was conducted in the Comunelli catchment in south-central Sicily, to predict potential annual soil loss using the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) and to test the reliability of this methodology to predict reservoirs siltation. The RUSLE factors were calculated for the catchment using survey data and rain gauge measurement data. The R-factor was calculated from daily, monthly and annual precipitation data. The K-factor was calculated from soil samples collected in May and November 2004. The LS topographic factor was calculated from a 20 m digital elevation model. The C- and P-factors, in absence of detailed data, were set to 1. The results were compared with those obtained from another soil loss estimation method based on 137Cs and with the soil loss estimated from the sediment volume stored in the Comunelli reservoir between 1968 and 2004.

Onori, Filippo; de Bonis, Piero; Grauso, Sergio

2006-09-01

125

Preliminary gravity inversion model of basins east of Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada.  

SciTech Connect

The Yucca Flat eastern extension study area, a 14 kilometer by 45 kilometer region contiguous to Yucca Flat on the west and Frenchman Flat on the south, is being studied to expand the boundary of the Yucca Flat hydrogeologic model. The isostatic residual gravity anomaly was inverted to create a model of the depth of the geologic basins within the study area. Such basins typically are floored by dense pre-Tertiary basement rocks and filled with less-dense Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rocks and Quaternary alluvium, a necessary condition for the use of gravity modeling to predict the depth to the pre-Tertiary basement rocks within the basins. Three models were created: a preferred model to represent the best estimate of depth to pre-Tertiary basement rocks in the study area, and two end-member models to demonstrate the possible range of solutions. The preferred model predicts shallow basins, generally less than 1,000m depth, throughout the study area, with only Emigrant Valley reaching a depth of 1,100m. Plutonium valley and West Fork Scarp Canyon have maximum depths of 800m and 1,000m, respectively. The end-member models indicate that the uncertainty in the preferred model is less than 200m for most of the study area.

Geoffrey A. Phelps; Carter W. Roberts, and Barry C. Moring

2006-03-17

126

Preliminary evaluation of magnitude and frequency of floods in selected small drainage basins in Ohio  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A previous study of flood magitudes and frequencies in Ohio concluded that existing regionalized flood equations may not be adequate for estimating peak flows in small basins that are heavily forested, surface mined, or located in northwestern Ohio. In order to provide a large data base for improving estimation of flood peaks in these basins, 30 crest-stage gages were installed in 1977, in cooperation with the Ohio Department of Transportation, to provide a 10-year record of flood data The study area consists of two distinct parts: Northwestern Ohio, which contains 8 sites, and southern and eastern Ohio, which contains 22 sites in small forested or surface-mined drainage basins. Basin characteristics were determined for all 30 sites for 1978 conditions. Annual peaks were recorded or estimated for all 30 sites for water years 1978-82; an additional year of peak discharges was available at four sites. The 2-year (Q2) and 5-year (Q5) flood peaks were determined from these annual peaks.Q2 and Q5 values also were calculated using published regionalized regression equations for Ohio. The ratios of the observed to predicted 2-year (R2) and 5-year (R5) values were then calculated. This study found that observed flood peaks aree lower than estimated peaks by a significant amount in surface-mined basins. The average ratios of observed to predicted R2 values are 0.51 for basins with more than 40 percent surface-minded land, and 0.68 for sites with any surface-mined land. The average R5 value is 0.55 for sites with more than 40 percent surface-minded land, and 0.61 for sites with any surface-mined land. Estimated flood peaks from forested basins agree with the observed values fairly well. R2 values average 0.87 for sites with 20 percent or more forested land, but no surface-mined land, and R5 values average 0.96. If all sites with more than 20 percent forested land and some surface-mined land are considered, R2 the values average 0.86, and the R5 values average 0.82.

Kolva, J. R.

1985-01-01

127

Effect of initial conditions of a catchment on seasonal streamflow prediction using ensemble streamflow prediction (ESP) technique for the Rangitata and Waitaki River basins on the South Island of New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increased access to water is a key pillar of the New Zealand government plan for economic growths. Variable climatic conditions coupled with market drivers and increased demand on water resource result in critical decision made by water managers based on climate and streamflow forecast. Because many of these decisions have serious economic implications, accurate forecast of climate and streamflow are of paramount importance (eg irrigated agriculture and electricity generation). New Zealand currently does not have a centralized, comprehensive, and state-of-the-art system in place for providing operational seasonal to interannual streamflow forecasts to guide water resources management decisions. As a pilot effort, we implement and evaluate an experimental ensemble streamflow forecasting system for the Waitaki and Rangitata River basins on New Zealand's South Island using a hydrologic simulation model (TopNet) and the familiar ensemble streamflow prediction (ESP) paradigm for estimating forecast uncertainty. To provide a comprehensive database for evaluation of the forecasting system, first a set of retrospective model states simulated by the hydrologic model on the first day of each month were archived from 1972-2009. Then, using the hydrologic simulation model, each of these historical model states was paired with the retrospective temperature and precipitation time series from each historical water year to create a database of retrospective hindcasts. Using the resulting database, the relative importance of initial state variables (such as soil moisture and snowpack) as fundamental drivers of uncertainties in forecasts were evaluated for different seasons and lead times. The analysis indicate that the sensitivity of flow forecast to initial condition uncertainty is depend on the hydrological regime and season of forecast. However initial conditions do not have a large impact on seasonal flow uncertainties for snow dominated catchments. Further analysis indicates that this result is valid when the hindcast database is conditioned by ENSO classification. As a result hydrological forecasts based on ESP technique, where present initial conditions with histological forcing data are used may be plausible for New Zealand catchments.

Singh, Shailesh Kumar; Zammit, Christian; Hreinsson, Einar; Woods, Ross; Clark, Martyn; Hamlet, Alan

2013-04-01

128

Assessing the vulnerability to soil erosion of the Ukai Dam catchments using remote sensing and GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigation of basins for planning soil conservation requires a selective approach to identify smaller hydrological units, which would be suitable for more efficient and targeted conservation management programmes. One criterion, generally used to determine the vulnerability of catchments to erosion, is the sediment yield of a basin. In India, sediment yield data are generally not collected for smaller sub-catchments

SANJAY K. JAIN; M. K. GOEL

2002-01-01

129

Managing the impact of gold panning activities within the context of integrated water resources management planning in the Lower Manyame Sub-Catchment, Zambezi Basin, Zimbabwe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Riverbed alluvial gold panning activities are a cause for degradation of river channels and banks as well as water resources, particularly through accelerated erosion and siltation, in many areas of Zimbabwe. The lower Manyame sub-catchment located in the Northern part of the country is one such area. This study analysed the implications of cross-sectoral coordination of the management of panning and its impacts. This is within the context of conflicts of interests and responsibilities. A situational analysis of different stakeholders from sectors that included mining, environment, water, local government and water users who were located next to identified panning sites, as well as panners was carried out. Selected sites along the Dande River were observed to assess the environmental effects. The study determined that all stakeholder groups perceived siltation and river bank degradation as the most severe effect of panning on water resources, yet there were divergent views with regards to coordination of panning management. The Water Act of 1998 does not give enough power to management institutions including the Lower Manyame Sub-catchment Council to protect water resources from the impacts of panning, despite the fact that the activities affect the water resource base. The Mines and Minerals Act of 1996 remains the most powerful legislation, while mining sector activities adversely affect environmental resources. Furthermore, complexities were caused by differences in the definition of water resources management boundaries as compared to the overall environmental resources management boundaries according to the Environmental Management Act (EMA) of 2000, and by separate yet parallel water and environmental planning processes. Environmental sector institutions according to the EMA are well linked to local government functions and resource management is administrative, enhancing efficient coordination.

Zwane, Nonhlanhla; Love, David; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Shoko, Dennis

130

Preliminary evaluation of the Central Basin aquifer system in Tennessee for receiving injected wastes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An aquifer may be allowed to receive injected wastes where the aquifer meets criteria established in the Environmental Protection Agency 's Underground Injection Control program. The Central Basin aquifer system in Tennessee consists of Ordovician to Devonian carbonate rocks and it occurs from the Valley and Ridge province to west of the Tennessee River. This aquifer system is currently used for drinking water in the Central Basin and western Highland Rim, but is not used for drinking water in the northern Highland Rim nor the Cumberland Plateau provinces. Part of the northern Highland Rim and the Cumberland Plateau, according to the Environmental Protection Agency 's Underground Injection Control criteria, will not be used as a source of drinking water in the future and may be eligible to receive injected wastes. (USGS)

Bradley, M. W.

1985-01-01

131

New Seismic Reflection Profiling Across the Northern Newark Basin USA: Data Acquisition and Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep saline formations in basins underlying major population centers represent opportunities for carbon (CO2) sequestration, but intensive surface development in such settings can hinder field operations to acquire geologic and geophysical data critical to effective characterization. Seismic-reflection is a tool that can be used to characterize basins and their potential capacity for carbon storage. The northern part of the Triassic-Jurassic Newark Rift Basin represents a potential storage opportunity for carbon as a result of its proximity to large-scale CO2 emitters; however, a lack of deep geologic and seismic data from this area has precluded evaluation of this basin to date. As part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Labs (NETL) Carbon Sequestration programs portion of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA)- and NYSERDA-funded TriCarb Consortium for Carbon Sequestration basin characterization project, two new seismic-reflection profiles were acquired in the northern portion of the Newark Basin in Rockland County, NY and Bergen County NJ. This densely developed region, proximal to New York City, presents a variety of challenges for seismic surveys, including route selection and access, community acceptance, high traffic volumes and associated data noise, in addition to regulatory requirements and private property limitations. In spite of these challenges, two high-resolution, perpendicular lines were successfully surveyed in late March and early April, 2011; one dip line extending 21 km (13 mi) across most of the basin (east-west), and a shorter strike line extending 8 km (5 mi, north-south). The survey lines intersected near the location of a planned 8,000 ft stratigraphic borehole to be drilled by the TriCarb consortium. Three vibroseis trucks comprised the source array. Source points were spaced at 36.5 m (120-ft) intervals and geophone accelerometers collected data at a 3.05 m (10 ft) intervals. Seismic-reflection data processing included three main objectives: 1) attenuate high levels of noise related to the high volume traffic, 2) constrain the depth and thickness of the diabase sill at the planned borehole site and 3) optimize the image of potential reservoirs relative to the diabase sill. The high volume traffic noise was successfully removed from the data using several attenuation algorithms. Refraction statics were selected individually to improve reflector coherency over the automated solution and single sensor data were used throughout to maximize frequency bandwidth and reduce smearing related to the offset 2D geometry. In general, these techniques revealed a well-defined basin image that exhibits structural characteristics of an eroded half graben. The diabase sill and potential reservoirs appear to be well-imaged near the planned borehole site. The successful completion of this survey and final product demonstrate that geophysical data acquisition can be achieved in highly developed regions that have carbon storage potential.

Tymchak, M.; Collins, D.; Brown, C.; Conrad, J.; Papadeas, P.; Coueslan, M. L.; Tamulonis, K.; Goldberg, D.; Olsen, P. E.

2011-12-01

132

Preliminary gravity inversion model of basins east of Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yucca Flat eastern extension study area, a 14 kilometer by 45 kilometer region;\\u000acontiguous to Yucca Flat on the west and Frenchman Flat on the south, is being studied to expand;\\u000athe boundary of the Yucca Flat hydrogeologic model. The isostatic residual gravity anomaly was;\\u000ainverted to create a model of the depth of the geologic basins within the

Geoffrey A. Phelps; Carter W. Roberts; Barry C. Moring

2006-01-01

133

Establishment of a hydrological monitoring network in a tropical African catchment: An integrated participatory approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sound decision making for water resources management has to be based on good knowledge of the dominant hydrological processes of a catchment. This information can only be obtained through establishing suitable hydrological monitoring networks. Research catchments are typically established without involving the key stakeholders, which results in instruments being installed at inappropriate places as well as at high risk of theft and vandalism. This paper presents an integrated participatory approach for establishing a hydrological monitoring network. We propose a framework with six steps beginning with (i) inception of idea; (ii) stakeholder identification; (iii) defining the scope of the network; (iv) installation; (v) monitoring; and (vi) feedback mechanism integrated within the participatory framework. The approach is illustrated using an example of the Ngerengere catchment in Tanzania. In applying the approach, the concept of establishing the Ngerengere catchment monitoring network was initiated in 2008 within the Resilient Agro-landscapes to Climate Change in Tanzania (ReACCT) research program. The main stakeholders included: local communities; Sokoine University of Agriculture; Wami Ruvu Basin Water Office and the ReACCT Research team. The scope of the network was based on expert experience in similar projects and lessons learnt from literature review of similar projects from elsewhere integrated with local expert knowledge. The installations involved reconnaissance surveys, detailed surveys, and expert consultations to identify best sites. First, a Digital Elevation Model, land use, and soil maps were used to identify potential monitoring sites. Local and expert knowledge was collected on flow regimes, indicators of shallow groundwater plant species, precipitation pattern, vegetation, and soil types. This information was integrated and used to select sites for installation of an automatic weather station, automatic rain gauges, river flow gauging stations, flow measurement sites and shallow groundwater wells. The network is now used to monitor hydro-meteorological parameters in collaboration with key stakeholders in the catchment. Preliminary results indicate that the network is working well. The benefits of this approach compared to conventional narrow scientific/technical approaches have been shown by gaining rapid insight into the hydrology of the catchment, identifying best sites for the instruments; and voluntary participation of stakeholders in installation, monitoring and safeguarding the installations. This approach has proved simple yet effective and yielded good results. Based on this experience gained in applying the approach in establishing the Ngerengere catchment monitoring network, we conclude that the integrated participatory approach helps to assimilate local and expert knowledge in catchments monitoring which consequently results in: (i) identifying best sites for the hydrologic monitoring; (ii) instilling the sense of ownership; (iii) providing security of the installed network; and (iv) minimizing costs for installation and monitoring.

Gomani, M. C.; Dietrich, O.; Lischeid, G.; Mahoo, H.; Mahay, F.; Mbilinyi, B.; Sarmett, J.

134

GIS-based risk assessment for identifying source areas of non-point nutrient emissions by water erosion (Odra Basin and sub catchment Uecker)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology is presented for identifying and assessing source areas of sediment, phosphorus and nitrate emissions into surface waters and river systems of the South Baltic unconsolidated rock region by water erosion. This task is included into the characterization of the pressures and impacts in river basins as an important milestone in implementing the EC Water Framework Directive set out

Detlef Deumlich; Waldemar Mioduszewski; Ireneusz Kajewski; M Tippl; R Dannowski

2005-01-01

135

Preliminary gravity inversion model of Frenchman Flat Basin, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The depth of the basin beneath Frenchman Flat is estimated using a gravity inversion method. Gamma-gamma density logs from two wells in Frenchman Flat constrained the density profiles used to create the gravity inversion model. Three initial models were considered using data from one well, then a final model is proposed based on new information from the second well. The preferred model indicates that a northeast-trending oval-shaped basin underlies Frenchman Flat at least 2,100 m deep, with a maximum depth of 2,400 m at its northeast end. No major horst and graben structures are predicted. Sensitivity analysis of the model indicates that each parameter contributes the same magnitude change to the model, up to 30 meters change in depth for a 1% change in density, but some parameters affect a broader area of the basin. The horizontal resolution of the model was determined by examining the spacing between data stations, and was set to 500 square meters.

Phelps, Geoffrey A.; Graham, Scott E.

2002-01-01

136

Preliminary gravity inversion model of Frenchman Flat Basin, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The depth of the basin beneath Frenchman Flat is estimated using a gravity inversion method. Gamma-gamma density logs from two wells in Frenchman Flat constrained the density profiles used to create the gravity inversion model. Three initial models were considered using data from one well, then a final model is proposed based on new information from the second well. The preferred model indicates that a northeast-trending oval-shaped basin underlies Frenchman Flat at least 2,100 m deep, with a maximum depth of 2,400 m at its northeast end. No major horst and graben structures are predicted. Sensitivity analysis of the model indicates that each parameter contributes the same magnitude change to the model, up to 30 meters change in depth for a 1% change in density, but some parameters affect a broader area of the basin. The horizontal resolution of the model was determined by examining the spacing between data stations, and was set to 500 square meters.

Phelps, G.A.; Graham, S.E.

2002-10-01

137

A catchment classification scheme using local variance reduction method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryClassification has been considered a fundamental step towards improved catchment hydrology science. This paper proposes a catchment classification scheme where the classification procedure is based on similarity interpreted as distances between catchments. If many sets of model parameters lead to similar model performance for two catchments, they are considered as similar catchments. Two procedures, namely multidimensional scaling (MDS) and local variance reduction (LVR), are undertaken to construct a configuration of n catchments' characteristics in a Euclidean space using information about similar performance between the catchments. MDS is used to determine the appropriate dimension of the Euclidean space and LVR is used to obtain the transformation matrix and the coordinates in the transformed Euclidean space. This scheme avoids the idea of parametric regression-based regionalization approaches where a regression function is pre-defined between model parameters and catchment characteristics. The proposed scheme is tested with a research version of the HBV-IWS model on a total number of 27 catchments selected from the Rhine River Basin. The scheme can be extended to regional calibration of rainfall runoff models as well as regional drought or flood studies once similarity within catchments has been established.

He, Y.; Bárdossy, A.; Zehe, E.

2011-12-01

138

Nutrient removal using biosorption activated media: preliminary biogeochemical assessment of an innovative stormwater infiltration basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soil beneath a stormwater infiltration basin receiving runoff from a 22.7 ha predominantly residential watershed in central Florida, USA, was amended using biosorption activated media (BAM) to study the effectiveness of this technology in reducing inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus to groundwater. The functionalized soil amendment BAM consists of a 1.0:1.9:4.1 mixture (by volume) of tire crumb (to increase sorption capacity), silt and clay (to increase soil moisture retention), and sand (to promote sufficient infiltration), which was applied to develop a prototype stormwater infiltration basin utilizing nutrient reduction and flood control sub-basins. Comparison of nitrate/chloride (NO3-/Cl-) ratios for the shallow groundwater indicate that prior to using BAM, NO3- concentrations were substantially influenced by nitrification or variations in NO3- input. In contrast, for the prototype basin utilizing BAM, NO3-/Cl- ratios indicate minor nitrification and NO3- losses with the exception of one summer sample that indicated a 45% loss. Biogeochemical indicators (denitrifier activity derived from real-time polymerase chain reaction and variations in major ions, nutrients, dissolved and soil gases, and stable isotopes) suggest NO3- losses are primarily attributable to denitrification, whereas dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium is a minor process. Denitrification was likely occurring intermittently in anoxic microsites in the unsaturated zone, which was enhanced by increased soil moisture within the BAM layer and resultant reductions in surface/subsurface oxygen exchange that produced conditions conducive to increased denitrifier activity. Concentrations of total dissolved phosphorus and orthophosphate (PO43-) were reduced by more than 70% in unsaturated zone soil water, with the largest decreases in the BAM layer where sorption was the most likely mechanism for removal. Post-BAM PO43-/Cl- ratios for shallow groundwater indicate predominantly minor increases and decreases in PO43- with the exception of one summer sample that indicated a 50% loss. Differences in nutrient variations between the unsaturated zone and shallow groundwater may be the result of the intensity and duration of nutrient removal processes and mixing ratios with water that had not undergone significant chemical changes. Observed nitrogen and phosphorus losses demonstrate the potential, as well as future research needs to improve performance, of the prototype stormwater infiltration basin using BAM for providing passive, economical, stormwater nutrient-treatment technology to support green infrastructure.

O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Wanielista, Martin P.; Chang, Ni-Bin; Xuan, Zhemin; Harris, Willie G.

2012-01-01

139

Nutrient removal using biosorption activated media: preliminary biogeochemical assessment of an innovative stormwater infiltration basin.  

PubMed

Soil beneath a stormwater infiltration basin receiving runoff from a 23 ha predominantly residential watershed in north-central Florida, USA, was amended using biosorption activated media (BAM) to study the effectiveness of this technology in reducing inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus to groundwater. The functionalized soil amendment BAM consists of a 1.0:1.9:4.1 mixture (by volume) of tire crumb (to increase sorption capacity), silt and clay (to increase soil moisture retention), and sand (to promote sufficient infiltration), which was applied to develop an innovative stormwater infiltration basin utilizing nutrient reduction and flood control sub-basins. Comparison of nitrate/chloride (NO(3)(-)/Cl(-)) ratios for the shallow groundwater indicates that prior to using BAM, NO(3)(-) concentrations were substantially influenced by nitrification or variations in NO(3)(-) input. In contrast, for the new basin utilizing BAM, NO(3)(-)/Cl(-) ratios indicate minor nitrification and NO(3)(-) losses with the exception of one summer sample that indicated a 45% loss. Biogeochemical indicators (denitrifier activity derived from real-time polymerase chain reaction and variations in major ions, nutrients, dissolved and soil gases, and stable isotopes) suggest that NO(3)(-) losses are primarily attributable to denitrification, whereas dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium is a minor process. Denitrification was likely occurring intermittently in anoxic microsites in the unsaturated zone, which was enhanced by the increased soil moisture within the BAM layer and resultant reductions in surface/subsurface oxygen exchange that produced conditions conducive to increased denitrifier activity. Concentrations of total dissolved phosphorus and orthophosphate (PO(4)(3-)) were reduced by more than 70% in unsaturated zone soil water, with the largest decreases in the BAM layer where sorption was the most likely mechanism for removal. Post-BAM PO(4)(3-)/Cl(-) ratios for shallow groundwater indicate predominantly minor increases and decreases in PO(4)(3-) with the exception of one summer sample that indicated a 50% loss. Differences in nutrient variations between the unsaturated zone and shallow groundwater may be the result of the intensity and duration of nutrient removal processes and mixing ratios with water that had undergone little biogeochemical transformation. Observed nitrogen and phosphorus losses demonstrate the potential, as well as the future research needs to improve performance, of the innovative stormwater infiltration basin using BAM for providing passive, economical, stormwater nutrient-treatment technology to support green infrastructure. PMID:22742948

O'Reilly, Andrew M; Wanielista, Martin P; Chang, Ni-Bin; Xuan, Zhemin; Harris, Willie G

2012-08-15

140

Tectonic evolution and subsidence history of the Nenana Basin, Interior Alaska: Preliminary results from seismic-reflection, electric logs and gravity data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nenana basin is an elongated Tertiary structural half-graben located in Interior Alaska, between the Denali fault to the south and the Tintina fault to the north. Although the basin has been explored for oil, gas and coal episodically over the past 40 years, the timing and mechanisms that are responsible for its formation remain unclear. Our preliminary work offers new insights into the tectonic subsidence history and structural history of the basin. Seismic-reflection and gravity data indicate that the Tertiary sedimentary fill of the southern Nenana basin is up to 19,500 ft deep, resulting in a Complete Bouguer gravity anomaly with a low of -50 mgal. The southeast margin of the basin is formed by the Minto fault, a major, steeply dipping, east-northeast striking fault. The fault shows evidence of both significant sinistral strike-slip and down-to-the-west normal faulting, with metamorphic rocks of the Yukon-Tanana terrane exposed to the east and Quaternary deposits to the west. Secondary active normal faults in the basin are oriented west-northwest and east-northeast and indicate a probable ongoing sinistral transtension across the Minto fault zone. Our preliminary interpretation of these geometries suggest that the Nenana basin is superimposed on a crustal block rotating clockwise within a dextral shear zone bounded by the regional Denali and Tintina fault systems, which is probably the direct driver of present tectonic subsidence in the basin. Further details as to the subsidence history of the basin can be derived from the geometry, thickness and seismic character of the Tertiary basin fill. The basin experienced three phases of subsidence and two uplift events during this time, possibly due to regional tectonic events during the history of Interior Alaska. The most important tectonic control that may have resulted in periods of basin subsidence was probably Tertiary strike-slip faulting of the Denali and Tintina fault systems, and subsequent transtension across the Minto fault zone. Growth of the basin during the Tertiary widened the basin to the west. Other far-field driving mechanisms that may have controlled basin subsidence to lesser degrees include subduction of a spreading center along the former coast of southern Alaska (61 Ma- 50 Ma) and resulting oroclinal bending of western Alaska in response to the northwestward shift in plate convergence (60 Ma - 42 Ma). Burial history models further indicate that the basin experienced two different inversion events, possibly in response to increased northward compressive stresses. These compressive regimes may be due to Kula-Pacific plates reorganization (42 Ma - 23 Ma) and/or ongoing flab-slab subduction of Yakutat block beneath south-central Alaska (26 Ma to present day). Our preliminary study accounts for the structure of the southern Nenana basin primarily as the result of combination of Tertiary transtension, transpression and strike-slip faulting, and suggests that the present-day geometry of the basin resembles a pull-apart structure.

Dixit, N. C.; Hanks, C. L.; Tomsich, C. S.

2012-12-01

141

Preliminary Measurements Of N2O Partial Pressures In Rivers of Amazon Basin, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of nitrous oxide (N2O), an important component of the greenhouse effect and with a long residence time in the atmosphere, have significantly increased in this century. The reasons for this atmospheric increase in N2O are still partially unexplained. This uncertainty is worse in relation to aquatic environments. Here we report on preliminary measurements of N2O partial pressures in

C. B. Oliveira; M. F. Rasera; A. V. Krusche; R. L. Victoria; J. E. Richey; H. B. Cunha; B. M. Gomes

2006-01-01

142

Catchment Classification: Connecting Climate, Structure and Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrology does not yet possess a generally accepted catchment classification framework. Such a classification framework needs to: [1] give names to things, i.e. the main classification step, [2] permit transfer of information, i.e. regionalization of information, [3] permit development of generalizations, i.e. to develop new theory, and [4] provide a first order environmental change impact assessment, i.e., the hydrologic implications of climate, land use and land cover change. One strategy is to create a catchment classification framework based on the notion of catchment functions (partitioning, storage, and release). Results of an empirical study presented here connects climate and structure to catchment function (in the form of select hydrologic signatures), based on analyzing over 300 US catchments. Initial results indicate a wide assortment of signature relationships with properties of climate, geology, and vegetation. The uncertainty in the different regionalized signatures varies widely, and therefore there is variability in the robustness of classifying ungauged basins. This research provides insight into the controls of hydrologic behavior of a catchment, and enables a classification framework applicable to gauged and ungauged across the study domain. This study sheds light on what we can expect to achieve in mapping climate, structure and function in a top-down manner. Results of this study complement work done using a bottom-up physically-based modeling framework to generalize this approach (Carrillo et al., this session).

Sawicz, K. A.; Wagener, T.; Sivapalan, M.; Troch, P. A.; Carrillo, G. A.

2010-12-01

143

Rhaetian extensional tectonics in the Slovenian Basin (Southern Alps): Preliminary results of an outcrop study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Late Triassic palaeogeographic position of the Slovenian Basin on the passive continental margin of the Neotethys Ocean to the East and later the Alpine Tethys to the West, implements that its evolution intimately depended on the events in these two areas of extension. Recent research of the "Ba?a dolomite", the typical Norian-Rhaetian lithologic unit of the Slovenian Basin, resulted in recognition of four extensional tectonic events (Gale et al., this volume). The Lower and Middle Norian tectonic pulses can be recognized throughout the basin. A weakened tectonic activity was recognized in the Rhaetian, followed by more pronounced, but spatially restricted tectonics at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. Extensional tectonics was attributed to the diminishing rifting in the Neotethys area and to the incipient opening of the Alpine Tethys (Gale et al., this volume). The ongoing fieldwork in the vicinity of Škofja Loka (central Slovenia) resulted in the discovery of palaeofaults in the small-sized quarry that directly evidences the Late Triassic extensional tectonics. Based on superposition, the observed section of the "Ba?a dolomite" is of the Rhaetian age. The discovery is particularly important because it represents the first direct documentation of the Late Triassic down-faulting in the region. The lowest strata exposed consist of highly bituminous bedded dolostones with scour structures and several meters of mud-supported dolo-breccias. Breccias were downthrown along a normal fault and the created accommodation space filled with bedded dolostone. After complete leveling of topography, another differentiation took place, during which a new normal fault originated, whereas the pre-existing fault was reactivated in an antithetic sense. Thin-bedded dolostones were deposited during slowly abiding movements. The final cessation of tectonics is marked by a uniform deposition of massive dolostone, entirely overlying the fault-dissected sediments.

Opr?kal, P.; Gale, L.; Kolar-Jurkovšek, T.; Roži?, B.

2012-04-01

144

Magnetic Fabric of the Itararé Group, Paraná Basin Brazil: Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The late Paleozoic Itararé Group and equivalent beds in the Paraná Basin of Brazil extend into Paraguay, Argentina, and Uruguay. The Itararé Group contains the most extensive lithological record of Gondwana glaciation in the world. The succession has a maximum subsurface thickness of around 1400 m and extends over a total area greater than 1 million km2. The lower boundary of the Itararé Group is nonconformable with Precambrian to early Paleozoic crystalline basement and with Devonian strata of the Furnas and Ponta Grossa Formations, which together constitute the base of the Gondwana supersequence of the Paraná Basin. This boundary encompasses a hiatus that is loosely estimated in 45 Ma. The upper contact with the overlying Rio Bonito Formation is described as conformable to partially erosional. We performed our study on 13 sites from sedimentary rocks (sandstones and siltites) from the Itararé beds in the Brazilian portion of the Paraná Basin (mainly in São Paulo State). Magnetic fabrics were determined on oriented cylindrical specimens (2.54 cm x 2.2 cm) using the anisotropy of low-field magnetic susceptibility (AMS). Rock-magnetic analyses reveal that magnetite is the main magnetic mineral. In one of the sampled site, however, the ferromagnetic minerals are both magnetite and hematite. Regarding the eingenvector orientations, the sites usually gave good results. The analysis at the individual-site scale defines three AMS fabric types. The first type (7 sites) shows Kmin perpendicular to the bedding plane while Kmax and Kint are scattered within the bedding plane itself. This fabric is usually interpreted as primary (sedimentary-compactional), typical of undeformed sediments. The second type (5 sites) shows good clustering of the AMS principal axes with Kmin still sub-perpendicular to the bedding plane. The third type, pertaining to an intensely folded site previously interpreted as slumped, is characterized in geographic coordinates by well-clustered Kmax in the bedding plane, while Kmin and Kint are distributed along a NE-SW girdle with a sub-vertical, yet elongate Kmin distribution. In stratigraphic coordinates Kmax maintains the same NNW-SSE clustering, yet Kmin and Kint become scattered within the girdle. The second fabric type would be interpreted as combination of sedimentary-compactional and tectonic contributions if some strain markers or evidence for tectonic deformation had been found in the studied area. On the other hand, the tight Kmax grouping in this fabric type could be explained by the action of currents since they cause Kmax to be aligned sub-parallel to the paleocurrent direction.

Raposo, M. B.; Bilardello, D.; Santos, P. R.

2012-12-01

145

Mid-Neolithic Exploitation of Mollusks in the Guanzhong Basin of Northwestern China: Preliminary Results  

PubMed Central

Mollusk remains are abundant in archaeological sites in the Guanzhong Basin of Northwestern China, providing good opportunities for investigations into the use of mollusks by prehistoric humans. Here we report on freshwater gastropod and bivalve mollusks covering the time interval from about 5600 to 4500 cal. yrs BP from sites of Mid-Late Neolithic age. They are identified as Cipangopaludina chinensis and Unio douglasiae, both of which are currently food for humans. The shells are well preserved and have no signs of abrasion. They are all freshwater gastropods and bivalves found in pits without water-reworked deposits and have modern representatives which can be observed in rivers, reservoirs, and paddy fields in the studied region. Mollusk shells were frequently recovered in association with mammal bones, lithic artifacts, and pottery. These lines of evidence indicate that the mollusks are the remains of prehistoric meals. The mollusk shells were likely discarded into the pits by prehistoric humans after the flesh was eaten. However, these mollusk remains may not have been staple food since they are not found in large quantities. Mollusk shell tools and ornaments are also observed. Shell tools include shell knives, shell reaphooks and arrowheads, whereas shell ornaments are composed of pendants and loops. All the shell tools and ornaments are made of bivalve mollusks and do not occur in large numbers. The finding of these freshwater mollusk remains supports the view that the middle Holocene climate in the Guanzhong Basin may have been warm and moist, which was probably favorable to freshwater mollusks growing and developing in the region.

Li, Fengjiang; Wu, Naiqin; Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Wang, Weilin; Ma, Mingzhi; Zhang, Xiaohu; Yang, Xiaoyan

2013-01-01

146

CHARIS - The Contribution to High Asian Runoff from Ice and Snow, Preliminary results from the Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of the CHARIS project is to improve the understanding of the regional water resources of High Asia. In order to achieve this goal CHARIS is a cross-boundary exercise with University of Colorado scientists working directly with researchers at institutions in nine different nations where these ice and snow resources are located (Bhutan, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan). These countries contain the headwaters of the Brahmaputra, Ganges, Indus, Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. This collaboration includes both joint research and capacity building that includes augmented field programs and technical training. While it is generally accepted that a significant component of these water resources results from the melting of glacier ice and seasonal snow, the actual water volume available from these two individual sources remains uncertain. The amount, timing, and spatial patterns of snow and ice melt play key roles in providing water for downstream irrigation, hydropower generation, and general consumption. The fundamental objective of this collaborative study is to develop a thorough and systematic assessment of the separate contributions from seasonal snow melt and from glacier ice melt to the water resources originating across the region. To accomplish project objectives, a suite of satellite remote sensing, reanalysis and ground based data are applied as input to specific snow and ice melt models. Gridded maps of snow and glacier area/elevation are used as input to temperature-index melt models to estimate runoff from snow covered grid cells, based on cell area and melt depth. Glacier melt is estimated in the same way, once seasonal snow has disappeared from glacierized grid cells. The melt models are driven by daily mean temperature from reanalysis data. We are comparing the melt volume time series generated from temperature-index models with measured river discharge volumes and comparing the regional scale results with local sub-basin studies based on energy balance modeling approaches. We are also evaluating the accuracy of the melt model results using isotopic and geochemical tracers to identify and quantify the sources of water (ice melt, snow melt, rainfall and ground water) flowing into selected rivers representing the major hydro-climates of the study area. Preliminary results are presented for the Upper Indus Basin, and the Hunza sub-basin, for the period 2000-2012.

Armstrong, R. L.; Barrett, A. P.; Brodzik, M.; Fetterer, F. M.; Hashmey, D.; Horodyskyj, U. N.; Khalsa, S.; Racoviteanu, A.; Raup, B. H.; Williams, M. W.; Wilson, A.

2013-12-01

147

Heterogeneous geochemistry of catchment acidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many ions in catchment runoff are primarily controlled by heterogeneous reactions. The mass law governing heterogeneous equilibria leads directly to a simple, general expression for catchment acid buffering, which can be estimated from bulk catchment runoff composition. This analysis requires no particular assumptions or data regarding catchment minerals, water flowpaths, reaction pathways, or equilibrium constants. Thus, a catchment's vulnerability to

James W. Kirchner

1992-01-01

148

Modelling the Caspian Sea and its catchment area using a coupled regional atmosphere-ocean model (RegCM4-ROMS): model design and preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the development of a coupled regional atmosphere-ocean model (RegCM4-ROMS) and its implementation over the Caspian Sea basin. The coupled model is run for the period 1999-2008 (after a spin up of 4 yr) and it is compared to corresponding stand alone model simulations and a simulation in which a distributed 1d lake model is run for the Caspian Sea. All model versions show a good performance in reproducing the climatology of the Caspian Sea basin, with relatively minor differences across them. The coupled ROMS produces realistic, although somewhat overestimated, Caspian Sea Surface Temperature (SST), with a considerable improvement compared to the use of the simpler coupled lake model. Simulated near surface salinity and sea currents are also realistic, although the upwelling over the eastern coastal regions is underestimated. The sea ice extent over the shallow northern shelf of the Caspian Sea and its seasonal evolution are well reproduced, however, a significant negative bias in sea-ice fraction exists due to the relatively poor representation of the bathymetry. ROMS also calculates the Caspian Sea Level (CSL), showing that for the present experiment excessive evaporation over the lake area leads to a drift in estimated CSL. Despite this problem, which requires further analysis due to many uncertainties in the estimation of CSL, overall the coupled RegCM4-ROMS system shows encouraging results in reproducing both the climatology of the region and the basic characteristics of the Caspian Sea.

Turuncoglu, U. U.; Giuliani, G.; Elguindi, N.; Giorgi, F.

2013-03-01

149

Modeling the Caspian Sea and its catchment area using a coupled regional atmosphere-ocean model (RegCM-ROMS): model design and preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the development of a coupled regional atmosphere-ocean model (RegCM-ROMS) and its implementation over the Caspian Sea basin. The coupled model is run for the period 1999-2008 (after a spin up of 4 yr) and it is compared to corresponding stand alone model simulations and a simulation in which a distributed 1d lake model is run for the Caspian Sea. All model versions show a good performance in reproducing the climatology of the Caspian Sea basin, with relatively minor differences across them. The coupled ROMS produces realistic, although somewhat overestimated, lake surface temperatures (LSTs), with a considerable improvement compared to the use of the simpler coupled lake model. Simulated near surface salinity and sea currents are also realistic, although the upwelling over the eastern coastal regions is underestimated. The distribution of sea ice over the shallow northern shelf of the Caspian Sea and its seasonal evolution are well reproduced. ROMS also calculates the Caspian Sea Level (CSL), showing that for the present experiment excessive evaporation over the lake area leads to a drift in estimated CSL. Despite this problem which requires further analysis due to many uncertainties in the estimation of CSL, overall the coupled RegCM-ROMS system shows encouraging results in reproducing both the climatology of the region and the basic characteristics of the Caspian Sea.

