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Sample records for cattle herd identification

  1. First description of Bartonella bovis in cattle herds in Israel.

    PubMed

    Rudoler, Nir; Rasis, Michal; Sharir, Benny; Novikov, Anna; Shapira, Gregory; Giladi, Michael

    2014-09-17

    Bartonella bovis has been described in beef and dairy cattle worldwide, however the reported prevalence rates are inconsistent, with large variability across studies (0-89%). This study describes the first isolation and characterization of B. bovis among cattle herds in the Middle East. Blood samples from two beef cattle herds (each sampled thrice) and one dairy herd (sampled twice) in Israel were collected during a 16-months period. Overall, 71 of 95 blood samples (75%) grew Bartonella sp., with prevalence of 78% and 59% in beef and dairy cattle, respectively. High level bacteremia (≥100,000 colony forming units/mL) was detected in 25 specimens (26%). Such high-level bacteremia has never been reported in cattle. Two dairy cows and one beef cow remained bacteremic when tested 60 or 120 days apart, respectively, suggesting that cattle may have persistent bacteremia. One third of animals were infested with ticks. Sequence analysis of a gltA fragment of 32 bacterial isolates from 32 animals revealed 100% homology to B. bovis. Species identification was confirmed by sequence analysis of the rpoB gene. Phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated sequences of gltA and rpoB demonstrated that the isolates described herein form a monophyletic group with B. bovis strains originating from cattle worldwide. Taken together, the high prevalence of bacteremia, including high-level bacteremia, in beef and dairy cattle, the potential to develop prolonged bacteremia, the exposure of cattle to arthropod vectors, and proximity of infected animals to humans, make B. bovis a potential zoonotic agent. PMID:25096531

  2. Herd-level risk factors for bovine tuberculosis in French cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Marsot, Maud; Béral, Marina; Scoizec, Axelle; Mathevon, Yoann; Durand, Benoit; Courcoul, Aurélie

    2016-09-01

    Although officially free of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), France has been experiencing a slight increase in the incidence and geographical spread of the infection. Eradication of bTB requires determining the infection risk factors. Although several studies identifying bTB risk factors have been conducted in the United Kingdom and Spain, no information is currently available regarding bTB risk factors in French cattle. The objective of this work was thus to study the factors associated with the risk of bTB in cattle herds in three French administrative divisions (départements of Ardennes, Côte d'Or and Dordogne). A case-control study was conducted to compare herds having experienced a bTB outbreak between 2012 and early 2014 with randomly selected control herds of the three study départements. A questionnaire of farming practices, inter-herd contacts (e.g. at pasture or via vehicles or materials), and the presence of other domestic species was carried out in the selected herds. Data on other variables of interest included animal movements between farms and potential contacts between cattle and wildlife (e.g. badger and wild boar abundances) were also collected. Multivariable logistic regression and multimodel inference methods were used to assess risk factors related to bTB. A total of 216 herds (72 cases and 144 controls) were analyzed. The two main risk factors were the presence of a recent neighboring outbreak, being defined as a neighboring herd at pasture reported as infected in the past two years (odds ratio (OR)=3.6; population attributable fraction (PAF)=30.7%) and the presence of a farm building for cattle housing or for feed storage located at more than 300-m from inhabited areas (OR=2.3; PAF=27.6%). Another risk factor was related to sharing water points at pasture with a recent neighboring outbreak. Results illustrated the multifactorial nature of bTB dynamics. The risk factors related to recently infected neighboring herds could be attributable to

  3. 9 CFR 78.9 - Cattle from herds not known to be affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle from herds not known to be... BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.9 Cattle from herds not known to be affected. Male cattle which are not test eligible and are from herds not known to...

  4. 9 CFR 78.9 - Cattle from herds not known to be affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle from herds not known to be... BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.9 Cattle from herds not known to be affected. Male cattle which are not test eligible and are from herds not known to...

  5. 9 CFR 78.9 - Cattle from herds not known to be affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle from herds not known to be... BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.9 Cattle from herds not known to be affected. Male cattle which are not test eligible and are from herds not known to...

  6. Kappa-casein polymorphisms among cattle breeds and bison herds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, M.A.; Cockett, N.

    1993-01-01

    We identified the HindIII restriction site polymorphism Of kappa-casein in cattle reported by Pinder et al. (Animal Genetics 22, 11, 1991) and found an additonal polymorphism (RsaI) in cattle and bison. The Hin dIII and Rsa I restriction sites were mapped and three haplotypes (alleles) were identified. Preliminary screening of 39 cattle and 71 bison revealed one allele restricted to cattle, one restricted to bison, and one shared by the species. No fixed allelic differences were observed among cattle breeds or among bison herds or subspecies.

  7. 9 CFR 78.9 - Cattle from herds not known to be affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.9 Cattle from herds not... this part and this section. Test-eligible cattle which are not brucellosis exposed and are from herds... brucellosis exposed, and are from a herd not known to be affected may be moved interstate from Class...

  8. 9 CFR 78.9 - Cattle from herds not known to be affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.9 Cattle from herds not... this part and this section. Test-eligible cattle which are not brucellosis exposed and are from herds... brucellosis exposed, and are from a herd not known to be affected may be moved interstate from Class...

  9. Kobuvirus (Aichivirus B) infection in Brazilian cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Juliane; Lorenzetti, Elis; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2014-06-01

    There are few studies involving the detection of Aichivirus B in cattle herds worldwide, and this virus has never been diagnosed in South America. This study evaluated 222 diarrhoeic faecal samples from four Brazilian geographical regions (South, Southeast, Midwest, and North), collected between February 2010 to May 2012. To evaluate the frequency of occurrence in different types of livestock, samples from beef (n = 105) and dairy (n = 117) cattle herds were evaluated. To determine the category of animals more susceptible to infection, the sampling included samples from calves (n = 182) and adults animals (n = 40). The 216 bp fragment of the Aichivirus RdRp gene was amplified by a RT-PCR assay in 18.2 % (40/222) of the samples evaluated in both beef and dairy cattle animals. The highest (P < 0.05) detection rate (20.9 %; 38/182) of the Aichivirus B was found in calves. The nucleotide sequencing analysis showed that the Brazilian Aichivirus B strains clustered in a distinct branch in the phylogenetic tree of the European and Asiatic strains. This is the first description of Aichivirus B infection in Brazilian cattle herds. PMID:24590582

  10. Reproductive Systems for North American Beef Cattle Herds.

    PubMed

    Larson, Robert L; White, Brad J

    2016-07-01

    A systems approach to beef cattle reproduction facilitates evaluating the flow of cattle through the herd population based on temporal changes in reproductive and production state. The previous years' timing of calving has either a positive or negative effect on the present year's reproductive success. In order to create and maintain high reproductive success, one must focus on: developing heifers to become pregnant early in the breeding season, ensuring bull breeding soundness, aligning the calving period with optimal resource availability, managing forage and supplementation to ensure good cow body condition going into calving, and minimizing reproductive losses due to disease. PMID:27156223

  11. Herd-level risk factors for Campylobacter fetus infection, Brucella seropositivity and within-herd seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle in northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Mai, H M; Irons, P C; Kabir, J; Thompson, P N

