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Sample records for cattle age determination

  1. DRY NONHEATED ANAEROBIC BIOGAS FERMENTATION USING AGED BEEF CATTLE MANURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biogas production at beef cattle feedlots is hard to justify because of the large amounts of dilution water required and the high cost to design and operate conventional water-based digestion systems. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of producing biogas us...

  2. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate...

  3. Age determination of raccoons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grau, G.A.; Sanderson, G.C.; Rogers, J.P.

    1970-01-01

    Age criteria, based on 61 skulls and eye lenses from 103 known-age captives, are described for separating raccoons (Procyon lotor) into eight age-classes as follows: young-of-the-year, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-7, > 7 years. Criteria studied were eye lens nitrogen, cranial suture closure, tooth wear and incisor cementum layers. Lens nitrogen increased rapidly up to 12 months of age, but at much reduced rate thereafter. Total lens nitrogen was useful only in separating young-of-the-year from adults. The closure sequence for five cranial sutures accurately divided the total known-age sample of males into seven groups, and the adults into five groups. The tooth wear criteria divided the known-age sample into five relative age groups, but aging of individuals by this method was inaccurate. Histological sectioning of known-age teeth was the best method of observing layering in the cementum tissue. The technique of basing estimation of age on cementum ring counts, although subjective, was accurate for aging individuals through their fourth year but tended to underestimate the age of animals over 4 years old. However, suture closure or tooth wear can be used to identify males over 4 years old. In field studies, technical difficulties limit the utility of age estimation by cementum layers. Maximum root thickness of the lower canine was accurate in determining the sex of individuals from 5 months to ,at least 48 months of age.

  4. HEU age determination

    SciTech Connect

    Moorthy, A.R.; Kato, W.Y.

    1995-08-01

    A technique has been developed to determine the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Age which is defined as the time since the HEU was produced in an enrichment process. The HEU age is determined from the ratios of relevant uranium parents and their daughters viz {sup 230}Th/{sup 234}U and {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U. Uranium isotopes are quantitatively measured by their characteristic gammas and their daughters by alpha spectroscopy. In some of the samples where HEU is enriched more than 99%, the only mode of HEU age determination is by the measurement of {sup 231}Pa since there is negligible quantity of {sup 230}Th due to very low atom concentrations of {sup 234}U in the sample. In this paper we have presented data and methodology of finding the age of two HEU samples.

  5. HEU age determination

    SciTech Connect

    Moorthy, A.R.; Kato, W.Y.

    1997-07-01

    A new technique has been developed to determine the age of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in solids. Uranium age is defined as the time since the uranium-containing material was last subjected to a process capable of separating uranium from its radioactive-decay daughters. [Most chemical processing, uranium enrichment, volatilization processes, and phase transformations (especially relevant for uranium hexafluoride) can result in separation of the uranium parent material from the decay-product daughters.] Determination of the uranium age, as defined here, may be relevant in verifying arms-control agreements involving uranium-containing nuclear weapons. The HEU age is determined from the ratios of relevant uranium daughter isotopes and their parents, viz {sup 230}Th/{sup 234}U and {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U. Uranium isotopes are quantitatively measured by their characteristic gamma rays and their daughters by alpha spectroscopy. In some of the samples, where HEU is enriched more than 99%, the only mode of HEU age determination is by the measurement of {sup 231}Pa since there is negligible quantity of {sup 230}Th due to very low atom concentrations of {sup 234}U in the samples. In this report the methodology and the data for determining the age of two HEU samples are presented.

  6. Relationship between cattle temperament as determined by exit velocity carcass merit in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this trial was to use cattle temperament, as determined by exit velocity only, as a means to evaluate the impact of temperament on carcass merit and the possible utilization of exit velocity alone as a sorting tool within the feedlot. At the time of processing, exit velocity and bod...

  7. HEU age determination

    SciTech Connect

    Moorthy, A.R.; Kato, W.Y.

    1994-12-31

    A criteria that a sample of highly enriched uranium (HEU) had come from a weapons stockpile and not newly produced in an enrichment plant is to show that the HEU had been produced a significant time in the past. The time since the HEU has produced in an enrichment plant is defined as the age of the HEU in this paper. The HEU age is determined by measuring quantitatively the daughter products {sup 230}Th and {sup 231}Pa of {sup 234}U and {sup 235}U, respectively, by first chemical separation of the thorium and protactinium and then conducting alpha spectrometry of the daughter products.

  8. DETERMINATION OF RACTOPAMINE IN CATTLE AND SHEEP URINE USING BIOSENSOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A biosensor method, using the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) principle, was developed for the determination of ractopamine in cattle and sheep urine. A monoclonal antibody was used to compete with ractopamine in the sample and ractopamine immobilized on the sensor chip. Addition of bovine serum a...

  9. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or...) of this chapter, shall be moved in interstate commerce other than in accordance with the...

  10. Effect of sex, age, and breed on genetic recombination features in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meiotic recombination is a fundamental biological process which generates genetic diversity, affects fertility, and influences evolvability. Here we investigate the roles of sex, age, and breed in cattle recombination features, including recombination rate, location and crossover interference. Usin...

  11. Age determination of mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.; Johnson, D.H.; Dane, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    A technique for distinguishing adult from yearling wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), from late winter through the nesting season, was developed by applying discriminant analysis procedures to selected wing feather characters of 126 yearlings and 76 adults (2-year-olds) hand-reared from wild eggs during 1974, 1975, and 1977. Average values for feather characters generally increased as the birds advanced from yearlings to adults. Black-white surface area of greater secondary covert 2 was the single most reliable aging character identified during the study. The error rate was lowest in females (3%) when discriminant functions were used with measurements of primary 1 weight and black-white area of greater secondary covert 2 and in males (9%) when the functions were used with black-white area of greater secondary coverts 1, 2, and 3. Methodology precludes aging of birds in the field during capture operations.

  12. Biochemical typing of pathological prion protein in aging cattle with BSE

    PubMed Central

    Tester, Seraina; Juillerat, Valerie; Doherr, Marcus G; Haase, Bianca; Polak, Miroslaw; Ehrensperger, Felix; Leeb, Tosso; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Seuberlich, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    Background The broad enforcement of active surveillance for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in 2000 led to the discovery of previously unnoticed, atypical BSE phenotypes in aged cattle that differed from classical BSE (C-type) in biochemical properties of the pathological prion protein. Depending on the molecular mass and the degree of glycosylation of its proteinase K resistant core fragment (PrPres), mainly determined in samples derived from the medulla oblongata, these atypical cases are currently classified into low (L)-type or high (H)-type BSE. In the present study we address the question to what extent such atypical BSE cases are part of the BSE epidemic in Switzerland. Results To this end we analyzed the biochemical PrPres type by Western blot in a total of 33 BSE cases in cattle with a minimum age of eight years, targeting up to ten different brain regions. Our work confirmed H-type BSE in a zebu but classified all other cases as C-type BSE; indicating a very low incidence of H- and L-type BSE in Switzerland. It was documented for the first time that the biochemical PrPres type was consistent across different brain regions of aging animals with C-type and H-type BSE, i.e. independent of the neuroanatomical structure investigated. Conclusion Taken together this study provides further characteristics of the BSE epidemic in Switzerland and generates new baseline data for the definition of C- and H-type BSE phenotypes, thereby underpinning the notion that they indeed represent distinct prion disease entities. PMID:19470160

  13. Demographic Model of the Swiss Cattle Population for the Years 2009-2011 Stratified by Gender, Age and Production Type

    PubMed Central

    Schärrer, Sara; Presi, Patrick; Hattendorf, Jan; Chitnis, Nakul; Reist, Martin; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Demographic composition and dynamics of animal and human populations are important determinants for the transmission dynamics of infectious disease and for the effect of infectious disease or environmental disasters on productivity. In many circumstances, demographic data are not available or of poor quality. Since 1999 Switzerland has been recording cattle movements, births, deaths and slaughter in an animal movement database (AMD). The data present in the AMD offers the opportunity for analysing and understanding the dynamic of the Swiss cattle population. A dynamic population model can serve as a building block for future disease transmission models and help policy makers in developing strategies regarding animal health, animal welfare, livestock management and productivity. The Swiss cattle population was therefore modelled using a system of ordinary differential equations. The model was stratified by production type (dairy or beef), age and gender (male and female calves: 0–1 year, heifers and young bulls: 1–2 years, cows and bulls: older than 2 years). The simulation of the Swiss cattle population reflects the observed pattern accurately. Parameters were optimized on the basis of the goodness-of-fit (using the Powell algorithm). The fitted rates were compared with calculated rates from the AMD and differed only marginally. This gives confidence in the fitted rates of parameters that are not directly deductible from the AMD (e.g. the proportion of calves that are moved from the dairy system to fattening plants). PMID:25310680

  14. Demographic model of the Swiss cattle population for the years 2009-2011 stratified by gender, age and production type.

    PubMed

    Schärrer, Sara; Presi, Patrick; Hattendorf, Jan; Chitnis, Nakul; Reist, Martin; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Demographic composition and dynamics of animal and human populations are important determinants for the transmission dynamics of infectious disease and for the effect of infectious disease or environmental disasters on productivity. In many circumstances, demographic data are not available or of poor quality. Since 1999 Switzerland has been recording cattle movements, births, deaths and slaughter in an animal movement database (AMD). The data present in the AMD offers the opportunity for analysing and understanding the dynamic of the Swiss cattle population. A dynamic population model can serve as a building block for future disease transmission models and help policy makers in developing strategies regarding animal health, animal welfare, livestock management and productivity. The Swiss cattle population was therefore modelled using a system of ordinary differential equations. The model was stratified by production type (dairy or beef), age and gender (male and female calves: 0-1 year, heifers and young bulls: 1-2 years, cows and bulls: older than 2 years). The simulation of the Swiss cattle population reflects the observed pattern accurately. Parameters were optimized on the basis of the goodness-of-fit (using the Powell algorithm). The fitted rates were compared with calculated rates from the AMD and differed only marginally. This gives confidence in the fitted rates of parameters that are not directly deductible from the AMD (e.g. the proportion of calves that are moved from the dairy system to fattening plants). PMID:25310680

  15. Age determination for Ultracool Dwarfs .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.

    Brown dwarfs are notoriously difficult to age date as they lack stable hydrogen burning hence main-sequence star age-dating techniques are inapplicable for their masses. However precise and accurate ages for individual sources are required to determine masses and disentangle how secondary parameters such as differing metallicity, cloud structure and gravity impact observables. In this contribution, I review age-dating techniques for brown dwarfs as well as ``piggy-back" techniques that rely on co-moving, higher mass, main-sequence stars for which Gaia may substantially increase the sample.

  16. Effect of cattle temperament as determined by exit velocity on lung respiratory lesions and liver disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this trial was to use exit velocity as a means of determining temperament of cattle to evaluate the impact of temperament on animal health. At the time of processing, exit velocity and body weight were recorded on 20 pens of cattle (2,877 head) at a commercial feedlot. Infrared sens...

  17. Determining Proportion of Exfoliative Vaginal Cell during Various Stages of Estrus Cycle Using Vaginal Cytology Techniques in Aceh Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Siregar, Tongku N.; Melia, Juli; Rohaya; Thasmi, Cut Nila; Masyitha, Dian; Wahyuni, Sri; Rosa, Juliana; Nurhafni; Panjaitan, Budianto; Herrialfian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the period of estrus cycle in aceh cattle, Indonesia, based on vaginal cytology techniques. Four healthy females of aceh cattle with average weight of 250–300 kg, age of 5–7 years, and body condition score of 3-4 were used. All cattle were subjected to ultrasonography analysis for the occurrence of corpus luteum before being synchronized using intramuscular injections of PGF2 alpha 25 mg. A vaginal swab was collected from aceh cattle, stained with Giemsa 10%, and observed microscopically. Period of estrus cycle was predicted from day 1 to day 24 after estrus synchronization was confirmed using ultrasonography analysis at the same day. The result showed that parabasal, intermediary, and superficial epithelium were found in the vaginal swabs collected from proestrus, metestrus, and diestrus aceh cattle. Proportions of these cells in the particular period of estrus cycle were 36.22, 32.62, and 31.16 (proestrus); 21.33, 32.58, and 46.09 (estrus); 40.75, 37.58, and 21.67 (metestrus); and 41.07, 37.38, and 21.67 (diestrus), respectively. In conclusion, dominant proportion of superficial cell that occurred in estrus period might be used as the base for determining optimal time for insemination. PMID:26977335

  18. Prehistoric contacts over the Straits of Gibraltar indicated by genetic analysis of Iberian Bronze Age cattle

    PubMed Central

    Anderung, Cecilia; Bouwman, Abigail; Persson, Per; Carretero, José Miguel; Ortega, Ana Isabel; Elburg, Rengert; Smith, Colin; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Ellegren, Hans; Götherström, Anders

    2005-01-01

    The geographic situation of the Iberian Peninsula makes it a natural link between Europe and North Africa. However, it is a matter of debate to what extent African influences via the Straits Gibraltar have affected Iberia's prehistoric development. Because early African pastoralist communities were dedicated to cattle breeding, a possible means to detect prehistoric African–Iberian contacts might be to analyze the origin of cattle breeds on the Iberian Peninsula. Some contemporary Iberian cattle breeds show a mtDNA haplotype, T1, that is characteristic to African breeds, generally explained as being the result of the Muslim expansion of the 8th century A.D., and of modern imports. To test a possible earlier African influence, we analyzed mtDNA of Bronze Age cattle from the Portalón cave at the Atapuerca site in northern Spain. Although the majority of samples showed the haplotype T3 that dominates among European breeds of today, the T1 haplotype was found in one specimen radiocarbon dated 1800 calibrated years B.C. Accepting T1 as being of African origin, this result indicates prehistoric African–Iberian contacts and lends support to archaeological finds linking early African and Iberian cultures. We also found a wild ox haplotype in the Iberian Bronze Age sample, reflecting local hybridization or backcrossing or that aurochs were hunted by these farming cultures. PMID:15941827

  19. Age at puberty in beef heifers: Criollo cattle versus british crossbred cattle.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age at puberty is an important factor in estimating the potential productivity of the bovine female. A study was conducted at the ARS-USDA Jornada Experimental Range in 2006 and 2007 to compare onset of puberty, BW, and serum insulin in Criollo and Angus-Hereford crossbred heifers. In 2006, 7 Crioll...

  20. Age-Related Changes in Skeletal Muscle of Cattle.

    PubMed

    Costagliola, A; Wojcik, S; Pagano, T B; De Biase, D; Russo, V; Iovane, V; Grieco, E; Papparella, S; Paciello, O

    2016-03-01

    Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength, is a multifactorial condition that represents a major healthcare concern for the elderly population. Although its morphologic features have been extensively studied in humans, animal models, and domestic and wild animals, only a few reports about spontaneous sarcopenia exist in other long-lived animals. In this work, muscle samples from 60 healthy Podolica-breed old cows (aged 15-23 years) were examined and compared with muscle samples from 10 young cows (3-6 years old). Frozen sections were studied through standard histologic and histoenzymatic procedures, as well as by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Western blot analysis. The most prominent age-related myopathic features seen in the studied material included angular fiber atrophy (90% of cases), mitochondrial alterations (ragged red fibers, 70%; COX-negative fibers, 60%), presence of vacuolated fibers (75%), lymphocytic (predominantly CD8+) inflammation (40%), and type II selective fiber atrophy (40%). Immunohistochemistry revealed increased expression of major histocompatibility complex I in 36 cases (60%) and sarcoplasmic accumulations of β-amyloid precursor protein-positive material in 18 cases (30%). In aged cows, muscle atrophy was associated with accumulation of myostatin. Western blot analysis indicated increased amount of both proteins-myostatin and β-amyloid precursor protein-in muscles of aged animals compared with controls. These findings confirm the presence of age-related morphologic changes in cows similar to human sarcopenia and underline the possible role of amyloid deposition and subsequent inflammation in muscle senescence. PMID:26869152

  1. Ageing Cattle: The Use of Radiographic Examinations on Cattle Metapodials from Eketorp Ringfort on the Island of Öland in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Telldahl, Ylva

    2015-01-01

    In this paper conventional X-ray analysis of cattle metapodials is used to study the age structure of slaughtered cattle at Eketorp ringfort on the island of Öland, Sweden. The X-ray analyses suggest that several animals in both phases were slaughtered aged 4-8 years. More oxen/bulls than cows reached the advanced age of over 8 years, yet in phase III more oxen/bulls seem to have been slaughtered between the ages of 2 and 8 years. These differences may reflect a change in demand for meat related to the character of the site. The results also show a correlation between metapodials with a pathology connected to biomechanical stress and older animals. This suggests that male cattle were used both in meat production and as draught animals. Asymmetry in male metatarsals such as distal broadening of the lateral part of the medial trochlea was visible on the X-ray images. The bone element also indicates a denser outer cortex of the medial diaphysis in comparison to the inner medulla. This could be the result of repetitive mechanical stress. Two metatarsals from cows were documented with distal asymmetry indicating that cows were also used as working animals. Bone elements with changes in the articular surfaces were more common in metapodials from cows with an X-ray age of over 3-4 years. These results highlighted the slaughter age difference between oxen/bulls and cows, enabling a better understanding of animal husbandry and the selection of draught cattle at Eketorp ringfort. PMID:26336086

  2. Ageing Cattle: The Use of Radiographic Examinations on Cattle Metapodials from Eketorp Ringfort on the Island of Öland in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Telldahl, Ylva

    2015-01-01

    In this paper conventional X-ray analysis of cattle metapodials is used to study the age structure of slaughtered cattle at Eketorp ringfort on the island of Öland, Sweden. The X-ray analyses suggest that several animals in both phases were slaughtered aged 4–8 years. More oxen/bulls than cows reached the advanced age of over 8 years, yet in phase III more oxen/bulls seem to have been slaughtered between the ages of 2 and 8 years. These differences may reflect a change in demand for meat related to the character of the site. The results also show a correlation between metapodials with a pathology connected to biomechanical stress and older animals. This suggests that male cattle were used both in meat production and as draught animals. Asymmetry in male metatarsals such as distal broadening of the lateral part of the medial trochlea was visible on the X-ray images. The bone element also indicates a denser outer cortex of the medial diaphysis in comparison to the inner medulla. This could be the result of repetitive mechanical stress. Two metatarsals from cows were documented with distal asymmetry indicating that cows were also used as working animals. Bone elements with changes in the articular surfaces were more common in metapodials from cows with an X-ray age of over 3–4 years. These results highlighted the slaughter age difference between oxen/bulls and cows, enabling a better understanding of animal husbandry and the selection of draught cattle at Eketorp ringfort. PMID:26336086

  3. Transfer of aged Pu to cattle grazing on a contaminated environment

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, R.O.; Engel, D.W.; Smith, D.D.; Shinn, J.H.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Eisele, G.R.

    1988-03-01

    Estimates are obtained of the fraction of ingested or inhaled 239+240Pu transferred to blood and tissues of a reproducing herd of beef cattle, individuals of which grazed within fenced enclosures for up to 1064 d under natural conditions with no supplemental feeding at an arid site contaminated 16 y previously with Pu oxide. The estimated (geometric mean (GM)) fraction of Pu transferred from the gastrointestinal tract to blood serum was about 5 x 10(-6) (geometric standard error (GSE) = 1.4) with an approximate upper bound of about 2 x 10(-5). These results are in reasonable agreement with the value of 1 x 10(-5) recommended for human radiation protection purposes by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for insoluble Pu oxides that are free of very small particles. Also, results from a laboratory study by Stanley (St75), in which large doses of /sup 238/Pu were orally administered daily to dairy cattle for 19 consecutive days, suggest that aged 239+240Pu at this arid grazing site may not be more biologically available to blood serum than fresh 239+240Pu oxide. The estimated fractions of 239+240Pu transferred from blood serum to tissues of adult grazing cattle were: femur (3.2 X 10(-2), 1.8; GM, GSE), vertebra (1.4 X 10(-1), 1.6), liver (2.3 X 10(-1), 2.0), muscle (1.3 X 10(-1), 1.9), female gonads (7.9 X 10(-5), 1.5), and kidney (1.4 X 10(-3), 1.7). The blood-to-tissue fractional transfers for cattle initially exposed in utero were greater than those exposed only as adults by a factor of about 4 for femur (statistically significant) and of about 2 for other tissues (not significant). The estimated (GM) fraction of inhaled Pu initially deposited in the pulmonary lung was 0.34 (GSE = 1.3) for adults and 0.15 (GSE = 1.3) for cattle initially exposed in utero (a statistically significant difference).

  4. Transfer of aged Pu to cattle grazing on a contaminated environment.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, R O; Engel, D W; Smith, D D; Shinn, J H; Anspaugh, L R; Eisele, G R

    1988-03-01

    Estimates are obtained of the fraction of ingested or inhaled 239+240Pu transferred to blood and tissues of a reproducing herd of beef cattle, individuals of which grazed within fenced enclosures for up to 1064 d under natural conditions with no supplemental feeding at an arid site contaminated 16 y previously with Pu oxide. The estimated (geometric mean [GM]) fraction of Pu transferred from the gastrointestinal tract to blood serum was about 5 x 10(-6) (geometric standard error [GSE] = 1.4) with an approximate upper bound of about 2 x 10(-5). These results are in reasonable agreement with the value of 1 x 10(-5) recommended for human radiation protection purposes by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for insoluble Pu oxides that are free of very small particles. Also, results from a laboratory study by Stanley (St75), in which large doses of 238Pu were orally administered daily to dairy cattle for 19 consecutive days, suggest that aged 239+240Pu at this arid grazing site may not be more biologically available to blood serum than fresh 239+240Pu oxide. The estimated fractions of 239+240Pu transferred from blood serum to tissues of adult grazing cattle were: femur (3.2 X 10(-2), 1.8; GM, GSE), vertebra (1.4 X 10(-1), 1.6), liver (2.3 X 10(-1), 2.0), muscle (1.3 X 10(-1), 1.9), female gonads (7.9 X 10(-5), 1.5), and kidney (1.4 X 10(-3), 1.7). The blood-to-tissue fractional transfers for cattle initially exposed in utero were greater than those exposed only as adults by a factor of about 4 for femur (statistically significant) and of about 2 for other tissues (not significant). The estimated (GM) fraction of inhaled Pu initially deposited in the pulmonary lung was 0.34 (GSE = 1.3) for adults and 0.15 (GSE = 1.3) for cattle initially exposed in utero (a statistically significant difference), which may be compared with the expected fraction of 0.11 at the study site using the ICRP lung model for humans. PMID:3346164

  5. Evaluation of early conception factor lateral flow test to determine nonpregnancy in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Divakar J; Radke, Brian; Pitney, Phyllis A; Goonewardene, Laksiri A

    2007-08-01

    The early conception factor (ECF) lateral flow test was evaluated for its ability to accurately determine nonpregnant status in dairy cattle. Results of 2 field trials involving 191 cows and 832 tests indicated the probability that a cow can be correctly diagnosed as nonpregnant by using the ECF test is only about 50%. Agreement of test results between milk and serum obtained from the same cow was 57.5%. The ECF test was not consistent in identifying nonpregnancy when the same cows were tested repeatedly over a period of 4 weeks. We conclude that the ECF lateral flow test does not accurately identify nonpregnancy in dairy cattle. PMID:17824326

  6. Characterization of fungi from ruminal fluid of beef cattle with different ages and raised in tropical lignified pastures.

    PubMed

    Abrão, Flávia Oliveira; Duarte, Eduardo Robson; Freitas, Cláudio Eduardo Silva; Vieira, Edvaldo Alves; Geraseev, Luciana Castro; da Silva-Hughes, Alice Ferreira; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Rodrigues, Norberto Mario

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the aerobic rumen mycobiota from three age groups of Nelore beef cattle reared extensively on lignified pasture. The experiment was randomized and sampled 50 steers, 50 cows, and 50 calves grazed on Brachiaria spp. pasture during the dry season. Rumen fluid in all animals was aromatic, slightly viscous, and greenish-brown in color. Microscopic examination revealed monocentric and polycentric anaerobic fungi in similar proportions (P > 0.05) in the rumen fluid of cows and steers. However, these microorganisms were not identified in any of the samples from calves. In culture exams, aerobic filamentous population was significantly higher for rumen fluid of cows compared to the other two groups. Microculture and rDNA sequence analyses showed Aspergillus spp. as the most frequent aerobic fungus among the isolates from the three bovine groups evaluated. Biochemical profiles were determined by the growth level of yeast isolates with 44 nutrient sources. Ten different yeast profiles were obtained, and yeast isolates from cow ruminal fluid showed ability to catabolize greater diversity of carbon and nitrogen sources. The differences in the fungal populations observed in this study could be explained by microbial and physiological interactions existing in the ruminal ecosystem of each age bovine group. The present study showed the fungal population of the rumen related with differences among age of cattle raised in lignified pastures. Metabolic capabilities of mycelial fungi or yeast identified in this study may be employed in new probiotics or microbial additives for different bovine categories. PMID:24962597

  7. Determinants of Aged Female Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Les Leanne

    Older women (N=50) were asked a series of questions about reference groups, sex roles, sexuality, sexual desire at different stages in the life cycle, appropriateness of certain types of sexual behavior, adjustment to aging, life satisfaction, organizational activities, and male/female interaction. Quantitative and qualitative data provided the…

  8. Trends in calving ages and calving intervals for dairy cattle breeds in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hare, E; Norman, H D; Wright, J R

    2006-01-01

    Trends since 1980 for calving age and calving interval, 2 factors that influence herd life, were examined by parity for 5 breeds of US dairy cattle. Calving data were from cows with records that passed edits for USDA genetic evaluations and were in herds that remained on Dairy Herd Improvement test. First-calf heifers calved at progressively younger ages over time, but the age decline was less for later parities because of longer calving intervals. Breed differences for calving age were evident for all parities; current mean age at first calving ranged from 24 mo for Jerseys to 28 mo for Ayrshires. Mean calving age across all parities declined over time for all breeds, primarily because of increased turnover rate, and ranged from 48 mo for Holsteins to 54 mo for Ayrshires. Across parity, annual increase in calving interval was reasonably consistent (0.90 to 1.07 d/yr) for all breeds except Jersey (0.49 d/yr). Within parity, regressions of calving interval on year were generally similar to overall breed trend. Breed means for first calving interval across time ranged from 390 d for Jerseys to 407 d for Brown Swiss. PMID:16357301

  9. The impact of cattle and goats grazing on vegetation in oak stands of varying coppicing age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papachristou, Thomas G.; Platis, Panayiotis D.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of cattle and goats grazing on oak shoot growth and herbaceous vegetation in three oak forest stands with different coppicing age (1, 4 and 7 yrs after the clear cutting) were investigated. In April 1997, an experimental area was chosen with three forest stands, which were clear cut in 1996 (CL1996), 1993 (CL1993), and 1990 (CL1990). All stands were grazed by cattle and goats after they were clear cut. In each forest stand, five 10 m × 10 m paired plots were located, which represented grazed and protected patches. Herbage biomass within protected and grazed plots was measured four times each year (spring: May-June, summer: July-August, autumn: September-October, and winter: November-December). Behavioural observations on grazing animals were conducted in the same periods. In both protected and open plots the height and basal diameter of all oak shoots on 5 preselected stumps were measured at the end of five growing periods from 1997 to 2001. All forest stands carried a similar amount of available herbage (averaged over forest stands and growing season, 2614 kg/ha). Grazing animals removed on average 1057 kg/ha throughout the growing period. Cattle mainly consumed herbage (97% of bites) while goats consumed a mixture of oak browse (41% bites), herbaceous species (34% bites), and other woody species browse (25% bites). The height, diameter and volume of oak shoots were affected by grazing. The three forest stands had similar shoot heights in the protected plots in 2001 after 5 years of grazing protection. The volume of oak shoots of the grazed plots were 146.7 cm3 for CL1996, 232.9 cm3 for CL1993, and 239.1 cm3 for CL1990 in 2001 (i.e. 5, 8, and 11 years grazing after the clear cuttings, respectively). The protected plots carried greater volumes of oak shoots, CL1996: 496.0 cm3 (few months grazing before protection), CL1993: 690.0 cm3 (4 years grazing before protection), and CL1990: 344.0 cm3 (7 years grazing before protection). In conclusion, almost

  10. Determination of oxytetracycline residues in cattle meat marketed in the Kilosa district, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kimera, Zuhura I; Mdegela, Robinson H; Mhaiki, Consolatha J N; Karimuribo, Esron D; Mabiki, Faith; Nonga, Hezron E; Mwesongo, James

    2015-01-01

    Oxytetracycline is used to treat various diseases in cattle. However, its use may be associated with unacceptable residue levels in food. Oxytetracycline residues in tissues from indigenous cattle were determined in a cross-sectional study conducted in the Kilosa district, Tanzania, between November 2012 and April 2013. A total of 60 tissue samples, including muscle, liver and kidney, were collected from slaughterhouses and butchers and analysed for oxytetracycline using high-performance liquid chromatography. Oxytetracycline residues were found in 71.1% of the samples, of which 68.3% were above acceptable regulatory levels. The mean concentration of oxytetracycline across tissues was 3401.1 μg/kg ± 879.3 μg/kg; concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney were 2604.1 μg/kg ± 703.7 μg/kg, 3434.4 μg/kg ± 606.4 μg/kg and 3533.1 μg/kg ± 803.6 μg/kg, respectively. High levels of oxytetracycline residue in meat from indigenous cattle may pose a health threat to consumers in Kilosa. The findings possibly reflect a general lack of implementation of recommended withdrawal periods, ignorance about drug use and lack of extension services. Strict regulation of the use of antimicrobial drugs in the livestock industry and associated testing of animal-derived food sources prior to marketing are required. PMID:26842366

  11. Woodcock age and sex determination from wings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, F.W.

    1964-01-01

    Age of woodcock (Philohela minor) can be accurately determined throughout the year by differences in pattern, color, and wear of secondary feathers. Immature woodcock retain most secondaries during the postjuvenal molt that begins in July or August and ends in October. In contrast, subadults (first-year adults) and older woodcock molt all secondaries during the postnuptial molt beginning in June or July and ending in October. Retention of juvenal secondaries by immatures and molt of these feathers by adults form the basis for age determination. Sex of woodcock can be accurately determined by width of the outer three primaries, which are conspicuously narrower on males.

  12. A longitudinal study of Cryptosporidiosis in dairy cattle from birth to two years of age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal specimens were collected from 30 calves from birth to 24 mo of age at a dairy farm in Maryland to determine the prevalence and age distribution of Cryptosporidium species/genotypes. After centrifugation to remove debris and concentrate oocysts, specimens were examined by immunofluorescence mic...

  13. Influence of manure age and sunlight on the community structure of cattle fecal bacteria as revealed by Illumina sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, K.; Shaw, T. I.; Oladeinde, A.; Molina, M.

