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Sample records for catenulata sobre zea

  1. A perilipin gene from Clonostachys rosea f. Catenulata HL-1-1 is related to sclerotial parasitism.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhan-Bin; Li, Shi-Dong; Zhong, Zeng-Ming; Sun, Man-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Clonostachys rosea f. catenulata is a promising biocontrol agent against many fungal plant pathogens. To identify mycoparasitism-related genes from C. rosea f. catenulata, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library of C. rosea f. catenulata HL-1-1 that parasitizes the sclerotia of S. sclerotiorum was constructed. 502 clones were sequenced randomly, and thereby 472 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified. Forty-three unigenes were annotated and exhibited similarity to a wide diversity of genes. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that a perilipin-like protein encoding gene, Per3, was up-regulated by 6.6-fold over the control at 96 h under the induction of sclerotia. The full-length sequence of Per3 was obtained via 5' and 3' rapid identification of cDNA ends. Overexpression of Per3 in HL-1-1 significantly enhanced the parasitic ability on sclerotia. The results indicated that Per3 might be involved in the mycoparasitism of C. rosea f. catenulata HL-1-1. This is the first report of a perilipin as a potential biocontrol gene in mycoparasites. The study provides usefu l insights into the interaction between C. rosea f. catenulata and fungal plant pathogens. PMID:25761240

  2. A Perilipin Gene from Clonostachys rosea f. Catenulata HL-1-1 Is Related to Sclerotial Parasitism

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhan-Bin; Li, Shi-Dong; Zhong, Zeng-Ming; Sun, Man-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Clonostachys rosea f. catenulata is a promising biocontrol agent against many fungal plant pathogens. To identify mycoparasitism-related genes from C. rosea f. catenulata, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library of C. rosea f. catenulata HL-1-1 that parasitizes the sclerotia of S. sclerotiorum was constructed. 502 clones were sequenced randomly, and thereby 472 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified. Forty-three unigenes were annotated and exhibited similarity to a wide diversity of genes. Quantitative real -time PCR showed that a perilipin-like protein encoding gene, Per3, was up-regulated by 6.6-fold over the control at 96 h under the induction of sclerotia. The full-length sequence of Per3 was obtained via 5' and 3' rapid identification of cDNA ends. Overexpression of Per3 in HL-1-1 significantly enhanced the parasitic ability on sclerotia. The results indicated that Per3 might be involved in the mycoparasitism of C. rosea f. catenulata HL-1-1. This is the first report of a perilipin as a potential biocontrol gene in mycoparasites. The study provides usefu l insights into the interaction between C. rosea f. catenulata and fungal plant pathogens. PMID:25761240

  3. Safety of Pochonia chlamydosporia var catenulata in acute oral and dermal toxicity/pathogenicity evaluations in rats and rabbits.

    PubMed

    García, Liseth; Bulnes, Carlos; Melchor, Gleiby; Vega, Ernesto; Ileana, Miranda; de Oca, Nivian Montes; Hidalgo, Leopoldo; Marrero, Eva

    2004-10-01

    The nematophagous fungus, Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata (Kamyschlco ex Barron & Onions) Zare & W-Gams, was investigated as a potential biocontrol agent in integrated pest management strategy for Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood in vegetable crops in Cuba. An acute oral and dermal toxicity/patogenicity study was performed to determine the safety of this fungus in non-target organisms. In the first study, a 1-dose level of 5 x 10(8) units of the microbial pest control agent/treated rat was used. Mortality or clinical signs were not evident and no adverse effects on body weight, hematology, microbiology and gross or microscopic pathology were observed. Food and water consumption was not significantly different between control and treated groups. In the acute dermal toxicity study, there was neither mortality nor clinical signs of toxicity, and no toxic effects in gross and microscopic pathology were detected. Thus, Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulate (Vcc-108, IMI SD 187), administered oral and dermally to rats and rabbits respectively, was safe in toxicity/pathogenicity studies. PMID:15487645

  4. Description of Diutina gen. nov., Diutina siamensis, f.a. sp. nov., and reassignment of Candida catenulata, Candida mesorugosa, Candida neorugosa, Candida pseudorugosa, Candida ranongensis, Candida rugosa and Candida scorzettiae to the genus Diutina.

    PubMed

    Khunnamwong, Pannida; Lertwattanasakul, Noppon; Jindamorakot, Sasitorn; Limtong, Savitree; Lachance, Marc-André

    2015-12-01

    Three strains (DMKU-RE28, DMKU-RE43T and DMKU-RE123) of a novel anamorphic yeast species were isolated from rice leaf tissue collected in Thailand. DNA sequence analysis demonstrated that the species forms a sister pair with Candida ranongensis CBS 10861T but differs by 24-30 substitutions in the LSU rRNA gene D1/D2 domains and 30-35 substitutions in the ITS region. A phylogenetic analysis based on both the small and the large rRNA gene subunits confirmed this connection and demonstrated the presence of a clade that also includes Candida catenulata, Candida mesorugosa, Candida neorugosa, Candida pseudorugosa, Candida rugosa and Candida scorzettiae. The clade is not closely affiliated to any known teleomorphic genus, and forms a well-separated lineage from currently recognized genera of the Saccharomycetales. Hence, the genus Diutina gen. nov. is proposed to accommodate members of the clade, including Diutina siamensis f.a. sp. nov. and the preceding seven Candida species. The type strain is DMKU-RE43T ( = CBS 13388T = BCC 61183T = NBRC 109695T). PMID:26410375

  5. "Zea"-Because It's There

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, Eric

    1983-03-01

    The Subject is a long standing symbiotic relationship between Zea and the movies. As usual the impossible was required - to attain cinema release quality films with dramatic interpretation - at the same time using Hy-speed macro photographic techniques. The subject was not to be recognizable until the end of the film - some four minutes long. Zea is explosive, it reacts to heat and is extremely difficult to predict when it will explode, which left little time for the focus, stop down and shooting. Using a Hy-cam at 5,000 pictures per second - a 400 ft. roll of 7247 raw stock, left but a brief three seconds for synchronization. To add to the confusion, two co-directors, a cameraman, plus equipment, were jammed into a 2 x 2m space. To achieve reasonable resolution for theatrical showing, 400,000 foot/candles of light were needed. This was achieved. The film was edited and music from Vaughan Williams' "Fantasia" recorded at St. Martins-in-the-Fields, London was added. The result was sent to the Cannes Film Festival, where it was given the Jury Award.

  6. Maize, tropical (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Assem, Shireen K

    2015-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is the third most important food crop globally after wheat and rice. In sub-Saharan Africa, tropical maize has traditionally been the main staple of the diet; 95 % of the maize grown is consumed directly as human food and as an important source of income for the resource-poor rural population. The biotechnological approach to engineer biotic and abiotic traits implies the availability of an efficient plant transformation method. The production of genetically transformed plants depends both on the ability to integrate foreign genes into target cells and the efficiency with which plants are regenerated. Maize transformation and regeneration through immature embryo culture is the most efficient system to regenerate normal transgenic plants. However, this system is highly genotype dependent. Genotypes adapted to tropic areas are difficult to regenerate. Therefore, transformation methods used with model genotypes adapted to temperate areas are not necessarily efficient with tropical lines. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the method of choice since it has been first achieved in 1996. In this report, we describe a transformation method used successfully with several tropical maize lines. All the steps of transformation and regeneration are described in details. This protocol can be used with a wide variety of tropical lines. However, some modifications may be needed with recalcitrant lines. PMID:25300835

  7. RAPD and Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequence Analyses Reveal Zea nicaraguensis as a Section Luxuriantes Species Close to Zea luxurians

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei; Lu, Yanli; Zheng, Mingmin; Rong, Tingzhao; Tang, Qilin

    2011-01-01

    Genetic relationship of a newly discovered teosinte from Nicaragua, Zea nicaraguensis with waterlogging tolerance, was determined based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA using 14 accessions from Zea species. RAPD analysis showed that a total of 5,303 fragments were produced by 136 random decamer primers, of which 84.86% bands were polymorphic. RAPD-based UPGMA analysis demonstrated that the genus Zea can be divided into section Luxuriantes including Zea diploperennis, Zea luxurians, Zea perennis and Zea nicaraguensis, and section Zea including Zea mays ssp. mexicana, Zea mays ssp. parviglumis, Zea mays ssp. huehuetenangensis and Zea mays ssp. mays. ITS sequence analysis showed the lengths of the entire ITS region of the 14 taxa in Zea varied from 597 to 605 bp. The average GC content was 67.8%. In addition to the insertion/deletions, 78 variable sites were recorded in the total ITS region with 47 in ITS1, 5 in 5.8S, and 26 in ITS2. Sequences of these taxa were analyzed with neighbor-joining (NJ) and maximum parsimony (MP) methods to construct the phylogenetic trees, selecting Tripsacum dactyloides L. as the outgroup. The phylogenetic relationships of Zea species inferred from the ITS sequences are highly concordant with the RAPD evidence that resolved two major subgenus clades. Both RAPD and ITS sequence analyses indicate that Zea nicaraguensis is more closely related to Zea luxurians than the other teosintes and cultivated maize, which should be regarded as a section Luxuriantes species. PMID:21525982

  8. Urinary deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) as biomarkers of DON and ZEA exposure of pigs.

    PubMed

    Thanner, S; Czeglédi, L; Schwartz-Zimmermann, H E; Berthiller, F; Gutzwiller, A

    2016-05-01

    Four diets contaminated with 1.1 to 5.0 mg/kg deoxynivalenol (DON) and 0.4 to 2.4 mg/kg zearalenone (ZEA) were fed to four groups of six growing Large White pigs. Urine samples were collected after 3 to 4 days and again after 6 to 7 days on the diets. On each sampling day, half of the animals were sampled in the morning, after an 8-h fast, and the other half were sampled in the afternoon, after 7 h of ad libitum access to feed. The urinary concentrations of DON, DON-glucuronide, DON-3-sulphate, de-epoxy-DON, as well as of ZEA, ZEA-14-glucuronide, α-zearalenol and α-zearalenol-14-glucuronide, analysed using LC-MS/MS, were used to calculate urinary DON and ZEA equivalent concentrations (DONe and ZEAe). The urinary concentration of DONe (P < 0.001), but not of ZEAe (P = 0.31), was lower in the fasted than that in the fed animals. The urinary DONe/creatinine and ZEAe/creatinine ratios were highly correlated with DON and ZEA intake per kg body weight the day preceding sampling (r = 0.76 and 0.77; P < 0.001). The correlations between DON intake during the 7 h preceding urine sampling in the afternoon and urinary DONe/creatinine ratio (r = 0.88) as well as between mean ZEA intake during 3 days preceding urine sampling and urinary ZEAe/creatinine ratio (r = 0.84) were even higher, reflecting the plasma elimination half-time of several hours for DON and of more than 3 days for ZEA. ZEAe analysed in enzymatically hydrolysed urine using an ELISA kit was highly correlated with the LC-MS/MS data (r = 0.94). The urinary DONe and ZEAe to creatinine ratios, analysed in pooled urine samples of several pigs fed the same diet, can be used to estimate their exposure to DON and ZEA. PMID:26888520

  9. Hophornbeam copperleaf, an example wild host for Helicoverpa zea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Populations of Helicovepa zea (Boddie)and Heliothis virescens (Fabricies)were commonly found on hophornbeam copperleaf, Acalpha ostryaefolia, in Arkansas and Mississippi. From 2002-2009, more than 25 colonies of H. zea were established from collections made on the wild host plant. One colony of H...

  10. Glucolipids of Zea mays and Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Morohashi, Y; Bandurski, R S

    1976-06-01

    The glucolipids formed upon feeding (U-(14)C)glucose to embryos of Zea mays were partially characterized with respect to: (a) metabolic turnover, (b) acid lability, (c) phosphorus content, (d) chromatographic properties, and (e) hydrolysis products. The chloroform-methanol-soluble assimilated radioactivity was examined specifically for occurrence of a glycosylated prenol phosphate. With the extraction conditions used, no evidence was found for formation of a glucosylated prenol phosphate. Several, as yet unidentified, acid-labile glucolipids undergoing metabolic turnover were observed. Four diglycerides were characterized as hydrolysis products of a fraction that contained (14)C-glucose and phosphorus, and was subject to metabolic turnover. Examination of the 1-butanol-soluble glucolipids from pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings also demonstrated anionic glucolipids, evidencing metabolic turnover but none with the properties of glucosylated prenol phosphate. PMID:16659583

  11. Gut transcription in Helicoverpa zea is dynamically altered in response to baculovirus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Helicoverpa zea transcriptome was analyzed 24 hours after H. zea larvae fed on artificial diet laced with Helicoverpa zea single nucleopolyhedrovirus (HzSNPV). Significant differential regulation of 1,139 putative genes (P<0.05 T-test with Benjamini and Hochberg False Discovery Rate) was detect...

  12. Natural history and intragenomic dynamics of the Transib transposon Hztransib in the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa zea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hztransib recently identified from Helicoverpa zea represents the first intact and transcriptionally active Transib element. Its open reading frame was detected in H. armigera, from which H. zea evolved, and H. assulta, the common ancestor of H. zea and H. armigera. But its remaining parts were foun...

  13. Proteome Profile of the Developing Maize (Zea mays L.) Rachis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection of the developing maize (Zea mays L.) ear with the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus flavus, which produces the carcinogen aflatoxin, is a serious agricultural problem causing significant economic losses worldwide. The rachis (or cob) is an important structure that fungus uses to spread within...

  14. Helicoverpa zea and Bt Cotton in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), the bollworm or corn earworm, is the most important lepidopteran pest of Bt cotton in the United States. Corn is the preferred host, but the insect feeds on most flowering crops and wild host plants. As a cotton pest, bollworm has been closely linked to the insecticide-res...

  15. Historical divergence and gene flow in the genus Zea.

    PubMed

    Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey; Tenaillon, Maud; Gaut, Brandon S

    2009-04-01

    Gene flow plays a fundamental role in plant evolutionary history, yet its role in population divergence--and ultimately speciation--remains poorly understood. We investigated gene flow and the modalities of divergence in the domesticated Zea mays ssp. mays and three wild Zea taxa using sequence polymorphism data from 26 nuclear loci. We described diversity across loci and assessed evidence for adaptive and purifying selection at nonsynonymous sites. For each of three divergence events in the history of these taxa, we used approximate Bayesian simulation to estimate population sizes and divergence times and explicitly compare among alternative models of divergence. Our estimates of divergence times are surprisingly consistent with previous data from other markers and suggest rapid diversification of lineages within Zea in the last approximately 150,000 years. We found widespread evidence of historical gene flow, including evidence for divergence in the face of gene flow. We speculate that cultivated maize may serve as a bridge for gene flow among otherwise allopatric wild taxa. PMID:19153259

  16. Historical Divergence and Gene Flow in the Genus Zea

    PubMed Central

    Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey; Tenaillon, Maud; Gaut, Brandon S.

    2009-01-01

    Gene flow plays a fundamental role in plant evolutionary history, yet its role in population divergence—and ultimately speciation—remains poorly understood. We investigated gene flow and the modalities of divergence in the domesticate Zea mays ssp. mays and three wild Zea taxa using sequence polymorphism data from 26 nuclear loci. We described diversity across loci and assessed evidence for adaptive and purifying selection at nonsynonymous sites. For each of three divergence events in the history of these taxa, we used approximate Bayesian simulation to estimate population sizes and divergence times and explicitly compare among alternative models of divergence. Our estimates of divergence times are surprisingly consistent with previous data from other markers and suggest rapid diversification of lineages within Zea in the last ∼150,000 years. We found widespread evidence of historical gene flow, including evidence for divergence in the face of gene flow. We speculate that cultivated maize may serve as a bridge for gene flow among otherwise allopatric wild taxa. PMID:19153259

  17. Induction of glutathione S-Transferase in Helicoverpa zea fed cashew flour.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    H. zea and other insects have evolved strategies to counteract the plant protective proteins and defensive compounds they may encounter during feeding. We sought to take advantage of this phenomenon by identifying proteins upregulated in H. zea in response to the inclusion of cashew nut flour in th...

  18. Long distance migration in Helicoverpa zea: What we know and need to know

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper identifies knowledge and knowledge gaps in the areas of biology and ecology, and migratory flight of corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie). The paper focuses on results from studies of H. zea population dynamics and migration in Texas during a period of substantial irrigated corn produc...

  19. Bacillus thuringiensis-toxin resistance management: Stable isotope assessment of alternate host use by Helicoverpa zea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data have been lacking on the proportion of H. zea larvae that develop on non-cotton host plants that can serve as a refuge from selection pressure for adaptation to Bt-cotton. We found that individual H. zea moths that develop as larvae on cotton and other plants with C3 physiology have a differen...

  20. Aldose reductase inhibitory activity of compounds from Zea mays L.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyeon; Kim, Jin Kyu; Kang, Young-Hee; Lee, Jae-Yong; Kang, Il Jun; Lim, Soon Sung

    2013-01-01

    Aldose reductase (AR) inhibitors have a considerable therapeutic potential against diabetes complications and do not increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Through bioassay-guided fractionation of an EtOH extract of the kernel from purple corn (Zea mays L.), 7 nonanthocyanin phenolic compounds (compound 1-7) and 5 anthocyanins (compound 8-12) were isolated. These compounds were investigated by rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR) inhibitory assays. Kinetic analyses of recombinant human aldose reductase (rhAR) were performed, and intracellular galactitol levels were measured. Hirsutrin, one of 12 isolated compounds, showed the most potent RLAR inhibitory activity (IC(50), 4.78 μ M). In the kinetic analyses using Lineweaver-Burk plots of 1/velocity and 1/substrate concentration, hirsutrin showed competitive inhibition against rhAR. Furthermore, hirsutrin inhibited galactitol formation in rat lens and erythrocytes sample incubated with a high concentration of galactose; this finding indicates that hirsutrin may effectively prevent osmotic stress in hyperglycemia. Therefore, hirsutrin derived from Zea mays L. may be a potential therapeutic agent against diabetes complications. PMID:23586057

  1. Biosorption of lead by maize (Zea mays) stalk sponge.

    PubMed

    García-Rosales, G; Colín-Cruz, A

    2010-11-01

    This study investigated the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solutions by a maize (Zea mays) stalk sponge. Equilibrium and kinetic models for Pb(II) sorption were developed by considering the effect of the contact time and concentration at the optimum pH of 6 +/- 0.2. The Freundlich model was found to describe the sorption energetics of Pb(II) by Z. mays stalk sponge, and a maximum Pb(II) loading capacity of 80 mg g(-1) was determined. The kinetic parameters were obtained by fitting data from experiments measuring the effect of contact time on adsorption capacity into pseudo-first and second-order equations. The kinetics of Pb(II) sorption onto Z. mays biosorbent were well defined using linearity coefficients (R(2)) by the pseudo-second-order equation (0.9998). The results obtained showed that Zea may stalk sponge was a useful biomaterial for Pb(II) sorption and that pH has an important effect on metal biosorption capacity. PMID:20615602

  2. Genomic affinities revealed by GISH suggests intergenomic restructuring between parental genomes of the paleopolyploid genus Zea.

    PubMed

    González, Graciela Esther; Poggio, Lidia

    2015-10-01

    The present work compares the molecular affinities, revealed by GISH, with the analysis of meiotic pairing in intra- and interspecific hybrids between species of Zea obtained in previous works. The joint analysis of these data provided evidence about the evolutionary relationships among the species from the paleopolyploid genus Zea (maize and teosintes). GISH and meiotic pairing of intraspecific hybrids revealed high genomic affinity between maize (Zea mays subsp. mays) and both Zea mays subsp. parviglumis and Zea mays subsp. mexicana. On the other hand, when Zea mays subsp. huehuetenanguensis DNA was probed on maize chromosomes, a lower affinity was detected, and the pattern of hybridization suggested intergenomical restructuring between the parental genomes of maize. When DNA from Zea luxurians was used as probe, homogeneous hybridization signals were observed through all maize chromosomes. Lower genomic affinity was observed when DNA from Zea diploperennis was probed on maize chromosomes, especially at knob regions. Maize chromosomes hybridized with Zea perennis DNA showed hybridization signals on four chromosome pairs: two chromosome pairs presented hybridization signal in only one chromosomal arm, whereas four chromosome pairs did not show any hybridization. These results are in agreement with previous GISH studies, which have identified the genomic source of the chromosomes involved in the meiotic configurations of Z. perennis × maize hybrids. These findings allow postulating that maize has a parental genome not shared with Z. perennis, and the existence of intergenomic restructuring between the parental genomes of maize. Moreover, the absence of hybridization signals in all maize knobs indicate that these heterochromatic regions were lost during the Z. perennis genome evolution. PMID:26506040

  3. Mutational effects of space flight on Zea mays seeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, M.; Qiu, Y.; He, Y.; Bucker, H.; Yang, C. H.

    1994-01-01

    The growth and development of more than 500 Zea mays seeds flown on Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) were studied. Somatic mutations, including white-yellow stripes on leaves, dwarfing, change of leaf sheath color or seedling color were observed in plants developed from these seeds. When the frequency of white-yellow formation was used as the endpoint and compared with data from ground based studies, the dose to which maize seeds might be exposed during the flight was estimated to be equivalent to 635 cGy of gamma rays. Seeds from one particular holder gave a high mutation frequency and a wide mutation spectrum. White-yellow stripes on leaves were also found in some of the inbred progenies from plants displayed somatic mutation. Electron microscopy studies showed that the damage of chloroplast development in the white-yellow stripe on leaves was similar between seeds flown on LDEF and that irradiated by accelerated heavy ions on ground.

  4. Abscisic acid biosynthesis in isolated embryos of Zea mays L

    SciTech Connect

    Gage, D.A.; Fong, F.; Zeevaart, J.A.D. Texas A M Univ., College Station )

    1989-04-01

    Previous labeling experiments with {sup 18}O{sub 2} have supported the hypothesis that stress-induced abscisic acid (ABA) is synthesized through an indirect pathway involving an oxygenated carotenoid (xanthophyll) as a precursor. To investigate ABA formation under nonstress conditions, an {sup 18}O{sub 2} labeling experiment was conducted with isolated embryos from in vitro grown maize (Zea mays L.) kernels. Of the ABA produced during the incubation in {sup 18}O{sub 2}, three-fourths contained a single {sup 18}O atom located in the carboxyl group. Approximately one-fourth of the ABA synthesized during the experiment contained two {sup 18}O atoms. These results suggest that ABA synthesized in maize embryos under nonstress conditions also proceeds via the indirect pathway, requiring a xanthophyll precursor. It was also found that the newly synthesized ABA was preferentially released into the surrounding medium.

  5. Bacterial but not Baculoviral Infections Stimulate Hemolin Expression in Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lepidopteran larvae are regularly infected by baculoviruses during feeding on infected plants. The differences in sensitivity to these infections can be substantial, even among closely related species. For example, the noctuids Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa zea) and budworm (Heliothis virescens), whi...

  6. Acclimation improves salt stress tolerance in Zea mays plants.

    PubMed

    Pandolfi, Camilla; Azzarello, Elisa; Mancuso, Stefano; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-08-20

    Plants exposure to low level salinity activates an array of processes leading to an improvement of plant stress tolerance. Although the beneficial effect of acclimation was demonstrated in many herbaceous species, underlying mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. In the present study we have addressed this issue by investigating ionic mechanisms underlying the process of plant acclimation to salinity stress in Zea mays. Effect of acclimation were examined in two parallel sets of experiments: a growth experiment for agronomic assessments, sap analysis, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content, and confocal laser scanning imaging; and a lab experiment for in vivo ion flux measurements from root tissues. Being exposed to salinity, acclimated plants (1) retain more K(+) but accumulate less Na(+) in roots; (2) have better vacuolar Na(+) sequestration ability in leaves and thus are capable of accumulating larger amounts of Na(+) in the shoot without having any detrimental effect on leaf photochemistry; and (3) rely more on Na(+) for osmotic adjustment in the shoot. At the same time, acclimation affect was not related in increased root Na(+) exclusion ability. It appears that even in a such salt-sensitive species as maize, Na(+) exclusion from uptake is of a much less importance compared with the efficient vacuolar Na(+) sequestration in the shoot. PMID:27372277

  7. Nascent transcription affected by RNA polymerase IV in Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Erhard, Karl F; Talbot, Joy-El R B; Deans, Natalie C; McClish, Allison E; Hollick, Jay B

    2015-04-01

    All eukaryotes use three DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RNAPs) to create cellular RNAs from DNA templates. Plants have additional RNAPs related to Pol II, but their evolutionary role(s) remain largely unknown. Zea mays (maize) RNA polymerase D1 (RPD1), the largest subunit of RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV), is required for normal plant development, paramutation, transcriptional repression of certain transposable elements (TEs), and transcriptional regulation of specific alleles. Here, we define the nascent transcriptomes of rpd1 mutant and wild-type (WT) seedlings using global run-on sequencing (GRO-seq) to identify the broader targets of RPD1-based regulation. Comparisons of WT and rpd1 mutant GRO-seq profiles indicate that Pol IV globally affects transcription at both transcriptional start sites and immediately downstream of polyadenylation addition sites. We found no evidence of divergent transcription from gene promoters as seen in mammalian GRO-seq profiles. Statistical comparisons identify genes and TEs whose transcription is affected by RPD1. Most examples of significant increases in genic antisense transcription appear to be initiated by 3'-proximal long terminal repeat retrotransposons. These results indicate that maize Pol IV specifies Pol II-based transcriptional regulation for specific regions of the maize genome including genes having developmental significance. PMID:25653306

  8. Nascent Transcription Affected by RNA Polymerase IV in Zea mays

    PubMed Central

    Erhard, Karl F.; Talbot, Joy-El R. B.; Deans, Natalie C.; McClish, Allison E.; Hollick, Jay B.

    2015-01-01

    All eukaryotes use three DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RNAPs) to create cellular RNAs from DNA templates. Plants have additional RNAPs related to Pol II, but their evolutionary role(s) remain largely unknown. Zea mays (maize) RNA polymerase D1 (RPD1), the largest subunit of RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV), is required for normal plant development, paramutation, transcriptional repression of certain transposable elements (TEs), and transcriptional regulation of specific alleles. Here, we define the nascent transcriptomes of rpd1 mutant and wild-type (WT) seedlings using global run-on sequencing (GRO-seq) to identify the broader targets of RPD1-based regulation. Comparisons of WT and rpd1 mutant GRO-seq profiles indicate that Pol IV globally affects transcription at both transcriptional start sites and immediately downstream of polyadenylation addition sites. We found no evidence of divergent transcription from gene promoters as seen in mammalian GRO-seq profiles. Statistical comparisons identify genes and TEs whose transcription is affected by RPD1. Most examples of significant increases in genic antisense transcription appear to be initiated by 3ʹ-proximal long terminal repeat retrotransposons. These results indicate that maize Pol IV specifies Pol II-based transcriptional regulation for specific regions of the maize genome including genes having developmental significance. PMID:25653306

  9. Acetolactate Synthase Activity in Developing Maize (Zea mays L.) Kernels

    PubMed Central

    Muhitch, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    Acetolactate synthase (EC 4.1.3.18) activity was examined in maize (Zea mays L.) endosperm and embryos as a function of kernel development. When assayed using unpurified homogenates, embryo acetolactate synthase activity appeared less sensitive to inhibition by leucine + valine and by the imidazolinone herbicide imazapyr than endosperm acetolactate synthase activity. Evidence is presented to show that pyruvate decarboxylase contributes to apparent acetolactate synthase activity in crude embryo extracts and a modification of the acetolactate synthase assay is proposed to correct for the presence of pyruvate decarboxylase in unpurified plant homogenates. Endosperm acetolactate synthase activity increased rapidly during early kernel development, reaching a maximum of 3 micromoles acetoin per hour per endosperm at 25 days after pollination. In contrast, embryo activity was low in young kernels and steadily increased throughout development to a maximum activity of 0.24 micromole per hour per embryo by 45 days after pollination. The sensitivity of both endosperm and embryo acetolactate synthase activities to feedback inhibition by leucine + valine did not change during kernel development. The results are compared to those found for other enzymes of nitrogen metabolism and discussed with respect to the potential roles of the embryo and endosperm in providing amino acids for storage protein synthesis. PMID:16665871

  10. Retroelement genome painting: cytological visualization of retroelement expansions in the genera Zea and Tripsacum.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Jonathan C; Birchler, James A

    2006-06-01

    Divergence of abundant genomic elements among the Zea and Tripsacum genera was examined cytologically and a tool kit established for subsequent studies. The LTR regions from the CRM, Huck, Grande, Prem1, Prem2/Ji, Opie, Cinful-1, and Tekay retroelement families were used as FISH probes on mitotic chromosome spreads from a "trispecies" hybrid containing chromosomes from each of three species: Zea mays (2n = 20), Z. diploperennis (2n = 20), and Tripsacum dactyloides (2n = 36). Except for Tekay, which painted both Zea and Tripsacum chromosomes with nearly equal intensity, the retroelement probes hybridized strongly to the Zea chromosomes, allowing them to be distinguished from those of Tripsacum. Huck and Grande hybridized more intensely to maize than to Z. diploperennis chromosomes. Tripsacum genomic clones containing retroelement sequences were isolated that specifically paint Tripsacum chromosomes. The retroelement paints proved effective for distinguishing different genomes in interspecific hybrids and visualizing alien chromatin from T. dactyloides introgressed into maize lines. Other FISH probes (180-bp knob, TR-1, 5S, NOR, Cent4, CentC, rp1, rp3, and alpha-ZeinA) could be simultaneously visualized with the retroelement probes, emphasizing the value of the retroelement probes for cytogenetic studies of Zea and Tripsacum. PMID:16582446

  11. Gut Transcription in Helicoverpa zea is Dynamically Altered in Response to Baculovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Noland, Jeffrey E.; Breitenbach, Jonathan E.; Popham, Holly J. R.; Hum-Musser, Sue M.; Vogel, Heiko; Musser, Richard O.

    2013-01-01

    The Helicoverpa zea transcriptome was analyzed 24 h after H. zea larvae fed on artificial diet laced with Helicoverpa zea single nucleopolyhedrovirus (HzSNPV). Significant differential regulation of 1,139 putative genes (p < 0.05 T-test with Benjamini and Hochberg False Discovery Rate) was detected in the gut epithelial tissue; where 63% of these genes were down-regulated and 37% of genes were up-regulated compared to the mock-infected control. Genes that play important roles in digestive physiology were noted as being generally down-regulated. Among these were aminopeptidases, trypsin-like serine proteases, lipases, esterases and serine proteases. Genes related to the immune response reacted in a complex nature having peptidoglycan binding and viral antigen recognition proteins and antiviral pathway systems down-regulated, whereas antimicrobial peptides and prophenoloxidase were up-regulated. In general, detoxification genes, specifically cytochrome P450 and glutathione S-transferase were down-regulated as a result of infection. This report offers the first comparative transcriptomic study of H. zea compared to HzSNPV infected H. zea and provides further groundwork that will lead to a larger understanding of transcriptional perturbations associated with viral infection and the host response to the viral insult in what is likely the most heavily infected tissue in the insect. PMID:26462433

  12. Graviresponsiveness of surgically altered primary roots of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maimon, E.; Moore, R.

    1991-01-01

    We examined the gravitropic responses of surgically altered primary roots of Zea mays to determine the route by which gravitropic inhibitors move from the root tip to the elongating zone. Horizontally oriented roots, from which a 1-mm-wide girdle of epidermis plus 2-10 layers of cortex were removed from the apex of the elongating zone, curve downward. However, curvature occurred only apical to the girdle. Filling the girdle with mucilage-like material transmits curvature beyond the girdle. Vertically oriented roots with a half-girdle' (i.e. the epidermis and 2-10 layers of the cortex removed from half of the circumference of the apex of the elongating zone) curve away from the girdle. Inserting the half-girdle at the base of the elongating zone induces curvature towards the girdle. Filling the half-circumference girdles with mucilage-like material reduced curvature significantly. Stripping the epidermis and outer 2-5 layers of cortex from the terminal 1.5 cm of one side of a primary root induces curvature towards the cut, irrespective of the root's orientation to gravity. This effect is not due to desiccation since treated roots submerged in water also curved towards their cut surface. Coating a root's cut surface with a mucilage-like substance minimizes curvature. These results suggest that the outer cell-layers of the root, especially the epidermis, play an important role in root gravicurvature, and the gravitropic signals emanating from the root tip can move apoplastically through mucilage.

  13. Sugar Efflux from Maize (Zea mays L.) Pedicel Tissue 1

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Gregory A.; Knievel, Daniel P.; Shannon, Jack C.

    1985-01-01

    Sugar release from the pedicel tissue of maize (Zea mays L.) kernels was studied by removing the distal portion of the kernel and the lower endosperm, followed by replacement of the endosperm with an agar solute trap. Sugars were unloaded into the apoplast of the pedicel and accumulated in the agar trap while the ear remained attached to the maize plant. The kinetics of 14C-assimilate movement into treated versus intact kernels were comparable. The rate of unloading declined with time, but sugar efflux from the pedicel continued for at least 6 hours and in most experiments the unloading rates approximated those necessary to support normal kernel growth rates. The unloading process was challenged with a variety of buffers, inhibitors, and solutes in order to characterize sugar unloading from this tissue. Unloading was not affected by apoplastic pH or a variety of metabolic inhibitors. Although p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid (PCMBS), a nonpenetrating sulfhydryl group reagent, did not affect sugar unloading, it effectively inhibited extracellular acid invertase. When the pedicel cups were pretreated with PCMBS, at least 60% of sugars unloaded from the pedicel could be identified as sucrose. Unloading was inhibited up to 70% by 10 millimolar CaCl2. Unloading was stimulated by 15 millimolar ethyleneglycol-bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid which partially reversed the inhibitory effects of Ca2+. Based on these results, we suggest that passive efflux of sucrose occurs from the maize pedicel symplast followed by extracellular hydrolysis to hexoses. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:16664091

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and expression profiles of mitochondrial-encoded genes in early and late embryos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mitochondrial genome of the bollworm, Helicoverpa zea, was assembled using paired-end nucleotide sequence reads generated with a next-generation sequencing platform. Assembly resulted in a mitogenome of 15,348 bp with greater than 17,000-fold average coverage. Organization of the H. zea mitogen...

  15. Biology, Ecology, and Evolving Management of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Sweet Corn in the United States.

    PubMed

    Olmstead, Daniel L; Nault, Brian A; Shelton, Anthony M

    2016-08-01

    The corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), is a polyphagous pest found throughout the United States, where it attacks many field and vegetable crops. Although H. zea has long been a traditional pest of sweet corn, its importance to this crop has increased dramatically over the past two decades. In this review, we summarize information critical for current and future management of H. zea in sweet corn production in the United States. First, we discuss the pest status of H. zea and its life history, including migration, infestation and larval development, diapause, overwintering, and abiotic factors that affect its biology. Next we describe monitoring methods, crop protection decision-making processes, chemical control options, and the use of genetic technologies for control of H. zea Alternative H. zea management options including biological control, cultural controls, host plant resistance, and pheromone disruption are also reviewed. The role of climate change and its effects on H. zea and its ecology are discussed, as well as the recent invasion of its relative, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), which is a major pest of corn in other parts of the world. To conclude, we suggest future research opportunities for H. zea and H. armigera management in sweet corn. PMID:27329622

  16. A linkage map of maize x teosinte zea luxurians and identification of qtls controlling root aerenchyma formation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One-hundred and ninety five F2 individuals, derived from a cross between maize inbred line B73 x Zea luxurians, were subjected to a 107 SSR marker based QTL analysis for aerenchyma cell formation that covered 1,331 cM across all ten maize and Zea luxurians chromosomes. Composite interval mapping a...

  17. A cellular study of teosinte Zea mays ssp. parviglumis (Poaceae) caryopsis development showing several processes conserved in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although recent molecular studies elucidate the genetic background leading to changed morphology of maize female inflorescence and the structure of the caryopsis during the domestication of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) from its wild progenitor teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis), the mechanisms under...

  18. Toxicity of selected tremorgenic mycotoxins and related compounds to Spodoptera frugiperda and Heliothis zea.

    PubMed

    Dowd, P F; Cole, R J; Vesonder, R F

    1988-12-01

    A series of tremorgenic mycotoxins and related compounds were tested for oral toxicity to the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and corn earworm (Heliothis zea) by incorporation of materials into artificial diets and examining mortality and weights after 7 days. Significant mortality to both insect species was caused with dihydroxyaflavinine and roseotoxin B, while significant mortality to H. zea was also caused by penitrem A at 25 ppm. After 7 days, weighs of larvae treated with 25 ppm penitrem A, roseotoxin B, and verruculogen were less than 50% of controls for both insect species. Weights of H. zea larvae treated with 25 ppb of penitrem A were less than 50% those of control larvae. Relative toxicities of the tremorgens and related compounds to insects compared to vertebrates are discussed. PMID:3209479

  19. Occurrence and metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid in Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewer, P.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was identified as a catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in germinating kernels of Zea mays and found to be present in amounts of ca 3.1 nmol/kernel. 7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was shown to be a biosynthetic intermediate between 2-indolinone-3-acetic acid and 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside in both kernels and roots of Zea mays. Further metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-[5-3H]-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside occurred to yield tritiated water plus, as yet, uncharacterized products.

  20. Root morphology and gene expression analysis in response to drought stress in maize (Zea mays)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water-deficit stress tolerance is a complex trait, and water deficit results in various physiological and chemical changes in maize (Zea mays L.) and exacerbates preharvest aflatoxin contamination. The objective of this study was to characterize the variations in morphology, physiology and gene expr...

  1. Water deficit stress effects on corn (Zea mays, L.) root: shoot ratio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted at Akron, CO, USA, on a Weld silt loam in 2004 to quantify the effects of water deficit stress on corn (Zea mays, L.) root and shoot biomass. Corn plants were grown under a range of soil bulk density and water conditions caused by previous tillage, crop rotation, and irrigation...

  2. A new gland associated with the retrocerebral complex of the adult corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the discovery of a putative new gland associated with the retrocerebral complex in the adults of Helicoverpa zea. The gland was not observed in Manduca sexta and few other species of moths. The pair of glands, each 40-60 µm in diameter, is located on either side of the recurrent nerve. Eac...

  3. A re-examination of corn (Zea mays L.) ear volatiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) is a major insect pest of corn and other agricultural crops. In corn adult moths commonly lay eggs on silk of ripening ears. After hatching, larvae feed on silk and developing kernels. This reduces crop quality and may increase fungal infection and mycotoxin production. Subs...

  4. Microsatellite variation in Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) populations in the southern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to analyze Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) populations from various host plants in four different locations in the southern United States. Linear distance between collection sites ranged from approximately 150 to 900 km. Mean number of alleles per locus ...

  5. Adding B-chromosomes of Zea mays L. to the genome of Avena sativa L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    B-chromosomes (Bs) are supernumerary dispensable chromosomes described in hundreds of animal and plant species, including maize (Zea mays L.). However, Bs have not been reported to exist in hexaploid oat (Avena sativa L.). In order to transfer maize Bs sexually from maize to oat genomes, we used as ...

  6. Regional Assessment of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Populations on Cotton and Non-Cotton Crop Hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection pressure on bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), by cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.) (Malvaceae), that produces one or more Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner proteins is reduced by plantings of non-Bt refuge cotton that produce non-selected individuals. However, ...

  7. Chararacteristics of Thirteen Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers in the Corn Earworm, Helicovepa zea (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn earworm, Helicovepa zea, is an important pest of cotton in the United States. Lack of suitable genetic markers have hindered population genetic studies of this species. Although a number of simple sequence repeat (SSR or microsatellite) markers developed for other species had been evaluated on...

  8. Crimped Cover Crop Legume Residue Effects on Sweet Corn (Zea mays L.) Yield in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crimped legume residue can control weeds and supply N for sweet corn production if biomass is sufficient. Three sweet corn (Zea mays L.) open pollinated variety “Suresweet 2011” plantings (April, 2013; July 2013; February 2014) were conducted on an Oxisol (very fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic and...

  9. The homeologous Zea mays gigantea genes: characterization of expression and novel mutant alleles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The two homeologous Zea mays gigantea (gi) genes, gi1 and gi2, arose from the last genome duplication event in the maize lineage. Homologs of these genes in other species are required for correct circadian rhythms and proper regulation of growth and development. Here we characterized the expression ...

  10. Effect of Hexaflumuron on feeding response and reproduction of bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hexaflumuron (Consult® 100 EC, Dow AgroSciences) is an insect growth regulator that inhibits chitin synthesis. The efficacy of hexaflumuron mixed with 2.5 M sucrose (ppm) was evaluated in the laboratory against bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) for toxicity, proboscis exten...

  11. Potassium fertilization mitigates the adverse effects of drought on selected Zea mays cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the present study, the role of potassium (K) in mitigating the adverse effects of drought stress (DS) on 2 maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars, ‘Shaandan 9’ (S9; drought-tolerant) and ‘Shaandan 911’ (S911; drought-sensitive), was assessed. K application increased dry matter (DM) across all growth stage...

  12. Development of the cursorial spider, Cheiracanthium inclusum (Araneae: Miturgidae), on eggs of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of the cursorial spider Cheiricanthium inclusum (Hentz) (Araneae: Miturgidae) from emergence to maturity on a diet of eggs of the lepidopteran pest Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was characterized. C. inclusum developed to adulthood with no mortality while feeding on ...

  13. DEVELOPING NITROGEN FERTILIZER RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CORN (ZEA MAYS L.) USING AN ACTIVE SENSOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of uncertainties associated with nitrogen (N) behavior in the environment, producers managing corn (Zea mays L.) production systems often over-apply N fertilizer to reduce the risk that N will limit corn yield. Remote sensing represents a potential opportunity to reduce these uncertainties w...

  14. Influence of corn (zea mays l.) cultivar development on grain nutrient concentration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While corn productivity has been increased by the adoption of high-yield hybrids, there are concerns that increased grain potential may be associated with diminished grain nutrient concentration. Ten corn (Zea mays L.) cultivars representing five technological levels (landrace variety, commercial va...

  15. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the diapause hormone receptor in the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diapause hormone (DH) in the heliothine moth has shown its activity in termination of pupal diapause, while the orthology in the silkworm is known to induce embryonic diapause. In the current study, we cloned the diapause hormone receptor from the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (HzDHr) and tested ...

  16. DISTRIBUTION OF THE GLUTAMINE SYNTHETASE ISOZYME GSP1 IN MAIZE (ZEA MAYS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Higher plants contain families of glutamine synthetase (GS) isozymes. In maize (Zea mays L.), GSp1, the predominant GS isozyme of the developing kernel, is abundant in the pedicel and pericarp, but absent from the endosperm and embryo. Determination of GSp1 tissue distribution in vegetative tissue...

  17. A maize (Zea mays) line resistant to herbivory constitutively releases (E)-B-caryophyllene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is an important agricultural crop. Various insect pests such as those in the order of Lepidoptera frequently feed on young maize plants and pose a significant threat to plant development and survival. To deal with this problem, maize generates a wide variety of responses to att...

  18. Field tests of the role of fumonisins in the Zea mays–Gibberella moniliformis interaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zea mays often is colonized with the fungus Gibberella moniliformis, which produces fumonisin toxins. The role of fumonisins in ear colonization was studied by field inoculations of a fumonisin B1 (FB1)-insensitive maize backcross line. The FB1-insensitive maize backcross line was not more resistant...

  19. Larval Helicoverpa zea Transcriptional, Growth and Behavioral Responses to Nicotine and Nicotiana tabacum

    PubMed Central

    Gog, Linus; Vogel, Heiko; Hum-Musser, Sue M.; Tuter, Jason; Musser, Richard O.

    2014-01-01

    The polyphagous feeding habits of the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), underscore its status as a major agricultural pest with a wide geographic distribution and host plant repertoire. To study the transcriptomic response to toxins in diet, we conducted a microarray analysis of H. zea caterpillars feeding on artificial diet, diet laced with nicotine and Nicotiana tabacum (L.) plants. We supplemented our analysis with growth and aversion bioassays. The transcriptome reflects an abundant expression of proteases, chitin, cytochrome P450 and immune-related genes, many of which are shared between the two experimental treatments. However, the tobacco treatment tended to elicit stronger transcriptional responses than nicotine-laced diet. The salivary factor glucose oxidase, known to suppress nicotine induction in the plant, was upregulated by H. zea in response to tobacco but not to nicotine-laced diet. Reduced caterpillar growth rates accompanied the broad regulation of genes associated with growth, such as juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolase. The differential expression of chemosensory proteins, such as odorant binding-protein-2 precursor, as well as the neurotransmitter nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor subunit 9, highlights candidate genes regulating aversive behavior towards nicotine. We suggest that an observed coincidental rise in cannibalistic behavior and regulation of proteases and protease inhibitors in H. zea larvae signify a compensatory response to induced plant defenses. PMID:26462833

  20. Modeling the impact of alternative hosts on Helicoverpa zea adaptation to bollgard cotton.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, David I; Head, Graham P; Caprio, Michael A

    2006-12-01

    For highly polyphagous cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., pests such as Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), a substantial portion of the larval population develops on noncotton alternative hosts. These noncotton hosts potentially provide a natural refuge for H. zea, thereby slowing the evolution of resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt)-derived Cry1Ac protein present in Bollgard cotton. Here, we demonstrate how the measured contribution of such alternative hosts can be included in estimating the "effective refuge" present for H. zea and in modeling resistance evolution in this species. A single-gene, two-compartment model was used in which one compartment represented corn, Zea mays L., and cotton that express the Cry1Ac protein or similar proteins, and the other compartment was the effective refuge, made up of a weighted average of non-Bt cotton and noncotton hosts. The effective refuge was estimated for each of six generations of H. zea based upon available data on larval population densities on different hosts and cropping patterns. Model runs were performed for regions centered on three states: Georgia, Mississippi, and North Carolina. Three sets of fitness cost assumptions for the putative resistance gene were used: none, low, and moderate, with either recessive or additive inheritance for resistance and fitness costs. For Georgia and North Carolina, resistance was predicted to take >30 yr to evolve except in the absence of fitness costs. For Mississippi, results were sensitive to fitness costs: >30 yr with moderate costs, 7-14 yr with low costs, and 6-10 yr without such costs. PMID:17195681

  1. ZEA-TDMA: design and system level implementation of a TDMA protocol for anonymous wireless networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Debasmit; Dong, Bo; Biswas, Subir

    2013-05-01

    Wireless sensor network used in military applications may be deployed in hostile environments, where privacy and security is of primary concern. This can lead to the formation of a trust-based sub-network among mutually-trusting nodes. However, designing a TDMA MAC protocol is very challenging in situations where such multiple sub-networks coexist, since TDMA protocols require node identity information for slot assignments. This paper introduces a novel distributed TDMA MAC protocol, ZEA-TDMA (Zero Exposure Anonymous TDMA), for anonymous wireless networks. ZEA-TDMA achieves slot allocation with strict anonymity constraints, i.e. without nodes having to exchange any identity revealing information. By using just the relative time of arrival of packets and a novel technique of wireless collision-detection and resolution for fixed packetsizes, ZEA-TDMA is able to achieve MAC slot-allocation which is described as follows. Initially, a newly joined node listens to its one-hop neighborhood channel usage and creates a slot allocation table based on its own relative time, and finally, selects a slot that is collision free within its one-hop neighborhood. The selected slot can however cause hidden collisions with a two-hop neighbor of the node. These collisions are resolved by a common neighbor of the colliding nodes, which first detects the collision, and then resolve them using an interrupt packet. ZEA-TDMA provides the following features: a) it is a TDMA protocol ideally suited for highly secure or strictly anonymous environments b) it can be used in heterogeneous environments where devices use different packet structures c) it does not require network time-synchronization, and d) it is insensitive to channel errors. We have implemented ZEA-TDMA on the MICA2 hardware platform running TinyOS and evaluated the protocol functionality and performance on a MICA2 test-bed.

  2. Revisiting macronutrient regulation in the polyphagous herbivore Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): New insights via nutritional geometry.

    PubMed

    Deans, Carrie A; Sword, Gregory A; Behmer, Spencer T

    2015-10-01

    Insect herbivores that ingest protein and carbohydrates in physiologically-optimal proportions and concentrations show superior performance and fitness. The first-ever study of protein-carbohydrate regulation in an insect herbivore was performed using the polyphagous agricultural pest Helicoverpa zea. In that study, experimental final instar caterpillars were presented two diets - one containing protein but no carbohydrates, the other containing carbohydrates but no protein - and allowed to self-select their protein-carbohydrate intake. The results showed that H. zea selected a diet with a protein-to-carbohydrate (p:c) ratio of 4:1. At about this same time, the geometric framework (GF) for the study of nutrition was introduced. The GF is now established as the most rigorous means to study nutrient regulation (in any animal). It has been used to study protein-carbohydrate regulation in several lepidopteran species, which exhibit a range of self-selected p:c ratios between 0.8 and 1.5. Given the economic importance of H. zea, and it is extremely protein-biased p:c ratio of 4:1 relative to those reported for other lepidopterans, we decided to revisit its protein-carbohydrate regulation. Our results, using the experimental approach of the GF, show that H. zea larvae self-select a p:c ratio of 1.6:1. This p:c ratio strongly matches that of its close relative, Heliothis virescens, and is more consistent with self-selected p:c ratios reported for other lepidopterans. Having accurate protein and carbohydrate regulation information for an insect herbivore pest such as H. zea is valuable for two reasons. First, it can be used to better understand feeding patterns in the field, which might lead to enhanced management. Second, it will allow researchers to develop rearing diets that more accurately reflect larval nutritional needs, which has important implications for resistance bioassays and other measures of physiological stress. PMID:26141409

  3. Production and characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac-resistant cotton bollworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie).

    PubMed

    Anilkumar, Konasale J; Rodrigo-Simón, Ana; Ferré, Juan; Pusztai-Carey, Marianne; Sivasupramaniam, Sakuntala; Moar, William J

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory-selected Bacillus thuringiensis-resistant colonies are important tools for elucidating B. thuringiensis resistance mechanisms. However, cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa zea, a target pest of transgenic corn and cotton expressing B. thuringiensis Cry1Ac (Bt corn and cotton), has proven difficult to select for stable resistance. Two populations of H. zea (AR and MR), resistant to the B. thuringiensis protein found in all commercial Bt cotton varieties (Cry1Ac), were established by selection with Cry1Ac activated toxin (AR) or MVP II (MR). Cry1Ac toxin reflects the form ingested by H. zea when feeding on Bt cotton, whereas MVP II is a Cry1Ac formulation used for resistance selection and monitoring. The resistance ratio (RR) for AR exceeded 100-fold after 11 generations and has been maintained at this level for nine generations. This is the first report of stable Cry1Ac resistance in H. zea. MR crashed after 11 generations, reaching only an RR of 12. AR was only partially cross-resistant to MVP II, suggesting that MVP II does not have the same Cry1Ac selection pressure as Cry1Ac toxin against H. zea and that proteases may be involved with resistance. AR was highly cross-resistant to Cry1Ab toxin but only slightly cross-resistant to Cry1Ab expressing corn leaf powder. AR was not cross-resistant to Cry2Aa2, Cry2Ab2-expressing corn leaf powder, Vip3A, and cypermethrin. Toxin-binding assays showed no significant differences, indicating that resistance was not linked to a reduction in binding. These results aid in understanding why this pest has not evolved B. thuringiensis resistance, and highlight the need to choose carefully the form of B. thuringiensis protein used in experiments. PMID:18024681

  4. Genetic variation and virulence of nucleopolyhedroviruses isolated worldwide from the heliothine pests Helicoverpa armigera, Helicoverpa zea, and Heliothis virescens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A PCR-based method was used to classify 90 samples of nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV; Baculoviridae: Alphabaculovirus) obtained worldwide from larvae of Heliothis virescens, Helicoverpa zea, and Helicoverpa armigera. Partial nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of three highly conserved genes...

  5. Optimizing Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) insecticidal efficacy in Minnesota sweet corn: a logistic regression to assess timing parameters.

    PubMed

    Burkness, Eric C; Galvan, Tederson L; Hutchison, W D

    2009-04-01

    Late-season plantings of sweet corn in Minnesota result in an abundant supply of silking corn, Zea mays L., throughout August to early September that is highly attractive to the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). During a 10-yr period, 1997-2006, insecticide efficacy trials were conducted in late-planted sweet corn in Minnesota for management of H. zea. These data were used to develop a logistic regression model to identify the variables and interactions that most influenced efficacy (proportion control) of late-instar H. zea. The pyrethroid lambdacyhalothrin (0.028 kg [AI]/ha) is a commonly used insecticide in sweet corn and was therefore chosen for use in parameter evaluation. Three variables were found to be significant (alpha = 0.05), the percentage of plants silking at the time of the first insecticide application, the interval between the first and second insecticide applications, and the interval between the last insecticide application and harvest. Odds ratio estimates indicated that as the percentage of plants silking at the time of first application increased, control of H. zea increased. As the interval between the first and second insecticide application increased, control of H. zea decreased. Finally, as the interval between the last insecticide application and harvest increased, control of H. zea increased. An additional timing trial was conducted in 2007 by using lambda-cyhalothrin, to evaluate the impact of the percentage of plants silking at the first application. The results indicated no significant differences in efficacy against late-instar H. zea at 0, 50, 90, and 100% of plants silking at the first application (regimes of five or more sprays). The implications of these effects are discussed within the context of current integrated pest management programs for late-planted sweet corn in the upper midwestern United States. PMID:19449649

  6. Inducing gravitropic curvature of primary roots of Zea mays cv Ageotropic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; Evans, M. L.; Fondren, W. M.

    1990-01-01

    Primary roots of the mutant 'Ageotropic' cultivar of Zea mays are nonresponsive to gravity. Their root caps secrete little or no mucilage and touch the root only at the extreme apex. A gap separates the cap and root at the periphery of the cap. Applying mucilage from normal roots or substances with a consistency similar to that of mucilage to tips of mutant roots causes these roots to become strongly graviresponsive. Gravicurvature stops when these substances are removed. Caps of some mutants secrete small amounts of mucilage and are graviresponsive. These results indicate that (a) the lack of graviresponsiveness in the mutant results from disrupting the transport pathway between the cap and root, (b) movement of the growth-modifying signal from the cap to the root occurs via an apoplastic pathway, and (c) mucilage is necessary for normal communication between the root cap and root in Zea mays cv Ageotropic.

  7. Influence of calcium phosphate nanoparticles, Piriformospora indica and Glomus mosseae on growth of Zea mays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rane, Mansi; Bawskar, Manisha; Rathod, Dnyaneshwar; Nagaonkar, Dipali; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (G. mosseae) and endosymbiont (P. indica) colonized Zea mays were treated with calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaPNPs) and evaluated for their plant growth promotion efficiency. It was observed that CaPNPs in combination with both G. mosseae and P. indica are more potent plant growth promoter than independent combinations of CaPNPs + G. mosseae, CaPNPs + P. indica or CaPNPs alone. The fluorimetric studies of treated plants revealed that CaPNPs alone and in combination with P. indica can enhance vitality of Zea mays by improving chlorophyll a content and performance index of treated plants. Hence, we conclude that CaPNPs exhibit synergistic growth promotion, root proliferation and vitality improvement properties along with endosymbiotic and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, which after further field trials can be developed as a cost-effective nanofertilizer with pronounced efficiency.

  8. Influence of microgravity on cellular differentiation in root caps of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; Fondren, W. M.; McClelen, C. E.; Wang, C. L.

    1987-01-01

    We launched imbibed seeds of Zea mays into outer space aboard the space shuttle Columbia to determine the influence of microgravity on cellular differentiation in root caps. The influence of microgravity varied with different stages of cellular differentiation. Overall, microgravity tended to 1) increase relative volumes of hyaloplasm and lipid bodies, 2) decrease the relative volumes of plastids, mitochondria, dictyosomes, and the vacuome, and 3) exert no influence on the relative volume of nuclei in cells comprising the root cap. The reduced allocation of dictyosomal volume in peripheral cells of flight-grown seedlings correlated positively with their secretion of significantly less mucilage than peripheral cells of Earth-grown seedlings. These results indicate that 1) microgravity alters the patterns of cellular differentiation and structures of all cell types comprising the root cap, and 2) the influence of microgravity on cellular differentiation in root caps of Zea mays is organelle specific.

  9. Movement of endogenous calcium in the elongating zone of graviresponding roots of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; Cameron, I. L.; Smith, N. K.

    1989-01-01

    Endogenous calcium (Ca) accumulates along the lower side of the elongating zone of horizontally oriented roots of Zea mays cv. Yellow Dent. This accumulation of Ca correlates positively with the onset of gravicurvature, and occurs in the cytoplasm, cell walls and mucilage of epidermal cells. Corresponding changes in endogenous Ca do not occur in cortical cells of the elongating zone of intact roots. These results indicate that the calcium asymmetries associated with root gravicurvature occur in the outermost layers of the root.

  10. Abscisic acid is not necessary for gravitropism in primary roots of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.

    1990-01-01

    Primary roots of Zea mays L. cv. Tx 5855 treated with fluridone are strongly graviresponsive, but have undetectable levels of abscisic acid (ABA). Primary roots of the carotenoid-deficient w-3, vp-5, and vp-7 mutants of Z. mays are also graviresponsive despite having undetectable amounts of ABA. Graviresponsive roots of untreated and wild-type seedlings contain 286 to 317 ng ABA g-1 f. wt, respectively. These results indicate that ABA is not necessary for root gravicurvature.

  11. Many maize inbreds lack an endosperm cytosolic phosphoglucomutase. [Zea mays L

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, D.; Stelow, L.I.; Nelson, O.E. )

    1990-08-01

    Starch gel electrophoresis of extracts from developing maize (Zea mays L.) endosperms 22 days postpollination reveals only a single zone of phosphoglucomutase activity in the majority of the inbreds tested. The other inbreds had the expected two zones of activity. The activity that is present in all inbreds is the amyloplast isozyme while the absent form is a cytosolic enzyme. The lack of the cytosolic isozyme has no discernible phenotypic consequences.

  12. Conservation and diversity of seed associated endophytes in Zea across boundaries of evolution, ethnography and ecology.

    PubMed

    Johnston-Monje, David; Raizada, Manish N

    2011-01-01

    Endophytes are non-pathogenic microbes living inside plants. We asked whether endophytic species were conserved in the agriculturally important plant genus Zea as it became domesticated from its wild ancestors (teosinte) to modern maize (corn) and moved from Mexico to Canada. Kernels from populations of four different teosintes and 10 different maize varieties were screened for endophytic bacteria by culturing, cloning and DNA fingerprinting using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) of 16S rDNA. Principle component analysis of TRFLP data showed that seed endophyte community composition varied in relation to plant host phylogeny. However, there was a core microbiota of endophytes that was conserved in Zea seeds across boundaries of evolution, ethnography and ecology. The majority of seed endophytes in the wild ancestor persist today in domesticated maize, though ancient selection against the hard fruitcase surrounding seeds may have altered the abundance of endophytes. Four TRFLP signals including two predicted to represent Clostridium and Paenibacillus species were conserved across all Zea genotypes, while culturing showed that Enterobacter, Methylobacteria, Pantoea and Pseudomonas species were widespread, with γ-proteobacteria being the prevalent class. Twenty-six different genera were cultured, and these were evaluated for their ability to stimulate plant growth, grow on nitrogen-free media, solubilize phosphate, sequester iron, secrete RNAse, antagonize pathogens, catabolize the precursor of ethylene, produce auxin and acetoin/butanediol. Of these traits, phosphate solubilization and production of acetoin/butanediol were the most commonly observed. An isolate from the giant Mexican landrace Mixteco, with 100% identity to Burkholderia phytofirmans, significantly promoted shoot potato biomass. GFP tagging and maize stem injection confirmed that several seed endophytes could spread systemically through the plant. One seed isolate

  13. Conservation and Diversity of Seed Associated Endophytes in Zea across Boundaries of Evolution, Ethnography and Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Johnston-Monje, David; Raizada, Manish N.

    2011-01-01

    Endophytes are non-pathogenic microbes living inside plants. We asked whether endophytic species were conserved in the agriculturally important plant genus Zea as it became domesticated from its wild ancestors (teosinte) to modern maize (corn) and moved from Mexico to Canada. Kernels from populations of four different teosintes and 10 different maize varieties were screened for endophytic bacteria by culturing, cloning and DNA fingerprinting using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) of 16S rDNA. Principle component analysis of TRFLP data showed that seed endophyte community composition varied in relation to plant host phylogeny. However, there was a core microbiota of endophytes that was conserved in Zea seeds across boundaries of evolution, ethnography and ecology. The majority of seed endophytes in the wild ancestor persist today in domesticated maize, though ancient selection against the hard fruitcase surrounding seeds may have altered the abundance of endophytes. Four TRFLP signals including two predicted to represent Clostridium and Paenibacillus species were conserved across all Zea genotypes, while culturing showed that Enterobacter, Methylobacteria, Pantoea and Pseudomonas species were widespread, with γ-proteobacteria being the prevalent class. Twenty-six different genera were cultured, and these were evaluated for their ability to stimulate plant growth, grow on nitrogen-free media, solubilize phosphate, sequester iron, secrete RNAse, antagonize pathogens, catabolize the precursor of ethylene, produce auxin and acetoin/butanediol. Of these traits, phosphate solubilization and production of acetoin/butanediol were the most commonly observed. An isolate from the giant Mexican landrace Mixteco, with 100% identity to Burkholderia phytofirmans, significantly promoted shoot potato biomass. GFP tagging and maize stem injection confirmed that several seed endophytes could spread systemically through the plant. One seed isolate

  14. Inhibition of pig liver and Zea mays L. polyamine oxidase: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Federico, R; Leone, L; Botta, M; Binda, C; Angelini, R; Venturini, G; Ascenzi, P

    2001-01-01

    Polyamine oxidase (PAO) is involved in polyamine metabolism and production of hydrogen peroxide in animal and plants, thus representing a key system in development and programmed cell death. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of amiloride, p-aminobenzamidine, clonidine, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenyl-indole (DAPI), gabexate mesylate, guazatine, and N,N'-bis(2,3-butadienyl)-1,4-butane-diamine (MDL72527) on the catalytic activity of pig liver and Zea mays L. PAO, Lens culinaris L. and Pisum sativum L. and swine kidney copper amine oxidase, bovine trypsin, as well as neuronal constitutive nitric oxide synthase (NOS-I) was investigated. Moreover, agmatine and N(3) -prenylagmatine (G3) were observed to inhibit pig liver and Zea mays L. PAO, bovine trypsin, and NOS-I action, but were substrates for Lens culinaris L., Pisum sativum L. and swine kidney copper amine oxidase. Guazatine and G3 inhibited selectively Zea mays L. PAO with K(i) values of 7.5 x 10(-9) M and 1.5 x 10(-8) M, respectively (at pH 6.5 and 25.0 degrees C). As a whole, the data reported here represent examples of enzyme cross-inhibition, and appear to be relevant in view of the use of cationic L-arginine-and imidazole-based compounds as drugs. PMID:11342283

  15. Effect of emamectin benzoate on mortality, proboscis extension, gustation and reproduction of the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea.

    PubMed

    López, Juan D; Latheef, M A; Hoffmann, W C

    2010-01-01

    Newly emerged corn earworm adults, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) require a carbohydrate source from plant or other exudates and nectars for dispersal and reproduction. Adults actively seek and forage at feeding sites upon eclosion in the habitat of the larval host plant or during dispersal to, or colonization of, a suitable reproductive habitat. This nocturnal behavior of H. zea has potential for exploitation as a pest management strategy for suppression using an adult feeding approach. This approach entails the use of a feeding attractant and stimulant in combination with a toxicant that when ingested by the adult will either reduce fecundity/fertility at sub-lethal dosages or kill the adult. The intent of this study was to assess reproductive inhibition and toxicity of emamectin benzoate on H. zea when ingested by the adults when mixed in ppm active ingredient (wt:vol) with 2.5 M sucrose as a feeding stimulant. Because the mixture has to be ingested to function, the effect of emamectin benzoate was also evaluated at sub-lethal and lethal concentrations on proboscis extension and gustatory response of H. zea in the laboratory. Feral males captured in sex pheromone-baited traps in the field were used for toxicity evaluations because they were readily available and were more representative of the field populations than laboratory-reared adults. Laboratory-reared female moths were used for reproduction effects because it is very difficult to collect newly emerged feral females from the field. Emamectin benzoate was highly toxic to feral H. zea males with LC(50) values (95% CL) being 0.718 (0.532-0.878), 0.525 (0.316-0.751), and 0.182 (0.06-0.294) ppm for 24, 48 and 72 h responses, respectively. Sub-lethal concentrations of emamectin benzoate did not significantly reduce proboscis extension response of feral males and gustatory response of female H. zea. Sublethal concentrations of emamectin benzoate significantly reduced percent larval hatch of

  16. Chromium accumulation potential of Zea mays grown under four different fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Dheeba, B; Sampathkumar, P; Kannan, K

    2014-12-01

    Chromium (Cr) contamination in soil is a growing concern in sustainable agriculture production and food safety. We performed pot experiment with chromium (30 mg/soil) to assess the accumulation potential of Zea mays and study the influence of four fertilizers, viz. Farm Yard Manure (FYM), NPK, Panchakavya (PK) and Vermicompost (VC) with respect to Cr accumulation. The oxidative stress and pigment (chlorophyll) levels were also examined. The results showed increased accumulation of chromium in both shoots and roots of Zea mays under FYM and NPK supply, and reduced with PK and VC. While the protein and pigment contents decreased in Cr treated plants, the fertilizers substantiated the loss to overcome the stress. Similarly, accumulation of Cr increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POD) indicating the enhanced damage control activity. However, these levels were relatively low in plants supplemented with fertilizers. Our results confirm that the maize can play an effective role in bioremediation of soils polluted with chromium, particularly in supplementation with fertilizers such as farm yard manure and NPK. PMID:25651615

  17. Preventive effect of Zea mays L. (purple waxy corn) on experimental diabetic cataract.

    PubMed

    Thiraphatthanavong, Paphaphat; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Wipawee, Thukham-mee; Wannanon, Panakaporn; Terdthai, Tong-un; Suriharn, Bhalang; Lertrat, Kamol

    2014-01-01

    Recently, substances possessing antioxidant can prevent cataractogenesis of diabetic cataract. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the anticataract effect of Zea mays L. (purple waxy corn), a flavonoids rich plant, in experimental diabetic cataract. Enucleated rat lenses were incubated in artificial aqueous humor containing 55 mM glucose with various concentrations of Zea mays L. (purple waxy corn) ranging between 2, 10, and 50 mg/mL at room temperature for 72 h. At the end of the incubation period, the evaluation of lens opacification, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, GPx, and AR in lens were performed. The results showed that both medium and high doses of extract decreased lens opacity together with the decreased MDA level. In addition, medium dose of extract increased GPx activity while the high dose decreased AR activity. No other significant changes were observed. The purple waxy corn seeds extract is the potential candidate to protect against diabetic cataract. The mechanism of action may occur via the decreased oxidative stress and the suppression of AR. However, further research in vivo is still essential. PMID:24527449

  18. Analysis of the Genome of the Sexually Transmitted Insect Virus Helicoverpa zea Nudivirus 2

    PubMed Central

    Burand, John P.; Kim, Woojin; Afonso, Claudio L.; Tulman, Edan R.; Kutish, Gerald F.; Lu, Zhiqiang; Rock, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    The sexually transmitted insect virus Helicoverpa zea nudivirus 2 (HzNV-2) was determined to have a circular double-stranded DNA genome of 231,621 bp coding for an estimated 113 open reading frames (ORFs). HzNV-2 is most closely related to the nudiviruses, a sister group of the insect baculoviruses. Several putative ORFs that share homology with the baculovirus core genes were identified in the viral genome. However, HzNV-2 lacks several key genetic features of baculoviruses including the late transcriptional regulation factor, LEF-1 and the palindromic hrs, which serve as origins of replication. The HzNV-2 genome was found to code for three ORFs that had significant sequence homology to cellular genes which are not generally found in viral genomes. These included a presumed juvenile hormone esterase gene, a gene coding for a putative zinc-dependent matrix metalloprotease, and a major facilitator superfamily protein gene; all of which are believed to play a role in the cellular proliferation and the tissue hypertrophy observed in the malformation of reproductive organs observed in HzNV-2 infected corn earworm moths, Helicoverpa zea. PMID:22355451

  19. Susceptibilities of Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations to Cry1Ac insecticidal protein.

    PubMed

    Ali, M I; Luttrell, R G; Young, S Y

    2006-02-01

    Susceptibilities of bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.) to Cry1Ac were measured via a diet-incorporated assay with MPV II at the University of Arkansas during 2002-2004. Lethal concentration-mortality (LC50) estimates of five laboratory, seven laboratory-cross, and 10 field populations of H. virescens varied 12-fold. Pooled susceptibilities of H. virescens across all laboratory and field populations varied five-fold. The LC50 estimates for H. virescens were higher than those reported by previous research before the introduction of transgenic crops. However, the ratio of susceptibility of laboratory and field populations was similar, suggesting no change in overall species susceptibility. Individual LC50 estimates of five laboratory, nine laboratory-cross, and 57 field populations of H. zea varied over 130-fold. Pooled susceptibilities across laboratory and field populations varied widely. Among the field populations, colonies from non-Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops were generally more susceptible than those from Bt crops. Across the Bt crops expressing Cry protein, colonies from Bollgard (Monsanto Company) cotton had lower susceptibility to CrylAc than those from Bt corn and those from non-Bt crops. PMID:16573337

  20. The molecular evolution of terminal ear1, a regulatory gene in the genus Zea.

    PubMed Central

    White, S E; Doebley, J F

    1999-01-01

    Nucleotide diversity in the terminal ear1 (te1) gene, a regulatory locus hypothesized to be involved in the morphological evolution of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays), was investigated for evidence of past selection. Nucleotide polymorphism in a 1.4-kb region of te1 was analyzed for a sample of 26 sequences isolated from 12 maize lines, five populations of the maize progenitor, Z. mays ssp. parviglumis, six other Zea populations, and two Tripsacum species. Although nucleotide diversity in te1 in maize is reduced relative to ssp. parviglumis, phylogenetic and statistical analyses of the pattern of polymorphism among these sequences provided no evidence of past selection, indicating that the region of the gene studied was probably not involved in maize evolution. The level of reduction in genetic diversity in te1 in maize relative to its progenitor is comparable to that found in previous reports for isozymes and other neutrally evolving maize genes and is consistent with a genome-wide reduction of genetic diversity resulting from a domestication bottleneck. An estimate of the age (1.2-1.4 million yr) of the maize gene pool based on te1 is roughly consistent with previous estimates based on other neutral genes, but may be biased by the apparently slow synonymous substitution rate at te1. PMID:10545473

  1. Aldose Reductase Inhibitory Activity of Compounds from  Zea mays L.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Hyeon; Kim, Jin Kyu; Kang, Young-Hee; Lee, Jae-Yong; Kang, Il Jun; Lim, Soon Sung

    2013-01-01

    Aldose reductase (AR) inhibitors have a considerable therapeutic potential against diabetes complications and do not increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Through bioassay-guided fractionation of an EtOH extract of the kernel from purple corn (Zea mays L.), 7 nonanthocyanin phenolic compounds (compound 1–7) and 5 anthocyanins (compound 8–12) were isolated. These compounds were investigated by rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR) inhibitory assays. Kinetic analyses of recombinant human aldose reductase (rhAR) were performed, and intracellular galactitol levels were measured. Hirsutrin, one of 12 isolated compounds, showed the most potent RLAR inhibitory activity (IC50, 4.78 μM). In the kinetic analyses using Lineweaver-Burk plots of 1/velocity and 1/substrate concentration, hirsutrin showed competitive inhibition against rhAR. Furthermore, hirsutrin inhibited galactitol formation in rat lens and erythrocytes sample incubated with a high concentration of galactose; this finding indicates that hirsutrin may effectively prevent osmotic stress in hyperglycemia. Therefore, hirsutrin derived from Zea mays L. may be a potential therapeutic agent against diabetes complications. PMID:23586057

  2. Promoting Student Inquiry Using "Zea Mays" (Corn) Cultivars for Hypothesis-Driven Experimentation in a Majors Introductory Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Amy C.; Peters, Brenda J.; Bendixen, Conrad W.

    2014-01-01

    The AAAS Vision and Change report (2011) recommends incorporating student research experiences into the biology curriculum at the undergraduate level. This article describes, in detail, how "Zea mays" (corn) cultivars were used as a model for a hypothesis-driven short-term research project in an introductory biology course at a small…

  3. Prevalence of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on late season volunteer corn in Mississippi: implications on Bt resistance management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern United States has a long growing period between corn harvest and first winter frost, so volunteer corn which germinates after corn harvest has a growing period sufficient for corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) to feed on these plants. However, lower air temperatures can limit larval...

  4. Quantitative Trait Loci for Maysin Synthesis in Maize (Zea mays L.) Lines Selected for High Silk Maysin Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recurrent selection has been utilized for over a century to increase desired traits in crop plants. One notable trait of interest to plant breeders is insect resistance. Maysin is a naturally occurring C-glycosyl flavone found in maize (Zea mays L.) silk tissue that confers resistance to corn earwor...

  5. Effect of emamectin benzoate on mortality, proboscis extension, gustation and reproduction of the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newly emerged bollworm adults, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) require carbohydrate source from plant exudates and nectars for reproduction. Adults actively seek such feeding sites upon eclosion in their natural habitat. We wanted to evaluate this nocturnal behavior of the bollworm for potential use as a p...

  6. Efficacy of insecticides of different chemistries against Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis and conventional cotton.

    PubMed

    Brickle, D S; Turnipseed, S G; Sullivan, M J

    2001-02-01

    Six insecticides of different chemistries were evaluated against the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), in non-B.t. (Deltapine 'DP 5415', Deltapine 'DP 5415RR') and transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (B.t.) (Deltapine 'NuCOTN 33B', Deltapine 'DP 458 B/RR') cotton. In 1998, treatments consisted of three rates each of a pyrethroid (lambda-cyhalothrin), spinosyn (spinosad), carbamate (thiodicarb), pyrrole (chlorfenapyr), oxadiazine (indoxacarb), and avermectin (emamectin benzoate) in a nonirrigated field. In 1999, treatments consisted of three rates each of lambda-cyhalothrin, spinosad, thiodicarb, and indoxacarb in an irrigated and a nonirrigated (dryland) field. The highest rate of each insecticide corresponded to normal grower-use rates. Spinosad and thiodicarb controlled H. zea in non-B.t. cotton, whereas other materials were less effective. Even though H. zea is becoming increasingly resistant to pyrethroid insecticides, lambda-cyhalothrin was highly effective in dryland B. thuringiensis cotton. Spinosad and thiodicarb were equally effective. Data indicated that reduced rates of lambda-cyhalothrin, spinosad, and thiodicarb could be used for control of H. zea in dryland B.t. cotton systems. However, reduced rates of these insecticides in a heavily irrigated B.t. cotton system did not provide adequate control. PMID:11233138

  7. TOXICITY OF METHYL-TERT BYTYL ETHER (MTBE) TO PLANTS (AVENA SATIVA, ZEA MAYS, TRITICUM AESTIVUM, AND LACTUCA SATIVA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the germination of seeds and growth of the plant were studied in some laboratory experiments. Test plants were wild oat (Avena sative), sweet corn (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Seed germination,...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1027 - Nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Heliothis zea; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nuclear polyhedrosis virus of... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1027 Nuclear polyhedrosis virus of... Heliothis zea nuclear polyhedrosis virus (HzSNPV). The identity of the seed virus must be assured...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1027 - Nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Heliothis zea; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nuclear polyhedrosis virus of... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1027 Nuclear polyhedrosis virus of... Heliothis zea nuclear polyhedrosis virus (HzSNPV). The identity of the seed virus must be assured...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1027 - Nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Heliothis zea; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nuclear polyhedrosis virus of... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1027 Nuclear polyhedrosis virus of... Heliothis zea nuclear polyhedrosis virus (HzSNPV). The identity of the seed virus must be assured...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1027 - Nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Heliothis zea; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nuclear polyhedrosis virus of... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1027 Nuclear polyhedrosis virus of... Heliothis zea nuclear polyhedrosis virus (HzSNPV). The identity of the seed virus must be assured...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1027 - Nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Heliothis zea; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nuclear polyhedrosis virus of... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1027 Nuclear polyhedrosis virus of... Heliothis zea nuclear polyhedrosis virus (HzSNPV). The identity of the seed virus must be assured...