Turuncoglu, Ufuk; Giuliani, Graziano; Elguindi, Nellie; Giorgi, Filippo

2013-04-01

150

Modeling the Caspian Sea and its catchment area using a coupled regional atmosphere-ocean model (RegCM-ROMS): model design and preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the development of a coupled regional atmosphere-ocean model (RegCM-ROMS) and its implementation over the Caspian Sea basin. The coupled model is run for the period 1999-2008 (after a spin up of 4 yr) and it is compared to corresponding stand alone model simulations and a simulation in which a distributed 1d lake model is run for the Caspian Sea. All model versions show a good performance in reproducing the climatology of the Caspian Sea basin, with relatively minor differences across them. The coupled ROMS produces realistic, although somewhat overestimated, lake surface temperatures (LSTs), with a considerable improvement compared to the use of the simpler coupled lake model. Simulated near surface salinity and sea currents are also realistic, although the upwelling over the eastern coastal regions is underestimated. The distribution of sea ice over the shallow northern shelf of the Caspian Sea and its seasonal evolution are well reproduced. ROMS also calculates the Caspian Sea Level (CSL), showing that for the present experiment excessive evaporation over the lake area leads to a drift in estimated CSL. Despite this problem which requires further analysis due to many uncertainties in the estimation of CSL, overall the coupled RegCM-ROMS system shows encouraging results in reproducing both the climatology of the region and the basic characteristics of the Caspian Sea.

Turuncoglu, U. U.; Giuliani, G.; Elguindi, N.; Giorgi, F.

2012-11-01

151

Preliminary results of polarization signatures for glacial moraines in the Mono Basin, Eastern Sierra Nevada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The valleys of the Mono Basin contain several sets of lateral and terminal moraines representing multiple stages of glaciation. The semi-arid climate with slow weathering rates preserved sequences of nested younger moraines within older ones. There is a well established relative chronology and recently exposure dating provided a new set of numerical dates. The moraines span the late Wisconsin (11-25 ka) to the Illinoian (130-190 ka) glaciations. The Mono Basin area was used as a 'calibration site' to establish remote dating techniques for eventual transfer to the more inaccessible but geomorphically and climatically similar moraines of the South American Andes Mountains. Planned polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery acquired by JPL AIRSAR (South American Campaign) and SIR-C (Andes super-site) are analyzed to establish chronologies of previously undated moraine sequences in a study of Pleistocene climatic change in the Southern Hemisphere. The dry climate and sparse vegetation is also favorable for correlation of ground surface roughness with radar polarization signature. The slow weathering processes acting over thousands of years reduce the size, frequency, and angularity of surface boulders while increasing soil development on the moraines. Field observations based on this hypothesis result in relative ages consistent with those inferred from nested position within the valley. Younger moraines, therefore, will appear rougher than the older smoother moraines at scales measurable at AIRSAR wavelengths. Previously documented effects of ground surface roughness on polarization signatures suggest that analysis of moraine polarization signatures can be useful for relative dating. The technique may be extended to predict numerical ages. The data set reported were acquired on 8 Sep. 1989 with the JPL Airborne SAR (AIRSAR) collecting polarimetric imagery at C- (5.6 cm), L- (24 cm), and P-band (68 cm) with a flight-line parallel to the strike of the mountains. Phase calibration was performed on the analyzed scene by setting the co-phase of a smooth lake to zero as described. Absolute amplitude calibration was not possible because corner reflectors were not deployed.

Forster, Richard R.; Fox, Andrew N.; Isacks, Bryan

1992-01-01

152

Regional climate models for the Carpathian Basin: validation and preliminary results for the future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to their coarse spatial resolution, the results from global climate models (GCM) are not capable to provide detailed regional estimations of future climate conditions. The 10-25 km horizontal resolution regional climate models (RCM) nested into GCMs are expected to improve the regional climate scenarios for the European subregions. Expected regional climate change in the Carpathian basin (located in Central/Eastern Europe) is modelled by four different RCMs. (1) Model PRECIS was developed at the UK Met Office, Hadley Centre. (2) Model RegCM was developed by Giorgi et al., it is available from the ICTP (International Centre for Theoretical Physics). (3) Model REMO was developed by the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg. (4) Model ALADIN/Climate was developed by Météo France on the basis of the internationally developed ALADIN modelling system. The latter one is a spectral model, while the other three RCMs use gridpoint derivatives. The horizontal resolution of the model experiments are 10 km in case of RegCM and ALADIN/Climate, and 25 km in case of PRECIS and REMO. Two of the RCMs (RegCM and PRECIS) are run by the Department of Meteorology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, the other two RCMs are run by the Hungarian Meteorological Service: ALADIN/Climate and REMO. First, control runs of RegCM, PRECIS, REMO and ALADIN are compared for the 1961-1990 period using boundary conditions from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) reanalysis datasets (ERA-40). For the validation, monthly data sets of the Climate Research Unit (CRU) of the University of East Anglia are used. Then, future climate of the Carpathian basin have also been simulated by all RCMs: (1) PRECIS experiments are accomplished for 2071-2100 using A2 and B2 emission scenarios, (2) RegCM and ALADIN/Climate experiments are accomplished for 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 using A1B emission scenario, and (3) REMO experiments are accomplished for 1951-2050 using A1B emission scenario. Results of the future climate simulations are compared and evaluated.

Bartholy, J.; Csima, G.; Horanyi, A.; Hunyady, A.; Pieczka, I.; Pongracz, R.; Szepszo, G.; Torma, C. S.

2009-04-01

153

Diatoms as a fingerprint of sub-catchment contributions to meso-scale catchment runoff  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, calls were made for new eco-hydrological approaches to improve understanding of hydrological processes. Recently diatoms, one of the most common and diverse algal groups that can be easily transported by flowing water due to their small size (~10-200 µm), were used to detect the onset and cessation of surface runoff to small headwater streams and constrain isotopic and hydro-chemical hydrograph separation methods. While the method showed its potential in the hillslope-riparian zone-stream continuum of headwater catchments, the behavior of diatoms and their use for hydrological process research in meso-scale catchments remains uncertain. Diatoms can be a valuable support for isotope and hydro-chemical tracer methods when these become ambiguous with increasing scale. Distribution and abundance of diatom species is controlled by various environmental factors (pH, soil type, moisture conditions, exposition to sunlight, etc.). We therefore hypothesize that species abundance and composition can be used as a proxy for source areas. This presentation evaluates the potential for diatoms to trace source-areas in the nested meso-scale Attert River basin (250 km2, Luxembourg, Europe). We sampled diatom populations in streamwater during one flood event in Fall 2011 in 6 sub-catchments and the basin outlet - 17 to 28 samples/catchment for the different sampling locations. Diatoms were classified and counted in every individual sample. In total more than 400 diatom species were detected. Ordination analysis revealed a clear distinction between communities sampled in different sub-catchments. The species composition at the catchment outlet reflects a mixing of the diatom composition originating from different sub-catchments. This data suggests that diatoms indeed can reflect the geographic origin of stream water at the catchment outlet. The centroids of the ordination analysis might be linked to the physiographic characteristics (geology and land use) of the catchments. In a next step we will increase sample size of catchments to further evaluate if these distinct species assemblages are characteristic for different physiographic units and can indeed unambiguously trace catchment source areas. We will compare the results with classical source area hydrograph separations.

Klaus, Julian; Wetzel, Carlos E.; Martinez-Carreras, Nuria; Ector, Luc; Pfister, Laurent

2014-05-01

154

Construction and preliminary analysis of a deep-sea sediment metagenomic fosmid library from Qiongdongnan Basin, South China Sea.  

PubMed

Preliminary characterization of the microbial phylogeny and metabolic potential of a deep-sea sediment sample from the Qiongdongnan Basin, South China Sea, was carried out using a metagenomic library approach. An effective and rapid method of DNA isolation, purification, and library construction was used resulting in approximately 200,000 clones with an average insert size of about 36 kb. End sequencing of 600 individual clones from the fosmid library generated 1,051 sequences with an average sequence length of 619 bp. Phylogenetic ascription indicated that this library was dominated by Bacteria, predominantly Proteobacteria, though Planctomycetes were also relatively abundant. Sulfate-reducing and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria, which play important roles in the cycling of sedimentary nutrients, were abundant in the library. Cluster of orthologous groups category analysis showed that most of the genes contained in the end sequences were related to metabolism, and with cellular processes and signaling. Functional groups assigned by SEED (subsystems-based annotations) highlighted the existence of 'one-carbon' metabolism within this community as well as identifying functional genes involved in methanogenesis. Furthermore, diverse genes involved in the biodegradation of xenobiotics were found using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes metabolic pathway analysis. PMID:20514504

Hu, Yongfei; Fu, Chengzhang; Yin, Yeshi; Cheng, Gong; Lei, Fang; Yang, Xi; Li, Jing; Ashforth, Elizabeth Jane; Zhang, Lixin; Zhu, Baoli

2010-11-01

155

Preliminary report on coal resources of the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Coal Resource Assessment (NCRA) project by the U.S. Geological Survey is designed to assess US coal with the greatest potential for development in the next 20 to 30 years. Coal in the Wyodak-Anderson (WA) coal zone in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana is plentiful, clean, and compliant with EPA emissions standards. This coal is considered to be very desirable for development for use in electric power generation. The purpose of this NCRA study was to compile all available data relating to the Wyodak- Anderson coal, correlate the beds that make up the WA coal zone, create digital files pertaining to the study area and the WA coal, and produce a variety of reports on various aspects of the assessed coal unit. This report contains preliminary calculations of coal resources for the WA coal zone and is one of many products of the NCRA study. Coal resource calculations in this report were produced using both public and confidential data from many sources. The data was manipulated using a variety of commercially available software programs and several custom programs. A general description of the steps involved in producing the resource calculations is described in this report.

Ellis, Margaret S.; Gunther, Gregory L.; Flores, Romeo M.; Ochs, Allen M.; Stricker, Gary D.; Roberts, Steven B.; Taber, Thomas T.; Bader, Lisa R.; Schuenemeyer, John H.

1998-01-01

156

Monitoring of wild fish health at selected sites in the Great Lakes Basin: methods and preliminary results  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During fall 2010 and spring 2011, a total of 119 brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus), 136 white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), 73 smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and 59 largemouth bass (M. salmoides) were collected from seven Great Lakes Basin Areas of Concern and one Reference Site. Comprehensive fish health assessments were conducted in order to document potential adverse affects from exposure to complex chemical mixtures. Fish were necropsied on site, blood samples obtained, pieces of liver, spleen, kidney, gill and any abnormalities placed in fixative for histopathology. Liver samples were saved for gene expression analysis and otoliths were removed for aging. A suite of fish health indicators was developed and implemented for site comparisons and to document seasonal effects and species differences in response to environmental conditions. Organism level (grossly visible lesions, condition factor), tissue level (microscopic pathology, organosomatic indices, micronuclei, and other nuclear abnormalities), plasma factors (reproductive steroid hormones, vitellogenin), and molecular (gene expression) indicators were included. This report describes the methods and preliminary results.

Blazer, Vicki S.; Mazik, Patricia M.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Braham, Ryan; Hahn, Cassidy; Walsh, Heather L.; Sperry, Adam

2014-01-01

157

Modeling fluid flow and heat transfer at Basin and Range faults: preliminary results for Leach hot springs, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The hydrothermal systems of the Basin and Range Province are often located at or near major range bounding normal faults. The flow of fluid and energy at these faults is affected by the advective transfer of heat and fluid from an to the adjacent mountain ranges and valleys, This paper addresses the effect of the exchange of fluid and energy between the country rock, the valley fill sediments, and the fault zone, on the fluid and heat flow regimes at the fault plane. For comparative purposes, the conditions simulated are patterned on Leach Hot Springs in southern Grass Valley, Nevada. Our simulations indicated that convection can exist at the fault plane even when the fault is exchanging significant heat and fluid with the surrounding country rock and valley fill sediments. The temperature at the base of the fault decreased with increasing permeability of the country rock. Higher groundwater discharge from the fault and lower temperatures at the base of the fault are favored by high country rock permabilities and fault transmissivities. Preliminary results suggest that basal temperatures and flow rates for Leach Hot Springs can not be simulated with a fault 3 km deep and an average regional heat flow of 150 mW/m2 because the basal temperature and mass discharge rates are too low. A fault permeable to greater depths or a higher regional heat flow may be indicated for these springs.

López, Dina L.; Smith, Leslie; Storey, Michael L.

1994-01-01

158

Southern Great Basin seismological data report for 1981 and preliminary data analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Earthquake data for the calendar year 1981 are reported for earthquakes occurring within and adjacent to the southern Great Basin seismograph network. Locations, magnitudes, and selected focal mechanisms for these events and events from prior years of network operations are presented and discussed in relation to the geologic framework of the region. These data are being collected to aid in the evaluation of the seismic hazard to a potential repository site at Yucca Mountain in the southwestern Nevada Test Site. The regional stress field orientation, as inferred from focal mechanisms, is characterized by a northwest-directed least compressive stress and a northeast-directed greatest compressive stress. We infer from this stress orientation that faults of north to northeast trend are most susceptible to slip. Faults of this orientation exist within the Yucca Muntain block, but they probably have not moved significantly in the last 500,000 years. Yucca Mountain lies within a fairly large area of relatively low level seismicity extending west to the Funeral Mountains, south to the Black Mountains and Nopah Range, and southeast to the Spring Mountains. One M 1.7 earthquake has been located in the Yucca Mountain block in about I year of intense monitoring. At present somewhat conflicting geologic, seismologic, and stress evidence hinder definitive conclusions about the seismic hazard at the proposed repository site.

Rogers, A. M.; Harmsen, S. C.; Carr, W. J.; Spence, W.

1983-01-01

159

Channel erosion and sediment transport in Pheasant Branch basin near Middleton, Wisconsin; a preliminary report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this 5-year study is to (1) evaluate the sediment transport, streamflow characteristics, and stream-channel morphology, (2) relate the above to land-use practices; and (3) evaluate the effect that changes in land-use practices will have on Pheasant Branch basin near Middleton, Wis. This report presents findings of sediment transport, streamflow characteristics, and stream-channel morphology from the first year of the study and documents historical erosion. The study is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the city of Middleton and the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey. Pheasant Branch, a tributary to Lake Mendota, drains 23.1 square miles of glacial drift. Channel erosion is severe within Middleton, requiring extensive use of erosion-control structures. Occasionally, channel dredging near the mouth and into Lake Mendota is required for boating. Comparison of stream-channel surveys of 1971 and 1977 shows the lowest part of the channel lowered 3 to 4 feet at some sites in the urban reach from U.S. Highway 12 downstream to Century Avenue. Downstream from Century Avenue, channel width increased from about 35 to 48 feet and channel cross-section area increased about 86 percent. A survey of Pheasant Branch in 1971 provided data for quantification of stream-channel changes since that time. Six erosion-control structures previously installed appear to have had some benefit in controlling head cutting in the channel. (USGS).

Grant, R. Stephen; Goddard, Gerald

1980-01-01

160

Site Effect Analysis in the Izmit Basin of Turkey: Preliminary Results from the Wave Propagation Simulation using the Spectral Element Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sedimentary basins affect the propagation characteristics of the seismic waves and cause significant ground motion amplification during an earthquake. While the impedance contrast between the sedimentary layer and bedrock predominantly controls the resonance frequencies and their amplitudes (seismic amplification), surface waves generated within the basin, make the waveforms more complex and longer in duration. When a dense network of weak and/or strong motion sensors is available, site effect or more specifically sedimentary basin amplification can be directly estimated experimentally provided that significant earthquakes occur during the period of study. Alternatively, site effect can be investigated through simulation of ground motion. The objective of this study is to investigate the 2-D site effect in the Izmit Basin located in the eastern Marmara region of Turkey, using the currently available bedrock topography and shear-wave velocity data. The Izmit Basin was formed in Plio-Quaternary period and is known to be a pull-apart basin controlled by the northern branch of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (?engör et al. 2005). A thorough analysis of seismic hazard is important since the city of Izmit and its metropolitan area is located in this region. Using a spectral element code, SPECFEM2D (Komatitsch et al. 1998), this work presents some of the preliminary results of the 2-D seismic wave propagation simulations for the Izmit basin. The spectral-element method allows accurate and efficient simulation of seismic wave propagation due to its advantages over the other numerical modeling techniques by means of representation of the wavefield and the computational mesh. The preliminary results of this study suggest that seismic wave propagation simulations give some insight into the site amplification phenomena in the Izmit basin. Comparison of seismograms recorded on the top of sedimentary layer with those recorded on the bedrock show more complex waveforms with higher amplitudes on seismograms recorded at the free surface. Furthermore, modeling reveals that observed seismograms include surface waves whose excitation is clearly related to the basin geometry.

Firtana Elcomert, Karolin; Kocaoglu, Argun

2014-05-01

161

Isotopic monitoring (2H, 18O) of the St. Lawrence and Ottawa rivers between 1997 and 2003- Links with interannual climatic variability and hydrological processes in their catchment basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study based on a water isotope (18O and 2H) monitoring of the St. Lawrence and Ottawa rivers (Canada) is a contribution to the international IAEA project: Isotopes tracing of hydrologic processes in large river basins [Gibson et al., 2002. EOS 83: 613 et p.]. Sampling of the St. Lawrence and Ottawa river waters started in 1997, on a biweekly to weekly basis. Monitoring stations are located at Montreal (i.e., at the outlet of the Great Lakes), Quebec City (the estuary of the St. Lawrence) and at the Carillon hydroelectric dam, near the outlet of a major tributary, the Ottawa River into the St. Lawrence itself. The goal of the study was to examine the seasonal and interannual variability of isotopic signatures of the St. Lawrence and Ottawa rivers, in relation notably with interannual climatic variations, and seasonal hydrologic processes in the watershed (summer evaporation, snowmelt, transit time of precipitation signals into runoff). Waters sampled at the three stations depict distinct isotopic compositions. At Montreal, relatively stable isotopic composition are observed with a mean weighted annual value of -54 % for 2H and -7.1 % for 18O. The Ottawa River water at Carillon also displays stable isotopic compositions but much lighter values (weighted mean annual values: -80 % for 2H and -10.8 % for 18O). Finally, isotopic compositions at Quebec City are intermediate between those of Montreal and Carillon, but show a much larger variability. They reflect mixing between the heavy isotope enriched Great Lakes water, the lighter water from the Ottawa River, and highly variable inputs from smaller tributaries (from the Laurentides and Appalachian mountains). The mean weighted isotopic compositions at Quebec City are -65 % and -8.6 %, respectively for 2H and 18O). Evaporative enrichment, in particular during low water level episodes, seem to be more important in the Ottawa River catchment than in the Great Lakes basin, based on a comparison of isotopic clusters at Montreal and Carillon (figure 1). Relatively strongly correlated relationships are observed between isotopic compositions at the estuary of the St. Lawrence River (Quebec) and hydrologic variables such as water discharge. The best fit follows the equation : 2HQUEBEC = -1.9E-03 * QQUEBEC - 41.9, R2= 0.59. Such a relationship leads us to conclude that some properties of the regional hydrology can be relatively well described by stable isotope systematics. In contradiction, air temperatures are not well correlated with isotopic signatures partly because of lag times between them in relation to transit time of precipitation signal into runoff. A comparison of isotopic values in precipitation to those of runoff gives an estimate of the mean transfer time of water from the catchment to the river estuary. For summer heavy isotope enriched, but scarcer precipitation, a transit time of approximately 3 months is observed, whereas in winter, it can be as long as 4 to 5 months due to the residence time of winter precipitation in the snowcover. The assessment of the interannual variability of the St. Lawrence River isotopic system will require a better estimate of the isotopic inprint from small tributaries (that drain isotopically buffered ground waters, particularly in winter). Data are presently at processing stage.

Myre, A.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.

2004-05-01

162

Hydrology, secondary growth, and elevation accuracy in two preliminary Amazon Basin SRTM DEMs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two preliminary Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation models (SRTM DEMs) of Manaus (1S to 5S and 59W to 63W) and Rondonia (9S to 12S and 61W to 64W) were received from the "PI Processor" at NASA JPL. We compared the Manaus DEM (C-band) with a previously constructed Cabaliana floodplain classification based on Global RainForest Mapping (GRFM) JERS-1 SAR data (L-band) and determined that habitats of open water, bare ground, and flooded shrub contained the lowest elevations; macrophyte and non-flooded shrub habitats are marked by intermediate elevations; and the highest elevations are found within flooded and non-flooded forest. Although the water surface typically produces specular reflections, double-bounce travel paths result from dead, leafless trees found across the Balbina reservoir near Manaus. There (i.e., in Balbina) the water surface is marked by pixel-to-pixel height changes of generally 0 to 1 m and changes across a ˜100 km transect rarely exceed 3 m. Reported SRTM errors throughout the transect range from 1 to 2 m with some errors up to 5 m. The smooth Balbina surface contrasts with the wind-roughened Amazon River surface where SRTM height variations easily range from 1 to 10 m (reported errors often exceed 5 m). Deforestation and subsequent regrowth in the Rondonia DEM is remarkably clear. Our colleagues used a 20 year sequence of Landsat TM/MSS classified imagery to delineate areas in various stages of secondary growth and we find a general trend of increasing vegetation height with increasing age. Flow path networks derived from the Cabaliana floodplain DEM are in general agreement with networks previously extracted from the GRFM mosaics; however, watershed boundaries differ. We have also developed an algorithm for extracting channel widths, which is presently being applied to the DEM and classified imagery to determine morphological variations between reaches.

Alsdorf, D.; Hess, L.; Sheng, Y.; Souza, C.; Pavelsky, T.; Melack, J.; Dunne, T.; Hendricks, G.; Ballantine, A.; Holmes, K.

2003-04-01

163

Impact and sustainability of low-head drip irrigation kits, in the semi-arid Gwanda and Beitbridge Districts, Mzingwane Catchment, Limpopo Basin, Zimbabwe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resource-poor smallholder farmers in the semi-arid Gwanda and Beitbridge districts face food insecurity on an annual basis due to a combination of poor and erratic rainfall (average 500 mm/a and 345 mm/a, respectively, for the period 1970-2003) and technologies inappropriate to their resource status. This impacts on both household livelihoods and food security. In an attempt to improve food security in the catchment a number of drip kit distribution programmes have been initiated since 2003 as part of an on-going global initiative aimed at 2 million poor households per year. A number of recent studies have assessed the technical performance of the drip kits in-lab and in-field. In early 2005 a study was undertaken to assess the impacts and sustainability of the drip kit programme. Representatives of the NGOs, local government, traditional leadership and agricultural extension officers were interviewed. Focus group discussions with beneficiaries and other villagers were held at village level. A survey of 114 households was then conducted in two districts, using a questionnaire developed from the output of the interviews and focus group discussions. The results from the study showed that the NGOs did not specifically target the distribution of the drip kits to poor members of the community (defined for the purpose of the study as those not owning cattle). Poor households made up 54% of the beneficiaries. This poor targeting of vulnerable households could have been a result of conditions set by some implementing NGOs that beneficiaries must have an assured water source. On the other hand, only 2% of the beneficiaries had used the kit to produce the expected 5 harvests over the 2 years, owing to problems related to water shortage, access to water and also pests and diseases. About 51% of the respondents had produced at least 3 harvests and 86% produced at least 2 harvests. Due to water shortages during the dry season 61% of production with the drip kit occurred during the wet season. This suggests that most households use the drip kits as supplementary irrigation. Conflicts between beneficiaries and water point committees or other water users developed in some areas especially during the dry season. The main finding from this study was that low cost drip kit programs can only be a sustainable intervention if implemented as an integral part of a long-term development program, not short-term relief programs and the programme should involve a broad range of stakeholders. A first step in any such program, especially in water scarce areas such as Gwanda and Beitbridge, is a detailed analysis of the existing water resources to assess availability and potential conflicts, prior to distribution of drip kits.

Moyo, Richard; Love, David; Mul, Marloes; Mupangwa, Walter; Twomlow, Steve

164

A preliminary assessment of sources of nitrate in springwaters, Suwannee River basin, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A cooperative study between the Suwannee River Water Management District (SRWMD) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is evaluating sources of nitrate in water from selected springs and zones in the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Suwannee River Basin. A multi-tracer approach, which consists of the analysis of water samples for naturally occurring chemical and isotopic indicators, is being used to better understand sources and chronology of nitrate contamination in the middle Suwannee River region. In July and August 1997, water samples were collected and analyzed from six springs and two wells for major ions, nutrients, and dissolved organic carbon. These water samples also were analyzed for environmental isotopes [18O/16O, D/H, 13C/12C, 15N/14N] to determine sources of water and nitrate. Chlorofluorocarbons (CCl3F, CCl2F2, and C2Cl3F3) and tritium (3H) were analyzed to assess the apparent ages (residence time) of springwaters and water from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Delta 15N-NO3 values in water from the six springs range from 3.94 per mil (Little River Springs) to 8.39 per mil (Lafayette Blue Spring). The range of values indicates that nitrate in the sampled springwaters most likely originates from a mixture of inorganic (fertilizers) and organic (animal wastes) sources, although the higher delta 15N-NO3 value for Lafayette Blue Spring indicates that an organic source of nitrogen is likely at this site. Water samples from the two wells sampled in Lafayette County have high delta 15N-NO3 values of 10.98 and 12.1 per mil, indicating the likelihood of an organic source of nitrate. These two wells are located near dairy and poultry farms, where leachate from animal wastes may contribute nitrate to ground water. Based on analysis of chlorofluorocarbons in ground water, the mean residence time of water in springs ranges from about 12 to 25 years. Chlorofluorocarbons-modeled recharge dates for water samples from the two shallow zones in the Upper Floridan aquifer range from 1985 to 1989.

Katz, B. G.; Hornsby, H. D.

1998-01-01

165

Total mercury concentrations in an industrialized catchment, the Thur River basin (north-eastern France): geochemical background level and contamination factors.  

PubMed

River bottom sediments and soils were collected from the industrialized Thur River basin (north-eastern France) to assess mercury contamination. The regional geochemical background level of total mercury was evaluated to calculate mercury contamination factors (Fc) in soils and river bottom sediments. Our estimate of the mean background mercury levels in river sediments and soils, not affected by human activities, was 232 ng x g(-1) (range: 27-406 ng x g(-1)). Sediments contaminated by the effluent from a chlor-alkali plant yielded the highest contamination factors (Fc=1784). Contamination factors of surficial soils within 1 km of the industrial site range from 6.3 to 43.6. This contamination is attributed to diffuse atmospheric deposition from this local plant. However, even upstream from this industrial area elevated contamination factors were recorded for river bottom sediments (Fc=3.2 to 26.4) and for one alluvial soil profile (Fc=10). This is possibly due to past pollution resulting from waste water discharges. Mercury contamination in the different horizons of alluvial soils is not correlated with soil organic carbon content, but may be the result of occasional accidental pollution arising from the introduction of contaminated suspended particulate matter by the Thur River during periods of flooding. PMID:12738301

Rémy, S; Prudent, P; Hissler, C; Probst, J L; Krempp, G

2003-07-01

166

Modeling sediment yields in Italian catchments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment yield observations, derived from 40 long-term sedimentation records in Italian reservoirs, were used to calibrate and validate the spatially distributed sediment delivery model WaTEM\\/SEDEM using the best data available at national scale. The sediment yield data set includes records from semi-natural catchments in northern Italy as well as agricultural and semi-natural basins in central and southern Italy. The average

Anton Van Rompaey; Paolo Bazzoffi; Robert J. A. Jones; Luca Montanarella

2005-01-01

167

Regional stochastic estimation of the groundwater catchment for distributed hydrological modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rainfall-runoff modeling typically assumes that the groundwater catchment boundary coincide with the topographic one. While this is often a reasonable assumption for large and and mesoscale catchments (> 103 km2), this assumption may lead to large errors of streamflow in small scale catchments (? 102 km2), in particular in certain geological settings. The Ammer catchment (135 km2) in the upper Neckar river basin (Germany) is a prime example where groundwater and topographic catchment boundaries are significantly distinct from each other. The catchment is characterized by a complex sequence of fractured, karstic Triassic rock formations. These strata gently dip into ESE direction governing groundwater flow. Analysis of tracer experiments conducted in the 1970s indicates that the boundary overlap could be less than 80 percent. Further, a modelling study of the upper Neckar river basin using the distributed hydrological model mHM showed Nash-Sutcliff efficiencies (NSE) < 0.4 for simulated runoff in the Ammer sub-basin whereas higher efficiencies (NSE ~ 0.7) were obtained for most of the other 21 sub basins in the region. In this study we present a methodology to simultaneously estimate the regional groundwater catchment boundaries of the Ammer and its surrounding basins. In a first step we derive the best possible fit between mHM simulated and observed runoff for the individual sub-basins in the Ammer region and determine the trade-off between the fits of the individual basins using the muliobjective optimization method AMALGAM. We further present a strategy to estimate the regional groundwater catchment boundaries with the aim to improve runoff predictions in the Ammer catchment while not deteriorating runoff predictions in the surrounding basins. Our strategy involves a modification of the mHM model to account for ground water import/export from neighboring catchments while maintaining full mass balance of the surrounding basins. Groundwater catchment boundaries are then obtained by innovative stochastic optimization techniques based on Simulated Annealing that are constrained by expert knowledge about the hydrological system, e.g. a minimum overlap of groundwater and topographical catchment boundaries. The methods developed herein are useful for both plausibility and hypothesis testing as well as hydrological modelling of small scale catchments where conventional models fail due to the mismatch between groundwater and topographical catchment boundaries.

Wöhling, Th.; Samaniego, L.; Selle, B.; Kumar, R.; Zink, M.

2012-04-01

168

Sources of carbon and nitrogen in streams draining urban catchments in the Geum River basin, Korea, based on multiple isotopic tracers and water chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

?13CDIC, ?13CDOC, ?18ONO3- and ?15NNO3- along with chemical compositions were determined in three tributary streams (i.e., Gap, Yudeung and Daejeon streams) draining populated Daejeon metropolitan area of the Geum River basin, Korea. This study is aiming to elucidate the relative contribution of various anthropogenic and natural sources of carbon and nitrogen in urban streams. The river chemistry and isotopic compositions significantly varied with seasonal changes in water regimes. Due to East Asian monsoon climate, precipitation in the study area is concentrated during the wet period (Jul. ~ Sep.) thereby having increased stream discharges and a rapid turnover of subsurface waters. This seasonally concentrated precipitation results in relatively dry periods during Oct. through June with decreased stream discharges that consist of relatively high baseflow components. Compared to the dry periods, streams during the wet period exhibited lower EC, HCO3-, ?13CDIC, ?13CDOC and ?15NNO3-, but higher Si and NO3- concentrations. From the results, it is estimated that the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) was derived dominantly from sedimentary carbonates during dry periods but the proportion of silicate weathering products increased during the wet period. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was mainly allochthonous, and the input of young and labile organic materials from soils increased during the wet period. The increase of NO3- concentration during the wet period was due to the input of soil- and fertilizer-derived nitrates, while nitrates during dry periods were mostly derived from the manure and sewage. The results of this study can be used to assess and manage anthropogenic influences on carbon and nitrogen cycles in urban streams.

Shin, W.; Lee, D.; Lee, K.; Ryu, J.

2011-12-01

169

Stream macroinvertebrate response to catchment urbanisation (Georgia, U.S.A.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. The effects of catchment urbanisation on water quality were examined for 30 streams (stratified into 15, 50 and 100 km2 ±2 5% catchments) in the Etowah River basin, Georgia, U.S.A. We examined relationships between land cover (implying cover and use) in these catchments (e.g. urban, forest and agriculture) and macroinvertebrate assemblage attributes using several previously published indices to

A. H. R OY; A. D. R OSEMOND; J. B. W ALLACE; Owings Mills

2003-01-01

170

Inferring catchment precipitation by doing hydrology backward: A test in 24 small and mesoscale catchments in Luxembourg  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complexity of hydrological systems and the necessary simplification of models describing these systems remain major challenges in hydrological modeling. Kirchner's (2009) approach of inferring rainfall and evaporation from discharge fluctuations by "doing hydrology backward" is based on the assumption that catchment behavior can be conceptualized with a single storage-discharge relationship. Here we test Kirchner's approach using a densely instrumented hydrologic measurement network spanning 24 geologically diverse subbasins of the Alzette catchment in Luxembourg. We show that effective rainfall rates inferred from discharge fluctuations generally correlate well with catchment-averaged precipitation radar estimates in catchments ranging from less than 10 to more than 1000 km2 in size. The correlation between predicted and observed effective precipitation was 0.8 or better in 23 of our 24 catchments, and prediction skill did not vary systematically with catchment size or with the complexity of the underlying geology. Model performance improves systematically at higher soil moisture levels, indicating that our study catchments behave more like simple dynamical systems with unambiguous storage-discharge relationships during wet conditions. The overall mean correlation coefficient for all subbasins for the entire data set increases from 0.80 to 0.95, and the mean bias for all basins decreases from -0.61 to -0.35 mm d-1. We propose an extension of Kirchner's approach that uses in situ soil moisture measurements to distinguish wet and dry catchment conditions.

Krier, R.; Matgen, P.; Goergen, K.; Pfister, L.; Hoffmann, L.; Kirchner, J. W.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Savenije, H. H. G.

2012-10-01

171

The contribution of sea-level rise to flooding in large river catchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is expected to both impact sea level rise as well as flooding. Our study focuses on the combined effect of climate change on upper catchment precipitation as well as on sea-level rise at the river mouths and the impact this will have on river flooding both at the coast and further upstream. We concentrate on the eight catchments of the Amazonas, Congo, Orinoco, Ganges/Brahmaputra/Meghna, Mississippi, St. Lawrence, Danube and Niger rivers. To assess the impact of climate change, upper catchment precipitation as well as monthly mean thermosteric sea-level rise at the river mouth outflow are taken from the four CCSM4 1° 20th Century ensemble members as well as from six CCSM4 1° ensemble members for the RCP scenarios RCP8.5, 6.0, 4.5 and 2.6. Continuous daily time series for average catchment precipitation and discharge are available for each of the catchments. To arrive at a future discharge time series, we used these observations to develop a simple statistical hydrological model which can be applied to the modelled future upper catchment precipitation values. The analysis of this surrogate discharge time series alone already yields significant changes in flood return levels as well as flood duration. Using the geometry of the river channel, the backwater effect of sea-level rise is incorporated in our analysis of both flood frequencies and magnitudes by calculating the effective additional discharge due to the increase in water level at the river mouth outflow, as well as its tapering impact upstream. By combining these effects, our results focus on the merged impact of changes in extreme precipitation with increases in river height due to sea-level rise at the river mouths. Judging from our preliminary results, the increase in effective discharge due to sea-level rise cannot be neglected when discussing late 21st century flooding in the respective river basins. In particular, we find that especially in countries with low elevation gradient, flood characteristics are impacted by changes in sea-level rise as far inland as 150 kilometers. Therefore, a larger population than the coastal inhabitants alone are exposed to risks of further projected increases of sea-level rise. A prime example for a megacity greatly put at risk by this is Dhaka City in Bangladesh, with a population of roughly 14 million people.

Thiele-Eich, I.; Hopson, T. M.; Gilleland, E.; Lamarque, J.; Hu, A.; Simmer, C.

2012-12-01

172

Water balance modeling of Upper Blue Nile catchments using a top-down approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water balances of twenty catchments in the Upper Blue Nile basin have been analyzed using a top-down modeling approach based on Budyko's hypotheses. The objective of this study is to obtain better understanding of water balance dynamics of upper Blue Nile catchments on annual and monthly time scales and on a spatial scale of meso scale to large scale.

S. Tekleab; S. Uhlenbrook; Y. Mohamed; H. H. G. Savenije; M. Temesgen; J. Wenninger

2011-01-01

173

Analysis of Site Effect in the Izmit Basin of Turkey by Wave Propagation Simulation Using the Spectral Element Method: Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sedimentary basins generally cause significant ground motion amplification during an earthquake. Along with the resonance controlled by the impedance contrast between the sedimentary cover and bedrock, surface waves generated within the basin make the waveforms more complex and longer in duration. When a dense network of weak and/or strong motion sensors is available, site effect or more specifically sedimentary basin amplification can be directly estimated experimentally provided that significant earthquakes occur during the period of study. Alternatively, site effect can be investigated through simulation of ground motion. The objective of this study is to investigate the 2-D and/or 3-D site effect in the Izmit Basin located in the eastern Marmara region of Turkey, using the currently available bedrock topography and shear-wave velocity data. The Izmit Basin was formed in Plio-Quaternary period and is known to be controlled by the northern branch of the North Anatolian Fault Zone. A thorough analysis of seismic hazard is important since the city of Izmit and its metropolitan area is located in this region. This work presents some of the preliminary results obtained from 2-D and 3-D seismic wave propagation simulations using the spectral element method, which is based on high order polynomial approximation of the weak formulation of the wave equation. In this study, the numerical simulations were carried out with SPECFEM2D/3D program. Comparison of seismograms recorded on the top of sedimentary layer with those recorded on the bedrock show more complex waveforms with higher amplitudes on seismograms recorded at the free surface. Furthermore, modeling clearly reveals that observed seismograms include surface waves whose excitation is clearly related with the basin geometry.