    2013-09-01

    Brucellosis and campylobacteriosis are economically important diseases affecting bovine reproductive efficiency in Nigeria. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in 271 cattle herds in Adamawa, Kaduna and Kano states of northern Nigeria using multistage cluster sampling. Serum from 4745 mature animals was tested for Brucella antibodies using the Rose-Bengal plate test and positives were confirmed in series-testing protocol using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Preputial scrapings from 602 bulls were tested using culture and identification for Campylobacter fetus. For each disease, a herd was classified as positive if one or more animals tested positive. For each herd, information on potential managemental and environmental risk factors was collected through a questionnaire administered during an interview with the manager, owner or herdsman. Multiple logistic regression models were used to model the odds of herd infection for each disease. A zero-inflated Poisson model was used to model the count of Brucella-positive animals within herds, with the number tested as an exposure variable. The presence of small ruminants (sheep and/or goats) on the same farm, and buying-in of >3 new animals in the previous year or failure to practice quarantine were associated with increased odds of herd-level campylobacteriosis and brucellosis, as well as increased within-herd counts of Brucella-positive animals. In addition, high rainfall, initial acquisition of animals from markets, practice of gynaecological examination and failure to practice herd prophylactic measures were positively associated with the odds of C. fetus infection in the herd. Herd size of >15, pastoral management system and presence of handling facility on the farm were associated with increased odds, and gynaecological examination with reduced odds of herd-level Brucella seropositivity. Furthermore, the zero-inflated Poisson model showed that borrowing or sharing of bulls was associated with

  12. Local Cattle and Badger Populations Affect the Risk of Confirmed Tuberculosis in British Cattle Herds

    PubMed Central

    Vial, Flavie; Johnston, W. Thomas; Donnelly, Christl A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains a priority on the public health agenda in Great Britain, after launching in 1998 the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT) to evaluate the effectiveness of badger (Meles meles) culling as a control strategy. Our study complements previous analyses of the RBCT data (focusing on treatment effects) by presenting analyses of herd-level risks factors associated with the probability of a confirmed bTB breakdown in herds within each treatment: repeated widespread proactive culling, localized reactive culling and no culling (survey-only). Methodology/Principal Findings New cases of bTB breakdowns were monitored inside the RBCT areas from the end of the first proactive badger cull to one year after the last proactive cull. The risk of a herd bTB breakdown was modeled using logistic regression and proportional hazard models adjusting for local farm-level risk factors. Inside survey-only and reactive areas, increased numbers of active badger setts and cattle herds within 1500 m of a farm were associated with an increased bTB risk. Inside proactive areas, the number of M. bovis positive badgers initially culled within 1500 m of a farm was the strongest predictor of the risk of a confirmed bTB breakdown. Conclusions/Significance The use of herd-based models provide insights into how local cattle and badger populations affect the bTB breakdown risks of individual cattle herds in the absence of and in the presence of badger culling. These measures of local bTB risks could be integrated into a risk-based herd testing programme to improve the targeting of interventions aimed at reducing the risks of bTB transmission. PMID:21464920

  13. Suboptimal Herd Performance Amplifies the Spread of Infectious Disease in the Cattle Industry

    PubMed Central

    Gates, M. Carolyn; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.

    2014-01-01

    Farms that purchase replacement breeding cattle are at increased risk of introducing many economically important diseases. The objectives of this analysis were to determine whether the total number of replacement breeding cattle purchased by individual farms could be reduced by improving herd performance and to quantify the effects of such reductions on the industry-level transmission dynamics of infectious cattle diseases. Detailed information on the performance and contact patterns of British cattle herds was extracted from the national cattle movement database as a case example. Approximately 69% of beef herds and 59% of dairy herds with an average of at least 20 recorded calvings per year purchased at least one replacement breeding animal. Results from zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed that herds with high average ages at first calving, prolonged calving intervals, abnormally high or low culling rates, and high calf mortality rates were generally more likely to be open herds and to purchase greater numbers of replacement breeding cattle. If all herds achieved the same level of performance as the top 20% of herds, the total number of replacement beef and dairy cattle purchased could be reduced by an estimated 34% and 51%, respectively. Although these purchases accounted for only 13% of between-herd contacts in the industry trade network, they were found to have a disproportionately strong influence on disease transmission dynamics. These findings suggest that targeting extension services at herds with suboptimal performance may be an effective strategy for controlling endemic cattle diseases while simultaneously improving industry productivity. PMID:24671129

  14. Relative contributions of neighbourhood and animal movements to Coxiella burnetii infection in dairy cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Nusinovici, Simon; Hoch, Thierry; Widgren, Stefan; Joly, Alain; Lindberg, Ann; Beaudeau, François

    2014-05-01

    Q fever in dairy cattle herds occurs mainly after inhalation of contaminated aerosols generated from excreta by shedder animals. Propagation of Coxiella burnetii, the cause of the disease between ruminant herds could result from transmission between neighbouring herds and/or the introduction of infected shedder animals in healthy herds. The objective of this study were (i) to describe the spatial distribution C. burnetii-infected dairy cattle herds in two different regions: the Finistère District in France (2,829 herds) and the island of Gotland in Sweden (119 herds) and (ii) to quantify and compare the relative contributions of C. burnetii transmission related to neighbourhood and to animal movements on the risk for a herd to be infected. An enzyme--linked immunosorbent assay was used for testing bulk tank milk in May 2012 and June 2011, respectively. Only one geographical cluster of positive herds was identified in north-western Finistère. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of risk for a herd to test positively with local cattle density (the total number of cattle located in a 5 km radius circle) and the in-degree (ID) parameter, a measure of the number of herds from which each herd had received animals directly within the last 2 years. The risk for a herd to test positively was higher for herds with a higher local cattle density [odds ratio (OR) = 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6-3.2, for herds with a local density between 100 and 120 compared to herds with a local density 60]. The risk was also higher for herds with higher IDs (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6-3.2, for herds with ID 3 compared to herds that did not introduce animals). The proportion of cases attributable to infections in the neighbourhood in high-density areas was twice the proportion attributable to animal movements, suggesting that wind plays a main role in the transmission. PMID:24893024

  15. Association between cattle herd Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection and infection of a hare population.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Miguel; Monti, Gustavo; Sevilla, Iker; Manning, Elizabeth

    2014-10-01

    Paratuberculosis has long been considered a disease of domestic and wild ruminants only. The known host range of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) was recently extended to include non-ruminant wildlife species believed to be exposed to spillover of MAP from infected domestic cattle herds. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between cattle herd MAP infection pressure level and the infection level of a hare population in two dairy farms of southern Chile. Fifty hares from a herd A and 42 hares from herd B were captured and sampled for MAP culture. The results showed a statistically significant association between the cattle herds' infection prevalence and the hare infection prevalence. PMID:25030465

  16. Differential Gene Expression Segregates Cattle Confirmed Positive for Bovine Tuberculosis from Antemortem Tuberculosis Test-False Positive Cattle Originating from Herds Free of Bovine Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ailam; Steibel, Juan P.; Coussens, Paul M.; Grooms, Daniel L.; Bolin, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Antemortem tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) currently used in the US measure cell-mediated immune responses against Mycobacterium bovis. Postmortem tests for bTB rely on observation of gross and histologic lesions of bTB, followed by bacterial isolation or molecular diagnostics. Cumulative data from the state of Michigan indicates that 98 to 99% of cattle that react positively in antemortem tests are not confirmed positive for bTB at postmortem examination. Understanding the fundamental differences in gene regulation between antemortem test-false positive cattle and cattle that have bTB may allow identification of molecular markers that can be exploited to better separate infected from noninfected cattle. An immunospecific cDNA microarray was used to identify altered gene expression (P ≤ 0.01) of 122 gene features between antemortem test-false positive cattle and bTB-infected cattle following a 4-hour stimulation of whole blood with tuberculin. Further analysis using quantitative real-time PCR assays validated altered expression of 8 genes that had differential power (adj  P ≤ 0.05) to segregate cattle confirmed positive for bovine tuberculosis from antemortem tuberculosis test-false positive cattle originating from herds free of bovine tuberculosis. PMID:22701814