  13. Genetic Variation for Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins in Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Eastern North Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to evaluate resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner toxins, female bollworm moths, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), were collected from four light trap locations in two eastern North Carolina counties from August-October during 2001 and 2002. Moths were allowed to oviposit, and upon hatch, ...

  14. Development of neuropeptide analogs capable of traversing the integument: A case study using diapause hormone analogs in Helicoverpa zea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diapause hormone and its analogs terminate pupal diapause in H. zea when injected, but if such agents are to be used as effective diapause disruptors it will be essential to develop simple techniques for administering active compounds that can exert their effect by penetrating the insect epidermis. ...

  15. Risk assessment for Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance on dual-gene versus single-gene corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent changes in EPA regulations have prompted concern in some experts that transgenic corn expressing two lepidopteran-active genes from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) (dual-gene) may result in more rapid selection for resistance in Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) than corn expressing a s...

  16. Selection and adaptation to high plant density in the Iowa Stiff Stalk synthetic maize (Zea mays L.) population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plant density at which Zea mays L. hybrids achieve maximum grain yield has increased throughout the hybrid era while grain yield on a per plant basis has increased little. Changes in plant traits including grain yield, moisture, test weight, and stalk and root lodging have been well characterize...

  17. The identification and characterization of two dominant R1 haplotype-specific inhibitors of aleurone color in Zea mays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the identification and characterization of two novel dominant inhibitors of aleurone color in Zea mays that interact with specific haplotypes of the r1 locus. One inhibitor locus, inr1 (inhibitor of r1 aleurone color1), maps to the long arm of chromosome 10, distal to the TB-10L19 breakpo...

  18. Engineering a Recombinant Baculovirus with a Peptide Hormone Gene and its Effect on the Corn Earworm, Helicoverpa zea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The helicokinins are peptides identified from Helicoverpa zea that when injected into the larvae were found to cause excessive diuresis and loss of feeding activity. Of the three peptides, helicokinin II (HezK-II) was found to be most potent. A synthetic gene encoding HezK-II was constructed based o...

  19. Detection and Evolution of Resistance to the Pyrethroid Cypermethrin in Bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bollworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) is a key pest of cotton in Texas. Bollworm populations are widely controlled with pyrethroid insecticides in cotton and exposed to pyrethroids in other major crops such as grain sorghum, corn and soybeans. A statewide program that evaluated cypermethrin resist...

  20. Occultifur kilbournensis f.a. sp. nov., a new member of the Cystobasidiales associated with maize (Zea mays) cultivation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During a study of microorganisms associated with maize (Zea mays) cultivation, yeasts were isolated from overwintered stalks, cobs and surrounding soil, which were collected from an agricultural field in south-central Illinois, USA. Predominant among isolates were two species of Cryptococcus (Cr. fl...

  1. Insect Eggs Can Enhance Wound Response in Plants: A Study System of Tomato Solanum lycopersicum L. and Helicoverpa zea Boddie

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinwon; Tooker, John F.; Luthe, Dawn S.; De Moraes, Consuelo M.; Felton, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    Insect oviposition on plants frequently precedes herbivory. Accumulating evidence indicates that plants recognize insect oviposition and elicit direct or indirect defenses to reduce the pressure of future herbivory. Most of the oviposition-triggered plant defenses described thus far remove eggs or keep them away from the host plant or their desirable feeding sites. Here, we report induction of antiherbivore defense by insect oviposition which targets newly hatched larvae, not the eggs, in the system of tomato Solanum lycopersicum L., and tomato fruitworm moth Helicoverpa zea Boddie. When tomato plants were oviposited by H. zea moths, pin2, a highly inducible gene encoding protease inhibitor2, which is a representative defense protein against herbivorous arthropods, was expressed at significantly higher level at the oviposition site than surrounding tissues, and expression decreased with distance away from the site of oviposition. Moreover, more eggs resulted in higher pin2 expression in leaves, and both fertilized and unfertilized eggs induced pin2 expression. Notably, when quantified daily following deposition of eggs, pin2 expression at the oviposition site was highest just before the emergence of larvae. Furthermore, H. zea oviposition primed the wound-induced increase of pin2 transcription and a burst of jasmonic acid (JA); tomato plants previously exposed to H. zea oviposition showed significantly stronger induction of pin2 and higher production of JA upon subsequent simulated herbivory than without oviposition. Our results suggest that tomato plants recognize H. zea oviposition as a signal of impending future herbivory and induce defenses to prepare for this herbivory by newly hatched neonate larvae. PMID:22616005

  2. Bt Maize Seed Mixtures for Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Larval Movement, Development, and Survival on Non-transgenic Maize.

    PubMed

    Burkness, Eric C; Cira, T M; Moser, S E; Hutchison, W D

    2015-12-01

    In 2012 and 2013, field trials were conducted near Rosemount, MN, to assess the movement and development of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) larvae on non-Bt refuge corn plants within a seed mixture of non-Bt and Bt corn. The Bt corn hybrid expressed three Bt toxins-Cry1Ab, Cry1F, and Vip3A. As the use of seed mixtures for insect resistance management (IRM) continues to be implemented, it is necessary to further characterize how this IRM approach impacts resistance development in ear-feeding Lepidopteran pests. The potential for Bt pollen movement and cross pollination of the non-Bt ears in a seed mixture may lead to Bt toxin exposure to larvae developing on those refuge ears. Larval movement and development by H. zea, feeding on non-Bt refuge plants adjacent to either transgenic Bt or non-Bt plants, were measured to investigate the potential for unintended Bt exposure. Non-Bt plants were infested with H. zea eggs and subplots were destructively sampled twice per week within each treatment to assess larval development, location, and kernel injury. Results indicate that H. zea larval movement between plants is relatively low, ranging from 2-16% of larvae, and occurs mainly after reaching the second instar. Refuge plants in seed mixtures did not produce equivalent numbers of H. zea larvae, kernel injury, and larval development differed as compared with a pure stand of non-Bt plants. This suggests that there may be costs to larvae developing on refuge plants within seed mixtures and additional studies are warranted to define potential impacts. PMID:26318006

  3. Transport of indoleacetic acid in intact corn coleoptiles. [Zea mays L

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, K.E.; Briggs, W.R. )

    1990-10-01

    We have characterized the transport of ({sup 3}H)indoleacetic acid (IAA) in intact corn (Zea mays L.) coleoptiles. We have used a wide range of concentrations of added IAA (28 femtomoles to 100 picomoles taken up over 60 minutes). The shape of the transport curve varies with the concentration of added IAA, although the rate of movement of the observed front of tracer is invariant with concentration. At the lowest concentration of tracer used, the labeled IAA in the transport stream is not detectably metabolized or immobilized, curvature does not develop as a result of tracer application, and normal phototropic and gravitropic responsiveness are not affected. Therefore we believe we are observing the transport of true tracer quantities of labeled auxin at this lowest concentration.

  4. Phosphorylation of ribosomal proteins induced by auxins in maize embryonic tissues. [Zea mays

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, L.; Aguilar, R.; Mendez, A.P.; de Jimenez, E.S.

    1990-11-01

    The effect of auxin on ribosomal protein phosphorylation of germinating maize (Zea mays) tissues was investigated. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and autoradiography of ({sup 32}P) ribosomal protein patterns for natural and synthetic auxin-treated tissues were performed. Both the rate of {sup 32}P incorporation and the electrophoretic patterns were dependent on {sup 32}P pulse length, suggesting that active protein phosphorylation-dephosphorylation occurred in small and large subunit proteins, in control as well as in auxin-treated tissues. The effect of ribosomal protein phosphorylation on in vitro translation was tested. Measurements of poly(U) translation rates as a function of ribosome concentration provided apparent K{sub m} values significantly different for auxin-treated and nontreated tissues. These findings suggest that auxin might exert some kind of translational control by regulating the phosphorylated status of ribosomal proteins.

  5. Cytochemical localization of calcium in cap cells of primary roots of Zea mays L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.

    1985-01-01

    The cellular distribution of Ca in caps of primary roots of Zea mays was examined during the onset and early stages of gravicurvature to determine its possible role in root gravitropism. Staining becomes associated with the portion of the cell wall adjacent to the distal end of the cell after five minutes, and persists throughout the onset of gravicurvature. The outermost peripheral cells of roots oriented horizontally and vertically secrete Ca through plasmodesmata-like channels in their cell walls. Data suggest that Ca is not transported laterally through the columella tissue,but rather that the movement of Ca to the lower side of caps of horizontally-oriented roots is at least partially through and/or on the mucilage of the cap, and via an electrochemical gradient. An important role in root gravitropism is indicated for Ca secretion by peripheral cells.

  6. A gradient of endogenous calcium forms in mucilage of graviresponding roots of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; Fondren, W. M.

    1988-01-01

    Agar blocks that contacted the upper sides of tips of horizontally-oriented roots of Zea mays contain significantly less calcium (Ca) than blocks that contacted the lower sides of such roots. This gravity-induced gradient of Ca forms prior to the onset of gravicurvature, and does not form across tips of vertically-oriented roots or roots of agravitropic mutants. These results indicate that (1) Ca can be collected from mucilage of graviresponding roots, (2) gravity induces a downward movement of endogenous Ca in mucilage overlying the root tip, (3) this gravity-induced gradient of Ca does not form across tips of agravitropic roots, and (4) formation of a Ca gradient is not a consequence of gravicurvature. These results are consistent with gravity-induced movement of Ca being a trigger for subsequent redistribution of growth effectors (e.g. auxin) that induce differential growth and gravicurvature.

  7. Response to gravity by Zea mays seedlings. I. Time course of the response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandurski, R. S.; Schulze, A.; Dayanandan, P.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1984-01-01

    Gravistimulation induces an asymmetric distribution of free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in the cortex-epidermis of the Zea mays L. cv 'Stowells Evergreen' mesocotyl within 15 minutes, the shortest time tested. IAA was measured by an isotope dilution method as the pentaflurobenzyl ester. The per cent IAA in the lower half of the mescotyl cortex was 56 to 57% at 15, 30, and 90 minutes after stimulus initiation. Curvature is detectable in the mescotyl within 3 minutes after beginning gravitropic stimulation. The rate of curvature of the mesocotyl increases during the first 60 minutes to maximum of about 30 degrees per hour. Thus, the growth asymmetry continues to increase for 45 minutes after hormone asymmetry is established. Free IAA occurs predominantly in the stele of the mesocotyl whereas esterified IAA is mainly in the mesocotyl cortex-epidermis. This compartmentation may permit determining in which tissue the hormone asymmetry arises. Current data suggest the asymmetry originated in the stele.

  8. The influence of gravity on the formation of amyloplasts in columella cells of Zea mays L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; Fondren, W. M.; Koon, E. C.; Wang, C. L.

    1986-01-01

    Columella (i.e., putative graviperceptive) cells of Zea mays seedlings grown in the microgravity of outer space allocate significantly less volume to putative statoliths (amyloplasts) than do columella cells of Earth-grown seedlings. Amyloplasts of flight-grown seedlings are significantly smaller than those of ground controls, as is the average volume of individual starch grains. Similarly, the relative volume of starch in amyloplasts in columella cells of flight-grown seedlings is significantly less than that of Earth-grown seedlings. Microgravity does not significantly alter the volume of columella cells, the average number of amyloplasts per columella cell, or the number of starch grains per amyloplast. These results are discussed relative to the influence of gravity on cellular and organellar structure.

  9. Collection of gravitropic effectors from mucilage of electrotropically-stimulated roots of Zea mays L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fondren, W. M.; Moore, R.

    1987-01-01

    We placed agar blocks adjacent to tips of electrotropically stimulated primary roots of Zea mays. Blocks placed adjacent to the anode-side of the roots for 3 h induced significant curvature when subsequently placed asymmetrically on tips of vertically-oriented roots. Curvature was always toward the side of the root unto which the agar block was placed. Agar blocks not contacting roots and blocks placed adjacent to the cathode-side of electrotropically stimulated roots did not induce significant curvature when placed asymmetrically on tips of vertically-oriented roots. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry indicated that blocks adjacent to the anode-side of electrotropically-stimulated roots contained significantly more calcium than (1) blocks not contacting roots, and (2) blocks contacting the cathode-side of roots. These results demonstrate the presence of a gradient of endogenous Ca in mucilage of electrotropically-stimulated roots (i.e. roots undergoing gravitropic-like curvature).

  10. The effect of ethylene on root growth of Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, M. C.; Feldman, L. J.

    1988-01-01

    The control of primary root growth in Zea mays cv. Merit by ethylene was examined. At applied concentrations of ethylene equal to or greater than 0.1 microliter L-1, root elongation during 24 h was inhibited. The half-maximal response occurred at 0.6 microliter L-1 and the response saturated at 6 microliters L-1. Inhibition of elongation took place within 20 min. However, after ethylene was removed, elongation recovered to control values within 15 min. Root elongation was also inhibited by green light. The inhibition caused by a 24-h exposure to ethylene was restricted to the elongating region just behind the apex, with inhibition of cortical cell elongation being the primary contributor to the effect. Based on use of 2,5-norbornadiene, a gaseous competitive inhibitor of ethylene, it was concluded that endogenous ethylene normally inhibits root elongation.

  11. The involvement of glucose-6-phosphatase in mucilage secretion by root cap cells of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; McClelen, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    In order to determine the involvement of glucose-6-phosphatase in mucilage secretion by root cap cells, we have cytochemically localized the enzyme in columella and peripheral cells of root caps of Zea mays. Glucose-6-phosphatase is associated with the plasmalemma and cell wall of columella cells. As columella cells differentiate into peripheral cells and begin to produce and secrete mucilage, glucose-6-phosphatase staining intensifies and becomes associated with the mucilage and, to a lesser extent, the cell wall. Cells being sloughed from the cap are characterized by glucose-6-phosphatase staining being associated with the vacuole and plasmalemma. These changes in enzyme localization during cellular differentiation in root caps suggest that glucose-6-phosphatase is involved in the production and/or secretion of mucilage by peripheral cells of Z. mays.

  12. Differentiation of the properties of the branching isozymes from maize (Zea mays)

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, H.P.; Preiss, J. )

    1993-08-01

    The multiple forms of branching enzyme (BE) from developing maize (Zea mays) endosperm were purified by modification of previous procedures such that amylase activity could be eliminated completely from the BE preparation. Three distinct assays for BE activity (phosphorylase a stimulation assay, BE linkage assay, and iodine stain assay) were used to characterize and differentiate that properties of the BE isoforms. This study present s the first evidence that the BE isoforms differ in their action on amylopectin. BEI has the highest activity in branching amylose, but its rate of branching amylopectin was less than 5% of that of branching amylose. Conversely, BEII isoforms had lower rates in branching amylose (about 9--12% of that of BEI) and had higher rates of branching amylopectin (about 6-fold) than BEI. The implication of these findings to the mechanism of amylopectin synthesis in vivo are discussed. 21 refs., 1 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Photosynthetic Independence of Light-induced Anthocyanin Formation in Zea Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Stephen O.; Fox, Sue B.; Naylor, Aubrey W.

    1976-01-01

    Results are reported which support the view that the photosynthetic photosystems are not involved in the high irradiance response (HIR) phenomenon of light-dependent anthocyanin biosynthesis in dark-grown Zea mays L. seedlings. A negative correlation between change in greening rates and change in light-dependent anthocyanin accumulation rates with age was demonstrated. Lack of chlorophyll synthesis in a strain of maize possessing a temperature-sensitive lesion for chlorophyll synthesis could not be correlated with light-induced anthocyanin accumulation. Furthermore, seedlings totally lacking photosynthetic capabilities, either due to a genetic lesion or to excision of all photosynthetic tissue, had an enhanced rate of photoinduced anthocyanin formation. This evidence indicates that the HIR results in the initiation of processes that are in competition with chloroplast development for substrate in normal, intact seedlings. PMID:16659449

  14. Root graviresponsiveness and columella cell structure in carotenoid-deficient seedlings of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; McClelen, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    Root graviresponsiveness in normal and carotenoid-deficient mutant seedlings of Zea mays was not significantly different. Columella cells in roots of mutant seedlings were characterized by fewer, smaller, and a reduced relative volume of plastids as compared to columella cells of normal seedlings. Plastids in columella cells of mutant seedlings possessed reduced amounts of starch. Although approximately 10 per cent of the columella cells in mutant seedlings lacked starch, their plastids were located at the bottom of the cell. These results suggest that (i) carotenoids are not necessary for root gravitropism, (ii) graviresponsiveness is not necessarily proportional to the size, number, or relative volume of plastids in columella cells, and (iii) sedimentation of plastids in columella cells may not result directly from their increased density due to starch content. Plastids in columella cells of normal and mutant seedlings were associated with bands of microtubule-like structures, suggesting that these structures may be involved in 'positioning' plastids in the cell.

  15. Arabidopsis Thaliana and Zea Mays Data from the Plant Proteome Database (PPDB) at Cornell University

    DOE Data Explorer

    The main objective is to provide a centralized, curated, data deposit for predicted and experimentally determined proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana and maize (Zea mays), their annotated functions, as well as their experimental and predicted molecular and biophysical properties. Importantly, information from mass spectrometry-based identifications is available for each identified protein accession; this will allow the database user to determine the significance the experimental identification and also evaluate information of post-translational modification. Multiple search methods are provided so that the user can retrieve information based on gene identification number, functional annotation or various protein properties. Initiated in 2004, PPDB was originally dedicated to plant plastids, but has now expanded to the whole plant proteome. The database includes data generated in Cornell labs, external published data sets, and deposited data from contributors.[Taken from PPDB website at http://ppdb.tc.cornell.edu/introduction.aspx

  16. Oxidative damage and cell-programmed death induced in Zea mays L. by allelochemical stress.

    PubMed

    Ciniglia, Claudia; Mastrobuoni, Francesco; Scortichini, Marco; Petriccione, Milena

    2015-05-01

    The allelochemical stress on Zea mays was analyzed by using walnut husk washing waters (WHWW), a by-product of Juglans regia post-harvest process, which possesses strong allelopathic potential and phytotoxic effects. Oxidative damage and cell-programmed death were induced by WHWW in roots of maize seedlings. Treatment induced ROS burst, with excess of H2O2 content. Enzymatic activities of catalase were strongly increased during the first hours of exposure. The excess in malonildialdehyde following exposure to WHWW confirmed that oxidative stress severely damaged maize roots. Membrane alteration caused a decrease in NADPH oxidase activity along with DNA damage as confirmed by DNA laddering. The DNA instability was also assessed through sequence-related amplified polymorphism assay, thus suggesting the danger of walnut processing by-product and focusing the attention on the necessity of an efficient treatment of WHWW. PMID:25736610

  17. Efficient isolation, purification, and characterization of the Helicoverpa zea VHDL receptor.

    PubMed

    Persaud, Deryck R; Yousefi, Vandad; Haunerland, Norbert

    2003-12-01

    The study of fat body receptors (e.g., VHDL receptor) in Lepidoptera has been irksome due to the fact that isolation and purification of these proteins are difficult and resulted in extremely low yields. A rapid and efficient method is presented for the purification of Helicoverpa zea VHDL receptor by the use of VHDL-biotin ligand complexed to streptavidin coated magnetic beads. The technique can be easily applied to other ligands and allows for the purification of membrane proteins with higher yields compared to previously used methods involving immunopurification. Although the purified protein can be characterized by Western and non-radioactive ligand blots using enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL), a non-radioactive ligand blot method using VHDL-FITC is presented, which allows for the quick analysis of the receptor directly from the blot under standard UV light. Sufficient receptor protein has been derived for amino acid analysis, receptor-ligand and xenobiotic binding studies. PMID:14965772

  18. Classification, genetic variation, and biological activity of nucleopolyhedrovirus samples from larvae of the heliothine pests heliothis virescens, helicoverpa zea, and helicoverpa armigera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A PCR-based method was used to classify 109 isolates of nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV; Baculoviridae: Alphabaculovirus) collected worldwide from larvae of Heliothis virescens, Helicoverpa zea, and Helicoverpa armigera. Partial nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of three highly conserved ge...

  19. Auxin Transport in Zea mays Coleoptiles II. Influence of Light on the Transport of Indoleacetic Acid-2-C.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, S M; Gordon, S A

    1967-01-01

    The effect of bilateral irradiation with white light (1000 Meter Candle Sec) on the basipetal transport of auxin has been investigated. Illumination of either the intact shoot or the excised coleoptile tip of the Zea seedling, decreased the amount of diffusible auxin obtained from the tip, and decreased Avena curvature response to unilaterally applied indoleacetic acid. Irradiation of the intact Zea seedling did not affect the absorption of (14)C-labeled indoleacetic acid from an agar block subsequently placed on the decapitated coleoptile. However, light caused a significant decrease in the amount of labeled auxin basipetally transported, without affecting materially the velocity of that transport. These and other observations are interpreted as support for the hypothesis that the primary hormonal phenomenon in first-positive phototropism is a light-induced impairment in the basipetal transport of auxin. PMID:16656477

  20. Influence of Dual-Bt Protein Corn on Bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), Survivorship on Bollgard II Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Gore, J.; Catchot, A.; Cook, D.; Musser, F.; Caprio, M.

    2016-01-01

    Similar Cry proteins are expressed in both Bt corn, Zea mays L., and cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), commercial production systems. At least one generation of corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), completes development on field corn in the Mid-South before dispersing across the landscape into other crop hosts like cotton. A concern is that Bt corn hybrids may result in selection for H. zea populations with a higher probability of causing damage to Bt cotton. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of H. zea offspring from moths that developed on non-Bt and VT Triple Pro (VT3 PRO) field corn to lyophilized Bollgard II cotton tissue expressing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab. Offspring of individuals reared on VT3 PRO expressing Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab had a significantly higher LC50 two out of the three years this study was conducted. Excess larvae were placed on artificial diet and allowed to pupate to determine if there were any inheritable fitness costs associated with parental development on VT3 PRO corn. Offspring resulting from males collected from VT3 PRO had significantly lower pupal weight and longer pupal duration compared with offspring of individuals collected from non-Bt corn. However, offspring from females collected from VT3 PRO were not different from non-Bt offspring. Paternal influence on offspring in insects is not commonly observed, but illustrates the side effects of development on a transgenic plant expressing less than a high dose, 25 times the concentration needed to kill susceptible larvae. PMID:26809264

  1. Influence of Dual-Bt Protein Corn on Bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), Survivorship on Bollgard II Cotton.

    PubMed

    Von Kanel, M B; Gore, J; Catchot, A; Cook, D; Musser, F; Caprio, M

    2016-04-01

    Similar Cry proteins are expressed in both Bt corn, Zea mays L., and cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), commercial production systems. At least one generation of corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), completes development on field corn in the Mid-South before dispersing across the landscape into other crop hosts like cotton. A concern is that Bt corn hybrids may result in selection for H. zea populations with a higher probability of causing damage to Bt cotton. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of H. zea offspring from moths that developed on non-Bt and VT Triple Pro (VT3 PRO) field corn to lyophilized Bollgard II cotton tissue expressing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab. Offspring of individuals reared on VT3 PRO expressing Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab had a significantly higher LC50 two out of the three years this study was conducted. Excess larvae were placed on artificial diet and allowed to pupate to determine if there were any inheritable fitness costs associated with parental development on VT3 PRO corn. Offspring resulting from males collected from VT3 PRO had significantly lower pupal weight and longer pupal duration compared with offspring of individuals collected from non-Bt corn. However, offspring from females collected from VT3 PRO were not different from non-Bt offspring. Paternal influence on offspring in insects is not commonly observed, but illustrates the side effects of development on a transgenic plant expressing less than a high dose, 25 times the concentration needed to kill susceptible larvae. PMID:26809264

  2. APN1 is a functional receptor of Cry1Ac but not Cry2Ab in Helicoverpa zea

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jizhen; Zhang, Min; Liang, Gemei; Wu, Kongming; Guo, Yuyuan; Ni, Xinzhi; Li, Xianchun

    2016-01-01

    Lepidopteran midgut aminopeptidases N (APNs) are phylogenetically divided into eight clusters, designated as APN1–8. Although APN1 has been implicated as one of the receptors for Cry1Ac in several species, its potential role in the mode of action of Cry2Ab has not been functionally determined so far. To test whether APN1 also acts as one of the receptors for Cry1Ac in Helicoverpa zea and even for Cry2Ab in this species, we conducted a gain of function analysis by heterologously expressing H. zea APN1 (HzAPN1) in the midgut and fat body cell lines of H. zea and the ovarian cell line of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) and a loss of function analysis by RNAi (RNA interference) silencing of the endogenous APN1 in the three cell lines using the HzAPN1 double strand RNA (dsRNA). Heterologous expression of HzAPN1 significantly increased the susceptibility of the three cell lines to Cry1Ac, but had no effects on their susceptibility to Cry2Ab. Knocking down of the endogenous APN1 made the three cell lines resistant to Cry1Ac, but didn’t change cell lines susceptibility to Cry2Ab. The findings from this study demonstrate that HzAPN1 is a functional receptor of Cry1Ac, but not Cry2Ab. PMID:26755166

  3. Managing the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis, and Corn Earworm, Helicoverpa zea, using Bt Corn and Insecticide Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Juliano R.; Costa, Ervandil C.; Guedes, Jerson V. C.; Arbage, Alessandro P.; Neto, Armando B.; Bigolin, Mauricio; Pinto, Felipe F.

    2013-01-01

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are important pests of corn in Brazil and have not been successfully managed, because of the difficulty of managing them with pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Bt corn MON810, transformed with a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) insecticide seed treatment, and foliar insecticide spray using treatments developed for control of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is the major pest of corn. The experiments were done under field conditions in early- and late-planted corn in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and in the laboratory. The MON810 corn reduced infestations and damage by D. saccharalis and H. zea. The insecticides used in seed treatments or foliar sprays did not affect D. saccharalis and H. zea infestations or damage levels. The exception was the insecticide seed treatment in non-transformed corn, which reduced early infestations of D. saccharalis. The MON810 corn, therefore, can be used for managing these two pest species, especially D. saccharalis. PMID:24735131

  4. Managing the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, using Bt corn and insecticide treatments.

    PubMed

    Farias, Juliano R; Costa, Ervandil C; Guedes, Jerson V C; Arbage, Alessandro P; Neto, Armando B; Bigolin, Mauricio; Pinto, Felipe F

    2013-01-01

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are important pests of corn in Brazil and have not been successfully managed, because of the difficulty of managing them with pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Bt corn MON810, transformed with a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) insecticide seed treatment, and foliar insecticide spray using treatments developed for control of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is the major pest of corn. The experiments were done under field conditions in early- and late-planted corn in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and in the laboratory. The MON810 corn reduced infestations and damage by D. saccharalis and H. zea. The insecticides used in seed treatments or foliar sprays did not affect D. saccharalis and H. zea infestations or damage levels. The exception was the insecticide seed treatment in non-transformed corn, which reduced early infestations of D. saccharalis. The MON810 corn, therefore, can be used for managing these two pest species, especially D. saccharalis. PMID:24735131

  5. Cross-species amplification and polymorphism of microsatellite loci in Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Brazilian cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Leite, N A; Corrêa, A S; Alves-Pereira, A; Campos, J B; Zucchi, M I; Omoto, C

    2016-01-01

    The Old World bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) was recently discovered in Brazil. This species is closely related to the New World bollworm H. zea (Boddie), and mating between these species has already been reported under laboratory conditions. Here, we tested the cross-species amplification of 20 microsatellite (SSR) loci in field populations of H. armigera and H. zea collected from Brazilian cropping systems. Seven SSR loci were successfully amplified and polymorphic in both species except for the locus HaC14, which was monomorphic for H. zea. All SSR loci were in linkage equilibrium, and deviations from Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium were only observed for the locus HarSSR1 in the HaRS-2 population, where null alleles were present. A moderate level of polymorphism was detected in H. armigera and H. zea populations with a mean allele number of 4.14, and 2.24, respectively. Interestingly, most of the populations of the recent invader H. armigera showed higher genetic diversity and inbreeding coefficients than H. zea populations. The genetic identity of each species was recovered using a STRUCTURE analysis, where the populations formed two clusters (K = 2) according to their species. STRUCTURE also suggested the occurrence of potential hybrid offspring between H. armigera and H. zea individuals in natural conditions. These SSR loci will be valuable in characterizing population differentiation, invasion routes, adaptation, reproductive behavior, and intra- and interspecific gene flow in H. armigera and H. zea populations in Brazil, the USA, and other areas where these two pests occur. PMID:27173200

  6. Similarity of the Cin1 repetitive family of Zea mays to eukaryotic transposable elements.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, N S; Schwarz-Sommer, Z; Blumberg vel Spalve, J; Gupta, M; Wienand, U; Saedler, H

    It has been suggested that the middle repetitive class of sequences that make up a large proportion of the eukaryotic genome have been amplified and dispersed by DNA transposition. Transposition is a phenomenon first postulated by Barbara McClintock on the basis of her genetic analysis of mutants in Zea mays. Since then, DNA transposition has been studied genetically in various plant systems and is well documented on the molecular level in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. This has included the isolation of DNA inserts at various loci in several plants; however, the prevalence of transposition in plants is not established. We report here DNA nucleotide sequence data which show that some members of the Cin1 middle repetitive family of maize have features characteristic of known transposable elements. One cloned Cin1 repeat has a 6-base pair (bp) perfect inverted repeat sequence at its ends. The terminal five base pairs (5' TGTTG . . . CAACA 3') are identical to the termini of Drosophila copia transposable elements. Two other Cin1 alleles are flanked by 5-bp direct repeats. A comparison is made with the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the copia-Ty1-retrovirus families of moveable genetic elements. PMID:6318125

  7. Effects of experimental warming on stomatal traits in leaves of maize (Zea may L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yunpu; Xu, Ming; Hou, Ruixing; Shen, Ruichang; Qiu, Shuai; Ouyang, Zhu

    2013-01-01

    We examined the warming effects on the stomatal frequency, stomatal aperture size and shape, and their spatial distribution pattern of maize (Zea may L.) leaves using a light microscope, an electron scanning microscope, and geostatistic techniques. A field manipulative experiment was conducted to elevate canopy temperature by 2.08°C, on average. We found that experimental warming had little effect on stomatal density, but significantly increased stomatal index due to the reduction in the number of epidermal cells under the warming treatment. Warming also significantly decreased stomatal aperture length and increased stomatal aperture width. As a result, warming significantly increased the average stomatal aperture area and stomatal aperture circumference. In addition, warming dramatically changed the stomatal spatial distribution pattern with a substantial increase in the average nearest neighbor distance between stomata on both adaxial and abaxial surfaces. The spatial distribution pattern of stomata was scale dependent with regular patterns at small scales and random patterns at larger scales on both leaf surfaces. Warming caused the stomatal distribution to become more regular on both leaf surfaces with smaller L(t) values (Ripley's K-function, L(t) is an expectation of zero for any value of t) in the warming plots than the control plots. PMID:24101997

  8. Detection of Cell Wall Chemical Variation in Zea Mays Mutants Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Buyck, N.; Thomas, S.

    2001-01-01

    Corn stover is regarded as the prime candidate feedstock material for commercial biomass conversion in the United States. Variations in chemical composition of Zea mays cell walls can affect biomass conversion process yields and economics. Mutant lines were constructed by activating a Mu transposon system. The cell wall chemical composition of 48 mutant families was characterized using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. NIR data were analyzed using a multivariate statistical analysis technique called Principal Component Analysis (PCA). PCA of the NIR data from 349 maize leaf samples reveals 57 individuals as outliers on one or more of six Principal Components (PCs) at the 95% confidence interval. Of these, 19 individuals from 16 families are outliers on either PC3 (9% of the variation) or PC6 (1% of the variation), the two PCs that contain information about cell wall polymers. Those individuals for which altered cell wall chemistry is confirmed with wet chemical analysis will then be subjected to fermentation analysis to determine whether or not biomass conversion process kinetics, yields and/or economics are significantly affected. Those mutants that provide indications for a decrease in process cost will be pursued further to identify the gene(s) responsible for the observed changes in cell wall composition and associated changes in process economics. These genes will eventually be incorporated into maize breeding programs directed at the development of a truly dual use crop.

  9. Calcium-regulated in vivo protein phosphorylation in Zea mays L. root tips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raghothama, K. G.; Reddy, A. S.; Friedmann, M.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1987-01-01

    Calcium dependent protein phosphorylation was studied in corn (Zea mays L.) root tips. Prior to in vivo protein phosphorylation experiments, the effect of calcium, ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N-N' -tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and calcium ionophore (A-23187) on phosphorus uptake was studied. Calcium increased phosphorus uptake, whereas EGTA and A-23187 decreased it. Consequently, phosphorus concentration in the media was adjusted so as to attain similar uptake in different treatments. Phosphoproteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Distinct changes in phosphorylation were observed following altered calcium levels. Calcium depletion in root tips with EGTA and A-23187 decreased protein phosphorylation. However, replenishment of calcium following EGTA and ionophore pretreatment enhanced phosphorylation of proteins. Preloading of the root tips with 32P in the presence of EGTA and A-23187 followed by a ten minute calcium treatment, resulted in increased phosphorylation indicating the involvement of calcium, calcium and calmodulin-dependent kinases. Calmodulin antagonist W-7 was effective in inhibiting calcium-promoted phosphorylation. These studies suggest a physiological role for calcium-dependent phosphorylation in calcium-mediated processes in plants.

  10. A seed mixture increases dominance of resistance to Bt cotton in Helicoverpa zea.

    PubMed

    Brévault, Thierry; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Carrière, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Widely grown transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) can benefit agriculture, but adaptation by pests threatens their continued success. Refuges of host plants that do not make Bt toxins can promote survival of susceptible insects and delay evolution of resistance, particularly if resistance is inherited as a recessive trait. However, data have been lacking to compare the dominance of resistance when Bt and non-Bt seeds are planted in random mixtures versus separate blocks. Here we report results from greenhouse experiments with transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac and the bollworm, Helicoverpa zea, showing that the dominance of resistance was significantly higher in a seed mixture relative to a block of Bt cotton. The proportion of larvae on non-Bt cotton plants in the seed mixture was also significantly higher than expected under the null hypothesis of random distribution. In simulations based on observed survival, resistance evolved 2- to 4.5-fold faster in the seed mixture relative to separate blocks of Bt and non-Bt cotton. These findings support previous modelling results indicating that block refuges may be more effective than seed mixtures for delaying resistance in pests with mobile larvae and inherently low susceptibility to the toxins in Bt crops. PMID:25950459

  11. Estimation of in-canopy ammonia sources and sinks in a fertilized Zea mays field.

    PubMed

    Bash, Jesse O; Walker, John T; Katul, Gabriel G; Jones, Matthew R; Nemitz, Eiko; Robarge, Wayne P

    2010-03-01

    An analytical model was developed to describe in-canopy vertical distribution of ammonia (NH(3)) sources and sinks and vertical fluxes in a fertilized agricultural setting using measured in-canopy mean NH(3) concentration and wind speed profiles. This model was applied to quantify in-canopy air-surface exchange rates and above-canopy NH(3) fluxes in a fertilized corn (Zea mays) field. Modeled air-canopy NH(3) fluxes agreed well with independent above-canopy flux estimates. Based on the model results, the urea fertilized soil surface was a consistent source of NH(3) one month following the fertilizer application, whereas the vegetation canopy was typically a net NH(3) sink with the lower portion of the canopy being a constant sink. The model results suggested that the canopy was a sink for some 70% of the estimated soil NH(3) emissions. A logical conclusion is that parametrization of within-canopy processes in air quality models are necessary to explore the impact of agricultural field level management practices on regional air quality. Moreover, there are agronomic and environmental benefits to timing liquid fertilizer applications as close to canopy closure as possible. Finally, given the large within-canopy mean NH(3) concentration gradients in such agricultural settings, a discussion about the suitability of the proposed model is also presented. PMID:20104891

  12. Rmr6 Maintains Meiotic Inheritance of Paramutant States in Zea mays

    PubMed Central

    Hollick, Jay B.; Kermicle, Jerry L.; Parkinson, Susan E.

    2005-01-01

    Paramutation generates heritable changes affecting regulation of specific alleles found at several Zea mays (maize) loci that encode transcriptional regulators of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes. Although the direction and extent of paramutation is influenced by poorly understood allelic interactions occurring in diploid sporophytes, two required to maintain repression loci (rmr1 and rmr2), as well as mediator of paramutation1 (mop1), affect this process at the purple plant1 (pl1) locus. Here we show that the rmr6 locus is required for faithful transmission of weakly expressed paramutant states previously established at both pl1 and red1 (r1) loci. Transcriptional repression occurring at both pl1 and booster1 (b1) loci as a result of paramutation also requires Rmr6 action. Reversions to highly expressed, nonparamutant states at both r1 and pl1 occur in plants homozygous for rmr6 mutations. Pedigree analysis of reverted pl1 alleles reveals variable latent susceptibilities to spontaneous paramutation in future generations, suggesting a quantitative nature of Rmr6-based alterations. Genetic tests demonstrate that Rmr6 encodes a common component required for establishing paramutations at diverse maize loci. Our analyses at pl1 and r1 suggest that this establishment requires Rmr6-dependent somatic maintenance of meiotically heritable epigenetic marks. PMID:16020780

  13. Identification of polysaccharide hydrolases involved in autolytic degradation of Zea cell walls

    SciTech Connect

    Nock, L.P.; Smith, C.J. )

    1987-08-01

    Cell walls of Zea mays (cv L.G.11) seedlings labeled with {sup 14}C were treated with {alpha}-amylase from Bacillus subtilis to remove starch and mixed linkage glucans. These walls released arabinose, xylose, galactose, and galacturonic acid in addition to glucose when they were allowed to autolyze. Methylation analysis was performed on samples of wall which had been incubated autolytically and the results indicated that degradation of the major polymer of the wall, the glucoarabinoxylan, had occurred. A number of glycanases could be dissociated from the wall by use of 3 M LiCL. The proteins which were released were found to contain a number of exoglycosidase activities in addition to being effective in degrading the polysaccharide substrates, araban, xylan, galactan, laminarin, mannan, and polygalacturonic acid. The effects of these enzymes on the wall during autolysis appear to result from endo-activity in addition to exo-activity. The structural changes that occurred in the cell walls during autolysis were found to be related to the changes previously found to occur in cell walls during auxin induced extension.

  14. Open Field Study of Some Zea mays Hybrids, Lipid Compounds and Fumonisins Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Giorni, Paola; Dall’Asta, Chiara; Reverberi, Massimo; Scala, Valeria; Ludovici, Matteo; Cirlini, Martina; Galaverna, Gianni; Fanelli, Corrado; Battilani, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Lipid molecules are increasingly recognized as signals exchanged by organisms interacting in pathogenic and/or symbiotic ways. Some classes of lipids actively determine the fate of the interactions. Host cuticle/cell wall/membrane components such as sphingolipids and oxylipins may contribute to determining the fate of host–pathogen interactions. In the present field study, we considered the relationship between specific sphingolipids and oxylipins of different hybrids of Zea mays and fumonisin by F. verticillioides, sampling ears at different growth stages from early dough to fully ripe. The amount of total and free fumonisin differed significantly between hybrids and increased significantly with maize ripening. Oxylipins and phytoceramides changed significantly within the hybrids and decreased with kernel maturation, starting from physiological maturity. Although the correlation between fumonisin accumulation and plant lipid profile is certain, the data collected so far cannot define a cause-effect relationship but open up new perspectives. Therefore, the question—“Does fumonisin alter plant lipidome or does plant lipidome modulate fumonisin accumulation?”—is still open. PMID:26378580

  15. Comparative effectiveness of metal ions in inducing curvature of primary roots of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasenstein, K. H.; Evans, M. L.; Stinemetz, C. L.; Moore, R.; Fondren, W. M.; Koon, E. C.; Higby, M. A.; Smucker, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    We used five cultivars of Zea mays (Bear Hybrid WF9 * 38MS, B73 * Missouri 17, Yellow Dent, Merit, and Great Lakes Hybrid 422) to reinvestigate the specificity of metal ions for inducing root curvature. Of 17 cations tested, 6 (Al3+, Ba2+, Ca2+, Cd2+, Cu2+, Zn2+) induced curvature. Roots curved away from Al3+, Ba2+, and Cd2+. Roots curved away from low (0.1 millimolar) concentrations of Cu2+ but toward higher (1-5 millimolar) concentrations. Roots initially curved away from Zn2+ but the direction of the subsequent curvature was unpredictable. In most cases, roots of all cultivars curved towards calcium. However, in some tests there was no response to calcium or even (especially in the cultivars Merit and B73 * Missouri 17) substantial curvature away from calcium. The results indicate that the induction of root curvature is not specific for calcium. The results are discussed relative to the possible role of calmodulin as a mediator of ion-induced root curvature.

  16. Asymmetric distribution of glucose and indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol in geostimulated Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momonoki, Y. S.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol occurs in both the kernel and vegetative shoot of germinating Zea mays seedlings. The effect of a gravitational stimulus on the transport of [3H]-5-indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and [U-14C]-D-glucose from the kernel to the seedling shoot was studied. Both labeled glucose and labeled indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol become asymmetrically distributed in the mesocotyl cortex of the shoot with more radioactivity occurring in the bottom half of a horizontally placed seedling. Asymmetric distribution of [3H]indole-3-acetic acid, derived from the applied [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol, occurred more rapidly than distribution of total 3H-radioactivity. These findings demonstrate that the gravitational stimulus can induce an asymmetric distribution of substances being transported from kernel to shoot. They also indicate that, in addition to the transport asymmetry, gravity affects the steady state amount of indole-3-acetic acid derived from indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol.

  17. Morphometric analysis of epidermal differentiation in primary roots of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; Smith, H. S.

    1990-01-01

    Epidermal differentiation in primary roots of Zea mays was divided into six cell types based on cellular shape and cytoplasmic appearance. These six cell types are: 1) apical protoderm, located at the tip of the root pole and characterized by periclinally flattened cells; 2) cuboidal protoderm, located approximately 230 microns from the root pole and characterized by cuboidal cells; 3) tabular epidermis, located approximately 450 microns from the root pole and characterized by anticlinally flattened cells; 4) cuboidal epidermis, located approximately 900 microns from the root pole and characterized by cuboidal cells having numerous small vacuoles; 5) vacuolate cuboidal epidermis, located approximately 1,500 microns from the root pole and characterized by cuboidal cells containing several large vacuoles; and 6) columnar epidermis, located approximately 2,200 microns from the root pole (i.e., at the beginning of the zone of elongation) and characterized by elongated cells. We also used stereology to quantify the cellular changes associated with epidermal differentiation. The quiescent center and the apical protoderm have significantly different ultrastructures. The relative volume of dictyosomes increases dramatically during the early stages of epidermal differentiation. This increase correlates inversely with the amount of coverage provided by the root cap and mucilage.

  18. Effect of a longitudinally applied voltage upon the growth of Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desrosiers, M. F.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    The electrical parameters that affect young seedling growth were investigated. Voltages ranging from 5 to 40 volts were applied longitudinally along the mesocotyl region of 4-day old Zea mays L. (cv Silver Queen) seedlings for periods of 3 or 4 hours. It was determined that: (a) making the tips of the seedlings electrically positive relative to the base strongly inhibited shoot growth at 5 volts, whereas the reverse polarity had no effect; (b) at higher voltages, making the tip of the seedlings negative caused less growth inhibition than the reverse polarity at each voltage level; (c) the higher the applied voltage the greater the degree of inhibition; and, (d) the more growth inhibition experienced by the plants the poorer, and slower, their recovery. Previous observations of a relationship between the amount of free indole-3-acetic acid in the mesocotyl cortex and the growth rate of the mesocotyl and of gravitropism-induced movement of labeled indole-3-acetic acid from the seed to the shoot lead to the prediction of a voltage-dependent gating of the movement of indole-3-acetic acid from the stele to the cortex. This provided the basis for attempting to alter the growth rate of seedlings by means of an applied voltage.

  19. Depth Profiles in Maize ( Zea mays L.) Seeds Studied by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Aguilar, C.; Domínguez-Pacheco, A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Zepeda-Bautista, R.

    2015-06-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) has been used to analyze agricultural seeds and can be applied to the study of seed depth profiles of these complex samples composed of different structures. The sample depth profile can be obtained through the photoacoustic (PA) signal, amplitude, and phase at different light modulation frequencies. The PA signal phase is more sensitive to changes of thermal properties in layered samples than the PA signal amplitude. Hence, the PA signal phase can also be used to characterize layers at different depths. Thus, the objective of the present study was to obtain the optical absorption spectra of maize seeds ( Zea mays L.) by means of PAS at different light modulation frequencies (17 Hz, 30 Hz, and 50 Hz) and comparing these spectra with the ones obtained from the phase-resolved method in order to separate the optical absorption spectra of seed pericarp and endosperm. The results suggest the possibility of using the phase-resolved method to obtain optical absorption spectra of different seed structures, at different depths, without damaging the seed. Thus, PAS could be a nondestructive method for characterization of agricultural seeds and thus improve quality control in the food industry.

  20. Cytochemical localization of calcium in cap cells of primary roots of Zea mays L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of calcium (Ca) in caps of vertically- and horizontally-oriented roots of Zea mays was monitored to determine its possible role in root graviresponsiveness. A modification of the antimonate precipitation procedure was used to localize Ca in situ. In vertically-oriented roots, the presumed graviperceptive (i.e., columella) cells were characterized by minimal and symmetric staining of the plasmalemma and mitochondria. No precipitate was present in plasmodesmata or cell walls. Within 5 min after horizontal reorientation, staining was associated with the portion of the cell wall adjacent to the distal end of the cell. This asymmetric staining persisted throughout the onset of gravicurvature. No staining of lateral cell walls of columella cells was observed at any stage of gravicurvature, suggesting that a lateral flow of Ca through the columella tissue of horizontally-oriented roots does not occur. The outermost peripheral cells of roots oriented horizontally and vertically secrete Ca through plasmodesmata-like structures in their cell walls. These results are discussed relative to proposed roles of root-cap Ca in root gravicurvature.

  1. Exogenous melatonin improves corn (Zea mays L.) embryo proteome in seeds subjected to chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Kołodziejczyk, Izabela; Dzitko, Katarzyna; Szewczyk, Rafał; Posmyk, Małgorzata M

    2016-04-01

    Melatonin (MEL; N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) plays an important role in plant stress defense. Various plant species rich in this indoleamine have shown a higher capacity for stress tolerance. Moreover, it has great potential for plant biostimulation, is biodegradable and non-toxic for the environment. All this indicates that our concept of seed enrichment with exogenous MEL is justified. This work concerns the effects of corn (Zea mays L.) seed pre-sowing treatments supplemented with MEL. Non-treated seeds (nt), and those hydroprimed with water (H) or with MEL solutions 50 and 500 μM (HMel50, HMel500) were compared. Positive effects of seed priming are particularly apparent during germination under suboptimal conditions. The impact of MEL applied by priming on seed protein profiles during imbibition/germination at low temperature has not been investigated to date. In order to identify changes in the corn seed proteome after applying hydropriming techniques, purified protein extracts of chilling stressed seed embryos (14 days, 5°C) were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Then proteome maps were graphically and statistically compared and selected protein spots were qualitatively analyzed using mass spectrometry techniques and identified. This study aimed to analyze the priming-induced changes in maize embryo proteome and at identifying priming-associated and MEL-associated proteins in maize seeds subjected to chilling. We attempt to explain how MEL expands plant capacity for stress tolerance. PMID:26945210

  2. Proteome Changes in Maize Embryo (Zea mays L) Induced by Ion Beam Implantation Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongliang; Tang, Jihua; Qin, Guangyong; Huo, Yuping; Tian, Shuangqi

    2009-08-01

    Low energy ion beam implantation was applied to the maize (Zea mays L) embryo proteome using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein profile analysis detected more than 1100 protein spots, 72 of which were determined to be expressed differently in the treated and control (not exposed to ion beam implantation) embryos. Of the 72 protein spots, 53 were up-regulated in the control and 19 were more abundantly expressed in the ion beam-treated embryos. The spots of up- or down-regulated proteins were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Among the identified proteins, 11 were up-regulated in the treated embryos. Four of these up-regulated proteins were antioxidant molecules, three were related to stress response, two to sugar metabolism and two were associated with heat shock response. Of the five proteins up-regulated in the control embryos, three were functionally related to carbohydrate metabolism; the functions of the remaining two proteins were unknown. The data collected during this study indicate that treatment of maize embryos with low energy ion beam implantation induces changes in stress tolerance enzymes/proteins, possibly as a result of alterations in metabolism.

  3. Bronze-2 Gene Expression and Intron Splicing Patterns in Cells and Tissues of Zea mays L.

    PubMed

    Nash, J; Walbot, V

    1992-09-01

    A large fraction of the transcripts of the Bronze-2 (Bz2) gene of maize (Zea mays L.) are unspliced in purple husk tissues. The accumulation of unspliced messages could have destructive potential if the intron-bearing mRNAs are translated into aberrant proteins. Our initial studies suggested that both genetic and physiological factors may influence the degree of splicing failure. Nuclear background rather than cis-sequence effects is shown to contribute to the genetic component. The accumulation of unspliced message does not appear to be directly influenced by diurnal effects on transcript abundance, by the expression level of the Bz2 gene, or by thermal stress. We also show that maize cell cultures (Black Mexican Sweet, BMS) can be used to examine the molecular details involved in splicing failure. Much like whole maize plants, the BMS cells excise the Bz2 intron with varying degrees of efficiency. In contrast with heterologous constructs containing plant introns, splicing of the native Bz2 intron can appproach 100% in BMS cells. Splicing of transcripts from a marked, introduced gene can be compared to the endogeneous Bz2 gene facilitating analysis of the impact of sequence changes. PMID:16652984

  4. Composition and thermal stability of anthocyanins from chinese purple corn ( Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoyan; Corrales, Margarita; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Xiaosong; Ma, Yue; Tauscher, Bernhard

    2008-11-26

    Chinese purple corn extracts ( Zea mays L., Zhuozhou, Hebei, China) (EZPC) were selected among five Chinese purple corn hybrids due to their higher anthocyanin content, and their thermal stability was evaluated. The total anthocyanin content and total phenolic content of EZPC were 304.5 +/- 16.32 mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside equiv/100 g of dry seeds and 489.8 +/- 24.90 mg of gallic acid equiv/100 g of dry seeds, respectively. Moreover, the individual anthocyanins of EZPC were determined by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS analysis. Seven main compounds were determined, including cyanidin-3-(malonylglucoside), cyanidin-3-O-glucoside-2-malonylglucoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, peonidin-3-O-glucoside, peonidin-3-(malonylglucoside), pelargonidin-3-(6''-malonylglucoside), and peonidin-3-(dimalonylglucoside). The thermal stability of EZPC was studied by differential scanning calorimetry. Thermodynamic analysis showed that the conversion of EZPC followed an Arrhenius relationship, where the delta enthalpy (H) and activation energy (E(a)) were 97.0 J/g and 204 +/- 2.72 kJ/mol, respectively. Furthermore, the relationships between the degree of conversion of EZPC and time or temperature were reported. This study demonstrated that the evaluated Chinese purple corn hybrids are a natural source of anthocyanins and are stable over a wide range of temperatures and times. PMID:18950186

  5. Effects of growing conditions on purple corncob (Zea mays L.) anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Jing, Pu; Noriega, Victor; Schwartz, Steven J; Giusti, M Mónica

    2007-10-17

    Purple corn ( Zea mays L.) has been used for centuries as a natural food colorant in South America and, more recently, in Asia and Europe. However, limited information is available on the factors affecting their anthocyanin concentration and profiles. In this study, 18 purple corn samples grown under different conditions in Peru were evaluated for quantitative and qualitative anthocyanin composition as well as total phenolics. High variability was observed on monomeric anthocyanin and phenolic contents with yields ranging from 290 to 1333 mg/100 g dry weight (DW) and from 950 to 3516 mg/100 g DW, respectively, while 30.5-47.1% of the total phenolics were anthocyanins. The major anthocyanins present were cyanidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-maloylglucoside, pelargonidin-3-maloylglucoside, and peonidin-3-maloylglucoside, and 35.6-54.0% of the anthocyanins were acylated. Potassium sources/concentrations on the soil and seedling density did not significantly affect anthocyanin composition. The growing location affected anthocyanin levels and the percentage of anthocyanins to total phenolics ( p < 0.01) and should be taken into account when choosing a material for color production. PMID:17880157

  6. Molecular cloning of the c locus of Zea mays: a locus regulating the anthocyanin pathway.

    PubMed

    Paz-Ares, J; Wienand, U; Peterson, P A; Saedler, H

    1986-05-01

    The c locus of Zea mays, involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis, has been cloned by transposon tagging. A clone (# 18En) containing a full size En1 element was initially isolated from the En element-induced mutable allele c-m668655. Sequences of clone # 18En flanking the En1 element were used to clone other c mutants, whose structure was predicted genetically. Clone #23En (isolated from c-m668613) contained a full size En1 element, clone #3Ds (isolated from c-m2) a Ds element and clone # 5 (isolated from c+) had no element on the cloned fragment. From these data we conclude that the clones obtained contain at least part of the c locus. Preliminary data on transcript analysis using a 1-kb DNA fragment from wild-type clone # 5 showed that at least three transcripts are encoded by that part of the locus, indicating that c is a complex locus. PMID:15957214

  7. Patterns of DNA sequence polymorphism along chromosome 1 of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Tenaillon, Maud I.; Sawkins, Mark C.; Long, Anthony D.; Gaut, Rebecca L.; Doebley, John F.; Gaut, Brandon S.

    2001-01-01

    We measured sequence diversity in 21 loci distributed along chromosome 1 of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays L.). For each locus, we sequenced a common sample of 25 individuals representing 16 exotic landraces and nine U.S. inbred lines. The data indicated that maize has an average of one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) every 104 bp between two randomly sampled sequences, a level of diversity higher than that of either humans or Drosophila melanogaster. A comparison of genetic diversity between the landrace and inbred samples showed that inbreds retained 77% of the level of diversity of landraces, on average. In addition, Tajima's D values suggest that the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in inbreds was skewed toward fewer rare variants. Tests for selection were applied to all loci, and deviations from neutrality were detected in three loci. Sequence diversity was heterogeneous among loci, but there was no pattern of diversity along the genetic map of chromosome 1. Nonetheless, diversity was correlated (r = 0.65) with sequence-based estimates of the recombination rate. Recombination in our sample was sufficient to break down linkage disequilibrium among SNPs. Intragenic linkage disequilibrium declines within 100–200 bp on average, suggesting that genome-wide surveys for association analyses require SNPs every 100–200 bp. PMID:11470895

  8. Low Water Potential Disrupts Carbohydrate Metabolism in Maize (Zea mays L.) Ovaries.

    PubMed Central

    Zinselmeier, C.; Westgate, M. E.; Schussler, J. R.; Jones, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    Water deficit during pollination increases the frequency of kernel abortion in maize (Zea mays L.). Much of the kernel loss is attributable to lack of current photosynthate, but a large number of kernels fail to develop on water-deficient plants even when assimilate supply is increased. We examined the possibility that assimilate utilization by developing ovaries might be impaired at low water potential ([Psi]w). Plants were grown in the greenhouse in 20-L pots containing 22 kg of amended soil. Water was withheld on the first day silks emerged, and plants were hand-pollinated 4 d later when leaf [Psi]w decreased to approximately - 1.8 MPa and silk [Psi]w was approximately -1.0 MPa. Plants were rehydrated 2 d after pollination. The brief water deficit inhibited ovary growth (dry matter accumulation) and decreased kernel number per ear by 60%, compared to controls. Inhibition of ovary growth was associated with a decrease in the level of reducing sugars, depletion of starch, a 75-fold increase in sucrose concentration (dry weight basis), and inhibition of acid invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) activity. These results indicate that water deficits during pollination disrupt carbohydrate metabolism in maize ovaries. They suggest that acid invertase activity is important for establishing and maintaining reproductive sink strength during pollination and early kernel development. PMID:12228365

  9. Response of maize (Zea mays L. saccharata Sturt) to different concentration treatments of deltamethrin.

    PubMed

    Duran, Ragbet Ezgi; Kilic, Semra; Coskun, Yasemin

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the deltamethrin pesticide on the biological properties of maize (Zea mays L. saccharata Sturt). Maize seeds were exposed to environmentally relevant dosages (0.01, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 ppm) of deltamethrin. On the 7th day of germination, morphological, anatomical and physiological responses were determined. All seedling growth characters were decreased with increasing deltamethrin levels. The most negative effect on the radicle length of maize was observed by the highest deltamethrin concentration with a 61% decrease (P <0.05). Both stomatal density and stomatal dimension reduction were caused by increasing concentrations of deltamethrin. Moreover, the pigments like chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and caretonoids decreased with the increase in deltamethrin concentration. Conversely, anthocyanin and proline content increased in parallel with deltamethrin concentration. As a result, all morphological traits and pigments except for proline and anthocyanin were significantly reduced with an increase in pesticide concentration, compared to control (P <0.05). PMID:26453225

  10. Evolution of Resistance by Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Infesting Insecticidal Crops in the Southern United States

    PubMed Central

    Onstad, David; Crain, Philip; Crespo, Andre; Hutchison, William; Buntin, David; Porter, Pat; Catchot, Angus; Cook, Don; Pilcher, Clint; Flexner, Lindsey; Higgins, Laura

    2016-01-01

    We created a deterministic, frequency-based model of the evolution of resistance by corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), to insecticidal traits expressed in crops planted in the heterogeneous landscapes of the southern United States. The model accounts for four generations of selection by insecticidal traits each year. We used the model results to investigate the influence of three factors on insect resistance management (IRM): 1) how does adding a third insecticidal trait to both corn and cotton affect durability of the products, 2) how does unstructured corn refuge influence IRM, and 3) how do block refuges (50% compliance) and blended refuges compare with regard to IRM? When Bt cotton expresses the same number of insecticidal traits, Bt corn with three insecticidal traits provides longer durability than Bt corn with two pyramided traits. Blended refuge provides similar durability for corn products compared with the same level of required block refuge when the rate of refuge compliance by farmers is 50%. Results for Mississippi and Texas are similar, but durabilities for corn traits are surprisingly lower in Georgia, where unstructured corn refuge is the highest of the three states, but refuge for Bt cotton is the lowest of the three states. Thus, unstructured corn refuge can be valuable for IRM but its influence is determined by selection for resistance by Bt cotton. PMID:26637533

  11. Quantitative trait loci for mercury accumulation in maize (Zea mays L.) identified using a RIL population.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhongjun; Li, Weihua; Zhang, Qinbin; Wang, Long; Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Song, Guiliang; Fu, Zhiyuan; Ding, Dong; Liu, Zonghua; Tang, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the genetic mechanism of mercury accumulation in maize (Zea mays L.), a population of 194 recombinant inbred lines derived from an elite hybrid Yuyu 22, was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for mercury accumulation at two locations. The results showed that the average Hg concentration in the different tissues of maize followed the order: leaves > bracts > stems > axis > kernels. Twenty-three QTLs for mercury accumulation in five tissues were detected on chromosomes 1, 4, 7, 8, 9 and 10, which explained 6.44% to 26.60% of the phenotype variance. The QTLs included five QTLs for Hg concentration in kernels, three QTLs for Hg concentration in the axis, six QTLs for Hg concentration in stems, four QTLs for Hg concentration in bracts and five QTLs for Hg concentration in leaves. Interestingly, three QTLs, qKHC9a, qKHC9b, and qBHC9 were in linkage with two QTLs for drought tolerance. In addition, qLHC1 was in linkage with two QTLs for arsenic accumulation. The study demonstrated the concentration of Hg in Hg-contaminated paddy soil could be reduced, and maize production maintained simultaneously by selecting and breeding maize Hg pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs). PMID:25210737

  12. Cloning and Functional Characterization of the Maize (Zea mays L.) Carotenoid Epsilon Hydroxylase Gene

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Yanmin; Wang, Yingdian; Capell, Teresa; Shi, Lianxuan; Ni, Xiuzhen; Sandmann, Gerhard; Christou, Paul; Zhu, Changfu

    2015-01-01

    The assignment of functions to genes in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway is necessary to understand how the pathway is regulated and to obtain the basic information required for metabolic engineering. Few carotenoid ε-hydroxylases have been functionally characterized in plants although this would provide insight into the hydroxylation steps in the pathway. We therefore isolated mRNA from the endosperm of maize (Zea mays L., inbred line B73) and cloned a full-length cDNA encoding CYP97C19, a putative heme-containing carotenoid ε hydroxylase and member of the cytochrome P450 family. The corresponding CYP97C19 genomic locus on chromosome 1 was found to comprise a single-copy gene with nine introns. We expressed CYP97C19 cDNA under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter in the Arabidopsis thaliana lut1 knockout mutant, which lacks a functional CYP97C1 (LUT1) gene. The analysis of carotenoid levels and composition showed that lutein accumulated to high levels in the rosette leaves of the transgenic lines but not in the untransformed lut1 mutants. These results allowed the unambiguous functional annotation of maize CYP97C19 as an enzyme with strong zeinoxanthin ε-ring hydroxylation activity. PMID:26030746

  13. Quantitative Trait Loci for Mercury Accumulation in Maize (Zea mays L.) Identified Using a RIL Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qinbin; Wang, Long; Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Song, Guiliang; Fu, Zhiyuan; Ding, Dong; Liu, Zonghua; Tang, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the genetic mechanism of mercury accumulation in maize (Zea mays L.), a population of 194 recombinant inbred lines derived from an elite hybrid Yuyu 22, was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for mercury accumulation at two locations. The results showed that the average Hg concentration in the different tissues of maize followed the order: leaves > bracts > stems > axis > kernels. Twenty-three QTLs for mercury accumulation in five tissues were detected on chromosomes 1, 4, 7, 8, 9 and 10, which explained 6.44% to 26.60% of the phenotype variance. The QTLs included five QTLs for Hg concentration in kernels, three QTLs for Hg concentration in the axis, six QTLs for Hg concentration in stems, four QTLs for Hg concentration in bracts and five QTLs for Hg concentration in leaves. Interestingly, three QTLs, qKHC9a, qKHC9b, and qBHC9 were in linkage with two QTLs for drought tolerance. In addition, qLHC1 was in linkage with two QTLs for arsenic accumulation. The study demonstrated the concentration of Hg in Hg-contaminated paddy soil could be reduced, and maize production maintained simultaneously by selecting and breeding maize Hg pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs). PMID:25210737

  14. Water transfer in an alfalfa/maize association. [Medicago sativa; Zea mays

    SciTech Connect

    Corak, S.J.; Blevins, D.G.; Pallardy, S.G.

    1987-07-01

    The authors investigated the possibility of interspecific water transfer in an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) association. An alfalfa plant was grown through two vertically stacked plastic tubes. A 5 centimeter air gap between tubes was bridged by alfalfa roots. Five-week old maize plants with roots confined to the top tube were not watered, while associated alfalfa roots had free access to water in the bottom tube (the -/+ treatment). Additional treatments included: top and bottom tubes watered (+/+), top and bottom tubes droughted (-/-), and top tube droughted after removal of alfalfa root bridges and routine removal of alfalfa tillers (-*). Predawn leaf water potential of maize in the -/+ treatment fell to -1.5 megapascals 13 days after the start of drought; thereafter, predawn and midday potentials were maintained near -1.9 megapascals. Leaf water potentials of maize in the -/- and -* treatments declined steadily; all plants in these treatments were completely desiccated before day 50. High levels of tritium activity were detected in water extracted from both alfalfa and maize leaves after /sup 3/H/sub 2/O was injected into the bottom -/+ tube at day 70 or later. Maize in the -/+ treatment was able to survive an otherwise lethal period of drought by utilizing water lost by alfalfa roots.

  15. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the diapause hormone receptor in the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hongbo; Wei, Zhaojun; Nachman, Ronald J.; Park, Yoonseong

    2013-01-01

    The diapause hormone (DH) in the heliothine moth has shown its activity in termination of pupal diapause, while the orthology in the silkworm is known to induce embryonic diapause. In the current study, we cloned the diapause hormone receptor from the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (HzDHr) and tested its ligand specificities in a heterologous reporter system. HzDHr was expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells, which were co-transfected with the aequorin reporter, and was used to measure the ligand activities. A total of 68 chemicals, including natural DH analogs and structurally similar peptide mimetics, were tested for agonistic and antagonistic activities. Several peptide mimetics with a 2-amino-7-bromofluorene-succinoyl (2Abf-Suc) N-terminal modification showed strong agonistic activities; these mimetics included 2Abf-Suc-F[dA]PRLamide, 2Abf-Suc-F[dR]PRLamide, 2Abf-Suc-FKPRLamide and 2Abf-Suc-FGPRLamide. Antagonistic activity was found in the ecdysis triggering hormone in Drosophila melanogaster (FFLKITKNVPRLamide). Interestingly, HzDHr does not discriminate between DH (WFGPRLamide C-terminal motif) and another closely related endogenous peptide, pyrokinin 1 (FXPRXamide; a C-terminal motif that is separate from WFGPRLamide). We provide large-scale in vitro data that serve as a reference for the development of agonists and antagonists to disrupt the DH signaling pathway. PMID:24257143

  16. Costs of jasmonic acid induced defense in aboveground and belowground parts of corn (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuanjiao; Wang, Jianwu; Luo, Shiming; Fan, Huizhi; Jin, Qiong

    2012-08-01

    Costs of jasmonic acid (JA) induced plant defense have gained increasing attention. In this study, JA was applied continuously to the aboveground (AG) or belowground (BG) parts, or AG plus BG parts of corn (Zea mays L.) to investigate whether JA exposure in one part of the plant would affect defense responses in another part, and whether or not JA induced defense would incur allocation costs. The results indicated that continuous JA application to AG parts systemically affected the quantities of defense chemicals in the roots, and vice versa. Quantities of DIMBOA and total amounts of phenolic compounds in leaves or roots generally increased 2 or 4 wk after the JA treatment to different plant parts. In the first 2 wk after application, the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots was accompanied by a significant decrease of root length, root surface area, and root biomass. Four weeks after the JA application, however, no such costs for the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots were detected. Instead, shoot biomass and root biomass increased. The results suggest that JA as a defense signal can be transferred from AG parts to BG parts of corn, and vice versa. Costs for induced defense elicited by continuous JA application were found in the early 2 wk, while distinct benefits were observed later, i.e., 4 wk after JA treatment. PMID:22744011

  17. Characterization and functional analysis of a B3 domain factor from Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinghui; Yuan, Jincheng; Ma, Halian; Song, Jinhui; Wang, Lingyun; Weng, Qiaoyun

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we isolated a full-length cDNA and named ZmBDF from zea mays. ZmBDF encoded a protein of 356 amino acids and phylogenetic analysis showed that it belongs to a closely related subgroup with B3 domain factors in plants. The transcript level of ZmBDF could be induced by ABA, MeJA, salt or drought treatments. To further investigated the function of ZmBDF, ZmBDF over-expression transgenic lines were got by transforming it into Arabidopsis thaliana. ZmBDF over-expression transgenic plants in Arabidopsis could increase drought and salt tolerant in germination assay. Under drought condition, net photosynthetic rates (PN), stomatal conductance (gs), and internal leaf CO2 concentration (Ci) were less affected in transgenic plants compared with wild type. Besides, the chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b (chl a/chl b) ratio decreased in WT plants than the transgenic plants and total carotenoid content show opposite trends. Moreover, transgenic plants could also reduce the stomatal density and changed the stomatal shape. Taken together, our data suggested that ZmBDF could improve stress tolerance to drought and salt in maize. PMID:25953393

  18. Expression profiling of selected glutathione transferase genes in Zea mays (L.) seedlings infested with cereal aphids.

    PubMed

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Chrzanowski, Grzegorz; Czerniewicz, Paweł; Sprawka, Iwona; Łukasik, Iwona; Goławska, Sylwia; Sempruch, Cezary

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to evaluate the expression patterns of selected glutathione transferase genes (gst1, gst18, gst23 and gst24) in the tissues of two maize (Zea mays L.) varieties (relatively resistant Ambrozja and susceptible Tasty Sweet) that were colonized with oligophagous bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or monophagous grain aphid (Sitobion avenae L.). Simultaneously, insect-triggered generation of superoxide anion radicals (O2•-) in infested Z. mays plants was monitored. Quantified parameters were measured at 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h post-initial aphid infestation (hpi) in relation to the non-infested control seedlings. Significant increases in gst transcript amounts were recorded in aphid-stressed plants in comparison to the control seedlings. Maximal enhancement in the expression of the gst genes in aphid-attacked maize plants was found at 8 hpi (gst23) or 24 hpi (gst1, gst18 and gst24) compared to the control. Investigated Z. mays cultivars formed excessive superoxide anion radicals in response to insect treatments, and the highest overproduction of O2•- was noted 4 or 8 h after infestation, depending on the aphid treatment and maize genotype. Importantly, the Ambrozja variety could be characterized as having more profound increments in the levels of gst transcript abundance and O2•- generation in comparison with the Tasty Sweet genotype. PMID:25365518

  19. Expression Profiling of Selected Glutathione Transferase Genes in Zea mays (L.) Seedlings Infested with Cereal Aphids

    PubMed Central

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Chrzanowski, Grzegorz; Czerniewicz, Paweł; Sprawka, Iwona; Łukasik, Iwona; Goławska, Sylwia; Sempruch, Cezary

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to evaluate the expression patterns of selected glutathione transferase genes (gst1, gst18, gst23 and gst24) in the tissues of two maize (Zea mays L.) varieties (relatively resistant Ambrozja and susceptible Tasty Sweet) that were colonized with oligophagous bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or monophagous grain aphid (Sitobion avenae L.). Simultaneously, insect-triggered generation of superoxide anion radicals (O2•−) in infested Z. mays plants was monitored. Quantified parameters were measured at 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h post-initial aphid infestation (hpi) in relation to the non-infested control seedlings. Significant increases in gst transcript amounts were recorded in aphid-stressed plants in comparison to the control seedlings. Maximal enhancement in the expression of the gst genes in aphid-attacked maize plants was found at 8 hpi (gst23) or 24 hpi (gst1, gst18 and gst24) compared to the control. Investigated Z. mays cultivars formed excessive superoxide anion radicals in response to insect treatments, and the highest overproduction of O2•− was noted 4 or 8 h after infestation, depending on the aphid treatment and maize genotype. Importantly, the Ambrozja variety could be characterized as having more profound increments in the levels of gst transcript abundance and O2•− generation in comparison with the Tasty Sweet genotype. PMID:25365518

  20. Sphingomonas zeae sp. nov., isolated from the stem of Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, Peter; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; McInroy, John A; Glaeser, Stefanie P

    2015-08-01

    A yellow-pigmented bacterial isolate (strain JM-791T) obtained from the healthy internal stem tissue of 1-month-old corn (Zea mays, cultivar 'Sweet Belle') grown at the Plant Breeding Unit of the E.V. Smith Research Center in Tallassee (Elmore county), Alabama, USA, was taxonomically characterized. The study employing a polyphasic approach, including 16S RNA gene sequence analysis, physiological characterization, estimation of the ubiquinone and polar lipid patterns, and fatty acid composition, revealed that strain JM-791T shared 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with type strains of Sphingomonas paucimobilis (98.3%), Sphingomonas pseudosanguinis (97.5%) and Sphingomonas yabuuchiae (97.4%), but also showed pronounced differences, both genotypically and phenotypically. On the basis of these results, a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas is described, for which we propose the name Sphingomonas zeae sp. nov. with the type strain JM-791T ( = LMG 28739T = CCM 8596T). PMID:25944808

  1. Differential expression of superoxide dismutase genes in aphid-stressed maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the expression patterns of superoxide dismutase genes (sod2, sod3.4, sod9 and sodB) in seedling leaves of the Zea mays L. Tasty Sweet (susceptible) and Ambrozja (relatively resistant) cultivars infested with one of two hemipteran species, namely monophagous Sitobion avenae F. (grain aphid) or oligophagous Rhopalosiphum padi L. (bird cherry-oat aphid). Secondarily, aphid-elicited alternations in the antioxidative capacity towards DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical in insect-stressed plants were evaluated. Comprehensive comparison of expression profiles of the four sod genes showed that both insect species evoked significant upregulation of three genes sod2, sod3.4 and sod9). However, aphid infestation affected non-significant fluctuations in expression of sodB gene in seedlings of both maize genotypes. The highest levels of transcript accumulation occurred at 8 h (sod2 and sod3.4) or 24 h (sod9) post-infestation, and aphid-induced changes in the expression of sod genes were more dramatic in the Ambrozja cultivar than in the Tasty Sweet variety. Furthermore, bird cherry-oat aphid colonization had a more substantial impact on levels of DPPH radical scavenging activity in infested host seedlings than grain aphid colonization. Additionally, Ambrozja plants infested by either hemipteran species showed markedly lower antioxidative capacity compared with attacked Tasty Sweet plants. PMID:24722734

  2. Open Field Study of Some Zea mays Hybrids, Lipid Compounds and Fumonisins Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Giorni, Paola; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Reverberi, Massimo; Scala, Valeria; Ludovici, Matteo; Cirlini, Martina; Galaverna, Gianni; Fanelli, Corrado; Battilani, Paola

    2015-09-01

    Lipid molecules are increasingly recognized as signals exchanged by organisms interacting in pathogenic and/or symbiotic ways. Some classes of lipids actively determine the fate of the interactions. Host cuticle/cell wall/membrane components such as sphingolipids and oxylipins may contribute to determining the fate of host-pathogen interactions. In the present field study, we considered the relationship between specific sphingolipids and oxylipins of different hybrids of Zea mays and fumonisin by F. verticillioides, sampling ears at different growth stages from early dough to fully ripe. The amount of total and free fumonisin differed significantly between hybrids and increased significantly with maize ripening. Oxylipins and phytoceramides changed significantly within the hybrids and decreased with kernel maturation, starting from physiological maturity. Although the correlation between fumonisin accumulation and plant lipid profile is certain, the data collected so far cannot define a cause-effect relationship but open up new perspectives. Therefore, the question-"Does fumonisin alter plant lipidome or does plant lipidome modulate fumonisin accumulation?"-is still open. PMID:26378580

  3. In vitro gibberellin A/sub 1/ binding in Zea mays L

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, B.; Rappaport, L.

    1987-12-01

    The first and second leaf sheaths of Zea mays L. cv Golden Jubilee were extracted and the extract centrifuged at 100,000g to yield a supernatant or cytosol fraction. Binding of (/sup 3/H)gibberellin A/sub 1/ (GA/sub 1/) to a soluble macromolecular component present in the cytosol was demonstrated at 4/sup 0/C by Sephadex G-200 chromatography. The binding component was of high molecular weight (HMW) and greater than 500 kilodaltons. The HMW component was shown to be a protein and the /sup 3/H-activity bound to this protein was largely (/sup 3/H)GA/sub 1/ and not a metabolite. Binding was pH sensitive but only a small percentage (20%) appeared to be exchangeable on addition of unlabeled GA/sub 1/. Both biologically active and inactive GAs and non-GAs were able to inhibit GA/sub 1/ binding. (/sup 3/H)GA/sub 1/ binding to an intermediate molecular weight (IMW) fraction (40-100 kilodaltons) was also detected, provided cytosol was first desalted using Sephadex G-200 chromatography. Gel filtration studies suggest that the HMW binding component is an aggregate derived from the IMW fraction. The HMW binding fraction can be separated into two components using anion exchange chromatography.