Firtana Elcomert, K.; Kocaoglu, A. H.

2013-12-01

174

Flash flood warning in mountainaious areas: using damages reports to evaluate the method at small ungauged catchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Europe, flash floods mainly occur in the Mediterranean area on small catchments with a short concentration time. Anticipating this kind of events is a major issue in order to reduce the resulting damages. But for many of the impacted catchments, no data are available to calibrate and evaluate hydrological models. In this context, the aims of this study is to develop and evaluate a warning method for the Southern French Alps. This area is of particular interest, because it regroups different hydrological regimes, from purely Mediterranean to purely Alpine influences. Two main issues should be addressed: - How to define the hydrological model and its parameterization for an application in an ungauged context? - How to evaluate the final results on 'real' ungauged catchments? The first issue is a classic one. Using a 'observed' data set (154 streamflow stations with catchment areas ranging from 5 to 1000 km² and distributed rainfall available on the 1997-2006 period), we developed a regional model specifically for the studied area. For this purpose, the AIGA method, initially developed for Mediterranean catchments was adapted, in order to take into account snowmelt and to produce baseflows. Then, different parameterizations were tested, derived from different simple regionalisation techniques: - the same parameters set for the whole area defined as the median of the local calibrated parameters; - the same technique as the previous case, but by considering different sub-areas, defined as "hydro-climatically" homogeneous by previous studies; - and finally the neighbour's method. The second issue is more original. Indeed, in most studies the final evaluation is done using gauged stations as they were 'ungauged', ie keeping the at-site discharge data only for validation ant not for calibration. The main disadvantage of this approach is that the evaluation is made at the scale of the gauged catchments, which are in general greater than the catchments impacted by flash floods. Furthermore, many events are missed, since flash floods can occur very locally. In this study, we try to evaluate the results on observations collected by witnesses on 'real' ungauged catchments. The proposed method consists to use an historical data-base of flood damages reports. These data have been collected by local authorities (RTM). Finally, 139 ungauged locations were considered, where we simulated discharges for the entire 1997-2006 period. The comparison of these modelled discharges with the occurrence of an observed discharge makes it possible to determine a local 'modelled' discharge threshold above it most of the damages are observed. The pertinence of this threshold (and consequently of the model used for the simulation) is assessed by considering classical contingency statistics: probability of detection (POD), false alarm rate (FAR) and critical success index (CSI). The main advantage of this historical approach is the availability of many events in the database on very small catchments (50% less than 20 km²). The preliminary results show that on gauged basins, the base flow and the snowmelt added modules improve the performance of the AIGA method when locally calibrated. But when results are applied on real ungauged catchments, improvements become less obvious, with a small advantage for neighbour's method. These results shows the difficulty arising with ungauged catchments, specially when target catchments are smaller than the gauged 'parents'. It also illustrates the interest of the damages database used as 'proxy' data to investigate the model performances at smaller scales. This work has been done in the framework of the RHYTMME project, with the financial support of the European Union, the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Region and the French Ministry in charge of Ecology.

Defrance, Dimitri; Javelle, Pierre; Ecrepont, Stéphane; Andreassian, Vazken

2013-04-01

175

Catchment classification and model parameter transfer with a view to regionalisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physiographic and climatic catchment characteristics are responsible for catchment response behaviour, whereas hydrological model parameters describe catchment properties in such a way to transform input data (here: precipitation, evaporation) to runoff, hence describing the response behaviour of a catchment. In this respect, model parameters can thus be seen as catchment descriptors. A third catchment descriptor is runoff behaviour, depicted by indices derived from event runoff coefficients and Flow Duration Curves. In an ongoing research project founded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), we investigate the interdependencies of these three catchment descriptors for catchment classification with a view to regionalisation. The study area comprises about 80 meso-scale catchments in western Germany. These catchments are classified by Self Organising Maps (SOM) based on a) runoff behaviour and b) physical and climatic properties. The two classifications show an overlap of about 80% for all catchments and indicate a direct connection between the two descriptors for a majority of the catchments. Next, all catchments are calibrated with a simple and parsimonious conceptual model, stemming from the Superflex model framework. In this study we test the interdependencies between the classification and the calibrated model parameters by parameter transfer within and between the classes established by SOM. The model simulates total discharge, given observed precipitation and pre-estimated potential evaporation. Simulations with a few catchments show encouraging results: all simulations with the calibrated model show a good fit, which is indicated by Nash Sutcliff coefficients of about 0.8. Most of the simulations of runoff time series for catchments with parameter sets belonging to their own class display good performances too, while simulated runoff with model parameter sets from other classes display significant lower performance. This indicates that there is a strong connection between runoff behaviour, catchment properties and model parameter sets within the classes. The next step is the classification of the catchments based on calibrated model parameters with SOM. If the parameter sets show significant relation to the previous classification, model parameters may be used as an easy accessible start for catchment description. Physiographic and climatic properties can now be related directly to model parameters, corroborating a quantitative approach to basin classification. Furthermore, one representative parameter set for each class of catchments can describe the runoff behaviour for a whole class. The description of runoff behaviour by calibrated model parameters of a conceptual model in relation to classes of physically and climatically similar catchments can facilitates catchment description, classification and regionalisation and provides insight into the processes and functioning of catchments. The use of calibrated model parameters for classification instead of time-consuming description of the runoff behaviour with event runoff coefficients offers an attractive alternative for regionalisation.

Ley, Rita; Hellebrand, Hugo; Casper, Markus C.

2013-04-01

176

Preliminary results of the Cloud-Aerosol Interaction Measurements (CLAIM) 2007 campaign on the Amazon Basin, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds and precipitation play an important role on Earth's radiation budget, water and hydrological cycles, as well as energy cycles through latent heat release in the atmosphere. Under several aspects the interaction between aerosols and clouds is still a poorly understood process, and one reason for this is the lack of experimental observations to characterize the evolution of cloud microphysical structure. An instrumentation suite was put together to assess these issues. The Cloud Scanner is a scanning radiometer composed of 2 wavelengths in the near infrared (2.10 and 2.25 ?m) used for the separation between ice and water, and 3 wavelengths in the thermal infrared (8, 11 and 12 ?m) for the measurement of cloud brightness temperature, cirrus properties and water vapor correction. The Rainbow Camera is a multiangle imaging polarimeter with the wavelengths 0.47, 0.55, 0.66, 0.76, 0.87, and 0.91 ?m, with 60 degrees FOV, used to retrieve droplet effective radii and distribution width. Both instruments were integrated onto a research aircraft for a field campaign over the Brazilian Amazon Basin from Sep-Oct 2007 under varying conditions of aerosol loading and cloud type, development stages, and cover area. The preliminary results obtained include real-time mappings of ice/water separation for clouds, with temperature profiles allowing for the retrieval of glaciation levels for a variety of cloud developmental stages and aerosol loadings, including deep convective cumulus clouds and/or high aerosol content. Vertical profiles of effective radius can be obtained using the measurements in 2.10 ?m as entries in a look up table from a 3D radiative transfer model for the cloud field. The post-processed polarimeter measurements allow retrieving a polarized reflectance signal from which one can derive effective radii and distribution widths of droplets for clouds in the observed scenes. These results help understanding and quantifying the effects of cloud-aerosol interactions and their consequences for cloud microphysics.

Correia, A. L.; Fernandez-Borda, R.; Martins, J. V.

2007-12-01

177

PRELIMINARY DATA REPORT: HUMATE INJECTION AS AN ENHANCED ATTENUATION METHOD AT THE F-AREA SEEPAGE BASINS, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

SciTech Connect

A field test of a humate technology for uranium and I-129 remediation was conducted at the F-Area Field Research Site as part of the Attenuation-Based Remedies for the Subsurface Applied Field Research Initiative (ABRS AFRI) funded by the DOE Office of Soil and Groundwater Remediation. Previous studies have shown that humic acid sorbed to sediments strongly binds uranium at mildly acidic pH and potentially binds iodine-129 (I-129). Use of humate could be applicable for contaminant stabilization at a wide variety of DOE sites however pilot field-scale tests and optimization of this technology are required to move this technical approach from basic science to actual field deployment and regulatory acceptance. The groundwater plume at the F-Area Field Research Site contains a large number of contaminants, the most important from a risk perspective being strontium-90 (Sr-90), uranium isotopes, I-129, tritium, and nitrate. Groundwater remains acidic, with pH as low as 3.2 near the basins and increasing to the background pH of approximately 5at the plume fringes. The field test was conducted in monitoring well FOB 16D, which historically has shown low pH and elevated concentrations of Sr-90, uranium, I-129 and tritium. The field test included three months of baseline monitoring followed by injection of a potassium humate solution and approximately four and half months of post monitoring. Samples were collected and analyzed for numerous constituents but the focus was on attenuation of uranium, Sr-90, and I-129. This report provides background information, methodology, and preliminary field results for a humate field test. Results from the field monitoring show that most of the excess humate (i.e., humate that did not sorb to the sediments) has flushed through the surrounding formation. Furthermore, the data indicate that the test was successful in loading a band of sediment surrounding the injection point to a point where pH could return to near normal during the study timeframe. Future work will involve a final report, which will include data trends, correlations and interpretations of laboratory data.

Millings, M.

2013-09-16

178

Preliminary Study of Favorability for Uranium of the Sangre de Cristo Formation in the Las Vegas Basin, Northeastern New Mexico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Uranium favorability of the Sangre de Cristo Formation (Pennsylvanian-Permian) in the Las Vegas basin has been evaluated. The Las Vegas basin project area, located in Colfax, Mora, and San Miguel Counties, New Mexico, comprises about 3,489 sq mi. The form...

R. T. May J. R. Strand B. E. Reid W. R. Phillips

1977-01-01

179

Concentration and mineralogical residence of elements in rich oil shales of the Green River Formation, Piceance Creek basin, Colorado, and the Uinta Basin, Utah - A preliminary report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ten samples from drillcore of two rich oil-shale beds from the Parachute Creek Member of the Eocene Green River Formation, Piceance Creek basin, Colorado, and Uinta Basin, Utah, were analyzed for 37 major, minor, and trace elements. For 23 of these elements, principal mineralogical residence is established or suggested and such studies may provide data which are useful for predicting the kinds and amounts of elements and compounds that might be released into the environment by oil-shale mining operations. ?? 1976.

Desborough, G. A.; Pitman, J. K.; Huffman, Jr. , C.

1976-01-01

180

The Effect of Terrain Aspect on Interannual Variability of Hydrologic Response in Mountainous Catchments in New Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aspect of the land surface in mid and high latitudes control hydrological response through differences in energy fluxes, prevailing winds, snow processes, evaporation and transpiration. In the Valles Caldera National Preserve (VCNP) in northern New Mexico, recent research has shown that north facing terrains accumulate thicker snow packs, the snow cover duration is longer, the soil moisture content is higher and hillslopes have longer water transit times. These findings suggest that catchments with a predominant north facing aspect are expected to have more water available and consequently a different hydrological response than catchments characterized by a different land orientation. This poster presents four years (2008-2011) of hydrological data in the VCNP and shows the hydrological response to interannual climate variability in mountainous catchments draining along different aspects. This investigation focuses on three perennial catchments draining Redondo Peak (3435m): La Jara (LJ; 3.67 km2), History Grove (HG; 2.42 km2) and Upper Jaramillo (UJ; 3.06 km2). The three catchments range in elevation between 2680 m and 3429 m. They share similar topographic characteristics, climate, vegetation and a complex geology. The most predominant north facing catchment is UJ; HG and LJ have both a predominant east facing aspect. This study is based on empirical observations of basin response and it has been carried out by way of monitoring physical amount, intensity and timing of water entering and leaving the catchments using the available meteorological data in the region and the instrumented network installed by the Jemez River Basin and Santa Catalina Mountains Critical Zone Observatory (http://www.czo.arizona.edu/). The climate in the region is semi-arid, continental and highly variable. For the water years (WY) 2008 and 2011 annual precipitation was 86% and 71% below the mean (P=711.5mm), and during WY 2009 and 2010, annual precipitation was 4% and 1% above the mean. Within the period of analysis the ratio of winter precipitation to annual precipitation varied from 59.4% to 39.4%. The maximum snow water equivalent (SWE) was equal to 303 mm and 53 mm during the years 2010 and 2011. Preliminary results show that the north facing catchment (UJ) had the highest annual discharge during the four years. Water yield (Q/P) for UJ was the highest and ranged between 0.10 during the driest year 2011 and 0.27 for the wettest year 2010. UJ shows the highest peak of specific discharge and it happens with a few days of delay with respect to the other catchments. UJ retains water for a longer time and it shows during dry and wet years the lowest variability between the flow percentiles Q15 and Q90 suggesting that north facing catchments are less susceptible to climate variability.

Zapata, X.; Troch, P. A.; McIntosh, J. C.; Broxton, P. D.; Brooks, P. D.

2012-12-01

181

How old is upland catchment water?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the dynamics of water supply catchments is an essential part of water management. Upland catchments provide a continuous, reliable source of high quality water not only for some of the world's biggest cities, but also for agriculture and industry. Headwater streams control river flow in lowland agricultural basins as the majority of river discharge emerges from upland catchments. Many rivers are perennial and flow throughout the year, even during droughts. However, it is still unclear how reliable and continuous upland catchment water resources really are. Despite many efforts in upland catchment research, there is still little known about where the water is stored and how long it takes to travel through upper catchments. Resolving these questions is crucial to ensure that this resource is protected from changing land use and to estimate potential impacts from a changing climate. Previous research in this important area has been limited by existing measurement techniques. Knowledge to date has relied heavily on the use of variation in stable isotope signals to estimate the age and origin of water from upland catchments. The problem with relying on these measures is that as the water residence time increases, the variation in the stable isotope signal decreases. After a maximum period of four years, no variation can be detected This means that to date, the residence time in upland catchments is likely to have been vastly underestimated. Consequently, the proportion of water flow out of upland river catchments to the total river flow is also underestimated. Tritium (3H) combines directly with water molecules and enters the flow paths with the infiltrating water. Its half-life (12.32 years) makes it ideal to describe residence times in upper catchment reservoirs as it can theoretically measure water up to about 150 years old. The bomb pulse peak in the southern hemisphere was several orders of magnitude lower than in the northern hemisphere. Hence the Tritium activities in the southern hemisphere have long decayed down the natural background levels, which allows unique ages to be determined by single measurements. In this study major ion chemistry, stable isotopes and Tritium were determined at 2 locations and various stages of discharge (18 Tritium samples in between April 2013 and January 2014) in a first-order perennial stream draining a 7.3 km2 catchment in the Dandenong National Park, Melbourne, Australia. Even during major discharge event major ions and stable isotope data have little variation and Tritium activities remain low (1.4 to 1.8 TU) in comparison to local rainfall of ~ 3TU. Age estimations based on an exponential flow model are 15 to 25 years indicating that water draining from upland catchments is much older than we have previously estimated using stable isotopes.

Hofmann, Harald; Cartwright, Ian; Morgenstern, Uwe; Gilfedder, Benjamin

2014-05-01

182

Preliminary assessment of channel stability and bed-material transport in the Rogue River basin, southwestern Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report summarizes a preliminary assessment of bed-material transport, vertical and lateral channel changes, and existing datasets for the Rogue River basin, which encompasses 13,390 square kilometers (km2) along the southwestern Oregon coast. This study, conducted to inform permitting decisions regarding instream gravel mining, revealed that: * The Rogue River in its lowermost 178.5 kilometers (km) alternates between confined and unconfined segments, and is predominately alluvial along its lowermost 44 km. The study area on the mainstem Rogue River can be divided into five reaches based on topography, hydrology, and tidal influence. The largely confined, active channel flows over bedrock and coarse bed material composed chiefly of boulders and cobbles in the Grants Pass (river kilometers [RKM] 178.5-152.8), Merlin (RKM 152.8-132.7), and Galice Reaches (RKM 132.7-43.9). Within these confined reaches, the channel contains few bars and has stable planforms except for locally wider segments such as the Brushy Chutes area in the Merlin Reach. Conversely, the active channel flows over predominately alluvial material and contains nearly continuous gravel bars in the Lobster Creek Reach (RKM 43.9-6.7). The channel in the Tidal Reach (RKM 6.7-0) is also alluvial, but tidally affected and unconfined until RKM 2. The Lobster Creek and Tidal Reaches contain some of the most extensive bar deposits within the Rogue River study area. * For the 56.6-km-long segment of the Applegate River included in this study, the river was divided into two reaches based on topography. In the Upper Applegate River Reach (RKM 56.6-41.6), the confined, active channel flows over alluvium and bedrock and has few bars. In the Lower Applegate River Reach (RKM 41.6-0), the active channel alternates between confined and unconfined segments, flows predominantly over alluvium, shifts laterally in unconfined sections, and contains more numerous and larger bars. * The 6.5-km segment of the lower Illinois River included in this study was treated as one reach. This stretch of the Illinois River is fully alluvial, with nearly continuous gravel bars flanking the channel. The width of the active channel is confined by the narrow topography of the valley. * The primary human activities that have likely influenced channel condition, bed-material transport, and the extent and area of bars are (1) historical gold mining throughout the basin, (2) historical and ongoing gravel mining from instream sites in the Tidal Reach and floodplain sites such as those in the Lower Applegate River Reach, (3) hydropower and flow control structures, (4) forest management and fires throughout the basin, and (5) dredging. These anthropogenic activities likely have varying effects on channel condition and the transport and deposition of sediment throughout the study area and over time. * Several vertical (aspect) aerial photographs (including the complete coverages of the study area taken in 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2009 and the partial coverages taken in 1967, 1968, 1969, and 1990) are available for assessing long-term changes in attributes such as channel condition, bar area, and vegetation cover. A Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) survey performed in 2007-2008 provides 1-m resolution topographic data for sections of the Grants Pass (RKM 178.5-167.6) and Lobster Creek (RKM 17.8-12 and 10-6.7) Reaches and the entire Tidal Reach. * Previous studies provide information for specific locations, including (1) an estimated average annual bed-material load of 76,000 m3 at the former Savage Rapids Dam site (RKM 173.1, Grants Pass Reach), (2) over 490 m of channel shifting from 1965 to 1991 in the Brushy Chutes area (RKM 142-141, Merlin Reach), (3) active sediment transport and channel processes in the Lobster Creek Reach, (4) lateral channel migration in the Tidal Reach, and (5) up to 1.8 m of bar aggradation from the town of Agness (RKM 45.1) to the Rogue River mouth following the flood in water year 1997. * Review of the repeat surveys conducted at the instream gravel-mining sites on Elephant

Jones, Krista L.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Wallick, J. Rose

2012-01-01

183

Parsimonious hydrological modeling of urban sewer and river catchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A parsimonious hydrological model is developed for urban watershed flow modeling. Complexity of the drainage network is ignored by considering it as a linear storage. A single representative CSO represents all others. A WWTP drainage basin and an urban river catchment provide model validation. Model and validation consider two overlapping watersheds.

Coutu, Sylvain; Del Giudice, Dario; Rossi, Luca; Barry, D. A.

2012-09-01

184

Monitoring of Wild Fish Health at Selected Sites in the Great Lakes Basin: Methods and Preliminary Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During fall 2010 and spring 2011, a total of 119 brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus), 136 white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), 73 smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and 59 largemouth bass (M. salmoides) were collected from seven Great Lakes Basin Ar...

C. Hahn L. R. Iwanozwicz P. M. Mazik R. Braham V. S. Blazer

2014-01-01

185

Stratigraphic Evolution of Brazos-Trinity Basin IV, Western Gulf of Mexico: Preliminary Results of IODP Expedition 308  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IODP Expedition 308 drilled three sites across Brazos-Trinity Basin IV, at the terminal end of a system of four salt-withdrawal intra-slope basins offshore Texas. A 175 m thick succession of sand-rich turbidite fans, mass-transport deposits and hemipelagic sediments was deposited within the last ~120 ka in Basin IV, as recorded at Site U1320. Pre-fan deposits dating back to MIS 6 form a conformable succession of laminated and bioturbated clays, deposited from distal turbidity currents and/or river plumes. The pre-fan succession is capped by a hemipelagic clay interpreted to represent the high stand of sea level during MIS 5e. The basal turbidite deposits in the basin are mud-rich, with the exception of the very first turbidity currents to enter the basin. This initial pulse, possibly derived from failure of older shelf edge deposits, accumulated an ~8 m thick sand-rich interval. A pause in turbidity current influx lasted 30 to 40 kyrs, beginning a few thousand years before ash layer Y8 dated at 84 ka and the Emiliana huxleyi acme. During MIS 3 to MIS 2 sand-rich fans containing 5-25 m thick packets of very fine to lower medium sand beds accumulated up to 130 m of sediments. A 2-3 m thick microfossil-rich clay marks the end of turbidity current influx into the basin during the Holocene. The sedimentary record of Brazos-Trinity Basin IV shows that the accumulation of turbidites in the terminal end of this source to sink depositional system reflects a complex interaction between the availability of material and the initiation of flows at the source near the shelf edge, the interaction of turbidity currents with complex slope topography, and the effects of salt tectonics and flow processes on modifying this topography. The initial results indicate that sealevel changes alone cannot explain the sedimentation patterns observed in the basin.

Pirmez, C.; Behrmann, J.; Flemings, P. B.; John, C.

2005-12-01

186

Equitable water allocation in a heavily committed international catchment area: the case of the Komati Catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates water availability and use in the Komati catchment. The Komati catchment is shared by Swaziland and South Africa and forms part of the Incomati basin, with Mozambique as the third riparian country. In 2002 the three countries reached agreement about how the scarce water should be allocated, based on the principle of equitable and sustainable utilization, as stipulated by the SADC Protocol. The Komati catchment has five main water uses: afforestation, irrigation, the environment, urban/industrial/mining (UIM), and interbasin water transfers (for industrial use). In addition, South Africa and Swaziland have committed themselves to satisfy a certain cross border flow to downstream Mozambique. Frequently, debate has arisen between users and riparian countries on the direction that water resources development has taken in the catchment. Downstream farmers have often complained about interbasin transfers taking place in the upstream portions of the catchment. There has also been animosity about effecting environmental flow releases. A relatively simple, spreadsheet-based water resources model (Waflex) was developed to analyse water availability and use under current and future scenarios. The results were then compared to results obtained from another model that was used in a joint study by Mozambique, South Africa and Swaziland. The Waflex model showed a high degree of consistency with the one used for comparison, especially in terms of trends. It was found that the recent completion of two new dams has improved water supply to irrigation in the two countries. Future water demands will result in appreciable shortages for irrigation and domestic use. The agreed maximum development levels will soon outstrip the ability of the catchment’s supply. The paper shows that a combination of measures will be required to ensure equitable and sustainable water utilisation in the Komati catchment. These will have to be agreed by the riparian countries. Moreover, over the course of negotiations, important roles will have to be played by catchment management agencies and river boards in Swaziland and South Africa, as well as by the Tripartite Permanent Technical Committee of the three riparian countries.

Nkomo, Sakhiwe; van der Zaag, Pieter

187

Palynological evaluation of the Famennian Protosalvinia (Foerstia) Zone in the Amazon Basin, northern Brazil: a preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Miospore assemblages recovered from a shallow borehole (Caima PH-2) and outcrops near the Tapajós River (Itaituba area), on the southern margin of the Amazon Basin, permit the correlation of the Protosalvinia Zone in this region with the equivalent of the uppermost part of the VCo miospore Zone in the eastern USA. Therefore it is dated as late (not latest) Famennian

Stanislas Loboziak; JoséHenrique G. Melo; Luiz P. Quadros; Maurice Streel

1997-01-01

188

Preliminary selection of storm-water basins suitable for infiltration of reclaimed water in Nassau County, Long Island, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A survey was made of 205 storm-water basins south of the ground-water divide and north of Hempstead Turnpike in Nassau County, Long Island, N.Y., to determine which would be best suited for infiltration of reclaimed water. Selection depended on infiltration area, location with respect to the ground-water divide and to planned transmission mains, tendency to retain storm runoff, underlying lithology, and depth to water table. The total maximum infiltration area of 14 selected basins is 60.2 acres, or 2,620,900 square feet (0.24 square kilometers). If 5-foot (1.5-meter) -high partitions were constructed in the basins to divide each into approximately equal halves and reclaimed water were applied in half of each basin to a depth of 5 feet (1.5 meters), using an application-rest cycle, a total area of 25.2 acres (0.10 square kilometers) would be available for supplemental recharge; the remaining infiltration area could be used for disposal of storm runoff. (Woodard-USGS)

Aronson, D. A.

1976-01-01

189

PRELIMINARY PROPOSAL A STUDY TO RELATE THE NATURAL CHEMISTRY OF STREAM WATER TO ITS SOURCE ON THE FORESTED BASIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural mineral constituents of stream water from forested basins constitute the threshold quality level above which the impacts of forest management must be measured or assessed from experiment. In any given region, according to Gibbs (1970), the average concentration of minerals in natural stream water will be under the dominance of processes associated with solution of the weathering soil

John D. Hewlett

190

Comparison of regionalization approaches in parameterizing sediment rating curve in ungauged catchments for subsequent instantaneous sediment yield prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of sediment loading are lacking for rivers in many parts of the world, particularly in developing countries. There is a need for better understanding of what models might be available to offer estimates of sediment yield in such poorly gauged or ungauged areas. Therefore, the aim of this research is to determine an ideal regionalization methodology for estimating sediment rating curves in ungauged catchments for instantaneous suspended sediment yield (SSY) prediction. A comparison of three regionalization approaches (catchment similarity, regression and spatial proximity) was carried out in 16 catchments, in the Lower Mekong Basin, after discarding one with the evidence that the data point is not homogeneous. The highest quality results are provided by the catchment similarity approach in which a single donor catchment was selected in accordance with an optimum catchment similarity index computed by the multidimensional scaling technique. The regression-based approach is intermediate. The sparse network of basin monitoring in the study area does not favor the spatial proximity approach, producing the worst regionalization solution. The overall predictive accuracy was further improved through a combined formulation of catchment similarity and regression. This reveals that different approaches have different advantages and therefore, using only one of them cannot fully encompass a wide range of catchment heterogeneity. Since the ideal regionalization methodology performs satisfactorily in all 16 sites, a regional model with a relatively simple geomorphic framework was established for estimating catchment-scale SSY in ungauged rivers of the basin.

Heng, Sokchhay; Suetsugi, Tadashi

2014-05-01

191

A physically based distributed subsurface-surface flow dynamics model for forested mountainous catchments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to develop a physically based hydrological model to describe the hydrological processes within forested mountainous river basins. The model describes the relationships between hydrological fluxes and catchment characteristics that are influenced by topography and land cover. Hydrological processes representative of temperate basins in steep terrain that are incorporated in the model include intercepted rainfall, evaporation, transpiration,

Deogratias M. M. Mulungu; Yutaka Ichikawa; Michiharu Shiiba

2005-01-01

192

Effects of catchment scale on stormflow timing and composition: A landscape discretization approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of catchment size and landscape organization on stormflow generation are poorly understood. Little research has attempted to quantify the relative roles of hillslope and riparian zones in streamflow generation. We sought to quantify the spatial and temporal contributions to catchment runoff over a range of catchment scales by discretizing and monitoring runoff from dominant landscape features. We hypothesized that the timing and relative magnitude of riparian versus hillslope runoff contributions to stormflow changes across catchment scale as the riparian to hillslope volume ratios change. We tested this hypotheses with a physical flow separation model, a solute based mixing model, and detailed monitoring across 6 catchment scales ranging from trenched hillslope sections (55-285 m2) to a 300 ha catchment at Maimai, on the West Coast of the South Island, New Zealand. The ratio of the volume of the riparian reservoir to the hillslope reservoir increased with increasing basin scale: hillslope lengths were scale invariant (<300 m), while riparian areas increased with catchment size. Riparian widths were linearly related to catchment size near each catchment outlet and ranged from 5 m at 3 ha, 10 m at 17 ha, 65 m at 75 ha, to 170 m at 300 ha. There was a shift from riparian-dominated to hillslope-dominated catchment runoff during a monitored 70 mm storm event. The timing and proportions of rainfall, hillslope water, and riparian water in catchment runoff varied across catchment scale. The Maimai landscape is highly dissected, well organized, and provides an excellent environment for examination of hillslope and riparian zone function in streamflow generation. Our results suggest that quantification of landscape component (i.e. hillslope and riparian zone) runoff generation may be important for understanding the spatial scaling of catchment outlet observations.

McGlynn, B. L.; McGlynn, B. L.; McDonnell, J. J.; Hooper, R. P.; Kendall, C.

2001-12-01

193

Hydrogeologic framework and preliminary simulation of ground-water flow in the Mimbres Basin, southwestern New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The bolson-fill aquifer is the major water-yielding unit in the Mimbres Basin, and ranges from 0 to about 3,700 feet thick. Ground water generally flows southward from the northern highland areas of the basin. Before 1910, ground-water recharge and discharge were approximately equal; by 1975, however, about 75 percent of the 146,000 acre-feet withdrawn per year was ground water, most of it from ground-water storage. Transmissivity of the bolson- fill aquifer ranges from 10 to 50,000 feet squared per day. Hydraulic conductivity ranges from 0.03 to 800 feet per day. Reported storage-coefficient values representing confined parts of the aquifer range from 0.00036 to 0.0036; those representing unconfined parts of the aquifer range from 0.04 to 0.24.

Hanson, R. T.; McLean, J. S.; Miller, R. S.

1994-01-01

194

Geochronological data from the Faxinal coal succession, southern Paraná Basin, Brazil: A preliminary approach combining radiometric UPb dating and palynostratigraphy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radiometric zircon age of 285.4±8.6Ma (IDTIMS U-Pb) is reported from a tonstein layer interbedded with coal seams in the Faxinal coalfield, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Calibration of palynostratigraphic data with the absolute age shows that the coal depositional interval in the southern Paraná Basin is constrained to the Sakmarian. Consequently, the basal Gondwana sequence in the southern part

Margot Guerra-Sommer; Miriam Cazzulo-Klepzig; Rualdo Menegat; Milton Luiz Laquintinie Formoso; Miguel Ângelo Stipp Basei; Eduardo Guimarães Barboza; Margarete Wagner Simas

2008-01-01

195

Evolution of Lake Chad Basin hydrology during the mid-Holocene: A preliminary approach from lake to climate modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the mid-Holocene (6000 yr Before Present, hereafter yr BP) the Chad Basin was occupied by a large endoreic lake, called Lake Mega-Chad. The existence of this lake at that time seems linked to increased monsoonal moisture supply to the Sahel and the Sahara, which in turn was probably ultimately caused by variations in the orbital forcing and higher temperature gradients

Pierre Sepulchre; Mathieu Schuster; Gilles Ramstein; Gerhard Krinnezr; Jean-Francois Girard; Patrick Vignaud; Michel Brunet

2008-01-01

196

Hillslope versus riparian zone runoff contributions in headwater catchments: A multi-watershed comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is often assumed that hillslope and riparian areas constitute the two most important and identifiable landscape units contributing to catchment runoff in upland humid catchments. Nevertheless, the relative amount and timing of hillslope versus riparian contributions to stormflow are poorly understood across different watersheds. We quantified the contributions of hillslopes and riparian zones to stormflow using physical, chemical, and isotopic techniques across 3 diverse ({ ~}15 ha) headwater catchments: a highly responsive steep wet watershed (Maimai, New Zealand), a moderately steep snowmelt dominated watershed (Sleepers, River, VT), and at a highly seasonal relatively low relief watershed (Panola Mt., Georgia). We monitored catchment runoff, internal hydrological response, and isotopic and solute dynamics for discrete riparian and hillslope zones within each catchment. Monitored catchment positions, including hillslope trenches at Maimai and Panola, were used to characterize directly, the hydrologic response and source water signatures for hillslope zones and riparian zones. We also examined the spatial and temporal source components of catchment stormflow using 3-component mass balance hydrograph separation techniques. At Maimai, NZ we found that hillslope runoff comprised 47-55% of total runoff during a 70 mm event. Despite the large amount of subsurface hillslope runoff in total catchment stormflow, riparian and channel zones accounted for 28% out of 29% of the total new water measured catchment runoff. Riparian water dominated the storm hydrograph composition early in the event, although hillslope water reached the catchment outlet soon after hillslope water tables were developed. Preliminary results for Sleepers River, VT and Panola Mountain, GA indicate that the timing and relative proportion of hillslope water in catchment runoff is later and smaller than at Maimai. Our multi-catchment comparison suggests that the ratio of the riparian reservoir to the hillslope reservoir/stormflow flux partially controls the relative contributions of hillslope and riparian zones to catchment runoff and solute dynamics.

McGlynn, B. L.; McGlynn, B. L.; McDonnell, J. J.; Hooper, R. P.; Shanley, J. B.; Hjerdt, K. N.; Hjerdt, K. N.

2001-12-01

197

Evolution of Lake Chad Basin hydrology during the mid-Holocene: A preliminary approach from lake to climate modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the mid-Holocene (6000 yr Before Present, hereafter yr BP) the Chad Basin was occupied by a large endoreic lake, called Lake Mega-Chad. The existence of this lake at that time seems linked to increased monsoonal moisture supply to the Sahel and the Sahara, which in turn was probably ultimately caused by variations in the orbital forcing and higher temperature gradients between ocean and continent. This study provides a synthesis of several works carried out on the Lake Chad Basin and analyses the results of a simulation of the mid-Holocene climate with an Atmosphere General Circulation Model (LMDZ for Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, IPSL Paris), with emphasis on the possible conditions leading to the existence of Lake Mega-Chad. The aim is to define the best diagnostics to understand which mechanisms lead to the existence of the large lake. This paper is the first step of an ongoing work that intends to understand the environmental conditions that this part of Africa experienced during the Upper Miocene (ca. 7 Ma BP), an epoch that was contemporaneous with the first known hominids. Indeed, early hominids of Lake Chad Basin, Australopithecus bahrelghazali [ Brunet, M., et al., 1995. The first australopithecine 2500 kilometers west of the Rift-Valley (Chad). Nature, 378(6554): 273-275] and Sahelanthropus tchadensis [Brunet, M., et al., 2002. A new hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad, central Africa. Nature, 418(6894): 145-151; Brunet, M., et al., 2005. New material of the earliest hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad. Nature, 434(7034): 752-755] are systematically associated with wet episodes that are documented for 7 Ma BP [Vignaud, P., et al., 2002. Geology and palaeontology of the Upper Miocene Toros-Menalla hominid locality, Chad. Nature, 418(6894): 152-155] and testified by extended lacustrine deposits (diatomites, pelites, various aquatic fauna). Because the mid-Holocene was the last such mega-lake episode, our aim here is to assess the simulated response of Lake Chad to the hydrologic changes caused by 6 kyr BP forcings (orbital variations, albedo, sea surface temperatures) as a test for a future use of the model for studies of the Miocene climate. We show that the induced northward shift of the simulated ITCZ, and the hydrological changes around the lake caused by this shift, are consistent with an increased water balance over the Lake Chad Basin 6000 yr ago. Water supply from the soil (runoff and river inputs) will have to be taken into account in further simulations in order to discuss the timing of the onset, expansion and decay of such a giant water surface in subtropical Africa.

Sepulchre, Pierre; Schuster, Mathieu; Ramstein, Gilles; Krinnezr, Gerhard; Girard, Jean-Francois; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

2008-03-01

198

Distribution of organic carbon and petroleum source rock potential of Cretaceous and lower Tertiary carbonates, South Florida Basin: preliminary results  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analyses of 134 core samples from the South Florida Basin show that the carbonates of Comanchean age are relatively richer in average organic carbon (0.41 percent) than those of Coahuilan age (0.28 percent), Gulfian age (0.18 percent) and Paleocene age (0.20 percent). They are also nearly twice as rich as the average world, wide carbonate (average 0.24 percent). The majority of carbonates have organic carbons less than 0.30 percent but the presence of many relatively organic rich beds composed of highly bituminous, argillaceous, highly stylolitic, and algal-bearing limestones and dolomites accounts for the higher percentage of organic carbon in some of the stratigraphic units. Carbonate rocks that contain greater than 0.4 percent organic carbon and that might be considered as possible petroleum sources were noted in almost each subdivision of the Coahuilan and Comanchean Series but particularly the units of Fredericksburg 'B', Trinity 'A', Trinity 'F', and Upper Sunniland. Possible source rocks have been ascribed by others to the Lower Sunniland, but lack of sufficient samples precluded any firm assessment in this initial report. In the shallower section of the basin, organic-rich carbonates containing as much as 3.2 percent organic carbon were observed in the lowermost part of the Gulfian Series and carbonate rocks with oil staining or 'dead' and 'live oil' were noted by others in the uppermost Gulfian and upper Cedar Keys Formation. It is questionable whether these shallower rocks are of sufficient thermal maturity to have generated commercial oil. The South Florida basin is still sparsely drilled and produces only from the Sunniland Limestone at an average depth of 11,500 feet (3500 m). Because the Sunniland contains good reservoir rocks and apparently adequate source rocks, and because the success rate of new oil field discoveries has increased in recent years, the chances of finding additional oil reserves in the Sunniland are promising. Furthermore, the presence of possible source rocks in many of the other stratigraphic units, in particular, the Fredericksburg, should give further impetus to exploring for other productive horizons.

