Note: This page contains sample records for the topic cathedral rapids fault from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Paleoseismic study of the Cathedral Rapids fault in the northern Alaska Range near Tok, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cathedral Rapids fault extends ~40 km between the Tok and Robertson River valleys and is the easternmost fault in a series of active south-dipping imbricate thrust faults which bound the northern flank of the Alaska Range. Collectively, these faults accommodate a component of convergence transferred north of the Denali fault and related to the westward (counterclockwise) rotation of the

R. D. Koehler; R. Farrell; G. A. Carver

2010-01-01

2

Paleoseismic study of the Cathedral Rapids fault in the northern Alaska Range near Tok, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cathedral Rapids fault extends ~40 km between the Tok and Robertson River valleys and is the easternmost fault in a series of active south-dipping imbricate thrust faults which bound the northern flank of the Alaska Range. Collectively, these faults accommodate a component of convergence transferred north of the Denali fault and related to the westward (counterclockwise) rotation of the Wrangell Block driven by relative Pacific/North American plate motion along the eastern Aleutian subduction zone and Fairweather fault system. To the west, the system has been defined as the Northern Foothills Fold and Thrust Belt (NFFTB), a 50-km-wide zone of east-west trending thrust faults that displace Quaternary deposits and have accommodated ~3 mm/yr of shortening since latest Pliocene time (Bemis, 2004). Over the last several years, the eastward extension of the NFFTB between Delta Junction and the Canadian border has been studied by the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys to better characterize faults that may affect engineering design of the proposed Alaska-Canada natural gas pipeline and other infrastructure. We summarize herein reconnaissance field observations along the western part of the Cathedral Rapids fault. The western part of the Cathedral Rapids fault extends 21 km from Sheep Creek to Moon Lake and is characterized by three roughly parallel sinuous traces that offset glacial deposits of the Illinoian to early Wisconsinan Delta glaciations and the late Wisconsinan Donnelly glaciation, as well as, Holocene alluvial deposits. The northern trace of the fault is characterized by an oversteepened, beveled, ~2.5-m-high scarp that obliquely cuts a Holocene alluvial fan and projects into the rangefront. Previous paleoseismic studies along the eastern part of the Cathedral Rapids fault and Dot “T” Johnson fault indicate multiple latest Pleistocene and Holocene earthquakes associated with anticlinal folding and thrust faulting (Carver et al., 2010). Combined with this previous work, our paleoseismic assessment of the western Cathedral Rapids fault, including trenching in fall 2010, may contribute to increasing the understanding of the style and timing of deformation for faults bounding the northern flank of the Alaska Range. These data may also provide insight into the eastern extent of the NFFTB and its role in accommodating regional shortening.

Koehler, R. D.; Farrell, R.; Carver, G. A.

2010-12-01

3

Moscow - St. Basils Cathedral  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saint Basils cathedral was commissioned in 1555 by Ivan the Terrible to commemorate the capture of Kazan form the Tartars in 1552. The cathedral’s official name is the Cathedral of the Intercession of the Virgin, which also represents the date that Kazan was overtaken; October 1st, the Orthodox feast of the Intercession of the Virgin.\\u000aThe original Russian builders are

Chet Smolski; Postnik Yakovlev

1976-01-01

4

Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) analysis of basalt dikes at Cathedral Cliffs, WY: implications for Heart Mountain faulting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mafic dikes pervade the upper plate of the Heart Mountain Detachment (HMD), yet the dike concentration in the lower plate is sparse. Previous workers interpreted that these dikes were emplaced either coeval with or subsequent to the emplacement of the upper plate. The magnetic fabrics of 32 mafic dikes at Cathedral Cliffs were analyzed using low-field anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) as a proxy for flow. These dikes intrude Ordovician Mississippian carbonate and overlying Eocene volcanic rocks and are truncated along the nearly horizontal HMD. The dikes trend between N10°W and N20°E, are all steeply dipping, and range in width between 0.5 and 3 m. Flow directions for the dikes were determined by the bearing and plunge of the Kmax (maximum principal susceptibility) axes relative to the dike orientation. About 66% of the dikes sampled show typical dike AMS patterns with Kmax and Kint in the plane of the dike and Kmin normal to the dike plane. About 66% of the dikes sampled have Kmax inclinations >45° and thus were emplaced upward; 16% of the dikes have Kmax inclinations of <10° and thus were emplaced laterally. The remaining dikes have intermediate Kmax inclinations. With numerous dikes showing vertical to sub-vertical emplacement directions and with no magmatic source immediately below the detachment the dikes must predate emplacement of the upper plate. Therefore, upper plate dilation by dike intrusion could not be a driving force for protracted extension. Our date is consistent with a single catastrophic emplacement event, and inconsistent with an extensional allochthon model of incremental emplacement over long intervals of time.

Defrates, Josh; Malone, David H.; Craddock, John P.

2006-01-01

5

The Cathedral as Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Characterizes the medieval cathedral as an architectural encyclopedia, expressing the humanistic concerns, beliefs, and aspirations of the period in which it was built. Explains the theological, political, and social significance of the cathedral's architectural characteristics from the floor plan to the spires. Discusses the process and problems…

Calkins, Robert G.

1995-01-01

6

St. Paul's Cathedral  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Perhaps one of the finest neo-Classical cathedrals in the world, the current St. Paul's cathedral is an example of the outstanding architecture of Christopher Wren, and a testimony to his dogged persistence and passion for his life's work. In keeping with the attention to detail that is indicative of Mr. Wren's work, the St. Paul's Web site has detailed information on visiting the cathedral, the various musical performances that it hosts, and an interactive timeline detailing the history of St. Paul's that extends back to the year 604. Along with this information, the site also tells visitors about upcoming events at the cathedral, along with an extensive online gift shop that offers a diverse set of St. Paul's related material for purchase.

7

Amiens and Its Cathedral.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a place of mathematics using a town called Amiens and its Cathedral whose overall floor plan was based on the Greek cross using proportions matching that of the ideal human body, the figures in the shape of an octagram or star octagon, and the symbols in the design. (ASK)

Brinkworth, Peter; Scott, Paul

1997-01-01

8

Cathedral High School: Indianapolis, Indiana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses Cathedral High School's peer program that involves seniors serving as mentors to freshmen students to help them transition to high school. Students pour into Cathedral from more than 60 different grade schools, and the administration saw a need to connect these students with their peers in order to retain them. The program…

Fetter, Corinne

2005-01-01

9

Do cathedral glasses flow?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A general belief among members of the scientific community is that glass articles can be bent irreversibly and that they flow at ambient temperature. This myth is mostly based on widespread stories that stained-glass windows of medieval cathedrals are thicker in the lower parts. In this paper I estimate the time periods required for glass to flow and deform at ordinary temperatures, using calculated viscosity curves for several modern and ancient glass compositions. The conclusion is that window glasses may flow at ambient temperature only over incredibly long times, which exceed the limits of human history.

Zanotto, Edgar Dutra

1998-05-01

10

Rapid Determination of Near-Fault Earthquake Deformation Using LIDAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2005 airborne lidar survey of the southern San Andreas, San Jacinto and Banning faults (the "B4 Survey") has delivered a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of 1100 km of the most seismically active fault systems in southern California for the express purpose of providing a baseline for post-earthquake slip determination. We used this survey as a testbed to experiment with processing algorithms for rapid estimation of near-fault ground deformation. One algorithm uses simultaneous cross correlation of both topography and backscatter intensity from pre-earthquake and simulated post-earthquake LIDAR datasets. We show robust recovery of the direction and magnitude of an applied synthetic slip of 5 m in the horizontal and 0.5 m in the vertical within the test area, with excellent discrimination between areas with and without applied slip. Another algorithm relies on an evolutionary programming approach, which is more robust in the presence of multiple minima of the solution manifold, but requires substantially more processing power. Our results indicate that one should be able to recover slip to accuracies of better than 20 cm in the horizontal and 1 cm in the vertical, at a spatial resolution of ?15 m for lidar datasets with sample densities as low as 0.5 points/m2.

Borsa, A. A.; Minster, J. H.

2011-12-01

11

Megalithic plan underlying canterbury cathedral.  

PubMed

Woodhenge and the Trinity chapel, Canterbury, are strikingly similar in outline. One is megalithic, the other Norman Christian over Saxon Christian. An analysis of the geometry shows that both are based on Pythagorean triangles: Woodhenge with sides, 6, 17.5, and 18.5, and Canterbury with sides 12, 72, and 73 in megalithic yards. The structurally more recent eastern end of Canterbury Cathedral may have been built over and around an older megalithic site. The longitudinal axes of the composite cathedral differ by 2 degrees , and these, if aligned on Betelgeuse, would indicate buried megalithic structures dating from 2300, 1900, and 1500 B.C. PMID:17750891

Borst, L B

1969-02-01

12

Faults  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site explains the three types of faults that result from plate movement. Animated diagrams are used to demonstrate strike-slip faults, normal faults, and reverse faults. There are also four photographs that show the results of actual earthquakes.

13

Cathedral Mountain debris flows, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historic debris flow activity along the north side of Cathedral Mountain in the southern Rocky Mountains of British Columbia,\\u000a began in 1925 and has increased in frequency up to 1985. A typical debris flow event involves approximately 100,000 m3 of material. Debris flow velocities and discharges above the head of the fan crossed by the Trans-Canada Highway and the\\u000a C.P.R.

L. E. Jackson; O. Hungr; J. S. Gardner; C. Mackay

1989-01-01

14

An Exploratory Study of Cathedral Music Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey was mailed to the 185 U.S. Roman Catholic cathedrals to determine the nature and extent of cathedral music libraries. In addition to baseline demographic information, survey questions focused on the following topics: (1) music library staffing and management; (2) methods of cataloging and classification; (3) the use and creation of…

McGuire, Mark J.

15

Rapid shut-down and slow recovery of the San Andreas fault associated with San Jacinto fault inception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various data, representing diverse periods of time (5 Ma to present), constrain the displacement histories of the San Jacinto and southernmost San Andreas fault zones in southern California. Apparent discrepancies between long- and short-term averaged displacement rates can be reconciled if the southernmost San Andreas displacement rate dropped rapidly from its former rate of 35~mm\\/yr to near zero with the

R. A. Bennett; A. Friedrich; K. P. Furlong

2002-01-01

16

Costs and Benefits: The Impact of Cathedral Tourism in England  

Microsoft Academic Search

England has 42 Anglican cathedrals, many of which are major visitor attractions and which together welcome around 10 million visitors per year. Cathedrals generate substantial local economic benefits of some £150 million per annum within their urban economies and employ 1885 people on a full-time basis. Cathedral visitors spend approximately £30 a day on a visit to a cathedral city,

Myra Shackley

2006-01-01

17

Pilgrimage and tourism: Cathedral visiting in contemporary England  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the role of cathedral visiting in contemporary England. It highlights the importance of cathedrals to the tourism economy and also considers the issue of the commercialisation of heritage within cathedrals and the difficulties posed for cathedral authorities in contrasting perceptions of visitors as tourists and pilgrims. The issue of pilgrimage is examined through the results of a

Michael Winter; Ruth Gasson

1996-01-01

18

Rapid postseismic strength recovery of Pingxi fault gouge from the Longmenshan fault system: Experiments and implications for the mechanisms of high-velocity weakening of faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

tests were conducted on gray blackish gouge (GBG) and yellowish gouge (YG) from Pingxi fault zone to see how rapidly the strength of Longmenshan fault recovers after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Twenty dry runs were made at a normal stress of 0.8 MPa, at a seismic slip rate of 1.4 m/s, and with hold time th ranging 0.3-105 s. Results exhibit very rapid healing by more than 0.4 in friction coefficient ? in less than 5-10 s, followed by gradual healing in proportion to log(th). Healing rates, (increase in ?)/(log (th)), during rapid and slow healing are 0.188 and 0.015 for GBG and 0.154 and 0.016 for YG, respectively. The average temperature in the outer half of a 5 µm thick slip zone decreases from 260-300°C to 110-170°C in 5-10 s, and hence, temperature drop appears to be correlated with the rapid healing. Previously reported rapid healing at subseismic slip rates (85-90 mm/s) begins to occur in 10-300 s after the stop of sliding, and this cannot be explained by the cooling of gouge. The difference in healing between subseismic slip rates (delayed and rapid healing) and seismic slip rates (immediate and rapid healing) suggests that the dominant weakening mechanism shifts from tribochemical processes at subseismic slip rates to frictional heating at seismic slip rates. Slip-zone structures are too complex and variable from run to run to reveal microscopic mechanisms for the strength recovery. Rapid healing following seismic slip can be a cause for reduced aftershocks along major coseismic faults.

Yao, Lu; Shimamoto, Toshihiko; Ma, Shengli; Han, Raehee; Mizoguchi, Kazuo

2013-08-01

19

Real-time inversion of GPS data for finite fault modeling and rapid hazard assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Responses to recent great earthquakes and ensuing tsunamis in Sumatra, Chile, and Japan, with the resulting loss of life and damage to infrastructure demonstrate that our ability to ascertain the full extent of slip of catastrophic earthquakes and their tsunamigenic potential in the first minutes after the initiation of rupture is problematic. Regional GPS networks such as those in western North America and Japan are complementary to seismic networks by being able to directly measure displacements close to the source during large earthquakes in real time. We report on rapid modeling of two large earthquakes, the 2003 Mw 8.3 Tokachi-oki earthquake 100 km offshore Hokkaido Island using 356 GEONET stations and the 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake in northern Baja California using 95 CRTN stations in southern California about 75 km northwest of the epicenter. Working in a simulated real-time mode, we invert for finite fault slip in a homogeneous elastic half-space using Green's functions obtained from Okada's formulation. We compare two approaches: the first starts with a catalog of pre-defined faults, while the second uses a rapid centroid moment tensor solution to provide an initial estimate of the ruptured fault plane. In either case, we are able to characterize both earthquakes in less than two minutes, reducing the time necessary to obtain finite fault slip and moment magnitude for medium and greater earthquakes compared to traditional methods by an order of magnitude.

Crowell, Brendan W.; Bock, Yehuda; Melgar, Diego

2012-05-01

20

Valuing the Benefits of Cleaning Lincoln Cathedral  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarises a contingent valuation study of willingness to pay forcleaning Lincoln Cathedral. A randomsample of the inhabitants of the city of Lincoln and the surrounding area wasquestioned as to their willingness topay for a change in the frequency of a hypothetical cleaning cycle from 40years to 10 years. This change wasillustrated by photographs which showed the same aspects

Marilena Pollicino; David Maddison

2001-01-01

21

Materials Physics of Faults in Rapid Shear and Consequences for Earthquake Dynamics (Louis Néel Medal Lecture)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field observations of maturely slipped faults show that despite a generally broad zone of damage by cracking and granulation, large shear deformation, and therefore heat generation, in individual earthquakes takes place with extreme localization to a zone of order 1 mm or less width within a finely granulated fault core. Relevant fault weakening processes during large crustal events are therefore likely to be thermally influenced, although a constraint to be met, from scarcity of pseudotachylite, is that melting within fault zones seems relatively rare, at least in the up per crust. Further, given the porosit y of damage zones, it seems reasonable to assume in-situ water presence. The lecture reviews current understanding of the materials physics underlying rapid shear of such fault zones, addressing questions like: Why is there severe localization? What are the dynamic relations between shear stress sustained by the fault and its slip history? How do those relations, taken to provide the boundary conditions on a rupturing interface between elastic regions of the earth, control key features of the dynamics of earthquakes? Primary dynamic weakening mechanisms, expected active in at least the early phases of nearly all crustal events, are flash heating at highly stressed frictional micro-contacts and thermal pressurization of native fault-zone pore fluid, the latter with a net effect that depends on interactions with dilatancy. Other weakening processes may also become active at large enough T rise, still prior to bulk melting, including endothermic decomposition reactions releasing a CO2 or H2O fluid phase under conditions that the fluid and solid products would, at the same p and T , occupy more volume than the parent rock, so that the pore fluid is forced to undergo severe pressure increase. The endothermic nature of the reactions buffers against melting because frictional work is absorbed into enthalpy increase of the reactants. There may also be a contribution to the weakening linked to the typically nanoscale range of the solid product phases. The results, applied to modeling of spontaneous slip ruptures, show how faults can be statically strong yet dynamically weak, and operate under low overall driving stress, in a manner that generates negligible heat and meets major seismic constraints on slip, stress drop, and self-healing rupture mode. They also shed light on how fault segments that normally shear stably, so as to not nucleate earthquakes, can nevertheless take part in major events when a high-slip rupture impinges from a bordering segment. The studies reviewed have been done collaboratively with, or draw on the separate insights of, N. Brantut, M. Cocco, E. Dunham, D. Garagash, D. Goldsby, N. Lapusta, H. Noda, J. Platt, A. Rempel, J. Rudnicki, P. Segall, T. Shimamoto, J. Sulem, T. Tullis and I. Vardoulakis.

Rice, J. R.

2012-04-01

22

Cathedral-II: A Silicon Compiler for Digital Signal Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article describes the status of work at IMEC on the Cathedral-II silicon compiler. The compiler was developed to synthesize synchronous multiprocessor system chips for digital signal processing. It is a continuation of work on the Cathedral-I operational silicon compiler for bit-serial digital filters. Cathedral-II is based on a ¿meet in the middle¿ design method that encourages a total separation

H. De Man; J. Rabaey; L. Claesen

1986-01-01

23

Chartres: Cathedral of Notre-Dame  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Cathedral of Chartres, located some 50 miles outside of Paris, is considered one of the most important cultural landmarks in France, and even Europe. In 2004, Professor Alison Stones of the University of Pittsburgh began to create an online collection of visual materials documenting this imposing structure. Working with some of her students and colleagues, this project was supported by the UniversityÂs Digital Research Library and is now available to the web-browsing public. The breadth and depth of the collectionÂs 3100 items is impressive, as it includes everything from seventeen century vistas of the city of Chartres to architectural drawings of interior features of the cathedral, such as the nave. A search engine provided on the site allows visitors to search for items by name, description, type of material, or photographer.

24

Aeromicrobiological studies in the Moscow cathedrals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microbiological examination of the air has been carried out inside the Moscow Kremlin Cathedrals. Comparison studies on concentrations of airborne microorganisms were performed in different indoor environments -- with and without air-conditioning system, with many and without visitors. The highest values were found indoors with great public attendance and where no air-conditioning system was available. The Gram-positive bacteria were

Julia Petushkova; Pavel Kandyba

1999-01-01

25

Rapid rotations about a vertical axis in a collisional setting revealed by the Palu Fault, Sulawesi, Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements from 1992 to 1995 indicate that the left-lateral Palu fault in central Sulawesi slips at a rate of 38±8 mm/a with a locking depth between 2 and 8 km. From the measured slip rate and the historic seismicity of the fault, we estimate that the Palu fault currently has stored enough strain to produce a Mw>7 earthquake. The Palu and other nearby faults accommodate rapid clockwise rotation of nearly 4°/Ma of E Sulawesi relative to eastern Sunda. The rotation of east Sulawesi transfers E-W shortening between the Pacific and Eurasian plates to N-S subduction of the Celebes Basin beneath Sulawesi.

Stevens, C.; McCaffrey, R.; Bock, Y.; Genrich, J.; Endang, null; Subarya, C.; Puntodewo, S. S. O.; Fauzi, null; Vigny, C.

26

Paying for heritage: what price for durham cathedral?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the amount individuals voluntarily contribute when visiting a Cathedral where no charge is made for entry. Contingent valuation methods are used to estimate the maximum individuals would be willing to pay if an entry charge was imposed, the changes in visit rates which would ensue at different price levels and the maximum revenue the Cathedral could be

K. G. Willis

1994-01-01

27

The Sagrada Familia Cathedral where Gaudi envisaged his bell music  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sagrada Familia Cathedral in Barcelona, Spain was constructed in 1882. According to Antoni Gaudi, who worked over its grand plan, the Cathedral was supposed to be a huge musical instrument as a whole in the event of completion. As as result, the music of bells was expected to echo through the air of Barcelona from the belfries. However, Gaudi's

Shigeru Yoshikawa; Takafumi Narita

2001-01-01

28

Thermo- and hydro-mechanical processes along faults during rapid slip  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field observations of maturely slipped faults show a generally broad zone of damage by cracking and granulation. Nevertheless, large shear deformation, and therefore heat generation, in individual earthquakes takes place with extreme localization to a zone < 1-5 mm wide within a finely granulated fault core. Relevant fault weakening processes during large crustal events are therefore likely to be thermal.

James R. Rice; Eric M. Dunham; Hiroyuki Noda

2009-01-01

29

Stable, rapid rate of slip since inception of the San Jacinto fault, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

California, where the San Jacinto fault (SJF) and San Andreas fault (SAF) accommodate the majority of the dextral shear deformation between the Pacific and North American plates, initiation of the SJF led to an apparent decline in the slip rate of the SAF. Previous studies suggest that since then, slip rate has covaried between these faults (possibly due to changes in fault strength, variation in topographic loading along a fault, or the development of new faults) and that presently the SJF is the dominant plate boundary structure. However, we dated displaced sedimentary deposits and landforms over three distinct time intervals since ~700 ka, and our results imply a constant slip rate of 12.1+3.4/-2.6 mm/yr. This rate is similar to the fault's lifetime rate and from rates derived from geodesy, suggesting that since the SJF initiated, its slip rate has remained relatively stable and does not exceed that of the SAF.

Blisniuk, Kimberly; Oskin, Michael; MéRiaux, Anne-Sophie; Rockwell, Thomas; Finkel, Robert C.; Ryerson, Frederick J.

2013-08-01

30

A teleseismic study of the 2002 Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake and implications for rapid strong-motion estimation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Slip histories for the 2002 M7.9 Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake are derived rapidly from global teleseismic waveform data. In phases, three models improve matching waveform data and recovery of rupture details. In the first model (Phase I), analogous to an automated solution, a simple fault plane is fixed based on the preliminary Harvard Centroid Moment Tensor mechanism and the epicenter provided by the Preliminary Determination of Epicenters. This model is then updated (Phase II) by implementing a more realistic fault geometry inferred from Digital Elevation Model topography and further (Phase III) by using the calibrated P-wave and SH-wave arrival times derived from modeling of the nearby 2002 M6.7 Nenana Mountain earthquake. These models are used to predict the peak ground velocity and the shaking intensity field in the fault vicinity. The procedure to estimate local strong motion could be automated and used for global real-time earthquake shaking and damage assessment. ?? 2004, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

Ji, C.; Helmberger, D. V.; Wald, D. J.

2004-01-01

31

GPR survey to confirm the location of ancient structures under the Valencian Cathedral (Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey performed inside the Cathedral of Valencia, Spain. It is part of historical studies performed in the Cathedral in order to add information to old maps and documents in the Cathedral Archives and also to analyze the extent and importance of potentially destructive moisture areas that were appearing on the floor. The construction

Vega Pérez Gracia; José Antonio Canas; Lluis G Pujades; Jaume Clapés; Oriol Caselles; Francesc Garc??a; Raul Osorio

2000-01-01

32

Rapid strain accumulation on the Ashkabad fault (Turkmenistan) from atmosphere-corrected InSAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured interseismic deformation across the Ashkabad strike-slip fault using 13 Envisat interferograms covering a total effective timespan of ˜30 years. Atmospheric contributions to phase delay are significant and variable due to the close proximity of the Caspian Sea. In order to retrieve the pattern of strain accumulation, we show it is necessary to use data from Envisat's Medium-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) instrument, as well as numerical weather model outputs from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), to correct interferograms for differences in water vapor and atmospheric pressure, respectively. This has enabled us to robustly estimate the slip rate and locking depth for the Ashkabad fault using a simple elastic dislocation model. Our data are consistent with a slip rate of 5-12 mm/yr below a locking depth of 5.5-17 km for the Ashkabad fault, and synthetic tests support the magnitude of the uncertainties on these estimates. Our estimate of slip rate is 1.25-6 times higher than some previous geodetic estimates, with implications for both seismic hazard and regional tectonics, in particular supporting fast relative motion between the South Caspian Block and Eurasia. This result reinforces the importance of correcting for atmospheric contributions to interferometric phase for small strain measurements. We also attempt to validate a recent method for atmospheric correction based on ECMWF ERA-Interim model outputs alone and find that this technique does not work satisfactorily for this region when compared to the independent MERIS estimates.

Walters, R. J.; Elliott, J. R.; Li, Z.; Parsons, B.

2013-07-01

33

The sound of the cathedral-mosque of Córdoba  

Microsoft Academic Search

In all cultures, and in many different ways, man has searched for God, and architecture has been a fundamental element in this search. The cathedral-mosque of Córdoba is a unique example of this particular history of the search for God through architecture: first with its choice of a horizontal space on a human scale, adapted to the praying practices of

R. Suárez; J. J. Sendra; J. Navarro; A. L. León

2005-01-01

34

FOREST HYDROLOGICAL RESEARCH AT THE CATHEDRAL PEAK RESEARCH STATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cathedral Peak Forest Influences Research Station was established in Natal in 1938 to determine the effect of exotic conifer plantations on water supplies.The major investigation is the planting to within one chain of any streams, of six catchments with Pinus patula at eight year intervals. One catchment is to be protected from burning and grazing for an indefinite period

U. W. Nänni

1956-01-01

35

Acoustic Coupling Effects in ST Paul's Cathedral, London  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In St Paul's Cathedral there are many arches, columns and cornices which enable the internal space to be divided into subspaces. The subspaces may be considered to be acoustically coupled via areas which connect the rooms. Two of the most acoustically important subspaces in the Cathedral are the choir and the space under the dome. The choir, the space within the wooden choir stalls, has more sound absorption than the rest of the building, which is mostly marble and Portland stone. In the model of coupled subspaces an acoustic energy balance equation, applied to a diffuse field, is derived for each subspace. In St Paul's Cathedral the internal space is divided into 70 acoustical subspaces. The initial-value problem which is formulated by the system of 70 acoustic energy balance equations with initial conditions has been reduced to the eigenvalue problem. The decay of sound energy density has been obtained for different locations in the Cathedral and for different positions of the sound source. Experimentally obtained sound decay curves are in good agreement with numerical results. Both the experimental and numerical results demonstrate the fine structure of reverberation.

Anderson, J. S.; Bratos-Anderson, M.

2000-09-01

36

Some acoustical properties of St Paul's Cathedral, London  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interior of St Paul's Cathedral has a volume of 152 000 m3 including the large dome. The average value of the reverberation time is 11 s at 500 Hz when the cathedral is empty and reduces to 7.8 s at the same frequency when the cathedral is full. These measurements have been confirmed by several methods, including the method of integrated impulses. For frequencies above 1250 Hz the reverberation time decreases, because of air absorption and the special effect of the dome. With a steady random noise source the energy density was not constant in the nave: at 1000 Hz the sound level fell away at an approximate rate of 3 dB per doubling of distance. The assumption of a Sabine space can be made to some extent, and based on this assumption it is possible to estimate the reverberation time when the cathedral is full from the results when empty. Speech intelligibility is poor and articulation tests showed that in the middle of the nave only 20-30% of words are understood.

Lewers, T. H.; Anderson, J. S.

1984-01-01

37

Cathedrals: Stone Upon Stone. Young Discovery Library Series: 24.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of an international series of amply illustrated, colorful, small size books for children ages 5 to 10, this volume outlines the step-by-step process of building a cathedral in the Middle Ages. Terms are defined and artisan techniques explained for each step on the way to building the edifice. The text also relates the story of how families…

Gandiol-Coppin, Brigitte

38

Rapid Deployment with Confidence: Calibration and Fault Detection in Environmental Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapidly deployable sensor networks are portable, reusable, and can take advantage of a human user in the field attending to the deployment. Unfortunately, even small disruptions or problems in collected data must be addressed quickly, as the overall quantity of data gathered is small relative to long- term deployments. In this paper we describe a procedure for calibration and a

Nithya Ramanathan; Laura Balzano; Marci Burt; Deborah Estrin; Tom Harmon; Charlie Harvey; Jenny Jay; Eddie Kohler; Sarah Rothenberg; Mani Srivastava

2006-01-01

39

Rapid episodic fluid flow within the San Andreas Fault--based on drill core samples recovered during the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-term evolution of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) system is recorded in the chemistry of the rocks. The pore fluids have recorded the last fluid event likely related to a stick-slip motion (rupture) while the solid phase chemistry is dominated by the subsequent evolution to a stable-sliding fault (creep). We constrain the timescale of localized fluid flow and mineral formation in the SAF at seismogenic depths (~2700m) near Parkfield, CA, based on drill cores samples recovered during the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling project. Helium isotope and concentration data exclude recent upward or perpendicular fluid flow as an explanation for the weakness of the fault. However, our data indicate that shallow oxic meteoric water reached the seismogenic zone on timescales as short as <5ky forming hydrated clay minerals of similar ages that are responsible for the creeping behavior of the SAF.

Ali, S.; Stute, M.; Torgersen, T.; Hemming, S. R.; Winckler, G.

2010-12-01

40

Fluorescence lidar imaging of the cathedral and baptistery of Parma  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Extensive fluorescence multispectral imaging of the cathedral and baptistery of Parma, Italy, is reported and discussed. In\\u000a particular, the first fluorescence imaging data from protection-treated stony materials were recorded. Fluorescence spectra\\u000a were taken with a mobile lidar system scanning the monument surfaces with a frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser beam from a distance\\u000a of about 80 m. For each pixel of the

D. Lognoli; G. Cecchi; I. Mochi; L. Pantani; V. Raimondi; R. Chiari; T. Johansson; P. Weibring; H. Edner; S. Svanberg

2003-01-01

41

Testing the durability of limestone for Cathedral façade restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research aimed to specify an optimum replacement stone for Truro Cathedral. A variety of petrographically and visually similar material to the original Bath stone was initially selected. The stones were subjected to three different durability tests; Sodium sulphate crystallisation and large scale testing with both accelerated and climatic freeze-thaw cyclic loading. The most suitable stone was determined as the one with the best performance characteristics overall.

Laycock, E. A.; Spence, K.; Jefferson, D. P.; Hetherington, S.; Martin, B.; Wood, C.

2008-12-01

42

The role of dyking and fault control in the rapid onset of eruption at Chaitén Volcano, Chile  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rhyolite is the most viscous of liquid magmas, so it was surprising that on 2?May 2008 at Chaitén Volcano, located in Chile’s southern Andean volcanic zone, rhyolitic magma migrated from more than 5?km depth in less than 4?hours and erupted explosively with only two days of detected precursory seismic activity. The last major rhyolite eruption before that at Chaitén was the largest volcanic eruption in the twentieth century, at Novarupta volcano, Alaska, in 1912. Because of the historically rare and explosive nature of rhyolite eruptions and because of the surprisingly short warning before the eruption of the Chaitén volcano, any information about the workings of the magmatic system at Chaitén, and rhyolitic systems in general, is important from both the scientific and hazard perspectives. Here we present surface deformation data related to the Chaitén eruption based on radar interferometry observations from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) DAICHI (ALOS) satellite. The data on this explosive rhyolite eruption indicate that the rapid ascent of rhyolite occurred through dyking and that melt segregation and magma storage were controlled by existing faults.

Wicks, C.; De La, Llera, J. C.; Lara, L. E.; Lowenstern, J.

2011-01-01

43

Bacterial and fungal deterioration of the Milan Cathedral marble treated with protective synthetic resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surfaces are continuously exposed to physical, chemical and biological degradation. Among the biological agents that cause deterioration, microorganisms are of critical importance.This work is part of a research programme for the characterisation of the alterations of the Milan Cathedral (Italy). Four stone samples of the Milan Cathedral were chemically analysed and the microbiological growth assessed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that

Francesca Cappitelli; Pamela Principi; Roberta Pedrazzani; Lucia Toniolo; Claudia Sorlini

2007-01-01

44

Vertical distribution of air pollutants at the Gustavii Cathedral in Göteborg, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric trace gases and particles were measured at two heights at the Gustavii Cathedral in Göteborg, Sweden, during 7 weeks in September and October 1999. The Gustavii Cathedral is situated in the city centre of Göteborg, which is near the harbour area and encircled by heavy traffic some hundred metres away. The main body of the church is as high

Sara Janhäll; Peter Molnár; Mattias Hallquist

2003-01-01

45

Non-Destructive Testing Techniques Applied for Diagnostic Investigation: Syracuse Cathedral in Sicily, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term research experience of the authors has highlighted the importance of gaining knowledge of the building through experimental investigation. Recently the authors intensively studied the Syracuse Cathedral (Sicily, Italy) to evaluate the structural state of the preservation of the pillars. The Cathedral of Syracuse was built in different phases on an ancient Greek temple from the fifth century bc

Luigia Binda; Maurizio Lualdi; Antonella Saisi

2007-01-01

46

The Sagrada Familia Cathedral where Gaudi envisaged his bell music  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sagrada Familia Cathedral in Barcelona, Spain was constructed in 1882. According to Antoni Gaudi, who worked over its grand plan, the Cathedral was supposed to be a huge musical instrument as a whole in the event of completion. As as result, the music of bells was expected to echo through the air of Barcelona from the belfries. However, Gaudi's true intention cannot be exactly known because the materials prepared by him were destroyed by war fire. If his idea of the Sagrada Familia as an architechtural music instrument is true, an acoustical balance should be considered between the roles of the Cathedral: bell music from the belfries and quiet service in the chapel. Basic structure of the Sagrada Familia seems to be an ensemble of twin towers. Following such speculation, we made a simplified acrylic 1/25-scale model of the lower structure of a twin tower located at the left side of the Birth Gate. The higher structure of this twin tower corresponds to the pinnacle where the bells should be arranged. The lower structure (about 43 m in actual height) has five passages connecting two towers. One of two towers includes five or six tandem columns whose ends are both squeezed to about 1.5 m in diameter. These columns seem to function as a kind of muffler. The location and shape of the roof over the nave is indefinite and tentatively supposed at the top of the lower structure. Based on our scale model, acoustical characteristics of the lower twin-tower structure as a muffler and acoustical differences between the exterior field and nave field will be reported and discussed.

Yoshikawa, Shigeru; Narita, Takafumi

2001-05-01

47

Status report on Cathedral Bluffs Shale Oil Company  

SciTech Connect

The Cathedral Bluffs (CB) Project plans to extract shale oil from the deposit-rich Piceance Basin region in western Colorado. The current plans for the project are to use a combination of Union Oil Company's above-ground retorting technology and Occidental Oil Shale's underground Modified In Situ technology. The present design basis is for approximately 14,000 barrels per day of high quality synthetic crude. In July 1983, partners for the project signed a Letter of Intent with the United States Synthetic Fuels Corporation (SFC) for a total assistance package of $2.19 billion.

Phillips, J.B.

1985-01-01

48

Are the two peaks of the Cathedral QPO real harmonics?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of the two main peaks of the so-called cathedral QPO in XTE J1859+226. While looking at the temporal evolution of the two features we show that they do not manifest the same amplitude of variations of their power, and do not seem to follow the flux variations in the same way. We then present their RMS-spectra and show that they do not have the same shape, slope and cut-off energy. We discuss these different facts and try to answer the question regarding the genuineness of their harmonic relationship.

Rodriguez, J.; Varniere, P.

49

Vibration Amplitudes Produced in St. David'S Cathedral by Concorde Sonic Bangs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At St. David's Cathedral, structural vibrations produced by a number of Concorde sonic bangs were measured and compared with the vibration produced by the structures normal environment. The results show that bang produced amplitudes are not very much grea...

F. L. Hunt

1973-01-01

50

Cathedral Cliff Site: A Multicomponent Lithic Scatter in the Chuska Valley.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the testing was to determine the depth and areal extent of the cultural materials. Artifacts and features found at the Cathedral Cliff site indicate occupation by two archeological and one ethnographic culture, Archaic, Anasazi, and Navajo....

T. D. Maxwell S. S. Post

1982-01-01

51

Evidence for rapid displacement on Himalayan normal faults and the importance of tectonic denudation in the evolution of mountain ranges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

East-striking, low-angle normal faults of the South Tibetan detachment system have played an important role in exposing the high-grade metamorphic core of the Himalayan orogen. In the Mount Everest region of southern Tibet, granites both pre- and postdate an important fault of the system, the Qomolangma detachment. New U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar geochronologic data for these rocks constrain the age of brittle faulting to between 16.67 ± 0.04 and 16.37 ± 0.40 Ma, significantly expanding the known age range for extension in the central Himalaya (widely regarded as ca. 20 22 Ma). More importantly, they indicate an average displacement rate of ?47 mm/yr and a consequent tectonic unroofing rate of ?8.2 mm/yr. Such unroofing is faster than all but the highest estimates of combined physical and chemical erosion rates in mountainous regions, suggesting that large-displacement normal faulting can be an extremely efficient agent of mass redistribution in orogenic systems.

Hodges, Kip; Bowring, Samuel; Davidek, Kathleen; Hawkins, David; Krol, Michael

1998-06-01

52

Automated synthesis of a high speed Cordic algorithm with the Cathedral-III compilation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automated design methodology of the Cathedral-III system is presented. The Cathedral-III system is an environment for efficient synthesis of high-throughput digital-signal-processing circuits. The system translates a behavioral description, expressed in the Silage language, into an intermediate signal flow graph representation, which is assembled and optimized into a dedicated bit-sliced architecture. The Cordic algorithm is used as test-vehicle to demonstrate

J. Van Meerbergen; F. Catthoor; H. De Man

1988-01-01

53

Fluorescence lidar imaging of the cathedral and baptistery of Parma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive fluorescence multispectral imaging of the cathedral and baptistery of Parma, Italy, is reported and discussed. In particular, the first fluorescence imaging data from protection-treated stony materials were recorded. Fluorescence spectra were taken with a mobile lidar system scanning the monument surfaces with a frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser beam from a distance of about 80 m. For each pixel of the area investigated, a high-spectral-resolution spectrum in the full visible range was acquired. The principal-component analysis technique was used to obtain thematic maps that outlined areas subject to protective treatment and biological growth, and other features, such as different types of stones and decoration pigments.

Lognoli, D.; Cecchi, G.; Mochi, I.; Pantani, L.; Raimondi, V.; Chiari, R.; Johansson, T.; Weibring, P.; Edner, H.; Svanberg, S.

54

Fault Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations provides elementary examples of fault motion intended for simple demonstrations. Examples include dip-slip faults (normal and reverse), strike-slip faults, and oblique-slip faults.

55

In situ investigations of vault paintings in the Antwerp cathedral.  

PubMed

X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and Raman spectroscopy have been used to examine 15th century mediaeval and 16th century renaissance vault paintings in the Our Lady's Cathedral (Antwerp, Belgium) in view of their restoration. The use of mobile instruments made it possible to work totally non-destructively. This complementary approach yields information on the elemental (XRF) and on the molecular composition (Raman) of the pigments. For the 15th century vault painting the pigments lead-tin yellow (Pb(2)SnO(4)), lead white (2PbCO(3)xPb(OH)(2)), vermilion (HgS), massicot (PbO) and azurite (2CuCO(3).Cu(OH)(2)) could be identified. The pigments used for the 16th century vault painting could be identified as red lead (Pb(3)O(4)), hematite (Fe(2)O(3)), lead white (2PbCO(3)xPb(OH)(2)) and azurite (2CuCO(3)xCu(OH)(2)). For both paintings the presence of the strong Raman scatterer calcite (CaCO(3)) resulted in a difficult identification of the pigments by Raman spectroscopy. The presence of gypsum (CaSO(4)x2H(2)O) on the mediaeval vault painting probably indicates that degradation took place. PMID:20036616

Deneckere, Annelien; Schudel, Walter; Van Bos, Marina; Wouters, Helena; Bergmans, Anna; Vandenabeele, Peter; Moens, Luc

2009-11-22

56

Lidar remote sensing of the Parma Cathedral and Baptistery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence lidar is a well known instrument that is mainly employed for the remote sensing of the Earth's surface. In recent years, IROE, in collaboration with other Italian and foreign institutions, carried out the first experiments on remote sensing of historical buildings using fluorescence lidar. The main part of these experiments deals with the remote monitoring of biodeteriogens and the lithological characteristics of the building materials. This paper describes the results of the field experiment carried out at the Parma Cathedral and Baptistery in September 2000. Two systems, the tripled Nd:YAG lidar of the Lund Institute of Technology and the XeCl lidar of the CNR-IROE, operated for one week, in order to test the possible applications of both fluorescence point measurement and fluorescence thematic imaging in the remote non-destructive monitoring of buildings. Apart from confirming the possibility of detecting biodeteriogens, for the first time in our knowledge the processing of the fluorescence data made possible the detection of restorations and the distinction between pigments having the same color.

Weibring, Petter K.; Lognoli, David; Chiari, Roberto; Cecchi, Giovanna; Edner, Hans; Johansson, Thomas; Pantani, Luca; Svanberg, Sune; Tirelli, Daniele; Trambusti, Massimo

2001-10-01

57

In situ investigations of vault paintings in the Antwerp cathedral  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and Raman spectroscopy have been used to examine 15th century mediaeval and 16th century renaissance vault paintings in the Our Lady's Cathedral (Antwerp, Belgium) in view of their restoration. The use of mobile instruments made it possible to work totally non-destructively. This complementary approach yields information on the elemental (XRF) and on the molecular composition (Raman) of the pigments. For the 15th century vault painting the pigments lead-tin yellow (Pb 2SnO 4), lead white (2PbCO 3·Pb(OH) 2), vermilion (HgS), massicot (PbO) and azurite (2CuCO 3·Cu(OH) 2) could be identified. The pigments used for the 16th century vault painting could be identified as red lead (Pb 3O 4), hematite (Fe 2O 3), lead white (2PbCO 3·Pb(OH) 2) and azurite (2CuCO 3·Cu(OH) 2). For both paintings the presence of the strong Raman scatterer calcite (CaCO 3) resulted in a difficult identification of the pigments by Raman spectroscopy. The presence of gypsum (CaSO 4·2H 2O) on the mediaeval vault painting probably indicates that degradation took place.

Deneckere, Annelien; Schudel, Walter; Van Bos, Marina; Wouters, Helena; Bergmans, Anna; Vandenabeele, Peter; Moens, Luc

2010-02-01

58

CATHEDRAL: A Fast and Effective Algorithm to Predict Folds and Domain Boundaries from Multidomain Protein Structures  

PubMed Central

We present CATHEDRAL, an iterative protocol for determining the location of previously observed protein folds in novel multidomain protein structures. CATHEDRAL builds on the features of a fast secondary-structure–based method (using graph theory) to locate known folds within a multidomain context and a residue-based, double-dynamic programming algorithm, which is used to align members of the target fold groups against the query protein structure to identify the closest relative and assign domain boundaries. To increase the fidelity of the assignments, a support vector machine is used to provide an optimal scoring scheme. Once a domain is verified, it is excised, and the search protocol is repeated in an iterative fashion until all recognisable domains have been identified. We have performed an initial benchmark of CATHEDRAL against other publicly available structure comparison methods using a consensus dataset of domains derived from the CATH and SCOP domain classifications. CATHEDRAL shows superior performance in fold recognition and alignment accuracy when compared with many equivalent methods. If a novel multidomain structure contains a known fold, CATHEDRAL will locate it in 90% of cases, with <1% false positives. For nearly 80% of assigned domains in a manually validated test set, the boundaries were correctly delineated within a tolerance of ten residues. For the remaining cases, previously classified domains were very remotely related to the query chain so that embellishments to the core of the fold caused significant differences in domain sizes and manual refinement of the boundaries was necessary. To put this performance in context, a well-established sequence method based on hidden Markov models was only able to detect 65% of domains, with 33% of the subsequent boundaries assigned within ten residues. Since, on average, 50% of newly determined protein structures contain more than one domain unit, and typically 90% or more of these domains are already classified in CATH, CATHEDRAL will considerably facilitate the automation of protein structure classification.

Dallman, Tim; Pearl, Frances M. G; Orengo, Christine A

2007-01-01

59

CATHEDRAL: a fast and effective algorithm to predict folds and domain boundaries from multidomain protein structures.  

PubMed

We present CATHEDRAL, an iterative protocol for determining the location of previously observed protein folds in novel multidomain protein structures. CATHEDRAL builds on the features of a fast secondary-structure-based method (using graph theory) to locate known folds within a multidomain context and a residue-based, double-dynamic programming algorithm, which is used to align members of the target fold groups against the query protein structure to identify the closest relative and assign domain boundaries. To increase the fidelity of the assignments, a support vector machine is used to provide an optimal scoring scheme. Once a domain is verified, it is excised, and the search protocol is repeated in an iterative fashion until all recognisable domains have been identified. We have performed an initial benchmark of CATHEDRAL against other publicly available structure comparison methods using a consensus dataset of domains derived from the CATH and SCOP domain classifications. CATHEDRAL shows superior performance in fold recognition and alignment accuracy when compared with many equivalent methods. If a novel multidomain structure contains a known fold, CATHEDRAL will locate it in 90% of cases, with <1% false positives. For nearly 80% of assigned domains in a manually validated test set, the boundaries were correctly delineated within a tolerance of ten residues. For the remaining cases, previously classified domains were very remotely related to the query chain so that embellishments to the core of the fold caused significant differences in domain sizes and manual refinement of the boundaries was necessary. To put this performance in context, a well-established sequence method based on hidden Markov models was only able to detect 65% of domains, with 33% of the subsequent boundaries assigned within ten residues. Since, on average, 50% of newly determined protein structures contain more than one domain unit, and typically 90% or more of these domains are already classified in CATH, CATHEDRAL will considerably facilitate the automation of protein structure classification. PMID:18052539

Redfern, Oliver C; Harrison, Andrew; Dallman, Tim; Pearl, Frances M G; Orengo, Christine A

2007-11-01

60

Faulted Barn  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This barn is faulted through the middle; the moletrack is seen in the foreground with the viewer standing on the fault. From the air one can see metal roof panels of the barn that rotated as the barn was faulted....