  4. Asymmetric distribution of glucose and indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol in geostimulated Zea mays seedlings.

    PubMed

    Momonoki, Y S

    1988-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol occurs in both the kernel and vegetative shoot of germinating Zea mays seedlings. The effect of a gravitational stimulus on the transport of [3H]-5-indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and [U-14C]-D-glucose from the kernel to the seedling shoot was studied. Both labeled glucose and labeled indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol become asymmetrically distributed in the mesocotyl cortex of the shoot with more radioactivity occurring in the bottom half of a horizontally placed seedling. Asymmetric distribution of [3H]indole-3-acetic acid, derived from the applied [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol, occurred more rapidly than distribution of total 3H-radioactivity. These findings demonstrate that the gravitational stimulus can induce an asymmetric distribution of substances being transported from kernel to shoot. They also indicate that, in addition to the transport asymmetry, gravity affects the steady state amount of indole-3-acetic acid derived from indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol. PMID:11537873

  5. Neonicotinoid-Coated Zea mays Seeds Indirectly Affect Honeybee Performance and Pathogen Susceptibility in Field Trials

    PubMed Central

    Alburaki, Mohamed; Boutin, Sébastien; Mercier, Pierre-Luc; Loublier, Yves; Chagnon, Madeleine; Derome, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-two honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies were studied in order to detect and measure potential in vivo effects of neonicotinoid pesticides used in cornfields (Zea mays spp) on honeybee health. Honeybee colonies were randomly split on four different agricultural cornfield areas located near Quebec City, Canada. Two locations contained cornfields treated with a seed-coated systemic neonicotinoid insecticide while the two others were organic cornfields used as control treatments. Hives were extensively monitored for their performance and health traits over a period of two years. Honeybee viruses (brood queen cell virus BQCV, deformed wing virus DWV, and Israeli acute paralysis virus IAPV) and the brain specific expression of a biomarker of host physiological stress, the Acetylcholinesterase gene AChE, were investigated using RT-qPCR. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was performed to detect pesticide residues in adult bees, honey, pollen, and corn flowers collected from the studied hives in each location. In addition, general hive conditions were assessed by monitoring colony weight and brood development. Neonicotinoids were only identified in corn flowers at low concentrations. However, honeybee colonies located in neonicotinoid treated cornfields expressed significantly higher pathogen infection than those located in untreated cornfields. AChE levels showed elevated levels among honeybees that collected corn pollen from treated fields. Positive correlations were recorded between pathogens and the treated locations. Our data suggests that neonicotinoids indirectly weaken honeybee health by inducing physiological stress and increasing pathogen loads. PMID:25993642

  6. Cloning and characterization of a multifunctional promoter from maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Dong, Qing; Jiang, Haiyang; Xu, QianQian; Li, Xiaoming; Peng, Xiaojian; Yu, Haibing; Xiang, Yan; Cheng, Beijiu

    2015-02-01

    The use of tissue-specific promoters to drive the expression of target genes during certain developmental stages or in specific organs can prevent unnecessary gene expression caused by constitutive promoters. Utilizing heterologous promoters to regulate the expression of genes in transgenic receptors can help prevent gene silencing. Here, we engineered heterologous maize promoters that regulate gene-specific expression in rice plant receptors. We performed a histochemical and quantitative β-glucuronidase (GUS) analysis of the Zea mays legumin1 (ZM-LEGF) gene promoter and detailed detection of stably transformed rice expressing the GUS gene under the control of the promoter of ZM-LEGF (pZM-LEGF) and its truncated promoters throughout development. When the promoter sequence was truncated, the location and intensity of GUS expression changed. The results suggest that the sequence from -140 to +41 is a critical region that confers the expression of the entire promoter. Truncation of pZM-LEG (3'-deleted region of pZM-LEGF) markedly increased the GUS activity, with the core cis-elements located in the -273 to -140 regions, namely pZM-LEG6. Detailed analysis of pZM-LEG6::GUS T2 transformant rice seeds and plant tissues at different developmental stages indicated that this promoter is an ideal vegetative tissue-specific promoter that can serve as a valuable tool for transgenic rice breeding and genetic engineering studies. PMID:25391545

  7. [Systematically induced effects of Tetranychus cinnabarinus infestation on chemical defense in Zea mays inbred lines].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu-xi; Yang, Qun-fang; Huang, Yu-bi; Li, Qing

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the systematically induced production of defense-related compounds, including DIMBOA, total phenol, trypsin inhibitors (TI) and chymotrypsin inhibitor (CI), by Tetranychus cinnabarinus infestation in Zea mays. The first leaves of two corn in-bred line seedlings, the mite-tolerant line ' H1014168' and the mite-sensitive line 'H1014591', were sucked by T. cinnabarinus adult female for seven days, and then the contents of DIMBOA, total phenol, TI and CI were measured in the second leaf and in the roots, respectively. Results showed that as compared to the unsucked control, all contents of DIMBOA, total phenol, TI and CI induced by T. cinnabarinus sucking were significantly higher in the second leaf of both inbred lines as well as in the roots of the mite-tolerant 'H1014168'. However, in the roots of 'H1014591', these defense compounds had different trends, where there was a higher induction of TI and a lower level of total phenol than that of the healthy control, while had almost no difference in DIMBOA and CI. These findings suggested that the infestation of T. cinnabarinus could systematically induce accumulation of defense-related compounds, and this effect was stronger in the mite-tolerant inbred line than in the mite-sensitive inbred line. PMID:26785567

  8. Metal Ion Interactions with Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase from Crassula argentea and Zea mays1

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tien T.; Ngam-ek, Apinya; Jenkins, Joane; Grover, Scott D.

    1988-01-01

    Metal ion interactions with phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from the CAM plant Crassula argentea and the C4 plant Zea mays were kinetically analyzed. Fe2+ and Cd2+ were found to be active metal cofactors along with the previously known active metals Mg2+, Mn2+, and Co2+. In studies with the Crassula enzyme, Mg2+ yielded the highest Vmax value but also generated the highest values of Km(metal) and Km(pep). For these five active metals lower Km(metal) values tended to be associated with lower Km(pep) values. PEP saturation curves showed more kinetic cooperativity than the corresponding metal saturation curves. The activating metal ions all have ionic radii in the range of 0.86 to 1.09 Å. Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, and Ni2+ inhibited competitively with respect to Mg2+, whereas Be2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, and Pd2+ showed mixed-type inhibition. Vmax trends with the five active metals were similar for the C. argentea and Z. mays enzymes except that Cd2+ was less effective with the maize enzyme. Km(metal) values were 10- to 60-fold higher in the enzyme from Z. mays. PMID:16665847

  9. Hypoxic stress-induced changes in ribosomes of maize seedling roots. [Zea mays L

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey-Serres, J.; Freeling, M. )

    1990-11-01

    The hypoxic stress response of Zea mays L. seedling roots involves regulation of gene expression at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. We investigated the effect of hypoxia on the translational machinery of seedling roots. The levels of monoribosomes and ribosomal subunits increased dramatically within 1 hour of stress. Prolonged hypoxia resulted in continued accumulation of nontranslating ribosomes, as well as increased levels of small polyribosomes. The return of seedlings to normal aerobic conditions resulted in recovery of normal polyribosome levels. Comparison of ribosomal proteins from control and hypoxic roots revealed differences in quantity and electrophoretic mobility. In vivo labeling of roots with ({sup 35}S)methionine revealed variations in newly synthesized ribosomal proteins. In vivo labeling of roots with ({sup 32}P)orthophosphate revealed a major reduction in the phosphorylation of a 31 kilodalton ribosomal protein in hypoxic stressed roots. In vitro phosphorylation of ribosomal proteins by endogenous kinases was used to probe for differences in ribosome structure and composition. The patterns of in vitro kinased phosphoproteins of ribosomes from control and hypoxic roots were not identical. Variation in phosphoproteins of polyribosomes from control and hypoxic roots, as well as among polyribosomes from hypoxic roots were observed. These results indicate that modification of the translational machinery occurs in response to hypoxic stress.

  10. [Evaluation of a methodology to determine texture characteristics of maize (Zea mays L.) tortilla].

    PubMed

    Arámbula-Villa, Gerónimo; Méndez-Albores, J Abraham; González-Hernández, Jesús; Gutiérrez-Arias, Edmundo; Moreno-Martínez, Ernesto

    2004-06-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) tortilla is the primary staple food of the Mexican people, with annual consumption estimated at 12 millions tons. Despite this huge volume of consumption, tortillas are commercially produced with inconsistent quality, mainly in terms of texture characteristics. Different methods to evaluate the texture of maize tortillas have been reported, but the values obtained and their parameters have not yielded reliable results, largely because the methods used do not reflect homogeneous elements for comparison. In addition, evaluation of the reliability of methods for comparing tortilla texture as well as the equipment used has been difficult, as such information perhaps remains largely unpublished. In this study, the reliability of two tortilla sample shapes (rectangle and briquet) and some of the quality parameters (maximum force, total area under curve, area to reach maximum force, elasticity and elongation) from tensile and cut force tested with a texture meter were evaluated. According to the results, the briquet shape of the tortilla samples was better (than the rectangle shape) for determining tensile and elasticity. In regard to cutting force, both the rectangle and the briquet shape presented good repeatability. For tensile and cutting-force curves, the maximum force was the parameter with the highest reliability, 0.95 and 0.99, respectively. The elasticity showed an adequate reliability with the tortilla briquet shape (0.94). The evaluated parameters with the texture meter and the sample shape type briquet, showed a high reliability degree what makes possible the comparison of maize tortilla texture data. PMID:15586691

  11. A seed mixture increases dominance of resistance to Bt cotton in Helicoverpa zea

    PubMed Central

    Brévault, Thierry; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Carrière, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Widely grown transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) can benefit agriculture, but adaptation by pests threatens their continued success. Refuges of host plants that do not make Bt toxins can promote survival of susceptible insects and delay evolution of resistance, particularly if resistance is inherited as a recessive trait. However, data have been lacking to compare the dominance of resistance when Bt and non-Bt seeds are planted in random mixtures versus separate blocks. Here we report results from greenhouse experiments with transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac and the bollworm, Helicoverpa zea, showing that the dominance of resistance was significantly higher in a seed mixture relative to a block of Bt cotton. The proportion of larvae on non-Bt cotton plants in the seed mixture was also significantly higher than expected under the null hypothesis of random distribution. In simulations based on observed survival, resistance evolved 2- to 4.5-fold faster in the seed mixture relative to separate blocks of Bt and non-Bt cotton. These findings support previous modelling results indicating that block refuges may be more effective than seed mixtures for delaying resistance in pests with mobile larvae and inherently low susceptibility to the toxins in Bt crops. PMID:25950459

  12. Directly dated starch residues document early formative maize (Zea mays L.) in tropical Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Zarrillo, Sonia; Pearsall, Deborah M; Raymond, J Scott; Tisdale, Mary Ann; Quon, Dugane J

    2008-04-01

    The study of maize (Zea mays L.) domestication has advanced from questions of its origins to the study-and debate-of its dietary role and the timing of its dispersal from Mexico. Because the investigation of maize's spread is hampered by poor preservation of macrobotanical remains in the Neotropics, research has focused on microbotanical remains whose contexts are often dated by association, leading some to question the dates assigned. Furthermore, some scholars have argued that maize was not introduced to southwestern Ecuador until approximately 4150-3850 calendar years before the present (cal B.P.), that it was used first and foremost as a fermented beverage in ceremonial contexts, and that it was not important in everyday subsistence, challenging previous studies based on maize starch and phytoliths. To further investigate these questions, we analyzed every-day cooking vessels, food-processing implements, and sediments for starch and phytoliths from an archaeological site in southwestern Ecuador constituting a small Early Formative village. Employing a new technique to recover starch granules from charred cooking-pot residues we show that maize was present, cultivated, and consumed here in domestic contexts by at least 5300-4950 cal B.P. Directly dating the residues by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon measurement, our results represent the earliest direct dates for maize in Early Formative Ecuadorian sites and provide further support that, once domesticated approximately 9000 calendar years ago, maize spread rapidly from southwestern Mexico to northwestern South America. PMID:18362336

  13. Direct observation of local xylem embolisms induced by soil drying in intact Zea mays leaves.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jeongeun; Hwang, Bae Geun; Kim, Yangmin X; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-04-01

    The vulnerability of vascular plants to xylem embolism is closely related to their stable long-distance water transport, growth, and survival. Direct measurements of xylem embolism are required to understand what causes embolism and what strategies plants employ against it. In this study, synchrotron X-ray microscopy was used to non-destructively investigate both the anatomical structures of xylem vessels and embolism occurrence in the leaves of intact Zea mays (maize) plants. Xylem embolism was induced by water stress at various soil drying periods and soil water contents. X-ray images of dehydrated maize leaves showed that the ratio of gas-filled vessels to all xylem vessels increased with decreased soil water content and reached approximately 30% under severe water stress. Embolism occurred in some but not all vessels. Embolism in maize leaves was not strongly correlated with xylem diameter but was more likely to occur in the peripheral veins. The rate of embolism formation in metaxylem vessels was higher than in protoxylem vessels. This work has demonstrated that xylem embolism remains low in maize leaves under water stress and that there xylem has characteristic spatial traits of vulnerability to embolism. PMID:26946123

  14. Morphological and physiological responses of maize (Zea mays) exposed to sand contaminated by phenanthrene.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Joan; Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Leglize, Pierre; Sterckeman, Thibault

    2015-04-01

    Phytoremediation is promising, but depends on clearly understanding contaminants' impact on plant functioning. We therefore focused on the impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) on cultivated plants and understanding the impact of phenanthrene (PHE) on maize functioning (Zea mays). Cultivation was conducted under controlled conditions on artificially contaminated sand with PHE levels increasing from 50 to 750 mg PHE kg(-1). After four weeks, plants exposed to levels above 50 mg PHE kg(-1) presented decreased biomasses and reduced photosynthetic activity. These modifications were associated with higher biomass allocations to roots and lower ones to stems. The leaf biomass proportion was similar, with thinner blades than controls. PHE-exposed plant showed modified root architecture, with fewer roots of 0.2 and 0.4 mm in diameter. Leaves were potassium-deplete, but calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and zinc-enriched. Their content in nitrogen, iron, sulfur and manganese was unaffected. These responses resembled those of water-stress, although water contents in plant organs were not affected by PHE and water supply was not limited. They also indicated a possible perturbation of both nutritional functioning and photosynthesis. PMID:25496734

  15. Effect of biochar on reclaimed tidal land soil properties and maize (Zea mays L.) response.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyuck-Soo; Kim, Kwon-Rae; Yang, Jae E; Ok, Yong Sik; Owens, Gary; Nehls, Thomas; Wessolek, Gerd; Kim, Kye-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Reclaimed tidal land soil (RTLS) often contains high levels of soluble salts and exchangeable Na that can adversely affect plant growth. The current study examined the effect of biochar on the physicochemical properties of RTLS and subsequently the influence on plant growth performance. Rice hull derived biochar (BC) was applied to RTLS at three different rates (1%, 2%, and 5% (w/w)) and maize (Zea mays L.) subsequently cultivated for 6weeks. While maize was cultivated, 0.1% NaCl solution was supplied from the bottom of the pots to simulate the natural RTLS conditions. Biochar induced changes in soil properties were evaluated by the water stable aggregate (WSA) percentage, exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), soil organic carbon contents, cation exchange capacity, and exchangeable cations. Plant response was measured by growth rate, nutrient contents, and antioxidant enzyme activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR). Application of rice hull derived biochar increased the soil organic carbon content and the percentage of WSA by 36-69%, while decreasing the ESP. The highest dry weight maize yield was observed from soil which received 5% BC (w/w), which was attributed to increased stability of water-stable aggregates and elevated levels of phosphate in BC incorporated soils. Moreover, increased potassium, sourced from the BC, induced mitigation of Na uptake by maize and consequently, reduced the impact of salt stress as evidenced by overall declines in the antioxidant activities of APX and GR. PMID:26138709

  16. Apoplastic barrier development and water transport in Zea mays seedling roots under salt and osmotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Xu, Guoxin; Zheng, Hui Qiong

    2015-01-01

    The development of apoplastic barriers was studied in Zea mays seedling roots grown in hydroculture solution supplemented with 0-200 mM NaCl or 20% polyethylene glycol (PEG). Casparian bands in the endodermis of both NaCl- and PEG-treated roots were observed closer to the root tip in comparison with those of control roots, but the cell wall modifications in the endodermis and exodermis induced by salt and osmotic stresses differed. High salinity induced the formation of a multiseriate exodermis, which ranged from several cell layers to the entire cortex tissue but did not noticeably influence cell wall suberization in the endodermis. In contrast, osmotic stress accelerated suberization in both the endodermis and exodermis, but the exodermis induced by osmotic stress was limited to several cell layers in the outer cortex adjacent to the epidermis. The hydrostatic hydraulic conductivity (Lp) had decreased significantly after 1 day of PEG treatment, whereas in NaCl-treated roots, Lp decreased to a similar level after 5 days of treatment. Peroxidase activity in the roots increased significantly in response to NaCl and PEG treatments. These data indicate that salt stress and osmotic stress have different effects on the development of apoplastic barriers and water transport in Z. mays seedling roots. PMID:24965373

  17. The Crystal Structures of Zea mays and Arabidopsis 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Fritze, Iris M.; Linden, Lars; Freigang, Jörg; Auerbach, Günter; Huber, Robert; Steinbacher, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    The transformation of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate to homogentisate, catalyzed by 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD), plays an important role in degrading aromatic amino acids. As the reaction product homogentisate serves as aromatic precursor for prenylquinone synthesis in plants, the enzyme is an interesting target for herbicides. In this study we report the first x-ray structures of the plant HPPDs of Zea mays and Arabidopsis in their substrate-free form at 2.0 Å and 3.0 Å resolution, respectively. Previous biochemical characterizations have demonstrated that eukaryotic enzymes behave as homodimers in contrast to prokaryotic HPPDs, which are homotetramers. Plant and bacterial enzymes share the overall fold but use orthogonal surfaces for oligomerization. In addition, comparison of both structures provides direct evidence that the C-terminal helix gates substrate access to the active site around a nonheme ferrous iron center. In the Z. mays HPPD structure this helix packs into the active site, sequestering it completely from the solvent. In contrast, in the Arabidopsis structure this helix tilted by about 60° into the solvent and leaves the active site fully accessible. By elucidating the structure of plant HPPD enzymes we aim to provide a structural basis for the development of new herbicides. PMID:15084729

  18. Direct observation of local xylem embolisms induced by soil drying in intact Zea mays leaves

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Jeongeun; Hwang, Bae Geun; Kim, Yangmin X.; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-01-01

    The vulnerability of vascular plants to xylem embolism is closely related to their stable long-distance water transport, growth, and survival. Direct measurements of xylem embolism are required to understand what causes embolism and what strategies plants employ against it. In this study, synchrotron X-ray microscopy was used to non-destructively investigate both the anatomical structures of xylem vessels and embolism occurrence in the leaves of intact Zea mays (maize) plants. Xylem embolism was induced by water stress at various soil drying periods and soil water contents. X-ray images of dehydrated maize leaves showed that the ratio of gas-filled vessels to all xylem vessels increased with decreased soil water content and reached approximately 30% under severe water stress. Embolism occurred in some but not all vessels. Embolism in maize leaves was not strongly correlated with xylem diameter but was more likely to occur in the peripheral veins. The rate of embolism formation in metaxylem vessels was higher than in protoxylem vessels. This work has demonstrated that xylem embolism remains low in maize leaves under water stress and that there xylem has characteristic spatial traits of vulnerability to embolism. PMID:26946123

  19. Cortical actin filament organization in developing and functioning stomatal complexes of Zea mays and Triticum turgidum.

    PubMed

    Panteris, Emmanuel; Galatis, Basil; Quader, Hartmut; Apostolakos, Panagiotis

    2007-07-01

    Cortical actin filament (AF) organization was studied in detail in developing stomatal complexes of the grasses Zea mays and Triticum turgidum. AF arrays during the whole stomatal complex development are dynamic, partly following the pattern of cortical microtubule (MT) organization. They also exhibit particular patterns of organization, spatially and temporarily restricted. Among AF arrays, the radial ones that underlie young guard cell (GC) periclinal walls, those that line the bulbous GC ends and the AF ring at the junction between subsidiary cells (SCs) and GCs are described here for the first time. Although many similarities in cortical AF organization exist among the stomatal cells of both plants studied, considerable differences have also been observed between them. Our data reveal that the expanding areas of stomatal cell walls are lined by distinct cortical AF aggregations that probably protect the plasmalemma against mechanical stresses. Experimental AF disruption does not seem to affect detectably stomatal cell morphogenesis. Moreover, the structural and experimental data of this study revealed that, in contrast to the elliptical stomata, in the dumbbell-shaped ones the AFs and MTs seem not to be involved in the mechanism of opening and closing of the stomatal pore. PMID:17443701

  20. 1-Naphthyl Acetate-Dependent Medium Acidification by Zea mays L. Coleoptile Segments 1

    PubMed Central

    Salguero, Julio; Calatayud, Angeles; Gonzalez-Daros, Francisco; del Valle-Tascon, Secundino

    1991-01-01

    Zea mays L. cv INRA 5a coleoptile segments ecidify the incubation medium on the addition of 1-naphthyl acetate (1-NA). The buffering capacity of the bathing solution increases during 1-NA stimulated medium acidification. The solution bathing the 1-NA treated coleoptile segment was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. A considerable amount of acetic acid was detected in the bathing solution used to measure 1-NA-dependent medium acidification. For the first time, the data demonstrate directly the release of acetic acid from 1-NA. The extent of medium acidification was proportional to 1-NA concentration. Simultaneous measurement of medium acidification and acetate content upon addition of 1-NA showed that both processes were temporally correlated. The stoichiometry of proton equivalents to acetate ion was 0.966. Addition of 50 micromolar N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide had little effect on 1-NA-dependent medium acidification. The results indicate that 1-NA is hydrolyzed in the extracellular space of coleoptile cells. PMID:16668108

  1. Cytogenetics of monosomes in Zea mays. Progress report, May 16, 1980-May 15, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, D. F.

    1981-02-01

    Monosomics lack a pairing partner in each meiotic cell, and genes on an entire chromosome are present in the hemizygous condition. We have isolated monosomics for chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 in Zea mays utilizing a recently-discovered system. This is the only series of this type that has been recovered in any diploid organism. The monosomic plants are surprisingly vigorous, good cytological samples can be taken, and crosses can be made. We are isolating all possible monosomic types and characterizing them by studying: (1) the cytology of meiosis, (2) the cytological behavior of univalent chromosomes, (3) the effect of monosomy and trisomy on intergenic and intragenic recombination, (4) the frequency and types of spontaneous chromosomal aberrations arising in monosomics, (5) the effect of aneuploidy on the relative amounts of specific fatty acids in embryos, (6) monosomic mutational mapping, (7) the effect of monosomy on pollen exine morphology with the scanning electron microscope, and (8) the effect of monosomy on DIMBOA levels. We are also developing test systems utilizing maize to detect the environmental or genetic induction of non-disjunction. This study has discovered genetic factors that control the meiotic process, genetic recombination, lipid biosynthesis, and the free amino acid pool.

  2. Cytogenetics of monosomes in Zea mays. Progress report, May 16, 1979-May 15, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, D. F.

    1980-02-01

    Monosomics lack a pairing partner in each meiotic cell, and genes on an entire chromosome are present in the hemizygous condition. Monosomics for chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 in Zea mays have been isolated. This is the only series of this type that has been recovered in any diploid organism. The monosomic plants are vigorous, good cytological samples can be taken, and crosses can be made. All possible monosomic types are being isolated and characterized by studying: (1) the cytology of meiosis; (2) the cytological behavior of univalent chromosomes; (3) the effect of monosomy and trisomy on intergenic and intragenic recombination; (4) the frequency and types of spontaneous chromosomal aberrations arising in monosomics; (5) the effect of aneuploidy on the relative amounts of specific fatty acids in embryos; (6) monosomic mutational mapping; and (7) metabolic profile analysis of monosomics. Systems in maize to detect the environmental and genetic induction of non-disjunction are also being developed. By comparing a monosomic with its disomic siblings, one compares one and two copies of all genes on an entire chromosome. If a gene expressing dosage effects resides on a specific chromosome, a difference will be found between a plant monosomic for that chromosome and its diploid siblings. Genetic factors that control the meiotic process, genetic recombination, lipid biosynthesis, and the free amino acid pool have been discovered.

  3. Neonicotinoid-Coated Zea mays Seeds Indirectly Affect Honeybee Performance and Pathogen Susceptibility in Field Trials.

    PubMed

    Alburaki, Mohamed; Boutin, Sébastien; Mercier, Pierre-Luc; Loublier, Yves; Chagnon, Madeleine; Derome, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-two honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies were studied in order to detect and measure potential in vivo effects of neonicotinoid pesticides used in cornfields (Zea mays spp) on honeybee health. Honeybee colonies were randomly split on four different agricultural cornfield areas located near Quebec City, Canada. Two locations contained cornfields treated with a seed-coated systemic neonicotinoid insecticide while the two others were organic cornfields used as control treatments. Hives were extensively monitored for their performance and health traits over a period of two years. Honeybee viruses (brood queen cell virus BQCV, deformed wing virus DWV, and Israeli acute paralysis virus IAPV) and the brain specific expression of a biomarker of host physiological stress, the Acetylcholinesterase gene AChE, were investigated using RT-qPCR. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was performed to detect pesticide residues in adult bees, honey, pollen, and corn flowers collected from the studied hives in each location. In addition, general hive conditions were assessed by monitoring colony weight and brood development. Neonicotinoids were only identified in corn flowers at low concentrations. However, honeybee colonies located in neonicotinoid treated cornfields expressed significantly higher pathogen infection than those located in untreated cornfields. AChE levels showed elevated levels among honeybees that collected corn pollen from treated fields. Positive correlations were recorded between pathogens and the treated locations. Our data suggests that neonicotinoids indirectly weaken honeybee health by inducing physiological stress and increasing pathogen loads. PMID:25993642

  4. The Effect of ATP on the Photoconversion of Protochlorophyllide in Isolated Etioplasts of Zea mays1

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Peter; Leech, Rachel M.

    1975-01-01

    The transformation of protochlorophyllide (PChle) into chlorophyllide (Chle) has been studied in isolated etioplasts from Zea mays. ATP (1.5mm) prevented the transformation of photoconvertible PChle 650 to PChle 630 in aged etioplasts. Curve analysis indicated that the ATP effect on photoconvertibility could be entirely accounted for by changes in the proportions of PChle 630 and PChle 650 and examination of the isolated pigments revealed that only unphytylated PChle could be activated for photoconversion by ATP. In etioplasts aged for 5 hours, ATP also stimulated photoconversion of PChle 630 into Chle 670. The process was temperature-sensitive and involved PChle 650 and Chle 680 as intermediates. AMP alone had no effect, but inhibited ATP retardation of PChle loss. ADP had a similar but lesser effect than ATP. The ADP response, but not the ATP response, was considerably enhanced in the presence of an ATP-generating system (phosphoenolpyruvate/pyruvate kinase). UTP, GTP, and CTP gave 40 to 50% of the ATP response with intact etioplasts. In envelope-free etioplasts, ATP gave the greatest response but the other nucleotides were now 80% as effective as ATP. After primary photoconversion, ATP stimulated resynthesis of PChle 650. It is proposed that ATP both gives the holochrome the ability to bind to the PChle molecule and enables additional association of the pigment-protein complex to form PChle 650. PMID:16659239

  5. Differential Expression of Superoxide Dismutase Genes in Aphid-Stressed Maize (Zea mays L.) Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the expression patterns of superoxide dismutase genes (sod2, sod3.4, sod9 and sodB) in seedling leaves of the Zea mays L. Tasty Sweet (susceptible) and Ambrozja (relatively resistant) cultivars infested with one of two hemipteran species, namely monophagous Sitobion avenae F. (grain aphid) or oligophagous Rhopalosiphum padi L. (bird cherry-oat aphid). Secondarily, aphid-elicited alternations in the antioxidative capacity towards DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical in insect-stressed plants were evaluated. Comprehensive comparison of expression profiles of the four sod genes showed that both insect species evoked significant upregulation of three genes sod2, sod3.4 and sod9). However, aphid infestation affected non-significant fluctuations in expression of sodB gene in seedlings of both maize genotypes. The highest levels of transcript accumulation occurred at 8 h (sod2 and sod3.4) or 24 h (sod9) post-infestation, and aphid-induced changes in the expression of sod genes were more dramatic in the Ambrozja cultivar than in the Tasty Sweet variety. Furthermore, bird cherry-oat aphid colonization had a more substantial impact on levels of DPPH radical scavenging activity in infested host seedlings than grain aphid colonization. Additionally, Ambrozja plants infested by either hemipteran species showed markedly lower antioxidative capacity compared with attacked Tasty Sweet plants. PMID:24722734

  6. Patterns of diversity and recombination along chromosome 1 of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays L.).

    PubMed Central

    Tenaillon, Maud I; Sawkins, Mark C; Anderson, Lorinda K; Stack, Stephen M; Doebley, John; Gaut, Brandon S

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the interplay between genetic diversity and recombination in maize (Zea mays ssp. mays). Genetic diversity was measured in three types of markers: single-nucleotide polymorphisms, indels, and microsatellites. All three were examined in a sample of previously published DNA sequences from 21 loci on maize chromosome 1. Small indels (1-5 bp) were numerous and far more common than large indels. Furthermore, large indels (>100 bp) were infrequent in the population sample, suggesting they are slightly deleterious. The 21 loci also contained 47 microsatellites, of which 33 were polymorphic. Diversity in SNPs, indels, and microsatellites was compared to two measures of recombination: C (=4Nc) estimated from DNA sequence data and R based on a quantitative recombination nodule map of maize synaptonemal complex 1. SNP diversity was correlated with C (r = 0.65; P = 0.007) but not with R (r = -0.10; P = 0.69). Given the lack of correlation between R and SNP diversity, the correlation between SNP diversity and C may be driven by demography. In contrast to SNP diversity, microsatellite diversity was correlated with R (r = 0.45; P = 0.004) but not C (r = -0.025; P = 0.55). The correlation could arise if recombination is mutagenic for microsatellites, or it may be consistent with background selection that is apparent only in this class of rapidly evolving markers. PMID:12454083

  7. Effects of Light and Temperature on the Association between Zea mays and Spirillum lipoferum.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, S L; Okon, Y; Burris, R H

    1977-10-01

    Zea mays was grown on a low N nutrient solution under 16 conditions of light and temperature in a crossed-gradient room in an attempt to determine whether or not variation in climatic conditions influences N(2) fixation by the association between maize and Spirillum lipoferum. Temperatures were 28, 32, 36, and 40 C and 10 C lower at night; light intensities were 500, 1,250, 2,400, and 3,000 ft-c. Plants harvested after 94 days showed no significant benefit from association with S. lipoferum either in dry weight production or in total N content; variations in temperature and light had only a small influence on N(2) fixation under the conditions tested. Measurements of total N, together with designated assumptions, indicated that less than the equivalent of 0.5 kilogram of N was fixed/hectare during the entire growing period by the maize-S. lipoferum association. Rates of C(2)H(2) reduction by replicate root samples generally were low and variable and did not correlate with the measurements of total N. PMID:16660131

  8. The influence of calcium and pH on growth in primary roots of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasenstein, K. H.; Evans, M. L.

    1988-01-01

    We investigated the interaction of Ca2+ and pH on root elongation in Zea mays L. cv. B73 x Missouri 17 and cv. Merit. Seedlings were raised to contain high levels of Ca2+ (HC, imbibed and raised in 10 mM CaCl2) or low levels of Ca2+ (LC, imbibed and raised in distilled water). In HC roots, lowering the pH (5 mM MES/Tris) from 6.5 to 4.5 resulted in strong, long-lasting growth promotion. Surprisingly, increasing the pH from 6.5 to 8.5 also resulted in strong growth promotion. In LC roots acidification of the medium (pH 6.5 to 4.5) resulted in transient growth stimulation followed by a gradual decline in the growth rate toward zero. Exposure of LC roots to high pH (pH shift from 6.5 to 8.5) also promoted growth. Addition of EGTA resulted in strong growth promotion in both LC and HC roots. The ability of EGTA to stimulate growth appeared not to be related to H+ release from EGTA upon Ca2+ chelation since, 1) LC roots showed a strong and prolonged response to EGTA, but only a transient response to acid pH, and 2) promotion of growth by EGTA was observed in strongly buffered solutions. We also examined the pH dependence of the release of 45Ca2+ from roots of 3-day-old seedlings grown from grains imbibed in 45Ca2+. Release of 45Ca2+ from the root into agar blocks placed on the root surface was greater the more acidic the pH of the blocks. The results indicate that Ca2+ may be necessary for the acid growth response in roots.

  9. Calcium ion dependency of ethylene production in segments of primary roots of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasenstein, K. H.; Evans, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Ca2+ on ethylene production in 2-cm long apical segments from primary roots of corn (Zea mays L., B73 x Missouri 17) seedlings. The seedlings were raised under different conditions of Ca2+ availability. Low-Ca and high-Ca seedlings were raised by soaking the grains and watering the seedlings with distilled water or 10 mM CaCl2, respectively. Segments from high-Ca roots produced more than twice as much ethylene as segments from low-Ca roots. Indoleacetic acid (IAA; 1 micromole) enhanced ethylene production in segments from both low-Ca and high-Ca roots but auxin-induced promotion of ethylene production was consistently higher in segments from high-Ca roots. Addition of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) to root segments from low-Ca seedlings doubled total ethylene production and the rate of production remained fairly constant during a 24 h period of monitoring. In segments from high-Ca seedlings ACC also increased total ethylene production but most of the ethylene was produced within the first 6 h. The data suggest that Ca2+ enhances the conversion of ACC to ethylene. The terminal 2 mm of the root tip were found to be especially important to ethylene biosynthesis by apical segments and, experiments using 45Ca2+ as tracer indicated that the apical 2 mm of the root is the region of strongest Ca2+ accumulation. Other cations such as Mn2+, Mg2+, and K+ could largely substitute for Ca2+. The significance of these findings is discussed with respect to recent evidence for gravity-induced Ca2+ redistribution and its relationship to the establishment of asymmetric growth during gravitropic curvature.

  10. Correlations between gravitropic curvature and auxin movement across gravistimulated roots of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. M.; Evans, M. L.; Hertel, R.

    1990-01-01

    We compared the kinetics of auxin redistribution across the caps of primary roots of 2-day-old maize (Zea mays, cv Merit) seedlings with the time course of gravitropic curvature. [3H] indoleacetic acid was applied to one side of the cap in an agar donor and radioactivity moving across the cap was collected in an agar receiver applied to the opposite side. Upon gravistimulation the roots first curved upward slightly, then returned to the horizontal and began curving downward, reaching a final angle of about 67 degrees. Movement of label across the caps of gravistimulated roots was asymmetric with preferential downward movement (ratio downward/upward = ca. 1.6, radioactivity collected during the 90 min following beginning of gravistimulation). There was a close correlation between the development of asymmetric auxin movement across the root cap and the rate of curvature, with both values increasing to a maximum and then declining as the roots approached the final angle of curvature. In roots preadapted to gravity (alternate brief stimulation on opposite flanks over a period of 1 hour) the initial phase of upward curvature was eliminated and downward bending began earlier than for controls. The correlation between asymmetric auxin movement and the kinetics of curvature also held in comparisons between control and preadapted roots. Both downward auxin transport asymmetry and downward curvature occurred earlier in preadapted roots than in controls. These findings are consistent with suggestions that the root cap is not only the site of perception but also the location of the initial redistribution of effectors that ultimately leads to curvature.

  11. Maize (Zea mays L.) performance in organically amended mine site soils.

    PubMed

    Oladipo, Oluwatosin Gbemisola; Olayinka, Akinyemi; Awotoye, Olusegun Olufemi

    2016-10-01

    Organic amendments play an important role in the eco-friendly remediation of degraded mine site soils. This study investigated the quality (essential nutrients and heavy metal content) of maize grown on organically amended soils from three active mines in Nigeria. Soil samples were collected randomly at 0-15 cm depth, air-dried and sieved. Five kg of soil were amended with poultry manure and sawdust (poultry manure only, sawdust only, poultry manure-sawdust mixtures in 3:1, 2:1 and 1:1 ratios) at 10 g kg(-1). Maize (Zea mays L.) seeds were planted and watered for two consecutive periods of 8 weeks, with the control and treatment experiments set up in the screenhouse in quadruples. Harvested tissues were weighed, dried, ground and digested. Chemical properties were determined using standard methods while atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to determine total metal concentrations (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu). ANOVA was used to test for significant differences among treatment groups in the various parameters. Application of poultry manure-sawdust mixtures significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced tissue dry matter yield, as well as N, P, K, and Na contents while Zn, Cd, Cu and Pb were immobilized to approximately 50-100%. Treatment with sawdust alone reduced tissue nutrient content resulting in depressed plant yield while poultry manure only though enhanced crop yield, contained higher heavy metal contents. Soil amendments comprised of poultry manure-sawdust mixtures can be effective remediation strategy for mine site soils, as these organic materials help replenish soil nutrients, immobilize heavy metals, and enhance food productivity. PMID:27415409

  12. Proliferation of maize (Zea mays L.) roots in response to localized supply of nitrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granato, T. C.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1989-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) plants with two primary nodal root axes were grown for 8 d in flowing nutrient culture with each axis independently supplied with NO3-. Dry matter accumulation by roots was similar whether 1.0 mol m-3 NO3- was supplied to one or both axes. When NO3- was supplied to only one axis, however, accumulation of dry matter within the root system was significantly greater in the axis supplied with NO3-. The increased dry matter accumulation by the +N-treated axis was attributable entirely to increased density and growth of lateral branches and not to a difference in growth of the primary axis. Proliferation of lateral branches for the +N axis was associated with the capacity for in situ reduction and utilization of a portion of the absorbed NO3-, especially in the apical region where lateral primordia are initiated. Although reduced nitrogen was translocated to the -N axis, concentrations in the -N axis remained significantly lower than in the +N axis. The concentration of reduced nitrogen, as well as in vitro NO3- reductase activity, was greater in apical than in more basal regions of the +N axis. The enhanced proliferation of lateral branches in the +N axis was accompanied by an increase in total respiration rate of the axis. Part of the increased respiration was attributable to increased mass of roots. The specific respiration rate (micromoles CO2 evolved per hour per gram root dry weight) was also greater for the +N than for the -N axis. If respiration rate is taken as representative of sink demand, stimulation of initiation and growth of laterals by in situ utilization of a localized exogenous supply of NO3- establishes an increased sink demand through enhanced metabolic activity and the increased partitioning of assimilates to the +N axis responds to the difference in sink demand between +N and -N axes.

  13. Transport and metabolism of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-galactoside in seedlings of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komoszynski, M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol galactoside labeled with 3H in the indole and 14C in the galactose moieties was applied to kernels of 5 day old germinating seedlings of Zea mays. Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol galactoside was not transported into either the shoot or root tissue as the intact molecule but was instead hydrolyzed to yield [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and [3H]indole-3-acetic acid which were then transported to the shoot with little radioactivity going to the root. With certain assumption concerning the equilibration of applied [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-[U-14C]galactose with the endogenous pool, it may be concluded that indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol galactoside in the endosperm supplies about 2 picomoles per plant per hour of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and 1 picomole per plant per hour of indole-3-acetic acid to the shoot and thus is comparable to indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol as a source of indole-acetic acid for the shoot. Quantitative estimates of the amount of galactose in the kernels suggest that [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-[14C]galactose is hydrolyzed after the compound leaves the endosperm but before it reaches the shoot. In addition, [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-[14C]galactose supplies appreciable amounts of 14C to the shoot and both 14C and 3H to an uncharacterized insoluble fraction of the endosperm.

  14. Optical Reflectance and Fluorescence for Detecting Nitrogen Needs in Zea mays L.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMurtrey, J. E.; Middleton, E. M.; Corp. L. A.; Campbell, P. K. Entcheva; Butcher, L. M.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    2003-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) status in field grown corn (Zea mays L.) was assessed using spectral techniques. Passive reflectance remote sensing and, both passive and active fluorescence sensing methods were investigated. Reflectance and fluorescence methods are reported to detect changes in the primary plant pigments (chlorophylls a and b; carotenoids) in higher plant species. As a general rule, foliar chlorophyll a (Chl a) and chlorophyll b (Chl b) usually exist in approx.3:l ratio. In plants under stress, Chl b content is affected before Chl a reductions occur. For reflectance, a version of the chlorophyll absorption in reflectance index (CARI) method was tested with narrow bands from the Airborne Imaging Spectroradiometer for Applications (ASIA). CARI minimizes the effects of soil background on the signal from green canopies. A modified CARI (MCARI) was used to track total Chl a levels in the red dip of the spectrum from the corn canopy. A second MCARI was used to track the auxiliary plant pigments (Chl b and the carotenoids) in the yellow/orange/red edge part of the reflectance spectrum. The difference between these two MCARI indices detected variations in N levels across the field plot canopies using ASIA data. At the leaf level, ratios of fluorescence emissions in the blue, green, red and far-red wavelengths sensed responses that were associated with the plant pigments, and were indicative of energy transfer in the photosynthetic process. N stressed corn stands could be distinguish from those with optimally applied N with fluorescence emission spectra obtained from individual corn leaves. Both reflectance and fluorescence methods are sensitive in detecting corn N needs and may be especially powerful in monitoring crop conditions if both types of information can be combined.

  15. Nonomuraea zeae sp. nov., isolated from the rhizosphere of corn (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Shen, Yue; Jia, Feiyu; Liu, Chongxi; Li, Jiansong; Guo, Siyu; Zhou, Shuyu; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2016-06-01

    A novel actinobacterium, designated strain NEAU-ND5T, was isolated from the rhizosphere of corn (Zea mays L.) collected in Heilongjiang Province, north-east China, and characterized using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain NEAU-ND5T was a member of the genus Nonomuraea, with highest sequence similarities to Nonomuraea jabiensis A4036T (98.29 %), Nonomuraea rosea GW12687T (98.25 %), Nonomuraea candida HMC10T (98.22 %), Nonomuraea rhizophila YIM 67092T (98.04 %) and Nonomuraea kuesteri NRRL B-24325T (98.04 %). Similarities to other type strains of the genus Nonomuraea were lower than 98 %. Morphological and chemotaxonomic properties of strain NEAU-ND5T were also consistent with the description of the genus Nonomuraea. The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the whole-cell sugars were glucose, ribose and madurose. The phospholipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxy-phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, hydroxy-phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. The major menaquinones were MK-9(H4), MK-9(H2) and MK-9(H0). The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C16:0 and 10-methyl C17:0. A combination of DNA-DNA hybridization results and some phenotypic characteristics demonstrated that strain NEAU-ND5T was clearly distinguished from its closely related Nonomuraea species. Consequently, it is concluded that strain NEAU-ND5T represents a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea, for which the name Nonomuraea zeae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-ND5T (=CGMCC 4.7280T=DSM 100528T). PMID:26971302

  16. Net irrigation requirements for maize (Zea mays L.) in Bocono-Masparro interfluvium area.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farias Ramirez, Asdrubal Jesus; Moreno Pizani, Maria Alejandra

    2013-04-01

    Irrigated agriculture is one of the largest consumers of fresh water. In situations where water resources are limited, the irrigation for crops has led to water use conflicts because of human, hydroelectric and industrial demands. Thus, achieving precise information about water availability and water needs of crops becomes safety factors to guarantee sustainable development of irrigated crops in the future. In Bocono-Masparro interfluvium area located within Barinas and Portuguesa states in Venezuela, there has been a significant increase in intensive farming with maize (Zea mays L.) which made essential to determine the availability of irrigation water to meet the crop requirement and improve the management based on planning designs. Due to the lack of irrigation requirements data for the study area, a methodology was developed to estimate the net irrigation requirements (NIR). Therefore, the available information of this region related to climate, soil and irrigation was used to estimate NIR for maize through CROPWAT 8.0 model. There were established different crop-climate-soil combinations that allowed estimating NIR. It was found that NIR did not exceed the value of 125 mm/month in all of the combinations. Based on these results, a NIR spatial distribution map was obtained through the use of ArcView 3.2 ®. The results showed that the highest NIR were located in the northeast sector of the study area which was associated to the influence of the Weather Station named San Hipolito. Additionally, the estimated availability of groundwater was found to be higher than the surface water, and both combined exceeded the demands of the study area. The model CROPWAT 8.0 provided necessary information for irrigation planning in large scale. A NIR map developed through the proposed methodology represents a useful tool to integrate water balance factors.

  17. Soluble and bound phenolic compounds in different Bolivian purple corn ( Zea mays L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Cuevas Montilla, Elyana; Hillebrand, Silke; Antezana, Amalia; Winterhalter, Peter

    2011-07-13

    In nine Bolivian purple corn ( Zea mays L.) varieties the content of phenolic compounds as well as the anthocyanin composition has been determined. The phenotypes under investigation included four red and five blue varieties (Kulli, Ayzuma, Paru, Tuimuru, Oke, Huaca Songo, Colorado, Huillcaparu, and Checchi). In purple corn, phenolic compounds were highly concentrated in cell walls. Thus, simultaneous determination of soluble and bound-form phenolics is essential for analysis, extraction, and quantification. The present study reports the determination of soluble and insoluble-bound fraction of phenolic compounds by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-ESI-MS(n) in Bolivian purple corn varieties. Enzymatic, thermal, and alkaline hydrolyses were used to obtain the cell wall-linked phenolic compounds. Ferulic acid values ranged from 132.9 to 298.4 mg/100 g, and p-coumaric acid contents varied between 251.8 and 607.5 mg/100 g dry weight (DW), respectively, and were identified as the main nonanthocyanin phenolics. The total content of phenolic compounds ranged from 311.0 to 817.6 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW, and the percentage contribution of bound to total phenolics varied from 62.1 to 86.6%. The total monomeric anthocyanin content ranged from 1.9 to 71.7 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents/100 g DW. Anthocyanin profiles are almost the same among the different samples. Differences are observed only in the relative percentage of each anthocyanin. Cyanidin-3-glucoside and its malonated derivative were detected as major anthocyanins. Several dimalonylated monoglucosides of cyanidin, peonidin, and pelargonidin were present as minor constituents. PMID:21639140

  18. Effect of selenite and selenate on plant uptake of cadmium by maize (zea mays)

    SciTech Connect

    Shanker, K.; Mishra, S.; Srivastava, S.

    1996-03-01

    Selenium has been reported to confer tolerance to toxicity of heavy metals including cadmium, a highly toxic and non essential heavy metal, which enters the food chain via plant uptake from soils. Selenium reduces availability of cadmium to plants along with other aspects of its toxicokinetics. When plants are supplied with selenite, selenium concentrations in the xylem exudate are lower than selenate. Most of the selenate was transported as selenate and unidentified organic Se compounds. In contrast, Se distribution among various Se fractions within plants does not depend significantly on whether selenite or selenate was used. Selenium has a strong tendency to form complexes with heavy metals like Cd, Hg, Ag and Tl. It has been suggested that the protective effects of selenium are due to the formation of non toxic Se-metal complexes, although the mechanism by which this protective effect is exerted remains unclear. Studies on the effect of selenium (selenite) and cadmium additions to the soil on their concentrations in lettuce and wheat has indicated the role of selenite in reduction of cadmium uptake. The cletoxifying effect of sodium selenite on cadmium ion in the freshwater fish Potyacuthus cupanus has been reported. The discovery that an element like selenium counteracts the toxicity, chemical carcinogenesis and reduces the plant uptake of other toxic metals, highlights the possibility of existence of a Se-metal interaction mechanism in soil plant systems. The uptake and translocation of root-absorbed chromium supplied through irrigation in the trivalent and hexavalant states in various parts of the onion plant (Allium cepa) grown in soil and sand culture has been recently reported by us. In continuation of that, this preliminary report describes the effect of selenite and selenate pretreatment on the uptake of cadmium in the maize plant (Zea mays).

  19. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Response of Maize (Zea mays L.) Leaves to Long Photoperiod Condition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liuji; Tian, Lei; Wang, Shunxi; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Ping; Tian, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Huimin; Liu, Haiping; Chen, Yanhui

    2016-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.), an important industrial material and food source, shows an astonishing environmental adaptation. A remarkable feature of its post-domestication adaptation from tropical to temperate environments is adaptation to a long photoperiod (LP). Many photoperiod-related genes have been identified in previous transcriptomics analysis, but proteomics shows less evidence for this mechanism of photoperiod response. In this study, we sampled newly expanded leaves of maize at the three- and six-leaf stages from an LP-sensitive introgression line H496, the donor CML288, LP-insensitive inbred line, and recurrent parent Huangzao4 (HZ4) grown under long days (15 h light and 9 h dark). To characterize the proteomic changes in response to LP, the iTRAQ-labeling method was used to determine the proteome profiles of plants exposed to LP. A total of 943 proteins differentially expressed at the three- and six-leaf stages in HZ4 and H496 were identified. Functional analysis was performed by which the proteins were classified into stress defense, signal transduction, carbohydrate metabolism, protein metabolism, energy production, and transport functional groups using the WEGO online tool. The enriched gene ontology categories among the identified proteins were identified statistically with the Cytoscape plugin ClueGO + Cluepedia. Twenty Gene Ontology terms showed the highest significance, including those associated with protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, splicesome, ribosome, glyoxylate, dicarboxylate metabolism, L-malate dehydrogenase activity, and RNA transport. In addition, for subcellular location, all proteins showed significant enrichment of the mitochondrial outer membrane. The sugars producted by photosynthesis in plants are also a pivotal metabolic output in the circadian regulation. The results permit the prediction of several crucial proteins to photoperiod response and provide a foundation for further study of the influence of LP treatments on

  20. Global gene expression analysis of the shoot apical meristem of maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsu, Kazuhiro; Smith, Marianne B; Emrich, Scott J; Borsuk, Lisa A; Zhou, Ruilian; Chen, Tianle; Zhang, Xiaolan; Timmermans, Marja C P; Beck, Jon; Buckner, Brent; Janick-Buckner, Diane; Nettleton, Dan; Scanlon, Michael J; Schnable, Patrick S

    2007-01-01

    All above-ground plant organs are derived from shoot apical meristems (SAMs). Global analyses of gene expression were conducted on maize (Zea mays L.) SAMs to identify genes preferentially expressed in the SAM. The SAMs were collected from 14-day-old B73 seedlings via laser capture microdissection (LCM). The RNA samples extracted from LCM-collected SAMs and from seedlings were hybridized to microarrays spotted with 37 660 maize cDNAs. Approximately 30% (10 816) of these cDNAs were prepared as part of this study from manually dissected B73 maize apices. Over 5000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) (about 13% of the total) were differentially expressed (P<0.0001) between SAMs and seedlings. Of these, 2783 and 2248 ESTs were up- and down-regulated in the SAM, respectively. The expression in the SAM of several of the differentially expressed ESTs was validated via quantitative RT-PCR and/or in situ hybridization. The up-regulated ESTs included many regulatory genes including transcription factors, chromatin remodeling factors and components of the gene-silencing machinery, as well as about 900 genes with unknown functions. Surprisingly, transcripts that hybridized to 62 retrotransposon-related cDNAs were also substantially up-regulated in the SAM. Complementary DNAs derived from the LCM-collected SAMs were sequenced to identify additional genes that are expressed in the SAM. This generated around 550 000 ESTs (454-SAM ESTs) from two genotypes. Consistent with the microarray results, approximately 14% of the 454-SAM ESTs from B73 were retrotransposon-related. Possible roles of genes that are preferentially expressed in the SAM are discussed. PMID:17764504

  1. Phenotypic impacts of PBAN RNA interference in an ant, Solenopsis invicta, and a moth, Helicoverpa zea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Man-Yeon; Vander Meer, Robert K; Coy, Monique; Scharf, Michael E

    2012-08-01

    Insect neuropeptide hormones represent more than 90% of all insect hormones. The PBAN/pyrokinin family is a major group of insect neuropeptides, and they are expected to be found from all insect groups. These species-specific neuropeptides have been shown to have a variety of functions from embryo to adult. PBAN is well understood in moth species relative to sex pheromone biosynthesis, but other potential functions are yet to be determined. Recently, we focused on defining the PBAN gene and peptides in fire ants in preparation for an investigation of their function(s). RNA interference (RNAi) technology is a convenient tool to investigate unknown physiological functions in insects, and it is now an emerging method for development of novel biologically-based control agents as alternatives to insecticides. This could be a paradigm shift that will avoid many problems associated with conventional chemical insecticides. In this study, we selected the PBAN gene and its neuropeptide products as an RNAi target from two insect groups; a social insect, the fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) and a non-social insect, the corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea). Both insects are economically important pests. We report negative impacts after PBAN dsRNA treatment to suppress PBAN gene transcription during developmental and adult stages of both species, e.g. increased adult and larval mortality, delayed pupal development and decreased sex pheromone production in the moth. This is an important first step in determining the multiple functions of the PBAN gene in these two insects. This work illustrates the variety of phenotypic effects observed after RNAi silencing of the PBAN gene and suggests the possibility of novel biologically-based insect pest control methods. PMID:22705256

  2. Hydrogen sulphide improves adaptation of Zea mays seedlings to iron deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Juan; Wu, Fei-Hua; Shang, Yu-Ting; Wang, Wen-Hua; Hu, Wen-Jun; Simon, Martin; Liu, Xiang; Shangguan, Zhou-Ping; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is emerging as a potential molecule involved in physiological regulation in plants. However, whether H2S regulates iron-shortage responses in plants is largely unknown. Here, the role of H2S in modulating iron availability in maize (Zea mays L. cv Canner) seedlings grown in iron-deficient culture solution is reported. The main results are as follows: Firstly, NaHS, a donor of H2S, completely prevented leaf interveinal chlorosis in maize seedlings grown in iron-deficient culture solution. Secondly, electron micrographs of mesophyll cells from iron-deficient maize seedlings revealed plastids with few photosynthetic lamellae and rudimentary grana. On the contrary, mesophyll chloroplasts appeared completely developed in H2S-treated maize seedlings. Thirdly, H2S treatment increased iron accumulation in maize seedlings by changing the expression levels of iron homeostasis- and sulphur metabolism-related genes. Fourthly, phytosiderophore (PS) accumulation and secretion were enhanced by H2S treatment in seedlings grown in iron-deficient solution. Indeed, the gene expression of ferric-phytosiderophore transporter (ZmYS1) was specifically induced by iron deficiency in maize leaves and roots, whereas their abundance was decreased by NaHS treatment. Lastly, H2S significantly enhanced photosynthesis through promoting the protein expression of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase large subunit (RuBISCO LSU) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and the expression of genes encoding RuBISCO large subunit (RBCL), small subunit (RBCS), D1 protein (psbA), and PEPC in maize seedlings grown in iron-deficient solution. These results indicate that H2S is closely related to iron uptake, transport, and accumulation, and consequently increases chlorophyll biosynthesis, chloroplast development, and photosynthesis in plants. PMID:26208645

  3. Role of juvenile hormone esterase and epoxide hydrolase in reproduction of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa zea.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Sayed M S; Anspaugh, Douglas D; Michael Roe, R

    2006-07-01

    The role of juvenile hormone (JH) esterase (JHE) and epoxide hydrolase (EH) in reproduction of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa zea, was investigated. Peak emergence of male and female bollworm adults occurred early in the scotophase. Female adults were added to males in a 1:2 ratio, respectively, at the beginning of the first photophase after emergence (d0). The highest oviposition rates for mated females were noted on d 2-4. The in vitro JH III esterase and JH III EH activity was measured in whole body homogenates of virgin and mated females from d0 to d8 post-emergence. Maximal JHE activity for virgin females occurred on d2 (1.09+/-0.14(+/-1 SEM) nmol of JH III degraded/min/mg protein), which was approximately twice that of mated females on the same day. The same results were observed for EH where the activity peaked on d2 at 0.053+/-0.003 as compared to 0.033+/-0.003 nmol of JH III degraded/min/mg protein, respectively. By d4, both JHE and JH EH activities declined significantly in virgin and mated females and were the same through d7. The developmental changes and effects of mating on JH degradation were similar when measured per insect. The highest levels of JHE and JH EH activity/min/mg protein in d2 virgin and mated females was found in ovaries followed by the carcass and then haemolymph; no EH activity was found in haemolymph as expected. For ovary, the JHE and JH EH activity was highest in virgin compared to mated females. The role of both enzymes in the regulation of reproduction is discussed. PMID:16678198

  4. Regulation of assimilatory sulfate reduction by cadmium in Zea mays L

    SciTech Connect

    Nussbaum, S.; Schmutz, D.; Brunold, C. )

    1988-12-01

    Plants cultivated with Cd can produce large amounts of phytochelatins. Since these compounds contain much cysteine, these plants should have an increased rate of assimilatory sulfate reduction, the biosynthetic pathway leading to cysteine. To test this prediction, the effect of Cd on growth, sulfate assimilation in vivo and extractable activity of two enzymes of sulfate reduction, ATP-sulfurylase (EC 2.7.7.4) and adenosine 5{prime}-phosphosulfate sulfotransferase were measured in maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings. For comparison, nitrate reductase activity was determined. In 9-day-old cultures, the increase in fresh and dry weight was significantly inhibited by 50 micromolar and more Cd in the roots and by 100 and 200 micromolar in the shoots. Seedlings cultivated with 50 micromolar Cd for 5 days incorporated more label from {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} into higher molecular weight compounds than did controls, indicating that the predicted increase in the rate of assimilatory sulfate reduction took place. Consistent with this finding, an increased level of the extractable activity of both ATP-sulfurylase and adenosine 5{prime}-phosphosulfate sulfotransferase was measured in the roots of these plants at 50 micromolar Cd and at higher concentrations. This effect was reversible after removal of Cd from the nutrient solution. In the leaves, a significant positive effect of Cd was detected at 5 micromolar for ATP-sulfurylase and at 5 and 20 micromolar for adenosine 5{prime}-phosphosulfate sulfotransferase. At higher Cd concentrations, both enzyme activities were at levels below the control. Nitrate reductase (EC 1.6.6.1) activity decreased at 50 micromolar or more Cd in the roots and was similarly affected at ATP-sulfurylase activity in the primary leaves.

  5. Yield response of dual-toxin Bt cotton to Helicoverpa zea infestations.

    PubMed

    Gore, J; Adamczyk, J J; Catchot, A; Jackson, R

    2008-10-01

    Field cage experiments were conducted to determine the impact of bollworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), on yields of Bollgard II and Widestrike cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. One-day-old bollworm larvae were infested in white flowers of Bollgard II and in white flowers and terminals of Widestrike cotton. The infestation levels included 0, 50, and 100% of white flowers for each type of cotton. Terminal infestations included one or two larvae per terminal on Widestrike cotton. Larvae were placed in flowers of Bollgard II cotton each day for 1 to 4 wk during the first 4 wk of flowering during 2003, 2004, and 2005 seasons and in the flowers or terminals of Widestrike cotton each day for 1 to 3 wk. Averaged across years and durations of infestation, yields of Bollgard II cotton were significantly reduced compared with noninfested Bollgard II cotton when 100% of white flowers were infested. For Widestrike cotton, there was a reduction in yield when 100% of white flowers were infested in 2005, but not in 2006. There was a significant relationship for cumulative numbers of white flowers infested on seedcotton yield of Bollgard II during one of the 3 yr of the experiment. The regression equation during that year had a slope of -0.77. No significant relationships were observed for cumulative numbers of white flowers infested on yields of Widestrike cotton. Results of the current experiment suggest bollworms will rarely cause yield losses of Bollgard II and Widestrike cotton. Future research will need to focus on developing specific thresholds for bollworms on Bollgard II and Widestrike cotton. PMID:18950041

  6. Diverse gene-silencing mechanisms with distinct requirements for RNA polymerase subunits in Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Amy E; Sidorenko, Lyudmila; McGinnis, Karen M

    2014-11-01

    In Zea mays, transcriptional regulation of the b1 (booster1) gene requires a distal enhancer and MEDIATOR OF PARAMUTATION1 (MOP1), MOP2, and MOP3 proteins orthologous to Arabidopsis components of the RNA-dependent DNA methylation pathway. We compared the genetic requirements for MOP1, MOP2, and MOP3 for endogenous gene silencing by two hairpin transgenes with inverted repeats of the a1 (anthocyaninless1) gene promoter (a1pIR) and the b1 gene enhancer (b1IR), respectively. The a1pIR transgene induced silencing of endogenous A1 in mop1-1 and mop3-1, but not in Mop2-1 homozygous plants. This finding suggests that transgene-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) circumvented the requirement for MOP1, a predicted RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and MOP3, the predicted largest subunit of RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV). Because the Arabidopsis protein orthologous to MOP2 is the second largest subunit of Pol IV and V, our results may indicate that hairpin-induced siRNAs cannot bypass the requirement for the predicted scaffolding activity of Pol V. In contrast to a1pIR, the b1IR transgene silenced endogenous B1 in all three homozygous mutant genotypes--mop1-1, Mop2-1, and mop3-1--suggesting that transgene mediated b1 silencing did not involve MOP2-containing Pol V complexes. Based on the combined results for a1, b1, and three previously described loci, we propose a speculative hypothesis of locus-specific deployment of Pol II, MOP2-containing Pol V, or alternative versions of Pol V with second largest subunits other than MOP2 to explain the mechanistic differences in silencing at specific loci, including one example associated with paramutation. PMID:25164883

  7. Phytohormone levels in germinating seeds of Zea mays L. exposed to selenium and aflatoxines.

    PubMed

    Ağar, Güleray; Türker, Musa; Battal, Peyami; Emre, Erez M

    2006-07-01

    Seeds of Zea mays L. were exposed to aflatoxine B1 (AFB1), aflatoxine G1 (AFG1) and selenium (Se) alone and in combination and allowed to germinate. Phytohormone levels of GA-like substances (GAs), trans-Zeatin (t-Z) and Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) when the roots of the germinating seeds reach 1.5-3.0 cm in length. The levels of endogenous hormones decreased in seeds treated with AFB1 and AFG1 compared to control; however an increase was noted in seeds exposed to AFG1 and Se together. AFB1 and Se treatment caused reduced hormone levels in most of the treatments. When plants were exposed to Se alone, the highest levels of GAs, t-Z and IAA were observed in the application of 800 ppm Se. The highest levels of GAs, t-Z and IAA were observed when seeds were treated with 0.2 ppm AFG1 + 8 ppm Se, 0.2 ppm AFG1 + 8 ppm Se and 0.2 ppm AFG1 + 0.08 ppm Se, respectively, whereas the lowest levels of the hormones were observed in 0.2 ppm AFB1 + 8 ppm Se, 0.2 ppm AFB1 + 0.08 ppm Se and 0.1 ppm AFB1, respectively. In conclusion, the levels of phytohormones were reduced by the treatment of AFB1 and AFG1 alone. However Se removed the negative effect of AFB1 on phytohormones, but not AFB1. PMID:16636889

  8. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Response of Maize (Zea mays L.) Leaves to Long Photoperiod Condition

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liuji; Tian, Lei; Wang, Shunxi; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Ping; Tian, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Huimin; Liu, Haiping; Chen, Yanhui

    2016-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.), an important industrial material and food source, shows an astonishing environmental adaptation. A remarkable feature of its post-domestication adaptation from tropical to temperate environments is adaptation to a long photoperiod (LP). Many photoperiod-related genes have been identified in previous transcriptomics analysis, but proteomics shows less evidence for this mechanism of photoperiod response. In this study, we sampled newly expanded leaves of maize at the three- and six-leaf stages from an LP-sensitive introgression line H496, the donor CML288, LP-insensitive inbred line, and recurrent parent Huangzao4 (HZ4) grown under long days (15 h light and 9 h dark). To characterize the proteomic changes in response to LP, the iTRAQ-labeling method was used to determine the proteome profiles of plants exposed to LP. A total of 943 proteins differentially expressed at the three- and six-leaf stages in HZ4 and H496 were identified. Functional analysis was performed by which the proteins were classified into stress defense, signal transduction, carbohydrate metabolism, protein metabolism, energy production, and transport functional groups using the WEGO online tool. The enriched gene ontology categories among the identified proteins were identified statistically with the Cytoscape plugin ClueGO + Cluepedia. Twenty Gene Ontology terms showed the highest significance, including those associated with protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, splicesome, ribosome, glyoxylate, dicarboxylate metabolism, L-malate dehydrogenase activity, and RNA transport. In addition, for subcellular location, all proteins showed significant enrichment of the mitochondrial outer membrane. The sugars producted by photosynthesis in plants are also a pivotal metabolic output in the circadian regulation. The results permit the prediction of several crucial proteins to photoperiod response and provide a foundation for further study of the influence of LP treatments on

  9. The effect and fate of water-soluble carbon nanodots in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Dou, Runzhi; Yang, Zhongzhou; Wang, Xiaoping; Mao, Chuanbin; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Li

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the toxicity of water-soluble carbon nanodots (C-dots) to maize (Zea mays L.) and their uptake and transport in plants were investigated. After exposed in sand matrix amended with 0-2000 mg/L C-dots for 4 weeks, we found that the phytotoxicity of C-dots was concentration-dependent. C-dots at 250 and 500 mg/L showed no toxicity to maize. However, 1000 and 2000 mg/L C-dots significantly reduced the fresh weight of root by 57% and 68%, and decreased the shoot fresh weight by 38% and 72%, respectively. Moreover, in maize roots, the exposure of C-dots at 2000 mg/L significantly increased the H2O2 content and lipid peroxidation (6.5 and 1.65 times higher, respectively), as well as, the antioxidant enzymes activities, up to 2, 1.5, 1.9 and 1.9 times higher for catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, respectively. On the other hand, C-dots were observed in detached root-cap cells, cortex and vascular bundle of roots and mesophyll cells of leaves through fluorescence microscopy analysis, suggesting that C-dots were absorbed and translocated systemically in maize. Remarkably, a certain amount of C-dots were excreted out from leaf blade. To our knowledge, this is the first study combined phenotypic observation with physiologic responses and bioaccumulation and translocation analysis of C-dots to investigate their effect and fate in maize. PMID:26694806

  10. Usefulness of Multiparental Populations of Maize (Zea mays L.) for Genome-Based Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Lehermeier, Christina; Krämer, Nicole; Bauer, Eva; Bauland, Cyril; Camisan, Christian; Campo, Laura; Flament, Pascal; Melchinger, Albrecht E.; Menz, Monica; Meyer, Nina; Moreau, Laurence; Moreno-González, Jesús; Ouzunova, Milena; Pausch, Hubert; Ranc, Nicolas; Schipprack, Wolfgang; Schönleben, Manfred; Walter, Hildrun; Charcosset, Alain; Schön, Chris-Carolin

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of marker-assisted prediction of phenotypes has been studied intensively for different types of plant breeding populations. However, one remaining question is how to incorporate and counterbalance information from biparental and multiparental populations into model training for genome-wide prediction. To address this question, we evaluated testcross performance of 1652 doubled-haploid maize (Zea mays L.) lines that were genotyped with 56,110 single nucleotide polymorphism markers and phenotyped for five agronomic traits in four to six European environments. The lines are arranged in two diverse half-sib panels representing two major European heterotic germplasm pools. The data set contains 10 related biparental dent families and 11 related biparental flint families generated from crosses of maize lines important for European maize breeding. With this new data set we analyzed genome-based best linear unbiased prediction in different validation schemes and compositions of estimation and test sets. Further, we theoretically and empirically investigated marker linkage phases across multiparental populations. In general, predictive abilities similar to or higher than those within biparental families could be achieved by combining several half-sib families in the estimation set. For the majority of families, 375 half-sib lines in the estimation set were sufficient to reach the same predictive performance of biomass yield as an estimation set of 50 full-sib lines. In contrast, prediction across heterotic pools was not possible for most cases. Our findings are important for experimental design in genome-based prediction as they provide guidelines for the genetic structure and required sample size of data sets used for model training. PMID:25236445

  11. β-aminobutyric acid mediated drought stress alleviation in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Shaw, Arun K; Bhardwaj, Pardeep K; Ghosh, Supriya; Roy, Sankhajit; Saha, Suman; Sherpa, Ang R; Saha, Samir K; Hossain, Zahed

    2016-02-01

    The present study highlights the role of β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) in alleviating drought stress effects in maize (Zea mays L.). Chemical priming was imposed by pretreating 1-week-old plants with 600 μM BABA prior to applying drought stress. Specific activities of key antioxidant enzymes and metabolites (ascorbate and glutathione) levels of ascorbate-glutathione cycle were studied to unravel the priming-induced modulation of plant defense system. Furthermore, changes in endogenous ABA and JA concentrations as well as mRNA expressions of key genes involved in their respective biosynthesis pathways were monitored in BABA-primed (BABA+) and non-primed (BABA-) leaves of drought-challenged plants to better understand the mechanistic insights into the BABA-induced hormonal regulation of plant response to water-deficit stress. Accelerated stomatal closure, high relative water content, and less membrane damage were observed in BABA-primed leaves under water-deficit condition. Elevated APX and SOD activity in non-primed leaves found to be insufficient to scavenge all H2O2 and O2 (·-) resulting in oxidative burst as evident after histochemical staining with NBT and DAB. A higher proline accumulation in non-primed leaves also does not give much protection against drought stress. Increased GR activity supported with the enhanced mRNA and protein expressions might help the BABA-primed plants to maintain a high GSH pool essential for sustaining balanced redox status to counter drought-induced oxidative stress damages. Hormonal analysis suggests that in maize, BABA-potentiated drought tolerance is primarily mediated through JA-dependent pathway by the activation of antioxidant defense systems while ABA biosynthesis pathway also plays an important role in fine-tuning of drought stress response. PMID:26416125

  12. Paenibacillus zeae sp. nov., isolated from maize (Zea mays L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Zhai, Lei; Wang, Ronghuan; Zhao, Ran; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Chuanyong; Cao, Yu; Cao, Yanhua; Xu, Tianjun; Ge, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Jiuran; Cheng, Chi

    2015-12-01

    Four Gram-stain-positive bacterial strains, designated 6R2T, 6R18, 3T2 and 3T10, isolated from seeds of hybrid maize (Zea mays L., Jingke 968) were investigated using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Cells were aerobic, motile, spore-forming and rod-shaped. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolates may represent a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, the four closest neighbours being Paenibacillus lautus NRRL NRS-666T (97.1 % similarity), Paenibacillus glucanolyticus DSM 5162T (97.0 %), Paenibacillus lactis MB 1871T (97.0 %) and Paenibacillus chibensis JCM 9905T (96.8 %). The DNA G+C content of strain 6R2T was 51.8 mol%. Its polar lipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The predominant respiratory quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7) and the major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C14 : 0. Strains 6R2T, 6R18, 3T2 and 3T10 were clearly distinguished from the above type strains using phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization, and a range of physiological and biochemical characteristics. It is evident from the genotypic and phenotypic data that strains 6R2T, 6R18, 3T2 and 3T10 represent a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus zeae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 6R2T ( = KCTC 33674T = CICC 23860T). PMID:26373452

  13. Cohnella rhizosphaerae sp. nov., isolated from the rhizosphere environment of Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, Peter; Glaeser, Stefanie P; McInroy, John A; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    A Gram-staining-positive, aerobic, non-endospore forming organism, isolated as a seed endophyte (colonizing the internal healthy tissue of plant seed) of sweet corn (Zea mays), strain CSE-5610T, was studied for its taxonomic allocation. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, strain CSE-5610T was grouped into the genus Cohnella, most closely related to Cohnella ginsengisoli GR21-5T (98.1%) and 'Cohnella plantaginis' YN-83 (97.5%). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to other members of the genus Cohnella was <96.6%. DNA-DNA hybridization of strain CSE-5610T with C. ginsengisoli DSM 18997T and 'C. plantaginis' DSM 25424 was 58% (reciprocal 24%) and 30% (reciprocal 27%), respectively. The fatty acid profile from whole cell hydrolysates supported the allocation of the strain to the genus Cohnella; iso- and anteiso-branched fatty acids were found as major compounds. meso-Diaminopimelic acid was identified as the cell-wall diamino acid. The quinone system consisted predominantly of menaquinone MK-7. The polar lipid profile was composed of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, two aminophospholipids, a phospholipid and minor amounts of two polar lipids. In the polyamine pattern, spermidine was the major polyamine. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 60 mol%. In addition, the results of physiological and biochemical tests also allowed phenotypic differentiation of strain CSE-5610T from the two closely related strains. Hence, CSE-5610T represents a novel species of the genus Cohnella, for which we propose the name Cohnella rhizosphaerae sp. nov., with CSE-5610T (=LMG 28080T=CIP 110695T) as the type strain. PMID:24556632

  14. Fungal-fungal associations affect the assembly of endophyte communities in maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Pan, Jean J; May, Georgiana

    2009-10-01

    Many factors can affect the assembly of communities, ranging from species pools to habitat effects to interspecific interactions. In microbial communities, the predominant focus has been on the well-touted ability of microbes to disperse and the environment acting as a selective filter to determine which species are present. In this study, we investigated the role of biotic interactions (e.g., competition, facilitation) in fungal endophyte community assembly by examining endophyte species co-occurrences within communities using null models. We used recombinant inbred lines (genotypes) of maize (Zea mays) to examine community assembly at multiple habitat levels, at the individual plant and host genotype levels. Both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches were used to assess endophyte communities. Communities were analyzed using the complete fungal operational taxonomic unit (OTU) dataset or only the dominant (most abundant) OTUs in order to ascertain whether species co-occurrences were different for dominant members compared to when all members were included. In the culture-dependent approach, we found that for both datasets, OTUs co-occurred on maize genotypes more frequently than expected under the null model of random species co-occurrences. In the culture-independent approach, we found that OTUs negatively co-occurred at the individual plant level but were not significantly different from random at the genotype level for either the dominant or complete datasets. Our results showed that interspecific interactions can affect endophyte community assembly, but the effects can be complex and depend on host habitat level. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine endophyte community assembly in the same host species at multiple habitat levels. Understanding the processes and mechanisms that shape microbial communities will provide important insights into microbial community structure and the maintenance of microbial biodiversity. PMID:19517158

  15. Expression and characterization of plasma membrane aquaporins in stomatal complexes of Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Heinen, Robert B; Bienert, Gerd Patrick; Cohen, David; Chevalier, Adrien S; Uehlein, Norbert; Hachez, Charles; Kaldenhoff, Ralf; Le Thiec, Didier; Chaumont, François

    2014-10-01

    Stomata, the microscopic pores on the surface of the aerial parts of plants, are bordered by two specialized cells, known as guard cells, which control the stomatal aperture according to endogenous and environmental signals. Like most movements occurring in plants, the opening and closing of stomata are based on hydraulic forces. During opening, the activation of plasma membrane and tonoplast transporters results in solute accumulation in the guard cells. To re-establish the perturbed osmotic equilibrium, water follows the solutes into the cells, leading to their swelling. Numerous studies have contributed to the understanding of the mechanism and regulation of stomatal movements. However, despite the importance of transmembrane water flow during this process, only a few studies have provided evidence for the involvement of water channels, called aquaporins. Here, we microdissected Zea mays stomatal complexes and showed that members of the aquaporin plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) subfamily are expressed in these complexes and that their mRNA expression generally follows a diurnal pattern. The substrate specificity of two of the expressed ZmPIPs, ZmPIP1;5 and ZmPIP1;6, was investigated by heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes and yeast cells. Our data show that both isoforms facilitate transmembrane water diffusion in the presence of the ZmPIP2;1 isoform. In addition, both display CO2 permeability comparable to that of the CO2 diffusion facilitator NtAQP1. These data indicate that ZmPIPs may have various physiological roles in stomatal complexes. PMID:25082269

  16. Kinetics of sup 15 NH sub 4 sup + assimilation in Zea mays

    SciTech Connect

    Magalhaes, J.R.; Ju, G.C.; Rich, P.J.; Rhodes, D. Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN )

    1990-10-01

    Comparative studies of {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} assimilation were undertaken with a GDH1-null mutant of Zea mays and a related (but not strictly isogenic) GDH1-positive wild type from which this mutant was derived. The kinetics of {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} assimilation into free amino acids and total reduced nitrogen were monitored in both roots and shoots of 2-week-old seedlings supplied with 5 millimolar 99% ({sup 15}NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} via the aerated root medium in hydroponic culture over a 24-h period. The GDH1-null mutant, with a 10- to 15-fold lower total root GDH activity in comparison to the wild type, was found to exhibit a 40 to 50% lower rate of {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} assimilation into total reduced nitrogen. The lower rates of {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} assimilation in the mutant was associated with lower rates of labeling of several free amino acids (including glutamate, glutamine-amino N, aspartate, asparagine-amino N, and alanine) in both roots and shoots of the mutant in comparison to the wild type. Qualitatively, these labeling kinetics appear consistent with a reduced flux of {sup 15}N via glutamate in the GDH1-null mutant. However, the responses of the two genotypes to the potent inhibitor of glutamine synthetase, methionine sulfoximine, and differences in morphology of the two genotypes (particularly a lower shoot:root ratio in the GDH1-null mutant) urge caution in concluding that GDH1 is solely responsible for these differences in ammonia assimilation rate.