Palacas, James George

1978-01-01

199

Hydrological Catchment Similarity Assessment in Geum River Catchments, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Similarity measure of catchments is essential for regionalization studies, which provide in depth analysis in hydrological response and flood estimations at ungauged catchments. However, this similarity measure is often biased to the selected catchments and is notclearly explained in hydrological sense. This study applied a type of hydrological similarity distance measure-Flood Estimation Handbook to 25 Geum river catchments, Korea. Three Catchment Characteristics, Area (A)-Annual precipitation (SAAR)-SCS Curve Number (CN), are used in Euclidian distance measures. Furthermore, six index of Flow Duration Curve (ILow:Q275/Q185, IDrought:Q355/Q185, IFlood:Qmax/Q185, IAbundant:Q95/Q185, IFloodDuration:Q10/Q355 and IRiverRegime:Qmax/Qmin) are applied to clustering analysis of SPSS. The catchments' grouping of hydrological similarity measures suggests three groups: H1 (Cheongseong, Gidae, Bukil, Oksan, Seockhwa, Habgang and Sangyeogyo), H2 (Cheongju, Guryong, Ugon, Boksu, Useong and Seokdong) and H3 (Muju, Yangganggyo and YongdamDam). The four catchments (Cheoncheon, Donghyang, DaecheongDam and Indong) are not grouped in this study. The clustering analysis of FDC provides four Groups; CFDC1 (Muju, YongdamDam, Yangganggyo, DaecheongDam, Cheongseong, Gidae, Seokhwa, Bukil, Habgang, Cheongju, Oksan, Yuseong and Guryong), CFDC2 (Cheoncheon, Donghyang, Boksu, Indong, Nonsan, Seokdong, Ugon, Simcheon, Useong and Sangyeogyo), CFDC3 (Songcheon) and CFDC4 (Tanbu). The six catchments (out of seven) of H1 are grouped in CFDC1, while Sangyeogyo is grouped in CFDC2. The four catchments (out of six) of H2 are also grouped in CFDC2, while Cheongju and Guryong are grouped in CFDC1. The catchments of H3 are categorized in CFDC1. The authors examine the results (H1, H2 and H3) of similarity measure based on catchment physical descriptors with results (CFDC1 and CFDC2) of clustering based on catchment hydrological response. The results of hydrological similarity measures are supported by clustering analysis of FDC. This study shows a potential of hydrological catchment similarity measures in Korea. It will be used as a starting point for flood predictions at ungauged catchment.

Ko, Ara; Park, Kisoon; Lee, Hyosang

2013-04-01

200

Preliminary results of chronostratigraphic field work, OSL-dating and morphogenetic reconstruction of an alluvial apron at Alborz southern foothill, Damghan basin, Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present preliminary results of a chronostratigraphic study of an alluvial fan in the Damghan Basin, northern Iran. The basin sediments date back to the Mio- and Pliocene and therefore represent the starting point of alluvial fan aggradation. Today, the still active alluvial fans prograde from the Albors Mountain ranges and sit on the older sediment bodies. In this study, our focus is on the late Pleistocene to Holocene alluvial fan sedimentation history. The upper stratigraphy of the alluvial fans and intercalated lake deposits is characterized by six individual layers of gravels and fines, representing six different stratigraphic units. These units are described and classified by detailed geomorphological and stratigraphic mapping. To establish an alluvial fan chronology, six profiles were sampled for OSL dating. As expected, due to the high-energy transport system of alluvial fan aggradation in semi-desert environments, OSL dating of these sediments is challenging due to the problem of insufficient bleaching. Consequently, most of the samples are interpreted as maximum ages. However, the measurements show a consistent internal age structure and the overall OSL-based chronology is in agreement with the age model derived from our geomorphological analysis. As a first interpretation, based on surveyed geomorphological features and chronological analysis, we could identify seven morphodynamic phases, leading to a genetic model of alluvial fan aggradation. The oldest Pleistocene age estimate is derived from a former lake terrace. The following ages represent ongoing lake sediment deposition and the development of a proximal and mid-fan gravel cover. After the youngest lake deposits were accumulated within the Holocene, the lake starts to retreat and small alluvial fans are filling up the former lake bottom. This last sedimentation phase can be divided in at least two sub-phases, probably coupled to a lateral shifting of the active depositional lobe and to the abandonment and shallow incision of mid fan surfaces.

Büdel, Christian; Fuchs, Markus; Majid Padashi, Seyed; Baumhauer, Roland

2014-05-01

201

Long-term stable water isotope data from large river basins: preliminary analysis of the Global Network of Isotopes in Rivers (GNIR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2002 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) launched an international observation program for the collection and measurement of stable water isotopes and tritium in rivers. The Global network of Isotopes in Rivers (GNIR) now serves as a world-wide repository for contributed riverine isotope data, and expedites public dissemination of isotope data for water research purposes. Currently, the GNIR database contains about 21,000 stable water isotope records from 750 locations in 35 countries, in database format. Basic statistical descriptions are available for 252 observation sites that have isotope records for a minimum of two years. Here, we provide a summary of the GNIR stations established and the data compilations. Because the river locations are from different hydrological settings and climatic zones, the evaluation of the data gives a wide perspective of the global and temporal variations in the isotopic compositions of water in medium-size and large river basins. This synopsis reveals the useful application of stable water isotopes to assess the origin of water sources, mixing with precipitation, glacier and snow melt water, tributaries, the contribution of groundwater to baseflow, as well as, the impact of damming and irrigation return. In addition, the compiled isotope data give insights into temporal and spatial variations in the deuterium-excess and thereby provides independent information to estimate the relevance of evaporation in the water balance of large river basins. This preliminary analysis of the GNIR summarizes moreover, the experience gained from establishing large scale monitoring network stations and stable water isotope data collection within different environments. The GNIR program will be expanded and enhanced into the future with the addition of other biogeochemical isotopes, such as nutrients, particulate organic matter, and sediments. This will enhance gaining further scientific insights and information into water security and quality issues.

Halder, Janine; Terzer, Stefan; Wassenaar, Leonard, I.; Araguas-Araguas, Luis; Aggarwal, Pradeep

2014-05-01

202

Regional magnetic and gravity features of the Gibson Dome area and surrounding region, Paradox Basin, Utah : a preliminary report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analyses of regional gravity and magnetic anomaly maps have been carried out to assist in the evaluation of the Gibson Dome area as a possible repository site for high-level radioactive waste. Derivative, wavelength-filtered, and trend maps were compiled to aid in properly locating major geophysical trends corresponding to faults, folds, and lithologic boundaries. The anomaly maps indicate that Paradox Basin is characterized by a heterogeneous Precambrian basement, essentially a metamorphic complex of gneisses and schist intruded by granitic rocks and mafic to ultramafic bodies. Interpreted Precambrian structures trend predominantly northwest and northeast although east-west trending features are evident. Prominent gravity lows define the salt anticlines. Structural and lithologic trends in the Gibson Dome area are closely examined. Of greatest interest is a series of circular magnetic highs trending west-northwest into the Gibson Dome area. Further study of the exact definition and geologic significance of this series of anomalies is warranted.

Hildenbrand, T. G.; Kucks, R. P.

1983-01-01

203

Factors Controlling Mercury Transport in an Upland Forested Catchment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total mercury (Hg) deposition and input\\/output relationships were investigated in an 11-ha deciduous forested catchment in northern Vermont as part of ongoing evaluations of Hg cycling and transport in the Lake Champlain basin. Atmospheric Hg deposition (precipitation + modeled vapor phase downward flux) was 425 mg ha-1 during the one-year period March 1994 through February 1995 and 463 mg ha-1

Timothy Scherbatskoy; James B. Shanley; Gerald J. Keeler

1998-01-01

204

Effect of large rainfall events on runoff and soil losses in two small experimental agricultural catchments in Southern Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This communication presents the results and a preliminary discussion of the results of a medium term monitoring of runoff and soil losses in two small agricultural catchments, Conchuela and Puente Genil, of 8.0 and 6.1 ha respectively. Puente Genil has been monitored since 2005 and Conchuela since 2006. The gauging station at both catchments is composed of a measure flume provided of an ultrasonic water depth sensor, a raingauge and an ISCO sampler for taking suspended sediment samplers. The Puente Genil catchment presents average slope of 15%, and is on a soil of loamy sand texture, while La Conchuela presents an average slope of 9% and is on a clay soil. Soil management in both catchments is based on no tillage with mechanical or chemical control of the adventitious vegetation growing in the inter tree space since mid March, to avoid competition for soil water with the olive trees. The years monitored since 2005/06 to 2008/09 were significantly below the average rainfall in the region with a reduced number of intense events. So, annual soil losses for both basins ranged from 4 to less than 0.2 t ha-1 year-1, and average annual runoff coefficients ranging from 8 to less than 3 %. Hydrological year 2009/2010 has presented unusually high rainfalls. By early January cumulative rainfall from September first is above the average annual rainfall, and a large number of highly erosive events have been monitored in both catchments. Provisional results indicate that these periodical episodes of moist years with high intensity events are key in evaluating the erosive and hydrological behaviour of agricultural areas in Southern Spain. For instance, the sediment delivered from La Conchuela trough the monitoring station during 2009/10 has been estimated in 13.9 t ha-1 by January 2nd. The practical implications for monitoring schemes under these conditions, and the need of long term experiments that need to be complemented with model analysis will be discussed trough this communication.

Gómez, J. A.; Taguas, E. V.; Vanwalleghem, T.; Pérez-Alcántara, R.

2010-05-01

205

Nonlinear storage-discharge relations and catchment streamflow regimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonlinear storage-discharge relations may explain important hydrologic features frequently observed under a variety of environmental conditions. In this paper the catchment dynamic storage problem is addressed by incorporating nonlinear storage-discharge relations in a stochastic framework to derive the statistical distribution and the duration curve of streamflows in river basins. Such a goal is achieved by extending recent analytical solutions for the seasonal probability distribution of discharges derived from the stochastic description of soil moisture dynamics at basin scales. Long-term probability density functions (pdf's) and flow duration curves are expressed through climatic, ecohydrologic, and geomorphic parameters of the basin by relaxing the linear reservoir assumption of subsurface flow components conveniently made in previous studies. In particular, this paper focuses on three different types of nonlinear, algebraic relationships between instantaneous discharges and storage volumes (concave and convex power laws and hyperbolic). Exact expressions of the streamflow pdf are derived in all cases, which are also tested by numerical simulations. Streamflow statistics and duration curves, estimates of catchment dynamic storages, recession timescales, and sensitivity to the underlying rainfall regime are then discussed. The model shows that different shapes of the streamflow pdf (bell shaped, monotonously decreasing, and bimodal) arise depending on the degree of nonlinearity of the storage-discharge relation, providing a new approach to catchment hydrology characterization.

Botter, Gianluca; Porporato, Amilcare; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rinaldo, Andrea

2009-10-01

206

Predicting hydrologic response through a hierarchical catchment knowledgebase: A Bayes empirical Bayes approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

useful Predictions in Ungauged Basins is an incredibly difficult task given the limitations of hydrologic models to represent physical processes appropriately across the heterogeneity within and among different catchments. Here, we introduce a new method for this challenge, Bayes empirical Bayes, that allows for the statistical pooling of information from multiple donor catchments and provides the ability to transfer parametric distributions rather than single parameter sets to the ungauged catchment. Further, the methodology provides an efficient framework with which to formally assess predictive uncertainty at the ungauged catchment. We investigated the utility of the methodology under both synthetic and real data conditions, and with respect to its sensitivity to the number and quality of the donor catchments used. This study highlighted the ability of the hierarchical Bayes empirical Bayes approach to produce expected outcomes in both the synthetic and real data applications. The method was found to be sensitive to the quality (hydrologic similarity) of the donor catchments used. Results were less sensitive to the number of donor catchments, but indicated that predictive uncertainty was best constrained with larger numbers of donor catchments (but still adequate with fewer donors).

Smith, Tyler; Marshall, Lucy; Sharma, Ashish

2014-02-01

207

Study of rock-water-nuclear waste interactions in the Pasco Basin, Washington: Part II. Preliminary equilibrium-step simulations of basalt diagenesis  

SciTech Connect

Interactions between a large number of complex chemical and physical processes have resulted in significant changes in the Pasco Basin hydrochemical system since emplacement of the first basalt flow. In order to perform preliminary simulations of the chemical evolution of this system, certain simplifying assumptions and procedures were adopted and a computer model which operates on the principal of local equilibrium was used for the mass transfer calculations. Significant uncertainties exist in both the thermodynamic and reaction rate data which were input to the computer model. In addition, the compositional characteristics of the evolving hydrochemical system remain largely unknown, especially as a function of distance along the flow path. Given these uncertainties, it remains difficult to assess the applicability of the equilibrium-step approach even though reasonable matches between observed and simulated hydrochemical data were obtained. Given the uncertainties mentioned, the predictive abilities of EQ6 are difficult, if not impossible to evaluate; our simulations produced, at best, only qualitative agreement with observed product mineral assemblages and sequences, and fluid compositions.

Benson, L.V.; Carnahan, C.L.; Che, M.

1980-08-01

208

A preliminary sub-basin scale evaluation framework of site suitability for onshore aquifer-based CO{sub 2} storage in China  

SciTech Connect

Development of a reliable, broadly applicable framework for the identification and suitability evaluation of potential CO{sub 2} storage sites is essential before large-scale deployment of carbon dioxide capture and geological storage (CCS) can commence. In this study, a sub-basin scale evaluation framework was developed to assess the suitability of potential onshore deep saline aquifers for CO{sub 2} storage in China. The methodology, developed in consultation with experts from the academia and the petroleum industry in China, is based on a multi-criteria analysis (MCA) framework that considers four objectives: (1) storage optimization, in terms of storage capacity and injectivity; (2) risk minimization and storage security; (3) environmental restrictions regarding surface and subsurface use; and (4) economic considerations. The framework is designed to provide insights into both the suitability of potential aquifer storage sites as well as the priority for early deployment of CCS with existing CO{sub 2} sources. Preliminary application of the framework, conducted using GIS-based evaluation tools revealed that 18% of onshore aquifer sites with a combined CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 746 gigatons are considered to exhibit very high suitability, and 11% of onshore aquifer sites with a total capacity of 290 gigatons exhibit very high priority opportunities for implementation. These onshore aquifer sites may provide promising opportunities for early large-scale CCS deployment and contribute to CO{sub 2} mitigation in China for many decades.

Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Wang, Ying; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Bromhal Grant S.

2013-01-01

209

Preliminary paleogeographic reconstruction of the Illinois basin during deposition of the Mississippian Aux Vases Formation: Implications for hydrocarbon recovery  

SciTech Connect

Extensive outcrop investigation and selective subsurface study allow definition of Illinois basin paleogeography during deposition of the Mississippian (Valmeyeran-Meramecian) Aux Vases Formation. The results incorporate an integrated approach utilizing field observations and petrographic analysis, wireline logs, subsurface maps, and cores. The Aux Vases Formation depositional system has been determined to be composed of subtidal to intertidal facies. Depositional facies in outcrop are based on rock body geometries, sedimentary structure assemblages, paleocurrent analysis, paleontology of body and trace fossils, facies relationships, and petrography. Depositional facies determined from subsurface data are based on correlation of lithologic interpretations from wireline logs, sand body geometries form isopach maps, and petrography. Specific depositional facies observed in outcrop and core and inferred from wireline logs and isopach maps are offshore bars and tidal channel complexes, extensive subtidal to lower intertidal, ripple-laminated, fine-grained quartzose sandstone. Carbonate facies occur as subtidal grainstones at or near the base of a sequence, or as high energy deposits which have been tidally reworked. This depositional system produces reservoir heterogeneities that complicate efficient hydrocarbon recovery. This diverse facies architecture is modified by tectonic and diagenetic overprinting, further segregating potential producing zones. To significantly improve recovery efficiency, predictions regarding compartmentalization can be used prior to designing a drilling program, an infill drilling program, or an application of enhanced recovery techniques.

Cole, R.D. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign (United States))

1991-03-01

210

Defining prior probabilities for hydrologic model structures in UK catchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The selection of a model structure is an essential part of the hydrological modelling process. Recently flexible modeling frameworks have been proposed where hybrid model structures can be obtained by mixing together components from a suite of existing hydrological models. When sufficient and reliable data are available, this framework can be successfully utilised to identify the most appropriate structure, and associated optimal parameters, for a given catchment by maximizing the different models ability to reproduce the desired range of flow behaviour. In this study, we use a flexible modelling framework to address a rather different question: can the most appropriate model structure be inferred a priori (i.e without using flow observations) from catchment characteristics like topography, geology, land use, and climate? Furthermore and more generally, can we define priori probabilities of different model structures as a function of catchment characteristics? To address these questions we propose a two-step methodology and demonstrate it by application to a national database of meteo-hydrological data and catchment characteristics for 89 catchments across the UK. In the first step, each catchment is associated with its most appropriate model structure. We consider six possible structures obtained by combining two soil moisture accounting components widely used in the UK (Penman and PDM) and three different flow routing modules (linear, parallel, leaky). We measure the suitability of a model structure by the probability of finding behavioural parameterizations for that model structure when applied to the catchment under study. In the second step, we use regression analysis to establish a relation between selected model structures and the catchment characteristics. Specifically, we apply Classification And Regression Trees (CART) and show that three catchment characteristics, the Base Flow Index, the Runoff Coefficient and the mean Drainage Path Slope, can be used to predict which model structure is more appropriate. The study constitutes a first step to enhance the choice of model structures in hydrological modeling across regions, with potentially interesting applications for predictions in ungauged basins, that was made possible by the analyses of large datasets.

Clements, Michiel; Pianosi, Francesca; Wagener, Thorsten; Coxon, Gemma; Freer, Jim; Booij, Martijn

2014-05-01

211

New Techniques for Hydrothermal Exploration: In Situ Chemical Sensors on AUVs - Preliminary Results From the Lau Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Less than one quarter of the global ridge-crest has yet received even cursory investigation for the presence or absence of hydrothermal activity. To improve exploration efficiency, particularly at high latitudes, new methodologies independent of tethered vehicles are required. To that end, we have begun the use of in situ chemical sensors allied to the increasing capabilities of autonomous underwater vehicles. Here, we present first results from our most recent efforts aboard the second R2K cruise to the Lau Basin (C.Langmuir, PI; Autumn 2004) to (a) map non-buoyant hydrothermal plumes, (b) intercept buoyant hydrothermal plumes and (c) locate and image novel hydrothermal fields on the seafloor. The AUV used for this work is ABE and the sensors deployed are direct extensions of the in situ Fe/Mn sensor deployed previously on SOC's AUTOSUB to investigate seasonally-reducing waters in Loch Etive, NW Scotland. Each in situ instrument comprises an electronics package that contains a tattletale control system with a flash memory card for on-board logging and a chemical manifold, consisting of a series of valves, pumps and a colorimetric cell. Analysis of iron is enabled by the determination of the coloured complex formed between iron II and ferrozine, manganese uses the colour change of PAN in the presence of reduced manganese. The system includes capacity for switching between sample, blank and two on-board samples for "in flight" calibrations with blanks and standards held in medical bags, outside of the pressure-balanced manifold, to attain in situ water-column temperatures. An in-line filter prevents large particle clogging and detection limits for both iron II and manganese II are ca.2nM.

German, C. R.; Connelly, D. P.; Prien, R. D.; Yoerger, D.; Jakuba, M.; Bradley, A.; Shank, T. J.; Edmonds, H. N.; Langmuir, C. H.

2004-12-01

212

The relative influence of climate and catchment properties on hydrological drought  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studying hydrological drought (a below-normal water availability in groundwater, lakes and streams) is important to society and the ecosystem, but can also reveal interesting information about catchment functioning. This information can later be used for predicting drought in ungauged basins and to inform water management decisions. In this study, we used an extensive Austrian dataset of discharge measurements in clusters of catchments and combine this dataset with thematic information on climate and catchment properties. Our aim was to study the relative effects of climate and catchment characteristics on drought duration and deficit and on hydrological drought typology. Because the climate of the region is roughly uniform, our hypothesis was that the effect of differences of catchment properties would stand out. From time series of precipitation and discharge we identified droughts with the widely-used threshold level approach, defining a drought when a variable falls below a pre-defined threshold representing the regime. Drought characteristics that were analysed are drought duration and deficit. We also applied the typology of Van Loon & Van Lanen (2012). To explain differences in drought characteristics between catchments we did a correlation analysis with climate and catchment characteristics, based on Pearson correlation. We found very interesting patterns in the correlations of drought characteristics with climate and catchment properties: 1) Droughts with long duration (mean and maximum) and composite droughts are related to catchments with a high BFI (high baseflow) and a high percentage of shallow groundwater tables. 2) The deficit (mean and maximum) of both meteorological droughts and hydrological droughts is strongly related to catchment humidity, in this case quantified by average annual precipitation. 3) The hydrological drought types that are related to snow, i.e. cold snow season drought and snow melt drought, occur in catchments that are have a high elevation, steep slopes, a high percentage of crystalline rock, bare rock and glacier. The conclusion of our research is that it is not straightforward to separate the effects of climate and catchment properties on drought, since they are interrelated. This is especially true for mountainous regions where temperature and precipitation are strongly dependent on altitude. We did however see that the duration of drought is more related to catchment storage (catchment properties) and the severity of drought (represented by the drought deficit) is more related to catchment wetness (climate). Van Loon, A.F., and Van Lanen, H.A.J.: A process-based typology of hydrological drought, Hydrology and Earth System Science, 16, p. 1915-1946, doi: 10.5194/hess-16-1915-2012, 2012

Van Loon, Anne; Laaha, Gregor; Koffler, Daniel

2014-05-01

213

Drainage basin morphometrics for depressional landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measures of the size, position, and connectivity of depressional wetlands are related to runoff variations among 12 forested catchments on the Canadian Shield under varying moisture conditions. A fine-resolution digital elevation model was used to delineate wetlands within the catchments. Analyses showed that wetland metrics as predictors of runoff variation were superior to catchment area and mean slope, two common basin metrics. The most useful metrics were the area of wetlands in bottomland positions, total wetland area, and volume. During wet periods, catchments containing extensive wetlands were marked by a significant decrease in maximum peak discharge and increase in duration of flow. During mesic and dry periods, catchments containing extensive wetlands were marked by an increase in rise and recession times of peak discharge events and the duration of flows. These characteristics resulted from the interaction between wetlands, their hydrologic connectivity to surface flow paths, and runoff.

Lindsay, John B.; Creed, Irena F.; Beall, Frederick D.

2004-09-01

214

A preliminary investigation of the structure of southern Yucca Flat, Massachusetts Mountain, and CP basin, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, based on geophysical modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

New gravity and magnetic data collected in the vicinity of Massachusetts Mountain and CP basin (Nevada Test Site, NV) provides a more complex view of the structural relationships present in the vicinity of CP basin than previous geologic models, helps define the position and extent of structures in southern Yucca Flat and CP basin, and better constrains the configuration of

Geoffrey A. Phelps; Leigh Justet; Barry C. Moring; Carter W. Roberts

2006-01-01

215

Temporal buffering of climate-driven sediment flux cycles by transient catchment response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The marine sedimentary record can exhibit a systematic cyclicity that is consistent with climate variability driven by Milankovitch-scale forcing. Milankovitch-band cyclicity is widely interpreted in the hemipelagic and pelagic sediments of the marine realm, and in terrestrial paleoenvironments has been observed in lacustrine sediments, soils and river floodplain successions. It remains unclear, however, if and how mountain catchments, as a primary sediment source, respond to these high frequency (<106 yr) climatic cycles, and whether particulate sediment flux signals can be expected to be recorded in the clastic sedimentary record of adjacent basin-fills. Recent field and theoretical studies suggest that mountain catchments respond transiently to high frequency forcing, and so sediment discharge from the catchment is a non-linear function of forcing variables. Using a catchment-basin model, we demonstrate that climate-driven cyclicity in particulate sediment discharge is strongly damped when the period of climate variability is shorter than the response timescale of the eroding landscape. Given that the response timescale of landscapes is of the order of 106 yr, and that Milankovitch-driven climate cyclicity is of the order of 104-105 yr, it is likely that climate-driven perturbation of upland catchments at these periods will be strongly damped by transient landscape behaviour. Our results therefore suggest that stratigraphy built by particulate fluxes from upland catchments, and long-term trends in the sediment delivery to the ocean, may be relatively insensitive to short-term climate variability.

Armitage, John J.; Dunkley Jones, Tom; Duller, Robert A.; Whittaker, Alexander C.; Allen, Philip A.

2013-05-01

216

Convection-resolving precipitation forecasting and its predictability in Alpine river catchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predictability limitations in quantitative precipitation forecasting arising from small-scale uncertainties in the initial conditions are investigated for Alpine river catchments, with particular consideration of their implications on hydrological runoff forecasting. To this end, convection-resolving ensembles of limited-area simulations are performed using a nonhydrostatic numerical weather prediction (NWP) model, and results are analysed in terms of catchment-averaged precipitation. The applied ensemble strategy uses slightly modified initial conditions representing observational uncertainties, but identical lateral boundary conditions representing a perfectly predictable synoptic-scale forcing. A total of four case studies is carried out for different synoptic conditions leading to heavy precipitation. Ensemble integrations of 12 members are analysed for 24-h forecasting periods, with particular attention paid to precipitation in the Po basin and in its sub-catchments in the Lago Maggiore area. The simulations exhibit a large variability in the predictability of precipitation amounts, both from case to case and from catchment to catchment. It is demonstrated for an episode of thermal convection, that the predictability may be very low even in large-scale catchments of ˜50,000 km 2. In more synoptically dominated cases, predictability limitations appear to be restricted to catchments smaller than ˜10,000 km 2, while in one case predictability is found to be high in catchments as small as 200 km 2. Overall, the simulations show that precipitation forecasts for alpine river catchments may on occasions be critically affected by predictability limitations, even though the NWP model and the synoptic-scale forcing are assumed to be prefect. It is demonstrated that a substantial fraction of the predictability limitations is due to the scattered and unpredictable occurrence of convective cells, but the presence of convective precipitation alone does not necessarily limit predictability. It is also shown that the predictability is systematically higher in mountainous catchments.

Walser, André; Schär, Christoph

2004-03-01

217

Preliminary analysis of water discharge and suspended sediment data from the Columbia River Basin: shifting rating curves and diminishing sediment loads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant erosion along the coastlines of southwestern Washington in the last decade has motivated increased studies of sediment sources, sinks, and transport dynamics in the region. A key question is whether a reduction in sediment supply is responsible for the recent shift from a depositional regime. Because the Columbia River is the major fluvial system in the littoral cell, it is important to quantify sediment flux from the Columbia River to the coastal environment. We examine historical records of water discharge and suspended sediment transport along the Columbia main stem and in three subbasins in an attempt to quantify changes in total sediment transport and total load, and examine possible shifts in sediment sources over time. Suspended sediment data from the main stem near Vancouver, WA demonstrate a 3 to 5 fold downward shift in the rating curve in the last 90 years. The same trend is visible in data from the Snake River, with a decrease of almost an order of magnitude in sediment transport since the 1950's. Grain size data from the Kootenai River show a clear fining trend in the suspended load. The John Day River is the only long-term record we examined with no change in the rating curve over time; it is also the largest undammed river in the basin. Calculations of sediment load in the main stem were made using actual water discharge, estimated discharge (assuming no dams), and calculated `virgin' flow (Naik and Jay, in review). Preliminary results suggest that changes in the hydrograph (assuming a uniform rating curve) would diminish sediment transport to the coast by up to 20% over the last century; changes in the rating curve are responsible for at least that change, possibly more.

MacGregor, K. R.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Rubin, D.

2003-12-01

218

On the relationships between catchment scale and streamwater mean residence time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between streamwater mean residence time (MRT) and landscape characteristics is poorly understood. We used tritium (3H) to define our MRT. We tested the hypothesis that baseflow water MRT increases with increasing absolute catchment size at the Maimai catchments. These catchments are simple hydrologic systems relative to many catchments around the world, with uniformly wet climatic conditions, little seasonality, uniform and nearly impermeable bedrock, steep short hillslopes, shallow soils, and well-characterized hillslope and catchment hydrology. As a result, this is a relatively simple system and an ideal location for new MRT-related hypothesis testing. Whilst hydrologists have used 3H to estimate water age since the 1960s nuclear testing spike, atmospheric 3H levels have now approached near background levels and are often complicated by contamination from the nuclear industry. We present results for 3H sampled from our set of nested catchments in nuclear-industry-free New Zealand. Because of high precision analysis, near-natural atmospheric 3H levels, and well-characterized rainfall 3H inputs, we were able to estimate the age of young (i.e. less than 3 years old) waters. Our results showed no correlation between MRT and catchment size. However, MRT was correlated to the median sub-catchment size of the sampled watersheds, as shown by landscape analysis of catchment area accumulation patterns. These preliminary findings suggest that landscape organization, rather than total area, is a first-order control on MRT and points the way forward for more detailed analysis of how landscape organization affects catchment runoff characteristics.

McGlynn, Brian; McDonnell, Jeff; Stewart, Mike; Seibert, Jan

2003-01-01

219

Exploring the link between spatial hydrologic variability and catchment similarity for the purpose of regionalisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catchments are complex systems, with a large number of strongly interdependent variables operating at many space and time scales. This makes it difficult to discover the processes in a particular catchment in greater detail as a prerequisite for runoff modelling. Instead of studying a particular catchment in much detail, we can explore spatial patterns of the runoff response to learn about the most important runoff generating processes in a study area. This can be done by linking the spatial variability of runoff signatures with that of climate and catchment characteristics through statistical techniques. The gained additional knowledge about catchment functioning can then be the departure for improved regionalisation models, which enable more reliable estimates at ungauged basins than models which do not take process information into account. This contribution explores the link between representations of hydrological variability and catchment similarity measures for the purpose of regionalisation. Guided by case studies of an Austrian and a German study area, we show how spatial patterns of the various runoff signatures, from droughts to floods, together with representations of climate and catchment characteristics can be jointly used to infer catchment functioning in terms of most important runoff generating processes. It is further shown how the information about similarly and differently functioning catchments can be employed to improve statistical regionalisation models. Results indicate that for seasonal climates, low flow processes are strongly linked with seasonality patterns. Grouping catchments according to seasonality can therefore significantly improve the predictive performance of regionalisation. The German study showed that shape and magnitude of the annual flood distributions are linked (i) to different catchment/climate characteristics (ii) in different (linear/non-linear) ways. This suggested a combined model of Top-kriging (linear model for flood magnitude) with the Index Flood method (non-linear model for flood shape) as suitable regionalisation method. A cross-validation analysis showed that the combined model performed indeed better than alternative statistical models which did not take process information into account. We conclude that the spatial patterns of runoff signatures, together with those of climate and catchment characteristics, contain a wealth of information, which can be profitably used for runoff predictions in ungauged basins.

Laaha, Gregor; Salinas, Jose L.; Blöschl, Günter

2013-04-01

220

Determination of run-off factor of the Tons Catchment using aerial photographs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Run-off is an important element of the hydrologic studies of any given basin. As such the estimation of the run-off factor\\u000a of a catchment becomes imperative for determination of the total quantity of its surface run-off. The traditional ground survey\\u000a methods of hydrologic studies of river basins are gradually getting replaced by more economical and reasonably accurate methods\\u000a mostly based

K. P. Sharma; Utpal Miri

1975-01-01

221

Old groundwater influence on stream hydrochemistry and catchment response times in a small Sierra Nevada catchment: Sagehen Creek, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

[1] The relationship between the chemical and isotopic composition of groundwater and residence times was used to understand the temporal variability in stream hydrochemistry in Sagehen basin, California. On the basis of the relationship between groundwater age and [Ca2+], the mean residence time of groundwater feeding Sagehen Creek during base flow is approximately 28 years. [Cl-]:[Ca2+] ratios in Sagehen Creek can be used to distinguish between two important processes: changes in the apparent age of groundwater discharging into the creek and dilution with snowmelt. The mean residence time of groundwater discharging into the creek is approximately 15 years during snowmelt periods. The results from this study have implications for hydrograph separation studies as groundwater is not a single, well-mixed chemical component but rather is a variable parameter that predictably depends on groundwater residence time. Most current models of catchment hydrochemistry do not account for chemical and isotopic variability found within the groundwater reservoir. In addition, this study provides valuable insight into the long-term hydrochemical response of a catchment to perturbations as catchment-flushing times are related to the mean residence time of water in a basin. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

Rademacher, L. K.; Clark, J. F.; Clow, D. W.; Hudson, G. B.

2005-01-01

222

Old groundwater influence on stream hydrochemistry and catchment response times in a small Sierra Nevada catchment: Sagehen Creek, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between the chemical and isotopic composition of groundwater and residence times was used to understand the temporal variability in stream hydrochemistry in Sagehen basin, California. On the basis of the relationship between groundwater age and [Ca2+], the mean residence time of groundwater feeding Sagehen Creek during base flow is approximately 28 years. [Cl-]:[Ca2+] ratios in Sagehen Creek can be used to distinguish between two important processes: changes in the apparent age of groundwater discharging into the creek and dilution with snowmelt. The mean residence time of groundwater discharging into the creek is approximately 15 years during snowmelt periods. The results from this study have implications for hydrograph separation studies as groundwater is not a single, well-mixed chemical component but rather is a variable parameter that predictably depends on groundwater residence time. Most current models of catchment hydrochemistry do not account for chemical and isotopic variability found within the groundwater reservoir. In addition, this study provides valuable insight into the long-term hydrochemical response of a catchment to perturbations as catchment-flushing times are related to the mean residence time of water in a basin.

Rademacher, Laura K.; Clark, Jordan F.; Clow, David W.; Hudson, G. Bryant

2005-02-01

223

A Preliminary Investigation of The Structure of Southern Yucca Flat, Massachusetts Mountain, and CP Basin, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Based on Geophysical Modeling  

USGS Publications Warehouse

New gravity and magnetic data collected in the vicinity of Massachusetts Mountain and CP basin (Nevada Test Site, NV) provides a more complex view of the structural relationships present in the vicinity of CP basin than previous geologic models, helps define the position and extent of structures in southern Yucca Flat and CP basin, and better constrains the configuration of the basement structure separating CP basin and Frenchman Flat. The density and gravity modeling indicates that CP basin is a shallow, oval-shaped basin which trends north-northeast and contains ~800 m of basin-filling rocks and sediment at its deepest point in the northeast. CP basin is separated from the deeper Frenchman Flat basin by a subsurface ridge that may represent a Tertiary erosion surface at the top of the Paleozoic strata. The magnetic modeling indicates that the Cane Spring fault appears to merge with faults in northwest Massachusetts Mountain, rather than cut through to Yucca Flat basin and that the basin is downed-dropped relative to Massachusetts Mountain. The magnetic modeling indicates volcanic units within Yucca Flat basin are down-dropped on the west and supports the interpretations of Phelps and KcKee (1999). The magnetic data indicate that the only faults that appear to be through-going from Yucca Flat into either Frenchman Flat or CP basin are the faults that bound the CP hogback. In general, the north-trending faults present along the length of Yucca Flat bend, merge, and disappear before reaching CP hogback and Massachusetts Mountain or French Peak.

Phelps, Geoffrey A.; Justet, Leigh; Moring, Barry C.; Roberts, Carter W.