2009-01-22

61

Cathedrals in the Desert? Transnationals, Corporate Strategy and Locality in Wroc ^ aw  

Microsoft Academic Search

HARDY J. (1998) Cathedrals in the desert? Transnationals, corporate strategy and locality in Wroc ^ aw, Reg. Studies 32, 639-652. This paper examines the relationship between the strategy and restructuring of transnational corporations, patterns of foreign direct investment and the transformation of the regions of East and Central Europe. Different views of the impact of foreign direct investment are interrogated

Jane Hardy

1998-01-01

62

Cathedral Square, Burlington, Vermont: Solar-Energy-System Performance Evaluation, January 1982 Through April 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Cathedral Square solar site is a 10-story multi-unit apartment building in Vermont whose active solar energy system is designed to supply 51% of the hot water load. The system consists of 1798 square feet of flat plate collectors, a 2699 gallon water ...

K. M. Welch

1982-01-01

63

CGE: automatic generation of controllers in the CATHEDRAL-II silicon compiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the efforts done within the framework of the CATHEDRAL-II silicon compiler towards automatic controller generation. The program CGE (Controller Generation Environment) maps a microcode description generated by Atomics, an RT scheduler, onto a target controller architecture. The program produces logic, structure and layout descriptions of the constituent blocks. The controller architecture has been chosen to suit most

J. Zegers; Paul Six; Jan M. Rabaey; Hugo De Man

1990-01-01

64

The Misfiring of German Cultural Leadership in the Twelfth Century: The Evidence from the Cathedral Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the causes and effects of the shift between 1050 and 1125 of people leaving Germany to receive advanced training for high ecclesiastical office, on the subsequent decline in German cathedral schools, and on the delayed entry of Germany into the community of nations that sported universities. (CMK)

Pixton, Paul B.

1998-01-01

65

Automated test pattern generation for the Cathedral-II\\/2nd architectural synthesis environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CAD implementation of a testability strategy for chips as designed with the Cathedral-II\\/2nd silicon compilation environment is presented. Emphasis will be on the software tools accomplishing the test assembly. These tools are fully integrated with synthesis, place and route and module generation programs. The hierarchy present in the design has been exploited to assemble the test patterns in an

Jos van Sas; Francky Catthoor; Peter Vandeput; Frank Rossaert; Hugo De Man

1991-01-01

66

Design choices and intervention techniques for repairing and strengthening of the Monza cathedral bell-tower  

Microsoft Academic Search

A presentation is given of the fundamental design choices and of the selection of the most appropriate materials and techniques which have been made for strengthening the Monza cathedral bell-tower, based on investigation and structural assessment carried out prior to and during the design process. The results of the experimental and numerical investigation will first be given in order to

C. Modena; M. R. Valluzzi; R. Tongini Folli; L. Binda

2002-01-01

67

Dick and Jane Meet John and Judy: The Development of the Cathedral Readers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the historical development of the Cathedral Basic Readers (a.k.a. the Dick and Jane readers), a special edition used to teach reading in Catholic schools. Three questions served as a guiding framework: (1) what factors led to the creation, development, and discontinuance of this Reader series? (2) what were the differences between…

Spiker, Thecla M.

68

Thermal, mineralogical and chemical studies of the mortars used in the cathedral of Pamplona (Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different ancient mortar samples of Pamplona cathedral have been analysed to characterize their binder and aggregate fractions. A complete characterization has been carried out including chemical (complete macrochemical analysis, analysis of the soluble fraction in hot HCl (1:5) and of the insoluble residue, trace elements and soluble salts, using traditional chemical procedures, ion chromatography and spectrophotometry techniques), mineralogical (structural characterization,

J. I Alvarez; I Navarro; P. J Garc??a Casado

2000-01-01

69

Application of sonic and radar tests on the piers and walls of the Cathedral of Noto  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors applied systematically sonic tests, radar tests and other diagnostic techniques on the remaining walls and piers of the Cathedral of Noto. The experimental survey was carried out by the Laboratory of the DIS, Politecnico of Milan (Person in Charge: Prof. Binda, Prof. Baronio) in collaboration with the designers (Ing. R. De Benedictis, Arch. S. Tringali) and the experts

L. Binda; A. Saisi; C. Tiraboschi; S. Valle; C. Colla; M. Forde

2003-01-01

70

On-site investigation on the remains of the Cathedral of Noto  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cathedral of Noto was damaged after the earthquake that hit Sicily in 1990. Soon after the event, cracks appeared on the domes of the lateral naves, and also on the pillars. In 1992 some provisional work had been carried out in view of confining the pillars of the central nave that were damaged. Some pictures made after the earthquake

L Binda; C Tiraboschi; G Baronio

2003-01-01

71

Constable's "Salisbury Cathedral" in English Class: A Case Study Argument for Blended Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that, although the Eurocentric focus in art and literature currently may be out of favor, the lack of a cultural background may hurt students' scores on standardized tests. Describes a teaching plan based on artist John Constable's painting, "Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishop's Garden." (CFR)

Traubitz, Nancy

1995-01-01

72

Correctness proofs of parameterized hardware modules in the CATHEDRAL-II synthesis environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the correctness of parameterised hardware module generators is examined. These modules are the basic building blocks for the CATHEDRAL II silicon compiler and therefore their correctness is vital. The proof of their functional correctness by means of the Boyer-Moore theorem prover will be discussed. It will be shown that later modifications made to the module generators can

Diederik Verkest; Luc J. M. Claesen; Hugo De Man

1990-01-01

73

Delineating recharge areas for Onondaga and Cathedral Caves using groundwater tracing techniques  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Onondaga Cave and Cathedral Cave are two large, significant cave systems with active streams located along the Meramec River in the Ozarks ecoregion of Missouri. Groundwater dye tracing has delineated recharge areas for both caves in order to aid in the management of the cave systems by Onondaga Cav...

74

Treatment Effects on Annual and Dry Period Streamflow at Cathedral Peak  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total annual streamflow and dry season flows of treated catchments at Cathedral Peak, Natal, were compared and related to those of index catchments.Afforestation with Pinus patula Schlech. and Cham, of 74% of a catchment with Themeda triandra Forsk. grass cover reduced streamflow by a maximum of 440 mm in the twenty-second year after planting. The average reduction over a period

J. M. Bosch

1979-01-01

75

The effect of afforestation on streamflow at Cathedral Peak: Report No. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data are presented to show that streamflow from the first catchment which was afforested at the Cathedral Peak Forest Influences Research Station has decreased since afforestation. The decrease became evident when the Pinus patula trees, which were planted on 74 per cent of the area, were eight years old. By the age of 17 years, the annual decrease for the

U. W. Nänni

1970-01-01

76

Faulting Plumbing: Spring Response to Creep on the Hayward Fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two prominent sets of thermal springs lie along the western edge of the left step over region between the Calaveras and Hayward faults: the Alum Rock springs, San Jose, CA, and the Warm Springs, Fremont, CA. Co- and postseismic flow increases at both spring locations have been well documented (King et al., 1994 and Waring, 1915). Until recently, however, spring response to creep events was unknown. In January 2003, we documented a 20% decrease in discharge at the Warm Springs due to a 0.31mm right lateral creep event on the southern Hayward fault. The Warm Springs emanate from the Warm Springs fault that lies at the base of Mission Peak and merges with the Mission fault. The observed decrease in discharge is directly proportional to fluid pressure drop within the fault and therefore we suggest that creep on the Hayward fault resulted in a rapid stress change within a neighboring secondary fault. We present an analytical model that explains the observed discharge change and provides an estimate for the depth of fault zone permeability changes. Our results indicate that ongoing monitoring, geochemical sampling, and modeling of thermal springs within active faults zones offers the potential to directly observe fluid-fault interactions and better constrain the interactions of major fault zones with neighboring secondary faults.

Manga, M.; Rowland, J. C.

2003-12-01

77

Extraction faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose the term “extraction fault” for a planar structure that forms at the trailing edge of a discrete block when it is forced or extracted out of the surrounding material. This process results in the merging of two block-bounding faults with opposite senses of displacement. An extraction fault differs fundamentally from other faults in that its two sides have approached each other substantially in the direction perpendicular to the fault. The fault-parallel displacement may be either zero (pure extraction faults) or not (mixed extraction faults). Pure small-scale extraction faults can result from boudinage. A large-scale example may be the S-reflector of the Galicia passive continental margin which is related to rifting and continental breakup. When the strong portion of the lithosphere, i.e. the upper mantle and the lower crust, underwent necking, thermally weak mantle from below and upper crust from above collapsed into the opening gap in the rift centre and an extraction fault formed at the trailing edge of the strong lithosphere. Extraction faults are also potentially important in the exhumation of high-pressure metamorphic rocks in collisional orogens. We propose that the Combin fault on top of the eclogite-facies Zermatt-Saas ophiolites in the Penninic Alps, earlier interpreted either as a normal fault or as a thrust, is in fact an extraction fault.

Froitzheim, Nikolaus; Pleuger, Jan; Nagel, Thorsten J.

2006-08-01

78

Study of glasses with grisailles from historic stained glass windows of the cathedral of León (Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work concerns the study of grisailles of historic glass samples from stained glass windows of the Cathedral of León, which were removed during the restoration carried out in 19th century. Both the glass samples and their coloured grisailles showed very different chemical composition and macroscopic heterogeneity. As a general rule their deterioration degree is rather moderate, maybe due to the pieces removal that preserve them from the high atmospheric pollution occurred in the last century. The present research pointed out the physical characteristics, chemical compositions and deterioration degree of the samples selected from the most important Spanish ensemble of Medieval and Renaissance stained glass windows. Moreover, this work offers sufficient results to be compared with those formerly obtained for other stained glass windows from European cathedrals and churches.

Carmona, N.; Villegas, M. A.; Navarro, J. M. Fernández

2006-06-01

79

Water assessment of Cathedral Bluffs shale oil demonstration project, White River basin - Colorado  

SciTech Connect

This water assessment was undertaken by the U.S. Water Resources Council (WRC) under authority of the Federal Non-Nuclear Energy Research and Development Act of 1974, as amended. WRC gives an assessment for the Cathedral Bluffs Shale Oil Demonstration Project, located within the White River Basin, Colorado. The objectives of the study were to identify and document: Water requirements for the project; present and future water supply availability; and water resources impacts.

Not Available

1981-09-01

80

Quality assessment of replacement stones for the Cologne Cathedral: mineralogical and petrophysical requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to its long building history, different types of building stones comprised the construction of the Cologne Cathedral.\\u000a Severe damage is observed on the different stones, e.g., sandstones, carbonate, and volcanic rocks, especially when the different\\u000a stone materials neighbor the medieval “Drachenfels trachyte” from the “Siebengebirge”. The question arises, “Is the insufficient\\u000a compatibility of the implemented building materials causatively related

B. Graue; S. Siegesmund; B. Middendorf

2011-01-01

81

Innovative 3D information system for the restoration and preventive maintenance plan of the Milan Cathedral  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The restoration and maintenance of architecturally complex monuments need advanced tools for helping the definition of the working plan and for storing analysing and updating all the data produced. In the case of the Gothic Milan Cathedral a three-dimensional metric support has been developed. It comprises several oriented and connected stereoscopic models which makes it possible, through the stereoscopic vision, to navigate through several photograms, to accurately measure the dimension of architectural details, to draw structures with a millimeter precision. In this way a 3D-CAD model of the facade and of the internal walls of the Milan Cathedral have been created. On those vectorial models, it is possible to insert photos, documents, characterisation data and even to draw thematic maps. For instance, the load bearing structures maps have been realised after a GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) structural survey. These maps provide structural information (e.g. fractures, block thickness and status, lessons, etc.) extremely useful for planning the restoration and maintenance work. The photogrammetric survey has been proceeded by a 3D laser scanning survey, necessary for providing a preliminary model for planning the work until the complete elaboration of the stereoscopic model. All the data have been updated in the georeferenced and integrated 3D data base of the Cathedral, which now constitutes the necessary support for defining the specific operations.

Giunta, Giuseppe G.; Di Paola, Eleonora; Morlin Visconti Castiglione, Benigno

2004-02-01

82

Exeter Cathedral Keystones and Carvings: A Catalogue Raisonne of the Sculptures & Their Polychromy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exeter Cathedral Keystones and Carvings functions as "an illustrated introduction to, and explanatory catalogue of all the figurative sculpture that is part of the original interior fabric of the medieval building." The material on the site, which is primarily geared toward art historians and medievalists, was compiled by Avril Kay Henry, former professor of English Medieval Culture at University of Exeter, and the late Anna Carson Hulbert, a well known conservator. The site does not provide a tour through the cathedral so much as it offers photos and explanations of the individual sculptural pieces: "medieval bosses, corbels, labelstops, figurative capitals (and a few other interior carvings) which are an integral part of the medieval interior construction of Exeter Cathedral, Devon, England." Users can browse or search the contents, and a nice introduction and bibliography are both useful supplements. From the homepage, users can access a page that explains navigation and layout of the site, entitled The Resource: Coverage and Use. This one is well worth a stop for medievalists.

Hulbert, Anna C.; Henry, Avril.

2001-01-01

83

The transmission of masticatory forces and nasal septum: structural comparison of the human skull and Gothic cathedral.  

PubMed

This study extrapolates the transmission of masticatory forces to the cranium based on the architectural principles of Gothic cathedrals. The most significant finding of the study, obtained by analysis of coronal CT scans, is the role of the hard palate, and especially the vomer and the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid in masticatory force transmission. The study also confirms, experimentally, the paths of masticatory forces, cited in literature but based purely on morphological observations. Human skulls and Gothic cathedrals have similar morphological and functional characteristics. The load exerted by the roof of the cathedral is transmitted to the ground by piers and buttresses. These structures also resist the shearing forces exerted by high winds. Similarly, the mid-facial bones of the skull transmit the vertical as well as the lateral masticatory forces from the maxillary dentition to the skull base. The nonload bearing walls and stained glass windows of the cathedral correspond to the translucent wall of the maxilla. The passageway between the aisle and the nave of the cathedral is equivalent to the meatal openings in the lateral wall of the nasal cavity. PMID:17696032

Hilloowala, Rumy; Kanth, Hrishi

2007-07-01

84

Analysis of lapideus materials from the columns of the cathedral of St Maria in Randazzo (Catania, Italy) and from their ancient origin quarries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lava columns from the cathedral St Maria of Randazzo (Catania, Italy), were studied in order to establish the classification of these rocks and to investigate their origin. At the beginning of the XIX century, some columns of the old frame of the nave were removed to build the dome and stored in a fornix beneath the cathedral. Samples were taken

Giuseppe Cultrone; Germana Barone; Giuseppe Gangemi; Salvatore Ioppolo

2001-01-01

85

Hugh Hudson - The Politics of War: Paolo Uccello's Equestrian Monument for Sir John Hawkwood in the Cathedral of Florence - Parergon 23:2  

Microsoft Academic Search

While Uccello's Equestrian Monument in Florence's Cathedral has long been admired as a spectacular example of Florentine early Renaissance mural painting, distinguished by its serene, ordered geometry, only in recent decades has the turbulent political climate in which it was created been linked to its iconography. The lists of the Cathedral's treasurers and members of its board of works who

Hugh Hudson

2006-01-01

86

Observation on the recent examination of bones from St David's Cathedral.  

PubMed

Bones discovered in 1866 walled up in St David's Cathedral, West Wales were thought possibly to be those of St David and his companion St Justinian, both of whom died in the late 6th or early 7th century. Examination and radio carbon dating of the bones suggested that these were not from St David nor St Justinian. Some of the bones could be the remains of St Caradoc, a 12th century hermit. It is likely, however, that the bones are remains of clergy who, for reasons not yet understood, were re-interred into the wall. PMID:10689864

Nokes, L D; Evans, W; Knight, B H; Dent, C

2000-01-01

87

Desalination of brick masonry and stone carvings in Capitullum hall of Riga Dome Cathedral  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The construction of Riga Dome Cathedral and its Capithullum hall were initiated in 1211. Through centuries they were damaged a lot due to migration of soluble salts and moisture. During the last restoration (1888-1891) a lot of mistakes were conceded and subsequently some of probable solutions for restoration were unsuccessful. In 2009 the new restoration stage in Capithullum hall was started. Two types of desalination methods were used in hall - desalination with lime-sand plaster and poultice of lignin. Both quantitative and semiquantitative chemical analyses were performed in order to appreciate the desalination process.

Grave, J.; Krage, L.; Lusis, R.; Vitina, I.

2011-12-01

88

Fault Detection and Classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma processes are used widely in the manufacture of semiconductor devices. Recent trends in this industry have focussed on methods for automated process control. For limiting processes such as plasma etch, an emerging focus is on real time Fault Detection and Classification (FDC). Simply put, the aim is to provide a system that not only detects faults but also identifies the root cause. For example, semiconductor production fabs regularly encounter faults that result in unscheduled tool downtime and reduced yield. Among these are real-time process and tool faults, post maintenance recovery problems and tool mis-matching at start-up and process transfer. The objective of any FDC scheme should be to reduce this product loss and tool downtime by identifying the core problem as rapidly as possible, and replace the usual "trial-and-error" approach to fault identification. There are a couple of key requirements in any control system. Firstly, an estimation of the process state, and secondly, a scheme for providing real-time control. This paper focuses on methods for addressing both problems on plasma etch tools. A non-intrusive high-resolution RF sensor is used to provide in situ process-state and tool-state data. Examples will be presented on how such a sensor can give a repeatable fingerprint of any plasma process. The challenge then becomes the manipulation of this data into usable information. The process control scheme presented is knowledge-based, in that it is trained and does not rely on statistical methods with underlying assumptions of Gaussian data spread. A fingerprint of known fault states is the knowledge set and real-time control is provided by comparison of the sensor fingerprint to the fault fingerprints.

Scanlan, John

2004-09-01

89

Is Jiali Fault still an active fault in the late Pleistocene?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Karakoram-Jiali Fault Zone (KJFZ) is the most important active structure system in the Tibetan Plateau. This zone consists of two major faults (i.e., Karakoram fault and Jiali fault) and other minor faults in between. The Karakoram fault strikes NW to SE in the western Tibet, while the Jiali fault roughly EW in the eastern Tibet, According to previous study, the Jiali fault possesses rapid dextral slip rate (15-20mm/yr) and the maximum observed offset is ca. 1.5km. Above mentioned minor faults in the middle of KJFZ can be divided into two groups. One strikes N120°-130°E, such as the Beng Co fault, the Gyaring Co fault, the Lamu Co fault, and the Awong Co fault. They are all previously reported as right-lateral strike-slip faults. The other group striking N70°-80°E seems to be conjugated with the first group. In the east of Beng Co fault and Jiali Fault, there are still several lineations striking similar to Beng Co fault. They are located in 31°-32°N, en echelon in configuration, similar length, and subparallel to each other. In this study they are tentatively regarded as part of the KJFZ. In the spring of 2007, after the feature identification by satellite imagery we conducted a field investigation to western Jiali fault and other minor faults located in its immediate west. Both of our image analysis and field survey found no evidence to indicate the late Pleistocene activity of the main trace of the Jiali fault. One of the minor faults mentioned above, on the contrary, shows lots of active fault evidence, such as ~360m offset of the last glacial moraine, many abandon channels, offset streams, and shutter ridges, etc. Based on a previously published TL date, the slip rate of this minor fault is ca. 15±2 mm/yr. The recently published GPS velocities show a relatively large WNW-ESE extension in the plateau interior (~22±3 mm/yr) and the speeds increasingly toward the east. There is also no symptom across the main trace of the Jiali fault. We therefore would like to conclude that the main Jiali fault is no longer active at least since late Pleistocene, which may be attributed to that the orientation of the Jiali fault is parallel to the extension axis and no differential stress occurs across the fault. On the other hand, the minor conjugated faults, instead, play essential roles to accommodate the stress under certain tectonic system. Based on this findings, the crustal flow model may be preferred, but fault locked model still cannot be entirely ignored.

Chung, L.; Chen, Y.; Lai, K.; Yin, G.; Cao, Z.

2007-12-01

90

THE RELATIONSHIP OF MINERALOGICAL DATA TO PALEONTOLOGICAL QUESTIONS: A CASE STUDY FROM CATHEDRAL CAVE, WHITE PINE COUNTY, NEVADA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the mineralogy of sediment samples taken from a paleontological excavation in Cathedral Cave in eastern Nevada. Sediment samples were composed mostly of calcite and gypsum, and a few samples contained minor amounts of quartz and halite. A discrete cemented layer was present throughout portions of the excavated area. The primary mineral constituents of the cemented layer were

MICHAEL C. OSBORNE; CHRISTOPHER N. JASS

91

The Cathedral and the Bazaar of E-Repository Development: Encouraging Community Engagement with Moving Pictures and Sound  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers an insight into the development, use and governance of e-repositories for learning and teaching, illustrated by Eric Raymond's bazaar and cathedral analogies and by a comparison of collection strategies that focus on content coverage or on the needs of users. It addresses in particular the processes that encourage and achieve…

Wong, Denis; Shephard, Kerry L.; Phillips, Peter

2008-01-01

92

National Monumentalization and the Politics of Scale: The Resurrections of the Cathedral of Christ the Savior in Moscow  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the link between the changing geographical scale of dominant ideologies in Russian society and the architectural scales of different versions of the preeminent national monument, the Cathedral of Christ the Savior. The history of this process of national monumentalization in Russia is profiled by focusing on mutual influences between processes at these two scales, and the interplay

Dmitri Sidorov

2000-01-01

93

Provenance studies of the white marble of the cathedral of Como by neutron activation analysis and data reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marble samples from major Italian quarries and from the Como Cathedral were analyzed for their trace element content, which is indicative of their provenance. Ca, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Rb, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Gd, Ho, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Th and U elements were determined by neutron activation analysis. Results as well as their precision

M. Oddone; S. Meloni; E. Mello

1985-01-01

94

Coloured mineral coatings on monument surfaces as a result of biomineralization: the case of the Tarragona cathedral (Catalonia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successive coloured coatings on the Taragona cathedral (Catalonia) were analyzed using chemical, microbiological and mineralogical techniques. The coatings consist of mainly biogenic minerals (calcite, several oxalates, phosphates) and their fabric and composition is independent of the underlying rock. The origin of the crusts or patinas is attributed to bygone (sub-fossil) microflores which formed biofilms and microbial mats on and within

Clara Urzì; M VENDRELLSAZ; W KRUMBEIN

1997-01-01

95

Crowning the Cathedral of Florence: Brunelleschi Builds His Dome. A Unit of Study for Grades 7-10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit focuses on a dramatic moment in the Renaissance from about 1420 when Filippo Brunelleschi single handedly created, defined, and engineered a new architecture by building the great dome of the cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence. The dome became the symbol of Florence's grandeur during the Renaissance, and a model for great…

Symcox, Linda

96

Examples of weathering and deterioration of Tertiary building stones at St. Michaels Cathedral in Cluj-Napoca (Romania)  

Microsoft Academic Search

St. Michaels Cathedral is one of the oldest Gothic architectural monuments in Cluj. It is built predominantly of Cenozoic (Eocene) limestones which were deposited on a shallow carbonate platform. They are composed of different facies and microfacies types with varying amounts of particles, matrix and cement. Limestones from the Baci quarry (Cluj Limestone), which is situated about 3 km from

Roman Koch; Paul Calin Racataianu; Ioan I. Bucur

2008-01-01

97

Comparing the bioremoval of black crusts on colored artistic lithotypes of the Cathedral of Florence with chemical and laser treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The external walls of the Cathedral of Florence are made of green serpentine, red marlstone and Carrara white marble, and intensive air pollution attack has led to their weathering, which caused black crust formation. A study was performed to evaluate the most appropriate cleaning treatment for black crust removal, adopting chemical (ammonium carbonate poultice), laser (1064 nm, Nd:YAG laser), and microbial

Eleonora Gioventù; Paola Franca Lorenzi; Federica Villa; Claudia Sorlini; Maria Rizzi; Andrea Cagnini; Alessandra Griffo; Francesca Cappitelli

2011-01-01

98

Arvicoline rodent fauna from the Room 2 Excavation in Cathedral Cave, White Pine County, Nevada, and its biochronologic significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Test-pit excavations from 1989 in Room 2 of Cathedral Cave yielded a diverse faunal assemblage, but age estimates derived from radioisotopic dates and biochronological assessment were widely disparate. New excavations were undertaken in 2003 to increase faunal samples and clarify chronological resolution. Arvicoline rodents recovered from the 2003 excavation include Allophaiomys pliocaenicus, Microtus meadensis, M. paroperarius, Microtus sp., Mictomys meltoni

Christopher N. Jass; Christopher J. Bell

2011-01-01

99

Fault models of inverter-interfaced distributed generators: Experimental verification and application to fault analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the fault behaviour of inverter-interfaced distributed generators in stand-alone net- works. It is shown that the rapid transient response of the inverter control system allows its fault behaviour to be characterised by quasi steady-state equivalent fault models. The choice of inverter control strategy, control reference frame and the method of active current limiting dominate the fault response,

Cornelis A. Plet; Maria Brucoli; John D. F. McDonald; Timothy C. Green

2011-01-01

100

Fault mechanics  

SciTech Connect

Recent observational, experimental, and theoretical modeling studies of fault mechanics are discussed in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Topics examined include interseismic strain accumulation, coseismic deformation, postseismic deformation, and the earthquake cycle; long-term deformation; fault friction and the instability mechanism; pore pressure and normal stress effects; instability models; strain measurements prior to earthquakes; stochastic modeling of earthquakes; and deep-focus earthquakes. Maps, graphs, and a comprehensive bibliography are provided. 220 refs.

Segall, P. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))

1991-01-01

101

Rule-based fault diagnosis of hall sensors and fault-tolerant control of PMSM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hall sensor is widely used for estimating rotor phase of permanent magnet synchronous motor(PMSM). And rotor position is an essential parameter of PMSM control algorithm, hence it is very dangerous if Hall senor faults occur. But there is scarcely any research focusing on fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control of Hall sensor used in PMSM. From this standpoint, the Hall sensor faults which may occur during the PMSM operating are theoretically analyzed. According to the analysis results, the fault diagnosis algorithm of Hall sensor, which is based on three rules, is proposed to classify the fault phenomena accurately. The rotor phase estimation algorithms, based on one or two Hall sensor(s), are initialized to engender the fault-tolerant control algorithm. The fault diagnosis algorithm can detect 60 Hall fault phenomena in total as well as all detections can be fulfilled in 1/138 rotor rotation period. The fault-tolerant control algorithm can achieve a smooth torque production which means the same control effect as normal control mode (with three Hall sensors). Finally, the PMSM bench test verifies the accuracy and rapidity of fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control strategies. The fault diagnosis algorithm can detect all Hall sensor faults promptly and fault-tolerant control algorithm allows the PMSM to face failure conditions of one or two Hall sensor(s). In addition, the transitions between health-control and fault-tolerant control conditions are smooth without any additional noise and harshness. Proposed algorithms can deal with the Hall sensor faults of PMSM in real applications, and can be provided to realize the fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control of PMSM.

Song, Ziyou; Li, Jianqiu; Ouyang, Minggao; Gu, Jing; Feng, Xuning; Lu, Dongbin

2013-07-01

102

Cathedral Square, Burlington, Vermont: solar-energy-system performance evaluation, January 1982 through April 1982  

SciTech Connect

The Cathedral Square solar site is a 10-story multi-unit apartment building in Vermont whose active solar energy system is designed to supply 51% of the hot water load. The system consists of 1798 square feet of flat plate collectors, a 2699 gallon water tank, and two auxiliary natural gas boilers that supply hot water to immersed heat exchanger in the auxiliary storage tank. The portion of the hot water load supplied was only 26%. The discrepancy is due to the fact that hot water consumption was less than expected. Performance data are tabulated for the system overall, the collector subsystem, and the domestic hot water subsystem for each month. Typical operation is illustrated by graphs of the temperatures at various parts of the system vs. time for a typical 24-hour period. The system operating sequence and solar energy utilization and losses are also graphed. (LEW)

Welch, K.M.

1982-01-01

103

Pseudotachylite Bearing Cretaceous Fault in the Saddlebag Lake Pendant, Central Sierra Nevada, CA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past several years the undergraduate researchers and mentors in the University of Southern California’s Undergraduate Team Research program has mapped the northern continuation of the Gem Lake shear zone from Gem Lake to Virginia Canyon near the north end of the Saddlebag pendant. In the center of this dominantly dextral, ductile shear zone we now recognize a pseudotachylite bearing brittle fault that often juxtaposes Triassic metavolcanics to the east of the fault with a Jurassic metasedimentary package to the west of the fault. Kinematic indicators such as slickenlines, steps, and offset dikes found within the brittle fault zone also suggest dextral oblique motion, similar to the motion of the ductile shear zone. The brittle fault dips steeply and strikes N-NW with the fault zone width varying from narrow (sub m scale) to a 100-200 m wide fracture zone as seen in the Sawmill area. Jurrasic metasediments (> 177Ma) and Cretaceous metavolcanics (110-95Ma) lie to the West of the fault and Triassic metavolcanics (219Ma) lie to the East of the fault in the Virginia Canyon, Saddlebag Lake, and Sawmill areas. The absence of ~45 million years of Jurassic metavolcanics along the contact of the fault in each area, suggests tectonic removal of the sequence. Pseudotachylite, quartz vein rich breccias, gouge, fault scarps, and truncated Cathedral Peak dikes (~88 Ma) originating from the Tuolumne Batholith (TB), are common features associated with the brittle fault. The truncated, 88 Ma Cathedral Peak dikes plus nearby biotite cooling ages of 82 Ma indicate that displacement on the brittle fault continued well after TB emplacement and cooling and likely continued after ~80 Ma. The pseudotachylite suggests earthquakes occurred on the brittle fault during the Cretaceous. Movement also occurred along the fault at fairly shallow depths as indicated by the presence of vugs, or cavities with free euhedral crystal growth, within the quartz vein breccias. In the Sawmill Canyon area, located immediately southwest of Saddlebag Lake, the fault zone widens and is rich with evidence of brittle faulting including the quartz vein breccias similar to other study areas and localized pseudotachylite veins and breccias with angular rock fragments varying from <1 to > 4 cm in size. The fault branches off into several different strands within this zone, each associated with the quartz breccias and pseudotachylite common in the area. Outcrop scale kink bands found along some of the fault strands, suggesting late brittle faulting with the decrease of regional strain. Brittle faulting in the Sawmill area may be further complicated by large-scale boudinage associated with the faulting in the area. Some of the contacts in this area identified as fault strands may in part be large, fluid-filled cracks associated with bending (tension due to scar folding?) during boudinage of the metasedimentary package and nearby margin of the Tuolumne batholith in the area.

Whitesides, A. S.; Cao, W.; Paterson, S. R.

2010-12-01

104

IP Fault Localization Via Risk Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated, rapid, and effective fault management is a central goal of large operational IP networks. Today's networks suffer from a wide and volatile set of failure modes, where the underlying fault proves difficult to de- tect and localize, thereby delaying repair. One of the main challenges stems from operational reality: IP rout- ing and the underlying optical fiber plant are

Ramana Rao Kompella; Jennifer Yates; Albert G. Greenberg; Alex C. Snoeren

2005-01-01

105

Speciation and weathering of copper in “copper red ruby” medieval flashed glasses from the Tours cathedral (XIII century)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three “copper ruby red” (or “flashed”) glasses from the St Gatien cathedral in Tours (windows from the XIII century) were investigated at the Cu K-edge by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy and ?-XANES\\/EXAFS spectroscopies. The spectra are compared to XANES\\/EXAFS spectra collected for modern glasses synthesized at various O2 fugacities. Two main types of red glasses are present in Tours, which

François Farges; Marie-Pierre Etcheverry; André Scheidegger; Daniel Grolimund

2006-01-01

106

Assessing the Vibrational Frequencies of the Cathedral of Cologne (Germany) by Means of Ambient Seismic Noise Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ambient seismic noise measurements were conducted inside the Cathedral of Cologne (Germany) for assessing its frequencies\\u000a of vibration and for checking whether these occur in the range where soil amplification is expected. If this is the case,\\u000a damages may increase in case of an earthquake due to an increased structural response of the building. Analysis of the ratio\\u000a between the

Andreas Fäcke; Stefano Parolai; Sandra M. Richwalski; Lothar Stempniewski

2006-01-01

107

Detection and Elimination of Cyanobacteria from Frescoes: The Case of the St. Brizio Chapel (Orvieto Cathedral, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rosy discoloration partly masking the Luca Signorelli frescoes in St. Brizio Chapel (Orvieto Cathedral, Italy) for many\\u000a years proved to be a biological alteration, so the present research focused on investigating biodeteriogens and selecting\\u000a an appropriate biocide to treat them. Optical epifluorescence and electronic microscopic observations of the rosy powder revealed\\u000a a prevalent autofluorescent coccoid form with a diameter

F. Cappitelli; P. Abbruscato; P. Foladori; E. Zanardini; G. Ranalli; P. Principi; F. Villa; A. Polo; C. Sorlini

2009-01-01

108

A multifrequency and multisensor approach for the study and the restoration of monuments: the case of the Cathedral of Matera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we propose an integrated approach to diagnostic prospecting applied to the cathedral of Matera, in Southern Italy. In particular, we have performed both an ultrasonic tomography and a high frequency GPR prospecting on some pillars of the Church to investigate about possible structural yielding and a GPR prospecting at lower frequencies on the floor, where also a linear inversion algorithm has been applied to the data.

Masini, N.; Persico, R.; Guida, A.; Pagliuca, A.

2008-11-01

109

Potential fields of the Hollister fault zone  

SciTech Connect

The Hollister fault zone outcrops in southeastern Virginia and in northeastern North Carolina and is an important constituent of the eastern Piedmont fault system. The Hollister fault zone is a steeply westward dipping, north-south trending D[sub 3] ductile mylonite zone that has an average width of less than 1/2 km. It is a dextral strike-slip fault and represents the boundary between the Spring Hope and Roanoke Rapids terranes. Some Alleghanian fault motion has been recorded in foliated parts of the Butterwood Creek granite (Rb-87/Sr-86 whole-rock age date of 292 [+-] 30 Ma). The fault cuts the western side of the Butterwood Creek pluton, skirts the west side of the Rocky Mount pluton, passes south through the city of Wilson, and continues to Goldsboro, N.C.. The southern limit of exposure is near Rocky Mount, south of which the fault is obscured by Coastal Plain sediments. Only magnetic and gravity data can be used to suggest a possible continuation for the unexposed segment of the fault zone. Detailed gravity data and magnetic data profiles were collected in the northern and central parts of Halifax county and in the southern part of Wilson county. Gravity data collected along trend of the fault reveal a steep gravity gradient across the mylonite zone and minor anomalies associated with faulted slices of varying densities. Aeromagnetic maps show truncation of anomalies by the fault or presence of magnetic highs along the fault zone. Ground magnetic profiles exhibit clusters of magnetic highs within the mylonite zone. The profiles were modeled to reveal fault geometry and to investigate the geophysical characteristics of adjacent terranes. Integrating gravity and magnetic data established geophysical signatures of the mylonite zone that may be used to trace the fault through obscured areas.

Fletcher, C.D.; Lawrence, D.P. (East Carolina Univ., Greenville, NC (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1992-01-01

110

A new intelligent hierarchical fault diagnosis system  

SciTech Connect

As a part of a substation-level decision support system, a new intelligent Hierarchical Fault Diagnosis System for on-line fault diagnosis is presented in this paper. The proposed diagnosis system divides the fault diagnosis process into two phases. Using time-stamped information of relays and breakers, phase 1 identifies the possible fault sections through the Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) networks, and phase 2 recognizes the types and detailed situations of the faults identified in phase 1 by using a fast bit-operation logical inference mechanism. The diagnosis system has been practically verified by testing on a typical Taiwan power secondary transmission system. Test results show that rapid and accurate diagnosis can be obtained with flexibility and portability for fault diagnosis purpose of diverse substations.

Huang, Y.C.; Huang, C.L. [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Yang, H.T. [Chung Yuan Christian Univ., Chung-Li (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

1997-02-01

111

Norumbega Fault System of the Northern Appalachians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yes, Virginia, the eastern United States can finally claim to have a strike-slip fault of its own on a scale to rival the west coast's San Andreas fault: the Norumbega fault system, which stretches nearly 450 km from central New Brunswick, south to Casco Bay in southern Maine, and perhaps even farther into southern Connecticut. The Norumbega fault was active for 100 Ma, five times longer than the San Andreas. Its displacement is reckoned by one author to be as much as 1768 km (!), five times more than the San Andreas, and it has been exhumed locally to mid-crustal depths. This collection of 12 full-length, standalone papers and preface provides a single venue for a rapidly growing body of interdisciplinary research about a remarkable—though inactive—fault that may prove to be the longest, most long-lived fault with the greatest displacement of any in North America.

Sylvester, Arthur Gibbs

112

CMOS Bridging Fault Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors compare the performance of two test generation techniques, stuck fault testing and current testing, when applied to CMOS bridging faults. Accurate simulation of such faults mandated the development of several new design automation tools, including an analog-digital fault simulator. The results of this simulation are analyzed. It is shown that stuck fault test generation, while inherently incapable of

Thomas M. Storey; Wojciech Maly

1990-01-01

113

Normal Fault Visualization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module demonstrates the motion on an active normal fault. Faulting offsets three horizontal strata. At the end of the faulting event, surface topography has been generated. The upper rock layer is eroded by clicking on the 'begin erosion' button. The operator can manipulate the faulting motion, stopping and reversing motion on the fault at any point along the transit of faulting. The action of erosion is also interactive. One possible activity is an investigation of the control of different faulting styles on regional landscape form. This visual lends itself to an investigation of fault motion, and a comparison of types of faults. The interactive normal faulting visual could be compared to other interactive visuals depicting thrust faults, reverse faults, and strike slip faults (interactive animations of these fault types can be found by clicking on 'Media Types' at top red bar, then 'Animations', then 'Faults'). By comparing the interactive images of different types of faulting with maps of terrains dominated by different faulting styles, students are aided in conceptualizing how certain faulting styles produce distinctive landforms on the earth's surface (e.g., ridge and valley topography [thrust faulting dominant] versus basin-and-range topography [normal faulting dominant]). Jimm Myers, geology professor at the University of Wyoming, originated the concept of The Magma Foundry, a website dedicated to improving Earth science education across the grade levels. The Magma Foundry designs and creates modular, stand-alone media components that can be utilized in a variety of pedagogical functions in courses and labs.

Myers, Jimm

114

Solar-energy-system performance evaluation, Cathedral Square, Burlington, Vermont, July-December 1981  

SciTech Connect

The Cathedral Square solar site is a 10-story multiunit apartment building in Vermont. Its active solar energy system is designed to supply 51% of the hot water load, and consists of 1798 square feet of flat plate collectors, 2699-gallon water tank in an enclosed mechanical room on the roof, and two auxiliary natural gas boilers to supply hot water to immersed heat exchanger in an auxiliary storage tank. The measured solar fraction was only 28%, not 51%, which, it is concluded, is an unreasonable expectation. Other performance data include the solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor, and solar system coefficient of performance. Monthly performance data are given for the solar system overall, and for the collector, storage, and hot water subsystems. Also included are insolation data, typical storage fluid temperatures, domestic hot water consumption, and solar heat exchangers inlet/outlet temperatures, and typical domestic hot water subsystem temperatures. In addition, the system operating sequence and solar energy utilization are given. Appended are a system description, performance evaluation techniques, long-term weather data. (LEW)

Welch, K.M.

1981-01-01

115

Ancient descriptions of movement disorders: Cathedral el Burgo de Osma (Soria, Spain).  

PubMed

El Burgo de Osma (Soria, Spain) offers one of the best preserved medieval structures in Spain. The interior of the building conserves abundant samples of Romanesque art, and the tomb in polychromatic stone of the founder, San Pedro de Osma. We have classified those pieces of art that could represent descriptions of movement disorders. In the main façade of the Cathedral, several statues representing prophets can be seen one of them is clearly different to the rest. This statue represents a man with abnormal cervical posture characterized by right rotation, head tilt and elevation of right shoulder. The tomb includes several statues representing fragments of the life of San Pedro de Osma. Some of these figures show movement disorders. First, a woman with a baby in her arms who has marked head tilt to the left. Second a peasant without hands, perhaps amputated, this man has a head tilt to the right. We suggest that in the latter case ergotism can explain both manifestations: peripheral vascular disease leading to amputation, and cervical dystonia.Finally, a statue of polychromatic wood represents a priest with stooped posture, half open mouth, staring expression and a very notorious anterocollis. The author probably depicted a man with parkinsonism. PMID:16511653

Garcia Ruiz, Pedro J; Ruiz Ezquerro, Juan J; Garcia Torres, Araceli; Fanjul, Samira

2006-03-06

116

GPR and sonic tomography for structural restoration: the case of the cathedral of Tricarico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present the results of a diagnostics survey, based on the exploitation of ground penetrating radar (GPR) and sonic prospecting, to characterize the deterioration status of the pillars of the cathedral of Tricarico, in the Basilicata region (Southern Italy). The prospecting falls within the more general framework of investigating the structural conditions of this monument, which is affected by heavy instability problems. This study case points out the great effectiveness of the two employed diagnostic methods, when used in an integrated way, for detecting cracks and inhomogeneities in the inner structure of masonry building elements. With regard to GPR prospecting, a comparison is made between the results obtained by a standard processing and those obtained by means of an inverse scattering algorithm. For one of the investigated pillars, the results obtained from non-invasive tests are compared with those of direct inspection. This is performed by coring the pillar and examining both the core and the hole (the latter by means of an endoscope). The seismic investigation allowed us to prove the mediocre or bad state of conservation of the pillars.

Leucci, G.; Masini, N.; Persico, R.; Soldovieri, F.

2011-09-01

117

PADded Cache: A New Fault-Tolerance Technique for Cache Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a new fault-tolerance technique for cache memories. Current fault-tolerance techniques for caches are limited either by the number of faults that can be tolerated or by the rapid degradation of performance as the number of faults increases. In this report, we present a new technique that overcomes these two problems. This technique uses a special Programmable Address

Philip P. Shirvani; Edward J. Mccluskey

1999-01-01

118

Segmentation and growth of an obliquely reactivated normal fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed kinematic analysis of a large (1800 m maximum displacement) reactivated normal fault in the Taranaki Basin, New Zealand, has been conducted using high quality 3D seismic data. The Parihaka Fault is approximately north-south striking in basement, where it accrued Late Cretaceous to Early Eocene displacements in response to east-west extension, and was obliquely reactivated by NW-SE extension in the Pliocene. Reactivation resulted in upward propagation, newly formed segmentation and up-dip clockwise rotation of the fault surface by up to ˜20° from the strike of the basement fault. Fault segmentation, and map-view soft-linkage by relay zones in post Miocene strata, was synchronous with the formation of antithetic faults in Late Miocene strata at bends in the fault surface. Fault segment lengths, antithetic faults and relay zone dimensions were formed geologically instantaneously during initial reactivation of the main fault at 3.7-3.4 Ma (i.e. within the first ˜10% of faulting). Rapid formation of Pliocene fault segments is followed by displacement accumulation without an increase in fault segment length until eventual relay breaching when continued ramp rotation is unsustainable. This evolutionary history is consistent with a model in which arrays of fault segments are, from inception, components of a single coherent structure.

Giba, M.; Walsh, J. J.; Nicol, A.

2012-06-01

119

Fault slip distribution and fault roughness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present analysis of the spatial correlations of seismological slip maps and fault topography roughness, illuminating their identical self-affine exponent. Though the complexity of the coseismic spatial slip distribution can be intuitively associated with geometrical or stress heterogeneities along the fault surface, this has never been demonstrated. Based on new measurements of fault surface topography and on statistical analyses of kinematic inversions of slip maps, we propose a model, which quantitatively characterizes the link between slip distribution and fault surface roughness. Our approach can be divided into two complementary steps: (i) Using a numerical computation, we estimate the influence of fault roughness on the frictional strength (pre-stress). We model a fault as a rough interface where elastic asperities are squeezed. The Hurst exponent ?, characterizing the self-affinity of the frictional strength field, approaches ?, where ? is the roughness exponent of the fault surface in the direction of slip. (ii) Using a quasi-static model of fault propagation, which includes the effect of long-range elastic interactions and spatial correlations in the frictional strength, the spatial slip correlation is observed to scale as ?, where ? represents the Hurst exponent of the slip distribution. Under the assumption that the origin of the spatial fluctuations in frictional strength along faults is the elastic squeeze of fault asperities, we show that self-affine geometrical properties of fault surface roughness control slip correlations and that ?. Given that ? for a wide range of faults (various accumulated displacement, host rock and slip movement), we predict that ?. Even if our quasi-static fault model is more relevant for creeping faults, the spatial slip correlations observed are consistent with those of seismological slip maps. A consequence is that the self-affinity property of slip roughness may be explained by fault geometry without considering dynamical effects produced during an earthquake.