  17. Concurrent Measurements of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Exchange during Lightflecks in Maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Krall, J. P.; Pearcy, R. W.

    1993-11-01

    Leaves of maize (Zea mays L.) were enclosed in a temperature-controlled cuvette under 35 Pa (350 [mu]bars) CO2 and 0.2 kPa (0.2%)O2 and exposed to short periods (1-30 s) of illumination (light-flecks). The rate and total amount of CO2 assimilated and O2 evolved were measured. The O2 evolution rate was taken as an indicator of the rate of photosynthetic noncyclic electron transport (NCET). In this C4 species, the response of electron transport during the lightflecks qualitatively mimicked that of C3 species previously tested, whereas the response of CO2 assimilation differed. Under short-duration lightflecks at high photon flux density (PFD), the mean rate of O2 evolution was greater than the steady-state rate of O2 evolution under the same PFD due to a burst of O2 evolution at the beginning of the lightfleck. This O2 burst was taken as indicating a high level of NCET involved in the buildup of assimilatory charge via ATP, NADPH, and reduced or phosphorylated metabolites. However, as lightfleck duration decreased, the amount of CO2 assimilated per unit time of the lightfleck (the mean rate of CO2 assimilation) decreased. There was also a burst of CO2 from the leaf at the beginning of low-PFD lightflecks that further reduced the assimilation during these lightflecks. The results are discussed in terms of the buildup of assimilatory charge through the synthesis of high-energy metabolites specific to C4 metabolism. It is speculated that the inefficiency of carbon uptake during brief light transients in the C4 species, relative to C3 species, is due to the futile synthesis of C4 cycle intermediates. PMID:12231981

  18. Chelant-assisted phytoextraction and accumulation of Zn by Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Gheju, M; Stelescu, I

    2013-10-15

    Zea mays plants were exposed to soils with concentrations of Zn ranging from 64 to 1800 mg kg(-1) dw, and the efficiency of three selected chelating agents (trisodium citrate (CI), disodium oxalate (OX) and disodium dihydrogen ethylene-diamine-tetraacetate (EDTA)) in enhancing metal phytoextraction was compared. Zn concentration in plant tissues increased in conjunction with the metal concentration of the soil. EDTA was found to be the most efficient chelating amendment, increasing concentrations of Zn in shoots from 88 mg kg(-1) dw, at 64 mg kg(-1) dw soil, to 8026 mg kg(-1) dw at 1800 mg kg(-1) dw soil. The overall orders of BCFs and TFs which resulted from this study are: EDTA > H2O > OX > CI, and EDTANa2 > OX > CI > H2O, respectively. The more effective uptake of Zn by plants for the control treatment (distilled water only) than for CI and OX was attributed to the neutral or slightly alkaline pH of the two chelant irrigation solutions. Instead, EDTA had a favorable effect on Zn uptake from soil due to its additive chelating and acidifying properties. Among the three chelants, only EDTA significantly increased the Zn phytoextraction potential of Z. mays, while CI and OX induced a low metal uptake from soil by plants. Although Z. mays has a lower Zn accumulation capacity than the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens, it could be considered as a potential phytoremediator of soils with elevated Zn concentrations, especially when metal pollution extends to depths greater than 20 cm. PMID:23845956

  19. Evaluating Corn (Zea Mays L.) N Variability Via Remote Sensed Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, D. G.; Shaw, J. N.; Mask, P. L.; Rickman, D.; Luvall, J.; Wersinger, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    Transformations and losses of nitrogen (N) throughout the growing season can be costly. Methods in place to improve N management and facilitate split N applications during the growing season can be time consuming and logistically difficult. Remote sensing (RS) may be a method to rapidly assess temporal changes in crop N status and promote more efficient N management. This study was designed to evaluate the ability of three different RS platforms to predict N variability in corn (Zea mays L.) leaves during vegetative and early reproductive growth stages. Plots (15 x 15m) were established in the Coastal Plain (CP) and Appalachian Plateau (AP) physiographic regions each spring from 2000 to 2002 in a completely randomized design. Treatments consisted of four N rates (0, 56, 112, and 168 kg N/ha) applied as ammonium nitrate (NH4N03) replicated four time. Spectral measurements were acquired via spectroradiometer (lambda = 350 - 1050 nm), Airborne Terrestrial Applications Sensor (ATLAS) (lambda = 400 - 12,500 nm), and the IKONOS satellite (lambda = 450 - 900 nm). Spectroradiometer data were collected on a biweekly basis from V4 through R1. Due to the nature of - satellite and aircraft acquisitions, these data were acquired per availability. Chlorophyll meter (SPAD) and tissue N were collected as ancillary data along with each RS acquisition. Results showed vegetation indices derived from hand-held spectroradiometer measurements as early as V6-V8 were linearly related to yield and tissue N content. ATLAS data was correlated with tissue N at the AP site during the V6 stage (r2 = 0.66), but no significant relationships were observed at the CP site. No significant relationships were observed between plant N and IKONOS imagery. Using a combination of the greenness vegetation index (GNDVI) and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), RS data acquired via ATLAS and the spectroradiometer could be used to evaluate tissue N variability and estimate corn yield variability

  20. Molecular identification and expression analysis of a diapause hormone receptor in the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qirui; Piermarini, Peter M; Nachman, Ronald J; Denlinger, David L

    2014-03-01

    Diapause hormone (DH) is an insect neuropeptide that is highly effective in terminating the overwintering pupal diapause in members of the Helicoverpa/Heliothis complex of agricultural pests, thus DH and related compounds have promise as tools for pest management. To augment our development of effective DH analogs and antagonists that could be used as diapause disruptors this study focuses on the cloning and identification of the DH receptor (DHR) in the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea. The full-length dhr cDNA contains 2153 nucleotides encoding 511 amino acids. Our results suggest there are at least two splicing variants of Hezea-DHR. Hydrophobicity analysis and sequence alignment indicate that Hezea-DHR has 7 transmembrane regions and a highly conserved C-terminal region that is also present in related receptors. Hezea-DHR has 95%, 82% and 79% identity to a partial DHR sequence from Heliothis virescens, a full-length DHR in Orgyia thyellina, and DHR-1 in Bombyx mori, but only 45-49% identity to pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide receptor (PBANR). Expression of dhr mRNA remained low in whole body extracts throughout diapause and in young nondiapausing pupae, but was distinctly elevated as development ensued in pharate adults 7 days after pupation. The highest expression of dhr mRNA we noted was in the ovary. A DHR fusion protein with enhanced-green fluorescent protein was successfully expressed heterologously in X. laevis oocytes, as verified by fluorescent imaging and Western blots, but an electrophysiological assay failed to detect receptor-ligand binding activity, which suggests that an essential cofactor and/or accessory protein is required for functional activity of the DHR. PMID:24345336

  1. Rapid identification of Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) using ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacer 1.

    PubMed

    Perera, Omaththage P; Allen, Kerry C; Jain, Devendra; Purcell, Matthew; Little, Nathan S; Luttrell, Randall G

    2015-01-01

    Rapid identification of invasive species is crucial for deploying management strategies to prevent establishment. Recent Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) invasions and subsequent establishment in South America has increased the risk of this species invading North America. Morphological similarities make differentiation of H. armigera from the native Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) difficult. Characteristics of adult male genitalia and nucleotide sequence differences in mitochondrial DNA are two of the currently available methods to differentiate these two species. However, current methods are likely too slow to be employed as rapid detection methods. In this study, conserved differences in the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) of the ribosomal RNA genes were used to develop species-specific oligonucleotide primers that amplified ITS1 fragments of 147 and 334 bp from H. armigera and H. zea, respectively. An amplicon (83 bp) from a conserved region of 18S ribosomal RNA subunit served as a positive control. Melting temperature differences in ITS1 amplicons yielded species-specific dissociation curves that could be used in high resolution melt analysis to differentiate the two Helicoverpa species. In addition, a rapid and inexpensive procedure for obtaining amplifiable genomic DNA from a small amount of tissue was identified. Under optimal conditions, the process was able to detect DNA from one H. armigera leg in a pool of 25 legs. The high resolution melt analysis combined with rapid DNA extraction could be used as an inexpensive method to genetically differentiate large numbers of H. armigera and H. zea using readily available reagents. PMID:26516166

  2. Rapid Identification of Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Using Ribosomal RNA Internal Transcribed Spacer 1

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Omaththage P.; Allen, Kerry C.; Jain, Devendra; Purcell, Matthew; Little, Nathan S.; Luttrell, Randall G.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid identification of invasive species is crucial for deploying management strategies to prevent establishment. Recent Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) invasions and subsequent establishment in South America has increased the risk of this species invading North America. Morphological similarities make differentiation of H. armigera from the native Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) difficult. Characteristics of adult male genitalia and nucleotide sequence differences in mitochondrial DNA are two of the currently available methods to differentiate these two species. However, current methods are likely too slow to be employed as rapid detection methods. In this study, conserved differences in the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) of the ribosomal RNA genes were used to develop species-specific oligonucleotide primers that amplified ITS1 fragments of 147 and 334 bp from H. armigera and H. zea, respectively. An amplicon (83 bp) from a conserved region of 18S ribosomal RNA subunit served as a positive control. Melting temperature differences in ITS1 amplicons yielded species-specific dissociation curves that could be used in high resolution melt analysis to differentiate the two Helicoverpa species. In addition, a rapid and inexpensive procedure for obtaining amplifiable genomic DNA from a small amount of tissue was identified. Under optimal conditions, the process was able to detect DNA from one H. armigera leg in a pool of 25 legs. The high resolution melt analysis combined with rapid DNA extraction could be used as an inexpensive method to genetically differentiate large numbers of H. armigera and H. zea using readily available reagents. PMID:26516166

  3. Association of Cry1Ac Toxin Resistance in Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) with Increased Alkaline Phosphatase Levels in the Midgut Lumen

    PubMed Central

    Caccia, Silvia; Moar, William J.; Chandrashekhar, Jayadevi; Oppert, Cris; Anilkumar, Konasale J.; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2012-01-01

    Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin was characterized in a population of Helicoverpa zea larvae previously shown not to have an alteration in toxin binding as the primary resistance mechanism to this toxin. Cry1Ac-selected larvae (AR1) were resistant to protoxins and toxins of Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and the corresponding modified proteins lacking helix α-1 (Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod). When comparing brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) prepared from susceptible (LC) and AR1 larval midguts, there were only negligible differences in overall Cry1Ac toxin binding, though AR1 had 18% reversible binding, in contrast to LC, in which all binding was irreversible. However, no differences were detected in Cry1Ac-induced pore formation activity in BBMVs from both strains. Enzymatic activities of two putative Cry1Ac receptors (aminopeptidase N [APN] and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]) were significantly reduced (2-fold and 3-fold, respectively) in BBMVs from AR1 compared to LC larvae. These reductions corresponded to reduced protein levels in midgut luminal contents only in the case of ALP, with an almost 10-fold increase in specific ALP activity in midgut fluids from AR1 compared to LC larvae. Partially purified H. zea ALP bound Cry1Ac toxin in ligand blots and competed with Cry1Ac toxin for BBMV binding. Based on these results, we suggest the existence of at least one mechanism of resistance to Cry1A toxins in H. zea involving binding of Cry1Ac toxin to an ALP receptor in the larval midgut lumen of resistant larvae. PMID:22685140

  4. Association of Cry1Ac toxin resistance in Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) with increased alkaline phosphatase levels in the midgut lumen.

    PubMed

    Caccia, Silvia; Moar, William J; Chandrashekhar, Jayadevi; Oppert, Cris; Anilkumar, Konasale J; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Ferré, Juan

    2012-08-01

    Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin was characterized in a population of Helicoverpa zea larvae previously shown not to have an alteration in toxin binding as the primary resistance mechanism to this toxin. Cry1Ac-selected larvae (AR1) were resistant to protoxins and toxins of Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and the corresponding modified proteins lacking helix α-1 (Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod). When comparing brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) prepared from susceptible (LC) and AR1 larval midguts, there were only negligible differences in overall Cry1Ac toxin binding, though AR1 had 18% reversible binding, in contrast to LC, in which all binding was irreversible. However, no differences were detected in Cry1Ac-induced pore formation activity in BBMVs from both strains. Enzymatic activities of two putative Cry1Ac receptors (aminopeptidase N [APN] and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]) were significantly reduced (2-fold and 3-fold, respectively) in BBMVs from AR1 compared to LC larvae. These reductions corresponded to reduced protein levels in midgut luminal contents only in the case of ALP, with an almost 10-fold increase in specific ALP activity in midgut fluids from AR1 compared to LC larvae. Partially purified H. zea ALP bound Cry1Ac toxin in ligand blots and competed with Cry1Ac toxin for BBMV binding. Based on these results, we suggest the existence of at least one mechanism of resistance to Cry1A toxins in H. zea involving binding of Cry1Ac toxin to an ALP receptor in the larval midgut lumen of resistant larvae. PMID:22685140

  5. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by an enzyme preparation from Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinecke, D. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants.

  6. Carbon-14 Distribution in Carbohydrates of Immature Zea mays. Kernels Following 14CO2 Treatment of Intact Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, Jack C.

    1968-01-01

    Shortly after Zea mays L. plants were exposed to 14CO2, most of the radioactivity in the kernel occurred in the free monosaccharides, glucose and fructose. Later the proportion of 14C in sucrose increased and that in the monosaccharides declined. These data have been interpreted as showing that the translocated sugar is hydrolyzed prior to or during its movement into the storage cells of the endosperm. This hydrolysis appears to occur in the “pedicel region” of the kernel. After entry into the endosperm tissue, sucrose was rapidly resynthesized from the monosaccharides prior to its utilization in starch synthesis. PMID:16656904

  7. Inhibition of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Growth by Transgenic Corn Expressing Bt Toxins and Development of Resistance to Cry1Ab.

    PubMed

    Reisig, Dominic D; Reay-Jones, Francis P F

    2015-08-01

    Transgenic corn, Zea mays L., that expresses the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry1Ab is only moderately toxic to Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and has been planted commercially since 1996. Growth and development of H. zea was monitored to determine potential changes in susceptibility to this toxin over time. Small plots of corn hybrids expressing Cry1F, Cry1F × Cry1Ab, Cry1Ab × Cry3Bb1, Cry1A.105 × Cry2Ab2 × Cry3Bb1, Cry1A.105 × Cry2Ab2, and Vip3Aa20 × Cry1Ab × mCry3A were planted in both 2012 and 2013 inNorth and South Carolina with paired non-Bt hybrids from the same genetic background. H. zea larvae were sampled on three time periods from ears and the following factors were measured: kernel area injured (cm(2)) by H. zea larvae, larval number per ear, larval weight, larval length, and larval head width. Pupae were sampled on a single time period and the following factors recorded: number per ear, weight, time to eclosion, and the number that eclosed. There was no reduction in larval weight, number of insect entering the pupal stadium, pupal weight, time to eclosion, and number of pupae able to successfully eclose to adulthood in the hybrid expressing Cry1Ab compared with a non-Bt paired hybrid. As Cry1Ab affected these in 1996, H. zea may be developing resistance to Cry1Ab in corn, although these results are not comprehensive, given the limited sampling period, size, and geography. We also found that the negative impacts on larval growth and development were greater in corn hybrids with pyramided traits compared with single traits. PMID:26314074

  8. A morphometric analysis of the redistribution of organelles in columella cells of horizontally-oriented roots of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.

    1986-01-01

    In order to determine what structural changes in graviperceptive cells are associated with onset of root gravicurvature, the redistribution of organelles in columella cells of horizontally-oriented, graviresponding roots of Zea mays has been quantified. Root gravicurvature began by 15 min after reorientation, and did not involve significant changes in the (i) volume of individual columella cells or amyloplasts, (ii) relative volume of any cellular organelle, (iii) number of amyloplasts per columella cell, or (iv) surface area of cellular location of endoplasmic reticulum. Sedimentation of amyloplasts began within 1 to 2 min after reorientation, and was characterized by an intensely staining area of cytoplasm adjacent to the sedimenting amyloplasts. By 5 min after reorientation, amyloplasts were located in the lower distal corner of columella cells, and, by 15 min after reorientation, overlaid the entire length of the lower cell wall. No consistent contact between amyloplasts and any cellular structure was detected at any stage of gravicurvature. Centrally-located nuclei initially migrated upward in columella cells of horizontally-oriented roots, after which they moved to the proximal ends of the cells by 15 min after reorientation. No significant pattern of redistribution of vacuoles, mitochondria, dictyosomes, or hyaloplasm was detected that correlated with the onset of gravicurvature. These results indicate that amyloplasts and nuclei are the only organelles whose movements correlate positively with the onset of gravicurvature by primary roots of this cultivar of Zea mays.

  9. Measurement of the rates of oxindole-3-acetic acid turnover, and indole-3-acetic acid oxidation in Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    Oxindole-3-acetic acid is the principal catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Zea mays seedlings. In this paper measurements of the turnover of oxindole-3-acetic acid are presented and used to calculate the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation. [3H]Oxindole-3-acetic acid was applied to the endosperm of Zea mays seedlings and allowed to equilibrate for 24 h before the start of the experiment. The subsequent decrease in its specific activity was used to calculate the turnover rate. The average half-life of oxindole-3-acetic acid in the shoots was found to be 30 h while that in the kernels had an average half-life of 35h. Using previously published values of the pool sizes of oxindole-3-acetic acid in shoots and kernels from seedlings of the same age and variety, and grown under the same conditions, the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation was calculated to be 1.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the shoots and 7.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the kernels.

  10. ZmSOC1, a MADS-box transcription factor from Zea mays, promotes flowering in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Suzhou; Luo, Yanzhong; Zhang, Zhanlu; Xu, Miaoyun; Wang, Weibu; Zhao, Yangmin; Zhang, Lan; Fan, Yunliu; Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Zea mays is an economically important crop, but its molecular mechanism of flowering remains largely uncharacterized. The gene, SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1), integrates multiple flowering signals to regulate floral transition in Arabidopsis. In this study, ZmSOC1 was isolated from Zea mays. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the ZmSOC1 protein contained a highly conserved MADS domain and a typical SOC1 motif. ZmSOC1 protein was localized in the nucleus in protoplasts and showed no transcriptional activation activity in yeast cells. ZmSOC1 was highly expressed in maize reproductive organs, including filaments, ear and endosperm, but expression was very low in embryos; on the other hand, the abiotic stresses could repress ZmSOC1 expression. Overexpression of ZmSOC1 resulted in early flowering in Arabidopsis through increasing the expression of AtLFY and AtAP1. Overall, these results suggest that ZmSOC1 is a flowering promoter in Arabidopsis. PMID:25372944

  11. Presence of Zea luxurians (Durieu and Ascherson) Bird in Southern Brazil: Implications for the Conservation of Wild Relatives of Maize

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Records of the occurrence of wild relatives of maize in South American lowlands are unprecedented, especially in sympatric coexistence with landraces. This fact is relevant, because regions of occurrence of wild relatives of cultivated plants should be a priority for conservation, even if they do not correspond to the center of origin of the species. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the wild relatives of maize in the Far West of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Therefore, phenotypic characterization was performed for five populations, based on 22 morphological traits deemed as fundamental for classifying the species of the genus Zea, and validated through the characterization of chromosomal knobs of two populations. The occurrence and distribution of teosinte populations were described through semi-structured interviews applied to a sample of 305 farmers. A total of 136 teosinte populations were identified; 75% of them occur spontaneously, 17% are cultivated populations, and 8% occur both ways, for the same farm. Populations that were characterized morphologically had trapezoidal fruits mostly, upright tassel branch (4–18), non-prominent main branch and glabrous glumes, with two protruding outer ribs and 8 inner ribs, on average. Cytogenetic analysis identified 10 pairs of homologous chromosomes (2n = 20) with 26 knobs, located in the terminal region of all chromosomes. The similarity of these results with the information reported in the literature indicates that the five populations of wild relatives of maize in this region of Santa Catarina belong to the botanical species Zea luxurians. PMID:26488577

  12. ZmSOC1, an MADS-Box Transcription Factor from Zea mays, Promotes Flowering in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Suzhou; Luo, Yanzhong; Zhang, Zhanlu; Xu, Miaoyun; Wang, Weibu; Zhao, Yangmin; Zhang, Lan; Fan, Yunliu; Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Zea mays is an economically important crop, but its molecular mechanism of flowering remains largely uncharacterized. The gene, SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1), integrates multiple flowering signals to regulate floral transition in Arabidopsis. In this study, ZmSOC1 was isolated from Zea mays. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the ZmSOC1 protein contained a highly conserved MADS domain and a typical SOC1 motif. ZmSOC1 protein was localized in the nucleus in protoplasts and showed no transcriptional activation activity in yeast cells. ZmSOC1 was highly expressed in maize reproductive organs, including filaments, ear and endosperm, but expression was very low in embryos; on the other hand, the abiotic stresses could repress ZmSOC1 expression. Overexpression of ZmSOC1 resulted in early flowering in Arabidopsis through increasing the expression of AtLFY and AtAP1. Overall, these results suggest that ZmSOC1 is a flowering promoter in Arabidopsis. PMID:25372944

  13. VHDL, a larval storage protein from the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, is a member of the vitellogenin gene family.

    PubMed

    Sum, Herbert; Haunerland, Norbert H

    2007-10-01

    The hemolymph of last instar larvae of the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea contains a blue very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL) that is selectively taken up into fat body prior to pupation. Its amino-terminal sequence was determined by Edman degradation, and used to design a degenerate primer for PCR amplification. With 5' and 3' RACE techniques, the entire cDNA coding for VHDL was amplified and sequenced. Conceptual translation reveals a 173 kDa protein that contains a 15 amino acid signal sequence immediately before the experimentally determined N-terminus of the mature protein. The protein contains a typical lipoprotein N-terminal domain, and shows high sequence similarity to vitellogenins from Lepidoptera and other insect species. VHDL mRNA was not detectable in adult H. zea, and antibodies raised against VHDL did not react with adult hemolymph or yolk proteins. Therefore VHDL, although a member of the vitellogenin gene family, seems to be distinct from the vitellogenin expressed in adult females. PMID:17785196

  14. Intraear Compensation of Field Corn, Zea mays, from Simulated and Naturally Occurring Injury by Ear-Feeding Larvae.

    PubMed

    Steckel, S; Stewart, S D

    2015-06-01

    Ear-feeding larvae, such as corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), can be important insect pests of field corn, Zea mays L., by feeding on kernels. Recently introduced, stacked Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) traits provide improved protection from ear-feeding larvae. Thus, our objective was to evaluate how injury to kernels in the ear tip might affect yield when this injury was inflicted at the blister and milk stages. In 2010, simulated corn earworm injury reduced total kernel weight (i.e., yield) at both the blister and milk stage. In 2011, injury to ear tips at the milk stage affected total kernel weight. No differences in total kernel weight were found in 2013, regardless of when or how much injury was inflicted. Our data suggested that kernels within the same ear could compensate for injury to ear tips by increasing in size, but this increase was not always statistically significant or sufficient to overcome high levels of kernel injury. For naturally occurring injury observed on multiple corn hybrids during 2011 and 2012, our analyses showed either no or a minimal relationship between number of kernels injured by ear-feeding larvae and the total number of kernels per ear, total kernel weight, or the size of individual kernels. The results indicate that intraear compensation for kernel injury to ear tips can occur under at least some conditions. PMID:26470235

  15. Purification and Partial Characterization of Maize (Zea mays L.) β-Glucosidase

    PubMed Central

    Esen, Asim

    1992-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) β-glucosidase (β-d-glucoside glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.21) was extracted from the coleoptiles of 5- to 6-day-old maize seedlings with 50 millimolar sodium acetate, pH 5.0. The pH of the extract was adjusted to 4.6, and most of the contaminating proteins were cryoprecipitated at 0°C for 24 hours. The pH 4.6 supernatant from cryoprecipitation was further fractionated by chromatography on an Accell CM column using a 4.8 to 6.8 pH gradient of 50 millimolar sodium acetate, which yielded the enzyme in two homogeneous, chromatographically different fractions. Purified enzyme was characterized with respect to subunit molecular weight, isoelectric point, amino acid composition, NH2-terminal amino acid sequence, pH and temperature optima, thermostability, and activity and stability in the presence of selected reducing agents, metal ions, and alkylating agents. The purified enzyme has an estimated subunit molecular mass of 60 kilodaltons, isoelectric point at pH 5.2, and pH and temperature optima at 5.8 and 50°C, respectively. The amino acid composition data indicate that the enzyme is rich in Glx and Asx, the sum of which approaches 25%. The sequence of the first 20 amino acids in the N-terminal region was H2N-Ser-Ala-Arg-Val-Gly-Ser-Gln-Asn-Gly-Val-Gln-Met-Leu-Ser-Pro-(Ser?) -Glu-Ile-Pro-Gln, and it shows no significant similarity to other proteins with known sequence. The enzyme is extremely stable at 0 to 4°C up to 1 year but loses activity completely at and above 55°C in 10 minutes. Likewise, the enzyme is stable in the presence of or after treatment with 500 millimolar 2-mercaptoethanol, and it is totally inactivated at 2000 millimolar 2-mercaptoethanol. Such metal ions as Hg2+ and Ag+ reversibly inhibit the enzyme at micromolar concentrations, and inhibition could be completely overcome by adding 2-mercaptoethanol at molar excess of the inhibitory metal ion. The alkylating agents iodoacetic acid and iodoacetamide irreversibly inactivate the

  16. Emergence and patterning of the five cell types of the Zea mays anther locule

    PubMed Central

    Kelliher, Timothy; Walbot, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    One fundamental difference between plants and animals is the existence of a germ-line in animals and its absence in plants. In flowering plants the sexual organs (stamens and carpels) are composed almost entirely of somatic cells, a small subset of which switch to meiosis, however, the mechanism of meiotic cell fate acquisition is a long-standing botanical mystery. In the maize (Zea mays) anther microsporangium the somatic tissues consist of four concentric cell layers which surround and support reproductive cells as they progress through meiosis and pollen maturation. Male sterility, defined as the absence of viable pollen, is a common phenotype in flowering plants, and many male sterile mutants have defects in somatic and reproductive cell fate acquisition. However, without a robust model of anther cell fate acquisition based on careful observation of wild type anther ontogeny, interpretation of cell fate mutants is limited. To address this, the pattern of cell proliferation, expansion, and differentiation was tracked in three dimensions over thirty days of wild type (W23) anther development, using anthers stained with propidium iodide (PI) and/or 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) (S-phase label) and imaged by confocal microscopy. The pervading lineage model of anther development claims that new cell layers are generated by coordinated, oriented cell divisions in transient precursor cell types. In reconstructing anther cell division patterns, however, we can only confirm this for the origin of the middle layer (ml) and tapetum, while young anther development appears more complex. We find that each anther cell type undergoes a burst of cell division after specification with a characteristic pattern of both cell expansion and division. Comparisons between two inbreds lines and between ab- and adaxial anther florets indicated near identity: anther development is highly canalized and synchronized. Three classical models of plant organ development are tested and ruled

  17. Potentially toxic elements in foodcrops: Triticum aestivum L., Zea mays L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Claudio; Fontana, Silvia; Squizzato, Stefania; Minello, Fabiola; Fornasier, Flavio; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2013-04-01

    Soil is the basis of the ecosystems and of our system of food production. Crops can uptake heavy metals and potentially toxic elements from the soil and store them in the roots or translocate them to the aerial parts. Excessive content of these elements in edible parts can produce toxic effects and, through the food chain and food consumption, result in a potential hazard for human health. In this study soils and plants (spring wheat, Triticum aestivum L. and maize, Zea mays L.) from a tannery district in North-East Italy were analyzed to determine pedological characters, soil microbial indicators and the content of some major and micro-nutrients and potentially toxic elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, S, Zn, V). The soils of the area are moderately polluted; Cr is the most important inorganic contaminant, followed by Ni, Cu and V. Factor analysis evidenced that the contaminants are in part anthropogenic and in part geogenic. Major anthropogenic origin was detected for Cr, Ni (from industrial activities), Zn, Cu, Cd (from agriculture practices). Biological Absorption Coefficient (BAC) from soil to plant roots and Translocation factor (TF) within the plant were calculated; major nutrients (K, P, S) and some micronutrients (Cu, Zn, Mg, Mn) are easily absorbed and translocated, whilst other nutrients (Ca, Fe) and potentially toxic elements or micronutrients (Al, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, V) are not accumulated in the seeds of the two considered species. However, the two edible species proved differently able to absorb and translocate elements, and this suggests to consider separately every species as potential PHEs transporter to the food chain and to humans. Cr concentrations in seeds and other aerial parts (stem and leaves) of the examined plants are higher than the values found for the same species and for other cereals grown on unpolluted soils. Comparing the Cr levels in edible parts with recommended dietary intake, besides other possible Cr sources

  18. The characterization of ligand-specific maize (Zea mays) profilin mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Kovar, D R; Drøbak, B K; Collings, D A; Staiger, C J

    2001-01-01

    Profilins are low-molecular-mass (12-15 kDa) cytosolic proteins that are major regulators of actin assembly in all eukaryotic cells. In general, profilins from evolutionarily diverse organisms share the ability to bind to G-actin, poly-(L-proline) (PLP) and proline-rich proteins, and polyphosphoinositides. However, the functional importance of each of these interactions remains unclear and might differ between organisms. We investigated the importance of profilin's interaction with its various ligands in plant cells by characterizing four maize (Zea mays) profilin 5 (ZmPRO5) mutants that had single amino acid substitutions in the presumed sites of ligand interaction. Comparisons in vitro with wild-type ZmPRO5 showed that these mutations altered ligand association specifically. ZmPRO5-Y6F had a 3-fold increased affinity for PLP, ZmPRO5-Y6Q had a 5-fold decreased affinity for PLP, ZmPRO5-D8A had a 2-fold increased affinity for PtdIns(4,5)P(2) and ZmPRO5-K86A had a 35-fold decreased affinity for G-actin. When the profilins were microinjected into Tradescantia stamen hair cells, ZmPRO5-Y6F increased the rate of nuclear displacement in stamen hairs, whereas ZmPRO5-K86A decreased the rate. Mutants with a decreased affinity for PLP (ZmPRO5-Y6Q) or an enhanced affinity for PtdIns(4,5)P(2) (ZmPRO5-D8A) were not significantly different from wild-type ZmPRO5 in affecting nuclear position. These results indicate that plant profilin's association with G-actin is extremely important and further substantiate the simple model that profilin acts primarily as a G-actin-sequestering protein in plant cells. Furthermore, interaction with proline-rich binding partners might also contribute to regulating profilin's effect on actin assembly in plant cells. PMID:11485551

  19. Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry of Seabird Guano Fertilization: Results from Growth Chamber Studies with Maize (Zea Mays)

    PubMed Central

    Szpak, Paul; Longstaffe, Fred J.; Millaire, Jean-François; White, Christine D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Stable isotope analysis is being utilized with increasing regularity to examine a wide range of issues (diet, habitat use, migration) in ecology, geology, archaeology, and related disciplines. A crucial component to these studies is a thorough understanding of the range and causes of baseline isotopic variation, which is relatively poorly understood for nitrogen (δ15N). Animal excrement is known to impact plant δ15N values, but the effects of seabird guano have not been systematically studied from an agricultural or horticultural standpoint. Methodology/Principal Findings This paper presents isotopic (δ13C and δ15N) and vital data for maize (Zea mays) fertilized with Peruvian seabird guano under controlled conditions. The level of 15N enrichment in fertilized plants is very large, with δ15N values ranging between 25.5 and 44.7‰ depending on the tissue and amount of fertilizer applied; comparatively, control plant δ15N values ranged between −0.3 and 5.7‰. Intraplant and temporal variability in δ15N values were large, particularly for the guano-fertilized plants, which can be attributed to changes in the availability of guano-derived N over time, and the reliance of stored vs. absorbed N. Plant δ13C values were not significantly impacted by guano fertilization. High concentrations of seabird guano inhibited maize germination and maize growth. Moreover, high levels of seabird guano greatly impacted the N metabolism of the plants, resulting in significantly higher tissue N content, particularly in the stalk. Conclusions/Significance The results presented in this study demonstrate the very large impact of seabird guano on maize δ15N values. The use of seabird guano as a fertilizer can thus be traced using stable isotope analysis in food chemistry applications (certification of organic inputs). Furthermore, the fertilization of maize with seabird guano creates an isotopic signature very similar to a high-trophic level marine resource, which must

  20. Bacterial Communities in the Rhizosphere of Amilaceous Maize (Zea mays L.) as Assessed by Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Correa-Galeote, David; Bedmar, Eulogio J; Fernández-González, Antonio J; Fernández-López, Manuel; Arone, Gregorio J

    2016-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is the staple diet of the native peasants in the Quechua region of the Peruvian Andes who continue growing it in small plots called chacras following ancestral traditions. The abundance and structure of bacterial communities associated with the roots of amilaceous maize has not been studied in Andean chacras. Accordingly, the main objective of this study was to describe the rhizospheric bacterial diversity of amilaceous maize grown either in the presence or the absence of bur clover cultivated in soils from the Quechua maize belt. Three 16S rRNA gene libraries, one corresponding to sequences of bacteria from bulk soil of a chacra maintained under fallow conditions, the second from the rhizosphere of maize-cultivated soils, and the third prepared from rhizospheric soil of maize cultivated in intercropping with bur clover were examined using pyrosequencing tags spanning the V4 and V5 hypervariable regions of the gene. A total of 26031 sequences were found that grouped into 5955 distinct operational taxonomic units which distributed in 309 genera. The numbers of OTUs in the libraries from the maize-cultivated soils were significantly higher than those found in the libraries from bulk soil. One hundred ninety seven genera were found in the bulk soil library and 234 and 203 were in those from the maize and maize/bur clover-cultivated soils. Sixteen out of the 309 genera had a relative abundance higher than 0.5% and the were (in decreasing order of abundance) Gp4, Gp6, Flavobacterium, Subdivision3 genera incertae sedis of the Verrucomicrobia phylum, Gemmatimonas, Dechloromonas, Ohtaekwangia, Rhodoferax, Gaiella, Opitutus, Gp7, Spartobacteria genera incertae sedis, Terrimonas, Gp5, Steroidobacter and Parcubacteria genera incertae sedis. Genera Gp4 and Gp6 of the Acidobacteria, Gemmatimonas and Rhodoferax were the most abundant in bulk soil, whereas Flavobacterium, Dechloromonas and Ohtaekwangia were the main genera in the rhizosphere of maize

  1. Nucleotide Metabolism in Salt-Stressed Zea mays L. Root Tips

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Todd A.; Nieman, Richard H.; Clark, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    Corn plants (Zea mays L. cv Pioneer 3906) were grown in a glass house on control and saline nutrient solutions, in winter and summer. There were two saline treatments, both with osmotic potential = −0.4 megapascal but with different Ca2+/Na+ ratios: 0.03 and 0.73. Root tips and shoot meristems (culm tissue) of 26 day-old plants were analyzed for nucleotides to ascertain if there were correlations between nucleotide pool size and the reduced growth on saline cultures. Several other cell components also were determined. Plants grown in winter were only half as large as those grown in summer mainly because of the lower light intensity and lower temperature. But the relative yield reduction on salt treatment compared to the control was similar in winter and summer. The two different salt treatments caused similar yield reductions. Neither salt treatment affected nucleotide pools in culm tissue, with the possible exception of UDPG in winter. In the case of root tips, salt treatment had little or no effect on nucleotide pool sizes in winter when many already seemed near a critical minimum, but in summer it reduced several pools including ATP, total adenine nucleotide, UTP, total uridine nucleotide, and UDP-glucose. The reductions were greatest on the salt treatment with low Ca2+/Na+. There was no simple correlation between the effects of salt stress on growth and on nucleotide pool size. The nucleotide pools of culm tissue indicated that in some respects this tissue was effectively insulated from the salt stress. Roots that were in direct contact with the saline solution indicated significant reductions in nucleotide pools only in the summer whereas growth was reduced both summer and winter. It is possible that the nucleotide concentrations of root cells in winter were already near a critical minimum so that nucleotide synthesis and growth were tightly linked. Significant reductions in nucleotide pools that would be expected to affect growth were more evident in summer

  2. Bacterial Communities in the Rhizosphere of Amilaceous Maize (Zea mays L.) as Assessed by Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Correa-Galeote, David; Bedmar, Eulogio J.; Fernández-González, Antonio J.; Fernández-López, Manuel; Arone, Gregorio J.

    2016-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is the staple diet of the native peasants in the Quechua region of the Peruvian Andes who continue growing it in small plots called chacras following ancestral traditions. The abundance and structure of bacterial communities associated with the roots of amilaceous maize has not been studied in Andean chacras. Accordingly, the main objective of this study was to describe the rhizospheric bacterial diversity of amilaceous maize grown either in the presence or the absence of bur clover cultivated in soils from the Quechua maize belt. Three 16S rRNA gene libraries, one corresponding to sequences of bacteria from bulk soil of a chacra maintained under fallow conditions, the second from the rhizosphere of maize-cultivated soils, and the third prepared from rhizospheric soil of maize cultivated in intercropping with bur clover were examined using pyrosequencing tags spanning the V4 and V5 hypervariable regions of the gene. A total of 26031 sequences were found that grouped into 5955 distinct operational taxonomic units which distributed in 309 genera. The numbers of OTUs in the libraries from the maize-cultivated soils were significantly higher than those found in the libraries from bulk soil. One hundred ninety seven genera were found in the bulk soil library and 234 and 203 were in those from the maize and maize/bur clover-cultivated soils. Sixteen out of the 309 genera had a relative abundance higher than 0.5% and the were (in decreasing order of abundance) Gp4, Gp6, Flavobacterium, Subdivision3 genera incertae sedis of the Verrucomicrobia phylum, Gemmatimonas, Dechloromonas, Ohtaekwangia, Rhodoferax, Gaiella, Opitutus, Gp7, Spartobacteria genera incertae sedis, Terrimonas, Gp5, Steroidobacter and Parcubacteria genera incertae sedis. Genera Gp4 and Gp6 of the Acidobacteria, Gemmatimonas and Rhodoferax were the most abundant in bulk soil, whereas Flavobacterium, Dechloromonas and Ohtaekwangia were the main genera in the rhizosphere of maize

  3. Effects of fertilizer application to sweet corn (Zea mays.) grown on sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Orosz, Ferenc; Jakab, Samuel; Losak, Tomas; Slezak, Katalin

    2009-11-01

    In our experiment we tried to find out what kind of eventual changes in the environment and in plant chemical composition occurred in response to different fertilizer treatments applied to sweet corn (Zea mays convar. saccharata) grown on sandy soil with low humus content. The ploughed layer contained <1% CaCO3 and around 1% humus. The soil was very well supplied with P, well supplied with K, Mg, Mn and Cu, and weakly supplied with N and Ca. The treatments were planned in accordance with the recommendations, with a planned unhusked ear yield of 16 tons per hectare, of the new environmental friendly advisory system recently elaborated for field vegetable crops in Hungary. The treatments applied included: G1 (blank control)(N0P0K0), G2(N222.5P22.2K143), G3(N445 P22.5 K143), G4(N222.5 P22.5K143), G5(N222.5P22.5 K286), G6(N222.5 P22.5 K143) + Mg(1.52). According to our findings, of the composition parameters of the grains of the treatments with no fertilizer application, the invert and reducing sugar contents (4.42%, respectively 2.59% relative to fresh weight(-1)) in grains were the highest among the treatments. The same conclusion was drawn on the K 120.2, Mg 13.3, Fe 0.24, Cu 0.66 mg 100 g(-1) grain dry weight levels among minerals. In the case of the basic treatment (G2) recommended by the advisory system we obtained favourable results for the measured parameters, including yields. Invert and reducing sugar contents were (3.26% respectively 1.97% relative to fresh weight(-1)), and mineral contents K 101.9; Mg 11.8; Fe 0.21; Cu 0.56 mg 100 g(-1) dry weight. In the grains, no translocation of toxic elements was observed in response to the direct or indirect effect of the treatments. PMID:20329385

  4. Lipid Extracted Microalgal Biomass Residue as a Fertilizer Substitute for Zea mays L.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Rahulkumar; Chokshi, Kaumeel; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Trivedi, Khanjan; Pancha, Imran; Kubavat, Denish; Mishra, Sandhya; Ghosh, Arup

    2015-01-01

    High volumes of lipid extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs) are expected to be produced upon commencement of biodiesel production on a large scale, thus necessitating its value addition for sustainable development. LMBRs of Chlorella variabilis and Lyngbya majuscula were employed to substitute the nitrogen content of recommended rate of fertilizer (RRF) for Zea mays L. The pot experiment comprised of 10 treatments, i.e., T1 (No fertilizer); T2 (RRF-120 N: 60 P2O5: 40 K2O kg ha(-1)); T3 to T6-100, 75, 50, and 25% N through LMBR of the Chlorella sp., respectively; T7 to T10-100, 75, 50, and 25% N through LMBR of Lyngbya sp., respectively. It was found that all LMBR substitution treatments were at par to RRF with respect to grain yield production. T10 gave the highest grain yield (65.16 g plant(-1)), which was closely followed by that (63.48 g plant(-1)) under T5. T10 also recorded the highest phosphorus and potassium contents in grains. T4 was markedly superior over control in terms of dry matter accumulation (DMA) as well as carbohydrate content, which was ascribed to higher pigment content and photosynthetic activity in leaves. Even though considerably lower DMA was obtained in Lyngbya treatments, which might have been due to the presence of some toxic factors, no reduction in grain yield was apparent. The length of the tassel was significantly higher in either of the LMBRs at any substitution rates over RRF, except T6 and T7. The ascorbate peroxidase activity decreased with decreasing dose of Chlorella LMBR, while all the Lyngbya LMBR treatments recorded lower activity, which were at par with each other. Among the Chlorella treatments, only T5 recorded significantly higher values of glutathione reductase activity over RRF, while the rest were at par. There were significant increases in carbohydrate and crude fat, respectively, only in T4 and T3 over RRF, while no change was observed in crude protein due to LMBR treatments. Apparently, there was no

  5. A Histidine-Rich Extensin from Zea mays Is an Arabinogalactan Protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Kieliszewski, Marcia J.; Kamyab, Abdolreza; Leykam, Joseph F.; Lamport, Derek T. A.

    1992-01-01

    Earlier we isolated a threonine-rich extensin from maize (Zea mays). Here, we report that maize cell suspension cultures yield a new extensin rich in histidine (HHRGP) that also has characteristics of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs). Thus, chymotryptic peptide maps of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (HF)-deglycosylated HHRGP showed repetitive motifs related to both extensins and AGPs as follows. HHRGP contains Ala-Hyp3 and Ala-Hyp4 repeats that may be related to the classical dicot Ser-Hyp4 extensin motif by the single T → G (Ser → Ala) base change. Furthermore, HHRGP also contains the repetitive motif Ala-Hyp-Hyp-Hyp-His-Phe-Pro-Ser-Hyp-Hyp related to the Ser-Hyp4-Ser-Hyp-Ser-Hyp4 motif of P3-type dicot extensin. However, HHRGP also has AGP characteristics, notably an elevated alanine content, near sequence identity with the known Lolium AGP peptide Ser-Hyp-Hyp-Ala-Pro-Ala-Pro, the putative presence of glucuronoarabinogalactan, and precipitation by Yariv antigen, but β-elimination of arabinogalactan indicates its O-linkage to serine rather than the characteristic O-hydroxyproline link of other AGPs. Although HHRGP might be a “chimera” of two different proteins, i.e. an extensin and an AGP, this is unlikely because one can account for the apparent chimera by the codon relationships of the five common hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein amino acid residues, Ser, Pro, Thr, Ala (TCx, CCx, ACx, GCx) and histidine (CAT or CAC), which facilitate interconversion of major motifs by single point mutations. Thus, we propose that the extensin family of wall proteins consists of a highly diversified phylogenetic series ranging from basic minimally glycosylated repetitive pro-rich proteins to the highly glycosylated acidic AGPs. To relate this diversity of form and function at the molecular level, we identified putative functional domains hypothetically involved in properties such as reptation, recognition, adhesion, intermolecular cross-linkage, and self-assembly. Not

  6. Lipid Extracted Microalgal Biomass Residue as a Fertilizer Substitute for Zea mays L.

    PubMed Central

    Maurya, Rahulkumar; Chokshi, Kaumeel; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Trivedi, Khanjan; Pancha, Imran; Kubavat, Denish; Mishra, Sandhya; Ghosh, Arup

    2016-01-01

    High volumes of lipid extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs) are expected to be produced upon commencement of biodiesel production on a large scale, thus necessitating its value addition for sustainable development. LMBRs of Chlorella variabilis and Lyngbya majuscula were employed to substitute the nitrogen content of recommended rate of fertilizer (RRF) for Zea mays L. The pot experiment comprised of 10 treatments, i.e., T1 (No fertilizer); T2 (RRF-120 N: 60 P2O5: 40 K2O kg ha−1); T3 to T6—100, 75, 50, and 25% N through LMBR of the Chlorella sp., respectively; T7 to T10—100, 75, 50, and 25% N through LMBR of Lyngbya sp., respectively. It was found that all LMBR substitution treatments were at par to RRF with respect to grain yield production. T10 gave the highest grain yield (65.16 g plant−1), which was closely followed by that (63.48 g plant−1) under T5. T10 also recorded the highest phosphorus and potassium contents in grains. T4 was markedly superior over control in terms of dry matter accumulation (DMA) as well as carbohydrate content, which was ascribed to higher pigment content and photosynthetic activity in leaves. Even though considerably lower DMA was obtained in Lyngbya treatments, which might have been due to the presence of some toxic factors, no reduction in grain yield was apparent. The length of the tassel was significantly higher in either of the LMBRs at any substitution rates over RRF, except T6 and T7. The ascorbate peroxidase activity decreased with decreasing dose of Chlorella LMBR, while all the Lyngbya LMBR treatments recorded lower activity, which were at par with each other. Among the Chlorella treatments, only T5 recorded significantly higher values of glutathione reductase activity over RRF, while the rest were at par. There were significant increases in carbohydrate and crude fat, respectively, only in T4 and T3 over RRF, while no change was observed in crude protein due to LMBR treatments. Apparently, there was no

  7. A comparison of canopy evapotranspiration between perennial rhizomatous grasses and Zea mays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, G.; Bernacchi, C.; Dohleman, F.

    2008-12-01

    Perennial rhizomatous C4 grasses are currently considered one of the most promising vegetation types to accommodate a cellulosic feedstock based liquid fuel economy. The current focus on using these vegetation types as a source of renewable fuel has sparked numerous concerns associated with environmental impacts. Of particular interest is the impact that altering the composition of vegetation at the landscape scale would have on local and regional hydrological cycles. We hypothesize that evapotranspiration, ET, will be higher for perennial grasses relative to maize as a result higher leaf area, higher above-ground biomass and prolonged growing seasons. To test this hypothesis, a technique in which ET is estimated as the residual in the energy balance equation from measurements of net radiation and sensible and latent heat fluxes was employed. Measurements were made during the 2007 growing season for three replicate plots of the perennial rhizomatous grasses Miscanthus giganteus and Panicum virgatum, as well as for Zea mays planted at the University of Illinois South Farms. When averaged across the entire growing season, ET for M. giganteus was double relative to Z. mays, and 130% of P. virgatum ET. When compared over the periods in which all three species experienced mature and closed canopies (from day of year 200 to 250), M. giganteus still showed higher rates of ET compared with Z. mays, however, the increase was only ~15%. We conclude that ET associated with perennial alternative energy crops are higher relative to annual row crop; with most ET disparity, particularly for P. virgatum, being driven by phenology, quicker canopy closure and a prolonged growing season. Physiological rates of ET were highest for M. giganteus, followed by Z. mays, followed P. virgatum. Differences in phenology were more important than those of physiology for ET overshadowing effects from increased biomass associated with M. giganteus and/or a physiological difference between these

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Spiroplasma kunkelii Strain CR2-3x, Causal Agent of Corn Stunt Disease in Zea mays L.

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Jonathan; Dally, Ellen L.; Zhao, Yan; Gasparich, Gail E.; Gaynor, Brady J.; Athey, John C.; Harrison, Nigel A.; Donofrio, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Spiroplasma kunkelii causes corn stunt disease of Zea mays L. in the Americas. Here, we report the nucleotide sequence of the 1,463,926-bp circular chromosome and four plasmids of strain CR2-3x. This information will facilitate studies of Spiroplasma pathogenicity and evolutionary adaptations to transkingdom parasitism in plants and insect vectors. PMID:26494665

  9. Development of Simple Sequence Repeat Markers from Expressed Sequence Tags of the Maize Gray Leaf Spot Pathogen, Cercospora Zea-Maydis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ten simple sequence repeat markers were developed from expressed sequence tags of Cercospora zeae-maydis, the cause of gray leaf spot of maize (Zea mays). All loci were evaluated on 80 isolates from a local population of C. zeae-maydis and all were highly polymorphic, with 4 to 14 alleles per locus....

  10. Maternal and paternal transmission to offspring of B-chromosomes of Zea mays L. in the alien genetic background of Avena sativa L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    B-chromosomes are supernumerary dispensable chromosomes with highly host-specific organization, behavior, and mode of inheritance described in hundreds of animal, fungal, and plant species. We transferred native B chromosomes of maize (Zea mays L. ssp. mays cv. Black Mexican Sweet) to oats (Avena sa...

  11. Selection and adaptation to high plant density in the Iowa Stiff Stalk synthetic maize (Zea mays L.) population: II. Plant morphology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plant density at which Zea mays L. hybrids achieve maximum grain yield has increased throughout the hybrid era while grain yield on a per plant basis has increased little. Changes in plant characteristics including flag leaf angle, anthesis-silking interval (ASI), plant height, tassel branch num...

  12. Spatial and Temporal Variability in Host Use by Helicoverpa zea as Measured by Analyses of Stable Carbon Isotope Ratios and Gossypol Residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns with resistance evolution in tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.) and bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), to transgenic insecticidal crops that produce Bacillus thuringiensis proteins led to the adoption of the high dose/refuge strategy for managing cotton insect resistance in the Unit...

  13. Responses of Maize (Zea mays L.) near isogenic lines carrying Wsm1, Wsm2 and Wsm3 to three viruses in the Potyviridae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three independent genes controlling resistance to Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV; family Potyviridae; genus Tritimovirus) were previously identified on chromosomes six (Wsm1), three (Wsm2) and ten (Wsm3) in the resistant maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line Pa405. Near isogenic lines (NIL) carrying eac...

  14. Genetic basis and implications of cross-sensitivity in Zea mays L. (sweet corn) to multiple herbicides metabolized by cytochrome P-450 enzymes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certain Zea mays L. (sweet corn) hybrids and inbreds can be injured or killed following postemergence applications of several herbicides metabolized by cytochrome P-450 enzymes. Identification of sensitive hybrids in annual screening trials, the primary means of guiding weed management decisions, i...

  15. Complete genome sequence of Spiroplasma kunkelii strain CR2-3x, causal agent of corn stunt disease in Zea mays L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spiroplasma kunkelii is the cause of corn stunt disease of Zea mays L. in South America, Central America, Mexico, and the southern United States. This spiroplasma is closely related to the plant pathogens S. citri and S. phoenicium and to the honey bee pathogen S. melliferum. Here, we report the n...

  16. Gibberella Ear Rot of Maize (Zea mays) in Nepal: Distribution of the Mycotoxins Nivalenol and Deoxynivalenol in Naturally and Experimentally Infected Maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Fusarium graminearum (sexual stage Gibberella zeae) causes ear rot of maize (Zea mays) and contamination with the 8-ketotrichothecenes nivalenol (NIV) or 4-deoxynivalenol (DON), depending on diversity of the fungal population for the 4-oxygenase gene (TRI13). To determine the importance ...

  17. Seasonal patterns of capture of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Heliothis phloxiphaga (Grote and Robinson)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in pheromone traps in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In each of the 6 years of this study in south central Washington state, male corn earworm moths, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), first appeared in pheromone traps in late May to early June, and were present continuously until mid to late October. Maximum numbers of corn earworm moths captured in pheromon...

  18. Temporal and spatial distribution of Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: noctuidae) moths in pheromone traps across agricultural landscapes in Arkansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pheromone trap captures of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Heliothis virescens (F.) from 2002-2005 were used to examine the distribution of these species across a multiple crop environment in southeast Arkansas. The greatest number of H. virescens moths was collected during 2003, but densities were lo...

  19. Expression of a maize Myb transcription factor driven by a putative silk-specific promoter significantly enhances resistance to Helicoverpa zea in transgenic maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hi II maize (Zea mays) plants were engineered to express maize p1 cDNA, a Myb transcription factor, controlled by a putative silk specific promoter, for secondary metabolite production and corn earworm resistance. Transgene expression did not enhance silk color, but about half of the transformed p...

  20. Diapause hormone in the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea: Optimum temperature for activity, structure-activity relationships, and efficacy in accelerating flesh fly pupariation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diapause hormone (DH) effectively terminated pupal diapause in Helicoverpa zea. This effect was temperature-dependent, with an optimum of 21 degrees C. The dose-response curve indicated an ED50 of DH for diapause termination of approximately 100 pmol. The core sequence and essential amino acids w...

  1. Transcriptome sequencing of and microarray development for a Helicoverpa zea cell line to investigate in vitro insect cell-baculovirus interactions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Quan; Palfreyman, Robin W; Chan, Leslie C L; Reid, Steven; Nielsen, Lars K

    2012-01-01

    The Heliothine insect complex contains some of the most destructive pests of agricultural crops worldwide, including the closely related Helicoverpa zea and H. armigera. Biological control using baculoviruses is practiced at a moderate level worldwide. In order to enable more wide spread use, a better understanding of cell-virus interactions is required. While many baculoviruses have been sequenced, none of the Heliothine insect genomes have been available. In this study, we sequenced, assembled and functionally annotated 29,586 transcripts from cultured H. zea cells using Illumina 100 bps and paired-end transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq). The transcript sequences had high assembly coverage (64.5 times). 23,401 sequences had putative protein functions, and over 13,000 sequences had high similarities to available sequences in other insect species. The sequence database was estimated to cover at least 85% of all H. zea genes. The sequences were used to construct a microarray, which was evaluated on the infection of H. zea cells with H. Armigera single-capsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV). The analysis revealed that up-regulation of apoptosis genes is the main cellular response in the early infection phase (18 hours post infection), while genes linked to four major immunological signalling pathways (Toll, IMD, Jak-STAT and JNK) were down-regulated. Only small changes (generally downwards) were observed for central carbon metabolism. The transcriptome and microarray platform developed in this study represent a greatly expanded resource base for H. zea insect-HearNPV interaction studies, in which key cellular pathways such as those for metabolism, immune response, transcription and replication have been identified. This resource will be used to develop better cell culture-based virus production processes, and more generally to investigate the molecular basis of host range and susceptibility, virus infectivity and virulence, and the ecology and evolution of

  2. Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Expression Profiles of Mitochondrial-Encoded Genes in Early and Late Embryos.

    PubMed

    Perera, Omaththage P; Walsh, Thomas K; Luttrell, Randall G

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), was assembled using paired-end nucleotide sequence reads generated with a next-generation sequencing platform. Assembly resulted in a mitogenome of 15,348 bp with greater than 17,000-fold average coverage. Organization of the H. zea mitogenome (gene order and orientation) was identical to other known lepidopteran mitogenome sequences. Compared with Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) mitogenome, there were a few differences in the lengths of gaps between genes, but the lengths of nucleotide overlaps were essentially conserved between the two species. Nucleotide composition of the H. zea mitochondrial genome was very similar to those of the related species H. armigera and Helicoverpa punctigera Wallengren. Mapping of RNA-Seq reads obtained from 2-h eggs and 48-h embryos to protein coding genes (PCG) revealed that all H. zea PCGs were processed as single mature gene transcripts except for the bicistronic atp8 + atp6 transcript. A tRNA-like sequence predicted to form a hammer-head-like secondary structure that may play a role in transcription start and mitogenome replication was identified within the control region of the H. zea mitogenome. Similar structures were also found within the control regions of several other lepidopteran species. Expression analysis revealed significant differences in levels of expression of PCGs within each developmental stage, but the pattern of variation was similar in both developmental stages analyzed in this study. Mapping of RNA-Seq reads to PCG transcripts also identified transcription termination and polyadenylation sites that differed from the sites described in other lepidopteran species. PMID:27126963

  3. Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Expression Profiles of Mitochondrial-Encoded Genes in Early and Late Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Omaththage P.; Walsh, Thomas K.; Luttrell, Randall G.

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), was assembled using paired-end nucleotide sequence reads generated with a next-generation sequencing platform. Assembly resulted in a mitogenome of 15,348 bp with greater than 17,000-fold average coverage. Organization of the H. zea mitogenome (gene order and orientation) was identical to other known lepidopteran mitogenome sequences. Compared with Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) mitogenome, there were a few differences in the lengths of gaps between genes, but the lengths of nucleotide overlaps were essentially conserved between the two species. Nucleotide composition of the H. zea mitochondrial genome was very similar to those of the related species H. armigera and Helicoverpa punctigera Wallengren. Mapping of RNA-Seq reads obtained from 2-h eggs and 48-h embryos to protein coding genes (PCG) revealed that all H. zea PCGs were processed as single mature gene transcripts except for the bicistronic atp8 + atp6 transcript. A tRNA-like sequence predicted to form a hammer-head-like secondary structure that may play a role in transcription start and mitogenome replication was identified within the control region of the H. zea mitogenome. Similar structures were also found within the control regions of several other lepidopteran species. Expression analysis revealed significant differences in levels of expression of PCGs within each developmental stage, but the pattern of variation was similar in both developmental stages analyzed in this study. Mapping of RNA-Seq reads to PCG transcripts also identified transcription termination and polyadenylation sites that differed from the sites described in other lepidopteran species. PMID:27126963

  4. Processes of ammonia air-surface exchange in a fertilized Zea mays canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, J. T.; Jones, M. R.; Bash, J. O.; Myles, L.; Meyers, T.; Schwede, D.; Herrick, J.; Nemitz, E.; Robarge, W.

    2013-02-01

    Recent incorporation of coupled soil biogeochemical and bi-directional NH3 air-surface exchange algorithms into regional air quality models holds promise for further reducing uncertainty in estimates of NH3 emissions from fertilized soils. While this represents a significant advancement over previous approaches, the evaluation and improvement of such modeling systems for fertilized crops requires process-level field measurements over extended periods of time that capture the range of soil, vegetation, and atmospheric conditions that drive short-term (i.e., post-fertilization) and total growing season NH3 fluxes. This study examines the processes of NH3 air-surface exchange in a fertilized corn (Zea mays) canopy over the majority of a growing season to characterize soil emissions after fertilization and investigate soil-canopy interactions. Micrometeorological flux measurements above the canopy, measurements of soil, leaf apoplast and dew/guttation chemistry, and a combination of in-canopy measurements, inverse source/sink, and resistance modeling were employed. Over a period of approximately 10 weeks following fertilization, daily mean and median net canopy-scale fluxes yielded cumulative total N losses of 8.4% and 6.1%, respectively, of the 134 kg N ha-1 surface applied to the soil as urea ammonium nitrate (UAN). During the first month after fertilization, daily mean emission fluxes were positively correlated with soil temperature and soil volumetric water. Diurnally, maximum hourly average fluxes of ≈ 700 ng N m-2 s-1 occurred near mid-day, coincident with the daily maximum in friction velocity. Net emission was still observed 5 to 10 weeks after fertilization, although mid-day peak fluxes had declined to ≈ 125 ng N m-2 s-1. A key finding of the surface chemistry measurements was the observation of high pH (7.0-8.5) in leaf dew/guttation, which reduced the ability of the canopy to recapture soil emissions during wet periods. In-canopy measurements near peak

  5. Processes of ammonia air-surface exchange in a fertilized Zea mays canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, J. T.; Jones, M. R.; Bash, J. O.; Myles, L.; Meyers, T.; Schwede, D.; Herrick, J.; Nemitz, E.; Robarge, W.

    2012-06-01

    Recent incorporation of coupled soil biogeochemical and bi-directional NH3 air-surface exchange algorithms into regional air quality models holds promise for further reducing uncertainty in estimates of NH3 emissions from fertilized soils. While this represents a significant advancement over previous approaches, the evaluation and improvement of such modeling systems for fertilized crops requires process level field measurements over extended periods of time that capture the range of soil, vegetation, and atmospheric conditions that drive short term (i.e., post fertilization) and total growing seasonNH3 fluxes. This study examines the processes of NH3 air-surface exchange in a fertilized corn (Zea mays) canopy over the majority of a growing season to characterize soil emissions after fertilization and investigate soil-canopy interactions. Micrometeorological flux measurements above the canopy, measurements of soil, leaf apoplast and dew/guttation chemistry, and a combination of in-canopy measurements, inverse source/sink, and resistance modeling were employed. Over a period of approximately 10 weeks following fertilization, daily mean and median net canopy-scale fluxes yielded cumulative total N losses of 8.4% and 6.1%, respectively, of the 134 kg N ha-1 surface applied to the soil as urea ammonium nitrate (UAN). During the first month after fertilization, daily mean emission fluxes were positively correlated with soil temperature and soil volumetric water. Diurnally, maximum hourly average fluxes of ≈700 ng N m-2 s-1 occurred near mid-day, coincident with the daily maximum in friction velocity. Net emission was still observed 5 to 10 weeks after fertilization, although mid-day peak fluxes had declined to ≈125 ng N m-2 s-1 A key finding of the surface chemistry measurements was the observation of high pH (7.0 - 8.5) in leaf dew/guttation, which reduced the ability of the canopy to recapture soil emissions during wet periods. In-canopy measurements near peak LAI

  6. Myo-inositol esters of indole-3-acetic acid are endogenous components of Zea mays L. shoot tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chisnell, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters have been demonstrated to be endogenous components of etiolated Zea mays shoots tissue. This was accomplished by comparison of the putative compounds with authentic, synthetic esters. The properties compared were liquid and gas-liquid chromatographic retention times and the 70-ev mass spectral fragmentation pattern of the pentaacetyl derivative. The amount of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters in the shoots was determined to be 74 nanomoles per kilogram fresh weight as measured by isotope dilution, accounting for 19% of the ester indole-3-acetic acid of the shoot. This work is the first characterization of an ester conjugate of indole-3-acetate acid from vegetative shoot tissue using multiple chromatographic properties and mass spectral identification. The kernel and the seedling shoot both contain indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters, and these esters comprise approximately the same percentage of the total ester content of the kernel and of the shoot.

  7. Influence of electrical fields and asymmetric application of mucilage on curvature of primary roots of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcum, H.; Moore, R.

    1990-01-01

    Primary roots of Zea mays cv. Yellow Dent growing in an electric field curve towards the anode. Roots treated with EDTA and growing in electric field do not curve. When root cap mucilage is applied asymmetrically to tips of vertically-oriented roots, the roots curve toward the mucilage. Roots treated with EDTA curve toward the side receiving mucilage and toward blocks containing 10 mM CaCl2, but not toward "empty" agar blocks or the cut surfaces of severed root tips. These results suggest that 1) free calcium (Ca) is necessary for root electrotropism, 2) mucilage contains effector(s) that induce gravitropiclike curvature, and 3) mucilage can replace gravitropic effectors chelated by EDTA. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the downward movement of gravitropic effectors to the lower sides of tips of horizontally-oriented roots occurs at least partially in the apoplast.

  8. Callose deposition during gravitropism of Zea mays and Pisum sativum and its inhibition by 2-deoxy-D-glucose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, M. J.; Leopold, A. C.

    1984-01-01

    In etiolated corn (Zea mays L.) and etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings, a gravitropic stimulation induces the deposition of callose. In the corn coleoptiles this occurs within 5 min of gravity stimulation, and prior to the beginning of curvature. Both gravitropic curvature and callose deposition reach their maxima by 12 h. Within the first 2 h more callose is deposited on the upper (concave) side, but after 2-3 h, this deposition pattern is reversed. An inhibitor of protein glycosylation, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (DDG), inhibits callose production and considerably retards gravitropic bending in both species of plants. Mannose can relieve the inhibition of gravitropic bending by DDG. The pea mutant "Ageotropum", which does not respond to gravity when etiolated, also fails to produce callose in response to a gravitic stimulus. These correlations indicate that callose deposition may be a biochemical component of gravitropism in plant shoots.

  9. Identification and characterization of endophytic bacteria from corn (Zea mays L.) roots with biotechnological potential in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Szilagyi-Zecchin, Vivian Jaskiw; Ikeda, Angela Cristina; Hungria, Mariangela; Adamoski, Douglas; Kava-Cordeiro, Vanessa; Glienke, Chirlei; Galli-Terasawa, Lygia Vitória

    2014-01-01

    Six endophytic bacteria of corn roots were identified as Bacillus sp. and as Enterobacter sp, by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Four of the strains, CNPSo 2476, CNPSo 2477, CNPSo 2478 and CNPSo 2480 were positive for the nitrogen fixation ability evaluated through the acetylene reduction assay and amplification of nifH gene. Two Bacillus strains (CNPSo 2477 and CNPSo 2478) showed outstanding skills for the production of IAA, siderophores and lytic enzymes, but were not good candidates as growth promoters, because they reduced seed germination. However, the same strains were antagonists against the pathogenic fungi Fusarium verticillioides, Colletotrichum graminicola, Bipolaris maydis and Cercospora zea-maydis. As an indication of favorable bacterial action, Enterobacter sp. CNPSo 2480 and Bacillus sp. CNPSo 2481 increased the root volume by 44% and 39%, respectively, and the seed germination by 47% and 56%, respectively. Therefore, these two strains are good candidates for future testing as biological inoculants for corn. PMID:24949261

  10. Effects of As2O3 on DNA methylation, genomic instability, and LTR retrotransposon polymorphism in Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Erturk, Filiz Aygun; Aydin, Murat; Sigmaz, Burcu; Taspinar, M Sinan; Arslan, Esra; Agar, Guleray; Yagci, Semra

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic is a well-known toxic substance on the living organisms. However, limited efforts have been made to study its DNA methylation, genomic instability, and long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon polymorphism causing properties in different crops. In the present study, effects of As2O3 (arsenic trioxide) on LTR retrotransposon polymorphism and DNA methylation as well as DNA damage in Zea mays seedlings were investigated. The results showed that all of arsenic doses caused a decreasing genomic template stability (GTS) and an increasing Random Amplified Polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) profile changes (DNA damage). In addition, increasing DNA methylation and LTR retrotransposon polymorphism characterized a model to explain the epigenetically changes in the gene expression were also found. The results of this experiment have clearly shown that arsenic has epigenetic effect as well as its genotoxic effect. Especially, the increasing of polymorphism of some LTR retrotransposon under arsenic stress may be a part of the defense system against the stress. PMID:26396013

  11. Zea mI, the maize homolog of the allergen-encoding Lol pI gene of rye grass.

    PubMed

    Broadwater, A H; Rubinstein, A L; Chay, C H; Klapper, D G; Bedinger, P A

    1993-09-15

    Sequence analysis of a pollen-specific cDNA from maize has identified a homolog (Zea mI) of the gene (Lol pI) encoding the major allergen of rye-grass pollen. The protein encoded by the partial cDNA sequence is 59.3% identical and 72.7% similar to the comparable region of the reported amino acid sequence of Lol pIA. Southern analysis indicates that this cDNA represents a member of a small multigene family in maize. Northern analysis shows expression only in pollen, not in vegetative or female floral tissues. The timing of expression is developmentally regulated, occurring at a low level prior to the first pollen mitosis and at a high level after this postmeiotic division. Western analysis detects a protein in maize pollen lysates using polyclonal antiserum and monoclonal antibodies directed against purified Lolium perenne allergen. PMID:8406014

  12. Identification and characterization of endophytic bacteria from corn (Zea mays L.) roots with biotechnological potential in agriculture

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Six endophytic bacteria of corn roots were identified as Bacillus sp. and as Enterobacter sp, by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Four of the strains, CNPSo 2476, CNPSo 2477, CNPSo 2478 and CNPSo 2480 were positive for the nitrogen fixation ability evaluated through the acetylene reduction assay and amplification of nifH gene. Two Bacillus strains (CNPSo 2477 and CNPSo 2478) showed outstanding skills for the production of IAA, siderophores and lytic enzymes, but were not good candidates as growth promoters, because they reduced seed germination. However, the same strains were antagonists against the pathogenic fungi Fusarium verticillioides, Colletotrichum graminicola, Bipolaris maydis and Cercospora zea-maydis. As an indication of favorable bacterial action, Enterobacter sp. CNPSo 2480 and Bacillus sp. CNPSo 2481 increased the root volume by 44% and 39%, respectively, and the seed germination by 47% and 56%, respectively. Therefore, these two strains are good candidates for future testing as biological inoculants for corn. PMID:24949261

  13. Respiration and Energy Turnover During the Seedling Development of Triticum aestivum L., Zea mays L., Helianthus annuus L., and Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Bolhàr-Nordenkampf, H R; Zahrl, J

    1984-08-01

    Seedling length, CO(2) output, dry weight and energy content of the seeds and seedling organs of Triticum, Zea, Helianthus and Phaseolus were determined in order to study the efficiency of storage substance utilization and energy turnover during seedling development up to 108 h. The respiration rate is lower in the large seeds of Zea and Phaseolus (2.2 and 2.0 mgCO(2)·gDW(-1)·h(-1)) than in the small seeds of Triticum and Helianthus (3.1 and 4.2 mgCO(2)·gDW(-1)·h(-1)). CO(2) output during the synthesis of seedling organs reaches a maximum value in Triticum, Zea and Helianthus after 36 h (1.0, 1.7 and 1.3 gCO(2)·gDW(n)(-1), resp.) and in Phaseolus after 60 h (3.0 gCO(2)·gDW(n)(-1)). This high CO(2) evolution is caused by the lag phase of growth at the beginning of germination, as indicated in the RGR course. The loss of mobilized storage substances caused by CO(2) evolution amounts to 46% in Phaseolus and is less (av. 30%) in the other seeds. The energy loss in relation to the energy of the ungerminated seed is relatively high in the small and energy-rich seeds of Triticum (19%) and Helianthus (21 %) compared with the large seeds of Zea (8 %) and Phaseolus (13 %). The efficiency of energy utilization corresponding to the energy stored in the newly formed seedling organs is low in Helianthus (40%) and Phaseolus (43%) and relatively high in Triticum (55%) and Zea (6 %). The calorific equivalent of the CO(2) amount evolved differs widely (11 to 24 kJ·gCO(2)(-1)). With the exception of Zea these values are much higher than the calorific equivalent of the dry weight loss. The latter may be explained by energy losses without CO(2) evolution, as well as by CO(2) refixation by PEPC and by energy dissipation in the maintenance metabolism. PMID:23194792

  14. Degradation of some representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by the water-soluble protein extracts from Zea mays L. cv PR32-B10.

    PubMed

    Barone, Roberto; de Biasi, Margherita-Gabriella; Piccialli, Vincenzo; de Napoli, Lorenzo; Oliviero, Giorgia; Borbone, Nicola; Piccialli, Gennaro

    2016-10-01

    The ability of the water-soluble protein extracts from Zea mais L. cv. PR32-B10 to degrade some representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), has been evaluated. Surface sterilized seeds of corn (Zea mais L. Pioneer cv. PR32-B10) were hydroponically cultivated in a growth chamber under no-stressful conditions. The water-soluble protein extracts isolated from maize tissues showed peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and catalase activities. Incubation of the extracts with naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene, led to formation of oxidized and/or degradation products. GC-MS and TLC monitoring of the processes showed that naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene and pyrene underwent 100%, 78%, 92% and 65% oxidative degradation, respectively, after 120 min. The chemical structure of the degradation products were determined by (1)H NMR and ESI-MS spectrometry. PMID:27391049

  15. α-Amanitin-Resistant Viral RNA Synthesis in Nuclei Isolated from Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus-Infected Heliothis zea Larvae and Spodoptera frugiperda Cells

    PubMed Central

    Grula, Marjori A.; Buller, Patricia L.; Weaver, Robert F.

    1981-01-01

    [3H]RNA was synthesized in nuclei isolated at various times postinfection from the fat bodies of Heliothis zea larvae infected with H. zea nuclear polyhedrosis virus and from cultured Spodoptera frugiperda cells infected with Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus. To detect virus-specific RNA synthesis, the [3H]RNA was hybridized to denatured viral DNA immobilized on nitrocellulose filters. Nuclear polyhedrosis virus-specific RNA synthesis in the infected nuclei isolated from H. zea larval fat bodies and S. frugiperda cells was only inhibited 20 to 25% by concentrations of α-amanitin sufficient to inhibit the host RNA polymerase II. In addition, a productive nuclear polyhedrosis virus infection was obtained in S. frugiperda cells grown in the presence of an α-amanitin concentration that inhibited 90% of the cellular RNA polymerase II activity. The cellular RNA polymerase II enzyme remained sensitive to α-amanitin during infection, and there was no evidence that a virus-coded, α-amanitin-resistant enzyme was synthesized after the onset of infection. The data suggest that the bulk of nuclear polyhedrosis virus-specific RNA synthesis in isolated nuclei is transcribed by an enzyme other than the host RNA polymerase II. PMID:16789208

  16. Cross-resistance to toxins used in pyramided Bt crops and resistance to Bt sprays in Helicoverpa zea.

    PubMed

    Welch, Kara L; Unnithan, Gopalan C; Degain, Ben A; Wei, Jizhen; Zhang, Jie; Li, Xianchun; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Carrière, Yves

    2015-11-01

    To delay evolution of resistance by insect pests, farmers are rapidly increasing their use of transgenic crops producing two or more Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins that kill the same pest. A key condition favoring durability of these "pyramided" crops is the absence of cross-resistance between toxins. Here we evaluated cross-resistance in the major lepidopteran pest Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) to Bt toxins used in pyramids. In the laboratory, we selected a strain of this pest with Bt toxin Cry1Ac followed by selection with MVP II, a formulation containing a hybrid protoxin that is identical to Cry1Ac in the active portion of the toxin and 98.5% identical overall. We calculated the resistance ratio as the EC50 (concentration causing mortality or failure to develop beyond the first instar of 50% of larvae) for the laboratory-selected strain divided by the EC50 for its field-derived parent strain that was not selected in the laboratory. The resistance ratio was 20.0-33.9 (mean=27.0) for MVP II, 57.0 for Cry1Ac, 51.3 for Cry1A.105, 22.4 for Cry1Ab, 3.3 for Cry2Ab, 1.8 for Cry1Fa, and 1.6 for Vip3Aa. Resistance ratios were 2.9 for DiPel ES and 2.0 for Agree VG, which are commercial Bt spray formulations containing Cry1Ac, other Bt toxins, and Bt spores. By the conservative criterion of non-overlap of 95% fiducial limits, the EC50 was significantly higher for the selected strain than its parent strain for MVP II, Cry1Ac, Cry1A.105, Cry1Ab, Cry2Ab and DiPel ES. For Cry1Fa, Vip3Aa, and Agree VG, significantly lower susceptibility to a high concentration indicated low cross-resistance. The resistance ratio for toxins other than Cry1Ac was associated with their amino acid sequence similarity to Cry1Ac in domain II. Resistance to Cry1Ac and the observed cross-resistance to other Bt toxins could accelerate evolution of H. zea resistance to currently registered Bt sprays and pyramided Bt crops. PMID:26458274

  17. Study of effects of Bt maize (Zea mays) events on Lepidoptera Ostrinia nubilalis, Sesamia nonagrioidesin southwestern France.