  17. Prevalence and distribution of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in cattle herds in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A simple random survey was conducted in Ireland during 2005 to estimate the ELISA-prevalence of paratuberculosis, commonly called Johne's disease (JD), in the cattle population. Serum samples were collected from all 20,322 females/breeding bulls over 12 months-of-age in 639 herds. All samples were tested using a commercially available absorbed ELISA. The overall prevalence of infected herds, based on the presence of at least one ELISA-positive animal, was 21.4% (95% CI 18.4%-24.9%). Herd prevalence levels amongst dairy herds (mean 31.5%; 95% CI: 24.6%, 39.3%) was higher than among beef herds (mean 17.9%; 95% CI: 14.6%-21.8%). However, the animal level prevalence was similar. The true prevalence among all animals tested, was calculated to be 2.86% (95%CI: 2.76, 2.97) and for animals >= 2 yrs, it was 3.30% (95%CI: 3.17, 3.43). For animals in beef herds, true prevalence was 3.09% (95%CI: 2.93, 3.24), and for those in dairy herds, 2.74% (95%CI: 2.59, 2.90). The majority of herds had only one ELISA-positive infected animal. Only 6.4% (95% CI 4.7%-8.7%) of all herds had more than one ELISA-positive infected animal; 13.3% (CI 8.7%-19.7%) of dairy herds ranging from two to eight ELISA-positive infected animals; and, 3.9% beef herds (CI 2.4%-6.2%) ranging from two to five ELISA-positive infected animals. The true prevalence of herds infected and shedding Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis is estimated to be 9.5% for all herd types; 20.6% for dairy herds; and 7.6% for beef herds. If ELISA positive animals <2-years-of-age are excluded, the true herd prevalene reduces to: 9.3% for all herd types; 19.6% for dairy herds; and 6.3% for beef herds based on a test specificity (Sp) of 99.8% and test sensitivity (Se) (i.e., ability to detect culture-positive, infected animals shedding at any level) of 27.8-28.9%. PMID:21851740

  18. Risk factors for herd-level bovine-tuberculosis seropositivity in transhumant cattle in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Oloya, J; Muma, J B; Opuda-Asibo, J; Djønne, B; Kazwala, R; Skjerve, E

    2007-08-16

    We investigated the prevalence and risk factors to positive herd-level tuberculin reactivity between October 2003 to May 2004 to bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in the four transhumant districts of Uganda: three districts (Karamoja region) of nomadic transhumance cattle rearing (30 superherds and 1522 cattle), and one district (Nakasongola) of fixed-transhumance (7 herds and 342 cattle). We used the comparative intradermal skin-test, sampled 50 animals per superherd/herd, and considered herd positive if there was at least one reactor. Of the 30 superherds under nomadic transhumance, 60% (95% CI 41.4, 79) were tuberculin-test positive; of the 7 fixed herds, 14.3% (95% CI -20.7, 49.2) were tuberculin test positive. The true herd prevalence was estimated at 46.6%. Many risk factors were collinear. The final multivariable logistic-regression model included: recent introductions from market (OR=3.4; 95% CI 1.1, 10.3), drinking water form mud holes during dry season (OR=49; 95% CI 9.1, 262), and the presence of monkeys (OR=0.08; 95% CI 0.0, 0.6) or warthogs (OR=0.1; 95% CI 0.0, 0.3). No association was found between herd size or number of herd contacts with reactors; it was probably masked by the effect of high between-herd interactions. Provision of water from mud holes in dry river beds and introductions of new animals are risk factors that might be targeted to control BTB in transhumance areas. PMID:17482694

  19. Spread of Coxiella burnetii between dairy cattle herds in an enzootic region: modelling contributions of airborne transmission and trade.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Pranav; Hoch, Thierry; Ezanno, Pauline; Beaudeau, François; Vergu, Elisabeta

    2016-01-01

    Q fever, a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a looming concern for livestock and public health. Epidemiological features of inter-herd transmission of C. burnetii in cattle herds by wind and trade of cows are poorly understood. We present a novel dynamic spatial model describing the inter-herd regional spread of C. burnetii in dairy cattle herds, quantifying the ability of airborne transmission and animal trade in C. burnetii propagation in an enzootic region. Among all the new herd infections, 92% were attributed to airborne transmission and the rest to cattle trade. Infections acquired following airborne transmission were shown to cause relatively small and ephemeral intra-herd outbreaks. On the contrary, disease-free herds purchasing an infectious cow experienced significantly higher intra-herd prevalence. The results also indicated that, for short duration, both transmission routes were independent from each other without any synergistic effect. The model outputs applied to the Finistère department in western France showed satisfactory sensitivity (0.71) and specificity (0.80) in predicting herd infection statuses at the end of one year in a neighbourhood of 3 km around expected incident herds, when compared with data. The model developed here thus provides important insights into the spread of C. burnetii between dairy cattle herds and paves the way for implementation and assessment of control strategies. PMID:27048416

  20. Reproductive Systems for North American Dairy Cattle Herds.

    PubMed

    Chebel, Ricardo C; Ribeiro, Eduardo S

    2016-07-01

    Reproductive inefficiency compromises the profitability of dairy herds and the health and longevity of individual cows. In the average dairy herd, the combination of estrus detection and ovulation synchronization protocols yields the best economic return. Genomic selection of animals is particularly profitable in situations in which little is known about their genetic potential. Biosensor systems in milking parlors may allow for the design of reproductive strategies tailored for cows according to their physiologic needs while optimizing economic return. PMID:27324450

  1. Modeling Tuberculosis Dynamics, Detection and Control in Cattle Herds

    PubMed Central

    Bekara, Mohammed El Amine; Courcoul, Aurélie; Bénet, Jean-Jacques; Durand, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological models are key tools for designing and evaluating detection and control strategies against animal infectious diseases. In France, after decades of decrease of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) incidence, the disease keeps circulating. Increasing prevalence levels are observed in several areas, where the detection and control strategy could be adapted. The objective of this work was to design and calibrate a model of the within-herd transmission of bTB. The proposed model is a stochastic model operating in discrete-time. Three health states were distinguished: susceptible, latent and infected. Dairy and beef herd dynamics and bTB detection and control programs were explicitly represented. Approximate Bayesian computation was used to estimate three model parameters from field data: the transmission parameter when animals are inside (βinside) and outside (βoutside) buildings, and the duration of the latent phase. An independent dataset was used for model validation. The estimated median was 0.43 [0.16–0.84] month−1 for βinside and 0.08 [0.01–0.32] month−1 for βoutside. The median duration of the latent period was estimated 3.5 [2]–[8] months. The sensitivity analysis showed only minor influences of fixed parameter values on these posterior estimates. Validation based on an independent dataset showed that in more than 80% of herds, the observed proportion of animals with detected lesions was between the 2.5% and 97.5% percentiles of the simulated distribution. In the absence of control program and once bTB has become enzootic within a herd, the median effective reproductive ratio was estimated to be 2.2 in beef herds and 1.7 in dairy herds. These low estimates are consistent with field observations of a low prevalence level in French bTB-infected herds. PMID:25254369

  2. OFRG ANALYSIS OF INTESTINAL BACTERIA FROM CATTLE HERDS PERSISTENTLY INFECTED WITH SALMONELLA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella is a foodborne pathogen persistently present in some cattle herds. Some animals are carriers while other animals, despite constant exposure to the pathogen, appear resistant to colonization. One explanation for this phenomenon may be that the extant microbiota of some animals effectivel...