    2013-12-01

    Fecal pollution of environmental waters is a major concern for the general public because exposure to fecal-associated pathogens can have severe impacts on human health. Stream and river impairment due to fecal pollution is largely the result of agricultural activities in the United States. In the last few years, numerous metagenomic studies utilized next generation sequencing to develop microbial community profiles by massively sequencing the 16sRNA hypervariable region. This technology supports the application of water quality assessment such as pathogen detection and fecal source tracking. The bacteria communities of samples in these studies were determined when they were freshly collected; therefore, little is known about how feces age or how environmental stress influences the microbial ecology of fecal materials. In this study we monitored bacteria community changes in cattle feces for 57 days after excretion (day 0, 2, 4 8, 15, 22, 29, 43, 57) by sequencing the 16s variable region 4, using Illumnia MiSeq. Twelve cattle feces were studied; half of the samples were directly exposed to sunlight (unshaded) and half were shaded. Results indicate that the relative abundance (RA) profile in both shaded and unshaded samples rapidly changed from day 0 to 15, but stabilized from day 22 to 57. Firmcutes were the most abundant phylum (~40%) at day 0, but were reduced to <10% by day 57. The RA of Proteobacteria was only 1% at day 0, but increased to ~50% by day 57in both shaded and unshaded samples. By the end of the study, shaded and unshaded samples had a similar RA of Firmcutes and Proteobacteria but the RA of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria was, respectively, about 7% lower and 10% higher for unshaded samples. UV intensity, moisture, and temperature were significantly different between shaded and unshaded plots, indicating that these environmental stresses could influence the structure of fecal bacteria community in the natural environment. According to the

  14. Prevalence of virulence determinants and antimicrobial resistance among commensal Escherichia coli derived from dairy and beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Bok, Ewa; Mazurek, Justyna; Stosik, Michał; Wojciech, Magdalena; Baldy-Chudzik, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Cattle is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic E. coli, bacteria that can represent a significant threat to public health, hence it is crucial to monitor the prevalence of the genetic determinants of virulence and antimicrobial resistance among the E. coli population. The aim of this study was the analysis of the phylogenetic structure, distribution of virulence factors (VFs) and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli isolated from two groups of healthy cattle: 50 cows housed in the conventional barn (147 isolates) and 42 cows living on the ecological pasture (118 isolates). The phylogenetic analysis, identification of VFs and antimicrobial resistance genes were based on either multiplex or simplex PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of E. coli were examined using the broth microdilution method. Two statistical approaches were used to analyse the results obtained for two groups of cattle. The relations between the dependent (VFs profiles, antibiotics) and the independent variables were described using the two models. The mixed logit model was used to characterise the prevalence of the analysed factors in the sets of isolates. The univariate logistic regression model was used to characterise the prevalence of these factors in particular animals. Given each model, the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval for the population were estimated. The phylogroup B1 was predominant among isolates from beef cattle, while the phylogroups A, B1 and D occurred with equal frequency among isolates from dairy cattle. The frequency of VFs-positive isolates was significantly higher among isolates from beef cattle. E. coli from dairy cattle revealed significantly higher resistance to antibiotics. Some of the tested resistance genes were present among isolates from dairy cattle. Our study showed that the habitat and diet may affect the genetic diversity of commensal E. coli in the cattle. The results suggest that the ecological pasture habitat is related to

  15. Prevalence of Virulence Determinants and Antimicrobial Resistance among Commensal Escherichia coli Derived from Dairy and Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bok, Ewa; Mazurek, Justyna; Stosik, Michał; Wojciech, Magdalena; Baldy-Chudzik, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Cattle is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic E. coli, bacteria that can represent a significant threat to public health, hence it is crucial to monitor the prevalence of the genetic determinants of virulence and antimicrobial resistance among the E. coli population. The aim of this study was the analysis of the phylogenetic structure, distribution of virulence factors (VFs) and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli isolated from two groups of healthy cattle: 50 cows housed in the conventional barn (147 isolates) and 42 cows living on the ecological pasture (118 isolates). The phylogenetic analysis, identification of VFs and antimicrobial resistance genes were based on either multiplex or simplex PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of E. coli were examined using the broth microdilution method. Two statistical approaches were used to analyse the results obtained for two groups of cattle. The relations between the dependent (VFs profiles, antibiotics) and the independent variables were described using the two models. The mixed logit model was used to characterise the prevalence of the analysed factors in the sets of isolates. The univariate logistic regression model was used to characterise the prevalence of these factors in particular animals. Given each model, the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval for the population were estimated. The phylogroup B1 was predominant among isolates from beef cattle, while the phylogroups A, B1 and D occurred with equal frequency among isolates from dairy cattle. The frequency of VFs-positive isolates was significantly higher among isolates from beef cattle. E. coli from dairy cattle revealed significantly higher resistance to antibiotics. Some of the tested resistance genes were present among isolates from dairy cattle. Our study showed that the habitat and diet may affect the genetic diversity of commensal E. coli in the cattle. The results suggest that the ecological pasture habitat is related to

  16. Forensic quest for age determination of bloodstains.

    PubMed

    Bremmer, Rolf H; de Bruin, Karla G; van Gemert, Martin J C; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Aalders, Maurice C G

    2012-03-10

    Bloodstains at crime scenes are among the most important types of evidence for forensic investigators. They can be used for DNA-profiling for verifying the suspect's identity or for pattern analysis in order to reconstruct the crime. However, until now, using bloodstains to determine the time elapsed since the crime was committed is still not possible. From a criminalistic point of view, an accurate estimation of when the crime was committed enables to verify witnesses' statements, limits the number of suspects and assesses alibis. Despite several attempts and exploration of many technologies during a century, no method has been materialized into forensic practice. This review gives an overview of an extensive search in scientific literature of techniques that address the quest for age determination of bloodstains. We found that most techniques are complementary to each other, in short as well as long term age determination. Techniques are compared concerning their sensitivity for short and long term ageing of bloodstains and concerning their possible applicability to be used on a crime scene. In addition, experimental challenges like substrate variation, interdonor variation and environmental influences are addressed. Comparison of these techniques contributes to our knowledge of the physics and biochemistry in an ageing bloodstain. Further improvement and incorporation of environmental factors are necessary to enable age determination of bloodstains to be acceptable in court. PMID:21868178

  17. Freezing, thawing and aging effects on beef tenderness from Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    Aroeira, Carolina N; Torres Filho, Robledo A; Fontes, Paulo Rogério; Gomide, Lúcio Alberto M; Ramos, Alcinéia L S; Ladeira, Márcio M; Ramos, Eduardo M

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of freezing prior to aging on the meat tenderness of young Nellore and Aberdeen Angus bulls. Samples of the longissimus thoracis muscle were submitted to two treatments: conventional aging and freezing (-20°C for 40days) followed by thawing and aging periods. The meats were evaluated after 0, 7, 14 and 21 aging days (1°C). Freezing increased (P<0.05) purge, cooking loss and total exudate loss throughout aging. Nellore meats had greater total exudate loss and shorter sarcomere lengths (P<0.05). Freezing increased proteolysis during aging in the meats of both breeds, but reduced shear force was found (P<0.05) only in Aberdeen Angus meats and only at time zero. These results suggest that the meat tenderizing process by freezing prior to aging may contribute to meat tenderness in the first weeks of aging, but it is dependent on the animal breed. PMID:26878609

  18. Age determination of blue-winged teal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dane, C.W.

    1968-01-01

    Primary feather length, markings on the greater secondary coverts, and the degree of bill spotting were evaluated as characters for use in the spring to distinguish first-year, blue-winged teal (Anas discors) females from older ones. The length of the 10th primary feather did not prove suitable to separate different aged females. Extreme primary lengths might be used to determine the age of some males. In females that have been through a postnuptial molt the greater secondary coverts have a more symmetrical, and more acutely angled, white, inverted 'V'-marking. Any female with a 'V' subjectively classified as good has gone through at least one postnuptial molt, and a female with no sign of a 'V' on the coverts is a juvenile or yearling before her first postnuptial molt. By measuring the longest bill spot on the upper mandible of each known-age female, it was possible to determine the age of some female teal. Because the spots fade during the breeding season, no lower size limit could be set to delineate first-year females at that time of year, but any nest-trapped hen with a spot longer than 10 mm was considered to be older than 1 year. Upper and lower limits were also established to distinguish some yearlings and 2-year-olds in the fall.

  19. Temporal variation in coat colour (genotypes) supports major changes in the Nordic cattle population after Iron Age.

    PubMed

    Niemi, M; Sajantila, A; Vilkki, J

    2016-08-01

    Variation in coat colour genotypes of archaeological cattle samples from Finland was studied by sequencing 69 base pairs of the extension locus (melanocortin 1-receptor, MC1R) targeting both a transition and a deletion defining the three main alleles, such as dominant black (E(D) ), wild type (E(+) ) and recessive red (e). The 69-bp MC1R sequence was successfully analysed from 23 ancient (1000-1800 AD) samples. All three main alleles and genotype combinations were detected with allele frequencies of 0.26, 0.17 and 0.57 for E(D) , E(+) and e respectively. Recessive red and dominant black alleles were detected in both sexes. According to the best of our knowledge, this is the first ancient DNA study defining all three main MC1R alleles. Observed MC1R alleles are in agreement with calculated phenotype frequencies from historical sources. The division of ancient Finnish cattle population into modern Finnish breeds with settled colours was dated to the 20th century. From the existing genotyped populations in Europe (43 breeds, n = 2360), the closest match to ancient MC1R genotype frequencies was with the Norwegian native multicoloured breeds. In combined published genotype data of ancient (n = 147) and genotypes and phenotypes of modern Nordic cattle (n = 738), MC1R allele frequencies showed temporal changes similar to neutral mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal haplotypes analysed earlier. All three markers indicate major change in genotypes in Nordic cattle from the Late Iron Age to the Medieval period followed by slower change through the historical periods until the present. PMID:27297978

  20. Comparison of WindTrax and flux-gradient technique in determining PM10 emission rates from a beef cattle feedlot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several emission estimation methods can be used to determine emission fluxes from ground-level area sources, including open-lot beef cattle feedlots. This research determined PM10 emission fluxes from a commercial cattle feedlot in Kansas using WindTrax, a backward Lagrangian stochastic-based atmosp...

  1. Determining age and sex of American coots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddleman, William R.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1985-01-01

    Reliable techniques for age and sex determination of migrating and wintering American Coots (Fulica americana) have not been available. Breeding coots can be ages through age 3 by tarsal color (birds 4 years and older were placed in a 4+ age class) (Crawford 1978), and males and females have sex-specific behaviors and calls while on breeding territories (Gullion 1950, 1952). Externally, juvenile coots differ from adults in having gray (as opposed to white) bills and brown (as opposed to red) eyes to an age of 75 days (Gullion 1954-394). Bill color changes to white by about 120 days. No quantitative data have been available, however, on the proportion of juveniles retaining these traits throughout fall and early winter. Nonbreeding coots can be ages as juvenile or adult by internal examination of the thickness of the wall of the bursa of Fabricius, although bursal depth does not predictably decline with age (Fredrickson 1968). Attempts to sex coots by single external measurements of combinations of measurements have met with mixed success. Eight-five percent of 101 fall migrants in Wisconsin could be sexed by the length of the metatarsus-midtoe including claw by using 139.5 mm as a cutoff point (Burton 1959), whereas 88% of 67 coots in California were correctly sexed by the length of the metatarsus-midtoe without claw using 127.5 mm as the cutoff point (Gullion 1952). Two-hundred-thirty-two of 291 coots collected in Iowa, however, were in the zone of overlap between the sexes for this measurement (Fredrickson 1968). Previous studies attempting to develop aging and sexing techniques for American Coots have been limited to a few study sites or to 1 season or year, often failing to take geographical, annual, and seasonal morphological variation into account (e.g., Visser 1976, Fjeldsa 1977). We designed the present study to refine and quantify external and internal age and sex criteria for postbreeding coots, with the objective of defining techniques applicable for all

  2. A longitudinal study of cryptosporidiosis in dairy cattle from birth to 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Santín, Mónica; Trout, James M; Fayer, Ronald

    2008-08-01

    Fecal specimens were collected from 30 calves from birth to 24 months of age at a dairy farm in Maryland to determine the prevalence and age distribution of Cryptosporidium species/genotypes. After centrifugation to remove debris and concentrate oocysts, specimens were examined by immunofluorescence microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fragments of the SSU-rDNA gene amplified by PCR were purified and PCR products were sequenced. All 30 calves shed Cryptosporidium oocysts at some time during the 24 months of the study. Of 990 specimens, 190 were Cryptosporidium-positive (19.2%). The highest prevalence of infection was at 2 weeks of age when 29 of the 30 calves were excreting oocysts. Prevalence was higher in pre-weaned calves (1-8 weeks of age) (45.8%) than in post-weaned calves (3-12 months of age) (18.5%) and heifers (12-24 months of age) (2.2%). Sequence data for 190 PCR-positive specimens identified: C. parvum, C. bovis, the Cryptosporidium deer-like genotype and C. andersoni, with cumulative prevalences of 100, 80, 60, and 3.3%, respectively. C. parvum constituted 97% of infections in pre-weaned calves but only 4% and 0% of infections in post-weaned calves and heifers, respectively. All C. parvum GP60 nucleotide sequences were subtype IIaA15G2R1. PMID:18565677

  3. 19 Beef cattle pregnancy rates following insemination with aged frozen angus semen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artificial insemination has proven to be a valuable asset to the cattle industry. It is assumed that once good quality semen is frozen in liquid nitrogen it should remain viable indefinitely; however, semen viability has not been systematically evaluated after being stored for several decades. In th...

  4. Technical note: comparison between two tracing methods with ultrasonography to determine lumen area of the caudal artery in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Doppler ultrasonography has potential use in studying the effects of ergot alkaloids on vascular circulation in cattle. Accurate and precise measurement of artery lumen area is critical in quantifying vasoconstriction responses to ergot alkaloids and other toxins. Lumen area can be determined by...

  5. Comparison of AERMOD and WindTrax dispersion models in determining PM10 emission rates from beef cattle feedlots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reverse dispersion modeling has been used to determine air emission fluxes from ground-level area sources, including open-lot beef cattle feedlots. This research compared AERMOD, a Gaussian-based and currently the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) preferred regulatory dispersion model, and ...

  6. Age determination of soft tissue hematomas.

    PubMed

    Neumayer, Bernhard; Hassler, Eva; Petrovic, Andreas; Widek, Thomas; Ogris, Kathrin; Scheurer, Eva

    2014-11-01

    In clinical forensic medicine, the estimation of the age of injuries such as externally visible subcutaneous hematomas is important for the reconstruction of violent events, particularly to include or exclude potential suspects. Since the estimation of the time of origin based on external inspection is unreliable, the aim of this study was to use contrast in MRI to develop an easy-to-use model for hematoma age estimation. In a longitudinal study, artificially created subcutaneous hematomas were repetitively imaged using MRI over a period of two weeks. The hemorrhages were created by injecting autologous blood into the subcutaneous tissue of the thigh in 20 healthy volunteers. For MRI, standard commercially available sequences, namely proton-density-weighted, T2 -weighted and inversion recovery sequences, were used. The hematomas' MRI data were analyzed regarding their contrast behavior using the most suitable sequences to derive a model allowing an objective estimation of the age of soft tissue hematomas. The Michelson contrast between hematoma and muscle in the proton-density-weighted sequence showed an exponentially decreasing behavior with a dynamic range of 0.6 and a maximum standard deviation of 0.1. The contrast of the inversion recovery sequences showed increasing characteristics and was hypointense for TI = 200ms and hyperintense for TI =1000ms. These sequences were used to create a contrast model. The cross-validation of the model finally yielded limits of agreement for hematoma age determination (corresponding to ±1.96 SD) of ±38.7h during the first three days and ±54 h for the entire investigation period. The developed model provides lookup tables which allow for the estimation of a hematoma's age given a single contrast measurement applicable by a radiologist or a forensic physician. This is a first step towards an accurate and objective dating method for subcutaneous hematomas, which will be particularly useful in child abuse. PMID:25208978

  7. Determining bovine viral diarrhea virus genotypes and biotypes circulating in cattle populations in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is the disease in cattle that results from infection with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV). BVDV is found in cattle populations throughout the world. While the term BVD encompasses a wide range of clinical manifestations, including severe respiratory disease, gastroe...

  8. Accuracy of genomic selection for age at puberty in a multi-breed population of tropically adapted beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Farah, M M; Swan, A A; Fortes, M R S; Fonseca, R; Moore, S S; Kelly, M J

    2016-02-01

    Genomic selection is becoming a standard tool in livestock breeding programs, particularly for traits that are hard to measure. Accuracy of genomic selection can be improved by increasing the quantity and quality of data and potentially by improving analytical methods. Adding genotypes and phenotypes from additional breeds or crosses often improves the accuracy of genomic predictions but requires specific methodology. A model was developed to incorporate breed composition estimated from genotypes into genomic selection models. This method was applied to age at puberty data in female beef cattle (as estimated from age at first observation of a corpus luteum) from a mix of Brahman and Tropical Composite beef cattle. In this dataset, the new model incorporating breed composition did not increase the accuracy of genomic selection. However, the breeding values exhibited slightly less bias (as assessed by deviation of regression of phenotype on genomic breeding values from the expected value of 1). Adding additional Brahman animals to the Tropical Composite analysis increased the accuracy of genomic predictions and did not affect the accuracy of the Brahman predictions. PMID:26490440

  9. Effect of age on bovine subcutaneous fat proteome: molecular mechanisms of physiological variations during beef cattle growth.

    PubMed

    Romao, J M; He, M L; McAllister, T A; Guan, L L

    2014-08-01

    Fat deposition influences both meat quality and animal productivity. However, it is not clear how fat development is regulated in growing and fattening beef cattle. This study characterized proteomic changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue from steers fed a high-grain diet in an effort to understand the molecular mechanisms of fat development during feedlot production. Eight British-Continental crossbred steers had two subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies at 12 and 15 mo of age. Protein expression in fat samples was profiled using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). During the finishing period, steers increased subcutaneous adipose tissue mass with concomitant changes in the proteome profile, but the nature of these changes varied among steers. The expression of 123 out of 627 identified proteins differed (P <: 0.05) between 2 ages. Functional analyses on differentially expressed proteins revealed that 20.2% of them were associated with cellular growth and proliferation of adipose tissue. There were 17 out of 108 differentially expressed proteins associated with lipid metabolism, which were acyl-CoA synthetase medium-chain family member 1 (ACSM1), annexin A1 (ANXA1), apolipoprotein C-III (APOC3), apolipoprotein H (beta-2-glycoprotein I; APOH), EH-domain containing 1 (EHD1), coagulation factor II (thrombin; F2), gelsolin (GSN), lamin A/C (LMNA), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MAP2K1), myosin, heavy chain 9, non-muscle (MYH9), orosomucoid 1 (ORM1), protein disulfide isomerase family A, member 3 (PDIA3), retinol binding protein 4, plasma (RBP4), renin binding protein (RENBP), succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A, flavoprotein (Fp; SDHA), serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade C (antithrombin), member 1 (SERPINC1), and serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade G (C1 inhibitor), member 1 (SERPING1). Further analysis of the expression levels of proteins associated with lipid metabolism indicated a downregulation in the synthesis of fatty acids

  10. Determining the Effects of Cattle Grazing Treatments on Yosemite Toads (Anaxyrus [=Bufo] canorus) in Montane Meadows

    PubMed Central

    McIlroy, Susan K.; Lind, Amy J.; Allen-Diaz, Barbara H.; Roche, Leslie M.; Frost, William E.; Grasso, Rob L.; Tate, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians are experiencing a precipitous global decline, and population stability on public lands with multiple uses is a key concern for managers. In the Sierra Nevada Mountains (California, USA), managers have specifically identified livestock grazing as an activity that may negatively affect Yosemite toads due to the potential overlap of grazing with toad habitat. Grazing exclusion from Yosemite toad breeding and rearing areas and/or entire meadows have been proposed as possible management actions to alleviate the possible impact of cattle on this species. The primary objective of this study was to determine if different fencing treatments affect Yosemite toad populations. We specifically examined the effect of three fencing treatments on Yosemite toad breeding pool occupancy, tadpoles, and young of the year (YOY). Our hypothesis was that over the course of treatment implementation (2006 through 2010), Yosemite toad breeding pool occupancy and early life stage densities would increase within two fencing treatments relative to actively grazed meadows due to beneficial changes to habitat quality in the absence of grazing. Our results did not support our hypothesis, and showed no benefit to Yosemite toad presence or early life stages in fenced or partially fenced meadows compared to standard USDA Forest Service grazing levels. We found substantial Yosemite toad variation by both meadow and year. This variation was influenced by meadow wetness, with water table depth significant in both the tadpole and YOY models. PMID:24223919

  11. Determination of tilmicosin residues in chicken, cattle, swine, and sheep tissues by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Stobba-Wiley, C M; Chang, J P; Elsbury, D T; Moran, J W; Turner, J M; Readnour, R S; Stobba-Wiley, C M; Chang, J P; Elsbury, D T; Moran, J W; Turner, J M; Readnour, R S

    2000-01-01

    A method was developed and validated for determination and quantitation of tilmicosin residues in swine, cattle, and sheep edible tissues, as well as chicken fat, skin, and muscle over a concentration range of 0.025 microg/g-20 microg/g. For chicken kidney and liver, the method was validated over a range of 0.060 microg/g-20 microg/g. The tissue sample was extracted with methanol and a C18 cartridge was used for solid-phase extraction cleanup. A reversed-phase gradient liquid chromatographic method with detection at 280 nm was used to separate the tilmicosin from matrix components in 30 min run time. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) of the method was 0.025 microg/g for all tested tissues except chicken kidney and liver, for which the LOQ was 0.06 microg/g. Average recoveries for tissue samples ranged from 73 to 98%. Relative standard deviation values ranged from 0.6 to 14.7%. PMID:10995110

  12. Dissipation of Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants in Composted and Stockpiled Beef Cattle Manure.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shanwei; Sura, Srinivas; Zaheer, Rahat; Wang, George; Smith, Alanna; Cook, Shaun; Olson, Andrew F; Cessna, Allan J; Larney, Francis J; McAllister, Tim A

    2016-03-01

    Windrow composting or stockpiling reduces the viability of pathogens and antimicrobial residues in manure. However, the impact of these manure management practices on the persistence of genes coding for antimicrobial resistance is less well known. In this study, manure from cattle administered 44 mg of chlortetracycline kg feed (dry wt. basis) (CTC), 44 mg of CTC and 44 mg of sulfamethazine kg feed (CTCSMZ), 11 mg of tylosin kg feed (TYL), and no antimicrobials (control) were composted or stockpiled over 102 d. Temperature remained ≥55°C for 35 d in compost and 2 d in stockpiles. Quantitative PCR was used to measure levels of 16S rRNA genes and tetracycline [(B), (C), (L), (M), (W)], erythromycin [(A), (B), (F), (X)], and sulfamethazine [(1), (2)] resistance determinants. After 102 d, 16S rRNA genes and all resistance determinants declined by 0.5 to 3 log copies per gram dry matter. Copies of 16S rRNA genes were affected ( < 0.05) by antimicrobials with the ranking of control > CTC = TYL > CTCSMZ. Compared with the control, antimicrobials did not increase the abundance of resistance genes in either composted or stockpiled manure, except (M) and (2) in CTCSMZ ( < 0.05). The decline in 16S rRNA genes and resistance determinants was higher ( < 0.05) in composted than in stockpiled manure. We conclude that composting may be more effective than stockpiling in reducing the introduction of antimicrobial resistance genes into the environment before land application of manure. PMID:27065400

  13. Evaluation of tropically-adapted straightbred and crossbred beef cattle: Heifer age and size at first conception and characteristics of their first calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this work were to estimate genetic effects for age and size at estimated time of first conception, and temperament in straightbred and crossbred heifers (n = 554) produced from Romosinuano, Brahman, and Angus cattle, and to evaluate first parturition performance of heifers, includi...

  14. Sex- and age-dependent activity of glutathione peroxidase in reproductive organs in pre- and post-pubertal cattle in relation to total antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Kankofer, M; Wawrzykowski, J; Giergiel, M

    2013-08-01

    Antioxidative/oxidative balance is crucial for proper functioning of cells and tissues. It is suggested that this balance can be partly controlled by sex steroid hormones and in consequence can exhibit age- and sex-related dependency. The aim of present study was to describe sex- and age-related changes in the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) with respect to total antioxidant activity (TAC) in reproductive organs of cattle. Biological samples were collected from slaughterhouse and comprised of ovaries, uterus, testes as well as livers as reference tissue. Animals were divided into group of bulls (aged between 13 and 24 months; n = 12), cows (aged between 14 and 27 months; n = 12) and female calves (aged between 2 weeks and 2 months; n = 12). Examined parameters were determined spectrophotometrically and the presence of GSH-Px isoform was confirmed by Western blotting technique. Activity of GSH-Px in genital tissues regardless of sex was significantly higher than in livers, while TAC showed opposite relationship. The differences in antioxidative parameters between testes and mature ovaries (e.g. GSH-Px-1.42 ± 0.47 nkat/mg prot vs. 1.08 ± 0.24 and 1.15 ± 0.23) were noticed as well as in chosen values between cows and female calves. Western blotting allowed the detection of cytosolic GSH-Px in all examined tissues with molecular weight around 21 kDa as monomer and around 84 kDa as tetramer depending on conditions of electrophoresis. The results may confirm the influence and regulatory role of sex steroid hormones on GSH-Px activity because the alterations were sex and age dependent. PMID:23740597

  15. Age determination of female redhead ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dane, C.W.; Johnson, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    Eighty-seven fall-collected wings from female redhead ducks (Aythya americana) were assigned to the adult or juvenile group based on 'tertial' and 'tertial covert' shape and wear. To obtain spring age-related characters from these fall-collected groupings, we considered parameters of flight feathers retained until after the first breeding season. Parameters measured included: markings on and width of greater secondary coverts, and length, weight, and diameter of primary feathers. The best age categorization was obtained with discriminant analysis based on a combination of the most accurately measured parameters. This analysis, applied to 81 wings with complete measurements, resulted in only 1 being incorrectly aged and 3 placed in a questionable category. Discriminant functions used with covert markings and the three 5th primary parameters were applied to 30 known-age juvenile, hand-reared redhead females, 28 were correctly aged, none was incorrectly aged, and only 2 were placed in the questionable category.

  16. Effects of extraction and spiking procedures on the determination of incurred residues of oxytetracycline in cattle kidney.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A D; Tarbin, J A; Farrington, W H; Shearer, G

    1998-01-01

    The effects of different extraction and spiking procedures on the determination of incurred oxytetracycline residues in animal tissues have been investigated. The extraction procedures investigated--direct aqueous or organic solvent extraction, enzymic digestion or sonication--all gave similar results for incurred oxytetracycline concentration in cattle kidney after correction for spike recovery. There was therefore no evidence for binding or conjugation of oxytetracycline in this tissue. Highest recovery from spiked tissue was obtained using ethyl acetate as extractant. The effects of spiking procedure (spike contact time, spike solvent and tissue state) on recovery from spiked cattle kidney were also small, indicating that added oxytetracycline spike does not interact with the tissue. PMID:10209574

  17. What determines ageing of the transplanted liver?

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Russell; Christophi, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background Liver transplantation is used to treat patients with irreversible liver failure from a variety of causes. Long-term survival has been reported, particularly in the paediatric population, with graft survival longer than 20 years now possible. The goal for paediatric liver transplantation is to increase the longevity of grafts to match the normal life expectancy of the child. This paper reviews the literature on the current understanding of ageing of the liver and biomarkers that may predict long-term survival or aid in utilization of organs. Methods Scientific papers published from 1950 to 2013 were sought and extracted from the MEDLINE, PubMed and University of Melbourne databases. Results Hepatocytes appear resistant to the ageing process, but are affected by both replicative senescence and stress-related senescence. These processes may be exacerbated by the act of transplantation. The most studied biomarkers are telomeres and SMP-30. Conclusion There are many factors that play a role in the ageing of the liver. Further studies into biomarkers of ageing and their relationship to the chronological age of the liver are required to aid in predicting long-term graft survival and utilization of organs. PMID:25263287

  18. Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Plasma Half-Life Determination and Long-Term Tissue Distribution in Beef Cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Lupton, Sara J; Dearfield, Kerry L; Johnston, John J; Wagner, Sarah; Huwe, Janice K

    2015-12-30

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is used in consumer products as a surfactant and is found in industrial and consumer waste, which ends up in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). PFOS does not breakdown during WWTP processes and accumulates in the biosolids. Common practices include application of biosolids to pastures and croplands used for feed, and as a result, animals such as beef cattle are exposed to PFOS. To determine plasma and tissue depletion kinetics in cattle, 2 steers and 4 heifers were dosed with PFOS at 0.098 mg/kg body weight and 9.1 mg/kg, respectively. Plasma depletion half-lives for steers and heifers were 120 ± 4.1 and 106 ± 23.1 days, respectively. Specific tissue depletion half-lives ranged from 36 to 385 days for intraperitoneal fat, back fat, muscle, liver, bone, and kidney. These data indicate that PFOS in beef cattle has a sufficiently long depletion half-life to permit accumulation in edible tissues. PMID:26684745

  19. Age-class determination of canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serie, J.R.; Trauger, D.L.; Doty, H.A.; Sharp, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    A technique was developed to distinguish yearling from adult canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) in the field during spring on the basis of white flecking on the distal ends of selected wing feathers. Covert feathers from adults had well-defined vermiculation patterns whereas feathers from yearlings lacked such markings. These age-related characters were confirmed by paired comparisons of feathers from the same captive birds in consecutive years and by discriminant analysis of feathers using densitometric measurements from known-age wild birds. Reflective densitometric measurements of greater secondary coverts for females and males were significantly different between 1- and 2-year-old and between 2- and 3-year-old canvasbacks. Greater secondary coverts were the best feathers for recognizing age-classes of males and females. Densitometric values indicate low variability among different observers and within samples.

  20. Mallard age and sex determination from wings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carney, S.M.; Geis, A.D.

    1960-01-01

    This paper describes characters on the wing plumage of the mallard that indicate age and sex. A key outlines a logical order in which to check age and sex characters on wings. This method was tested and found to be more than 95 percent reliable, although it was found that considerable practice and training with known-age specimens was required to achieve this level of accuracy....The implications of this technique and the sampling procedure it permits are discussed. Wing collections could provide information on production, and, if coupled with a banding program could permit seasonal population estimates to be calculated. In addition, representative samples of wings would provide data to check the reliability of several other waterfowl surveys.

  1. Assessment of Different Strategies to Determine MAP-specific Cellular Immune Responses in Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessment of cellular immunity in cattle against Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) by established methods remains unsatisfactory for diagnostic purposes. Recent studies conclude that analysis of T-cell subset responsiveness may improve diagnostic outcome. Aim of this study was to iden...

  2. Determining ammonia emissions from a cattle feedlot with an inverse dispersion technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An inverse-dispersion technique is used to calculate ammonia (NH3) gas emissions from a cattle feedlot. The technique relies on a simple backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLS) dispersion model to relate atmospheric NH3 concentration to the emission rate Qbls. Because the wind and the source configurat...