    PubMed

    Folcher, L; Eychenne, N; Weissenberger, A; Jarry, M; Regnault-Roger, C; Delos, M

    2006-01-01

    Crops of maize (Zea mays L.) were conducted in southwestern France with GMO (Genetic Modified Organism) vs isogenetic varieties in order to verify the control of European Corn Borer (ECB) Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) and the Corn Stalk Borer (CBS) Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefevbre) by GMO in field conditions. The bioassays were carried out in 1998 and 1999 before moratorium, then in 2005. Experiments involved respectively 18, 12 and 19 fields cultivated with Furio/Furio cb (GMO), Cecilia/ Elgina (GMO) and PR33P66/PR33P67 (GMO) varieties. These transgenic events expressed Cry1A(b) protein (Bt maize). Plants were noted for insect infestation assessment (number of larvae in stalks and ears per plant). Statistical tests used t-test on couple of plots. Results showed a significant difference in the density of both ECB and CBS between control and the two transgenic events. The two transgenic events acted differently. The control of the two Bt events on the two pests were differentiated and discussed. These experiments underlined the importance of field evaluation for testing real effects of transgenic events on crop according the environmental context. PMID:17390797

  18. Characteristics and biosynthesis of membrane proteins of lipid bodies in the scutella of maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed Central

    Qu, R; Wang, S M; Lin, Y H; Vance, V B; Huang, A H

    1986-01-01

    Storage lipid bodies, which are prominent organelles present in the storage tissues of most seeds, have not been subjected to intensive biochemical investigation. In the present studies the major proteins in lipid bodies isolated from eleven taxonomically diverse species were shown to be distinctly different, as revealed by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The lipid-body membrane of maize (Zea mays L.) contained three major proteins of low Mr (19,500, 18,000 and 16,500), and they were chosen for further study. They all had alkaline pI values and behaved as hydrophobic integral proteins, as shown by their resistance to solubilization after repeated washing, amino acid composition and partitioning in a Triton X-114 system. Labelling in vivo with [35S]methionine and translation in vitro using extracted RNA in a wheat-germ system showed that the proteins were synthesized during seed maturation and not germination. The proteins synthesized in vivo and in vitro exhibited no appreciable difference in their mobilities in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (isoelectric focusing and molecular sieving). The most abundant protein, that of Mr 16,500, was shown to be synthesized predominantly, if not exclusively, by RNA derived from bound polyribosomes and not from free polyribosomes. The implication of the results on the biosynthesis of the lipid bodies is discussed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:3741390

  19. In vitro oxidation of indoleacetic acid by soluble auxin-oxidases and peroxidases from maize roots. [Zea mays L

    SciTech Connect

    Beffa, R.; Martin, H.V.; Pilet, P.E. )

    1990-10-01

    Soluble auxin-oxidases were extracted from Zea mays L. cv LG11 apical root segments and partially separated from peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7) by size-exclusion chromatography. Auxin-oxidases were resolved into one main peak corresponding to a molecular mass of 32.5 kilodaltons and a minor peak at 54.5 kilodaltons. Peroxidases were separated into at least four peaks, with molecular masses from 32.5 to 78 kilodaltons. In vitro activity of indoleacetic acid-oxidases was dependent on the presence of MnCl{sub 2} and p-coumaric acid. Compound(s) present in the crude extract and several synthetic auxin transport inhibitors (including 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid) inhibited auxin-oxidase activity, but had no effect on peroxidases. The products resulting from the in vitro enzymatic oxidation of ({sup 3}H)indoleacetic acid were separated by HPLC and the major metabolite was found to cochromatograph with indol-3yl-methanol.

  20. Cloning and expression of the VHDL receptor from fat body of the corn ear worm, Helicoverpa zea

    PubMed Central

    Persaud, Deryck R.; Haunerland, Norbert H.

    2004-01-01

    In Noctuids, storage proteins are taken up into fat body by receptor-mediated endocytosis. These include arylphorin and a second, structurally unrelated very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL). Previously, we have isolated a single storage protein receptor from the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, which binds both VHDL and arylphorin. The receptor protein is a basic, N-terminally blocked, ∼80 kDa protein that is associated with fat body membranes. Microsequencing of proteolytic fragments of the isolated receptor protein revealed internal sequences that were used to clone the complete cDNA of the VHDL receptor by 3′ and 5′ RACE techniques. The receptor protein, when expressed in vitro via a suitable insect expression vector, reacted with antibodies against the native VHDL receptor and bound strongly to its ligand VHDL, thus confirming that the cloned cDNA represents indeed the previously purified VHDL receptor. The receptor protein and a second, similar protein also found associated with the fat body membrane show considerable homology to putative basic juvenile hormone suppressible proteins cloned previously from other Noctuid species. Sequence analysis revealed that the receptor is likely a peripheral membrane protein that may mediate the selective uptake of VHDL. Abbreviation: BJHSP basic juvenile hormone suppressible protein FITC fluorescein isothiocyanate HRP horseraddish peroxidase RACE rapid amplification of cDNA ends VHDL very high density lipoprotein PMID:15861222

  1. Observation of cytoplasmic and vacuolar malate in maize root tips by sup 13 C-NMR spectroscopy. [Zea mays L

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, K.; Roberts, J.K.M. )

    1989-01-01

    The accumulation of malate by maize (Zea mays L.) root tips perfused with KH{sup 13}CO{sub 3} was followed by {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance spectra contained distinct signals from two pools of malate in maize root tips, one at a pH {approximately}5.3 (assigned to the vacuole) and one at a pH > 6.5 (assigned to the cytoplasm). The ratio of cytoplasmic to vacuolar malate was lower in 12 millimeter long root tips than in 2 millimeter root tips. The relatively broad width of the signals from C1- and C4-labeled vacuolar malate indicated heterogeneity in vacuolar pH. During the 3 hour KH{sup 13}CO{sub 3} treatment, {sup 13}C-malate accumulated first primarily in the cytoplasm, increasing to a fairly constant level of {approximately}6 millimolar by 1 hour. After a lag, vacuolar malate increased throughout the experiment.

  2. Antioxidant, α-glucosidase and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of bioactive compounds from maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Nile, Shivraj H; Park, Se W

    2014-01-01

    Chemical investigations into maize (Zea mays L.) kernels yielded phenolic compounds, which were structurally established using chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. The isolated phenolic compounds from maize kernel were examined in vitro for their antioxidant abilities by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazine) radical, OH radical scavenging activity, and reducing ability, along with α-glucosidase and xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibition. The isolated maize phenolics revealed significant xanthine oxidase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity to that of allopurinol and acarbose in vitro and in vivo, respectively. The kinetics study with xanthine oxidase revealed competitive type of inhibition by isolated maize vanillic acid (M2), ferulic acid (M5), 3'-methoxyhirsutrin (M7), and peonidin-3-glucoside (M10) as compared to control allopurinol. Overall, with few exceptions, all the phenolic compounds from maize kernel revealed significant biological activities with all parameters examined. Also, the phenolic compounds from maize were found to be more reactive toward DPPH radical and had considerable reducing ability and OH radical scavenging activity. These findings suggest that maize kernel phenolic compounds can be considered as potential antioxidant, α-glucosidase, and XO inhibitory agents those might be further explored for the design of lead antioxidant, antidiabetic and antigout drug candidates using in vivo trials. PMID:23957301

  3. [3H]Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol hydrolysis by extracts of Zea mays L. vegetative tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, P. J.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    [3H]Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol was hydrolyzed by buffered extracts of acetone powders prepared from 4 day shoots of dark grown Zea mays L. seedlings. The hydrolytic activity was proportional to the amount of extract added and was linear for up to 6 hours at 37 degrees C. Boiled or alcohol denatured extracts were inactive. Analysis of reaction mixtures by high performance liquid chromatography demonstrated that not all isomers of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol were hydrolyzed at the same rate. Buffered extracts of acetone powders were prepared from coleoptiles and mesocotyls. The rates of hydrolysis observed with coleoptile extracts were greater than those observed with mesocotyl extracts. Active extracts also catalyzed the hydrolysis of esterase substrates such as alpha-naphthyl acetate and the methyl esters of indoleacetic acid and naphthyleneacetic acid. Attempts to purify the indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol hydrolyzing activity by chromatographic procedures resulted in only slight purification with large losses of activity. Chromatography over hydroxylapatite allowed separation of two enzymically active fractions, one of which catalyzed the hydrolysis of both indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and esterase substrates. With the other enzymic hydrolysis of esterase substrates was readily demonstrated, but no hydrolysis of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol was ever detected.

  4. Changes in the distribution of plastids and endoplasmic reticulum during cellular differentiation in root caps of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; McClelen, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    In calyptrogen cells of Zea mays, proplastids are distributed randomly throughout the cell, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is distributed parallel to the cell walls. The differentiation of calyptrogen cells into columella statocytes is characterized by the following sequential events: (1) formation of ER complexes at the distal and proximal ends of the cell, (2) differentiation of proplastids into amyloplasts, (3) sedimentation of amyloplasts onto the distal ER complex, (4) breakdown of the distal ER complex and sedimentation of amyloplasts to the bottom of the cell, and (5) formation of sheets of ER parallel to the longitudinal cell walls. Columella statocytes located in the centre of the cap each possess 4530 +/- 780 micrometers2 of ER surface area, an increase of 670 per cent over that of calyptrogen cells. The differentiation of peripheral cells correlates positively with (1) the ER becoming arranged in concentric sheets, (2) amyloplasts and ER becoming randomly distributed, and (3) a 280 per cent increase in ER surface area over that of columella statocytes. These results are discussed relative to graviperception and mucilage secretion, which are functions of columella and peripheral cells, respectively.

  5. A two-dimensional microscale model of gas exchange during photosynthesis in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Retta, Moges; Ho, Quang Tri; Yin, Xinyou; Verboven, Pieter; Berghuijs, Herman N C; Struik, Paul C; Nicolaï, Bart M

    2016-05-01

    CO2 exchange in leaves of maize (Zea mays L.) was examined using a microscale model of combined gas diffusion and C4 photosynthesis kinetics at the leaf tissue level. Based on a generalized scheme of photosynthesis in NADP-malic enzyme type C4 plants, the model accounted for CO2 diffusion in a leaf tissue, CO2 hydration and assimilation in mesophyll cells, CO2 release from decarboxylation of C4 acids, CO2 fixation in bundle sheath cells and CO2 retro-diffusion from bundle sheath cells. The transport equations were solved over a realistic 2-D geometry of the Kranz anatomy obtained from light microscopy images. The predicted responses of photosynthesis rate to changes in ambient CO2 and irradiance compared well with those obtained from gas exchange measurements. A sensitivity analysis showed that the CO2 permeability of the mesophyll-bundle sheath and airspace-mesophyll interfaces strongly affected the rate of photosynthesis and bundle sheath conductance. Carbonic anhydrase influenced the rate of photosynthesis, especially at low intercellular CO2 levels. In addition, the suberin layer at the exposed surface of the bundle sheath cells was found beneficial in reducing the retro-diffusion. The model may serve as a tool to investigate CO2 diffusion further in relation to the Kranz anatomy in C4 plants. PMID:26993234

  6. Utilization of maize husk (Zea mays L.) as low-cost adsorbent in removal of iron from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Indah, S; Helard, D; Sasmita, A

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption of iron from aqueous solution by using maize husk (Zea mays L.) as a low-cost adsorbent was studied. Batch experiments were carried out at ambient temperature, 0.075-0.250 mm of particle size and 100 rpm of agitation speed to determine the influence of initial pH, adsorbent dose, initial concentration and contact time on the removal of iron. Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied to describe the adsorption isotherm of iron by maize husk. The results showed that optimum condition of iron removal were 4 of pH solution, 20 g/L of adsorbent dose, 10 mg/L of Fe concentration and 15 min of contact time of adsorption with 0.499 mg Fe/g maize husk of adsorption capacity. Experimental data fitted well to Langmuir's adsorption equilibrium isotherm within the concentration range studied. This study demonstrated that maize husk, which is an agricultural waste, has potential for iron removal from groundwater or other polluted waters. PMID:27332838

  7. Molecular evolution and gene expression differences within the HD-Zip transcription factor family of Zea mays L.

    PubMed

    Mao, Hude; Yu, Lijuan; Li, Zhanjie; Liu, Hui; Han, Ran

    2016-04-01

    Homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factors regulate developmental processes and stress responses in plants, and they vary widely in gene number and family structure. In this study, 55 predicted maize HD-Zip genes were systematically analyzed with respect to their phylogenetic relationships, molecular evolution, and gene expression in order to understand the functional diversification within the family. Phylogenetic analysis of HD-Zip proteins from Zea mays, Oryza sativa, Arabidopsis thaliana, Vitis vinifera, and Physcomitrella patens showed that they group into four classes. We inferred that the copy numbers of classes I and III genes were relatively conserved in all five species. The 55 maize HD-Zip genes are distributed randomly on the ten chromosomes, with 15 segmental duplication and 4 tandem duplication events, suggesting that segmental duplications were the major contributors in the expansion of the maize HD-Zip gene family. Expression analysis of the 55 maize HD-Zip genes in different tissues and drought conditions revealed differences in the expression levels and patterns between the four classes. Promoter analysis revealed that a number of stress response-, hormone response-, light response-, and development-related cis-acting elements were present in their promoters. Our results provide novel insights into the molecular evolution and gene expression within the HD-Zip gene family in maize, and provide a solid foundation for future functional study of the HD-Zip genes in maize. PMID:26979310

  8. Chromosome elimination and in vivo haploid production induced by Stock 6-derived inducer line in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zili; Qiu, Fazhan; Liu, Yongzhong; Ma, Kejun; Li, Zaiyun; Xu, Shangzhong

    2008-12-01

    In vivo haploid production induced by inducer lines derived from Stock 6 is widely used in breeding program of maize (Zea mays L.), but the mechanisms behind have not yet been fully understood. In this study, average frequency of haploid induction in four inbred lines by Stock 6-derived inducer line HZI1 was above 10%. About 0.2% kernels from the cross Hua24 x HZI1 had mosaic endosperm showing yellow shrunken parts from Hua24 to normal parts with purple aleurone from HZI1. Individual lagged chromosomes and micronuclei were observed in mitotic cells of ovules pollinated by HZI1. Above 56.4% of the radicles from the kernels with purple aleurone and colorless embryos were mixoploid (2n = 9-21), and more than 45.22% cells were haploid cells (2n = 10) in three crosses. More than 62.5% of the radicles from the kernels with purple aleurone and purple embryos were mixoploid (2n = 9-21) having 54.27% cells with 2n = 20. SSR analysis showed that all haploids from the cross Hua24 x HZI1 shared the same genomic compositions as Hua24 except for plants Nos. 862 and 857 with some polymorphic DNA bands. The results revealed that chromosome elimination after fertilization caused the haploid production in maize. PMID:18807046

  9. Influence of temperature stress on in vitro fertilization and heat shock protein synthesis in maize (Zea mays L. ) reproductive tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Dupuis, I.; Dumas, C. )

    1990-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the response of maize (Zea mays) male and female mature reproductive tissues to temperature stress. We have tested the fertilization abilities of the stressed spikelets and pollen using in vitro pollination-fertilization to determine their respective tolerance to stress. The synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSPs) was also analyzed in male and female tissues using electrophoresis of {sup 35}S-labeled proteins and fluorography, to establish a relationship between the physiological and molecular responses. Pollen, spikelets, and pollinated spikelets were exposed to selected temperatures (4, 28, 32, 36, or 40{degree}C) and tested using an in vitro fertilization system. The fertilization rate is highly reduced when pollinated spikelets are exposed to temperatures over 36{degree}C. When pollen and spikelets are exposed separately to temperature stress, the female tissues appear resistant to 4 hours of cold stress (4{degree}C) or heat stress (40{degree}C). Under heat shock conditions, the synthesis of a typical set of HSPs is induced in the female tissues. In contrast, the mature pollen is sensitive to heat stress and is responsible for the failure of fertilization at high temperatures. At the molecular level, no heat shock response is detected in the mature pollen.

  10. Changes in photochemical and antioxidant enzyme activities in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves exposed to excess copper.

    PubMed

    Tanyolaç, Deniz; Ekmekçi, Yasemin; Unalan, Seniz

    2007-02-01

    Changes in photosynthetic and antioxidant activities in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves of cultivars 3223 and 31G98 exposed to excess copper (Cu) were investigated. Cu treatment reduced the shoot and root length of both cultivars. No significant difference of Cu accumulation in the roots of both cultivars was observed while the cultivar 3223 accumulated significantly higher Cu in leaves than 31G98. The observed decreases in effective quantum efficiency of PSII, ETR and qP indicate an over excitation of photochemical system in 3223 compared to 31G98. The leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of both cultivars decreased with increasing Cu concentration. A far higher production of anthocyanins in 31G98 has been observed than that of 3223. At 1.5 mM Cu concentration, all antioxidant enzyme activities increased in leaves of the cultivar 31G98 while there were no significant changes in SOD and GR activities in 3223 compared to the control except increased APX and POD activities. The lower Cu accumulation in leaves and higher antioxidant enzyme activities in 31G98 suggested an enhanced tolerance capacity of this cultivar to protect the plant from oxidative damage. PMID:17109927

  11. Growth and graviresponsiveness of primary roots of Zea mays seedlings deficient in abscisic acid and gibberellic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; Dickey, K.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine if gibberellic acid (GA) and/or abscisic acid (ABA) are necessary for graviresponsiveness by primary roots of Zea mays. To accomplish this objective we measured the growth and graviresponsiveness of primary roots of seedlings in which the synthesis of ABA and GA was inhibited collectively and individually by genetic and chemical means. Roots of seedlings treated with Fluridone (an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis) and Ancymidol (an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis) were characterized by slower growth rates but not significantly different gravicultures as compared to untreated controls. Gravicurvatures of primary roots of d-5 mutants (having undetectable levels of GA) and vp-9 mutants (having undectable levels of ABA) were not significantly different from those of wild-type seedlings. Roots of seedlings in which the biosynthesis of ABA and GA was collectively inhibited were characterized by gravicurvatures not significantly different for those of controls. These results (1) indicate that drastic reductions in the amount of ABA and GA in Z. mays seedlings do not significantly alter root graviresponsiveness, (2) suggest that neither ABA nor GA is necessary for root gravicurvature, and (3) indicate that root gravicurvature is not necessarily proportional to root elongation.

  12. Root growth, secondary root formation and root gravitropism in carotenoid-deficient seedlings of Zea mays L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Y. K.; Moore, R.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of ABA on root growth, secondary-root formation and root gravitropism in seedlings of Zea mays was investigated by using Fluridone-treated seedlings and a viviparous mutant, both of which lack carotenoids and ABA. Primary roots of seedlings grown in the presence of Fluridone grew significantly slower than those of control (i.e. untreated) roots. Elongation of Fluridone-treated roots was inhibited significantly by the exogenous application of 1 mM ABA. Exogenous application of 1 micromole and 1 nmole ABA had either no effect or only a slight stimulatory effect on root elongation, depending on the method of application. The absence of ABA in Fluridone-treated plants was not an important factor in secondary-root formation in seedlings less than 9-10 d old. However, ABA may suppress secondary-root formation in older seedlings, since 11-d-old control seedlings had significantly fewer secondary roots than Fluridone-treated seedlings. Roots of Fluridone-treated and control seedlings were graviresponsive. Similar data were obtained for vp-9 mutants of Z. mays, which are phenotypically identical to Fluridone-treated seedlings. These results indicate that ABA is necessary for neither secondary-root formation nor for positive gravitropism by primary roots.

  13. Responses of seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits to seed pretreatment in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Guan, Bo; Zhou, Daowei; Yu, Junbao; Li, Guangdi; Lou, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA), NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P < 0.05). The recommended prime reagents were GA at 10 mg/L, NaCl at 50 mM, and PEG at 15% on account of germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50 mM), or PEG (15%) significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method. PMID:25093210

  14. The maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) genome encodes 33 members of the purple acid phosphatase family.

    PubMed

    González-Muñoz, Eliécer; Avendaño-Vázquez, Aida-Odette; Montes, Ricardo A Chávez; de Folter, Stefan; Andrés-Hernández, Liliana; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; Sawers, Ruairidh J H

    2015-01-01

    Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) play an important role in plant phosphorus nutrition, both by liberating phosphorus from organic sources in the soil and by modulating distribution within the plant throughout growth and development. Furthermore, members of the PAP protein family have been implicated in a broader role in plant mineral homeostasis, stress responses and development. We have identified 33 candidate PAP encoding gene models in the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) reference genome. The maize Pap family includes a clear single-copy ortholog of the Arabidopsis gene AtPAP26, shown previously to encode both major intracellular and secreted acid phosphatase activities. Certain groups of PAPs present in Arabidopsis, however, are absent in maize, while the maize family contains a number of expansions, including a distinct radiation not present in Arabidopsis. Analysis of RNA-sequencing based transcriptome data revealed accumulation of maize Pap transcripts in multiple plant tissues at multiple stages of development, and increased accumulation of specific transcripts under low phosphorus availability. These data suggest the maize PAP family as a whole to have broad significance throughout the plant life cycle, while highlighting potential functional specialization of individual family members. PMID:26042133

  15. Development of bollworms, Helicoverpa zea, on two commercial Bollgard® cultivars that differ in overall Cry1Ac levels

    PubMed Central

    Adamczyk, John J.; Gore, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Research was conducted to quantify the development of the corn earworm (= bollworm), Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), on two different transgenic cotton cultivars (DP 50B and NuCOTN 33B) that contained different levels of the Cry1Ac endotoxin from the soil bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner. Using a field cage, an inverse relationship between the amount of Cry1Ac among cultivars versus the weight of bollworm larvae was observed. Larvae that were recovered from the DP 50B cultivar expressing lower Cry1Ac weighed significantly more than larvae collected from the higher expressing NuCOTN 33B cultivar. Cotton plants from NuCOTN 33B were measured as expressing 300% more Cry1Ac than DP 50B plants. The distribution of larval weights indicates that more late-instars (> 200 mg) were collected from the lower expressing DP50B cultivar than the higher expressing NuCOTN 33B cultivar. Within a single population, bollworm larvae were highly variable in their development when feeding on Bollgard® cotton. Possible reasons and consequences for this variation are discussed. PMID:15861247

  16. Accumulation of 5-hydroxynorvaline in maize (Zea mays) leaves is induced by insect feeding and abiotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jian; Lipka, Alexander E.; Schmelz, Eric A.; Buckler, Edward S.; Jander, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Plants produce a wide variety of defensive metabolites to protect themselves against herbivores and pathogens. Non-protein amino acids, which are present in many plant species, can have a defensive function through their mis-incorporation during protein synthesis and/or inhibition of biosynthetic pathways in primary metabolism. 5-Hydroxynorvaline was identified in a targeted search for previously unknown non-protein amino acids in the leaves of maize (Zea mays) inbred line B73. Accumulation of this compound increases during herbivory by aphids (Rhopalosiphum maidis, corn leaf aphid) and caterpillars (Spodoptera exigua, beet armyworm), as well as in response to treatment with the plant signalling molecules methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid and abscisic acid. In contrast, ethylene signalling reduced 5-hydroxynorvaline abundance. Drought stress induced 5-hydroxynorvaline accumulation to a higher level than insect feeding or treatment with defence signalling molecules. In field-grown plants, the 5-hydroxynorvaline concentration was highest in above-ground vegetative tissue, but it was also detectable in roots and dry seeds. When 5-hydroxynorvaline was added to aphid artificial diet at concentrations similar to those found in maize leaves and stems, R. maidis reproduction was reduced, indicating that this maize metabolite may have a defensive function. Among 27 tested maize inbred lines there was a greater than 10-fold range in the accumulation of foliar 5-hydroxynorvaline. Genetic mapping populations derived from a subset of these inbred lines were used to map quantitative trait loci for 5-hydroxynorvaline accumulation to maize chromosomes 5 and 7. PMID:25271262

  17. Expression Patterns of Genes Involved in Ascorbate-Glutathione Cycle in Aphid-Infested Maize (Zea mays L.) Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    Reduced forms of ascorbate (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) are among the most important non-enzymatic foliar antioxidants in maize (Zea mays L.). The survey was aimed to evaluate impact of bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) herbivory on expression of genes related to ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle in seedlings of six maize varieties (Ambrozja, Nana, Tasty Sweet, Touran, Waza, Złota Karłowa), differing in resistance to the cereal aphids. Relative expression of sixteen maize genes encoding isoenzymes of ascorbate peroxidase (APX1, APX2, APX3, APX4, APX5, APX6, APX7), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR1, MDHAR2, MDHAR3, MDHAR4), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR1, DHAR2, DHAR3) and glutathione reductase (GR1, GR2) was quantified. Furthermore, effect of hemipterans’ attack on activity of APX, MDHAR, DHAR and GR enzymes, and the content of reduced and oxidized ascorbate and glutathione in maize plants were assessed. Seedling leaves of more resistant Z. mays varieties responded higher elevations in abundance of target transcripts. In addition, earlier and stronger aphid-triggered changes in activity of APX, MDHAR, DHAR and GR enzymes, and greater modulations in amount of the analyzed antioxidative metabolites were detected in foliar tissues of highly resistant Ambrozja genotype in relation to susceptible Tasty Sweet plants. PMID:26907270

  18. Study of photosynthetic pigments changes of maize (Zea mays L.) under nano Tio2 spraying at various growth stages.

    PubMed

    Morteza, Elham; Moaveni, Payam; Farahani, Hossein Aliabadi; Kiyani, Mohammad

    2013-12-01

    Tests were done on the effects of treatments of titanium dioxide spray on corn (Zea mays L.). The study was conducted as a factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Treatments consisted of two factors; the first factor was stage of plant growth that spraying was applied (vegetative stage, appearance of male flowers and female flowers); and the second factor was that of different concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (Tio2) that consisted of spray with water (control), titanium dioxide or bulk, nano titanium dioxide at concentrations of 0.01% and 0.03%. Results showed that effect of nano Tio2 was significant on chlorophyll content (a and b), total chlorophyll (a + b), chlorophyll a/b, carotenoids and anthocyanins. The maximum amount of pigment was recorded from the treatment of nano Tio2 spray at the reproductive stage (appearance of male and female flowers) in comparison with control. Thus, an application of nanoparticles (nanao Tio2) can facilitate an increase in crop yield, especially corn yield. PMID:23847752

  19. The effect of triazole induced photosynthetic pigments and biochemical constituents of Zea mays L. (Maize) under drought stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajasekar, Mahalingam; Rabert, Gabriel Amalan; Manivannan, Paramasivam

    2015-07-01

    In this investigation, pot culture experiment was carried out to estimate the ameliorating effect of triazole compounds, namely Triadimefon (TDM), Tebuconazole (TBZ), and Propiconazole (PCZ) on drought stress, photosynthetic pigments, and biochemical constituents of Zea mays L. (Maize). From 30 days after sowing (DAS), the plants were subjected to 4 days interval drought (DID) stress and drought with TDM at 15 mg l-1, TBZ at 10 mg l-1, and PCZ at 15 mg l-1. Irrigation at 1-day interval was kept as control. Irrigation performed on alternative day. The plant samples were collected on 40, 50, and 60 DAS and separated into root, stem, and leaf for estimating the photosynthetic pigments and biochemical constituents. Drought and drought with triazole compounds treatment increased the biochemical glycine betaine content, whereas the protein and the pigments contents chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, and anthocyanin decreased when compared to control. The triazole treatment mitigated the adverse effects of drought stress by increasing the biochemical potentials and paved the way to overcome drought stress in corn plant.

  20. Influence of microgravity on root-cap regeneration and the structure of columella cells in Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; McClelen, C. E.; Fondren, W. M.; Wang, C. L.

    1987-01-01

    We launched imbibed seeds and seedlings of Zea mays into outer space aboard the space shuttle Columbia to determine the influence of microgravity on 1) root-cap regeneration, and 2) the distribution of amyloplasts and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the putative statocytes (i.e., columella cells) of roots. Decapped roots grown on Earth completely regenerated their caps within 4.8 days after decapping, while those grown in microgravity did not regenerate caps. In Earth-grown seedlings, the ER was localized primarily along the periphery of columella cells, and amyloplasts sedimented in response to gravity to the lower sides of the cells. Seeds germinated on Earth and subsequently launched into outer space had a distribution of ER in columella cells similar to that of Earth-grown controls, but amyloplasts were distributed throughout the cells. Seeds germinated in outer space were characterized by the presence of spherical and ellipsoidal masses of ER and randomly distributed amyloplasts in their columella cells. These results indicate that 1) gravity is necessary for regeneration of the root cap, 2) columella cells can maintain their characteristic distribution of ER in microgravity only if they are exposed previously to gravity, and 3) gravity is necessary to distribute the ER in columella cells of this cultivar of Z. mays.

  1. Unraveling the role of dark septate endophyte (DSE) colonizing maize (Zea mays) under cadmium stress: physiological, cytological and genic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun-ling; Li, Tao; Liu, Gao-yuan; Smith, Joshua M.; Zhao, Zhi-wei

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that plant root-associated fungi such as dark septate endophytes (DSE) can help plants overcome many biotic and abiotic stresses, of great interest is DSE-plant metal tolerance and alleviation capabilities on contaminated soils. However, the tolerance and alleviation mechanisms involved have not yet been elucidated. In the current study, the regulation and physiological response of Zea mays to its root-associated DSE, Exophiala pisciphila was analyzed under increased soil Cd stress (0, 10, 50, 100 mg kg−1). Under Cd stress, DSE inoculation significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and low-molecular weight antioxidants, while also inducing increased Cd accumulation in the cell wall and conversion of Cd into inactive forms by shoot and root specific regulation of genes related to metal uptake, translocation and chelation. Our results showed that DSE colonization resulted in a marked tolerance to Cd, with a significant decrease in cadmium phytotoxicity and a significant increase in maize growth by triggering antioxidant systems, altering metal chemical forms into inactive Cd, and repartitioning subcellular Cd into the cell wall. These results provide comprehensive evidence for the mechanisms by which DSE colonization bioaugments Cd tolerance in maize at physiological, cytological and molecular levels. PMID:26911444

  2. Bioaugmentation of copper polluted soil microcosms with Amycolatopsis tucumanensis to diminish phytoavailable copper for Zea mays plants.

    PubMed

    Albarracín, Virginia Helena; Amoroso, María Julia; Abate, Carlos Mauricio

    2010-03-01

    Amycolatopsis tucumanensis DSM 45259, the strain of a recently recognized novel species of the genus Amycolatopsis with remarkable copper resistance, was used to bioaugment soil microcosms experimentally polluted with copper and for studying the ability of this strain to effectively diminish phytoavailable copper from soils. Our results demonstrated that A. tucumanensis was capable of profusely colonizing both, copper polluted and non-polluted soil. Copper bioimmobilization ability of A. tucumanensis on soil was assessed measuring the bioavailable copper in the soil solution extracted from polluted soil by using chemical and physical methods and, in this way, 31% lower amounts of the metal were found in soil solution as compared to non-bioaugmented soil. The results obtained when using Zea mays as bioindicator correlated well with the values obtained by the chemical and physical procedures: 20% and 17% lower tissue contents of copper were measured in roots and leaves, respectively. These data confirmed the efficiency of the bioremediation process using A. tucumanensis and at the same time proved that chemical, physical and biological methods for assessing copper bioavailability in soils were correlated. These results suggest a potential use of this strain at large scale in copper soil bioremediation strategies. To our knowledge, this work is the first to apply and to probe the colonization ability of an Amycolatopsis strain in soil microcosms and constitutes the first application of an Amycolatopsis strain on bioremediation of polluted soils. PMID:20163821

  3. Occultifur kilbournensis f.a. sp. nov., a new member of the Cystobasidiales associated with maize (Zea mays) cultivation.

    PubMed

    Kurtzman, Cletus P; Robnett, Christie J

    2015-05-01

    During a study of microorganisms associated with maize (Zea mays) cultivation, yeasts were isolated from overwintered stalks, cobs and surrounding soil, which were collected from an agricultural field in south-central Illinois, USA. Predominant among isolates were two species of Cryptococcus (Cr. flavescens, Cr. magnus) and a red yeast that D1/D2 LSU rRNA gene sequences revealed to be a new species of the basidiomycete yeast genus Occultifur. The species, which was not detected in the same field during the growing season, is described here as Occultifur kilbournensis (MycoBank number MB 811259; type strain NRRL Y-63695, CBS 13982, GenBank numbers, D1/D2 LSU rRNA gene, KP413160, ITS, KP413162; allotype strain NRRL Y-63699, CBS 13983). Mixture of the type and allotype strains resulted in formation of hyphae with clamp connections and a small number of apparent basidia following incubation on 5% malt extract agar at 15 °C for 2 months. In view of the uncertainty of the life cycle, the new species is being designated as forma asexualis. From analysis of D1/D2 and ITS nucleotide sequences, the new species is most closely related to Occultifur externus. PMID:25761862

  4. Development of bollworms, Helicoverpa zea, on two commercial Bollgard cultivars that differ in overall Cry1Ac levels.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, John J; Gore, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Research was conducted to quantify the development of the corn earworm (= bollworm), Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), on two different transgenic cotton cultivars (DP 50B and NuCOTN 33B) that contained different levels of the Cry1Ac endotoxin from the soil bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner. Using a field cage, an inverse relationship between the amount of Cry1Ac among cultivars versus the weight of bollworm larvae was observed. Larvae that were recovered from the DP 50B cultivar expressing lower Cry1Ac weighed significantly more than larvae collected from the higher expressing NuCOTN 33B cultivar. Cotton plants from NuCOTN 33B were measured as expressing 300% more Cry1Ac than DP 50B plants. The distribution of larval weights indicates that more late-instars (> 200 mg) were collected from the lower expressing DP50B cultivar than the higher expressing NuCOTN 33B cultivar. Within a single population, bollworm larvae were highly variable in their development when feeding on Bollgard cotton. Possible reasons and consequences for this variation are discussed. PMID:15861247

  5. Use of poultry manure for amendment of oil-polluted soils in relation to growth of maize (Zea mays L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Amadi, A. ) Ue Bari, Y. )

    1992-01-01

    The use of poultry manure for amelioration of oil-polluted soil was investigated by growing maize (Zea mays L.) under two experimental conditions: increasing the poultry manure rate from 0-20 kg ha{sup {minus}1} at 0.03 L/kg oil treatment level; and increasing the rate of oil treatment from 0-0.2 between the rate of poultry manure added and the enhancement of maize growth. But only a 16-kg ha{sup {minus}1} poultry manure rate and above exerted some beneficial effects on the maize growth relative to the unpolluted, unamended soil. Conversely, increasing oil concentration, regardless of the poultry manure level added, depressed maize growth, but only at oil levels of 0.03 L/kg. A positive correlation was recorded between maize height and leaf area growing in oil-treated soil amended with different poultry manure rates and growing in oil-treated amended with 20 kg ha{sup {minus}1} poultry manure. Amending oil-contaminated soils with poultry manure, should possibly improve soil fertility and maize production.

  6. Genome-Wide Analysis of Alternative Splicing in Zea mays: Landscape and Genetic Regulation[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Thatcher, Shawn R.; Zhou, Wengang; Leonard, April; Wang, Bing-Bing; Beatty, Mary; Zastrow-Hayes, Gina; Zhao, Xiangyu; Baumgarten, Andy; Li, Bailin

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing enhances transcriptome diversity in all eukaryotes and plays a role in plant tissue identity and stress adaptation. To catalog new maize (Zea mays) transcripts and identify genomic loci that regulate alternative splicing, we analyzed over 90 RNA-seq libraries from maize inbred lines B73 and Mo17, as well as Syn10 doubled haploid lines (progenies from B73 × Mo17). Transcript discovery was augmented with publicly available data from 14 maize tissues, expanding the maize transcriptome by more than 30,000 and increasing the percentage of intron-containing genes that undergo alternative splicing to 40%. These newly identified transcripts greatly increase the diversity of the maize proteome, sometimes coding for entirely different proteins compared with their most similar annotated isoform. In addition to increasing proteome diversity, many genes encoding novel transcripts gained an additional layer of regulation by microRNAs, often in a tissue-specific manner. We also demonstrate that the majority of genotype-specific alternative splicing can be genetically mapped, with cis-acting quantitative trait loci (QTLs) predominating. A large number of trans-acting QTLs were also apparent, with nearly half located in regions not shown to contain genes associated with splicing. Taken together, these results highlight the currently underappreciated role that alternative splicing plays in tissue identity and genotypic variation in maize. PMID:25248552

  7. The maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) genome encodes 33 members of the purple acid phosphatase family

    PubMed Central

    González-Muñoz, Eliécer; Avendaño-Vázquez, Aida-Odette; Montes, Ricardo A. Chávez; de Folter, Stefan; Andrés-Hernández, Liliana; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; Sawers, Ruairidh J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) play an important role in plant phosphorus nutrition, both by liberating phosphorus from organic sources in the soil and by modulating distribution within the plant throughout growth and development. Furthermore, members of the PAP protein family have been implicated in a broader role in plant mineral homeostasis, stress responses and development. We have identified 33 candidate PAP encoding gene models in the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) reference genome. The maize Pap family includes a clear single-copy ortholog of the Arabidopsis gene AtPAP26, shown previously to encode both major intracellular and secreted acid phosphatase activities. Certain groups of PAPs present in Arabidopsis, however, are absent in maize, while the maize family contains a number of expansions, including a distinct radiation not present in Arabidopsis. Analysis of RNA-sequencing based transcriptome data revealed accumulation of maize Pap transcripts in multiple plant tissues at multiple stages of development, and increased accumulation of specific transcripts under low phosphorus availability. These data suggest the maize PAP family as a whole to have broad significance throughout the plant life cycle, while highlighting potential functional specialization of individual family members. PMID:26042133

  8. Accumulation of 5-hydroxynorvaline in maize (Zea mays) leaves is induced by insect feeding and abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jian; Lipka, Alexander E; Schmelz, Eric A; Buckler, Edward S; Jander, Georg

    2015-02-01

    Plants produce a wide variety of defensive metabolites to protect themselves against herbivores and pathogens. Non-protein amino acids, which are present in many plant species, can have a defensive function through their mis-incorporation during protein synthesis and/or inhibition of biosynthetic pathways in primary metabolism. 5-Hydroxynorvaline was identified in a targeted search for previously unknown non-protein amino acids in the leaves of maize (Zea mays) inbred line B73. Accumulation of this compound increases during herbivory by aphids (Rhopalosiphum maidis, corn leaf aphid) and caterpillars (Spodoptera exigua, beet armyworm), as well as in response to treatment with the plant signalling molecules methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid and abscisic acid. In contrast, ethylene signalling reduced 5-hydroxynorvaline abundance. Drought stress induced 5-hydroxynorvaline accumulation to a higher level than insect feeding or treatment with defence signalling molecules. In field-grown plants, the 5-hydroxynorvaline concentration was highest in above-ground vegetative tissue, but it was also detectable in roots and dry seeds. When 5-hydroxynorvaline was added to aphid artificial diet at concentrations similar to those found in maize leaves and stems, R. maidis reproduction was reduced, indicating that this maize metabolite may have a defensive function. Among 27 tested maize inbred lines there was a greater than 10-fold range in the accumulation of foliar 5-hydroxynorvaline. Genetic mapping populations derived from a subset of these inbred lines were used to map quantitative trait loci for 5-hydroxynorvaline accumulation to maize chromosomes 5 and 7. PMID:25271262

  9. Enhancing the urea-N use efficiency in maize (Zea mays) cultivation on acid soils amended with zeolite and TSP.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Osumanu H; Hussin, Aminuddin; Ahmad, Husni M H; Rahim, Anuar A; Majid, Nik Muhamad Abd

    2008-01-01

    Ammonia loss significantly reduces the urea-N use efficiency in crop production. Efforts to reduce this problem are mostly laboratory oriented. This paper reports the effects of urea amended with triple superphosphate (TSP) and zeolite (Clinoptilolite) on soil pH, nitrate, exchangeable ammonium, dry matter production, N uptake, fresh cob production, and urea-N uptake efficiency in maize (Zea mays) cultivation on an acid soil in actual field conditions. Urea-amended TSP and zeolite treatments and urea only (urea without additives) did not have long-term effect on soil pH and accumulation of soil exchangeable ammonium and nitrate. Treatments with higher amounts of TSP and zeolite significantly increased the dry matter (stem and leaf) production of Swan (test crop). All the treatments had no significant effect on urea-N concentration in the leaf and stem of the test crop. In terms of urea-N uptake in the leaf and stem tissues of Swan, only the treatment with the highest amount of TSP and zeolite significantly increased urea-N uptake in the leaf of the test crop. Irrespective of treatment, fresh cob production was statistically not different. However, all the treatments with additives improved urea-N uptake efficiency compared to urea without additives or amendment. This suggests that urea amended with TSP and zeolite has a potential of reducing ammonia loss from surface-applied urea. PMID:18454247

  10. Comparative impact of genetically modified and non modified maize (Zea mays L.) on succeeding crop and associated weed.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Muhammad; Ahmed, Naseer; Ullah, Faizan; Shinwari, Zabta Khan; Bano, Asghari

    2016-04-01

    This research work documents the comparative impact of genetically modified (GM) (insect resistance) and non modified maize (Zea maysL.) on growth and germination of succeeding crop wheat (Triticum aestivumL.) and associated weed (Avena fatuaL.). The aqueous extracts of both the GM and non-GM maize exhibited higher phenolic content than that of methanolic extracts. Germination percentage and germination index of wheat was significantly decreased by GM methanolic extract (10%) as well as that of non-GM maize at 3% aqueous extract. Similarly germination percentage of weed (Avena fatuaL.) was significantly reduced by application of 3% and 5% methanolic GM extracts. All extracts of GM maize showed non-significant effect on the number of roots, root length and shoot length per plant but 5% and 10% methanolic extracts of non-GM maize significantly increased the number of roots per plant of wheat seedling. Similarly, 10% methanolic extract of GM maize significantly increased the number of roots per plant of weed seedling. Methanolic extracts of GM and non-GM maize (3% and 5%) significantly decreased the protease activity in wheat as compared to untreated control. PMID:24215059

  11. Expression Patterns of Genes Involved in Ascorbate-Glutathione Cycle in Aphid-Infested Maize (Zea mays L.) Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    Reduced forms of ascorbate (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) are among the most important non-enzymatic foliar antioxidants in maize (Zea mays L.). The survey was aimed to evaluate impact of bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) herbivory on expression of genes related to ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle in seedlings of six maize varieties (Ambrozja, Nana, Tasty Sweet, Touran, Waza, Złota Karłowa), differing in resistance to the cereal aphids. Relative expression of sixteen maize genes encoding isoenzymes of ascorbate peroxidase (APX1, APX2, APX3, APX4, APX5, APX6, APX7), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR1, MDHAR2, MDHAR3, MDHAR4), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR1, DHAR2, DHAR3) and glutathione reductase (GR1, GR2) was quantified. Furthermore, effect of hemipterans' attack on activity of APX, MDHAR, DHAR and GR enzymes, and the content of reduced and oxidized ascorbate and glutathione in maize plants were assessed. Seedling leaves of more resistant Z. mays varieties responded higher elevations in abundance of target transcripts. In addition, earlier and stronger aphid-triggered changes in activity of APX, MDHAR, DHAR and GR enzymes, and greater modulations in amount of the analyzed antioxidative metabolites were detected in foliar tissues of highly resistant Ambrozja genotype in relation to susceptible Tasty Sweet plants. PMID:26907270

  12. Application of image analysis techniques to evaluate the effect of urban residuals fertilization on corn (Zea mays) production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menesatti, P.; D'Andrea, S.; Socciarelli, S.

    2007-09-01

    The work focused the application of an image analysis technique to determine corn leaves morphology as objective indicator of the growth performance of corn (Zea mays) resulting from the urban residual fertilization. The analyses were related to six fertilization plots: original soil; chemical fertilizer (160 and 200 kg ha-1 of nitrogen); organic fertilizer (32 t ha-1) and two different doses of urban residues (sewage sludges) (7.5 and 22.5 t ha-1, this last amount corresponds to is the maximum level permitted from the Italian law in three year of fertilization). Those tests were realized by full randomized plots, with two three repetitions for each treatment. Measurements were performed for the first year of the trials in the period proximate to harvest (Rome, Italy - July 2000). Four plants for each plot were harvested and stripped of all leaves, whose RGB images were acquired by a digital photo camera (Kodak Ltd). Image analysis was performed first through the separation of RGB channels into single monochromatic 8-bit distribution, than the blue channel images, the most informative, were then submitted to enhancement, low pass filtering to reduce noise, threshold of binarization (based on statistical parameter affected on Gaussian grey levels distribution), binary morphology and object measurement. For ach single leaf the length, the width, the area were measured. The test results indicated positive and significant responses in relation between the crop growth (leaves area, length and width greater) and the different doses of urban residues (sewage sludges).

  13. Asymmetric Distribution of Glucose and Indole-3-Acetyl-myo-Inositol in Geostimulated Zea mays Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Momonoki, Yoshie S.

    1988-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol occurs in both the kernel and vegetative shoot of germinating Zea mays seedlings. The effect of a gravitational stimulus on the transport of [3H]-5-indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and [U-14C]-d-glucose from the kernel to the seedling shoot was studied. Both labeled glucose and labeled indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol become asymmetrically distributed in the mesocotyl cortex of the shoot with more radioactivity occurring in the bottom half of a horizontally placed seedling. Asymmetric distribution of [3H]indole-3-acetic acid, derived from the applied [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol, occurred more rapidly than distribution of total 3H-radioactivity. These findings demonstrate that the gravitational stimulus can induce an asymmetric distribution of substances being transported from kernel to shoot. They also indicate that, in addition to the transport asymmetry, gravity affects the steady state amount of indole-3-acetic acid derived from indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol. PMID:11537873

  14. Toxicity of methyl tert-butyl ether to plants (Avena sativa, Zea mays, Triticum aestivum, and Lactuca sativa).

    PubMed

    An, Youn-Joo; Kampbell, Donald H; McGill, Mary E

    2002-08-01

    Influence of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the germination of seeds and growth of seedling plants were studied in laboratory experiments. Test plants were wild oats (Avena sativa), sweet corn (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Seed germination, shoot growth, and root growth of plants exposed to different concentrations of MTBE in a moist soil were examined. Seed germination and seedling growth in MTBE-contaminated soil were markedly reduced in all test plants. The median lethal concentration values for seed germination tests and the median effective concentration values for shoot or root growth were calculated. The values for lettuce, wild oats, wheat, and sweet corn were in the range of 18 to 91, 362 to 459, 432 to 751, and 672 to 964 mg MTBE/kg soil as dry weight, respectively. Lettuce was most sensitive to MTBE, followed (in order of decreasing sensitivity) by wild oats, wheat, and sweet corn. Because MTBE can be readily absorbed by plants due to its high solubility in water, plant growth was a more sensitive endpoint than seed germination. Shoot length was more reduced in MTBE-contaminated soil than was the root length, which indicated that MTBE might be transported within the plant from the roots to the shoots. PMID:12152769

  15. Determination of chemical composition and genotoxic effects of essential oil obtained from Nepeta nuda on Zea mays seedlings.

    PubMed

    Bozari, Sedat; Agar, Guleray; Aksakal, Ozkan; Erturk, Filiz A; Yanmis, Derya

    2013-05-01

    We aimed to determine the genotoxic potential of essential oil (EO) obtained from Nepeta nuda. The chemical content of EO was measured via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The most abundant contents were 4aα,7β,7aα-nepetalactone (18.10%), germacrene (15.68%) and elemol (14.38%). For genotoxic effects of EO, Zea mays' seeds were exposed to four different concentrations of this oil. Inhibition of root and stem growth were observed with an increase in EO concentrations. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was used to determine the genotoxic effects of EO. Some changes occurred in RAPD profiles of germinated EO-treated seeds. Even though total soluble protein quantity vary, the data observed from the protein profiles of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed that there was a little differentiation between band profiles of treated samples and control group. We concluded that the basis of interactions between plants, like allelopathy, may be related with genotoxic effects of EO. PMID:22312034

  16. Studies on the growth and indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid content of Zea mays seedlings grown in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, A.; Jensen, P. J.; Desrosiers, M.; Buta, J. G.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements were made of the fresh weight, dry weight, dry weight-fresh weight ratio, free and conjugated indole-3-acetic acid, and free and conjugated abscisic acid in seedlings of Zea mays grown in darkness in microgravity and on earth. Imbibition of the dry kernels was 17 h prior to launch. Growth was for 5 d at ambient orbiter temperature and at a chronic accelerational force of the order of 3 x 10(-5) times earth gravity. Weights and hormone content of the microgravity seedlings were, with minor exceptions, not statistically different from seedlings grown in normal gravity. The tissues of the shuttle-grown plants appeared normal and the seedlings differed only in the lack of orientation of roots and shoots. These findings, based upon 5 d of growth in microgravity, cannot be extrapolated to growth in microgravity for weeks, months, and years, as might occur on a space station. Nonetheless, it is encouraging, for prospects of bioregeneration of the atmosphere and food production in a space station, that no pronounced differences in the parameters measured were apparent during the 5 d of plant seedling growth in microgravity.

  17. Isolation and Characterization of Fipronil Degrading Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Acinetobacter oleivorans from Rhizospheric Zone of Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Uniyal, Shivani; Paliwal, Rashmi; Verma, Megha; Sharma, R K; Rai, J P N

    2016-06-01

    An enrichment culture technique was used for the isolation of bacteria capable of utilizing fipronil as a sole source of carbon and energy. Based on morphological, biochemical characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequence, the bacterial strains were identified as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Acinetobacter oleivorans. Biodegradation experiments were conducted in loamy sand soil samples fortified with fipronil (50 µg kg(-1)) and inoculated with Acinetobacter sp. cells (45 × 10(7) CFU mL(-1)) for 90 days. Soil samples were periodically analyzed by gas liquid chromatography equipped with electron capture detector. Biodegradation of fipronil fitted well with the pseudo first-order kinetics, with rate constant value between 0.041 and 0.051 days(-1). In pot experiments, fipronil and its metabolites fipronil sulfide, fipronil sulfone and fipronil amide were found below quantifiable limit in soil and root, shoot and leaves of Zea mays. These results demonstrated that A. calcoaceticus and A. oleivorans may serve as promising strains in the bioremediation of fipronil-contaminated soils. PMID:27084098

  18. Unraveling the role of dark septate endophyte (DSE) colonizing maize (Zea mays) under cadmium stress: physiological, cytological and genic aspects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-ling; Li, Tao; Liu, Gao-yuan; Smith, Joshua M; Zhao, Zhi-wei

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that plant root-associated fungi such as dark septate endophytes (DSE) can help plants overcome many biotic and abiotic stresses, of great interest is DSE-plant metal tolerance and alleviation capabilities on contaminated soils. However, the tolerance and alleviation mechanisms involved have not yet been elucidated. In the current study, the regulation and physiological response of Zea mays to its root-associated DSE, Exophiala pisciphila was analyzed under increased soil Cd stress (0, 10, 50, 100 mg kg(-1)). Under Cd stress, DSE inoculation significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and low-molecular weight antioxidants, while also inducing increased Cd accumulation in the cell wall and conversion of Cd into inactive forms by shoot and root specific regulation of genes related to metal uptake, translocation and chelation. Our results showed that DSE colonization resulted in a marked tolerance to Cd, with a significant decrease in cadmium phytotoxicity and a significant increase in maize growth by triggering antioxidant systems, altering metal chemical forms into inactive Cd, and repartitioning subcellular Cd into the cell wall. These results provide comprehensive evidence for the mechanisms by which DSE colonization bioaugments Cd tolerance in maize at physiological, cytological and molecular levels. PMID:26911444

  19. Responses of Seed Germination, Seedling Growth, and Seed Yield Traits to Seed Pretreatment in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yu; Guan, Bo; Zhou, Daowei; Li, Guangdi; Lou, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA), NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P < 0.05). The recommended prime reagents were GA at 10 mg/L, NaCl at 50 mM, and PEG at 15% on account of germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50 mM), or PEG (15%) significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method. PMID:25093210

  20. Interactions between Fusarium verticillioides, Ustilago maydis, and Zea mays: an endophyte, a pathogen, and their shared plant host.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Estrada, Alma E; Jonkers, Wilfried; Kistler, H Corby; May, Georgiana

    2012-07-01

    Highly diverse communities of microbial symbionts occupy eukaryotic organisms, including plants. While many well-studied symbionts may be characterized as either parasites or as mutualists, the prevalent but cryptic endophytic fungi are less easily qualified because they do not cause observable symptoms of their presence within their host. Here, we investigate the interactions of an endophytic fungus, Fusarium verticillioides with a pathogen, Ustilago maydis, as they occur within maize (Zea mays). We used experimental inoculations to evaluate metabolic mechanisms by which these three organisms might interact. We assessed the impacts of fungal-fungal interactions on endophyte and pathogen growth within the plant, and on plant growth. We find that F. verticillioides modulates the growth of U. maydis and thus decreases the pathogen's aggressiveness toward the plant. With co-inoculation of the endophyte with the pathogen, plant growth is similar to that which would be gained without the pathogen present. However, the endophyte may also break down plant compounds that limit U. maydis growth, and obtains a growth benefit from the presence of the pathogen. Thus, an endophyte such as F. verticillioides may function as both a defensive mutualist and a parasite, and express nutritional modes that depend on ecological context. PMID:22587948

  1. Effects of host plant environment and Ustilago maydis infection on the fungal endophyte community of maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Pan, Jean J; Baumgarten, Andrew M; May, Georgiana

    2008-01-01

    The focus of many fungal endophyte studies has been how plants benefit from endophyte infection. Few studies have investigated the role of the host plant as an environment in shaping endophyte community diversity and composition. The effects that different attributes of the host plant, that is, host genetic variation, host variation in resistance to the fungal pathogen Ustilago maydis and U. maydis infection, have on the fungal endophyte communities in maize (Zea mays) was examined. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rDNA was sequenced to identify fungi and the endophyte communities were compared in six maize lines that varied in their resistance to U. maydis. It was found that host genetic variation, as determined by maize line, had significant effects on species richness, while the interactions between line and U. maydis infection and line and field plot had significant effects on endophyte community composition. However, the effects of maize line were not dependent on whether lines were resistant or susceptible to U. maydis. Almost 3000 clones obtained from 58 plants were sequenced to characterize the maize endophyte community. These results suggest that the endophyte community is shaped by complex interactions and factors, such as inoculum pool and microclimate, may be important. PMID:18194146

  2. Improved tolerance of maize (Zea mays L.) to heavy metals by colonization of a dark septate endophyte (DSE) Exophiala pisciphila.

    PubMed

    Li, T; Liu, M J; Zhang, X T; Zhang, H B; Sha, T; Zhao, Z W

    2011-02-15

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are ubiquitous and abundant in stressful environments including heavy metal (HM) stress. However, our knowledge about the roles of DSE in improving HM tolerance of their host plants is poor. In this study, maize (Zea mays L.) was inoculated with a HM tolerant DSE strain Exophiala pisciphila H93 in lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) contaminated soils. E. pisciphila H93 successfully colonized and formed typical DSE structures in the inoculated maize roots. Colonization of E. pisciphila H93 alleviated the deleterious effects of excessive HM supplements and promoted the growth of maize (roots and shoots) under HM stress conditions, though it significantly decreased the biomass of inoculated maize under no HM stress. Further analysis showed that the colonization of E. pisciphila H93 improved the tolerance of maize to HM by restricting the translocation of HM ions from roots to shoots. This study demonstrated that under higher HM stress, such a mutual symbiosis between E. pisciphila and its host (maize) may be an efficient strategy to survive in the stressful environments. PMID:21195456

  3. Arsenic species in broiler (Gallus gallus domesticus) litter, soils, maize (Zea mays L.), and groundwater from litter-amended fields.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Elisa; Zeigler, Georgia; Beck, E Glenn; Grove, John; Sikora, Frank

    2012-11-01

    Manure and bedding material (litter) generated by the broiler industry (Gallus gallus domesticus) often contain high levels of arsenic (As) when organoarsenical roxarsone and p-arsanilic acid are included in feed to combat disease and improve weight gain of the birds. This study was conducted to determine As levels and species in litter from three major broiler producing companies, and As levels in soils, corn tissue (Zea mays L.), and groundwater in fields where litter was applied. Total As in litter from the three different integrators ranged between <1 and 44 mg kg(-1). Between 15 and 20% of total As in litter consisted of mostly of arsenate, with smaller amounts of roxarsone and several transformation products that were extractable with phosphate buffer. Soils amended with litter had higher levels of bioavailable As (extractable with Mehlich 3 solution and taken up by corn leaves). Arsenic concentrations in plant tissue and groundwater, however, were below the World Health Organization thresholds, which was attributed to strong sorption/precipitation of arsenate in Fe- and Al-rich soils. Ecological impacts of amending soils with As-laden litter depend on the As species in the litter, and chemical and physical properties of soil that strongly affect As mobility and bioavailability in the environment. PMID:23010102

  4. Cloning and expression of the VHDL receptor from fat body of the corn ear worm, Helicoverpa zea.

    PubMed

    Persaud, Deryck R; Haunerland, Norbert H

    2004-01-01

    In Noctuids, storage proteins are taken up into fat body by receptor-mediated endocytosis. These include arylphorin and a second, structurally unrelated very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL). Previously, we have isolated a single storage protein receptor from the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, which binds both VHDL and arylphorin. The receptor protein is a basic, N-terminally blocked, approximately 80 kDa protein that is associated with fat body membranes. Microsequencing of proteolytic fragments of the isolated receptor protein revealed internal sequences that were used to clone the complete cDNA of the VHDL receptor by 3' and 5' RACE techniques. The receptor protein, when expressed in vitro via a suitable insect expression vector, reacted with antibodies against the native VHDL receptor and bound strongly to its ligand VHDL, thus confirming that the cloned cDNA represents indeed the previously purified VHDL receptor. The receptor protein and a second, similar protein also found associated with the fat body membrane show considerable homology to putative basic juvenile hormone suppressible proteins cloned previously from other Noctuid species. Sequence analysis revealed that the receptor is likely a peripheral membrane protein that may mediate the selective uptake of VHDL. PMID:15861222

  5. Metabolism and Biological Activity of Gibberellin A4 in Vegetative Shoots of Zea mays, Oryza sativa, and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, M.; Gaskin, P.; Spray, C. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Phinney, B. O.; MacMillan, J.

    1993-01-01

    [17-13C,3H]Gibberellin A4 (GA4) was injected into the shoots of tall (W23/L317), dwarf-1 (d1), and dwarf-5 (d5) Zea mays L. (maize); tall (cv Nipponbare), dwarf-x (dx), and dwarf-y (dy) Oryza sativa L. (rice); and tall (ecotype Landsberg erecta), ga4, and ga5 Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. [13C]GA4 and its metabolites were identified from the shoots by full-scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and Kovats retention indices. GA4 was metabolized to GA1 in all nine genotypes. GA4 was also metabolized in some of the genotypes to 3-epi-GA1, GA2, 2[beta]-OH-GA2, 3-epi-GA2, endo-GA4, 16[alpha], 17-H2-16, 17-(OH)2-GA4, GA34, endo-GA34, GA58, 15-epi-GA63, GA71, and 16-epi-GA82. No evidence was found for the metabolism of GA4 to GA7 or of GA4 to GA3. The bioactivities of GA4 and GA1 were determined using the six dwarf mutants for assay. GA4 and GA1 had similar activities for the maize and rice mutants. For the Arabidopsis mutants, GA4 was more active than GA1 at low dosages; GA4 was less active than GA1 at higher dosages. PMID:12231829

  6. Phosphorus and Compost Management Influence Maize (Zea mays) Productivity Under Semiarid Condition with and without Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Amanullah

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) unavailability and lack of organic matter in the soils under semiarid climates are the two major constraints for low crop productivity. Field trial was conducted to study the effects of P levels, compost application times and seed inoculation with phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) on the yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays L., cv. Azam). The experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Research Farm of The University of Agriculture Peshawar-Pakistan during summer 2014. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement using three replications. The two PSB levels [(1) inoculated seed with PSB (+) and (2) seed not inoculated with PSB (- or control)] and three compost application times (30, 15, and 0 days before sowing) combination (six treatments) were used as main plot factor, while four P levels (25, 50, 75, and 100 kg P ha-1) used as subplot factor. The results confirmed that compost applied at sowing time and P applied at the two higher rates (75 and 100 kg P ha-1) had significantly increased yield and yield components of maize under semiarid condition. Maize seed inoculated with PSB (+) had tremendously increased yield and yield components of maize over PSB-control plots (-) under semiarid condition. PMID:26697038

  7. Environmental materials for remediation of soils contaminated with lead and cadmium using maize (Zea mays L.) growth as a bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yu; Huang, Zhanbin; Liu, Xiujie; Imran, Suheryani; Peng, Licheng; Dai, Rongji; Deng, Yulin

    2016-04-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a severe environmental problem. Remediation of contaminated soils can be accomplished using environmental materials that are low cost and environmentally friendly. We evaluated the individual and combination effects of humic acid (HA), super absorbent polymer (SAP), zeolite (ZE), and fly ash composites (FC) on immobilization of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in contaminated soils. We also investigated long-term practical approaches for remediation of heavy metal pollution in soil. The biochemical and morphological properties of maize (Zea mays L.) were selected as biomarkers to assess the effects of environmental materials on heavy metal immobilization. The results showed that addition of test materials to soil effectively reduced heavy metal accumulation in maize foliage, improving chlorophyll levels, plant growth, and antioxidant enzyme activity. The test materials reduced heavy metal injury to maize throughout the growth period. A synergistic effect from combinations of different materials on immobilization of Pb and Cd was determined based on the reduction of morphological and biochemical injuries to maize. The combination of zeolite and humic acid was especially effective. Treatment with a combination of HA + SAP + ZE + FC was superior for remediation of soils contaminated with high levels of Pb and Cd. PMID:26604199

  8. Recovery of maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds and hybrids from chilling stress of various duration: photosynthesis and antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Holá, Dana; Kocová, Marie; Rothová, Olga; Wilhelmová, Nad'a; Benesová, Monika

    2007-07-01

    The differences between two maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines and their F1 hybrids in their response to chilling periods of various duration (1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks) and subsequent return to optimum temperatures were analysed by the measurement of the photosystem (PS) 1 and 2 activity, the photosynthetic pigments' content and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The PS2 activity and the chlorophyll content decreased in plants subjected to 3 or 4 weeks of chilling, but not in those subjected to 1 or 2 weeks of chilling. This decrease was more pronounced in inbreds compared to their hybrids. The activity of superoxide dismutase did not much change with the increasing length of chilling period in the inbreds but decreased in the hybrids, the glutathione reductase activity increased in both types of genotypes but more in the inbred lines, while for ascorbate peroxidase and catalase the changes in parents-hybrids relationship did not show any specific trend. The PS1 activity and the carotenoids' content was not much affected. PMID:16884820

  9. The effect of triazole induced photosynthetic pigments and biochemical constituents of Zea mays L. (Maize) under drought stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajasekar, Mahalingam; Rabert, Gabriel Amalan; Manivannan, Paramasivam

    2016-06-01

    In this investigation, pot culture experiment was carried out to estimate the ameliorating effect of triazole compounds, namely Triadimefon (TDM), Tebuconazole (TBZ), and Propiconazole (PCZ) on drought stress, photosynthetic pigments, and biochemical constituents of Zea mays L. (Maize). From 30 days after sowing (DAS), the plants were subjected to 4 days interval drought (DID) stress and drought with TDM at 15 mg l-1, TBZ at 10 mg l-1, and PCZ at 15 mg l-1. Irrigation at 1-day interval was kept as control. Irrigation performed on alternative day. The plant samples were collected on 40, 50, and 60 DAS and separated into root, stem, and leaf for estimating the photosynthetic pigments and biochemical constituents. Drought and drought with triazole compounds treatment increased the biochemical glycine betaine content, whereas the protein and the pigments contents chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, and anthocyanin decreased when compared to control. The triazole treatment mitigated the adverse effects of drought stress by increasing the biochemical potentials and paved the way to overcome drought stress in corn plant.

  10. Pre-treatment of seeds with static magnetic field ameliorates soil water stress in seedlings of maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Anand, Anjali; Nagarajan, Shantha; Verma, A P S; Joshi, D K; Pathak, P C; Bhardwaj, Jyotsna

    2012-02-01

    The effect of magnetic field (MF) treatments of maize (Zea mays L.) var. Ganga Safed 2 seeds on the growth, leaf water status, photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme system under soil water stress was investigated under greenhouse conditions. The seeds were exposed to static MFs of 100 and 200 mT for 2 and 1 h, respectively. The treated seeds were sown in sand beds for seven days and transplanted in pots that were maintained at -0.03, -0.2 and -0.4 MPa soil water potentials under greenhouse conditions. MF exposure of seeds significantly enhanced all growth parameters, compared to the control seedlings. The significant increase in root parameters in seedlings from magnetically-exposed seeds resulted in maintenance of better leaf water status in terms of increase in leaf water potential, turgor potential and relative water content. Photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and chlorophyll content increased in plants from treated seeds, compared to control under irrigated and mild stress condition. Leaves from plants of magnetically-treated seeds showed decreased levels of hydrogen peroxide and antioxidant defense system enzymes (peroxidases, catalase and superoxide dismutase) under moisture stress conditions, when compared with untreated controls. Mild stress of -0.2 MPa induced a stimulating effect on functional root parameters, especially in 200 mT treated seedlings which can be exploited profitably for rain fed conditions. Our results suggested that MF treatment (100 mT for 2 h and 200 for 1 h) of maize seeds enhanced the seedling growth, leaf water status, photosynthesis rate and lowered the antioxidant defense system of seedlings under soil water stress. Thus, pre sowing static magnetic field treatment of seeds can be effectively used for improving growth under water stress. PMID:22435146

  11. Compost and Crude Humic Substances Produced from Selected Wastes and Their Effects on Zea mays L. Nutrient Uptake and Growth

    PubMed Central

    Palanivell, Perumal; Susilawati, Kasim; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad

    2013-01-01

    Production of agriculture and timber commodities leads generation of enormous quantity of wastes. Improper disposal of these agroindustrial wastes pollutes the environment. This problem could be reduced by adding value to them. Therefore, a study was carried out to analyse and compare the nutrients content of RS, RH, SD, and EFB of composts and crude humic substances; furthermore, their effect on growth, dry matter production, and nutrient uptake for Zea mays L., and selected soil chemical properties were evaluated. Standard procedures were used to analyze humic acids (HA), crude fulvic acids (CFA), crude humin (CH), soil, dry matter production and nutrient uptake. Sawdust and RS compost matured at 42 and 47 days, respectively, while RH and EFB composts were less matured at 49th day of composting. Rice straw compost had higher ash, N, P, CEC, HA, K, and Fe contents with lower organic matter, total organic carbon, and C/N and C/P ratios. The HA of sawdust compost showed higher carbon, carboxylic, K, and Ca contents compared to those of RS, RH, and EFB. Crude FA of RS compost showed highest pH, total K, Ca, Mg, and Na contents. Crude humin from RS compost had higher contents of ash, N, P, and CEC. Rice straw was superior in compost, CFA, and CH, while sawdust compost was superior in HA. Application of sawdust compost significantly increased maize plants' diameter, height, dry matter production, N, P, and cations uptake. It also reduced N, P, and K based chemical fertilizer use by 90%. Application of CH and the composts evaluated in this study could be used as an alternative for chemical fertilizers in maize cultivation. PMID:24319353

  12. Location of transported auxin in etiolated maize shoots using 5-azidoindole-3-acetic acid. [Zea mays L

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, A.M. )

    1990-07-01

    A study was undertaken using the photoaffinity labeling agent, tritiated 5-azidoindole-3-acetic acid (({sup 3}H),5-N{sub 3}IAA), to identify cells in the etiolated maize (Zea mays L.) shoot which transport auxin. Transport of ({sup 3}H),5-N{sub 3}IAA was shown to be polar, inhibited by 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and essentially freely mobile. There was no detectable radiodecomposition of ({sup 3}H),5-N{sub 3}IAA within tissue kept in darkness for 4 hours. Shoot tissue which had taken up ({sup 3}H),5-N{sub 3}IAA was irradiated with ultraviolet light to covalently fix the photoaffinity labeling agent within cells that contained it at the time of photolysis. Subsequent microautoradiography showed that all cells contained radioactivity; however, the amount of radioactivity varied among different cell types. Epidermal cells contained the most radioactivity per area, approximately twofold more than other cells. Parenchyma cells in the mature stelar region contained the next largest amount and cortical cells, sieve tube cells, tracheary cells, and all cells in the leaf base contained the least amount of the radioactive label. Two observations suggest that the auxin within the epidermal cells is transported in a polar manner: (a) the amount of auxin in the epidermal cells is greatly reduced in the presence of TIBA, and (b) auxin accumulates on the apical side of a wound in the epidermis and is absent on the basal side. While these results indicate that auxin in the epidermis is polarly transported, this tissue cannot be the only pathway since the epidermis is only a small fraction of the shoot volume.

  13. Effect of minimum tillage and mulching on maize ( Zea mays L.) yield and water content of clayey and sandy soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mupangwa, Walter; Twomlow, Steve; Walker, Sue; Hove, Lewis

    Rainfed smallholder agriculture in semi-arid areas of southern Africa is subject to numerous constraints. These include low rainfall with high spatial and temporal variability, and significant loss of soil water through evaporation. An experiment was established at Matopos Research Station, Zimbabwe, to determine the effect of mulching and minimum tillage on maize ( Zea mays L.) yield and soil water content. The experiment was run for two years at two sites: clay (Matopos Research Station fields) and sand (Lucydale fields) soils, in a 7 × 3 factorial combination of mulch rates (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 10 t ha -1) and tillage methods (planting basins, ripper tine and conventional plough). Each treatment was replicated three times at each site in a split plot design. Maize residue was applied as mulch before tillage operations. Two maize varieties, a hybrid (SC 403) and an open pollinated variety (ZM 421), were planted. Maize yield and soil water content (0-30 and 30-60 cm depth) were measured under each treatment. On both soil types, neither mulching nor tillage method had a significant effect on maize grain yield. Tillage methods significantly influenced stover production with planting basins giving the highest stover yield (1.1 t ha -1) on sandy soil and conventional ploughing giving 3.6 t ha -1 on clay soil during the first season. The three tillage methods had no significant effect on seasonal soil water content, although planting basins collected more rainwater during the first half of the cropping period. Mulching improved soil water content in both soil types with maximum benefits observed at 4 t ha -1 of mulch. We conclude that, in the short term, minimum tillage on its own, or in combination with mulching, performs as well as the farmers’ traditional practices of overall ploughing.

  14. Effects of ethylene on the kinetics of curvature and auxin redistribution in gravistimulated roots of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. S.; Evans, M. L.

    1990-01-01

    We tested the involvement of ethylene in maize (Zea mays L.) root gravitropism by measuring the kinetics of curvature and lateral auxin movement in roots treated with ethylene, inhibitors of ethylene synthesis, or inhibitors of ethylene action. In the presence of ethylene the latent period of gravitropic curvature appeared to be increased somewhat. However, ethylene-treated roots continued to curve after control roots had reached their final angle of curvature. Consequently, maximum curvature in the presence of ethylene was much greater in ethylene-treated roots than in controls. Inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis or action had effects on the kinetics of curvature opposite to that of ethylene, i.e. the latent period appeared to be shortened somewhat while total curvature was reduced relative to that of controls. Label from applied 3H-indole-3-acetic acid was preferentially transported toward the lower side of stimulated roots. In parallel with effects on curvature, ethylene treatment delayed the development of gravity-induced asymmetric auxin movement across the root but extended its duration once initiated. The auxin transport inhibitor, 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid reduced both gravitropic curvature and the effect of ethylene on curvature. Since neither ethylene nor inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis or action prevented curvature, we conclude that ethylene does not mediate the primary differential growth response causing curvature. Because ethylene affects curvature and auxin transport in parallel, we suggest that ethylene modifies curvature by affecting gravity-induced lateral transport of auxin, perhaps by interfering with adaptation of the auxin transport system to the gravistimulus.