  3. Molecular and serological in-herd prevalence of Anaplasma marginale infection in Texas cattle.

    PubMed

    Hairgrove, Thomas; Schroeder, Megan E; Budke, Christine M; Rodgers, Sandy; Chung, Chungwon; Ueti, Massaro W; Bounpheng, Mangkey A

    2015-04-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis is an infectious, non-contagious disease caused by the rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma marginale (A. marginale). The organism has a global distribution and infects erythrocytes, resulting in anemia, jaundice, fever, abortions and death. Once infected, animals remain carriers for life. The carrier status provides immunity to clinical disease, but is problematic if infected and naïve cattle are comingled. Knowledge of infection prevalence and spatial distribution is important in disease management. The objective of this study was to assess A. marginale infection in-herd prevalence in Texas cattle using both molecular and serological methods. Blood samples from 11 cattle herds within Texas were collected and analyzed by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and a commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Samples from experimentally infected animals were also analyzed and RT-qPCR detected A. marginale infection up to 15 days before cELISA, providing empirical data to support the interpretation of herd prevalence results. Herds with high prevalence were located in the north Texas Rolling Plains and west Trans-Pecos Desert, with RT-qPCR prevalence as high as 82% and cELISA prevalence as high as 88%. Overall prevalence was significantly higher in cattle in north and west Texas compared to cattle in east Texas (p<0.0001 for prevalence based on both RT-qPCR and cELISA). The overall RT-qPCR and cELISA results exhibited 90% agreement (kappa=0.79) and provide the first A. marginale infection prevalence study for Texas cattle using two diagnostic methods. Since cattle are the most important reservoir host for A. marginale and can serve as a source of infection for tick and mechanical transmission, information on infection prevalence is beneficial in the development of prevention and control strategies. PMID:25732914

  4. Distribution of Leptospira Serogroups in Cattle Herds and Dogs in France

    PubMed Central

    Ayral, Florence C.; Bicout, Dominique J.; Pereira, Helena; Artois, Marc; Kodjo, Angeli

    2014-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to identify and describe the distribution pattern of Leptospira serogroups in domestic animals in France. The population consisted of cattle herds and dogs with clinically suspected leptospirosis that were tested at the “Laboratoire des Leptospires” between 2008 and 2011. The laboratory database was queried for records of cattle and dogs in which seroreactivity in Leptospira microagglutination tests was consistent with a recent or current infection, excluding vaccine serogroups in dogs. A total of 394 cattle herds and 232 dogs were diagnosed with clinical leptospirosis, and the results suggested infection by the Leptospira serogroup Australis in 43% and 63%, respectively; by the Leptospira serogroup Grippotyphosa in 17% and 9%, respectively; and by the Leptospira serogroup Sejroe in 33% and 6%, respectively. This inventory of infecting Leptospira serogroups revealed that current vaccines in France are not fully capable of preventing the clinical form of the disease. PMID:25092816

  5. Distribution of Leptospira serogroups in cattle herds and dogs in France.

    PubMed

    Ayral, Florence C; Bicout, Dominique J; Pereira, Helena; Artois, Marc; Kodjo, Angeli

    2014-10-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to identify and describe the distribution pattern of Leptospira serogroups in domestic animals in France. The population consisted of cattle herds and dogs with clinically suspected leptospirosis that were tested at the "Laboratoire des Leptospires" between 2008 and 2011. The laboratory database was queried for records of cattle and dogs in which seroreactivity in Leptospira microagglutination tests was consistent with a recent or current infection, excluding vaccine serogroups in dogs. A total of 394 cattle herds and 232 dogs were diagnosed with clinical leptospirosis, and the results suggested infection by the Leptospira serogroup Australis in 43% and 63%, respectively; by the Leptospira serogroup Grippotyphosa in 17% and 9%, respectively; and by the Leptospira serogroup Sejroe in 33% and 6%, respectively. This inventory of infecting Leptospira serogroups revealed that current vaccines in France are not fully capable of preventing the clinical form of the disease. PMID:25092816

  6. Regional environmental simulation of African cattle herding societies

    SciTech Connect

    Krummel, J.R.; Markin, J.B.; O'Neill, R.V.

    1986-03-01

    Regional analyses of the interaction between human populations and natural resources must integrate landscape scale environmental problems. An approach that considers human culture, environmental processes, and resource needs offers an appropriate methodology. With this methodology, we analyze problems of food availability in African cattle-keeping societies. The analysis interrelates cattle biomass, forage availability, milk and blood production, crop yields, gathering, food subsidies, population, and variable precipitation. While an excess of cattle leads to overgrazing, cattle also serve as valuable food storage mechanisms during low rainfall periods. Food subsidies support higher population levels but do not alter drought-induced population fluctuations. Variable precipitation patterns require solutions that stabilize year-to-year food production and also address problems of overpopulation.

  7. Time budgets of lactating dairy cattle in commercial freestall herds.

    PubMed

    Gomez, A; Cook, N B

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the time budgets of 205 lactating dairy cows housed in 16 freestall barns in Wisconsin and to determine the relationships between components of the time budget and herd- and cow-level fixed effects using mixed models. Using continuous video surveillance, time lying in the stall, time standing in the stall, time standing in the alleys (including drinking), time feeding, and time milking (time out of the pen for milking and transit) during a 24-h period were measured for each cow. In addition, the number of lying bouts and the mean duration of each lying bout per 24-h period were determined. Time milking varied between cows from 0.5 to 6.0 h/d, with a mean ± standard deviation of 2.7 ± 1.1h/d. Time milking was influenced significantly by pen stocking density, and time milking negatively affected time feeding, time lying, and time in the alley, but not time standing in the stall. Locomotion score, either directly or through an interaction with stall base type (a rubber crumb-filled mattress, MAT, or sand bedding, SAND), influenced pen activity. Lame cows spent less time feeding, less time in the alleys, and more time standing in the stalls in MAT herds, but not in SAND herds. The effect of lameness on lying time is complex and dependent on the time available for rest and differences in resting behavior observed between cows in MAT and SAND herds. In MAT herds, rest was characterized by a larger number of lying bouts of shorter duration than in SAND herds (mean = 14.4; confidence interval, CI: 12.4 to 16.5 vs. mean = 10.2; CI: 8.2 to 12.2 bouts per d, and mean = 1.0; CI: 0.9 to 1.1 vs. mean = 1.3, CI: 1.2 to 1.4h bout duration for MAT and SAND herds, respectively). Lameness was associated with an increase in time standing in the stall and a reduction in the mean (CI) number of lying bouts per day from 13.2 (CI: 12.3 to 14.1) bouts/d for nonlame cows to 10.9 (CI: 9.30 to 12.8) bouts/d for moderately lame cows, and an overall

  8. Risk factors for cattle presenting with a confirmed bTB lesion at slaughter, from herds with no evidence of within-herd transmission.

    PubMed

    Clegg, T A; Good, M; More, S J

    2016-04-01

    There has been a national bovine tuberculosis (bTB) eradication programme (BTBEP) in Ireland for many years. All cattle herds are tested at least annually using the Single Intradermal Comparative Tuberculin Test (SICTT). Further, abattoir surveillance is conducted on all animals at the time of slaughter. In the Irish BTBEP, a substantial number of confirmed bTB lesions are detected in non-reactor animals, to SICTT, from Officially Tuberculosis Free (OTF) herds at slaughter. In this study we investigate risk factors for non-reactor animals from OTF herds presenting with a confirmed bTB lesion at slaughter, but with no evidence of within-herd transmission. A case-control study was conducted, with animal as the unit of interest. The case animals were all SICTT non-reactor animals slaughtered in 2012, with a confirmed bTB lesion identified during routine abattoir surveillance and with no evidence of within-herd transmission. Control animals were selected from all SICTT non-reactor animals slaughtered in 2012 from OTF herds where no bTB lesion was found. Four controls matched by age (±1 year) and location (county) were randomly selected for each case. A conditional logistic regression model was developed for univariable and multivariable analysis. The final multivariable model included: number of movements, herd type, herd-size, inconclusive reactor status at any previous test, abattoir and time spent in a herd restricted for bTB. The odds of being a case increased with the number of times an animal had moved herds. Animals from suckler herds were significantly more likely to be a case compared to those from beef herds. The odds of being a case decreased with herd-size and increased as the time spent in a restricted herd increased. There were three key conclusions from this study. Firstly, the main risk factors for animals presenting with a confirmed bTB lesion at slaughter were: previous bTB exposure history, previous inconclusive reactor result at the SICTT, the