Candela, Thibault; Renard, François; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Bouchon, Michel; Brodsky, Emily E.

2011-11-01

120

Transition Fault Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delay fault testing is becoming more important as VLSI chips become more complex. Components that are fragments of functions, such as those in gate-array designs, need a general model of a delay fault and a feasible method of generating test patterns and simulating the fault. The authors present such a model, called a transition fault, which when used with parallel-pattern,

John Waicukauski; Eric Lindbloom; Barry Rosen; Vijay Iyengar

1987-01-01

121

A dynamic fault tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fault tree analysis is a widely used method for evaluation of systems reliability and nuclear power plants safety. This paper presents a new method, which represents extension of the classic fault tree with the time requirements. The dynamic fault tree offers a range of risk informed applications. The results show that application of dynamic fault tree may reduce the

Marko ?epin; Borut Mavko

2002-01-01

122

Cathedral Peak Granodiorite, Sierra Nevada Batholith, California: A Big, Mushy, Magma System?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cathedral Peak Granodiorite (Kcp) is the largest mapped unit of the >1200 km2 Tuolumne Batholith (TB), which is one of a belt of Cretaceous zoned intrusions within the Sierra Nevada Batholith. Previous workers [1,2] proposed that the zonation in the TB was mainly produced in-situ either by inward differentiation of a large mass of magma and/or large-scale magma mixing between compositionally distinct map units. Recent geochronology has shown that the entire TB was intruded over 8-9 Ma, leading to the hypothesis that it was constructed continuously over this time period by many small increments [3], with variations in chemical and isotopic composition attributed to processes in the melt source. This hypothesis is also supported by scatter in trace elements vs. longitude from the margins to inner TB and appreciable variability in Nd and Sr isotopic data between the mapped units of the TB [e.g., 4]. Thus attributing chemical variations between major intrusive units to simple closed system fractionation or binary magma mixing is precluded. New field, geochemical and geochronologic work along a 5 km transect from the porphyritic Half Dome Granodiorite (Khdp) margin to the innermost Kcp, and approximately perpendicular to the Kcp-Khdp contact shows that: (1) magmatic foliation is moderately- to steeply-dipping (>60°); (2) zircon ages at each end of the transect are indistinguishable; (3) bulk composition varies only modestly but trace elements show variable degrees of scatter with greatest scatter observed among feldspar-compatible and highly incompatible elements (Sr, Ba, Th); (5) ?Nd(t) is invariant (Sr(i) has small variation); (6) abundant field evidence for transport and mixing of melt and crystals is observed (multiple generations of steep planar, tube- like, and chaotically folded schlieren, rafts and monomineralic clusters of K-feldspar, irregular and mingled contacts between sheets of texturally variable granite and schlieren). The broad geochemical and isotopic data are consistent with bulk fractionation in the Cathedral Peak Granodiorite. However, the geochemical spatial variation (especially trace elements) and field evidence suggest that fractionation was highly disorganized and involved mixing and remobilization of crystal mush as it solidified, possibly triggered by new inputs of isotopically uniform magma (i.e., recharge from the magma source). These data and observations are consistent with construction of a large, and dynamic but mushy magmatic system within the last 1 Ma of the total 9 Ma TB intrusion interval. [1] Bateman, PC & Chappell BW (1979) Geol Soc Am Bull, Part I 90:465-482; [2] Reid, JB, Evans, OC & Fates DG (1983) Earth Planet Sci Letters, 66:243-261; [3] Coleman, DS, Gray, W & Glazner, AF (2004) Geology, 32:433-436; [4] Kistler, RW, Chappell, BW, Peck, DL & Bateman, PC (1986) Contrib Min Pet, 94:205-220;

Burgess, S. D.; Miller, J. S.; Matzel, J. P.

2006-12-01

123

Fault zone fabric and fault weakness.  

PubMed

Geological and geophysical evidence suggests that some crustal faults are weak compared to laboratory measurements of frictional strength. Explanations for fault weakness include the presence of weak minerals, high fluid pressures within the fault core and dynamic processes such as normal stress reduction, acoustic fluidization or extreme weakening at high slip velocity. Dynamic weakening mechanisms can explain some observations; however, creep and aseismic slip are thought to occur on weak faults, and quasi-static weakening mechanisms are required to initiate frictional slip on mis-oriented faults, at high angles to the tectonic stress field. Moreover, the maintenance of high fluid pressures requires specialized conditions and weak mineral phases are not present in sufficient abundance to satisfy weak fault models, so weak faults remain largely unexplained. Here we provide laboratory evidence for a brittle, frictional weakening mechanism based on common fault zone fabrics. We report on the frictional strength of intact fault rocks sheared in their in situ geometry. Samples with well-developed foliation are extremely weak compared to their powdered equivalents. Micro- and nano-structural studies show that frictional sliding occurs along very fine-grained foliations composed of phyllosilicates (talc and smectite). When the same rocks are powdered, frictional strength is high, consistent with cataclastic processes. Our data show that fault weakness can occur in cases where weak mineral phases constitute only a small percentage of the total fault rock and that low friction results from slip on a network of weak phyllosilicate-rich surfaces that define the rock fabric. The widespread documentation of foliated fault rocks along mature faults in different tectonic settings and from many different protoliths suggests that this mechanism could be a viable explanation for fault weakening in the brittle crust. PMID:20016599

Collettini, Cristiano; Niemeijer, André; Viti, Cecilia; Marone, Chris

2009-12-17

124

Fault analysis based on fault reporting in JSP software development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fault analysis procedure is proposed for software development using JSP (Jackson structured programming). In the procedure, it is assumed that developers submit a fault report, which includes information (such as fault type, cause of fault and product) on actual fault correction activities. The procedure can identify the step in the JSP process at which fault might be introduced. Fault

Yukio MOHRI; T. Kikuno

1991-01-01

125

Rapid Forearc Basin Subsidence and Bordering Splay Fault Systems may identify Nucleation Areas of High-Magnitude Earthquakes and Tsunamis—The Example of the Atka forearc basin sector of the Aleutian Subduction Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

INTRODUCTION: The Aleutian subduction zone (SZ) is one of Earth's most seismically and volcanically active convergent margins. The sweep of this SZ across the northern Pacific rim poses a great tsunami threat to the coastal communities of the north Pacific rim, the Hawaiian Islands, and island communities to the south. The setting of especially dangerous segments, for example the Atka forearc basin sector off the Aleutian Islands, appears to be linked to the subducting geometry, relief, and sediment cover of the underthrusting Pacific plate. OBSERVATIONS: During the past 53 years three high-magnitude (Mw 7.9, 8.0, and 8.7) megathrust earthquakes nucleated in the vicinity of the deep water, bathymetrically prominent Atka forearc basin of the Aleutian Ridge. Atka Basin is the deepest (3-5 km) sector of the ~1500-km-long forearc basin of the Aleutian Terrace. The sector is obliquely underrun toward the west by the subducting Pacific plate. During each of the megathrust events the highest slip (moment release) occurred beneath the axial area of the Aleutian forearc basin, with two of the events located beneath Atka Basin. Both ruptures launched destructive trans-Pacific tsunamis. Offshore dredging and DSDP drilling establish that Atka Basin is a young, rapidly subsiding structural depression filled with 2-3 km of latest Miocene and younger deposits. The axis of deposition has migrated arcward (north) and westward with time. To the south, the basin is fronted by Hawley Ridge, an outer forearc antiformal high. The ridge is bordered along its trenchward side by a right-lateral shear zone and a more seaward splay fault system that thrusts arc-framework rock southward over a frontal prism of accreted trench deposits. GPS studies document that the subduction zone is effectively locked beneath the deepening Atka Basin and rising Hawley Ridge, but effectively unlocked to the east where the forearc basin of the Aleutian Terrace is structurally inverting and large megathrust earthquakes have not been recorded. These adjacent sectors of the Aleutian forearc basin are separated by the underthrusting Amlia Fracture Zone, which is migrating westward with the obliquely underthrusting Pacific plate. West of the Amlia FZ (beneath Atka Basin) the underthrusting plate is younger (~15 myr), dips less steeply, and is bathymetrically rougher than the Pacific plate underrunning the low-seismicity forearc east of the subducting FZ. CONJECTURE: Most likely, the rapid deepening of Atka Basin is an expression of crustal thinning caused by an enhanced rate of basal subduction erosion linked to low-angle underthrusting of the Pacific plate. The lateral rupture propagation necessary to generate great earthquakes is facilitated by the insertion of a thick (1.5-2.0 km), continuous section of axial trench sediment into the subduction channel. It can be conjectured that the presence of a young, actively subsiding forearc basin bordered by a splay fault system and underthrust by a sediment-charged subduction channel may identify where high magnitude earthquakes repeatedly nucleate and potentially launch destructive tsunamis.

Scholl, David W.; Ryan, Holly; Keranen, Katie M.; Wells, Ray E.; Kirby, Stephen H.; von Huene, Roland

2010-05-01

126

Behavioral Fault Simulation in VHDL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents two tools which facilitate the fault simulation of behavioral models described using VHDL. The first tool is the Behavioral Fault Mapper (BFM). The BFM algorithm accepts a fault-free VHDL model and a fault list of N faults from which it produces N faulty models. The process of mapping the faults in the fault list onto copies of

P. C. Ward; James R. Armstrong

1990-01-01

127

Water assessment reports on Rio Blanco Oil Shale Demonstration Project and Cathedral Bluffs Shale Oil Demonstration Project, White River Basin - Colorado. Appendices C and D  

SciTech Connect

This report includes: Appendices C, simulation model description and sample outputs; and appendices D, advisory committee meeting minutes. This data pertains to water supply assessments made for the Rio Blanco oil shale demonstration project, and Cathedral Bluffs shale oil demonstration project which are located in Utah and Colorado.

Not Available

1981-09-01

128

Fault tree handbook  

SciTech Connect

This handbook describes a methodology for reliability analysis of complex systems such as those which comprise the engineered safety features of nuclear power generating stations. After an initial overview of the available system analysis approaches, the handbook focuses on a description of the deductive method known as fault tree analysis. The following aspects of fault tree analysis are covered: basic concepts for fault tree analysis; basic elements of a fault tree; fault tree construction; probability, statistics, and Boolean algebra for the fault tree analyst; qualitative and quantitative fault tree evaluation techniques; and computer codes for fault tree evaluation. Also discussed are several example problems illustrating the basic concepts of fault tree construction and evaluation.

Haasl, D.F.; Roberts, N.H.; Vesely, W.E.; Goldberg, F.F.

1981-01-01

129

Juxtaposition and seal diagrams to help analyze fault seals in hydrocarbon reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

A new set of diagrams aids in analyzing fault juxtaposition and sealing. The diagrams are based on the interaction of rock lithology and the fault displacement (throw) magnitude to control juxtapositions and fault seal types. The advantages of the diagrams are that they allow an evaluation of a fault seal without the need for detailed three-dimensional mapping of stratigraphic horizons and fault planes, and can be used to contour permeability, sealing capacity, and transmissibility of fault zones. These diagrams may be used to rapidly identify the critical fault throw and juxtapositions that require mapping to identify compartments in hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Knipe, R.J. [The University, Leeds (United Kingdom)

1997-02-01

130

Active faulting near Taupo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The only confirmed fault displacement in New Zealand since that accompanying the 1968 Inangahua Earthquake was observed on June 23 and 24, 1983, 4 km west of Taupo in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, central North Island (Figure 1). Normal displacement occurred on the late Quaternary Kaiapo fault, previously active in 1922, when almost 1 m of normal fault displacement was observed [Grange, 1932], The Kaiapo Fault is one of a number of north-east trending normal faults that constitute the active Taupo Fault Belt [Grindley, 1961], Current extension rates up to 7 mm per year have been calculated from geodetic observations [Sissons, 1979] across the northern part of the Taupo Volcanic Zone.

Hull, Alan G.; Grindley, George W.

131

The Puzzling Harmonic Behavior of the Cathedral QPO in XTE J1859+226  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a spectral and temporal analysis of the Cathedral quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) detected in the power density spectra of the black hole binary and microquasar XTE J1859+226, obtained using Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer. This type of QPO has been seen on two occasions (MJDs 51574.43 and 51575.43) during the 1998 outburst of this source. It manifests as two peaks with similar amplitudes (~3% and ~5% rms) and harmonically related centroid frequencies (~3 and ~6 Hz). The temporal properties of these two peaks are different: the amplitude of the ~3-Hz feature varies, in anticorrelation with the count rate, by ~50%. The ~6-Hz feature, on the other hand, shows a slight increase (~7%) in its amplitude with the count rate. The rms spectra of the two peaks are also quite different. The ~3-Hz feature is softer than the other one, and, although its rms amplitude increases with energy, it shows a cutoff at an energy of ~6 keV. The rms of the ~6-Hz feature increases with energies up to at least 20 keV. We also study the bicoherence b 2(?, ?) of both observations. At the diagonal position of the peaks, the values b 2(~ 3, ~ 3) and b 2(~ 6, ~ 6) are rather high and similar to those reported for type C QPOs of GRS 1915+105. In comparison with the latter source, the bicoherence of the ~3-Hz feature is higher than that of the other peak, which may indicate that the ~3-Hz feature is the fundamental QPO and the other is its first harmonic. The value of b 2(~ 3, ~ 6) is, however, very low and therefore indicates a behavior different from that seen in the type C QPO of GRS 1915+105. We discuss the implications of these differences in the context of a harmonic relationship between the peaks, and suggest that, rather than pure harmonics, we may see different modes of the same underlying phenomenon competing to produce QPOs at different frequencies.

Rodriguez, J.; Varnière, P.

2011-07-01

132

Localization and characterization of an active fault in an urbanized area in central Guatemala by means of geoelectrical imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Polochic and Motagua faults define the active plate boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates in central Guatemala. A splay of the Polochic Fault traverses the rapidly growing city of San Miguel Uspantán that is periodically affected by destructive earthquakes. This fault splay was located using a 2D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) survey that also characterized the fault

Barbara Suski; Gilles Brocard; Christine Authemayou; Beatriz Consenza Muralles; Christian Teyssier; Klaus Holliger

2010-01-01

133

Gas permeability evolution of cataclasite and fault gouge in triaxial compression and implications for changes in fault-zone permeability structure through the earthquake cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the results of permeability measurements of fault gouge and tonalitic cataclasite from the fault zone of the Median Tectonic Line, Ohshika, central Japan, carried out during triaxial compression tests. The experiments revealed marked effects of deformation on the permeability of the specimens. Permeability of fault gouge decreases rapidly by about two orders of magnitude during initial loading and

Shin-ichi Uehara; Toshihiko Shimamoto

2004-01-01

134

Bookshelf faulting in Nicaragua  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oblique subduction at a high rate of convergence along much of the Middle America Trench results in northwest-directed trench-parallel block motion. Accommodation of this motion along northwest-striking dextral strike-slip faults has been postulated; however, in Nicaragua such faults are not well developed. We suggest instead that this motion is accommodated by bookshelf faulting that includes northeast-striking left-lateral faults. We present

Peter C. La Femina; T. H. Dixon; W. Strauch

2002-01-01

135

Mechanics of discontinuous faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault traces consist of numerous discrete segments, commonly arranged as echelon arrays. In some cases, discontinuities influence the distribution of slip and seismicity along faults. To analyze fault segments, we derive a two-dimensional solution for any number of nonintersecting cracks arbitrarily located in a homogeneous elastic material. The solution includes the elastic interaction between cracks. Crack surfaces are assumed to

P. Segall; D. D. Pollard

1980-01-01

136

Active Faulting in Idaho  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to faulting from the Quaternary Period and the Holocene Epoch in the State of Idaho. They will examine a map showing the distribution of these faults and answer questions concerning groundwater circulation and earthquake potential, and determine which geologic province has the most neotectonically active faults (15,000 years or younger).

137

Diagnosis of interconnect faults in cluster-based FPGA architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault diagnosis has particular importance in the context of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) because faults can be avoided by reconfiguration at almost no real cost. Cluster-based FPGA architectures, in which several logic blocks are grouped together into a coarse-grained logic block, are rapidly becoming the architecture of choice for major FPGA manufacturers. The high density interconnect found within clusters

Ian G. Harris; Russell Tessier

2000-01-01

138

Diagnosis of Interconnect Faults in Cluster-Based FPGA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault diagnosis has particular importance in the context of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) because faults can be avoided by reconfiguration at almost no real cost. Cluster-based FPGA architectures, in which several logic blocks are grouped together into a coarse-grained logic block, are rapidly becoming the architecture of choice for major FPGA manufacturers. The high density interconnect found within clusters

Ian Harris; Russell Tessier

139

Cathedral Bluffs: pushing to the outer limits for 94,000 bbl/d of shale oil  

SciTech Connect

The modified in situ (MIS) technology to be used by Cathedral Bluffs Shale Oil Co. is an extractive design, demanding some of the most imaginative engineering and planning yet devised for an underground project. The MIS system involves conventional LHD or conveyor-assisted LHD mining of a 15 to 25% void volume on 3 levels of a high rise retort (162 x 162 x 270 ft) to create voids in the oil shale beds. The remaining oil shale is rubblized by blasting into the voids. The rubble in the MIS retort is ignited using fuel and air injected through boreholes that tap the top of the retort. Hot inert gas burners also are being examined. The development of the project, R6 blast design, and rubblizing of retorts 7 and 8 are described. A schematic of the Logan Wash mine and an idealized sketch of retort 6 blasting sequence are included.

Not Available

1981-06-01

140

Cultural Heritage Documentation by Combining Near-Range Photogrammetry and Terrestrial Laser Scanning: St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A powerful sensor system providing both high-resolution textures and highly accurate 3D geometry information is created by combining near-range photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning. As both sensors are integrated closely into a single system, the textures can be applied to the 3D data automatically and with high precision. These sensors have proven as extremely valuable tools in applications of cultural heritage, architecture, and archaeology. We demonstrate the capabilities of the RIEGL LMS-Z420i system with an integrated high-resolution camera by presenting the work flow of data acquisition and postprocessing performed for modeling St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna, Austria, with an emphasis on the construction of CAD models.

Zehetner, F.; Studnicka, N.

141

Using functional fault simulation and the difference fault model to estimate implementation fault coverage  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach to estimate the fault coverage of the implementation of a VLSI design obtained by fault simulation at the function level is presented. The proposed methodology begins by defining a fault model for the functional level, the difference fault model (DFM), which reflects all of the faults in the implementation level. Functional fault detection is recorded by performing a

Gabriel M. Silberman; Ilan Y. Spillinger

1990-01-01

142

Faults of Southern California  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive map displays faults for five regions in Southern California. Clicking on a region links to an enlarged relief map of the area, with local faults highlighted in colors. Users can click on individual faults to access pages with more detailed information, such as type, length, nearest communities, and a written description. In all of the maps, the segment of the San Andreas fault that is visible is highlighted in red, and scales for distances and elevations are provided. There is also a link to an alphabetical listing of faults by name.

143

Fault model development for fault tolerant VLSI design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fault models provide systematic and precise representations of physical defects in microcircuits in a form suitable for simulation and test generation. The current difficulty in testing VLSI circuits can be attributed to the tremendous increase in design complexity and the inappropriateness of traditional stuck-at fault models. This report develops fault models for three different types of common defects that are not accurately represented by the stuck-at fault model. The faults examined in this report are: bridging faults, transistor stuck-open faults, and transient faults caused by alpha particle radiation. A generalized fault model could not be developed for the three fault types. However, microcircuit behavior and fault detection strategies are described for the bridging, transistor stuck-open, and transient (alpha particle strike) faults. The results of this study can be applied to the simulation and analysis of faults in fault tolerant VLSI circuits.

Hartmann, C. R.; Lala, P. K.; Ali, A. M.; Visweswaran, G. S.; Ganguly, S.

1988-05-01

144

Diagnosing CMOS bridging faults with stuck-at fault dictionaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that the traditional approach to diagnosing stuck-at faults with fault dictionaries generated for stuck-at faults is not appropriate for diagnosing CMOS bridging faults. A novel technique for using stuck-at-fault dictionaries to diagnose bridging faults is described. Teradyne's LASAR was used to simulate bridging and stuck-at faults in a number of combinational circuits, including parity trees, multiplexers, and

Steven D. Millman; Edward J. McCluskey; John M. Acken

1990-01-01

145

Rough faults, distributed weakening, and off-fault deformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report systematic spatial variations in fault rocks along nonplanar strike-slip faults cross-cutting the Lake Edison Granodiorite, Sierra Nevada, California (Sierran wavy fault) and Lobbia outcrops of the Adamello Batholith in the Italian Alps (Lobbia wavy fault). In the case of the Sierran fault, pseudotachylyte formed at contractional fault bends, where it is found as thin (1–2 mm) fault-parallel veins.

W. Ashley Griffith; Stefan Nielsen; Giulio Di Toro; Steven A. F. Smith

2010-01-01

146

Experimental study on the hierarchical rupture process of faults having heterogeneous asperities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquake faulting is characterized by nonuniform distributions of rupture velocity, stress drop as well as co-seismic slip, indicating nonuniform distribution of local strength over the earthquake fault. Strong seismic wave is generally radiated from where the rupture velocity or stress drop changes rapidly. Many after shocks, especially strong ones, may take place at the unbroken barriers on the earthquake fault.

X. Lei; K. Kusunose; T. Satoh; O. Nishizawa

2001-01-01

147

Isolability of faults in sensor fault diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major concern with fault detection and isolation (FDI) methods is their robustness with respect to noise and modeling uncertainties. With this in mind, several approaches have been proposed to minimize the vulnerability of FDI methods to these uncertainties. But, apart from the algorithm used, there is a theoretical limit on the minimum effect of noise on detectability and isolability. This limit has been quantified in this paper for the problem of sensor fault diagnosis based on direct redundancies. In this study, first a geometric approach to sensor fault detection is proposed. The sensor fault is isolated based on the direction of residuals found from a residual generator. This residual generator can be constructed from an input-output or a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based model. The simplicity of this technique, compared to the existing methods of sensor fault diagnosis, allows for more rational formulation of the isolability concepts in linear systems. Using this residual generator and the assumption of Gaussian noise, the effect of noise on isolability is studied, and the minimum magnitude of isolable fault in each sensor is found based on the distribution of noise in the measurement system. Finally, some numerical examples are presented to clarify this approach.

Sharifi, Reza; Langari, Reza

2011-10-01

148

Fuzzy fault diagnostic system based on fault tree analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for process fault diagnosis using information from fault tree analysis and uncertainty\\/imprecision of data. Fault tree analysis, which has been used as a method of system reliability\\/safety analysis, provides a procedure for identifying failures within a process. A fuzzy fault diagnostic system is constructed which uses the fuzzy fault tree analysis to represent a knowledge of

Zong-Xiao Yang; Kazuhiko SUZUKI; Yukiyasu SHIMADA; Hayatoshi SAYAMA

1995-01-01

149

On the Emulation of Software Faults by Software Fault Injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experimental study on the emulation of software faults by fault injection. In a first experiment, a set of real software faults has been compared with faults injected by a SWIFI tool (Xception) to evaluate the accuracy of the injected faults. Results revealed the limitations of Xception (and other SWIFI tools) in the emulation of different classes

Henrique Madeira; Diamantino Costa; Marco Vieira

2000-01-01

150

An early fault diagnosis agreement under hybrid fault model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability is an important research topic in distributed systems. To achieve suitable reliability, the fault tolerance of distributed systems must be studied. One of the most important issues surrounding fault tolerance is the Byzantine Agreement (BA) problem. The goal of BA is to achieve a common agreement among fault-free processors even where faults persist. Likewise, fault diagnosis agreement (FDA) the

Mao-lun Chiang; Shu-ching Wang; Lin-yu Tseng

2009-01-01

151

Hydrogen Gas Emissions from Active Faults and Identification of Flow Pathway in a Fault Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been observed that hydrogen gas emissions from the subsurface along active faults exceed atmospheric concentrations (e.g. Sugisaki et. al., 1983). Experimental studies have shown that hydrogen gas is generated in a radical reaction of water with fractured silicate minerals due to rock fracturing caused by fault movement (e.g. Kita et al., 1982). Based on such research, we are studying an investigation method for an assessment of fault activity using hydrogen gas emissions from fracture zones. To start, we have devised portable equipment for rapid and simple in situ measurement of hydrogen gas emissions (Shimada et al., 2008). The key component of this equipment is a commercially available and compact hydrogen gas sensor with an integral data logger operable at atmospheric pressure. In the field, we have drilled shallow boreholes into incohesive fault rocks to depths ranging from 15 to 45 cm using a hand-operated drill with a 9mm drill-bit. Then, we have measured the hydrogen gas concentrations in emissions from active faults such as: the western part of the Atotsugawa fault zone, the Atera fault zone and the Neodani fault in central Japan; the Yamasaki fault zone in southwest Japan; and the Yamagata fault zone in northeast Japan. In addition, we have investigated the hydrogen gas concentrations in emissions from other major geological features such as tectonic lines: the Butsuzo Tectonic Line in the eastern Kii Peninsula and the Atokura Nappe in the Northeastern Kanto Mountains. As a result of the investigations, hydrogen gas concentration in emissions from the active faults was measured to be in the approximate range from 6,000 ppm to 26,000 ppm in two to three hours after drilling. A tendency for high concentrations of hydrogen gas in active faults was recognized, in contrast with low concentrations in emissions from tectonic lines that were observed to be in the range from 730 ppm to 2,000 ppm. It is inferred that the hydrogen gas migrates to ground surface along fractures associated with groundwater flow. Therefore, it will be possible to estimate the groundwater flow pathways from deep underground in fracture zones around a fault by measurement of the hydrogen gas. From this standpoint, we have obtained multipoint hydrogen gas measurements across an exposed fault zone in the Atera Fault System, an active, major strike-slip fault in Central Japan and provide a continuous cross-section from fault core to damage zone. The distribution of hydrogen gas emissions, corresponding to the microscopic structure of fracture zones, have shown that large volumes of hydrogen gas emission occur where open micro-fractures are dominant and emissions were not observed in the central part of faults with abundant clay minerals. Using these simple methods, we have obtained information on the qualitative permeability of fracture zones. A rapid evaluation of the spatial heterogeneity of hydrogen gas emissions along the faults probably increase knowledge of hydrogeological structure around faults. Reference Sugisaki et al., 1983, Jour. Geol. 91, 239-258. Kita et al., 1982, JGR 87, 10789-10795. Shimada et al., 2008, Resource Geol. 58, 196-202.

Ishimaru, T.; Niwa, M.; Kurosawa, H.; Shimada, K.

2010-12-01

152

The application of fatty acid methyl ester analysis (FAME) for the identification of heterotrophic bacteria present in decaying Lede-stone of the St. Bavo Cathedral in Ghent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heterotrophic bacterial community present in decaying Lede-sandstone of the Cathedral of Ghent (Belgium) was studied. Two-hundred thirty-two heterotrophic bacterial strains were isolated of which 162 were studied by fatty acid methyl ester analysis (FAME). One-hundred forty isolates were Gram-positive; 101 strains belong to the genus Micrococcus; nine strains were identified as M. kristinae. One large cluster of 83 strains

P. Descheemaeker; J. Swings

1995-01-01

153

Predicting Faults from Cached History  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the version history of 7 software sys- tems to predict the most fault prone entities and files. The basic assumption is that faults do not occur in isolation, but rather in bursts of several related faults. Therefore, we cache locations that are likely to have faults: starting from the location of a known (fixed) fault, we cache the

Sunghun Kim; Thomas Zimmermann; E. James Whitehead Jr.; Andreas Zeller

2007-01-01

154

DELAY FAULT MODELS AND METRICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The delay fault testing has become an important part of the overall test development process. But delay fault testing is not so mature as stuck-at fault testing. The paper surveys various delay fault models, their advantages and limitations. The current trends in test pattern generation for delay faults are analyzed, too. The test pattern gene- ration is directly related to

Vacius Jusas

155

Fail-Stutter Fault Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional fault models present system designers with two ex- tremes: the Byzantine fault model, which is general and there- fore difficult to apply, and the fail-stop fault model, which is easier to employ but does not accurately capture modern device behav- ior. To address this gap, we introduce the concept of fail-stutter fault tolerance, a realistic and yet tractable fault

Remzi H. Arpaci-dusseau; Andrea C. Arpaci-dusseau

2001-01-01

156

It's Not Your Fault  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students will learn about tectonic plate movement. They will discover that we can measure the relative motions of the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate along the San Andreas Fault. Students will be able to compare and contrast movements on either side of the San Andreas Fault, calculate the amount of movement of a tectonic plate over a period of time, and describe the processes involved in the occurrence of earthquakes along the fault.

157

Frictional constraints on crustal faulting  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We consider how variations in fault frictional properties affect the phenomenology of earthquake faulting. In particular, we propose that lateral variations in fault friction produce the marked heterogeneity of slip observed in large earthquakes. We model these variations using a rate- and state-dependent friction law, where we differentiate velocity-weakening behavior into two fields: the strong seismic field is very velocity weakening and the weak seismic field is slightly velocity weakening. Similarly, we differentiate velocity-strengthening behavior into two fields: the compliant field is slightly velocity strengthening and the viscous field is very velocity strengthening. The strong seismic field comprises the seismic slip concentrations, or asperities. The two "intermediate" fields, weak seismic and compliant, have frictional velocity dependences that are close to velocity neutral: these fields modulate both the tectonic loading and the dynamic rupture process. During the interseismic period, the weak seismic and compliant regions slip aseismically, while the strong seismic regions remain locked, evolving into stress concentrations that fail only in main shocks. The weak seismic areas exhibit most of the interseismic activity and aftershocks but can also creep seismically. This "mixed" frictional behavior can be obtained from a sufficiently heterogenous distribution of the critical slip distance. The model also provides a mechanism for rupture arrest: dynamic rupture fronts decelerate as they penetrate into unloaded complaint or weak seismic areas, producing broad areas of accelerated afterslip. Aftershocks occur on both the weak seismic and compliant areas around a fault, but most of the stress is diffused through aseismic slip. Rapid afterslip on these peripheral areas can also produce aftershocks within the main shock rupture area by reloading weak fault areas that slipped in the main shock and then healed. We test this frictional model by comparing the seismicity and the coseismic slip for the 1966 Parkfield, 1979 Coyote Lake, and 1984 Morgan Hill earthquakes. The interevent seismicity and aftershocks appear to occur on fault areas outside the regions of significant slip: these regions are interpreted as either weak seismic or compliant, depending on whether or not they manifest interevent seismicity.

Boatwright, J.; Cocco, M.

1996-01-01

158

Frictional constraints on crustal faulting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider how variations in fault frictional properties affect the phenomenology of earthquake faulting. In particular, we propose that lateral variations in fault friction produce the marked heterogeneity of slip observed in large earthquakes. We model these variations using a rate- and state-dependent friction law, where we differentiate velocity-weakening behavior into two fields: the strong seismic field is very velocity weakening and the weak seismic field is slightly velocity weakening. Similarly, we differentiate velocity-strengthening behavior into two fields: the compliant field is slightly velocity strengthening and the viscous field is very velocity strengthening. The strong seismic field comprises the seismic slip concentrations, or asperities. The two "intermediate" fields, weak seismic and compliant, have frictional velocity dependences that are close to velocity neutral: these fields modulate both the tectonic loading and the dynamic rupture process. During the interseismic period, the weak seismic and compliant regions slip aseismically, while the strong seismic regions remain locked, evolving into stress concentrations that fail only in main shocks. The weak seismic areas exhibit most of the interseismic activity and aftershocks but can also creep seismically. This "mixed" frictional behavior can be obtained from a sufficiently heterogeneous distribution of the critical slip distance. The model also provides a mechanism for rupture arrest: dynamic rupture fronts decelerate as they penetrate into unloaded complaint or weak seismic areas, producing broad areas of accelerated afterslip. Aftershocks occur on both the weak seismic and compliant areas around a fault, but most of the stress is diffused through aseismic slip. Rapid afterslip on these peripheral areas can also produce aftershocks within the main shock rupture area by reloading weak fault areas that slipped in the main shock and then healed. We test this frictional model by comparing the seismicity and the coseismic slip for the 1966 Parkfield, 1979 Coyote Lake, and 1984 Morgan Hill earthquakes. The interevent seismicity and aftershocks appear to occur on fault areas outside the regions of significant slip: these regions are interpreted as either weak seismic or compliant, depending on whether or not they manifest interevent seismicity.

Boatwright, John; Cocco, Massimo

1996-06-01

159

Fault tolerant EHA architectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An evaluation is conducted of fault-tolerant electrohydrostatic actuator (EHA) architectures applicable to prospective military aircraft, defining fault tolerances in terms of mission-success probability and safety reliability. The functional-level failure modes of an EHA and its interfacing equipment are used to analyze levels of fault coverage and redundancy required by MIL-F-9490 and MIL-STD 882B. A summary is presented of estimates of fault tolerance, performance, and weight of candidate EHA architectures, to allow selection of an architecture suited for a specific application.

Sadeghi, Tom; Lyons, Arthur

1992-03-01

160

Fault detection and diagnosis of photovoltaic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid growth of the solar industry over the past several years has expanded the significance of photovoltaic (PV) systems. One of the primary aims of research in building-integrated PV systems is to improve the performance of the system's efficiency, availability, and reliability. Although much work has been done on technological design to increase a photovoltaic module's efficiency, there is little research so far on fault diagnosis for PV systems. Faults in a PV system, if not detected, may not only reduce power generation, but also threaten the availability and reliability, effectively the "security" of the whole system. In this paper, first a circuit-based simulation baseline model of a PV system with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is developed using MATLAB software. MATLAB is one of the most popular tools for integrating computation, visualization and programming in an easy-to-use modeling environment. Second, data collection of a PV system at variable surface temperatures and insolation levels under normal operation is acquired. The developed simulation model of PV system is then calibrated and improved by comparing modeled I-V and P-V characteristics with measured I--V and P--V characteristics to make sure the simulated curves are close to those measured values from the experiments. Finally, based on the circuit-based simulation model, a PV model of various types of faults will be developed by changing conditions or inputs in the MATLAB model, and the I--V and P--V characteristic curves, and the time-dependent voltage and current characteristics of the fault modalities will be characterized for each type of fault. These will be developed as benchmark I-V or P-V, or prototype transient curves. If a fault occurs in a PV system, polling and comparing actual measured I--V and P--V characteristic curves with both normal operational curves and these baseline fault curves will aid in fault diagnosis.

Wu, Xing

161

High and Low Temperature Oceanic Detachment Faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most important discoveries in Plate Tectonics in the last ten years is a "detachment mode" of seafloor spreading. Up to 50% of the Atlantic seafloor has formed by a combination of magmatism and slip on long-lived, convex-up detachment faults, forming oceanic core complexes (OCC). Two end-member types of OCC can be defined: The Atlantis Bank on the Southwest Indian Ridge is a high temperature OCC sampled by ODP Hole 735b. Deformation was dominated by crystal-plastic flow both above and below the solidus at 800-950 °C, over a period of around 200 ka. In contrast, the Atlantis Massif at 30 °N in the Atlantic, sampled by IODP Hole 1309D, is a low temperature OCC in which crystal plastic deformation of gabbro is very rare and greenschist facies deformation was localised onto talc-tremolite-chlorite schists in serpentinite, and breccia zones in gabbro and diabase. The upper 100m of Hole 1309D contains about 43% diabase intruded into hydrated fault breccias. This detachment fault zone can be interpreted as a dyke-gabbro transition, which was originally (before flexural unroofing) a lateral boundary between active hydrothermal circulation in the fault zone and hangingwall, and intrusion of gabbroic magma in the footwall. Thus a major difference between high and low temperature detachment faults may be cooling of the latter by active hydrothermal circulation. 2-D thermal modelling suggests that if a detachment fault is formed in a magmatically robust segment of a slow spreading ridge, high temperature mylonites can be formed for 1-2 ka provided there is no significant hydrothermal cooling of the fault zone. In contrast, if the fault zone is held at temperatures of 400 °C by fluid circulation, cooling of the upper 1 km of the fault footwall occurs far too rapidly for extensive mylonites to form. Our models are consistent with published cooling rate data from geospeedometry and isotopic closure temperatures. The control on this process is likely a combination of geometry and timing of deformation; if the fault zone forms within a large semi-molten gabbro body it will be isolated from hydrothermal fluid, whereas if a series of small melt bodies collect in the footwall of a permeable detachment fault, they will cool rapidly. A corollary of our model is that at slow spreading ridges the depth of melt lenses and hence the dyke gabbro transition is determined not by spreading rate (as has been suggested at fast spreading ridges) but by the effective depth of high permeability and hence hydrothermal circulation. In actively faulting environments permeability can exist to greater depths, and magma can only easily rise above these depths as dykes or volcanics. The type of detachment fault formed may depend on whether detachment faults nucleate in a robust magmatic system where they can root into a melt zone, or if magma collects in the footwall of an active fault.

Titarenko, Sofya; McCaig, Andrew

2013-04-01

162

Fault tree handbook  

Microsoft Academic Search

This handbook describes a methodology for reliability analysis of complex systems such as those which comprise the engineered safety features of nuclear power generating stations. After an initial overview of the available system analysis approaches, the handbook focuses on a description of the deductive method known as fault tree analysis. The following aspects of fault tree analysis are covered: basic

D. F. Haasl; N. H. Roberts; W. E. Vesely; F. F. Goldberg

1981-01-01

163

Fault rocks lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab is intended to give students some hands on experience looking at fault rocks with a suite of cataclasites and mylonites I have collected. The focus is on identifying key textural features in both hand sample and thin section and understanding how deformation within a fault zone varies with depth.

Singleton, John

164

Folds and Faults  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will learn how rock layers are folded and faulted and how to represent these structures in maps and cross sections. They will use playdough to represent layers of rock and make cuts in varying orientations to represent faults and other structures.

165

Quantifying Anderson's fault types  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anderson [1905] explained three basic types of faulting (normal, strike-slip, and reverse) in terms of the shape of the causative stress tensor and its orientation relative to the Earth's surface. Quantitative parameters can be defined which contain information about both shape and orientation [Célérier, 1995], thereby offering a way to distinguish fault-type domains on plots of regional stress fields and

Robert W. Simpson

1997-01-01

166

Denali Fault: Gillette Pass  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

View northward of mountain near Gillette Pass showing sackung features. Here the mountaintop moved downward like a keystone, producing an uphill-facing scarp. The main Denali fault trace is on the far side of the mountain and a small splay fault is out of view below the photo....

2008-12-15

167

Denali Fault: Susitna Glacier  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Helicopters and satellite phones were integral to the geologic field response. Here, Peter Haeussler is calling a seismologist to pass along the discovery of the Susitna Glacier thrust fault. View is to the north up the Susitna Glacier. The Denali fault trace lies in the background where the two lan...

2008-12-15

168

Testing for Design Faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing theories of testing focus on verification. Their strategy is to cover a specification or a program text to a certain degree in order to raise the confidence in the correctness of a system under test. We take a dierent approach in the sense that we present a theory of fault-based testing. Fault-based testing uses test data designed to demonstrate

Bernhard K. Aichernig; Jifeng He

2005-01-01

169

Structurally controlled fluid flow and diagenesis along the Moab fault, SE Utah: Organic-inorganic interactions and their effects on fault cementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydraulic properties of faults in clastic sedimentary sequences are traditionally considered a function of stratigraphic juxtaposition and fault rock composition. Diagenetic effects, in particular organic-inorganic interactions, and their spatial association with the fault architecture, are only rudimentarily explored. Here, we mapped the type and extent of diagenetic alteration along the Moab fault to assess the interrelationships among fault architecture, fault hydraulic properties, and fault rock diagenesis. The Moab fault, a normal fault with up to 1 km of throw and a small strike-slip component, is segmented along strike by branch points and relays. Fault branch points are associated with extensive carbonate cementation of faulted eolian Jurassic sandstone. Within the fault damage zone the abundance of concretions and veins and the diameter of concretions decrease with distance from the fault. Carbonate is spatially associated with bleaching of the reddish hematite-cemented sandstones. Pore and fracture-filling dead oil in bleached and carbonate cemented zones is indicative of bleaching due to reducing aqueous fluids in association with hydrocarbon migration along the fault. Fault-related cementation was potentially controlled by two processes: (1) rapid upward fluid flow along the fault and (2) microbially mediated degradation of hydrocarbons in contact with meteoric water. Evidence for rapid fluid flow is provided by clastic dikes associated with the fault. A drop in CO2 partial pressure during rapidly upward flowing fluid flow would favor carbonate precipitation. Evidence for carbonate precipitation due to hydrocarbon degradation is inferred through the close association of residual oil and calcite or malachite. Release of CO2 by the microbial degradation of oil in the presence of organic acids can increase alkalinity resulting in carbonate precipitation. The involvement of organic acids in fault cementation is suggested by feldspar dissolution and by trends in the stable isotopic composition of carbonate. The stable isotopic trends are interpreted to result from mixing of inorganic carbon derived from upward migrating brine with isotopically light organic carbon that formed by microbially mediated aerobic oxidation of hydrocarbons in contact with meteoric water. Carbonate cementation associated with oil degradation is consistent with the discontinuous globular distribution of cement along fractures in the fault damage zone. Once formed, this cement will impede fluid flow along initially preferred structurally controlled fault conduits. Yet, the discontinuous distribution of cement makes this process ineffective in forming a continuous hydraulic seal for flow across the fault.

Eichhubl, P.; Davatzes, N. C.; Aydin, A.

2002-12-01

170

Solar system fault detection  

DOEpatents

A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr.

1984-05-14

171

Rough faults, distributed weakening, and off-fault deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report systematic spatial variations in fault rocks along nonplanar strike-slip faults cross-cutting the Lake Edison Granodiorite, Sierra Nevada, California (Sierran wavy fault) and Lobbia outcrops of the Adamello Batholith in the Italian Alps (Lobbia wavy fault). In the case of the Sierran fault, pseudotachylyte formed at contractional fault bends, where it is found as thin (1-2 mm) fault-parallel veins. Epidote and chlorite developed in the same seismic context as the pseudotachylyte and are especially abundant in extensional fault bends. We argue that the presence of fluids, as illustrated by this example, does not necessarily preclude the development of frictional melt. In the case of the Lobbia fault, pseudotachylyte thickness varies along the length of the fault, but the pseudotachylyte veins thicken and pool in extensional bends. We conduct a quantitative analysis of fault roughness, microcrack distribution, stress, and friction along the Lobbia fault. Numerical modeling results show that opening in extensional bends and localized thermal weakening in contractional bends counteract resistance encountered by fault waviness, resulting in an overall weaker fault than suggested by the corresponding static friction coefficient. The models also predict static stress redistribution around bends in the faults which is consistent with distribution of microcracks, indicating significant elastic and inelastic strain energy is dissipated into the wall rocks due to nonplanar fault geometry. Together these observations suggest that damage and energy dissipation occurs along the entire nonplanar fault during slip, rather than being confined to the region close to the dynamically propagating crack tip.

Griffith, W. Ashley; Nielsen, Stefan; di Toro, Giulio; Smith, Steven A. F.

2010-08-01

172

Simulation and analysis of machinery fault signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Machinery condition monitoring is rapidly finding applications in all branches of industry. In particular, vibration monitoring is playing an increasingly important role as a tool for assisting with predictive and preventive maintenance and for improving operation efficiency of plant. Condition monitoring systems are used for the detection of incipient failure and the diagnosis of the nature of faults in operating machinery. However, for these systems to be reliable an improved understanding is required of the vibration signatures produced by machinery failure mechanisms and of methods for the interpretation of these signals. Many types of fault produce vibration signals which are impulsive in nature and which may be buried in background noise. A method is described for simulating this type of signal and modelling the various stages of incipient failure. Statistical and spectral analysis are used to describe the fault development. The influence of machinery frequency response characteristics on signal transmission from the damaged are to the measurement point are also considered.

White, M. F.

1984-03-01

173

Fault weakening and earthquake instability by powder lubrication.  