  15. An 11-bp Insertion in Zea mays fatb Reduces the Palmitic Acid Content of Fatty Acids in Maize Grain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Yang, Xiaohong; Zheng, Debo; Warburton, Marilyn; Chai, Yuchao; Zhang, Pan; Guo, Yuqiu; Yan, Jianbing; Li, Jiansheng

    2011-01-01

    The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in maize kernels strongly impacts human and livestock health, but is a complex trait that is difficult to select based on phenotype. Map-based cloning of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is a powerful but time-consuming method for the dissection of complex traits. Here, we combine linkage and association analyses to fine map QTL-Pal9, a QTL influencing levels of palmitic acid, an important class of saturated fatty acid. QTL-Pal9 was mapped to a 90-kb region, in which we identified a candidate gene, Zea mays fatb (Zmfatb), which encodes acyl-ACP thioesterase. An 11-bp insertion in the last exon of Zmfatb decreases palmitic acid content and concentration, leading to an optimization of the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids while having no effect on total oil content. We used three-dimensional structure analysis to explain the functional mechanism of the ZmFATB protein and confirmed the proposed model in vitro and in vivo. We measured the genetic effect of the functional site in 15 different genetic backgrounds and found a maximum change of 4.57 mg/g palmitic acid content, which accounts for ∼20–60% of the variation in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. A PCR-based marker for QTL-Pal9 was developed for marker-assisted selection of nutritionally healthier maize lines. The method presented here provides a new, efficient way to clone QTL, and the cloned palmitic acid QTL sheds lights on the genetic mechanism of oil biosynthesis and targeted maize molecular breeding. PMID:21931818

  16. Uptake and effects of a mixture of widely used therapeutic drugs in Eruca sativa L. and Zea mays L. plants.

    PubMed

    Marsoni, Milena; De Mattia, Fabrizio; Labra, Massimo; Bruno, Antonia; Bruno, Antonella; Bracale, Marcella; Vannini, Candida

    2014-10-01

    Pharmaceutically active compounds (PACs) are continuously dispersed into the environment due to human and veterinary use, giving rise to their potential accumulation in edible plants. In this study, Eruca sativa L. and Zea mays L. were selected to determine the potential uptake and accumulation of eight different PACs (Salbutamol, Atenolol, Lincomycin, Cyclophosphamide, Carbamazepine, Bezafibrate, Ofloxacin and Ranitidine) designed for human use. To mimic environmental conditions, the plants were grown in pots and irrigated with water spiked with a mixture of PACs at concentrations found in Italian wastewaters and rivers. Moreover, 10× and 100× concentrations of these pharmaceuticals were also tested. The presence of the pharmaceuticals was tested in the edible parts of the plants, namely leaves for E. sativa and grains for Z. mays. Quantification was performed by liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy (LC/MS/MS). In the grains of 100× treated Z. mays, only atenolol, lincomycin and carbamazepine were above the limit of detection (LOD). At the same concentration in E. sativa plants the uptake of all PACs was >LOD. Lincomycin and oflaxacin were above the limit of quantitation in all conditions tested in E. sativa. The results suggest that uptake of some pharmaceuticals from the soil may indeed be a potential transport route to plants and that these environmental pollutants can reach different edible parts of the selected crops. Measurements of the concentrations of these pharmaceuticals in plant materials were used to model potential adult human exposure to these compounds. The results indicate that under the current experimental conditions, crops exposed to the selected pharmaceutical mixture would not have any negative effects on human health. Moreover, no significant differences in the growth of E. sativa or Z. mays plants irrigated with PAC-spiked vs. non-spiked water were observed. PMID:25042244

  17. Utilization of glycine and serine as nitrogen sources in the roots of Zea mays and Chamaegigas intrepidus.

    PubMed

    Hartung, W; Ratcliffe, R G

    2002-12-01

    Glycine and serine are potential sources of nitrogen for the aquatic resurrection plant Chamaegigas intrepidus Dinter in the rock pools that provide its natural habitat. The pathways by which these amino acids might be utilized were investigated by incubating C. intrepidus roots and maize (Zea mays) root tips with [(15)N]glycine, [(15)N]serine and [2-(13)C]glycine. The metabolic fate of the label was followed using in vivo NMR spectroscopy, and the results were consistent with the involvement of the glycine decarboxylase complex (GDC) and serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) in the utilization of glycine. In contrast, the labelling patterns provided no evidence for the involvement of serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase in the metabolism of glycine by the root tissues. The key observations were: (i) the release of [(15)N]ammonium during [(15)N]-labelling experiments; and (ii) the detection of a characteristic set of serine isotopomers in the [2-(13)C]glycine experiments. The effects of aminoacetonitrile, amino-oxyacetate, and isonicotinic acid hydrazide, all of which inhibit GDC and SHMT to some extent, and of methionine sulphoximine, which inhibited the reassimilation of the ammonium, supported the conclusion that GDC and SHMT were essential for the metabolism of glycine. C. intrepidus was observed to metabolize serine more readily than the maize root tips and this may be an adaptation to its nitrogen-deficient habitat. Overall, the results support the emerging view that GDC is an essential component of glycine catabolism in non-photosynthetic tissues. PMID:12432023

  18. Development of neuropeptide analogs capable of traversing the integument: A case study using diapause hormone analogs in Helicoverpa zea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qirui; Nachman, Ronald J; Kaczmarek, Krzysztof; Kierus, Krzysztof; Zabrocki, Janusz; Denlinger, David L

    2015-12-01

    Diapause hormone and its analogs terminate pupal diapause in Helicoverpa zea when injected, but if such agents are to be used as effective diapause disruptors it will be essential to develop simple techniques for administering active compounds that can exert their effect by penetrating the insect epidermis. In the current study, we used two molecules previously shown to have high diapause-terminating activity as lead molecules to rationally design and synthesize new amphiphilic compounds with modified hydrophobic components. An assay for diapause termination identified 13 active compounds with EC50's ranging from 0.9 to 46.0 pmol per pupa. Three compounds, Decyl-1963, Dodecyl-1967, and Heptyl-1965, selected from the 13 compounds most active in breaking diapause following injection, also successfully prevented newly-formed pupae from entering diapause when applied topically. These compounds feature straight-chain, aliphatic hydrocarbons from 7 to 12 carbons in length; DH analogs with either a short-chain length of 4 or an aromatic phenethyl group failed to act topically. Compared to a high diapause incidence of 80-90% in controls, diapause incidence in pupae receiving a 10 nmole topical application of Decyl-1963, Dodecyl-1967, or Heptyl-1965 dropped to 30-45%. Decyl-1963 and Dodecyl-1967 also remained effective when topically applied at the 1 nmole level. These results suggest the feasibility of developing DH agonists that can be applied topically and suggest the identity of new lead molecules for development of additional topically-active DH analogs. The ability to penetrate the insect epidermis and/or midgut lining is critical if such agents are to be considered for future use as pest management tools. PMID:25753318

  19. Compost and crude humic substances produced from selected wastes and their effects on Zea mays L. nutrient uptake and growth.

    PubMed

    Palanivell, Perumal; Susilawati, Kasim; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad

    2013-01-01

    Production of agriculture and timber commodities leads generation of enormous quantity of wastes. Improper disposal of these agroindustrial wastes pollutes the environment. This problem could be reduced by adding value to them. Therefore, a study was carried out to analyse and compare the nutrients content of RS, RH, SD, and EFB of composts and crude humic substances; furthermore, their effect on growth, dry matter production, and nutrient uptake for Zea mays L., and selected soil chemical properties were evaluated. Standard procedures were used to analyze humic acids (HA), crude fulvic acids (CFA), crude humin (CH), soil, dry matter production and nutrient uptake. Sawdust and RS compost matured at 42 and 47 days, respectively, while RH and EFB composts were less matured at 49th day of composting. Rice straw compost had higher ash, N, P, CEC, HA, K, and Fe contents with lower organic matter, total organic carbon, and C/N and C/P ratios. The HA of sawdust compost showed higher carbon, carboxylic, K, and Ca contents compared to those of RS, RH, and EFB. Crude FA of RS compost showed highest pH, total K, Ca, Mg, and Na contents. Crude humin from RS compost had higher contents of ash, N, P, and CEC. Rice straw was superior in compost, CFA, and CH, while sawdust compost was superior in HA. Application of sawdust compost significantly increased maize plants' diameter, height, dry matter production, N, P, and cations uptake. It also reduced N, P, and K based chemical fertilizer use by 90%. Application of CH and the composts evaluated in this study could be used as an alternative for chemical fertilizers in maize cultivation. PMID:24319353

  20. Deliberate ROS production and auxin synergistically trigger the asymmetrical division generating the subsidiary cells in Zea mays stomatal complexes.

    PubMed

    Livanos, Pantelis; Galatis, Basil; Apostolakos, Panagiotis

    2016-07-01

    Subsidiary cell generation in Poaceae is an outstanding example of local intercellular stimulation. An inductive stimulus emanates from the guard cell mother cells (GMCs) towards their laterally adjacent subsidiary cell mother cells (SMCs) and triggers the asymmetrical division of the latter. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) immunolocalization in Zea mays protoderm confirmed that the GMCs function as local sources of auxin and revealed that auxin is polarly accumulated between GMCs and SMCs in a timely-dependent manner. Besides, staining techniques showed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) exhibit a closely similar, also time-dependent, pattern of appearance suggesting ROS implication in subsidiary cell formation. This phenomenon was further investigated by using the specific NADPH-oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium, the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine, menadione which leads to ROS overproduction, and H2O2. Treatments with diphenylene iodonium, N-acetyl-cysteine, and menadione specifically blocked SMC polarization and asymmetrical division. In contrast, H2O2 promoted the establishment of SMC polarity and subsequently subsidiary cell formation in "younger" protodermal areas. Surprisingly, H2O2 favored the asymmetrical division of the intervening cells of the stomatal rows leading to the creation of extra apical subsidiary cells. Moreover, H2O2 altered IAA localization, whereas synthetic auxin analogue 1-napthaleneacetic acid enhanced ROS accumulation. Combined treatments with ROS modulators along with 1-napthaleneacetic acid or 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, an auxin efflux inhibitor, confirmed the crosstalk between ROS and auxin functioning during subsidiary cell generation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that ROS are critical partners of auxin during development of Z. mays stomatal complexes. The interplay between auxin and ROS seems to be spatially and temporarily regulated. PMID:26250135

  1. Cadmium toxicity in Maize (Zea mays L.): consequences on antioxidative systems, reactive oxygen species and cadmium accumulation.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Tanveer, Mohsin; Hussain, Saddam; Bao, Mingchen; Wang, Longchang; Khan, Imran; Ullah, Ehsan; Tung, Shahbaz Atta; Samad, Rana Abdul; Shahzad, Babar

    2015-11-01

    Increased cadmium (Cd) accumulation in soils has led to tremendous environmental problems, with pronounced effects on agricultural productivity. Present study investigated the effects of Cd stress imposed at various concentrations (0, 75, 150, 225, 300, 375 μM) on antioxidant activities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), Cd accumulation, and productivity of two maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars viz., Run Nong 35 and Wan Dan 13. Considerable variations in Cd accumulation and in behavior of antioxidants and ROS were observed under Cd stress in both maize cultivars, and such variations governed by Cd were concentration dependent. Exposure of plant to Cd stress considerably increased Cd concentration in all plant parts particularly in roots. Wan Dan 13 accumulated relatively higher Cd in root, stem, and leaves than Run Nong 35; however, in seeds, Run Nong 35 recorded higher Cd accumulation. All the Cd toxicity levels starting from 75 μM enhanced H2O2 and MDA concentrations and triggered electrolyte leakage in leaves of both cultivars, and such an increment was more in Run Nong 35. The ROS were scavenged by the enhanced activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione peroxidase in response to Cd stress, and these antioxidant activities were higher in Wan Dan 13 compared with Run Nong 35 at all Cd toxicity levels. The grain yield of maize was considerably reduced particularly for Run Nong 35 under different Cd toxicity levels as compared with control. The Wan Dan 13 was better able to alleviate Cd-induced oxidative damage which was attributed to more Cd accumulation in roots and higher antioxidant activities in this cultivar, suggesting that manipulation of these antioxidants and enhancing Cd accumulation in roots may lead to improvement in Cd stress tolerance. PMID:26122572

  2. Greenhouse gas fluxes from an irrigated sweet corn (Zea mays L.)-potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) rotation.

    PubMed

    Haile-Mariam, S; Collins, H P; Higgins, S S

    2008-01-01

    Intensive agriculture and increased N fertilizer use have contributed to elevated emissions of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O). In this study, the exchange of CO(2), N(2)O, and CH(4) between a Quincy fine sand (mixed, mesic Xeric Torripsamments) soil and atmosphere was measured in a sweet corn (Zea mays L.)-sweet corn-potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) rotation during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons under irrigation in eastern Washington. Gas samples were collected using static chambers installed in the second-year sweet corn and potato plots under conventional tillage or reduced tillage. Total emissions of CO(2)-C from sweet corn integrated over the season were 2071 and 1684 kg CO(2)-C ha(-1) for the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons, respectively. For the same period, CO(2) emissions from potato plots were 1571 and 1256 kg of CO(2)-C ha(-1). Cumulative CO(2) fluxes from sweet corn and potato fields were 17 and 13 times higher, respectively, than adjacent non-irrigated, native shrub steppe vegetation (NV). Nitrous oxide losses accounted for 0.5% (0.55 kg N ha(-1)) of the applied fertilizer (112 kg N ha(-1)) in corn and 0.3% (0.59 kg N ha(-1)) of the 224 kg N ha(-1) applied fertilizer. Sweet corn and potato plots, on average, absorbed 1.7 g CH(4)-C ha(-1) d(-1) and 2.3 g CH(4)-C ha(-1) d(-1), respectively. The global warming potential contributions from NV, corn, and potato fields were 459, 7843, and 6028 kg CO(2)-equivalents ha(-1), respectively, for the 2005 growing season and were 14% lower in 2006. PMID:18453396

  3. Uptake and Metabolic Fate of Glucose, Arabinose, and Xylose by Zea mays Coleoptiles in Relation to Cell Wall Synthesis 1

    PubMed Central

    Carpita, Nicholas C.; Brown, Ronald A.; Weller, Kathleen M.

    1982-01-01

    According to the acid-growth hypothesis, auxin-induced secretion of hydrogen ions activate “wall loosening” enzymes that change the rheological properties of the cell wall. The wall loosening process may yield monosaccharides by the enzymic cleavage of load-bearing polysaccharides. Our study was initiated to determine the metabolic fate of such sugars when released from the major hemicellulosic polysaccharides of the cell walls of Zea mays coleoptiles. Excised coleoptile sections accumulated radioactive glucose, arabinose, and xylose supplied in an incubation medium, and the radioactivity from these sugars was incorporated into polysaccharides. At least 50% of the radioactivity from glucose accumulated in the soluble neutral sugar fraction regardless of external concentrations. The distribution of radioactivity from xylose into all subcellular fractions was similar to that from glucose, indicating that xylose was converted to glucose before being used by the coleoptile. IAA increased the incorporation of glucose into cell wall polysaccharide and neutral sugar pools when the exogenous concentration was higher than 1 millimolar. Over 80% of the radioactivity from arabinose accumulated by the coleoptile sections was incorporated into soluble and noncellulosic polymers; IAA induced an increase in the incorporation of arabinose into noncellulosic polymers by 22%. Accumulation of radioactivity from arabinose into polysaccharide was enhanced by IAA at concentrations of exogenous arabinose up to 33 millimolar. IAA promoted the incorporation of both arabinose and glucose into cell wall polysaccharides even when elongation was inhibited by CaCl2, indicating that the influence of IAA was not a consequence of the growth response. PMID:16662366

  4. Zea mays Taxilin protein negatively regulates opaque-2 transcriptional activity by causing a change in its sub-cellular distribution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Qiao, Zhenyi; Liang, Zheng; Mei, Bing; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2012-01-01

    Zea mays (maize) Opaque-2 (ZmO2) protein is an important bZIP transcription factor that regulates the expression of major storage proteins (22-kD zeins) and other important genes during maize seed development. ZmO2 is subject to functional regulation through protein-protein interactions. To unveil the potential regulatory network associated with ZmO2, a protein-protein interaction study was carried out using the truncated version of ZmO2 (O2-2) as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen with a maize seed cDNA library. A protein with homology to Taxilin was found to have stable interaction with ZmO2 in yeast and was designated as ZmTaxilin. Sequence analysis indicated that ZmTaxilin has a long coiled-coil domain containing three conserved zipper motifs. Each of the three zipper motifs is individually able to interact with ZmO2 in yeast. A GST pull-down assay demonstrated the interaction between GST-fused ZmTaxilin and ZmO2 extracted from developing maize seeds. Using onion epidermal cells as in vivo assay system, we found that ZmTaxilin could change the sub-cellular distribution of ZmO2. We also demonstrated that this change significantly repressed the transcriptional activity of ZmO2 on the 22-kD zein promoter. Our study suggests that a Taxilin-mediated change in sub-cellular distribution of ZmO2 may have important functional consequences for ZmO2 activity. PMID:22937104

  5. Elizabethkingia endophytica sp. nov., isolated from Zea mays and emended description of Elizabethkingia anophelisKämpfer et al. 2011.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, Peter; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; McInroy, John A; Glaeser, Stefanie P

    2015-07-01

    A slightly yellow bacterial strain (JM-87(T)), isolated from the stem of healthy 10 day-old sweet corn (Zea mays), was studied for its taxonomic allocation. The isolate revealed Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped cells. A comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate showed 99.1, 97.8, and 97.4% similarity to the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the type strains of Elizabethkingia anophelis, Elizabethkingia meningoseptica and Elizabethkingia miricola, respectively. The fatty acid profile of strain JM-87(T) consisted mainly of the major fatty acids C15:0 iso, C17:0 iso 3-OH, and C15:0 iso 2-OH/C16:1ω7c/t. The quinone system of strain JM-87(T) contained, exclusively, menaquinone MK-6. The major polyamine was sym-homospermidine. The polar lipid profile consisted of the major lipid phosphatidylethanolamine plus several unidentified aminolipids and other unidentified lipids. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments with E. meningoseptica CCUG 214(T) ( = ATCC 13253(T)), E. miricola KCTC 12492(T) ( = GTC 862(T)) and E. anophelis R26(T) resulted in relatedness values of 17% (reciprocal 16%), 30% (reciprocal 19%), and 51% (reciprocal 54%), respectively. These DNA-DNA hybridization results, in addition to some differentiating biochemical properties, clearly indicate that strain JM-87(T) is a representative of a novel species, for which the name Elizabethkingia endophytica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JM-87(T) ( = CIP 110885(T) = LMG 28604(T) = CCM 8570(T)). PMID:25858248

  6. Identification and suppression of the p-coumaroyl CoA:hydroxycinnamyl alcohol transferase in Zea mays L.

    PubMed

    Marita, Jane M; Hatfield, Ronald D; Rancour, David M; Frost, Kenneth E

    2014-06-01

    Grasses, such as Zea mays L. (maize), contain relatively high levels of p-coumarates (pCA) within their cell walls. Incorporation of pCA into cell walls is believed to be due to a hydroxycinnamyl transferase that couples pCA to monolignols. To understand the role of pCA in maize development, the p-coumaroyl CoA:hydroxycinnamyl alcohol transferase (pCAT) was isolated and purified from maize stems. Purified pCAT was subjected to partial trypsin digestion, and peptides were sequenced by tandem mass spectrometry. TBLASTN analysis of the acquired peptide sequences identified a single full-length maize cDNA clone encoding all the peptide sequences obtained from the purified enzyme. The cDNA clone was obtained and used to generate an RNAi construct for suppressing pCAT expression in maize. Here we describe the effects of suppression of pCAT in maize. Primary screening of transgenic maize seedling leaves using a new rapid analytical platform was used to identify plants with decreased amounts of pCA. Using this screening method, mature leaves from fully developed plants were analyzed, confirming reduced pCA levels throughout plant development. Complete analysis of isolated cell walls from mature transgenic stems and leaves revealed that lignin levels did not change, but pCA levels decreased and the lignin composition was altered. Transgenic plants with the lowest levels of pCA had decreased levels of syringyl units in the lignin. Thus, altering the levels of pCAT expression in maize leads to altered lignin composition, but does not appear to alter the total amount of lignin present in the cell walls. PMID:24654730

  7. Effects of Ethylene on the Kinetics of Curvature and Auxin Redistribution in Gravistimulated Roots of Zea mays1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, June S.; Chang, Wha-Kyung; Evans, Michael L.

    1990-01-01

    We tested the involvement of ethylene in maize (Zea mays L.) root gravitropism by measuring the kinetics of curvature and lateral auxin movement in roots treated with ethylene, inhibitors of ethylene synthesis, or inhibitors of ethylene action. In the presence of ethylene the latent period of gravitropic curvature appeared to be increased somewhat. However, ethylene-treated roots continued to curve after control roots had reached their final angle of curvature. Consequently, maximum curvature in the presence of ethylene was much greater in ethylene-treated roots than in controls. Inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis or action had effects on the kinetics of curvature opposite to that of ethylene, i.e. the latent period appeared to be shortened somewhat while total curvature was reduced relative to that of controls. Label from applied 3H-indole-3-acetic acid was preferentially transported toward the lower side of stimulated roots. In parallel with effects on curvature, ethylene treatment delayed the development of gravity-induced asymmetric auxin movement across the root but extended its duration once initiated. The auxin transport inhibitor, 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid reduced both gravitropic curvature and the effect of ethylene on curvature. Since neither ethylene nor inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis or action prevented curvature, we conclude that ethylene does not mediate the primary differential growth response causing curvature. Because ethylene affects curvature and auxin transport in parallel, we suggest that ethylene modifies curvature by affecting gravity-induced lateral transport of auxin, perhaps by interfering with adaptation of the auxin transport system to the gravistimulus. PMID:11537475

  8. Effects of ethylene on the kinetics of curvature and auxin redistribution in gravistimulated roots of Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Lee, J S; Chang W-K; Evans, M L

    1990-01-01

    We tested the involvement of ethylene in maize (Zea mays L.) root gravitropism by measuring the kinetics of curvature and lateral auxin movement in roots treated with ethylene, inhibitors of ethylene synthesis, or inhibitors of ethylene action. In the presence of ethylene the latent period of gravitropic curvature appeared to be increased somewhat. However, ethylene-treated roots continued to curve after control roots had reached their final angle of curvature. Consequently, maximum curvature in the presence of ethylene was much greater in ethylene-treated roots than in controls. Inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis or action had effects on the kinetics of curvature opposite to that of ethylene, i.e. the latent period appeared to be shortened somewhat while total curvature was reduced relative to that of controls. Label from applied 3H-indole-3-acetic acid was preferentially transported toward the lower side of stimulated roots. In parallel with effects on curvature, ethylene treatment delayed the development of gravity-induced asymmetric auxin movement across the root but extended its duration once initiated. The auxin transport inhibitor, 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid reduced both gravitropic curvature and the effect of ethylene on curvature. Since neither ethylene nor inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis or action prevented curvature, we conclude that ethylene does not mediate the primary differential growth response causing curvature. Because ethylene affects curvature and auxin transport in parallel, we suggest that ethylene modifies curvature by affecting gravity-induced lateral transport of auxin, perhaps by interfering with adaptation of the auxin transport system to the gravistimulus. PMID:11537475

  9. Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Responses to Sorghum bicolor (Poales: Poaceae) Tissues From Lowered Lignin Lines.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Patrick F; Sattler, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    The presence of lignin within biomass impedes the production of liquid fuels. Plants with altered lignin content and composition are more amenable to lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol and other biofuels but may be more susceptible to insect damage where lignin is an important resistance factor. However, reduced lignin lines of switchgrasses still retained insect resistance in prior studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that sorghum lines with lowered lignin content will also retain insect resistance. Sorghum excised leaves and stalk pith Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae) from near isogenic brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 mutants lines, which have lowered lignin content and increased lignocellulosic ethanol conversion efficiency, were examined for insect resistance relative to wild-type (normal BTx623). Greenhouse and growth chamber grown plant tissues were fed to first-instar larvae of corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and fall armyworms Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), two sorghum major pests. Younger bmr leaves had significantly greater feeding damage in some assays than wild-type leaves, but older bmr6 leaves generally had significantly less damage than wild-type leaves. Caterpillars feeding on the bmr6 leaves often weighed significantly less than those feeding on wild-type leaves, especially in the S. frugiperda assays. Larvae fed the pith from bmr stalks had significantly higher mortality compared with those larvae fed on wild-type pith, which suggested that bmr pith was more toxic. Thus, reducing lignin content or changing subunit composition of bioenergy grasses does not necessarily increase their susceptibility to insects and may result in increased resistance, which would contribute to sustainable production. PMID:25601946

  10. Species differences in ligand specificity of auxin-controlled elongation and auxin transport: comparing Zea and Vigna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Hu; Hertel, Rainer; Ishikawa, Hideo; Evans, Michael L.

    2002-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin affects cell elongation in both roots and shoots. In roots, the predominant action of auxin is to inhibit cell elongation while in shoots auxin, at normal physiological levels, stimulates elongation. The question of whether the primary receptor for auxin is the same in roots and shoots has not been resolved. In addition to its action on cell elongation in roots and shoots, auxin is transported in a polar fashion in both organs. Although auxin transport is well characterized in both roots and shoots, there is relatively little information on the connection, if any, between auxin transport and its action on elongation. In particular, it is not clear whether the protein mediating polar auxin movement is separate from the protein mediating auxin action on cell elongation or whether these two processes might be mediated by one and the same receptor. We examined the identity of the auxin growth receptor in roots and shoots by comparing the response of roots and shoots of the grass Zea mays L. and the legume Vigna mungo L. to indole-3-acetic acid, 2-naphthoxyacetic acid, 4,6-dichloroindoleacetic acid, and 4,7-dichloroindoleacetic acid. We also studied whether or not a single protein might mediate both auxin transport and auxin action by comparing the polar transport of indole-3-acetic acid and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid through segments from Vigna hypocotyls and maize coleoptiles. For all of the assays performed (root elongation, shoot elongation, and polar transport) the action and transport of the auxin derivatives was much greater in the dicots than in the grass species. The preservation of ligand specificity between roots and shoots and the parallels in ligand specificity between auxin transport and auxin action on growth are consistent with the hypothesis that the auxin receptor is the same in roots and shoots and that this protein may mediate auxin efflux as well as auxin action in both organ types.

  11. A novel beta-glucosidase from the cell wall of maize (Zea mays L.): rapid purification and partial characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nematollahi, W. P.; Roux, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    Plants have a variety of glycosidic conjugates of hormones, defense compounds, and other molecules that are hydrolyzed by beta-glucosidases (beta-D-glucoside glucohydrolases, E.C. 3.2.1.21). Workers have reported several beta-glucosidases from maize (Zea mays L.; Poaceae), but have localized them mostly by indirect means. We have purified and partly characterized a 58-Ku beta-glucosidase from maize, which we conclude from a partial sequence analysis, from kinetic data, and from its localization is not identical to any of those already reported. A monoclonal antibody, mWP 19, binds this enzyme, and localizes it in the cell walls of maize coleoptiles. An earlier report showed that mWP19 inhibits peroxidase activity in crude cell wall extracts and can immunoprecipitate peroxidase activity from these extracts, yet purified preparations of the 58 Ku protein had little or no peroxidase activity. The level of sequence similarity between beta-glucosidases and peroxidases makes it unlikely that these enzymes share epitopes in common. Contrary to a previous conclusion, these results suggest that the enzyme recognized by mWP19 is not a peroxidase, but there is a wall peroxidase closely associated with the 58 Ku beta-glucosidase in crude preparations. Other workers also have co-purified distinct proteins with beta-glucosidases. We found no significant charge in the level of immunodetectable beta-glucosidase in mesocotyls or coleoptiles that precedes the red light-induced changes in the growth rate of these tissues.

  12. Pattern formation in the monocot embryo as revealed by NAM and CUC3 orthologues from Zea mays L.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Roman; Werr, Wolfgang

    2005-07-01

    All aerial parts of a higher plant originate from the shoot apical meristem (SAM), which is initiated during embryogenesis as a part of the basic body plan. In contrast to dicot species, the SAM in Zea mays is not established at an apico-central, but at a lateral position of the transition stage embryo. Genetic and molecular studies in dicots have revealed that members of the NAC gene family of plant-specific transcription factors such as NO APICAL MERISTEM (NAM) from Petunia or the CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON (CUC) genes from Arabidopsis contribute essential functions to the establishment of the SAM and cotyledon separation. As an approach to the understanding of meristem formation in a monocot species, members of the maize NAC family highly related to the NAM/CUC genes were isolated and characterized. Our phylogenetic analysis indicates that two distinct NAM and CUC3 precursors already existed prior to the separation of mono- and dicot species. The allocation of the two maize paralogues, ZmNAM1 and ZmNAM2 together with PhNAM, AtCUC2 and AmCUP in one sub-branch and the corresponding expression patterns support their contribution to SAM establishment. In contrast, the ZmCUC3 orthologue is associated with boundary specification at the SAM periphery, where it visualizes which fraction of cells in the SAM is committed to a new leaf primordium. Other maize NAC gene family members are clearly positioned outside of this NAM/CUC3 branch and also exhibit highly cell type-specific expression patterns. PMID:16158242

  13. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Using Naturally Occurring Genetic Variance Among Commercial Inbred Lines of Maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan-Ming; Mao, Yongcai; Xie, Chongqing; Smith, Howie; Luo, Lang; Xu, Shizhong

    2005-01-01

    Many commercial inbred lines are available in crops. A large amount of genetic variation is preserved among these lines. The genealogical history of the inbred lines is usually well documented. However, quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for the genetic variances among the lines are largely unexplored due to lack of statistical methods. In this study, we show that the pedigree information of the lines along with the trait values and marker information can be used to map QTL without the need of further crossing experiments. We develop a Monte Carlo method to estimate locus-specific identity-by-descent (IBD) matrices. These IBD matrices are further incorporated into a mixed-model equation for variance component analysis. QTL variance is estimated and tested at every putative position of the genome. The actual QTL are detected by scanning the entire genome. Applying this new method to a well-documented pedigree of maize (Zea mays L.) that consists of 404 inbred lines, we mapped eight QTL for the maize male flowering trait, growing degree day heat units to pollen shedding (GDUSHD). These detected QTL contributed >80% of the variance observed among the inbred lines. The QTL were then used to evaluate all the inbred lines using the best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) technique. Superior lines were selected according to the estimated QTL allelic values, a technique called marker-assisted selection (MAS). The MAS procedure implemented via BLUP may be routinely used by breeders to select superior lines and line combinations for development of new cultivars. PMID:15716509

  14. Effects of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles on interactions between soil bacteria and the major crop plant Zea mays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doody, Michael; Bais, Harsh; Jin, Yan

    2014-05-01

    The increasing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in commercial antimicrobial products presents an opportunity for increased environmental exposures. While the behavior of AgNPs in surface waters is becoming increasingly understood, little research has been conducted on the effects of these, or any nanoparticles, on soil-dwelling bacteria and major crop plants. Because of the importance of soil bacteria to the overall health of natural and agricultural soils, it is necessary to better understand how AgNPs interact with common bacterial species such as Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. It is further necessary to quantify the effect of AgNPs on major crop plants, including Zea mays, a staple crop for much of the world. Finally, research is needed on how complex plant-microbe interactions that originate in the rhizosphere may be disrupted by AgNPs. Our preliminary data show highly statistically significant growth inhibition near 30% for both species of bacteria exposed to 1.0 mg L-1 citrate-coated AgNPs (c-AgNPs). Growth curves compiled from absorbance data show a similar dose-response for both species. Treatment with aqueous Ag as AgNO3 slightly inhibits E. coli (90 ± 5 %), but enhances growth of B. subtilis to 127 ± 23% of control. These results indicate that toxicity may be related to specific nano-scale properties of the c-AgNPs. On-going experiments measure potential growth inhibition, root development and morphology of Z. mays exposed to c-AgNPs, and resulting changes in plant-microbe interactions.

  15. Genetic variation for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins in Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in eastern North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Jackson, R E; Gould, F; Bradley, J R; Van Duyn, J W

    2006-10-01

    To evaluate resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) toxins, adult female bollworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), were collected from four light trap locations in two eastern North Carolina counties from August to October during 2001 and 2002. Females were allowed to oviposit, and upon hatching, 24 neonates from each female (F1 lines) were screened for survival and growth rate on each of three diets: non-Bt diet, diet containing 5.0 microg/ml Cry1Ac toxin, or diet containing 5.0 microg/ml Cry2Ab toxin. These screens were designed to identify nonrecessive Bt resistance alleles present in field populations of bollworm. Of 561 and 691 families screened with both Cry1Ac- and Cry2Ab-containing diets in 2001 and 2002, respectively, no F1 lines were identified that seemed to carry a gene conferring substantial resistance to either Cry1Ac or Cry2Ab. Adults from F1 lines with growth scores in the highest (R) and lowest (S) quartiles were mated in four combinations, RxR, SxR, RxS, and SxS. Differences in growth rates of larvae from these crosses demonstrated that there is substantial quantitative genetic variation in eastern North Carolina populations for resistance to both Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab toxins. These findings, in addition to results suggesting partially dominant inheritance of resistance to Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab, are critically important for determining appropriate resistance management strategies that impact the sustainability of transgenic cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.). PMID:17066814

  16. Impacts of industrial waste resources on maize (Zea mays L.) growth, yield, nutrients uptake and soil properties.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satnam; Young, Li-Sen; Shen, Fo-Ting; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2014-10-01

    Discharging untreated highly acidic (pH<4.0), organic and nutrients rich monosodium glutamate wastewater (MW), and highly alkaline (pH>10.0) paper-mill wastewater (PW) causes environmental pollution. When acidity of MW neutralized (pH 6.5±0.1) with PW and lime (treatments represented as MW+PW and MW+Lime), then MW may be utilized as a potential source of nutrients and organic carbon for sustainable food production. Objectives of this study were to compare the effects of PW and lime neutralized MW and chemical fertilizers on maize (Zea mays L. cv. Snow Jean) plant growth, yield, nutrients uptake, soil organic matter and humic substances. The field experiment was carried out on maize using MW at 6000 L ha(-1). Impacts of the MW application on maize crop and soil properties were evaluated at different stages. At harvest, plant height, and plant N and K uptake were higher in MW treatment. Leaf area index at 60 days after sowing, plant dry matter accumulation at harvest, and kernels ear(-1) and 100-kernel weight were higher in MW+Lime treatment. Kernel N, P, K, Mn, Fe and Zn, and plant Zn uptake were highest in MW+Lime. Plant Fe uptake, and soil organic matter and humic substances were highest in MW+PW. The MW+PW and MW+Lime treatments exhibited comparable results with chemically fertilized treatment. The MW acidity neutralized with lime showed positive impacts on growth, yield and nutrients uptake; nevertheless, when MW pH neutralized with PW has an additional benefit on increase in soil organic matter and humic substances. PMID:24507456

  17. Purification and Characterization of Two Forms of Glutamine Synthetase from the Pedicel Region of Maize (Zea mays L.) Kernels

    PubMed Central

    Muhitch, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) kernel pedicels, including vascular tissues, pedicel parenchyma, placento-chalazal tissue, and the surrounding pericarp, contained two forms of glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2), separable by anion exchange chromatography under mildly acidic conditions. The earlier-eluting activity (GSp1), but not the later-eluting activity (GSp2), was chromatographically distinct from the maize leaf and root glutamine synthetases. The level of GSp1 activity changed in a developmentally dependent manner while GSp2 activity was constitutive. GSp1 and GSp2 exhibited distinct ratios of transferase to hydroxylamine-dependent synthetase activities (5 and 23, respectively), which did not change with kernel age. Purified pedicel glutamine synthetases had native relative molecular masses of 340,000, while the subunit relative molecular masses differed slightly at 38,900 and 40,500 for GSp1 and GSp2, respectively. Both GS forms required free Mg2+ with apparent Kms = 2.0 and 0.19 millimolar for GSp1 and GSp2, respectively. GSp1 had an apparent Km for glutamate of 35 millimolar and exhibited substrate inhibition at glutamate concentrations greater than 90 millimolar. In contrast, GSp2 exhibited simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics for glutamate with a Km value of 3.4 millimolar. Both isozymes exhibited positive cooperativity for ammonia, with S0.5 values of 100 and 45 micromolar, respectively. GSp1 appears to be a unique, kernel-specific form of plant glutamine synthetase. Possible functions for the pedicel GS isozymes in kernel nitrogen metabolism are discussed. Images Figure 4 PMID:16667150

  18. Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Responses to Sorghum bicolor (Poales: Poaceae) Tissues From Lowered Lignin Lines

    PubMed Central

    Dowd, Patrick F.; Sattler, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of lignin within biomass impedes the production of liquid fuels. Plants with altered lignin content and composition are more amenable to lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol and other biofuels but may be more susceptible to insect damage where lignin is an important resistance factor. However, reduced lignin lines of switchgrasses still retained insect resistance in prior studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that sorghum lines with lowered lignin content will also retain insect resistance. Sorghum excised leaves and stalk pith Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae) from near isogenic brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 mutants lines, which have lowered lignin content and increased lignocellulosic ethanol conversion efficiency, were examined for insect resistance relative to wild-type (normal BTx623). Greenhouse and growth chamber grown plant tissues were fed to first-instar larvae of corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and fall armyworms Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), two sorghum major pests. Younger bmr leaves had significantly greater feeding damage in some assays than wild-type leaves, but older bmr6 leaves generally had significantly less damage than wild-type leaves. Caterpillars feeding on the bmr6 leaves often weighed significantly less than those feeding on wild-type leaves, especially in the S. frugiperda assays. Larvae fed the pith from bmr stalks had significantly higher mortality compared with those larvae fed on wild-type pith, which suggested that bmr pith was more toxic. Thus, reducing lignin content or changing subunit composition of bioenergy grasses does not necessarily increase their susceptibility to insects and may result in increased resistance, which would contribute to sustainable production. PMID:25601946

  19. Deciphering the role of NADPH oxidase in complex interactions between maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes and cereal aphids.

    PubMed

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert

    2016-07-22

    Plant NADPH oxidases (NOXs) encompass a group of membrane-bound enzymes participating in formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under physiological conditions as well as in response to environmental stressors. The purpose of the survey was to unveil the role of NADPH oxidase in pro-oxidative responses of maize (Zea mays L.) seedling leaves exposed to cereal aphids' infestation. The impact of apteral females of bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) and grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) feeding on expression levels of all four NADPH oxidase genes (rbohA, rbohB, rbohC, rbohD) and total activity of NOX enzyme in maize plants were investigated. In addition, inhibitory effect of diphenylene iodonium (DPI) pre-treatment on NOX activity and hydrogen peroxide content in aphid-stressed maize seedlings was studied. Leaf infestation biotests were accomplished on 14-day-old seedlings representing two aphid-resistant varieties (Ambrozja and Waza) and two aphid-susceptible ones (Tasty Sweet and Złota Karłowa). Insects' attack led to profound upregulation of rbohA and rbohD genes in tested host plants, lower elevations were noted in level of rbohB mRNA, whereas abundance of rbohC transcript was not significantly altered. It was uncovered aphid-induced enhancement of NOX activity in examined plants. Higher increases in expression of all investigated rboh genes and activity of NADPH oxidase occurred in tissues of more resistant maize cultivars than in susceptible ones. Furthermore, DPI treatment resulted in strong reduction of NOX activity and H2O2 accumulation in aphid-infested Z. mays plants, thus evidencing circumstantial role of the enzyme in insect-elicited ROS generation. PMID:27178208

  20. Genome-Wide Comparative In Silico Analysis of the RNA Helicase Gene Family in Zea mays and Glycine max: A Comparison with Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jinguang; Zheng, Chengchao

    2013-01-01

    RNA helicases are enzymes that are thought to unwind double-stranded RNA molecules in an energy-dependent fashion through the hydrolysis of NTP. RNA helicases are associated with all processes involving RNA molecules, including nuclear transcription, editing, splicing, ribosome biogenesis, RNA export, and organelle gene expression. The involvement of RNA helicase in response to stress and in plant growth and development has been reported previously. While their importance in Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa has been partially studied, the function of RNA helicase proteins is poorly understood in Zea mays and Glycine max. In this study, we identified a total of RNA helicase genes in Arabidopsis and other crop species genome by genome-wide comparative in silico analysis. We classified the RNA helicase genes into three subfamilies according to the structural features of the motif II region, such as DEAD-box, DEAH-box and DExD/H-box, and different species showed different patterns of alternative splicing. Secondly, chromosome location analysis showed that the RNA helicase protein genes were distributed across all chromosomes with different densities in the four species. Thirdly, phylogenetic tree analyses identified the relevant homologs of DEAD-box, DEAH-box and DExD/H-box RNA helicase proteins in each of the four species. Fourthly, microarray expression data showed that many of these predicted RNA helicase genes were expressed in different developmental stages and different tissues under normal growth conditions. Finally, real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of 10 genes in Arabidopsis and 13 genes in Zea mays were in close agreement with the microarray expression data. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a comparative genome-wide analysis of the RNA helicase gene family in Arabidopsis, Oryza sativa, Zea mays and Glycine max. This study provides valuable information for understanding the classification and putative functions of

  1. A Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay to Diagnose and Separate Helicoverpa armigera and H. zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the New World

    PubMed Central

    Gilligan, Todd M.; Tembrock, Luke R.; Farris, Roxanne E.; Barr, Norman B.; van der Straten, Marja J.; van de Vossenberg, Bart T. L. H.; Metz-Verschure, Eveline

    2015-01-01

    The Old World bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), and the corn earworm, H. zea (Boddie), are two of the most important agricultural pests in the world. Diagnosing these two species is difficult—adults can only be separated with a complex dissection, and larvae cannot be identified to species using morphology, necessitating the use of geographic origin for identification in most instances. With the discovery of H. armigera in the New World, identification of immature Helicoverpa based on origin is no longer possible because H. zea also occurs in all of the geographic regions where H. armigera has been discovered. DNA barcoding and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses have been reported in publications to distinguish these species, but these methods both require post-PCR processing (i.e., DNA sequencing or restriction digestion) to complete. We report the first real-time PCR assay to distinguish these pests based on two hydrolysis probes that bind to a segment of the internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) amplified using a single primer pair. One probe targets H. armigera, the second probe targets H. zea, and a third probe that targets a conserved segment of 18S rDNA is used as a control of DNA quality. The assay can be completed in 50 minutes when using isolated DNA and is successfully tested on larvae intercepted at ports of entry and adults captured during domestic surveys. We demonstrate that the assay can be run in triplex with no negative effects on sensitivity, can be run using alternative real-time PCR reagents and instruments, and does not cross react with other New World Heliothinae. PMID:26558366

  2. [CONTENT OF OXIDATIVE STRESS MARKERS IN BLOOD PLASMA UNDER THE ACTION OF EXTRACTS OF GRATIOLA OFFICINALIS L., HELICHRYSUM ARENARIUM (L.) MOENCH, AND ANTHOCYANIN FORMS OF ZEA MAYS L].

    PubMed

    Durnova, N A; Afanas'eva, G A; Kurchatova, M N; Zaraeva, N V; Golikov, A G; Bucharskaya, A B; Golikov, A G; Bucharskaya, A B; Plastun, V O; Andreeva, N V

    2015-01-01

    The effect of aqueous solutions of dry ethanol extracts of Gratiola officinalis L., Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench, and anthocyanin forms of Zea mays L. on the dioxidin-induced lipid peroxidation in blood has been studied on rats. It is established that all these extracts are capable of reducing the amount of avera- ge-mass (AM) molecules and malonic dialdehyde (MDA) in rat blood plasma. The extract of Gratiola officinalis L. reduces the concentration of AM and MDA moleules by 43%. The extract of Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench reduces the concentration of AM molecules on the average by 18.66% (within 9.22 -34.81%) and MDA by 49.36% (within 34.12-79.75%). The Extract of anthocyanin forms of Zea mays L. does not reduce the concentration of AM mo- lecules, but reduces the amount of MDA in the blood of rats on average by 27.88% (within 21.58-37.82%) (p < 0.01). PMID:26591206

  3. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of microRNAs in Developing Grains of Zea mays L.

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lei; Wang, Lifang; Gao, Meijuan; Jiao, Zhujin; Qiao, Huili; Yang, Jianwei; Chen, Min; Yao, Lunguang; Liu, Renyi; Kan, Yunchao

    2016-01-01

    The development and maturation of maize kernel involves meticulous and fine gene regulation at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, and miRNAs play important roles during this process. Although a number of miRNAs have been identified in maize seed, the ones involved in the early development of grains and in different lines of maize have not been well studied. Here, we profiled four small RNA libraries, each constructed from groups of immature grains of Zea mays inbred line Chang 7–2 collected 4–6, 7–9, 12–14, and 18–23 days after pollination (DAP). A total of 40 known (containing 111 unique miRNAs) and 162 novel (containing 196 unique miRNA candidates) miRNA families were identified. For conserved and novel miRNAs with over 100 total reads, 44% had higher accumulation before the 9th DAP, especially miR166 family members. 42% of miRNAs had highest accumulation during 12–14 DAP (which is the transition stage from embryogenesis to nutrient storage). Only 14% of miRNAs had higher expression 18–23 DAP. Prediction of potential targets of all miRNAs showed that 165 miRNA families had 377 target genes. For miR164 and miR166, we showed that the transcriptional levels of their target genes were significantly decreased when co-expressed with their cognate miRNA precursors in vivo. Further analysis shows miR159, miR164, miR166, miR171, miR390, miR399, and miR529 families have putative roles in the embryogenesis of maize grain development by participating in transcriptional regulation and morphogenesis, while miR167 and miR528 families participate in metabolism process and stress response during nutrient storage. Our study is the first to present an integrated dynamic expression pattern of miRNAs during maize kernel formation and maturation. PMID:27082634

  4. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of microRNAs in Developing Grains of Zea mays L.

    PubMed

    Li, Dandan; Liu, Zongcai; Gao, Lei; Wang, Lifang; Gao, Meijuan; Jiao, Zhujin; Qiao, Huili; Yang, Jianwei; Chen, Min; Yao, Lunguang; Liu, Renyi; Kan, Yunchao

    2016-01-01

    The development and maturation of maize kernel involves meticulous and fine gene regulation at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, and miRNAs play important roles during this process. Although a number of miRNAs have been identified in maize seed, the ones involved in the early development of grains and in different lines of maize have not been well studied. Here, we profiled four small RNA libraries, each constructed from groups of immature grains of Zea mays inbred line Chang 7-2 collected 4-6, 7-9, 12-14, and 18-23 days after pollination (DAP). A total of 40 known (containing 111 unique miRNAs) and 162 novel (containing 196 unique miRNA candidates) miRNA families were identified. For conserved and novel miRNAs with over 100 total reads, 44% had higher accumulation before the 9th DAP, especially miR166 family members. 42% of miRNAs had highest accumulation during 12-14 DAP (which is the transition stage from embryogenesis to nutrient storage). Only 14% of miRNAs had higher expression 18-23 DAP. Prediction of potential targets of all miRNAs showed that 165 miRNA families had 377 target genes. For miR164 and miR166, we showed that the transcriptional levels of their target genes were significantly decreased when co-expressed with their cognate miRNA precursors in vivo. Further analysis shows miR159, miR164, miR166, miR171, miR390, miR399, and miR529 families have putative roles in the embryogenesis of maize grain development by participating in transcriptional regulation and morphogenesis, while miR167 and miR528 families participate in metabolism process and stress response during nutrient storage. Our study is the first to present an integrated dynamic expression pattern of miRNAs during maize kernel formation and maturation. PMID:27082634

  5. Distribution of bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), injured reproductive structures on genetically engineered Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki Berliner cotton.

    PubMed

    Gore, J; Leonard, B R; Gable, R H

    2003-06-01

    Bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), larvae are commonly observed feeding in genetically engineered Bollgard cotton. Although no information is currently available characterizing the levels of injury bollworms cause, aproximately 25% of the Bollgard acreage in the United States receives at least one insecticide application annually targeting bollworm populations. Studies were conducted to determine the levels of fruiting form injury that can occur from bollworm larvae feeding on white flowers of two types of genetically engineered cotton. The two types of genetically engineered cotton included the original Bollgard that produces one protein (Cry1Ac) from Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki Berliner and Bollgard II that produces two proteins (Cry1Ac + Cry2Ab) from B. thuringiensis kurstaki. In one study, individual larvae (24 +/- 6 h old) were placed in first position white flowers of Deltapine 5415 (non-Bollgard) and Deltapine NuCOTN 33B (Bollgard). Larval infestations were made on 50 plants for each of 5 d during 2000 and 2001. Each plant was visually examined at 3 d and every 2 d thereafter, until larvae were no longer recovered. Larvae injured a total of 46.6 fruiting forms per 50 plants on non-Bollgard cotton, compared with only 18.9 fruiting forms per 50 plants on Bollgard cotton. Mean larval injury per insect was 4.3 fruiting forms on non-Bollgard cotton compared with 2.7 fruiting forms on Bollgard cotton. In a second study, individual larvae (24 +/- 6 h old) were placed in first position white flowers of Deltapine 50 (non-Bollgard), Deltapine 50B (Bollgard), and an experimental Bollgard II line. Larval infestations were made on 10 plants per day for each of six consecutive days during 2001. Larvae injured a total of 25.0 fruiting forms per 10 plants on non-Bollgard, 11.5 on Bollgard, and 6.4 on Bollgard II cottons. Mean larval injury per insect was 6.6 fruiting forms on non-Bollgard, 3.5 on Bollgard, and 0.8 on Bollgard II cottons. These data indicate

  6. Elevated CO2 Does Not Stimulate C4 Photosynthesis Directly, but Impacts Water Relations and Indirectly Enhances Carbon Gain during Drought Stress in Maize (Zea Mays) grown under free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanism of [CO2] effects upon C4 plants has received considerable research interest but remains poorly understood. In 2002 and 2004, a rainfed-field experiment utilizing FACE technology was undertaken, in the U.S. Corn Belt, to determine the effects of elevated [CO2] on Zea mays. FACE allows ...

  7. Maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Frame, Bronwyn; Warnberg, Katey; Main, Marcy; Wang, Kan

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is an effective method for introducing genes into maize. In this chapter, we describe a detailed protocol for genetic transformation of the maize genotype Hi II. Our starting plant material is immature embryos cocultivated with an Agrobacterium strain carrying a standard binary vector. In addition to step-by-step laboratory transformation procedures, we include extensive details in growing donor plants and caring for transgenic plants in the greenhouse. PMID:25300834

  8. Field efficacy of sweet corn hybrids expressing a Bacillus thuringiensis toxin for management of Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Burkness, E C; Hutchison, W D; Bolin, P C; Bartels, D W; Warnock, D F; Davis, D W

    2001-02-01

    Field studies were done in 1995-1996 to assess the efficacy of three sweet corn hybrids that express the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin, CrylAb, against two lepidopteran pests, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie). The Bt hybrids tested were developed by Novartis Seeds, using the event BT-11, which expresses Bt toxin in green tissue as well as reproductive tissues including the tassel, silk, and kernel. Bt hybrids were compared with a standard non-Bt control or the non-Bt isoline for each hybrid; none of the hybrids were treated with insecticides during the study. Hybrid efficacy was based on larval control of each pest, as well as plant or ear damage associated with each pest. In both years, control of O. nubilalis larvae in primary ears of all Bt hybrids was 99-100% compared with the appropriate non-Bt check. Plant damage was also significantly reduced in all Bt hybrids. In 1996, control of H. zea in Bt hybrids ranged from 85 to 88% when compared with the appropriate non-Bt control. In 1996, a University of Minnesota experimental non-Bt hybrid (MN2 x MN3) performed as well as the Bt hybrids for control of O. nubilalis. Also, in 1996, two additional University of Minnesota experimental non-Bt hybrids (A684su X MN94 and MN2 X MN3) performed as well as Bt hybrids for percent marketable ears (ears with no damage or larvae). In addition, compared with the non-Bt hybrids, percent marketable ears were significantly higher for all Bt hybrids and in most cases ranged from 98 to 100%. By comparison, percent marketable ears for the non-Bt hybrids averaged 45.5 and 37.4% in 1995 and 1996, respectively. Results from the 2-yr study strongly suggest that Bt sweet corn hybrids will provide high levels of larval control for growers in both fresh and processing markets. Specifically, Bt sweet corn hybrids, in the absence of conventional insecticide use, provided excellent control of O. nubilalis, and very good control of H. zea. However, depending on

  9. Characterizing pathways by which gravitropic effectors could move from the root cap to the root of primary roots of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; McClelen, C. E.

    1989-01-01

    Plasmodesmata linking the root cap and root in primary roots Zea mays are restricted to approx. 400 protodermal cells bordering approx. 110000 microns2 of the calyptrogen of the root cap. This area is less than 10% of the cross-sectional area of the root-tip at the cap junction. Therefore, gravitropic effectors moving from the root cap to the root can move symplastically only through a relatively small area in the centre of the root. Decapped roots are non-responsive to gravity. However, decapped roots whose caps are replaced immediately after decapping are strongly graviresponsive. Thus, gravicurvature occurs only when the root cap contacts the root, and symplastic continuity between the cap and root is not required for gravicurvature. Completely removing mucilage from the root tip renders the root non-responsive to gravity. Taken together, these data suggest that gravitropic effectors move apoplastically through mucilage from the cap to the root.

  10. Observation of silicon-mediated alleviation of cadmium stress in maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings via LED-induced chlorophyll fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia-Neto, Artur S.; Silva, Elias A.; da Silva, Airon José; do Nascimento, Clístenes W. A.

    2013-02-01

    LED-induced chlorophyll fluorescence analysis is exploited to observe, and monitor the time evolution of silicon-induced alleviation of toxicity in maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings in cadmium contaminated soil. Red, and far-red emissions were examined as a function of cadmium-silicon concentrations, during the 20 days period of the seedlings growing process under stress. The chlorophyll fluorescence spectral analysis provided detection, and evaluation of the damage imposed by the metal stress in the early stages of the plant growing process. The technique also provided the time evolution evaluation of the silicon-induced tolerance enhancement of maize plants to cadmium, which is not viable using conventional in vitro spectral analysis techniques

  11. Heavy metal stress detection and monitoring via LED-induced chlorophyll fluorescence analysis of Zea mays L. seedlings aimed at polluted soil phytoremediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia-Neto, Artur S.; Silva, Elias A., Jr.; da Silva, Airon José; do Nascimento, Clístenes W. A.

    2012-03-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence spectroscopy is employed to detect and study the time evolution of metal stress of Zea mays L. seedlings aiming polluted soil phytoremediation. The chlorophyll fluorescence spectra of intact leaves are analyzed using 405 nm LED excitation. Red (Fr) and far-red (FFr) emissions around 685 nm and 735 nm, respectively, are examined as a function of the heavy metal concentration. The fluorescence ratio Fr/FFr was employed to monitor the effect of heavy metal upon the physiological state of the plants before signs of visual stress became apparent. The chlorophyll fluorescence analysis permitted detection and evaluation of the damage caused by heavy metal soil contamination in the early stages of the plants growing process, which is not feasible using conventional in vitro spectral analysis.

  12. Enzymic synthesis of indole-3-acetyl-1-O-beta-d-glucose. I. Partial purification and characterization of the enzyme from Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leznicki, A. J.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    The first enzyme-catalyzed reaction leading from indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to the myo-inositol esters of IAA is the synthesis of indole-3-acetyl-1-O-beta-D-glucose from uridine-5'-diphosphoglucose (UDPG) and IAA. The reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme, UDPG-indol-3-ylacetyl glucosyl transferase (IAA-glucose-synthase). This work reports methods for the assay of the enzyme and for the extraction and partial purification of the enzyme from kernels of Zea mays sweet corn. The enzyme has an apparent molecular weight of 46,500 an isoelectric point of 5.5, and its pH optimum lies between 7.3 and 7.6. The enzyme is stable to storage at zero degrees but loses activity during column chromatographic procedures which can be restored only fractionally by addition of column eluates. The data suggest either multiple unknown cofactors or conformational changes leading to activity loss.

  13. Evidence for maize (Zea mays) in the Late Archaic (3000-1800 B.C.) in the Norte Chico region of Peru.

    PubMed

    Haas, Jonathan; Creamer, Winifred; Huamán Mesía, Luis; Goldstein, David; Reinhard, Karl; Rodríguez, Cindy Vergel

    2013-03-26

    For more than 40 y, there has been an active discussion over the presence and economic importance of maize (Zea mays) during the Late Archaic period (3000-1800 B.C.) in ancient Peru. The evidence for Late Archaic maize has been limited, leading to the interpretation that it was present but used primarily for ceremonial purposes. Archaeological testing at a number of sites in the Norte Chico region of the north central coast provides a broad range of empirical data on the production, processing, and consumption of maize. New data drawn from coprolites, pollen records, and stone tool residues, combined with 126 radiocarbon dates, demonstrate that maize was widely grown, intensively processed, and constituted a primary component of the diet throughout the period from 3000 to 1800 B.C. PMID:23440194

  14. Influence of s-Triazines on Some Enzymes of Carbohydrates and Nitrogen Metabolism in Leaves of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) and Sweet Corn (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, M. T.; Singh, B.; Salunkhe, D. K.

    1971-01-01

    Foliar applications of 2 milligrams per liter of 2-chloro-4,6-bis (ethylamino)-s-triazine, 2-methylmercapto-4-ethylamino-6-isobutylamino-s-triazine, and 2-methoxy-4-isopropylamino-6-butylamino-s-triazine caused increases in the activities of starch phosphorylase, pyruvate kinase, cytochrome oxidase, and glutamate dehydrogenase 5, 10, and 15 days after treatment in the leaves of 3-week-old seedlings of pea (Pisum sativum L.) and sweet corn (Zea mays L.). The results indicate that sublethal concentrations of s-triazine compounds affect the physiological and biochemical events in plants which favor more utilization of carbohydrates for nitrate reduction and synthesis of amino acids and proteins. PMID:16657830

  15. Phytotoxical effect of Lepidium draba L. extracts on the germination and growth of monocot (Zea mays L.) and dicot (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Yusuf; Aksakal, Ozkan; Sunar, Serap; Erturk, Filiz Aygun; Bozari, Sedat; Agar, Guleray; Erez, Mehmet Emre; Battal, Peyami

    2015-03-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to determine phytotoxic potentials of white top (Lepidium draba) methanol extracts (root, stem and leaf) on germination and early growth of corn (Zea mays) and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus). Furthermore, the effects of different methanol extracts of L. draba on the phytohormone (indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA), abscisic acid (ABA) and zeatin) levels of corn and redroot pigweed were investigated. It was observed that all concentrations of methanol extracts of root, stem and leaf of L. draba inhibited germination, radicle and plumule elongation when compared with the respective controls. Besides this, the degree of inhibition was increased in concert with increasing concentrations of extracts used. On the other hand, phytohormone levels changed with the application of different extract concentrations. Comparing with the control, the GA levels significantly decreased while the ABA levels increased in all the application groups. Zeatin and IAA levels showed changes depending upon the applied extracts and concentrations. PMID:23293131

  16. Evidence for maize (Zea mays) in the Late Archaic (3000–1800 B.C.) in the Norte Chico region of Peru

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Jonathan; Creamer, Winifred; Huamán Mesía, Luis; Goldstein, David; Reinhard, Karl; Rodríguez, Cindy Vergel

    2013-01-01

    For more than 40 y, there has been an active discussion over the presence and economic importance of maize (Zea mays) during the Late Archaic period (3000–1800 B.C.) in ancient Peru. The evidence for Late Archaic maize has been limited, leading to the interpretation that it was present but used primarily for ceremonial purposes. Archaeological testing at a number of sites in the Norte Chico region of the north central coast provides a broad range of empirical data on the production, processing, and consumption of maize. New data drawn from coprolites, pollen records, and stone tool residues, combined with 126 radiocarbon dates, demonstrate that maize was widely grown, intensively processed, and constituted a primary component of the diet throughout the period from 3000 to 1800 B.C. PMID:23440194

  17. Variations in the accumulation, localization and rate of metabolization of selenium in mature Zea mays plants supplied with selenite or selenate.

    PubMed

    Longchamp, Mélanie; Castrec-Rouelle, Maryse; Biron, Philippe; Bariac, Thierry

    2015-09-01

    Quantification of selenium bioavailability from foods is a key challenge following the discovery of the antioxidant role of this micronutrient in human health. This study presents the uptake, accumulation and rate of metabolization in mature Zea mays plants grown in hydroponic solution supplemented with selenate or selenite. Selenium content was lower in plants supplemented with selenate and accumulated mainly in the leaves compared with selenite-treated plants where the selenium was retained in the roots. Selenite-treated grains accumulated more selenium. Selenate was metabolized less than selenite in whole plants, but in grains selenium was present exclusively as organic selenium compounds. For humans, the bioavailability of organic selenium was evaluated at 90% compared with only 50% for inorganic forms. Our results show that the potential for selenium bioavailability is increased with selenite treatment. PMID:25842318

  18. Inositol Metabolism in Plants. V. Conversion of Myo-inositol to Uronic Acid and Pentose Units of Acidic Polysaccharides in Root-tips of Zea mays 1

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, R. M.; Deshusses, J.; Loewus, F.

    1968-01-01

    The metabolism of myo-inositol-2-14C, d-glucuronate-1-14C, d-glucuronate-6-14C, and l-methionine-methyl-14C to cell wall polysaccharides was investigated in excised root-tips of 3 day old Zea mays seedlings. From myo-inositol, about one-half of incorporated label was recovered in ethanol insoluble residues. Of this label, about 90% was solubilized by treatment, first with a preparation of pectinase-EDTA, then with dilute hydrochloric acid. The only labeled constituents in these hydrolyzates were d-galacturonic acid, d-glucuronic acid, 4-O-methyl-d-glucuronic acid, d-xylose, and l-arabinose, or larger oligosaccharide fragments containing these units. Medium external to excised root-tips grown under sterile conditions in myo-inositol-2-14C contained labeled polysaccharide. When label was supplied in the form of d-glucuronate, the pattern of labeled uronic acid and pentose units in cell wall polysaccharides resembled that obtained from labeled myo-inositol, indicating that both substances were metabolized along a common path during polysaccharide formation, and that methylation occurred at a step subsequent to uronic acid formation. When label was supplied in the form of l-methionine-methyl-14C, 4-O-methyl-d-glucuronic acid was the only labeled monosaccharide component that survived enzymatic or acid hydrolysis. Zea mays endosperm, a known source of phytin, developed maximal phytase activity after the third day of germination. Results obtained here suggest that myo-inositol released by hydrolysis of phytin represents the initial precursor of a normal, possibly predominant pathway for the formation of uronic acids in plants. PMID:16656871

  19. Effects of Mineral Phosphorous Fertilization and cd Loading on cd Translocation from Soil to Corn (Zea mays L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    been identified as hazardous (H) waste (W) sites (S)(HWS) because of the presence of elevated concentrations of these elements. They will remain a threat to the environment until they are removed or immobilized. We can test and improve these situation by using different plant species, as corn (Zea mays L.) x macro nutrients as phosphorous experimental methods. Maize has a very great biomass (B) production (P) potential (P)(BPP) and important role in soil fertility by the design of plant rotation to field plant production, the animal foraging as a fodder-crop with a high carbohydrate (70%) and protein (10%) content (70%) and via pytoremediation possibilities. Cd is considered to be a nonessential element for maize, it is effectively absorbed by both the root and leaf system. By these ways a great proportion of the cadmium is to be accumulated in root tissues, even when Cd enters the plant via foliar system from the polluted air and precipitation. The most chief geobiochemical property of cadmium ions is their strong affinity for sulfhydryl groups of several compounds (OSHA 1992; Richardson 1992; RAIS 1991; Sittig 1991; TAP 1999; WA 1996; WHO 1992, 2001). Furthermore Cd shows an affinity for other side chains of protein and for phosphate groups too. The Cd content of maize is of the highest concern as a Cd reservoir and as the patway of cadmium to soil-plant-animal-man chain (FOOD CHAIN). Thus, tolerance and adaptation of corn to higher Cd levels, although important from the environmental poin of view, create a helth risc. Material and Method The phosphorus (P2O5) mineral fertilization and cadmium loading effects were studied in a long-term field experiment set up at Experimental Station of the Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences on a calcareous chernozem soil at Nagyhörcsök in 1977. The soil had the following agrogeochemical characteristics: pH (KCl) 7.3, humus 3.0%, ammonlactate (AL) soluble-P2O5 60

  20. Effects of Mineral Phosphorous Fertilization and cd Loading on cd Translocation from Soil to Corn (Zea mays L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    been identified as hazardous (H) waste (W) sites (S)(HWS) because of the presence of elevated concentrations of these elements. They will remain a threat to the environment until they are removed or immobilized. We can test and improve these situation by using different plant species, as corn (Zea mays L.) x macro nutrients as phosphorous experimental methods. Maize has a very great biomass (B) production (P) potential (P)(BPP) and important role in soil fertility by the design of plant rotation to field plant production, the animal foraging as a fodder-crop with a high carbohydrate (70%) and protein (10%) content (70%) and via pytoremediation possibilities. Cd is considered to be a nonessential element for maize, it is effectively absorbed by both the root and leaf system. By these ways a great proportion of the cadmium is to be accumulated in root tissues, even when Cd enters the plant via foliar system from the polluted air and precipitation. The most chief geobiochemical property of cadmium ions is their strong affinity for sulfhydryl groups of several compounds (OSHA 1992; Richardson 1992; RAIS 1991; Sittig 1991; TAP 1999; WA 1996; WHO 1992, 2001). Furthermore Cd shows an affinity for other side chains of protein and for phosphate groups too. The Cd content of maize is of the highest concern as a Cd reservoir and as the patway of cadmium to soil-plant-animal-man chain (FOOD CHAIN). Thus, tolerance and adaptation of corn to higher Cd levels, although important from the environmental poin of view, create a helth risc. Material and Method The phosphorus (P2O5) mineral fertilization and cadmium loading effects were studied in a long-term field experiment set up at Experimental Station of the Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences on a calcareous chernozem soil at Nagyhörcsök in 1977. The soil had the following agrogeochemical characteristics: pH (KCl) 7.3, humus 3.0%, ammonlactate (AL) soluble-P2O5 60

  1. The regulatory c1 locus of Zea mays encodes a protein with homology to myb proto-oncogene products and with structural similarities to transcriptional activators.

    PubMed Central

    Paz-Ares, J; Ghosal, D; Wienand, U; Peterson, P A; Saedler, H

    1987-01-01

    The structure of the wild-type c1 locus of Zea mays was determined by sequence analysis of one genomic and two cDNA clones. The coding region is composed of three exons (150 bp, 129 bp and one, at least 720 bp) and two small introns (88 bp and 145 bp). Transcription of the mRNAs corresponding to the two cDNA clones cLC6 (1.1 kb) and cLC28 (2.1 kb) starts from the same promoter. Both cDNAs are identical except that cLC28 extends further at its 3' end. A putative protein, 273 amino acids in length was deduced from the sequence of both transcripts. It contains two domains, one basic and the other acidic and might function as a transcriptional activator. The basic domain of this c1-encoded protein shows 40% sequence homology to the protein products of animal myb proto-oncogenes. Images Fig. 3. PMID:3428265

  2. Analysis of growth patterns during gravitropic curvature in roots of Zea mays by use of a computer-based video digitizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, A. J.; Evans, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    A computer-based video digitizer system is described which allows automated tracking of markers placed on a plant surface. The system uses customized software to calculate relative growth rates at selected positions along the plant surface and to determine rates of gravitropic curvature based on the changing pattern of distribution of the surface markers. The system was used to study the time course of gravitropic curvature and changes in relative growth rate along the upper and lower surface of horizontally-oriented roots of maize (Zea mays L.). The growing region of the root was found to extend from about 1 mm behind the tip to approximately 6 mm behind the tip. In vertically-oriented roots the relative growth rate was maximal at about 2.5 mm behind the tip and declined smoothly on either side of the maximum. Curvature was initiated approximately 30 min after horizontal orientation with maximal (50 degrees) curvature being attained in 3 h. Analysis of surface extension patterns during the response indicated that curvature results from a reduction in growth rate along both the upper and lower surfaces with stronger reduction along the lower surface.

  3. Translocation of radiolabeled indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol from kernel to shoot of Zea mays L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chisnell, J. R.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Either 5-[3H]indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or 5-[3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol was applied to the endosperm of kernels of dark-grown Zea mays seedlings. The distribution of total radioactivity, radiolabeled indole-3-acetic acid, and radiolabeled ester conjugated indole-3-acetic acid, in the shoots was then determined. Differences were found in the distribution and chemical form of the radiolabeled indole-3-acetic acid in the shoot depending upon whether 5-[3H]indole-3-acetic acid or 5-[3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol was applied to the endosperm. We demonstrated that indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol applied to the endosperm provides both free and ester conjugated indole-3-acetic acid to the mesocotyl and coleoptile. Free indole-3-acetic acid applied to the endosperm supplies some of the indole-3-acetic acid in the mesocotyl but essentially no indole-3-acetic acid to the coleoptile or primary leaves. It is concluded that free IAA from the endosperm is not a source of IAA for the coleoptile. Neither radioactive indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol nor IAA accumulates in the tip of the coleoptile or the mesocotyl node and thus these studies do not explain how the coleoptile tip controls the amount of IAA in the shoot.

  4. Phase II-inducing, polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity of corn (Zea mays L.) from phenotypes of white, blue, red and purple colors processed into masa and tortillas.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Martinez, Leticia X; Parkin, Kirk L; Garcia, Hugo S

    2011-03-01

    White, blue, red and purple corns (Zea mays L.) were lime-cooked to obtain masa for tortillas. The total phenolics and anthocyanins content, antioxidant activity expressed as total reducing power (TRP), peroxyl radical bleaching (PRAC), total antioxidant activity (TAA) and quinone reductase (QR) induction in the murine hepatoma (Hepa 1 c1c7 cell line) as a biological marker for phase II detoxification enzymes were investigated. Among the extracts prepared from raw corn varieties the highest concentration of total phenolics, anthocyanins, antioxidant index and induction of QR-inducing activity were found in the Veracruz 42 (Ver 42) genotype. The nixtamalization process (masa) reduced total phenolics, anthocyanins and antioxidant activities and the ability for QR induction when was compared to raw grain. Processing masa into tortillas also negatively affected total phenolics, anthocyanin concentration, antioxidant activities, and QR induction in the colored corn varieties. The blue variety and its corresponding masa and tortillas did not induce QR. Ver 42 genotype and their products (masa and tortilla) showed the greatest antioxidant activity and capacity to induce QR. PMID:21327968

  5. Membrane Stabilization and Detoxification of Acetaminophen-Mediated Oxidative Onslaughts in the Kidneys of Wistar Rats by Standardized Fraction of Zea mays L. (Poaceae), Stigma maydis.

    PubMed

    Sabiu, S; O'Neill, F H; Ashafa, A O T

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated membrane stabilization and detoxification potential of ethyl acetate fraction of Zea mays L., Stigma maydis in acetaminophen-induced oxidative onslaughts in the kidneys of Wistar rats. Nephrotoxic rats were orally pre- and posttreated with the fraction and vitamin C for 14 days. Kidney function, antioxidative and histological analyses were thereafter evaluated. The acetaminophen-mediated significant elevations in the serum concentrations of creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, potassium, and tissue levels of oxidized glutathione, protein-oxidized products, lipid peroxidized products, and fragmented DNA were dose-dependently assuaged in the fraction-treated animals. The fraction also markedly improved creatinine clearance rate, glutathione, and calcium concentrations as well as activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase in the nephrotoxic rats. These improvements may be attributed to the antioxidative and membrane stabilization activities of the fraction. The observed effects compared favorably with that of vitamin C and are informative of the fraction's ability to prevent progression of renal pathological conditions and preserve kidney functions as evidently supported by the histological analysis. Although the effects were prominently exhibited in the fraction-pretreated groups, the overall data from the present findings suggest that the fraction could prevent or extenuate acetaminophen-mediated oxidative renal damage via fortification of antioxidant defense mechanisms. PMID:27579048

  6. Conversion of photosynthetic products in the light in CO2-free O 2 and N 2 in leaves of Zea mays L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Lewanty, Z; Maleszewski, S

    1976-01-01

    After 10 min illumination of segments of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) or maize (Zea mays L.) leaves in air with (14)CO2, the atmosphere was changed to CO2-free O2 or N2 and conversion of photosynthetic products in the light was investigated. The experiments have shown that after the (14)CO2 assimilation period the bean leaves contain the pool of weakly fixed (14)C (WF-(14)C) which is converted into stable products during the subsequent period of illumination in CO2-free N2. In O2 atmosphere the WF-(14)C pool is initially the main source of CO2 evolved. The marked decrease in radioactivity of sucrose and starch during illumination of bean leaves in O2 atmosphere indicates that these compounds were also the source of CO2 evolved in the light. The total amount of previously fixed (14)C remained almost on the same level during illumination of maize leaves in N2 as well as in O2. However, oxygen changed the distribution of (14)C in photosynthetic products, which is suggested to be the consequence of the photorespiration process in maize. PMID:24424758

  7. Uptake, translocation and biotransformation kinetics of BDE-47, 6-OH-BDE-47 and 6-MeO-BDE-47 in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuehui; Wen, Bei; Huang, Honglin; Wang, Sen; Han, Ruixia; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a detailed kinetic investigation on the uptake, acropetal translocation and transformation of BDE-47, 6-OH-BDE-47 and 6-MeO-BDE-47 in maize (Zea mays L.) by hydroponic exposure. Root uptake followed the order: BDE-47 > 6-MeO-BDE-47 > 6-OH-BDE-47, while 6-OH-BDE-47 was the most prone to acropetal translocation. Debromination rates of BDE-47 were 1.31 and 1.46 times greater than the hydroxylation and methoxylation rates, respectively. Transformation from BDE-47 to lower brominated OH/MeO-PBDEs occurred mainly through debromination first followed by hydroxylation or methoxylation. There was no transformation from 6-OH-BDE-47 or 6-MeO-BDE-47 to PBDEs. Methylation rate of 6-OH-BDE-47 was twice as high as that of 6-MeO-BDE-47 hydroxylation, indicating methylation of 6-OH-BDE-47 was easier and more rapid than hydroxylation of 6-MeO-BDE-47. Debromination and isomerization were potential metabolic pathways for 6-OH-BDE-47 and 6-MeO-BDE-47 in maize. This study provides important information for better understanding the mechanism on plant uptake and transformation of PBDEs. PMID:26561454

  8. Structural insights into the IgE mediated responses induced by the allergens Hev b 8 and Zea m 12 in their dimeric forms

    PubMed Central

    Mares-Mejía, Israel; Martínez-Caballero, Siseth; Garay-Canales, Claudia; Cano-Sánchez, Patricia; Torres-Larios, Alfredo; Lara-González, Samuel; Ortega, Enrique; Rodríguez-Romero, Adela

    2016-01-01

    Oligomerization of allergens plays an important role in IgE-mediated reactions, as effective crosslinking of IgE- FcεRI complexes on the cell membrane is dependent on the number of exposed B-cell epitopes in a single allergen molecule or on the occurrence of identical epitopes in a symmetrical arrangement. Few studies have attempted to experimentally demonstrate the connection between allergen dimerization and the ability to trigger allergic reactions. Here we studied plant allergenic profilins rHev b 8 (rubber tree) and rZea m 12 (maize) because they represent an important example of cross-reactivity in the latex-pollen-food syndrome. Both allergens in their monomeric and dimeric states were isolated and characterized by exclusion chromatography and mass spectrometry and were used in immunological in vitro experiments. Their crystal structures were solved, and for Hev b 8 a disulfide-linked homodimer was found. Comparing the structures we established that the longest loop is relevant for recognition by IgE antibodies, whereas the conserved regions are important for cross-reactivity. We produced a novel monoclonal murine IgE (mAb 2F5), specific for rHev b 8, which was useful to provide evidence that profilin dimerization considerably increases the IgE-mediated degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia cells. PMID:27586352

  9. Uptake and phytotoxicity of the herbicide metsulfuron methyl in corn root tissue in the presence of the safener 1,8-naphthalic anhydride. [Zea mays L

    SciTech Connect

    Milhomme, H.; Bastide, J. )

    1990-06-01

    Growth of Zea mays L. cv Potro roots was inhibited by the herbicide metsulfuron methyl (MSM) at the lowest concentration tested: 5 nanomoles per liter. Pretreatment of corn seeds with commercial 1,8-naphthalic anhydride (NA) at 1% (w/w) partially reversed MSM-induced root growth inhibition. MSM at a concentration of 52 nanomoles per liter was taken up rapidly by roots and accumulated in the corn tissue to concentrations three times those in the external medium; the safener NA increased MSM uptake up to 48 hours. The protective effect of NA was related to the ability of the safener to increase the metabolism of MSM; ten-fold increases in the metabolic rates of MSM were observed in NA-pretreated corn seedlings grown for 48 hours on 52 nanomolar ({sup 14}C)MSM solution. DNA synthesis determined by measurement of ({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation into DNA was inhibited by root MSM applications; after a 6-hour application period, 13 nanomolar MSM solution reduced DNA synthesis by 64%, and the same reduction was also observed with NA-treated seedlings. Pretreatment of corn seeds with safener NA did not increase the acetolactate synthase activity in the roots and did not change, up to 13 micromoles per liter, the in vitro sensitivity of roots to MSM.

  10. Effect of Piriformospora indica inoculation on root development and distribution of maize (Zea mays L.) in the presence of petroleum contaminated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, Javad; Hajabbasi, Mohammad Ali; Alaie, Ebrahim

    2014-05-01

    The root systems of most terrestrial plants are confronted to various abiotic and biotic stresses. One of these abiotic stresses is contamination of soil with petroleum hydrocarbon, which the efficiency of phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils is dependent on the ability of plant roots to development into the contaminated soils. Piriformospora indica represents a recently discovered fungus that transfers considerable beneficial impact to its host plants. A rhizotron experiment was conducted to study the effects of P. Indica inoculation on root distribution and root and shoot development of maize (Zea mays L.) in the presence of three patterns of petroleum contamination in the soil (subsurface contamination, continuous contamination and without contamination (control)). Root distribution and root and shoot development were monitored over time. The final root and shoot biomass and the final TPH concentration in the rhizosphere were determined. Analysis of digitized images which were prepared of the tracing of the appeared roots along the front rhizotrons showed the depth and total length of root network in the contamination treatments were significantly decreased. Although the degradation of TPH in the rhizosphere of maize was significant, but there were no significant differences between degradation of TPH in the rhizosphere of +P. indica plants in comparison to -P. indica plants.