  3. Foetal age determination and development in elephants.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Thomas; Drews, Barbara; Gaeth, Ann P; Goeritz, Frank; Hermes, Robert; Schmitt, Dennis; Gray, Charlie; Rich, Peter; Streich, Wolf Juergen; Short, Roger V; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2007-02-01

    Elephants have the longest pregnancy of all mammals, with an average gestation of around 660 days, so their embryonic and foetal development have always been of special interest. Hitherto, it has only been possible to estimate foetal ages from theoretical calculations based on foetal mass. The recent development of sophisticated ultrasound procedures for elephants has now made it possible to monitor the growth and development of foetuses of known gestational age conceived in captivity from natural matings or artificial insemination. We have studied the early stages of pregnancy in 10 captive Asian and 9 African elephants by transrectal ultrasound. Measurements of foetal crown-rump lengths have provided the first accurate growth curves, which differ significantly from the previous theoretical estimates based on the cube root of foetal mass. We have used these to age 22 African elephant foetuses collected during culling operations. Pregnancy can be first recognized ultrasonographically by day 50, the presumptive yolk sac by about day 75 and the zonary placenta by about day 85. The trunk is first recognizable by days 85-90 and is distinct by day 104, while the first heartbeats are evident from around day 80. By combining ultrasonography and morphology, we have been able to produce the first reliable criteria for estimating gestational age and ontological development of Asian and African elephant foetuses during the first third of gestation. PMID:17164195

  4. Determinants of muscle and bone aging

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, E; Litwic, A; Cooper, C; Dennison, E

    2015-01-01

    Loss of bone and muscle with advancing age represent a huge threat to loss of independence in later life. Osteoporosis represents a major public health problem through its association with fragility fractures, primarily of the hip, spine and distal forearm. Sarcopenia, the age related loss of muscle mass and function, may add to fracture risk by increasing falls risk. In the context of muscle aging, it is important to remember that it is not just a decline in muscle mass which contributes to the deterioration of muscle function. Other factors underpinning muscle quality come into play, including muscle composition, aerobic capacity and metabolism, fatty infiltration, insulin resistance, fibrosis and neural activation. Genetic, developmental, endocrine and lifestyle factors, such as physical activity, smoking and poor diet have dual effects on both muscle and bone mass in later life and these will be reviewed here. These include poor nutrition, lack of physical activity and cigarette smoking, comorbidities or medication use. Recent work has highlighted a possible role for the early environment. Inflammaging is an exciting emerging research field that is likely to prove relevant to future work, including interventions designed to retard to reverse bone and muscle loss with age. PMID:25820482

  5. Age as a Determinant of Interpersonal Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheier, Michael F.; Schulz, Richard

    This study focuses on the impact of age on interpersonal evaluation of persons, particularly the elderly as individuals and not as a group. Using a 75-year-old target and a 23-year-old target, the experimenter predicted and found support for the idea that personal information contained in a transcript would evoke sympathy, and thereby lead…

  6. Determinants of Muscle and Bone Aging.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Elizabeth; Litwic, Anna; Cooper, Cyrus; Dennison, Elaine

    2015-11-01

    Loss of bone and muscle with advancing age represent a huge threat to loss of independence in later life. Osteoporosis represents a major public health problem through its association with fragility fractures, primarily of the hip, spine and distal forearm. Sarcopenia, the age related loss of muscle mass and function, may add to fracture risk by increasing falls risk. In the context of muscle aging, it is important to remember that it is not just a decline in muscle mass which contributes to the deterioration of muscle function. Other factors underpinning muscle quality come into play, including muscle composition, aerobic capacity and metabolism, fatty infiltration, insulin resistance, fibrosis and neural activation. Genetic, developmental, endocrine and lifestyle factors, such as physical activity, smoking and poor diet have dual effects on both muscle and bone mass in later life and these will be reviewed here. Recent work has highlighted a possible role for the early environment. Inflammaging is an exciting emerging research field that is likely to prove relevant to future work, including interventions designed to retard to reverse bone and muscle loss with age. PMID:25820482

  7. Identification of Cryptosporidium from Dairy Cattle in Pahang, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Hisamuddin, Nur Hazirah; Hashim, Najat; Soffian, Sharmeen Nellisa; Amin, Mohd Hishammfariz Mohd; Wahab, Ridhwan Abdul; Mohammad, Mardhiah; Isa, Muhammad Lokman Md; Yusof, Afzan Mat

    2016-01-01

    Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite, can cause cryptosporidiosis which is a gastrointestinal disease that can infect humans and livestock. Cattle are the most common livestock that can be infected with this protozoan. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia and to find out the association between the occurrence of infection and 3 different ages of cattle (calves less than 1 year, yearling, and adult cattle). The samples were processed by using formol-ether concentration technique and stained by modified Ziehl Neelsen. The results showed that 15.9% (24/151) of cattle were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium in calves less than 1 year was the highest with the percentage of 20.0% (11/55) followed by yearling and adult cattle, with the percentage occurrence of 15.6 % (7/45) and 11.8% (6/51), respectively. There was no significant association between the occurrence and age of cattle and presence of diarrhea. Good management practices and proper hygiene management must be taken in order to reduce the infection. It is highly important to control the infection since infected cattle may serve as potential reservoirs of the infection to other animals and humans, especially animal handlers. PMID:27180579

  8. Identification of Cryptosporidium from Dairy Cattle in Pahang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hisamuddin, Nur Hazirah; Hashim, Najat; Soffian, Sharmeen Nellisa; Amin, Mohd Hishammfariz Mohd; Wahab, Ridhwan Abdul; Mohammad, Mardhiah; Isa, Muhammad Lokman Md; Yusof, Afzan Mat

    2016-04-01

    Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite, can cause cryptosporidiosis which is a gastrointestinal disease that can infect humans and livestock. Cattle are the most common livestock that can be infected with this protozoan. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia and to find out the association between the occurrence of infection and 3 different ages of cattle (calves less than 1 year, yearling, and adult cattle). The samples were processed by using formol-ether concentration technique and stained by modified Ziehl Neelsen. The results showed that 15.9% (24/151) of cattle were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium in calves less than 1 year was the highest with the percentage of 20.0% (11/55) followed by yearling and adult cattle, with the percentage occurrence of 15.6 % (7/45) and 11.8% (6/51), respectively. There was no significant association between the occurrence and age of cattle and presence of diarrhea. Good management practices and proper hygiene management must be taken in order to reduce the infection. It is highly important to control the infection since infected cattle may serve as potential reservoirs of the infection to other animals and humans, especially animal handlers. PMID:27180579

  9. Determination of Genetic Diversity among Korean Hanwoo Cattle Based on Physical Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Choi, T. J.; Lee, S. S.; Yoon, D. H.; Kang, H. S.; Kim, C. D.; Hwang, I. H.; Kim, C. Y.; Jin, X.; Yang, C. G.; Seo, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish genetic criteria for phenotypic characteristics of Hanwoo cattle based on allele frequencies and genetic variance analysis using microsatellite markers. Analysis of the genetic diversity among 399 Hanwoo cattle classified according to nose pigmentation and coat color was carried out using 22 microsatellite markers. The results revealed that the INRA035 locus was associated with the highest Fis (0.536). Given that the Fis value for the Hanwoo INRA035 population ranged from 0.533 (white) to 1.000 (white spotted), this finding was consistent with the loci being fixed in Hanwoo cattle. Expected heterozygosities of the Hanwoo groups classified by coat colors and degree of nose pigmentation ranged from 0.689±0.023 (Holstein) to 0.743±0.021 (nose pigmentation level of d). Normal Hanwoo and animals with a mixed white coat showed the closest relationship because the lowest DA value was observed between these groups. However, a pair-wise differentiation test of Fst showed no significant difference among the Hanwoo groups classified by coat color and degree of nose pigmentation (p<0.01). Moreover, results of the neighbor-joining tree based on a DA genetic distance matrix within 399 Hanwoo individuals and principal component analyses confirmed that different groups of cattle with mixed coat color and nose pigmentation formed other specific groups representing Hanwoo genetic and phenotypic characteristics. The results of this study support a relaxation of policies regulating bull selection or animal registration in an effort to minimize financial loss, and could provide basic information that can be used for establishing criteria to classify Hanwoo phenotypes. PMID:25049682

  10. Age at First Calving in Holstein Cattle in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heifer rearing costs account for 15 to 20% of the total expense of milk production, and the decline in fertility of U.S. Holsteins is well documented. Earlier age at first calving (AFC) may improve profitability and fertility. Records for 400,000 U.S Holstein cows born on or after January 1, 1997 we...

  11. 42 CFR 435.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... must use the common-law method (under which an age reached the day before the anniversary of birth). (b... on the anniversary of birth), if this method is used under the State's AFDC plan. (c) For aged, blind... July 1, for determining an individual's age if the year, but not the month, of his birth is...

  12. 42 CFR 435.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... must use the common-law method (under which an age reached the day before the anniversary of birth). (b... on the anniversary of birth), if this method is used under the State's AFDC plan. (c) For aged, blind... July 1, for determining an individual's age if the year, but not the month, of his birth is...

  13. 42 CFR 435.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... must use the common-law method (under which an age reached the day before the anniversary of birth). (b) For families and children, the agency must use the popular usage method (under which an age is reached... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Determination of age. 435.522 Section...

  14. 42 CFR 435.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... must use the common-law method (under which an age reached the day before the anniversary of birth). (b... on the anniversary of birth), if this method is used under the State's AFDC plan. (c) For aged, blind... July 1, for determining an individual's age if the year, but not the month, of his birth is...

  15. 42 CFR 435.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... must use the common-law method (under which an age reached the day before the anniversary of birth). (b... on the anniversary of birth), if this method is used under the State's AFDC plan. (c) For aged, blind... July 1, for determining an individual's age if the year, but not the month, of his birth is...

  16. Lead-alpha age determinations of granitic rocks from Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzko, John J.; Jaffe, H.W.; Waring, C.L.

    1957-01-01

    Lead-alpha activity age determinations were made on zircon from seven granitic rocks of central and southeastern Alaska. The results of the age determinations indicate two periods of igneous intrusion, one about 95 million years ago, during the Cretaceous period, and another about 53 million years ago, during the early part of the Tertiary. The individual ages determined on zircon from 2 rocks from southeastern Alaska and 1 from east-central Alaska gave results of 90, 100, and 96 million years; those determined on 4 rocks from central Alaska gave results of 47, 56, 58, and 51 million years.

  17. Determination of saleable product in finished cattle and beef carcasses utilizing bioelectrical impedance technology.

    PubMed

    Marchello, M J; McLennan, J E; Dhuyvetter, D V; Slanger, W D

    1999-11-01

    Two experiments were performed to develop prediction equations of saleable beef and to validate the prediction equations. In Exp. 1, 50 beef cattle were finished to typical slaughter weights, and multiple linear regression equations were developed to predict kilograms of trimmed boneless, retail product of live cattle, and hot and cold carcasses. A four-terminal bioelectrical impedance analyzer (BIA) was used to measure resistance (Rs) and reactance (Xc) on each animal and processed carcass. The IMPS cuts plus trim were weighed and recorded. Distance between detector terminals (Lg) and carcass temperature (Tp) at time of BIA readings were recorded. Other variables included live weight (BW), hot carcass weight (HCW), cold carcass weight (CCW), and volume (Lg2/Rs). Regression equations for predicting kilograms of saleable product were [11.87 + (.409 x BW) - (.335 x Lg) + (.0518 x volume)] for live (R2 = .80); [-58.83 + (.589 x HCW) - (.846 x Rs) + (1.152 x Xc) + (.142 x Lg) + (2.608 x Tp)] for hot carcass (R2 = .95); and [32.15 + (.633 x CCW) + (.33 x Xc) - (.83 x Lg) + (.677 x volume)] for cold carcass (R2 = .93). In Exp. 2, 27 beef cattle were finished in a manner similar to Exp. 1, and the prediction equations from Exp. 1 were used to predict the saleable product of these animals. The Pearson correlations between actual saleable product and the predictions based on live and cold carcass data were .91 and .95, respectively. The Spearman and Kendall rank correlations were .95 and .83, respectively, for the cold carcass data. These results provide a practical application of bioelectrical impedance for market-based pricing. They complement previous studies that assessed fat-free mass. PMID:10568465

  18. Happiness and social determinants across age cohorts in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Chang, Wen-Chiung; Chong, Young-Sook; An, Jeong Shin

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine happiness and social determinants across age cohorts in Taiwan. The data were obtained from the 2011 Taiwan Social Change Survey (aged 18 +, n = 2,199). The social determinants of happiness included socioeconomic status and social connection. Happiness was not different across the age groups. Receiving less family support, less formal support, more social trust and more control over life were significant for the younger group. Being married and having more social participation were significant for the middle-aged. Receiving less family support and having a higher economic status were significant for the older group. PMID:25609408

  19. Thelazia rhodesii infection on cattle in Kupang district.

    PubMed

    Djungu, D F L; Retnani, E B; Ridwan, Y

    2014-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence, the intensity, infection, clinical sign, to identify species and to investigate associated risk factors of thelaziosis in cattle in Kupang district, Nusa Tenggara Timur Province. A total of 385 head of cattle were randomly selected from 96 farms in three subdistricts of Kupang District and observed for thelaziosis. The nematode present in the eye of cattle were collected with a forcep after administering local anesthesia (10% Xylocaine). The potential risk factors related to age of cattle, human resources and farm management were obtained by interviewing the farmers. Logistic regression was applied to analyze related risk factor of thelaziosis. The result showed that of the total 385 cattle observed, 23 (5.96%) were infected by Thelazia spp., of which 22 cattle showed apparent clinical signs namely excessive lacrimation and conjunctivitis that led to keratoconjunctivitis, while one cattle showed ulceration. A total of 357 worms (157 males and 210 female) were collected from 23 infected cattle with the mean number of worms in infected cattle being 32.92 ± 21.03. Observations on morphological characteristics using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) helped to identify the nematode species as Thelazia rhodesii. The infection was more prevalent in older cattle (≥ 6-12 month old) than calves (0-6 month old) (P<0.05). Significant risk factors of animal husbandry practices affecting the prevalence of thelaziosis in cattle were anthelmintic treatment, grazing management, barn cleaning, and manure management. Our results highlight that significant risk factors of the disease should be considered in designing strategic control programs for thelaziosis. PMID:25776611

  20. Detection of antibiotic resistance, virulence gene determinants and biofilm formation in Aeromonas species isolated from cattle.

    PubMed

    Igbinosa, Isoken H; Igbinosa, Etinosa O; Okoh, Anthony I

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the antibiogram of Aeromonas strains recovered from cattle faeces and the potential pathogenic status of the isolates. The antibiogram of the Aeromonas isolates demonstrated total resistance to clindamycin oxacillin, trimethoprim, novobiocin and ticarcillin. However, Aeromonas strains were sensitive to cefotaxime, oxytetracycline and tobramycin. The Aeromonas strains from Lovedale and Fort Cox farms were found to possess some virulence genes. The percentage distribution was aer 71.4%, ast 35.7%, fla 60.7%, lip 35.7% and hlyA 25% for Lovedale farm and aer 63.1%, alt 10.5%, ast 55.2%, fla 78.9%, lip 21% and hlyA 35.9% for Fort Cox farm. Class 1 integron was present in 27% of Aeromonas isolates; the bla TEM gene was present in 34.8%, while the blaP1 class A β-lactamase gene was detected in 12.1% of the isolates. Approximately 86% of the isolates formed a biofilm on microtitre plates. The presence of multiple antibiotic resistance and virulence genes in Aeromonas isolates from cattle faeces reveals the pathogenic and infectious importance of these isolates and is of great significance to public health. The possession of a biofilm-forming capability by such isolates may lead to difficulty during the management of infection related to Aeromonas species. PMID:26143545

  1. Developmental determinants in non-communicable chronic diseases and ageing.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Anto, J M; Berkouk, K; Gergen, P; Antunes, J Pinto; Augé, P; Camuzat, T; Bringer, J; Mercier, J; Best, N; Bourret, R; Akdis, M; Arshad, S H; Bedbrook, A; Berr, C; Bush, A; Cavalli, G; Charles, M A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Gillman, M; Gold, D R; Goldberg, M; Holloway, J W; Iozzo, P; Jacquemin, S; Jeandel, C; Kauffmann, F; Keil, T; Koppelman, G H; Krauss-Etschmann, S; Kuh, D; Lehmann, S; Carlsen, K C Lodrup; Maier, D; Méchali, M; Melén, E; Moatti, J P; Momas, I; Nérin, P; Postma, D S; Ritchie, K; Robine, J M; Samolinski, B; Siroux, V; Slagboom, P E; Smit, H A; Sunyer, J; Valenta, R; Van de Perre, P; Verdier, J M; Vrijheid, M; Wickman, M; Yiallouros, P; Zins, M

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal and peri-natal events play a fundamental role in health, development of diseases and ageing (Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)). Research on the determinants of active and healthy ageing is a priority to: (i) inform strategies for reducing societal and individual costs of an ageing population and (ii) develop effective novel prevention strategies. It is important to compare the trajectories of respiratory diseases with those of other chronic diseases. PMID:25616486

  2. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... directly to slaughter from a State designated as a Class Free State in 9 CFR 78.41; (vi) Cattle exported to... age; (iii) Steers and spayed heifers; (iv) Cattle exported directly to slaughter in a country that...

  3. Tables for determining lead, uranium, and thorium isotope ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonfeld, E.

    1974-01-01

    Tables for determining lead, uranium, and thorium isotope ages are presented in the form of computer printouts. Decay constants, analytical expressions for the functions evaluated, and the precision of the calculations are briefly discussed.

  4. 27 CFR 19.328 - Determining age of mingled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Storage of Distilled Spirits Rules for Mingling Or Blending Spirits § 19.328 Determining age of mingled spirits. When spirits are...

  5. 27 CFR 19.328 - Determining age of mingled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Storage of Distilled Spirits Rules for Mingling Or Blending Spirits § 19.328 Determining age of mingled spirits. When spirits are...

  6. 27 CFR 19.328 - Determining age of mingled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Storage of Distilled Spirits Rules for Mingling Or Blending Spirits § 19.328 Determining age of mingled spirits. When spirits are...

  7. 27 CFR 19.328 - Determining age of mingled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Storage of Distilled Spirits Rules for Mingling Or Blending Spirits § 19.328 Determining age of mingled spirits. When spirits are...

  8. A longitudinal study of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Santín, Mónica; Fayer, Ronald

    2009-07-01

    Feces from each of 30 Holstein cattle on a Maryland dairy farm were examined at weekly, bimonthly, and then monthly intervals from 1 week to 24 months of age for the presence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi. DNA was extracted from spores cleaned of fecal debris, and a two-step nested PCR protocol was used to amplify a fragment of the internal transcriber spacer region of the rRNA gene. All PCR-positive specimens were sequenced to determine the genotype of E. bieneusi. The overall prevalence was 24% (239/990) with a lower prevalence in pre-weaned calves (less than 8 weeks of age; 11.7%) and heifers (13-24 months of age) than post-weaned calves (3-12 months of age; 44.4%). Over the course of 24 months, the cumulative prevalence of E. bieneusi was 100% since all 30 calves shed spores at some time during the study. One or more of three genotypes of E. bieneusi, J, I, and BEB4, were detected in all 30 animals. Genotype I was detected in all 30 cattle between 1 week and 22 months of age with some cattle remaining infected as long as 17 months. At 4 months of age, 28 cattle were infected with genotype I. Genotype BEB4 was detected briefly in seven cattle, most between 15 and 20 months of age. Genotype J was detected in eight cattle, all between 16 and 24 months of age. This longitudinal study strongly supports the findings of point prevalence, multiple farm studies in which genotypes J, I, and BEB 4 were found. These genotypes appear to be cattle specific and have not been found in humans or other animals. PMID:19259701

  9. Changes in taste compounds, breaking properties, and sensory attributes during dry aging of beef from Japanese black cattle.

    PubMed

    Iida, Fumiko; Miyazaki, Yuki; Tsuyuki, Risako; Kato, Kenichi; Egusa, Ai; Ogoshi, Hiro; Nishimura, Toshihide

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of the quality of highly marbled beef during dry aging for 60days after slaughter showed that the changes in some qualities differed from those of conventional meat. The tenderness of these meats did not change during aging for 50days but then gradually increased until day 60. The juiciness of these meats, as determined by sensory evaluation, did not change during aging for 60days, except for a decrease on day 20. The umami intensity of these meats in the sensory evaluation and the value calculated by Glu and IMP quantification were highest on day 40. This high umami intensity was induced by the synergistic effect of umami compounds such as Glu and IMP. These results for tenderness, juiciness, umami intensity, and flavor intensity suggested that the best duration of dry aging for highly marbled beef was 40days. PMID:26519608

  10. Relationships between age at first calving, herd management criteria and lifetime milk, fat, and protein production in holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from 69,145 Holstein cows that calved for the first time in 2005 were evaluated to determine the influence of age at first calving (AFC) on first lactation and lifetime production in commercial dairy herds. A DHI database was divided into four herd management criteria (HMC). The four HMC were: ...

  11. Detection of concurrent infection of dairy cattle with Blastocystis, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon by molecular and microscopic methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Of fecal specimens examined from 47 dairy cattle ranging in age from neonates to multiparous cows, 9, 10, 24, and 17 were positive for Blastocystis spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi, respectively, as determined by PCR. Eight 3- to 5-month-old cattle were co...

  12. [Significance of the determination of biological aging for medicine].

    PubMed

    Pöthig, D

    1986-03-01

    In the elaboration of methods of the determination of the biological age becomes evident that new approaches and models of thinking developed seem to require again to reason out the interdisciplinary position of gerontology. In the light of the results of clinical experimental examinations concerning the biological age which could be achieved by the traditional Leipzig gerontological school since Bürger's activities, the importance of biosocial norm values of age for multifarious theoretical and practical proceedings of medicine and their adjacent scientific fields is confirmed. Here the author sets out from the fact that it is possible nowadays to determine sufficiently and precisely the biological age of man by means of a multifactorial functional diagnostics. A phenotypical vitality measure, which takes into consideration the asynchronous biosocial dynamics of human ageing in the phase of development, maturity and involution, serves as criterion of the biological age. Thus there is the possibility to ascertain in all age-classes reference values ("normal values") for vitality and biological age which are obligatory according to sex. Here the gerontological research of the GDR may produce advances in international research. Furthermore the author elaborates the thoughts that in all phases of life the biological age represents a principal criterion of differentiation both in making the diagnosis by the physician and the judgment of the therapy ("revitalisation") and in the aptitude diagnostics for sports and regulation of training ("vitalisation"). From this aspect gerontology derives its specific importance as scientific theoretical link between medicine and sport sciences. PMID:3716507

  13. DETERMINATION OF RACTOPAMINE IN CATTLE AND SHEEP URINE SAMPLES USING AN OPTICAL BIOSENSOR ANALYSIS:COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH HPLC AND ELISA.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A biosensor method, using the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) principle, was developed for the determination of ractopamine in cattle and sheep urine. A monoclonal antibody was used to compete with ractopamine in the sample and ractopamine immobilized on the sensor chip. Addition of bovine serum a...

  14. A mechanism of excessive accumulation of abomasal gas in vagotomized cattle determined using fluoroscopy.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Megumi; Sasaki, Naoki; Kawamoto, Satoshi; Yamada, Haruo; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2011-05-01

    To better understand the mechanism of excessive gas accumulation in the abomasum in bovine abomasal displacement, we performed gastric fluoroscopy in vagotomized cattle. Fifteen 6-month-old Holstein steers were divided into three groups: a non-vagotomized control group (Group C; n=5), a ventral thoraco-vagotomized group (Group V; n=5), and a dorsal and ventral thoraco-vagotomized group (Group DV; n=5). These groups were examined by fluoroscopy before and during a 5-week observation period after surgery. In Group C, no change was observed throughout the observation period. In Group DV, immediately after surgery, reticuloruminal motility was completely absent and ruminal distention was seen. Two weeks after surgery, abnormal reticulum motility and increased gas accumulation in the abomasal body were noted. Abomasal dilatation was also observed. In Group V, 1 week after surgery, gas inflow into the abomasum and relatively normal reticulum motility were observed along with a rapid increase in abomasal gas. Abomasal dilatation was also observed. In addition, left-displaced abomasum occurred in one of the steers in this group. From these results, we concluded that one of the mechanisms of excessive gas accumulation in the abomasum is reticulum-mediated gas inflow from the rumen combined with vagotomy-induced hypomotility. PMID:21178321

  15. Determining Ages of APOGEE Giants with Known Distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuillet, Diane K.; Bovy, Jo; Holtzman, Jon; Girardi, Léo; MacDonald, Nick; Majewski, Steven R.; Nidever, David L.

    2016-01-01

    We present a sample of 705 local giant stars observed using the New Mexico State University 1 m telescope with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III/Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) spectrograph, for which we estimate stellar ages and the local star formation history (SFH). The high-resolution (R ˜ 22,500), near infrared (1.51-1.7 μm) APOGEE spectra provide measurements of stellar atmospheric parameters (temperature, surface gravity, [M/H], and [α/M]). Due to the smaller uncertainties in surface gravity possible with high-resolution spectra and accurate Hipparcos distance measurements, we are able to calculate the stellar masses to within 30%. For giants, the relatively rapid evolution up the red giant branch allows the age to be constrained by the mass. We examine methods of estimating age using both the mass-age relation directly and a Bayesian isochrone matching of measured parameters, assuming a constant SFH. To improve the SFH prior, we use a hierarchical modeling approach to constrain the parameters of the model SFH using the age probability distribution functions of the data. The results of an α-dependent Gaussian SFH model show a clear age-[α/M] relation at all ages. Using this SFH model as the prior for an empirical Bayesian analysis, we determine ages for individual stars. The resulting age-metallicity relation is flat, with a slight decrease in [M/H] at the oldest ages and a ˜0.5 dex spread in metallicity across most ages. For stars with ages ≲1 Gyr we find a smaller spread, consistent with radial migration having a smaller effect on these young stars than on the older stars.

  16. Effect of muscle type and vacuum chiller aging period on the chemical compositions, meat quality, sensory attributes and volatile compounds of Korean native cattle beef.

    PubMed

    Ba, Hoa Van; Park, KyoungMi; Dashmaa, Dashdorj; Hwang, Inho

    2014-02-01

    The present study demonstrates the effects of different muscle types and chiller ageing periods on the chemical composition, meat quality parameters, sensory characteristics and volatile compounds of Karean native cattle beed. Longissimus dorsi (LD) and Semitendinosus (ST) muscles aged for 7 days and 28 days were used. Moisture, cooking loss, total collagen and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values for the ST were higher than the LD muscle regardless of ageing period (P < 0.05). The LD muscle had higher intramuscular fat (IMF) (P < 0.05). Ageing for 28 days decreased WBSF values whereas it increased thiobarbituric acid of both muscles. Moreover, tenderness, juiciness and flavor scores were significantly higher for the LD muscle at both ageing periods. Increased ageing time improved tenderness of both muscles, and increased juiciness of the LD muscle, whereas there was decreased flavor score of ST muscle (P < 0.05). The majority of the volatile compounds formed from the oxidation of lipids showed differences between the two muscles. Ageing for 28 days increased in the amounts of many volatile compounds; however, the amounts of some important volatile compounds were decreased. These results clearly demonstrate that muscle type and ageing have a potential effect on meat quality, sensory characteristics and volatile profile. PMID:23911040

  17. Postnatal Foot Length to Determine Gestational Age: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Wyk, Lizelle Van; Smith, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Gestational age is a critical factor in the management, decision-making, prognostication and follow-up of newborn infants. It is also essential for research and epidemiology. In the absence of an early assessment of fetal gestation by abdominal ultrasound, many neonatal units in developing countries determine gestational age by neonatal scores and last menstrual period-both of which are highly inaccurate. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether postnatal foot length measurement could accurately determine gestational age in a specified South African hospitalized neonatal population. Foot length was measured with a plastic Verniere's caliper. Foot length was shown to correlate well with gestational age (r = 0.919,p < 0.001). Intra-observer and inter-observer variability of foot length measurements was low. Foot length can therefore be used with high accuracy to determine the gestational age in a population where there is poor access to or utilization of antenatal sonar. PMID:26758249

  18. Age determination of subdural hematomas: survey among radiologists.

    PubMed

    Postema, F A M; Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, Tessa; Majoie, C B L M; van Rijn, R R

    2014-08-01

    Abusive head trauma is a severe form of child abuse. One important diagnostic finding is the presence of a subdural hematoma. Age determination of subdural hematomas is important to relate radiological findings to the clinical history presented by the caregivers. In court this topic is relevant as dating subdural hematomas can lead to identification of a suspect. The aim of our study is to describe the current practice among radiologists in the Netherlands regarding the age determination of subdural hematomas in children. This is a cross-sectional study, describing the results of an online questionnaire regarding dating subdural hematomas among pediatric and neuro-radiologists in the Netherlands. The questionnaire consisted of sociodemographic questions, theoretical questions and eight pediatric cases in which the participants were asked to date subdural hematomas based on imaging findings. Fifty-one out of 172 radiologists (30 %) filled out the questionnaire. The percentage of participants that reported it was possible to date the subdural hematoma varied between 58 and 90 % for the eight different cases. In four of eight cases (50 %), the age of the subdural hematoma as known from clinical history fell within the range reported by the participants. None of the participants was "very certain" of their age determination. The results demonstrate that there is a considerable practice variation among Dutch radiologists regarding the age determination of subdural hematomas. This implicates that dating of subdural hematomas is not suitable to use in court, as no uniformity among experts exists. PMID:24553773

  19. Serological and molecular detection of bovine leukemia virus in cattle in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Khudhair, Yahia Ismail; Hasso, Saleem Amin; Yaseen, Nahi Y; Al-Shammari, Ahmed Majeed

    2016-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is highly endemic in many countries, including Iraq, and it impacts the beef and dairy industries. The current study sought to determine the percentage of BLV infection and persistent lymphocytosis (PL) in cattle in central Iraq. Hematological, serological, and molecular observations in cross breeds and local breeds of Iraqi cattle naturally infected with BLV were conducted in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 400 cattle (340 cross breed and 60 local breed) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). On the basis of the absolute number of lymphocytes, five of the 31 positive PCR cases had PL. Among these leukemic cattle, one case exhibited overt neutrophilia. Serum samples were used to detect BLV antibodies, which were observed in 28 (7%) samples. PCR detected BLV provirus in 31 samples (7.75%). All 28 of the seropositive samples and the 3 seronegative samples were positive using PCR. Associations were observed between bovine leukosis and cattle breed, age and sex. Age-specific analysis showed that the BLV percentage increased with age in both breeds. Female cattle (29 animals; 7.34%) exhibited significantly higher infectivity than male cattle (two animals; 4.34%). In conclusion, comprehensive screening for all affected animals is needed in Iraq; programs that segregate cattle can be an effective and important method to control and/or eliminate the BLV. PMID:27273225

  20. Serological and molecular detection of bovine leukemia virus in cattle in Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Khudhair, Yahia Ismail; Hasso, Saleem Amin; Yaseen, Nahi Y; Al-Shammari, Ahmed Majeed

    2016-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is highly endemic in many countries, including Iraq, and it impacts the beef and dairy industries. The current study sought to determine the percentage of BLV infection and persistent lymphocytosis (PL) in cattle in central Iraq. Hematological, serological, and molecular observations in cross breeds and local breeds of Iraqi cattle naturally infected with BLV were conducted in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 400 cattle (340 cross breed and 60 local breed) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). On the basis of the absolute number of lymphocytes, five of the 31 positive PCR cases had PL. Among these leukemic cattle, one case exhibited overt neutrophilia. Serum samples were used to detect BLV antibodies, which were observed in 28 (7%) samples. PCR detected BLV provirus in 31 samples (7.75%). All 28 of the seropositive samples and the 3 seronegative samples were positive using PCR. Associations were observed between bovine leukosis and cattle breed, age and sex. Age-specific analysis showed that the BLV percentage increased with age in both breeds. Female cattle (29 animals; 7.34%) exhibited significantly higher infectivity than male cattle (two animals; 4.34%). In conclusion, comprehensive screening for all affected animals is needed in Iraq; programs that segregate cattle can be an effective and important method to control and/or eliminate the BLV. PMID:27273225

  1. Spectroscopic Determination of Masses (and Implied Ages) for Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ness, M.; Hogg, David W.; Rix, H.-W.; Martig, M.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Ho, A. Y. Q.

    2016-06-01

    The mass of a star is arguably its most fundamental parameter. For red giant stars, tracers luminous enough to be observed across the Galaxy, mass implies a stellar evolution age. It has proven to be extremely difficult to infer ages and masses directly from red giant spectra using existing methods. From the Kepler and apogee surveys, samples of several thousand stars exist with high-quality spectra and asteroseismic masses. Here we show that from these data we can build a data-driven spectral model using The Cannon, which can determine stellar masses to ˜0.07 dex from apogee dr12 spectra of red giants; these imply age estimates accurate to ˜0.2 dex (40%). We show that The Cannon constrains these ages foremost from spectral regions with CN absorption lines, elements whose surface abundances reflect mass-dependent dredge-up. We deliver an unprecedented catalog of 70,000 giants (including 20,000 red clump stars) with mass and age estimates, spanning the entire disk (from the Galactic center to R˜ 20 kpc). We show that the age information in the spectra is not simply a corollary of the birth-material abundances {{[Fe/H]}} and [α /{Fe}], and that, even within a monoabundance population of stars, there are age variations that vary sensibly with Galactic position. Such stellar age constraints across the Milky Way open up new avenues in Galactic archeology.