PubMed

Earthquake instability has long been attributed to fault weakening during accelerated slip, and a central question of earthquake physics is identifying the mechanisms that control this weakening. Even with much experimental effort, the weakening mechanisms have remained enigmatic. Here we present evidence for dynamic weakening of experimental faults that are sheared at velocities approaching earthquake slip rates. The experimental faults, which were made of room-dry, solid granite blocks, quickly wore to form a fine-grain rock powder known as gouge. At modest slip velocities of 10-60?mm?s(-1), this newly formed gouge organized itself into a thin deforming layer that reduced the fault's strength by a factor of 2-3. After slip, the gouge rapidly 'aged' and the fault regained its strength in a matter of hours to days. Therefore, only newly formed gouge can weaken the experimental faults. Dynamic gouge formation is expected to be a common and effective mechanism of earthquake instability in the brittle crust as (1) gouge always forms during fault slip; (2) fault-gouge behaves similarly to industrial powder lubricants; (3) dynamic gouge formation explains various significant earthquake properties; and (4) gouge lubricant can form for a wide range of fault configurations, compositions and temperatures. PMID:20865001

Reches, Ze'ev; Lockner, David A

2010-09-23

174

How clays weaken faults.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The weakness of upper crustal faults has been variably attributed to (i) low values of normal stress, (ii) elevated pore-fluid pressure, and (iii) low frictional strength. Direct observations on natural faults rocks provide new evidence for the role of frictional properties on fault strength, as illustrated by our recent work on samples from the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drillhole at Parkfield, California. Mudrock samples from fault zones at ~3066 m and ~3296 m measured depth show variably spaced and interconnected networks of displacement surfaces that consist of host rock particles that are abundantly coated by polished films with occasional striations. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction study of the surfaces reveal the occurrence of neocrystallized thin-film clay coatings containing illite-smectite (I-S) and chlorite-smectite (C-S) phases. X-ray texture goniometry shows that the crystallographic fabric of these faults rocks is characteristically low, in spite of an abundance of clay phases. 40Ar/39Ar dating of the illitic mix-layered coatings demonstrate recent crystallization and reveal the initiation of an "older" fault strand (~8 Ma) at 3066 m measured depth, and a "younger" fault strand (~4 Ma) at 3296 m measured depth. Today, the younger strand is the site of active creep behavior, reflecting continued activation of these clay-weakened zones. We propose that the majority of slow fault creep is controlled by the high density of thin (< 100nm thick) nano-coatings on fracture surfaces, which become sufficiently smectite-rich and interconnected at low angles to allow slip with minimal breakage of stronger matrix clasts. Displacements are accommodated by localized frictional slip along coated particle surfaces and hydrated smectitic phases, in combination with intracrystalline deformation of the clay lattice, associated with extensive mineral dissolution, mass transfer and continued growth of expandable layers. The localized concentration of smectite in both I-S and C-S minerals, which probably extends to greater depths (<10 km) is responsible for fault weakening, with cataclasis and fluid infiltration creating nucleation sites for neomineralization on displacement surfaces during continued faulting. The role of newly grown, ultrathin, hydrous clay coatings on displacement surfaces in the San Andreas Fault contrasts with previously proposed scenarios of reworked talc/serpentine phases as an explanation for weak faults and creep behavior at these depths.

van der Pluijm, Ben A.; Schleicher, Anja M.; Warr, Laurence N.

2010-05-01

175

System fault diagnostics using fault tree analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 50 years advances in technology have led to an increase in the complexity and sophistication of systems. More complex systems can be harder to maintain and the root cause of a fault more difficult to isolate. Down-time resulting from a system failure can be dangerous or expensive depending on the type of system. In aircraft systems the

E. E. Hurdle; L. M. Bartlett; J. D. Andrews

2008-01-01

176

Advanced information system for the investigation of the deterioration of the floor in the Cathedral of Siena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preservation and recovery of monuments are hotly debated topics in the field of cultural heritage conservation. In the early 1990's, our group in Siena started a study of the stone materials used in the architecture of Siena. The data were then processed by a GIS (Geographic Information System), which allows one to perform a series of interactive data analyses. An important example of the application of this methodology is the marble floor of the cathedral of Siena, consisting of 58 main scenes framed by decorations, for a total of 2500 m2. The analysis involved: a petrographic study of the main lithotypes used in the scenes and of the various types of deterioration detected; realization of a full digital photo-image and of digital models for the reliefs; identification of anomalies beneath the floor by means of geo-radar and geo-electric instruments; monitoring of thermohygrometric conditions; mapping of the 22 stone varieties employed, their state of preservation (33 types of deterioration) and the previous restoration interventions.

Giamello, Marco; Droghini, Francesca; Guasparri, Giovanni; Mugnaini, Sonia; Romussi, Walter; Sabatini, Giuseppe; Scala, Andrea

2003-10-01

177

Detection and elimination of cyanobacteria from frescoes: the case of the St. Brizio Chapel (Orvieto Cathedral, Italy).  

PubMed

A rosy discoloration partly masking the Luca Signorelli frescoes in St. Brizio Chapel (Orvieto Cathedral, Italy) for many years proved to be a biological alteration, so the present research focused on investigating biodeteriogens and selecting an appropriate biocide to treat them. Optical epifluorescence and electronic microscopic observations of the rosy powder revealed a prevalent autofluorescent coccoid form with a diameter bigger than 5 microm. Chlorophylls a and b were extracted, suggesting the presence of cyanobacteria, a thesis subsequently confirmed by flow cytometry. Cultural media were inoculated with the rosy powder, and microorganisms grew as a green patina in phototrophic conditions and as a rosy patina when organic compounds were added to the mineral medium. The rosy discoloration was most likely caused by the presence of phycoerythrin. The sequencing of the cyanobacteria-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-DGGE bands matched, with a similarity percentage >94, uncultured cyanobacteria, and the sequences were deposited in the GenBank under EU874241, EU874242, EU874243, EU874244, EU874245, EU874246, and EU874247. Finally, the efficiency of the two biocides Neo Desogen and Metatin 5810-101, both based on benzalkonium chloride, was evaluated using adenosine triphosphate measurements and PCR-based detection of cyanobacteria. Metatin, used in situ at 2% of the trade product, proved to be the better biocide, no cyanobacteria being detected after the Metatin treatment. PMID:18752018

Cappitelli, F; Abbruscato, P; Foladori, P; Zanardini, E; Ranalli, G; Principi, P; Villa, F; Polo, A; Sorlini, C

2008-08-28

178

The Cathedral of S. Giorgio in Ragusa Ibla (Italy): characterization of construction materials and their chromatic alteration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cathedral of St. Giorgio in Ragusa Ibla (Sicily) is one of the most important Baroque monuments of eastern Sicily. The restoration of the monument underway has put forward notable questions regarding the stone materials used and their state of degradation. The façade appears to be made mainly of a creamy white calcarenite, and of mortars and plasters. However, detailed analysis has highlighted a more complex use of the raw material. The mortar and plaster have a different composition in regards to their architectural use while the natural stone material is distinguished not only by a creamy-white calcarenite but also by a dark coloured bituminous calcarenite (pitch rock), which now appears whiter because of superficial chromatic alterations. This process was reproduced in the laboratory using an accelerated aging technique on samples of bituminous calcarenite, which allowed the cause of the alternation to be identified as photo-oxidation of the asphaltenes. Following this process of photo-oxidation, other forms of chromatic alterations affected the façade (brown orange-coloured patinas). FTIR, Scanning Electron Microscope and thin section microscopic observation allowed the characterization of also the products of this process to be carried out, highlighting the complex mechanism which the processes underwent.

Barone, Germana; La Russa, Mauro Francesco; Lo Giudice, Antonino; Mazzoleni, Paolo; Pezzino, Antonino

2008-08-01

179

Fault Scarp Offsets and Fault Population Analysis on Dione  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cassini images of Dione show several fault zones cutting through the moon's icy surface. We have measured the displacement and length of 271 faults, and estimated the strain occurring in 6 different fault zones. These measurements allow us to quantify the total amount of surface strain on Dione as well as constrain what processes might have caused these faults to

S. Tarlow; G. C. Collins

2010-01-01

180

A CMOS fault extractor for inductive fault analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inductive fault analysis (IFA) method is presented and a description is given of the CMOS fault extraction program FXT. The IFA philosophy is to consider the causes of faults (manufacturing defects) and then simulate these causes to find the faults that are likely to occur in a circuit. FXT automates IFA for a CMOS technology by generating a list

F. Joel Ferguson; John Paul Shen

1988-01-01

181

Seismic and aseismic deformation associated with the 1952 Kern County, California, earthquake and relationship to the quaternary history of the White Wolf fault  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis of geodetic, and seismic data from the White Wolf fault, California, indicates that the fault separates an area of late Quaternary and continuing rapid uplift in the Tehachapi Mountains and Transverse Ranges from even more rapid subsidence in the southern San Joaquin Valley. On July 21, 1952, rupture of the White Wolf fault produced the ML = 7.2 Kern

Ross S. Stein; Wayne Thatcher

1981-01-01

182

Active faults in the Kashmir Valley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The risk of earthquake is ever increasing in mountains along with rapid growth of population and urbanization. Over half a million people died in the last decade due to earthquakes. The devastations of Sumatra and Thai coasts in 2004, of Kashmir and New Orleans in 2005, of SW Java in 2006, of Sumatra again in 2007, W Sichuan and Myanmar in 2008, of Haiti in 2010, Japan, New Zealand and Turkey in 2011, brought enormous damage. The primary step in this regard could be to establish an earthquake risk model. The Kashmir valley is a NW-SE trending oval-shaped inter-mountain basin. A number of low magnitude earthquakes have recently been reported from the border and few inside the Kashmir valley. A number of active reverse faults were identified in this valley using remote sensing images and active geomorphic features. NE dipping reverse faults uplifted the young alluvial fan at the SW side. An active tectonic environment has been created by these reverse faults; sediment filled streams at NE, and uplifted quaternary deposits at SW. These resulted in an overall tilting of the entire Kashmir valley towards NE. Dating of displaced deposits is required to estimate the total convergence along these faults. Broadly, these faults are because of the convergence of Indian plate beneath the Eurasian plate.

Shah, A.

2012-04-01

183

3D seismic analysis of the structure and evolution of a salt-influenced normal fault zone: A test of competing fault growth models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we determine the structure and evolution of a normal fault system by applying qualitative and quantitative fault analysis techniques to a 3D seismic reflection dataset from the Suez Rift, Egypt. Our analysis indicates that the October Fault Zone is composed of two fault systems that are locally decoupled across a salt-bearing interval of Late Miocene (Messinian) age. The sub-salt system offsets pre-rift crystalline basement, and was active during the Late Oligocene-early Middle Miocene. It is composed of four, planar, NW–SE-striking segments that are hard- linked by N–S-striking segments, and up to 2 km of displacement occurs at top basement, suggesting that this fault system nucleated at or, more likely, below this structural level. The supra-salt system was active during the Pliocene-Holocene, and is composed of four, NW–SE-striking, listric fault segments, which are soft-linked by unbreached relay zones. Segments in the supra-salt fault system nucleated within Pliocene strata and have maximum throws of up to 482 m. Locally, the segments of the supra-salt fault system breach the Messinian salt to hard-link downwards with the underlying, sub-salt fault system, thus forming the upper part of a fault zone composed of: (i) a single, amalgamated fault system below the salt and (ii) a fault system composed of multiple soft-linked segments above the salt. Analysis of throw-distance (T-x) and throw-depth (T-z) plots for the supra-salt fault system, isopach maps of the associated growth strata and backstripping of intervening relay zones indicates that these faults rapidly established their lengths during the early stages of their slip history. The fault tips were then effectively 'pinned' and the faults accumulated displacement via predominantly downward propagation. We interpret that the October Fault Zone had the following evolutionary trend; (i) growth of the sub-salt fault system during the Oligocene-to-early Middle Miocene; (ii) cessation of activity on the sub-salt fault system during the Middle Miocene-to-?Early Pliocene; (iii) stretching of the sub- and supra-salt intervals during Pliocene regional extension, which resulted in mild reactivation of the sub-salt fault system and nucleation of the segmented supra-salt fault system, which at this time was geometrically decoupled from the sub-salt fault system; and (iv) Pliocene-to-Holocene growth of the supra-salt fault system by downwards vertical tip line propagation, which resulted in downward breaching of the salt and dip-linkage with the sub-salt fault system. The structure of the October Fault Zone and the rapid establishment of supra-salt fault lengths are compatible with the predictions of the coherent fault model, although we note that individual segments in the supra-salt array grew in accordance with the isolated fault model. Our study thereby indicates that both coherent and isolated fault models may be applicable to the growth of kilometre-scale, basin-bounding faults. Furthermore, we highlight the role that fault reactivation and dip-linkage in mechanically layered sequences can play in controlling the three-dimensional geometry of normal faults.

Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Rotevatn, Atle

2013-09-01

184

A Dynamic Fault Classification Scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce a novel and simple fault rate classification scheme in hardware. It is based on the well-known threshold scheme, counting ticks between faults. The innovation is to introduce variable thre- shold values for the classification of fault rates and a fixed threshold for permanent faults. In combination with field data obtained from 9728 processors of a

Bernhard Fechner

185

Slip rate of the Calico fault: Implications for geologic versus geodetic rate discrepancy in the Eastern California Shear Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term (105 years) fault slip rates test the scale of discrepancy between infrequent paleoseismicity and relatively rapid geodetic rates of dextral shear in the Eastern California Shear Zone (ECSZ). The Calico fault is one of a family of dextral faults that traverse the Mojave Desert portion of the ECSZ. Its slip rate is determined from matching and dating incised Pleistocene

Michael Oskin; Lesley Perg; Dylan Blumentritt; Sujoy Mukhopadhyay; Alexander Iriondo

2007-01-01

186

Faults and Folds Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation explores the forces and processes that deform rocks by creating folds, faults, and mountain ranges. You will learn how landmasses move, see the resulting deformation, and learn how this deformation relates to plate tectonics.

2002-01-01

187

Stacking faults in magnesium  

SciTech Connect

The energetics of various low-energy intrinsic, extrinsic, and twinlike stacking fault configurations in hexagonal-close-packed magnesium are determined from first-principles calculations. To zeroth-order, the ordering of the energies can be understood in terms of the number of fcc-like planes in the sequence of close-packed planes. However, such a simple model fails to quantitatively reproduce the calculated energies of the faults. We propose a model based on a local bond orientation scheme which reproduces the calculated results and is able to accurately predict the energies of arbitrary stacking sequences. This model has only two independent parameters, the energy of the intrinsic I{sub 1} stacking fault and the energy difference between hcp and fcc Mg. Both energy and entropy considerations suggest that isolated I{sub 1} stacking faults should predominate. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Chetty, N. [Department of Physics, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States)]|[Department of Physics, University of Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209 (South Africa); Weinert, M. [Department of Physics, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States)

1997-11-01

188

Drivers at Fault  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using log-linear modeling techniques, the probability of fault among collision-involved drivers in Hawaii is related to three categorical variables: age, sex, and vehicle type. Very young and very old drivers face up to three times the risk of being at fault compared to middle-aged drivers. Substantial gender effects also occur at both ends of the age distribution. Pickup truck drivers

Karl Kim; Lei Li; James Richardson; Lawrence Nitz

1998-01-01

189

Interpretation of footwall (lowside) fault traps sealed by reverse faults and convergent wrench faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lowside (footwall) closures sealed by reverse-slip faults and convergent strike-slip faults offer opportunities for significant field extension and new field prospects in basins deformed by contraction. The faults have reverse separation in cross section and transverse closure (in the direction of reservoir dip) is often provided by dip of beds away from the fault at structural upturns. The upturns are

T. P. Harding; A. C. Tuminas

1988-01-01

190

Rough Faults, Distributed Weakening, and Off-Fault Deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report systematic spatial variations of fault rocks along non-planar strike-slip faults cross-cutting the Lake Edison Granodiorite, Sierra Nevada, California (Sierran Wavy Fault) and the Lobbia outcrops of the Adamello Batholith in the Italian Alps (Lobbia Wavy Fault). In the case of the Sierran fault, pseudotachylyte formed at contractional fault bends, where it is found as thin (1-2 mm) fault-parallel veins. Epidote and chlorite developed in the same seismic context as the pseudotachylyte and are especially abundant in extensional fault bends. We argue that the presence of fluids, as illustrated by this example, does not necessarily preclude the development of frictional melt. In the case of the Lobbia fault, pseudotachylyte is present in variable thickness along the length of the fault, but the pseudotachylyte veins thicken and pool in extensional bends. The Lobbia fault surface is self-affine, and we conduct a quantitative analysis of microcrack distribution, stress, and friction along the fault. Numerical modeling results show that opening in extensional bends and localized thermal weakening in contractional bends counteract resistance encountered by fault waviness, resulting in an overall weaker fault than suggested by the corresponding static friction coefficient. Models also predict stress redistribution around bends in the faults which mirror microcrack distributions, indicating significant elastic and anelastic strain energy is dissipated into the wall rocks due to non-planar fault geometry. Together these observations suggest that, along non-planar faults, damage and energy dissipation occurs along the entire fault during slip, rather than being confined to the region close to the crack tip as predicted by classical fracture mechanics.

Griffith, W. A.; Nielsen, S. B.; di Toro, G.; Smith, S. A.; Niemeijer, A. R.

2009-12-01

191

New and retrofit insulation of single-member cathedral ceiling, A-frame, and flat residential roofs  

SciTech Connect

By judicious use of sheets of polyisocyanurate foam insulation and properly engineered air spaces, the thermal resistances of single-member cathedral ceiling, A-frame, and flat roofs of existing residences may be substantially increased. The paper reviews the typical roof construction and thermal insulation found before retrofitting and the regional aesthetic and practical considerations particular to these roof types. A basic insulation system of polyisocyanurate foam sheets with reflective facings is described. The advantages of the facings in enhancing the thermal resistance of the assembly and their inherent vapor retardance is discussed. Variations of the system are shown. The three roof types are divided into five categories and the most appropriate variation for each is selected. Installation details and several cross sections illustrating the important components comprising these insulating systems are presented. Two field applications, one exterior, resulting in an increase in thermal resistance from 0.45 K . m/sup 2//W (2.5 /sup 0/F. ft/sup 2/ . h/Btu) to 6.44 K . m/sup 2//W (36.55 /sup 0/F . ft/sup 2/ . h/Bru) and the other interior, resulting in an increase in thermal resistance from 1.26 K . m/sup 2//W (7.17 /sup 0/F . ft/sup 2/ . h/ Btu) to 4.87 K . m/sup 2//W (27.63 /sup 0/F . ft/sup 2/ . h/Btu), are reviewed. Finally, an evaluation is made of preliminary field results, which demonstrates the effectiveness of these new systems.

De Marne, H.

1981-12-01

192

New and retrofit insulation of single-member cathedral ceiling, A-frame, and flat residential roofs  

SciTech Connect

By judicious use of sheets of polyisocyanurate foam insulation and properly engineered air spaces, the thermal resistances of single-member cathedral ceiling, A-frame, and flat roofs of existing residences may be substantially increased. The paper reviews the typical roof construction and thermal insulation found before retrofitting and the regional aesthetic and practical considerations particular to these roof types. A basic insulation system of polyisocyanurate foam sheets with reflective facings is described. The advantages of the facings in enhancing the thermal resistance of the assembly and their inherent vapor retardance is discussed. Variations of the system are shown. The three roof types are divided into five categories and the most appropriate variation for each is selected. Installation details and several cross sections illustrating the important components comprising these insulating systems are presented. Two field applications, one exterior, resulting in an increase in thermal resistance from 0.45 K.m/sup 2//W(2.5 /sup 0/F.ft/sup 2/.h/Btu) to 6.44 K.m/sup 2//W (36.55 /sup 0/F.ft/sup 2/.h/Btu) and the other interior, resulting in an increase in thermal resistance from 1.26 K.m/sup 2//W (7.17 /sup 0/F.ft/sup 2/.h/Btu to 4.87 K.m/sup 2//W (27.63 /sup 0/F.ft/sup 2/.h/Btu), are reviewed. Finally, an evaluation is made of preliminary field results, which demonstrates the effectiveness of these new systems.

de Marne, H.

1983-01-01

193

Monitoring of the temperature - moisture regime of critical parts in the tower of the St. Martin Cathedral in Bratislava.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historic monuments are subject to degradation due to exposition to surrounding meteorological conditions and groundwater. Degradation is most often manifested by deterioration of plaster, walls structure and building elements like stones. A significant attention measures are undertaken to prevent degradation of the cultural heritage throughout the world. Our contribution is to monitor the objects for recognition of the critical state when it is necessary to make adjustments to avoid destruction. Buildings consisting from the listed elements belong to porous materials. Moisture diffusion, condensation, etc. attack structure stability of the buildings. Then the moisture diffusion and effects like drying, freezing / thawing belong to the control mechanisms of the degradation. In addition to laboratory experiments concerning the mentioned effects, we simultaneously studied processes by monitoring of the cultural monuments. During monitoring we have identified diffusion of moisture associated with cycle day / night and cycle moisture /drying caused by meteorological precipitation. Long term monitoring is performed in the tower of St. Martin Cathedral in Bratislava under the window sill of the belfry in exterior at three orientations, the north, south and the west. Monitoring is carried out in plaster and in masonry about 10 cm from the wall surface. The thermal conductivity sensors are used for monitoring that operate on the principle of the hot ball method. Then thermal conductivity of porous material is a function of pore content. The sensor has shape of a ball in diameter up to 2 mm in which a heat source as well as a thermometer is integrated into one component. A small heat output is delivered into the surrounding material. The temperature response of the sensor gives information on the thermal conductivity. For use in the preservation of cultural heritage a number of measuring devices have been developed for automatic registration of temperature and moisture in masonry and plaster of monuments.

Kubicar, L.; Fidríková, D.; Štofanik, V.; Vretenár, V.

2012-04-01

194

Thermochronological investigation of fault zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The timing of faulting episodes can be constrained by radiometric dating of fault-zone rocks. Fault-zone material suitable for dating is produced by tectonic processes, such as (1) fragmentation of host rocks, followed by grain-size reduction and recrystallization to form mica and clay minerals, (2) secondary heating/melting of host rocks by frictional fault motions, and (3) mineral vein formation as a result of fluid advection associated with the fault motions. The thermal regime of fault zones consists primarily of the following three factors: (a) regional geothermal structure across the fault zone and background thermal history of studied province bounded by fault systems, (b) frictional heating of wall rocks by fault motions, and (c) heating of host rocks by hot fluid advection in and around the fault zone. Thermochronological methods widely applied in fault zones are K-Ar (40Ar/39Ar), fission-track, and U-Th methods, for which methodological principles as well as analytical procedures are briefly described. The thermal sensitivities of individual thermochronological systems are then reviewed, which critically control the response of each method against the thermal processes. Based on the knowledge above, representative examples as well as key issues are highlighted to date fault gouges, pseudotachylytes, mylonites and carbonate veins, placing new constraints upon geological, geomorphological and seismological frames. Finally, the Nojima Fault is presented as an example for multiple applications of thermochronological methods in a complex fault zone.

Tagami, Takahiro

2012-05-01

195

Insurance Applications of Active Fault Maps Showing Epistemic Uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insurance loss modeling for earthquakes utilizes available maps of active faulting produced by geoscientists. All such maps are subject to uncertainty, arising from lack of knowledge of fault geometry and rupture history. Field work to undertake geological fault investigations drains human and monetary resources, and this inevitably limits the resolution of fault parameters. Some areas are more accessible than others; some may be of greater social or economic importance than others; some areas may be investigated more rapidly or diligently than others; or funding restrictions may have curtailed the extent of the fault mapping program. In contrast with the aleatory uncertainty associated with the inherent variability in the dynamics of earthquake fault rupture, uncertainty associated with lack of knowledge of fault geometry and rupture history is epistemic. The extent of this epistemic uncertainty may vary substantially from one regional or national fault map to another. However aware the local cartographer may be, this uncertainty is generally not conveyed in detail to the international map user. For example, an area may be left blank for a variety of reasons, ranging from lack of sufficient investigation of a fault to lack of convincing evidence of activity. Epistemic uncertainty in fault parameters is of concern in any probabilistic assessment of seismic hazard, not least in insurance earthquake risk applications. A logic-tree framework is appropriate for incorporating epistemic uncertainty. Some insurance contracts cover specific high-value properties or transport infrastructure, and therefore are extremely sensitive to the geometry of active faulting. Alternative Risk Transfer (ART) to the capital markets may also be considered. In order for such insurance or ART contracts to be properly priced, uncertainty should be taken into account. Accordingly, an estimate is needed for the likelihood of surface rupture capable of causing severe damage. Especially where a high deductible is in force, this requires estimation of the epistemic uncertainty on fault geometry and activity. Transport infrastructure insurance is of practical interest in seismic countries. On the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey, there is uncertainty over an unbroken segment between the eastern end of the Dazce Fault and Bolu. This may have ruptured during the 1944 earthquake. Existing hazard maps may simply use a question mark to flag uncertainty. However, a far more informative type of hazard map might express spatial variations in the confidence level associated with a fault map. Through such visual guidance, an insurance risk analyst would be better placed to price earthquake cover, allowing for epistemic uncertainty.

Woo, G.

2005-12-01

196

Rapid Acceleration Leads to Rapid Weakening in Earthquake-Like Laboratory Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After nucleation, a large earthquake propagates as an expanding rupture front along a fault. This front activates countless fault patches that slip by consuming energy stored in Earth’s crust. We simulated the slip of a fault patch by rapidly loading an experimental fault with energy stored in a spinning flywheel. The spontaneous evolution of strength, acceleration, and velocity indicates that our experiments are proxies of fault-patch behavior during earthquakes of moment magnitude (Mw) = 4 to 8. We show that seismically determined earthquake parameters (e.g., displacement, velocity, magnitude, or fracture energy) can be used to estimate the intensity of the energy release during an earthquake. Our experiments further indicate that high acceleration imposed by the earthquake’s rupture front quickens dynamic weakening by intense wear of the fault zone.

Chang, J. C.; Lockner, D. A.; Reches, Z.

2012-10-01

197

Rapid acceleration leads to rapid weakening in earthquake-like laboratory experiments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

After nucleation, a large earthquake propagates as an expanding rupture front along a fault. This front activates countless fault patches that slip by consuming energy stored in Earth’s crust. We simulated the slip of a fault patch by rapidly loading an experimental fault with energy stored in a spinning flywheel. The spontaneous evolution of strength, acceleration, and velocity indicates that our experiments are proxies of fault-patch behavior during earthquakes of moment magnitude (Mw) = 4 to 8. We show that seismically determined earthquake parameters (e.g., displacement, velocity, magnitude, or fracture energy) can be used to estimate the intensity of the energy release during an earthquake. Our experiments further indicate that high acceleration imposed by the earthquake’s rupture front quickens dynamic weakening by intense wear of the fault zone.

Chang, Jefferson C.; Lockner, David A; Reches, Z.

2012-01-01

198

Solar system fault detection  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for detecting predetermined faults in a variety of active, different solar systems. Each of the different solar systems uses a heat transfer fluid and has a tank for receiving fluid or a heat exchanger to transfer heat from the heat transfer fluid to a tank, and at least one collector and one pipe through which fluid flows. The different solar systems each has different predetermined operating conditions associated with a given type of fault, comprising: a. sensing means for sensing the presence of different predetermined operating conditions associated with each of the solar systems. Each of the sensing means includes a switch that changes in state in response to a change in a predetermined operating condition in at least one of the fluid, tank or heat exchanger, collector, and pipe; b. means in communication with each of the sensing means for determining whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in one of the solar systems, the means for determining including combining means. The combining means includes logic gates at least one of which is actuated by logic gate actuating voltages via the associated states of at least two of the switches to produce an output signal indicative of whether a predetermined fault is present in the one solar system; and c. indicating means responsive to the output signal for indicating the presence and identity of the one predetermined fault in the one solar system.

Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr

1986-12-02

199

Seismic Reflection Imaging of Active Offshore Faults In The Gulf of Corinth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution seismic reflection surveys over one of the most active and rapidly extending regions in the world, the Gulf of Corinth, have revealed that the gulf is a complex asymmetric graben whose geometry varies significantly along its length. A detailed map of the offshore faults in the gulf shows that a major fault system of nine distinct faults limits the basin to the south. The northern Gulf appears to be undergo- ing regional subsidence and is affected by an antithetic major fault system consisting of eight faults. All these major faults have been active during the quaternary. Uplifted coastlines along their footwalls, growth fault patterns and thickening of sediment strata toward the fault planes indicate that some of these offshore faults on both sides of the graben remain active up to present. The findings presented here suggest that the off- shore faults should be taken into consideration in explaining the uplift scenarios of the northern Peloponnesos coast. The observed coastal uplift appears to be the result of the cumulative effect of deformation accommodated by more than one fault and there- fore average uplift rates deduced from raised fossil shorelines should be treated with caution when used to infer individual fault slip rates. Our data ground-truth recent hy- potheses; they provide actual observations of the deformation rate distribution which others have tried to infer. Seismic reflection profiling is a vital ingredient in assessing seismic hazard and basin-formation in areas of active extension.

Stefatos, A.; Papatheodorou, G.; Ferentinos, G.; Leeder, M.; Collier, R.

200

Depiction of facial nerve paresis in the gallery of portraits carved in stone by George Matthew the Dalmatian on the Sibenik Cathedral dating from the 15th century.  

PubMed

The introductory segment of this paper briefly describes George Matthew the Dalmatian, the architect who, between 1441 and 1473, oversaw the construction of the Cathedral of St. James in Sibenik, a city on the Croatian side of the Adriatic coast. Of the most impressive details included in this monumental construction and sculptural flamboyant gothic production infused with distinctive Dalmatian spirit is a frieze of 71 stone and three lion portraits encircling the outer apse wall. From the intriguing amalgamation of portraits of anonymous people this master came across in his surrounding, the fiftieth head in the row has been selected for this occasion. On the face of a younger man the authors have recognized and described pathognomonic right-sided facial nerve paresis. The question posed here is whether this is coincidental or it represents the master's courage, given that instead of famous people in the cathedral he situated not only ordinary people but also those "labelled" and traditionally marginalized, thus, in the most beautiful manner, foreshadowing the forthcoming spirit of Humanism and Renaissance in Croatian and European art. PMID:21755741

Skrobonja, Ante; Culina, Tatjana

2011-06-01

201

Quaternary faulting history along the Deep Springs fault, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

New geologic mapping, structural stud- ies, geochronology, and diffusion erosion modeling along the Deep Springs fault, Cal- ifornia, shed light on its Quaternary fault- ing history. The Deep Springs fault, a 26- km-long, predominantly north-northeast- striking, west-northwestdipping normal fault bounding the eastern side of Deep Springs Valley, cuts Jurassic batholithic rocks nonconformably overlain by middle Miocene to Pleistocene stream gravels,

Jeffrey Lee; Charles M. Rubin; Andrew Calvert

2001-01-01

202

Stresses and Faulting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is designed for students in an introductory structural geology course. While key concepts are described here, it is assumed that the students will have access to a good textbook to augment the information presented here. Learning goals: (1) Understand the role of gravity and rock properties in producing stresses in the shallow Earth. (2) Graphically represent stress states using Mohr diagrams. (3) Determine failure criteria from the results of laboratory experiments. (4) Explore the interaction of gravity-induced and tectonic stresses on fault formation. (5) Apply models of fault formation to predict fault behavior in two natural settings: San Onofre Beach in southern California and Canyonland National Park in Utah. The module is implemented entirely using Microsoft Excel. This program was selected due to its widespread availability and relative ease-of-use. It is assumed that students are familiar with using equations and graphing tools in Excel.

Reinen, Linda

203

ANALISIS CUANTITATIVO Y CUALITATIVO DE LA AEROMICOTA AISLADA DE LA CATEDRAL DE SANTIAGO DE COMPOSTELA (GALICIA, ESPAÑA) (Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the airborne fungi isolated in the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela (Galicia, Spain))  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out on the atmospheric fungal content in the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela (Spain) and its exterior during a year, using a viable volumetric collecting system. A total of 28 taxa were identified, the most abundant of which were: Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Penicillium. In quantitative terms there were no significant indoor\\/ outdoor differences, and the

M. J. Aira; E. Piontelli

204

Dynamic Processes of Fault Creep along the Chihshang Fault, Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active fault creep along the Chihshang fault in Taiwan has been observed for the past 20 years (Lee et al., 2004). The Chihshang Creepmeter experiment was set up across this most active segment along the Longitudinal Valley fault system, the present-day plate suture between the Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plates in eastern Taiwan. The daily creep data revealed an

Y. Zeng; Z. Shen; J. Lee

2005-01-01

205

Shallow faults mapped with seismic reflections: Lost River Fault, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-resolution seismic-reflection survey, conducted at the intersection of Arentson Gulch road and the western splay of the Lost River fault scarp in central Idaho, defines a bedrock surface about 80 m deep which is segmented by several faults forming graben structures. Six meters of total fault displacement can be interpreted on the bedrock reflector while only 1 to 2

Mubarik Ali; Richard D. Miller; Don W. Steeples

1991-01-01

206

Fault model development for fault tolerant VLSI design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault models provide systematic and precise representations of physical defects in microcircuits in a form suitable for simulation and test generation. The current difficulty in testing VLSI circuits can be attributed to the tremendous increase in design complexity and the inappropriateness of traditional stuck-at fault models. This report develops fault models for three different types of common defects that are

C. R. Hartmann; P. K. Lala; A. M. Ali; G. S. Visweswaran; S. Ganguly

1988-01-01

207

Veinlet fault gouge and crushing-origin pseudotachylyte developed along the active Shimotsuburai fault, central Japan and its implication for seismotectoncs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Veinlet cataclastic rocks such as fault gouge and crushing-origin pseudotachylyte occurred as both simple veins and complicated networks within fault zones are generated by rapid comminution and injection during seismic faulting and are therefore considered to record fossil earthquakes. Accordingly the study of such veinlet rocks can provide evidence of seismic faulting within seismogenic fault zones. In this study, we report a typical veinlet cataclstic rock involving crushing-origin pseudotachylyte and fault gouge veins developed in granitic rocks along the Shimotsubrai Fault of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line and discuss the formation mechanisms. The Shimotsubrai Fault is a main active thrust fault of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL), central Japan, extending for ~12 km with a strand of NNW-SSE, which is bounded by the Upper Pleistocene sediments in the east and the grantic cataclasite in the west. The trenching surveys reveal that the most recent seismic faulting event occurred in the period between 1550±70 and 2350±60 yr. B.P. with a displacement of 1-1.2m along the main fault plane (Toda et al., 2000). Veinlet fault gouge and pseudotachylyte are widely developed along the fault plane and within the fault- fracture zone of less than 10 m in width. Both the fault gouge and pseudotachylyte veins observed along the fault plane show a simple and linear geometric feature, generally ranging from a few millimeters to 5 centimeters in thickness. In contrast, the fault gouge and pseudotachylyte veins developed within fault- fracture zone are generally distributed in the fractures as complex networks, generally ranging from sub- millimeter to 1 centimeter with a maximum width of 3 cm. Locally, some network veins are cut and offset by newly-formed injection veins. This finding shows that the injection vein-forming events occurred repeatedly in the same fault zone. The fault gouge veins are bluish gray to dark bluish gray in color and the pseuotachylyte veins generally show a dark and aphanitic appearance with a sharp contact with the country rocks. Microstructurally, both the fault gouge and pseudotachylyte veins are composed of fine-grained clasts derived from the country grantic rocks. All the clasts show an angular outline. Powder X-ray diffraction analyses show that both the fault gouge and injection pseudotachylyte vein are characterized by crystalline materials similar to those of the country rocks involving cataclasite. The crystalline peaks indicate that these veins are mainly composed of quartz and feldspar as those of the country granitic rocks. The analytical results show that the main rock-forming minerals of vainlets fault gouge and pseudotachylyte are the same as that of the country cataclasites derived from the grantic rocks. Based on the meso-micro structural features and powder X-ray diffraction analytical results, we conclude that i) the pseudotachylyte veins observed in this study are generated by crushing rather than melting, ii) the complex networks of fault gouge and pseudotachylyte veins developed within the fault-fracture zone repeatedly formed by rapid injection and fluidization of fine-grained clasts derived from the host grantic rocks during seismic faulting events along the active Shimotsubrai Fault of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line. Our results show that the veinlet cataclasitic rocks are a kind of "earthquake fossil" formed within seismogenic fault zone.

Shin, J.; Lin, A.; Kano, K.

2008-12-01

208

Fault-Scarp Degradation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise, students investigate the evolution of Earth's surface over time, as governed by the balance between constructional (tectonic) processes and destructional (erosional) processes. Introductory materials explain the processes of degradation, including the concepts of weathering-limited versus transport-limited slopes, and diffusion modeling. Using the process of diffusion modeling, students will determine how a slope changes through four 100-year time steps, calculate gradient angles for a fault scarp, and compare parameters calculated for two fault scarps, attempting to determine the age of the scarp created by the older, unknown earthquake. Example problems, study questions, and a bibliography are provided.

Pinter, Nicholas

2010-09-27

209

Analyzing Fault/Fracture Patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During a lab period, students go out in the field to an area that contains at least 2 fault/fracture sets. Students measure orientations of faults and make observations about the relationship between different fault sets. After the field trip, the students compile their field data, plot it on a stereonet and write-up a brief report. In this report students will use their field observations and stereonet patterns to determine whether faults are related or unrelated to each other.

Jamie

210

Fault reconstruction from sensor and actuator failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many fault detection filters have been developed to detect and identify sensor and actuator faults by using analytical redundancy. In this paper, an approach for reconstructing sensor and actuator faults from the residual generated by the fault detection filter is proposed. The transfer matrix from the faults to the residual is derived in terms of the eigenvalues of the fault

Robert H. Chen; Jason L. Speyer

2001-01-01

211

Fault Detection in Routing Protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Routing protocol faults cause problems ranging from an inability to communicate to excessive routing overhead. This paper proposes a system for detecting a wide range of routing protocol faults. Our system deploys virtual routers called RouteMonitors to monitor a routing protocol. We de- ployed RouteMonitors in the MBone's DVMRP infrastruc- ture and uncovered a number of faults. We were also

Daniel Massey; Bill Fenner

1999-01-01

212

Optimum Fault Current Limiter Placement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the difficulty in power network reinforcement and the interconnection of more distributed generations, fault current level has become a serious problem in transmission and distribution system operations. The utilization of fault current limiters (FCLs) in power system provides an effective way to suppress fault currents and result in considerable saving in the investment of high capacity circuit breakers.

Jen-Hao Teng; Chan-Nan Lu

2007-01-01

213

Tolerating transient faults in MARS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concepts of transient fault handling in the MARS architecture are discussed. After an overview of the MARS architecture, the mechanisms for the detection of transient faults are discussed in detail. In addition to extensive checks in the hardware and in the operating system, time-redundant execution of application tasks is proposed for the detection of transient faults. The time difference

H. Kopetz; H. Kantz; G. Grunsteidl; P. Puschner; J. Reisinger

1990-01-01

214

Adaptive fault tolerance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the Adaptive Fault Tolerance program is to provide large complex distributed military systems with greater degrees of survivability, and graceful degradation than is currently available. Most research on these systems to date has focused on the management of static threat and environmental conditions. However, many military Battle Management/Command, Control, Communication, and Intelligence systems exist not in a static but in a highly dynamic environment. The dynamics occur along several dimensions such as alternate modes of operation, changing threat type or threat rate, loss of system resources such as communication links or processing assets, and changing network topology and asset configuration. Using static fault tolerance approaches in these systems is inappropriate because system requirements may change as a result of changes along one or more dimensions in the dynamic operating environment. Furthermore, designing a system for worst-case situations in every dimension of conceivable threat is cost prohibitive. An adaptive approach to fault management enables the system to dynamically tailor its fault tolerance/survivability mechanisms to best deal with a changing environment and to apply limited system assets appropriately.

Armstrong, Len T.

1994-05-01

215

Row fault detection system  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus, program product and method check for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

Archer, Charles Jens (Rochester, MN); Pinnow, Kurt Walter (Rochester, MN); Ratterman, Joseph D. (Rochester, MN); Smith, Brian Edward (Rochester, MN)

2012-02-07

216

Formal Fault Tree Semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In train control systems, more and more (electro-)mechanical devices are substituted by software based devices. To sustain the high level safety standards for these embedded systems, we propose the integration of fault tree analysis and formal methods. This combines two important safety analysis methods from the involved domains of engineering and software development. Our approach proposes to build a formal

Gerhard Schellhorn; Andreas Thums; Wolfgang Reif Lehrstuhl

2002-01-01

217

Fault-Related Sanctuaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beyond the study of historical surface faulting events, this work investigates the possibility, in specific cases, of identifying pre-historical events whose memory survives in myths and legends. The myths of many famous sacred places of the ancient world contain relevant telluric references: \\

L. Piccardi

2001-01-01

218

Fault-Related Sanctuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beyond the study of historical surface faulting events, this work investigates the possibility, in specific cases, of identifying pre-historical events whose memory survives in myths and legends. The myths of many famous sacred places of the ancient world contain relevant telluric references: "sacred" earthquakes, openings to the Underworld and/or chthonic dragons. Given the strong correspondence with local geological evidence, these myths may be considered as describing natural phenomena. It has been possible in this way to shed light on the geologic origin of famous myths (Piccardi, 1999, 2000 and 2001). Interdisciplinary researches reveal that the origin of several ancient sanctuaries may be linked in particular to peculiar geological phenomena observed on local active faults (like ground shaking and coseismic surface ruptures, gas and flames emissions, strong underground rumours). In many of these sanctuaries the sacred area is laid directly above the active fault. In a few cases, faulting has affected also the archaeological relics, right through the main temple (e.g. Delphi, Cnidus, Hierapolis of Phrygia). As such, the arrangement of the cult site and content of relative myths suggest that specific points along the trace of active faults have been noticed in the past and worshiped as special `sacred' places, most likely interpreted as Hades' Doors. The mythological stratification of most of these sanctuaries dates back to prehistory, and points to a common derivation from the cult of the Mother Goddess (the Lady of the Doors), which was largely widespread since at least 25000 BC. The cult itself was later reconverted into various different divinities, while the `sacred doors' of the Great Goddess and/or the dragons (offspring of Mother Earth and generally regarded as Keepers of the Doors) persisted in more recent mythologies. Piccardi L., 1999: The "Footprints" of the Archangel: Evidence of Early-Medieval Surface Faulting at Monte Sant'Angelo (Gargano, Italy). European Union of Geophysics Congress, Strasbourg, March 1999. Piccardi L., 2000: Active faulting at Delphi (Greece): seismotectonic remarks and a hypothesis for the geological environment of a myth. Geology, 28, 651-654. Piccardi L., 2001: Seismotectonic Origin of the Monster of Loch Ness. Earth System Processes, Joint Meeting of G.S.A. and G.S.L., Edinburgh, June 2001.

Piccardi, L.

2001-12-01

219

Fault Scarp Offsets and Fault Population Analysis on Dione  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cassini images of Dione show several fault zones cutting through the moon’s icy surface. We have measured the displacement and length of 271 faults, and estimated the strain occurring in 6 different fault zones. These measurements allow us to quantify the total amount of surface strain on Dione as well as constrain what processes might have caused these faults to form. Though we do not have detailed topography across fault scarps on Dione, we can use their projected size on the camera plane to estimate their heights, assuming a reasonable surface slope. Starting with high resolution images of Dione obtained by the Cassini ISS, we marked points at the top to the bottom of each fault scarp to measure the fault’s projected displacement and its orientation along strike. Line and sample information for the measurements were then processed through ISIS to derive latitude/longitude information and pixel dimensions. We then calculate the three dimensional orientation of a vector running from the bottom to the top of the fault scarp, assuming a 45 degree angle with respect to the surface, and project this vector onto the spacecraft camera plane. This projected vector gives us a correction factor to estimate the actual vertical displacement of the fault scarp. This process was repeated many times for each fault, to show variations of displacement along the length of the fault. To compare each fault to its neighbors and see how strain was accommodated across a population of faults, we divided the faults into fault zones, and created new coordinate systems oriented along the central axis of each fault zone. We could then quantify the amount of fault overlap and add the displacement of overlapping faults to estimate the amount of strain accommodated in each zone. Faults in the southern portion of Padua have a strain of 0.031(+/-) 0.0097, central Padua exhibits a strain of .032(+/-) 0.012, and faults in northern Padua have a strain of 0.025(+/-) 0.0080. The western faults of Eurotas have a strain of 0.031(+/-) 0.011, while the eastern faults have a strain of 0.037(+/-) 0.025. Lastly, Clusium has a strain of 0.10 (+/-) 0.029. We also calculated the ratio of maximum fault displacement vs. the length of the faults, and we found this ratio to be 0.019 when drawing a trend line through all the faults that were analyzed. D/L measurements performed on two faults on Europa using stereo topography showed a value of .021 (Nimmo and Schenk 2006), the only other icy satellite where this ratio has been measured. In contrast, faults on Earth has a D/L ratio of about .1 and Mars has a D/L Ratio of about .01 (Schultz et al. 2006).

Tarlow, S.; Collins, G. C.

2010-12-01

220

Real-time fault injection using enhanced on-chip debug infrastructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid increase in the use of microprocessor-based systems in critical areas, where failures imply risks to human lives, to the environment or to expensive equipment, significantly increased the need for dependable systems, able to detect, tolerate and eventually correct faults. The verification and validation of such systems is frequently performed via fault injection, using various forms and techniques. However,

André V. Fidalgo; Manuel G. Gericota; Gustavo R. Alves; José M. Ferreira

2011-01-01

221

Application of the wavelet transform in machine condition monitoring and fault diagnostics: a review with bibliography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of the wavelet transform for machine fault diagnostics has been developed for last 10 years at a very rapid rate. A review on all of the literature is certainly not possible. The purpose of this review is to present a summary about the application of the wavelet in machine fault diagnostics, including the following main aspects: the time–frequency

Z. K. Peng; F. L. Chu

2004-01-01

222

Multiobjective fault detection observer design for a class of TS fuzzy nonlinear systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the design of fault detection fuzzy observer with multiple performance constraints for a class of nonlinear system with Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy form. The multiobjective optimization and consistency analysis are applied to meeting the desirable transient behavior, steady output variance and H¡ index performance requirements. Thus, the rapidity of response to fault detection, robustness to noisy disturbances and sensitivity

Dengfeng Zhang; Xiaodong Han; Hong Wang; Zhiquan Wang

2011-01-01

223

Reconstructing Fault History from Fault Rocks and Travertine Deposits, Rock Canyon Fault, Utah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Utah lies along the eastern border of the Basin and Range Province. Within this region the Rock and Dry Canyon's graben structure is a block dropped down by oblique faults with an anomalous east-west orientation relative to other Basin and Range structures. Travertine is a rock composed of calcium carbonate that is commonly associated with faults, particularly active faults. The geometry and the macro/microstructures of travertine can provide a record of the evolution of the fault through time. The objectives of this study are to document the evidence of fault history contained in travertine formed along the Rock Canyon fault in order to test the hypothesis that this is a young, potentially active structure contributing to Basin and Range Province deformation. Polished rock slabs prepared from travertine samples collected along the mapped Rock Canyon fault show a wide range of textures, including columnar, radial/fibrous, banded, bedded, botryoidal, and brecciated travertine (broken, cemented fault rock) along with fibrous, brecciated, and blocky crystalline calcite. Angular clasts of layered travertine, deposited along the fault at an earlier stage, are contained within breccias documenting a subsequent slip event (or events). Therefore, initial observations on fault rock textures indicate that there were multiple slip episodes on the Rock Canyon fault. More detailed microscopic observations on thin sections prepared from the same samples will constrain the number and type of fracturing, fault slip, and vein precipitation events that occurred.