  9. Modelling the spread of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) in a managed metapopulation of cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Courcoul, Aurélie; Ezanno, Pauline

    2010-04-21

    In numerous epidemiological models developed within a metapopulation framework, it is assumed that a single infected individual introduced into a patch infects the whole patch and that the proportion of infected individuals into infected patches is consistent over time and among patches. If this approach is relevant for rapidly spreading pathogens, it is less appropriate for moderately spreading pathogens, like the Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV), characterized by a variability in within-patch prevalence. Our objective is to study the respective influence of neighbouring relationships and animal movements on the spread of BVDV in a managed metapopulation of 100 cattle herds. Infection dynamics is represented by two coupled stochastic compartmental models in discrete-time: a within-herd and a between-herd models. Animal movements are mechanistically modelled. They largely influence the BVDV persistence, the prevalence in infected herds and the epidemic size. Neighbouring relationships only influence epidemic size. Whatever the neighbouring relationships, the infection does not persist in the metapopulation without animal movement between herds. The proposed model can be easily adapted for different herd contact structures. PMID:19875250

  10. Prevalence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in Persistently Infected Cattle and BVDV Subtypes in Affected Cattle in Beef Herds in South Central U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) persistently infected (PI) cattle in beef breeding herds was determined in 30 herds with 4530 calves. The samples collected by ear notches were tested for BVDV antigen using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and antigen capture ELISA (ACE). Animals wit...

  11. Risk factors for the between-herd spread of Mycobacterium bovis in Canadian cattle and cervids between 1985 and 1994.

    PubMed

    Munroe, F A; Dohoo, I R; McNab, W B; Spangler, L

    1999-07-20

    Microorganisms of the genus Mycobacterium cause tuberculosis in many animal species including humans. Generally, Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) infects cattle and cervids, but it has the potential to infect virtually all species of mammals. This study examined and analysed the data from the nine outbreaks of tuberculosis in Canadian cattle and cervids from 1985 to 1994. For the purposes of this study, a positive herd was one with at least one culture-positive animal. A reactor herd had at least one animal which was positive or suspicious on a mid-cervical, comparative cervical, or gross or histopathologic test for tuberculosis. Herd classification was either reactor/positive or negative. Data for the study were collected from the outbreak records in the Regional or District offices of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Logistic regression was used to study spread of tuberculosis between herds. Two risk factors were identified: increasing herd size; and, the reason why a herd was investigated as part of the outbreak. This latter factor was interpreted as a surrogate measure for the nature of contact between the study herd and other potentially infected herds in the outbreak. Increasing herd size was associated with an increased risk of being positive for tuberculosis with herds of 16-35, 36-80, and >80 animals having odds ratios of 2.9, 5.8, and 9.3, respectively, when compared to a herd size of <16 animals (p < 0.001). When compared to perimeter testing (i.e. testing herds within a specified radius of an infected herd), all other reasons for investigation had higher odds ratios (p < 0.001). These odds ratios were 57.8 for traceout herds (i.e. herds which had purchased animal(s) from a reactor/positive herd), 31.8 for herds with pasture or fence-line contact with a reactor/positive herd, and 14.9 for traceback herds (i.e. herds which had been a source of animals for reactor/positive herd(s)). PMID:10448941

  12. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in dairy cattle herds in northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nilnont, Theerakul; Aiumlamai, Suneerat; Kanistanont, Kwankate; Inchaisri, Chaidate; Kampa, Jaruwan

    2016-08-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus causes a wide range of clinical manifestation with subsequent economic losses in dairy production worldwide. Our study of a population of dairy cattle in Thailand based on 933 bulk tank milk samples from nine public milk collection centers aimed to monitor infective status and to evaluate the effect of the infection in cows as well as to examine the reproductive performance of heifers to provide effective recommendations for disease control in Thailand. The results showed a moderate antibody-positive prevalence in the herd (62.5 %), with the proportion of class-3 herd, actively infected stage, being 17.3 %. Fourteen persistently infected (PI) animals were identified among 1196 young animals from the class-3 herds. Most of the identified PI animals, 11/14, were born in one sub-area where bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) investigation has not been performed to date. With respect to reproductive performance, class-3 herds also showed higher median values of reproductive indices than those of class-0 herds. Cows and heifers in class-3 herds had higher odds ratio of calving interval (CI) and age at first service (AFS) above the median, respectively, compared to class-0 herds (OR = 1.29; P = 0.02 and OR = 1.63; P = 0.02). Our study showed that PI animals were still in the area that was previously studied. Furthermore, a newly studied area had a high prevalence of BVDV infection and the infection affected the reproductive performance of cows and heifers. Although 37.5 % of the population was free of BVDV, the lack of official disease prevention and less awareness of herd biosecurity may have resulted in continuing viral spread and silent economic losses have potentially occurred due to BVDV. We found that BVDV is still circulating in the region and, hence, a national control program is required. PMID:27154218

  13. Risk factors for foot and mouth disease outbreaks in grazing beef cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Elnekave, E; Zamir, L; Hamd, F; Even Tov, B; Klement, E

    2015-06-15

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is considered one of the most important diseases of cattle. Recurrence of FMD outbreaks in Israel is common, even though routine vaccination of livestock is mandatory and control measures are applied during the outbreaks. Grazing beef herds are occasionally involved in these outbreaks and play an important role in disseminating the disease, due to the large efflux of animals from these herds to feedlots. Nevertheless, the risk factors for the occurrence of FMD among these herds have never been investigated. In 2011, Israel faced a large scale outbreak of serotype O FMD virus, which strongly affected beef cattle. We conducted a case-control study of 44 beef cattle herds grazing in the Golan Heights in order to determine the risk factors for FMDV infection. Data were analyzed using a generalized estimation equation (GEE) with a logit link function. Multivariable analysis was conducted for factors with p-value lower than 0.1 in the univariable analysis. The presence of calves under 6 months of age was found as a significant risk factor for FMDV infection in the univariable analysis (odds ratio (OR)=5.95, confidence intervals of 95% (CI95%)=1.59-22.29, p=0.008). This was also the only variable that remained statistically significant in the multivariable analysis. Herds in which more than 6 months between vaccination of adults and exposure had elapsed were in higher risk, albeit not statistically significant, for the occurrence of FMDV infection (OR=3.29, CI95%=0.83-12.99, p=0.089). The higher probability of infection in herds, which included young calves may be a result of their higher susceptibility due to administration of only one or no vaccine prior to the outbreak. The results of the study thus support increasing the frequency of vaccination of both cows and calves in grazing beef herds. Intensifying surveillance where young calves are abundant may also prove efficient for early detection of infected herds and for mitigating outbreaks

  14. Use of herd management programmes to improve the reproductive performance of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    McDougall, S; Heuer, C; Morton, J; Brownlie, T