2006-01-01

224

Morphometric analysis of a subtropical Andean basin (Tucumán, Argentina)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A morphometric analysis was done to determine the drainage characteristics of Lules River basin using land-sat imageries and topographical maps. This catchment was divided into seven sub-basins for the analysis: Liquimayo, Hoyada, Ciénaga, De Las Tablas, Siambón, Potrerillo and San Javier. Yungas ecoregion covers almost all the watershed. The drainage patterns of the sub-basins are dendritic and parallel. The basin

L. M. Mesa

2006-01-01

225

Geomorphic (de-) coupling of hillslope and channel systems within headwater catchments in two subarctic tributary valleys, Nordfjord, Western Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hillslopes occupy large areas of the earth surface. Studying the characteristics, development and interaction of hillslopes as components of the geomorphic hillslope-channel coupling process-response system will improve the understanding of the complex response of mountain landscape formation. The rates of hillslope processes are exceptionally varied and affected by many influences of varying intensity. Hillslope-channel coupling and sediment storage within slopes are important factors that influence sediment delivery through catchments, especially in steep environments. Within sediment transfers from sources to sinks in drainage basins, hillslopes function as a key element concerning sediment storage, both for short term periods as between rainstorms as well as for longer periods in colluvial deposits. This PhD project is part of the NFR funded SedyMONT-Norway project within the ESF TOPO-EUROPE SedyMONT (Timescales of sediment dynamics, climate and topographic change in mountain landscapes) programme. The focus of this study is on geomorphic hillslope-channel coupling or de-coupling and sediment transport within four distinct headwater areas of the Erdalen and Bødalen catchments in the Nordfjord valley-fjord system (inner Nordfjord, Western Norway). Both catchments can be described as steep, U-shaped and glacier-fed, subarctic tributary valleys. Approximately 14% of the 49 km2 large headwater area of Erdalen is occupied by hillslope deposits; in Bødalen hillslope deposits occupy 12% of the 42 km2 large headwater area. The main aims of the study are to present preliminary findings on (i) the identification of possible sediment sources and delivery pathways within the headwater areas of the catchments, (ii) to analyze the development of hillslope-channel coupling / de-coupling from postglacial to contemporary timescales as well as (iii) to investigate the current degree of geomorphic hillslope-channel coupling within the different headwater catchments and (iv) to determine differently acting mass movement processes. A process-based approach is applied to assess the importance of hillslope sediment production, storage and transport throughout the catchments, including orthophoto-interpretation, hillslope profile surveying, photo monitoring, geomorphological mapping, GIS and DEM computing as well as a combination of different field techniques for bed load monitoring. Appropriate hillslope test sites within the headwater catchments are selected in order to fulfill the main aims of this study as well as to monitor contemporary rates of hillslope fluxes. The designed monitoring instrumentation of the slope test sites includes nets, stone tracer lines, wooden sticks, peg lines, slop wash traps and remote site monitoring cameras. Hillslope profile surveying, geomorphological mapping and measurements of solute yields from the slope systems are carried out at each test site. Channel longitudinal- and cross profiles are measured in defined test stretches of the first order streams, located downhill of the slope test sites. Within the same channel test stretches extensive pebble counts (grain size, grain shape) are conducted seasonally and tracer lines are installed in order to trace different bed load components. The four selected headwater areas are characterized by different intensities of hillslope-channel coupling, mainly due to the distinct valley morphometries affected by the glacial inheritance of the Nordfjord region. Where hillslope-channel coupling exists, primary coarse material is delivered from the hillslopes into the channels via snow avalanches. These coarse grained and angular components can be traced within the channel test stretches. Research on the complex evolution of hillslope-channel (de-) coupling over time and contemporary sediment transfer fluxes contributes to a better understanding of possible trends of mountain landscape development.

Laute, Katja; Beylich, Achim A.

2010-05-01

226

An investigation of soil erosion and redistribution in a Mediterranean lowland agricultural catchment using caesium-137  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to contribute to an improved understanding of soil erosion and redistribution on Mediterranean agricultural land, where traditional soil conservation practices have been applied over millennia to provide effective protection of cultivated land. The study was undertaken in the Na Borges catchment, a groundwater-dominated lowland limestone basin (319 km2), located in the northeastern part of Mallorca, Spain. The

Joan ESTRANY; Celso GARCIA; Desmond E. WALLING

2010-01-01

227

Catchment intercomparsion of event\\/pre-event water percentage and mean residence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Percentage estimates of event\\/pre-event water (EPEW) components in channel stormflow and baseflow mean residence time (MRT) are two useful descriptors of catchment hydrology. Nevertheless, values for EPEW ratios vary widely, even for similar size basins, similar climate and hydrologic regimes. Likewise, MRT can vary by orders of magnitude for seemingly similar hydrologic systems. Process \\

J. McDonnell; T. Uchida; M. Weiler

2003-01-01

228

The role of topography on catchment-scale water residence time  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The age, or residence time, of water is a fundamental descriptor of catchment hydrology, revealing information about the storage, flow pathways, and source of water in a single integrated measure. While there has been tremendous recent interest in residence time estimation to characterize watersheds, there are relatively few studies that have quantified residence time at the watershed scale, and fewer still that have extended those results beyond single catchments to larger landscape scales. We examined-topographic controls on residence time for seven catchments (0.085-62.4 km2) that represent diverse geologic and geomorphic conditions in the western Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Our primary objective was to determine the dominant physical controls on catchment-scale, water residence time and specifically test the hypothesis that residence time is related to the size of the basin. Residence times were estimated by simple convolution models that described the transfer of precipitation isotopic composition to the stream network. We found that base flow mean residence times for exponential distributions ranged from 0.8 to 3.3 years. Mean residence time showed no correlation to basin area (r2 < 0.01) but instead was correlated (r2 =-0:91) to catchment terrain indices representing the flow path distance and flow path gradient to the stream network. These results illustrate that landscape organization (i.e., topography) rather than basin area controls catchment-scale transport. Results from this study may provide a framework for describing scale-invariant transport across climatic and geologic conditions, whereby the internal form and structure of the basin defines the first-order control on base flow residence time. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

McGuire, K. J.; McDonnell, J. J.; Weiler, M.; Kendall, C.; McGlynn, B. L.; Welker, J. M.; Seibert, J.

2005-01-01

229

On the trail of 'hidden streamflow' in Luxembourgish catchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tritium measurements are being carried out in well-studied catchments in the Attert sub-basin of the Alzette River in Luxembourg to investigate transit times of baseflow from the various lithologies in the area. Rock-types vary from sandstone with high permeability to marl and schist with low permeabilities. In contrast to other methods, tritium reveals the full spectrum of ages present in streams including 'hidden streamflow' (i.e. water older than that measurable by stable isotope or conservative tracer methods) Stewart et al. (2012). In principle, it can also provide ages for individual samples and therefore reveal variations in age with flow if measurements are accurate enough. However, difficulties arise in determining the tritium input function and from ambiguous age solutions due to the past input of thermonuclear tritium. Previous and concurrent geochemical and stable isotope studies are providing complementary information about the systems (e.g. geological controls on catchment storage, mixing potential, isotopic signatures in streamflow) Pfister et al. (2014). Results to date are showing that old water with mean transit times of about 18 years flow from catchments dominated by sandstone at medium to low flows. These streams also have very homogeneous ?D values at such flows showing large storages and mixing potentials. On the other hand, catchments dominated by marl and schist show varying mean transit times ranging from 2 to 20 years depending on flows, although data is limited. The ?D values of these streams are scattered and have a decreasing trend with streamflow showing event and seasonal rainfall influence, and thus small storage capacities and mixing potentials. It appears that 'hidden streamflow' is alive and well, and living in Luxembourg! Pfister L. et al. 2014: Catchment storage, baseflow isotope signatures and basin geology: Is there a connection? In preparation. Stewart, M.K., Morgenstern, U., McDonnell, J.J., Pfister, L. 2012: The 'hidden' streamflow challenge in catchment hydrology: A call to action for streamwater transit time analysis. Hydrological Processes 26(13), 2061-2066.

Stewart, Michael; Pfister, Laurent; Morgenstern, Uwe; Martinez-Carreras, Nuria; Gourdol, Laurent; Klaus, Julian; McDonnell, Jeffrey

2014-05-01

230

Sedimentologic and Geometric Characterization of Turbidites of Brazos-Trinity Basin IV in the Gulf of Mexico: Preliminary Results of IODP Expedition 308  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brazos Trinity Basin IV is located about 200 km offshore Texas, and belongs to a linked system of four intra slope mini basins. Basin IV provides a type section to characterize turbidites in salt withdrawal mini-basins of the Gulf of Mexico. IODP Expedition 308 has cored and logged complete pre-fan and fan sequences that are clearly distinguished with high-resolution seismic profiles at Brazos Trinity Basin IV at Sites U1319, U1320 and U1321. Seismically imaged pre-fan and fan units also can be distinguished and correlated with the sedimentological and logging data. Turbidite facies display distinct properties in terms of grain size, bed thickness, color, organic matter content, vertical organization of beds and lateral distribution in all the units of the fan through the basin. The pre-fan sequence is composed of terrigenous laminated clay with color banding and it is interpreted to result from deposition from fluvial plumes and/or muddy turbidity currents overspilling from basins upstream of Basin IV. The lower fan is characterized by laminated and bioturbated muds with thin beds of silt and sand, and represent the initial infill of the basin by mostly muddy turbidity currents, although an exceptionally sand-rich unit occurs at the base of the lower fan. The middle and upper fan represent the main pulses of turbidity current influx into Basin IV, and contain fine to medium sand turbidite beds organized in packets ranging in thickness from 5 to 25 m. The middle fan displays an overall upward increase in sand content at Site U1320, suggesting increased flow by-pass from the updip basins through time. Key examples of turbidites from each fan unit are analysed in detail to infer the depositional processes and infilling history of Brazos-Trinity Basin IV. The study of turbidites in a calibrated basin such as Basin IV provides ground truth for the sedimentological processes and resultant seismic facies, which can be used to interpret the infill history of other intraslope basins with similar seismic facies in the Gulf of Mexico where well calibration is not available.

Gutierrez-Pastor, J.; Pirmez, C.; Flemings, P. B.; Behrmann, J. H.; John, C. M.

2005-12-01

231

Preliminary correlation of palynological assemblages from Oman with the Granulatisporites confluens Oppel Zone of the grant formation (lower Permian), Canning Basin, Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of Granulatisporites confluens Archangelsky and Gamerro indicates an Asselian-Tastubian (lowermost Permian) age for glaciogene sediments in the Amal-6 borehole, Oman. This suggests that the Al Khlata Formation is in part coeval with glaciogene sediments of the Canning Basin, Western Australia, and sediments of the Chacoparana Basin, Argentina.

Stephenson, Michael H.

1998-05-01

232

Hydrochemical responses among nested catchments of the Sleepers River Research Watershed.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are probing chemical and isotopic tracers of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrate over both space and time to determine how stream nutrient dynamics change with increasing basin size and differ with flow conditions. At the Sleepers River Research Watershed in northeastern Vermont, USA, 20 to 30 nested sub-basins that ranged in size from 3 to 11,000 ha were sampled repeatedly under baseflow conditions. These synoptic surveys showed a pattern of heterogeneity in headwaters that converged to a consistent response at larger basin sizes and is consistent with findings of other studies. In addition to characterizing spatial patterns under baseflow, we sampled rainfall and snowmelt events over a gradient of basin sizes to investigate scaling responses under different flow conditions. During high flow events, DOC and nitrate flushing responses varied among different basins where high-frequency event samples were collected. While the DOC and nitrate concentration patterns were similar at four headwater basins, the concentration responses of larger basins were markedly different in that the concentration patterns, flushing duration, and maximum concentrations were attenuated from headwaters to the largest basin. We are using these data to explore how flow paths and solute mixing aggregate. Overall, these results highlight the complexities of understanding spatial scaling issues in catchments and underscore the need to consider event responses of hydrology and chemistry among catchments.

Sebestyen, S. D.; Boyer, E. W.; Shanley, J. B.; Kendall, C.

2005-12-01

233

Optimum Mountain Catchment Management in Southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the application of concepts of systems analysis to mountain catchment management. Mountain catchments are defined as subsystems which have a specified minimum rate of runoff and are situated above a certain height above sea level. Mountain catchments, so defined, occupy 12% of Southern Africa but deliver 53% of the runoff. Certain systems techniques, such as goal

D. W. van der Zel

1981-01-01

234

Comparing catchment evapotranspiration at different time scales through a bottom-up and top-down method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

: The catchment evapotranspiration is examined at the long-term, annual, seasonal, monthly and daily scales. Process-based (physically-based) hydrological models predict the catchment evapotranspiration through detailed simulation of hydrological processes at small temporal and spatial scales. However, catchment annual evapotranspiration can also be easily and simply predicted using a lumped conceptual model. Comparison between physically-based hydrological models and lumped conceptual models can help us understand the dominant control factors on catchment evapotranspiration at different time scales. In the present research a distributed physically-based hydrological model (i.e., bottom-up approach) and a simple water-energy balance model (i.e., top-down approach) are used to predict actual evapotranspiration in 9 sub-catchments and the whole basin of the Luan River in Northern China. Both simulations give very close values of catchment evapotranspiration at different time scales. From the analysis through comparison of the top-down and the bottom-up methods, it is shown that catchment annual evapotranspiration is controlled mainly by the annual precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, variability of soil water and vegetation become more important at a smaller time scale. Keywords: catchment evapotranspiration, distributed hydrological model, water-energy balance model, top-down and bottom-up approaches

Xu, X.; Yang, D.; Sivapalan, M.

2009-12-01

235

Modeling ground water flow in alluvial mountainous catchments on a watershed scale.  

PubMed

In large mountainous catchments, shallow unconfined alluvial aquifers play an important role in conveying subsurface runoff to the foreland. Their relatively small extent poses a serious problem for ground water flow models on the river basin scale. River basin scale models describing the entire water cycle are necessary in integrated water resources management and to study the impact of global climate change on ground water resources. Integrated regional-scale models must use a coarse, fixed discretization to keep computational demands low and to facilitate model coupling. This can lead to discrepancies between model discretization and the geometrical properties of natural systems. Here, an approach to overcome this discrepancy is discussed using the example of the German-Austrian Upper Danube catchment, where a coarse ground water flow model was developed using MODFLOW. The method developed uses a modified concept from a hydrological catchment drainage analysis in order to adapt the aquifer geometry such that it respects the numerical requirements of the chosen discretization, that is, the width and the thickness of cells as well as gradients and connectivity of the catchment. In order to show the efficiency of the developed method, it was tested and compared to a finely discretized ground water model of the Ammer subcatchment. The results of the analysis prove the applicability of the new approach and contribute to the idea of using physically based ground water models in large catchments. PMID:18459959

Wolf, Jens; Barthel, Roland; Braun, Jürgen

2008-01-01

236

Geological controls on isotopic signatures of streamflow: results from a nested catchment experiment in Luxembourg (Europe)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controls of geology and topography on hydrological metrics, like summer low flow (Grant and Tague, 2004) or dynamic storage (Sayama et al., 2011), have been identified in nested catchment experiments. However, most tracer-based studies on streamflow generation have been carried out in small (10 km2) homogenous catchments (Klaus and McDonnell, 2013). The controlling effects of catchment physiography on how catchments store and release water, and how this eventually controls stream isotope behaviour over a large range of scale are poorly understood. Here, we present results from a nested catchment analysis in the Alzette River basin (Luxembourg, Europe). Our hydro-climatological network consists of 16 recording streamgauges and 21 pluviographs. Catchment areas range from 0.47 to 285 km2, with clean and mixed combinations of distinct geologies ranging from schists to marls, sandstone, dolomite and limestone. Our objective was to identify geological controls on (i) winter runoff ratios, (ii) maximum storage and (iii) isotopic signatures in streamflow. For each catchment we determined average runoff ratios from winter season precipitation-discharge double-mass curves. Maximum catchment storage was based on the dynamic storage change approach of Sayama et al. (2011). Changes in isotopic signatures of streamflow were documented along individual catchment flow duration curves. We found strong correlations between average winter runoff ratios, maximum storage and the prevailing geological settings. Catchments with impermeable bedrock (e.g. marls or schists) were characterised by small storage potential and high average filling ratios. As a consequence, these catchments also exhibited the highest average runoff ratios. In catchments underlain by permeable bedrock (e.g. sandstone), storage potential was significantly higher and runoff ratios were considerably smaller. The isotopic signatures of streamflow showed large differences between catchments. In catchments dominated by permeable bedrock, isotopic signatures of streamflow remained stable throughout the entire flow duration curve consistent with a large storage and mixing potential. On less permeable bedrock substrate, we have observed that isotopic signatures in streamflow were much more variable, due to reduced storage volume and comparatively smaller mixing potential. Other metrics such as catchment size and flowpath length exerted a smaller secondary control on isotopic signatures of streamflow in the Alzette River sub-basins. Tague, C., Grant, G.E., 2004. A geological framework for interpreting the low-flow regimes of Cascade streams, Willamette River Basin, Oregon. Water Resources Research, 40(4), doi:10.1029/2003WR002629 Sayama, T., McDonnell, J.J., Dhakal, A., Sullivan, K., 2011. How much water can a watershed store ? Hydrological Processes 25, 3899-3908. Klaus, J., McDonnell, J.J., 2013. Hydrograph separation using stable isotopes: Review and evaluation. Journal of Hydrology 505, 47-64.

Pfister, Laurent; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Hissler, Christophe; Martinez-Carreras, Nuria; Gourdol, Laurent; Klaus, Julian; François Iffly, Jean; Barnich, François; Stewart, Mike K.

2014-05-01

237

Preliminary assessment of channel stability and bed-material transport in the Tillamook Bay tributaries and Nehalem River basin, northwestern Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report summarizes a preliminary study of bed-material transport, vertical and lateral channel changes, and existing datasets for the Tillamook (drainage area 156 square kilometers [km2]), Trask (451 km2), Wilson (500 km2), Kilchis (169 km2), Miami (94 km2), and Nehalem (2,207 km2) Rivers along the northwestern Oregon coast. This study, conducted in coopera-tion with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and Oregon Department of State Lands to inform permitting decisions regarding instream gravel mining, revealed that: * Study areas along the six rivers can be divided into reaches based on tidal influence and topography. The fluvial (nontidal or dominated by riverine processes) reaches vary in length (2.4-9.3 kilometer [km]), gradient (0.0011-0.0075 meter of elevation change per meter of channel length [m/m]), and bed-material composition (a mixture of alluvium and intermittent bedrock outcrops to predominately alluvium). In fluvial reaches, unit bar area (square meter of bar area per meter of channel length [m2/m]) as mapped from 2009 photographs ranged from 7.1 m2/m on the Tillamook River to 27.9 m2/m on the Miami River. * In tidal reaches, all six rivers flow over alluvial deposits, but have varying gradients (0.0001-0.0013 m/m) and lengths affected by tide (1.3-24.6 km). The Miami River has the steepest and shortest tidal reach and the Nehalem River has the flattest and longest tidal reach. Bars in the tidal reaches are generally composed of sand and mud. Unit bar area was greatest in the Tidal Nehalem Reach, where extensive mud flats flank the lower channel. * Background factors such as valley and channel confinement, basin geology, channel slope, and tidal extent control the spatial variation in the accumulation and texture of bed material. Presently, the Upper Fluvial Wilson and Miami Reaches and Fluvial Nehalem Reach have the greatest abundance of gravel bars, likely owing to local bed-material sources in combination with decreasing channel gradient and valley confinement. * Natural and human-caused disturbances such as mass movements, logging, fire, channel modifications for navigation and flood control, and gravel mining also have varying effects on channel condition, bed-material transport, and distribution and area of bars throughout the study areas and over time. * Existing datasets include at least 16 and 18 sets of aerial and orthophotographs that were taken of the study areas in the Tillamook Bay tributary basins and Nehalem River basin, respectively, from 1939 to 2011. These photographs are available for future assessments of long-term changes in channel condition, bar area, and vegetation establishment patterns. High resolution Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) surveys acquired in 2007-2009 could support future quantitative analyses of channel morphology and bed-material transport in all study areas. * A review of deposited and mined gravel volumes reported for instream gravel mining sites shows that bed-material deposition tends to rebuild mined bar surfaces in most years. Mean annual deposition volumes on individual bars exceeded 3,000 cubic meters (m3) on Donaldson Bar on the Wilson River, Dill Bar on the Kilchis River, and Plant and Winslow Bars on the Nehalem River. Cumulative reported volumes of bed-material deposition were greatest at Donaldson and Dill Bars, totaling over 25,000 m3 per site from 2004 to 2011. Within this period, reported cumulative mined volumes were greatest for the Donaldson, Plant, and Winslow Bars, ranging from 24,470 to 33,940 m3. * Analysis of historical stage-streamflow data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey on the Wilson River near Tillamook (14301500) and Nehalem River near Foss (14301000) shows that these rivers have episodically aggraded and incised, mostly following high flow events, but they do not exhibit systematic, long-term trends in bed elevation. * Multiple cross sections show that channels near bridge crossings in all six study areas are dynamic with many subject to incision and aggradation as well as lateral shifts in thalweg position and bank deposit

Jones, Krista L.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Wallick, J. Rose

2012-01-01

238

Preliminary Assessment of Infiltration Rates and Effects on Water Quality of Selected Infiltration Media for Use in Highway Runoff Retention Basins in Washington State.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Infiltration experiments were undertaken to investigate an infiltration medium that could be used in retention basins to decrease the infiltration rate to between 5 and 10 inches per hour and to also decrease the concentrations of some pollutants in highw...

K. C. Ames E. L. Inkpen L. M. Frans W. R. Bidlake

2001-01-01

239

What causes similarity in catchments?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the biggest issues in hydrology is how to handle the heterogeneity of catchment properties at different scales. But is this really such a big issue? Is this problem not merely the consequence of how we conceptualise and how we model catchments? Is there not far more similarity than we observe. Maybe we are not looking at the right things or at the right scale to see the similarity. The identity of catchments is largely determined by: the landscape, the ecosystem living on the landscape, and the geology, in that order. Soils, which are often seen as a crucial aspect of hydrological behaviour, are far less important, as will be demonstrated. The main determinants of hydrological behaviour are: the landscape composition, the rooting depth and the phenology. These determinants are a consequence of landscape and ecosystem evolution, which, in turn, are the manifestations of entropy production. There are striking similarities between catchments. The different runoff processes from hillslopes are linked and similar in different environments (McDonnell, 2013). Wetlands behave similarly all over the world. The key is to classify landscapes and to link the ecosystems living on them to climate. The ecosystem then is the main controller of hydrological behaviour. Besides phenology, the rooting depth is key in determining runoff behaviour. Both are strongly linked to climate and much less to soil properties. An example is given of how rooting depth is determined by climate, and how rooting depth can be predicted without calibration, providing a strong constraints on the prediction of rainfall partitioning and catchment runoff.

Savenije, Hubert

2014-05-01

240

Farmer Tree Nursery as a Catalyst for Developing Sustainable Best Management Land Use Practices in Lake Victoria Catchments Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Support to farmer nurseries is classified as either hard referring to material inputs (tree seed, water, tools and fencing) or soft (information, training and backstopping advice). Against a background of poor services for smallholder farmers in the Lake Victoria basin, it was hypothesized that a number of support agents operating at the grassroot level together with farmers themselves provide the different support functions needed in the establishment of farmer tree nurseries. Through financial support from Inter-University Council of East Africa coordinated VicReS Project, a collaborative project involving Kenyatta University (Kenya), Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and Mulingano Agricultural Research Institute (Tanzania) has been able to initiate reforestation/afforestation activities in Lake Victoria catchments ecosystems of western Kenya and western Tanzania. Through the initial activities, a total of twenty four farmer groups have been identified in western Kenya and supported through capacity building and supply of basic inputs for tree nursery seed bed preparation and management. The groups have been able to set up tree nurseries and are now managing seed beds with a total of 450,000 agro-forestry seedlings, mainly Grevillea robusta and Casuarina spp. The farmers intend to distribute the seedling among the members for planting on farm boundaries, around homesteads and woodlots within their homesteads and sell the surplus. Preliminary findings show that there is an urgent need to facilitate grassroot level support systems with larger participation from the national extension service for provision of training and backstopping advice. Strengthening the human capital of farmers and service providers emerges as critical in increasing impact. Farmer nurseries are shown to play a number of important and interrelated functions in building natural, human and social capital. Monitoring and evaluating farmer nurseries in catalyzing these three functions should therefore receive proper attention in assessing impact of sustainable land use systems. Policies need to be well articulated to address some of the major constrains identified in the Lake Victoria catchments ecosystem.

Shisanya, C. A.; Makokha, M. O.; Kimani, S. K.; Kalumuna, M.; Tenge, A.

241

On the Relationship Between Soil Depth and Mean Water Transit Time in Zero-order Catchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to enhance prediction of the hydrologic response of ungaged basins, it is necessary to relate water transit times to easily measurable catchment properties. Groundwater transit times have been modeled for 10 sub-catchments of two small catchments in the Santa Catalina Mountains north of Tucson, Arizona (USA). The two zero-order catchments are north facing with very similar drainage area, mean slope, and climate. The main difference between the two sites is bedrock geology: one is underlain by Schist and the other by Granite. The modeled water transit time distributions were obtained from hydrometric and isotopic data analysis, and were compared to a number of topographic properties such as mean slope, area, mean flow path length, curvature. None of those could explain much of the variation of the transit times. In a second step, available modeled soil depth distributions were used to relate average soil depth to mean transit time. The modeled soil depth data (Pelletier and Rasmussen, 2009) was generated using only basic climate data (mean annual precipitation and mean annual temperature), high resolution digital elevation model (LIDAR) data and geologic data (parent material). These modeled soil depths were averaged over the sub-catchments. It was found that they are able to explain 80 percent of the variation of the groundwater transit times. This means that in these catchments mean soil depth is the predominant transit time control. With this knowledge it is possible to predict transit times (and therefore catchment response) by modeling soil depths, even in catchments where there is sparse hydrologic information available.

Heidbuechel, I.; Troch, P. A.; Pelletier, J. D.; Rasmussen, C.; Lyon, S. W.

2009-12-01

242

PATTERNS OF LAND USE CHANGE IN UPLAND AND RIPARIAN AREAS IN THE ETOWAH RIVER BASIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streams are influenced by the upstream landscape, but may be differentially affected by conversion of forests in the entire catchment vs riparian areas adjacent to streams. We used geographic information system (GIS) analyses of the stream network and land cover in the Piedmont of the Etowah River basin to assess development patterns in upland catchment and riparian areas of streams.

Allison H. Roy; Mary C. Freeman; Judy L. Meyer; David S. Leigh

243

Basin Economic Allocation Model (BEAM): An economic model of water use developed for the Aral Sea Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water resources of the Aral Sea basin are under increasing pressure, particularly from the conflict over whether hydropower or irrigation water use should take priority. The purpose of the BEAM model is to explore the impact of changes to water allocation and investments in water management infrastructure on the overall welfare of the Aral Sea basin. The BEAM model estimates welfare changes associated with changes to how water is allocated between the five countries in the basin (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan; water use in Afghanistan is assumed to be fixed). Water is allocated according to economic optimization criteria; in other words, the BEAM model allocates water across time and space so that the economic welfare associated with water use is maximized. The model is programmed in GAMS. The model addresses the Aral Sea Basin as a whole - that is, the rivers Syr Darya, Amu Darya, Kashkadarya, and Zarafshan, as well as the Aral Sea. The model representation includes water resources, including 14 river sections, 6 terminal lakes, 28 reservoirs and 19 catchment runoff nodes, as well as land resources (i.e., irrigated croplands). The model covers 5 sectors: agriculture (crops: wheat, cotton, alfalfa, rice, fruit, vegetables and others), hydropower, nature, households and industry. The focus of the model is on welfare impacts associated with changes to water use in the agriculture and hydropower sectors. The model aims at addressing the following issues of relevance for economic management of water resources: • Physical efficiency (estimating how investments in irrigation efficiency affect economic welfare). • Economic efficiency (estimating how changes in how water is allocated affect welfare). • Equity (who will gain from changes in allocation of water from one sector to another and who will lose?). Stakeholders in the region have been involved in the development of the model, and about 10 national experts, including staff from the International Fund for Saving the Aral Sea (IFAS), have been trained in using the model. The model is publicly accessible through a web-based user interface that allows users to investigate scenarios and perform sensitivity analyses. Preliminary results suggest that: 1. At the margin, hydropower water use increases basin-wide welfare more than irrigation water use. 2. Under normal or average hydrological conditions, water scarcity is not a significant problem in the basin. 3. Under dry hydrological conditions, water scarcity is significant. Under these conditions, preliminary results suggest that cotton irrigation is less effective than other uses, particularly in Turkmenistan. 4. Investments in irrigation efficiency can have a significant impact on the effectiveness of water use for irrigation, thereby increasing the welfare of irrigation regions during dry periods.

Riegels, Niels; Kromann, Mikkel; Karup Pedersen, Jesper; Lindgaard-Jørgensen, Palle; Sokolov, Vadim; Sorokin, Anatoly

2013-04-01

244

Be-10 derived basin-wide erosion rates of Southern Qilian Shan, NE Tibet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The actively uplifting Qilian Shan forms the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. The mountain range is bounded to the northeast by a thrust fault forming a 2 km-high mountain front over the Hexi Corridor basin, and to the southwest by a series of thrusts within an internally-drained elevated plateau that steps downwards into the Qaidam basin. The mountain range forms an important climatic boundary as well, where the East Asian Monsoon gives its way to Northern Hemisphere Westerlies. Understanding the interplay among active faulting, climate, and erosion in this region could be important for revealing the northeastern expansion and uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. Here we present 10Be derived catchment-wide erosion rates for a large area of the southern Qilian Shan. Our preliminary results show remarkably slow erosion rates ranging from~ 10 - 100 mm/ky,much slower than those reported for rivers draining the north Qilian Shan (ranging from 39-833 mm/ky) [Palumbo et al., 2011]. These results may suggest that catchments draining the mountain front experience relatively high precipitation and are eroding quickly, while catchments in the arid, internally-drained interior are isolated from base level fall and are eroding slowly. Moreover, our erosion rates may also suggest that the interior (southern) portions of the Qilian Shan are deforming more slowly than along the frontal thrust. This is consistent with the North Qilian Shan thrust accommodating most of the tectonic shortening in the mountain range, with shortening occurring at a slower rate in the interior. These data may suggest that low erosion rates (at least partially due to aridity) are promoting surface uplift of the Qilian Shan and Qaidam basin along the northeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau. Additional samples are being processed from a variety of geologic and climatic settings that we hope will further elucidate patterns of erosion in the Qilian Shan region. Palumbo, L., R. Hetzel, M. Tao, and X. Li (2011), Catchment-wide denudation rates at the margin of NE Tibet from in situ-produced cosmogenic 10Be, Terra Nova, 23(1), 42-48.

Hu, K.; Fang, X.; Granger, D. E.; Zhao, Z.

2013-12-01

245

Sediment connectivity evolution on an alpine catchment undergoing glacier retreat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate changes can result in a wide range of variations of natural environment including retreating glaciers. Melting from glaciers will have a significant impact on the sediment transport characteristics of glacierized alpine catchments that can affect downstream channel network. Sediment connectivity assessment, i.e. the degree of connections that controls sediment fluxes between different segments of a landscape, can be useful in order to address management activity on sediment fluxes changes of alpine streams. Through the spatial characterization of the connectivity patterns of a catchment and its potential evolution it is possible to both define sediment transport pathways and estimate different contributions of the sub-catchment as sediment sources. In this study, a topography based index (Cavalli et al., 2013) has been applied to assess spatial sediment connectivity in the Navisence catchment (35 km2), an alpine basin located in the southern Walliser Alps (Switzerland) characterized by a complex glacier system with well-developed lateral moraines on glacier margins already crossed by several lateral channels. Glacier retreat of the main glacial edifice will provide a new connectivity pattern. At present the glacier disconnects lateral slopes from the main talweg: it is expected that its retreat will experience an increased connectivity. In order to study this evolution, two high resolution (2 m) digital terrain models (DTMs) describing respectively the terrain before and after glacier retreat have been analyzed. The current DTM was obtained from high resolution photogrammetry (2 m resolution). The future DTM was derived from application of the sloping local base level (SLBL) routine (Jaboyedoff et al., 2004) on the current glacier system, allowing to remove the ice body by reconstituting a U-shaped polynomial bedrock surface. From this new surface a coherent river network was drawn and slight random noise was added. Finally the river network was burned into the rough surface of the SLBL results. The impact of sediment dynamic changes on the study catchment due to glacier retreat has been assessed by comparing predictions deriving from model application on different scenarios. Simulations allowed the analysis of sediment connectivity evolution over decade scales suggesting an increase of potential sediment transfer and connections in areas close to the main channel network. References: Cavalli, M., Trevisani, S., Comiti, F., Marchi, L., 2013. Geomorphometric assessment of spatial sediment connectivity in small Alpine catchments. Geomorphology 188, 31-41. Jaboyedoff M., Bardou E., Derron M.-H. 2004. Sloping local base level: a tool to estimate potential erodible volume and infilling alluvial sediment of glacial valleys. Swiss Geo-Scientists meeting, November 2004, Lausanne.

Goldin, Beatrice; Rudaz, Benjamin; Bardou, Eric

2014-05-01

246

Factors controlling mercury transport in an upland forested catchment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Total mercury (Hg) deposition and input/output relationships were investigated in an 11-ha deciduous forested catchment in northern Vermont as part of ongoing evaluations of rig cycling and transport in the Lake Champlain basin. Atmospheric Hg deposition (precipitation + modeled vapor phase downward flux) was 425 mg ha-1 during the one-year period March 1994 through February 1995 and 463 mg ha-1 from March 1995 through February 1996. In the same periods, stream export of total Hg was 32 mg ha-1 and 22 mg ha-1, respectively. Thus, there was a net retention of Hg by the catchment of 92% the first year and 95% the second year. In the first year, 16.9 mg ha-1 or about half of the annual stream export, occurred on the single day of peak spring snowmelt in April. In contrast, the maximum daily export in the second year, when peak stream flow was somewhat lower, was 3.5 mg ha-1 during a January thaw. The fate of file Hg retained by this forested catchment is not known. Dissolved (< 0.22 ??m) Hg concentrations in stream water ranged from 0.5-2.6 ng L-1, even when total (unfiltered) concentrations were greater than 10 ng L-1 during high flow events. Total Hg concentrations in stream water were correlated with the total organic fraction of suspended sediment, suggesting the importance of organic material in Hg transport within the catchment. High flow events and transport with organic material may be especially important mechanisms for the movement of Hg through forested ecosystems.

Scherbatskoy, T.; Shanley, J. B.; Keeler, G. J.

1998-01-01

247

What happens when catchments get excited? Exploring the link between hydrologic states and responses across spatial scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigating relationships between dynamic hydrologic states and associated hydrologic responses of catchments is essential for a better understanding and conceptualization of hydrologic functioning and classification across spatial scales. Nevertheless, the question of “What happens when catchments get excited?” still remains unanswered for most catchments to date. This is especially true with regard to underlying landscape controls and how their relative importance can shift given the state of the various storages in a catchment. To help answering this question, we combined hydrometric and tracer approaches with landscape analysis in 24 nested catchments in Luxembourg, Europe with contrasting bedrock geology ranging from 0.5 to 1091 km2. In our study we discerned two major hydrological states (dry and wet) for each basin according to slope changes in double mass curves of cumulated discharge and precipitation. For each of these states the long-term (i.e. interannual) response of catchment behavior was characterized using conventional runoff signatures, such as master recession curves and average lag time between rainfall and runoff response. We found significantly different hydrologic responses for different hydrologic states of the catchments. These are typified by faster flow recessions, but longer average lag times during wet states and slower flow recessions, but shorter lag times during dry states. Dominating landscape controls on hydrological responses differed during these distinct hydrologic states and were identified as variables related to geology (percentage of impervious bedrock area) and soils (average soil depth), indicating different controls on hydrologic processes under different hydrologic states. Clustering of biweekly conductivity and silica stream water concentration data of the catchments further illustrated the dominant control of the geology on stream chemistry and revealed similar patterns during different hydrologic states. Our findings demonstrate that hydrologic response and their associated controls are closely linked to the dynamic hydrologic states of the catchments and hence should not be neglected in catchment modeling and classification approaches.

Wrede, S.; Lyon, S. W.; Martinez-Carreras, N.; Pfister, L.; Uhlenbrook, S.

2010-12-01

248

Preliminary applications of Landsat images and aerial photography for determining land-use, geologic, and hydrologic characteristics, Yampa River basin, Colorado and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Expanded energy- and recreation-related activities in the Yampa River basin, Colorado and Wyoming, have caused a rapid increase in economic development which will result in increased demand and competition for natural resources. In planning for efficient allocation of the basin 's natural resources, Landsat images and small-scale color and color-infrared photographs were used for selected geologic, hydrologic and land-use applications within the Yampa River basin. Applications of Landsat data included: (1) regional land-use classification and mapping, (2) lineament mapping, and (3) areal snow-cover mapping. Results from the Landsat investigations indicated that: (1) Landsat land-use classification maps, at a regional level, compared favorably with areal land-use patterns that were defined from available ground information, (2) lineaments were mapped in sufficient detail using recently developed techniques for interpreting aerial photographs, (3) snow cover generally could be mapped for large areas with the exception of some densely forested areas of the basin and areas having a large percentage of winter-season cloud cover. Aerial photographs were used for estimation of turbidity for eight stream locations in the basin. Spectral reflectance values obtained by digitizing photographs were compared with measured turbidity values. Results showed strong correlations (variances explained of greater than 90 percent) between spectral reflectance obtained from color photographs and measured turbidity values. (Woodard-USGS)

Heimes, F. J.; Moore, G. K.; Steele, T. D.