Main, J.; Wilson, T. J.

2011-12-01

224

Fault-Related Rocks From The Thrust Fault Zone in Miaoli Area, West Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taiwan is located in the orogenic belt, which the fault-related earthquakes were very common and severe in last few myrs. However, there are no any fault-related rocks have been reported until now. This research is the first article to report an unambiguous occurrence of pseudotachylyte and cataclasite in Taiwan. The fault-related rocks, including the pseudotachylyte and cataclasite have been found in the drilled core, about 600 meters in depth below the surface in the western foothill sedimentary sequences of Miaoli area, Taiwan. The pseudotachylytes are thin, submillimeter to centimeter in thickness and distribute intercalated in thick fault zone. They dominantly occur as injection veins, which contact sharply with host rocks, the sandstones and siltstones, and normal or cut with the major shearing zone. Petrogaphically, the pseudotachylytes consist of a black or dark brown, fine-grained to glassy aphanitic matrix with microlites, rounded or embayed clasts and numerous rock and mineral fragments. The presence of pseudotachylytes indicates that the fault zone has suffered the rapid seismic displacements. The cataclastic rocks include non-foliated clast-supported to matrix-supported cataclasites and foliated clastic-supported cataclasites. The former form either thin dark films underlining isolated shear plane or accumulating as thick lens or pods. The later have large varieties in structures, such as thin dark films displaying S-C fabrics silimar to those of mylonites, injected veins and well-polished slickensided surface. Under the microscope, the muscovite fragments show the structures of brittle-plastic shearing processes, such as fish, cleavage-steps, bending and folding. Those characteristics of cataclasites infer that the cataclasites may form under either the slow seismic movement or aseismic creep. From the occurrence, location and regional geology, this fault zone with abundant fault-related rocks may be correlated to the Shenchoshan thrust fault, which is a seismic fault moved in 1935. The coeval formation of pseudotachylyte and foliated cataclasite infers that the seismic displacement and aseismic creep occurred in the same shear zone.

Song, S.; Chen, H.; Li, L.; Liu, C.; Kuo, L.

2001-12-01

225

Holocene faulting on the Mission fault, northwest Montana  

SciTech Connect

South of Flathead Lake, fault scarps on late Quaternary surfaces are nearly continuous for 45 km along the western flank of the Mission Range. On late Pleistocene alpine lateral moraines, scarp heights reach a maximum of 17 m. Scarp heights on post glacial Lake Missoula surfaces range from 2.6--7.2 m and maximum scarp angles range from 10[degree]--24[degree]. The stratigraphy exposed in seven trenches across the fault demonstrates that the post glacial Lake Missoula scarps resulted from at least two surface-faulting events. Larger scarp heights on late Pleistocene moraines suggests a possible third event. This yields an estimated recurrence of 4--8 kyr. Analyses of scarp profiles show that the age of the most surface faulting is middle Holocene, consistent with stratigraphic evidence found in the trenches. Rupture length and displacement imply earthquake magnitudes of 7 to 7.5. Previous studies have not identified geologic evidence of late Quaternary surface faulting in the Rocky Mountain Trench or on faults north of the Lewis and Clark line despite abundant historic seismicity in the Flathead Lake area. In addition to the Mission fault, reconnaissance studies have located late Quaternary fault scarps along portions of faults bordering Jocko and Thompson Valleys. These are the first documented late Pleistocene/Holocene faults north of the Lewis and Clark line in Montana and should greatly revise estimates of earthquake hazards in this region.

Ostenaa, D.A.; Klinger, R.E.; Levish, D.R. (Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO (United States))

1993-04-01

226

Size matters: The effects of displacement magnitude on the fluid flow properties of faults in poorly lithified sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many aquifers worldwide occur in poorly lithified sediments, often in regions that experience active tectonic deformation. Faulting of these sediments introduces heterogeneities that may affect aquifer porosity and permeability, and consequently subsurface fluid flow and groundwater storage. The specific hydrogeological effects of faults depend upon the fault architecture and deformation mechanisms. These are controlled by factors such as rheology, stratigraphy and burial depth. Here, we analyse fault permeability in poorly lithified sediments as a function of fault displacement. We have carried out detailed outcrop studies of minor normal faults at five study sites within the rapidly extending Corinth rift, Central Greece. Gravel conglomerates of giant Gilbert delta facies form productive but localised shallow aquifers within the region. Exposures reveal dense (average 20 faults per 100 m) networks of minor (0.1 to 50 m displacement) normal faults within the uplifted sequences, proximal to many of the crustal-scale normal faults. Analysis of 42 faults shows that fault zones are primarily composed of smeared beds that can either retain their definition or mix with surrounding sediment. Lenses or blocks of sediment are common in fault zones that cut beds with contrasting rheology, and a few faults have a clay core and/or damage zone. Fault thickness increases at a rate of about 0.4 m per 10 m increase in displacement. Comparison of sediment micro-structures from the field, hand samples and thin sections show grain-scale sediment mixing, fracturing of clasts, and in some cases cementation, within fault zones. In faults with displacements >12 m we also find a number of roughly parallel, highly indurated shear planes, up to 20 mm in thickness, composed of highly fragmented clasts and a fine grained matrix. Image analysis of thin sections from hand samples collected in the field was used to quantify the porosity of fault zones and adjacent undeformed sediment. These data show a reduction in average porosity from 21% (± 4) in undisturbed sediments to 14% (± 8) within fault zones. We find that fault zone porosity decreases by approximately 5% per 1 m displacement (up to 2 m displacement), as sediments undergo greater micro-scale deformation. Porosity within the shear planes of larger displacement faults (> 12 m) is significantly less than 5%. In summary, with an increase in fault displacement there is an increase in fault thickness and decrease in fault zone porosity, in addition to the occurrence of extremely low porosity shear planes. Consequently, the impact of faults in poorly lithified sediment on fluid flow is, to a large degree, dependent upon the magnitude of fault displacement.

Loveless, S. E.; Bense, V.; Turner, J.

2011-12-01

227

Quantifying the effects of an active blind fault on a shallow aquifer properties and drainage, case study of the Chihshang Aquifer in the eastern Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chihshang Fault aquifer is nested in the Longitudinal Valley active Fault (LVF) situated along a plate suture between the Philippine Sea plate and the Eurasian plate in eastern Taiwan. The LVF is undergoing rapid creep and co-seismic rupturing. Surface creeping on the fault were simultaneously measured utilizing creepmeters in surface as creeping rate of 2 cm\\/yr. Combining surface fracture

Chung-Hsiang Mu; Yves Guglielmi; Frederic Cappa; Jacques Angelier; Jian-Cheng Lee; Jia-Jyun Dong

2010-01-01

228

Earthquakes and Fault Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is for students to find the locations of the fault lines in Utah and understand that fault lines are often earthquake zones. They will learn how often earthquakes are expected to occur, when Utah is due for another one, and where the next one is expected to occur. This meets the Utah Core Standard for fifth grade science: Standard 2: Students will understand that volcanoes, earthquakes, uplift, weathering, and erosion reshape Earth's surface. Objective 1,c: Explain the relationship between time and specific geological changes. Objective 2: Explain how volcanoes, earthquakes, and uplift affect Earth's surface. Situation You are from Montana, and your dad just got a new job in Northern Utah. Your family will have to move there. Your parents have heard that Utah has the potential for major earthquakes, and don?t know where to build your new house. They ...

Bennington, Miss

2010-04-26

229

Folds, Faults, and Mountains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash explores forces and processes that deform rocks by creating folds, faults, and mountain ranges. The overview covers topics such as stress, tension, deformation, strike, dip, folds and thrusts, and an interactive model allows users to model different processes related to these topics. This site provides diagrams, interactive animations, and supplementary information suitable for introductory level undergraduate physical geology or high school Earth science students.

Smoothstone; Company, Houghton M.

230

Implications of Fault Constitutive Properties for Earthquake Prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate- and state-dependent constitutive formulation for fault slip characterizes an exceptional variety of materials over a wide range of sliding conditions. This formulation provides a unified representation of diverse sliding phenomena including slip weakening over a characteristic sliding distance Dc, apparent fracture energy at a rupture front, time-dependent healing after rapid slip, and various other transient and slip rate

James H. Dieterich; Brian Kilgore

1996-01-01

231

Fault-tolerant routing for satellite command and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

New satellite systems, such as transformational communications (TC) and space based infrared systems (SBIRS), strive to support higher bandwidth, greater connectivity, and growing capabilities. In This work we propose and evaluate a fault-tolerant routing scheme designed for such systems with integrated ground and satellite networks. This routing scheme uses a number of previously computed routes to rapidly respond to node

J. Stepanek; E. Coe; R. Sims; C. S. Raghavendra

2004-01-01

232

Reverse faulting Events of the Ohchigata Fault Zone, Central Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ohchi plain is one of the NE-SW trending tectonic depressions located at the base of the Noto Peninsula protruding into the Japan Sea. Tectonic setting of this area has been changed from the tensional stress field related to the opening of the Japan Sea during Miocene into the compressional stress field after Pliocene. Geologists in 1930's discussed that geological structure of the both margins of this plain are controlled by normal faults or folds. In 1970's, geomorphologists referred that those are reverse faults and active during late Quaternary period based on the study on the terrace deformations. Our seismic reflection profiling surveys in 2001 and 2002 clearly imaged thrust faults dipping approximately 30 degrees to the mountain side beneath both of the margins of this plain. In 2003, we excavated a trench on the fault along the southwestern plain margin. The result shows that this fault has repeatedly been reactivated during late Pleistocene and the last faulting occurred around 3,000 years ago. Active faults along the margins of this plain are called the Ohchigata Fault Zone. Based on the topographic study using the aero-photographs, several tectonic landforms are identified on the alluvial terraces traversed by the Sekidosan fault along the southern margin of this plain. This fault strikes N45E and has produced a scarp about 2 m high at Mijiro site. In order to obtain the information on faulting history, we excavated a trench across the fault scarp at this site. On the trench walls, a reverse fault dipping 10 to 45 degrees to the southeast was exposed. On the upthrown side of the fault, thin terrace deposits in Holocene overlie late Pleistocene beds intercalating 2 layers of widespread volcanic ash, that may correspond to AT (29 ka) and Aso-4 (85-90 ka), respectively. The Pleistocene beds are extensively deformed and partly overturned near the fault. On the downthrown side, a layer of sand and gravel dated at around 3,000 yrs BP by 14C dating method (AMS) is vertically displaced about 2.2 m by this fault.

Azuma, T.; Shimokawa, K.; Mizuno, K.; Sugiyama, Y.; Sugito, N.; Tsutsumi, H.

2003-12-01

233

Interpretation of footwall (lowside) fault traps sealed by reverse faults and convergent wrench faults  

SciTech Connect

Lowside (footwall) closures sealed by reverse-slip faults and convergent strike-slip faults offer opportunities for significant field extension and new field prospects in basins deformed by contraction. The faults have reverse separation in cross section and transverse closure (in the direction of reservoir dip) is often provided by dip of beds away from the fault at structural upturns. The upturns are common and form at the edge of the footwall block as a consequence of block-edge folding, fault drag, and shortening transverse to fault strike. Effective fault seal and longitudinal closure (parallel to reservoir strike) are the most uncertain trap controls. Fault seal may be provided by the juxtaposition of older, less permeable rocks against the down-dropped reservoir or by impermeable material within the fault zone. Fault-zone barriers to fluid flow include shaly smear gouge, cataclastic gouge, mineral deposits, or asphalt or tar impregnation. Longitudinal closure is most commonly formed by a broad positive warp or bowing at the edge of the footwall block or by stratigraphic reservoir terminations. Secondary faults, intersections of primary block faults, and en echelon folds may also provide longitudinal closure. Prospects can range in importance from secondary extensions of existing highside closures to large traps unrelated to hanging-wall structure. The variety of geometries, relationships that provide transverse and longitudinal closure, and important geologic parameters that determine fault seal are illustrated with examples from oil fields in Sumatra and southern California. These fields can be used as models for the recognition and delineation of prospects in other basins. 16 figures.

Harding, T.P.; Tuminas, A.C.

1988-06-01

234

Simulation of internal faults in synchronous generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

An internal fault in the armature winding of a synchronous generator occurs due to the breakdown of the winding insulation. In this paper, a method for simulating internal faults in synchronous generators, using direct phase quantities, is described. Simulation results showing the fault currents, during a single phase to ground fault and a two phase to ground fault, are presented

A. I. Megahed; O. P. Malik

1999-01-01

235

Hiberarchy clustering fault diagnosis of hydraulic pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault diagnosis is one of the key technologies of prognostic and health management system (PHM) of aircraft hydraulic system. Aiming at the strong coupling of various fault features of hydraulic pump when multiple faults occur simultaneously, a hiberarchy clustering fault diagnosis strategy was proposed, in which three level fault reasoning machine was adopted for five kinds of failures for hydraulic

Jun Du; Shaoping Wang

2010-01-01

236

Protecting distribution feeders for simultaneous faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overhead distribution systems may experience faults involving more than one feeder. During simultaneous faults, the transformer low-voltage-side overcurrent relay measures a current greater than the current measured by faulted feeder relays. Therefore, the transformer relay may trip faster than faulted feeder relays. Transformer relay misoperation affects service availability in circuits not involved with the fault. In this paper, we describe

J. Betanzos Manuel; H. E. Lemus Zavala; E. Alcazar Ramirez; D. Sanchez Escobedo; H. J. Altuve

2010-01-01

237

A Semantic Model of Program Faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Program faults are artifacts that are widely studied, but there are many aspects of faults that we still do not understand. In addition to the simple fact that one important goal during testing is to cause failures and thereby detect faults, a full understanding of the characteristics of faults is crucial to several research areas in testing. These include fault-based

A. Jefferson Offutt; Jane Huffman Hayes

1996-01-01

238

Earthquake Faulting at Ancient Cnidus, SW Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ruins of Cnidus, an important ancient city in southwestern Asia Minor, lie directly on an earthquake fault — the Cnidus Fault. Offset and deformed archaeological remains along the trace of the fault testify to its recent activation. The ancient city's famous Round Temple of Aphrodite is vertically offset by 0.35 m across the fault. The fault also forms the

ERHAN ALTUNEL; IAIN S. STEWART; AYKUT BARKA; LUIGI PICCARDI

2003-01-01

239

Mechanical controls on fault geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faults inevitably become non-planar because of how they grow and how they are affected during slip by mechanical heterogeneities inherent in the earth. Some faults acquire a non-planar geometry because of non-uniform tectonic deformation or because they grow by the linkage of originally discontinuous structures. However, even faults that are originally planar are unlikely to remain so. Elastic analyses show

Stephen J Martel

1999-01-01

240

Integrated fault tree development environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) techniques are utilized in the nuclear industry to perform safety analyses of complex defense-in-depth systems. A major effort in PRA development is fault tree construction. The Integrated Fault Tree Environment (IFTREE) is an interactive, graphics-based tool for fault tree design. IFTREE provides integrated building, editing, and analysis features on a personal workstation. The design philosophy of

1986-01-01

241

Compositional Temporal Fault Tree Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

HiP-HOPS (Hierarchically-Performed Hazard Origin and Propaga- tion Studies) is a recent technique that partly automates Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) by constructing fault trees from system topologies annotated with component-level failure specifications. HiP-HOPS has hitherto created only classical combinatorial fault trees that fail to capture the often significant temporal ordering of failure events. In this paper, we propose temporal extensions to

Martin Walker; Leonardo Bottaci; Yiannis Papadopoulos

2007-01-01

242

Fault trees and sequence dependencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the frequency cited shortcomings of fault-tree models, their inability to model so-called sequence dependencies, is discussed. Several sources of such sequence dependencies are discussed, and new fault-tree gates to capture this behavior are defined. These complex behaviors can be included in present fault-tree models because they utilize a Markov solution. The utility of the new gates is demonstrated

Joanne Bechta Dugan; Salvatore J. Bavuso; Mark A. Boyd

1990-01-01

243

The cathedral within.  

PubMed

Few nurses get excited about working on Christmas. As dedicated as we are to our patients and coworkers, we yearn to be home for the holiday. Yet, as so often happens in nursing, we receive unexpected blessings when we answer the call to duty, as this nurse's story shows. PMID:19033962

Thieman, LeAnn

2008-12-01

244

Fault interaction near Hollister, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical model is used to study fault stress and slip near Hollister, California. The geometrically complex system of interacting faults, including the San Andreas, Calaveras, Sargent, and Busch faults, is approximated with a two-dimensional distribution of short planar fault segments in an elastic medium. The steady stress and slip rate are simulated by specifying frictional strength and stepping the remote stress ahead in time. The resulting computed fault stress is roughly proportional to the observed spatial density of small earthquakes, suggesting that the distinction between segments characterized by earthquakes and those with aseismic creep results, in part, from geometry. A nosteady simulation is made by introducing, in addition, stress drops for individual moderate earthquakes. A close fit of observed creep with calculated slip on the Calaveras and San Andreas faults suggests that many changes in creep rate (averaged over several months) are caused by local moderate earthquakes. In particular, a 3-year creep lag preceding the August 6, 1979, Coyote Lake earthquake on the Calaveras fault seems to have been a direct result of the November 28, 1974, Thanksgiving Day earthquake on the Busch fault. Computed lags in slip rate preceding some other moderate earthquakes in the area are also due to earlier earthquakes. Although the response of the upper 1 km of the fault zone may cause some individual creep events and introduce delays in others, the long-term rate appears to reflect deep slip.

Mavko, Gerald M.

1982-09-01

245

Fault interaction near Hollister, California  

SciTech Connect

A numerical model is used to study fault stress slip near Hollister, California. The geometrically complex system of interacting faults, including the San Andreas, Calaveras, Sargent, and Busch faults, is approximated with a two-dimensional distribution of short planar fault segments in an elastic medium. The steady stress and slip rate are simulated by specifying frictional strength and stepping the remote stress ahead in time. The resulting computed fault stress is roughly proportional to the observed spatial density of small earthquakes, suggesting that the distinction between segments characterized by earthquakes and those with aseismic creep results, in part, from geometry. A nonsteady simulation is made by introducing, in addition, stress drops for individual moderate earthquakes. A close fit of observed creep with calculated slip on the Calaveras and San Andreas faults suggests that many changes in creep rate (averaged over several months) are caused by local moderate earthquakes. In particular, a 3-year creep lag preceding the August 6, 1979, Coyote Lake earthquake on the Calaveras fault seems to have been a direct result of the November 28, 1974, Thanksgiving Day earthquake on the Busch fault. Computed lags in slip rate preceding some other moderate earthquakes in the area are also due to earlier earthquakes. Although the response of the upper 1 km of the fault zone may cause some individual creep events and introduce delays in others, the long-term rate appears to reflect deep slip.

Mavko, G.M.

1982-09-10

246

Normal fault corrugation: implications for growth and seismicity of active normal faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large normal faults are corrugated. Corrugations appear to form from overlapping or en échelon fault arrays by two breakthrough mechanisms: lateral propagation of curved fault-tips and linkage by connecting faults. Both mechanisms include localized fault-parallel extension and eventual abandonment of relay ramps. These breakthrough mechanisms produce distinctive hanging wall and footwall geometries indicative of fault system evolution. From such geometries,

David A Ferrill; John A Stamatakos; Darrell Sims

1999-01-01

247

Parsifal: A Generic and Configurable Fault Emulation Environment with Non-Classical Fault Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault emulation has become an important tool for test evaluation. However, until now fault models other than the stuck-at fault model have rarely been used in emulation. In this paper, we propose non-classical fault models for emulation and a generic fault emulation environment capable of supporting these and other fault models and different emulation modes in a common support framework.

Jan Torben Weinkopf; Klaus Harbich; Erich Barke

2006-01-01

248

Measuring Fault Slip - Why and How?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve our understanding of earthquake physics, we must make observations of parameters that determine friction on the fault surface during rupture. Observables may include, for example, 3D point trajectories to fully record near-field dynamic phenomena such as slip pulses, as well as details of slip variation along strike. We have devised and tested new methods for observing these quantities in nature. First, we observed the details of topography along the 1999 Hector Mine surface rupture using Airborne Laser Swath Mapping. This allowed us to estimate slip variation along-strike of the fault, in some places, with higher spatial resolution than has ever before been possible. The results are, however, complex due to ground surface irregularity and pre-existing topographic features. Evidently, slip variations along strike are greater than previously recognized, implying extreme slip heterogeneity. We provide a simple explanation for how such rapid slip variations could provide the source for high-frequency seismically radiated energy, at least in the near field. Second, we have developed the concept for, and built a working prototype of, a GPS Fault Slip Sensor spanning the San Andreas fault. In addition to augmenting seismic early warning systems, such instrumentation could also provide unique records of near-field ground motions. Inertial sensors such as seismic instruments are not able to differ between a tilt and an acceleration, whereas GPS measurements can differentiate these, and can be made with respect to an absolute frame of reference. Other practical limitations exist, however, in both kinds of instrumentation and we will describe how they may best be integrated into a system that will achieve both the scientific observational objectives and support earthquake early warning.

Hudnut, K. W.; Aagaard, B.; Anderson, G.; Aspiotes, A.; Bevis, M.; Borsa, A.; Heaton, T.; King, N.; Minster, J.; Stark, K.

2003-12-01

249

Dynamics of earthquake faults  

SciTech Connect

The authors present an overview of ongoing studies of the rich dynamical behavior of the uniform, deterministic Burridge-Knopoff model of an earthquake fault, discussing the model's behavior in the context of current seismology. The topics considered include: (1) basic properties of the model, such as the distinction between small and large events and the magnitude vs frequency distribution; (2) dynamics of individual events, including dynamical selection of rupture propagation speeds; (3) generalizations of the model to more realistic, higher-dimensional models; and (4) studies of predictability, in which artificial catalogs generated by the model are used to test and determine the limitations of pattern recognition algorithms used in seismology.

Carlson, J.M. (Department of Physics and Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)); Langer, J.S. (Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)); Shaw, B.E. (Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States) Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, New York 10964 (United States))

1994-04-01

250

Fault Branching and Rupture Directivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Can the rupture directivity of past earthquakes be inferred from fault geometry? Nakata et al. [J. Geogr., 1998] propose to relate the observed surface branching of fault systems with directivity. Their work assumes that all branches are through acute angles in the direction of rupture propagation. However, in some observed cases rupture paths seem to branch through highly obtuse angles, as if to propagate ``backwards". Field examples of that are as follows: (1) Landers 1992. When crossing from the Johnson Valley to the Homestead Valley (HV) fault via the Kickapoo (Kp) fault, the rupture from Kp progressed not just forward onto the northern stretch of the HV fault, but also backwards, i.e., SSE along the HV [Sowers et al., 1994, Spotila and Sieh, 1995, Zachariasen and Sieh, 1995, Rockwell et al., 2000]. Measurements of surface slip along that backward branch, a prominent feature of 4 km length, show right-lateral slip, decreasing towards the SSE. (2) At a similar crossing from the HV to the Emerson (Em) fault, the rupture progressed backwards along different SSE splays of the Em fault [Zachariasen and Sieh, 1995]. (3). In crossing from the Em to Camp Rock (CR) fault, again, rupture went SSE on the CR fault. (4). Hector Mine 1999. The rupture originated on a buried fault without surface trace [Li et al., 2002; Hauksson et al., 2002] and progressed bilaterally south and north. In the south it met the Lavic Lake (LL) fault and progressed south on it, but also progressed backward, i.e. NNW, along the northern stretch of the LL fault. The angle between the buried fault and the northern LL fault is around -160o, and that NNW stretch extends around 15 km. The field examples with highly obtuse branch angles suggest that there may be no simple correlation between fault geometry and rupture directivity. We propose that an important distinction is whether those obtuse branches actually involved a rupture path which directly turned through the obtuse angle (while continuing also on the main fault), or rather involved arrest by a barrier on the original fault and jumping [Harris and Day, JGR, 1993] to a neighboring fault on which rupture propagated bilaterally to form what appears as a backward-branched structure. Our studies [Poliakov et al., JGR in press, 2002; Kame et al, EOS, 2002] of stress fields around a dynamically moving mode II crack tip show a clear tendency to branch from the straight path at high rupture speeds, but the stress fields never allow the rupture path to directly turn through highly obtuse angles, and hence that mechanism is unlikely. In contrast, study of fault maps in the vicinity of the Kp to HV fault transition [Sowers et al., 1994], discussed as case (1) above, strongly suggest that the large-angle branching occurred as a jump, which we propose as the likely general mechanism. Implications for the Nakata et al. [1998] aim of inferring rupture directivity from branch geometry is that this will be possible only when rather detailed characterization (by surface geology, seismic relocation, trapped waves) of fault connectivity can be carried out in the vicinity of the branching junction, to ascertain whether direct turning of the rupture path through an angle, or jumping and then propagating bilaterally, were involved in prior events. They have opposite implications for how we would associate past directivity with a (nominally) branched fault geometry.

Dmowska, R.; Rice, J. R.; Kame, N.

2002-12-01

251

Making Byzantine Fault Tolerant Systems Tolerate Byzantine Faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues for a new approach to building Byzan- tine fault tolerant replication systems. We observe that although recently developed BFT state machine replica- tion protocols are quite fast, they don't tolerate Byzantine faults very well: a single faulty client or server is capa- ble of rendering PBFT, Q\\/U, HQ, and Zyzzyva virtually unusable. In this paper, we (1)

Allen Clement; Edmund L. Wong; Lorenzo Alvisi; Michael Dahlin; Mirco Marchetti

2009-01-01

252

A Probabilistic Fault Detection Approach: Application to Bearing Fault Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a method to detect a fault associated with critical components\\/subsystems of an engineered system. It is required, in this case, to detect the fault condition as early as possible, with specified degree of confidence and a prescribed false alarm rate. Innovative features of the enabling technologies include a Bayesian estimation algorithm called par- ticle filtering, which employs

Bin Zhang; Chris Sconyers; Carl Byington; Romano Patrick; Marcos E. Orchard; George Vachtsevanos

2011-01-01

253

Reinterpretation of faulting in southeast Missouri  

Microsoft Academic Search

New observations are presented on the character of Late Proterozoic-Early Cambrian, rift-related faulting in southeast Missouri. The principal fault set, which influences southeast Missouri structures, is composed of northwest-striking transfer faults. Initial Late Cambrian reactivations extended the faults northwest across the mid-continent and formed several major lineaments. Transpressive wrench-fault reactivations of these faults during Late Pennsylvanian-Early Permian time uplifted the

C. W. Clendenin; C. A. Niewendorp; G. R. Lowell

1989-01-01

254

Fault Models for Quantum Mechanical Switching Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The difference between faults and errors is that, unlike faults, errors can\\u000abe corrected using control codes. In classical test and verification one\\u000adevelops a test set separating a correct circuit from a circuit containing any\\u000aconsidered fault. Classical faults are modelled at the logical level by fault\\u000amodels that act on classical states. The stuck fault model, thought of

Jacob D. Biamonte; Jeff S. Allen; Marek A. Perkowski

2010-01-01

255

Nano-grains form carbonate "fault mirrors"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many faults are characterized by naturally polished glossy surfaces, termed fault mirrors (FMs), which form during slip. Recent experiments also find that FMs form during rapid (but not slow) sliding between rock surfaces, and that FM formation coincides with pronounced friction reduction. The structure of FMs and the mechanism of their formation are thus important for understanding the mechanics of frictional sliding in general, and during earthquakes in particular. Here we characterize the small-scale structure of natural carbonate FMs from 3 different faults along a tectonically active region of the Dead Sea Transform. Atomic force microscopy measurements indicate that the FMs possess extremely smooth surface topography, accounting for their mirror-like appearance. Electron microscope characterization tools revealed a thin (< 1 µm) layer, composed of tightly packed nano-scaled grains, coating a rougher layer composed of micron-size calcite crystals. The crystals contain closely-spaced, plastically-formed, mechanical twins, which define new sub-grain boundaries. The narrow sub-grains are observed to break into sub-micron pieces near the sheared surface. This observation suggests a new brittle-ductile mechanism for nano-grain formation. Our observations further suggest that FMs require two main ingredients: (i) Nano grains and (ii) a hard and very smooth surface, probably formed by nano-grain sintering, a plastic process requiring high temperatures that arise only during rapid enough sliding. Both nano-grains and nano-scale-smooth surfaces were previously suggested to induce frictional weakening. We discuss possible physical processes that may control the observed connection between FM formation and frictional weakening.

Siman-Tov, Shalev; Aharonov, Einat; Sagy, Amir; Emmanuel, Simon

2013-04-01

256

Fault Tolerant Remote Procedure Call  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scheme is presented that makes a remote procedure call (RPC) mechanism fault-tolerant to hardware failures. Fault tolerance is provided by replicating the procedure at a group of nodes, called a cluster. The copies in a cluster are linearly ordered. A call to a procedure is sent to the first copy in the cluster and is propagated internally to all

Kiam S. Yap; Pankaj Jalote; Satish K. Tripathi

1988-01-01

257

Game Theoretic Fault Detection Filter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fault detection process is modeled as a disturbance attenuation problem. The solution to this problem is found via differential game theory, leading to an H(sub infinity) filter which bounds the transmission of all exogenous signals save the fault to ...

W. H. Chung J. L. Speyer

1995-01-01

258

A Novel Fault Current Limiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many attempts have been made to construct an economically feasible Fault Current Limiter (FCL), no FCL has yet been widely accepted by the power industry. This thesis presents a novel fault current limiter for power system applications that is both economically feasible and practical. The work includes two parts. The first part proposes the new topology and analyzes the

Andrew Leo Otete

2004-01-01

259

Uncertainties in Fault Tree Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault tree analysis is one kind of the probabilistic safety analysis method. After constructing a fault tree, many basic events which can happen theoretically have never occurred so far or have occurred so infrequently that their reasonable data are not available. However, the use of fuzzy probability can describe the failure probability and its uncertainty of each basic event ,

Yue-Lung Cheng

260

DC superconducting fault current limiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a lack of satisfying solutions for fault currents using conventional technologies, especially in DC networks, where a superconducting fault current limiter could play a very important part. DC networks bring a lot of advantages when compared to traditional AC ones, in particular within the context of the liberalization of the electric market. Under normal operation in a DC

P. Tixador; C. Villard; Y. Cointe

2006-01-01

261

DAFT: decoupled acyclic fault tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher transistor counts, lower voltage levels, and reduced noise margin increase the susceptibility of multicore processors to transient faults. Redundant hardware modules can detect such errors, but software transient fault detection techniques are more appealing for their low cost and flexibility. Recent software proposals double register pressure or memory usage, or are too slow in the absence of hardware extensions,

Yun Zhang; Jae W. Lee; Nick P. Johnson; David I. August

2010-01-01

262

Fault trees and imperfect coverage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new algorithm is presented for solving the fault tree. The algorithm includes the dynamic behavior of the fault\\/error handling model but obviates the need for the Markov chain solution. As the state space is expanded in a breadth-first search (the same is done in the conversion to a Markov chain), the state's contribution to each future state is calculated

Joanne Bechta Dugan

1989-01-01

263

Surface Creep on California Faults  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides data from a number of creepmeters in California. A creepmeter is an instrument that monitors the slow surface displacement of an active fault. Its function is not to measure fault slip during earthquakes, but to record the slow aseismic slip between earthquakes.

Bilham, Roger; Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES), University of Colorado

264

Differential Fault Analysis of Rabbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rabbit is a high speed scalable stream cipher with 128-bit key and a 64-bit initialization vector. It has passed all three stages of the ECRYPT stream cipher project and is a member of eSTREAM software portfolio. In this paper, we present a practical fault analysis attack on Rabbit. The fault model in which we analyze the cipher is the one in which the attacker is assumed to be able to fault a random bit of the internal state of the cipher but cannot control the exact location of injected faults. Our attack requires around 128 - 256 faults, precomputed table of size 241.6 bytes and recovers the complete internal state of Rabbit in about 238 steps.

Kircanski, Aleksandar; Youssef, Amr M.

265

Comparison of Cenozoic Faulting at the Savannah River Site to Fault Characteristics of the Atlantic Coast Fault Province: Implications for Fault Capability  

SciTech Connect

This study compares the faulting observed on the Savannah River Site and vicinity with the faults of the Atlantic Coastal Fault Province and concludes that both sets of faults exhibit the same general characteristics and are closely associated. Based on the strength of this association it is concluded that the faults observed on the Savannah River Site and vicinity are in fact part of the Atlantic Coastal Fault Province. Inclusion in this group means that the historical precedent established by decades of previous studies on the seismic hazard potential for the Atlantic Coastal Fault Province is relevant to faulting at the Savannah River Site. That is, since these faults are genetically related the conclusion of ''not capable'' reached in past evaluations applies.In addition, this study establishes a set of criteria by which individual faults may be evaluated in order to assess their inclusion in the Atlantic Coast Fault Province and the related association of the ''not capable'' conclusion.

Cumbest, R.J.

2000-11-14

266

Arc fault detection system  

DOEpatents

An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard. 1 fig.

Jha, K.N.

1999-05-18

267

Design and realization of fault diagnostic system for trunking base station based on LabVIEW and Visual Basic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trunking communication system is a sort of specialized command and control system. It is widely used in rescue work and public safety emergency. The peculiar occasion of its application requires more efficient fault diagnostic system. The rapid development of virtual instrument provides a new approach to the fault diagnosis of communication equipment. In this paper, the construction and the realization

Yongjun Gu; Liu Liu; Zhiyong Shi; Chao Zhang

2010-01-01

268

Geologic fault slip rates support transitory, elevated geodetic strain accumulation across the Mojave Desert, Eastern California shear zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geologic fault slip rates measured from displaced Pleistocene markers test the discrepancy between infrequent paleoseismicity and rapid geodetic rates of dextral shear across the Eastern California shear zone (ECSZ). Using high-resolution ALSM topography, aerial photography, and field investigations we document Quaternary alluvial fans and basalt flows displaced by six dextral faults that define the active ECSZ in the central Mojave

M. Oskin; L. Perg; E. Shelef; M. Strane; E. Gurney; D. Blummentritt; S. Mukhopadhyay; A. Iriondo

2006-01-01

269

Influence of crustal heterogeneity on normal fault dimensions and evolution: southern South Africa extensional system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tectonic configuration of southern South Africa is dominated by a continental scale, Mesozoic extensional system superimposed upon a significant, and well constrained, Palaeozoic lithospheric scale heterogeneity. Through integrating onshore structural analysis with offshore subsurface studies it is possible to evaluate the applicability of established normal fault growth models in a heterogeneous crustal setting at a basin scale for the first time. The >480-km-long Mesozoic extensional system comprises a number of fault arrays that vary in length from 78 to 230 km. Coupled with displacements of up to 16 km, the fault arrays are amongst the longest and largest displacement of high angle normal faults (dips of 45 60°) documented in continental lithosphere, although comprised of co-linear segments rather than the en-échelon segment configuration typical of many other extensional systems. This atypical geometry is considered to be a consequence of the high degree of structural inheritance between the underlying Paleozoic Cape Fold Belt and the subsequent extensional system. Furthermore, it is proposed that the overall displacement length dimensions of the extensional faults were inherited from the underlying compressional faults. The establishment of a seismic stratigraphic framework for the Pletmos and Gamtoos offshore basins reveals that the faults established their long lengths (160 and 90 km, respectively) within ˜6 Myr of rift initiation prior to accruing their substantial displacement (16 km). Furthermore, there is no evidence for the development of intra-basin faults. The southern South Africa extensional system presents an end member case of structural inheritance where extensional structures are parallel to and reactivate underlying compressional structures. In this study structural inheritance is considered to have a significant effect on mechanisms of fault growth. The pre-existing structures not only result in the rapid establishment of fault lengths of up to 160 km, but, additionally, to strain being localised onto the pre-existing fabric to such an extent that no intra-basin faults evolve and strain is accommodated entirely on the bounding faults.

Paton, Douglas A.

2006-05-01

270

Crustal collapse and the formation of synthetic normal faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geologic mapping and seismic imaging of regions of continental extension often shows normal faults dipping in the same direction within a subregion or corridor. For example Stewart (1978) describes zones across broad parts of the Basin and Range Province of Western North America with synthetic faulting. Patton et al. (1994) maps out corridors across the well studied Gulf of Suez which are characterized by major normal faults that dip in the same direction. We investigate mechanical conditions that can lead to such packages of synthetic normal faults during continental extension using both analytic and numerical approaches. Two-dimensional numerical simulations treat lithospheric extension with strain weakening in the brittle upper crust and allow for spontaneous development of localized shear zones (i.e. model faults). Here we describe model results for cases with laterally uniform crust overlying mantle lithosphere. In the interest of simplicity we ignore thermal advection and diffusion of heat that would lead to lateral variations in crustal viscosity. The model viscosity decreases exponentially with depth. The model fault pattern in the upper crust depends strongly on the viscous behavior of the warmer lower crust. In cases where the viscosity decreases slowly with depth, a system of antithetic faults develops over the entire width of the model domain. The faults form and grow simultaneously and can result in a horst and graben pattern. Multiple synthetic faults can develop when the brittle upper crust essentially collapses into the widening hole caused by extensional crustal thinning. The synthetic faults develop sequentially as the region of crustal thinning widens. We see this pattern of similar dips developing only when the force required for extension of the viscous transition region between the brittle upper crust and the weak lower crust is small compared to the force related to crustal thinning. In the context of this simple model set-up, this occurs when the viscosity decreases very rapidly with depth. Also, the low viscosity lower crust cannot flow into the region of crustal thinning so fast that lateral crustal thickness contrasts do not develop.

Buck, R.; Nagel, T.; Lavier, L.

2003-04-01

271

Measurements of Bismuth-214 in Soils to Locate Fault Traces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple and rapid technique to determine the relative counts of Bi-214 in surface soils to locate active fault traces of the El Pilar Fault in the state of Sucre, Venezuela will be presented. The method employed 300 seconds of measuring time using a portable differential gamma ray spectrometer on site. Three transects across the El Pilar fault that had very different geological aspects were studied. The first two at San Miguel and Guaraphiche showed clear positive anomalies at the fault trace, while a large positive anomaly was seen by radon-222 measurements at the San Miguel site and a small negative anomaly at the Guarpiche site. At the Las Toscanas site neither the measurements of the relative Bi-214 or the relative counts of radon-222 could confirm the fault trace, it has been suggested that since all the value of radon-222 and Bi-214 along this transect were high, that all of the measuring points were over very fracture soils. One of the advantages of this technique in respect to determining radon-222 in soil-gas is that no soil-gas probes are required to be inserted in the soil and the problem to know which is the appropriate depth. Finally, it has been suggested that measurements of 1000 seconds would be preferred rather than 300 seconds for future studies even though this would limit the number of measurements to about 20 per day.

Labrecque, J. J.; Melo, L.; Cordoves, P. R.; Urbani, F.

2004-05-01

272

Seismicity and Stress Change Along the Central Philippine Fault Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent findings showed that the Philippine fault zone (PFZ) has a creeping section, a transition zone and a locked portion in its central portion. This part of the PFZ is comprised of the Guinyangan, Masbate, northern Leyte and southern Leyte faults. In this study, an attempt is taken to have a closer look on the seismic pattern and relationship between the creep events, moderate quakes and major events along in Guinyangan, Masbate, and northern Leyte, respectively based on the recent available seismic data and field surveys. Dislocation along a fault that involves no rapid release of energy in a seismic event is called creep. Creep was identified along the central PFZ in early 1990s using GPS records. On the other hand, moderate quakes are earthquakes with magnitude range of M5.5~M7. In central PFZ, moderate quakes were recognized to occur along the transition zone through an event in early 2003 that was accompanied by a large ground rupture. Although moderate events have usually a calculated fault. This portion is considered locked and the locus of major quakes in the past. South of the Guinyangan fault is the Masbate fault. A very interesting event occurred in this fault in 2003 along the Masbate fault, a transition zone. South of this portion is the northern Leyte fault which is considered undergoing a creep activity. After the 2003 event, the Guinyangan fault was anticipated to experience some changes in local stress field. However, the temporal and spatial plots of seismicity indicate a west-northwestward propagation of seismic activity along the Sibuyan fault. Sibuyan fault is an offshore fault traversing the Sibuyan Sea and probably into Taal area and/or branches out into the southern part of Marinduque island. Considering the amount of data available and the peculiar seismic activity along the central PFZ, we try to examine the seismicity and determine if a particular seismic pattern is discernable in this region and correlating them to possible regional and local stress change in a specific portion of the PFZ. Considering the importance of the results of this study and in view of the presence of major cities and towns in southern Luzon, the Sibuyan and Guinyangan faults need more attention for seismic and crustal deformation studies. Concerning the disaster mitigation and preparedness in the southern Luzon regions, finding from such researches would be an important input for local stress change research that could reveal the probability of local earthquake occurrence. Keeping in mind that the San Andreas fault has almost the same features, a comparison would be undertaken to note any similarities or differences between the two structures.

Besana, G. M.; Ando, M.; Ikuta, R.; Daligdig, J. A.; Panol, M. D.; Ikeda, A.; Nakamura, T.

2005-12-01

273

Displacement Addition on Linking Extensional Fault Arrays in the Canyonlands Graben, Utah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of brittle fault populations over the past decade have revealed that large extensional faults grow by the lengthening, interaction and physical linkage of en echelon fault segments. However, the temporal evolution of displacement accumulation during segment interaction and linkage is difficult to unravel due to a lack of direct observation during each stage in the fault array development. The process of profile re-adjustment prevents reconstruction of the growth history of a fault from its final configuration, and as a result, several models for the growth trajectory of a fault array undergoing linkage are possible. Observational data with which to constrain the relative timing and mode of displacement accumulation during the linkage process are currently lacking. We use the deformation of late Pleistocene-Holocene stream systems by the growth of a active normal faults in The Grabens, Canyonlands National Park, Utah to constrain the mode of growth of fault arrays. Coupling fault displacement data with geomorphic analysis of deformed present-day and palaeo-streams, permits sequential reconstruction of both simple 2-segment fault arrays and complex multi-segment populations from their initial component segments to the present day displacement geometry. In particular, these data provide information on the relative rates of displacement addition. For example, the presence of waterfalls where streams cross fault scarps indicates abrupt rates of displacement accumulation which we can relate to the hard linkage process. The reconstruction of both three- and six-segment faults reveal common aspects of displacement distribution through time: (1) Displacement accumulation occurs almost entirely in the interaction and linkage phase. (2) Interaction between segments causes enhanced displacement addition in overlap zones. (3) Despite interaction in the soft-linkage stage, faults do not achieve a characteristic profile during this phase (4) Displacement accrues rapidly immediately following linkage, and recovery to a standard D-l profile is gained through this process. (5) The locus of displacement accumulation is not fixed in time; the central fault segment does not always experience the greatest displacement enhancement. Preliminary results of cosmogenic 10Be exposure dating of bedrock with quartz from the Permian Cedar Mesa Sandstone indicate recent (<10ka) timing of rapid displacement addition on linking faults.

Commins, D. C.; Gupta, S.; Cartwright, J. A.; Phillips, W. M.