  2. Spectroscopic Determination of Masses (and Implied Ages) for Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ness, M.; Hogg, David W.; Rix, H.-W.; Martig, M.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Ho, A. Y. Q.

    2016-06-01

    The mass of a star is arguably its most fundamental parameter. For red giant stars, tracers luminous enough to be observed across the Galaxy, mass implies a stellar evolution age. It has proven to be extremely difficult to infer ages and masses directly from red giant spectra using existing methods. From the Kepler and apogee surveys, samples of several thousand stars exist with high-quality spectra and asteroseismic masses. Here we show that from these data we can build a data-driven spectral model using The Cannon, which can determine stellar masses to ∼0.07 dex from apogee dr12 spectra of red giants; these imply age estimates accurate to ∼0.2 dex (40%). We show that The Cannon constrains these ages foremost from spectral regions with CN absorption lines, elements whose surface abundances reflect mass-dependent dredge-up. We deliver an unprecedented catalog of 70,000 giants (including 20,000 red clump stars) with mass and age estimates, spanning the entire disk (from the Galactic center to R∼ 20 kpc). We show that the age information in the spectra is not simply a corollary of the birth-material abundances {{[Fe/H]}} and [α /{Fe}], and that, even within a monoabundance population of stars, there are age variations that vary sensibly with Galactic position. Such stellar age constraints across the Milky Way open up new avenues in Galactic archeology.

  3. Determination of sulfamethazine in swine and cattle feed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with post-column derivatization: pre-collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Albert, K; Smallidge, R L

    2000-01-01

    In-house validation of a liquid chromatographic method for determination of sulfamethazine in swine and cattle feed was performed to verify that the method was ready for collaborative study under AOAC INTERNATIONAL guidelines. In this method, sulfamerazine is added during the extraction procedure and is used as an internal standard to correct for variable recovery of sulfamethazine from a variety of swine and cattle feed matrixes. The determinative step involves the use of post-column derivatization with dimethylaminobenzaldehyde which reacts with the primary amine group on the sulfonamides. Detection is at 450 nm, a wavelength at which most co-extracted matrix materials and other feed additives do not absorb light. The results indicate that the method recovery, precision, and ruggedness meet normal criteria to be ready for a collaborative study. Fortification experiments over a range of sulfamethazine concentrations from 0.006 to 0.26% showed an overall recovery relative to the internal standard of 100 +/- 2%. These studies include both swine and cattle feed matrixes. The mean recovery in the analysis of 3 beef cattle experimental feeds was 98.9%. The method results agreed with the AOAC INTERNATIONAL Official Method for colorimetric analysis of swine feed. Method precision was excellent during in-house validation studies, with coefficients of variation (CVs) ranging from about 0.5 to 3%. The method ruggedness was verified with an overall CV of 3.5%. PMID:10772161

  4. Age-Specificity of Toxoplasma gondii Seroprevalence in Sheep, Goats and Cattle on Subsistence Farms in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    RAHMAN, Moizur; AZAD, Md. Thoufic Anam; NAHAR, Lovely; ROUF, Shah Md. Abdur; OHYA, Kenji; CHIOU, Shih-Pin; BABA, Minami; KITOH, Katsuya; TAKASHIMA, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects humans and domestic animals. In this study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies was investigated using serum samples collected from 83 sheep, 146 goats and 37 cattle from a dozen subsistence farms in Bangladesh. Fifty-eight out of 83 sheep (69.9%), 89 out of 146 goats (61.0%) and 10 out of 37 cattle (27.0%) were seropositive for the parasite. Seroprevalence in young goats (<1 year old) was significantly lower than that of the adult goats (>1 year old). In contrast, seroprevalence for young and adult sheep was similar. These results indicate that acquired infection with T. gondii occurs in this region of Bangladesh, at least among goats. PMID:24849051

  5. Determining Ages of APOGEE Giants with Known Distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuillet, Diane; Bovy, Jo; Holtzman, Jon A.; Girardi, Leo; APOGEE Team

    2016-01-01

    We present a sample of 705 local (d <400 pc) red giant stars observed using the New Mexico State University 1m telescope with the SDSS-III APOGEE spectrograph, for which we estimate stellar ages and the age distribution from the high-resolution spectroscopic stellar parameters and accurate distance measurements from Hipparcos. The high-resolution (R ~ 23,000), near infrared (H-band, 1.5-1.7 μm) APOGEE spectra provide measurements of the stellar atmospheric parameters (temperature, surface gravity, [M/H], and [α/M]). Due to the smaller uncertainties in surface gravity possible with high-resolution spectra and accurate Hipparcos distance measurements, we are able to calculate the stellar masses to within 40 %. For red giants, the relatively rapid evolution of stars up the red giant branch allows the age to be constrained based on the mass. We examine methods of estimating age using both the mass-age relation directly and a Bayesian isochrone matching of measured parameters, assuming a constant SFH. To improve the prior on the SFH, we use a hierarchical modeling approach to constrain the parameters of a model SFH from the age probability distribution functions of the data. The results of an α-dependent Gaussian SFH model shows a clear relation between age and [α/M] at all ages. Using this SFH model as the prior for an empirical Bayesian analysis, we construct a full age probability distribution function and determine ages for individual stars. The age-metallicity relation is flat, with a slight decrease in [M/H] at the oldest ages and a ~ 0.5 dex spread in metallicity. For stars with ages > 1 Gyr we find a smaller spread, consistent with radial migration having a smaller effect on these young stars than on the older stars. This method of estimating ages of red giants is developed with the intent of estimating ages for the much larger sample of APOGEE survey giants that will have parallax measurements from Gaia.

  6. Effects of stress by unfamiliar sounds on carcass and meat traits in bulls from three continental beef cattle breeds at different ageing times.

    PubMed

    Peña, F; Avilés, C; Domenech, V; González, A; Martínez, A; Molina, A

    2014-12-01

    One-hundred-and-twenty-four young bulls of three Continental beef cattle breeds were used to study the effect of pre-slaughter stress by unfamiliar sounds on carcass traits and quality characteristics of beef aged for three different periods. Stress due to unfamiliar noises had a moderately negative effect on carcass and meat quality. Carcasses from group Stressed had higher (P<0.05) values of pH0, pH24, a*, and Warner-Bratzler shear force, and lower (P<0.05) values of L*, b* and pressure losses than from Unstressed animals. There were significant differences (P<0.05) among breeds in L*, a* and pressure losses. The ageing time had a significant effect on chromatic variables, WBSF and pressure losses. The cooking losses were not significantly affected by any of the three factors discussed. These results emphasize the importance of implementing appropriate management practices during pre-slaughter handling of cattle in order to reduce any possible risk factor for stress, as well as the different sensitivity of the breeds to similar stimuli. PMID:25105491

  7. Age determination of asylum seekers and alleged people smugglers.

    PubMed

    Bassed, Richard; Ranson, David

    2012-12-01

    This column discusses the issues encountered when courts attempt to determine if an individual who has no reliable age at birth documentation has reached adulthood, or is still a legal minor. This issue has recently received a high level of public interest due to the wrongful imprisonment in Australian adult prisons of Indonesian minors accused of people smuggling following the determination, subsequently shown to be incorrect, that they were adults. The discussion explains current deficits existing in the science of age estimation with reference to the recent Australia Human Rights Commission "Inquiry into the Treatment of Individuals Suspected of People Smuggling Who Say That They are Children". Future research possibilities in the science of age estimation which may help to resolve many of the issues are explored. PMID:23431844

  8. Psychological determinants of erectile dysfunction among middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Aghighi, A; Grigoryan, V H; Delavar, A

    2015-01-01

    We describe psychological determinants of erectile dysfunction (ED) among middle-aged men with no identifiable medical risk factors and compare them with a sample of young individuals. Two groups of young (⩽ 30 years, n = 59) and middle-aged men (⩾ 40 years, n = 63) who scored ⩽ 25 on the erectile functioning domain of the International Index of Erectile Functioning were enrolled. Patients were included if they had no metabolic diseases, prostate problems or external genitalia abnormalities. Patients were not included if they were smokers, excessive drinkers or took medications known to cause ED. To assess psychopathology, symptom check list 90-revised (SCL-90-R) was administered. Structural equation modeling was performed to assess the relationship between psychopathology and ED. One in five men had severe ED, and the proportion was not different between the two groups. Middle-aged men had lower scores on different SCL-90-R domains. In both age groups, somatization and interpersonal sensitivity contributed to ED. Among younger individuals, anxiety and psychosis-related domains were also associated with ED. Unique contributors to ED in middle-aged men were depression and additional questions. In conclusion, among middle-aged men, psychological factors significantly contribute to ED when no medical risk factors are present. The pattern and composition of distress depicts distinct features, not seen in young age. PMID:25164317

  9. Spectroscopic determination of masses (and implied ages) for red giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ness, Melissa; Hogg, David W.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Martig, Marie; Ho, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The mass of a star is arguably its most fundamental parameter and for red giant stars it implies a stellar evolution age. Stellar masses and ages have never been derived directly from spectra of red giants. However, using the APOGEE Kepler sample of stars, (the APOKASC sample), with high-quality spectra and astroseismic masses, we can build a data-driven spectral model using THE CANNON (arXiv:1501.07604) to infer stellar mass and therefore age from stellar spectra. We determine stellar masses to 0.07 dex from APOGEE DR12 spectra of red giants; these imply age estimates accurate to 0.2 dex (40 percent). THE CANNON constrains the ages foremost from spectral regions with particular absorption lines, elements whose surface abundances reflect mass-dependent dredge-up. We deliver an unprecedented catalog of 85,000 giants (including 20,000 red-clump stars) with mass and age estimates, spanning the entire disk (from the Galactic center to R ˜ 20 kpc). Such stellar age constraints across the Milky Way open up new avenues in Galactic archeology.

  10. 27 CFR 19.348 - Determining age of mingled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determining age of mingled spirits. 19.348 Section 19.348 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Storage Mingling Or Blending...

  11. The Stability of Genetic Determination from Age 2 to Age 9: A Longitudinal Twin Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytton, Hugh; And Others

    A longitudinal investigation of the social and cognitive development of male twins was conducted when twins were 2.5 years of age, and again when they were 8- to 10-years-old. This study was designed to re-examine the heritability of the traits studied at the earlier age and, thus, to address the question of the stability of genetic determination.…

  12. Determinants of iron accumulation in the normal aging brain.

    PubMed

    Pirpamer, Lukas; Hofer, Edith; Gesierich, Benno; De Guio, François; Freudenberger, Paul; Seiler, Stephan; Duering, Marco; Jouvent, Eric; Duchesnay, Edouard; Dichgans, Martin; Ropele, Stefan; Schmidt, Reinhold

    2016-07-01

    In a recent postmortem study, R2* relaxometry in gray matter (GM) of the brain has been validated as a noninvasive measure for iron content in brain tissue. Iron accumulation in the normal aging brain is a common finding and relates to brain maturation and degeneration. The goal of this study was to assess the determinants of iron accumulation during brain aging. The study cohort consisted of 314 healthy community-dwelling participants of the Austrian Stroke Prevention Study. Their age ranged from 38-82 years. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 3T and included R2* mapping, based on a 3D multi-echo gradient echo sequence. The median of R2* values was measured in all GM regions, which were segmented automatically using FreeSurfer. We investigated 25 possible determinants for cerebral iron deposition. These included demographics, brain volume, lifestyle factors, cerebrovascular risk factors, serum levels of iron, and single nucleotide polymorphisms related to iron regulating genes (rs1800562, rs3811647, rs1799945, and rs1049296). The body mass index (BMI) was significantly related to R2* in 15/32 analyzed brain regions with the strongest correlations found in the amygdala (p = 0.0091), medial temporal lobe (p = 0.0002), and hippocampus (p ≤ 0.0001). Further associations to R2* values were found in deep GM for age and smoking. No significant associations were found for gender, GM volume, serum levels of iron, or iron-associated genetic polymorphisms. In conclusion, besides age, the BMI and smoking are the only significant determinants of brain iron accumulation in normally aging subjects. Smoking relates to iron deposition in the basal ganglia, whereas higher BMI is associated with iron content in the neocortex following an Alzheimer-like distribution. PMID:27255824

  13. Pteridine fluorescence for age determination of Anopheles mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Wu, D; Lehane, M J

    1999-02-01

    The age structure of mosquito populations is of great relevance to understanding the dynamics of disease transmission and in monitoring the success of control operations. Unfortunately, the ovarian dissection methods currently available for determining the age of adult mosquitoes are technically difficult, slow and may be of limited value, because the proportion of diagnostic ovarioles in the ovary declines with age. By means of reversed-phase HPLC this study investigated the malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae and An. stephensi to see if changes in fluorescent pteridine pigments, which have been used in other insects to determine the age of field-caught individuals, may be useful for age determination in mosquitoes. Whole body fluorescence was inversely proportional to age (P < 0.001, r2 > 91%) up to 30 days postemergence, with the regression values: y = 40580-706x for An. gambiae, and y = 52896-681x for An. stephensi. In both species the main pteridines were 6-biopterin, pterin-6-carboxylic acid and an unidentified fluorescent compound. An. gambiae had only 50-70% as much fluorescence as An. stephensi, and fluorescent compounds were relatively more concentrated in the head than in the thorax (ratios 1:0.8 An. gambiae; 1:0.5 An. stephensi). The results of this laboratory study are encouraging. It seems feasible that this simpler and faster technique of fluorescence quantification could yield results of equivalent accuracy to the interpretation of ovarian dissection. A double-blind field trial comparing the accuracy of this technique to marked, released and recaptured mosquitoes is required to test the usefulness of the pteridine method in the field. PMID:10194749

  14. Age determination of single plutonium particles after chemical separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinonaga, T.; Donohue, D.; Ciurapinski, A.; Klose, D.

    2009-01-01

    Age determination of single plutonium particles was demonstrated using five particles of the standard reference material, NBS 947 (Plutonium Isotopic Standard. National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C. 20234, August 19, 1982, currently distributed as NBL CRM-137) and the radioactive decay of 241Pu into 241Am. The elemental ratio of Am/Pu in Pu particles found on a carbon planchet was measured by wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometry (WDX) coupled to a scanning electron microscope (SEM). After the WDX measurement, each plutonium particle, with an average size of a few μm, was picked up and relocated to a silicon wafer inside the SEM chamber using a micromanipulator. The silicon wafer was then transferred to a quartz tube for dissolution in an acid solution prior to chemical separation. After the Pu was chemically separated from Am and U, the isotopic ratios of Pu ( 240Pu/ 239Pu, 241Pu/ 239Pu and 242Pu/ 239Pu) were measured with a thermal ionization mass spectrometer (TIMS) for the calculation of Pu age. The age of particles determined in this study was in good agreement with the expected age (35.9 a) of NBS 947 within the measurement uncertainty.

  15. DNA Damage: A Main Determinant of Vascular Aging.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Niño, Paula K; Portilla-Fernandez, Eliana; Vaughan, Douglas E; Danser, A H Jan; Roks, Anton J M

    2016-01-01

    Vascular aging plays a central role in health problems and mortality in older people. Apart from the impact of several classical cardiovascular risk factors on the vasculature, chronological aging remains the single most important determinant of cardiovascular problems. The causative mechanisms by which chronological aging mediates its impact, independently from classical risk factors, remain to be elucidated. In recent years evidence has accumulated that unrepaired DNA damage may play an important role. Observations in animal models and in humans indicate that under conditions during which DNA damage accumulates in an accelerated rate, functional decline of the vasculature takes place in a similar but more rapid or more exaggerated way than occurs in the absence of such conditions. Also epidemiological studies suggest a relationship between DNA maintenance and age-related cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, mouse models of defective DNA repair are means to study the mechanisms involved in biological aging of the vasculature. We here review the evidence of the role of DNA damage in vascular aging, and present mechanisms by which genomic instability interferes with regulation of the vascular tone. In addition, we present potential remedies against vascular aging induced by genomic instability. Central to this review is the role of diverse types of DNA damage (telomeric, non-telomeric and mitochondrial), of cellular changes (apoptosis, senescence, autophagy), mediators of senescence and cell growth (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP)/senescence-messaging secretome (SMS), insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling), the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) axis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) vs. endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (c

  16. Age at spinal cord injury determines muscle strength

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Christine K.; Grumbles, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    As individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) age they report noticeable deficits in muscle strength, endurance and functional capacity when performing everyday tasks. These changes begin at ~45 years. Here we present a cross-sectional analysis of paralyzed thenar muscle and motor unit contractile properties in two datasets obtained from different subjects who sustained a cervical SCI at different ages (≤46 years) in relation to data from uninjured age-matched individuals. First, completely paralyzed thenar muscles were weaker when C6 SCI occurred at an older age. Muscles were also significantly weaker if the injury was closer to the thenar motor pools (C6 vs. C4). More muscles were strong (>50% uninjured) in those injured at a younger (≤25 years) vs. young age (>25 years), irrespective of SCI level. There was a reduction in motor unit numbers in all muscles tested. In each C6 SCI, only ~30 units survived vs. 144 units in uninjured subjects. Since intact axons only sprout 4–6 fold, the limits for muscle reinnervation have largely been met in these young individuals. Thus, any further reduction in motor unit numbers with time after these injuries will likely result in chronic denervation, and may explain the late-onset muscle weakness routinely described by people with SCI. In a second dataset, paralyzed thenar motor units were more fatigable than uninjured units. This gap widened with age and will reduce functional reserve. Force declines were not due to electromyographic decrements in either group so the site of failure was beyond excitation of the muscle membrane. Together, these results suggest that age at SCI is an important determinant of long-term muscle strength, and fatigability, both of which influence functional capacity. PMID:24478643

  17. DNA Damage: A Main Determinant of Vascular Aging

    PubMed Central

    Bautista-Niño, Paula K.; Portilla-Fernandez, Eliana; Vaughan, Douglas E.; Danser, A. H. Jan; Roks, Anton J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Vascular aging plays a central role in health problems and mortality in older people. Apart from the impact of several classical cardiovascular risk factors on the vasculature, chronological aging remains the single most important determinant of cardiovascular problems. The causative mechanisms by which chronological aging mediates its impact, independently from classical risk factors, remain to be elucidated. In recent years evidence has accumulated that unrepaired DNA damage may play an important role. Observations in animal models and in humans indicate that under conditions during which DNA damage accumulates in an accelerated rate, functional decline of the vasculature takes place in a similar but more rapid or more exaggerated way than occurs in the absence of such conditions. Also epidemiological studies suggest a relationship between DNA maintenance and age-related cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, mouse models of defective DNA repair are means to study the mechanisms involved in biological aging of the vasculature. We here review the evidence of the role of DNA damage in vascular aging, and present mechanisms by which genomic instability interferes with regulation of the vascular tone. In addition, we present potential remedies against vascular aging induced by genomic instability. Central to this review is the role of diverse types of DNA damage (telomeric, non-telomeric and mitochondrial), of cellular changes (apoptosis, senescence, autophagy), mediators of senescence and cell growth (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP)/senescence-messaging secretome (SMS), insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling), the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) axis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) vs. endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (c

  18. Age of sex-determining mechanisms in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    WITSCHI, E

    1959-08-14

    Certain characteristic patterns of physiologic sex determination are not causally linked with types of genic and chromosomal constitution (XX-XY or ZW-ZZ). The observed widespread but not universal parallelism in the distribution of genetic and physiologic patterns among vertebrate groups expresses genealogic relationship. On the basis of this interpretation one may estimate the approximate evolutionary age of the mechanism of genetic sex determination. It is concluded that in all tetrapod vertebrates these mechanisms originated during the Jurassic period. Environmental conditions seem to affect the progress of this evolution. PMID:13675759

  19. Effect of Co-Composting Cattle Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste on the Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Microbiota, and on Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants.

    PubMed

    Holman, Devin B; Hao, Xiying; Topp, Edward; Yang, Hee Eun; Alexander, Trevor W

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural operations generate large quantities of manure which must be eliminated in a manner that is consistent with public health guidelines. Meanwhile, construction and demolition waste makes up about 25% of total solid municipal waste. Co-composting of manure with construction and demolition waste offers a potential means to make manure safe for soil amendment and also divert construction and demolition waste from municipal landfills. Therefore, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of two different types of composted cattle manure and one co-composted with construction and demolition waste, were assessed over a 99-day composting period. The microbiota of the three compost mixtures did not differ, but significant changes over time and by sampling depth were observed. Bacillus and Halocella, however, were more relatively abundant in composted manure from cattle fed dried distillers' grains and solubles. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were enriched at day 0 and Firmicutes at day 99. The fungal genus Kernia was the most relatively abundant overall and was enriched at day 0. The concentration of 12 antimicrobial resistance determinants in the compost mixtures was also determined, and 10 of these determinants decreased significantly from days 0 to 99. The addition of construction and demolition waste did not affect the persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes or community structure of the compost microbiota and therefore co-composting construction and demolition waste with cattle manure offers a safe, viable way to divert this waste from landfills. PMID:27300323

  20. Effect of Co-Composting Cattle Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste on the Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Microbiota, and on Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Devin B.; Hao, Xiying; Topp, Edward; Yang, Hee Eun; Alexander, Trevor W.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural operations generate large quantities of manure which must be eliminated in a manner that is consistent with public health guidelines. Meanwhile, construction and demolition waste makes up about 25% of total solid municipal waste. Co-composting of manure with construction and demolition waste offers a potential means to make manure safe for soil amendment and also divert construction and demolition waste from municipal landfills. Therefore, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of two different types of composted cattle manure and one co-composted with construction and demolition waste, were assessed over a 99-day composting period. The microbiota of the three compost mixtures did not differ, but significant changes over time and by sampling depth were observed. Bacillus and Halocella, however, were more relatively abundant in composted manure from cattle fed dried distillers’ grains and solubles. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were enriched at day 0 and Firmicutes at day 99. The fungal genus Kernia was the most relatively abundant overall and was enriched at day 0. The concentration of 12 antimicrobial resistance determinants in the compost mixtures was also determined, and 10 of these determinants decreased significantly from days 0 to 99. The addition of construction and demolition waste did not affect the persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes or community structure of the compost microbiota and therefore co-composting construction and demolition waste with cattle manure offers a safe, viable way to divert this waste from landfills. PMID:27300323

  1. A Determination and Comparison of Urease Activity in Feces and Fresh Manure from Pig and Cattle in Relation to Ammonia Production and pH Changes

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiaorong; Karring, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia emission from animal production is a major environmental problem and has impacts on the animal health and working environment inside production houses. Ammonia is formed in manure by the enzymatic degradation of urinary urea and catalyzed by urease that is present in feces. We have determined and compared the urease activity in feces and manure (a urine and feces mixture) from pigs and cattle at 25°C by using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. To obtain accurate estimates of kinetic parameters Vmax and K'm, we used a 5 min reaction time to determine the initial reaction velocities based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) concentrations. The resulting Vmax value (mmol urea hydrolyzed per kg wet feces per min) was 2.06±0.08 mmol urea/kg/min and 0.80±0.04 mmol urea/kg/min for pig feces and cattle feces, respectively. The K'm values were 32.59±5.65 mmol urea/l and 15.43±2.94 mmol urea/l for pig feces and cattle feces, respectively. Thus, our results reveal that both the Vmax and K'm values of the urease activity for pig feces are more than 2-fold higher than those for cattle feces. The difference in urea hydrolysis rates between animal species is even more significant in fresh manure. The initial velocities of TAN formation are 1.53 mM/min and 0.33 mM/min for pig and cattle manure, respectively. Furthermore, our investigation shows that the maximum urease activity for pig feces occurs at approximately pH 7, and in cattle feces it is closer to pH 8, indicating that the predominant fecal ureolytic bacteria species differ between animal species. We believe that our study contributes to a better understanding of the urea hydrolysis process in manure and provides a basis for more accurate and animal-specific prediction models for urea hydrolysis rates and ammonia concentration in manures and thus can be used to predict ammonia volatilization rates from animal production. PMID:25397404

  2. Effect of very fast chilling and aging time on ultra-structure and meat quality characteristics of Chinese Yellow cattle M. Longissimus lumborum.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Yimin; Mao, Yanwei; Cornforth, Daren; Dong, Pengcheng; Wang, Renhuan; Zhu, He; Luo, Xin

    2012-12-01

    Objectives of the current study were to evaluate meat ultra-structure and tenderness variation at different chilling regimes and aging times. Hot boned longissimus lumborum of 18 Chinese crossbred cattle were divided into 4 portions per side. One portion underwent very fast chilling (VFC, at -21 °C to achieve core temperature of 0 °C, then transferred to another incubator at 2 °C), whereas other treatments were held at 14, 7 and 0 °C for 10 h postmortem, respectively. At 10 h postmortem, all muscles were vacuum aged at 2 °C for 21 d. Cold shortened muscles had greatest absolute amount of tenderization during aging. VFC caused lowest sarcomere length, with super-contractions, ruptured Z-lines and myofibril cleavage, but improved myofibril fragmentation index (MFI), with no significant negative effect on toughness. Overall, aging improved the meat quality of cold shortened beef. Moreover, it should be prudent in some applications to apply VFC to excised muscles from a food safety perspective, and to improve tenderness compared to cold-shortened muscles. PMID:22857853

  3. Metabolic reserve as a determinant of cognitive aging.

    PubMed

    Stranahan, Alexis M; Mattson, Mark P

    2012-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) represent points on a continuum of cognitive performance in aged populations. Cognition may be impaired or preserved in the context of brain aging. One theory to account for memory maintenance in the context of extensive pathology involves 'cognitive reserve', or the ability to compensate for neuropathology through greater recruitment of remaining neurons. In this review, we propose a complementary hypothesis of 'metabolic reserve', where a brain with high metabolic reserve is characterized by the presence of neuronal circuits that respond adaptively to perturbations in cellular and somatic energy metabolism and thereby protects against declining cognition. Lifestyle determinants of metabolic reserve, such as exercise, reduced caloric intake, and intake of specific dietary components can promote neuroprotection, while pathological states arising from sedentary lifestyles and excessive caloric intake contribute to neuronal endangerment. This bidirectional relationship between metabolism and cognition may be mediated by alterations in central insulin and neurotrophic factor signaling and glucose metabolism, with downstream consequences for accumulation of amyloid-β and hyperphosphorylated tau. The metabolic reserve hypothesis is supported by epidemiological findings and the spectrum of individual cognitive trajectories during aging, with additional data from animal models identifying potential mechanisms for this relationship. Identification of biomarkers for metabolic reserve could assist in generating a predictive model for the likelihood of cognitive decline with aging. PMID:22045480

  4. Liver copper concentrations in cull cattle in the UK: are cattle being copper loaded?

    PubMed

    Kendall, N R; Holmes-Pavord, H R; Bone, P A; Ander, E L; Young, S D

    2015-11-14

    With the release of the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs/Advisory Committee on Animal Feed Guidance Note for Supplementing Copper to Bovines it was noted that the current copper status of the national herd was not known. Liver samples were recovered from 510 cull cattle at a single abattoir across a period of three days. The samples were wet-ashed and liver copper concentrations determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Breed, age and previous location information were obtained from the British Cattle Movement Service. Dairy breeds had higher liver copper concentrations than beef breeds. Holstein-Friesian and 'other' dairy breeds had 38.3 per cent and 40 per cent of cattle above the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency (AHVLA) reference range (8000 µmol/kg dry matter), respectively, whereas only 16.9 per cent of animals in the combined beef breeds exceeded this value. It was found that underlying topsoil copper concentration was not related to liver copper content and that age of the animal also had little effect on liver concentration. In conclusion, over 50 per cent of the liver samples tested had greater-than-normal concentrations of copper with almost 40 per cent of the female dairy cattle having liver copper concentrations above the AHVLA reference range, indicating that a significant proportion of the UK herd is at risk of chronic copper toxicity. PMID:26489996

  5. Liver copper concentrations in cull cattle in the UK: are cattle being copper loaded?

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, N. R.; Holmes-Pavord, H. R.; Bone, P. A.; Ander, E. L.; Young, S. D.

    2015-01-01

    With the release of the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs/Advisory Committee on Animal Feed Guidance Note for Supplementing Copper to Bovines it was noted that the current copper status of the national herd was not known. Liver samples were recovered from 510 cull cattle at a single abattoir across a period of three days. The samples were wet-ashed and liver copper concentrations determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Breed, age and previous location information were obtained from the British Cattle Movement Service. Dairy breeds had higher liver copper concentrations than beef breeds. Holstein-Friesian and ‘other’ dairy breeds had 38.3 per cent and 40 per cent of cattle above the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency (AHVLA) reference range (8000 µmol/kg dry matter), respectively, whereas only 16.9 per cent of animals in the combined beef breeds exceeded this value. It was found that underlying topsoil copper concentration was not related to liver copper content and that age of the animal also had little effect on liver concentration. In conclusion, over 50 per cent of the liver samples tested had greater-than-normal concentrations of copper with almost 40 per cent of the female dairy cattle having liver copper concentrations above the AHVLA reference range, indicating that a significant proportion of the UK herd is at risk of chronic copper toxicity. PMID:26489996

  6. Foot and mouth disease virus virulence in cattle is co-determined by viral replication dynamics and route of infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early events in the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in cattle were investigated through aerosol and intraepithelial lingual (IEL) inoculations of a cDNA-derived FMDV-A24 wild type virus (FMDV-WT) or a mutant derived from the same clone (FMDV- Mut). We had previously sho...

  7. Hierarchical Bayesian inference on genetic and non-genetic components of partial efficiencies determining feed efficiency in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy cattle feed efficiency (FE) can be defined as the ability to convert DMI into milk energy (MILKE) and maintenance or metabolic body weight (MBW). In other words, DMI is conditional on MILKE and MBW (DMI|MILKE,MBW). These partial regressions or partial efficiencies (PE) of DMI on MILKE and MBW ...

  8. Water intoxication in adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Naoya; Ofuji, Sosuke; Abe, Sakae; Tanaka, Ai; Uematsu, Masami; Ogata, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces. These results indicate the possibility of water intoxication associated with cerebral edema due to severe dilutional hyponatremia in adult cattle. PMID:27506091

  9. The prevalence of serum antibodies to tick-borne infections in Mbale District, Uganda: the effect of agro-ecological zone, grazing management and age of cattle.

    PubMed

    Rubaire-Akiiki, C; Okello-Onen, J; Nasinyama, G W; Vaarst, M; Kabagambe, E K; Mwayi, W; Musunga, D; Wandukwa, W

    2004-01-01

    Between August and October 2000, a cross-sectional study was conducted in smallholder dairy farms in Mbale District, Uganda to assess the prevalence of ticks and tick-borne diseases under different grazing systems and agro-ecological zones and understand the circumstances under which farmers operated. A questionnaire was administered to obtain information on dairy farm circumstances and practices. A total of 102 farms were visited and sera and ticks were collected from 478 animals. Sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Acaricides were used indiscriminately but the intensity of their use varied with the grazing system and zone. Cattle from different farms mixed for various reasons. During the dry seasons farmers have to get additional fodder from outside their farms that can result in importation of ticks. The prevalence of ticks and serum antibodies to tick-borne infections differed across the grazing systems and zones. The highest serum antibody prevalence (>60%) was recorded in the lowland zone under the free range and tethering grazing systems. The lowest tick challenge and serum antibody levels (<50%) were recorded in the midland and upland zones under a zero-grazing system. These findings suggest that endemic stability to East Coast Fever, babesiosis and anaplasmosis is most likely to have existed in the lowland zone, particularly, under the tethering and free-range grazing systems. Also, endemic stability for babesiosis existed in the upland zones. Endemic instability for East Coast Fever existed in the midland and upland zones. These structured observational studies are instrumental in planning of control strategies for ticks and tick borne diseases since production systems and the cattle population at high risk of the diseases in the district have been identified. PMID:15861224

  10. Solid-Phase Extraction and Simultaneous Determination of Tetracycline Residues in Edible Cattle Tissues Using an HPLC-FL Method

    PubMed Central

    Mesgari Abbasi, Mehran; Nemati, Mahboob; Babaei, Hossein; Ansarin, Masoud; Nourdadgar, Ashraf-O-Sadat

    2012-01-01

    In this assay, edible cattle tissues from local markets of Ardabil, a Province of Iran, were examined for residues of tetracycline antibiotics (tetracycline, oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline). In total, 110 samples of triceps, gluteal muscle, diaphragm, kidney and liver were randomly obtained from the local markets of the city of Ardabil. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods were used to extract and analyze tetracycline antibiotic (TC) residues, respectively. The mean amount of total TC residues in all tested samples was 226.3 ± 112.5 ng/g and the mean amount of the total TC residues in triceps, gluteal muscle, diaphragm, kidney and liver samples were 176.3 ± 46.8, 405.3 ± 219.6, 96.8 ± 26.9, 672.4 ± 192.0 and 651.3 ± 210.1 ng/g, respectively. Additionally, 25.8% of muscle samples, 31.8% of liver samples and 22.7% of kidney samples contained amounts of TC residues beyond the maximum residue limit (MRLs). To reduce the TC residues found in edible cattle tissues, regulatory authorities should ensure that the cattle would undergo the proper withdrawal period from TCs before the slaughtering. PMID:24250505

  11. Effects of United States Department of Agriculture carcass maturity on sensory attributes of steaks produced by cattle representing two dental age classes.