1978-01-01

249

Preliminary results on the characterization of Cretaceous and lower Tertiary low-permeability (tight) gas-bearing rocks in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Wind River Basin is a structural and sedimentary basin in central Wyoming (Figure 1) that was created during the Laramide orogeny from Late Cretaceous through Eocene time. The objectives of the Wind River Basin tight gas sandstone project are to define the limits of the tight gas accumulation in the basin and to estimate in-place and recoverable gas resources. The approximate limits of the tight gas accumulation are defined from available drillhole information. Geologic parameters, which controlled the development of the accumulation, are studied in order to better understand the origins of tight gas accumulations, and to predict the limits of the accumulation in areas where little drillhole information is available. The architecture of sandstone reservoirs are studied in outcrop to predict production characteristics of similar reservoirs within the tight gas accumulation. Core and cuttings are used to determine thermal maturities, quality of source rocks, and diagenetic histories. Our work thus far has concentrated in the Wind River Indian Reservation in the western part of the basin.

Fouch, T.D.; Keefer, W.R.; Finn, T.M. [and others

1993-12-31

250

Bayesian Uncertainty of Thwaites Glacier Catchment Radar Stratigraphy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information about the history and dynamics of ice sheets is contained in basin-scale radar sounding surveys. Englacial, isochronous radar horizons traced throughout the sampled domain of these basins can give a three-dimensional picture of past ice flow by revealing significant details of deformation within the ice column. We focus our efforts in the Thwaites Glacier catchment, West Antarctica, which previous studies have shown to be a bellwether in future WAIS deglaciation scenarios. Here we present a Bayesian determination of the age-depth profile at the Byrd ice core, Antarctica, based on robust uncertainty estimates in ice core ages and radar sounding depths. A simple ice flow model is used to determine the age-depth relationship in ice near the core and a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique is used to sample a posterior distribution of age as a function of depth to within uncertainty. We propagate the age-depth information, including uncertainty, for several prominent radar reflectors from the Byrd ice-coring site in the Interior Ross Embayment across the ice divide and throughout the Thwaites Glacier catchment using airborne ice-penetrating radar data collected and processed by the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics.

Gutowski, G.; Jackson, C. S.; Blankenship, D. D.; Young, D. A.; Cavitte, M. G.

2013-12-01

251

Fate of organic contaminants in a boreal forest catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the study was to investigate and predict the impact of hydrological and atmospheric processes on the mobilisation of contaminants in a remote catchment where the major input is related to diffuse pollution. The project included priory substances according to the European water framework directive (WFD), such as the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) HCB, PCBs and dioxins. The study was conducted at a well-characterised catchment system in northern Sweden dominated by two landscape types: forest and mire. Chemical analyses of POPs in forest soil and mire peat at various depths were performed. Evaluation of POP composition by principal component analysis (PCA) showed distinct differences between surface and deeper samples. This was attributed to vertical transport, degradation and/or shifting sources over time. The calculated net vertical transport differed between surface (0.3% of the pollutant reservoir) and deeper soils (8.0 %), suggesting that vertical transport conditions and processes differ in the deeper layers compared to the surface layers.The fate of POPs in soils and waters was explored through the development of a chemical fate model. The northerly location of the studied catchment enabled a study on the impact of spring snow melt and associated hydrological processes on contaminant mobilization. Input was based on bulk atmospheric deposition and was dominated by accumulation in the winter snowpack. The model considered air-soil exchange and accumulation in forest and mire soil as well as export of dissolved and particle-bound POPs from soil to catchment surface water. The predicted export of POPs to catchment surface waters was up to 40 times higher the during snow melt period (three week during April/May) compared to the snow covered period (approximately 4 months), highlighting the importance of the seasonal snow pack as a source of these chemicals. Release from soils was governed by the POP concentration in soil, the fraction of soil organic carbon and soil-water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content. Significant differences in export of POPs were apparent between the forested and mire areas, and this could be linked to observed differences in hydrology, biogeochemistry and flux of DOC. Levels of POPs in surface water along the water path from the studied catchment to the Baltic Sea (the Gulf of Bothnia subbasin) were measured and the results showed that for this water system, atmospherically derived diffuse pollution has impact on the surface water quality in addition to downstream point sources. In conclusion, it is evident that a full understanding of the baseline contribution and the soil-to-water processes controlling the transport of priority substances at catchment scale is a prerequisite for assessing the variation of priority substances in water streams and river basins on a seasonal and regional scale. It is also clear that mobilization of headwater atmospherically derived diffuse pollution may have an impact on stream water quality in addition to downstream point sources. The above findings are applicable to a wide variety of north European catchments systems and provide an integrated and process-based understanding of base-line contamination of major catchments. The presented data highlight the findings from the PERSPEC project, which was possible under the umbrella of the European Commission's 6th Framework Programme project SNOWMAN (contract no ERAC-CT-2003-003219).

Bergknut, Magnus; Meijer, Sandra; Halsall, Crispin; Ågren, Anneli; Laudon, Hjalmar; Köhler, Stephan; Jones, Kevin; Tysklind, Mats; Wiberg, Karin

2010-05-01

252

Determination of evaporation from a catchment water balance at a monthly time scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is presented to determine total evaporation from the earth's surface at a spatial scale that is adequate for linkage with climate models. The method is based on the water balance of catchments, combined with a calibrated autoregressive rainfall-runoff model. The time scale used is in the order of decades (10 days) to months. The rainfall-runoff model makes a distinction between immediate processes (interception and short term storage) and the remaining longer-term processes. Besides the calibrated rainfall-runoff model and the time series of observed rainfall and runoff, the method requires a relation between transpiration and soil moisture storage. The method is applied to data of the Bani catchment in Mali, a sub-catchment of the Niger river basin.

Savenije, H. H. G.

253

Landscape genetic patterns of the rainbow darter Etheostoma caeruleum: a catchment analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences and nuclear microsatellites.  

PubMed

Catchment population structure and divergence patterns of the rainbow darter Etheostoma caeruleum (Percidae: Teleostei), an eastern North American benthic fish, are tested using a landscape genetics approach. Allelic variation at eight nuclear DNA microsatellite loci and two mitochondrial DNA regions [cytochrome (cyt) b gene and control region; 2056 aligned base pairs (bp)] is analysed from 89 individuals and six sites in the Lake Erie catchment (Blanchard, Chagrin, Cuyahoga and Grand Rivers) v. the Ohio River catchment (Big Darby Creek and Little Miami River). Genetic and geographic patterning is assessed using phylogenetic trees, pair-wise F(ST) analogues, AMOVA partitioning, Mantel regression, Bayesian assignment, 3D factorial correspondence and barrier analyses. Results identify 34 cyt b haplotypes, 22 control region haplotypes and 137 microsatellite alleles whose distributions demonstrate marked genetic divergence between populations from the Lake Erie and Ohio River catchments. Etheostoma caeruleum populations in the Lake Erie and Ohio River catchments diverged c. 1.6 mya during the Pleistocene glaciations. Greater genetic separations characterize the Ohio River populations, reflecting their older habitat age and less recent connectivity. Divergence levels within the Lake Erie catchment denote more recent post-glacial origins. Notably, the western Lake Erie Blanchard River population markedly differs from the three central basin tributary samples, which are each genetically distinguishable using microsatellites. Overall relationships among the Lake Erie sites refute a genetic isolation by geographic distance hypothesis. Etheostoma caeruleum populations thus exchange few genes and have low migration among tributaries and catchments. PMID:20738685

Haponski, A E; Bollin, T L; Jedlicka, M A; Stepien, C A

2009-12-01

254

Characteristics of discrete and basin-centered parts of the Lower Silurian regional oil and gas accumulation, Appalachian basin; preliminary results from a data set of 25 oil and gas fields  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Oil and gas trapped in Lower Silurian 'Clinton' sands and Medina Group sandstone constitute a regional hydrocarbon accumulation that extends 425 mi in length from Ontario, Canada to northeastern Kentucky. The 125-mi width of the accumulation extends from central Ohio eastward to western Pennsylvania and west-central New York. Lenticular and intertonguing reservoirs, a gradual eastward decrease in reservoir porosity and permeability, and poorly segregated gas, oil, and water in the reservoirs make it very difficult to recognize clear-cut geologic- and production-based subdivisions in the accumulation that are relevant to resource assessment. However, subtle variations are recognizable that permit the regional accumulation to be subdivided into three tentative parts: a western gas-bearing part having more or less discrete fields; an eastern gas-bearing part having many characteristics of a basin-centered accumulation; and a central oil- and gas-bearing part with 'hybrid' fields that share characteristics of both discrete and basin-centered accumulation. A data set of 25 oil and gas fields is used in the report to compare selected attributes of the three parts of the regional accumulation. A fourth part of the regional accumulation, not discussed here, is an eastern extension of basin-centered accumulation having local commercial gas in the Tuscarora Sandstone, a proximal facies of the Lower Silurian depositional system. A basin-centered gas accumulation is a regionally extensive and commonly very thick zone of gas saturation that occurs in low-permeability rocks in the central, deeper part of a sedimentary basin. Another commonly used term for this type of accumulation is deep-basin gas accumulation. Basin-centered accumulation is a variety of continuous-type accumulation. The 'Clinton' sands and Medina Group sandstone part of the basin-centered gas accumulation is characterized by: a) reservoir porosity ranging from about 5 to 10 percent; b) reservoir permeability equal to or less than 0.1 mD; c) low reservoir water saturation and an average water yield per well less than about 9 to 13 BW/MMCFG; d) a broadly defined updip water-block trap; e) underpressured reservoirs with a gradient ranging from 0.25 to 0.35 psi/ft; and f) reservoir temperature of at least 125? F (52? C). Other than for historical and location purposes, the term field has little or no meaning as an assessment unit for the regional accumulation. In practice, each designated field represents a production sweet spot having relatively high EURs per well that in turn merges with surrounding gas-productive regions that are generally larger in area but have lower EURs per well. This important feature of the Lower Silurian regional accumulation, whereby most wells drilled into it are gas productive, must be considered when assessing its potential for remaining recoverable gas resources. Most of the remaining gas resources reside in 'Clinton' sands and Medina Group sandstone in the basin-centered part of the accumulation where as much as several tens of TCF of natural gas may be technically recoverable. The Tuscarora Sandstone in the eastern extension of the basin-centered part of the accumulation underlies a very large area and, although commonly characterized by very low porosity and permeability and low-Btu gas, probably contains additional gas resources. Remaining undiscovered recoverable gas and oil resources in the discrete and hybrid parts of the accumulation are primarily located beneath Lake Erie.

Ryder, Robert T.

1998-01-01

255

Mercury and lead budgets for Lochnagar, a Scottish mountain lake and its catchment.  

PubMed

Lochnagar is a mountain lake located to the southeast of the Cairngorm Mountains in Scotland. The inputs and outputs of Hg and Pb and their distribution within the various ecosystem compartments were measured. Further, 17 sediment cores and 10 catchment peat cores were taken and dated using spheroidal carbonaceous particle (SCP) and 210Pb techniques. Total and anthropogenic Hg and Pb inventories since the 1860s for the lake basin and the catchment peats were calculated using this multiple core strategy. Hg sediment flux profiles based on the whole lake basin show that the flux to the sediments increased from the 1880s until the 1970s. This was followed by a relatively stable period (1970s to the present), during which the flux was approximately twice that of the 1880s. Similarly, the Pb flux increased from the 1860s until the 1940s and was also followed by a relatively stable period through to the present. Hg and Pb budgets for the whole catchment for 1998 indicated that 78% of the Hg and 91% of the Pb input to the lake were transported from the catchment. Hence, the expected decline resulting from the decrease in the atmospheric deposition of Pb was obscured in the sediment record. It is estimated that 77% of the total Hg and 90% of the total Pb deposited since the 1860s, and stored in the upper layers of the catchment peat soils, are from anthropogenic sources. The increased storage of Hg and Pb in the catchment implies that this will be a major source of these metals for the lake for many years. This will delay the restoration of the lake system, despite reductions in emissions to the atmosphere and subsequent deposition. PMID:11999039

Yang, Handong; Rose, Neil L; Battarbee, Richard W; Boyle, John F

2002-04-01

256

Constraining the characteristics of sediment released from tectonically-perturbed catchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The depositional characteristics of any basin fill are the product of the coupled system of sediment release from hinterland catchments and its evolution during transport downstream. Changes to the tectonic boundary conditions governing the dynamics of erosion in upland catchments will therefore exert a significant effect on the nature and magnitude of sediment supply to channels, and subsequently neighbouring basins. While recent advances in tectonic geomorphology demonstrate the generic coupling between tectonic uplift and landscape denudation, there has been relatively little work to quantify the controls, timing, characteristics and locus of sediment release from tectonically-perturbed upland catchments, and the way in which this signal subsequently evolves downstream within the fluvial system. We address this challenge using (i) field data to evaluate the characteristics and source areas of sediment exported from modern fluvial catchments draining across active normal faults in the Italian Apennines and Greece and (ii) the CHILD landscape evolution model to investigate how the locus and volume of sediment exported from such catchments evolves through time and with the degree of tectonic perturbation. We demonstrate that rivers near the detachment limited end-member undergoing a transient response to an increase in fault uplift rate are associated with significant additional volumetric export of material derived largely from the incised zone upstream of the fault. This response produces bi-modal grain-size distributions with elevated D84 values within the transient reach for catchments eroding hard carbonate bedrock. Our data show the signal is substantially driven by landslide input from coupled hill-slopes, and we demonstrate the amplitude of the landscape response is modulated by the degree of tectonic perturbation. However, for more diffusive catchments, where weaker lithologies are eroded, the coarse fraction grain-size signal is reduced or absent despite a similar degree of tectonic perturbation. These results suggest that transient responses to tectonics control the locus, magnitude and calibre of sediment supply to basins. More widely, this work offers new insights for geomorphologists seeking to decode the interactions between hillslopes, sediment flux and channel incision in perturbed landscapes, and we provide a fresh perspective for sedimentologists trying to predict the characteristics of deposits in hangingwall basins.

Whittaker, A. C.; Attal, M.; Allen, P. A.; Cowie, P. A.

2009-12-01

257

Goulburn River experimental catchment data set  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the data set from the 6540-km2 Goulburn River experimental catchment in New South Wales, Australia. Data have been archived from this experimental catchment since its inception in September 2002. Land use in the northern half of the catchment is predominantly cropping and grazing on basalt-derived soils, with the south being cattle and sheep grazing on sandstone-derived soils;

Christoph Rüdiger; Greg Hancock; Herbert M. Hemakumara; Barry Jacobs; Jetse D. Kalma; Cristina Martinez; Mark Thyer; Jeffrey P. Walker; Tony Wells; Garry R. Willgoose

2007-01-01

258

Water Supply and Water Quality Study Pajaro River Basin California. Preliminary Report on Future Municipal and Industrial Water Use and Water Quality Control Needs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study considers the present and projected water quality control needs and water use within the Pajaro River Basin. Projections developed from a Corps of Engineers Economic Base Study, are made by 20 year increments to the year 2060. Pollution loads to...

1964-01-01

259

Preliminary neotectonic shortening rates across the eastern Foothills of the Colombian Andes: Examples from the Yopal region of the Llanos basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present neotectonic field mapping and structural controls from seismic profiles to estimate the style and rate of recent shortening across the eastern foothills of the Colombian Andes in the region of the Llanos basin. The primary active structures include the east-directed Guicarimo thrust fault that folds Paleogene, Neogene and Quaternary sediments, and the east-directed Yopal thrust fault - both

M. H. Taylor; A. Mora; J. Gosse; D. F. Stockli; B. Mocek

2009-01-01

260

Effects of urban stormwater infrastructure on frequency, magnitude and scaling characteristics of runoff, and their implications for the transport of particulate material in arid catchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over recent decades urbanization has occurred rapidly, particularly in the arid and semi-arid southwestern USA. Major changes in ecosystem structure occur during urbanization, including changes in land cover and drainage networks. Changes in the connectivity of hydrological flow paths result from the construction of stormwater infrastructure, which in some instances increases flow connectivity and in others decrease it. In this study we investigate the effects of urbanization, specifically different types of stormwater infrastructure, on the frequency, magnitude and scaling characteristics of runoff in urban catchments. We evaluate consequences of these runoff characteristics for hydrologically mediated transport of particulate material and nutrient transport within urban catchments. A series of nested catchments was instrumented to monitor flow and water quality in the Indian Bend Wash catchment, Scottsdale, AZ. Catchments range in area from 6 to >17,000 ha and are predominantly residential. At the smallest spatial scales, catchments of comparable size represent different types of stormwater infrastructure, allowing us to isolate the effects of specific types of stormwater infrastructure on flow dynamics and material transport. Stormwater infrastructure in larger catchments (> 100 ha) is heterogeneous, allowing us to investigate the scaling characteristics of runoff and material transport. Results show that catchments with highly connected stormwater infrastructure (such as pipes) generate runoff in response to very low rainfall amounts, contributing to frequent flushing of particulate materials. The combination of high flow velocities and frequent flushing renders material transport within these catchments supply limited. In contrast, in catchments with disconnected stormwater infrastructure (such as retention basins), more rainfall is required to generate a runoff response at the catchment outlet, and runoff is less flashy than in highly connected catchments. Runoff from catchments occurs less frequently and runoff coefficients decrease with increases in spatial scale, which is comparable with scaling behaviour observed in non-urban aridland catchments. Across all sites, and across all spatial scales, the proportion of nutrients in particulate forms increases at high discharges because of the increased capacity of flow to entrain and transport particulate material. The total export of dissolved and particulate materials from catchments increases with spatial scale, but export of materials per unit area actually decreases with an increase in spatial scale. Thus, more frequent flow events at small spatial scales redistribute particulate materials within catchments, which are temporarily stored and later exported from the catchments during high-magnitude, infrequent flow events that occur over larger spatial scales.

Turnbull, L.; Hale, R. L.; Earl, S.; Grimm, N. B.; Childers, D. L.

2011-12-01

261

Catchment Classification and Services-Toward a New Paradigm for Catchment Hydrology Driven by Societal Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrologists do not yet possess a generally accepted catchment classification system. This article presents a review of work done so far, and discusses a general framework for a catchment classification system considering variability in relevant characteristics, increasing human impacts on catchments, and the assumption that our climate is changing. We stress that any classification system should explicitly account for uncertainty

THORSTEN WAGENER; MURUGESU SIVAPALAN

2008-01-01

262

Geoscience and sustainable catchment and resource management: the Ben Chifley Catchment case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article demonstrates a key role that geoscience and geoscientists could be playing in promoting sustainable catchment and resource management. A new geoscience-based approach supported by a landscape-genesis (LG) model was employed to provide an alternative approach for integrated catchment management and sustainable resource use and development. The Ben Chifley Catchment case study is used to explain the application of

Dhia Al Bakri

2002-01-01

263

Analyzing runoff processes through conceptual hydrological modelling in the Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding runoff processes in a basin is of paramount importance for the effective planning and management of water resources, in particular in data scarce regions of the Upper Blue Nile. Hydrological models representing the underlying hydrological processes can predict river discharges from ungauged catchments and allow for an understanding of the rainfall-runoff processes in those catchments. In this paper, such a conceptual process-based hydrological model is developed and applied to the upper Gumara and Gilgel Abay catchments (both located within the Upper Blue Nile basin, the Lake Tana sub-basin) to study the runoff mechanisms and rainfall-runoff processes in the basin. Topography is considered as a proxy for the variability of most of the catchment characteristics. We divided the catchments into different runoff production areas using topographic criteria. Impermeable surfaces (rock outcrops and hard soil pans, common in the Upper Blue Nile basin) were considered separately in the conceptual model. Based on model results, it can be inferred that about 65% of the runoff appears in the form of interflow in the Gumara study catchment, and baseflow constitutes the larger proportion of runoff (44-48%) in the Gilgel Abay catchment. Direct runoff represents a smaller fraction of the runoff in both catchments (18-19% for the Gumara, and 20% for the Gilgel Abay) and most of this direct runoff is generated through infiltration excess runoff mechanism from the impermeable rocks or hard soil pans. The study reveals that the hillslopes are recharge areas (sources of interflow and deep percolation) and direct runoff as saturated excess flow prevails from the flat slope areas. Overall, the model study suggests that identifying the catchments into different runoff production areas based on topography and including the impermeable rocky areas separately in the modeling process mimics well the rainfall-runoff process in the Upper Blue Nile basin and brings a useful result for operational management of water resources in this data scarce region.

Dessie, M.; Verhoest, N. E. C.; Pauwels, V. R. N.; Admasu, T.; Poesen, J.; Adgo, E.; Deckers, J.; Nyssen, J.

2014-05-01

264

Evaluating peak flow sensitivity to clear-cutting in different elevation bands of a snowmelt-dominated mountainous catchment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydrologic model of the mountainous snowmelt-dominated Redfish Creek catchment (British Columbia) is used to evaluate Interior Watershed Assessment Procedure (IWAP) guidelines regarding peak flow sensitivity to logging in different elevation bands of a basin. Simulation results suggest that peak flow increases are caused by greater snow accumulation and melt in clear-cut areas while similar evapotranspiration rates are predicted under

Andrew Whitaker; Younes Alila; Jos Beckers; Dave Toews

2002-01-01

265

Improved Characterization of the Jakobshavn Isbræ Catchment Region through Analysis of Radar Depth Sounder Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glaciers and ice sheets play a significant role in climate research due to their potential effect on sea level rise. Models developed to predict the motion of fast flowing outlet glaciers are currently limited by the lack of data available for key study areas. One of the most important parameters controlling glacier flow is bed topography. Airborne radar data collected in 2008 over Jakobshavn Glacier in Greenland, by the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets, has been processed and analyzed in order to provide researchers with concise measurements of ice thickness and bed topography as well as an interpretation of the flow direction of ice within the catchment region. Data collection for this survey was conducted on a 10 kilometer spacing and spans a rectangular region of 160 kilometers by 320 kilometers. Results from this survey show a nearly three-dimensional volume of the catchment basin supplying ice to Jakobshavn Isbræ. Imaging of the bed reveals a network of channels upflow of the primary channel which had not been previously identified. Ice layer mapping suggests that flow of ice within the catchment lies preferentially within these smaller ice basins. Improvements in understanding how ice moves within the catchment is expected to provide additional information to modelers which could lead to improved predictions of ice movement and changes in mass balance for the larger ice sheet.

Hoch, A. M.; Velez-Gonzalez, J. A.; Tsoflias, G. P.; Stearns, L. A.; Van der Veen, C. J.

2011-12-01

266

Seismic controls on contemporary sediment export in the Siret river catchment, Romania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While differences in catchment sediment yield (SY, [t km- 2 y- 1]) are generally attributed to topography, lithology, climate and land use, recent studies have highlighted that also seismic activity may have an important impact on SY. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about the importance of this factor and the processes and mechanisms explaining its influence. Therefore, this study explores the role of seismic activity in explaining spatial and temporal variation in sediment export within the Siret Basin (Romania, 45,000 km2), a catchment with a large variability in seismic activity. Based on previously unpublished long-term (> 30 years) SY measurements for 38 subcatchments of the Siret, we analyze the correlation between average SY, seismic activity and various other catchment characteristics. Our results showed that spatial variation in average SY was indeed strongly correlated with the degree of seismic activity in each catchment (R2 = 0.74). Also catchment lithology explained an important part of the differences in SY (R2 = 0.67). The combination of these two factors accounted for about 80% of the observed variation in SY, while other factors (e.g. topography, land use, climate, and runoff) did not significantly contribute to the explained variance in average SY. To explore the impact of a specific earthquake event on sediment export, we analyzed daily variations in suspended sediment concentrations of 10 subcatchments, five years before and after an earthquake of Mw = 7.4 that affected the Vrancea region in 1977 and triggered a substantial number of landslides. Only one catchment showed a clear (3-fold) increase in sediment concentrations at unit discharge. For the other nine catchments, no consistent increase could be observed. This indicates that the impact of seismic activity on average SY is mainly indirect and not associated with sudden pulses of sediments, caused by earthquake-triggered landslides. Potential mechanisms that could explain such indirect responses are discussed.

Vanmaercke, Matthias; Obreja, Florin; Poesen, Jean

2014-07-01

267

A modern analog of past climatic impacts on sedimentary processes and landscape evolution in an intermontane basin: The Del Medio fan, NW Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combined effects of tectonic and climatic forcing govern the evolution of landscapes, setting the scale of topographic relief and the pace of landscape changes over time. Tectonic uplift or changes in precipitation regimes can fundamentally modify erosional processes and sediment flux from hillslopes, change river profiles, and ultimately impact depositional systems downstream. The complexity of the response, however, often means that we cannot predict a priori how a given landscape will react to future changes in climate, or how it responded in the past to multiple episodes of climate change. The Del Medio catchment is located in the southern part of the Humahuaca Basin, an intermontane valley within the Eastern Cordillera in transition to the Puna Plateau. This area coincides with a climatic and vegetation divide between a sub-humid environment downstream and the semi-arid upper Humahuaca Basin. An extensive fan sourced in the Del Medio catchment covers ca. 18.6 km2 of the basin outlet. The fan stratigraphy and surface morphology suggest that the fan dynamics are dominated by debris-flow processes. The surface comprises abandoned channels, levees and lobes, while exposed sections in channel cuts reveal unsorted, matrix-dominated deposits, with individual boulders reaching a diameter of 5 m. To investigate rates and timing of the Del Medio fan evolution, we analyzed cosmogenic 10Be concentrations on the surfaces of large boulders from the fan surface, river sands in active channels, a depth profile, and bedrock exposed atop the drainage basin margins. Our preliminary CRN results illustrate the rapid rate at which the active fan surface is subject to change, with each of the 11 analyzed boulder samples providing ages of < 200 years. In addition, river sands record very high denudation rates that range from several mm/yr to tens of mm/yr, despite bedrock denudation rates from the basin margins of only 0.04 mm/yr. These contrasting denudation rates likely result from frequent landsliding and debris flows along the steep slopes of the catchment area, which generates sediment of near-zero cosmogenic nuclide concentrations. Farther upstream in the more arid Humahuaca Basin, abandoned fluvial terrace sequences that exceed 100 m in thickness have been linked to wetter episodes during the late Quaternary. Within those fills, preliminary paleo-denudation rates reach values similar to those currently observed in the Del Medio catchment, while modern denudation rates from river sands are similar to the low rates observed from bedrock samples. Taken together, these observations indicate that the Del Medio fan could be a modern analog of those older fill sequences, providing a unique opportunity to link present-day processes in the Del Medio catchment to those that were likely active in the past during wetter climate episodes in the Humahuaca Basin.

Savi, Sara; Schildgen, Taylor F.; Tofelde, Stefanie; Wittmann, Hella; Strecker, Manfred

2014-05-01

268

Sediment yield estimation in mountain catchments of the Camastra reservoir, southern Italy: a comparison among different empirical methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sedimentary budget estimation is an important topic for both scientific and social community, because it is crucial to understand both dynamics of orogenic belts and many practical problems, such as soil conservation and sediment accumulation in reservoir. Estimations of sediment yield or denudation rates in southern-central Italy are generally obtained by simple empirical relationships based on statistical regression between geomorphic parameters of the drainage network and the measured suspended sediment yield at the outlet of several drainage basins or through the use of models based on sediment delivery ratio or on soil loss equations. In this work, we perform a study of catchment dynamics and an estimation of sedimentary yield for several mountain catchments of the central-western sector of the Basilicata region, southern Italy. Sediment yield estimation has been obtained through both an indirect estimation of suspended sediment yield based on the Tu index (mean annual suspension sediment yield, Ciccacci et al., 1980) and the application of the Rusle (Renard et al., 1997) and the USPED (Mitasova et al., 1996) empirical methods. The preliminary results indicate a reliable difference between the RUSLE and USPED methods and the estimation based on the Tu index; a critical data analysis of results has been carried out considering also the present-day spatial distribution of erosion, transport and depositional processes in relation to the maps obtained from the application of those different empirical methods. The studied catchments drain an artificial reservoir (i.e. the Camastra dam), where a detailed evaluation of the amount of historical sediment storage has been collected. Sediment yield estimation obtained by means of the empirical methods have been compared and checked with historical data of sediment accumulation measured in the artificial reservoir of the Camastra dam. The validation of such estimations of sediment yield at the scale of large catchments using sediment storage in reservoirs provides a good opportunity: i) to test the reliability of the empirical methods used to estimate the sediment yield; ii) to investigate the catchment dynamics and its spatial and temporal evolution in terms of erosion, transport and deposition. References Ciccacci S., Fredi F., Lupia Palmieri E., Pugliese F., 1980. Contributo dell'analisi geomorfica quantitativa alla valutazione dell'entita dell'erosione nei bacini fluviali. Bollettino della Società Geologica Italiana 99: 455-516. Mitasova H, Hofierka J, Zlocha M, Iverson LR. 1996. Modeling topographic potential for erosion and deposition using GIS. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems 10: 629-641. Renard K.G., Foster G.R., Weesies G.A., McCool D.K., Yoder D.C., 1997. Predicting soil erosion by water: a guide to conservation planning with the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), USDA-ARS, Agricultural Handbook No. 703.

Lazzari, Maurizio; Danese, Maria; Gioia, Dario; Piccarreta, Marco

2013-04-01

269

Martian Impact Basins: Morphology Differences and Tectonic Provinces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Detailed geomorphic and structural mapping of five Martian basins and preliminary study of eleven other basins reveal four characteristic styles of modification that relate to the degree and age of past tectonic activity. Within regions that exhibit no ev...

M. Stam P. M. Schultz G. E. Mcgill

1984-01-01

270

Catchment classification by means of hydrological models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important hydrological objective is catchment classification that will serve as a basis for the regionalisation of discharge parameters or model parameters. The main task of this study is the development and assessment of two classification approaches with respect to their efficiency in catchment classification. The study area in western Germany comprises about 80 catchments that range in size from 8 km2 up to 1500 km2, covering a wide range of geological substrata, soils, landscapes and mean annual precipitation. In a first approach Self Organising Maps (SOMs) use discharge characteristics or catchment characteristics to classify the catchments of the study area. Next, a reference hydrological model calibrates the catchments of the study area and tests the possibilities of parameter transfer. Compared to the transfer of parameters outside a class, for most catchments the model performance improves when parameters within a class are transferred. Thus, it should be possible to distinguish catchment classes by means of a hydrological model. The classification results of the SOM are compared to the classification results of the reference hydrological model in order to determine the latter validity. The second approach builds on the first approach in such a way that it uses the Superflex Modelling Framework instead of only one reference model. Within this framework multiple conceptual model structures can be calibrated and adapted. Input data for each calibration of a catchment are hourly time series of runoff, precipitation and evaporation for at least eight years. The calibration of multiple models for each catchment and their comparison allows for the assessment of the influence of different model structures on model performance. Learning loops analyse model performance and adapt model structures accordingly with a view to performance improvement. The result of the modelling exercise is a best performing model structure for each catchment that serves as a basis for catchment description and clustering. Hence, the classes do not only represent a distinctive hydrological regime, but also provide information on specific quantitative aspects that are directly linked to a certain model structure. The clustering that is based on model structures or model parameters are validated by the classifications based on SOM and are thus related to physiographic and climatic catchment properties and runoff behaviour, which provides insight into catchment functioning. Clustering based on model structures can be a fast and simple way of catchment classification. A database consistently relates input data and output data; model structures and model performance and allows formulating distinctive processes that are attached to a class. Thus, the final result of the study is a powerful classification tool that helps to formulate generalizations based on observations and testable hypotheses (i.e. model structures).

Hellebrand, Hugo; Ley, Rita; Casper, Markus

2013-04-01

271

Characterizing hydrologic change through catchment classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been an intensive search in recent years for suitable strategies to organize and classify the very heterogeneous group of catchments that characterize our landscape. One strand of this work has focused on testing the value of hydrological signatures derived from widely available hydro-meteorological observations for this catchment classification effort. Here we extend this effort by organizing 314 catchments across the contiguous US into 12 distinct clusters using six signature characteristics for a baseline decade (1948-1958, period 1). We subsequently develop a regression tree and utilize it to classify these catchments for three subsequent decades (periods 2-4). This analysis allows us to assess the movement of catchments between clusters over time, and therefore to assess whether their hydrologic similarity/dissimilarity changes. We find examples in which catchments initially assigned to a single class diverge into multiple classes (e.g., midwestern catchments between periods 1 and 2), but also cases where catchments from different classes would converge into a single class (e.g., midwestern catchments between periods 2 and 3). We attempt to interpret the observed changes for causes of this temporal variability in hydrologic behavior. Generally, the changes in both directions were most strongly controlled by changes in the water balance of catchments characterized by an aridity index close to one. Changes to climate characteristics of catchments - mean annual precipitation, length of cold season or the seasonality of precipitation throughout the year - seem to explain most of the observed class transitions between slightly water-limited and slightly energy-limited states. Inadequate temporal information on other time-varying aspects, such as land use change, limits our ability to further disentangle causes for change.

Sawicz, K. A.; Kelleher, C.; Wagener, T.; Troch, P.; Sivapalan, M.; Carrillo, G.

2014-01-01

272

Quantifying the controls on grain size export from tectonically perturbed catchments: Case studies from Sicily, Calabria and Abruzzo, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnitude, locus and characteristics of sediment export from catchments to neighbouring basins plays a significant role in controlling depositional stratigraphy. Fundamentally, the boundary conditions for sediment release from catchments are set by tectonics and climate, modulated by lithologic, hydrologic and geomorphic controls operating over the relevant time or length scale. A predictive understanding of sediment export to basins therefore requires (i) the integration of data illustrating the characteristics of sediment delivery within catchments and (ii) detailed constraints on how this supply signal evolves down-system, for a wide range of controlling variables. Here we address this challenge. Firstly, we present a detailed data study linking hillslope sediment supply to trunk stream grain size evolution for three catchments with drainage areas > 30 km2 in northern Sicily where tectonic uplift rates are > 1 mm/yr and where lithologies are well-mapped, using both sieved weight fraction and Wolman point count methodologies. We find that sediment input from coarse debris flows, rather than landslides, plays a dominant role in setting channel grain size and that coarse-fraction sediment export from catchments is intimately linked to channel-hillslope geomorphic coupling. Secondly, we present detailed data on grain size export from the outlets of more than 40 tectonically perturbed catchments across Sicily, Calabria and Abruzzo, where we have excellent constraints on tectonic uplift rates, lithology and catchment hydraulic geometry. We demonstrate that for catchments in topographic steady-state, grain size release is strongly controlled by rock type, but is insensitive to drainage area and local uplift rates that are < 1 mm/yr. In contrast, for catchments responding transiently to tectonics, the calibre of sediment release is strongly controlled by the degree of tectonic perturbation. The southern Italian data-sets allow us to provide first order estimates of the volume and grain size distribution of sediment exported to the straits of Messina as a whole, and we use terrace data to show there has been little change to this sediment release signal in the last 200 kyr. Together, these results allow us to evaluate the relative importance of upstream source controls in setting the characteristics of sediment release from tectonically perturbed catchments to basins and provide new data to test the outputs of sediment routing system models.

Whittaker, A.; Erhardt, S.; Norori-McCormac, A.; Knight, F.

2012-04-01

273

Influence of geology, regolith and soil on fluid flow pathways in an upland catchment in central NSW, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Influence of geology, regolith and soil on fluid flow pathways in an upland catchment in central NSW, Australia. Tony Bernardi and Leah Moore Dryland Salinity Hazard Mitigation Program (DSHMP), University of Canberra, ACT 2601, AUSTRALIA The diversity of salt expression in central NSW has defied classification because salt expression, mobilisation and transport is highly variable and is typically site specific. Hydrological models are extensively used to simulate possible outcomes for a range of land use changes to mitigate the mobilisation and transport of salt into the streams or across the land surface. The ability of these models to mimic reality can be variable thereby reducing the confidence in the models outputs and uptake of strategic management changes by the community. This study focuses on a 250 ha semi-arid sub-catchment of Little River catchment in central west NSW in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. We propose that an understanding the structure of the landforms and configuration of rock, regolith and soil materials at the study site influences fluid flow pathways in the landscape and can be related to observed variations in the chemical composition and salinity of surface and aquifer water. Preliminary geological mapping of the site identified the dominant rock type as a pink and grey dacite and in localised mid-slope areas, a coarsely crystalline biotite-phyric granodiorite. Samples were taken at regular intervals from natural exposures in eroded stream banks and in excavations made during the installation of neutron moisture meter tubes. In order to establish mineral weathering pathways, samples were taken from the relatively unweathered core to the outer weathered 'onion skins' of corestones on both substrates, and then up through the regolith profile, including the soil zone, to the land surface. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was conducted on the rock and soil/saprock samples. Electromagnetic induction (EMI) profile data were compiled from previous work with colleagues in this area. Preliminary interpretation of the mapping and the geophysics is that there is a three-layer framework for groundwater modelling: fractured granitic rock with an irregular upper surface, finer-grained (volcanic) rock that has either mantled the older granite or has been intruded into, and a weathering profile developed in relation to the land surface. More careful interpretation of the intervals that shallow and deep piezometers and shallow and deep bores are sampling indicates that variability in water chemistry between holes can, in part, be explained because they are sampling different materials in the sub-surface geology/regolith geology. Quartz is a relatively resistant phase throughout the profiles. For both substrates there is a decrease in the feldspar in increasingly weathered regolith materials, with a corresponding increase in kaolinite clay. There is increased homogenisation of the profile, and some horizonation due to pedogenic processes (e.g. bioturbation, illuviation of fines down profile) nearer the land surface. This results in a concentration of more resistant phases (quartz and remnant primary feldspar as sands) at the land surface over the granitic substrate, however kaolinite persists in the profile over the finer substrate. The presence of measurable ferruginous oxides and sesquioxides relates to localised percolation of oxidising fluids through the profiles. Understanding the configuration and composition of rocks and regolith materials in the Baldry catchment facilitates interpretation of observed patterns in hydrological analyses.