2003-12-01

274

Inductive Fault Analysis of MOS Integrated Circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inductive Fault Analysis (IFA) is a systematic Procedure to predict all the faults that are likely to occur in MOS integrated circuit or subcircuit The three major steps of the IFA procedure are: (1) generation of Physical defects using statistical data from the fabrication process; (2) extraction of circuit-level faults caused by these defects; and (3) classification of faults types

John Shen; W. Maly; F. J. Ferguson

1985-01-01

275

Sensitivity analysis of modular dynamic fault trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic fault tree analysis, as currently supported by the Galileo software package, provides an effective means for assessing the reliability of embedded computer-based systems. Dynamic fault trees extend traditional fault trees by defining special gates to capture sequential and functional dependency characteristics. A modular approach to the solution of dynamic fault trees effectively applies Binary Decision Diagram (BOD) and Markov

Yong Ou; Joanne Bechta Dugan

2000-01-01

276

Creating Small Fault Dictionar-ies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnostic fault simulation can generate enormous amounts of data. The techniques used to manage this data can have signi cant e ect on the outcome of the fault diagnosis procedure. We rst demonstrate that if information is removed from a fault dictionary, its ability to diagnose unmodeled faults may be severely curtailed even if dictionary quality metrics remain una ected;

B. Chess; T. Larrabee

1999-01-01

277

Arc Fault Management Using Solid State Switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

In arc fault circuit breakers, the choice of a fault detection sensitivity is generally made as a compromise between speed of detection and avoidance of nuisance trips. By using solid state switching with a variable arc fault detection threshold, the best of both worlds can be obtained. This paper describes baseline experiments on arc fault management through the use of

David Nemir; Adriana Martinez; Bill Diong

2004-01-01

278

Composite fault location for Distribution Management Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of fault location is an integral part of Distribution Management System (DMS) solutions. This paper presents a method of locating fault in unsymmetrical networks, including both radial and meshed parts of the network. The real-time information regarding the topological condition of the network and the status updates of the Fault Indicators are used as input to the fault

I. Dzafic; P. Mohapatra; H. T. Neisius

2010-01-01

279

Fault Propagation Model for Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging technologies of autonomic networks im- pose demanding requirements on self-healing capabilities of networks. Fault management techniques based on the exploitation of fault propagation models (FPM) are a promising solution to conduct fault isolation and to infer the root cause of problems observed in the network. In this study, we investigate a fault prop- agation model developed for the needs

Agnieszka Betkowska Cavalcante; Monika Grajzer

2011-01-01

280

LSI product quality and fault coverage  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, the relationship between fault coverage of LSI circuit tests and the tested product quality is not satisfactorily understood. Reported work on integrated circuits predicts, for an acceptable field reject rate, a fault coverage that is too high (99 percent or higher). This fault coverage is difficult to achieve for LSI circuits. This paper proposes a model of fault

Vishwani D. Agrawal; Sharad C. Seth; Prathima Agrawal

1981-01-01

281

Continuous permeability measurements record healing inside the Wenchuan earthquake fault zone.  

PubMed

Permeability controls fluid flow in fault zones and is a proxy for rock damage after an earthquake. We used the tidal response of water level in a deep borehole to track permeability for 18 months in the damage zone of the causative fault of the 2008 moment magnitude 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake. The unusually high measured hydraulic diffusivity of 2.4 × 10(-2) square meters per second implies a major role for water circulation in the fault zone. For most of the observation period, the permeability decreased rapidly as the fault healed. The trend was interrupted by abrupt permeability increases attributable to shaking from remote earthquakes. These direct measurements of the fault zone reveal a process of punctuated recovery as healing and damage interact in the aftermath of a major earthquake. PMID:23812711

Xue, Lian; Li, Hai-Bing; Brodsky, Emily E; Xu, Zhi-Qing; Kano, Yasuyuki; Wang, Huan; Mori, James J; Si, Jia-Liang; Pei, Jun-Ling; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Guang; Sun, Zhi-Ming; Huang, Yao

2013-06-28

282

Paleoseismicity of the North American-Caribbean plate boundary (Septentrional fault), Dominican Republic  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Septentrional fault zone, the major North American-Caribbean plate-boundary fault in Hispaniola, is a likely source of large earthquakes in the Dominican Republic. An excavation into a Holocene alluvial fan deposited across the fault in the central Cibao Valley, Dominican Republic, provides evidence that it has been at least 430 yr and probably more than 740 yr since the last ground-rupturing earthquake along this segment of the fault. On the basis of these data and published estimates of the plate-tectonic slip rate, it is proposed that the Septentrional fault is a source of high seismic potential in the densely populated and rapidly developing Cibao Valley in the northern Dominican Republic. -Authors

Prentice, C. S.; Mann, P.; Taylor, F. W.; Burr, G.; Valastro, S.

1993-01-01

283

Fault classification and fault signature production for rolling element bearings in electric machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most condition monitoring techniques for rolling element bearings are designed to detect the four characteristic fault frequencies. This has lead to the common practice of categorizing bearing faults according to fault location (i.e., inner race, outer race, ball, or cage fault). While the ability to detect the four characteristic fault frequencies is necessary, this approach neglects another important class of

Jason R. Stack; Thomas G. Habetler; Ronald G. Harley

2004-01-01

284

Implications for mechanical properties of brittle faults from observations of the Punchbowl fault zone, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field observations of the Punchbowl fault zone, an inactive trace of the San Andreas, are integrated with results from experimental deformation of naturally deformed Punchbowl fault rocks for a qualitative description of the mechanical properties of the fault and additional information for conceptual models of crustal faulting. The Punchbowl fault zone consists of a single, continuous gouge layer bounded by

F. M. Chester; J. M. Logan

1986-01-01

285

Fault diagnosis of airborne equipment based on grey correlation fault tree identification method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to diagnosis the complex airborne equipment faults with small samples and feebleness condition, a grey correlation fault tree identification method is proposed by combining the grey system theory with fault tree analysis method. Firstly, on the basis of the fault tree qualitative and quantitative analysis by using binary decision diagram (BDD), the standard fault modes are constructed based

Wei Tian

2008-01-01

286

Fault detection and management system for fault tolerant switched reluctance motor drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault-tolerance characteristics of the switched reluctance motor are discussed, and winding fault detectors are presented which recognize shorted motor windings. Logic circuitry in the inverter blocks the power switch gating signals of the affected phase at the receipt of a fault-detection signal from one of the fault detectors. The fault detectors were implemented on a laboratory drive system to demonstrate

C. M. Stephens

1989-01-01

287

Fault injection in mixed-signal environment using behavioral fault modeling in Verilog-A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault injection methods have been used for analyzing dependability characteristics of systems for years. In this paper we propose a practical mixed-signal fault injection flow that is fast as well as accurate. We described three classes of most common faults: i) Single event transients, ii) Electro-Magnetic interference and iii) Power disturbance faults. Fault models are implemented directly into circuit's devices

Seyed-Nematollah Ahmadian; Seyed-Ghassem Miremadi

2010-01-01

288

Fault Trace: Marin County, California  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This photograph shows the trace of a fault (in trench phase) as it passes beneath a barn. The trace developed during the April 18, 1906 San Francisco Earthquake. The location is the Skinner Ranch, near Olema, Marin County, California.

289

Long-term monitoring of fresco paintings in the cathedral of Valencia (Spain) through humidity and temperature sensors in various locations for preventive conservation.  

PubMed

We describe the performance of a microclimate monitoring system that was implemented for the preventive conservation of the Renaissance frescoes in the apse vault of the Cathedral of Valencia, that were restored in 2006. This system comprises 29 relative humidity (RH) and temperature sensors: 10 of them inserted into the plaster layer supporting the fresco paintings, 10 sensors in the walls close to the frescoes and nine sensors measuring the indoor microclimate at different points of the vault. Principal component analysis was applied to RH data recorded in 2007. The analysis was repeated with data collected in 2008 and 2010. The resulting loading plots revealed that the similarities and dissimilarities among sensors were approximately maintained along the three years. A physical interpretation was provided for the first and second principal components. Interestingly, sensors recording the highest RH values correspond to zones where humidity problems are causing formation of efflorescence. Recorded data of RH and temperature are discussed according to Italian Standard UNI 10829 (1999). PMID:22164100

Zarzo, Manuel; Fernández-Navajas, Angel; García-Diego, Fernando-Juan

2011-09-08

290

Novel methodology for the extraction and identification of natural dyestuffs in historical textiles by HPLC-UV-Vis-ESI MS. Case study: chasubles from the Wawel Cathedral collection.  

PubMed

High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with spectrophotometric and electrospray mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-UV-Vis-ESI MS) was used for characterization of natural dyes present in historical art works. The gradient program was developed for identification of 29 colorants of various polarities. Dual detection system (UV-Vis and ESI MS) allowed differentiation of all compounds, even if they were not completely separated. This enabled examination of more color compounds over a substantially shorter time in comparison with previously recommended methods. Moreover, for extraction of colorants from historical textiles a two-step sequential procedure was proposed, excluding evaporation used in earlier procedures. The developed method was successfully applied to identification of indigotin, carminic, kermesic, flavokermesic, dcII, dcIV, dcVII, and ellagic acids as well as luteolin, apigenin, and genistein in red, violet, and green fibers taken from three selected historical chasubles which belong to the collection of the Wawel Cathedral treasury (Cracow, Poland). Italian textiles from the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, of which chasubles were made, were dyed with a limited number of dyestuffs, consistently used for all batches of fabrics. The obtained results also allowed confirmation of the structure of the so-called "dcII" component of cochineal as a C-glucose derivative of flavokermesic acid. PMID:21188578

Lech, Katarzyna; Jarosz, Maciej

2010-12-28

291

DAFT: Decoupled Acyclic Fault Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher transistor counts, lower voltage levels, and reduced noise margin increase the susceptibility of multicore processors\\u000a to transient faults. Redundant hardware modules can detect such faults, but software techniques are more appealing for their\\u000a low cost and flexibility. Recent software proposals have not achieved widespread acceptance because they either increase register\\u000a pressure, double memory usage, or are too slow in

Yun Zhang; Jae W. Lee; Nick P. Johnson; David I. August

292

Generic faults - The first word  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The achievement of highly reliable, full time critical control system designs, such as those of fly-by-wire and fly-by-light flight control systems, is through the institution of development methods which increase the likelihood of faults' detection and toleration by redundant system architectural practices and reconfiguration capabilities. Management methods must accordingly give attention to factors that can be computed to act as predictors of fault and error performance on the basis of physical data.

Cannon, D. G.

293

Types of Faults in California  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educational movie made using SCEC-VDO shows the differences between strike-slip faults and thrust faults in southern California.The Southern California Earthquake Center's Virtual Display of Objects SCEC-VDO is 3D visualization software that allows users to display study and make movies of earthquakes as they occur globally. SCEC-VDO was developed by interns of SCEC Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology UseIT under the supervision of Sue Perry and Tom Jordan.

Jordan., Interns O.

294

The intermediate principal stress effect on faulting and fault orientation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conducted true triaxial compression tests on rectangular prismatic specimens (19×19×38 mm) of siltstone core extracted from a depth of 1252 m, some 140 m below the borehole intersection with the Chelungpu Fault, Taiwan. Experiments consisted of four series of tests in each of which ?3 was kept constant and ?2 was varied from test to test. The major principal stress (?1), aligned with the long vertical side of the specimen, was raised at constant strain rate until a through-going, steeply dipping fault was initiated. As in igneous and metamorphic rocks previously tested, ?1 required to bring about faulting rose as ?2 was set at increasing levels above ?3. This observation reflects the significant contribution of ?2 to the compressive strength, and raises doubt about the suitability of the Mohr-Coulomb criterion. Rather, a strength criterion in terms of the invariants octahedral shear stress (?oct) as a function of mean stress (?oct) provides a good fit to the experimental data. In all tests fault strike was aligned with ?2 direction. The angle (or dip) ? of the fault was also strongly affected by ?2. For constant ?3 the angle rose with ?2, again departing from the Mohr-Coulomb criterion, which predicts a fault angle independent of the intermediate principal stress. The experimental results, revealing the dependence of fault angle ? on ?2, were compared with predictions based on shear localization theory incorporating a yield surface and plastic potential that depend on the following three stress invariants (rather than two, as in Rudnicki and Rice, 1975): ?oct, ?oct, and the Lode angle ?L (=arctan{[2?2 - ?1 - ?3]-[?3 (?1 - ?3)]}). Dependences of the yield surface and plastic potential on mean stress were inferred from the fault angles observed in axisymmetric compression and deviatoric pure shear. Using these relationships to predict fault angle ? for deviatoric stress states other than axisymmetric compression and pure shear, yields good agreement with the experimental observations. The results predict that for constant mean stress, the fault angle ? decreases as the deviatoric stress state varies from axisymmetric extension to axisymmetric compression. For fixed deviatoric stress states, ? decreases monotonically with increasing mean stress.

Haimson, Bezalel; Rudnicki, John

2010-05-01

295

Passive fault current limiting device  

DOEpatents

A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment. 6 figs.

Evans, D.J.; Cha, Y.S.

1999-04-06

296

Helium: a gaseous geochemical guide to faults, fractures and geothermal systems  

SciTech Connect

Helium-4, which is a product of radioactive decay in basement rocks, will preferentially migrate to the surface along deep-seated faults and fractures. The discovery of such fault and fracture systems is a key element in the exploration for geothermal deposits. Helium geochemistry provides a rapid, cost-effective and environmentally non-destructive exploration tool which can define concealed fracture zones. The applicability of this technique has been clearly demonstrated in regional and detailed prospect evaluations.

Kahler, D.E.

1981-10-01

297

System fault protection design for the Cassini spacecraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault protection can include a wide range of topics, ranging from fault prevention to autonomous fault detection and recovery. This paper will address a portion of the autonomous fault detection and recovery implemented on board the Cassini spacecraft. Specifically, the topic is system level fault protection design, as opposed to subsystem fault protection design. The design of system fault protection

J. P. Slonski

1996-01-01

298

Ground penetrating radar imaging of active faults across the offshore-onshore boundary of the northern Gulf of Aqaba, Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The city of Aqaba is situated at the northern end of Gulf of Aqaba along the southern part of the Dead Sea Transform (DST) which is the main source of seismic activity in the region. A ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey was carried out Aqaba under the MERC M25-004 Project that seeks to map the active faults submerged in the northern gulf that lie immediately offshore and the faults that lie onshore beneath the rapidly developing cities of Aqaba and Eilat. Approximately 3000 m of GPR lines were collected in Aqaba with a 400 MHz and 100 MHz monostatic antennas. The maximum depth of penetration was with approximately 10 meter. The GPR survey conducted in Aqaba reveals several different kinds of anomalies and discontinuities. In order to enhance our interpration of the GPR anomalies, we collected several GPR lines across several locations in the city where faults, fractures, and channels have been mapped in trench exposures. Analysis of the anomalies and discontinuities in GPR cross section (radagram) can be interpreted as a set of shallow fractures and faults within various lithologic changes. All the detected faults located by GPR survey are shallow less than 10 m depth and have vertical small displacement within late Quaternary sediments. The GPR anomalies appear to align along three NE-trending fault zones in the city of Aqaba. These zones, that we call the Ayla fault, the West Aqaba fault, and the Aqaba fault zone, appear to be on land extensions of faults that have been imaged offshore in the Gulf of Aqaba as part of our recent marine geophysical survey. This study indicates that there are more active faults within the region than previously mapped. Studying the late Quaternary sediments would provide a way to characterize the seismic hazard potential of faults. The GPR inferred faults seem to be an extension of the marine seismic inferred fault.

Abueladas, Abdel-Rahman; Al-Zoubi, Abdallah; Niemi, Tina; Akawi, Emad; Alruzouq, Rami; Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Hartman, Gal; Tiber, Gideon

2010-05-01

299

Agent-based real-time fault diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theory and applications of model-based fault diagnosis have progressed significantly in the last four decades. In addition, there has been increasing use of model-based design and testing in automotive industry to reduce design errors, perform real-time simulations for rapid prototyping, and hardware-in-the-loop testing. For vehicle diagnosis, a global diagnosis method, which collects the diagnostic information from all the subsystem electronic

Jianhui Luo; Krishna R. Pattipati; Liu Qiao; S. Chigusa

2005-01-01

300

Active Normal Fault Behaviour and Continental Rift Geometry in the Corinth Rift, Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gulf of Corinth continental rift, central Greece extends at up to 15 mm/yr with regular M6+ earthquakes. However, rapid geodetic extension rates in the western rift cannot be accounted for by displacement on onshore faults alone, where slip rates determined from uplifted terraces and paleoseismological trenching are significantly lower. High resolution seismic reflection and multibeam bathymetric data were collected to survey offshore faults contributing to extension and quantify their displacement. In the western rift, a basement horst on the northern margin is uplifted by the N and S Eratini faults and the axial channel is fault-controlled. Subsided lowstand shorelines in the hangingwall of the N Eratini and the well-studied Aigion fault suggest that both faults have similar displacements. Summed extension from the four major faults across this part of the rift (Eliki, Sub-channel, S Eratini, N Eratini) is of the order of 8-12 mm/yr, thereby reconciling geologic and geodetic datasets. Geomorphology indicates that the rift geometry changes along axis, with a model of distributed deformation across multiple faults proposed for the western rift. The high resolution seismic data linked to sea level history within the gulf (isolated during lowstands) potentially allow changes in slip rate to be determined on a 10000 year timescale. These results compliment the often shorter (100's-10000's years) timescales of onshore fault trenching and uplifted terrace sequences in terms of temporal fault behaviour. Ultimately, seismic hazard can be refined based on fluctuations in past fault behaviour within the rift.

McNeill, L.; Cotterill, C.; Henstock, T.; Bull, J.; Stefatos, A.; Hicks, S.; Collier, R.; Papatheoderou, G.; Ferentinos, G.

2004-12-01

301

Fault Analysis in Solar Photovoltaic Arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fault analysis in solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays is a fundamental task to increase reliability, efficiency and safety in PV systems. Conventional fault protection methods usually add fuses or circuit breakers in series with PV components. But these protection devices are only able to clear faults and isolate faulty circuits if they carry a large fault current. However, this research shows that faults in PV arrays may not be cleared by fuses under some fault scenarios, due to the current-limiting nature and non-linear output characteristics of PV arrays. First, this thesis introduces new simulation and analytic models that are suitable for fault analysis in PV arrays. Based on the simulation environment, this thesis studies a variety of typical faults in PV arrays, such as ground faults, line-line faults, and mismatch faults. The effect of a maximum power point tracker on fault current is discussed and shown to, at times, prevent the fault current protection devices to trip. A small-scale experimental PV benchmark system has been developed in Northeastern University to further validate the simulation conclusions. Additionally, this thesis examines two types of unique faults found in a PV array that have not been studied in the literature. One is a fault that occurs under low irradiance condition. The other is a fault evolution in a PV array during night-to-day transition. Our simulation and experimental results show that overcurrent protection devices are unable to clear the fault under "low irradiance" and "night-to-day transition". However, the overcurrent protection devices may work properly when the same PV fault occurs in daylight. As a result, a fault under "low irradiance" and "night-to-day transition" might be hidden in the PV array and become a potential hazard for system efficiency and reliability.

Zhao, Ye

302

Detection and diagnosis of bearing and cutting tool faults using hidden Markov models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last few decades, the research for new fault detection and diagnosis techniques in machining processes and rotating machinery has attracted increasing interest worldwide. This development was mainly stimulated by the rapid advance in industrial technologies and the increase in complexity of machining and machinery systems. In this study, the discrete hidden Markov model (HMM) is applied to detect and diagnose mechanical faults. The technique is tested and validated successfully using two scenarios: tool wear/fracture and bearing faults. In the first case the model correctly detected the state of the tool (i.e., sharp, worn, or broken) whereas in the second application, the model classified the severity of the fault seeded in two different engine bearings. The success rate obtained in our tests for fault severity classification was above 95%. In addition to the fault severity, a location index was developed to determine the fault location. This index has been applied to determine the location (inner race, ball, or outer race) of a bearing fault with an average success rate of 96%. The training time required to develop the HMMs was less than 5 s in both the monitoring cases.

Boutros, Tony; Liang, Ming

2011-08-01

303

Modeling of externally-induced\\/common-cause faults in fault-tolerant systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling fault behaviors such as fault occurrences and active\\/benign durations is an essential step to the design and evaluation of fault-tolerant controller computers. We use a beta-binomial distribution to model fault occurrences both in the presence and in the absence of environmentally-induced (thus common-cause) faults. A multinomial distribution is used to model fault active durations. The proposed model is validated

Hagbae Kim; Kang G. Shin

1994-01-01

304

Numerical simulation of formation process of fault zone structures considering various mechanical fault properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fault core samples retrieved by deep drilling allow us to directly obtain information of fault zone architectures and mechanical properties of fault rocks. It is qualitatively known that the form of fault zone structures are affected by the mechanical rock properties. Therefore understanding the formation process of fault zone structure will help to understand the mechanical property of fault zones, enhancing the better use of fault core samples. Well know process linking the material property and the structure is strength evolution due to successive straining: strain softening properties lead the formation of localized strain bands and, by contrast, strain hardening results in pervasive structures. However, there is another process contributing the formation of fault zone structures that is the failure of off-fault medium due to stress concentration at rupture tips. It is poorly understood how these processes affect under the actual condition natural faults obeying. By numerically modeling the off-fault failures associated with dynamic rupture propagation, we quantitatively investigate the role of the material properties for the resulting fault zone structures. In elastic full space, we assume a main fault with a large number of secondary faults spontaneously generated following a slip-weakening based fracture criterion. We simulate how secondary faults are generated and make a fault zone. We had found that the width of a fault zone created by this mechanism is a linearly increasing function of the main fault length until the main fault length exceeds a certain critical length Lm. With a set of parameter study, it is found that the fault zone width is a decreasing function of yield strength of medium surrounding the fault. The characteristic slip weakening distance Dc does not affect to the width significantly but it affects to the amount and distribution of slip on the secondary faults. These relations may help to estimate fault properties based on the analysis of internal fault zone structures.

Ando, R.

2010-12-01

305

Dynamic Processes of Fault Creep along the Chihshang Fault, Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active fault creep along the Chihshang fault in Taiwan has been observed for the past 20 years (Lee et al., 2004). The Chihshang Creepmeter experiment was set up across this most active segment along the Longitudinal Valley fault system, the present-day plate suture between the Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plates in eastern Taiwan. The daily creep data revealed an annual shortening rate ranging from 13 to 18 mm across the fault. The data exhibit a distinct seasonal variation, with the fault creeping steadily in the rainy season and remaining locked during the dry season of the year. Similar observations were also observed in other places of the world, for example, the Parkfield section of the San Andreas Fault. Based on the water level observation in a nearby monitoring well, we calculated the Coulomb failure stress changes induced by the underground water level change. Contributions to the Coulomb failure stress changes are from: (1) the pore water pressure change as a result of the change in ground water table (0.3 bars); (2) loading on the footwall induced by the difference in porosities between the footwall and hanging wall materials (0.1 bars). We found that the loading in the shallow surface layer due to recharge of its aquifer system in the wet-season has increased the Coulomb failure stress and results in periodic creeping activity along the Chihshang fault. For a rate and state dependent friction process, we found the parameter (A-B) is around 10e-3. We constrained the friction parameter (A-B) using observations of the postseismic creep triggered by the Coulomb stress changes of the M6.5 Chengkung, Taiwan earthquake that occurred on the same fault segment in 2003. We re-examined the Coulomb failure stress change for the seasonal induced creep process and found the value is between that with and without the maximum effect of pore water pressure, suggesting a partial hydraulic interconnection of the fault system to its surrounding structures.

Zeng, Y.; Shen, Z.; Lee, J.

2005-12-01

306

Quantifying the Growth History of an Ancient Border Fault System, and the Role of Normal Fault Growth on Sedimentation During Basin Formation: a Case Study from the Late Cambrian Owen Conglomerate, West Coast Range, western Tasmania, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stratigraphic and depositional architecture of evolving extensional basins is principally controlled by normal fault growth through the generation of accommodation space. The history of border fault systems therefore controls the evolution of internal drainage patterns and basin facies distributions. Despite recent advances in the understanding of present-day normal fault growth, quantifying the effect of normal fault evolution on the architecture of ancient sedimentary basins has been largely obscured by post-rift deformation and erosion. The Late Cambrian Owen Conglomerate along the West Coast Range of western Tasmania, Australia, includes thick fluvial sandstone and marine turbidite sequences, as well as fluvial and marine conglomerates. The accumulation of this formation provides excellent insights into the rift-fill history of an ancient extensional basin, due to rugged, glaciated topography and exceptional outcrops, and the typically overfilled nature of the basin, which preserves the fault displacement history. Structural traverses have delineated the geometry of the extensional fault system active during deposition of the Owen Conglomerate. The fault system comprises a segmented array of border faults with variable along-strike polarity. Minimum displacements were calculated from present-day stratigraphic thicknesses, and define a roughly symmetric displacement-length profile that resembles that of a single, isolated fault, with maximum displacement (Dmax) located at the centre of the fault array, and decreasing displacement toward the distal segments. Displacement along the fault system, however, indicates a varied growth history through time. Isolated faulting (Stage 1) occurred during the early stages of rifting, when small fault segments grew in isolation. Stage 1 faults exhibit a Dmax at the centre of each individual segment. Rapid propagation of fault segments to maximum strike length occurred early in the basin history, with only limited interaction and feedback between individual segments. Continued growth faulting (Stage 2) resulted in migration of the locus of maximum displacement as individual segments began to interact and link. Eventual linkage of fault segments (Stage 3) occurred during the final stages of rifting, where the overall system exhibits a characteristic, through-going, displacement-length profile. Integration of lithofacies distributions, isopach maps and palaeocurrent data with the structural dataset shows that the stratigraphic architecture is strongly coupled with the development of the border fault system, and offers a high resolution model for fault development. While the generation of accommodation space adjacent to footwall scarps facilitated the development of a hanging-wall, dip-slope fluvial catchment and axial-through drainage networks, tectonic subsidence also provided a crucial trigger for the onset of isolated marine sedimentation where accommodation space generated by the localised accumulation of displacement on individual segments outpaced sediment supply.

Noll, C. A.; Hall, M.

2003-12-01

307

Rapid thermal non-destructive testing of aircraft components  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares the use of different thermal non-destructive testing techniques to rapidly inspect carbon fibre composite aircraft components. Samples were prepared to simulate inclusions and barely visible impact damage in carbon fibre reinforced plastic laminate which represent faults in the manufacturing process and in-service environment respectively. The limits of material fault detection were then compared for transient and lock-in

D Bates; G Smith; D Lu; J Hewitt

2000-01-01

308

Permeability of the San Andreas Fault Zone at Depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying fault rock permeability is important toward understanding both the regional hydrologic behavior of fault zones, and poro-elastic processes that affect fault mechanics by mediating effective stress. These include long-term fault strength as well as dynamic processes that may occur during earthquake slip, including thermal pressurization and dilatancy hardening. Despite its importance, measurements of fault zone permeability for relevant natural materials are scarce, owing to the difficulty of coring through active fault zones seismogenic depths. Most existing measurements of fault zone permeability are from altered surface samples or from thinner, lower displacement faults than the SAF. Here, we report on permeability measurements conducted on gouge from the actively creeping Central Deformation Zone (CDZ) of the San Andreas Fault, sampled in the SAFOD borehole at a depth of ~2.7 km (Hole G, Run 4, sections 4,5). The matrix of the gouge in this interval is predominantly composed of particles <10 µm, with ~5 vol% clasts of serpentinite, very fine-grained sandstone, and siltstone. The 2.6 m-thick CDZ represents the main fault trace and hosts ~90% of the active slip on the SAF at this location, as documented by repeated casing deformation surveys. We measured permeability in two different configurations: (1) in a uniaxial pressure cell, in which a sample is placed into a rigid steel ring which imposes a zero lateral strain condition and subjected to axial load, and (2) in a standard triaxial system under isostatic stress conditions. In the uniaxial configuration, we obtained permeabilities at axial effective stresses up to 90 MPa, and in the triaxial system up to 10 MPa. All experiments were conducted on cylindrical subsamples of the SAFOD core 25 mm in diameter, with lengths ranging from 18mm to 40mm, oriented for flow approximately perpendicular to the fault. In uniaxial tests, permeability is determined by running constant rate of strain (CRS) tests up to 90 MPa axial stress. In these tests, axial stress is increased via a constant rate of displacement, and the excess pore pressure build up at the base of the sample is measured. Stress, pore pressure and strain are monitored to calculate coefficient of consolidation and volumetric compressibility in addition to permeability. In triaxial experiments, permeability is measured from by flow through tests under constant head boundary conditions. Permeability of the CDZ rapidly decreases to ~10-19 m2 by 20 MPa axial stress in our CRS tests. Over axial stresses from 20-85 MPa, permeability decreases log-linearly with effective stress from 8x10-20 m2 to 1x10-20 m2. Flow-through tests in the triaxial system under isostatic conditions yield permeabilities of 2.2x10-19 m2 and 1x10-20 m2 at 5 and 10 MPa, respectively. Our results are consistent with published geochemical data from SAFOD mud gas samples and inferred pore pressures during drilling [Zoback et al., 2010], which together suggest that the fault is a barrier to regional fluid flow. Our results indicate that the permeability of the fault core is sufficiently low to result in effectively undrained behavior during slip, thus allowing dynamic processes including thermal pressurization and dilatancy hardening to affect slip behavior.

Rathbun, A. P.; Song, I.; Saffer, D.

2010-12-01

309

Mechanical strengths of an active creeping fault at Chihshang, Eastern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 35-km-long Chihshang fault is one of the most active segments of the Longitudinal Valley Fault, the plate suture between the converging Philippine and Eurasian plates in eastern Taiwan. Two moderate earthquakes of M 6.2 and M 6.5 resulted from rupturing of the Chihshang fault with observable surface ruptures, occurred in 1951 and 2003, respectively. In between the 50-year inter-seismic period, the Chihshang fault reveals a seasonal creeping behavior at a rapid rate of about 20-30 mm/yr, at least during the last 25 years with instrumental observation. Based on data from the three dense geodetic networks repeatedly measured once or twice per year across the Chihshang fault zone since 1998, we deployed elastic and visco-elastic modeling in order to seek the fault geometry and the mechanical behaviors of the fault and its surround rocks, in the surface level of uppermost hundred meters. Based on analytic analysis, which searched best-fits for the least residual mean values, we obtained an optimal model with the following parameters: 1) 0-20 m of surface locked zone, which is strongly related to unconsolidated covered deposits, 2) 40-50 degrees of the fault dip angle, which is significantly smaller than the general fault dip angle of 60-70 degrees in the upper crust of 10 km, 3) cohesion of about 15- 20 KPa and friction angle of 9-12 degrees for the mechanical strength of the fault, 4) Young's modulus of about 0.1-0.3 GPa for the surrounding rocks. These results show that 1) the Chihshang fault movement at the surface level, including geometry and locked zone, was substantially affected by surface materials and 2) the fault has a relatively week mechanical strength, which is consistent with the fact of continuously surface creep. However, creep occurred only in wet seasons indicates the mechanical strength of the fault might become significantly stronger during the dry season when no surface slip occurred. The optimal model also indicates that a gentle anticlinal fold developed in the hanging wall of the fault and that the slip on the fault plane decreases gradually from depth toward the surface with near-zero slip in the upper 5-20 m.

Lee, J.; Chang, K.; Lin, M.

2006-12-01

310

Fault-tolerant architecture: Evaluation methodology  

SciTech Connect

The design and reliability of four fault-tolerant architectures that may be used in nuclear power plant control systems were evaluated. Two architectures are variations of triple-modular-redundant (TMR) systems, and two are variations of dual redundant systems. The evaluation includes a review of methods of implementing fault-tolerant control, the importance of automatic recovery from failures, methods of self-testing diagnostics, block diagrams of typical fault-tolerant controllers, review of fault-tolerant controllers operating in nuclear power plants, and fault tree reliability analyses of fault-tolerant systems.

Battle, R.E; Kisner, R.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1992-08-01

311

PC-based fault finder  

SciTech Connect

Electric utilities are continually pressed to stay competitive while meeting the increasing demand of today's sophisticated customer. Advances in electron equipment and the improved array of electric driven devices are setting new standards for improved reliability and quality of service. Besides the specifications on voltage and frequency regulation and the permitted harmonic content, to name a few, the number and duration of service interruptions have a dramatic direct effect on the customer. Accurate fault locating reduces transmission line patrolling and is of particular significance in repairing long lines in rough terrain. Shortened outage times, reduced equipment degrading and stress on the system, fast restored service, and improved revenue are immediate outcomes of fast fault locating which insure minimum loss of system security. This article focuses on a PC-based (DOS) computer program that has unique features for identifying the type of fault and its location on overhead transmission/distribution lines. Balanced and unbalanced faults are identified and located accurately while accounting for changes in conductor sizes and network configuration. The presented concepts and methodologies have been spurred by Otter Tail Power's need for an accurate fault locating scheme to accommodate multiple feeders with mixed lone configurations. A case study based on a section of the Otter Tail network is presented to illustrate the features and capabilities of the developed software.

Bengiamin, N.N. (Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)); Jensen, C.A. (Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Electrical Engineering Dept. Otter Tail Power Co., Fergus Falls, MN (United States). System Protection Group); McMahon, H. (Otter Tail Power, Fergus Falls, MN (United States))

1993-07-01

312

Rapid Response  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rapid Response, a "knowledge resource specializing in policy advice for developing countries," is a new service from the World Bank. Mainly a fee-based service, the Rapid Response service also contains several valuable free resources. The service concentrates on several areas of expertise including investment climates; private participation in a variety of complex sectors such as telecommunications, water, and energy; and output-based aid. By far, the most useful tool offered on this site is Knowledge Resources, the database of papers, reports, case studies and related Websites. The database is searchable by keyword or by topic or resource type.

313

New fault activity map of California  

SciTech Connect

A new Fault Activity Map of California is being prepared by the California Department of Conservation's Division of Mines and Geology. This 1:750,000 scale map depicts what is currently known about the age of displacement of faults in California. Most of the fault data shown on the map and described in the appendices were compiled in 1990 with some additional data added in 1992. This new compilation replaces the Fault Map of California (Jennings, 1975) and the Preliminary Fault Activity Map of California (Jennings, 1992). The locations of ground breakage caused by earthquakes has been updated and includes new rupture data on the Camp Rock, Emerson, Homestead Valley, and Johnson Valley faults that resulted from the Landers/Big Bear earthquakes of June 28, 1992. The map uses a five-color classification scheme that includes historic, Holocene, late Quaternary and undivided Quaternary faults as well as a separate category for the Foothills fault system. Major zones of aligned seismic activity are also depicted. Faults in western Nevada, some of which are extensions of California faults, will also be shown. Accompanying the map will be an explanatory text with five appendices and a plate showing active faults in northern Baja California. This map was prepared primarily as a guide to provide geologic fault information to those concerned with land use planning and public safety. It should be used only as a first approximation of the potential hazard due to faulting.

Jennings, C.W.; Saucedo, G.J. (California Dept. of Conservation, San Francisco, CA (United States). Div. of Mines and Geology)

1993-04-01

314

Integrated fault tree development environment  

SciTech Connect

Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) techniques are utilized in the nuclear industry to perform safety analyses of complex defense-in-depth systems. A major effort in PRA development is fault tree construction. The Integrated Fault Tree Environment (IFTREE) is an interactive, graphics-based tool for fault tree design. IFTREE provides integrated building, editing, and analysis features on a personal workstation. The design philosophy of IFTREE is presented, and the interface is described. IFTREE utilizes a unique rule-based solution algorithm founded in artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. The impact of the AI approach on the program design is stressed. IFTREE has been developed to handle the design and maintenance of full-size living PRAs and is currently in use.

Dixon, B.W.

1986-01-01

315

No-Fault Malpractice Insurance  

PubMed Central

No-fault medical malpractice insurance has been proposed as an alternative to the present tort liability approach. Statistical examination of the concept of proximate cause reveals not only that the question of acceptable care, and therefore of fault, is unavoidable in identifying patients deserving compensation, but also that specifying fault in an individual case is scientifically untenable. A simple formula for a Coefficient of Causality clarifies the question of proximate cause in existing trial practices and suggests that many of the threats associated with malpractice suits arise from the structure of the tort-insurance system rather than from professional responsibility for medical injury. The concepts could provide the basis for a revised claims and compensation procedure.

Bush, J. W.; Chen, M. M.; Bush, A. S.

1975-01-01

316

Fault zone weakening and character of slip along low-angle normal faults: insights from the Zuccale fault, Elba, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismically active low-angle normal faults are recognized at depth in the Northern Apennines, Italy, where recent exhumation has also exposed ancient examples at the surface, notably the Zuccale fault on Elba. Field-based and microstructural studies of the Zuccale fault reveal that an initial phase of pervasive cataclasis increased fault zone permeability, promoting influx of CO2-rich hydrous fluids. This triggered low-grade

C. C OLLETTINI

2004-01-01

317

Reconstruction of drought episodes for central Spain from rogation ceremonies recorded at the Toledo Cathedral from 1506 to 1900: A methodological approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rogation (ceremonies to ask God for rain: pro-pluvia, or to stop raining: pro-serenitate) analysis is an effective method to derive information about climate extremes from documentary data. Weighted annual sum by levels has been a widespread technique to analyze such data but this analysis is liable to be biased to spring values as these ceremonies are strongly related to farming activities. The analysis of the length of pro-pluvia periods (the time span during which rogations are carried out in relation to a drought event) and the combination of annual and seasonal information offers a more objective criterion for the analysis of the drought periods and an increase in the resolution of the study. Analysis by the pro-pluvia periods method of the rogation series from the Toledo (central Spain) Cathedral Chapter allows a good characterization of the droughts during the 1506-1900 period. Two drought maxima appear during the 1600-1675 and 1711-1775 periods, characterized by rogations during almost all the year, with a middle stage (1676-1710) when droughts were less frequent and their length shortened. Sea level pressure patterns for the instrumental and documentary periods show that droughts were mostly related to a north-eastern position of the Azores High that displaced the Atlantic low pressure systems towards a northern position. There is a weak relation with the North Atlantic Oscillation but this fact is related to the local character of the series that increases the weight of the local factors. Comparison of rainfall/drought records around Spain and the Western Mediterranean reveals the heterogeneity of their distribution in time and space as well as stresses the need of more and longer reconstructions. Better knowledge of drought variability would help to improve regional models of climate extremes and the understanding of the atmospheric patterns related to their development.

Domínguez-Castro, Fernando; Santisteban, Juan I.; Barriendos, Mariano; Mediavilla, Rosa

2008-09-01

318

Fault Tectonics and Earthquake Hazards in Parts of Southern California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Four previously unknown faults were discovered in basement terrane of the Peninsular Ranges. These have been named the San Ysidro Creek fault, Thing Valley fault, Canyon City fault, and Warren C...

P. M. Merifield D. L. Lamar C. Gazley J. V. Lamar R. H. Stratton

1976-01-01

319

A Dynamic Finite Element Method for Simulating the Physics of Faults Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a dynamic Finite Element method using a novel high level scripting language to describe the physical equations, boundary conditions and time integration scheme. The library we use is the parallel Finley library: a finite element kernel library, designed for solving large-scale problems. It is incorporated as a differential equation solver into a more general library called escript, based on the scripting language Python. This library has been developed to facilitate the rapid development of 3D parallel codes, and is optimised for the Australian Computational Earth Systems Simulator Major National Research Facility (ACcESS MNRF) supercomputer, a 208 processor SGI Altix with a peak performance of 1.1 TFlops. Using the scripting approach we obtain a parallel FE code able to take advantage of the computational efficiency of the Altix 3700. We consider faults as material discontinuities (the displacement, velocity, and acceleration fields are discontinuous at the fault), with elastic behavior. The stress continuity at the fault is achieved naturally through the expression of the fault interactions in the weak formulation. The elasticity problem is solved explicitly in time, using the Saint Verlat scheme. Finally, we specify a suitable frictional constitutive relation and numerical scheme to simulate fault behaviour. Our model is based on previous work on modelling fault friction and multi-fault systems using lattice solid-like models. We adapt the 2D model for simulating the dynamics of parallel fault systems described to the Finite-Element method. The approach uses a frictional relation along faults that is slip and slip-rate dependent, and the numerical integration approach introduced by Mora and Place in the lattice solid model. In order to illustrate the new Finite Element model, single and multi-fault simulation examples are presented.

Saez, E.; Mora, P.; Gross, L.; Weatherley, D.

2004-12-01

320

Automated distribution fault locating system  

SciTech Connect

An automated fault locating system (FLS) was designed and implemented for the Colorado River Agency (CRA) 12.5/7.2-kV distribution system. This FLS was integrated into the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system which was installed at a hydropower plant. This FLS offers several benefits to the CRA distribution system. These benefits include reduced outage time, help in locating momentary faults, enhanced safety to the line crews, provide notification of an outage without receiving calls from the consumer, and decreased overtime.

Hager, G.E. [Electrical Systems Consultants Inc., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Medicine Bear, R.N. [City of Aztec, NM (United States); Baum, A.S. [Scipar Inc., Buffalo, NY (United States)

1996-05-01

321

Tutorial: Advanced Fault Tree Applications Using HARP.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reliability analysis of fault tolerant computer systems for critical applications is complicated by several factors. These modeling difficulties are discussed and dynamic fault tree modeling techniques for handling them are described and demonstrated. Sev...

J. B. Dugan S. J. Bavuso M. A. Boyd

1993-01-01

322

Role of Faults in the Hydrogeological Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Depending on rock type (limestones, mudrocks etc), faults in mixed sedimentary rocks are variously assumed to enhance or reduce groundwater flow. The report attempts to erect a very broad classification system based on fault-associated phenomena to identi...

J. H. Black J. Alexander P. D. Jackson G. S. Kimbell R. D. Lake

1986-01-01

323

Earthquake fault rupture propagation through soil  

SciTech Connect

The phenomenon of earthquake fault rupture propagation through soil is quite complex and is not well understood at this time. This paper presents the results of an integrated investigation of this problem. Insights are developed from the examination of surface fault rupture field case histories, laboratory physical model tests, and physical analogies to the earthquake fault rupture process. Field observations and experimental results illustrate the typical patterns of behavior developed in the soil overlying a base rock fault displacement. Evidence suggests that differential movement across the distinct fault rupture dissipates as the fault rupture propagates toward the ground surface through unconsolidated earth materials, and that the characteristics of the soil overlying the bedrock fault strongly influence the observed earthquake fault rupture propagation behavior.

Bray, J.D.; Seed, R.B.; Seed, H.B. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)); Cluff, L.S. (Pacific Gas Electric, San Francisco, CA (United States))

1994-03-01

324

Fault seals in oil fields in Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Faults forms seals for oil accumulations in the Eagle Springs, Trap Spring, and Blackburn fields, and probably in the Grant Canyon field, in Nevada. The main boundary fault on the east side of the Pine Valley graben forms a seal in the Blackburn field. A fault on the west side of the trap Spring field forms a seal. In Grant Canyon field, it is interpreted that the main boundary fault on the east side of the Railroad Valley graben forms a seal. Calcite is deposited by hot spring activity, plugging up many fault zones and, in some cases, forming seals. Some fault zones have calcite mineralization up to several thousand feet wide. Within the Eagle Springs field on the east side of the Railroad Valley graben, a northeast-trending fault separates oil accumulations with different oil-water contacts. This separation indicates that the fault forms at least a partial seal within the accumulation.

Foster, N.H.; Veal, H.K.; Bortz, L.C.

1987-08-01

325

Detection of arcing faults on distribution feeders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of detecting high impedance faults is examined from the perspective of current utility protection practices and it is shown why conventional overcurrent protection systems may not detect such faults. A microcomputer based prototype of an arcing, high impedance fault detector was tested. The fault detection technique is based on an increase in the high frequency component of distribution feeder current caused by the arcing associated with many high impedance faults. This theory is supported by field data measurements and analysis of a large number of staged distribution primary faults and normal system conditions. The design and demonstration of the prototype is explained. The device successfully detected many faults of greater than 5 to 10 A on a typical distribution feeder without false trips. General application of this fault detection techniques is considered.

Russell, B. D.

1982-12-01

326

Fault Tolerant Software Modules for SIFT.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The implementation of software fault tolerance is investigated for critical modules of the Software Implemented Fault Tolerance (SIFT) operating system to support the computational and reliability requirements of advanced fly by wire transport aircraft. F...

M. Hecht H. Hecht

1982-01-01

327

A summary of the active fault investigation in the extension sea area of Kikugawa fault and the Nishiyama fault , N-S direction fault in south west Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we carried out two sets of active fault investigation by the request from Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in the sea area of the extension of Kikugawa fault and the Nishiyama fault. We want to clarify the five following matters about both active faults based on those results. (1)Fault continuity of the land and the sea. (2) The length of the active fault. (3) The division of the segment. (4) Activity characteristics. In this investigation, we carried out a digital single channel seismic reflection survey in the whole area of both active faults. In addition, a high-resolution multichannel seismic reflection survey was carried out to recognize the detailed structure of a shallow stratum. Furthermore, the sampling with the vibrocoring to get information of the sedimentation age was carried out. The reflection profile of both active faults was extremely clear. The characteristics of the lateral fault such as flower structure, the dispersion of the active fault were recognized. In addition, from analysis of the age of the stratum, it was recognized that the thickness of the sediment was extremely thin in Holocene epoch on the continental shelf in this sea area. It was confirmed that the Kikugawa fault extended to the offing than the existing results of research by a result of this investigation. In addition, the width of the active fault seems to become wide toward the offing while dispersing. At present, we think that we can divide Kikugawa fault into some segments based on the distribution form of the segment. About the Nishiyama fault, reflection profiles to show the existence of the active fault was acquired in the sea between Ooshima and Kyushu. From this result and topographical existing results of research in Ooshima, it is thought that Nishiyama fault and the Ooshima offing active fault are a series of structure. As for Ooshima offing active fault, the upheaval side changes, and a direction changes too. Therefore, we think that we can divide Nishiyama fault into some segments based on the distribution form of the segment like Kikugawa fault.About both active faults, the length of the active fault, segment division, the activity characteristics of each segment are examining now.

Abe, S.