    PubMed

    Semler, M L; Woerner, D R; Belk, K E; Enns, K J; Tatum, J D

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the effects of USDA carcass maturity on sensory properties of LM steaks produced by cattle representing 2 dental age classes. Carcasses identified for use in the experiment were produced by steers and heifers classified as either <30 mo of age (MOA) or ≥30 MOA at the time of slaughter using dentition. Within each dental age class, carcasses were selected to represent 2 maturity groups and 3 marbling categories, resulting in 12 dental age × maturity × marbling subclasses, each consisting of 50 carcasses. Maturity groups consisted of carcasses classified by USDA graders as either A to A (A) overall maturity or B to D (B-D) overall maturity; marbling categories consisted of carcasses with instrument marbling scores of Slight to Slight (SL), Small to Small (SM), or Modest to Moderate (MT-MD). Carcasses were selected in pairs so that each carcass chosen to represent the B-D-maturity group was paired with an A-maturity carcass of the same sex and marbling score (±50 marbling units). Strip loin (LM) steaks were obtained from both sides of each carcass. After a 14-d aging period, 1 LM steak was measured for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and slice shear force (SSF), whereas the other LM steak was used for sensory analysis by a trained descriptive attribute panel. No differences ( > 0.05) in LM tenderness, juiciness, or flavor were detected between carcass maturity groups in either dental age class. Advanced dental age (≥30 MOA), however, was associated with more intense ( < 0.05) grassy and bloody/serumy flavors and decreased ( < 0.05) tenderness within the SL marbling group. Marbling score effectively stratified carcasses (MT-MD > SM > SL) according to differences ( < 0.0001) in LM tenderness, juiciness, beefy/brothy flavor, and buttery/beef fat flavor. In addition, increased marbling was associated with lesser ( < 0.01) intensities of bloody/serumy, livery/organy, and grassy flavors as well as smaller ( < 0.0001) values for WBSF and SSF

  12. Lifestyle and dietary factors determine age at natural menopause.

    PubMed

    Sapre, Shilpa; Thakur, Ratna

    2014-01-01

    A literature search was done using PubMed. The age at natural menopause (ANM) depends on various factors like genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle of which some like nulliparity, vegetarian diet, smoking, high fat intake, cholesterol, and caffeine accelerates; while others like parity, prior use of oral contraceptive pills, and Japanese ethnicity delays the ANM. ANM is an important risk factor for long-term morbidity and mortality; and hence, the need to identify the modifiable risk factors like diet and lifestyle changes. Delayed menopause is associated with increased risk of endometrial and breast cancer, while early ANM enhances the risk for cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. The correlation between diet and ANM has not been extensively studied; however, whatever studies have been done till now point towards role of high intake of total calories, fruits, and proteins in delaying the ANM, while high polyunsaturated fat intake accelerates it. The role of dietary soy, total fat, saturated fat, red meat, and dietary fiber in determining the ANM has been controversial and needs further studies to substantiate it. The lifestyle factors like current smoking and vigorous exercise have been significantly associated with early menopause, while moderate alcohol consumption delays the ANM. Large prospective studies are needed to study the association of ANM and other modifiable factors like passive smoking fish consumption, soy, and various types of tea. The knowledge of modifiable determinants of ANM can help in setting up menopausal clinics and initiating health programs specially in developing countries. PMID:24672198

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon Bieneusi Infections in Naturally Infected Dairy Cattle from Birth to Two Years of Age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal specimens were collected from 30 calves from birth to 24 months of age at a dairy farm in Maryland to determine the prevalence and age distribution of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Enterocytozoon bieneusi species/genotypes. It is crucial to know which species and/or genotypes are actually present ...

  14. Central Role of the PPARγ Gene Network in Coordinating Beef Cattle Intramuscular Adipogenesis in Response to Weaning Age and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Moisá, Sonia J.; Shike, Daniel W.; Faulkner, Dan B.; Meteer, William T.; Keisler, Duane; Loor, Juan J.

    2014-01-01

    Adipogenic/lipogenic transcriptional networks regulating intramuscular fat deposition (IMF) in response to weaning age and dietary starch level were studied. The longissimus muscle (LM) of beef steers on an early weaning (141 days age) plus high-starch diet (EWS) or a normal weaning (NW, 222 days age) plus starch creep-feed diet (CFS) was biopsied at 0 (EW), 25, 50, 96 (NW), 167, and 222 (pre-slaughter) days. Expression patterns of 35 target genes were studied. From NW through slaughter, all steers received the same high-starch diet. In EWS steers the expression of PPARG, other adipogenic (CEBPA, ZFP423) and lipogenic (THRSP, SREBF1, INSIG1) activators, and several enzymes (FASN, SCD, ELOVL6, PCK1, DGAT2) that participate in the process of IMF increased gradually to a peak between 96 and 167 days on treatment. Steers in NW did not achieve similar expression levels even by 222 days on treatment, suggesting a blunted response even when fed a high-starch diet after weaning. High-starch feeding at an early age (EWS) triggers precocious and sustained adipogenesis, resulting in greater marbling. PMID:24516329

  15. Vru (Sub0144) controls expression of proven and putative virulence determinants and alters the ability of Streptococcus uberis to cause disease in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Egan, Sharon A; Ward, Philip N; Watson, Michael; Field, Terence R; Leigh, James A

    2012-06-01

    The regulation and control of gene expression in response to differing environmental stimuli is crucial for successful pathogen adaptation and persistence. The regulatory gene vru of Streptococcus uberis encodes a stand-alone response regulator with similarity to the Mga of group A Streptococcus. Mga controls expression of a number of important virulence determinants. Experimental intramammary challenge of dairy cattle with a mutant of S. uberis carrying an inactivating lesion in vru showed reduced ability to colonize the mammary gland and an inability to induce clinical signs of mastitis compared with the wild-type strain. Analysis of transcriptional differences of gene expression in the mutant, determined by microarray analysis, identified a number of coding sequences with altered expression in the absence of Vru. These consisted of known and putative virulence determinants, including Lbp (Sub0145), SclB (Sub1095), PauA (Sub1785) and hasA (Sub1696). PMID:22383474

  16. Volatile constituents of Melissa officinalis leaves determined by plant age.

    PubMed

    Nurzyńska-Wierdak, Renata; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Szymczak, Grazyna

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated changes in the content and chemical composition of the essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from air-dried Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) leaves in the first and second year of plant growth. The lemon balm oil was analysed by GC-MS and GC-FID. The presence of 106 compounds, representing 100% of the oil constituents, was determined in the oil. The predominant components were geranial (45.2% and 45.1%) and neral (32.8% and 33.8%); their proportions in the examined samples of the oil obtained from one- and two-year-old plants were comparable. However, the age of lemon balm plants affected the concentration of other constituents and the proportions of the following compounds were subject to especially high fluctuations: citronellal (8.7% and 0.4%), geraniol (trace amounts and 0.6%), and geranyl acetate (0.5% and 3.0%), as well as, among others, isogeranial, E-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, germacrene D, and carvacrol. The essential oil of two-year-old plants was characterized by a richer chemical composition than the oil from younger plants. PMID:25026727

  17. Nongenetic Determinants of Age at Menarche: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background. The acceleration of pubertal development is an important medical and social problem, as it may result in increased morbidity and mortality in later life. This systematic review summarizes relevant data about nongenetic factors, which contribute to age at menarche (AAM), and suggests those which may be the most important. Methods. The available literature from 1980 till July 2013 was searched using PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Finally, 154 papers were selected for the analysis. Results. Environmental factors, which may affect AAM, vary in populations of different ethnicity. The prenatal, infancy, and early childhood periods are the most susceptible to these factors. Body weight, high animal protein intake, family stressors (e.g., single parenting), and physical activity seem to influence AAM in most populations. Conclusions. The data about influence of nongenetic factors on AAM are still inconsistent. The factors affecting prenatal and early childhood growth seem to have a larger effect on further sexual maturation. Further studies are needed in order to validate the association between other environmental determinants and AAM in different ethnical groups. PMID:25050345

  18. Determination of the prevalence of trypanosome species in cattle from Monduli district, northern Tanzania, by loop mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Haji, Isihaka Juma; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Kajino, Kiichi; Malele, Imna; Simukoko, Humphrey; Chitambo, Harrison; Namangala, Boniface

    2015-08-01

    Bovine African trypanosomosis (BAT) remains one of the major vector-borne diseases with serious impediment to cattle production and economic advancement in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study evaluated the performance of the trypanosome-species-specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), using parasite DNA obtained from 295 indigenous Tanzanian short horn Zebu (TSHZ) and Boran crosses in Monduli district within northern Tanzania, against routine microscopy on Giemsa-stained blood films. Compared to parasitological data in which the prevalence of BAT was estimated at 2.4% (95% CI 0.7-4.1%), LAMP increased the prevalence to 27.8% (95% CI 22.3-32.5%), of which 11.9% (95% CI 8.2-15.6%) were monolytic infections with Trypanosoma vivax, while 13.6% (95% CI 9.7-17.5%) were coinfections of either T. vivax and Trypanosoma brucei subspecies or T. vivax and Trypanosoma congolense, respectively. Among the T. brucei subspecies detected, 0.7% (95% CI 0-1.7%) were human-infective Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. Our study is in concordance with previous reports and suggests that LAMP is a potential tool for routine diagnosis of trypanosomes in domestic animals in BAT endemic regions. According to LAMP, T. vivax seems to be the predominant trypanosome species circulating among the indigenous Monduli cattle. Importantly, the detection of T. b. rhodesiense in cattle in such wildlife-domestic-animal-human-interface areas poses a risk of contracting human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) by local communities and tourists. Continuous trypanosome surveillances in domestic animals, humans, and tsetse flies using sensitive and specific tests such as LAMP are recommended. PMID:25953023

  19. Icy Satellites of Saturn: Impact Cratering and Age Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dones, L.; Chapman, C. R.; McKinnon, William B.; Melosh, H. J.; Kirchoff, M. R.; Neukum, G.; Zahnle, K. J.

    2009-01-01

    , and catastrophically disrupt, the saturnian moons. Finally, we present crater counts on the satellites from two different groups. Many of the heavily cratered terrains appear to be nearly saturated, so it is difficult to infer the provenance of the impactors from crater counts alone. More large craters have been found on Iapetus than on any other satellite. Enceladus displays an enormous range of surface ages, ranging from the old mid-latitude plains to the extremely young South Polar Terrain. Cassini images provide some evidence for the reality of Population II. Most of the observed craters may have formed in one or more cataclysms, but more work is needed to determine the roles of heliocentric and planetocentric bodies in creating the craters.

  20. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... directly to slaughter from a State designated as a Class Free State in 9 CFR 78.41; (vi) Cattle exported to... surveillance system at slaughter plants: Canada and Mexico. (b) Brucellosis. All cattle over 6 months of age shall be negative to a test for brucellosis conducted as prescribed in “Standard Agglutination...

  1. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... directly to slaughter from a State designated as a Class Free State in 9 CFR 78.41; (vi) Cattle exported to... surveillance system at slaughter plants: Canada and Mexico. (b) Brucellosis. All cattle over 6 months of age shall be negative to a test for brucellosis conducted as prescribed in “Standard Agglutination...

  2. Aging is a weak but relentless determinant of dementia severity

    PubMed Central

    Royall, Donald R.; Palmer, Raymond F.

    2016-01-01

    Structural Equation Models (SEM) can explicitly distinguish “dementia-relevant” variance in cognitive task performance (i.e., “δ” for dementia). In prior work, δ appears to uniquely account for dementia severity regardless of the cognitive measures used to construct it. In this study, we test δ as a mediator of age's prospective association with future cognitive performance and dementia severity in a large, ethnically diverse longitudinal cohort, the Texas Alzheimer's Research and Care Consortium (TARCC). Age had adverse effects on future cognition, and these were largely mediated through δ, independently of education, ethnicity, gender, depression ratings, serum homo-cysteine levels, hemoglobin A1c, and apolipoprotein e4 status. Age explained 4% of variance in δ, and through it, 11-18% of variance in future cognitive performance. Our findings suggest that normative aging is a dementing condition (i.e., a “senility”). While the majority of variance in dementia severity must be independent of age, age's specific effect is likely to accumulate over the lifespan. Our findings also constrain age's dementing effects on cognition to the age-related fraction of “general intelligence” (Spearman's “g”). That has broad biological and pathophysiological implications. PMID:26930722

  3. 42 CFR 436.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... must use the common law method (under which an age is reached the day before the anniversary of birth) or the popular usage method (under which a specific age is reached on the anniversary of birth... month, of his birth is known. Blindness...

  4. 42 CFR 436.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... must use the common law method (under which an age is reached the day before the anniversary of birth) or the popular usage method (under which a specific age is reached on the anniversary of birth... month, of his birth is known. Blindness...

  5. 42 CFR 436.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... must use the common law method (under which an age is reached the day before the anniversary of birth) or the popular usage method (under which a specific age is reached on the anniversary of birth... month, of his birth is known. Blindness...

  6. 42 CFR 436.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... must use the common law method (under which an age is reached the day before the anniversary of birth) or the popular usage method (under which a specific age is reached on the anniversary of birth... month, of his birth is known. Blindness...

  7. 42 CFR 436.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... must use the common law method (under which an age is reached the day before the anniversary of birth) or the popular usage method (under which a specific age is reached on the anniversary of birth... month, of his birth is known. Blindness...

  8. Substrate Type and Free Ammonia Determine Bacterial Community Structure in Full-Scale Mesophilic Anaerobic Digesters Treating Cattle or Swine Manure

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiabao; Rui, Junpeng; Yao, Minjie; Zhang, Shiheng; Yan, Xuefeng; Wang, Yuanpeng; Yan, Zhiying; Li, Xiangzhen

    2015-01-01

    The microbial-mediated anaerobic digestion (AD) process represents an efficient biological process for the treatment of organic waste along with biogas harvest. Currently, the key factors structuring bacterial communities and the potential core and unique bacterial populations in manure anaerobic digesters are not completely elucidated yet. In this study, we collected sludge samples from 20 full-scale anaerobic digesters treating cattle or swine manure, and investigated the variations of bacterial community compositions using high-throughput 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Clustering and correlation analysis suggested that substrate type and free ammonia (FA) play key roles in determining the bacterial community structure. The COD: NH4+-N (C:N) ratio of substrate and FA were the most important available operational parameters correlating to the bacterial communities in cattle and swine manure digesters, respectively. The bacterial populations in all of the digesters were dominated by phylum Firmicutes, followed by Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi. Increased FA content selected Firmicutes, suggesting that they probably play more important roles under high FA content. Syntrophic metabolism by Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Synergistetes and Planctomycetes are likely inhibited when FA content is high. Despite the different manure substrates, operational conditions and geographical locations of digesters, core bacterial communities were identified. The core communities were best characterized by phylum Firmicutes, wherein Clostridium predominated overwhelmingly. Substrate-unique and abundant communities may reflect the properties of manure substrate and operational conditions. These findings extend our current understanding of the bacterial assembly in full-scale manure anaerobic digesters. PMID:26648921

  9. Exploratory trial to determine the efficacy of the PYthon and the PYthon Magnum slow-release insecticide ear tags for the control of midges (Culicoides spp.), attacking sheep and cattle and flies attacking cattle.

    PubMed

    Goosen, H; de Vries, P J T; Fletcher, M G

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the prophylactic action of the chemical combination zeta-cypermethrin and piperonyl butoxide, administered by means of slow-release insecticide-impregnated ear tags, against biting midges (Culicoides spp) attacking sheep and against midges, horn flies (Haematobia irritant), stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans), and houseflies (Musca domestica) attacking cattle. Treated sheep and cattle were protected 100 percent against blood-feeding midges for two months and there was a clear reduction in the number of midges collected from treated animals. Three days after the ear tags were attached to cattle, the number of horn flies on the cattle was reduced to practically zero and remained at a low level until the end of the trial (day 85). There was also a strong reduction in the numbers of stable flies and houseflies counted. PMID:22930983

  10. Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging.

    PubMed

    Dziechciaż, Małgorzata; Filip, Rafał

    2014-01-01

    The aging of humans is a physiological and dynamic process ongoing with time. In accordance with most gerontologists' assertions it starts in the fourth decade of life and leads to death. The process of human aging is complex and individualized, occurs in the biological, psychological and social sphere. Biological aging is characterized by progressive age-changes in metabolism and physicochemical properties of cells, leading to impaired self-regulation, regeneration, and to structural changes and functional tissues and organs. It is a natural and irreversible process which can run as successful aging, typical or pathological. Biological changes that occur with age in the human body affect mood, attitude to the environment, physical condition and social activity, and designate the place of seniors in the family and society. Psychical ageing refers to human awareness and his adaptability to the ageing process. Among adaptation attitudes we can differentiate: constructive, dependence, hostile towards others and towards self attitudes. With progressed age, difficulties with adjustment to the new situation are increasing, adverse changes in the cognitive and intellectual sphere take place, perception process involutes, perceived sensations and information received is lowered, and thinking processes change. Social ageing is limited to the role of an old person is culturally conditioned and may change as customs change. Social ageing refers to how a human being perceives the ageing process and how society sees it. PMID:25528930

  11. [Hard to accurately determine the age of children seeking asylum].

    PubMed

    Hjern, Anders; Ascher, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Many unaccompanied asylum seeking young people in Europe lack documents proving their age. X rays of the wrist and wisdom teeth are often used by European migration authorities to assess age in this situation. The large inter-individual differences in physical maturation during adolescence create such large margins of error for these methods that their informative value is very limited. The Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare should reconsider its previous position on these methods and examine the possibility to include psychosocial methods in these age assessment procedures. PMID:26461513

  12. BioAge: Toward A Multi-Determined, Mechanistic Account of Cognitive Aging

    PubMed Central

    DeCarlo, Correne A.; Tuokko, Holly A.; Williams, Dorothy; Dixon, Roger A.; MacDonald, Stuart W.S.

    2014-01-01

    The search for reliable early indicators of age-related cognitive decline represents a critical avenue for progress in aging research. Chronological age is a commonly used developmental index; however, it offers little insight into the mechanisms underlying cognitive decline. In contrast, biological age (BioAge), reflecting the vitality of essential biological systems, represents a promising operationalization of developmental time. Current BioAge models have successfully predicted age-related cognitive deficits. Research on aging-related cognitive function indicates that the interaction of multiple risk and protective factors across the human lifespan confers individual risk for late-life cognitive decline, implicating a multi-causal explanation. In this review, we explore current BioAge models, describe three broad yet pathologically relevant biological processes linked to cognitive decline, and propose a novel operationalization of BioAge accounting for both moderating and causal mechanisms of cognitive decline and dementia. We argue that a multivariate and mechanistic BioAge approach will lead to a greater understanding of disease pathology as well as more accurate prediction and early identification of late-life cognitive decline. PMID:25278166

  13. Age determination of 15 old to intermediate-age small Magellanic cloud star clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Parisi, M. C.; Clariá, J. J.; Piatti, A. E.; Geisler, D.; Leiton, R.; Carraro, G.; Costa, E.; Grocholski, A. J.; Sarajedini, A. E-mail: claria@oac.uncor.edu E-mail: dgeisler@astro-udec.cl E-mail: gcarraro@eso.org E-mail: grocholski@phys.lsu.edu

    2014-04-01

    We present color-magnitude diagrams in the V and I bands for 15 star clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) based on data taken with the Very Large Telescope (VLT, Chile). We selected these clusters from our previous work, wherein we derived cluster radial velocities and metallicities from calcium II infrared triplet (CaT) spectra also taken with the VLT. We discovered that the ages of six of our clusters have been appreciably underestimated by previous studies, which used comparatively small telescopes, graphically illustrating the need for large apertures to obtain reliable ages of old and intermediate-age SMC star clusters. In particular, three of these clusters, L4, L6, and L110, turn out to be among the oldest SMC clusters known, with ages of 7.9 ± 1.1, 8.7 ± 1.2, and 7.6 ± 1.0 Gyr, respectively, helping to fill a possible 'SMC cluster age gap'. Using the current ages and metallicities from Parisi et al., we analyze the age distribution, age gradient, and age-metallicity relation (AMR) of a sample of SMC clusters measured homogeneously. There is a suggestion of bimodality in the age distribution but it does not show a constant slope for the first 4 Gyr, and we find no evidence for an age gradient. Due to the improved ages of our cluster sample, we find that our AMR is now better represented in the intermediate/old period than we had derived in Parisi et al., where we simply took ages available in the literature. Additionally, clusters younger than ∼4 Gyr now show better agreement with the bursting model of Pagel and Tautvaišienė, but we confirm that this model is not a good representation of the AMR during the intermediate/old period. A more complicated model is needed to explain the SMC chemical evolution in that period.

  14. Age Determination of 15 Old to Intermediate-age Small Magellanic Cloud Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, M. C.; Geisler, D.; Carraro, G.; Clariá, J. J.; Costa, E.; Grocholski, A. J.; Sarajedini, A.; Leiton, R.; Piatti, A. E.

    2014-04-01

    We present color-magnitude diagrams in the V and I bands for 15 star clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) based on data taken with the Very Large Telescope (VLT, Chile). We selected these clusters from our previous work, wherein we derived cluster radial velocities and metallicities from calcium II infrared triplet (CaT) spectra also taken with the VLT. We discovered that the ages of six of our clusters have been appreciably underestimated by previous studies, which used comparatively small telescopes, graphically illustrating the need for large apertures to obtain reliable ages of old and intermediate-age SMC star clusters. In particular, three of these clusters, L4, L6, and L110, turn out to be among the oldest SMC clusters known, with ages of 7.9 ± 1.1, 8.7 ± 1.2, and 7.6 ± 1.0 Gyr, respectively, helping to fill a possible "SMC cluster age gap." Using the current ages and metallicities from Parisi et al., we analyze the age distribution, age gradient, and age-metallicity relation (AMR) of a sample of SMC clusters measured homogeneously. There is a suggestion of bimodality in the age distribution but it does not show a constant slope for the first 4 Gyr, and we find no evidence for an age gradient. Due to the improved ages of our cluster sample, we find that our AMR is now better represented in the intermediate/old period than we had derived in Parisi et al., where we simply took ages available in the literature. Additionally, clusters younger than ~4 Gyr now show better agreement with the bursting model of Pagel & Tautvaišienė, but we confirm that this model is not a good representation of the AMR during the intermediate/old period. A more complicated model is needed to explain the SMC chemical evolution in that period.

  15. Reciprocal Changes in Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase and Pyruvate Kinase with Age Are a Determinant of Aging in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yiyuan; Hakimi, Parvin; Kao, Clara; Kao, Allison; Liu, Ruifu; Janocha, Allison; Boyd-Tressler, Andrea; Hang, Xi; Alhoraibi, Hanna; Slater, Erin; Xia, Kevin; Cao, Pengxiu; Shue, Quinn; Ching, Tsui-Ting; Hsu, Ao-Lin; Erzurum, Serpil C; Dubyak, George R; Berger, Nathan A; Hanson, Richard W; Feng, Zhaoyang

    2016-01-15

    Aging involves progressive loss of cellular function and integrity, presumably caused by accumulated stochastic damage to cells. Alterations in energy metabolism contribute to aging, but how energy metabolism changes with age, how these changes affect aging, and whether they can be modified to modulate aging remain unclear. In locomotory muscle of post-fertile Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified a progressive decrease in cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C), a longevity-associated metabolic enzyme, and a reciprocal increase in glycolytic pyruvate kinase (PK) that were necessary and sufficient to limit lifespan. Decline in PEPCK-C with age also led to loss of cellular function and integrity including muscle activity, and cellular senescence. Genetic and pharmacologic interventions of PEPCK-C, muscle activity, and AMPK signaling demonstrate that declines in PEPCK-C and muscle function with age interacted to limit reproductive life and lifespan via disrupted energy homeostasis. Quantifications of metabolic flux show that reciprocal changes in PEPCK-C and PK with age shunted energy metabolism toward glycolysis, reducing mitochondrial bioenergetics. Last, calorie restriction countered changes in PEPCK-C and PK with age to elicit anti-aging effects via TOR inhibition. Thus, a programmed metabolic event involving PEPCK-C and PK is a determinant of aging that can be modified to modulate aging. PMID:26631730

  16. 77 FR 4858 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Byzantium and Islam: Age...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of... determinations made by ] the Department of State pertaining to the exhibition ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of... Islam: Age of Transition (7th-9th Century),'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

  17. Age and sex determination of juvenile band-tailed pigeons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, J.A.; Braun, C.E.

    1978-01-01

    Captive band-tailed pigeons (Columbafasciata) were studied to document progression of molts and plumages from juvenal to adult age. Immature pigeons began the post-juvenal molt at 35 days which continued up to 340 days. The only 3 plumage characters useful for identification and estimation of age were presence of juvenal lesser, middle, and greater secondary coverts, juvenal secondaries, and juvenal primaries. While juvenal primaries were still present, hatching dates could be estimated up to 252 days (N = 84). Secondary feather presence and molt stage could be used to identify juvenile pigeons for more than 340 days (N = 24). Using coloration of the crown and breast feathers, 96 percent of the immature pigeons examined (106 of 110) at 80 days of age were classified accurately as to sex.

  18. Prevalence, quantitative load and genetic diversity of Campylobacter spp. in dairy cattle herds in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic disease, and animals such as poultry, pigs and cattle may act as reservoirs for Campylobacter spp. Cattle shed Campylobacter spp. into the environment and they can act as a reservoir for human infection directly via contact with cattle or their faeces or indirectly by consumption of contaminated food. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, the quantitative load and the genetic strain diversity of Campylobacter spp. in dairy cattle of different age groups. Results Faecal samples of 200 dairy cattle from three farms in the central part of Lithuania were collected and examined for Campylobacter. Cattle herds of all three farms were Campylobacter spp. positive, with a prevalence ranging from 75% (farm I), 77.5% (farm II) to 83.3% (farm III). Overall, the highest prevalence was detected in calves (86.5%) and heifers (86.2%). In contrast, the lowest Campylobacter prevalence was detectable in dairy cows (60.6%). C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari and C. fetus subsp. fetus were identified in faecal samples of dairy cattle. C. upsaliensis was not detectable in any sample. The high counts of Campylobacter spp. were observed in faecal material of dairy cattle (average 4.5 log10 cfu/g). The highest numbers of Campylobacter spp. were found in faecal samples from calves (average 5.3 log10 cfu/g), whereas, faecal samples from cows harboured the lowest number of Campylobacter spp. (average 3.7 log10 cfu/g). Genotyping by flaA PCR-RFLP analysis of selected C. jejuni isolates showed that some genotypes were present in all farms and all age groups. However, farm or age specific genotypes were also identified. Conclusions Future studies are needed to investigate risk factors related to the degree of colonisation in cattle. Based on that, possible measures to reduce the colonisation and subsequent shedding of Campylobacter in cattle could be established. It is important to further investigate the epidemiology of Campylobacter in the

  19. 9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... least five days but not more than four weeks of age and, therefore, exempt from the tuberculosis testing... (c)(1) of this section, cattle 6 months of age or older from Canada may be imported into the United... cattle under 18 months of age were vaccinated against brucellosis in accordance with Canadian...

  20. Effect of Packaging Method on the Lipid Oxidation, Protein Oxidation, and Color in Aged Top Round from Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle) during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the packaging method on the lipid and protein oxidation, and color in aged top round from Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) for 14 d at 4℃. Catalase activity was the highest (p<0.05) in vacuum packaging (VP) treatment during storage, and was higher (p<0.05) in 50% Ox-MAP and 50% Ox-MAP+vacuum skin packaging (VSP) treatments than in other treatments at d 14. Superoxide dismutase activity was higher (p<0.05) in VP, 50% Ox-MAP, and 50% Ox-MAP+VSP treatments than in other treatments at d 14. During storage, total antioxidant activity was the highest (p<0.05) in VP treatment and was higher (p<0.05) in 50% Ox-MAP+VSP treatment than in 80% Ox-MAP treatment. TBARS value was the lowest (p<0.05) in VP treatment during storage and was lower (p<0.05) in 50% Ox-MAP and Ox-MAP+VSP treatments than in 80% Ox-MAP and Ox-MAP treatments, respectively. Carbonyl content was the lowest (p<0.05) in VP treatment from 10 d. From 7 d, the a* value was the highest (p<0.05) in VP treatment and was higher (p<0.05) in 50% Ox-MAP and 50% Ox-MAP+VSP treatments than in other treatments. The b* value was the highest (p<0.05) in VP treatment from 3 d, and was higher (p<0.05) in 80% Ox-MAP+VSP, 50% Ox-MAP, and 50% Ox-MAP+ VSP treatments than in 80% Ox-MAP treatment at d 14. Therefore, VP improved the oxidation and red color stabilities in stored-aged top round compared with Ox-MAP. In addition, 50% Ox-MAP improved the lipid oxidation and red color stabilities compared with 80% Ox-MAP, and its inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation was enhanced by combination with VSP. PMID:26761167

  1. Effect of Packaging Method on the Lipid Oxidation, Protein Oxidation, and Color in Aged Top Round from Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle) during Refrigerated Storage.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geunho; Seong, Pilnam; Park, Beomyoung; Cho, Soohyun

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the packaging method on the lipid and protein oxidation, and color in aged top round from Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) for 14 d at 4℃. Catalase activity was the highest (p<0.05) in vacuum packaging (VP) treatment during storage, and was higher (p<0.05) in 50% Ox-MAP and 50% Ox-MAP+vacuum skin packaging (VSP) treatments than in other treatments at d 14. Superoxide dismutase activity was higher (p<0.05) in VP, 50% Ox-MAP, and 50% Ox-MAP+VSP treatments than in other treatments at d 14. During storage, total antioxidant activity was the highest (p<0.05) in VP treatment and was higher (p<0.05) in 50% Ox-MAP+VSP treatment than in 80% Ox-MAP treatment. TBARS value was the lowest (p<0.05) in VP treatment during storage and was lower (p<0.05) in 50% Ox-MAP and Ox-MAP+VSP treatments than in 80% Ox-MAP and Ox-MAP treatments, respectively. Carbonyl content was the lowest (p<0.05) in VP treatment from 10 d. From 7 d, the a* value was the highest (p<0.05) in VP treatment and was higher (p<0.05) in 50% Ox-MAP and 50% Ox-MAP+VSP treatments than in other treatments. The b* value was the highest (p<0.05) in VP treatment from 3 d, and was higher (p<0.05) in 80% Ox-MAP+VSP, 50% Ox-MAP, and 50% Ox-MAP+ VSP treatments than in 80% Ox-MAP treatment at d 14. Therefore, VP improved the oxidation and red color stabilities in stored-aged top round compared with Ox-MAP. In addition, 50% Ox-MAP improved the lipid oxidation and red color stabilities compared with 80% Ox-MAP, and its inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation was enhanced by combination with VSP. PMID:26761167

  2. [Significance of the ear in the determination of age].