  11. Cadmium sulfate application to sludge-amended soils: III. Relationship between treatment and plant available cadmium, zinc, and manganese. [Beta vulgaris, Zea mays

    SciTech Connect

    Mahler, R.J. ); Ryan, J.A. )

    1988-01-01

    Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla) and corn (Zea mays L.) were used as biological indicators of Cd, Zn, and Mn availability in 12 soils amended with and without sludge, CdSO{sub 4} and CaCO{sub 3}. Soil Cd, Zn and Mn were partitioned into six fractions: soluble, exchangeable, adsorbed, organically bound, carbonate bound and sulfide bound, by the use of H{sub 2}O, KNO{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O, NaOH, EDTA and HNO{sub 3}, respectively. The data indicate that the major portion of total Cd was found in the carbonate, residual and organic fractions. Addition of CaCO{sub 3} caused an increase in the soluble and exchangeable fractions of Cd in the soils. The concentrations of Cd in the saturation extracts of the limed soils were significantly greater than those of the unlimed soils; however, this was not reflected in greater plant uptake of Cd from limed soils.

  12. Potential of Microbispora sp. V2 as biocontrol agent against Sclerotium rolfsii, the causative agent of southern blight of Zea mays L (Baby corn)--in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Patil, N N; Waghmode, M S; Gaikwad, P S; Gajbhiye, M H; Gunjal, A B; Nawani, N N; Kapadnis, B P

    2014-11-01

    The study was undertaken with the aim of exploring novel and beneficial agro activities of rare actinomycetes like Microbispora sp. V2. The antagonistic activity of Microbispora sp. V2 was evaluated as a biocontrol agents against Sclerotium rolfsii, a soil-borne fungal plant pathogen. The methodology performed for evaluation of biocontrol agent was in vitro evaluation assay which comprised of three tests viz., cellophane overlay technique, seed germination test and Thiram (fungicide) tolerance of Microbispora sp. V2. The isolate was found to inhibit the fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii to 91.43% in cellophane assay. In seed germination assay, Microbispora sp. V2 treated seeds resulted in 25.75% increased germination efficiency, as compared to seeds infected by Sclerotium rolfsii. The isolate Microbispora sp. V2 could tolerate 1000 microg mL(-1) of Thiram (fungicide). The in vitro assay studies proved that Microbispora sp. V2 can be used as antifungal antagonist and thus posses' great potential as biocontrol agent against southern blight caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Zea mays L (Baby corn) which causes large economical losses. PMID:25434111

  13. Roothairless5, which functions in maize (Zea mays L.) root hair initiation and elongation encodes a monocot-specific NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Nestler, Josefine; Liu, Sanzhen; Wen, Tsui-Jung; Paschold, Anja; Marcon, Caroline; Tang, Ho Man; Li, Delin; Li, Li; Meeley, Robert B; Sakai, Hajime; Bruce, Wesley; Schnable, Patrick S; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2014-09-01

    Root hairs are instrumental for nutrient uptake in monocot cereals. The maize (Zea mays L.) roothairless5 (rth5) mutant displays defects in root hair initiation and elongation manifested by a reduced density and length of root hairs. Map-based cloning revealed that the rth5 gene encodes a monocot-specific NADPH oxidase. RNA-Seq, in situ hybridization and qRT-PCR experiments demonstrated that the rth5 gene displays preferential expression in root hairs but also accumulates to low levels in other tissues. Immunolocalization detected RTH5 proteins in the epidermis of the elongation and differentiation zone of primary roots. Because superoxide and hydrogen peroxide levels are reduced in the tips of growing rth5 mutant root hairs as compared with wild-type, and Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is known to be involved in tip growth, we hypothesize that the RTH5 protein is responsible for establishing the high levels of ROS in the tips of growing root hairs required for elongation. Consistent with this hypothesis, a comparative RNA-Seq analysis of 6-day-old rth5 versus wild-type primary roots revealed significant over-representation of only two gene ontology (GO) classes related to the biological functions (i.e. oxidation/reduction and carbohydrate metabolism) among 893 differentially expressed genes (FDR <5%). Within these two classes the subgroups 'response to oxidative stress' and 'cellulose biosynthesis' were most prominently represented. PMID:24902980

  14. Development of combined imbibition and hydrothermal threshold models to simulate maize (Zea mays) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum) seed germination in variable environments.

    PubMed

    Finch-Savage, W E; Rowse, H R; Dent, K C

    2005-03-01

    * The ability of hydrothermal time (HTT) and virtual osmotic potential (VOP) models to describe the kinetics of maize (Zea mays) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum) seed germination under variable conditions of water potential was investigated with a view to gaining an improved understanding of the impact of on-farm seed priming on seedling establishment through simulation. * Germination and/or imbibition time courses were recorded over a wide range of constant temperatures and water potentials and simple stepwise changes in water potential. * Both models adequately described germination under constant environmental conditions, but not conditions of water potential that varied. To test the hypothesis that this inaccuracy resulted from the use of ambient water potential, a parsimonious model of seed imbibition was developed to calibrate the HTT and VOP models (IHTT and IVOP) and drive them with estimates of seed water potential. * The IHTT and IVOP models described germination during stepwise changes in water potential more accurately than the conventional models, and should contribute to improved predictions of germination time in the field. PMID:15720694

  15. Determination of uptake, accumulation, and stress effects in corn (Zea mays L.) grown in single-wall carbon nanotube contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Cano, Amanda M; Kohl, Kristina; Deleon, Sabrina; Payton, Paxton; Irin, Fahmida; Saed, Mohammad; Shah, Smit Alkesh; Green, Micah J; Cañas-Carrell, Jaclyn E

    2016-06-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are projected to increase in usage across many industries. Two studies were conducted using Zea L. (corn) seeds exposed to SWNT spiked soil for 40 d. In Study 1, corn was exposed to various SWNT concentrations (0, 10, and 100 mg/kg) with different functionalities (non-functionalized, OH-functionalized, or surfactant stabilized). A microwave induced heating method was used to determine SWNTs accumulated mostly in roots (0-24 μg/g), with minimal accumulation in stems and leaves (2-10 μg/g) with a limit of detection at 0.1 μg/g. Uptake was not functional group dependent. In Study 2, corn was exposed to 10 mg/kg SWNTs (non-functionalized or COOH-functionalized) under optimally grown or water deficit conditions. Plant physiological stress was determined by the measurement of photosynthetic rate throughout Study 2. No significant differences were seen between control and SWNT treatments. Considering the amount of SWNTs accumulated in corn roots, further studies are needed to address the potential for SWNTs to enter root crop species (i.e., carrots), which could present a significant pathway for human dietary exposure. PMID:26966810

  16. Influence of Rhizophagus irregularis inoculation and phosphorus application on growth and arsenic accumulation in maize (Zea mays L.) cultivated on an arsenic-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Cattani, I; Beone, G M; Gonnelli, C

    2015-05-01

    Southern Tuscany (Italy) is characterized by extensive arsenic (As) anomalies, with concentrations of up to 2000 mg kg soil(-1). Samples from the location of Scarlino, containing about 200 mg kg(-1) of As, were used to study the influence of the inoculation of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus (Rhizophagus irregularis, previously known as Glomus intraradices) and of phosphorus (P) application, separately and in combination, on As speciation in the rhizosphere of Zea mays on plant growth and As accumulation. Also, P distribution in plant parts was investigated. Each treatment produced a moderate rise of As(III) in the rhizosphere, increased As(III) and lowered As(V) concentration in shoots. P treatment, alone or in combination with AM, augmented the plant biomass. The treatments did not affect total As concentration in the shoots (with all the values <1 mg kg(-1) dry weight), while in the roots it was lowered by P treatment alone. Such decrease was probably a consequence of the competition between P and As(V) for the same transport systems, interestingly nullified by the combination with AM treatment. P concentration was higher with AM only in both shoots and roots. Therefore, the obtained results can be extremely encouraging for maize cultivation on a marginal land, like the one studied. PMID:25716900

  17. Soil water capture trends over 50 years of single-cross maize (Zea mays L.) breeding in the US corn-belt.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Andres; Messina, Carlos D; Hammer, Graeme L; Liu, Lu; van Oosterom, Erik; Lafitte, Renee; Cooper, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Breeders have successfully improved maize (Zea mays L.) grain yield for the conditions of the US corn-belt over the past 80 years, with the past 50 years utilizing single-cross hybrids. Long-term improvement for grain yield under water-limited conditions has also been reported. Grain yield under water-limited conditions depends on water use, water use efficiency, and harvest index. It has been hypothesized that long-term genetic gain for yield could be due, in part, to increased water capture from the soil. This hypothesis was tested using a set of elite single-cross hybrids that were released by DuPont Pioneer between 1963 and 2009. Eighteen hybrids were grown in the field during 2010 and 2011 growing seasons at Woodland, CA, USA. Crops grew predominantly on stored soil water and drought stress increased as the season progressed. Soil water content was measured to 300cm depth throughout the growing season. Significant water extraction occurred to a depth of 240-300cm and seasonal water use was calculated from the change in soil water over this rooting zone. Grain yield increased significantly with year of commercialization, but no such trend was observed for total water extraction. Therefore, the measured genetic gain for yield for the period represented by this set of hybrids must be related to either increased efficiency of water use or increased carbon partitioning to the grain, rather than increased soil water uptake. PMID:26428065

  18. Cell cycle arrest induced by inhibitors of epigenetic modifications in maize (Zea mays) seedling leaves: characterization of the process and possible mechanisms involved.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pu; Zhang, Hao; Hou, Haoli; Wang, Qing; Li, Yingnan; Huang, Yan; Xie, Liangfu; Gao, Fei; He, Shibin; Li, Lijia

    2016-07-01

    Epigenetic modifications play crucial roles in the regulation of chromatin architecture and are involved in cell cycle progression, including mitosis and meiosis. To explore the relationship between epigenetic modifications and the cell cycle, we treated maize (Zea mays) seedlings with six different epigenetic modification-related inhibitors and identified the postsynthetic phase (G2 ) arrest via flow cytometry analysis. Total H4K5ac levels were significantly increased and the distribution of H3S10ph signalling was obviously changed in mitosis under various treatments. Further statistics of the cells in different periods of mitosis confirmed that the cell cycle was arrested at preprophase. Concentrations of hydrogen peroxide were relatively higher in the treated plants and the antioxidant thiourea could negate the influence of the inhibitors. Moreover, all of the treated plants displayed negative results in the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labelling (TUNEL) and γ-H2AX immunostaining assays after exposure for 3 d. Additionally, the expression level of topoisomerase genes in the treated plants was relatively lower than that in the untreated plants. These results suggest that these inhibitors of epigenetic modifications could cause preprophase arrest via reactive oxygen species formation inhibiting the expression of DNA topoisomerase genes, accompanied by changes in the H4K5ac and H3S10ph histone modifications. PMID:27040740

  19. Genome-wide identification, expression analysis of auxin-responsive GH3 family genes in maize (Zea mays L.) under abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shangguo; Yue, Runqing; Tao, Sun; Yang, Yanjun; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Mingfeng; Wang, Huizhong; Shen, Chenjia

    2015-09-01

    Auxin is involved in different aspects of plant growth and development by regulating the expression of auxin-responsive family genes. As one of the three major auxin-responsive families, GH3 (Gretchen Hagen3) genes participate in auxin homeostasis by catalyzing auxin conjugation and bounding free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to amino acids. However, how GH3 genes function in responses to abiotic stresses and various hormones in maize is largely unknown. Here, the latest updated maize (Zea mays L.) reference genome sequence was used to characterize and analyze the ZmGH3 family genes from maize. The results showed that 13 ZmGH3 genes were mapped on five maize chromosomes (total 10 chromosomes). Highly diversified gene structures and tissue-specific expression patterns suggested the possibility of function diversification for these genes in response to environmental stresses and hormone stimuli. The expression patterns of ZmGH3 genes are responsive to several abiotic stresses (salt, drought and cadmium) and major stress-related hormones (abscisic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid). Various environmental factors suppress auxin free IAA contents in maize roots suggesting that these abiotic stresses and hormones might alter GH3-mediated auxin levels. The responsiveness of ZmGH3 genes to a wide range of abiotic stresses and stress-related hormones suggested that ZmGH3s are involved in maize tolerance to environmental stresses. PMID:25557253

  20. Membrane Stabilization and Detoxification of Acetaminophen-Mediated Oxidative Onslaughts in the Kidneys of Wistar Rats by Standardized Fraction of Zea mays L. (Poaceae), Stigma maydis

    PubMed Central

    Sabiu, S.; O'Neill, F. H.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated membrane stabilization and detoxification potential of ethyl acetate fraction of Zea mays L., Stigma maydis in acetaminophen-induced oxidative onslaughts in the kidneys of Wistar rats. Nephrotoxic rats were orally pre- and posttreated with the fraction and vitamin C for 14 days. Kidney function, antioxidative and histological analyses were thereafter evaluated. The acetaminophen-mediated significant elevations in the serum concentrations of creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, potassium, and tissue levels of oxidized glutathione, protein-oxidized products, lipid peroxidized products, and fragmented DNA were dose-dependently assuaged in the fraction-treated animals. The fraction also markedly improved creatinine clearance rate, glutathione, and calcium concentrations as well as activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase in the nephrotoxic rats. These improvements may be attributed to the antioxidative and membrane stabilization activities of the fraction. The observed effects compared favorably with that of vitamin C and are informative of the fraction's ability to prevent progression of renal pathological conditions and preserve kidney functions as evidently supported by the histological analysis. Although the effects were prominently exhibited in the fraction-pretreated groups, the overall data from the present findings suggest that the fraction could prevent or extenuate acetaminophen-mediated oxidative renal damage via fortification of antioxidant defense mechanisms. PMID:27579048

  1. The initiation of lateral roots in the primary roots of maize (Zea mays L.) implies a reactivation of cell proliferation in a group of founder pericycle cells.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, M Victoria; Lloret, Pedro G; Martín-Partido, Gervasio; Salguero, Julio

    2016-03-15

    The initiation of lateral roots (LRs) has generally been viewed as a reactivation of proliferative activity in pericycle cells that are committed to initiate primordia. However, it is also possible that pericycle founder cells that initiate LRs never cease proliferative activity but rather are displaced to the most distal root zones while undertaking successive stages of LR initiation. In this study, we tested these two alternative hypotheses by examining the incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) into the DNA of meristematic root cells of Zea mays. According to the values for the length of the cell cycle and values for cell displacement along the maize root, our results strongly suggest that pericycle cells that initiate LR primordia ceased proliferative activity upon exiting the meristematic zone. This finding is supported by the existence of a root zone between 4 and 20mm from the root cap junction, in which neither mitotic cells nor labelled nuclei were observed in phloem pericycle cells. PMID:26905196

  2. Depolarization of the Electrogenic Transmembrane Electropotential of Zea mays L. by Bipolaris (Helminthosporium) maydis Race T Toxin, Azide, Cyanide, Dodecyl Succinic Acid, or Cold Temperature 1

    PubMed Central

    Mertz, Stuart M.; Arntzen, Charles J.

    1978-01-01

    The transmembrane electrical potential of root cells of Zea mays L. cv. W64A in a modified 1× Higinbotham solution was partially depolarized by semipurified toxin obtained from Bipolaris (Helminthosporium) maydis race T. At a given toxin concentration depolarization of Texas cytoplasm cells was much greater than for normal cytoplasm cells. This observation correlated directly to the differential host susceptibility to the fungus. The time course and magnitude of depolarization were dependent on toxin concentration; at high concentration the electropotential difference change was rapid. Cortex cells depolarized more slowly than epidermal cells indicating that the toxin slowly permeated intercellular regions. Toxin concentrations which affected electropotential difference were of the same magnitude as those required to inhibit root growth, ion uptake, and mitochondrial processes. Azide, cyanide, and cold temperature (5 C) gave the same partial depolarization as did the toxin. Dodecyl succinic acid caused complete depolarization. These and other data indicate that one of the primary actions of the toxin is to inhibit electrogenic ion pumps in the plasmalemma. PMID:16660605

  3. Extract of corn silk (stigma of Zea mays) inhibits the tumour necrosis factor-alpha- and bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced cell adhesion and ICAM-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Habtemariam, S

    1998-05-01

    Treatment of human endothelial cells with cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) or E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces the expression of several adhesion molecules and enhances leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cell surface. Interfering with this leukocyte adhesion or adhesion molecules upregulation is an important therapeutic target for the treatment of bacterial sepsis and various inflammatory diseases. In the course of screening marketed European anti-inflammatory herbal drugs for TNF antagonistic activity, a crude ethanolic extract of corn silk (stigma of Zea mays) exhibited significant activity. The extract at concentrations of 9-250 micrograms/ml effectively inhibited the TNF- and LPS-induced adhesiveness of EAhy 926 endothelial cells to monocytic U937 cells. Similar concentration ranges of corn silk extract did also block the TNF and LPS but not the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced ICAM-1 expression on EAhy 926 endothelial cell surface. The extract did not alter the production of TNF by LPS-activated macrophages and failed to inhibit the cytotoxic activity of TNF. It is concluded that corn silk possesses important therapeutic potential for TNF- and LPS-mediated leukocyte adhesion and trafficking. PMID:9619111

  4. Contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to the development of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in three types of coal mine spoils.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Zhao, Renxin; Fu, Ruiying; Bi, Na; Wang, Lixin; Zhao, Wenjing; Guo, Jiangyuan; Zhang, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Coal mine spoils are usually unfavorable for plant growth and have different properties according to dumping years, weathering degree, and the occurrence of spontaneous combustion. The establishment of plant cover in mine spoils can be facilitated by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the importance of AMF in plant adaptation to different mine spoils and the potential role of AMF for revegetation practices. We investigated the effects of Glomus aggregatum, Rhizophagus intraradices (syn. Glomus intraradices), and Funneliformis mosseae (syn. Glomus mosseae) on the growth, nutritional status, and metal uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in recent discharged (S1), weathered (S2), and spontaneous combusted (S3) coal mine spoils. Symbiotic associations were successfully established between AMF and maize in three substrates. Mycorrhizal colonization effectively promoted plant growth by significantly increasing the uptake of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), adjusting C:N:P stoichiometry and alleviating toxic effects of heavy metals. G. aggregatum, R. intraradices, and F. mosseae exhibited different mycorrhizal effects in response to mine spoil types. F. mosseae was the most effective in the development of maize in S1 and may be the most appropriate for revegetation of this substrate, while R. intraradices played the most beneficial role in S2 and S3. Our results suggest that inoculation with AMF can enhance plant adaptation to different types of coal mine spoils and play a positive role in the revegetation of coal mine spoil banks. PMID:24271733

  5. Phytohormone Involvement in the Ustilago maydis– Zea mays Pathosystem: Relationships between Abscisic Acid and Cytokinin Levels and Strain Virulence in Infected Cob Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Erin N.; Emery, R. J. Neil; Saville, Barry J.

    2015-01-01

    Ustilago maydis is the causative agent of common smut of corn. Early studies noted its ability to synthesize phytohormones and, more recently these growth promoting substances were confirmed as cytokinins (CKs). Cytokinins comprise a group of phytohormones commonly associated with actively dividing tissues. Lab analyses identified variation in virulence between U. maydis dikaryon and solopathogen infections of corn cob tissue. Samples from infected cob tissue were taken at sequential time points post infection and biochemical profiling was performed using high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI MS/MS). This hormone profiling revealed that there were altered levels of ABA and major CKs, with a marked reduction in CK glucosides, increases in methylthiol CKs and a particularly dramatic increase in cisZ CK forms, in U. maydis infected tissue. These changes were more pronounced in the more virulent dikaryon relative to the solopathogenic strain suggesting a role for cytokinins in moderating virulence during biotrophic infection. These findings highlight the fact that U. maydis does not simply mimic a fertilized seed but instead reprograms the host tissue. Results underscore the suitability of the Ustilago maydis– Zea mays model as a basis for investigating the control of phytohormone dynamics during biotrophic infection of plants. PMID:26107181

  6. The determination of physiological and DNA changes in seedlings of maize (Zea mays L.) seeds exposed to the waters of the Gediz River and copper heavy metal stress.

    PubMed

    Batir, Muhammet Burak; Candan, Feyza; Buyuk, Ilker; Aras, Sumer

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the effects of the heavy metal-polluted waters of the Gediz River, which flow into the Aegean Sea, and different concentrations of copper (Cu) solutions on maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings are investigated with physiological parameters and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay. Results displayed physiologically a significant difference in root and stem length between the control seedlings and the seedlings grown with the waters of the Gediz River. Also, the certain ascending concentrations of copper solution (80, 160, 320, 640, and 1280 ppm) caused a significant decrease in root and stem length of seedlings compared to the control seedlings. As a result of the waters of the Gediz River and copper solution treatment, the changes occurred in RAPD profiles of seedlings observed as variations like increment and/or loss of bands compared with the control seedlings. And these changes were reflected as a decrease in genomic template stability (GTS, changes in RAPD profile) derived by genotoxicity. RAPD band profiles and GTS values showed consistent results with physiological parameter. In conclusion, the study revealed the environmental risk and negative effect of waters of the Gediz River on maize seedlings and the suitability of RAPD assay for the detection of environmental toxicology. PMID:25750069

  7. Soil water capture trends over 50 years of single-cross maize (Zea mays L.) breeding in the US corn-belt

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Andres; Messina, Carlos D.; Hammer, Graeme L.; Liu, Lu; van Oosterom, Erik; Lafitte, Renee; Cooper, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Breeders have successfully improved maize (Zea mays L.) grain yield for the conditions of the US corn-belt over the past 80 years, with the past 50 years utilizing single-cross hybrids. Long-term improvement for grain yield under water-limited conditions has also been reported. Grain yield under water-limited conditions depends on water use, water use efficiency, and harvest index. It has been hypothesized that long-term genetic gain for yield could be due, in part, to increased water capture from the soil. This hypothesis was tested using a set of elite single-cross hybrids that were released by DuPont Pioneer between 1963 and 2009. Eighteen hybrids were grown in the field during 2010 and 2011 growing seasons at Woodland, CA, USA. Crops grew predominantly on stored soil water and drought stress increased as the season progressed. Soil water content was measured to 300cm depth throughout the growing season. Significant water extraction occurred to a depth of 240–300cm and seasonal water use was calculated from the change in soil water over this rooting zone. Grain yield increased significantly with year of commercialization, but no such trend was observed for total water extraction. Therefore, the measured genetic gain for yield for the period represented by this set of hybrids must be related to either increased efficiency of water use or increased carbon partitioning to the grain, rather than increased soil water uptake. PMID:26428065

  8. Structural insights into the IgE mediated responses induced by the allergens Hev b 8 and Zea m 12 in their dimeric forms.

    PubMed

    Mares-Mejía, Israel; Martínez-Caballero, Siseth; Garay-Canales, Claudia; Cano-Sánchez, Patricia; Torres-Larios, Alfredo; Lara-González, Samuel; Ortega, Enrique; Rodríguez-Romero, Adela

    2016-01-01

    Oligomerization of allergens plays an important role in IgE-mediated reactions, as effective crosslinking of IgE- FcεRI complexes on the cell membrane is dependent on the number of exposed B-cell epitopes in a single allergen molecule or on the occurrence of identical epitopes in a symmetrical arrangement. Few studies have attempted to experimentally demonstrate the connection between allergen dimerization and the ability to trigger allergic reactions. Here we studied plant allergenic profilins rHev b 8 (rubber tree) and rZea m 12 (maize) because they represent an important example of cross-reactivity in the latex-pollen-food syndrome. Both allergens in their monomeric and dimeric states were isolated and characterized by exclusion chromatography and mass spectrometry and were used in immunological in vitro experiments. Their crystal structures were solved, and for Hev b 8 a disulfide-linked homodimer was found. Comparing the structures we established that the longest loop is relevant for recognition by IgE antibodies, whereas the conserved regions are important for cross-reactivity. We produced a novel monoclonal murine IgE (mAb 2F5), specific for rHev b 8, which was useful to provide evidence that profilin dimerization considerably increases the IgE-mediated degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia cells. PMID:27586352

  9. Photosynthetic and growth responses of zea mays L and four weed species following post-emergence treatments with mesotrione and atrazinet.

    PubMed

    Creech, J Earl; Monaco, Thomas A; Evans, John O

    2004-11-01

    We compared photosynthesis and growth of Zea mays L (corn) and four weed species, Setaria viridis (L) Beauv (green foxtail), Echinochloa crus-galli (L) Beauv (barnyardgrass), Abutilon theophrasti Medic (velvetleaf), and Amaranthus retroflexus L (redroot pigweed), following foliar applications with atrazine, mesotrione, or a combination of atrazine and mesotrione in two greenhouse experiments. Plant responses to the three herbicide treatments were compared with responses of untreated plants (control). Photosynthesis on day 14 and dry mass of Z mays was not reduced by any of the herbicide treatments. Photosynthesis and dry mass of E crus-galli, A retroflexus and A theophrasti were significantly reduced by mesotrione and atrazine alone and in combination. Photosynthesis on day 14 and dry mass of large Sviridis plants were not suppressed by either herbicide applied alone. The mesotrione plus atrazine treatment was the most effective treatment for grass weed control because plants did not regain photosynthetic capacity and had significantly lower dry mass. Shoot dry mass of broadleaf weeds was significantly reduced by all three herbicide treatments, except for A retroflexus treated with mesotrione alone. PMID:15532681

  10. Estimation of Carbon and Nitrogen Allocation during Stalk Elongation by 13C and 15N Tracing in Zea mays L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Cliquet, Jean-Bernard; Deléens, Eliane; Bousser, Agnès; Martin, Michel; Lescure, Jean-Charles; Prioul, Jean-Louis; Mariotti, André; Morot-Gaudry, Jean-François

    1990-01-01

    Zea mays L. (cv Dea) plants grown to the stage of stalk elongation, were allowed to assimilate 13CO2 and 15N-nitrates from 45 to 53 days after sowing. Isotopic abundances in labeled nutrients were slightly enriched compared to natural abundances. The new C in plant was acropetally distributed and the new N was preferentially accumulated in the sheath and stalk in the medium region. C input was 25-fold higher than N input. The new C in total plant C was 20%, whereas it was 10% for N. The stalk acted as a major sink because it accumulated, respectively, 27.5 and 47.5% of the C and N inputs. The new C in soluble carbohydrates was 76% in growing organs (upper stalk) and only 39% in source leaves, whereas it was 43% and 13% in starch, respectively. New N in nitrates+amino-acids spanned in the range from 20% (leaf) to 50% (stalk). New C and N in soluble proteins were, respectively, 13.4 and 3.8% in leaves, 8.8 and 9.6% in stalk, and 8.7 and 14.3% in roots. In the middle stalk and leaves, the proteins and carbohydrates represent an equivalent C and N source for remobilization. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:16667269

  11. The Impact of Inter-Kernel Movement in the Evolution of Resistance to Dual-Toxin Bt-Corn Varieties in Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Caprio, Michael A; Martinez, Jeannette C; Porter, Patrick A; Bynum, Ed

    2016-02-01

    Seeds or kernels on hybrid plants are primarily F(2) tissue and will segregate for heterozygous alleles present in the parental F(1) hybrids. In the case of plants expressing Bt-toxins, the F(2) tissue in the kernels will express toxins as they would segregate in any F(2) tissue. In the case of plants expressing two unlinked toxins, the kernels on a Bt plant fertilized by another Bt plant would express anywhere from 0 to 2 toxins. Larvae of corn earworm [Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)] feed on a number of kernels during development and would therefore be exposed to local habitats (kernels) that varied in their toxin expression. Three models were developed for plants expressing two Bt-toxins, one where the traits are unlinked, a second where the traits were linked and a third model assuming that maternal traits were expressed in all kernels as well as paternally inherited traits. Results suggest that increasing larval movement rates off of expressing kernels tended to increase durability while increasing movement rates off of nonexpressing kernels always decreased durability. An ideal block refuge (no pollen flow between blocks and refuges) was more durable than a seed blend because the refuge expressed no toxins, while pollen contamination from plants expressing toxins in a seed blend reduced durability. A linked-trait model in an ideal refuge model predicted the longest durability. The results suggest that using a seed-blend strategy for a kernel feeding insect on a hybrid crop could dramatically reduce durability through the loss of refuge due to extensive cross-pollination. PMID:26527792

  12. Cell-wall properties contributing to improved deconstruction by alkaline pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis in diverse maize (Zea mays L.) lines

    PubMed Central

    Li, Muyang; Heckwolf, Marlies; Crowe, Jacob D.; Williams, Daniel L.; Magee, Timothy D.; Kaeppler, Shawn M.; de Leon, Natalia; Hodge, David B.

    2015-01-01

    A maize (Zea mays L. subsp. mays) diversity panel consisting of 26 maize lines exhibiting a wide range of cell-wall properties and responses to hydrolysis by cellulolytic enzymes was employed to investigate the relationship between cell-wall properties, cell-wall responses to mild NaOH pre-treatment, and enzymatic hydrolysis yields. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose in the untreated maize was found to be positively correlated with the water retention value, which is a measure of cell-wall susceptibility to swelling. It was also positively correlated with the lignin syringyl/guaiacyl ratio and negatively correlated with the initial cell-wall lignin, xylan, acetate, and p-coumaric acid (pCA) content, as well as pCA released from the cell wall by pre-treatment. The hydrolysis yield following pre-treatment exhibited statistically significant negative correlations to the lignin content after pre-treatment and positive correlations to the solubilized ferulic acid and pCA. Several unanticipated results were observed, including a positive correlation between initial lignin and acetate content, lack of correlation between acetate content and initial xylan content, and negative correlation between each of these three variables to the hydrolysis yields for untreated maize. Another surprising result was that pCA release was negatively correlated with hydrolysis yields for untreated maize and, along with ferulic acid release, was positively correlated with the pre-treated maize hydrolysis yields. This indicates that these properties that may negatively contribute to the recalcitrance in untreated cell walls may positively contribute to their deconstruction by alkaline pre-treatment. PMID:25871649

  13. Genome-wide analysis of ZmDREB genes and their association with natural variation in drought tolerance at seedling stage of Zea mays L.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shengxue; Wang, Xianglan; Wang, Hongwei; Xin, Haibo; Yang, Xiaohong; Yan, Jianbing; Li, Jiansheng; Tran, Lam-Son Phan; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Qin, Feng

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide production of maize (Zea mays L.) is frequently impacted by water scarcity and as a result, increased drought tolerance is a priority target in maize breeding programs. While DREB transcription factors have been demonstrated to play a central role in desiccation tolerance, whether or not natural sequence variations in these genes are associated with the phenotypic variability of this trait is largely unknown. In the present study, eighteen ZmDREB genes present in the maize B73 genome were cloned and systematically analyzed to determine their phylogenetic relationship, synteny with rice, maize and sorghum genomes; pattern of drought-responsive gene expression, and protein transactivation activity. Importantly, the association between the nucleic acid variation of each ZmDREB gene with drought tolerance was evaluated using a diverse population of maize consisting of 368 varieties from tropical and temperate regions. A significant association between the genetic variation of ZmDREB2.7 and drought tolerance at seedling stage was identified. Further analysis found that the DNA polymorphisms in the promoter region of ZmDREB2.7, but not the protein coding region itself, was associated with different levels of drought tolerance among maize varieties, likely due to distinct patterns of gene expression in response to drought stress. In vitro, protein-DNA binding assay demonstrated that ZmDREB2.7 protein could specifically interact with the target DNA sequences. The transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing ZmDREB2.7 displayed enhanced tolerance to drought stress. Moreover, a favorable allele of ZmDREB2.7, identified in the drought-tolerant maize varieties, was effective in imparting plant tolerance to drought stress. Based upon these findings, we conclude that natural variation in the promoter of ZmDREB2.7 contributes to maize drought tolerance, and that the gene and its favorable allele may be an important genetic resource for the genetic improvement of drought

  14. The Variability of Sesquiterpenes Emitted from Two Zea mays Cultivars Is Controlled by Allelic Variation of Two Terpene Synthase Genes Encoding Stereoselective Multiple Product Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Köllner, Tobias G.; Schnee, Christiane; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Degenhardt, Jörg

    2004-01-01

    The mature leaves and husks of Zea mays release a complex blend of terpene volatiles after anthesis consisting predominantly of bisabolane-, sesquithujane-, and bergamotane-type sesquiterpenes. The varieties B73 and Delprim release the same volatile constituents but in significantly different proportions. To study the molecular genetic and biochemical mechanisms controlling terpene diversity and distribution in these varieties, we isolated the closely related terpene synthase genes terpene synthase4 (tps4) and tps5 from both varieties. The encoded enzymes, TPS4 and TPS5, each formed the same complex mixture of sesquiterpenes from the precursor farnesyl diphosphate but with different proportions of products. These mixtures correspond to the sesquiterpene blends observed in the varieties B73 and Delprim, respectively. The differences in the stereoselectivity of TPS4 and TPS5 are determined by four amino acid substitutions with the most important being a Gly instead of an Ala residue at position 409 at the catalytic site of the enzyme. Although both varieties contain tps4 and tps5 alleles, their differences in terpene composition result from the fact that B73 has only a single functional allele of tps4 and no functional alleles of tps5, whereas Delprim has only a functional allele of tps5 and no functional alleles of tps4. Lack of functionality was shown to be attributable to frame-shift mutations or amino acid substitutions that greatly reduce the activity of their encoded proteins. Therefore, the diversity of sesquiterpenes in these two maize cultivars is strongly influenced by single nucleotide changes in the alleles of two terpene synthase genes. PMID:15075399

  15. Uptake, translocation and physiological effects of magnetic iron oxide (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles in corn (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Junli; Hu, Jing; Ma, Chuanxin; Wang, Yunqiang; Wu, Chan; Huang, Jin; Xing, Baoshan

    2016-09-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (γ-Fe2O3 NPs) have emerged as an innovative and promising method of iron application in agricultural systems. However, the possible toxicity of γ-Fe2O3 NPs and its uptake and translocation require further study prior to large-scale field application. In this study, we investigated uptake and distribution of γ-Fe2O3 NPs in corn (Zea mays L.) and its impacts on seed germination, antioxidant enzyme activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and chlorophyll content were determined. 20 mg/L of γ-Fe2O3 NPs significantly promoted root elongation by 11.5%, and increased germination index and vigor index by 27.2% and 39.6%, respectively. However, 50 and 100 mg/L γ-Fe2O3 NPs remarkably decreased root length by 13.5% and 12.5%, respectively. Additionally, evidence for γ-Fe2O3 NPs induced oxidative stress was exclusively found in the root. Exposures of different concentrations of NPs induced notably high levels of MDA in corn roots, and the MDA levels of corn roots treated by γ-Fe2O3 NPs (20-100 mg/L) were 5-7-fold higher than that observed in the control plants. Meanwhile, the chlorophyll contents were decreased by 11.6%, 39.9% and 19.6%, respectively, upon NPs treatment relative to the control group. Images from fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that γ-Fe2O3 NPs could enter plant roots and migrate apoplastically from the epidermis to the endodermis and accumulate the vacuole. Furthermore, we found that NPs mostly existed around the epidermis of root and no translocation of NPs from roots to shoots was observed. Our results will be highly meaningful on understanding the fate and physiological effects of γ-Fe2O3 NPs in plants. PMID:27314633

  16. The Use of Targeted Marker Subsets to Account for Population Structure and Relatedness in Genome-Wide Association Studies of Maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Angela H.; Lipka, Alexander E.

    2016-01-01

    A typical plant genome-wide association study (GWAS) uses a mixed linear model (MLM) that includes a trait as the response variable, a marker as an explanatory variable, and fixed and random effect covariates accounting for population structure and relatedness. Although effective in controlling for false positive signals, this model typically fails to detect signals that are correlated with population structure or are located in high linkage disequilibrium (LD) genomic regions. This result likely arises from each tested marker being used to estimate population structure and relatedness. Previous work has demonstrated that it is possible to increase the power of the MLM by estimating relatedness (i.e., kinship) with markers that are not located on the chromosome where the tested marker resides. To quantify the amount of additional significant signals one can expect using this so-called K_chr model, we reanalyzed Mendelian, polygenic, and complex traits in two maize (Zea mays L.) diversity panels that have been previously assessed using the traditional MLM. We demonstrated that the K_chr model could find more significant associations, especially in high LD regions. This finding is underscored by our identification of novel genomic signals proximal to the tocochromanol biosynthetic pathway gene ZmVTE1 that are associated with a ratio of tocotrienols. We conclude that the K_chr model can detect more intricate sources of allelic variation underlying agronomically important traits, and should therefore become more widely used for GWAS. To facilitate the implementation of the K_chr model, we provide code written in the R programming language. PMID:27233668

  17. Effects of extraction conditions on improving the yield and quality of an anthocyanin-rich purple corn (Zea mays L.) color extract.

    PubMed

    Jing, P; Giusti, M M

    2007-09-01

    Purple corn (Zea mays L.) is a rich and economic source of anthocyanin colorants and functional ingredients. However, high levels of anthocyanin-rich waste are generated during processing, reducing the yields and increasing the costs of the final product. This waste has been associated with anthocyanin complexation with tannins and proteins. Our objective was to evaluate anthocyanin extraction methods to reduce purple corn waste. Different solvents (water, 0.01%-HCl-acidified water, and 0.01%-HCl-acidified ethanol), temperatures (room temperature, 50, 75, and 100 degrees C), and times of exposure to the solvents were investigated. Acetone (70% acetone in water) extraction was used as control. Anthocyanins, total phenolics, tannins, and proteins in extracts were measured by the pH differential, Folin-Ciocalteu, protein precipitation, and BCA assay methods. Qualitative analyses were done by HPLC coupled to a PDA detector and SDS-PAGE analysis. Water at 50 degrees C achieved the highest yield of anthocyanins (0.94 +/- 0.03 g per 100 g dry corncob) with relatively low tannins and proteins, comparable to the anthocyanin yield obtained by 70% acetone (0.98 +/- 0.08 g per 100 g dry corncob). Extending the extraction time from 20 to 60 min and using consecutive reextraction procedures reduced anthocyanin purity, increasing the yields of other phenolics. A neutral protease was applied to the extracts and effectively decomposed the major protein that was believed to contribute to the development of anthocyanin complexation and waste generation. Extraction time, consecutive reextraction procedures, and enzyme hydrolysis should be considered for high yield of anthocyanins and waste reduction. PMID:17995633

  18. Growth, /sup 14/C-sucrose uptake, and metabolites of starch synthesis in apical and basal kernels of corn (Zea mays L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Developing field-grown kernels of corn (Zea mays L. cv. Cornell 175) from the base and apex of the ear were sampled from seven to 70 days after pollination (DAP) an compared with respect to dry weight, ability to take up /sup 14/C-sucrose from solution in vitro, and content of sucrose, glucose, starch, glucose-1-P (G1P), glucose-6-P (G6P), fructose-6-P (F6P), ADP-glucose (ADPG), and UDP-glucose (UDPG). ADPG and UDPG were analyzed by HPLC. All other metabolites were analyzed enzymatically. Simultaneous hand-pollination of all ovaries in an ear did not reduce the difference between apical and basal kernels in dry weight, indicating that the latter fertilization of apical kernels was not responsible for their lesser mature dry weight. Detached kernels took up /sup 14/C-sucrose (0.3-400 mM) and glucose (5-100 mM) at rates linearly proportional to the sugar concentration. Glucose, fructose, and sorbitol did not inhibit uptake of /sup 14/C-sucrose. Uptake was not stimulated by 5 mM CaCl/sup 2/ or the addition of buffers (pH 4.5-6.7) to the medium. Sulfhydryl reagents (PCMBS, NEM) and metabolic inhibitors (TNBS, DNP, NaF) did not reduce uptake. These observations suggest that sucrose is taken up by a non-saturable, non-energy-requiring mechanism. Sucrose uptake increased throughout development, especially at the stage when basal kernels began to accumulate more dry weight than apical kernels (10-20 DAP in freely pollinated ears; 25 DAP in synchronously pollinated ears). Hydrolysis of incorporated sucrose increased from 87% at 14 DAP to 99% by 57 DAP.

  19. Early Transcriptome Analyses of Z-3-Hexenol-Treated Zea mays Revealed Distinct Transcriptional Networks and Anti-Herbivore Defense Potential of Green Leaf Volatiles

    PubMed Central

    Engelberth, Jurgen; Contreras, Claudia Fabiola; Dalvi, Chinmay; Li, Ting; Engelberth, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLV), which are rapidly emitted by plants in response to insect herbivore damage, are now established as volatile defense signals. Receiving plants utilize these molecules to prime their defenses and respond faster and stronger when actually attacked. To further characterize the biological activity of these compounds we performed a microarray analysis of global gene expression. The focus of this project was to identify early transcriptional events elicited by Z-3-hexenol (Z-3-HOL) as our model GLV in maize (Zea mays) seedlings. The microarray results confirmed previous studies on Z-3-HOL -induced gene expression but also provided novel information about the complexity of Z-3-HOL -induced transcriptional networks. Besides identifying a distinct set of genes involved in direct and indirect defenses we also found significant expression of genes involved in transcriptional regulation, Ca2+-and lipid-related signaling, and cell wall reinforcement. By comparing these results with those obtained by treatment of maize seedlings with insect elicitors we found a high degree of correlation between the two expression profiles at this early time point, in particular for those genes related to defense. We further analyzed defense gene expression induced by other volatile defense signals and found Z-3-HOL to be significantly more active than methyl jasmonate, methyl salicylate, and ethylene. The data presented herein provides important information on early genetic networks that are activated by Z-3-HOL and demonstrates the effectiveness of this compound in the regulation of typical plant defenses against insect herbivores in maize. PMID:24155960

  20. Phytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles and the released Zn(II) ion to corn (Zea mays L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) during germination.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruichang; Zhang, Haibo; Tu, Chen; Hu, Xuefeng; Li, Lianzhen; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Toxicity of engineered nanoparticles on organisms is of concern worldwide due to their extensive use and unique properties. The impacts of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on seed germination and root elongation of corn (Zea mays L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) were investigated in this study. The role of seed coats of corn in the mitigation toxicity of nanoparticles was also evaluated. ZnO NPs (1,000 mg L(-1)) reduced root length of corn and cucumber by 17 % (p < 0.05) and 51 % (p < 0.05), respectively, but exhibited no effects on germination. In comparison with Zn(2+), toxicity of ZnO NPs on the root elongation of corn could be attributed to the nanoparticulate ZnO, while released Zn ion from ZnO could solely contribute to the inhibition of root elongation of cucumber. Zn uptake in corn exposed to ZnO NPs during germination was much higher than that in corn exposed to Zn(2+), whereas Zn uptake in cucumber was significantly correlated with soluble Zn in suspension. It could be inferred that Zn was taken up by corn and cucumber mainly in the form of ZnO NPs and soluble Zn, respectively. Transmission electron microscope confirmed the uptake of ZnO NPs into root of corn. Although isolation of the seed coats might not be the principal factor that achieved avoidance from toxicity on germination, seed coats of corn were found to mitigate the toxicity of ZnO NPs on root elongation and prevent approximately half of the Zn from entering into root and endosperm. PMID:25794580

  1. Contrasting effects of biochar, compost and farm manure on alleviation of nickel toxicity in maize (Zea mays L.) in relation to plant growth, photosynthesis and metal uptake.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Muhammad Zia-Ur; Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Fatima, Nida; Yousaf, Balal; Naeem, Asif; Sabir, Muhammad; Ahmad, Hamaad Raza; Ok, Yong Sik

    2016-11-01

    Nickel (Ni) toxicity in agricultural crops is a widespread problem while little is known about the role of biochar (BC) and other organic amendments like farm manure (FM) from cattle farm and compost (Cmp) on its alleviation. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of BC, Cmp and FM on physiological and biochemical characteristics of maize (Zea mays L.) under Ni stress. Maize was grown in Ni spiked soil without and with two rates of the amendments (equivalent to 1% and 2% organic carbon, OC) applied separately to the soil. After harvest, plant height, root length, dry weight, chlorophyll contents, gas exchange characteristics and trace elements in plants were determined. In addition, post-harvest soil characteristics like pHs, ECe and bioavailable Ni were also determined. Compared to the control, all of the amendments increased plant height, root length, shoot and root dry weight with the maximum increase in all parameters by FM (2% OC) treatment. Similarly, total chlorophyll contents and gas exchange characteristics significantly increased with the application of amendments being maximum with FM (2% OC) application. Amendments significantly increased copper, zinc, manganese and iron concentrations and decreased Ni concentrations in the plants. The highest reduction in shoot Ni concentration was recorded with FM (2% OC) followed by BC (2% OC) being 73.2% and 61.1% lower compared to the control, respectively. The maximum increase in soil pH and decrease in AB-DTPA extractable Ni was recorded with BC (2% OC) followed by FM (2% OC). It is concluded that FM (2% OC) was the most effective in reducing Ni toxicity to plants by reducing Ni uptake while BC (2% OC) was the most effective in decreasing bioavailable Ni in the soil through increasing soil pH. However, long-term field studies are needed to evaluate the effects of these amendments in reducing Ni toxicity in plants. PMID:27467022

  2. Evidence for a Role for NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase in Concentration of CO2 in the Bundle Sheath Cell of Zea mays1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Schultes, Neil P.; McHale, Neil A.; Zelitch, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies with Nicotiana and Arabidopsis described failed assembly of the chloroplastic NDH [NAD(P)H dehydrogenase] supercomplex by serial mutation of several subunit genes. We examined the properties of Zea mays leaves containing Mu and Ds insertions into nuclear gene exons encoding the critical o- and n-subunits of NDH, respectively. In vivo reduction of plastoquinone in the dark was sharply diminished in maize homozygous mutant compared to normal leaves but not to the extreme degree observed for the corresponding lesions in Arabidopsis. The net carbon assimilation rate (A) at high irradiance and saturating CO2 levels was reduced by one-half due to NDH mutation in maize although no genotypic effect was evident at very low CO2 levels. Simultaneous assessment of chlorophyll fluorescence and A in maize at low (2% by volume) and high (21%) O2 levels indicated the presence of a small, yet detectable, O2-dependent component of total linear photosynthetic electron transport in 21% O2. This O2-dependent component decreased with increasing CO2 level indicative of photorespiration. Photorespiration was generally elevated in maize mutant compared to normal leaves. Quantification of the proportion of total electron transport supporting photorespiration enabled estimation of the bundle sheath cell CO2 concentration (Cb) using a simple kinetic model of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase function. The A versus Cb relationships overlapped for normal and mutant lines consistent with occurrence of strictly CO2-limited photosynthesis in the mutant bundle sheath cell. The results are discussed in terms of a previously reported CO2 concentration model [Laisk A, Edwards GE (2000) Photosynth Res 66: 199–224]. PMID:27002061

  3. Isolation and identification of indigenous plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from Himalayan region of Kashmir and their effect on improving growth and nutrient contents of maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Zahid, Mahwish; Abbasi, M Kaleem; Hameed, Sohail; Rahim, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and exploitation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in agro-ecosystems enhance plant-microbes interactions that may affect ecosystems sustainability, agricultural productivity, and environmental quality. The present study was conducted to isolate and identify PGPRs associated with maize (Zea mays L.) from twenty sites of Himalayan region of Hajira-Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan. A total of 100 isolates were isolated from these sites, out of which eight (HJR1, HJR2, HJR3, HJR4, HJR5, MR6, HJR7, HJR8) were selected in vitro for their plant growth promoting ability (PGPA) including phosphorus solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production and N2 fixation. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing technique was used for molecular identity and authentication. Isolates were then further tested for their effects on growth and nutrient contents of maize (Z. mays L.) under pouch and pot conditions. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis identified these isolates belong to Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera. The isolates promoted plant growth by solubilizing soil P which ranged between 19.2 and 35.6 μg mL(-1). The isolates HJR1, HJR2, HJR3, and HJR5 showed positive activity in acetylene reduction assay showing their N2-fixation potential. All eight isolates showed the potential to produce IAA in the range of 0.9-5.39 μg mL(-1) and promote plant growth. Results from a subsequent pot experiment indicated PGPRs distinctly increased maize shoot and root length, shoot and root dry weight, root surface area, leaf surface area, shoot and root N and P contents. Among the eight isolates, HR3 showed a marked P-solubilizing activity, plant growth-promoting attributes, and the potential to be developed as a biofertilizers for integrated nutrient management strategies. PMID:25852667

  4. Nitrogen transporter and assimilation genes exhibit developmental stage-selective expression in maize (Zea mays L.) associated with distinct cis-acting promoter motifs

    PubMed Central

    Liseron-Monfils, Christophe; Bi, Yong-Mei; Downs, Gregory S; Wu, Wenqing; Signorelli, Tara; Lu, Guangwen; Chen, Xi; Bondo, Eddie; Zhu, Tong; Lukens, Lewis N; Colasanti, Joseph; Rothstein, Steven J; Raizada, Manish N

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen is considered the most limiting nutrient for maize (Zea mays L.), but there is limited understanding of the regulation of nitrogen-related genes during maize development. An Affymetrix 82K maize array was used to analyze the expression of ≤ 46 unique nitrogen uptake and assimilation probes in 50 maize tissues from seedling emergence to 31 d after pollination. Four nitrogen-related expression clusters were identified in roots and shoots corresponding to, or overlapping, juvenile, adult, and reproductive phases of development. Quantitative real time PCR data was consistent with the existence of these distinct expression clusters. Promoters corresponding to each cluster were screened for over-represented cis-acting elements. The 8-bp distal motif of the Arabidopsis 43-bp nitrogen response element (NRE) was over-represented in nitrogen-related maize gene promoters. This conserved motif, referred to here as NRE43-d8, was previously shown to be critical for nitrate-activated transcription of nitrate reductase (NIA1) and nitrite reductase (NIR1) by the NIN-LIKE PROTEIN 6 (NLP6) in Arabidopsis. Here, NRE43-d8 was over-represented in the promoters of maize nitrate and ammonium transporter genes, specifically those that showed peak expression during early-stage vegetative development. This result predicts an expansion of the NRE-NLP6 regulon and suggests that it may have a developmental component in maize. We also report leaf expression of putative orthologs of nitrite transporters (NiTR1), a transporter not previously reported in maize. We conclude by discussing how each of the four transcriptional modules may be responsible for the different nitrogen uptake and assimilation requirements of leaves and roots at different stages of maize development. PMID:24270626

  5. Comparative production of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from transgenic cotton expressing either one or two Bacillus thuringiensis proteins with and without insecticide oversprays.

    PubMed

    Jackson, R E; Bradley, J R; Van Duyn, J W; Gould, F

    2004-10-01

    Transgenic cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), expressing either one or two Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki Berliner (Bt) proteins was compared with the conventional sister line in field experiments with regard to production of bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and bolls damaged by bollworm. The relative numbers of bollworms that developed on Bollgard (Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO), Bollgard II (Monsanto Co.), and conventional cotton were estimated under nontreated conditions in 2000 and both insecticide-treated and nontreated conditions in 2001-2002 in North Carolina tests. Averaged across seven field studies under nontreated conditions, Bollgard cotton generated statistically similar numbers of large (L4-L5) bollworm larvae compared with the conventional variety; however, Bollgard cotton produced significantly fewer damaged bolls and bollworm adults than the conventional variety. Production of large larvae, damaged bolls, and adults was decreased dramatically by Bollgard II cotton as compared with Bollgard and conventional varieties. When comparing insecticide-treated and nontreated cotton genotypes, both Bt cotton sustained less boll damage than the conventional variety averaged across insecticide regimes; furthermore, Bollgard II cotton had fewer damaged bolls than the Bollgard variety. When averaged across cotton genotypes, pyrethroid oversprays reduced the numbers of damaged bolls compared with the nontreated cotton. Insecticide-treated Bollgard cotton, along with insecticide-treated and nontreated Bollgard II cotton reduced production of bollworm larvae, pupae, and adults. However, the addition of pyrethroid oversprays to Bollgard II cotton seemed to be the best resistance management strategy available for bollworm because no bollworms were capable of completing development under these conditions. PMID:15568364

  6. Prolonged expression of the BX1 signature enzyme is associated with a recombination hotspot in the benzoxazinoid gene cluster in Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Linlin; McMullen, Michael D; Bauer, Eva; Schön, Chris-Carolin; Gierl, Alfons; Frey, Monika

    2015-07-01

    Benzoxazinoids represent preformed protective and allelopathic compounds. The main benzoxazinoid in maize (Zea mays L.) is 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA). DIMBOA confers resistance to herbivores and microbes. Protective concentrations are found predominantly in young plantlets. We made use of the genetic diversity present in the maize nested association mapping (NAM) panel to identify lines with significant benzoxazinoid concentrations at later developmental stages. At 24 d after imbibition (dai), only three lines, including Mo17, showed effective DIMBOA concentrations of 1.5mM or more; B73, by contrast, had low a DIMBOA content. Mapping studies based on Mo17 and B73 were performed to reveal mechanisms that influence the DIMBOA level in 24 dai plants. A major quantitative trait locus mapped to the Bx gene cluster located on the short arm of chromosome 4, which encodes the DIMBOA biosynthetic genes. Mo17 was distinguished from all other NAM lines by high transcriptional expression of the Bx1 gene at later developmental stages. Bx1 encodes the signature enzyme of the pathway. In Mo17×B73 hybrids at 24 dai, only the Mo17 Bx1 allele transcript was detected. A 3.9kb cis-element, termed DICE (distal cis-element), that is located in the Bx gene cluster approximately 140 kb upstream of Bx1, was required for high Bx1 transcript levels during later developmental stages in Mo17. The DICE region was a hotspot of meiotic recombination. Genetic analysis revealed that high 24 dai DIMBOA concentrations were not strictly dependent on high Bx1 transcript levels. However, constitutive expression of Bx1 in transgenics increased DIMBOA levels at 24 dai, corroborating a correlation between DIMBOA content and Bx1 transcription. PMID:25969552

  7. Field controlled experiments on the physiological responses of maize (Zea mays L.) leaves to low-level air and soil mercury exposures.

    PubMed

    Niu, Zhenchuan; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Sen; Zeng, Ming; Wang, Zhangwei; Zhang, Yi; Ci, Zhijia

    2014-01-01

    Thousands of tons of mercury (Hg) are released from anthropogenic and natural sources to the atmosphere in a gaseous elemental form per year, yet little is known regarding the influence of airborne Hg on the physiological activities of plant leaves. In the present study, the effects of low-level air and soil Hg exposures on the gas exchange parameters of maize (Zea mays L.) leaves and their accumulation of Hg, proline, and malondialdehyde (MDA) were examined via field open-top chamber and Hg-enriched soil experiments, respectively. Low-level air Hg exposures (<50 ng m(-3)) had little effects on the gas exchange parameters of maize leaves during most of the daytime (p > 0.05). However, both the net photosynthesis rate and carboxylation efficiency of maize leaves exposed to 50 ng m(-3) air Hg were significantly lower than those exposed to 2 ng m(-3) air Hg in late morning (p < 0.05). Additionally, the Hg, proline, and MDA concentrations in maize leaves exposed to 20 and 50 ng m(-3) air Hg were significantly higher than those exposed to 2 ng m(-3) air Hg (p < 0.05). These results indicated that the increase in airborne Hg potentially damaged functional photosynthetic apparatus in plant leaves, inducing free proline accumulation and membrane lipid peroxidation. Due to minor translocation of soil Hg to the leaves, low-level soil Hg exposures (<1,000 ng g(-1)) had no significant influences on the gas exchange parameters, or the Hg, proline, and MDA concentrations in maize leaves (p > 0.05). Compared to soil Hg, airborne Hg easily caused physiological stress to plant leaves. The effects of increasing atmospheric Hg concentration on plant physiology should be of concern. PMID:23943002

  8. Small kernel 1 encodes a pentatricopeptide repeat protein required for mitochondrial nad7 transcript editing and seed development in maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Jie; Zhang, Ya-Feng; Hou, Mingming; Sun, Feng; Shen, Yun; Xiu, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Xiaomin; Chen, Zong-Liang; Sun, Samuel S M; Small, Ian; Tan, Bao-Cai

    2014-09-01

    RNA editing modifies cytidines (C) to uridines (U) at specific sites in the transcripts of mitochondria and plastids, altering the amino acid specified by the DNA sequence. Here we report the identification of a critical editing factor of mitochondrial nad7 transcript via molecular characterization of a small kernel 1 (smk1) mutant in Zea mays (maize). Mutations in Smk1 arrest both the embryo and endosperm development. Cloning of Smk1 indicates that it encodes an E-subclass pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein that is targeted to mitochondria. Loss of SMK1 function abolishes the C → U editing at the nad7-836 site, leading to the retention of a proline codon that is edited to encode leucine in the wild type. The smk1 mutant showed dramatically reduced complex-I assembly and NADH dehydrogenase activity, and abnormal biogenesis of the mitochondria. Analysis of the ortholog in Oryza sativa (rice) reveals that rice SMK1 has a conserved function in C → U editing of the mitochondrial nad7-836 site. T-DNA knock-out mutants showed abnormal embryo and endosperm development, resulting in embryo or seedling lethality. The leucine at NAD7-279 is highly conserved from bacteria to flowering plants, and analysis of genome sequences from many plants revealed a molecular coevolution between the requirement for C → U editing at this site and the existence of an SMK1 homolog. These results demonstrate that Smk1 encodes a PPR-E protein that is required for nad7-836 editing, and this editing is critical to NAD7 function in complex-I assembly in mitochondria, and hence to embryo and endosperm development in maize and rice. PMID:24923534

  9. Evidence for a Role for NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase in Concentration of CO2 in the Bundle Sheath Cell of Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Richard B; Schultes, Neil P; McHale, Neil A; Zelitch, Israel

    2016-05-01

    Prior studies with Nicotiana and Arabidopsis described failed assembly of the chloroplastic NDH [NAD(P)H dehydrogenase] supercomplex by serial mutation of several subunit genes. We examined the properties of Zea mays leaves containing Mu and Ds insertions into nuclear gene exons encoding the critical o- and n-subunits of NDH, respectively. In vivo reduction of plastoquinone in the dark was sharply diminished in maize homozygous mutant compared to normal leaves but not to the extreme degree observed for the corresponding lesions in Arabidopsis. The net carbon assimilation rate (A) at high irradiance and saturating CO2 levels was reduced by one-half due to NDH mutation in maize although no genotypic effect was evident at very low CO2 levels. Simultaneous assessment of chlorophyll fluorescence and A in maize at low (2% by volume) and high (21%) O2 levels indicated the presence of a small, yet detectable, O2-dependent component of total linear photosynthetic electron transport in 21% O2 This O2-dependent component decreased with increasing CO2 level indicative of photorespiration. Photorespiration was generally elevated in maize mutant compared to normal leaves. Quantification of the proportion of total electron transport supporting photorespiration enabled estimation of the bundle sheath cell CO2 concentration (Cb) using a simple kinetic model of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase function. The A versus Cb relationships overlapped for normal and mutant lines consistent with occurrence of strictly CO2-limited photosynthesis in the mutant bundle sheath cell. The results are discussed in terms of a previously reported CO2 concentration model [Laisk A, Edwards GE (2000) Photosynth Res 66: 199-224]. PMID:27002061

  10. EMF radiations (1800 MHz)-inhibited early seedling growth of maize (Zea mays) involves alterations in starch and sucrose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arvind; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy R; Kaur, Shalinder; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the impact of 1800-MHz electromagnetic field radiations (EMF-r), widely used in mobile communication, on the growth and activity of starch-, sucrose-, and phosphate-hydrolyzing enzymes in Zea mays seedlings. We exposed Z. mays to modulated continuous wave homogenous EMF-r at specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1.69±0.0 × 10(-1) W kg(-1) for ½, 1, 2, and 4 h. The analysis of seedlings after 7 days revealed that short-term exposure did not induce any significant change, while longer exposure of 4 h caused significant growth and biochemical alterations. There was a reduction in the root and coleoptile length with more pronounced effect on coleoptile growth (23 % reduction on 4-h exposure). The contents of photosynthetic pigments and total carbohydrates declined by 13 and 18 %, respectively, in 4-h exposure treatments compared to unexposed control. The activity of starch-hydrolyzing enzymes-α- and β-amylases-increased by ∼92 and 94 %, respectively, at an exposure duration of 4 h, over that in the control. In response to 4-h exposure treatment, the activity of sucrolytic enzymes-acid invertases and alkaline invertases-was increased by 88 and 266 %, whereas the specific activities of phosphohydrolytic enzymes (acid phosphatases and alkaline phosphatases) showed initial increase up to ≤2 h duration and then declined at >2 h exposure duration. The study concludes that EMF-r-inhibited seedling growth of Z. mays involves interference with starch and sucrose metabolism. PMID:26277350

  11. The Use of Targeted Marker Subsets to Account for Population Structure and Relatedness in Genome-Wide Association Studies of Maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Angela H; Lipka, Alexander E

    2016-01-01

    A typical plant genome-wide association study (GWAS) uses a mixed linear model (MLM) that includes a trait as the response variable, a marker as an explanatory variable, and fixed and random effect covariates accounting for population structure and relatedness. Although effective in controlling for false positive signals, this model typically fails to detect signals that are correlated with population structure or are located in high linkage disequilibrium (LD) genomic regions. This result likely arises from each tested marker being used to estimate population structure and relatedness. Previous work has demonstrated that it is possible to increase the power of the MLM by estimating relatedness (i.e., kinship) with markers that are not located on the chromosome where the tested marker resides. To quantify the amount of additional significant signals one can expect using this so-called K_chr model, we reanalyzed Mendelian, polygenic, and complex traits in two maize (Zea mays L.) diversity panels that have been previously assessed using the traditional MLM. We demonstrated that the K_chr model could find more significant associations, especially in high LD regions. This finding is underscored by our identification of novel genomic signals proximal to the tocochromanol biosynthetic pathway gene ZmVTE1 that are associated with a ratio of tocotrienols. We conclude that the K_chr model can detect more intricate sources of allelic variation underlying agronomically important traits, and should therefore become more widely used for GWAS. To facilitate the implementation of the K_chr model, we provide code written in the R programming language. PMID:27233668

  12. Respiration of sugars in spinach (Spinacia oleraces), maize (Zea mays), and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii F-60 chloroplasts with emphasis on the hexose kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, K.K.; Chen, C.; Epstein, D.K.; Gibbs, M. )

    1993-06-01

    The role of hexokinase in carbohydrate degradation in isolated, intact chloroplasts was evaluated. This was accomplished by monitoring the evolution of [sup 14]CO[sub 2] from darkened spinach (Spinacia oleracea), maize (Zea mays) mesophyll, and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplasts externally supplied with [sup 14]C-labeled fructose, glucose, mannose, galactose, maltose, and ribose. Glucose and ribose were the preferred substrates with the Chlamydomonas and maize chloroplasts, respectively. The rate of CO[sub 2] release from fructose was about twice that from glucose in the spinach chloroplast. externally supplied ATP stimulated the rate of CO[sub 2] release. The pH optimum for CO[sub 2] release was 7.5 with ribose and fructose and 8.5 with glucose as substrates. Probing the outer membrane polypeptides of the intact spinach chloroplast with two proteases, trypsin and thermolysin, decreased [sup 14]CO[sub 2] release from glucose about 50% but had little effect when fructose was the substrate. Tryptic digestion decreased CO[sub 2] release from glucose in the Chlamydomonas chloroplast about 70%. [sup 14]CO[sub 2] evolution from [1-[sup 14]C]-glucose-6-phosphate in both chloroplasts was unaffected by treatment with trypsin. Enzymic analysis of the supernatant (stroma) of the lysed spinach chloroplast indicated a hexokinase active primarily with fructose but with some affinity for glucose. The pellet (membranal fraction) contained a hexokinase utilizing both glucose and fructose but with considerably less total activity than the stormal enzyme. Treatment with trypsin and thermolysin eliminated more than 50% of the glucokinase activity but had little effect on fructokinase activity in the spinach chloroplast. Tryptic digestion of the Chlamydomonas chloroplast resulted in a loss of about 90% of glucokinase activity. 34 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Identification and expression profiling analysis of calmodulin-binding transcription activator genes in maize (Zea mays L.) under abiotic and biotic stresses

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Runqing; Lu, Caixia; Sun, Tao; Peng, Tingting; Han, Xiaohua; Qi, Jianshuang; Yan, Shufeng; Tie, Shuanggui

    2015-01-01

    The calmodulin-binding transcription activators (CAMTA) play critical roles in plant growth and responses to environmental stimuli. However, how CAMTAs function in responses to abiotic and biotic stresses in maize (Zea mays L.) is largely unknown. In this study, we first identified all the CAMTA homologous genes in the whole genome of maize. The results showed that nine ZmCAMTA genes showed highly diversified gene structures and tissue-specific expression patterns. Many ZmCAMTA genes displayed high expression levels in the roots. We then surveyed the distribution of stress-related cis-regulatory elements in the −1.5 kb promoter regions of ZmCAMTA genes. Notably, a large number of stress-related elements present in the promoter regions of some ZmCAMTA genes, indicating a genetic basis of stress expression regulation of these genes. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to test the expression of ZmCAMTA genes under several abiotic stresses (drought, salt, and cold), various stress-related hormones [abscisic acid, auxin, salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid] and biotic stress [rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) infection]. Furthermore, the expression pattern of ZmCAMTA genes under RBSDV infection was analyzed to investigate their potential roles in responses of different maize cultivated varieties to RBSDV. The expression of most ZmCAMTA genes responded to both abiotic and biotic stresses. The data will help us to understand the roles of CAMTA-mediated Ca2+ signaling in maize tolerance to environmental stresses. PMID:26284092

  14. Three groups of transposable elements with contrasting copy number dynamics and host responses in the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) genome.

    PubMed

    Diez, Concepcion M; Meca, Esteban; Tenaillon, Maud I; Gaut, Brandon S

    2014-04-01

    Most angiosperm nuclear DNA is repetitive and derived from silenced transposable elements (TEs). TE silencing requires substantial resources from the plant host, including the production of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Thus, the interaction between TEs and siRNAs is a critical aspect of both the function and the evolution of plant genomes. Yet the co-evolutionary dynamics between these two entities remain poorly characterized. Here we studied the organization of TEs within the maize (Zea mays ssp mays) genome, documenting that TEs fall within three groups based on the class and copy numbers. These groups included DNA elements, low copy RNA elements and higher copy RNA elements. The three groups varied statistically in characteristics that included length, location, age, siRNA expression and 24:22 nucleotide (nt) siRNA targeting ratios. In addition, the low copy retroelements encompassed a set of TEs that had previously been shown to decrease expression within a 24 nt siRNA biogenesis mutant (mop1). To investigate the evolutionary dynamics of the three groups, we estimated their abundance in two landraces, one with a genome similar in size to that of the maize reference and the other with a 30% larger genome. For all three accessions, we assessed TE abundance as well as 22 nt and 24 nt siRNA content within leaves. The high copy number retroelements are under targeted similarly by siRNAs among accessions, appear to be born of a rapid bust of activity, and may be currently transpositionally dead or limited. In contrast, the lower copy number group of retrolements are targeted more dynamically and have had a long and ongoing history of transposition in the maize genome. PMID:24743518

  15. Prolonged expression of the BX1 signature enzyme is associated with a recombination hotspot in the benzoxazinoid gene cluster in Zea mays

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Linlin; McMullen, Michael D.; Bauer, Eva; Schön, Chris-Carolin; Gierl, Alfons; Frey, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Benzoxazinoids represent preformed protective and allelopathic compounds. The main benzoxazinoid in maize (Zea mays L.) is 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA). DIMBOA confers resistance to herbivores and microbes. Protective concentrations are found predominantly in young plantlets. We made use of the genetic diversity present in the maize nested association mapping (NAM) panel to identify lines with significant benzoxazinoid concentrations at later developmental stages. At 24 d after imbibition (dai), only three lines, including Mo17, showed effective DIMBOA concentrations of 1.5mM or more; B73, by contrast, had low a DIMBOA content. Mapping studies based on Mo17 and B73 were performed to reveal mechanisms that influence the DIMBOA level in 24 dai plants. A major quantitative trait locus mapped to the Bx gene cluster located on the short arm of chromosome 4, which encodes the DIMBOA biosynthetic genes. Mo17 was distinguished from all other NAM lines by high transcriptional expression of the Bx1 gene at later developmental stages. Bx1 encodes the signature enzyme of the pathway. In Mo17×B73 hybrids at 24 dai, only the Mo17 Bx1 allele transcript was detected. A 3.9kb cis-element, termed DICE (distal cis-element), that is located in the Bx gene cluster approximately 140kb upstream of Bx1, was required for high Bx1 transcript levels during later developmental stages in Mo17. The DICE region was a hotspot of meiotic recombination. Genetic analysis revealed that high 24 dai DIMBOA concentrations were not strictly dependent on high Bx1 transcript levels. However, constitutive expression of Bx1 in transgenics increased DIMBOA levels at 24 dai, corroborating a correlation between DIMBOA content and Bx1 transcription. PMID:25969552

  16. Diversity and characterization of culturable bacterial endophytes from Zea mays and their potential as plant growth-promoting agents in metal-degraded soils.

    PubMed

    Pereira, S I A; Castro, P M L

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the phylogenetic diversity of culturable bacterial endophytes of Zea mays plants growing in an agricultural soil contaminated with Zn and Cd. Endophytic bacterial counts were determined in roots and shoots, and isolates were grouped by random amplified polymorphic DNA and identified by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing. Endophytes were further characterized for the production of plant growth-promoting (PGP) substances, such as NH3, siderophores, indol-3-acetic acid (IAA), hydrogen cyanide and extracellular enzymes, and for the capacity to solubilize phosphate. The endophytes producing higher amounts of IAA were screened for their tolerance to Zn and Cd and used as bioinoculants for maize seedlings grown in the Zn/Cd-contaminated soil. The counts of endophytes varied between plant tissues, being higher in roots (6.48 log10 g(-1) fresh weight) when compared to shoots (5.77 log10 g(-1) fresh weight). Phylogenetic analysis showed that endophytes belong to three major groups: α-Proteobacteria (31 %), γ-Proteobacteria (26 %) and Actinobacteria (26 %). Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium, Variovorax and Curtobacterium were among the most represented genera. Endophytes were well-adapted to high Zn/Cd concentrations (up to 300 mg Cd l(-1) and 1,000 mg Zn l(-1)) and showed ability to produce several PGP traits. Strains Ochrobactrum haematophilum ZR 3-5, Acidovorax oryzae ZS 1-7, Frigoribacterium faeni ZS 3-5 and Pantoea allii ZS 3-6 increased root elongation and biomass of maize seedlings grown in soil contaminated with Cd and Zn. The endophytes isolated in this study have potential to be used in bioremediation/phytoremediation strategies. PMID:25053283

  17. Cold stress effects on PSI photochemistry in Zea mays: differential increase of FQR-dependent cyclic electron flow and functional implications.

    PubMed

    Savitch, Leonid V; Ivanov, Alexander G; Gudynaite-Savitch, Loreta; Huner, Norman P A; Simmonds, John

    2011-06-01

    Cold-induced inhibition of CO(2) assimilation in maize (Zea mays L.) is associated with a persistent depression of the photochemical efficiency of PSII. However, very limited information is available on PSI photochemistry and PSI-dependent electron flow in cold-stressed maize. The extent of the absorbance change (ΔA(820)) used for in vivo quantitative estimation of photooxidizable P700(+) indicated a 32% lower steady-state oxidation level of the PSI reaction center P700 (P700(+)) in cold-stressed compared with control maize leaves. This was accompanied by a 2-fold faster re-reduction rate of P700(+) in the dark, indicating a higher capacity for cyclic electron flow (CEF) around PSI in cold-stressed maize leaves. Furthermore, the increased PSI-dependent CEF(s) was associated with a much higher stromal electron pool size and 56% lower capacity for state transitions compared with control plants. To examine NADP(H) dehydrogenase (NDH)- and ferredoxin:plastoquinone oxidoreductase (FQR)-dependent CEF in vivo, the post-illumination transient increase of F(o)' was measured in the presence of electron transport inhibitors. The results indicate that under optimal growth conditions the relatively low CEF in the maize mesophyll cells is mostly due to the NDH-dependent pathway. However, the increased CEF in cold-stressed plants appears to originate from the up-regulated FQR pathway. The physiological role of PSI down-regulation, the increased capacity for CEF and the shift of preferred CEF mode in modulating the photosynthetic electron fluxes and distribution of excitation light energy in maize plants under cold stress conditions are discussed. PMID:21546369

  18. The Genetic Basis of Heterosis: Multiparental Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping Reveals Contrasted Levels of Apparent Overdominance Among Traits of Agronomical Interest in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Larièpe, A.; Mangin, B.; Jasson, S.; Combes, V.; Dumas, F.; Jamin, P.; Lariagon, C.; Jolivot, D.; Madur, D.; Fiévet, J.; Gallais, A.; Dubreuil, P.; Charcosset, A.; Moreau, L.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the genetic bases underlying heterosis is a major issue in maize (Zea mays L.). We extended the North Carolina design III (NCIII) by using three populations of recombinant inbred lines derived from three parental lines belonging to different heterotic pools, crossed with each parental line to obtain nine families of hybrids. A total of 1253 hybrids were evaluated for grain moisture, silking date, plant height, and grain yield. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping was carried out on the six families obtained from crosses to parental lines following the “classical” NCIII method and with a multiparental connected model on the global design, adding the three families obtained from crosses to the nonparental line. Results of the QTL detection highlighted that most of the QTL detected for grain yield displayed apparent overdominance effects and limited differences between heterozygous genotypes, whereas for grain moisture predominance of additive effects was observed. For plant height and silking date results were intermediate. Except for grain yield, most of the QTL identified showed significant additive-by-additive epistatic interactions. High correlation observed between heterosis and the heterozygosity of hybrids at markers confirms the complex genetic basis and the role of dominance in heterosis. An important proportion of QTL detected were located close to the centromeres. We hypothesized that the lower recombination in these regions favors the detection of (i) linked QTL in repulsion phase, leading to apparent overdominance for heterotic traits and (ii) linked QTL in coupling phase, reinforcing apparent additive effects of linked QTL for the other traits. PMID:22135356

  19. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid and oxindole-3-acetic acid to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside in Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Radiolabeled oxindole-3-acetic acid was metabolized by roots, shoots, and caryopses of dark grown Zea mays seedlings to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glycopyranoside with the simpler name of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside. This compound was also formed from labeled indole-3-acetic acid supplied to intact seedlings and root segments. The glucoside of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid was also isolated as an endogenous compound in the caryopses and shoots of 4-day-old seedlings. It accumulates to a level of 4.8 nanomoles per plant in the kernel, more than 10 times the amount of oxindole-3-acetic acid. In the shoot it is present at levels comparable to that of oxindole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid (62 picomoles per shoot). We conclude that 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside is a natural metabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Z. mays seedlings. From the data presented in this paper and in previous work, we propose the following route as the principal catabolic pathway for indole-3-acetic acid in Zea seedlings: Indole-3-acetic acid --> Oxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside.