    2014-05-01

    There has been a long history of herd health and production management programmes in many dairy industries around the world, but evidence for the efficacy of such programmes is limited. In response to a perceived decline in fertility of dairy cows, a herd reproductive management programme (InCalf) was introduced in New Zealand in 2007. This programme uses a management cycle approach that includes an assessment of the current herd status, identification of areas for improvement, development of a plan, implementation of this plan and finally a review process. The programme uses facilitators who work with farmers either in a one-to-one manner or in a formalised group setting that involves a series of meetings over a 12-month period (the farmer action group). The hypothesis that involvement in a reproductive management programme would improve herd reproductive performance was tested using a herd-level controlled randomised study (the National Herd Fertility Study) involving herds in four geographic regions of New Zealand over 2 years. Within each region, herds were ranked on the basis of the 6-week in-calf rate (i.e. the proportion of the herd pregnant in the first 6 weeks of the seasonal breeding programme) in the year preceding commencement of the study and then randomly assigned to be involved in a farmer action group or left as untreated controls. The key outcome variable of the study was the 6-week in-calf rate. Pregnancy diagnosis was undertaken at 12 weeks after the start of the seasonal breeding programme, which allowed determination of conception dates and hence calculation of the 6-week in-calf rate. Additional measurements including heifer live weight and body condition score (pre-calving and pre-mating) were undertaken to test whether treatment resulted in measurable changes in some of the key determinants of herd reproductive performance. Involvement in the farmer action group of InCalf resulted in a 2 percentage point increase in the 6-week in-calf rate

  15. Seroprevalence of leptospiral infection in feline population in urban and dairy cattle herds in Mashhad, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Talebkhan Garoussi, Massoud; Mehravaran, Mohsen; Abdollahpour, Gholamreza; Khoshnegah, Javad

    2015-01-01

    The importance of cats in the Leptospira epidemiology is due to the possibility of transferring leptospirosis to wild and domesticated animals. The purpose of this survey was to determine the prevalence of Leptospira infection in shorthair cats in different location of Mashhad, Iran. Totally, 147 blood samples were taken from 42 (28.57%), 52 (35.37%) and 53 (36.05%) households, stray and cats which lived in industrial dairy cattle herds of Mashhad, Iran, respectively. Sera were tested with seven live Leptospira antigens using microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Sera with 50.00% agglutination at the dilution of ≥ 1/100 were considered as positive samples. Agglutination at dilutions of < 1/100 considered as suspected to Leptospira infection. Overall, 19 (12.92%) out of 147 cats showed reaction in MAT. The seroprevalence at a titer ≥ 1:100 and < 1:100 were 10 (6.80%) and 9 (6.12%), respectively. Serum samples showed positive reaction against Leptospira intterogans hardjo (no = 10; 52.63%), pomona (no = 5; 26.31%) and icterohaemorrhagiae (no = 4; 21.05%). Eight cats (42.10%) belong to dairy cattle herds had the most infection only by L. I. hardjo with 1:200 titer. There were no significant differences among the weight‚ age and sex of infected cats. However, there were significant differences between the infected cats in dairy cattle herds and the cats in the urban area (p < 0.05). It is concluded that cats can be infected by Leptospira spp. especially in commercial dairy cattle herds. Cats can be considered as a sanitation hazards in the area for this zoonotic disease. PMID:26973765

  16. Polioencephalomalacia in cattle consuming water with elevated sodium sulfate levels: A herd investigation

    PubMed Central

    Hamlen, Heidi; Clark, Edward; Janzen, Eugene

    1993-01-01

    Polioencephalomalacia (PEM), hereafter used to refer to the specific lesion of cerebrocortical necrosis, developed in 11 of 110 mature cattle on pasture in central Saskatchewan. The primary water source contained a markedly elevated level of sodium sulfate (7200 ppm). The significant clinical findings of the herd investigation included depression, ataxia, cortical blindness, dysphagia, and death. Diagnosis of PEM was confirmed by histopathological evidence of cerebrocortical and subcortical necrosis with microvascular fibrinoid necrosis predominantly in the thalamic region of three affected cattle. The histopathology of sulfate-associated PEM observed in this herd appears to be unique and its features are presented and discussed. Mean levels for serum transketolase, copper, red blood cell transketolase activity, and thiamine (vitamin B1) in all exposed young (n = 100) and mature (n = 99) animals did not reveal evidence of deficiencies. Although the blood thiamine status of the seven surviving, affected animals was not evaluated before treatment with exogenous thiamine, 199 members of the herd had blood thiamine levels within the reference range at the time of the outbreak. The outbreak resolved after cattle were moved to a water source containing acceptable levels of sodium sulfate. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17424182

  17. Haemophilus somnus Infections I. A Ten Year (1969-1978) Retrospective Study of Losses in Cattle Herds in Western Canada

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, J. R.; Thiessen, W. A.; Janzen, E. D.

    1980-01-01

    A total of 838 outbreaks of fatal Haemophilus somnus infections in herds of cattle were diagnosed at provincial veterinary laboratories in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia during the period 1969-1978. The index cases from these outbreaks included 759 cases of thromboembolic meningoencephalitis, 78 cases of fibrinous pneumonia with pleuritis and one case of H. somnus abortion. The epizootics were subdivided on the basis of province, class and age of cattle and seasonal occurrence. Most outbreaks occurred in a feedlot-type of operation, approximately four weeks after arrival of the cattle. There was often a history of respiratory disease prior to an outbreak and in some cases thromboembolic meningoencephalitis had occurred in the herd the preceding year. The average morbidity-mortality ratio was 2.7/1. The average economic loss per herd was $3 190 based on an average of 15 sick animals and five deaths per affected herd. PMID:7397616

  18. Effect of aggregation of horn fly populations within cattle herds and consequences for sampling to obtain unbiased estimates of abundance.

    PubMed

    Lysyk, T J; Steelman, C D

    2004-07-01

    Reanalysis of counts of horn fly, Hematobia irritans (L.), obtained from a variety of cattle herds indicated that aggregation of the flies within herds decreased as mean fly density increased. Aggregation was also related to the proportion of fly-resistant and fly-susceptible cattle in a herd. Herds were grouped according to their degree of horn fly aggregation. Low aggregation herds included larger framed Angus, Horned Hereford, Polled Hereford, and Red Poll breeds. Moderate aggregation occurred with Brahman, Charolais, small-framed Angus, mixed cows, and Hereford x Charolais cross. High aggregation occurred with Chianina and mixed herds. Relationships between the sample means and variances varied among aggregation groups. A resampling approach was used to determine the influence of random sampling of a herd on the proportion of horn fly population estimates within fixed percentages of the true mean. The proportion of sample means within +/- 5, 10, 15, and 20% of the true means varied with the proportion of the herd sampled, the mean and variance of fly density, and herd size. Recommendations for obtaining sample size to estimate fly density within a fixed percentage of the true mean are given. PMID:15311450

  19. Optimizing productivity, herd structure, environmental performance, and profitability of dairy cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Liang, D; Cabrera, V E

    2015-04-01

    This study used the Integrated Farm System Model to simulate the whole farm performance of a representative Wisconsin dairy farm and predict its economic and environmental outputs based on 25 yr of daily local weather data (1986 to 2010). The studied farm, located in southern Wisconsin, had 100 milking cows and 100 ha of cropland with no replacement heifers kept on the farm. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the effect of management strategies on energy-corrected milk production (ECM; 4.0% fat and 3.5% protein), net return to management, and greenhouse gas (GHG; including biogenic CO2) emission. The management strategies included (1) target milk production, for which the model optimized available resources to attain, and (2) herd structure, represented by the percentage of first-lactation cows. Weather conditions affected the outputs by changing the farm quantity and the quality of produced feed resources. As expected, when target milk production increased, the ECM increased positively and linearly to a certain level, and then it increased nonlinearly at a decreasing rate, constrained by available feed nutrients. Thereafter, the ECM reached the maximum potential milk production and remained flat regardless of higher target milk production input. Greenhouse gas emissions decreased between 3.4 and 7.3% at different first-lactation cow percentages. As the first-lactation cow percent increased from 15 to 45% in 5% intervals, GHG increased between 9.4 and 11.3% at different levels of target milk production. A high percentage of first-lactation cows reduced the maximum potential milk production. Net return to management had a similar changing trend as ECM. As the target milk production increased from 9,979 to 11,793 kg, the net return to management increased between 31 and 46% at different first-lactation cow percentages. Results revealed a win-win situation when increasing milk production or improving herd structure, which concurrently increased farm net

  20. Campylobacter jejuni abortions in two beef cattle herds in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Janzen, Eugene D.; Chirino-Trejo, Manuel; Berry, Catherine; Clark, Edward G.; Haines, Deborah M.