2010-12-01

328

Focused exhumation along megathrust splay faults in Prince William Sound, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Megathrust splay faults have been identified as important for generating tsunamis in some subduction zone earthquakes (1946 Nankai, 1964 Alaska, 2004 Sumatra). The larger role of megathrust splay faults in accretionary prisms is not well known. In Alaska, we have new evidence that megathrust splay faults are conduits for focused exhumation. In the southern Alaska accretionary complex, in the Prince William Sound region above the 1964 M9.2 earthquake rupture, apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) ages, with closure temperatures of about 65°C, are typically in the range of 10-20 Ma. These relatively old ages indicate little to no accumulation of permanent strain during the megathrust earthquake cycle. However, the youngest AHe ages in all of Prince William Sound are from Montague Island, with two ages of 1.4 Ma on the southwest part of the island and two ages of 4 Ma at the northeast end of the island. Montague Island lies in the hanging wall of the Patton Bay megathrust splay fault, which ruptured during the 1964 earthquake, and resulted in 9 m of vertical uplift. Two other megathrust splay faults also ruptured during the 1964 earthquake in the same area. New high-resolution bathymetry and seismic reflection profiles show abundant normal faults in the region adjacent and north of the megathrust splay faults. The largest of these is the Montague Strait fault, which has 80 m of post glacial offset (~12kya?). We interpret this extension in the hanging wall as accommodating the exhumation of the rocks on Montague Island along the megathrust splay faults. An examination of legacy seismic reflection profiles shows the megathrust splay faults rooting downward into the decollement. At least some extension in the hanging wall may also be related to thrusting over a ramp-flat geometry. These megathrust splay faults are out of sequence thrusts, as they are located about 130 km inboard from the trench. This out of sequence thrusting that is causing the exhumation on Montague Island may be driven by underplating or by the Yakutat microplate collision. We suggest that rapid exhumation along megathrust splay faults, in association with normal faulting, may be a feature along other megathrust splay faults around the world.

Haeussler, P. J.; Armstrong, P. A.; Liberty, L. M.; Ferguson, K.; Finn, S.; Arkle, J. C.; Pratt, T. L.

2011-12-01

329

Exact Delay Fault Coverage in Sequential Logic Under Any Delay Fault Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel function-based method for error propagation is proposed for exact delay fault coverage, using a single rated clock for fault activation under any delay fault model. Sequential circuits without full scan are considered. A latched error at a flip-flop represents one or more delay faults and is allowed to propagate to an observable point with or without the support

Mahilchi Milir Vaseekar Kumar; Spyros Tragoudas; Sreejit Chakravarty; Rathish Jayabharathi

2006-01-01

330

Implications of fault array evolution for synrift depocentre development: insights from a numerical fault growth model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the eVects of interaction between growing normal faults on the creation of accommodation in extensional half grabens. Fault evolution is simulated using a numerical model in which we calculate both the stress field around each fault and the changes in stress level on neighbouring faults caused by individual slip events (earthquakes). These stress changes govern the interaction and

P. A. Cowie; S. Gupta; N. H. Dawers

2000-01-01

331

Monitoring and diagnosis of multiple incipient faults using fault tree induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents DE\\/IFT, a new fault diagnosis engine which is based on the authors' IFT algorithm for induction of fault trees. It learns from an examples database comprising sensor recordings, all of which have been classified as corresponding to either the normal behaviour of the system or to one or more fault states. The fault trees generated by IFT

Michael G. M. Madden; Paul J. Nolan

1999-01-01

332

Fault diagnosis system based on Dynamic Fault Tree Analysis of power transformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Firstly, this research paper introduced the process of transformer fault diagnosis and the theory of DFTA and then we attempt to apply DFTA to the field of transformer faults diagnosis. By establishing the fault tree of transformer, a practical, easily-extended, interactive and self-learning enabled fault diagnosis system based on DFTA for transformer is designed and developed. With the implementation and

Jiang Guo; Kefei Zhang; Lei Shi; Kaikai Gu; Weimin Bai; Bing Zeng; Yajin Liu

2012-01-01

333

Migrating Fault Trees To Decision Trees For Real Time Fault Detection On International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault Tree Analysis shows the possible causes of a system malfunction by enumerating the suspect components and their respective failure modes that may have induced the problem. Complex systems often use fault trees to analyze the faults. Fault diagnosis, when error occurs, is performed by engineers and analysts performing extensive examination of all data gathered during the mission. International Space

Charles Lee; Richard L. Alena; Peter Robinson

2005-01-01

334

Curved Fault Dynamic Rupture Study: Wasatch Fault Salt Lake City Segment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Faults are not planar; the curvature of the fault provides us useful information on the earthquake mechanics and faulting (Scholz, 1990). Fault geometry has a profound impact on both static aspect (stress distribution in the fault zone) and dynamic aspect (facilitation and impedance of the fault rupture process) of some fundamental earthquake problems. In most earthquake simulations, planar/piece-wise planar faults are used for numerical simplicity. For real earthquake scenarios, especially ground motion prediction, the eligibility of using simplified planar fault geometry needs to be validated, otherwise the simplification might bias the final conclusion. We analyze the rupture process and ground motion statistics in earthquake simulations for Wasatch Fault -Salt Lake City segment- with different fault configurations. We use a finite element method (Ma & Liu, 2006) to simulate the dynamics of a propagating rupture. We consider various initial stress distribution schemes on the fault (uniform, depth-dependent, random). We want to understand 1) how does the fault geometry itself influence the physical rupture process? and 2) what effect does the curvature have on redistributing the initial stresses on the fault? We will monitor the Coulomb stress change near the fault (Liu et al, 2010). This may provide some indication of the interaction between discontinuous fault segments and dynamic triggering as well as the distribution of aftershocks/foreshocks in relation to the fault geometry.

Liu, Q.; Archuleta, R. J.; Smith, R. B.

2011-12-01

335

Late Quaternary Faulting along the San Juan de los Planes Fault Zone, Baja California Sur, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of continued distributed deformation in the Gulf Extensional Province along an oblique-divergent plate margin, active normal faulting is well manifest in southeastern Baja California. By characterizing normal-fault related deformation along the San Juan de los Planes fault zone (SJPFZ) southwest of La Paz, Baja California Sur we contribute to understanding the patterns and rates of faulting along

M. M. Busch; J. A. Coyan; J. Arrowsmith; S. J. Maloney; G. Gutierrez; P. J. Umhoefer

2007-01-01

336

Fault detection and management system for fault-tolerant switched reluctance motor drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The superior fault tolerance characteristics of the switched reluctance motor (SRM) have been proved in a working laboratory drive system. The program started by defining the performance effects of various types of motor winding faults. Motor winding fault detection devices were developed, along with control circuitry, to isolate a faulted winding by blocking the gating signals to the semiconductor power

C. M. Stephens

1991-01-01

337

Seismic and aseismic deformation associated with the 1952 Kern County, California, earthquake and relationship to the quaternary history of the White Wolf fault  

SciTech Connect

Synthesis of geodetic, and seismic data from the White Wolf fault, California, indicates that the fault separates an area of late Quaternary and continuing rapid uplift in the Tehachapi Mountains and Transverse Ranges from even more rapid subsidence in the southern San Joaquin Valley. On July 21, 1952, rupture of the White Wolf fault produced the M/sub L/ = 7.2 Kern County earthquake. We used the aftershock zone to delimit the size of the faulted slip surface and applied constraints imposed by the known 1952--1953 horizontal shear strains to model the measured coseismic vertical displacements, with an elastic dislocation model. A curved fault trace with decreasing fault depth (27 to 10 km from the surface vertically to the base), slip (3 to 1 m), and dip (75/sup 0/ to 20/sup 0/) from the 1952 epicenter at the southwest end of the fault toward the northeast provides the fit most consistent with the geodetic record, the measured seismic moment, the fault-plane solution, and the pattern of surface rupture. Two short releveled lines near the 1952 epicenter tilted 4 and 17 ..mu..rad down to the north from 5--10 years before the earthquake; the preseismic tilts differ significantly from ten other surveys of these lines. Left-lateral fault-crossing shear strain from 0.2--20 years before the quake was two times greater than both preseismic off-fault strains and the post-seismic fault-crossing strains. During the first seven years after the earthquake, aseismic deformation was negligible. From 1959 to 1972 uplift reached 160 mm over an area larger than the aftershock zone, rising first in the epicentral region and then at the northeast end of the fault. This was unaccompanied by any surface fault slip. Reconstruction of the vertical separation on the White Wolf fault from late Quaternary and late Miocene stratigraphic marker beds.

Stein, R.S.; Thatcher, W.

1981-06-10

338

An experimental approach to analog fault models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive approach to model faults in analog circuits and systems based on experimental statistics of manufacturing defects is presented. A case study based on a simple sample-and-hold circuit is discussed with specific results. It is shown that the digital fault models are applicable to analog and mixed-signal circuits but they account only for catastrophic faults. Out-of-specification faults occur as

Mani Soma

1991-01-01

339

Delving into faults and earthquake behavior.  

PubMed

Seismologists attending last month's meeting of the American Geophysical Union in San Francisco heard much about how the irregularities on faults control their behavior and thus the generation of earthquakes. The identification of small crucial areas of a fault, such as the strong spot where a rupture can begin or the fault jog where it can end, is proving a challenge, but it also offers one of the best hopes of understanding and predicting fault behavior. PMID:17778628

Kerr, R A

1987-01-01

340

Stacking Fault Energies of Tetrahedrally Coordinated Crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energies of the intrinsic stacking fault in 20 tetrahedrally coordinated crystals, determined by electron microscopy from the widths of extended dislocations, range from a few mJ\\/m2 to 300 mJ\\/m2. The reduced stacking fault energy (RSFE: stacking fault energy per bond perpendicular to the fault plane) has been found to have correlations with the effective charge, the charge redistribution index

S. Takeuchi; K. Suzuki

1999-01-01

341

The arc-fault circuit protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In electrical power systems bolted short-circuits are rare and the fault usually involves arcing and burning; mostly the limit value of minimum short-circuit depends on arcing-fault. In AC low voltage systems, the paper examines the arcing-fault branch circuits as weak points. Different protection measures are available against the arc-faults. A first measure that can guarantee a probabilistic protection is allowed

G. Parise; L. Martirano; U. Grasselli; L. Benetti

2001-01-01

342

Fault-tolerant wormhole routing in tori  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method to enhance wormhole routing algorithms for deadlock-free fault-tolerant routing in tori. We consider arbitrarily-located faulty blocks and assume only local knowledge of faults. Messages are routed via shortest paths when there are no faults, and this constraint is only slightly relaxed to facilitate routing in the presence of faults. The key concept we use is that,

Suresh Chalasani; Rajendra V. Boppana

1994-01-01

343

Comparing Different Fault Models Using VERIFY1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault injection is a widely used method for evaluating dependable systems. The intention of this paper is to compare typical fault mod- els used for fault injection regarding their accuracy in predicting the reliability of the system. For this purpose, we set up an experi- ment by injecting faults in a VHDL model of the DP32-processor at gate-level, pin-level and

Volkmar Sieh; Oliver Tschäche; Frank Balbach

1997-01-01

344

Stress Relaxation due to Slip on Geometrically Complex Faults: Fault Earthquake Simulations and Off-Fault Moment Release  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A form of off-fault stress relaxation, based on rate-state seismicity equations, has been developed to resolve several problems associated with geometrically complex faults in elastic media. Slip on geometrically complex faults in elastic media produces fault interaction stresses that non-physically grow without limit. These stresses in turn suppress fault slip, break the linear slip vs. length scaling for ruptures, and result in nonconvergent solutions as model resolution increases. In the Earth, these fault interaction stresses cannot grow without limit, and yielding will occur; therefore, we build upon the suggestion by Dieterich and Smith [2009] that off-fault yielding relieves these stresses through pervasive secondary faulting in the brittle crust. Starting with the rate-state seismicity equations that statistically describe the nucleation of seismicity in the brittle crust, we derive analytical expressions to represent stress relaxation as a time dependent, bulk yielding process. These expressions 1) regularize the simulations, 2) restore the linear slip vs. length scaling in ruptures, and 3) enable stress interactions to grow and relax about a long-term average instead of growing without limit. This model provides predictions of off-fault moment release as a function of time and space, arising from the stress relaxation. For example, for a fault with fractal roughness, scaling exponent = 1.0 and moderate roughness of beta = 0.03 (rms amplitude of slope deviations), we estimate that the off-fault moment release during the aftershock period is about 5% of the original on-fault rupture moment. If one includes the stress-relaxation due to co-seismic damage processes and inter-seismic seismicity, the off-fault moment is approximately 12% of the original on-fault moment for beta = 0.03. With a more extreme roughness of beta = 0.10, the off-fault moment release approaches 13% for the aftershock period and 40% for all relaxation processes.

Smith, D. E.; Dieterich, J. H.

2010-12-01

345

Fault-tolerant control systems — A holistic view  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault-tolerant control is used in systems that need to be able to detect faults and prevent simple faults related to control loops from developing into production stoppages or failures at a plant level. This is obtained by combining fault detection with supervisory control and re-configuration to accommodate faults. Much attention has been focused on fault detection in its own right.

M. Blanke; R. Izadi-Zamanabadi; S. A. Bøgh; C. P. Lunau

1997-01-01

346

Fault Location System for Transmission-Type Cable  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fault location system was developed for locating nonlinear faults on transmission-type cable. The fault locator measures the distance from terminal to fault as a fraction of the total cable length. A forward wave radar principle is used. The forward wave is generated by the cable breakdown at the fault. Laboratory and field tests indicate that nonlinear faults can be

H. E. Gallagher; D. R. Mize; A. F. Dickerson

1982-01-01

347

A Fault Injection Technique for VHDL Behavioral-Level Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault injection is an important technique for the evaluation of design metrics such as reliability,safety, and fault coverage. Fault injection involves inserting faults into a system and monitoringthe system to determine its behavior in response to the fault. Recently, designers are realizingthe advantages of using simulation to perform fault injection on a model of the design, as opposedto performing the

Todd A. Delong; Barry W. Johnson; Joseph A. Profeta III

1996-01-01

348

Rapid ejaculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid ejaculation, or premature ejaculatory dysfunction, is the most frequently encountered sexual complaint of men and couples.\\u000a It is most common in adolescents, young adults, and other sexually naive males. Increased risk is associated with lack of\\u000a sexual experience, lack of knowledge regarding normal male and female sexual responses, and with those individuals who highly\\u000a associate psychological factors (such as

Allen D. Seftel; Stanley E. Althof

2000-01-01

349

Detection of Rotor Faults in Synchronous Generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synchronous generators are subject to a variety of failures which may occur in various parts of their structure. Furthermore, these faults may be categorized as partial failure or catastrophic faults. One may note that most partial faults can eventually result in a permanent lack of service. The present digest deals with a class of failures which may happen in the

M. Kiani; W.-J. Lee; R. Kenarangui; B. Fahimi

2007-01-01

350

Friction Constitutive Properties of Fault Zone Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central problem in evaluating the relationship between fault zone properties and earthquake physics is a lack of detailed laboratory data for fault zone materials recovered from hypocentral depths. We report on a suite of experiments conducted on fault zone materials recovered from SAFOD phase 1 drilling, the Ghost Rocks Formation Kodiak Islands Alaska, and ODP drilling. The Ghost Rocks

C. Marone; D. Saffer; A. McKieran; C. Rowe; J. Samuelson

2005-01-01

351

Failure and Fault Analysis for Software Debugging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies of software failures and faults have done little more than classify failures and faults collected from long-term projects. The authors propose a model to analyze failures and faults for debugging purposes. In the model, they define “failure modes” and “failure types” to identify the existence of program failures and the nature of the program failures, respectively. The goal

Richard A. Demillo; Hsin Pant; Eugene H. Spafford

1997-01-01

352

Fault Masking and Diagnosis in Reversible Circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reversible logic is a promising design method- ology, particularly in the scope of quantum computing, for extremely low power consumption by elimination of power dissipation due to information loss. Anticipated high fault rates for future technologies raise demand for fault tolerance in reversible logic. In this paper we propose fault masking techniques (to prevent error propagation) for reversible logic. We

Masoud Zamani; Navid Farazmand; Mehdi B. Tahoori

2011-01-01

353

The Southern California Fault Activity Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern California Fault Activity Database (SCFAD) will supply WEB-accessible data about active faults throughout southern California, an essential resource for basic research and earthquake hazard mitigation. The SCFAD is funded by the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) to compile and summarize published data pertaining to each fault's slip rate, recurrence interval, slip per event, and known damaging earthquakes, as

S. C. Perry; M. P. Silva

2001-01-01

354

Ground Fault--A Health Hazard  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A ground fault is especially hazardous because the resistance through which the current is flowing to ground may be sufficient to cause electrocution. The Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (G.F.C.I.) protects 15 and 25 ampere 120 volt circuits from ground fault condition. The design and examples of G.F.C.I. functions are described in this article.…

Jacobs, Clinton O.

1977-01-01

355

Formal methodology for fault tree construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model is presented for formulating the Boolean failure logic, cailed ; the fault tree, for electrical systems from associated schematic diagrams and ; system-independent component information. The model is developed in detail for ; electrical systems, while its implication and terminology extend to all fault ; tree construction. The methodology is verified as formal by fault trees ; constructed

Fussell

1973-01-01

356

Fault seals in oil fields in Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faults forms seals for oil accumulations in the Eagle Springs, Trap Spring, and Blackburn fields, and probably in the Grant Canyon field, in Nevada. The main boundary fault on the east side of the Pine Valley graben forms a seal in the Blackburn field. A fault on the west side of the trap Spring field forms a seal. In Grant

N. H. Foster; H. K. Veal; L. C. Bortz

1987-01-01

357

Active faulting and tectonics in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a study of the active tectonics of China based on an interpretation of Landsat (satellite) imagery and supplemented with seismic data. Several important fault systems can be identified, and most are located in regions of high historical seismicity. We deduce the type and sense of faulting from adjacent features seen on these photos, from fault plane solutions of

Paul Tapponnier; Peter Molnar

1977-01-01

358

Zeno: Eventually Consistent Byzantine-Fault Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many distributed services are hosted at large, shared, geograph- ically diverse data centers, and they use replication to ach ieve high availability despite the unreachability of an entire d ata center. Recent events show that non-crash faults occur in these services and may lead to long outages. While Byzantine-Fault Tolerance (BFT) could be used to withstand these faults, cur- rent

Atul Singh; Pedro Fonseca; Petr Kuznetsov; Rodrigo Rodrigues; Petros Maniatis

2009-01-01

359

Fault Detection and Handling for Longitudinal Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this project is to extend and integrate existing results on fault diagnostics and fault management for passenger vehicles used in automated highway systems (AHS). These re-sults have been combined to form a fault diagnostic and management system for the longitudinal control system of the automated vehicles which has a heirarchical framework that complements the established PATH control

Jingang Yi; Adam Howell; Roberto Horowitz; Karl Hedrick; Luis Alvarez

2001-01-01

360

Diagnosis of Faults in Linear Tree Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of fault detection and location in tree networks of two input EXCLUSIVE-OR (EOR) gates is considered. The fault model assumes that an EOR gate can change to any other function of its two inputs except the equivalence function. An efficient procedure for single fault location is presented. In the worst case the number of tests necessary to locate

Sharad C. Seth; Kolar L. Kodandapani

1977-01-01

361

Fault Detection Effectiveness of Weighted Random Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance results are given for use of a weighted random pattern test generator, WRP, on ten benchmark designs. Deterministic (DET) and WRP tests created for single stuck faults are compared in their ability to detect shorts and transition faults. The WRP is able to generate a test for all the single stuck faults detected with a state-of-the-art deterministic pattern generator;

John A. Waicukauski; Eric Lindbloom

1988-01-01

362

Fault-related clay authigenesis along the Moab Fault: Implications for calculations of fault rock composition and mechanical and hydrologic fault zone properties  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The presence of clays in fault rocks influences both the mechanical and hydrologic properties of clay-bearing faults, and therefore it is critical to understand the origin of clays in fault rocks and their distributions is of great importance for defining fundamental properties of faults in the shallow crust. Field mapping shows that layers of clay gouge and shale smear are common along the Moab Fault, from exposures with throws ranging from 10 to ???1000 m. Elemental analyses of four locations along the Moab Fault show that fault rocks are enriched in clays at R191 and Bartlett Wash, but that this clay enrichment occurred at different times and was associated with different fluids. Fault rocks at Corral and Courthouse Canyons show little difference in elemental composition from adjacent protolith, suggesting that formation of fault rocks at those locations is governed by mechanical processes. Friction tests show that these authigenic clays result in fault zone weakening, and potentially influence the style of failure along the fault (seismogenic vs. aseismic) and potentially influence the amount of fluid loss associated with coseismic dilation. Scanning electron microscopy shows that authigenesis promotes that continuity of slip surfaces, thereby enhancing seal capacity. The occurrence of the authigenesis, and its influence on the sealing properties of faults, highlights the importance of determining the processes that control this phenomenon. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Solum, J. G.; Davatzes, N. C.; Lockner, D. A.

2010-01-01

363

Multivoltage aware resistive open fault modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistive open fault (ROF) represents common manufacturing defects causing extra delays and reliability risks in affected circuits. ROF behavior is sensitive to the supply voltage and the resistance of open (RO). Modeling this fault behavior and detectability with the supply voltage helps in distinguishing between faults as well as testing of multi-voltage designs. While previous ROF models did not explicitly

Mohamed Tagelsir Mohammadat; Noohul Basheer Zain Ali; Fawnizu Azmadi Hussin

2012-01-01

364

Using Fault Model Enforcement to Improve Availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Today’s network services run on complex arrays of computing systems consisting of a myriad of hardware and software components. In this work, we claim that it is impractical to try to tolerate all (or even a significant fraction of) fault types in these systems. We argue instead that a new approach, called fault model enforcement, that maps actual faults to

Kiran Nagaraja; Ricardo Bianchini; Richard P. Martin; Thu D. Nguyen

365

Fault detection and diagnosis of rotating machinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model-based approach to the detection and diagnosis of mechanical faults in rotating machinery is studied in this paper. For certain types of faults, for example, raceway faults in rolling element bearings, an increase in mass unbalance, and changes in stiffness and damping, algorithms suitable for real-time implementation are developed and evaluated using computer simulation

Kenneth A. Loparo; M. L. Adams; Wei Lin; M. Farouk Abdel-Magied; Nadar Afshari

2000-01-01

366

Field Trip to the Hayward Fault Zone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide provides directions to locations in Hayward, California where visitors can see evidence of creep along the Hayward Fault. There is also information about the earthquake hazards associated with fault zones, earthquake prediction, and landforms associated with offset along a fault. The guide is available in downloadable, printable format (PDF) in two resolutions

367

Fault Locating, Prediction and Protection (FLPPS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main objectives of this DOE-sponsored project was to reduce customer outage time. Fault location, prediction, and protection are the most important aspects of fault management for the reduction of outage time. In the past most of the research and development on power system faults in these areas has focused on transmission systems, and it is not until

Yinger; J. Robert; S. Venkata; Virgilio Centeno

2010-01-01

368

Development of Superconducting Fault Current Limiters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somewhere in a power utility system, a mishap may cause a short- circuit. The sudden reduction in the power grid's impedance will lead to a surge of current, termed fault current. Sometimes, fault currents can create disasters to power generators, distributors, and consumers. Today, options available for utility companies to handle faults are very limited and compromise the efficiency and

Ying Xin; Weizhi Gong; Xiaoye Niu; Zhengjian Cao; Haixia Xi; Jingyin Zhang; Yang Wang; Bo Tian; Bo Hou

2006-01-01

369

Fault analysis of induction motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the fault diagnosis of a broken rotor bar in induction motor is presented. The method is based on the analysis of the magnetic flux of three-phase Induction motor. The purpose of this paper is the analysis of the inverter fed induction machine with broken rotor for diagnostic purposes. The features of magnetic flux of healthy conditions of

I. Kathir; S. Balakrishnan; R. J. Bevila

2011-01-01

370

A Software Fault Tree Metric  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of software fault trees exposes hardware and software failure events that lead to unsafe system states, and provides insight on improving safety throughout each phase of the software lifecycle. Software product lines have emerged as an effort to achieve reuse, en- hance quality, and reduce development costs of safety- critical systems. Safety-critical product lines amplify the need for improved

D. Needham; S. Jones

2006-01-01

371

Zyzzyva: speculative byzantine fault tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present Zyzzyva, a protocol that uses speculation to re- duce the cost and simplify the design of Byzantine fault tolerant state machine replication. In Zyzzyva, replicas re- spond to a client's request without first running an expensive three-phase commit protocol to reach agreement on the or- der in which the request must be processed. Instead, they optimistically adopt the

Ramakrishna Kotla; Lorenzo Alvisi; Michael Dahlin; Allen Clement; Edmund L. Wong

2007-01-01

372

Zyzzyva: speculative Byzantine fault tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A longstanding vision in distributed systems is to build reliable systems from unreliable components. An enticing formulation of this vision is Byzantine fault tolerant (BFT) state machine replica- tion, in which a group of servers collectively act as a correct server even if some of the servers misbehave or malfunction in arbitrary (\\

Ramakrishna Kotla; Allen Clement; Edmund Wong; Lorenzo Alvisi; Michael Dahlin

2008-01-01

373

Finding modules in fault trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for identifying all possible modules is presented. There are two kinds of modules: (1) those whose output events are expressed by gate events, and (2) those whose output events are not expressed by gate events. The latter are logical OR or AND combinations of basic events and modules. The method requires as input only fault-tree structure data

Takehisa Kohda; Ernest J. Henley; Koichi Inoue

1989-01-01

374

SWIFT: Software Implemented Fault Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve performance and reduce power, processor designers employ advances that shrink feature sizes, lower voltage levels, reduce noise margins, and increase clock rates. However, these advances make processors more susceptible to transient faults that can affect correctness. While reliable systems typically employ hardware techniques to address soft-errors, software techniques can provide a lower-cost and more flexible alternative. This paper

George A. Reis; Jonathan Chang; Neil Vachharajani; Ram Rangan; David I. August

2005-01-01

375

A data-driven fault tolerant model predictive control with fault identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the existing active control methodologies need a post-fault\\/failure model of the faulty process for online retuning the controller parameters, or reconfiguration. However, post-fault model identification process takes the precious post-fault time which delays the recovery procedure. A new data-driven fault tolerant model predictive control (MPC) is developed which does not need the post-fault model. In fact, the model

Hojjat A. Izadi; Brandon W. Gordon; Youmin Zhang

2010-01-01

376

Extraction and Simulation of Realistic CMOS Faults Using Inductive Fault Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

FXT is a software tool which implements inductive fault analysis for CMOS circuits. It extracts a comprehensive list of circuit-level faults for any given CMOS circuit and ranks them according to their relative likelihood of occurrence. Five commercial CMOS circuits are analyzed using FXT. Of the extracted faults, approximately 50% can be modeled by single-line stuck-at 0\\/1 fault model. Faults

John Paul Shen; F. Joel Ferguson

1988-01-01

377

A novel fault tolerant design and an algorithm for tolerating faults in digital circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a novel fault tolerant algorithm for tolerating stuck-at-faults in digital circuits. We consider in this paper single stuck-at type faults, occurring either at a gate input or at a gate output. A stuck-at-fault may adversely affect on the functionality of the user implemented design. A novel fault tolerant design based on hardware redundancy (replication) is presented here

R. V. Kshirsagar; R. M. Patrikar

2008-01-01

378

Dynamic fault-tree models for fault-tolerant computer systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability analysis of fault-tolerant computer systems for critical applications is complicated by several factors. Systems designed to achieve high levels of reliability frequently employ high levels of redundancy, dynamic redundancy management, and complex fault and error recovery techniques. This paper describes dynamic fault-tree modeling techniques for handling these difficulties. Three advanced fault-tolerant computer systems are described: a fault-tolerant parallel processor,

Joanne Bechta Dugan; Salvatore J. Bavuso; Mark A. Boyd

1992-01-01

379

Modeling Of Externally-Induced\\/common-Cause Faults In Fault-Tolerant Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

: Modeling fault behaviors such as fault occurrencesand active\\/benign durations is an essential stepto the design and evaluation of fault-tolerant controllercomputers.We use a beta-binomial distribution to model faultoccurrences both in the presence and in the absence ofenvironmentally-induced (thus common-cause) faults. Amultinomial distribution is used to model fault activedurations. The proposed model is validated by testingit against the data generated by

1993-01-01

380

A new fault detection method of conveyer belt based on machine vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new fault detection and measurement method of conveyer belt based on machine vision is proposed. The conveyer belt used in coal mine transportation usually goes two kinds of faults: joint's elongation and local rust. Under this engineering background, the system focuses on detecting the state of conveyer belt and measuring the fault size. This paper brings forward a modified BP neural network to detect and classify different faults. The new BP algorithm's detecting speed is rapid, and the correct recognition rate of the joint and erosion has a great improvement. The measurements of joint's length and erosion's area are realized on the machine vision platform which built by LabVIEW IMAQ Vision module. And the measurements have a high accuracy. The results demonstrate that the new method is effective and efficiency.

Shen, Bingxia; Ma, Muyan; Leng, Junmin

2010-12-01

381

A New Method for Node Fault Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks  

PubMed Central

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are an important tool for monitoring distributed remote environments. As one of the key technologies involved in WSNs, node fault detection is indispensable in most WSN applications. It is well known that the distributed fault detection (DFD) scheme checks out the failed nodes by exchanging data and mutually testing among neighbor nodes in this network., but the fault detection accuracy of a DFD scheme would decrease rapidly when the number of neighbor nodes to be diagnosed is small and the node's failure ratio is high. In this paper, an improved DFD scheme is proposed by defining new detection criteria. Simulation results demonstrate that the improved DFD scheme performs well in the above situation and can increase the fault detection accuracy greatly.

Jiang, Peng

2009-01-01

382

Ground Penetrating Radar Investigations of Shallow Active Faults along the Southern Dead Sea Transform in Aqaba, Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The city of Aqaba is situated at the northern end of Gulf of Aqaba along the southern part of the Dead Sea Transform (DST) which is the main source of seismic activity in the region. A ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey was carried out Aqaba under the MERC M25-004 Project that seeks to map the active faults submerged in the northern gulf that lie immediately offshore and the faults that lie onshore beneath the rapidly developing cities of Aqaba and Eilat. Approximately 3000 m of GPR lines were collected in Aqaba with a 100 MHz monostatic antennas. The maximum depth of penetration was with approximately 5 meter. The GPR survey conducted in Aqaba reveals several different kinds of anomalies and discontinuities. In order to enhance our interpration of the GPR anomalies, we collected several GPR lines across several locations in the city where faults, fractures, and channels have been mapped in trench exposures. Analysis of the anomalies and discontinuities in GPR cross section (radagram) can be interpreted as a set of shallow fractures and faults within various lithologic changes. All the detected faults located by GPR survey are shallow less than 5 m depth and have vertical small displacement within late Quaternary sediments. The GPR anomalies appear to align along three NE-trending fault zones in the city of Aqaba. These zones, that we call the Ayla fault, the West Aqaba fault, and the Aqaba fault zone, appear to be on land extensions of faults that have been imaged offshore in the Gulf of Aqaba as part of our recent marine geophysical survey. This study indicates that there are more active faults within the region than previously mapped. Studying the late Quaternary sediments would provide a way to characterize the seismic hazard potential of faults

Abueladas, A. A.

2009-12-01

383

Fluid transport by solitary waves along growing faultsA field example from the South Eugene Island Basin, Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Red Fault system is one of the main growth faults found in the South Eugene Island Basin, a salt withdrawal minibasin located offshore Louisiana, in the Gulf of Mexico. This fault system corresponds to a lateral boundary between fluid overpressured compartments. In addition, there is a set of observations indicating that the Red Fault system exhibits rapid episodic migration of fluids. This fault represents an example of preferential pathway for the upward episodic migration of overpressured hydrocarbons from deep, heavily pressured, compartments on time scales of years. The migrations of fluids into active growing faults could take the form of propagating surges (solitary waves) that propagate upward along the fault planes in a wave-like manner at km/yr. Solitary waves represent a very efficient mechanism for the upward transport of fluids along growth faults in sedimentary basins generating its own permeability. In addition, this mechanism is compatible with the fact that the fault plane is observed to sustain a static pore fluid pressure difference between its two sides. The propagation of solitary waves in active growth faults appears as a fundamental mechanism to understand the nature of upward fast migration of fluids along active growth faults in compartimentalized sedimentary basins.

Revil, A.; Cathles, L. M.

2002-09-01

384

The analysis of the fault currents according to core saturation and fault angles in an inductive high-Tc superconducting fault current limiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate the fault currents in an inductive high-Tc superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL). The currents can cause serious damage to the reliability and stability of the power system. To analyze the transient fault characteristics of the SFCL, we fabricated an inductive high-Tc SFCL and tested it under different fault conditions. To simulate a fault condition, a

Minseok Joo; Tae Kuk Ko

1996-01-01

385

Rock Friction from the Nanoscale to the San Andreas Fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nucleation of earthquakes (EQs) and the resistance of faults to shearing during EQs are determined by nano-to-micro- scale frictional processes that occur on tectonic-scale faults. A first-order observation from rock-friction studies is that of ageing, i.e., the linear increase in friction with the log of the time of stationary contact, manifest as a positive or negative dependence of friction on sliding rate. A necessary condition for EQ nucleation is a negative rate dependence of friction. In spite of the success of friction `laws' which encapsulate the rate and time dependences of friction in fitting experimental data and reproducing natural phenomena in EQ models, these laws lack a physical basis. Atomic force microscope (AFM) experiments on silica-silica contacts explore the physics of ageing, more specifically increases in adhesion of nanometers-sized contacts with time (Li et al., Nature, 2011). The experiments reveal prominent ageing which increases with humidity, as in rock friction tests, without increases in contact area due to creep (the canonical explanation for ageing in rock-friction tests). Ageing in the AFM tests is in fact much larger than in rock-friction tests, a discrepancy explained with a simple multi-asperity contact model. At EQ slip rates (>=1 m/s) a variety of dynamic fault-weakening mechanisms may decrease the shear resistance of faults, which would have important consequences for the magnitudes of EQ stress drops, strong ground motions and accelerations, for the EQ energy budget, and for the state of stress on faults. Experiments on rocks found in the Earth's crust for slip rates up to ˜0.4 m/s over ˜40 mm of slip, reveal a dramatic 1/V decrease in frictional strength above a characteristic weakening velocity Vw of ˜0.1 m/s (Goldsby and Tullis, Science, 2011). Friction is also revealed to be a nearly pure function of slip rate, i.e., it adjusts to the ambient slip rate over only microns of slip. The observations are explained by `flash heating', whereby microscopic asperity contacts become intensely frictionally heated and weakened above Vw. Dramatically lower friction due to flash heating may explain why heat flow along active faults like the San Andreas Fault is much lower than expected. Strong velocity-weakening friction and the rapid strength recovery with decreasing slip rate from flash heating may explain why EQ ruptures propagate as slip pulses rather than as cracks.

Goldsby, David L.

2012-02-01

386

The North Anatolian Fault And Its Westward Propagation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North Anatolian Fault (NAF), with its westward extension within the Aegean Sea, extends over more than 1500 km from the Karliova triple junction in the east to the western extremity of the North Aegean Trough (NAT) to the west. Geodetic data demonstrate that the NAF motion is dextral strike-slip at a rate of 24 to 26 mm/yr over its whole length. Since 1939 it has been the site of a series of earthquakes that have ruptured sequentially about 1000 km of fault from the east to the Sea of Marmara. This relatively young (5 Ma) low offset (85 km to the east and less to the west) fault occupies most of the boundary between the Anatolian block to the south and Eurasia to the north. However the NAF has not yet broken through the westernmost 150 km portion that transfers the dextral motion across Central Greece to the Cephalonia Transform Fault and the Mediterranean subduction. Here I consider what can be learned from this structure about the phenomenon of fault propagation. From east to west, the NAF can be schematized by a succession of three overlapping arcs. The two eastern ones correspond to the NAF s.s. They probably reutilize Neogene compressive structures. The offset has been estimated to be 85 km and the age less than 10 and probably about 5 Ma. The western arc follows the northern margin of the Sea of Marmara, cuts across the Gallipoli Peninsula through the Ganos Fault, joins the northern margin of the Saros Trough and finally the southern margin of the Sporades Trough. Although there is still no consensus, the offset of the Sea of Marmara portion is probably only about 55-60 km and its age 3.5 Ma. The NAF abruptly ends to the west as it abuts northern Greece where the motion is absorbed by a system of extension with rapid clockwise rotation. The Gulf of Corinth and the Cephalonia Transform Faults are related to this system and their 0.9-1.7 Ma age indicates that the NAF reached the western extremity of the NAT at this time. Thus the propagation of the NAF within the Aegean occurred less than 2 Ma ago during a major kinematic reorganization of the Aegean that led to the present tectonic situation. Having summarized the overall kinematic evolution, I then discuss the possible mode of propagation of the NAF and in particular the structures that must have accomodated the propagation, based on the present situation within the last unbroken portion. I also discuss how the western NAF appears to be trapped within preexisting troughs in which it tends to follow one of the margins.

Le Pichon, X.

2003-04-01

387

Toward Testing Realistic Fault Behavior: Delay Fault Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing circuit operating frequencies and demands for low cost and high quality require that the temporal correctness of the circuit can be guaranteed. For high performance circuits with aggressive timing requirements, small process variations can lead to failures at the design clock rate. These defects can stay un- detected after at-speed or stuck-at-fault testing. Delay testing can detect these

Angela Krstic

1997-01-01

388

Delineating a shallow fault zone and dipping bed rock strata using multichannal analysis of surface waves with a land streamer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) seismic method was used to delineate a fault zone and gently dipping sedimentary bedrock at a site overlain by several meters of regolith. Seismic data were collected rapidly and inexpensively using a towed 30-channel land streamer and a rubberband-accelerated weight-drop seismic source. Data processed using the MASW method imaged the subsurface to a depth of about 20 m and allowed detection of the overburden, gross bedding features, and fault zone. The fault zone was characterized by a lower shear-wave velocity (Vs) than the competent bedrock, consistent with a large-scale fault, secondary fractures, and in-situ weathering. The MASW 2D Vs section was further interpreted to identify dipping beds consistent with local geologic mapping. Mapping of shallow-fault zones and dipping sedimentary rock substantially extends the applications of the MASW method. ?? 2006 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

Ivanov, J.; Miller, R. D.; Lacombe, P.; Johnson, C. D.; Lane, Jr. , J. W.

2006-01-01

389

Earthquake nucleation on faults with rate-and state-dependent strength  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dieterich, J.H., 1992. Earthquake nucleation on faults with rate- and state-dependent strength. In: T. Mikumo, K. Aki, M. Ohnaka, L.J. Ruff and P.K.P. Spudich (Editors), Earthquake Source Physics and Earthquake Precursors. Tectonophysics, 211: 115-134. Faults with rate- and state-dependent constitutive properties reproduce a range of observed fault slip phenomena including spontaneous nucleation of slip instabilities at stresses above some critical stress level and recovery of strength following slip instability. Calculations with a plane-strain fault model with spatially varying properties demonstrate that accelerating slip precedes instability and becomes localized to a fault patch. The dimensions of the fault patch follow scaling relations for the minimum critical length for unstable fault slip. The critical length is a function of normal stress, loading conditions and constitutive parameters which include Dc, the characteristic slip distance. If slip starts on a patch that exceeds the critical size, the length of the rapidly accelerating zone tends to shrink to the characteristic size as the time of instability approaches. Solutions have been obtained for a uniform, fixed-patch model that are in good agreement with results from the plane-strain model. Over a wide range of conditions, above the steady-state stress, the logarithm of the time to instability linearly decreases as the initial stress increases. Because nucleation patch length and premonitory displacement are proportional to Dc, the moment of premonitory slip scales by D3c. The scaling of Dc is currently an open question. Unless Dc for earthquake faults is significantly greater than that observed on laboratory faults, premonitory strain arising from the nucleation process for earthquakes may by too small to detect using current observation methods. Excluding the possibility that Dc in the nucleation zone controls the magnitude of the subsequent earthquake, then the source dimensions of the smallest earthquakes in a region provide an upper limit for the size of the nucleation patch. ?? 1992.

Dieterich, J. H.

1992-01-01

390

Electromagnetic imaging of active fault zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic methods such as magnetotellurics (MT) are well suited for imaging the nature of continental faulting on both local and regional scales. These methods are sensitive to both the contrast in resistivity often found across a fault as well as zones of fluids and/or physically altered materials located within an active fault. High resolution MT studies of the San Andreas fault (SAF) near Hollister, California have imaged a zone of high fluid content flanking the SAF and extending to mid-crustal depths. The spatial relation between this zone and local seismicity suggests that the presence of fluids inhibits seismicity within the upper crust (0--4km). In the region examined, the San Andreas fault acts as a conduit for along-strike fluid flow yet acts as a barrier for fluid flow across the fault. Combined with previous work, these results suggest that the geologic setting of the SAF gives rise to the observed distribution of fluids in and surrounding the fault, as well as the observed along-strike variation in seismicity. Regional magnetotelluric studies of faulting in the northeast corner of the Tibetan plateau have helped establish the style and extent of faulting in the region. A series of MT profiles crossing the Altyn Tagh fault near its eastern terminus have been analyzed. One of these profiles additionally crosses a sequence of thrust faults which absorb the strain associated with this fault termination. Together with geologic timing information, the extent of underthrust sediments has been used to establish the rates of convergence and uplift of this proto-plateau. Additionally, the Altyn Tagh fault is imaged to be vertical from the surface to mid-crustal depths, and flanked by an extensive conductive zone which suggests that the present-day fault may have activated along a pre-existing suture.

Bedrosian, Paul Andrew

391

Has the San Gabriel fault been offset  

SciTech Connect

The San Gabriel fault (SGF) in southern California is a right-lateral, strike-slip fault extending for 85 mi in an arcuate, southwestward-bowing curve from near the San Andreas fault at Frazier Mountain to its intersection with the left-lateral San Antonio Canyon fault (SACF) in the eastern San Gabriel Mountains. Termination of the SGF at the presently active SACF is abrupt and prompts the question Has the San Gabriel Fault been offset. Tectonic and geometric relationships in the area suggest that the SGF has been offset approximately 6 mi in a left-lateral sense and that the offset continuation of the SGF, across the SACF, is the right-lateral, strike-slip San Jacinto fault (SJF), which also terminates at the SACF. Reversing the left-lateral movement on the SACF to rejoin the offset ends of the SGF and SJF reveals a fault trace that is remarkably similar in geometry and movement (and perhaps in tectonic history), to the trace of the San Andreas fault through the southern part of the San Bernardino Mountains. The relationship of the Sierra Madre-Cucamonga fault system to the restored SGF-SJF fault is strikingly similar to the relationship of the Banning fault to the Mission Creek-Mill Creek portion of the San Andreas fault. Structural relations suggest that the San Gabriel-San Jacinto system predates the San Andreas fault in the eastern San Gabriel Mountains and that continuing movement on the SACF is currently affecting the trace of the San Andreas fault in the Cajon Pass area.

Sheehan, J.R.

1988-03-01

392

Microfractures within the fault damage zone record the history of fault activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

faults without sedimentary covers, there is no robust method to obtain paleoseismic data that is crucial for the prediction of future damaging earthquake events. Sudden failure along faults during earthquakes induces off-fault damage surrounding such basement faults. We showed that the Quaternary-active fault has the damage zone characterized by a fracture density that decays exponentially with distance from the fault for both healed and open microfractures. In contrast, Quaternary-inactive faults contain only healed microfracture damage zone. Cross-cutting relationships between microfractures and a minimum healing temperature of ~100°C suggest that healed microfractures formed before, and at deeper levels, than did unhealed microfractures. The damage zone defined by open microfractures reflects the recent fault movement during exhumation, associated with erosion and regional uplift, from the maximum depth at which microfractures may remain unhealed. Microfracture analysis can therefore be used to examine the history of basement fault activity.

Mizoguchi, Kazuo; Ueta, Keiichi

2013-05-01

393

The role of off-fault damage in the evolution of normal faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent measurements of slip profiles on normal faults have found that they are usually triangular in shape. This has been explained to be a consequence of on-fault processes such as slip-dependent friction. However, the recent observation that cumulative slip profiles on normal faults and fault systems in Afar are both triangular and self-similar excludes this explanation and requires some form of off-fault deformation. Here, we use elastic modelling to show that large triangular zones of off-fault damage can explain the observed triangular slip profiles provided damage is anisotropic in the form of cracks sub-parallel to the fault. Our modelling suggests that these triangular damage zones result from the enlargement of the crack tip damage area as the fault (or system) lengthens. Our modelling also demonstrates that different types of 'barriers' can cause the slip profiles to terminate abruptly at one or both fault ends, as observed in Afar and elsewhere.

Manighetti, Isabelle; King, Geoffrey; Sammis, Charles G.