  20. Purple corn (Zea mays L.) phenolic compounds profile and its assessment as an agent against oxidative stress in isolated mouse organs.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Escudero, Fernando; Muñoz, Ana María; Alvarado-Ortíz, Carlos; Alvarado, Ángel; Yáñez, Jaime A

    2012-02-01

    This study was designed to determine the contents of total polyphenols, flavonoids, flavonols, flavanols, and anthocyanins of purple corn (Zea mays L.) extracts obtained with different methanol:water concentrations, acidified with 1% HCl (1 N). Another objective was to determine the antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and deoxyribose assay, individual phenolic compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and endogenous antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], and total peroxidase [TPX]) activity and lipid peroxidation activity (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS] assay) in isolated mouse organs. Overall, the highest total content of polyphenols, anthocyanins, flavonoids, flavonols, and flavanols was obtained with the 80:20 methanol:water extract, acidified with 1% HCl (1 N). The 50% inhibitory concentration values obtained by the DPPH and ABTS assays with this extract were 66.3 μg/mL and 250 μg/mL, respectively. The antioxidant activity by the FRAP assay was 26.1 μM Trolox equivalents/g, whereas the deoxyribose assay presented 93.6% inhibition. Because of these results, the 80:20 methanol:water extract, acidified with 1% HCl (1 N), was used for the remaining tests. Eight phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC: chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid, morin, quercetin, naringenin, and kaempferol. Furthermore, it was observed that the purple corn extract was capable of significantly reducing lipid peroxidation (lower malondialdehyde [MDA] concentrations by the TBARS assay) and at the same time increasing endogenous antioxidant enzyme (CAT, TPX, and SOD) activities in isolated mouse kidney, liver, and brain. On the basis of the results, it was concluded that the purple corn extract contained various bioactive phenolic compounds that exhibited considerable in vitro

  1. Simultaneous femtomole determination of cysteine, reduced and oxidized glutathione, and phytochelatin in maize (Zea mays L.) kernels using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Potesil, David; Petrlova, Jitka; Adam, Vojtech; Vacek, Jan; Klejdus, Borivoj; Zehnalek, Josef; Trnkova, Libuse; Havel, Ladislav; Kizek, Rene

    2005-08-19

    Thiol compounds such as cysteine (Cys), reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) gluathione, and phytochelatins (PCs) play an important role in heavy metal detoxification in plants. These thiols are biological active compounds whose function is elimination of oxidative stress in plant cells. The aim of our work was to optimise sensitive and rapid method of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detector (HPLC-ED) for determination of the abovementioned thiol compounds in maize (Zea mays L.) kernels. New approach for evaluation of HPLC-ED parameters is described. The most suitable isocratic mobile phase for the separation and detection of Cys, GSH, GSSG and PC2 consisted of methanol (MeOH) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). In addition, the influence of concentrations of TFA and ratio of MeOH:TFA on chromatographic separation and detection of the thiol compounds were studied. The mobile phase consisting from methanol and 0.05% (v/v) TFA in ratio 97:3 (%; v/v) was found the most suitable for the thiol compounds determination. Optimal flow rate of the mobile phase was 0.18 ml min(-1) and the column and detector temperature 35 degrees C. Hydrodynamic voltammograms of all studied compounds was obtained due to the selection of the most effective working electrodes potentials. Two most effective detection potentials were selected: 780 mV for the GSSG and PC2 and 680 mV for determination of Cys and GSH. The optimised HPLC-ED method was capable to determine femtomole levels of studied compounds. The detection limits (3 S/N) of the studied thiol compounds were for cysteine 112.8 fmol, GSH 63.5 fmol, GSSG 112.2 fmol and PC2 2.53 pmol per injection (5 microl). The optimised HPLC-ED method was applied to study of the influence of different cadmium concentrations (0, 10 and 100 microM Cd) on content of Cys, GSH, GSSG and PC2 in maize kernels. According to the increasing time of Cd treatment, content of GSH, GSSG and PC2 in maize kernels increased but content

  2. Assessment of growth and yield losses in two Zea mays L. cultivars (quality protein maize and nonquality protein maize) under projected levels of ozone.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aditya Abha; Agrawal, S B; Shahi, J P; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2014-02-01

    Rapid industrialization and economic developments have increased the tropospheric ozone (O3) budget since preindustrial times, and presently, it is supposed to be a major threat to crop productivity. Maize (Zea mays L.), a C4 plant is the third most important staple crop at global level with a great deal of economic importance. The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of two maize cultivars [HQPM1: quality protein maize (QPM)] and [DHM117: nonquality protein maize (NQPM)] to variable O3 doses. Experimental setup included filtered chambers, nonfiltered chambers (NFC), and two elevated doses of O3 viz. NFC+15 ppb O3 (NFC+15) and NFC+30 ppb O3 (NFC+30). During initial growth period, both QPM and NQPM plants showed hormetic effect that is beneficial due to exposure of low doses of a toxicant (NFC and NFC+15 ppb O3), but at later stages, growth attributes were negatively affected by O3. Growth indices showed the variable pattern of photosynthate translocation under O3 stress. Foliar injury in the form of interveinal chlorosis and reddening of leaves due to increased production of anthocyanin pigments was observed at higher concentrations of O3. One-dimensional gel electrophoresis of leaves taken from NFC+30 showed reductions of major photosynthetic proteins, and differential response was observed between the two test cultivars. Decline in the number of male flowers at elevated O3 doses suggested damaging effect of O3 on reproductive structures which might be a cause of productivity losses. Variable carbon allocation pattern particularly to husk leaves, foliar injury, and damage of photosynthetic proteins led to significant reductions in economic yield at higher O3 doses. PCA showed that both the cultivars responded more or less similarly to O3 stress in their respective groupings of growth and yield parameters, but magnitude of their response was variable. It is further supported by difference in the significance of correlations between variables of

  3. Gibberellin A sub 3 is biosynthesized from gibberellin A sub 20 via gibberellin A sub 5 in shoots of Zea mays L

    SciTech Connect

    Fujioka, Shozo; Spray, C.R.; Phinney, B.O. ); Gaskin, P.; MacMillan, J. ); Yamane, Hisakazu Univ. of Tokyo ); Takahashi, Nobutaka )

    1990-09-01

    (17-{sup 13}C, {sup 3}H)-Labeled gibberellin A{sub 20} (GA{sub 20}), GA{sub 5}, and GA{sub 1} were fed to homozygous normal (+/+), heterozygous dominant dwarf (D8/+), and homozygous dominant dwarf (D8/D8) seedlings of Zea mays L. (maize). {sup 13}C-Labeled GA{sub 29}, GA{sub 8}, GA{sub 5}, GA{sub 1}, and 3-epi-GA{sub 1}, as well as unmetabolized ({sup 13}C)GA{sub 20}, were identified by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring (GC-SIM) from feeds of (17-{sup 13}C, {sup 3}H)GA{sub 20} to all three genotypes. {sup 13}C-Labeled GA{sub 8} and 3-epi-G{sub 1}, as well as unmetabolized ({sup 13}C)GA{sub 1}, were identified by GC-SIM from feeds of (17-{sup 13}C, {sup 3}H)GA{sub 1} to all three genotypes. From feeds of (17-{sup 13}C, {sup 3}H)GA{sub 5}, {sup 13}C-labeled GA{sub 3} and the GA{sub 3}-isolactone, as well as unmetabolized ({sup 13}C)GA{sub 5}, were identified by GC-SIM from +/+ and D8/D8, and by full scan GC-MS from D8/+. No evidence was found for the metabolism of (17-{sup 13}C, {sup 3}H)GA{sub 5} to ({sup 13}C)GA{sub 1}, either by full scan GC-mass spectrometry or by GC-SIM. The results demonstrate the presence in maize seedlings of three separate branches from GA{sub 20}, as follows: (a) GA{sub 20} {yields} GA{sub 1} {yields} GA{sub 8}; (b) GA{sub 20} {yields} GA{sub 5} {yields} GA{sub 3}; and (c) GA{sub 20} {yields} GA{sub 29}. The in vivo biogenesis of GA{sub 3} from GA{sub 5}, as well as the origin of GA{sub 5} from GA{sub 20}, are conclusively established for the first time in a higher plant (maize shoots).

  4. Differences in the mannose oligomer specificities of the closely related lectins from Galanthus nivalis and Zea mays strongly determine their eventual anti-HIV activity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In a recent report, the carbohydrate-binding specificities of the plant lectins Galanthus nivalis (GNA) and the closely related lectin from Zea mays (GNAmaize) were determined by glycan array analysis and indicated that GNAmaize recognizes complex-type N-glycans whereas GNA has specificity towards high-mannose-type glycans. Both lectins are tetrameric proteins sharing 64% sequence similarity. Results GNAmaize appeared to be ~20- to 100-fold less inhibitory than GNA against HIV infection, syncytia formation between persistently HIV-1-infected HuT-78 cells and uninfected CD4+ T-lymphocyte SupT1 cells, HIV-1 capture by DC-SIGN and subsequent transmission of DC-SIGN-captured virions to uninfected CD4+ T-lymphocyte cells. In contrast to GNA, which preferentially selects for virus strains with deleted high-mannose-type glycans on gp120, prolonged exposure of HIV-1 to dose-escalating concentrations of GNAmaize selected for mutant virus strains in which one complex-type glycan of gp120 was deleted. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) analysis revealed that GNA and GNAmaize interact with HIV IIIB gp120 with affinity constants (KD) of 0.33 nM and 34 nM, respectively. Whereas immobilized GNA specifically binds mannose oligomers, GNAmaize selectively binds complex-type GlcNAcβ1,2Man oligomers. Also, epitope mapping experiments revealed that GNA and the mannose-specific mAb 2G12 can independently bind from GNAmaize to gp120, whereas GNAmaize cannot efficiently bind to gp120 that contained prebound PHA-E (GlcNAcβ1,2man specific) or SNA (NeuAcα2,6X specific). Conclusion The markedly reduced anti-HIV activity of GNAmaize compared to GNA can be explained by the profound shift in glycan recognition and the disappearance of carbohydrate-binding sites in GNAmaize that have high affinity for mannose oligomers. These findings underscore the need for mannose oligomer recognition of therapeutics to be endowed with anti-HIV activity and that mannose, but not complex-type glycan

  5. Real-time polymerase chain reaction-based approach for quantification of the pat gene in the T25 Zea mays event.

    PubMed

    Weighardt, Florian; Barbati, Cristina; Paoletti, Claudia; Querci, Maddalena; Kay, Simon; De Beuckeleer, Marc; Van den Eede, Guy

    2004-01-01

    In Europe, a growing interest for reliable techniques for the quantification of genetically modified component(s) of food matrixes is arising from the need to comply with the European legislative framework on novel food products. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is currently the most powerful technique for the quantification of specific nucleic acid sequences. Several real-time PCR methodologies based on different molecular principles have been developed for this purpose. The most frequently used approach in the field of genetically modified organism (GMO) quantification in food or feed samples is based on the 5'-3'-exonuclease activity of Taq DNA polymerase on specific degradation probes (TaqMan principle). A novel approach was developed for the establishment of a TaqMan quantification system assessing GMO contents around the 1% threshold stipulated under European Union (EU) legislation for the labeling of food products. The Zea mays T25 elite event was chosen as a model for the development of the novel GMO quantification approach. The most innovative aspect of the system is represented by the use of sequences cloned in plasmids as reference standards. In the field of GMO quantification, plasmids are an easy to use, cheap, and reliable alternative to Certified Reference Materials (CRMs), which are only available for a few of the GMOs authorized in Europe, have a relatively high production cost, and require further processing to be suitable for analysis. Strengths and weaknesses of the use of novel plasmid-based standards are addressed in detail. In addition, the quantification system was designed to avoid the use of a reference gene (e.g., a single copy, species-specific gene) as normalizer, i.e., to perform a GMO quantification based on an absolute instead of a relative measurement. In fact, experimental evidences show that the use of reference genes adds variability to the measurement system because a second independent real-time PCR-based measurement

  6. Systematic Identification, Evolution and Expression Analysis of the Zea mays PHT1 Gene Family Reveals Several New Members Involved in Root Colonization by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Xu, Yunjian; Jiang, Huanhuan; Jiang, Chaosheng; Du, Yibin; Gong, Cheng; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Suwen; Han, Guomin; Cheng, Beijiu

    2016-01-01

    The Phosphate Transporter1 (PHT1) family of genes plays pivotal roles in the uptake of inorganic phosphate from soils. However, there is no comprehensive report on the PHT1 family in Zea mays based on the whole genome. In the present study, a total of 13 putative PHT1 genes (ZmPHT1;1 to 13) were identified in the inbred line B73 genome by bioinformatics methods. Then, their function was investigated by a yeast PHO84 mutant complementary experiment and qRT-PCR. Thirteen ZmPHT1 genes distributed on six chromosomes (1, 2, 5, 7, 8 and 10) were divided into two paralogues (Class A and Class B). ZmPHT1;1/ZmPHT1;9 and ZmPHT1;9/ZmPHT1;13 are produced from recent segmental duplication events. ZmPHT1;1/ZmPHT1;13 and ZmPHT1;8/ZmPHT1;10 are produced from early segmental duplication events. All 13 putative ZmPHT1s can completely or partly complement the yeast Pi-uptake mutant, and they were obviously induced in maize under low Pi conditions, except for ZmPHT1;1 (p < 0.01), indicating that the overwhelming majority of ZmPHT1 genes can respond to a low Pi condition. ZmPHT1;2, ZmPHT1;4, ZmPHT1;6, ZmPHT1;7, ZmPHT1;9 and ZmPHT1;11 were up-regulated by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), implying that these genes might participate in mediating Pi absorption and/or transport. Analysis of the promoters revealed that the MYCS and P1BS element are widely distributed on the region of different AMF-inducible ZmPHT1 promoters. In light of the above results, five of 13 ZmPHT1 genes were newly-identified AMF-inducible high-affinity phosphate transporters in the maize genome. Our results will lay a foundation for better understanding the PHT1 family evolution and the molecular mechanisms of inorganic phosphate transport under AMF inoculation. PMID:27304955

  7. Systematic Identification, Evolution and Expression Analysis of the Zea mays PHT1 Gene Family Reveals Several New Members Involved in Root Colonization by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang; Xu, Yunjian; Jiang, Huanhuan; Jiang, Chaosheng; Du, Yibin; Gong, Cheng; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Suwen; Han, Guomin; Cheng, Beijiu

    2016-01-01

    The Phosphate Transporter1 (PHT1) family of genes plays pivotal roles in the uptake of inorganic phosphate from soils. However, there is no comprehensive report on the PHT1 family in Zea mays based on the whole genome. In the present study, a total of 13 putative PHT1 genes (ZmPHT1;1 to 13) were identified in the inbred line B73 genome by bioinformatics methods. Then, their function was investigated by a yeast PHO84 mutant complementary experiment and qRT-PCR. Thirteen ZmPHT1 genes distributed on six chromosomes (1, 2, 5, 7, 8 and 10) were divided into two paralogues (Class A and Class B). ZmPHT1;1/ZmPHT1;9 and ZmPHT1;9/ZmPHT1;13 are produced from recent segmental duplication events. ZmPHT1;1/ZmPHT1;13 and ZmPHT1;8/ZmPHT1;10 are produced from early segmental duplication events. All 13 putative ZmPHT1s can completely or partly complement the yeast Pi-uptake mutant, and they were obviously induced in maize under low Pi conditions, except for ZmPHT1;1 (p < 0.01), indicating that the overwhelming majority of ZmPHT1 genes can respond to a low Pi condition. ZmPHT1;2, ZmPHT1;4, ZmPHT1;6, ZmPHT1;7, ZmPHT1;9 and ZmPHT1;11 were up-regulated by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), implying that these genes might participate in mediating Pi absorption and/or transport. Analysis of the promoters revealed that the MYCS and P1BS element are widely distributed on the region of different AMF-inducible ZmPHT1 promoters. In light of the above results, five of 13 ZmPHT1 genes were newly-identified AMF-inducible high-affinity phosphate transporters in the maize genome. Our results will lay a foundation for better understanding the PHT1 family evolution and the molecular mechanisms of inorganic phosphate transport under AMF inoculation. PMID:27304955

  8. Purple Corn (Zea mays L.) Phenolic Compounds Profile and Its Assessment as an Agent Against Oxidative Stress in Isolated Mouse Organs

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Escudero, Fernando; Muñoz, Ana María; Alvarado-Ortíz, Carlos; Alvarado, Ángel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study was designed to determine the contents of total polyphenols, flavonoids, flavonols, flavanols, and anthocyanins of purple corn (Zea mays L.) extracts obtained with different methanol:water concentrations, acidified with 1% HCl (1 N). Another objective was to determine the antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and deoxyribose assay, individual phenolic compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and endogenous antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], and total peroxidase [TPX]) activity and lipid peroxidation activity (thiobarbituric acid–reactive substances [TBARS] assay) in isolated mouse organs. Overall, the highest total content of polyphenols, anthocyanins, flavonoids, flavonols, and flavanols was obtained with the 80:20 methanol:water extract, acidified with 1% HCl (1 N). The 50% inhibitory concentration values obtained by the DPPH and ABTS assays with this extract were 66.3 μg/mL and 250 μg/mL, respectively. The antioxidant activity by the FRAP assay was 26.1 μM Trolox equivalents/g, whereas the deoxyribose assay presented 93.6% inhibition. Because of these results, the 80:20 methanol:water extract, acidified with 1% HCl (1 N), was used for the remaining tests. Eight phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC: chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid, morin, quercetin, naringenin, and kaempferol. Furthermore, it was observed that the purple corn extract was capable of significantly reducing lipid peroxidation (lower malondialdehyde [MDA] concentrations by the TBARS assay) and at the same time increasing endogenous antioxidant enzyme (CAT, TPX, and SOD) activities in isolated mouse kidney, liver, and brain. On the basis of the results, it was concluded that the purple corn extract contained various bioactive phenolic compounds that exhibited

  9. Water uptake patterns and root system architecture of Zea mays in a natural soil under influence of drought stress monitored by MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merz, Steffen; Pohlmeier, Andreas; Seidler, Christina; van Dusschoten, Dagmar; Vereecken, Harry

    2012-04-01

    The interface between roots and soil plays a key role in water transport in the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere-Continuum (SPAC). The transport which changes with the degree of dehydration is influenced by both the hydraulic conductivity of roots and the soil. One important factor in plant growth is the amount of available water in the soil, which correlates directly with soil texture. Water uptake of plant roots and water uptake patterns in soil can be monitored using non-invasive 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). In a preceding study the effect of root water uptake and uniform desiccation patterns under drought conditions were observed for Ricinus communis grown in a model medium (Pohlmeier et al. 2008). Continuing these studies, the new aspect is the determination of water uptake patterns and root system architecture in a natural soil. The general challenge of MRI in soils are the inherent fast relaxation times T2* and T2 of the soil matrix. With the use of conventional sequences only water in macropores can be determined. The loss of sensitivity can be overcome by MRI sequences with sufficiently short detection times. In this work we employed and assessed two methods: SPI (Single Point Imaging) detects the T2* relaxation with a dead time of < 0.05 ms and SE3D (Spin Echo 3D) probes T2,eff with an echo time of about 0.8 ms. Zea mays, planted in a cylindrical container filled with a natural soil was completely sealed after 4 weeks of growth to avoid evaporation, so water loss took place via transpiration only. The water content of the soil was determined gravimetrically and by means of MRI each 2nd day over a period of 14 days. Furthermore a SEMS (Spin Echo Multi Slice) sequence was used to visualize the growth of root system architecture. This study shows that SPI3D and SE3D are feasible for the determination of water content in a natural soil up to a certain detection limit. We observed quite uniform water uptake patterns during drying of the soil until water

  10. Identification of B6T173 (ZmPrx35) as the prevailing peroxidase in highly insect-resistant maize (Zea mays, p84C3) kernels by activity-directed purification

    PubMed Central

    López-Castillo, Laura M.; López-Arciniega, Janet A. I.; Guerrero-Rangel, Armando; Valdés-Rodríguez, Silvia; Brieba, Luis G.; García-Lara, Silverio; Winkler, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Plant peroxidases (PODs) are involved in diverse physiological processes, including defense against pathogens and insects. Contrary to their biological importance, only very few plant PODs have been proven on protein level, because their low abundance makes them difficult to detect in standard proteomics work-flows. A statistically significant positive correlation between POD activity and post-harvest insect resistance has been found for maize (Zea mays, p84C3) kernels. In combining activity-directed protein purification, genomic and proteomic tools we found that protein B6T173 (ZmPrx35) is responsible for the majority of the POD activity of the kernel. We successfully produced recombinant ZmPrx35 protein in Escherichia coli and demonstrate both, in vitro activity and the presence of a haem (heme) cofactor of the enzyme. Our findings support the screening for insect resistant maize variants and the construction of genetically optimized maize plants. PMID:26379694

  11. The locations and amounts of endogenous ions and elements in the cap and elongating zone of horizontally oriented roots of Zea mays L.: an electron-probe EDS study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; Cameron, I. L.; Hunter, K. E.; Olmos, D.; Smith, N. K.

    1987-01-01

    We used quantitative electron-probe energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis to localize endogenous Na, Cl, K, P, S, Mg and Ca in cryofixed and freeze-dried cryosections of the cap (i.e. the putative site of graviperception) and elongating zone (i.e. site of gravicurvature) of horizontally oriented roots of Zea mays. Ca, Na, Cl, K and Mg accumulate along the lower side of caps of horizontally oriented roots. The most dramatic asymmetries of these ions occur in the apoplast, especially the mucilage. We could not detect any significant differences in the concentrations of these ions in the central cytoplasm of columella cells along the upper and lower sides of caps of horizontally-oriented roots. However, the increased amounts of Na, Cl, K and Mg in the longitudinal walls of columella cells along the lower side of the cap suggest that these ions may move down through the columella tissue of horizontally-oriented roots. Ca also accumulates (largely in the mucilage) along the lower side of the elongating zone of horizontally-oriented roots, while Na, P, Cl and K tend to accumulate along the upper side of the elongating zone. Of these ions, only K increases in concentration in the cytoplasm and longitudinal walls of cortical cells in the upper vs lower sides of the elongating zone. These results indicate that (1) gravity-induced asymmetries of ions differ significantly in the cap and elongating zone of graviresponding roots, (2) Ca accumulates along the lower side of the cap and elongating zone of graviresponding roots, (3) increased growth of the upper side of the elongating zone of horizontally-oriented roots correlates positively with increased amounts of K in the cytoplasm and longitudinal walls of cortical cells, and (4) the apoplast (especially the mucilage) may be an important component of the pathway via which ions move in graviresponding rots of Zea mays. These results are discussed relative to mechanisms for graviperception and gravicurvature of roots.

  12. Estudio muestra importancia de conversaciones tempranas sobre el cuidado en etapa final de la vida

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre la importancia de hablar en forma temprana sobre el cuidado paliativo para asegurar que la atención prestada en la etapa final de la vida sea más acorde con las preferencias de los pacientes.

  13. Nucleotide Availability in Maize (Zea mays L.) Root Tips (Estimation of Free and Protein-Bound Nucleotides Using 31P-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and a Novel Protein-Ligand-Binding Assay).

    PubMed Central

    Hooks, M. A.; Shearer, G. C.; Roberts, JKM.

    1994-01-01

    Sequestration of nucleotides in cells through protein binding could influence the availability of nucleotides and free energy for metabolic reactions and, therefore, affect rates of physiological processes. We have estimated the proportion of nucleotides bound to proteins in maize (Zea mays L.) root tips. Binding of nucleoside mono- and diphosphates to total root-tip protein was studied in vitro using high-performance liquid chromatography and a new ligand-binding technique. We estimate that approximately 40% of the ADP, 65% of the GDP, 50% of the AMP, and virtually all the GMP in aerobic cells are bound to proteins. In hypoxic cells, free concentrations of these nucleotides increase proportionately much more than total intracellular concentrations. Little or no binding of CDP, UDP, CMP, and UMP was observed in vitro. Binding of nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) to protein was estimated from in vivo 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation measurements. In aerobic root tips most (approximately 70%) of the NTP is free, whereas under hypoxia NTP appears predominantly bound to protein. Our results indicate that binding of nucleotides to proteins in plant cells will significantly influence levels of free purine nucleotides available to drive and regulate respiration, protein synthesis, ion transport, and other physiological processes. PMID:12232108

  14. Down-Regulation of ZmEXPB6 (Zea mays β-Expansin 6) Protein Is Correlated with Salt-mediated Growth Reduction in the Leaves of Z. mays L.

    PubMed Central

    Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Ober, Dietrich; Eichacker, Lutz A.; Mühling, Karl Hermann; Zörb, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The salt-sensitive crop Zea mays L. shows a rapid leaf growth reduction upon NaCl stress. There is increasing evidence that salinity impairs the ability of the cell walls to expand, ultimately inhibiting growth. Wall-loosening is a prerequisite for cell wall expansion, a process that is under the control of cell wall-located expansin proteins. In this study the abundance of those proteins was analyzed against salt stress using gel-based two-dimensional proteomics and two-dimensional Western blotting. Results show that ZmEXPB6 (Z. mays β-expansin 6) protein is lacking in growth-inhibited leaves of salt-stressed maize. Of note, the exogenous application of heterologously expressed and metal-chelate-affinity chromatography-purified ZmEXPB6 on growth-reduced leaves that lack native ZmEXPB6 under NaCl stress partially restored leaf growth. In vitro assays on frozen-thawed leaf sections revealed that recombinant ZmEXPB6 acts on the capacity of the walls to extend. Our results identify expansins as a factor that partially restores leaf growth of maize in saline environments. PMID:25750129

  15. Phytotoxicity of brominated diphenyl ether-47 (BDE-47) and its hydroxylated and methoxylated analogues (6-OH-BDE-47 and 6-MeO-BDE-47) to maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuehui; Huang, Honglin; Wen, Bei; Wang, Sen; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-03-16

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), and hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs) are widely found in various environmental media, which is of concern given their biological toxicity. In this study, the phytotoxicities of BDE-47, 6-MeO-BDE-47, and 6-OH-BDE-47 to maize (Zea mays L.) were investigated by an in vivo exposure experiment. Results showed that BDE-47, 6-MeO-BDE-47, and 6-OH-BDE-47 inhibited seed germination and seedling development, and elevated malondialdehyde (MDA), carbonyl groups, and phosphorylated histone H2AX levels in maize roots, suggesting the inducement of lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and DNA damage to maize. Exposure to BDE-47, 6-MeO-BDE-47, and 6-OH-BDE-47 caused the overproduction of H2O2, O2(•-), and •OH, and elevated the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the roots. In addition, 6-OH-BDE-47 caused more severe damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in maize than did BDE-47 and 6-MeO-BDE-47. These results demonstrated the phytotoxicities of BDE-47, 6-OH-BDE-47, and 6-MeO-BDE-47 to maize, and clarified that overproduction of ROS was the key mechanism leading to toxicity. This study offers useful information for a more comprehensive understanding of the environmental behaviors and toxicities of PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs, and OH-PBDEs. PMID:25654621

  16. First report of Dolichozele koebelei Viereck, 1911 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in maize (Zea mays L.) under different cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Silva, R B; Cruz, I; Penteado-Dias, A M

    2014-08-01

    In the context of the modern agriculture, pest control is important in order to increase productivity in maize (Zea mays L.). However, this control should be done rationally, prioritising environmentally safer methods such as biological control. This paper aims to report the occurrence of Dolichozele koebelei Viereck, 1911 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae collected in maize subjected to different cropping systems. The experiment was conducted at the Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Milho e Sorgo (CNPMS) in Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using organic and conventional production. Ten plants were sampled from each of the 24 plots and for each production system, three times a week during the entire cycle of maize (variety BR 106). In the laboratory, larvae were distributed in individual rearing containers with artificial diet until the end of the biological cycle. An increased number of S. frugiperda larvae was observed in organic single crop maize; hence a higher percentage of S. frugiperda larvae parasitised by Hymenoptera and Diptera also occurred in the maize under this production system. Dolichozele koebelei had not yet been described in association with larvae of S. frugiperda. The percentage of parasitism of S. frugiperda larvae was high in both experiments, indicating the importance of natural control agents in reducing the population density of S. frugiperda, and especially the importance of an appropriate crop management. PMID:25627388

  17. The En/Spm transposable element of Zea mays contains splice sites at the termini generating a novel intron from a dSpm element in the A2 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Menssen, A; Höhmann, S; Martin, W; Schnable, P S; Peterson, P A; Saedler, H; Gierl, A

    1990-01-01

    The A2 locus of Zea mays, identified as one of the genes affecting anthocyanin biosynthesis, was cloned using the transposable elements rcy and dSpm as gene tags. The A2 gene encodes a putative protein of 395 amino acids and is devoid of introns. Two a2-m1 alleles, containing dSpm insertions of different sizes, were characterized. The dSpm element from the original state allele has perfect termini and undergoes frequent transposition. The element from the class II state allele is no longer competent to transpose. It has retained the 13 bp terminal inverted repeat but has lost all subterminal sites at the 5' end, which are recognized by tnpA protein, the most abundant product of the En/Spm transposable element system. The relatively high A2 gene expression of one a2-m1 allele is due to removal of almost all dSpm sequences by splicing. The slightly altered A2 enzyme is still functional as shown by complementation of an a2 mutant with the corresponding cDNA. The 5' and 3' splice sites are constituted by the termini of the dSpm element; it therefore represents a novel intron of the A2 gene. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 8. PMID:2170105

  18. Influence of life history differences of two tachinid parasitoids ofHelicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on their interactions with glandular trichome/methyl ketone-based insect resistance in tomato.

    PubMed

    Farrar, R R; Kennedy, G G; Kashyap, R K

    1992-03-01

    The effects of glandular trichome/methyl ketone (2-tridecanone and 2-undecanone) -based insect resistance in the wild tomato,Lycopersicon hirsutum f.glabratum C.H. Mull, accession PI 134417, onArchytas marmoratus (Townsend) andEucelatoria bryani (Sabrosky) (Diptera: Tachinidae), both parasitoids ofHelicoverpa (=Heliothis)zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), were investigated in the laboratory.A. marmoratus deposits larvae (planidia) on the foliage of its host's food plant; planidia attach to passing hosts, penetrate the cuticle, and develop in the host pupae.E. bryani larviposits directly into its host; its larvae develop in the host larva.A. marmoratus planidia are killed by glandular trichomes of PI 134417 and also by trichomes of hybrid lines with no methyl ketones. The methyl ketones are toxic to planidia, but at least part of the effect is due to other factors, possibly physical entanglement. Both species can be affected indirectly by methyl ketones in the diet of the host. 2-Undecanone reduces the percentage ofA. marmoratus larvae that reach pupation. This effect is evidently due to premature death and desiccation of the host pupa caused by 2-undecanone. 2-Tridecanone in host diets had no effect onA. marmoratus. InE. bryani, 2-tridecanone in the diet of the host reduced the number of parasitoids yielded by each parasitized host, although not the overall percentage of hosts parasitized. 2-Undecanone in the diet of the host had no effect onE. bryani. PMID:24254953

  19. Monitoring the environmental effects of CeO2 and ZnO nanoparticles through the life cycle of corn (Zea mays) plants and in situ μ-XRF mapping of nutrients in kernels.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lijuan; Sun, Youping; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Hong, Jie; Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Niu, Genhua; Duarte-Gardea, Maria; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-03-01

    Information about changes in physiological and agronomic parameters through the life cycle of plants exposed to engineered nanoparticles (NPs) is scarce. In this study, corn (Zea mays) plants were cultivated to full maturity in soil amended with either nCeO2 or nZnO at 0, 400, and 800 mg/kg. Gas exchange was monitored every 10 days, and at harvest, bioaccumulation of Ce and Zn in tissues was determined by ICP-OES/MS. The effects of NPs exposure on nutrient concentration and distribution in ears were also evaluated by ICP-OES and μ-XRF. Results showed that nCeO2 at both concentrations did not impact gas exchange in leaves at any growth stage, while nZnO at 800 mg/kg reduced net photosynthesis by 12%, stomatal conductance by 15%, and relative chlorophyll content by 10% at day 20. Yield was reduced by 38% with nCeO2 and by 49% with nZnO. Importantly, μ-XRF mapping showed that nCeO2 changed the allocation of calcium in kernels, compared to controls. In nCeO2 treated plants, Cu, K, Mn, and Zn were mainly localized at the insertion of kernels into cobs, but Ca and Fe were distributed in other parts of the kernels. Results showed that nCeO2 and nZnO reduced corn yield and altered quality of corn. PMID:25648544

  20. An assessment of the effects of crude oil pollution on soil properties, germination and growth of maize (Zea mays) using two crude types--Forcados light and Escravos light.

    PubMed

    Ogboghodo, I A; Iruaga, E K; Osemwota, I O; Chokor, J U

    2004-01-01

    The effect of crude oil pollution on soil properties, germination and height of maize (Zea mays) was investigated under natural environment in three separate pot experiments. Two crude oil types--Forcados light and Escravos light were used. In Experiment 1, the effect of crude oil application on germination using high pollution levels of 5, 15, 25 and 40 mL kg(-1) of soil was assessed. In Experiment 2, the effect of crude oil application on maize plant height using the same pollution levels was assessed. The last experiment (Experiment 3) was used to test for the effects of crude oil application on maize plant height using lower levels of pollution (1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mL kg(-1) of soil). Soil samples were collected before, during and after the experiment and analyzed for some physical and chemical properties. Results obtained showed variation in chemical properties of soil. % organic matter increased from 1.34 to 2.62% in polluted soils. Available P decreased from 15.00 ppm in control to between 7.34 and 5.42 in soils polluted with 'high' levels of crude oil. Statistical analysis of height data showed that crude oil inhibited the growth of maize at high pollution levels. High levels of pollution also inhibited germination and for Escravos light there was no germination at 40 mL kg(-1) soil level of crude oil pollution. PMID:15327154

  1. Alternative respiratory path capacity in plant mitochondria: effect of growth temperature, the electrochemical gradient, and assay pH. [Zea mays L. , Vigna radiata L. , Symplocarpus foetidus L. , Sauromatum guttatum Schott

    SciTech Connect

    Elthon, T.E.; Stewart, C.R.; McCoy, C.A.; Bonner, W.D. Jr.

    1986-02-01

    Influence of growth temperature on the capacity of the mitochondrial alternative pathway of electron transport was investigated using etiolated corn (Zea mays L.) seedlings. These seedlings were grown to comparable size in either a warm (30/sup 0/C) or a cold (13/sup 0/C) temperature regime, and then their respiration rates were measured as O/sub 2/ uptake at 25/sup 0/C. The capacity of the alternative pathway (KCN-insensitive O/sub 2/ uptake) was found essentially to double in shoots of cold-grown seedlings. When mitochondria were isolated from the shoots a greater potential for flow through the alternative path was observed in mitochondria from the cold-grown seedlings with all substrates used (an average increase of 84%). Using exogenous NADH as the substrate, the effect of the electrochemical gradient on measurable capacities of the cytochrome and alternative pathways was investigated in mitochondria from both etiolated seedlings and thermogenic spadices. In corn shoot and mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) hypocotyl mitochondria increased flow through the cytochrome chain in the absence of the electrochemical gradient was found not to influence the potential for flow through the alternative path. However, in mitochondria from skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus L.) and voodoo lily (Sauromatum gutatum Schott) spadices increased flow through the cytochrome chain in the absence of the gradient occurred at the expense of flow through the alternative pathway. This experiment also revealed that the potential for respiratory control is largely dependent upon the assay pH.

  2. Potential effects of global atmospheric CO/sub 2/ enrichment on the growth and competitiveness of C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ weed and crop plants. [Zea mays; Abutilon theophrasti; Glycine max; Rottboellia

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, D.T.; Flint, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    Mathematical growth analysis techniques were used to evaluate the effects of CO/sub 2/ concentrations of 350, 600, and 1000 ppm (v/v) on growth and biomass partitioning in corn (Zea mays L. Dekalb (L 395'), itchgrass (Rottboellia exaltata L.f.), soybean (Glycine max L) Merr. Tracy), and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medic.). Controlled environment chambers with day/night temperatures of 28/22 C and photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) of 650 ..mu..E (microeinteins) m/sup -2/ s/sup -1/ were used. Dry matter production in the two C/sub 3/ species soybean and velvetleaf) was increased significantly by raising the CO/sub 2/ concentration above 350 ppm. In corn (a C/sub 4/ species), dry matter production was greatest at 600 ppm CO/sub 2/ and did not differ between the 350 and 1000 ppm treatments. Increasing the CO/sub 2/ concentration increased the rate of dry matter production per unit leaf area (net assimilation rate or NAR) in soybean and velvetleaf but either decreased or did not alter NAR in corn and itchgrass. At 45 days after planting, the weed/crop ratios for total dry matter production for velvetleaf/corn and itchgrass/corn were significantly greater at both 600 and 1000 ppm than at 350 ppm CO/sub 2/. The weed/crop ratio for itchgrass/soybean was less at 1000 ppm than at 350 or 600 ppm CO/sub 2/. Compared to the value at 350 ppm, the weed/crop ratio for velvetleaf/soybean was greater at 600 ppm and less at 100 ppm CO/sub 2/.

  3. G-quadruplex (G4) motifs in the maize (Zea mays L.) genome are enriched at specific locations in thousands of genes coupled to energy status, hypoxia, low sugar, and nutrient deprivation.

    PubMed

    Andorf, Carson M; Kopylov, Mykhailo; Dobbs, Drena; Koch, Karen E; Stroupe, M Elizabeth; Lawrence, Carolyn J; Bass, Hank W

    2014-12-20

    The G-quadruplex (G4) elements comprise a class of nucleic acid structures formed by stacking of guanine base quartets in a quadruple helix. This G4 DNA can form within or across single-stranded DNA molecules and is mutually exclusive with duplex B-form DNA. The reversibility and structural diversity of G4s make them highly versatile genetic structures, as demonstrated by their roles in various functions including telomere metabolism, genome maintenance, immunoglobulin gene diversification, transcription, and translation. Sequence motifs capable of forming G4 DNA are typically located in telomere repeat DNA and other non-telomeric genomic loci. To investigate their potential roles in a large-genome model plant species, we computationally identified 149,988 non-telomeric G4 motifs in maize (Zea mays L., B73 AGPv2), 29% of which were in non-repetitive genomic regions. G4 motif hotspots exhibited non-random enrichment in genes at two locations on the antisense strand, one in the 5' UTR and the other at the 5' end of the first intron. Several genic G4 motifs were shown to adopt sequence-specific and potassium-dependent G4 DNA structures in vitro. The G4 motifs were prevalent in key regulatory genes associated with hypoxia (group VII ERFs), oxidative stress (DJ-1/GATase1), and energy status (AMPK/SnRK) pathways. They also showed statistical enrichment for genes in metabolic pathways that function in glycolysis, sugar degradation, inositol metabolism, and base excision repair. Collectively, the maize G4 motifs may represent conditional regulatory elements that can aid in energy status gene responses. Such a network of elements could provide a mechanistic basis for linking energy status signals to gene regulation in maize, a model genetic system and major world crop species for feed, food, and fuel. PMID:25527104

  4. Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer con una sección especial sobre la prevalencia d

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer (1975 a 2010), mostró un descenso más acelerado que en años anteriores de los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón. También contiene una sección especial que destaca los efectos significativos

  5. Some Research-Based Issues and Recommendations Expressed at the Seminario Internacional Sobre la Educacion Bilingue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Ernesto M.

    The first Seminario Internacional Sobre la Educacion Bilingue (International Seminar on Bilingual Education), under the aegis of the National Association for Bilingual Education and the Mexican secretary for public education, brought together professionals from Canada, the United States, and Mexico in Oaxtepec, Mexico in November 1986 to share…

  6. Informe del NCI y los CDC sobre el tabaco sin humo

    Cancer.gov

    El primer informe sobre el consumo mundial del tabaco sin humo y sus consecuencias en la salud pública reveló que más de 300 millones de personas en al menos 70 países usan estos productos dañinos.

  7. Discussions about the Nature of Science in a Course on the History of Astronomy. (Spanish Title: Discusiones sobre la Naturaleza de la Ciencia en un Curso sobre Historia de la Astronomía.) Discussões sobre a Natureza da Ciência em um Curso sobre a História da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires de Andrade, Victória Flório; L'Astorina, Bruno

    2010-07-01

    There are an increasing number of researches in science education that affirm the importance of discussions on the "nature of science" in basic education level as well as in teacher training. The history of science applied to education is a way to contextualize epistemological discussions, allowing both the understanding of scientific content and learning about science concepts. We present some reasonably consensual definitions on the nature of science that have been widely discussed by the academic community. We show also some episodes in the history of astronomy which can lead to discussions involving some aspects of the nature of science, and how they can do it. Hay un número creciente de investigaciones en la enseñanza de las ciencias que afirman la importancia de debates sobre la "naturaleza de la ciencia" en la educación básica y formación del profesorado. La historia de la ciencia aplicada a la educación es una manera de contextualizar los debates de la epistemología, lo que permite tanto la comprensión de los contenidos científicos como el aprendizaje de conceptos científicos. En esto trabajo, presentamos algunas definiciones bastante consensuales sobre la naturaleza de la ciencia que han sido ampliamente discutidas por la comunidad académica y mostramos cómo algunos episodios en la historia de la astronomía pueden llevar a discusiones sobre algunos aspectos de la naturaleza de la ciencia. Há um número crescente de pesquisas na área de ensino de ciências que afirmam a importância de discussões sobre a "natureza da ciência" na educação básica e na formação de professores. A história da ciência aplicada ao ensino é uma maneira de contextualizar discussões epistemológicas, permitindo tanto a compreensão de conteúdos científicos quanto o aprendizado de noções sobre as ciências. Neste trabalho apresentamos algumas definições razoavelmente consensuais sobre a natureza da ciência que foram amplamente discutidas pela

  8. Genetic and Genomic Toolbox of Zea mays

    PubMed Central

    Nannas, Natalie J.; Dawe, R. Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Maize has a long history of genetic and genomic tool development and is considered one of the most accessible higher plant systems. With a fully sequenced genome, a suite of cytogenetic tools, methods for both forward and reverse genetics, and characterized phenotype markers, maize is amenable to studying questions beyond plant biology. Major discoveries in the areas of transposons, imprinting, and chromosome biology came from work in maize. Moving forward in the post-genomic era, this classic model system will continue to be at the forefront of basic biological study. In this review, we outline the basics of working with maize and describe its rich genetic toolbox. PMID:25740912

  9. Genetic and genomic toolbox of Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Nannas, Natalie J; Dawe, R Kelly

    2015-03-01

    Maize has a long history of genetic and genomic tool development and is considered one of the most accessible higher plant systems. With a fully sequenced genome, a suite of cytogenetic tools, methods for both forward and reverse genetics, and characterized phenotype markers, maize is amenable to studying questions beyond plant biology. Major discoveries in the areas of transposons, imprinting, and chromosome biology came from work in maize. Moving forward in the post-genomic era, this classic model system will continue to be at the forefront of basic biological study. In this review, we outline the basics of working with maize and describe its rich genetic toolbox. PMID:25740912

  10. Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, 1975 a 2012

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, 1975 a 2012, es una actualización de los índices de casos nuevos, muertes y tendencias de los cánceres más comunes en los Estados Unidos.

  11. Molecular characterization of the thi3 gene involved in thiamine biosynthesis in Zea mays: cDNA sequence and enzymatic and structural properties of the recombinant bifunctional protein with 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine (phosphate) kinase and thiamine monophosphate synthase activities.

    PubMed

    Rapala-Kozik, Maria; Olczak, Mariusz; Ostrowska, Katarzyna; Starosta, Agata; Kozik, Andrzej

    2007-12-01

    A thiamine biosynthesis gene, thi3, from maize Zea mays has been identified through cloning and sequencing of cDNA and heterologous overexpression of the encoded protein, THI3, in Escherichia coli. The recombinant THI3 protein was purified to homogeneity and shown to possess two essentially different enzymatic activities of HMP(-P) [4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine (phosphate)] kinase and TMP (thiamine monophosphate) synthase. Both activities were characterized in terms of basic kinetic constants, with interesting findings that TMP synthase is uncompetitively inhibited by excess of one of the substrates [HMP-PP (HMP diphosphate)] and ATP. A bioinformatic analysis of the THI3 sequence suggested that these activities were located in two distinct, N-terminal kinase and C-terminal synthase, domains. Models of the overall folds of THI3 domains and the arrangements of active centre residues were obtained with the SWISS-MODEL protein modelling server, on the basis of the known three-dimensional structures of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium HMP(-P) kinase and Bacillus subtilis TMP synthase. The essential roles of Gln98 and Met134 residues for HMP kinase activity and of Ser444 for TMP synthase activity were experimentally confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. PMID:17696876

  12. Conversation with Lara about the Earth and Land. (Spanish Title: Conversando con Lara sobre la Tierra y la Teirra.) Conversando com Lara sobre a Terra e a Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Conceição Barbosa-Lima, Maria

    2010-12-01

    The present article is the analysis of a conversation between the author and Lara, a four-yearold- girl, enrolled in nursery school, while she makes a drawing of the Earth. It took place outside school environment and without any other person around to avoid interference during the interview. According to Ferreira & Silva (2004), a researcher can only comprehend a child's drawing, or form, by listening to him/her while he/she is creating it. Lara presented the traditional flat drawing, picturing the sky parallel to the ground, as reported by Nardi & Carvalho (1996). However, when asked to draw the World - term used by Butterworth et al. (2002), in order to avoid unnecessary confusion - she represented it by a circle, with herself on the surface. Her drawings led to the conclusion that such girl does not know yet the World in which she lives is the Earth, and probably because of that, within her age and consequent maturity, she accurately differentiates the concepts of land and Earth. El presente artículo analiza una entrevista libre, mientras una niña de 4 años y 4 meses, matriculada en el pregrado, dibuja la Tierra. Esta entrevista se realizó fuera del ambiente escolar y sin otra persona alrededor que pudiera interferir. De acuerdo con Ferreira Silva (2004), para quien investiga es posible conocer realmente lo que un niño o una niña pone en el papel a través de grafismos y/o dibujos si se lo escucha durante el proceso de creación de la escritura con imágenes. La niña, en este caso, representa la Tierra con el tradicional dibujo plano y el "cielo" paralelo al suelo, conforme analizaron Nardi & Carvalho (1996). Pero, cuando se Le solicita dibujar el "Mundo" - palabra empleada en un trabajo de Butterworth et al. (2002), con intención de no provocar "confusiones" innecesarias a sus sujetos de investigación- lo representa de forma circular, poniéndose sobre su superficie. Sus dibujos llevan a concluir que esta niña aún no tiene conocimiento que el mundo

  13. El Informe a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, 1975-2012

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer (1975-2012) indica que continuó la baja de tasas de mortalidad de todos los cánceres juntos, así como de la mayoría de los cánceres en hombres y mujeres de todos los grupos raciales y étnicos principales.

  14. O que bilíngues bimodais têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue?

    PubMed Central

    de Quadros, Ronice Müller; Lillo-Martin, Diane; Pichler, Deborah Chen

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar o que as pesquisas que estamos desenvolvendo com crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, adquirindo Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras) e Português e Língua de Sinais Americana (ASL) e Inglês (Lillo-Martin et al. 2010) têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue. Os dados deste estudo fazem parte de um banco de dados de interações espontâneas coletadas longitudinalmente, alternando contextos de aquisição da Libras e do português como língua alvo, no Brasil e dados coletados longitudinalmente. nos mesmos contextos, de crianças adquirindo ASL e inglês1. Além disso, há também dados do estudo experimental com testes aplicados nos dois pares de línguas que se agregam ao presente estudo. Uma visão geral dos estudos desenvolvidos sobre a aquisição bilíngue bimodal por crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, será apresentada e, então, serão expostos alguns aspectos linguísticos deste tipo de aquisição, considerando as discussões sobre aquisição bilíngue a partir da pesquisa realizada. PMID:24431480

  15. Traditionally used medicinal plants against uncomplicated urinary tract infections: Are unusual, flavan-4-ol- and derhamnosylmaysin derivatives responsible for the antiadhesive activity of extracts obtained from stigmata of Zea mays L. against uropathogenic E. coli and Benzethonium chloride as frequent contaminant faking potential antibacterial activities?

    PubMed

    Rafsanjany, Nasli; Sendker, Jandirk; Lechtenberg, Matthias; Petereit, Frank; Scharf, Birte; Hensel, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    The dried stigmata from Zea mays L. are used traditionally for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections. A recent screening has indicated that hydroalcoholic extract of the herbal material inhibits the adhesion of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) to T24 bladder cells. For verification of these data EtOH-water (1:1) extracts from 4 different batches of Maydis stigmata were investigated. Within an in vitro adhesion assay (UPEC strain 2980 and human T24 bladder cells) a dose-dependent antiadhesive activity against UPEC was verified (IC50 1040μg/mL). Bioassay guided fractionation of M. stigmata, batch S1, by EtOH-water extraction, followed by chromatography on Sephadex LH20 revealed two active fractions (I and XI). Further purification of fraction I and structure elucidation of the isolated compound revealed the presence of significant amounts of the biocide benzethonium chloride as contaminant. Benzethonium chloride was also identified in subsequent investigations in 2 different batches of M. stigmata. The presence of such nondeclared and illegal contaminants in the herbal raw material market has to be discussed intensively. From benzethonium-free raw material (batch S2) as well as from batch S1 fraction XI was further fractionated by MPLC and preparative HPLC, leading to a still complex subfraction XIG, which was analyzed by UHPLC/+ESI-QTOF-MS analysis. Advanced data processing and species-metabolite relationship database revealed the tentatively existence of the unusual C-glycosidic flavones derhamnosylmaysin (6), 3'-deoxyrhamnosylmaysin (4), 3'-O-methylderhamnosylmaysin (3), apiferol (2) and alternanthin (8) which might be related to the antiadhesive activity of this subfraction against UPEC. PMID:26210697

  16. University Students' Conceptions about the Moon Phases. (Spanish Title: Concepciones de Estudiantes Universitários sobre Las Fases de la Luna.) Concepções de Estudantes Universitários sobre as Fases da Lua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Fátima Oliveira Saraiva, Maria; da Silveira, Fernando Lang; Steffani, Maria Helena

    2011-07-01

    In this article we describe the development of a multiple choice test about lunar phases and analyze the results of its application to ten groups of Physics students at the UFRGS. During the improvement of the test, we noticed that the percentage of right answers about some concepts increased significantly when associated with the reformulation of the question, emphasizing the importance of being careful to avoid incorrect answers generated by unclear questions, and not by ignorance on the matter. We confirm the results of other studies that show that students have great difficulty to relate the Moon's phase with its position in the sky at given time. On the other hand, our results suggest that, in general, students of Physics understand the phenomenon of lunar phases better than the average of university students. En estese artículo se describe la elaboración de una prueba de opción múltiple sobre las fases de la Luna y se analizan los resultados de su aplicación en diez grupos de estudiantes de Física de UFRGS. Durante el mejoramiento de la prueba observamos que el porcentaje de aciertos creció considerablemente cuando considerada una nueva redacción de la pregunta, destacando el cuidado que se debe tomar a fin de evitar respuestas incorrectas generadas por preguntas poco claras y no a causa de la ignorancia de los estudiantes sobre el tema. Confirmamos los resultados de otros estudios que las mayores dificultades de los alumnos sobre el tema fases de la Luna están en relacionar la fase de la Luna con su posición en el cielo en determinado momento. Por otra parte, nuestros resultados sugieren que, en general, los estudiantes de la Física comprenden mejor el fenómeno de las fases lunares que el promedio de los estudiantes universitarios. Neste artigo descrevemos a elaboração de um teste de múltipla escolha sobre as fases da Lua e analisamos os resultados de sua aplicação em dez grupos de estudantes de Física da UFRGS. Durante o aprimoramento do

  17. Sobre a largura da última superfície de espalhamento

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobre, M. A. S.; Pires, N.; Lima, J. A. S.

    2003-08-01

    De acordo com o modelo do "Big-Bang", no universo primordial a matéria estava em equilíbrio térmico com a radiação. Com a expansão a temperatura da radiação cai. Quando a temperatura chega em torno dos 4.000K, os espalhamentos diminuem, começando a recombinação dos prótons e elétrons em Hidrogênio neutro (era conhecida como da recombinação). Ao final da recombinação, os fótons se propagam livremente sofrendo, em princípio, somente os efeitos do "redshift" cosmológico. Esses fótons nos alcançam hoje como a radiação cósmica de fundo (RCF), e parecem vir de uma superfície esférica ao nosso redor, tal que o raio dela é a distância que ele viajou desde seu último espalhamento na época da recombinação. Naturalmente, esse processo não ocorreu abruptamente, implicando na existência de uma largura no espaço dos "redshifts" que deve depender do modelo cosmológico específico e dos processos físicos considerados. Neste trabalho analisamos os efeitos de diferentes modelos - a saber, aqueles com decaimento do vácuo L(t), criação de matéria, quintessência e gás de Chaplygin - sobre a última superfície de espalhamento da RCF, em particular sua largura e a função visibilidade, que determina a probabilidade de um fóton ter tido seu último espalhamento num "redshift" z. No caso particular dos modelos com decaimento do vácuo, existe uma forte dependência da função visibilidade com L(t). Tais efeitos poderão ser testados através da análise dos resultados de experimentos mais precisos que estão atualmente em andamento, como por exemplo, o WMAP.

  18. Tendências de teses e dissertações sobre ensino de astronomia no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Megid Neto, J.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia. Teve por objetivo identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. O procedimento inicial consistiu de um levantamento bibliográfico junto ao Centro de Documentação em Ensino de Ciências (CEDOC) da Faculdade de Educação da UNICAMP e ao Banco de Teses da CAPES disponível na Internet. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: instituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Deste conjunto de pesquisas, 13 (81,3%) delas foram defendidas a partir da segunda metade dos anos 90, indicando uma preocupação mais recente com temas relativos ao ensino de Astronomia no conjunto da produção acadêmica em programas de pós-graduação no Brasil. Verificou-se que 43,7% dos trabalhos foram produzidas na USP e 18,8% na UNICAMP. Quanto ao nível escolar abrangido nos estudos, predominaram os estudos direcionados ao Ensino Fundamental de 5a a 8a séries (62,5%). No que diz respeito ao foco temático das pesquisas, as principais tendências voltaram-se: 56,3% para Conteúdo e Método; 43,8% para Concepções do Professor; 37,5% para Currículo e Programas; 37,5% para Recursos Didáticos. Quanto ao gênero de trabalho acadêmico, verificou-se que 43,8% são de Pesquisa Experimental e 31,3% de Pesquisa de Análise de Conteúdo. Estudos de revisão bibliográfica como este visam colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica em determinada área, traçando algumas de suas tendências. Ao mesmo tempo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as suas contribuições para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  19. Reflexión bioética sobre el uso de organismos genéticamente modificados

    PubMed Central

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    El presente artículo reflexiona desde los 4 principios de la bioética el uso comercial de organismos genéticamente modificados. Se cuestiona fundamentalmente la falta de transferencia de tecnología entre el mundo desarrollado y en desarrollo y el que el presente sistema de patentamiento de organismos vivos modificados fomenta intereses comerciales y no da debida importancia al desarrollo sostenible de la agricultura y ganadería en los países en desarrollo, donde más se necesita. Se reflexiona sobre la importancia que tiene evaluar los riesgos antes de introducirse en el mercado organismos genéticamente modificados y la necesidad de regulación en los países. PMID:21927675

  20. Transient growth responses of the primary roots of Zea mays.

    PubMed

    List, A

    1969-03-01

    1. The technique of streak photography was modified to use seven parallel cameras, each focused on an individual root in a guide holding flowing nutrient. Streak photographs representing displacement of points on the longitudinal axis of the root were projected on the table of an image plane digitizer. The displacement data are collected on cards by an IBM 526 key punch and processed by an IBM 360-65 computer. All graphic data were plotted by an EAI line plotter having a resolution of 600 lines per inch. 2. Roots of corn held at a temperature of 25°, a pH of 5.6, with constant oxygen concentration and basic nutrient composition, were subjected to step changes in oxygen and auxin (3-indoleacetic acid, IAA) concentrations. When O2 was lowered the response of the root consisted of a large reduction in growth rate followed by a series of oscillations with a period of about 30-50 min. Step changes in IAA from 0-10(-8)M (or less) resulted in heavily dampened oscillatory responses as well as reduction in growth rate. 10(-7) M IAA, however, elicited the initial inhibition followed by full recovery of growth rate after a few hours. PMID:24504710

  1. Peripheral genetic structure of Helicoverpa zea indicates asymmetrical panmixia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seasonal climatic shifts create peripheral habitats that alternate between habitable and uninhabitable for migratory species. Such dynamic peripheral habitats are potential sites where migratory species could evolve high genetic diversity resulting from convergence of immigrants from multiple region...

  2. Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and corn (Zea mays)competition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Italian ryegrass is an annual/biennial grass that is typically used as a pasture crop or a cover crop along roadsides, rights-of-way, and industrial areas. Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Italian ryegrass populations have been documented around the world, mostly in orchard and vineyard situations. The fir...

  3. Positional cloning in maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, Poaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Gallavotti, Andrea; Whipple, Clinton J.

    2015-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Positional (or map-based) cloning is a common approach to identify the molecular lesions causing mutant phenotypes. Despite its large and complex genome, positional cloning has been recently shown to be feasible in maize, opening up a diverse collection of mutants to molecular characterization. • Methods and Results: Here we outline a general protocol for positional cloning in maize. While the general strategy is similar to that used in other plant species, we focus on the unique resources and approaches that should be considered when applied to maize mutants. • Conclusions: Positional cloning approaches are appropriate for maize mutants and quantitative traits, opening up to molecular characterization the large array of genetic diversity in this agronomically important species. The cloning approach described should be broadly applicable to other species as more plant genomes become available. PMID:25606355

  4. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of maize (Zea mays) immature embryos.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeyoung; Zhang, Zhanyuan J

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is one of the most efficient and simple gene delivery systems for genetic improvement and biology studies in maize. This system has become more widely used by both public and private laboratories. However, transformation efficiencies vary greatly from laboratory to laboratory for the same genotype. Here, we illustrate our advanced Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method in Hi-II maize using simple binary vectors. The protocol utilizes immature embryos as starting explants and the bar gene as a selectable marker coupled with bialaphos as a selective agent. The protocol offers efficient transformation results with high reproducibility, provided that some experimental conditions are well controlled. This transformation method, with minor modifications, can be also employed to transform certain maize inbreds. PMID:24243211

  5. Challenges to monitoring Bt resistance in Helicoverpa zea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic crops that produce insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely grown in many countries for the control of lepidopteran pests. The evolution of resistance in these pests to transgenic crops producing Bt toxins threatens the prolonged success of this imp...

  6. Cytogenetics of monosomes in Zea mays. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, D.F.

    1984-11-01

    The cytogenetics of monosomics in maize generated using the r-X1 system was studied. The goal was to isolate as many as possible of the ten possible primary monosomic types and to characterize them by studying: (1) the cytology of meiosis; (2) the cytological behavior of monosomic chromosomes in meiosis; (3) the effect of monosomic on recombination in heterozygous bivalents; and (4) the frequency and types of spontaneous chromosomal aberrations arising in monosomics. 113 references, 1 figure, 5 tables. (ACR)

  7. Kosakonia pseudosacchari sp. nov., an endophyte of Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, Peter; McInroy, John A; Doijad, Swapnil; Chakraborty, Trinad; Glaeser, Stefanie P

    2016-02-01

    A beige pigmented bacterial strain (JM-387(T)), isolated from field-grown corn root tissue, Tallassee, Alabama, was studied for its taxonomic allocation. A comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequence with those of the type strains of most closely related species of the family Enterobacteriaceae showed highest sequence similarities to the type strain of Kosakonia sacchari (99.5%), "Enterobacter oryzendophyticus" (98.8%), and Kosakonia radicincitans (98.6%). Construction of phylogenetic trees based on the 16S rRNA gene and partial sequences of four protein-coding genes, rpoB, gyrB, infB, and atpD (multilocus sequence analysis, MLSA) showed a distinct clustering of strain JM-387(T) with Kosakonia sacchari. DNA-DNA hybridizations between JM-387(T) and the type strains of most similar Kosakonia/"Enterobacter" species including K. sacchari LMG 26783(T), "E. oryzendophyticus" LMG 26432(T), K. radicincitans D5/23(T), K. oryzae LMG 24251(T), E. cancerogenus LMG 2693(T), and E. cloacae subsp. dissolvens CCUG 25230(T) were in the range of 14.4-60.2%. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) of the genome sequence of the new strain to K. sacchari SP1(T) was 94.47%. Strain JM-387(T) had a typical enterobacterial fatty acid pattern consisting of the major fatty acids C16:0, C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c/C15:0 2OH, C18:1 ω7c/C18:1 ω6c with C14:0 3-OH as hydroxylated fatty acid. Genotypic data and the differentiating biochemical and chemotaxonomic properties showed that strain JM-387(T) represents a novel species of the genus Kosakonia, for which the name Kosakonia pseudosacchari sp. nov. (type strain JM-387(T)=CIP 110597(T)=DSM 27151(T)) is proposed. PMID:26597455

  8. Family GH19 plant class IV chitinase from Zea mays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize ChitA chitinase is composed of a small, hevein-like domain attached to a carboxy-terminal chitinase domain. During fungal ear rot, the hevein-like domain is cleaved by secreted fungal proteases to produce truncated forms of ChitA. Here we report a structural and biochemical characterization of...

  9. Three New Teosintes (Zea spp., Poaceae) From Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The discovery of new species of teosinte from México motivated the comparative study of populations from México, Guatemala and Nicaragua through detailed ecogeographic, morphologic, cytogenetic and molecular characterization. The study involved a comparative analysis of morphological, ecogeographic,...

  10. Educación sobre sexualidad y prevención del VIH: un diagnóstico para América Latina y el Caribe

    PubMed Central

    DeMaria, Lisa M.; Galárraga, Omar; Campero, Lourdes; Walker, Dilys M.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Objetivo Mostrar, a través de un diagnóstico en América Latina y el Caribe, el panorama legislativo y curricular sobre sexualidad y prevención contra el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) en el ámbito escolar, contrastándolo con los comportamientos sexuales reportados en encuestas demográficas y de salud. Métodos En mayo de 2008 se realizó, con el apoyo del Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas (UNFPA), una encuesta a informantes clave en 34 países de la Región. El cuestionario autoaplicado solicitó información sustantiva de agentes de las diferentes partes interesadas, como ministerios de educación y de salud, sobre los programas de prevención contra el VIH/Sida que se están aplicando en las escuelas. Resultados Respondieron a la encuesta 27 países que representan 95,5% de la población objetivo (6 a 18 años de edad). La mayoría de los países informó tener al menos un libro de texto o un capítulo específico para enseñar los temas de educación sobre sexualidad y prevención del VIH. En la escuela secundaria se cubren la mayor parte de los temas pertinentes relevantes para la educación sobre sexualidad, pero no todos. Por ejemplo, el problema de la discriminación por orientación o preferencia sexual no se incluye en los programas escolares. Conclusiones El material educativo sobre sexualidad debe ser revisado y actualizado periódicamente de modo que refleje los avances en los temas y en la forma de tratar los contenidos. En cada país el currículo debe abordar el tema del respeto a la diversidad sobre orientación, preferencia e identidad sexuales, y en particular el manejo apropiado de la educación para prevenir infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) en hombres que tienen sexo con hombres. Los esfuerzos de evaluación de la efectividad de los programas deben contemplar desenlaces tales como marcadores biológicos (incidencia y prevalencia de ITS y embarazo) y no únicamente indicadores de conocimiento y

  11. Tendências De Teses e Dissertações Sobre Educação em Astronomia No Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio; Megid Neto, Jorge

    2005-07-01

    Apresentam-se os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia, com objetivo de identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: isntituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Pretende-se assim colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica na área. Ao mesmo tempo o estudo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as contribuições dessa produção para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  12. Sobre a atividade pós-periélica do cometa de órbita parabólica Yanaka (1988r)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, A. A.; Sanzovo, G. C.; Boczko, R.

    2003-08-01

    Greenberg, Singh & de Almeida (ApJ, 414: L45-48, 1993) mostraram que a deficiência nas abundâncias observadas de C2 e CN no Cometa Yanaka (1988r) pode ser explicada em termos das propriedades dos seus componentes refratários orgânicos, além do fato que trata-se de um cometa dinamicamente novo, observado através de abertura de fenda pequena projetada muito próximo do núcleo. Neste trabalho, complementamos o estudo sobre a atividade deste cometa de órbita parabólica, através da determinação da lei de potência que exprime sua taxa de produção de H2O (o principal indicador de atividade) na fase pós-periélica, determinamos o raio nuclear efetivo mínimo com sua fração de área ativa e analisamos a emissão de partículas de poeira observadas no contínuo em 625,0 nm.

  13. Cambios históricos en el aporte terrígeno de la cuenca del Río de la Plata sobre la plataforma interna Uruguaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, Analía; Tudurí, Adriana; Pérez, Laura; Cuña, Caroline; Muniz, Pablo; Lopes Figueira, Rubens; Michaelovitch de Mahiques, Michel; Alves de Lima Ferreira, Paulo; Pittauerová, Daniela; Hanebuth, Till; García Rodríguez, Felipe

    2014-12-01

    B 13813-4. También se determinó una mayor acumulación de sedimentos a través del tiempo en el cinturón de barro del Río de la Plata (plataforma continental adyacente), comparado con aquel registrado en la Barra del Indio (límite entre zona intermedia y externa del estuario). Estas diferencias podrían estar relacionadas con la influencia del Río de la Plata, el cual genera un ambiente altamente dinámico sobre la Barra del Indio y un ambiente más estable sobre el cinturón de barro en la plataforma continental.

  14. Desarrollo de la Escala sobre el Estigma Relacionado con el VIH/SIDA para Profesionales de la Salud mediante el uso de métodos mixtos123

    PubMed Central

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten B.; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Cintrón Bou, Francheska N.

    2009-01-01

    El estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA continúa siendo un obstáculo para la prevención primaria y secundaria del VIH. Las consecuencias para las personas que viven con la enfermedad han sido muy documentadas y continúan siendo una gran preocupación para las personas que proveen servicios de salud y para aquellas que investigan el tema. Estas consecuencias son preocupantes cuando el estigma emana de profesionales de la salud porque se puede limitar el acceso a los servicios. Uno de los principales obstáculos para la investigación del estigma relacionado con el VIH en Puerto Rico es la falta de instrumentos cuantitativos para evaluar las manifestaciones del estigma entre profesionales de la salud. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue desarrollar y probar las propiedades psicométricas de una escala sobre el estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA culturalmente apropiada para personas que proveen servicios de salud puertorriqueñas y desarrollar una versión corta de la escala que pudiera usarse en escenarios clínicos con tiempo limitado. El instrumento desarrollado estuvo basado en evidencia cualitativa recopilada entre profesionales y estudiantes de profesiones de la salud puertorriqueños/as (n=80) y administrado a una muestra de 421 profesionales de la salud en adiestramiento. La escala contenía 12 dimensiones del estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA. El análisis cuantitativo corroboró 11 de ellas, teniendo como resultado un instrumento con validez y confiabilidad satisfactoria. Estas dimensiones, a su vez, fueron subcomponentes de un factor de estigma general superior. PMID:20333258

  15. Investigaccion-accion en la sala de clases sobre las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios y su relacion reciproca con el aprendizaje de las ciencias biologicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordova-Santiago, Lizzette Astrid

    La investigacion---accion que se llevo a cabo en la sala de clases tenia como punto de partida las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios para luego examinar sus implicaciones en el proceso de aprendizaje de las Ciencias Biologicas. ¿Que se supone que hagan las creencias en relacion con el aprendizaje? ¿En que consiste incorporar este aspecto a la practica educativa universitaria? Utilizando el modelo de Kemmis y McTaggart (1987) la investigacion-accion se planteo como un proceso dinamico en cuatro momentos en espiral constituidos por la planificacion, la accion, la observacion y la reflexion. Cada una de las fases tuvo una intencion retrospectiva y prospectiva formando una espiral de autorreflexion del conocimiento y la accion. Se llevaron a cabo audio grabaciones en clases y analisis de documentos. Ademas, la profesora-investigadora hizo un portafolio para reflexionar sobre las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia que tienen los estudiantes y las creencias del aprendizaje que tiene la profesora y sobre como la comprension de estos elementos ayudo a mejorar su practica educativa a traves del tiempo. Los resultados obtenidos apuntan a que las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia que tiene el grupo de estudiantes son diversas. Ellos si creen que la ciencia tiene una cultura la cual describieron como: complicada y desconocida que evoluciona constantemente, que es un conjunto de metodos, que es altamente tecnologica, que resuelve problemas de salud, ayuda a interpretar la realidad del mundo que los rodea y su origen y que existen unas intersecciones entre la ciencia y el poder. Sobre las creencias del proceso de aprendizaje de la profesora-investigadora, estas senalan que el modelaje de actores, la vision de la academia que tiene ella asi como la participacion y negociacion entre todos los involucrados en el proceso educativo, son factores que inciden en el proceso de aprendizaje.

  16. La utilizacion de los mapas conceptuales en la ensenanza de biologia y su efecto sobre el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis en los estudiantes universitarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Rivera, Maria M.

    Se investigo el efecto de los mapas conceptuales sobre el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis en estudiantes universitarios. La investigacion utilizo dos estrategias: mapas conceptuales individuales y mapas conceptuales colaborativos, con el fin de investigar si existen diferencias significativas en el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis. El analisis de los datos incluyo aspectos cualitativos y cuantitativos. Se desprende del estudio que el 80% de los estudiantes describen la utilizacion de los mapas conceptuales como una experiencia beneficiosa. El 70% de los estudiantes expreso que los mapas conceptuales son utiles en el aprendizaje del proceso de fotosintesis y el 61% indico que facilitan la comprension de los conceptos. Los hallazgos mas importantes del analisis cuantitativo indican que los estudiantes que utilizaron los mapas conceptuales mejoraron significativamente su desempeno en la posprueba global. Se utilizo la prueba Mann-Whitney para investigar si existian diferencias significativas en la posprueba y preprueba global, el valor de W = 1945.0, para un valor p de 0.00, lo cual establece diferencias significativas. Para determinar si existian diferencias significativas entre la posprueba y preprueba del grupo individual, se realizo la prueba nuevamente. El valor de W correspondio a 490.5, que es significativo, con un valor p de 0.00. Se concluye que existen diferencias significativas entre la ejecucion de la posprueba y preprueba del grupo individual. Los datos proveen suficiente evidencia para sostener que los estudiantes que utilizaron la estrategia de mapas conceptuales individuales mejoraron el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis significativamente. Se realizo nuevamente la prueba para los resultados de posprueba y preprueba del grupo colaborativo. El valor de W correspondio a 446 con un valor p de 0.00. Se concluyo que existen diferencias significativas entre la ejecucion de la posprueba y preprueba del grupo colaborativo. Finalmente, se efectuo una

  17. Salicylic Acid and Sodium Salicylate Alleviate Cadmium Toxicity to Different Extents in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Gondor, Orsolya Kinga; Pál, Magda; Darkó, Éva; Janda, Tibor; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    The role of salicylic acid in Cd tolerance has attracted more attention recently but no information is available on the efficiency of different forms of salicylic acid. The aim was thus to investigate whether both the acid and salt forms of salicylic acid provide protection against Cd stress and to compare their mode of action. Young maize plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions. One group of 10-day-old seedlings were treated with 0.5 mM SA or NaSA for 1 day then half of the pants were treated with 0.5 mM Cd for 1 day. Another group of seedlings was treated with 0.5 mM CdSO4 for 1 day without pre-treatment with SA or NaSA, while a third group was treated simultaneously with Cd and either SA or NaSA. Both salicylic acid forms reduced the Cd accumulation in the roots. Treatment with the acidic form meliorated the Cd accumulation in the leaves, while Na-salicylate increased the phytochelatin level in the roots and the amount of salicylic acid in the leaves. Furthermore, increased antioxidant enzyme activity was mainly induced by the acid form, while glutathione-related redox changes were influenced mostly by the salt form. The acidic and salt forms of salicylic acid affected the two antioxidant systems in different ways, and the influence of these two forms on the distribution and detoxification of Cd also differed. The present results also draw attention to the fact that generalisations about the stress protective mechanisms induced by salicylic acid are misleading since different forms of SA may exert different effects on the plants via separate mechanisms. PMID:27490102

  18. Salicylic Acid and Sodium Salicylate Alleviate Cadmium Toxicity to Different Extents in Maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Gondor, Orsolya Kinga; Pál, Magda; Darkó, Éva; Janda, Tibor; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    The role of salicylic acid in Cd tolerance has attracted more attention recently but no information is available on the efficiency of different forms of salicylic acid. The aim was thus to investigate whether both the acid and salt forms of salicylic acid provide protection against Cd stress and to compare their mode of action. Young maize plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions. One group of 10-day-old seedlings were treated with 0.5 mM SA or NaSA for 1 day then half of the pants were treated with 0.5 mM Cd for 1 day. Another group of seedlings was treated with 0.5 mM CdSO4 for 1 day without pre-treatment with SA or NaSA, while a third group was treated simultaneously with Cd and either SA or NaSA. Both salicylic acid forms reduced the Cd accumulation in the roots. Treatment with the acidic form meliorated the Cd accumulation in the leaves, while Na-salicylate increased the phytochelatin level in the roots and the amount of salicylic acid in the leaves. Furthermore, increased antioxidant enzyme activity was mainly induced by the acid form, while glutathione-related redox changes were influenced mostly by the salt form. The acidic and salt forms of salicylic acid affected the two antioxidant systems in different ways, and the influence of these two forms on the distribution and detoxification of Cd also differed. The present results also draw attention to the fact that generalisations about the stress protective mechanisms induced by salicylic acid are misleading since different forms of SA may exert different effects on the plants via separate mechanisms. PMID:27490102

  19. Preparation of cross-linked maize (Zea mays L.) starch in different reaction media.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jung Sun; Gomand, Sara V; Delcour, Jan A

    2015-06-25

    Granular normal maize starch was reacted with sodium trimetaphosphate in deionized water ( [Formula: see text] ), aqueous sodium sulfate solution ( [Formula: see text] ), aqueous ethanol (MSethanol) or aqueous acetone (MSacetone) under otherwise identical reaction conditions. Analysis of the resultant starches by Rapid Visco Analysis (RVA) showed that the starch was cross-linked to a higher degree in aqueous ethanol or aqueous acetone than in water or sodium sulfate solution, and with minimal starch leaching. While MSacetone and MSethanol had incorporated similar levels of phosphorous, RVA analysis and microscopic analysis showed that MSacetone granules were more effectively stabilized by cross-linking than MSethanol granules. Cross-linking in aqueous acetone is believed to either contain the greater numbers of distarch monophosphate (versus monostarch monophosphate), or occur more intensively at the granule outer layers than that in aqueous ethanol and, at the same time, to account for the greater granular strength of MSethanol than that of MSacetone. PMID:25839824

  20. Phenolic compounds, carotenoids, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity of colored maize (Zea mays L.) kernels.

    PubMed

    Zilić, Slađana; Serpen, Arda; Akıllıoğlu, Gül; Gökmen, Vural; Vančetović, Jelena

    2012-02-01

    In this study, the contents of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, β-carotene, and lutein as well as free, conjugated, and insoluble bound phenolic acids were determined in whole kernels of 10 different colored maize genotypes. In addition, the antioxidant activity was evaluated as radical scavenging activity with ABTS (2,2-azino-bis/3-ethil-benothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) reagents. Generally, considerable differences in phytochemical contents and antioxidant capacity were observed between the genotypes. The β-carotene and lutein contents ranged from 0 to 2.42 mg/kg d.m. and from 0 to 13.89 mg/kg d.m., respectively, whereas the total anthocyanin contents of anthocyanin-rich colored maize genotypes ranged from 2.50 to 696.07 mg CGE/kg d.m. (cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalent) with cyanidin 3-glucoside (Cy-3-Glu) as the most dominant form. The light blue ZPP-2 selfed maize genotype has a higher content of total phenolics, flavonoids, and ferulic acid as compared to other tested maize and the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity. PMID:22248075