Bernardi, Tony

2014-05-01

274

Preliminary Pliocene-Pleistocene Stable-Isotope and Paleosol Data From the Fish Creek Vallecito Basin, Southern California: Insights Into Paleoclimate From Pedogenic Carbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we use detailed measurements and isotopic analyses of paleosols in the Fish Creek-Vallecito basin (FCVB), southern California, to interpret changes in Pliocene-Pleistocene paleoclimate in the area. The FCVB currently lies in a hyperarid rain shadow (MAP = 15-17 cm) formed by the Peninsular Ranges. The timing of Peninsular Range uplift is not known, although recent work suggests

T. C. Peryam; R. J. Dorsey; I. Bindeman; B. Housen; J. Palandri

2008-01-01

275

Will urban expansion lead to an increase in future water pollution loads?-a preliminary investigation of the Haihe River Basin in northeastern China.  

PubMed

Urban expansion is a major driving force changing regional hydrology and nonpoint source pollution. The Haihe River Basin, the political, economic, and cultural center of northeastern China, has undergone rapid urbanization in recent decades. To investigate the consequences of future urban sprawl on nonpoint source water pollutant emissions in the river basin, the urban sprawl in 2030 was estimated, and the annual runoff and nonpoint source pollution in the Haihe River basin were simulated. The Integrated Model of Non-Point Sources Pollution Processes (IMPULSE) was used to simulate the effects of urban sprawl on nonpoint source pollution emissions. The outcomes indicated that the urban expansion through 2030 increased the nonpoint source total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) emissions by 8.08, 0.14, and 149.57 kg/km(2), respectively. Compared to 2008, the total nonpoint emissions rose by 15.33, 0.57, and 12.39 %, respectively. Twelve percent of the 25 cities in the basin would increase by more than 50 % in nonpoint source TN and COD emissions in 2030. In particular, the nonpoint source TN emissions in Xinxiang, Jiaozuo, and Puyang would rise by 73.31, 67.25, and 58.61 %, and the nonpoint source COD emissions in these cities would rise by 74.02, 51.99, and 53.27 %, respectively. The point source pollution emissions in 2008 and 2030 were also estimated to explore the effects of urban sprawl on total water pollution loads. Urban sprawl through 2030 would bring significant structural changes of total TN, TP, and COD emissions for each city in the area. The results of this study could provide insights into the effects of urbanization in the study area and the methods could help to recognize the role that future urban sprawl plays in the total water pollution loads in the water quality management process. PMID:24532209

Dong, Yang; Liu, Yi; Chen, Jining

2014-06-01

276

Optimal Location of Created and Restored Wetlands in Mediterranean Agricultural Catchments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple tools and accessible information are needed by environmental planners to select sites for the restoration or creation\\u000a of wetlands. A flexible suitability model for allocating wetlands is demonstrated in small (20–2,000 ha) agricultural catchments\\u000a in the semiarid Ebro basin (NE Spain). The model used improved existing data layers (soil and geomorphology), simple geographical\\u000a transformations (slope and distance to frequently flowing

David Moreno-Mateos; Ülo Mander; César Pedrocchi

2010-01-01

277

Target setting for pollutant discharge management of rivers in the Great Barrier Reef catchment area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water Quality Improvement Plans (WQIPs) are being developed for individual river basins on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) catchment associated with the GBR Water Quality Protection Plan. Within each WQIP, marine ecosystem targets are linked to end-of-river pollutant (suspended sediments, nutrients and pesticides) load targets and to farm level management practice targets. The targets are linked through quantitative models; e.g.

Jon Brodie; Stephen Lewis; Zoe Bainbridge; Alan Mitchell; Jane Waterhouse; Frederieke Kroon

2009-01-01

278

Surface runoff in a torrent catchment area in Middle Europe and its prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Schesa, a sinister contributory torrent to the Ill river near Bludenz (federal province of Vorarlberg) is the largest\\u000a basin-shaped gully of Middle Europe and endangers the underlying villages by torrential debris flow and gigantic mass movements.\\u000a The catchment is characterized by a complex geological situation, high annual precipitation and torrential rains from spring\\u000a to early autumn, which cause enormous

G. Markart; B. Kohl; R. Kirnbauer; H. Pirkl; H. Bertle; R. Stern; A. Reiterer; P. Zanetti

2006-01-01

279

Hydrologic Storage Reservoirs in High Latitude Catchments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluxes of water (rain and snow) entering a catchment are generally retarded in their movement and subsequent discharge (runoff, evapotranspiration, sublimation) from such catchment by various storage reservoirs. The role that these reservoirs play in the partitioning of the discharge fluxes in high latitude watersheds has not been appreciated. Snow on the ground surface, aufeis and glaciers, subsurface storage

D. L. Kane; L. D. Hinzman

2004-01-01

280

The geography of the Humber catchment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geography of the Humber catchment is described in relation to the varied geology, relief, resources, industrial structure and location, agriculture and population distribution. The review of catchment characteristics is set within an historical perpective, with an evaluation of current and possible future trends in agriculture, population, industry and possible implications for river water quality.

Helen P. Jarvie; Colin Neal; Alice J. Robson

1997-01-01

281

Use of natural tracers to identify spatial and temporal variation in runoff sources in a complex, mountainous mesoscale catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural tracers (18O, Si and alkalinity) were used to assess the spatial and temporal variation in runoff sources within the 230 km^2 Feshie catchment in the Cairngorm Mountains of Scotland as part of the UK Catchment Hydrology And Sustainable Management (CHASM) initiative. The elevation of the mesoscale catchment ranges between 230--1110 m and snowfall comprises, on average, ca. 30% of annual precipitation. Tracer behavior was monitored by routine sampling in gauged, nested subcatchments ranging from 3--90 km^2 over a hydrological year. In addition, extensive surveys sampled the spatial variation in tracer concentrations throughout the catchment river network at low, moderate and high flows at sampling intensities of 1 per 1 km^2. Use of tracer data and GIS-based assessment indicated that catchment characteristics, rather than scale, accounted for the major differences in contributions from contrasting hydrological sources in nested subcatchments. Most notably, geology and the distribution of soil types exerted a strong control on the partitioning of runoff sources and groundwater contributions to flow (which mixing analysis showed range between 25 and 52% of annual flow in different subcatchments). Coverage of organic peat soils and thin montane podzols strongly influenced the storm runoff response of different subcatchments (with average runoff coefficients ranging from 0.75 to 0.4 for different sub-catchments) and dominated stream hydrochemistry at high flows. Despite the dominant influence of catchment characteristics at the sub-catchment scale, as spatial scale increased beyond 100 km^2 within the mesoscale catchment, the influence of significant alluvial aquifers on hydrological response became apparent. Neverthless, at scales >3 km^2, preliminary analysis of weekly 18O data indicated that mean residence times are similar, though it is reasonable to expect that residence time distributions would vary if high resolution tracer samples (ie daily or sub-daily) were available. Tracer studies such as this provide valuable insight into catchment flow path partitioning that can inform rainfall-runoff modelling in larger mesoscale catchments. However, spatial variation in sub-catchment runoff responses indicates that knowledge of the spatial variability in precipitation and snowmelt are likely to be the main constraints on modelling in such mountainous environments as the Feshie catchment.

Soulsby, C.; Rodgers, P.; Petry, J.; Dunn, S.

2003-04-01

282

Constraining sediment fluxes and grain-size characteristics in tectonically-perturbed catchments.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The depositional characteristics of any basin fill (the sink) are fundamentally a product of the coupled system of sediment release from hinterland catchments (the source) and its evolution during transport downstream. Changes to the tectonic boundary conditions governing the dynamics of erosion in upland catchments will therefore exert a significant effect on the nature and magnitude of sediment supply to neighbouring basins. While recent advances in tectonic geomorphology demonstrate the generic coupling between tectonic uplift and landscape denudation, there has been relatively little work to quantify the timing, characteristics and locus of sediment release from tectonically-perturbed upland catchments, and the way in which this signal subsequently evolves downstream within the fluvial system. We address this challenge using (i) field data to evaluate the characteristics and source areas of sediment exported from modern fluvial catchments draining across active normal faults in the Central Apennines in Italy and (ii) the CHILD landscape evolution model to investigate how the locus and volume of sediment exported from such catchments evolves through time and with the degree of tectonic perturbation. We demonstrate that catchments undergoing a transient response to an increase in fault uplift rate at 0.8 Ma are associated with significant volumetric export of material derived largely from an incised zone upstream of the fault, producing bi-modal grain-size distributions with elevated D84values within the transient reach. This response is substantially driven by input from coupled hill-slopes, and we show the amplitude and timescale of the landscape response is modulated by the degree of tectonic perturbation. Our results challenge the view the sediment is sourced uniformly from tectonically active catchments, and demonstrate that transient responses to tectonics control the locus, magnitude and calibre of sediment supply to basins. More widely, this work offers new insights for geomorphologists seeking to decode the interactions between hill-slopes, sediment flux and channel incision in transient landscapes, and we provide a fresh perspective for sedimentologists trying to predict proximal hanging-wall stratigraphy in normal fault bounded terrains.

Whittaker, A. C.; Attal, M.; Allen, P. A.

2009-04-01

283

Preliminary study of land-plant biomarkers in marine sediments of Alfonso basin and its relationship with the climate of the last 3.5 ka  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study used biomarkers such as n-alkanes, especially focused on the long chain n-alkanes and some diagnostic indexes derived from abundance, to elucidate molecular changes in the contribution of organic matter to the sediments, especially terrestrial vegetation surrounding continental areas around of Alfonso basin in response to climate change, particularly changes in the hydrological cycle. The results show that in general the n-alkanes of organic matter (OM) of Alfonso basin sediments are composed of a mixture of waxes derived from phytoplankton and terrestrial plants, with a greater contribution from phytoplankton compare to terrestrial vegetation, in the oldest part of the record, associated with a marine productivity increased period favored by rainfall. Maximum abundance of C29, and high values of C27/C31 ratio indicate leaves from trees as a source wax, probably succulents plants characteristic of arid zones, with C3 as one of their metabolic pathway, identified from mean ACL values around 29.5. The low CPI index indicates contamination and microbial communities as a possible source of long chain n-alkanes, probably due to anoxic bottom conditions in Alfonso basin favor the development of these communities. Finally, it is suggested no change in the community, at least for the last ~ 3.5 ka BP, but increased cover vegetation (biomass) in southern California during periods of increased rainfall (from ~ 3.5 to ~ 1.7 ka BP). The ability of terrestrial plant communities to adapt for longer periods before being replaced by other species, when faced with gradual changes rather than rapid climate change is reflected in a few changes in its composition.

Ricaurte-Villota, Constanza; Gonzalez-Yajimovich, Oscar; Betancourt-Portela, Julian

2014-05-01

284

Vertical Motions and Drainage Evolution in the Congo River Catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Africa's large-scale physiographical features are thought to be dynamically supported by mantle convection. The resultant "basin and swell" topography correlates closely with long wavelength free-air gravity anomalies, which can be used as a proxy for the convective pattern. In addition, seismic tomographic studies reveal a region of slow seismic velocity beneath sub-equatorial Africa. This region broadly correlates with a zone of anomalously high elevation, known as the "African Superswell" that stretches from the South Atlantic Ocean across Africa to Afar. Recently, dynamical modelling has been used to predict dynamic topography and uplift rates from the convective pattern inferred by seismic tomography. In this study, high resolution topographic data are used to further constrain spatial and temporal variation of vertical motions in Africa. The Congo Basin is of particular interest as its uplifted southern margin makes up a significant proportion of the catchment. Digital elevation models are used to construct detailed profiles of the rivers that drain Congo basin. River profiles to the north-east of the Congo Basin are concave upwards and appear to have reached equilibrium. In contrast, the elevated region of the southern Congo Basin shows convex upwards river profiles and major knickpoints, indicating that the rivers in this region have not yet reached equilibrium. These knickpoints do not generally correlate with geological boundaries and are more likely the result of a recent change in base level related to mantle convection. By gaining an understanding of the relationship between uplift and surface processes in this region, geomorphology can be used as a further test of uplift rates predicted from seismic tomographic data.

Rogers, E. P.; White, N. J.; Jones, S. M.

2004-12-01

285

Attributes for NHDPlus catchments (version 1.1) for the conterminous United States: surficial geology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This data set represents the area of surficial geology types in square meters compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data set is the "Digital data set describing surficial geology in the conterminous US" (Clawges and Price, 1999). The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 4, 5, 7 and 9. MRB4, covering the Missouri River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 10-lower and 10-upper. MRB5, covering the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 8, 11 and 12. MRB6, covering the Rio Grande, Colorado and Great Basin River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 13, 14, 15 and 16. MRB7, covering the Pacific Northwest River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Unit 17. MRB8, covering California River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Unit 18.

Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

2010-01-01

286

Attributes for NHDplus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Population Density, 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This data set represents the average population density, in number of people per square kilometer multiplied by 10 for the year 2000, compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data set is the 2000 Population Density by Block Group for the Conterminous United States (Hitt, 2003). The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 4, 5, 7 and 9. MRB4, covering the Missouri River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 10-lower and 10-upper. MRB5, covering the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 8, 11 and 12. MRB6, covering the Rio Grande, Colorado and Great Basin River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 13, 14, 15 and 16. MRB7, covering the Pacific Northwest River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Unit 17. MRB8, covering California River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Unit 18.

Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMottem, Andrew E.

2010-01-01

287

Data-based information gain on the response behaviour of hydrological models at catchment scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A data-based approach is presented to analyse the response behaviour of hydrological models at the catchment scale. The approach starts with a number of sequential time series processing steps, applied to available rainfall, ETo and river flow observation series. These include separation of the high frequency (e.g., hourly, daily) river flow series into subflows, split of the series in nearly independent quick and slow flow hydrograph periods, and the extraction of nearly independent peak and low flows. Quick-, inter- and slow-subflow recession behaviour, sub-responses to rainfall and soil water storage are derived from the time series data. This data-based information on the catchment response behaviour can be applied on the basis of: - Model-structure identification and case-specific construction of lumped conceptual models for gauged catchments; or diagnostic evaluation of existing model structures; - Intercomparison of runoff responses for gauged catchments in a river basin, in order to identify similarity or significant differences between stations or between time periods, and relate these differences to spatial differences or temporal changes in catchment characteristics; - (based on the evaluation of the temporal changes in previous point:) Detection of temporal changes/trends and identification of its causes: climate trends, or land use changes; - Identification of asymptotic properties of the rainfall-runoff behaviour towards extreme peak or low flow conditions (for a given catchment) or towards extreme catchment conditions (for regionalization, ungauged basin prediction purposes); hence evaluating the performance of the model in making extrapolations beyond the range of available stations' data; - (based on the evaluation in previous point:) Evaluation of the usefulness of the model for making extrapolations to more extreme climate conditions projected by for instance climate models. Examples are provided for river basins in Belgium, Ethiopia, Kenya, Ecuador, Bolivia and China. References: Van Steenbergen, N., Willems, P. (2012), 'Method for testing the accuracy of rainfall-runoff models in predicting peak flow changes due to rainfall changes, in a climate changing context', Journal of Hydrology, 414-415, 425-434, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.11.017 Mora, D., Willems, P. (2012), 'Decadal oscillations in rainfall and air temperature in the Paute River Basin - Southern Andes of Ecuador', Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 108(1), 267-282, doi:0.1007/s00704-011-0527-4 Taye, M.T., Willems, P. (2011). 'Influence of climate variability on representative QDF predictions of the upper Blue Nile Basin', Journal of Hydrology, 411, 355-365, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.10.019 Taye, M.T., Willems, P. (2012). 'Temporal variability of hydro-climatic extremes in the Blue Nile basin', Water Resources Research, 48, W03513, 13p. Vansteenkiste, Th., Tavakoli, M., Ntegeka, V., Willems, P., De Smedt, F., Batelaan, O. (in press), 'Climate change impact on river flows and catchment hydrology: a comparison of two spatially distributed models', Hydrological Processes; doi: 10.1002/hyp.9480 [in press

Willems, Patrick

2013-04-01

288

On the value of data for catchment modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dialogue between experimentalist and modeller in catchment hydrology continues to be minimal, despite the clear need for this to quantify and reduce uncertainty in our predictions. Experimentalists often instrument catchments to measure key diagnostic properties and variables that, from their perspective, characterize catchment behaviour. Typically, after some years, the research switches to the hands of the catchment modeller who

F. Fenicia; J. J. McDonnell; H. H. Savenije; L. Pfister

2006-01-01

289

Modelling the hydrological behaviour of a mountain catchment using TOPMODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mathematical catchment model TOPMODEL was used to simulate the hydrological behaviour of a mountain catchment at Jalovecky Creek, Western Tatras, Slovakia. The model provided adequate results in simulation of daily runoff from the catchment for the period 1 August 1987–31 October 1993. Air temperature inversions, typical of certain periods in mountain catchments, caused overestimation of simulated runoff because of

L. Holko; A Lepistö

1997-01-01

290

The hydrological effects of fire in South African mountain catchments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streamflow and its storm-flow elements in four catchments were analyzed by the paired catchment method for a response to fire. Prior to burning two of the catchments were vegetated with over-mature fynbos (the indigenous scrub vegetation of the southwestern Cape, South Africa), one was afforested with Pinus radiata and the fourth with Eucalyptus fastigata. One of the fynbos catchments was

D. F. Scott

1993-01-01

291

Catchment characterisation through Streamflow Component mixing Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple dynamical system approach was implemented in order to analyse, explain and simulate streamflow fluxes in diverse seasonal hydrological conditions. The study was implemented within 42 km2 forested Padež stream catchment in SW part of Slovenia, which is characterized by flushing, almost torrential hydrological response conditioned by flysch geological settings of low hydraulic conductivity. The hydrological characteristics of the studied catchment at first sight do not comply with the hydrological catchment storage framework in which original concept of the catchment as a simple dynamical system was developed. In the studied catchment, the streamflow formation is not controlled solely by subsurface catchment storage but is strongly influenced also by rainfall runoff that bypasses the subsurface catchment storage mechanism. Therefore, two components of the streamflow were identified, described by separate sensitivity functions and combined through simple two component mixing model which enabled us simulation of the streamflow in highly contrasting seasonal hydrological settings. According to the simulation results, the Padež stream catchment behaves primarily like a storage-dependent system under conditions of low antecedent catchment wetness and low to moderate rainfall intensities (up to 5 mm/h) when subsurface storage sensitivity function generally managed to simulate streamflows with exception of hydrograph peak formation. When rainfall intensities increase (exceed approximately 5 mm/h), secondary streamflow formation mechanism described by subsurface storage bypassing sensitivity function becomes initiated and causes fast hydrograph formation with steeply rising and falling limbs. In order to be able to implement the modelling concept for streamflow predictions, the rainfall losses in growth period, most probably associated with interception losses not covered under the potential evapotranspiration calculation, would have to be more thoroughly analysed. Our study shows a possible way how two hydrological concepts, the streamflow recession analysis and two component mixing based on relatively easily measurable conservative tracers such as electrical conductivity could be combined for analysing streamflow fluxes.

Rusjan, Simon

2013-04-01

292

Ring spacing of Mercurian multi-ring basins and basin ring formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent systematic mapping of Mercury has revealed many ancient and previously unrecognized multiring basins. The population of these basins now stands at 20, possibly is as large as 25, and includes at least 76 measurable rings. From the new data base, we present some systematics of basin ring spacing on Mercury, compare them with similar data for the Moon, and draw some preliminary conclusions on conditions of ring formation for basins on the terrestrial planets.

Pike, R. J.; Spudis, P. D.

1984-01-01

293

Going With the Flow: Participatory Action Research and River Catchment Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Public participation, now mainstreamed as a desirable goal in research and policy has a wide variety of different models, classifications, approaches, tools, mechanisms and processes that are utilized across science and social science utilise. Demands for public participation in environmental issues have found particular resonance within recent European water legislation, specifically the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). In the UK River Basin Plans are under the jurisdiction of the Environment Agency (EA) and the practice of their management is currently being trialed through the EA's management of 10 trial catchments. In these trials, the Environment Agency has outlined its wish to explore improved ways of engaging with people so as to develop shared understandings of problems within catchments. In this work, we report on project outcomes funded under the Rural Economy and Land Use Program (Relu) in which we worked with the Lune Rivers Trust. The project was the first in the UK to use a Participatory Action Research (PAR) approach to understanding and creating tools to address problems in river catchments. PAR is a distinct approach to participation because it is driven by participants (people who have a stake in the issue being researched) rather than an outside sponsor, funder or academic (although they may be invited to help); it offers a democratic model of who can produce, own and use knowledge; it is collaborative at every stage, involving discussion, pooling skills and working together; and it is intended to result in some action, change or improvement on the issue being researched, towards more socially and environmentally just outcomes. Both the project and the tools we coproduced resonate very strongly with current policy objects for river catchments as outlined above. We argue that PAR has particular resonance with the above focus of catchment management particularly in light of future uncertainties with climate change. As such, it offers a critical reflection on approaches to catchment management that characterize themselves as 'participatory'.

Whitman, G.; Pain, R.

2012-04-01

294

Catchment intercomparsion of event/pre-event water percentage and mean residence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Percentage estimates of event/pre-event water (EPEW) components in channel stormflow and baseflow mean residence time (MRT) are two useful descriptors of catchment hydrology. Nevertheless, values for EPEW ratios vary widely, even for similar size basins, similar climate and hydrologic regimes. Likewise, MRT can vary by orders of magnitude for seemingly similar hydrologic systems. Process "cause" for tracer "effect" has been difficult to assign to these largely black box tracer responses. We present a catchment intercomparison as a means to extract first order process controls on tracer response from the differences seen in computed EPEW and MRT. We compare tracer and internal response data for two well-studied catchments: the Maimai catchment in New Zealand and the Fudoji catchment in Japan. These catchments share remarkably similar topography, soil depth, slope angles, climate conditions. A cursory examination of rainfall runoff relations, hydrograph shape and timing, seasonality, shallow groundwater dynamics and soil water potentials would suggest that for all intense and purposes, these sites are functionally similar. Nevertheless, EPEW at Fudoji was >3 times that of Maimai and MRT was > 200 % larger than Maimai. Furthermore, MRT gradients at Fudoji increased vertically through the soil profile whereas MRT increased in a predominantly downslope direction at Maimai. Hydrometric data are discussed in relation to the tracer-based descriptions. We argue that EPEW components were affected most by differences in soil drainable porosity. MRT and differences between the sites was mostly a function of bedrock permeability. We illustrate these differences through animation of the first order process controls at the two sites.

McDonnell, J.; Uchida, T.; Weiler, M.

2003-04-01

295

SWAT model application in a data scarce tropical complex catchment in Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study intended to validate the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model in data scarce environment in a complex tropical catchment in the Pangani River Basin located in northeast Tanzania. The validation process involved the model initialization, calibration, verification and sensitivity analysis. Both manual and auto-calibration procedures were used to facilitate the comparison of the results with past studies in the same catchment. For this study, some model parameters including Soil depth (SOL_Z) and Saturated hydraulic conductivity (SOL_K) were assumed uniform within the study catchment and were therefore lumped comprising the huge computation resource requirement of the SWAT model. Results indicated that the same set of important parameters was identified with or without the use of observed flows data. Some of the parameters had physical interpretation and could therefore relate directly to hydrological controlling factors within the catchment. Despite swapping ranking importance of parameters, these results suggest the suitability of the SWAT model for identifying hydrological controlling factors/parameters in ungauged catchments. Results of calibration and validation at the daily timescale gave moderately satisfactory Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient of Efficiency (CE) of 54.6% for calibration and 68% for validation while simulated and observed mean annual flow discharges gave an Index of Volumetric Fit (IVF) of 100%. The study further indicated the improvement of model estimation when more reliable spatial representation of rainfall was used. Although in this study SWAT model has performed satisfactorily in data poor and complex catchment, the authors recommend a wider validation effort of the model before it is adopted for operational purpose.

Ndomba, Preksedis; Mtalo, Felix; Killingtveit, Aanund

296

Water quantity and quality optimization modeling of dams operation based on SWAT in Wenyu River Catchment, China.  

PubMed

Water quantity and quality joint operation is a new mode in the present dams' operation research. It has become a hot topic in governmental efforts toward integrated basin improvement. This paper coupled a water quantity and quality joint operation model (QCmode) and genetic algorithm with Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Together, these tools were used to explore a reasonable operation of dams and floodgates at the basin scale. Wenyu River Catchment, a key area in Beijing, was selected as the case study. Results showed that the coupled water quantity and quality model of Wenyu River Catchment more realistically simulates the process of water quantity and quality control by dams and floodgates. This integrated model provides the foundation for research of water quantity and quality optimization on dam operation in Wenyu River Catchment. The results of this modeling also suggest that current water quality of Wenyu River will improve following the implementation of the optimized operation of the main dams and floodgates. By pollution control and water quantity and quality joint operation of dams and floodgates, water quality of Wenyu river will change significantly, and the available water resources will increase by 134%, 32%, 17%, and 82% at the downstream sites of Sha River Reservoir, Lutong Floodgate, Xinpu Floodgate, and Weigou Floodgate, respectively. The water quantity and quality joint operation of dams will play an active role in improving water quality and water use efficiency in Wenyu River Basin. The research will provide the technical support for water pollution control and ecological restoration in Wenyu River Catchment and could be applied to other basins with large number of dams. Its application to the Wenyu River Catchment has a great significance for the sustainable economic development of Beijing City. PMID:20237841

Zhang, Yongyong; Xia, Jun; Chen, Junfeng; Zhang, Minghua

2011-02-01

297

Influence of basin connectivity on sediment source, transport, and storage within the Mkabela Basin, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The management of sediment and other non-point source (NPS) pollution has proven difficult, and requires a sound understanding of particle movement through the drainage system. The primary objective of this investigation was to obtain an understanding of NPS sediment source(s), transport, and storage within the Mkabela Basin, a representative agricultural catchment within the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands of eastern South Africa, by combining geomorphic, hydrologic and geochemical fingerprinting analyses. The Mkabela Basin can be subdivided into three distinct subcatchments that differ in their ability to transport and store sediment along the axial valley. Headwater (upper catchment) areas are characterized by extensive wetlands that act as significant sediment sinks. Mid-catchment areas, characterized by higher relief and valley gradients, exhibit few wetlands, but rather are dominated by a combination of alluvial and bedrock channels that are conducive to sediment transport. The lower catchment exhibits a low-gradient alluvial channel that is boarded by extensive riparian wetlands that accumulate large quantities of sediment (and NPS pollutants). Fingerprinting studies suggest that silt- and clay-rich layers found within wetland and reservoir deposits of the upper and upper-mid subcatchments are derived from the erosion of fine-grained, valley bottom soils frequently utilized as vegetable fields. Coarser-grained deposits within these wetlands and reservoirs result from the erosion of sandier hillslope soils extensively utilized for sugar cane, during relatively high magnitude runoff events that are capable of transporting sand-sized sediment off the slopes. Thus, the source of sediment to the axial valley varies as a function of sediment size and runoff magnitude. Sediment export from upper to lower catchment areas was limited until the early 1990s, in part because the upper catchment wetlands were hydrologically disconnected from lower parts of the watershed during low to moderate flood events. The construction of a drainage ditch through a previously unchanneled wetland altered the hydrologic connectivity of the catchment, allowing sediment to be transported from the headwaters to the lower basin where much of it was deposited within riparian wetlands. The axial drainage system is now geomorphically and hydrologically connected during events capable of overflowing dams located throughout the study basin. The study indicates that increased valley connectivity partly negated the positive benefits of controlling sediment/nutrient exports from the catchment by means of upland based, best management practices.

Miller, J. R.; Mackin, G.; Lechler, P.; Lord, M.; Lorentz, S.

2013-02-01

298

Integrated flow and temperature modeling at the catchment scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in natural stream temperature levels can be detrimental to the health of aquatic ecosystems. Water use and land management directly affect the distribution of diffuse heat sources and thermal loads to streams, while riparian vegetation and geomorphology play a critical role in how thermal loads are buffered. In many areas, groundwater flow is a significant contribution to river flow, particularly during low flows and therefore has a strong influence on stream temperature levels and dynamics. However, previous stream temperature models do not properly simulate how surface water-groundwater dynamics affect stream temperature. A coupled surface water-groundwater and temperature model has therefore been developed to quantify the impacts of land management and water use on stream flow and temperatures. The model is applied to the simulation of stream temperature levels in a spring-fed stream, the Silver Creek Basin in Idaho, where stream temperature affects the populations of fish and other aquatic organisms. The model calibration highlights the importance of spatially distributed flow dynamics in the catchment to accurately predict stream temperatures. The results also show the value of including temperature data in an integrated flow model calibration because temperature data provide additional constraints on the flow sources and volumes. Simulations show that a reduction of 10% in the groundwater flow to the Silver Creek Basin can cause average and maximum temperature increases in Silver Creek over 0.3 °C and 1.5 °C, respectively. In spring-fed systems like Silver Creek, it is clearly not feasible to separate river habitat restoration from upstream catchment and groundwater management.

Loinaz, Maria C.; Davidsen, Hasse Kampp; Butts, Michael; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

2013-07-01

299

The relationship between soil heterotrophic activity, soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leachate, and catchment-scale DOC export in headwater catchments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from terrestrial sources forms the major component of the annual carbon budget in many headwater streams. In high-elevation catchments in the Rocky Mountains, DOC originates in the upper soil horizons and is flushed to the stream primarily during spring snowmelt. To identify controls on the size of the mobile soil DOC pool available to be transported during the annual melt event, we measured soil DOC production across a range of vegetation communities and soil types together with catchment DOC export in paired watersheds in Summit County, Colorado. Both surface water DOC concentrations and watershed DOC export were lower in areas where pyrite weathering resulted in lower soil pH. Similarly, the amount of DOC leached from organic soils was significantly smaller (p < 0.01) at sites having low soil p H. Scaling point source measurements of DOC production and leaching to the two basins and assuming only vegetated areas contribute to DOC production, we calculated that the amount of mobile DOC available to be leached to surface water during melt was 20.3 g C m-2 in the circumneutral basin and 17.8 g C m-2 in the catchment characterized by pyrite weathering. The significant (r2 = 0.91 and p < 0.05), linear relationship between overwinter CO2 flux and the amount of DOC leached from upper soil horizons during snowmelt suggests that the mechanism for the difference in production of mobile DOC was heterotrophic processing of soil carbon in snow-covered soil. Furthermore, this strong relationship between over-winter heterotrophic activity and the size of the mobile DOC pool present in a range of soil and vegetation types provides a likely mechanism for explaining the interannual variability of DOC export observed in high-elevation catchments.

Brooks, P. D.; McKnight, D. M.; Bencala, K. E.

1999-01-01

300

Utilising catchment modelling as a tool for monitoring Reef Rescue outcomes in the Great Barrier Reef catchment area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality improvement plans (WQIPs) are currently being implemented within the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) catchment area through the Australian Government 'Reef Rescue' package to reduce the runoff of sediments, nutrients and pesticides into the GBR lagoon. End-of-catchment pollutant load targets have been set for a selection of priority GBR catchments to determine the effectiveness of catchment management actions over

J. E. Brodie; S. E. Lewis; J. Waterhouse; S. N. Wilkinson

2009-01-01

301

Influence of catchment characteristics, forestry activities and deposition on nitrogen export from small forested catchments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to predict nitrogen export from forested catchments is essential in order to evaluate the effects of anthropogenic activities on the trophic status of lakes and sea areas, and to extrapolate the results to catchments from which no measurements are available. Data from 20 forested catchments (0.3–42 km2) in Finland and Sweden during the 10-year period 1979–88 were used

Ahti Lepistö; Lotta Andersson; Berit Arheimer; Karin Sundblad

1995-01-01

302

Influence of basin connectivity on sediment source, transport, and storage within the Mkabela Basin, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The management of sediment and other non-point source (NPS) pollution has proven difficult, and requires a sound understanding of particle movement through the drainage system. The primary objective of this investigation was to obtain an understanding of NPS sediment source(s), transport, and storage within the Mkabela basin, a representative agricultural catchment within the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands of southeastern South Africa, by combining geomorphic, hydrologic and geochemical fingerprinting analyses. The Mkabela Basin can be subdivided into three distinct subcatchments that differ in their ability to transport and store sediment along the axial valley. Headwater (upper catchment) areas are characterized by extensive wetlands that act as significant sediment sinks. Mid-catchment areas, characterized by higher relief and valley gradients, exhibit few wetlands, but rather are dominated by a combination of alluvial and bedrock channels that are conducive to sediment transport. The lower catchment exhibits a low-gradient alluvial channel that is boarded by extensive riparian wetlands that accumulate large quantities of sediment (and NPS pollutants). Fingerprinting studies suggest that silt- and clay-rich layers found within wetland and reservoir deposits are derived from the erosion of fine-grained, valley bottom soils frequently utilized as vegetable fields. Coarser-grained deposits within both wetlands and reservoirs result from the erosion of sandier hillslope soils extensively utilized for sugar cane, during relatively high magnitude runoff events that are capable of transporting sand-sized sediment off the slopes. Thus, the source of sediment to the axial valley varies as a function of sediment size and runoff magnitude. Sediment export from the basin was limited until the early 1990s, in part because the upper catchment wetlands were hydrologically disconnected from lower parts of the watershed during low- to moderate flood events. The construction of a drainage ditch through a previously unchanneled wetland altered the hydrologic connectivity of the catchment, allowing sediment to be transported from the headwaters to the lower basin where much of it was deposited within the riparian wetlands. The axial drainage system is now geomorphically and hydrologically connected during most events throughout the study basin. The study indicates that increased valley connectivity partly negated the positive benefits of controlling sediment/nutrient exports from the catchment by means of upland based, best management practices.

Miller, J. R.; Mackin, G.; Lechler, P.; Lord, M.; Lorentz, S.

2012-09-01

303

DEM-based analysis of landscape organization: 2) Application to catchment comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The delineation of homogeneous landscape elements (or "hydrologic response units") is often a prerequisite in field investigations and the application of semi-distributed hydrologic (or coupled hydrologic and biogeochemical) models. Delineation and quantification of dominant landscape elements requires methods to extract the features from digital elevation data or other readily available information. It is often assumed that hillslope and riparian areas constitute the two most important and identifiable landscape units contributing to catchment runoff in upland humid catchments. In addition, we have found that that the degree of hillslope water expression in stormflow is partially a function of riparian to hillslope reservoir ratios and landscape organization. Therefore, we developed a simple approach for quantifying landscape organization and distributed riparian to hillslope area ratios (riparian buffer ratios), as described in the accompanying contribution. Here we use this method as a framework for comparing and classifying diverse catchments located in Europe, the U.S., and New Zealand. Based on the three catchments Maimai (New Zealand), Panola (Georgia) and Sleepers (Vermont) we obtained the following preliminary results: (1) Local area entering the stream channels was most variable at Maimai and consistently diffuse at Sleepers and Panola. Also the median local area entering the channel network was largest at Maimai and smallest at Sleepers and Panola. This demonstrates the degree of landscape dissection (highest for Maimai) and the concentration of hillslope inputs along the stream network. (2) Riparian areas were smallest at Maimai, larger at Sleepers, and largest at Panola. The combination of riparian zone extent and focused (Maimai) versus diffuse (Sleepers and Panola) hillslope inputs to riparian zones controls local riparian to hillslope area ratios (riparian buffer capacities). (3) Area was accumulated to a large extend in the channel heads in all catchments. At Sleepers about 75 percent of all area originated from sub-catchments of less than 5 ha, whereas this proportion was 50 and 40 percent at Panola and Maimai respectively.

Seibert, J.; McGlynn, B.

2003-04-01

304

Aquatic carbon and GHG losses via the aquatic pathway in an arctic catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based in Northwest Canada, the HYDRA project ('Permafrost catchments in transition: hydrological controls on carbon cycling and greenhouse gas budgets') aims to understand the fundamental role that hydrological processes play in regulating landscape-scale carbon fluxes. The project aims to determine a) the role of vegetation functional type in carbon uptake, turnover and allocation, b) how the same functional types influence the delivery of soil-derived carbon to surface waters, and c) how important the aquatic carbon and greenhouse gas (GHG) losses are relative to catchment scale terrestrial fluxes. Here we focus on the magnitude of the aquatic concentrations and fluxes, presenting results from the first year of field sampling. Concentrations of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4 and N2O, as well as dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (DOC and DIC), will be presented from a range of freshwater types within the tundra landscape; sites include lakes, polygons and the 'Siksik' stream which drains the primary study catchment. Eight sampling locations were selected along the approximately 2km long Siksik stream to allow carbon and GHG concentrations to be considered within a set of nested subcatchments. This synoptic sampling regime, in combination with stable isotopes and major ion concentrations also measured at each sampling point, will allow inputs of carbon and GHGs to be traced to source areas within the catchment. Evasion and downstream export will also be calculated and preliminary results presented in the context of quantifying the relative importance of the aquatic pathway to the full catchment carbon and greenhouse gas budgets. This analysis will also allow an initial comparison between the relative importance of different water bodies within the catchment, highlighting spatial hotspots to be prioritized in future campaigns.