    1990-01-01

    Abortions, accompanied by placental retention and weight loss, occurred during February and March in 19% of 120 and 10% of 108 beef cows and heifers on two neighboring ranches in southern Saskatchewan. A diagnosis of Campylobacter jejuni abortion was made based on lesions of necrotizing and suppurative placentitis and fetal bronchopneumonia in association with the culture of large numbers of C. jejuni from placentas and fetal tissues. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated with variable frequency from fecal samples of aborting and healthy cows, and scouring and healthy calves. Campylobacter jejuni serotype 2 (Lior) was isolated from fetal tissues and feces of a scouring calf, whereas C. jejuni serotypes 1, 4, 5 and 99 were isolated from feces of in-contact cattle. We hypothesized that the source and mode of transmission of C. jejuni was fecal contamination of water supplies and feeding grounds by carrier cows or wildlife. PMID:17423586

  1. Incorporation of aurochs into a cattle herd in Neolithic Europe: single event or breeding?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schibler, Jörg; Elsner, Julia; Schlumbaum, Angela

    2014-07-01

    Domestication is an ongoing process continuously changing the lives of animals and humans and the environment. For the majority of European cattle (Bos taurus) genetic and archaeozoological evidence support initial domestication ca. 11'000 BP in the Near East from few founder aurochs (Bos primigenius) belonging to the mitochondrial DNA T macro-haplogroup. Gene flow between wild European aurochs of P haplogroup and domestic cattle of T haplogroup, coexisting over thousands of years, appears to have been sporadic. We report archaeozoological and ancient DNA evidence for the incorporation of wild stock into a domestic cattle herd from a Neolithic lake-dwelling in Switzerland. A complete metacarpus of a small and compact adult bovid is morphologically and genetically a female. With withers height of ca. 112 cm, it is comparable in size with small domestic cattle from contemporaneous sites in the area. The bone is directly dated to 3360-3090 cal BC and associated to the Horgen culture, a period of the secondary products revolution. The cow possessed a novel mtDNA P haplotype variant of the European aurochs. We argue this is either a single event or, based on osteological characteristics of the Horgen cattle, a rare instance of intentional breeding with female aurochs.

  2. Incorporation of aurochs into a cattle herd in Neolithic Europe: single event or breeding?

    PubMed

    Schibler, Jörg; Elsner, Julia; Schlumbaum, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Domestication is an ongoing process continuously changing the lives of animals and humans and the environment. For the majority of European cattle (Bos taurus) genetic and archaeozoological evidence support initial domestication ca. 11'000 BP in the Near East from few founder aurochs (Bos primigenius) belonging to the mitochondrial DNA T macro-haplogroup. Gene flow between wild European aurochs of P haplogroup and domestic cattle of T haplogroup, coexisting over thousands of years, appears to have been sporadic. We report archaeozoological and ancient DNA evidence for the incorporation of wild stock into a domestic cattle herd from a Neolithic lake-dwelling in Switzerland. A complete metacarpus of a small and compact adult bovid is morphologically and genetically a female. With withers height of ca. 112 cm, it is comparable in size with small domestic cattle from contemporaneous sites in the area. The bone is directly dated to 3360-3090 cal BC and associated to the Horgen culture, a period of the secondary products revolution. The cow possessed a novel mtDNA P haplotype variant of the European aurochs. We argue this is either a single event or, based on osteological characteristics of the Horgen cattle, a rare instance of intentional breeding with female aurochs. PMID:25052335

  3. Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) infected and noninfected cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Juránková, J; Kamler, M; Kovařčík, K; Koudela, B

    2013-02-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi known as a causative agent of opportunistic infections instigating diarrhoea in AIDS patients was identified also in a number of immunocompetent patients and in a wide range of animals, including cattle. In the present study we tested if the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), the most common pathogen underlying immunosuppressive Bovine Viral Diarrhoea (BVD), can enhance the occurrence of opportunistic infections with E. bieneusi in cattle. Six dairy farms were investigated using ELISA to detect antibodies against or antigens arising from BVDV in collected sera. A total of 240 individual faecal samples from four age groups were examined for the presence of E. bieneusi by nested PCR. Sequence analysis of six E. bieneusi positive samples revealed the presence of the genotype I of E. bieneusi, previously described in cattle. The hypothesis expecting higher prevalence of E. bieneusi in BVDV positive cattle herds was not confirmed in this study; however this is the first description about E. bieneusi in cattle in the Czech Republic. PMID:22858000

  4. Incorporation of aurochs into a cattle herd in Neolithic Europe: single event or breeding?

    PubMed Central

    Schibler, Jörg; Elsner, Julia; Schlumbaum, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Domestication is an ongoing process continuously changing the lives of animals and humans and the environment. For the majority of European cattle (Bos taurus) genetic and archaeozoological evidence support initial domestication ca. 11'000 BP in the Near East from few founder aurochs (Bos primigenius) belonging to the mitochondrial DNA T macro-haplogroup. Gene flow between wild European aurochs of P haplogroup and domestic cattle of T haplogroup, coexisting over thousands of years, appears to have been sporadic. We report archaeozoological and ancient DNA evidence for the incorporation of wild stock into a domestic cattle herd from a Neolithic lake-dwelling in Switzerland. A complete metacarpus of a small and compact adult bovid is morphologically and genetically a female. With withers height of ca. 112 cm, it is comparable in size with small domestic cattle from contemporaneous sites in the area. The bone is directly dated to 3360–3090 cal BC and associated to the Horgen culture, a period of the secondary products revolution. The cow possessed a novel mtDNA P haplotype variant of the European aurochs. We argue this is either a single event or, based on osteological characteristics of the Horgen cattle, a rare instance of intentional breeding with female aurochs. PMID:25052335

  5. Prevalence, quantitative load and genetic diversity of Campylobacter spp. in dairy cattle herds in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic disease, and animals such as poultry, pigs and cattle may act as reservoirs for Campylobacter spp. Cattle shed Campylobacter spp. into the environment and they can act as a reservoir for human infection directly via contact with cattle or their faeces or indirectly by consumption of contaminated food. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, the quantitative load and the genetic strain diversity of Campylobacter spp. in dairy cattle of different age groups. Results Faecal samples of 200 dairy cattle from three farms in the central part of Lithuania were collected and examined for Campylobacter. Cattle herds of all three farms were Campylobacter spp. positive, with a prevalence ranging from 75% (farm I), 77.5% (farm II) to 83.3% (farm III). Overall, the highest prevalence was detected in calves (86.5%) and heifers (86.2%). In contrast, the lowest Campylobacter prevalence was detectable in dairy cows (60.6%). C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari and C. fetus subsp. fetus were identified in faecal samples of dairy cattle. C. upsaliensis was not detectable in any sample. The high counts of Campylobacter spp. were observed in faecal material of dairy cattle (average 4.5 log10 cfu/g). The highest numbers of Campylobacter spp. were found in faecal samples from calves (average 5.3 log10 cfu/g), whereas, faecal samples from cows harboured the lowest number of Campylobacter spp. (average 3.7 log10 cfu/g). Genotyping by flaA PCR-RFLP analysis of selected C. jejuni isolates showed that some genotypes were present in all farms and all age groups. However, farm or age specific genotypes were also identified. Conclusions Future studies are needed to investigate risk factors related to the degree of colonisation in cattle. Based on that, possible measures to reduce the colonisation and subsequent shedding of Campylobacter in cattle could be established. It is important to further investigate the epidemiology of Campylobacter in the