    PubMed

    Röhm, E; Adam, E

    1986-01-01

    The morphology of human ear conch is said to be rather individual, but a perfect person-identification by this mean is not possible. It is demonstrated by photographs-made in a 15 years' interval-that ear conch and auricular area can be typically marked by proceeding age and specific diseases. PMID:3741048

  3. Age determination of late Pleistocene marine transgression in western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, B. J.

    1982-01-01

    Dating molluscs from sediments representing the Kotzebuan marine transgression in Alaska yields an average uranium-series age of 104,000 ?? 22,000 yrs B.P. This and other selected Pleistocene marine deposits of western Alaska are tentatively correlated with radiometrically dated units of eastern Baffin Island, Arctic Canada. ?? 1982.

  4. Medical and Psychological Determinants on the Development in Aged Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz-Scherzer, R.

    The relationships between somatic and sociological-psychological variables are complex. Each mental change which occurs in aging is more or less closely accompanied by somatic changes. The reverse is also true. The objective state of health and the subjective feeling of well-being are linked. Both can exert an influence over behavior and…

  5. Concurrent infections with Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Blastocystis spp. in naturally infected dairy cattle from birth to two years of age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal specimens were collected directly at weekly and then monthly intervals from each of 30 dairy calves from birth to 24 months to determine the prevalence and age distribution of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis assemblages, Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes, and Blastocystis spp subtypes...

  6. Age Determination by Back Length for African Savanna Elephants: Extending Age Assessment Techniques for Aerial-Based Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Trimble, Morgan J.; van Aarde, Rudi J.; Ferreira, Sam M.; Nørgaard, Camilla F.; Fourie, Johan; Lee, Phyllis C.; Moss, Cynthia J.

    2011-01-01

    Determining the age of individuals in a population can lead to a better understanding of population dynamics through age structure analysis and estimation of age-specific fecundity and survival rates. Shoulder height has been used to accurately assign age to free-ranging African savanna elephants. However, back length may provide an analog measurable in aerial-based surveys. We assessed the relationship between back length and age for known-age elephants in Amboseli National Park, Kenya, and Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. We also compared age- and sex-specific back lengths between these populations and compared adult female back lengths across 11 widely dispersed populations in five African countries. Sex-specific Von Bertalanffy growth curves provided a good fit to the back length data of known-age individuals. Based on back length, accurate ages could be assigned relatively precisely for females up to 23 years of age and males up to 17. The female back length curve allowed more precise age assignment to older females than the curve for shoulder height does, probably because of divergence between the respective growth curves. However, this did not appear to be the case for males, but the sample of known-age males was limited to ≤27 years. Age- and sex-specific back lengths were similar in Amboseli National Park and Addo Elephant National Park. Furthermore, while adult female back lengths in the three Zambian populations were generally shorter than in other populations, back lengths in the remaining eight populations did not differ significantly, in support of claims that growth patterns of African savanna elephants are similar over wide geographic regions. Thus, the growth curves presented here should allow researchers to use aerial-based surveys to assign ages to elephants with greater precision than previously possible and, therefore, to estimate population variables. PMID:22028925

  7. Detection of Mycobacterium bovis in Organs of Slaughtered Cattle by DNA-Based Polymerase Chain Reaction and Ziehl-Neelsen Techniques in Bauchi State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Sa'idu, A. S.; Okolocha, E. C.; Dzikwi, A. A.; Kwaga, J. K. P.; Gamawa, A. A.; Usman, A.; Maigari, S. A.; Ibrahim, S.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic, infectious, and contagious zoonotic disease of domestic animals, wild animals, and humans. It also poses a public health threat and economic losses. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in slaughtered cattle, based on PM meat inspection, Ziehl-Neelsen staining, and PCR techniques in Bauchi State, Nigeria. A Prospective study was conducted on 800 cattle slaughtered in the three Zonal abattoirs of Bauchi State, Nigeria. One hundred and twenty (15%) tissues from different organs had suspected bTB lesions at PM. Out of the samples examined 35 (29.2%) were AFB positive by ZN and 10 (8.3%) were confirmed positive for M. bovis by PCR, with an overall prevalence of 29.16% and 8.33%, respectively. Female had a higher prevalence rate than male cattle at 16.66% and 12.5 % by ZN and 5.00% and 3.33% by PCR, respectively (P>0.05, χ2 = 0.218). However, there was a statistically significant association (P<0.05, χ2 = 7.002) between detection of bTB and the age of cattle. ZN revealed that cattle aged 6 years and above had the highest number of positive bTB cases 67.9%, while cattle aged 3–5 years had the lowest 14.81%. PCR technique revealed that the cattle aged 6 and above years also had the highest percentage positive M. bovis cases of 22.84%, whereas cattle aged 3–5 years had the lowest and the overall prevalence rate of 8.33%. The study found a high infection rate of bTB among cattle and majority of the lesions 54.2% were from lungs. The prevalence of bTB was higher in Bauchi metropolitan abattoir which supplies larger population of the state with beef. PMID:26464955

  8. Preliminary Study of the Influence of Red Blood Cells Size on the Determinism of the Breed in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Adili, Nezar; Melizi, Mohamed; Belabbas, Hadj; Achouri, Abdelhamid

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out on five cattle groups, local, cross, Prim'Holstein, Montbeliard, and Brown of the Alps, in order to study the influence of breed on erythrocytes diameter. For each breed, blood samples were taken from 15 adult females by jugular venipuncture; blood smears were made on slides immediately after the blood collection and stained according to the method of May-Gründwald Giemsa. Morphometric study was realized using the OPTIKA Pro Vision software. The statistical analysis was assessed by using the descriptive boxplots test and ANOVA. The size of red blood cells is greater in the imported Brown of the Alps breed (5,32 ± 0,19) and also in our local breed (5,23 ± 0,10), whereas they were smaller in the Montbeliard breed (4,79 ± 0,21). This investigation allowed us to show that from a drop of blood we can have an idea of the bovine breeds, taking into account the size of the erythrocytes. PMID:24660089

  9. Preliminary study of the influence of red blood cells size on the determinism of the breed in cattle.

    PubMed

    Adili, Nezar; Melizi, Mohamed; Belabbas, Hadj; Achouri, Abdelhamid

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out on five cattle groups, local, cross, Prim'Holstein, Montbeliard, and Brown of the Alps, in order to study the influence of breed on erythrocytes diameter. For each breed, blood samples were taken from 15 adult females by jugular venipuncture; blood smears were made on slides immediately after the blood collection and stained according to the method of May-Gründwald Giemsa. Morphometric study was realized using the OPTIKA Pro Vision software. The statistical analysis was assessed by using the descriptive boxplots test and ANOVA. The size of red blood cells is greater in the imported Brown of the Alps breed (5,32 ± 0,19) and also in our local breed (5,23 ± 0,10), whereas they were smaller in the Montbeliard breed (4,79 ± 0,21). This investigation allowed us to show that from a drop of blood we can have an idea of the bovine breeds, taking into account the size of the erythrocytes. PMID:24660089

  10. Phylogenomic approaches to determine the zoonotic potential of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) isolated from Zambian dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Mainda, Geoffrey; Lupolova, Nadejda; Sikakwa, Linda; Bessell, Paul R.; Muma, John B.; Hoyle, Deborah V.; McAteer, Sean P.; Gibbs, Kirsty; Williams, Nicola J.; Sheppard, Samuel K.; La Ragione, Roberto M.; Cordoni, Guido; Argyle, Sally A.; Wagner, Sam; Chase-Topping, Margo E.; Dallman, Timothy J.; Stevens, Mark P.; Bronsvoort, Barend M. deC.; Gally, David L.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence and zoonotic potential of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) sampled from 104 dairy units in the central region of Zambia and compared these with isolates from patients presenting with diarrhoea in the same region. A subset of 297 E. coli strains were sequenced allowing in silico analyses of phylo- and sero-groups. The majority of the bovine strains clustered in the B1 ‘commensal’ phylogroup (67%) and included a diverse array of serogroups. 11% (41/371) of the isolates from Zambian dairy cattle contained Shiga toxin genes (stx) while none (0/73) of the human isolates were positive. While the toxicity of a subset of these isolates was demonstrated, none of the randomly selected STEC belonged to key serogroups associated with human disease and none encoded a type 3 secretion system synonymous with typical enterohaemorrhagic strains. Positive selection for E. coli O157:H7 across the farms identified only one positive isolate again indicating this serotype is rare in these animals. In summary, while Stx-encoding E. coli strains are common in this dairy population, the majority of these strains are unlikely to cause disease in humans. However, the threat remains of the emergence of strains virulent to humans from this reservoir. PMID:27220895

  11. Phylogenomic approaches to determine the zoonotic potential of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) isolated from Zambian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Mainda, Geoffrey; Lupolova, Nadejda; Sikakwa, Linda; Bessell, Paul R; Muma, John B; Hoyle, Deborah V; McAteer, Sean P; Gibbs, Kirsty; Williams, Nicola J; Sheppard, Samuel K; La Ragione, Roberto M; Cordoni, Guido; Argyle, Sally A; Wagner, Sam; Chase-Topping, Margo E; Dallman, Timothy J; Stevens, Mark P; Bronsvoort, Barend M deC; Gally, David L

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence and zoonotic potential of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) sampled from 104 dairy units in the central region of Zambia and compared these with isolates from patients presenting with diarrhoea in the same region. A subset of 297 E. coli strains were sequenced allowing in silico analyses of phylo- and sero-groups. The majority of the bovine strains clustered in the B1 'commensal' phylogroup (67%) and included a diverse array of serogroups. 11% (41/371) of the isolates from Zambian dairy cattle contained Shiga toxin genes (stx) while none (0/73) of the human isolates were positive. While the toxicity of a subset of these isolates was demonstrated, none of the randomly selected STEC belonged to key serogroups associated with human disease and none encoded a type 3 secretion system synonymous with typical enterohaemorrhagic strains. Positive selection for E. coli O157:H7 across the farms identified only one positive isolate again indicating this serotype is rare in these animals. In summary, while Stx-encoding E. coli strains are common in this dairy population, the majority of these strains are unlikely to cause disease in humans. However, the threat remains of the emergence of strains virulent to humans from this reservoir. PMID:27220895

  12. Technical note: Use of a simplified equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Murayama, I; Miyano, A; Sasaki, Y; Hirata, T; Ichijo, T; Satoh, H; Sato, S; Furuhama, K

    2013-11-01

    This study was performed to clarify whether a formula (Holstein equation) based on a single blood sample and the isotonic, nonionic, iodine contrast medium iodixanol in Holstein dairy cows can apply to the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for beef cattle. To verify the application of iodixanol in beef cattle, instead of the standard tracer inulin, both agents were coadministered as a bolus intravenous injection to identical animals at doses of 10 mg of I/kg of BW and 30 mg/kg. Blood was collected 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after the injection, and the GFR was determined by the conventional multisample strategies. The GFR values from iodixanol were well consistent with those from inulin, and no effects of BW, age, or parity on GFR estimates were noted. However, the GFR in cattle weighing less than 300 kg, aged<1 yr old, largely fluctuated, presumably due to the rapid ruminal growth and dynamic changes in renal function at young adult ages. Using clinically healthy cattle and those with renal failure, the GFR values estimated from the Holstein equation were in good agreement with those by the multisample method using iodixanol (r=0.89, P=0.01). The results indicate that the simplified Holstein equation using iodixanol can be used for estimating the GFR of beef cattle in the same dose regimen as Holstein dairy cows, and provides a practical and ethical alternative. PMID:24045472

  13. Determination of Dideoxyosone Precursors of AGEs in Human Lens Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Linetsky, Mikhail; Johar, Kaid; Meltretter, Jasmin; Padmanabha, Smitha; Parmar, Trilok; Vasavada, Abhay R.; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Nagaraj, Ram H.

    2011-01-01

    Dideoxyosones (DDOs) are intermediates in the synthesis of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), such as pentosidine and glucosepane. Although the formation of pentosidine and glucosepane in the human lens has been firmly established, the formation of DDOs has not been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to develop a reliable method to detect DDOs in lens proteins. A specific DDO trapping agent, biotinyl-diaminobenzene (3,4-diamino-N-(3-{[5-(2-oxohexahydro-1H-thieno[3,4-d]imidazol-4-yl)pentanoyl]aminopropyl) benzamide) (BDAB) was added during in vitro protein glycation or during protein extraction from human lenses. In vitro glycated human lens protein showed strong reaction in monomeric and polymeric crosslinked proteins by western blot and ELISA. Glycation of BSA in the presence of BDAB resulted in covalent binding of BDAB to the protein and inhibited pentosidine formation. Mass spectrometric analysis of lysozyme glycated in the presence of BDAB showed the presence of quinoxalines at lysine residues at positions K1, K33, K96, and K116. The ELISA results indicated that cataractous lens proteins contain significantly higher levels of DDO than non-cataractous lenses (101.9±67.8 AU/mg protein vs. 31.7±19.5 AU/mg protein, p<0.0001). This study provides first direct evidence of DDO presence in human tissue proteins and establishes that AGE crosslink synthesis in the human lens occurs via DDO intermediates. PMID:21820400

  14. Determination of dideoxyosone precursors of AGEs in human lens proteins.

    PubMed

    Linetsky, Mikhail; Kaid Johar, S R; Meltretter, Jasmin; Padmanabha, Smitha; Parmar, Trilok; Vasavada, Abhay R; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Nagaraj, Ram H

    2011-10-01

    Dideoxyosones (DDOs) are intermediates in the synthesis of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), such as pentosidine and glucosepane. Although the formation of pentosidine and glucosepane in the human lens has been firmly established, the formation of DDOs has not been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to develop a reliable method to detect DDOs in lens proteins. A specific DDO trapping agent, biotinyl-diaminobenzene (3,4-diamino-N-(3-[5-(2-oxohexahydro-1H-thieno[3,4-d]imidazol-4-yl)pentanoyl]aminopropyl)benzamide) (BDAB) was added during in vitro protein glycation or during protein extraction from human lenses. In vitro glycated human lens protein showed strong reaction in monomeric and polymeric crosslinked proteins by Western blot and ELISA. Glycation of BSA in the presence of BDAB resulted in covalent binding of BDAB to the protein and inhibited pentosidine formation. Mass spectrometric analysis of lysozyme glycated in the presence of BDAB showed the presence of quinoxalines at lysine residues at positions K1, K33, K96, and K116. The ELISA results indicated that cataractous lens proteins contain significantly higher levels of DDO than non-cataractous lenses (101.9±67.8 vs. 31.7±19.5AU/mg protein, p<0.0001). This study provides first direct evidence of DDO presence in human tissue proteins and establishes that AGE crosslink synthesis in the human lens occurs via DDO intermediates. PMID:21820400

  15. AGE DETERMINATION OF SIX INTERMEDIATE-AGE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD STAR CLUSTERS WITH HST/ACS

    SciTech Connect

    Glatt, Katharina; Kayser, Andrea; Grebel, Eva K.; Sabbi, Elena; Gallagher, John S. III; Harbeck, Daniel; Nota, Antonella; Sirianni, Marco; Clementini, Gisella; Tosi, Monica; Koch, Andreas; Da Costa, Gary

    2008-10-15

    We present a photometric analysis of the star clusters Lindsay 1, Kron 3, NGC 339, NGC 416, Lindsay 38, and NGC 419 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), observed with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) in the F555W and F814W filters. Our color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) extend {approx}3.5 mag deeper than the main-sequence turnoff points, deeper than any previous data. Cluster ages were derived using three different isochrone models: Padova, Teramo, and Dartmouth, which are all available in the ACS photometric system. Fitting observed ridgelines for each cluster, we provide a homogeneous and unique set of low-metallicity, single-age fiducial isochrones. The cluster CMDs are best approximated by the Dartmouth isochrones for all clusters, except for NGC 419 where the Padova isochrones provided the best fit. Using Dartmouth isochrones we derive ages of 7.5 {+-} 0.5 Gyr (Lindsay 1), 6.5 {+-} 0.5 Gyr (Kron 3), 6 {+-} 0.5 Gyr (NGC 339), 6 {+-} 0.5 Gyr (NGC 416), and 6.5 {+-} 0.5 Gyr (Lindsay 38). The CMD of NGC 419 shows several main-sequence turnoffs, which belong to the cluster and to the SMC field. We thus derive an age range of 1.2-1.6 Gyr for NGC 419. We confirm that the SMC contains several intermediate-age populous star clusters with ages unlike those of the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Milky Way. Interestingly, our intermediate-age star clusters have a metallicity spread of {approx}0.6 dex, which demonstrates that the SMC does not have a smooth, monotonic age-metallicity relation. We find an indication for centrally-concentrated blue straggler star candidates in NGC 416, while these are not present for the other clusters. Using the red clump magnitudes, we find that the closest cluster, NGC 419 ({approx}50 kpc), and the farthest cluster, Lindsay 38 ({approx}67 kpc), have a relative distance of {approx}17 kpc, which confirms the large depth of the SMC. The three oldest SMC clusters (NGC 121, Lindsay 1, and Kron 3) lie in the northwestern

  16. Diversity of Eimeria spp. in dairy cattle of Guwahati, Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    Das, M.; Deka, D. K.; Sarmah, P. C.; Islam, S.; Sarma, S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the prevalence and diversity of Eimeria spp. in dairy cattle present in and around Guwahati, Kamrup district, Assam, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 2339 fecal samples of calves (535), heifer (641) and adult (1163) cattle were screened for 1 year present in and around Guwahati, Assam for detection of Eimeria oocysts by flotation techniques. Sporulation of the oocyst was done in 2.5% potassium dichromate solution for identification of the Eimeria species. Results: Examination of fecal samples revealed an overall prevalence of 11.97% Eimeria infection in dairy cattle of Guwahati, Assam. Age-wise, 33.2%, 45.4%, and 21.4% infections were recorded in calves (<1 year), heifer (1-3 years) and adult (>3 years) cattle, respectively. Season-wise, infection was recorded highest during post-monsoon (16.29%), followed by monsoon (15%), winter (9.44%), and pre-monsoon (7.49%) season. Seven species of Eimeria were recorded viz. Eimeria bovis, Eimeria zuernii, Eimeria subspherica, Eimeria bukidnonensis, Eimeria auburnensis, Eimeria ellipsoidalis and Eimeria alabamensis. The oocyst count per gram of feces ranged from 50 to 1500 in infected cattle. Conclusion: This study indicates that there is the prevalence of seven species of Eimeria in dairy cattle of Guwahati, Assam and mostly prevalent during the post-monsoon season. PMID:27047181

  17. Determination of GHG and ammonia emissions from stored dairy cattle slurry by using a floating dynamic chamber.

    PubMed

    Minato, Keiko; Kouda, Yasuyuki; Yamakawa, Masaaki; Hara, Satoshi; Tamura, Tadashi; Osada, Takashi

    2013-02-01

    We developed a system for measuring emissions from stored slurry by using a floating dynamic chamber. CH(4) , CO(2) , N(2) O and NH(3) emitted from the storage tank of a dairy cattle farm in eastern Hokkaido were measured during summer 2008 (7/16-8/6), fall 2008 (10/2-10/26), spring 2009 (6/2-6/21) and winter 2009 (3/11). Average daily gas emission rates in summer, fall and spring were, respectively, 54.8, 54.2 and 34.3 g/m(2) for CH(4) ; 602, 274 and 254 g/m(2) for CO(2) ; 55.4, 68.2 and trace mg/m(2) for N(2) O; and 0.55, 0.73 and 0.46 g/m(2) for NH(3) . CH(4) , CO(2) and NH(3) emission rates during the brief measurement period in winter were reduced to 1/4, 1/23 and 1/2, respectively, of summer emission rate levels. All gas emissions showed diurnal fluctuation and were greatest during the daytime, when the ambient temperature rose. CH(4) , NH(3) and CO(2) emissions increased significantly during the daytime, and the daily emission (in grams) of each gas was positively correlated with maximum daily temperature. According to the combined spring, summer and fall measurements, the CH(4) , N(2) O and NH(3) annual emission factors were 1.42% (g CH(4) /g volatile solids), 0.02% (g N(2) O-N/g total N) and 0.43% (g NH(3) -N/g total N), respectively. PMID:23384359

  18. Higher Education and the Determination of Aggregate Male Employment by Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenberg, Anders; Wikstrom, Magnus

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the determinants of age-specific employment rates among Swedish males, focusing on the effect of education on employment. We use cohort specific data for the time period 1984-1996 covering male cohorts aged 21-45. It is found that aggregate age-group-specific employment rates increase with the proportion of the cohort with an…

  19. Farmers' perceptions and knowledge of cattle adaptation to heat stress and tick resistance in the eastern cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Katiyatiya, C L F; Muchenje, V; Mushunje, A

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the perceptions and knowledge of farmers of heat stress and tick resistance in cattle. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and 110 farmers in four villages in the sour and sweet velds of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa were interviewed. The associations among area (municipality), gender, age, level of education, employment and religion were computed using Chi-square tests. The majority of the respondents had on average 4 bulls, 4 cows, 4 heifers, 4 calves, and 4 oxen. Milk was considered as the major (28.3%) reason for keeping cattle. Most farmers owned non-descript (72.6%), and Nguni (45.3%) cattle because of their heat tolerance (54.7%), tick resistance (54.7%), and milking ability (28.2%) traits. Excessive panting (56.6%) and disease transmission (76%) were regarded as the major effects of heat stress and tick infestation in cattle, respectively. About 50% of the respondents agreed that hair length influences tick resistance and 47.17% considered coat colour when acquiring cattle. In the sampled areas, ticks were prevalent in the summer season (93%), and 77.36% of the respondents use acaricides every fortnight. Gall sickness was reported to be a major problem in the cattle herds by 36.79% of the respondents. Our results showed that farmers in the two municipalities had knowledge of cattle adaptation to heat stress and tick resistance. PMID:25358328

  20. Farmers’ Perceptions and Knowledge of Cattle Adaptation to Heat Stress and Tick Resistance in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Katiyatiya, C. L. F.; Muchenje, V.; Mushunje, A.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the perceptions and knowledge of farmers of heat stress and tick resistance in cattle. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and 110 farmers in four villages in the sour and sweet velds of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa were interviewed. The associations among area (municipality), gender, age, level of education, employment and religion were computed using Chi-square tests. The majority of the respondents had on average 4 bulls, 4 cows, 4 heifers, 4 calves, and 4 oxen. Milk was considered as the major (28.3%) reason for keeping cattle. Most farmers owned non-descript (72.6%), and Nguni (45.3%) cattle because of their heat tolerance (54.7%), tick resistance (54.7%), and milking ability (28.2%) traits. Excessive panting (56.6%) and disease transmission (76%) were regarded as the major effects of heat stress and tick infestation in cattle, respectively. About 50% of the respondents agreed that hair length influences tick resistance and 47.17% considered coat colour when acquiring cattle. In the sampled areas, ticks were prevalent in the summer season (93%), and 77.36% of the respondents use acaricides every fortnight. Gall sickness was reported to be a major problem in the cattle herds by 36.79% of the respondents. Our results showed that farmers in the two municipalities had knowledge of cattle adaptation to heat stress and tick resistance. PMID:25358328

  1. Detection of concurrent infection of dairy cattle with Blastocystis, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon by molecular and microscopic methods.

    PubMed

    Fayer, Ronald; Santin, Monica; Macarisin, Dumitru

    2012-09-01

    Of fecal specimens examined from 47 dairy cattle ranging in age from neonates to multiparous cows, 9, 10, 24, and 17 were positive for Blastocystis spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi, respectively, as determined by PCR. Eight 3- to 5-month-old cattle were concurrently infected with three or four of these parasites. This is the first report to identify multiple concurrent infections with these four potentially zoonotic protist pathogens in cattle. None of the cattle exhibited signs of illness or effects of infection on growth and are regarded as healthy carriers. A commercially available immunofluorescence (IFA) microscopic test confirmed six of seven available PCR-positive Blastocystis specimens and identified one IFA-positive cow that was PCR negative. PMID:22710524

  2. Suboptimal Herd Performance Amplifies the Spread of Infectious Disease in the Cattle Industry

    PubMed Central

    Gates, M. Carolyn; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.

    2014-01-01

    Farms that purchase replacement breeding cattle are at increased risk of introducing many economically important diseases. The objectives of this analysis were to determine whether the total number of replacement breeding cattle purchased by individual farms could be reduced by improving herd performance and to quantify the effects of such reductions on the industry-level transmission dynamics of infectious cattle diseases. Detailed information on the performance and contact patterns of British cattle herds was extracted from the national cattle movement database as a case example. Approximately 69% of beef herds and 59% of dairy herds with an average of at least 20 recorded calvings per year purchased at least one replacement breeding animal. Results from zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed that herds with high average ages at first calving, prolonged calving intervals, abnormally high or low culling rates, and high calf mortality rates were generally more likely to be open herds and to purchase greater numbers of replacement breeding cattle. If all herds achieved the same level of performance as the top 20% of herds, the total number of replacement beef and dairy cattle purchased could be reduced by an estimated 34% and 51%, respectively. Although these purchases accounted for only 13% of between-herd contacts in the industry trade network, they were found to have a disproportionately strong influence on disease transmission dynamics. These findings suggest that targeting extension services at herds with suboptimal performance may be an effective strategy for controlling endemic cattle diseases while simultaneously improving industry productivity. PMID:24671129

  3. Faecal near-IR spectroscopy to determine the nutritional value of diets consumed by beef cattle in east Mediterranean rangelands.

    PubMed

    Landau, S Y; Dvash, L; Roudman, M; Muklada, H; Barkai, D; Yehuda, Y; Ungar, E D

    2016-02-01

    ) distance to the spectral centroid of a calibration population of 796 faecal samples collected throughout 2 years in four herds. Seasonal trends in pasture quality and responses to management practices were identified adequately and H<3.0 for 98% of faecal samples collected. We conclude that the development of FNIRS equations with confined animals is not only unexpensive and ethically acceptable, but their predictions are also sufficiently accurate to monitor dietary composition (but not intake) of beef cattle in east Mediterranean rangelands. PMID:26323211

  4. A comparative evaluation of PCR- based methods for species- specific determination of African animal trypanosomes in Ugandan cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years, PCR has been become widely applied for the detection of trypanosomes overcoming many of the constraints of parasitological and serological techniques, being highly sensitive and specific for trypanosome detection. Individual species-specific multi-copy trypanosome DNA sequences can be targeted to identify parasites. Highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes are also useful for comparisons between closely related species. The internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) in particular are relatively small, show variability among related species and are flanked by highly conserved segments to which PCR primers can be designed. Individual variations in inter-species length makes the ITS region a useful marker for identification of multiple trypanosome species within a sample. Methods Six hundred blood samples from cattle collected in Uganda on FTA cards were screened using individual species-specific primers for Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma vivax and compared to a modified (using eluate extracted using chelex) ITS-PCR reaction. Results The comparative analysis showed that the species-specific primer sets showed poor agreement with the ITS primer set. Using species-specific PCR for Trypanozoon, a prevalence of 10.5% was observed as compared to 0.2% using ITS PCR (Kappa = 0.03). For Trypanosoma congolense, the species-specific PCR reaction indicated a prevalence of 0% compared to 2.2% using ITS PCR (Kappa = 0). For T. vivax, species-specific PCR detected prevalence of 5.7% compared to 2.8% for ITS PCR (Kappa = 0.29). Conclusions When selecting PCR based tools to apply to epidemiological surveys for generation of prevalence data for animal trypanosomiasis, it is recommended that species-specific primers are used, being the most sensitive diagnostic tool for screening samples to identify members of Trypanozoon (T. b. brucei s.l). While ITS primers are useful for studying the prevalence of trypanosomes

  5. Determination of non-market values to inform conservation strategies for the threatened Alistana-Sanabresa cattle breed.

    PubMed

    Martin-Collado, D; Diaz, C; Drucker, A G; Carabaño, M J; Zander, K K

    2014-08-01

    Livestock breed-related public good functions are often used to justify support for endangered breed conservation despite the fact that little is known about such non-market values. We show how stated preference techniques can be used to assess the non-market values that people place on livestock breeds. Through the application of a case study choice experiment survey in Zamora province, Spain, the total economic value (TEV) of the threatened Alistana-Sanabresa (AS) cattle breed was investigated. An analysis of the relative importance of the non-market components of its TEV and an assessment of the socio-economic variables that influence people's valuation of such components is used to inform conservation strategy design. Overall, the findings reveal that the AS breed had significant non-market values associated with it and that the value that respondents placed on each specific public good function also varied significantly. Functions related with indirect use cultural and existence values were much more highly valued than landscape maintenance values. These high cultural and existence values (totalling over 80% of TEV) suggest that an AS in situ conservation strategy will be required to secure such values. As part of such a strategy, incentive mechanisms will be needed to permit farmers to capture some of these public good values and thus be able to afford to maintain breed population numbers at socially desirable levels. One such mechanism could be related to the development of breed-related agritourism initiatives, with a view to enhancing private good values and providing an important addition to continued direct support. Where linked with cultural dimensions, niche product market development, including through improving AS breed-related product quality and brand recognition may also have a role to play as part of such an overall conservation and use strategy. We conclude that livestock breed conservation strategies with the highest potential to maximise

  6. High-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of the anthelmintic nitroxynil in cattle muscle tissue with on-line anion-exchange clean-up.

    PubMed

    Tarbin, J A; Shearer, G

    1993-04-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of the anthelmintic nitroxynil has been developed. The drug was extracted from cattle muscle tissue with 1% triethylamine in acetonitrile. The extract was evaporated to dryness and taken up in 0.1 M ammonium acetate-acetonitrile (50:50, v/v). The extract was then injected onto a polymeric anion-exchange precolumn. After clean-up with 0.1 M ammonium acetate-acetonitrile (50:50, v/v) for 5 min, the precolumn was eluted with 1% aqueous trifluoroacetic acid-acetonitrile (50:50, v/v) onto a PLRP-S polymer column and chromatographed with a mobile phase of 0.01 M phosphate pH 7-acetonitrile (80:20, v/v). Detection was by ultraviolet at 273 nm. Average recoveries at four levels from 0.005 to 1.000 mg kg-1 were > 88%. The limit of determination was 0.005 mg kg-1. PMID:8491824

  7. Virulence Properties and Serotypes of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli from Healthy Australian Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Hornitzky, Michael A.; Vanselow, Barbara A.; Walker, Keith; Bettelheim, Karl A.; Corney, Bruce; Gill, Paul; Bailey, Graham; Djordjevic, Steven P.

    2002-01-01

    The virulence properties and serotypes of complex Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (cSTEC) were determined in two studies of healthy cattle in eastern Australia. In the first, a snapshot study, 84 cSTEC isolates were recovered from 37 of 1,692 (2.2%) fecal samples collected from slaughter-age cattle from 72 commercial properties. The second, a longitudinal study of three feedlots and five pasture beef properties, resulted in the recovery of 118 cSTEC isolates from 104 animals. Of the 70 serotypes identified, 38 had not previously been reported. PMID:12450875

  8. Management practices followed for draught cattle in the southern part of India.

    PubMed

    Akila, Natarajan; Chander, Mahesh

    2010-02-01

    A study was conducted to determine the management practices followed by the farmers for draught cattle in Tamil Nadu state, India. Methods of procurement of animals, use of female animals, breeds preferred, housing, health, disposal of animals, feeding, shoeing, purchase of animal-drawn implements and their maintenance were all assessed with 210 farmers from seven districts across different agro-climatic zones in Tamil Nadu. The results revealed that 86 % of the respondents purchased the draught cattle from the livestock markets, most were bullocks but 20 small farmers and 5 medium farmers used female animals for ploughing. Among the indigenous breeds, Kangeyam (33 %) and Hallikar (30 %) breeds were the most popular for work. Most farmers (69 %) provided a mixed type of housing (provision of housing only during the night time and the rainy season) for their draught cattle. The major health problem reported by 63 % of respondents was pyrexia. Almost all farmers sold their animals at the age of 8-10 years. The feeding practices for draught cattle were poor especially with the small farmers. The cattle were fed with mainly paddy straw and rice bran. Oilcakes and cotton seeds were given to the animals which work throughout the year mainly for ploughing and carting. The draught cattle were first shod at around 2.5 years of age. The majority of the farmers (71 %) used the traditional animal-drawn implements made by local artisans, and the farmers were not aware of the new implements to reduce the drudgery of work cattle, designed by the Agricultural Machinery Research Centre and Agricultural Engineering Departments located in India. PMID:19685277

  9. Absolute ages from crater statistics: Using radiometric ages of Martian samples for determining the Martian cratering chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neukum, G.