2004-01-01

394

Normal Fault-Related Surface Monoclines: 3-D Developmental Controls and Implications for Fault Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fault-related folds are usually described in sedimentary sequences but surface folds are also associated with normal faults in volcanic rocks erupted at divergent plate boundaries or in continental rift zones. At the active plate boundary in SW Iceland, normal fault traces in basalt lava flows are commonly marked at the surface by laterally continuous, narrow monoclinal flexures that formed above the fault tip as it propagated towards the surface. Although they tend to increase in height and width towards fault centers, they can be asymmetric about the fault center or variable due to relict fault segmentation. Some small monoclines formed by delamination of a surface lava flow where it covered an active fault; they commonly collapse into the resultant underlying cavities, creating laterally discontinuous monoclines. This complexity in monocline geometry raises the question: is it possible to generate a predictive growth model for fault-related surface monoclines? We combine field measurements of fold geometries as a function of distance along fault strike with numerical models to characterize monocline development and its relationship to the 3-D evolution of the underlying fault. Monoclines flank the hanging wall side of surface-breaking normal faults; however, monocline growth precedes surface rupture. Monoclines thus act as a proxy for the growth evolution of the underlying fault. After being breached along the upper hinge, the monocline becomes a passive structure in the hanging wall. At that point, all surface throw is accommodated along the fault itself. Monocline height along fault strike mimics the elliptical shape of the fault throw distribution, showing variability due to fault segmentation and kinematic coherence effects. Hence, monocline height is a function of the amount of fault slip prior to breaching in addition to location along the fault. In contrast, monocline width does not necessarily correlate with monocline height or location along fault strike; it is laterally variable, indicating that width is not controlled by the amount of fault slip prior to breaching. Numerical models based on linear elastic fracture mechanics reveal multiple controls on monocline width and height: fault dip, shape and aspect ratio; upper tip line depth; the height of a vertical fracture at the upper fault tip where it approaches the surface; and rock elastic properties. The depth of the upper tip line is the primary control on monocline shape along fault strike. Shallower upper tip lines produce narrower monoclines. Although monocline height decreases towards the tips, monocline width in the models is relatively constant along fault strike, especially as fault aspect ratio (height/length) exceeds 2. Also, the width is independent of the amount of fault slip and the elastic properties of the rock for a given fault configuration. Therefore, as a subsurface fault accumulates slip, the monocline gets higher but its width remains constant. Along-strike monocline variability thus provides a means of interpreting the vertical and lateral growth evolution of the subsurface fault prior to breaching, although fault geometry cannot be uniquely determined. We infer that monoclines in Iceland formed over faults with high aspect ratios and which only extend a few km into the subsurface, possibly due to growth above shallow crustal dikes. Differences in monocline width are attributed to variable fault tip line depths, vertical fracture heights, and fault segmentation. We used the variable monocline geometry along the Almannagja fault at Thingvellir to show that the fault grew progressively upwards and towards the NE in the subsurface, producing a final aspect ratio of ~4.3.

Boersma, N. D.; Kattenhorn, S. A.

2006-12-01

395

Identifying fault segments from 3D fault drag analysis (Vienna Basin, Austria)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The segmented growth of the Markgrafneusiedl normal fault in the late Miocene clastic sediments of the central Vienna Basin (Austria) was investigated by construction of a detailed three-dimensional (3D) structural model. Using high resolution 3D seismic data, the fault surface and marker horizons in the hanging wall and the footwall of the Markgrafneusiedl Fault were mapped and orientation, displacement and morphology of the fault surface were quantified. Individual, fault segments were identified by direct mapping of the deflection of the marker horizons close to the fault surface. Correlating the size of the identified segments with the magnitude of fault drag and displacement distribution showed that fault evolution progressed in several stages. The proposed method allows the detection of segments that are not recorded by the magnitude of displacement or fault morphology. Most importantly, detailed mapping of marker deflections in the hanging wall could help to constrain equivalent structures in the footwall, which may represent potential hydrocarbon traps.

Spahi?, Darko; Grasemann, Bernhard; Exner, Ulrike

2013-10-01

396

3D simulation of near-fault strong ground motion: comparison between surface rupture fault and buried fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, near-fault strong ground motions caused by a surface rupture fault (SRF) and a buried fault (BF) are numerically simulated and compared by using a time-space-decoupled, explicit finite element method combined with a multi-transmitting formula (MTF) of an artificial boundary. Prior to the comparison, verification of the explicit element method and the MTF is conducted. The comparison results show that the final dislocation of the SRF is larger than the BF for the same stress drop on the fault plane. The maximum final dislocation occurs on the fault upper line for the SRF; however, for the BF, the maximum final dislocation is located on the fault central part. Meanwhile, the PGA, PGV and PGD of long period ground motions (?1 Hz) generated by the SRF are much higher than those of the BF in the near-fault region. The peak value of the velocity pulse generated by the SRF is also higher than the BF. Furthermore, it is found that in a very narrow region along the fault trace, ground motions caused by the SRF are much higher than by the BF. These results may explain why SRFs almost always cause heavy damage in near-fault regions compared to buried faults.

Liu, Qifang; Yuan, Yifan; Jin, Xing

2007-12-01

397

Stacking faults in Si nanocrystals  

SciTech Connect

Si nanocrystals (Si nc) were formed by the implantation of Si{sup +} into a SiO{sub 2} film on (100) Si, followed by high-temperature annealing. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy has been used to examine the microstructure of the Si nc produced by a high-dose (3x10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}) implantation. It is shown that there are only stacking-fault (SF) defects in some nanocrystals; while in others the stacking faults (SFs) coexist with twins. Two kinds of SFs, one being an intrinsic SF, the other being an extrinsic SF, have been observed inside the Si nc. More intrinsic SFs have been found in the Si nc, and the possible reasons are discussed. These microstructural defects are expected to play an important role in the light emission from the Si nc.

Wang, Y.Q.; Smirani, R.; Ross, G.G. [INRS-EMT, 1650, Boulevard Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec, J3X 1S2 (Canada)

2005-05-30

398

Building the GEM Faulted Earth database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GEM Faulted Earth project is aiming to build a global active fault and seismic source database with a common set of strategies, standards, and formats, to be placed in the public domain. Faulted Earth is one of five hazard global components of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) project. A key early phase of the GEM Faulted Earth project is to build a database which is flexible enough to capture existing and variable (e.g., from slow interplate faults to fast subduction interfaces) global data, and yet is not too onerous to enter new data from areas where existing databases are not available. The purpose of this talk is to give an update on progress building the GEM Faulted Earth database. The database design conceptually has two layers, (1) active faults and folds, and (2) fault sources, and automated processes are being defined to generate fault sources. These include the calculation of moment magnitude using a user-selected magnitude-length or magnitude-area scaling relation, and the calculation of recurrence interval from displacement divided by slip rate, where displacement is calculated from moment and moment magnitude. The fault-based earthquake sources defined by the Faulted Earth project will then be rationalised with those defined by the other GEM global components. A web based tool is being developed for entering individual faults and folds, and fault sources, and includes capture of additional information collected at individual sites, as well as descriptions of the data sources. GIS shapefiles of individual faults and folds, and fault sources will also be able to be uploaded. A data dictionary explaining the database design rationale, definitions of the attributes and formats, and a tool user guide is also being developed. Existing national databases will be uploaded outside of the fault compilation tool, through a process of mapping common attributes between the databases. Regional workshops are planned for compilation in areas where existing databases are not available, or require further population, and will include training on using the fault compilation tool. The tool is also envisaged as an important legacy of the GEM Faulted Earth project, to be available for use beyond the end of the 2 year project.

Litchfield, N. J.; Berryman, K. R.; Christophersen, A.; Thomas, R. F.; Wyss, B.; Tarter, J.; Pagani, M.; Stein, R. S.; Costa, C. H.; Sieh, K. E.

2011-12-01

399

Fault tolerant cellular Genetic Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a cellular Genetic Algorithm (cGA) which aims at realizing a fault tolerant platform based on the inherent ability of cGAs to deal with Single Hard Errors (SHE) that could permanently affect the operation of a system. To attain this objective it is indispensable to control the parameters of the cGA which directly affect the efficiency and accuracy

Alicia Morales-reyes; Evangelos F. Stefatos; Ahmet T. Erdogan; Tughrul Arslan

2008-01-01

400

Generic faults - The first word  

Microsoft Academic Search

The achievement of highly reliable, full time critical control system designs, such as those of fly-by-wire and fly-by-light flight control systems, is through the institution of development methods which increase the likelihood of faults' detection and toleration by redundant system architectural practices and reconfiguration capabilities. Management methods must accordingly give attention to factors that can be computed to act as

D. G. Cannon

1985-01-01

401

Folding above faults, Rocky Mountains  

SciTech Connect

Asymmetric folds formed above basement faults can be observed throughout the Rocky Mountains. Several previous interpretations of the folding process made the implicit assumption that one or both fold hinges migrated or rolled'' through the steep forelimb of the fold as the structure evolved (rolling hinge model). Results of mapping in the Bighorn and Seminoe Mountains, WY, and Sangre de Cristo Range, CO, do not support this hypothesis. An alternative interpretation is presented in which fold hinges remained fixed in position during folding (fixed hinge model). Mapped folds share common characteristics: (1) axial traces of the folds intersect faults at or near the basement/cover interface, and diverge from faults upsection; (2) fold hinges are narrow and interlimb angles cluster around 80--100[degree] regardless of fold location; (3) fold shape is typically angular, despite published cross sections that show concentric folds; and, (4) beds within the folds show thickening and/or thinning, most commonly adjacent to fold hinges. The rolling hinge model requires that rocks in the fold forelimbs bend through narrow fold hinges as deformation progressed. Examination of massive, competent rock units such as the Ord. Bighorn Dolomite, Miss. Madison Limestone, and, Penn. Tensleep Sandstone reveals no evidence of the extensive internal deformation that would be expected if hinges rolled through rocks of the forelimb. The hinges of some folds (e.g. Golf Creek anticline, Bighorn Mountains) are offset by secondary faults, effectively preventing the passage of rocks from backlimb to forelimb. The fixed hinge model proposes that the fold hinges were defined early in fold evolution, and beds were progressively rotated and steepened as the structure grew.

McConnell, D.A. (Univ. of Akron, OH (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1992-01-01

402

An improved distributed Bayesian algorithm for fault-tolerant detection in electromagnetic spectrum monitoring sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electromagnetic spectrum monitoring sensor networks (ESMSNs) have become a new distributed solution for the electromagnetic spectrum monitoring and attracted a large scholars' attention due to its better detection performance. However, the detection performance of ESMSNs will decrease rapidly when the faults occur to the monitoring sensor nodes, which result from the node device itself and the harsh or hostile environment

Zhang Yu; Zhao Hangsheng; Liu Qiongli

2011-01-01

403

Late Cenozoic Uplift of Denali and Its Relation to Relative Plate Motion and Fault Morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apatite fission-track analysis of samples that cover a 4-kilometer vertical section from the western flank of Denali (Mount McKinley), North America's highest mountain, suggests that the mountain massif was formed by rapid uplift (> 1 kilometer per million years) beginning ~6 million years ago (Ma). Uplift was a result of the morphology of the Denali fault and a change in

Paul G. Fitzgerald; Edmund Stump; Thomas F. Redfield

1993-01-01

404

DC superconducting fault current limiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a lack of satisfying solutions for fault currents using conventional technologies, especially in DC networks, where a superconducting fault current limiter could play a very important part. DC networks bring a lot of advantages when compared to traditional AC ones, in particular within the context of the liberalization of the electric market. Under normal operation in a DC network, the losses in the superconducting element are nearly zero and only a small, i.e. a low cost, refrigeration system is then required. The absence of zero crossing of a DC fault current favourably accelerates the normal zone propagation. The very high current slope at the time of the short circuit in a DC grid is another favourable parameter. The material used for the experiments is YBCO deposited on Al2O3 as well as YBCO coated conductors. The DC limitation experiments are compared to AC ones at different frequencies (50-2000 Hz). Careful attention is paid to the quench homogenization, which is one of the key issues for an SC FCL. The University of Geneva has proposed constrictions. We have investigated an operating temperature higher than 77 K. As for YBCO bulk, an operation closer to the critical temperature brings a highly improved homogeneity in the electric field development. The material can then absorb large energies without degradation. We present tests at various temperatures. These promising results are to be confirmed over long lengths.

Tixador, P.; Villard, C.; Cointe, Y.

2006-03-01

405

Constraints on the stress state of the San Andreas Fault with analysis based on core and cuttings from San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling phases 1 and 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of field data has led different investigators to conclude that the San Andreas Fault (SAF) has either anomalously low frictional sliding strength (? < 0.2) or strength consistent with standard laboratory tests (? > 0.6). Arguments for the apparent weakness of the SAF generally hinge on conceptual models involving intrinsically weak gouge or elevated pore pressure within the fault zone. Some models assert that weak gouge and/or high pore pressure exist under static conditions while others consider strength loss or fluid pressure increase due to rapid coseismic fault slip. The present paper is composed of three parts. First, we develop generalized equations, based on and consistent with the Rice (1992) fault zone model to relate stress orientation and magnitude to depth-dependent coefficient of friction and pore pressure. Second, we present temperature- and pressure-dependent friction measurements from wet illite-rich fault gouge extracted from San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) phase 1 core samples and from weak minerals associated with the San Andreas Fault. Third, we reevaluate the state of stress on the San Andreas Fault in light of new constraints imposed by SAFOD borehole data. Pure talc (??0.1) had the lowest strength considered and was sufficiently weak to satisfy weak fault heat flow and stress orientation constraints with hydrostatic pore pressure. Other fault gouges showed a systematic increase in strength with increasing temperature and pressure. In this case, heat flow and stress orientation constraints would require elevated pore pressure and, in some cases, fault zone pore pressure in excess of vertical stress.

Tembe, Sheryl; Lockner, David; Wong, Teng-Fong

2009-11-01

406

Earthquake Recurrence in Simulated Fault Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We employ a computationally efficient fault system earthquake simulator, RSQSim, to explore effects of earthquake nucleation and fault system geometry on earthquake occurrence. The simulations incorporate rate- and state-dependent friction, high-resolution representations of fault systems, and quasi-dynamic rupture propagation. Faults are represented as continuous planar surfaces, surfaces with a random fractal roughness, and discontinuous fractally segmented faults. Simulated earthquake catalogs have up to 106 earthquakes that span a magnitude range from ˜M4.5 to M8. The seismicity has strong temporal and spatial clustering in the form of foreshocks and aftershocks and occasional large-earthquake pairs. Fault system geometry plays the primary role in establishing the characteristics of stress evolution that control earthquake recurrence statistics. Empirical density distributions of earthquake recurrence times at a specific point on a fault depend strongly on magnitude and take a variety of complex forms that change with position within the fault system. Because fault system geometry is an observable that greatly impacts recurrence statistics, we propose using fault system earthquake simulators to define the empirical probability density distributions for use in regional assessments of earthquake probabilities.

Dieterich, James H.; Richards-Dinger, Keith B.

2010-08-01

407

The evolution of fabric with displacement in natural brittle faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In experiments performed at room temperature on gouges, a characteristic clast size distribution (CSD) is produced with increasing strain, and shear localization is documented to begin after few millimetres of sliding. But in natural faults active at depth in the crust, mechanical processes are associated with fluid-rock interactions, which might control the deformation and strength recovery. We aim to investigate the microstructural, geochemical and mineralogical evolution of low-displacement faults with increasing shear strain. The faults (cataclasite- and pseudotachylyte-bearing) are hosted in tonalite and were active at 9-11 km and 250-300°C. The samples were collected on a large glacier-polished outcrop, where major faults (accommodating up to 4300 mm of displacement) exploit pre-existing magmatic joints and are connected by a network of secondary fractures and faults (accommodating up to 500 mm of displacement) breaking intact tonalite. We performed optical and cathodoluminescence (CL) microscope, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), Rietveld X-Ray Powder Diffraction and microprobe chemical analysis in deformation zones of secondary faults with various offsets in order to evaluate the transfer of chemical species between dissolution zones and protected zones. Image analysis techniques were applied on SEM-BSE and optical microscope images to compute the CSD in samples, which experienced an increasing amount of strain. The secondary fractures are up to 5 mm thick. Within the first 20 mm of displacement, shear localizes along Y and R1 surfaces and a cataclastic foliation develops. The CSD evolves from a fractal dimension D of 1.3 in fractures without visible displacement to values above 2 after the first 500 mm of displacement. Chemical maps and CL images indicate that the foliation in cataclasite results from the rotation and fragmentation of clasts, with dissolution of quartz and passive concentration of Ti oxides and titanite in the foliation planes. The cataclasites are cemented by pervasive precipitation of K-feldspar plagues and idiomorphic, randomly oriented, epidote and chlorite. We conclude that the textures of these small displacement (< 500 mm) faults are controlled by brittle processes (fracture propagation and cataclastic comminution) similar to those reproduced in friction experiments performed on granite gouge (e.g., Beeler et al., 1996; Logan, 2007). Then progressively, stress driven fluid-rock reactions develop as fracturing and grain size reduction allows the kinetics of these reactions to be more efficient and fracture interconnection allows fluid infiltration. Healing of microfractures and fault rock cementation caused a rapid posteismic recovery of fault strength. References Beeler, N.M., Tullis, T.E., Blanpied, L., Weeks, J.D., 1996. Frictional behaviour of large displacement experimental faults. Journal of Geophysical Research 101, B4, 8697-8715. Logan, J.M., 2007. The progression from damage to localization of displacement observed in laboratory testing of porous rocks, in Lewis, H., and Couples, G.D. (eds.) The relationship between damage and localization. Geological Society of London Special Publication 289, 75-87.

Mittempergher, S.; Di Toro, G.; Gratier, J.; Aretusini, S.; Boullier-Bertrand, A.

2011-12-01

408

Manufacture and Test of Small-Scale Superconducting Fault Current Limiter by Using the Bifilar Winding of Coated Conductor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superconducting fault current limiters (SFCLs) have been developed by many research groups. However, there is no standard for current limiting device. Recently, YBCO coated conductor (C.C.) which is named as 2nd-generation wire has been developed rapidly. YBCO C.C. has many advantages for applying to fault current limiting material. In this paper, a bifilar winding type SFCL was manufactured using YBCO

Min Cheol Ahn; Duck Kweon Bae; Seong Eun Yang; Dong Keun Park; Tae Kuk Ko; Chanjoo Lee; Bok-Yeol Seok; Ho-Myung Chang

2006-01-01

409

Rapid, continuous streaking of tremor in Cascadia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonvolcanic tremor is a recently discovered weak seismic signal associated with slow slip on a fault plane and has potential to answer many questions about how faults move. Its spatiotemporal distribution, however, is complex and varies over different time scales, and the causal physical mechanisms remain unclear. Here we use a beam backprojection method to show rapid, continuous, slip-parallel streaking of tremor over time scales of several minutes to an hour during the May 2008 episodic tremor and slip event in the Cascadia subduction zone. The streaks propagate across distances up to 65 km, primarily parallel to the slip direction of the subduction zone, both updip and downdip at velocities ranging from 30 to 200 km/h. We explore mainly two models that may explain such continuous tremor streaking. The first involves interaction of slowly migrating creep front with slip-parallel linear structures on the fault. The second is pressure-driven fluid flow through structurally controlled conduits on the fault. Both can be consistent with the observed propagation velocities and geometries, although the second one requires unlikely condition. In addition, we put this new observation in the context of the overall variability of tremor behavior observed over different time scales.

Ghosh, Abhijit; Vidale, John E.; Sweet, Justin R.; Creager, Kenneth C.; Wech, Aaron G.; Houston, Heidi; Brodsky, Emily E.

2010-12-01

410

Evidence for Late Oligocene-Early Miocene episode of transtension along San Andreas Fault system in central California  

SciTech Connect

The San Andreas is one of the most intensely studied fault systems in the world, but many aspects of its kinematic history remain controversial. For example, the period from the late Eocene to early Miocene is widely believed to have been a time of negligible strike-slip movement along the San Andreas fault proper, based on the rough similarity of offset of the Eocene Butano-Point of rocks Submarine Fan, the early Miocene Pinnacles-Neenach volcanic center, and an early Miocene shoreline in the northern Gabilan Range and San Emigdio Mountains. Nonetheless, evidence indicates that a late Oligocene-early Miocene episode of transtension, or strike-slip motion with a component of extension, occurred within the San Andreas fault system. The evidence includes: (1) about 22-24 Ma, widespread, synchronous volcanic activity occurred at about 12 volcanic centers along a 400-km long segment of the central California coast; (2) most of these volcanic centers are located along faults of the San Andreas system, including the San Andreas fault proper, the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault, and the Zayante-Vergeles fault, suggesting that these and other faults were active and served as conduits for magmas rising from below; (3) during the late Oligocene and early Miocene, a pull-apart basin developed adjacent to the San Andreas fault proper in the La Honda basin near Santa Cruz; and (4) during the late Oligocene and early Miocene, active faulting, rapid subsidence, and marine transgression occurred in the La Honda and other sedimentary basins in central California. The amount of right-lateral displacement along the San Andreas fault proper during this transtentional episode is unknown but was probably about 7.5-35 km, based on model studies of pull-apart basin formation. This small amount of movement is well within the range of error in published estimates of the offset of the Eocene to early Miocene geologic features noted.

Stanley, R.G.

1986-04-01

411

Detrital zircon provenance evidence for large-scale extrusion along the Altyn Tagh fault  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The question of whether or not the Altyn Tagh fault is a large-scale extrusion boundary is critical for understanding the role of lateral extrusion in accommodating the Indo-Asian convergence and in building the Tibetan Plateau. Oligocene conglomerate clasts in the eastern Xorkol basin are low-grade slate, phyllite, sandstone, dacite and carbonate, and associated paleocurrent indicators evince sediment derivation from the opposing side of the Altyn Tagh fault. Matching these clasts with similar basement rocks in the North Qilian and Tuolainanshan terranes requires post-Oligocene left-lateral offset of 380 ?? 60 km on the eastern segment of the Altyn Tagh fault, suggesting large-scale extrusion along the fault in the Cenozoic (Yue, Y.J., Ritts, B.D., Graham, S.A., 2001b. Initiation and long-term slip history of the Altyn Tagh fault. International Geological Review 43, 1087-1094.). In order to further define this piercing point, the detrital zircon pattern of Oligocene sandstone from the Xorkol basin and the zircon ages of basement on the southern side of the fault were established by ion microprobe dating. Characterized by strong peaks between 850 and 950 Ma and the absence of Paleozoic and Mesozoic ages, the detrital zircon age pattern of the Oligocene sandstone matches the age distribution of zircon-bearing rocks of the Tuolainanshan terrane. This match requires 360 ?? 40 km of post-Oligocene left-lateral displacement on the eastern segment of the Altyn Tagh fault, supporting as well as refining the previously reported lithology-based cross-fault match. At least one of the following three extrusion scenarios must have existed to accommodate this large offset: (1) northeastward extrusion along the Altyn Tagh-Alxa-East Mongolia fault, (2) eastward extrusion along the Altyn Tagh-North Qilian-Haiyuan fault, and (3) northeastward extrusion of northern Tibet as a Himalaya-scale thrust sheet along the North Qilian-Haiyuan fault. We prefer the first scenario inasmuch as rapidly growing evidence for Cenozoic strike-slip activity on the Alxa-East Mongolia fault and mid-Miocene exhumation of northern Tibet supports it. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Yue, Y.; Graham, S. A.; Ritts, B. D.; Wooden, J. L.

2005-01-01

412

Intrabasinal faulting in Cretaceous forearc basins of Baja California, Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Cretaceious forearc basins in Baja California show abundant evidence of intrabasinal faulting. This resulted in (1) growth of fan deltas on the margins of intrabasinal horst blocks, (2) development of a submarine canyon along the axis of a half-graben, and (3) rapid, extreme fluctuations in relative sea level due to vertical tectonics. The fill of these tectonically active residual and arc massif basins is much more complex than that of the same basin types, of similar age, to the north in the Great Valley forearc basin of California.

Busby-Spera, C.; Smith, D.; Morris, W.

1988-01-01

413

Deep structure of a fault discontinuity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relocated aftershocks at a fault discontinuity that ruptured in the 1992 Landers earthquake show that there is no simple connection between the Homestead Valley and Emerson faults at depth. Rather, faulting within the discontinuity is as complex as observed at the surface. Both aftershocks and mainshock slip on the far side of the discontinuity, that is on the Emerson fault, were confined primarily to depths above 10 km, whereas slip and aftershock activity on the near side of the discontinuity extended to 17 km. Similar behavior was also observed at a fault discontinuity in the 1979 Coyote Lake earthquake and may be attributable to the greater effectiveness of dynamic stress in inducing fault rupture at shallow depths.

Felzer, Karen R.; Beroza, Gregory C.

414

Rotating parallel faults: book shelf mechanism  

SciTech Connect

The mechanical analysis of book shelf operations induced by simple shearing shows that, under certain conditions, this operation requires less driving shear stress than an accommodation of the imposed shear by shear-parallel faulting. The operation of cross faults between neighboring Riedel faults in a wrench zone is a typical example. Large-scale rotation of parallel normal faults in domino style (tilted block tectonics) is primarily associated with the extension of ductile substrata. It may be inferred from mechanical arguments and sandbox experiments how the process, and in particular the dip direction of the faults, is controlled by the way the substratal extension progresses, by the direction of a substratal squeeze flow, by the presence of a surface slope, and by the configuration of the rock boundaries that confine the set of faults in the direction of extension.

Mandl, G.

1984-04-01

415

Holocene fault scarps near Tacoma, Washington, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne laser mapping confirms that Holocene active faults traverse the Puget Sound metropolitan area, northwestern continental United States. The mapping, which detects forest-floor relief of as little as 15 cm, reveals scarps along geophysical lineaments that separate areas of Holocene uplift and subsidence. Along one such line of scarps, we found that a fault warped the ground surface between A.D. 770 and 1160. This reverse fault, which projects through Tacoma, Washington, bounds the southern and western sides of the Seattle uplift. The northern flank of the Seattle uplift is bounded by a reverse fault beneath Seattle that broke in A.D. 900 930. Observations of tectonic scarps along the Tacoma fault demonstrate that active faulting with associated surface rupture and ground motions pose a significant hazard in the Puget Sound region.

Sherrod, Brian L.; Brocher, Thomas M.; Weaver, Craig S.; Bucknam, Robert C.; Blakely, Richard J.; Kelsey, Harvey M.; Nelson, Alan R.; Haugerud, Ralph

2004-01-01

416

Stress Tensor and Stiffness Coefficients for EA Potentials in Earthquake Fault Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A general form of an Embedded-Atom (EA) empirical potential with a binary term along with a collective term is considered. The collective term is defined as the sum of distribution functions. The stress tensor and the stiffness coefficients have been derived in closed form. Results are completely compatible with the ones without the EA term. It is shown that although stress and stiffness get their main contribution from nearest neighbours, other neighbours can also contribute significantly once there is a rapid change in the energy distribution - i.e. earthquakes. In order to use a dimensionless equation a “circle of events” outside of which the energy can be neglected has been introduced. One may find it useful both from a mathematical and practical point of view. Mathematically we may ignore spatial scales, when dealing with smaller fault patches. Practically it can be used to apply the theory to a finite fault system without the complication of the boundary conditions, which is an ongoing challenge in earthquake simulations. Relations presented are in three dimensions. Using a 3d fault model gives us the opportunity to consider a system of faults instead of one 2d fault model. This also may solve the fault interaction problem eventually. Because EA potentials are imported from Molecular Dynamics (MD), and in MD simulations the time steps are as small as a femto-second, this may open a window for us to see very small scale phenomenon in earthquake forecasting.

Tavakoli, A.; Tiampo, K. F.

2010-12-01

417

Sensor and Sensorless Fault Tolerant Control for Induction Motors Using a Wavelet Index  

PubMed Central

Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) systems are crucial in industry to ensure safe and reliable operation, especially of motor drives. This paper proposes the use of multiple controllers for a FTC system of an induction motor drive, selected based on a switching mechanism. The system switches between sensor vector control, sensorless vector control, closed-loop voltage by frequency (V/f) control and open loop V/f control. Vector control offers high performance, while V/f is a simple, low cost strategy with high speed and satisfactory performance. The faults dealt with are speed sensor failures, stator winding open circuits, shorts and minimum voltage faults. In the event of compound faults, a protection unit halts motor operation. The faults are detected using a wavelet index. For the sensorless vector control, a novel Boosted Model Reference Adaptive System (BMRAS) to estimate the motor speed is presented, which reduces tuning time. Both simulation results and experimental results with an induction motor drive show the scheme to be a fast and effective one for fault detection, while the control methods transition smoothly and ensure the effectiveness of the FTC system. The system is also shown to be flexible, reverting rapidly back to the dominant controller if the motor returns to a healthy state.

Gaeid, Khalaf Salloum; Ping, Hew Wooi; Khalid, Mustafa; Masaoud, Ammar

2012-01-01

418

Experimental investigations of mechanical healing of a simulated fault gouge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to investigate the effect of fast healing from mechanical perturbations on the frictional behavior of fault surfaces, slide-hold-slide (SHS) experiments are often run in which holds are preceded by a rapid reduction of the shear stress, that triggers an increase of shear strength when resuming shear (i.e. The Tightening-up effect of unloading or Tu-effect). We present laboratory investigation where we explore the role of slip and stress perturbations before resuming the general loading of the frictional interface. Tests are performed with the Annular Simple Shear Apparatus (Navier/CERMES, Ecole des Ponts ParisTech, France) for studying such mechanical healing of a simulated fault gouge. A 100mm thick annular sample of siliceous sand (0.6mm diameter) is submitted to shear by the mean of a rotating cylinder in a semi-Couette geometry. We show that rather than small shear stress perturbations, small back-slips are responsible for significant restrengthening of the interface. Shear stress perturbations that do not lead to any significant inelastic back-slips, however, do not lead to restrengthening. A robust linear relationship between the amount of the back-slip and the strength increase is surprisingly obtained. This result suggests that small perturbations of the contact status in the granular assembly of gouge particles have a major influence on the fault restrengthening. Small displacements might have a much larger effect on the force chain transfer than stress perturbations.

Messen, Y. H.; Corfdir, A.; Schmittbuhl, J.; Toussaint, R.

2009-04-01

419

GRAFTED - GRaphical Fault Tree EDitor: A Fault Tree Description Program for Target Vulnerability/Survivability Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A computer program GRAFTED, 'GRAphical Fault Tree EDitor', has been written to simplify data entry and modification of component fault tree descriptions (FTD) used in military platform vulnerability/survivability analysis procedures. GRAFTED utilizes a un...

F. J. Tkalcevic N. M. Burman

1992-01-01

420

Quantifying the effects of an active blind fault on a shallow aquifer properties and drainage, case study of the Chihshang Aquifer in the eastern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chihshang Fault aquifer is nested in the Longitudinal Valley active Fault (LVF) situated along a plate suture between the Philippine Sea plate and the Eurasian plate in eastern Taiwan. The LVF is undergoing rapid creep and co-seismic rupturing. Surface creeping on the fault were simultaneously measured utilizing creepmeters in surface as creeping rate of 2 cm/yr. Combining surface fracture investigation and geodetic results, we show that three branches of the Chihshang Fault developed at shallow depth with average dip angles of 35°. In order to better understand the effects of variations of pore-fluid pressure in the aquifer significantly influence the near-surface behavior of the fault by this blind fault system, 9 observation wells were drilled at depths of 30 to 100 m through the zone of the aquifer affected by fault deformations. Pore pressure variations in hydraulic observation wells induced by artificial single well disturbance (slug test) and pumping/injection experiments were monitored, together with the surface electrical resistivity measurement. It is possible to identify an aquifer zone of specific hydraulic properties that corresponds to the zone deformed by the active fault. Repeated hydraulic tests revealed that the two different phenomenon: the permeability of the footwall had the same trend with the variations of annual groundwater level; the permeability of the fault zone increased following the fault creep movement in 2008.

Mu, Chung-Hsiang; Guglielmi, Yves; Cappa, Frederic; Angelier, Jacques; Lee, Jian-Cheng; Dong, Jia-Jyun

2010-05-01

421

Modes of faulting at mid-ocean ridges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many differences between normal faults generated at fast and slow spreading ridges are recognized. Fast spreading faults show about a tenth the vertical displacement seen for typical faults formed at slow spreading ridges. Essentially all faults mapped at slow spreading ridges dip toward the spreading axis while about 50% of normal faults seen at fast spreading ridges dip away from

R. Buck; L. Lavier; A. Poliakov

2003-01-01

422

Prehistoric Earthquakes Along The Sanchiao Fault, Taipei Basin, Northern Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although numerous large earthquakes in Taiwan have produced surface rupture during the last century, little is known about fault slip rates and recurrence intervals of fault displacement in metropolitan Taipei city. Previous studies along the Sanchiao Fault, a major normal fault that flanks the western boundary of the Taipei Basin, suggest that the fault has a long-term slip rate of

S. Huang; C. M. Rubin; Y. Chen; H. Liu; T. Su; T. Lai; C. Chiu

2003-01-01

423

Development of automatic fault tree synthesis system using decision matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault trees synthesis, the basis for fault tree analysis (FTA), serves as a powerful tool for risk analysis. It has become a trend to accomplish computer-assisted fault tree synthesis in the field of system safety engineering because conventional manual construction of fault trees can be extremely time-consuming and vulnerable to human errors. This paper expounds upon a fault tree synthesis

Zong-Xiao Yang; Yan-Yi Zheng; Jin-Xue Xue

2009-01-01

424

Design of arc fault detection system based on CAN bus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arc fault detection system (AFDS) is a device intended to protect the power system against the arc fault that may cause fire. When there is an arc fault, the scale of fault current is lower than the initialization of most of the protection devices installed in the lowers, hence AFDS is an effective device to detect the arc fault successfully

Zong Ming; Yang Tian; Fengge Zhang

2009-01-01

425

Holocene faulting in the western Basin and Range, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Principal late Quaternary faults in the Basin and Range Geomorphic Province of eastern and northeastern California were evaluated for evidence of Holocene surface fault rupture as part of DMG's Fault Evaluation and Zoning Project. Those faults considered to have been active in Holocene time were zoned for special studies in order to mitigate surface fault rupture hazard as authorized by

1993-01-01

426

Structure of normal faults in the western U. S  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault zone morphology is partly controlled by secondary faults that grow laterally and link together. Deformation eventually focuses into a narrow, active fault zone surrounded by an elongated mosaic of mostly inactive faults. These secondary faults reflect deformation processes in the brittle crust, and are characterized by power-law distribution in trace length (L) for 100 m < L < 10

Bruhn

1992-01-01

427

Testing the hold time fault for large industrial design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new fault model and ATPG algorithm are proposed to target the hold time fault, which is guided by the timing information (e.g. from SDFfile) to detect the fault through the shortest path to maximize the probability of detecting the hold time fault due to small delay defects or process variations. The fault population is linear to the number of

Kim-Han Tsai; Janusz Rajski

2008-01-01

428

Fault tree analysis on handwashing for hygiene management  

Microsoft Academic Search

FTA (fault tree analysis) of the handwashing process was performed to investigate the causes for faults in hygiene management. The causes were deductively identified as the events causing every possible hazard by constructing a fault tree. The fault tree was constructed in a hierarchical structure with a single top event (occurrence of faults in hand washing), seven intermediate events, and

Aeri Park; Seung Ju Lee

2009-01-01

429

The Starr fault system of southeastern Ohio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Starr fault system is a series of east-west-trending faults located in southeastern Ohio. This fault system was discovered by mapping the anomalous sedimentary sequence of the [open quotes]Big Lime[close quotes]. The Big Lime is a driller's term for the stratigraphic section that includes the Lower Devonian Onondaga through Middle Silurian Lockport formations. The use of trend-surface analysis identified the

1993-01-01

430

Diagnosing process faults using neural network models  

SciTech Connect

In order to be of use for realistic problems, a fault diagnosis method should have the following three features. First, it should apply to nonlinear processes. Second, it should not rely on extensive amounts of data regarding previous faults. Lastly, it should detect faults promptly. The authors present such a scheme for static (i.e., non-dynamic) systems. It involves using a neural network to create an associative memory whose fixed points represent the normal behavior of the system.

Buescher, K.L.; Jones, R.D.; Messina, M.J.

1993-11-01

431

Tolerating Faults in Hypercubes Using Subcube Partitioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the issue of running algorithms on a hypercube whichhas both node and edge faults, and we assume a worst case distributionof the faults. We prove that for any constant c, an n-dimensionalhypercube (n-cube) with ncfaulty components contains a fault-freesubgraph that can implement a large class of hypercube algorithmswith only a constant factor slowdown. In addition, our approach yieldspractical

Jehoshua Bruck; Robert Cypher; Danny Soroker

1992-01-01

432

Theory of fault-tolerant quantum computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to use quantum error-correcting codes to improve the performance of a quantum computer, it is necessary to be able to perform operations fault-tolerantly on encoded states. I present a theory of fault-tolerant operations on stabilizer codes based on symmetries of the code stabilizer. This allows a straightforward determination of which operations can be performed fault-tolerantly on a given

Daniel Gottesman

1998-01-01

433

Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning and Rapid Response System  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the preparations for the future earthquake in Istanbul a Rapid Response and Early Warning system in the metropolitan area is in operation. For the Early Warning system ten strong motion stations were installed as close as possible to the fault zone. Continuous on-line data from these stations via digital radio modem provide early warning for potentially disastrous

M. O. Erdik; Y. Fahjan; O. Ozel; H. Alcik; M. Aydin; M. Gul

2003-01-01

434

California Fault Zone Orphan Borehole Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

California is tectonically active and has many abandoned boreholes across the state. With information on these boreholes provided by the Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources (DOGGR), we have been able to create several interactive maps on Google Earth for a public website and database accessible at: http://www.pmc.ucsc.edu/~rapid/ . These maps locate abandoned and adoptable wells near active quaternary fault traces and are linked to relevant subsurface information. The links on the website include complete histories, logs, lithologies, stratigraphic columns, and casing information (when available). Earthquake scientists may utilize these wells for monitoring subsurface changes prior, during, and after an earthquake in California. The boreholes could be used for the measurements of several subsurface observables, including: repeat temperature logs, stress measurements, geophysical logging, repeat active-source seismic experiments, sampling of mud/ gas/ fluids, long-term monitoring of temperature and pore fluid pressure, passive seismicity, etc. The “Adopt a Well Program” with DOGGR allows the orphaned well to be tested for 90 days without liability then purchased upon approval. With the science of seismology expanding its limits, these boreholes offer the depth necessary to have accurate subsurface data in order to make informed implications about what occurs deep beneath the surface.

Avila, J.; Brodsky, E. E.

2009-12-01

435

Effects of physical fault properties on frictional instabilities produced on simulated faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory studies of large-scale simulated faults show that physical properties of the fault, specifically normal stress and fault roughness, significantly influence the unstable shear failure behavior of the fault. In addition, the experiments provide insights into important length-scaling effects that are useful for assessing concepts such as critical crack length or rupture nucleation dimension. Stick-slip shear failures have been generated

Paul G. Okubo; James H. Dieterich

1984-01-01

436

Dynamic Hybrid Fault Modeling and Extended Evolutionary Game Theory for Reliability, Survivability and Fault Tolerance Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new layered modeling architecture consisting of dynamic hybrid fault modeling and extended evolu- tionary gametheoryfor reliability,survivability,andfaulttolerance analyses. The architecture extends traditional hybrid fault models and their relevant constraints in the Agreement algorithms with survival analysis, and evolutionary game theory. The dynamic hybrid fault modeling (i) transforms hybrid fault models into time- and covariate-dependent models; (ii) makes real-time

Axel W. Krings

2011-01-01

437

Transtensional structures along a transform fault  

SciTech Connect

Recently acquired side-scan imagery and single-channel seismic profiles along the Fiji transform fault reveal the structures produced by its sinistral motion. The fault extends from Peggy Ridge in the northern Lau basin into the central North Fiji basin, at least as far as the Viwa spreading ridge near Viti Levu, Fiji. A change in character of the fault along its length is evident in the imagery. Adjacent to the Fiji platform, the fault is clearly defined. Deformation and seismicity are confined to a narrow linear band which is offset by two left-stepping relay zones. Farther to the west in the north Fiji basin, however, the fault is not well defined. A series of ridges and basins occurs in a complicated region between 174{degree}E and 177{degree}E. These are produced by interaction of the fault with the nearby spreading centers. Interpretations differ as to the fault and spreading center geometry in this area. The arrangement of the tectonic element has controlled the formation of the observed structures. The intersection of the fault with the Viwa spreading ridge has features typical of ridge-transform insections. Within the complicated area between 174{degree} and 177{degree}E, the ridges and basins are postulated to be a consequence of the fault's shearing motion.

Jarvis, P.A.; Kroenke, L. (Hawaii Institute of Geophysics, Honolulu (USA)); Hughes-Clark, J. (James Cook Univ., Townsville (Australia)); Tiffin, D. (CCOP/SOPAC, Suva (Fiji))

1990-05-01

438

Time-Dependent Coulomb Stres along the San Andreas Fault System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many questions remain regarding the evolution of stress along the San Andreas Fault System: Which segments of the San Andreas System are approaching failure? What is the stress interaction along different fault segments for likely slip scenarios? To what extent does locking depth influence the regional stress field? To better address these questions, we have developed and tested a semi-analytic, time-dependent model for 3-D displacement and stress caused by a dislocation in an elastic layer over a viscoelastic half-space. Our model is remarkably efficient: a single time-step computation of 2048 by 2048 horizontal grid cells, containing over 400 fault elements within a 900 x 1700 km fault zone, requires approximately 1 minute of CPU time on an ordinary workstation. This speed enables us to rapidly explore various full 3-D viscoelastic models with realistic 1000-year faulting scenarios. Our approach for investigating time-dependent deformation and stress evolution of the San Andreas Fault System is as follows: We represent far-field plate motion by continuous slip in the lower portion of a 50 km thick elastic layer. Earthquakes are modeled by episodic slip along individual faults using spatially-variable locking depth and geologically-estimated recurrence intervals. Each co-seismic event results in an instantaneous change of stress within the viscoelastic half-space that slowly relaxes with time and is coupled with the evolution of stresses within the elastic plate. We investigate such evolving stresses by computing time-dependent Coulomb stress within the seismogenic zone. We find that the evolving stress field is sensitive to plate thickness, half-space viscosity, and faulting scenario. We are currently establishing a suite of models, consistent with both geodetic and geological observations, that will increase our understanding of how temporal plate-boundary deformation and stress variations within the seismogenic crust can result from different tectonic settings throughout the earthquake cycle.

Smith, B. R.; Sandwell, D. T.

2003-12-01

439

Heating and Weakening of Major Faults During Seismic Rupture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The absence of significant heat flow from major fault zones, and scarcity of evidence for their seismic melting, means that during earthquake slip such zones could not retain shear strength comparable to the typically high static friction strength of rocks. One line of explanation is that they are actually statically weak, which could be because materials of exceptionally low friction (smectites, talc) accumulate along fault zones, or perhaps because pore pressure within the fault core is far closer to lithostatic than hydrostatic. Without dismissing either, the focus here is on how thermal processes during the rapid slips of seismic rupture can weaken a fault which is indeed statically strong. (The discussion also leaves aside another kind of non- thermal dynamic weakening, possible when there is dissimilarity in seismic properties across the fault, and/or in poroelastic properties and permeability within fringes of damaged material immediately adjoining the slip surface. Spatially nonuniform mode II slip like near a propagating rupture front may then induce a substantial reduction in the effective normal stress \\bar?.) The heating and weakening processes to be discussed divide roughly into two camps: (1) Those which are expected to be active from the start of seismic slip, and hence will be present in all earthquakes; and (2) Those that kick-in after threshold conditions of rise of temperature T or accumulation of slip are reached, and hence become a feature of larger, or at least deeper slipping, earthquakes. It has been argued that the two major players of (1) are as follows: (1.1) Flash heating and weakening of frictional contact asperities in rapid slip [Rice, 1999, 2006; Tullis and Goldsby, 2003; Goldsby and Hirth, 2006; Beeler et al., 2007; Yuan and Prakash, 2007]. That gives a strong velocity-weakening character to the friction coefficient, which is consistent with inducing self-healing rupture modes [Noda et al., 2006; Lu et al., 2007]. It is a process for which the details are still poorly understood in presence of substantial fault gouge, almost surely present in some of the large-slip experiments fitting the flash weakening theoretical model. (1.2) Thermal pressurization of pore fluid by frictional heating, a process which reduces \\bar? [Sibson, 1973; Lachenbruch, 1980; Mase and Smith, 1987], and is expected to be active wherever the fault wear products, as gouge, retain porosity of a few percent or more. At some depth and temperature they may instead sinter to a coherent solid on the interseismic time scale. Those of category (2) are as follows: (2.1) Macroscopic melting of the shear zone [Tsutsumi and Shimamoto, 1997; Hirose and Shimamoto, 2005; Fialko and Khazan, 2005; Nielsen et al., 2007], a process for which conditions may not be met if (1.1) and (1.2) kill off strength rapidly enough [Rempel and Rice, 2006], or do so with the help of one of the next two items. (2.2) Thermal decomposition like in smectite or serpentine dehydration [Sulem et al., 2004, 2007; Hirose and Bystricky, 2007] or coal devolatilization [O'Hara et al., 2006], leading to a high pressure fluid phase. (2.3) Formation of a weak gel-like layer like in wet silica-rich lithologies [Goldsby and Tullis, 2002; DiToro et al., 2004]. It is argued that some large-slip experiments involving significant weakening of unsaturated specimens in lab air, and others involving dehydration, may exhibit a component of weakening from pressurization of water vapor that is desorbed from mineral surfaces or released by dehydration during frictional heating. The hydraulic diffusivity of water vapor is unexpectedly low at levels of p comparable to the low normal stresses of the experiments involved.

Rice, J. R.

2007-12-01

440

3D fault drag characterization: an import tool in a fault description  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an industrial 3D seismic dataset from the central part of the Vienna Basin (Austria), we investigate marker horizons in the hanging wall and footwall of a large-scale normal fault. The throw of individual horizons shows a remarkable variability, both along strike and along dip of the fault. Since fault drag is a direct function of the displacement gradient quantification

Darko Spahic; Ulrike Exner; Bernhard Grasemann

2010-01-01