Dinsmore, Kerry; Billett, Mike; Lessels, Jason; Street, Lorna; Wookey, Philip; Baxter, Robert; Subke, Jens-Arne; Tetzlaff, Doerthe

2014-05-01

305

Modelling hydrology and water quality in a Mediterranean catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study the SWAT model has been used in order to analyse and quantify pollution dynamics at basin scale depending on concentrated and diffuse sources. Nowadays, the receiving water bodies quality safeguarding is of growing importance due to the promulgation of recent laws as well as the growing sensitivity regarding the environment issues by the scientific and practitioner committee. Recently the EU 2000/60 (Water Framework Directive) makes the analysis of receiving water bodies even more complex by integrating the pollution in urban areas in a framework of the pollution sources at catchment scale. and making necessary further integration of environmental impacts associated with discharges concentrates civilian and productive with the widespread pollution linked mainly to agriculture and zoo-technical activities. The complexity of natural systems and the large number of polluting sources and variables to be monitored requires the adoption of models able to get a better view of the whole system in a simplified way without neglecting the most important physical phenomena. Particularly, in this study the SWAT model was considered since it is an integrated hydrological model that are, nowadays, needed to support the implementation of integrated water management plans and to comply with the current requirements of the WFD. In addition, the SWAT model is interfaced with the ARC-VIEW software which allows easy pre-and post processing of the spatially distributed input data, driving the rainfall-runoff process. The model has been applied to the experimental Nocella catchment located in Sicily (Italy), with an area of about 50 km2. The river receives wastewater and stormwater from two urban areas drained by combined sewers. The study demonstrates that the analysis of water quality in partially urbanised natural basins is complex depending on variable polluting contributions of the different parts of the system depending on specific polluting compounds. The model was calibrated and then validated, obtaining satisfactory performance. The estimation of loads from diffuse sources was difficult due to limited data availability. Thus, it was only possible to include constant diffuse pollution concentrations at present. In spite of these limitations, the model captured rather well the dynamic of flow generation and was able to predict the range of nutrient concentrations in surface water. The contribution of urban areas to the polluting loads at catchment scale is relevant especially during the dry season.

Candela, Angela; Viviani, Gaspare

2010-05-01

306

Precipitation, soil moisture and runoff variability in a small river catchment (Ardèche, France) during HyMeX Special Observation Period 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flash flooding is a potentially destructive natural hazard known to occur in the Cévennes-Vivarais region in southern France. HyMeX (Hydrological Cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment) is an international program focused on understanding the hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean basin. Soil moisture is known to be a useful indicator of catchment response, however, establishing a meaningful estimation of soil moisture at the catchment level can be difficult due to its high variability in space and time. In a small gauged catchment in the Cévennes-Vivarais region in southern France, a series of manual soil moisture measurements was taken from September to December 2012 at both the field and catchment scale during the Special Observation Period 1 (SOP1) as part of the HyMeX program. Six plots were selected along a trajectory of a microwave link installed in the catchment and were chosen to represent different elevations in the catchment. Within each field plot, surface soil moisture was measured along a 50 m transect at 2 m intervals. This allowed the study of changes in within-field variability as well as between-field variability in response to precipitation events and during the drying out phase. Several precipitation events occurred over this autumn 2012 period which caused a significant wetting-up of the catchment, allowing the study of soil moisture processes over a wide range of wetness conditions. The influence of antecedent catchment conditions (soil moisture) on rainfall-runoff dynamics is demonstrated through the comparison of storm hydrographs for the various events. Dry catchment conditions result in minimal response in event flow, whereas large precipitation events occurring during wetter conditions produce much stronger responses in event flow. This further confirms the importance of quantifying catchment initial conditions to enhance the prediction of flash flood occurrences.

Huza, Jessica; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Braud, Isabelle; Grazioli, Jacopo; Melsen, Lieke A.; Nord, Guillaume; Raupach, Timothy H.; Uijlenhoet, Remko

2014-08-01

307

Late Quaternary landscape evolution in the Kunlun Mountains and Qaidam Basin, Northern Tibet: A framework for examining the links between glaciation, lake level changes and alluvial fan formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Qaidam Basin in Northern Tibet is one of the largest hyper-arid intermontane basins on Earth. Alluvial fans, pediment surfaces, shorelines and a thick succession of sediments within the basin, coupled with moraines and associated landforms in the adjacent high mountain catchments of the Kunlun Mountains, record a complex history of Late Quaternary paleoenvironmental change and landscape evolution. The region

Lewis A. Owen; Robert C. Finkel; M. Haizhou; Patrick L. Barnard

2006-01-01

308

Chloride circulation in a lowland catchment and the formulation of transport by travel time distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Travel times are fundamental catchment descriptors that blend key information about storage, geochemistry, flow pathways and sources of water into a coherent mathematical framework. Here we analyze travel time distributions (TTDs) (and related attributes) estimated on the basis of the extensive hydrochemical information available for the Hupsel Brook lowland catchment in the Netherlands. The relevance of the work is perceived to lie in the general importance of characterizing nonstationary TTDs to capture catchment transport properties, here chloride flux concentrations at the basin outlet. The relative roles of evapotranspiration, water storage dynamics, hydrologic pathways and mass sources/sinks are discussed. Different hydrochemical models are tested and ranked, providing compelling examples of the improved process understanding achieved through coupled calibration of flow and transport processes. The ability of the model to reproduce measured flux concentrations is shown to lie mostly in the description of nonstationarities of TTDs at multiple time scales, including short-term fluctuations induced by soil moisture dynamics in the root zone and long-term seasonal dynamics. Our results prove reliable and suggest, for instance, that drastically reducing fertilization loads for one or more years would not result in significant permanent decreases in average solute concentrations in the Hupsel runoff because of the long memory shown by the system. Through comparison of field and theoretical evidence, our results highlight, unambiguously, the basic transport mechanisms operating in the catchment at hand, with a view to general applications.

Benettin, Paolo; Velde, Ype; Zee, Sjoerd E. A. T. M.; Rinaldo, Andrea; Botter, Gianluca

2013-08-01

309

Simulation of the catchment evapotranspiration based on different soil-vegetation parameterization schemes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation and soil are important carriers in water cycle, therefore, soil-vegetation parameterization is importation in catchment hydrological simulation. In this study, the soil-vegetation parameterization schemes in a distributed physically-based hydrological model (GBHM) and the water-energy balance model is discussed to predict actual evapotranspiration in the Luan River basin. Comparison between the physically-based hydrological model and the latter lumped conceptual model can help us understand the dominant control factors on catchment evapotranspiration at different time scales. From the analysis through comparison, it is shown that both simulations of these two models give very close values of annual evapotranspiration and the same complementary relationship between actual and potential evapotranspiration can be found at the annual time scale. The catchment annual evapotranspiration is controlled mainly by the annual precipitation and potential evaporation. While the impact of variability of soil water and vegetation become more important at a smaller time scale. It is also known that the relationship between potential and actual evapotranspiration shows a highly nonlinear relationship at the annual and catchment scale, but can be simplified to a linear relationship at hourly temporal and hillslope scales.

Shao, Weiwei; Yang, Dawen; Xu, Xiangyu; Wang, Jianhua

2010-05-01

310

Forested Water Catchments in a Changing Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the past, headwater catchments have often been studied to elucidate the effect of forests on the water cycle. This has\\u000a been of interest since centuries and we recall here this historical context. We review the quantitative effects found in numerous\\u000a studies around the world, especially those from paired-catchment experiments. As a rule, they indicate a lower water yield\\u000a of

Patrick Schleppi

311

Erosion rates in the Rio La Paz drainage basin: evidence for spatially and temporally variable erosion processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With a total drainage area of 4850 km2 the morphometry of the La Paz drainage basin in the Bolivian Altiplano results from a combination of feedback mechanisms involving erosion and crustal bending. Apart from the Rio Consata the Rio de La Paz constitutes the only drainage system sourced on the Altiplano that cuts across the eastern Altiplano boundrary in the Cordillera Real and links this region with Amazonia. The fluvial network therefore connects geomorphically and geologically very different zones: 1) the virtually flat Altiplano with its Mio-Pliocene fluvio-lacustrine deposits and volcanics, 2) the high Cordillera, mainly comprised of Paleozoic metasediments, Mesozoic plutons, and Miocene volcanics, and 3) the folded sedimentary rocks of foothills of the Subandean zone. Cross-cutting relationships between dated strata and incised valleys indicate that incision in the Rio La Paz headwaters postdates 5 Ma, and possibly even 2.8 Ma. The volume of about 3950 km3, which has been evacuated since then (assuming 2.8 Ma as starting point of incision) by the Rio La Paz drainage system to the Rio Beni relates to an average erosion rate of 290 mm/ky. In order to investigate this long-term erosion rate with respect to possible spatial and temporal variations, we studied catchment-wide erosion rates in the Rio La Paz basin and contributing areas of adjacent subbasins using terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides (TCN). This method allows the determination of catchment-wide erosion rates from sediments being currently exported from the basin over timescales ranging from 1-10ky. Our preliminary results reveal an erosion rate of 230 mm/ky for the entire Rio La Paz basin (sample from basin outlet). Subbasin erosion rates vary from ca. 100 up to 600 mm/ky. So far, no direct correlation of mean slopes (and other morphometric parameters) in the subbasins and their respective erosion rates are obvious. However, there is a trend that the subbasins with high erosion rates are located close to the Cordillera, whereas subbasins with low erosion rates are located in immediate vicinity of the Altiplano. Present-day erosion rates in the Rio La Paz catchment obtained for a time frame spanning a decade range from 600-6000 mm/ky, based on sediment-yield data from published data, which is significantly higher than the ones revealed with TCN and the long-term volume estimates. The strong increase in the most recent erosion rates is most likely caused by human land-use practices (e.g. deforestation). The different roles of erosion processes (e.g. headwater expansion by landsliding and / or fluvial incision) and relief might be a cause for spatially variable erosion rates. In contrast, on the Altiplano west of the Rio La Paz drainage divide, erosion rates are one to two orders of magnitude lower than in the Rio La Paz catchment (Hippe et al. in prep.). In summary, the TCN results from the interior parts of the Rio La Paz catchments indicate spatially and temporally variable climatic and tectonic signals along the margins of Earth's second largest plateau.

Zeilinger, G.; Kober, F.; Strecker, M.; Ivy-Ochs, S.; Kubik, P. W.; Hippe, K.

2009-04-01

312

The Influence of Historic Land Use Changes and Future Planned Scenarios On Floods In The Oder Catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In July 1997, dramatic flooding occurred in the Oder basin, covering parts of the Czech Republic, Poland and Germany. In August 2001, Poland again suffered from flooding, but more in the Vistula river than in the Oder river. To investigate the causes of the flooding and the influence of land use, soil characteristics and antecedent catchment moisture conditions, the distributed catchment model LISFLOOD has been developed. LISFLOOD simulates runoff in large river basins. Two trans-national European river basins are used to test and validate the model: the Meuse catchment (France, Belgium and The Netherlands) and the Oder basin. In close cooperation with the water authori- ties of Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic, several scenarios are evaluated with LISFLOOD. The effects of the scenarios on floods are examined. Scenarios being evaluated are changes in land use, building water reservoirs and water retention areas. Land use changes considered are reforestation, urban growth, and set-aside of agricul- tural land. The effects of these scenarios on floods will be demonstrated. Furthermore, using historic maps of the 18th century, the effects of land use changes for a period of 200 years is evaluated. Uncertainty aspects are taken into account.

de Roo, A.; Schmuck, G.; Perdigao, V.; Thielen, J.

313

Understanding Pesticide Behaviour At The Catchment Scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pesticides in stream flow at the outlet of a 142ha catchment in Eastern England (Col- worth, Bedfordshire), have been monitored since October 1999. About 50% of the total catchment is directly controlled within one farm and a rotation of wheat, oil seed rape, grass, linseed, beans and peas is grown. The data from this catchment are being used to investigate the performance of the USDA SWAT contaminant transport pack- age at the catchment scale. Three years of stream flow and climate data are available with a useful set of pesticide application and detection data. Following calibration and validation of the hydrology of the catchment, pesticide modelling was carried out for tebuconazole, terbutryn, and terbuthylazine. This paper reports on the results of a sen- sitivity analysis of the model, and the final calibrated pesticide component. Analysis of the results obtained show that the timing and decay of predicted pesticide concen- trations are correct. It is therefore recommended that SWAT can be used as a tool to understand pesticide behaviour at the catchment scale.

Kannan, N.; White, S. M.; Worrall, F.; Pendlington, D.; Groves, S.

314

Catchments as simple dynamical systems: A case study on methods and data requirements for parameter identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many rainfall-runoff models at least some calibration of model parameters has to take place. Especially for ungauged or poorly gauged basins this can be problematic, because there is little or no data available for calibration. A possible solution to overcome the problems caused by data scarcity is to set up a measurement campaign for a short time period. With the employed approach based on the theory of Kirchner (2009), a model was developed and applied to the Rietholzbach catchment in Switzerland (Teuling et al., 2010, Seneviratne et al., 2012), with only two parameters. These two parameters describe a unique storage-discharge relation. The model is constructed such that the parameters can be determined not only with automatic calibration, but also by recession analysis and a priori from Boussinesq theory. The automatic calibration and the recession analysis have been fed with different selections of the full data record as well as with the full data record itself. For Boussinesq theory, catchment characteristics were given as required input. In the end, a comparison of the performance of the three different methods was made, and a comparison on the amount of data that is required by each of the three parameter identification methods. Melsen, L.A., Teuling, A.J., van Berkum, S.W., Torfs, P.J.J.F., Uijlenhoet, R. (2013) Catchments as simple dynamical systems: A case study on methods and data requirements for parameter identification, Water Resour. Res., under review References Kirchner, J.W. (2009), Catchments as simple dynamical systems: Catchment characterization, rainfall-runoff modeling, and doing hydrology backward, Water Resour. Res. 45:W02429. Seneviratne, S.I., I. Lehner, J. Gurtz, A.J. Teuling, H Lang, U. Moser, D. Grebner, L. Menzel, K. Schro, T. Vitvar, and M. Zappa (2012), Swiss prealpine Rietholzbach research catchment and lysimeter: 32 year time series and 2003 drought event, Water Resour. Res. 48:W06526. Teuling, A. J., I. Lehner, J. W. Kirchner, and S. I. Seneviratne (2010), Catchments as simple dynamical systems: Experience from a Swiss prealpine catchment, Water Resour. Res. 46: W10502.

Melsen, Lieke; Teuling, Adriaan; van Berkum, Sonja; Torfs, Paul; Uijlenhoet, Remko

2014-05-01

315

Predicting local fish species richness in the garonne river basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to predict local fish species richness in the Garonne river basin using three environmental variables (distance from the source, elevation and catchment area J. Commonly, patterns of fish species richness have been investigated using simple or multi-linear statistical models. Here, we used backpropagation of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to develop stochastic models of local

Sylvain Mastrorillo; Francis Dauba; Thierry Oberdorff; Jean-Francois Guégan; Sovan Lek

1998-01-01

316

Management of shared river basins: the case of the  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Introduction: the Zambezi River Basin and its hydrology The Zambezi River, lying wholly within the SADC, is the largest watercourse system in the region. Its catchment area is some 1,300,000 square kilometres, occupying the territories of Angola, Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Out of these riparian states, Zambia, Angola, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and Malawi have the largest

Zambezi River; Osborne N. Shela

2000-01-01

317

Development of regionalisation procedures using a multi-model approach for flow simulation in an ungauged catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryFlow simulation in ungauged catchments is presently regarded as one of the most challenging tasks in surface water hydrology. Many of the ungauged catchments are located in the headwaters of rivers in mountainous regions of the world having enormous potential for sustainable water resource development. However, due to inaccessibility, rugged and inhospitable terrain, and historical lack of foresight concerning the need to have these headwaters adequately gauged, their potential is not readily realizable. Many downstream sites also suffer from non-availability of site-specific data as even in countries having extensive networks of gauged stations data may not be available at sites where these are most needed. As predictive tools for water resources, water quality, natural hazard mitigation and water availability assessment are generally data-driven, the lack of adequate hydrometric records poses difficult problems for planners, engineers, managers, and stake-holders alike. In this study, a methodology is developed for flow simulation in ungauged catchments using a regionalisation and multi-model approach involving a suite of rainfall-runoff models and combination techniques. Daily observed hydrometeorological data for 12 French catchments are used for illustrating the procedures. Following a preliminary investigation of the regional homogeneity of that group of catchments, three regional flow simulation techniques are applied. Although all 12 catchments are gauged, initially each catchment is successively considered as being ungauged for the purpose of flow simulation in that catchment, their actual discharges being subsequently used for evaluating the performance of the flow estimation procedures for the catchment. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index ( R2) is used for assessing and ranking the relative performances of the regionalisation-model couples to identify the most appropriate couple for the region. The final step of applying that couple to a truly ungauged (13th) catchment in the region is described. Results are presented and conclusions drawn on the efficacy of the regional-multi-model approach. Of the couples considered, the pooling method of regionalisation coupled with the conceptual soil moisture accounting and routing (SMAR) model is deemed to be the best for simulating flow in an ungauged catchment in the region.

Goswami, M.; O'Connor, K. M.; Bhattarai, K. P.

2007-02-01

318

Towards catchment classification by means of environmental tracers and landscape analysis: The Attert catchment in Luxembourg  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until recently hydrological research has been mainly focusing on detailed investigations at small spatial scales, resulting in a set of more and more complex physically-based and spatially distributed hydrologic models. While much of the research effort today is targeted to advance these hydrological model predictions at the catchment scale, shortcomings remain to adequately capture the dominating hydrological processes across a range of scales that translate into the rainfall-runoff response of a catchment. Thus, studies addressing the fundamental relations between catchment structure and function are urgently needed, as they help catchment classification by advancing our knowledge about suitable catchment signatures and controls at different spatial and temporal scales. In our study in the nested Attert catchment in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (Europe) we investigate how environmental tracer dynamics, hydrological response behavior and landscape analysis can help to identify such dominating controls on runoff generation across multiple scales. Techniques to characterize landscape structure and hydrological processes are complementary applied to identify scales in which shifts of the dominant hydrological processes occur. These dominating controls in turn provide a more integrated perspective of catchment structure and functioning that can be used for catchment classification based on functional response.

Wrede, S.; Pfister, L.; Krein, A.; Fenicia, F.; Bogaard, T. A.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Savenije, H. H. G.

2010-05-01

319

Preliminary Basin Analysis of Latest Miocene Conglomerate Near Bahía Kino, Coastal Sonora: A New Record of Crustal Deformation During Initial Opening of the Northern Gulf of California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In coastal Sonora northwest of Bahía Kino, we have initiated a basin-analysis study of nonmarine conglomerate (Tcg) that overlies and is locally interbedded with the 6.4-Ma Tuff of Mesa Cuadrada (Tmc). Tcg conglomerate is deeply eroded and cut by a complex set of syn- to post-basinal, N- to NNE-striking normal faults and NW-striking dextral strike-slip faults. We carried out detailed mapping and field descriptions, measured stratigraphic sections, and collected paleocurrent and clast-count data in Tcg. Zircons from the newly discovered Seri tuff near the base of the section, 160 m below Tmc, were dated using U-Pb SHRIMP geochronology at Stanford University. We obtained a 206Pb/238U weighted mean age of 6.53+/-0.18 Ma (n=14; MSWD=1.3), which yields a sediment-accumulation rate of 0.8+/-0.2 mm/yr for lower Tcg. Tcg is dominated by debris-flow facies consisting of massive, poorly sorted, weakly bedded, matrix-rich, pebble, cobble, to small-boulder conglomerate. A subsidiary sheet-flood facies is somewhat better sorted, generally lacks boulders, and contains weak but pervasive horizontal stratification. Both facies of Tcg record deposition in an alluvial fan environment. Well sorted and stratified stream deposits are conspicuously lacking. Preserved sections of Tcg range up to 170 to 240 meters thick in the southern part of the study area, and increase to at least 470 meters in the north where the Punta Chueca fault, a large NW-directed low-angle normal fault, apparently produced more extension and subsidence than smaller faults in the south. Clasts in Tcg are dominated by middle Miocene andesite, the 12.6-Ma Tuff of San Felipe, minor amounts of Tmc, and variable amounts of older basement rocks including tonalite, granodiorite, quartzite, metavolcanic rock, and a megacrystic K-spar-bearing granite that we have not seen in the local bedrock. After correcting for bedding dips and vertical-axis clockwise rotations determined from paleomagnetic analysis, restored paleocurrents reveal consistent overall transport to the SSW. We interpret Tcg to record deposition in a 10- to 20-km wide coastal belt of coalesced alluvial fans (bajadas) that formed on the margin of the nascent northern Gulf of California. Alluvial fans were likely derived from a large uplands source area NE of the Sacrificio fault that is now submerged beneath broad alluvial plains of the Rio Sonora. Prior to this time, between 12.5 and 6.5 Ma, extension caused tilting and erosion but did not produce significant crustal thinning or subsidence. The abrupt change to rapid subsidence and sedimentation in a belt of coastal alluvial fans records a major change in deformation style and crustal dynamics at about 6.5 Ma. We infer that this change coincides with the transition from pre-6.5 Ma diffuse regional extension (late Miocene proto-gulf stage) to rapid, localized latest Miocene oblique dextral shear that resulted from initiation or acceleration of plate-boundary strain in the northern Gulf of California. If this interpretation is correct, the onset of northern Gulf opening is thus dated at ca. 6.5 Ma.

Dorsey, R. J.; Peryam, T. C.; Bennett, S.; Oskin, M. E.; Iriondo, A.

2008-12-01

320

A detailed model for simulation of catchment scale subsurface hydrologic processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A catchment scale numerical model is developed based on the three-dimensional transient Richards equation describing fluid flow in variably saturated porous media. The model is designed to take advantage of digital elevation data bases and of information extracted from these data bases by topographic analysis. The practical application of the model is demonstrated in simulations of a small subcatchment of the Konza Prairie reserve near Manhattan, Kansas. In a preliminary investigation of computational issues related to model resolution, we obtain satisfactory numerical results using large aspect ratios, suggesting that horizontal grid dimensions may not be unreasonably constrained by the typically much smaller vertical length scale of a catchment and by vertical discretization requirements. Additional tests are needed to examine the effects of numerical constraints and parameter heterogeneity in determining acceptable grid aspect ratios. In other simulations we attempt to match the observed streamflow response of the catchment, and we point out the small contribution of the streamflow component to the overall water balance of the catchment.

Paniconi, Claudio; Wood, Eric F.

1993-01-01

321

Influence of (relict) rock glaciers on the discharge behavior of alpine catchments applying a rainfall-runoff model - example of the Niedere Tauern Range (Austria)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Debris accumulations and / or extensive surface weathering within a stream catchment are said to have a possible buffer action concerning flood propagation and might therefore be of interest in geological hazard assessments. Moreover, these deposits might act as (important) groundwater storage components and should therefore be of interest for water management purposes especially during periods of droughts. Although this is plausible, the actual quantification of these "phenomena" is scarce. Here we investigate a number of catchments in the Niedere Tauern Range (Austria) concerning the contribution of relict rock glaciers (and other debris accumulation) in regard to the runoff behavior. Rainfall-runoff models are applied for various (sub-) catchments with different amounts of rock glacier (or debris) coverage. In a first step, the hydrologic modeling is kept simple using a parsimonious lumped-parameter rainfall-runoff model on a daily time step. The variation in model parameter values from (sub-) catchment to (sub-) catchment should ideally correlate with the various degrees of relict rock glacier / debris coverages if their influence is significant. If so, their physical relevance could be helpful to on the one hand aid in catchment characterization and application in neighboring ungauged catchments, and on the other hand to evaluate future changes in the forcing climatic parameters (such as temperature and precipitation) and in the debris accumulations itself on the discharge behavior of alpine catchments. Preliminary results show that catchments with a difference in relict rock glacier coverage but similar other catchment characteristics show differences in the discharge behavior which becomes noticeable in the storage- or routing-related parameters of the model. Analyses of a single catchment including strongly rock glacier influenced sub-catchments indicate a significant storage capacity for the rock glacier itself compared to the average storage capacity of the whole catchment. In addition to an obvious impact of the snow accumulation in these alpine catchments other influences such as lithological differences or microclimatic variations are likely to be important and the interpretation so far is ambiguous and will be further investigated applying (semi-) distributive models.

Wagner, Thomas; Winkler, Gerfried

2014-05-01

322

K Basin Hazard Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The K East (KE)/K West (KW) Basins in the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site have been used for storage of irradiated N Reactor and single-pass reactor fuel. Remaining spent fuel is continuing to be stored underwater in racks and canisters in the basins while fuel retrieval activities proceed to remove the fuel from the basins. The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project is adding equipment to the facility in preparation for removing the fuel and sludge from the basins In preparing this hazard analysis, a variety of hazard analysis techniques were used by the K Basins hazard analysis team, including hazard and operability studies, preliminary hazard analyses, and ''what if'' analyses (WHC-SD-SNF-PHA-001, HNF-2032, HNF-2456, and HNF-SD-SNF-SAD-002). This document summarizes the hazard analyses performed as part of the safety evaluations for the various modification projects and combines them with the original hazard analyses to create a living hazard analysis document. As additional operational activities and modifications are developed, this document will be updated as needed to ensure it covers all the hazards at the K Basins in a summary form and to ensure the subsequent safety analysis is bounding. This hazard analysis also identifies the preliminary set of design features and controls that the facility could rely on to prevent or reduce the frequency or mitigate consequences of identified accident conditions based on their importance and significance to safety. The operational controls and institutional programs relied on for prevention or mitigation of an uncontrolled release are identified as potential technical safety requirements. All operational activities and energy sources at the K Basins are evaluated in this hazard analysis. Using a systematic approach, this document identifies hazards created by abnormal operating conditions and external events (e.g., earthquakes) that have the potential for causing undesirable consequences to the facility worker, the onsite individual, or the public. This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and complies with the requirements of 10 CFR 830.

SEMMENS, L.S.

2001-04-20

323

Water balance of Lake Tana and its sensitivity to fluctuations in rainfall, Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The annual water budget of Lake Tana is determined from estimates of runoff, rainfall on the lake, measured outflow and empirically determined evaporation. Simulation of lake level variation (1960-1992) has been conducted through modeling at a monthly time step. Despite the ±20% rainfall variations in the Blue Nile basin in the last 50 years, the lake level remained regular. A preliminary analysis of the sensitivity of level and outflow of the lake suggests that they are controlled more by variation in rainfall than by basin-scale forcing induced by human activities. The analysis shows that a drastic (40-45%) and sustained (7-8 years) rainfall reduction is required to change the lake from out flowing to terminal (cessation of outflow). However, the outflow from the lake shows significant variation responding to the rainfall variations. Unlike the terminal lakes in the Ethiopian rift valley or the other large lakes of Tropical Africa, at its present hydrologic condition, the Lake Tana level is less sensitive to rainfall variation and changes in catchment characteristics.

Kebede, S.; Travi, Y.; Alemayehu, T.; Marc, V.

2006-01-01

324

Simulation of terrain and forest shelter effects on patterns of snow deposition, snowmelt and runoff over a semi-arid mountain catchment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mountainous regions, topographic structure and vegetation control patterns of snow deposition, climate conditions, and snowmelt. A topographically distributed snow accumulation and melt model (ISNOBAL) was coupled to a wind field and snow redistribution model to simulate the development and ablation of the seasonal snow cover over a small mountainous catchment, the Reynolds Mountain East basin (0·38 km2) in southwestern

Danny Marks; Adam Winstral; Mark Seyfried

2002-01-01

325

Hydrological extreme events with Mike Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is part of a broader project which aims to develop an integrated system to model and simulate of the hydrological cycle processes at river basin scale. All these processes involved in the dynamics of a watershed, which play an important role in the proper management and sustainable use of water resources, are influenced by many factors (e.g. soil use, vegetation cover, weather and climate) being of particular importance, all aspects related to the occurrence, amount and the spatial-temporal distribution of precipitation. We focus our work on the use of the MIKE Basin model and apply it to the Corgo River basin, which is a tributary of the Douro river, located in the Portuguese region of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro. Different datasets were used to characterize and model the river basin catchment hydrological processes, namely temperature, precipitation and runoff registered in several weather/hydrometric stations from the Institute of Information System for Water Resources (http://snirh.pt/) as well as land use/soil occupation and topography maps. The MIKE BASIN model runs on a Geographic Information System (GIS) to perform hydrologic modeling at basin-scale. This software allows a set of multisectoral water demands (domestic and industrial water supply, irrigation, hydropower generation, among others) and provides simulation and visualization in both space and time. We start by using the topography, soil type, soil use and vegetation cover of the region. Then the model is calibrated and tested, comparing model runoff estimates with observed data. Finally, the model is used to simulate the river basin catchment behavior to the typical conditions of the hydrological extreme events namely, heavy precipitation and drought. We present the geologic, hydrologic and climatologic characterization of the Corgo river catchment, list the most important factors that control the water availability in the river basin, describe the MIKE BASIN model calibration process, and discuss the role of each factor through sensibility tests and the estimated impacts of extreme events on the river basin management.

Pereira, M. G.; Carvalho, S.; Fernandes, L.; Caramelo, L.; Alencoão, A.

2012-04-01

326

Erosivity, surface runoff, and soil erosion estimation using GIS-coupled runoff-erosion model in the Mamuaba catchment, Brazil.  

PubMed

This study evaluates erosivity, surface runoff generation, and soil erosion rates for Mamuaba catchment, sub-catchment of Gramame River basin (Brazil) by using the ArcView Soil and Water Assessment Tool (AvSWAT) model. Calibration and validation of the model was performed on monthly basis, and it could simulate surface runoff and soil erosion to a good level of accuracy. Daily rainfall data between 1969 and 1989 from six rain gauges were used, and the monthly rainfall erosivity of each station was computed for all the studied years. In order to evaluate the calibration and validation of the model, monthly runoff data between January 1978 and April 1982 from one runoff gauge were used as well. The estimated soil loss rates were also realistic when compared to what can be observed in the field and to results from previous studies around of catchment. The long-term average soil loss was estimated at 9.4 t ha(-1) year(-1); most of the area of the catchment (60%) was predicted to suffer from a low- to moderate-erosion risk (<6 t ha(-1) year(-1)) and, in 20% of the catchment, the soil erosion was estimated to exceed > 12 t ha(-1) year(-1). Expectedly, estimated soil loss was significantly correlated with measured rainfall and simulated surface runoff. Based on the estimated soil loss rates, the catchment was divided into four priority categories (low, moderate, high and very high) for conservation intervention. The study demonstrates that the AvSWAT model provides a useful tool for soil erosion assessment from catchments and facilitates the planning for a sustainable land management in northeastern Brazil. PMID:23652539

Marques da Silva, Richarde; Guimarães Santos, Celso Augusto; Carneiro de Lima Silva, Valeriano; Pereira e Silva, Leonardo

2013-11-01

327

Modelling long-term diffuse nitrate pollution at the catchment-scale: Data, parameter and epistemic uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryA model of catchment-scale nitrate transport is presented for a small, rural headwater basin (Alton Pancras: <10 km 2) in Dorset, UK, for the period 1930-2007. Estimates of annual nitrogen (N) loading were based on parish land-use data, held in the UK's National Archives, and previously reported figures of typical UK N loadings from livestock, fertiliser, ploughing of permanent pasture, atmospheric deposition, biological fixation and crop uptake. Loading calculations were performed within an uncertainty framework to allow for the reliance on literature data sources. Loading calculations show that all significant sources must be included not just fertiliser application which, at most, contributes 50% of N input in any given year. A simple algorithm was used to transform estimated catchment N loading (1930-2007) into a river nitrate response (observed data: 1980-2004). This assumed N-loads were delayed by some catchment mean travel time (MTT), t a, attenuated according to a Peclet number, P e, converted into solute concentrations by a factor, ?, to increase some initial baseline river concentration, C b. Simple graphical translation of estimated catchment N loading to the river concentration data suggested a MTT of around 37 years. As P e ? ?, the transport model simplified to a linear relationship between catchment N load and river nitrate concentration response lagged by the MTT. Hence, the model results suggest that, in this catchment, advection is the dominant mechanism for transport of diffuse pollution from land to river: there is little or no dispersion present. The MTT ( t a) was then reconsidered using an estimated distribution of unsaturated zone depths in the Alton Pancras catchment. Conclusions suggest that, in modelling of long-term nutrient transport, a detailed source term is of much greater importance than a complex hydrogeological model. Implications of epistemic uncertainty, long-term prediction and management of diffuse agricultural pollution are discussed.

Howden, N. J. K.; Burt, T. P.; Mathias, S. A.; Worrall, F.; Whelan, M. J.

2011-06-01

328

Controls on old and new water contributions to stream flow at some nested catchments in Vermont, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Factors controlling the partitioning of old and new water contributions to stream flow were investigated for three events in four catchments (three of which were nested) at Sleepers River Research Watershed in Danville, Vermont. In the 1993 snowmelt period, two-component isotopic hydrograph separations showed that new water (meltwater) inputs to the stream ranged widely from 41 to 74%, and increased with catchment size (41 to 11 125 ha) (with one exception) and with open land cover (0-73%). Peak dissolved organic carbon concentrations and relative alkalinity dilution in stream water ranked in the same order among catchments as the new water fractions, suggesting that new water followed shallow flow paths. During the 1994 snowmelt, despite similar timing and magnitude of melt inputs, the new-water contribution to stream flow ranged only from 30 to 36% in the four catchments. We conclude that the uncommonly high and variable new water fractions in streamwater during the 1993 melt were caused by direct runoff of meltwater over frozen ground, which was prevalent in open land areas during the 1993 winter. In a high-intensity summer rainstorm in 1993, new water fractions were smaller relative to the 1993 snowmelt, ranging from 28 to 46%, but they ranked in the identical catchment order. Reconciliation of the contrasting patterns of new-old water partitioning in the three events appears to require an explanation that invokes multiple processes and effects, including: 1.topographically controlled increase in surface-saturated area with increasing catchment size;2.direct runoff over frozen ground;3.low infiltration in agriculturally compacted soils;4.differences in soil transmissivity, which may be more relevant under dry antecedent conditions. These data highlight some of the difficulties faced by catchment hydrologists in formulating a theory of runoff generation at varying basin scales.

Shanley, James B.; Kendall, Carol; Smith, Thor E.; Wolock, David M.; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

2002-02-01

329

High Park burn in South Fork Cache la Poudre Basin: Preliminary findings from spring and summer 2013 hydrologic and sedimentation monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The High Park fire burned over 35,000 ha within the Cache la Poudre basin in early summer 2012, including an eastern portion of the Little South Fork Cache la Poudre (SFCLP) watershed. Given the proximity of the burn and the implications for water quality supplied to Fort Collins and Greeley, CO, there is an expressed interest on the part of the cities for improved understanding of sediment loads in SFCLP and main stem Cache la Poudre River over the next few years. Prior to burning, data on sediment transport (suspended sediment and bedload) were collected by researchers from the US Forest Service, providing baseline information on sedimentation comparable to similar measurements taken after the High Park fire. In 2013, bedload was measured during snowmelt runoff using standard pressure-difference samplers identical to those used previously in 1989 and 1997. Turbidity sensors were deployed as a surrogate measure of suspended sediment concentration. This signal was calibrated using both grab samples (from a DH-48) and samples obtained from an automated water sampler triggered to collect during substantial increases in turbidity. Additional sampling stations were later established downstream of this site in conjunction with assessments of channel extension and sedimentation from severely burned hillslopes and gulches, one of which was mulched for erosion control in spring 2013. The primary source of post-fire sediment to the most upstream site is from Monument Gulch, located about 1 km upstream of the sampling location. Debris flows emanated from this gulch within a few weeks post-fire and delivered charcoal, ash, burned trees and inorganic sediment to the main stem SFCLP. Although snowmelt runoff was less than bankfull in 2013, there was a substantial amount of burned organic matter transported and collected in the bedload and suspended sediment samplers. Low intensity storms during summer caused a few sediment rich flows, though not to the extent of those in 2012. In this presentation, we present initial findings on differences in sediment loads attributed to the fire.

Ryan, S. E.; Dixon, M.; Rathburn, S. L.; Shahverdian, S.

2013-12-01

330

Paleomagnetic and Rock Magnetic Investigation of Felsic Hydrothermal Vent System in Back-Arc Setting: Preliminary Results from ODP Leg 193 to Eastern Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PACMANUS hydrothermal vent field in the Eastern Manus back-arc basin, Papua New Guinea, has been considered as a modern-day analog of massive volcanogenic sulfide deposits within felsic volcanic sequence. This vent field was drilled during ODP Leg 193 in November-December, 2000. The recovery was generally low due to fragili