    1988-01-01

    In the absence of dates derived from rock samples, impact crater frequencies are commonly used to date Martian surface units. All models for absolute dating rely on the lunar cratering chronology and on the validity of its extrapolation to Martian conditions. Starting from somewhat different lunar chronologies, rather different Martian cratering chronologies are found in the literature. Currently favored models are compared. The differences at old ages are significant, the differences at younger ages are considerable and give absolute ages for the same crater frequencies as different as a factor of 3. The total uncertainty could be much higher, though, since the ratio of lunar to Martian cratering rate which is of basic importance in the models is believed to be known no better than within a factor of 2. Thus, it is of crucial importance for understanding the the evolution of Mars and determining the sequence of events to establish an unambiguous Martian cratering chronology from crater statistics in combination with clean radiometric ages of returned Martian samples. For the dating goal, rocks should be as pristine as possible from a geologically simple area with a one-stage emplacement history of the local formation. A minimum of at least one highland site for old ages, two intermediate-aged sites, and one very young site is needed.

  10. Estimating seroprevalence and variation to four tick-borne infections and determination of associated risk factors in cattle under traditional mixed farming system in Mbeere District, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gachohi, J M; Ngumi, P N; Kitala, P M; Skilton, R A

    2010-07-01

    A cross-sectional study of serum antibody responses of cattle to tick-borne disease (TBD) parasites (Theileria parva, Theileria mutans, Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina) was conducted on traditional smallholder mixed farms in Mbeere District in Kenya. The objective was to estimate the infections' seroprevalence and variation and identify associated risk factors. A total of 440 cattle in 80 farms, selected by stratified random sampling from the four divisions in the district, were surveyed. Information on animal and on each farm's management practices, particularly on tick control practices, was obtained by personal interview using a standardized questionnaire. Prevalences of serum antibodies were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The relationship between TBDs seroprevalence and the risk factors was assessed by multivariable analysis using standard logistic regression models and mixed models using the farm as a random effect. Overall estimation of seroprevalences and their 95% confidence limits were: T. parva (19% [14%, 25%]), T. mutans (25% [20%, 29%]), A. marginale (58% [52%, 64%]) and B. bigemina (19% [15%, 23%]). Analysis in presence of extra-binomial variation under Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) yielded relatively larger intra-farm correlation coefficient (ICC) (0.3) and variance-inflation factor (VIF) (2.35) values for T. parva than for the other parasites [range, 0.05-0.07 (for ICC) and 1.02-1.32 (for VIF)]. Both farm- and area-level variables had variably significant and large effects on all infections, but these were more pronounced on T. parva seroprevalence. Inclusion of farm random effect resulted in substantially higher estimate of farm variance component for T. parva infection (1.73) compared to other infections [range, 0.29-0.56], comparable ICC values with those under ANOVA analysis [range, 0.08-0.35] and a substantially better fit than the standard multivariable logistic regressions. The above results

  11. Reference ranges of hematology and lymphocyte subsets in healthy Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) and Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun-Mi; Lee, Jin-A; Jung, Bock-Gie; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Lee, Bong-Joo; Suh, Guk-Hyun

    2016-06-01

    There are no accurate reference ranges for hematology parameters and lymphocyte subsets in Korean native beef cattle (Hanwoo). This study was performed to establish reliable reference ranges of hematology and lymphocyte subsets using a large number of Hanwoo cattle (n = 350) and to compare differences between Hanwoo and Holstein dairy cattle (n = 334). Additionally, age-related changes in lymphocyte subsets were studied. Bovine leukocyte subpopulation analysis was performed using mono or dual color flow cytometry. The leukocyte subpopulations investigated in healthy cattle included: CD2(+) cells, sIgM(+) cells, MHC class II(+) cells, CD3(+) CD4(+) cells, CD3(+) CD8(+) cells, and WC1(+) cells. Although Hanwoo and Holstein cattle are the same species, results showed several differences in hematology and lymphocyte subsets between Hanwoo and Holstein cattle. This study is the first report to establish reference ranges of hematology and lymphocyte subsets in adult Hanwoo cattle. PMID:26419947

  12. Production and dose determination of the Infection and Treatment Method (ITM) Muguga cocktail vaccine used to control East Coast fever in cattle.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ekta; Mwaura, Stephen; Kiara, Henry; Morzaria, Subhash; Peters, Andrew; Toye, Philip

    2016-03-01

    The Infection and Treatment Method (ITM) of vaccination against the apicomplexan parasite Theileria parva has been used since the early 1970s and is still the only commercially available vaccine to combat the fatal bovine disease, East Coast fever (ECF). The disease is tick-transmitted and results in annual economic losses of at least $300 million per year. While this vaccine technology has been available for over 40 years, few attempts have been made to standardize the production process and characterize the vaccine. The latest batch was produced in early 2008 at the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI). The vaccine production involves the use of cattle free from parasites routinely monitored throughout the production process, and a pathogen-free tick colony. This paper describes the protocol used in the recent production, and the process improvements, including improved quality control tools, that had not been employed in previous ITM productions. The paper also describes the processes involved in determining the appropriate field dose, which involved a three-step in vivo study with various dilutions of the vaccine stabilate. The vaccine was shown to be safe and viable after production, and a suitable field dose was identified as 1 ml of a 1:100 dilution. PMID:26698194

  13. Acorn poisoning in cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    2014-03-01

    • Multiple cases of acorn poisoning in cattle and sheep following bumper crop • Salmonella Dublin infection causes abortions in cattle • Respiratory disease affecting different age groups of pigs on a nursery finisher unit • Porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome cases diagnosed • A further case of suspect Marek's disease in turkeys. These are among matters discussed in the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency's (AHVLA's) disease surveillance report for November 2013 to January 2014. PMID:24578432

  14. A stochastic model to determine the economic value of changing diagnostic test characteristics for identification of cattle for treatment of bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Theurer, M E; White, B J; Larson, R L; Schroeder, T C

    2015-03-01

    Bovine respiratory disease is an economically important syndrome in the beef industry, and diagnostic accuracy is important for optimal disease management. The objective of this study was to determine whether improving diagnostic sensitivity or specificity was of greater economic value at varied levels of respiratory disease prevalence by using Monte Carlo simulation. Existing literature was used to populate model distributions of published sensitivity, specificity, and performance (ADG, carcass weight, yield grade, quality grade, and mortality risk) differences among calves based on clinical respiratory disease status. Data from multiple cattle feeding operations were used to generate true ranges of respiratory disease prevalence and associated mortality. Input variables were combined into a single model that calculated estimated net returns for animals by diagnostic category (true positive, false positive, false negative, and true negative) based on the prevalence, sensitivity, and specificity for each iteration. Net returns for each diagnostic category were multiplied by the proportion of animals in each diagnostic category to determine group profitability. Apparent prevalence was categorized into low (<15%) and high (≥15%) groups. For both apparent prevalence categories, increasing specificity created more rapid, positive change in net returns than increasing sensitivity. Improvement of diagnostic specificity, perhaps through a confirmatory test interpreted in series or pen-level diagnostics, can increase diagnostic value more than improving sensitivity. Mortality risk was the primary driver for net returns. The results from this study are important for determining future research priorities to analyze diagnostic techniques for bovine respiratory disease and provide a novel way for modeling diagnostic tests. PMID:26020916

  15. Discrepancies between ages determined from scales and otoliths for alewives from the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Gorman, Robert; Barwick, D. Hugh; Bowen, Charles A.

    1987-01-01

    Discrepancies between ages determined from otoliths and those determined from scales were common and, sometimes, quite large in alewives Alosa pseudoharengus collected in fall 1983 from Lakes Ontario, Huron, and Michigan. Among fish with 'otolith ages' of 4 or more, the percentages having identical 'scale ages' were 1% in Lake Ontario, 35% in Lake Huron, and 56% in Lake Michigan. Among alewives with different otolith and scale ages, the percentages with discrepancies of 3 years or more were 51% in Lake Ontario, 23% in Lake Huron, and 6% in Lake Michigan. Among the three populations, variation in the magnitude of age disagreements were perhaps due to the different mortality rates in each lake, whereas variation in the frequency of disagreements appeared to be due to different ratios of food to fish in each lake. Previously reported age compositions and rates of mortality and production for Great Lakes alewives derived from scales have probably been inaccurate to various degrees.

  16. Physical Attractiveness, Age, and Sex as Determinants of Reactions to Resumes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quereshi, M. Y.; Kay, Janet P.

    1986-01-01

    Physical attractiveness, age, and sex were manipulated to determine their effect on the evaluation of 54 hypothetical applicants' resumes for three different jobs by 60 Master's in Business Administration students. Physical attractiveness favorably influenced the suitability ratings for all jobs; raters' sex and age were not significant but…

  17. 76 FR 60112 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Byzantium and Islam: Age...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of... Islam: Age of Transition (7th-9th Century),'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the... Federal Register. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For further information, including a list of...

  18. Comparative method validation for closantel determination in cattle and sheep milk according to European Union Volume 8 and Veterinary International Conference on Harmonization guidelines.

    PubMed

    Devreese, Mathias; Maes, An; De Baere, Siegrid; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2014-08-01

    A specific and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed for quantitative determination of closantel in bovine and ovine colostrum and tank milk. Sample preparation consisted of extracting milk samples with acetonitrile/acetone (80/20, v/v) followed by SPE clean-up with Oasis mixed anion exchange columns. After elution with 5% formic acid in acetonitrile and evaporation to dryness, the residue was reconstituted in acetonitrile and water. HPLC separation was achieved on a Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18 column and a gradient elution program with 1mM ammonium acetate in water and acetonitrile. For closantel determination in bovine milk, the method was validated according to EU Volume 8 guidelines whereas for ovine milk both EU Volume 8 and VICH GL49 criteria were applied. The linear range of the method is between 10 and 2000 μg/kg, the limit of quantification 10 μg/kg and limit of detection is 0.63 and 0.32 μg/kg for sheep colostrum and tank milk and 1.27 and 1.24 μg/kg for cattle colostrum and tank milk, respectively. Both guidelines cover a similar set of parameters (linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection and limit of quantification), although the acceptance criteria might differ (accuracy and precision) or no specific acceptability ranges are specified in neither guidelines (LOD and LOQ). For some parameters, only one of the guidelines indicates acceptance criteria: EU Volume 8 for applicability, practicability and susceptibility and VICH GL 49 for linearity, specificity and analyte stability. PMID:24656540

  19. Effect of Radium mobility on the U-Pb systematic and age determination of uraninite.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deloule, Etienne; Brouand, Marc

    2014-05-01

    The U-Pb radio chronometer is commonly used to date the formation of uraninite, a major component of uranium deposit. Uraninite was first used in 1905, when Rutherford determines ages up to 500 Ma in using their He/U ratio, and in 1907 when Boltwood determine the first U-Pb ages (413-535 Ma). During the last decade, in situ U-Pb datation on Uraninite has been developed, either in using 'chemical ages' with the determination by EMP of U and Pb contents, either in using 'isotopic ages' with the determination of Pb and U isotopic ratios and contents by SIMS, providing a large amount of age from archean up to Cenozoic ages. It is noticeable that the determination of chemical age relies on the assumption that the U-Pb system stay closed over time. This assumption can be supported by many isotopic measurements providing concordant or close to concordance 238U-206Pb and 235U-207Pb ages. However, during the last year, SIMS U-Pb age determination on Uraninite from the Imouraren (Niger) uranium deposit provides contrasted results. On one hand, samples provide concordant U-Pb ages with an average value of 99 ±2 Ma. On the other hand, samples provide largely discordant ages, with 207Pb/206Pb ages up to 340 Ma. Duplicated measurements and careful data examination allowed us to discard any common lead contamination as a source of discordance. Therefore we set the in situ measurement of the U series nuclides 238U - 234U - 230Th - 226Ra. The high transmission at high mass resolution of the CRPG -Cameca IMS 1270 ion microprobe allowed us to get significant secondary beam intensities for the smaller isotopes and to determine the activity ratios with a few % precision. These measurements points out that 234U and 230Th are at equilibrium with 238U, when 226Ra may be largely depleted, up to 50%. This points out that in the geological context of the deposit, hydrothermal fluids may leach Ra. To explain the observed discordant ages, Ra should have been lost during a large amount of time

  20. Determining the Ages of Nearby A-Stars with Long-Baseline Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jeremy; White, R. J.; Boyajian, T.; Schaefer, G.; Baines, E.; Ireland, M.; Patience, J.; Aff001

    2016-01-01

    We determine the age of 7 stars in the Ursa Major moving group using a novel method that models the fundamental parameters of rapidly rotating A-stars based on interferometric observations and literature photometry and compares these parameters (namely, radius, luminosity, and rotation velocity) with evolution models that account for rotation. We find these stars to be coeval, thus providing an age estimate for the moving group and validating this technique. With this technique validated, we determine the age of the rapidly rotating, directly imaged planet host star, κ Andromedae.

  1. Epidemiological survey of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in cattle in East Darfur State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Alaa M; Adam, Ibrahim A; Osman, Badreldin T; Aradaib, Imadeldin E

    2015-06-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease caused by CCHF virus (CCHFV) of the genus Nairovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. CCHFV causes subclinical infection in domestic livestock and an often fatal hemorrhagic illness in humans, with approximately 30% mortality rates. In the present study, a cross-sectional serosurvey was conducted in a total of 282 randomly selected cattle from five localities in East Darfur State, Sudan. The exposure status to CCHF was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies in cattle serum samples. The CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies were detected in 54 out of 282 animals, accounting for a 19.14% prevalence rate. Older cattle (>2 years of age) were approximately five times more likely to be infected with the virus (OR=4.90, CI=1.28-18.98, p-value=0.02). Heavily tick-infested cattle (ticks all over the body) were at 11 times higher at risk compared to tick-free animals (OR=11.11, CI=2.86-43.25, p-value=0.01). Grazing system is another factor affecting CCHF, where cattle grazing on open system were 27 times more at risk compared to other grazing systems (OR=27.22, CI=7.46-99.24, p-value=0.001). There was an association between localities and CCHF cattle (OR=0.24, CI=0.07-0.83, p-value=0.02). This study confirms the exposure of cattle to CCHF in East Darfur and identifies potential risk factors associated with the disease. Further epidemiological studies and improved surveillance are urgently needed to prevent a possible outbreak of CCHF among humans in the Darfur region of Sudan. PMID:25898993

  2. Factors affecting the selling price of feeder cattle sold at Arkansas livestock auctions in 2005.

    PubMed

    Barham, B L; Troxel, T R

    2007-12-01

    Data were collected from 15 Arkansas livestock auctions to determine factors affecting selling price. Data included how calves were sold (single or groups), sex, breed or breed type, color, muscle thickness, horn status, frame score, fill, body condition, age, health, BW, and price. Data were randomly collected on 52,401 lots consisting of 105,542 calves. Selling prices for steers ($124.20 +/- 0.07), bulls ($117.93 +/- 0.12), and heifers ($112.81 +/- 0.07) were different from each other (P <0.001). Hereford x Charolais feeder calves sold for the highest price ($122.66 +/- 0.14) and Longhorns sold for the lowest price ($74.52 +/- 0.46). Yellow feeder cattle received the highest selling price ($96.47 +/- 0.12), and spotted or striped feeder cattle received the lowest price ($83.84 +/- 0.23). The selling price of singles was lower than the price for calves sold in groups of 6 or more ($117.26 +/- 0.06 vs. $122.61 +/- 0.21; P <0.001). For cattle classified as having muscle scores of 1, 2, 3, and 4, selling prices were $120.45 +/- 0.05, $111.31 +/- 0.09, $96.28 +/- 0.44, and $82.21 +/- 1.87, respectively. Polled feeder cattle sold for $118.57 +/- 0.05, and horned feeder cattle sold for $114.87 +/- 0.14 (P <0.001). Interactions (P <0.001) were detected between frame score and BW groups, and muscle score and BW groups on the selling price of cattle. A number of management and genetic factors affected the selling price of feeder cattle. PMID:17709785

  3. Age of an Indonesian Fossil Tooth Determined by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Bogard, JS

    2004-04-07

    The first fossil hominid tooth recovered during 1999 excavations from the Cisanca River region in West Java, Indonesia, was associated with a series of bovid teeth from a single individual that was recovered 190 cm beneath the hominid tooth. The age of the fossil bovid teeth was determined using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis as part of an effort to bracket the age of the hominid tooth. The EPR-derived age of the bovid teeth is (5.16 {+-} 2.01) x 10{sup 5} years. However, the age estimate reported here is likely an underestimate of the actual age of deposition since evidence of heating was detected in the EPR spectra of the bovid teeth, and the heating may have caused a decrease in the intensity of EPR components on which the age calculation is based.

  4. Decreasing the roughage:concentrate ratio of a diet to determine the critical roughage part for beef cattle.

    PubMed

    De Campeneere, S; Fiems, L O; De Boever, J L; Vanacker, J M; De Brabander, D L

    2002-02-01

    The critical roughage part (CRP) of 2 diet types was determined in a cross-over design with 6 double-muscled and 6 normally conformed Belgian Blue bulls fitted with rumen cannulae. The roughage:concentrate ratio was lowered weekly until signs of a lack of physical structure were observed. For diet 1, consisting of maize silage and concentrates, the initial proportion of maize silage was 25% of DM but it decreased weekly with 5% units of DM. For the second diet, consisting of wheat straw and concentrate, 12% straw (DM basis) was provided during the first week and thereafter the proportion of straw decreased weekly with 3% units of DM. Several directly observable parameters (rumen pH, feed intake, bloat, faecal consistency) were evaluated weekly for each bull. Apart from these direct indicators of acidosis, also other parameters, whose results were only available after the end of the trial, were determined (volatile fatty acid profile, lactic acid concentration, chewing time). The roughage part between the part fed when signs of a lack of physical structure was first observed and the part that was fed the week before, was considered as the CRP. Most animals showed no acute signs of clinical acidosis (directly observable parameters) and finished the trial on a 100% concentrate diet. However, in sacco rumen DM-degradabilities of maize silage, grass silage and wheat grain was depressed considerably when low roughage diets were fed. Based on all observed parameters, the mean CRP was calculated to be 14.7% for diet 1 and 8.1% for diet 2. The beef type (double-muscled or not) had no influence on the CRP. PMID:12389217

  5. Spent fuel temperature and age determination from the analysis of uranium and plutonium isotopics

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Mark R; Eccleston, George W; Bedell, Jeffrey J; Lockard, Chanelle M

    2009-01-01

    The capability to determine the age (time since irradiation) of spent fuel can be useful for verification and safeguards. While the age of spent fuel can be determined based on measurements of short-lived fission products, these measurements are not routinely done nor generally reported. As an alternative, age can also be determined if the uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) isotopic values are available. Uranium isotopics are not strongly affected by fuel temperature, and bumup is determined from the {sup 235}U and {sup 236}U isotopic values. Age is calculated after estimating the {sup 241}Pu at the end of irradiation while accounting for the fuel temperature, which is determined from {sup 239}Pu or {sup 240}Pu. Burnup and age determinations are calibrated to reactor models that provide uranium and plutonium isotopics over the range of fuel irradiation. The reactor model must contain sufficient fidelity on details of the reactor type, fuel burnup, irradiation history, initial fuel enrichment and fuel temperature to obtain accurate isotopic calculations. If the latter four are unknown, they can be derived from the uranium and plutonium isotopics. Fuel temperature has a significant affect on the production of plutonium isotopics; therefore, one group cross section reactor models, such as ORIGEN, cannot be used for these calculations. Multi-group cross section set codes, such as Oak Ridge National Laboratory's TRITON code, must be used.

  6. Determinants of fat-soluble vitamin status in patients aged 65 years and over.

    PubMed

    Granado-Lorencio, F; Blanco-Navarro, I; Pérez-Sacristán, B; Millán, I; Donoso-Navarro, E; Silvestre-Mardomingo, R A

    2013-12-01

    In the elderly, malnutrition is highly prevalent and a major contributor to increased morbidity and mortality. We aimed to evaluate the fat-soluble vitamin status and potential determinants in patients >65 years of age. Serum vitamins A, D and E were determined by liquid chromatography in 166 patients. Gender, age, season, hospitalization, nutritional markers (albumin and cholesterol), acute-phase reactants (ferritin and C-reactive protein) and renal function (creatinine and glomerular filtrate) were assessed as potential determinants. Prevalence of vitamin deficiency was highly variable, ranging from 0 (vitamin E/cholesterol ratio) to 94% (for vitamin D in hospitalized patients). Vitamin status did not differ according to gender, but age, season, hospitalization, a poor nutritional status and impaired renal function, and the presence of acute-phase response significantly affected serum levels of vitamin A, E and D. In conclusion, in subjects >65 years both demographic and clinical factors determined the fat-soluble vitamin status. PMID:24129364

  7. 20 CFR 404.1583 - How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 404.1583 How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older. We will...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1583 - How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 404.1583 How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older. We will...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1583 - How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 404.1583 How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older. We will...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1583 - How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 404.1583 How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older. We will...

  11. 20 CFR 404.1583 - How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 404.1583 How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older. We will...

  12. Age determination of ballpoint pen ink by thermal desorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bügler, Jürgen H; Buchner, Hans; Dallmayer, Anton

    2008-07-01

    Two main approaches can be used for determining the age of an ink: indirect dating and direct dating. Indirect dating is based on the chemical analysis of an ink followed by comparison with known samples in a reference collection. The collection should contain information about the inks including the market introduction dates. This approach may allow for an anachronism to be detected. The second concept is based on measuring ink components that change with age. The analysis of solvents in ballpoint inks may be a useful parameter for determining the age of ink on paper. In a previous study, the authors demonstrated that thermal desorption of ink directly from paper, followed by chemical analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), is a promising procedure for characterizing ink-binder resins and solvents. Preliminary tests showed that monitoring the evaporation of ink solvent from ink on paper is not a suitable method for ink dating. Thermal analysis of ink on paper in two steps revealed that fresh ink releases a relative amount of solvent at a certain low temperature in a defined period of time, which decreases as the ink ages. As a consequence, this relative amount of solvent released at a certain low temperature, and its decrease with time, can be used to estimate ink age. This age-dependent parameter was studied in 85 different inks ranging in age from 1 week to 1.5 years. It was found that some inks showed a significant decrease of this parameter up to an age of several months, and that the aging process can be monitored within this period. For other inks, however, the age-dependent parameter decreases relatively fast, e.g., within a few days, to a constant level, which can be too fast for casework. Based on these results, a general procedure for assessing the age of ballpoint pen inks on paper was developed. PMID:18503526

  13. Transfer of aged 239+240Pu, 238Pu, 241Am, and 137Cs to cattle grazing a contaminated arid environment.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, R O; Engel, D W; Anspaugh, L R

    1989-09-01

    In this paper, estimates are obtained of the fraction of ingested 239+240Pu, 238Pu, 241Am and 137Cs transferred to blood, muscle, liver, kidney, femur, vertebra, and gonads of a reproducing herd of 17 beef cattle, individuals of which grazed within fenced enclosures for up to 1064 days under natural conditions with no supplemental feeding at an arid site contaminated 16 years previously with transuranic radionuclides. The estimated geometric mean (GM) GI-to-blood fractional transfer of 238Pu (0.0001) was about 20 times larger than the estimated transfer of 239+240Pu (0.000005), while the estimated transfer of 241Am (0.00001) was about 2 times larger than that of 239+240Pu. These GM GI-to-blood transfers were smaller than the GI-to-blood transfer value of 0.001 recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for humans exposed via food chains or occupationally from unknown mixtures or compounds of plutonium and americium. Statistical tests indicated significantly (p less than 0.05) larger GI-to-tissue transfers of (1) 238Pu as compared to 239+240Pu for all tissues examined, (2) of 238Pu as compared to 241Am for muscle, liver, femur, and vertebra, and (3) of 241Am as compared to 239+240Pu for blood serum, femur, and kidney. The estimated GM fractional transfers of 137Cs from GI to muscle and liver were 0.03 (n = 8) and 0.001 (n = 3), respectively, assuming a 50-day biological half-time of 137Cs in cattle tissue. PMID:2814465

  14. The Differential Expression of Immune Genes between Water Buffalo and Yellow Cattle Determines Species-Specific Susceptibility to Schistosoma japonicum Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianmei; Fu, Zhiqiang; Hong, Yang; Wu, Haiwei; Jin, Yamei; Zhu, Chuangang; Li, Hao; Lu, Ke; Shi, Yaojun; Yuan, Chunxiu; Cheng, Guofeng; Feng, Xingang; Liu, Jinming; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2015-01-01

    Water buffalo are less susceptible to Schistosoma japonicum infection than yellow cattle. The factors that affect such differences in susceptibility remain unknown. A Bos taurus genome-wide gene chip was used to analyze gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood of water buffalo and yellow cattle pre- and post-infection with S. japonicum. This study showed that most of the identified differentially expressed genes(DEGs) between water buffalo and yellow cattle pre- and post-infection were involved in immune-related processes, and the expression level of immune genes was lower in water buffalo. The unique DEGs (390) in yellow cattle were mainly associated with inflammation pathways, while the unique DEGs (2,114) in water buffalo were mainly associated with immune-related factors. The 83 common DEGs may be the essential response genes during S. japonicum infection, the highest two gene ontology (GO) functions were associated with the regulation of fibrinolysis. The pathway enrichment analysis showed that the DEGs constituted similar immune-related pathways pre- and post-infection between the two hosts. This first analysis of the transcriptional profiles of natural hosts has enabled us to gain new insights into the mechanisms that govern their susceptibility or resistance to S. japonicum infections. PMID:26125181

  15. Experimental Transmission of Vesicular Stomatitis New Jersey Virus From Black Flies (Simulium vittatum) To Cattle: Clinical Outcome Is Determined By Site of Insect Feeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV) is an insect-transmitted Rhabdovirus causing vesicular disease in domestic livestock including cattle, horses and pigs. The natural transmission of VSV during epidemics remains poorly understood. Transmission of VSNJV from experimentally infected black f...

  16. The Differential Expression of Immune Genes between Water Buffalo and Yellow Cattle Determines Species-Specific Susceptibility to Schistosoma japonicum Infection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianmei; Fu, Zhiqiang; Hong, Yang; Wu, Haiwei; Jin, Yamei; Zhu, Chuangang; Li, Hao; Lu, Ke; Shi, Yaojun; Yuan, Chunxiu; Cheng, Guofeng; Feng, Xingang; Liu, Jinming; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2015-01-01

    Water buffalo are less susceptible to Schistosoma japonicum infection than yellow cattle. The factors that affect such differences in susceptibility remain unknown. A Bos taurus genome-wide gene chip was used to analyze gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood of water buffalo and yellow cattle pre- and post-infection with S. japonicum. This study showed that most of the identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between water buffalo and yellow cattle pre- and post-infection were involved in immune-related processes, and the expression level of immune genes was lower in water buffalo. The unique DEGs (390) in yellow cattle were mainly associated with inflammation pathways, while the unique DEGs (2,114) in water buffalo were mainly associated with immune-related factors. The 83 common DEGs may be the essential response genes during S. japonicum infection, the highest two gene ontology (GO) functions were associated with the regulation of fibrinolysis. The pathway enrichment analysis showed that the DEGs constituted similar immune-related pathways pre- and post-infection between the two hosts. This first analysis of the transcriptional profiles of natural hosts has enabled us to gain new insights into the mechanisms that govern their susceptibility or resistance to S. japonicum infections. PMID:26125181

  17. Prevalence and risk factors for foot and mouth disease infection in cattle in Israel.

    PubMed

    Elnekave, Ehud; van Maanen, Kees; Shilo, Hila; Gelman, Boris; Storm, Nick; Abed El Khaliq, Mohamad; Sharir, Beni; Berke, Olaf; Klement, Eyal

    2016-08-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease with major economic consequences. In Israel, FMD epidemics recur almost every year and mostly affect cattle. The highest number of outbreaks occurs among beef cattle farms, followed by feedlot farms and dairy farms. We performed several cross-sectional serological studies in Israel during 2006-2014, aimed to reveal if the virus is endemic among cattle and to determine the sero-prevalence of antibodies directed against non-structural proteins (NSP) of FMD virus. Additionally we aimed to determine the risk factors for such sero-positivity. A risk based sampling was performed and the presence of anti-NSP antibodies was estimated using the PrioCHECK(®) ELISA kit. Beef cattle showed the highest sero-prevalence (13.2%, CI95%=10.8-15.8%). Higher FMD sero-prevalence in beef cattle sampled in 2014 was associated with previous FMD outbreaks in the farm and with age (adult cows versus calves (p<0.05)). Sero-prevalence in feedlot calves was significantly lower with only one sero-positive calf out of 256 (0.4%, CI95%=0-2.2%). Sero-prevalence among dairy cattle was 2.7% (CI95%=2-3.6%) with location of up to 3km from FMD outbreaks in multiple farms and location of up to 5km from the nearest border standing out as significant (p<0.05) risk factors for sero-positivity. The extremely low sero-prevalence of FMD in feedlot cattle and the significant association of infection in beef cattle with previous outbreaks suggest absence of virus circulation between these two populations during the study period, although previous data show that during outbreaks such transmission can occur. Low sero-prevalence in dairy cattle located in areas adjacent to previous FMD outbreaks may be attributed to intense routine vaccination and stringent control measures that were applied during outbreaks such as emergency vaccination and strict quarantine. Early detection of FMD outbreaks among grazing beef herds as well as the implementation

  18. Accurate age determinations of several nearby open clusters containing magnetic Ap stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silaj, J.; Landstreet, J. D.

    2014-06-01

    Context. To study the time evolution of magnetic fields, chemical abundance peculiarities, and other characteristics of magnetic Ap and Bp stars during their main sequence lives, a sample of these stars in open clusters has been obtained, as such stars can be assumed to have the same ages as the clusters to which they belong. However, in exploring age determinations in the literature, we find a large dispersion among different age determinations, even for bright, nearby clusters. Aims: Our aim is to obtain ages that are as accurate as possible for the seven nearby open clusters α Per, Coma Ber, IC 2602, NGC 2232, NGC 2451A, NGC 2516, and NGC 6475, each of which contains at least one magnetic Ap or Bp star. Simultaneously, we test the current calibrations of Te and luminosity for the Ap/Bp star members, and identify clearly blue stragglers in the clusters studied. Methods: We explore the possibility that isochrone fitting in the theoretical Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (i.e. log (L/L⊙) vs. log Te), rather than in the conventional colour-magnitude diagram, can provide more precise and accurate cluster ages, with well-defined uncertainties. Results: Well-defined ages are found for all the clusters studied. For the nearby clusters studied, the derived ages are not very sensitive to the small uncertainties in distance, reddening, membership, metallicity, or choice of isochrones. Our age determinations are all within the range of previously determined values, but the associated uncertainties are considerably smaller than the spread in recent age determinations from the literature. Furthermore, examination of proper motions and HR diagrams confirms that the Ap stars identified in these clusters are members, and that the presently accepted temperature scale and bolometric corrections for Ap stars are approximately correct. We show that in these theoretical HR diagrams blue stragglers are particularly easy to identify. Conclusions: Constructing the theoretical HR diagram

  19. Age determination of fish from scales; method and application to fish cultural problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hile, Ralph

    1936-01-01

    THE SCIENCE of "scale reading", or determination of the age of fish from the examination of their scales, is less than 40 years old. Yet today the publications on the subject are to be numbered by the hundreds, and there is scarcely any phase of fish and fishery work that has not been benefited by this powerful tool for investigation. Fish culture is no exception to this rule. It is because of the increasing interest of fish culturists in scale reading and their numerous requests for information on the subject, that I have been asked to prepare a brief discussion of the method of age determination in fishes.

  20. Age, growth and size interact with stress to determine life span and mortality.

    PubMed

    Roach, Deborah Ann

    2012-10-01

    Individuals in a large experimental field population, of the short-lived perennial species Plantago lanceolata, were followed to determine the sources of variation that influence mortality and life span. The design included multiple age groups with initially similar genetic structure, which made it possible to separate age effects from period effects and to identify the genetic component to variation in life span. During a period of stress, individuals of all ages showed parallel increases in mortality but different cohorts experienced this period of high mortality at different ages. This then influenced the distribution of life spans across cohorts. Age and size-age interactions influenced mortality during the period of stress. Smaller individuals died but only if they were old. Additionally, growth and age interacted with stress such that older individuals had negative growth and high mortality whereas younger individuals had positive growth and relatively lower mortality during stress. The results of this study show that it is not simply the environment that can have a major impact on demography in natural populations; rather, age, size and growth can interact with the environment to influence mortality and life span when the environment is stressful. PMID:22664575

  1. Age determination in manatees using growth-layer-group counts in bone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marmontel, M.; O'Shea, T.J.; Kochman, H.I.; Humphrey, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    Growth layers were observed in histological preparations of bones of known-age, known minimum-age, and tetracycline-marked free-ranging and captive Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), substantiating earlier preliminary findings of other studies. Detailed analysis of 17 new case histories showed that growth-layer group (GLG) counts in the periotic bone were consistent with known age, or time since tetracycline administration, but were less reliable in other bones. GLG counts were also made in periotic bones of 1,196 Florida manatees of unknown age found dead from 1974 through 1991. These counts were conducted in order to assess variability and to determine relationships among estimated age, size, sex, and degree of bone resorption. Resorption can interfere with accuracy of GLG counts. This effect does not occur until ages greater than about 15 yr and body lengths greater than 300 cm are attained. GLGs were also observed in periotic bones of Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) but were not validated against known-age specimens. Use of GLG counts in the periotic bone is suitable for application to studies of population dynamics and other age-related aspects of manatee biology.

  2. Genetic determination of telomere size in humans: A twin study of three age groups

    SciTech Connect

    Slagboom, P.E.; Droog, S.; Boomsma, D.I.

    1994-11-01

    Reduction of telomere length has been postulated to be a casual factor in cellular aging. Human telomeres terminate in tandemly arranged repeat arrays consisting of the (TTAGGG) motif. The length of these arrays in cells from human mitotic tissues is inversely related to the age of the donor, indicating telomere reduction with age. In addition to telemore length differences between different age cohorts, considerable variation is present among individuals of the same age. To investigate whether this variation can be ascribed to genetic influences, we have measured the size of terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) in HaeIII-digested genomic DNA from 123 human MZ and DZ twin pairs 2-95 years of age. The average rate of telomere shortening was 31 bp/year, which is similar to that observed by others. Statistical analysis in 115 pairs 2-63 years of age indicates a 78% heritability for mean TRF length in this age cohort. The individual differences in mean TRF length in blood, therefore, seem to a large extent to be genetically determined. 24 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Short communication: Analysis of genomic predictor population for Holstein dairy cattle in the United States--Effects of sex and age.

    PubMed

    Cooper, T A; Wiggans, G R; VanRaden, P M

    2015-04-01

    Increased computing time for the ever-growing predictor population and linkage decay between the ancestral population and current animals have become concerns for genomic evaluation systems. The effects on reliability of US genomic evaluations from including cows and bulls in the Holstein predictor population and also from excluding older bulls from the predictor population were examined. Holstein data collected for December 2013 US genomic evaluations were used in cutoff studies to determine reliability gains, regression coefficients, and bias for 5 yield, 3 fitness, 2 fertility, and 18 conformation traits. Three predictor populations were examined based on animal sex: 30,852 cows with traditional evaluations as of August 2012, 21,883 bulls with traditional evaluations as of August 2012, and a combined group of all bulls and cows. Three subsets of the bull predictor population were examined to determine effect of age: bulls born before 1996 excluded (25% of bulls excluded), bulls born before 2001 excluded (50%), and bulls born before 2005 excluded (75%). The validation set for all predictor populations was either bulls or cows first receiving a traditional evaluation between August 2012 and December 2013. Across all traits, the addition of cows to the bull predictor population increased reliability gains by 0.4 percentage points for validation bulls and 4.4 points for validation cows. Across all traits, excluding bulls born before 1996 from the bull-only predictor population decreased gains in genomic reliability by 1.8 percentage points. For 19 of 28 traits, excluding bulls born before 2005 from the predictor population resulted in lower bias in genomic evaluations of validation bulls. Although the contribution of cows and older bulls to improved accuracy of US genomic evaluations is small, a plateau of achievable gain has not yet been reached. PMID:25648811

  4. Sudden deaths in yearling feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Pierson, R E; Jensen, R; Lauerman, L H; Saari, D A; Braddy, P M; McChesney, A E; Horton, D P

    1976-09-01

    A survey of the causes for fatal diseases of yearling feedlot cattle was conducted on more than 407,000 cattle during a 14-month period. Of the 4,260 (1%) cattle that died during this period, 1,358 (32%) were categorized as cases of "sudden death syndrome." Of the 11 most frequent causes of the syndrome, as determined at necropsy, only 4--bloat, pulmonary aneurysms, riding injury, and hemopericardium--were considered as short-course problems and true causes of sudden death. The largest number of cases of sudden death were attributed to pneumonia (113 animals). Consequently, the sudden death syndrome is a misnomer for many long-course diseases and, in some instances, a mask for neglect because, as clinically used, the name frequently includes cattle that have been sick, often with pneumonia, for several days. PMID:956032

  5. Root dentine transparency: age determination of human teeth using computerized densitometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Drusini, A; Calliari, I; Volpe, A

    1991-05-01

    Root dentine transparency (RDT) was used to estimate the ages of human subjects from 152 intact teeth. Teeth were from 134 subjects, both historical and recent, of known age and sex. The aims of this work are 1) to compare two methods of using RDT to estimate age; 2) to test the applicability of the regression formulae for estimating age obtained from a recent sample on an historical sample; and 3) to estimate the suitability of RDT to determine age at death of 100-year-old skeletons. RDT was measured by two techniques: 1) computerized densitometric analysis and 2) vernier caliper. Age estimations based on computerized densitometric analysis were no more accurate than were those determined by caliper measurement; both give a predictive success of +/- 5 years in about 45-48% of cases for premolars. The television-based digitization system has some disadvantages: It is expensive, not portable, and requires some training to use. However, it furnishes a more standardized method, a rapid graphic illustration of the results, and an immediate storage of statistical information for future use. PMID:1853940

  6. Determination of patterns of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in normal aging and dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Alavi, A.; Chawluk, J.; Hurtig, H.; Dann, R.; Rosen, M.; Kushner, M.; Silver, F.; Reivich, M.

    1985-05-01

    Regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (rCMRGlc) were measured using 18F-FDG and positron emission tomography (PET) in 14 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) (age=64), 9 elderly controls (age=61), and 9 young controls (age=28). PET studies were performed without sensory stimulation or deprivation. Metabolic rates in individual brain regions were determined using an atlas overlay. Relative metabolic rates (rCMRGl c/global CMRGlc) were determined for all subjects. Comparison of young and elderly controls demonstrated significant decreases in frontal metabolism (rho<0.005) and right inferior parietal (IP) metabolism (rho<0.02) with normal aging. Patients with mild-moderate AD (NMAD) (n=8) when compared to age-matched controls, showed further reduction in right IP metabolism (rho<0.02). SAD patients also demonstrated metabolic decrements in left hemisphere language areas (rho<0.01). This latter finding is consistent with language disturbance observed late in the course of the disease. Out data reveal progressive changes in patterns of cerebral glucose utilization with aging and demential with reflect salient clinical features of these processes.

  7. Precise age determinations and petrogenetic studies using the K-Ca method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, B. D.; Depaolo, D. J.

    1982-12-01

    New mass spectrometric techniques are used to reassess the capabilities of the K-40 to Ca-40 radioactive decay for yielding precise ages of various geological materials. A brief discussion of the principles underlying the system's use is presented as a preliminary, and the analytical procedures are described. To test the method, a mineral isochron has been obtained on a sample of Pikes Peak granite which has been shown to have concordant K-Ar, Rb-Sr, and U-Pb ages. Plagioclase, K-feldspar, biotite, and whole rock yield an age of 1041 + or 32 m.y., in agreement with previous age determinations. The initial Ca-40/Ca-42 indicates that assimilation of high K/Ca crust was insufficient to affect calcium isotopes. The results show that the K-Ca system can be used as a precise geochronometer for common felsic igneous and metamorphic rocks, and may prove applicable to sedimentary rocks containing authigenic K minerals.

  8. Late Na+ current and protracted electrical recovery are critical determinants of the aging myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Signore, Sergio; Sorrentino, Andrea; Borghetti, Giulia; Cannata, Antonio; Meo, Marianna; Zhou, Yu; Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Pasqualini, Francesco; O'Malley, Heather; Sundman, Mark; Tsigkas, Nikolaos; Zhang, Eric; Arranto, Christian; Mangiaracina, Chiara; Isobe, Kazuya; Sena, Brena F.; Kim, Junghyun; Goichberg, Polina; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Isom, Lori L.; Leri, Annarosa; Anversa, Piero; Rota, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    The aging myopathy manifests itself with diastolic dysfunction and preserved ejection fraction. We raised the possibility that, in a mouse model of physiological aging, defects in electromechanical properties of cardiomyocytes are important determinants of the diastolic characteristics of the myocardium, independently from changes in structural composition of the muscle and collagen framework. Here we show that an increase in the late Na+ current (INaL) in aging cardiomyocytes prolongs the action potential (AP) and influences temporal kinetics of Ca2+ cycling and contractility. These alterations increase force development and passive tension. Inhibition of INaL shortens the AP and corrects dynamics of Ca2+ transient, cell contraction and relaxation. Similarly, repolarization and diastolic tension of the senescent myocardium are partly restored. Thus, INaL offers inotropic support, but negatively interferes with cellular and ventricular compliance, providing a new perspective of the biology of myocardial aging and the aetiology of the defective cardiac performance in the elderly. PMID:26541940

  9. Determining the age of cats by pulp cavity/tooth width ratio using dental radiography

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyoungsun; Ahn, Jaesang; Kang, Sunmee; Lee, Euiri; Kim, Soohyun; Park, Sangwan; Park, Sungwon; Noh, Hyunwoo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of age on the ratio of pulp cavity/tooth width (P/T ratio) in healthy cats. The dental radiographs of 32 cats (16 males and 16 females) were generated with a digital dental X-ray unit with the animals under general anesthesia. Standardized measurement of the canine teeth was performed by drawing a line on the radiograph perpendicular to the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) of the tooth. There was an inversely proportional correlation between chronological age and the P/T ratio. Moreover, a strong Pearson squared correlation (γ2 = 0.92) was identified by the curved regression model. No significant differences in the P/T ratio based on gender or breed were found. These results suggest that determination of age by P/T ratio could be clinically useful for estimating the chronological age of cats. PMID:25234207

  10. Ecological determinants of mean family age of angiosperm trees in forest communities in China.

    PubMed

    Qian, Hong; Chen, Shengbin

    2016-01-01

    Species assemblage in a local community is determined by the interplay of evolutionary and ecological processes. The Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis proposes mechanisms underlying patterns of biodiversity in biological communities along environmental gradients. This hypothesis predicts that, among other things, clades in areas with warm or wet environments are, on average, older than those in areas with cold or dry environments. Focusing on angiosperm trees in forests, this study tested the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. We related the mean family age of angiosperm trees in 57 local forests from across China with 23 current and paleo-environmental variables, which included all major temperature- and precipitation-related variables. Our study shows that the mean family age of angiosperm trees in local forests was positively correlated with temperature and precipitation. This finding is consistent with the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. Approximately 85% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by temperature-related variables, and 81% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by precipitation-related variables. Climatic conditions at the Last Glacial Maximum did not explain additional variation in mean family age after accounting for current environmental conditions. PMID:27354109

  11. Ecological determinants of mean family age of angiosperm trees in forest communities in China

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Hong; Chen, Shengbin

    2016-01-01

    Species assemblage in a local community is determined by the interplay of evolutionary and ecological processes. The Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis proposes mechanisms underlying patterns of biodiversity in biological communities along environmental gradients. This hypothesis predicts that, among other things, clades in areas with warm or wet environments are, on average, older than those in areas with cold or dry environments. Focusing on angiosperm trees in forests, this study tested the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. We related the mean family age of angiosperm trees in 57 local forests from across China with 23 current and paleo-environmental variables, which included all major temperature- and precipitation-related variables. Our study shows that the mean family age of angiosperm trees in local forests was positively correlated with temperature and precipitation. This finding is consistent with the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. Approximately 85% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by temperature-related variables, and 81% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by precipitation-related variables. Climatic conditions at the Last Glacial Maximum did not explain additional variation in mean family age after accounting for current environmental conditions. PMID:27354109

  12. Self-Determination among Transition-Age Youth with Autism or Intellectual Disability: Parent Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Erik W.; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Cooney, Molly; Weir, Katherine; Moss, Colleen K.; Machalicek, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    This study examined 68 parents' views of the self-determination skills and capacities of their young adult children with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability (ages 19-21 years). Results indicated parents placed a high value on the importance of all seven component skills (i.e., choice-making skills, decision-making skills,…

  13. 29 CFR Appendix D to Part 4044 - Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age D Appendix D to Part 4044 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PLAN TERMINATIONS ALLOCATION OF ASSETS IN SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Pt. 4044, App. D Appendix D to...

  14. 29 CFR Appendix D to Part 4044 - Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age D Appendix D to Part 4044 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PLAN TERMINATIONS ALLOCATION OF ASSETS IN SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Pt. 4044, App. D Appendix D to...

  15. 29 CFR Appendix D to Part 4044 - Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age D Appendix D to Part 4044 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PLAN TERMINATIONS ALLOCATION OF ASSETS IN SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Pt. 4044, App. D Appendix D to...

  16. 29 CFR Appendix D to Part 4044 - Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age D Appendix D to Part 4044 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PLAN TERMINATIONS ALLOCATION OF ASSETS IN SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Pt. 4044, App. D Appendix D to...

  17. Growth of the Tongariro volcanic complex: New evidence from K-Ar age determinations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hobden, B.J.; Houghton, B.F.; Lanphere, M.A.; Nairn, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    New K-Ar age determinations indicate that the exposed portion of the Tongariro volcanic complex has grown steadily since at least 275 ka, with intervals of vigorous cone growth at 210-200.130-70. and 25 ka to the present day.

  18. Towards a method for determining age ranges from faces of juveniles on photographs.

    PubMed

    Cummaudo, M; Guerzoni, M; Gibelli, D; Cigada, A; Obertovà, Z; Ratnayake, M; Poppa, P; Gabriel, P; Ritz-Timme, S; Cattaneo, C

    2014-06-01

    The steady increase in the distribution of juvenile pornographic material in recent years strongly required valid methods for estimating the age of the victims. At the present in fact forensic experts still commonly use the assessment of sexual characteristics by Tanner staging, although they have proven to be too subjective and deceiving for age estimation. The objective of this study, inspired by a previous EU project involving Italy, Germany and Lithuania, is to verify the applicability of certain anthropometric indices of faces in order to determine age and to create a database of facial measurements on a population of children in order to improve face ageing techniques. In this study, 1924 standardized facial images in frontal view and 1921 in lateral view of individuals from 7 age groups (3-5 years, 6-8 years, 9-11 years, 12-14 years, 15-17 years, 18-20 years, 21-24 years) underwent metric analysis. Individuals were all of Caucasoid ancestry and Italian nationality. Eighteen anthropometric indices in the frontal view and five in the lateral view were then calculated from the obtained measurements. Indices showing a correlation with age were ch-ch/ex-ex, ch-ch/pu-pu, en-en/ch-ch and se-sto/ex-ex in the frontal view, se-prn/se-sn, se-prn/se-sto and se-sn/se-sto in the lateral view. All the indices increased with age except for en-en/ch-ch, without relevant differences between males and females. These results provide an interesting starting point not only for placing a photographed face in an age range but also for refining the techniques of face ageing and personal identification. PMID:24726662

  19. Proteomic Biomarkers for Ageing the Mosquito Aedes aegypti to Determine Risk of Pathogen Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Hugo, Leon E.; Monkman, James; Dave, Keyur A.; Wockner, Leesa F.; Birrell, Geoff W.; Norris, Emma L.; Kienzle, Vivian J.; Sikulu, Maggy T.; Ryan, Peter A.; Gorman, Jeffery J.; Kay, Brian H.

    2013-01-01

    Biomarkers of the age of mosquitoes are required to determine the risk of transmission of various pathogens as each pathogen undergoes a period of extrinsic incubation in the mosquito host. Using the 2-D Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) procedure, we investigated the abundance of up to 898 proteins from the Yellow Fever and dengue virus vector, Aedes aegypti, during ageing. By applying a mixed-effects model of protein expression, we identified five common patterns of abundance change during ageing and demonstrated an age-related decrease in variance for four of these. This supported a search for specific proteins with abundance changes that remain tightly associated with ageing for use as ageing biomarkers. Using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry we identified ten candidate proteins that satisfied strict biomarker discovery criteria (identified in two out of three multivariate analysis procedures and in two cohorts of mosquitoes). We validated the abundances of the four most suitable candidates (Actin depolymerising factor; ADF, Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A; eIF5A, insect cuticle protein Q17LN8, and Anterior fat body protein; AFP) using semi-quantitative Western analysis of individual mosquitoes of six ages. The redox-response protein Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) and electron shuttling protein Electron transfer oxidoreductase (ETO) were subject to post-translational modifications affecting their charge states with potential effects on function. For the four candidates we show remarkably consistent decreases in abundance during ageing, validating initial selections. In particular, the abundance of AFP is an ideal biomarker candidate for whether a female mosquito has lived long enough to be capable of dengue virus transmission. We have demonstrated proteins to be a suitable class of ageing biomarkers in mosquitoes and have identified candidates for epidemiological studies of dengue and the evaluation of new disease reduction projects targeting

  20. 9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... after such test was performed. (c) Brucellosis test or vaccination certificates. (1) Cattle from Canada...; the date of such vaccination; the dosage of vaccine used; and the age of each animal on the date of vaccination....

  1. 9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... after such test was performed. (c) Brucellosis test or vaccination certificates. (1) Cattle from Canada...; the date of such vaccination; the dosage of vaccine used; and the age of each animal on the date of vaccination....

  2. Similar rates of chromosomal aberrant secondary oocytes in two indigenous cattle (Bos taurus) breeds as determined by dual-color FISH.

    PubMed

    Pauciullo, A; Nicodemo, D; Cosenza, G; Peretti, V; Iannuzzi, A; Di Meo, G P; Ramunno, L; Iannuzzi, L; Rubes, J; Di Berardino, D

    2012-02-01

    In vitro-matured metaphase II (MII) oocytes with corresponding first polar bodies (I pb) from two indigenous cattle (Bos taurus) breeds have been investigated to provide specific data upon the incidence of aneuploidy. A total of 165 and 140 in vitro-matured MII oocytes of the Podolian (PO) and Maremmana (MA) breeds, respectively, were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization using Xcen and five chromosome-specific painting probes. Oocytes with unreduced chromosome number were 13.3% and 6.4% in the two breeds, respectively, averaging 10.2%. In the PO, out of 100 MII oocytes + I pb analyzed, two oocytes were nullisomic for chromosome 5 (2.0%) and one disomic for the same chromosome (1.0%). In the MA, out of 100 MII oocytes + I pb, one oocyte was found nullisomic for chromosome 5 (1.0%) and one was disomic for the X chromosome (1.0%). Out of 200 MII oocytes + I pb, the mean rate of aneuploidy (nullisomy + disomy) for the two chromosomes scored was 2.5%, of which 1.5% was due to nullisomy and 1.0% due to disomy. By averaging these data with those previously reported on dairy cattle, the overall incidence of aneuploidy in cattle, as a species, was 2.25%, of which 1.25% was due to nullisomy and 1.0% due to disomy. The results so far achieved indicate similar rates of aneuploidy among the four cattle breeds investigated. Interspecific comparison between cattle (Xcen-5 probes) and pig (Sus scrofa domestica) (1-10 probes) also reveal similar rates. Further studies are needed that use more probes to investigate the interchromosomal effect. Establishing a baseline level of aneuploidy for each species/breed could also be useful for improving the in vitro production of embryos destined to the embryo transfer industry as well as for monitoring future trends of the reproductive health of domestic animals in relation to management errors and/or environmental hazards. PMID:22056011

  3. Production and processing studies on calpain-system gene markers for tenderness in Brahman cattle: 2. Objective meat quality.

    PubMed

    Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Robinson, D L; Geesink, G H; Barendse, W; Pethick, D W; Thompson, J M; Greenwood, P L

    2010-09-01

    Effects and interactions of calpain-system tenderness gene markers on objective meat quality traits of Brahman (Bos indicus) cattle were quantified within 2 concurrent experiments at different locations. Cattle were selected for study from commercial and research herds at weaning based on their genotype for calpastatin (CAST) and calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene markers for beef tenderness. Gene marker status for mu-calpain (CAPN1-4751 and CAPN1-316) was also determined for inclusion in statistical analyses. Eighty-two heifer and 82 castrated male cattle with 0 or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 were studied in New South Wales (NSW), and 143 castrated male cattle with 0, 1, or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 were studied in Western Australia (WA). The cattle were backgrounded for 6 to 8 mo and grain-fed for 117 d (NSW) or 80 d (WA) before slaughter. One-half the cattle in each experiment were implanted with a hormonal growth promotant during feedlotting. One side of each carcass was suspended from the Achilles tendon (AT) and the other from the pelvis (tenderstretch). The M. longissimus lumborum from both sides and the M. semitendinosus from the AT side were collected; then samples of each were aged at 1 degrees C for 1 or 7 d. Favorable alleles for one or more markers reduced shear force, with little effect on other meat quality traits. The size of effects of individual markers varied with site, muscle, method of carcass suspension, and aging period. Individual marker effects were additive as evident in cattle with 4 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 markers, which had shear force reductions of 12.2 N (P < 0.001, NSW) and 9.3 N (P = 0.002, WA) in AT 7 d aged M. longissimus lumborum compared with those with no favorable alleles. There was no evidence (all P > 0.05) of interactions between the gene markers, or between the hormonal growth promotant and gene markers for any meat quality traits. This study provides further evidence that selection based on the

  4. NEOSPOROSIS IN CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neospora caninum is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs that occasionally causes clinical infections in horses, goats, sheep, and deer. The domestic dog is the only known definitive host for N. caninum. In cattle N. caninum is a major cause of bovine abortion in many countries and is one of the mo...

  5. Evaluation of BHV-1 antibody titer in a cattle herd against different BHV-1 strains.

    PubMed

    Lee, Megan; Reed, Aimee; Estill, Charles; Izume, Satoko; Dong, Jing; Jin, Ling

    2015-09-30

    Although modified-live multivalent vaccines, such as PregGuard GOLD and Bovi-Shield Gold, have been used routinely in both beef and dairy cattle in the US, abortion and respiratory diseases still occasionally occur following vaccination. To determine whether the antibody induced by the multivalent vaccine can recognize BHV-1 isolates from aborted animals, BHV-1 antibody titer was evaluated with two isolates from abortion cases and two vaccine BHV-1 viruses. Cattle serum was collected from a dairy herd that was vaccinated annually with Bovi-Shield Gold 5 vaccine. Among the 28 cattle tested, no statistical significant difference in serum neutralization titer was observed when test virus was either vaccine virus or clinical isolates. It suggests that the BHV-1 antibody from the vaccinated cattle can recognize both the vaccine virus and clinical isolates. However, it is noticed that cows at 5 years old or older had a significantly lower BHV-1 antibody titer on average than the average of SN titer in 3 year-old cows. Similarly, cows at 5 years or older had a significantly lower BVDV antibody titer than cows at about 2 years of age. In addition, cattle vaccinated within 0-2 months had a significantly higher BHV-1 titer than those that received vaccination 6 months or greater prior to titer measurement. In contrast, cattle that received a vaccination 6 months prior had a significantly higher anti-BVDV antibody titer than those vaccinated within 1-2 months. The BVDV antibody titers remained relatively unchanged between 6 months and 1 year post-vaccination. Our study suggests little antigenic variation exists between BHV-1 disease isolates and BHV-1 of the multivalent vaccines. In addition, BHV-1 antibody titer is relatively lower at 6 months post vaccination in those tested animals. However, the BVDV antibody titer remained relatively high after 6 months from time of vaccination. PMID:26123370

  6. A survey on Sarcocystis spp. infection in cattle of Tabriz city, Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Mohammad; Rezaei, Hadi

    2016-09-01

    Sarcocystis is one of the most prevalent protozoan parasites in the striated muscles of livestock slaughtered for food such as cattle, sheep and goat. Meat that is heavily infected may be condemned as unfit for human consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. in slaughtered cattle in Tabriz, northwest of Iran. The prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. infection was investigated in 670 cattle, slaughtered from April 2013 to October 2013 in the Tabriz abattoir, Iran using naked eye examination for macroscopic Sarcocysts, and peptic digestion, muscle squash, squeezing methods for microscopic types. Muscles from oesophagus, tongue, heart, diaphragm and cervical and abdominal of 670 slaughtered cattle were examined for Sarcocystis spp. cysts. The prevalence of microscopic Sarcocystis spp. cysts in cattle was detected in 100 % and there was detected in macroscopic cyst 8.2 % in examined cattle. There were no significant differences among the infection rates of the different organs (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences among the infection rates of the different ages (P > 0.05). The prevalence of macroscopic infection in the oesophagus was higher than that of the other organs (P < 0.05). The infection rate was independent of sex (8.25 % in males and 8.13 % in females, P > 0.05). This suggests that meat should be cooked sufficiently, since a macroscopic inspection may not provide true results. Also, it has of great importance the farmers to be trained not to feed their dogs and cats with uncooked meat, and the abattoir remnants to be burned, in order to be effectively broken of infection cycle between the intermediate and the definitive hosts in Tabriz city, northwest of Iran. PMID:27605760

  7. What determines age-related disease: do we know all the right questions?

    PubMed

    Juckett, David A

    2010-06-01

    The average human lifespan has increased throughout the last century due to the mitigation of many infectious diseases. More people now die of age-related diseases than ever before, but these diseases have been resistant to elimination. Progress has been made in treatments and preventative measures to delay the onsets of these diseases, but most cancers and vascular diseases are still with us and they kill about the same fraction of the population year after year. For example, US Caucasian female deaths from breast plus genital cancers have remained a fairly constant approximately 7% of the age-related disease deaths from 1938 to 1998 and have been consistently approximately 2-fold greater than female colon plus rectal cancer deaths over that span. This type of stability pattern pervades the age-related diseases and suggests that intrinsic properties within populations determine these fractions. Recognizing this pattern and deciphering its origin will be necessary for the complete understanding of these major causes of death. It would appear that more than the random processes of aging drive this effect. The question is how to meaningfully approach this problem. This commentary discusses the epidemiological and aging perspectives and their current limitations in providing an explanation. The age of bioinformatics offers hope, but only if creative systems approaches are forthcoming. PMID:19904627

  8. Direct Age Determination of a Subtropical Freshwater Crayfish (Redclaw, Cherax quadricarinatus) Using Ossicular Growth Marks.

    PubMed

    Leland, Jesse C; Bucher, Daniel J; Coughran, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have reported that crustacean age determination is possible. We applied a direct ageing method (i.e. transverse cross sectioning of gastric ossicles) to a subtropical freshwater crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) sourced from an aquaculture population. Growth mark periodicity and the potential for chronological depositions were investigated by staining C. quadricarinatus with calcein and examining their ossicles a year later. Pterocardiac ossicles were superior to other ageing structures (i.e. other ossicles and eyestalks) and produced repeatable between-reader counts (87% were corroborated and 13% varied by ±1). C. quadricarinatus size-at-age data (for an aquaculture population) was described by a von Bertalanffy growth equation (L∞ = 32 mm occipital carapace length; K = 0.64; t0 = -0.18; R2 = 0.81). Ossicular growth marks did not correspond to moult history. The calcein stain was retained over an annual cycle comprising multiple moults, demonstrating that pterocardiac ossicles retain chronological information. The maximum age (3+) corroborated other indirectly-obtained longevity estimates for C. quadricarinatus. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that the growth marks in C. quadricarinatus ossicles are probably deposited annually during winter. The ability to extract age information from subtropical decapods provides substantial opportunities for advancing fisheries and conservation research globally, but further research is needed to provide a definitive validation and elucidate the mechanism governing the accrual of ossicular growth marks. PMID:26309228

  9. What determines age-related disease: do we know all the right questions?

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The average human lifespan has increased throughout the last century due to the mitigation of many infectious diseases. More people now die of age-related diseases than ever before, but these diseases have been resistant to elimination. Progress has been made in treatments and preventative measures to delay the onsets of these diseases, but most cancers and vascular diseases are still with us and they kill about the same fraction of the population year after year. For example, US Caucasian female deaths from breast plus genital cancers have remained a fairly constant ~7% of the age-related disease deaths from 1938 to 1998 and have been consistently ~2-fold greater than female colon plus rectal cancer deaths over that span. This type of stability pattern pervades the age-related diseases and suggests that intrinsic properties within populations determine these fractions. Recognizing this pattern and deciphering its origin will be necessary for the complete understanding of these major causes of death. It would appear that more than the random processes of aging drive this effect. The question is how to meaningfully approach this problem. This commentary discusses the epidemiological and aging perspectives and their current limitations in providing an explanation. The age of bioinformatics offers hope, but only if creative systems approaches are forthcoming. PMID:19904627

  10. Direct Age Determination of a Subtropical Freshwater Crayfish (Redclaw, Cherax quadricarinatus) Using Ossicular Growth Marks

    PubMed Central

    Leland, Jesse C.; Bucher, Daniel J.; Coughran, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have reported that crustacean age determination is possible. We applied a direct ageing method (i.e. transverse cross sectioning of gastric ossicles) to a subtropical freshwater crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) sourced from an aquaculture population. Growth mark periodicity and the potential for chronological depositions were investigated by staining C. quadricarinatus with calcein and examining their ossicles a year later. Pterocardiac ossicles were superior to other ageing structures (i.e. other ossicles and eyestalks) and produced repeatable between-reader counts (87% were corroborated and 13% varied by ±1). C. quadricarinatus size-at-age data (for an aquaculture population) was described by a von Bertalanffy growth equation (L∞ = 32 mm occipital carapace length; K = 0.64; t0 = –0.18; R2 = 0.81). Ossicular growth marks did not correspond to moult history. The calcein stain was retained over an annual cycle comprising multiple moults, demonstrating that pterocardiac ossicles retain chronological information. The maximum age (3+) corroborated other indirectly-obtained longevity estimates for C. quadricarinatus. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that the growth marks in C. quadricarinatus ossicles are probably deposited annually during winter. The ability to extract age information from subtropical decapods provides substantial opportunities for advancing fisheries and conservation research globally, but further research is needed to provide a definitive validation and elucidate the mechanism governing the accrual of ossicular growth marks. PMID:26309228