  6. Bovine hypodermosis in indigenous cattle herd and its successful therapeutic management.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Sudan, Vikrant; Kumar, Pradeep; Srivastava, Ashish; Shanker, Daya

    2016-03-01

    Warble fly infestation in cattle is a serious problem throughout the world. In India, it is mainly reported from northern parts of the country and is caused by the larvae of Hypoderma lineatum. The disease causes huge economic losses to animal production like milk and leather industry. The present article reports the outbreak and subsequent successful treatment of Warble fly infestation from an indigenous cattle herd. The animals were clinally examined for the presence of warbles and the larvae were collected by pressing the swellings on the back. The larvae were brought to the laboratory and were morphologically examined and morphometry was done. The animals were administered specific therapy consisting of two doses of subcutaneous injection of Ivermectin at weekly intervals. The epidemiology of the disease, its patho physiological impact on the animal and various strategies for clinical management are being described in the article. PMID:27065619

  7. Herd outbreak of bovine tuberculosis illustrates that route of infection correlates with anatomic distribution of lesions in cattle and cats.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Scott D; Hollinger, Charlotte; Mullaney, Thomas P; Bruning-Fann, Colleen S; Tilden, John; Smith, Rick; Averill, James; Kaneene, John B

    2016-03-01

    An outbreak of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in a Michigan dairy herd resulted in quarantine, depopulation, pathology, and epidemiologic investigations. This herd, compared to other TB-infected herds in Michigan, was unusual in the long-term feeding of waste milk to its replacement calves. The herd had 80 cattle with positive results on caudal fold test or gamma interferon testing, which were reclassified as suspects because the herd had never been known to be tuberculous previously. Autopsy revealed striking variation in the anatomic distribution of gross anatomic lesions, microscopic lesions, and culture-positive lymph nodes between the adult cattle, the calves, and the domestic cats present on the farm. Adult cattle had lesions and culture-positive lymph nodes predominantly within the thoracic lymph nodes, whereas cats had 50% of their lesions and culture-positive lymph nodes in their abdomens, and 50% of positive calves had culture-positive lymph nodes in their abdomens. This difference in anatomic distribution correlated with the likely routes of infection, which are believed to be by direct airborne transmission in adult cattle and indirect ingestion of contaminated milk in both calves and cats. Although TB literature over the past 100-plus years states that the route of infection may manifest itself in differences in lesion anatomic distribution, our team has been working with TB for over 20 years, and we have never encountered such striking variation between different groups of animals on the same farm. PMID:26965232

  8. Prevalence and risk factors for Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) in Dutch dairy cattle herds based on bulk tank milk testing.

    PubMed

    van Engelen, E; Schotten, N; Schimmer, B; Hautvast, J L A; van Schaik, G; van Duijnhoven, Y T H P

    2014-11-01

    Despite cattle herds can harbor Coxiella burnetii, risk factors for C. burnetii presence in dairy cattle herds are largely unknown. Therefore, C. burnetii herd prevalence and risk factors for bulk tank milk (BTM) positivity were investigated. In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was filled out by the farmer and BTM from 301 farms was tested by ELISA for presence of C. burnetii antibodies and PCR for presence of C. burnetii DNA. Risk factors were identified by univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Antibodies to C. burnetii were detected in 81.6% (CI: 77.2-85.9) and C. burnetii DNA in 18.8% (CI: 14.4-23.1) of the BTM samples. Herd size (OR=1.1 per 10 cows), cleaning the bedding of the cubicles at most every other day (OR=2.8) and purchase of cattle from at least two addresses (OR=3.1) showed a significant and positive association with ELISA positivity and use of an automatic milking system a negative association (OR=0.3). Risk factors for PCR positivity were purchase of cattle from at least two delivery addresses (OR=3.2), presence of cows with ticks (OR=2.0), use of an automatic milking system (OR=0.2) and presence of goats or sheep on the farm (OR=0.4). Biosecurity and general hygiene seem associated with introduction and spread of C. burnetii in dairy herds. PMID:25239684

  9. Evaluation of BHV-1 antibody titer in a cattle herd against different BHV-1 strains.

    PubMed

    Lee, Megan; Reed, Aimee; Estill, Charles; Izume, Satoko; Dong, Jing; Jin, Ling

    2015-09-30

    Although modified-live multivalent vaccines, such as PregGuard GOLD and Bovi-Shield Gold, have been used routinely in both beef and dairy cattle in the US, abortion and respiratory diseases still occasionally occur following vaccination. To determine whether the antibody induced by the multivalent vaccine can recognize BHV-1 isolates from aborted animals, BHV-1 antibody titer was evaluated with two isolates from abortion cases and two vaccine BHV-1 viruses. Cattle serum was collected from a dairy herd that was vaccinated annually with Bovi-Shield Gold 5 vaccine. Among the 28 cattle tested, no statistical significant difference in serum neutralization titer was observed when test virus was either vaccine virus or clinical isolates. It suggests that the BHV-1 antibody from the vaccinated cattle can recognize both the vaccine virus and clinical isolates. However, it is noticed that cows at 5 years old or older had a significantly lower BHV-1 antibody titer on average than the average of SN titer in 3 year-old cows. Similarly, cows at 5 years or older had a significantly lower BVDV antibody titer than cows at about 2 years of age. In addition, cattle vaccinated within 0-2 months had a significantly higher BHV-1 titer than those that received vaccination 6 months or greater prior to titer measurement. In contrast, cattle that received a vaccination 6 months prior had a significantly higher anti-BVDV antibody titer than those vaccinated within 1-2 months. The BVDV antibody titers remained relatively unchanged between 6 months and 1 year post-vaccination. Our study suggests little antigenic variation exists between BHV-1 disease isolates and BHV-1 of the multivalent vaccines. In addition, BHV-1 antibody titer is relatively lower at 6 months post vaccination in those tested animals. However, the BVDV antibody titer remained relatively high after 6 months from time of vaccination. PMID:26123370

  10. Association of Histophilus somni with spontaneous abortions in dairy cattle herds from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Voltarelli, Daniele; de Oliveira, Victor Henrique Silva; Bronkhorst, Dalton Evert; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; Filho, Luiz Carlos Negri; Okano, Werner; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the participation of infectious agents in spontaneous abortions and reproductive problems at eight dairy cattle herds from three geographical regions of Brazil. Fourteen aborted fetuses and the organ sections of one cow with history of repeated abortions were received for pathological evaluations and molecular diagnostics. PCR/RT-PCR assays targeted specific genes of abortifacient agents of cattle: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Listeria monocytogenes, Neospora caninum, Leptospira spp., Brucella abortus, and Histophilus somni. Six fetuses were adequate for pathological investigations; one of these did not demonstrate remarkable pathological alterations. Significant histopathological findings included vasculitis, hemorrhage, and fibrinous thrombosis of the cerebrum (n = 4); necrotizing myocarditis (n = 3); and hemorrhagic enteritis (n = 3). The placenta and uterus of the cow as well as the kidney, pancreas, and liver of her aborted fetus contained H. somni DNA and demonstrated histopathological evidence of histophilosis. All fetuses contained H. somni DNA in multiple organs. Coinfections of H. somni with B. abortus (n = 2), N. caninum (n = 2), BVDV (n = 1), and BoHV-1 (n = 1) were identified; two fetuses demonstrated three pathogens. These findings suggest that H. somni was associated with the spontaneous abortions and reproductive problems of these herds. However, the exact cause of fetal death might not be attributed only to H. somni in all aborted fetuses, since some of these were infected with other abortifacient agents. PMID:25480485

  11. The relative abundance of a salivary protein, bSP30, is correlated with susceptibility to bloat in cattle herds selected for high or low bloat susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Rajan, G H; Morris, C A; Carruthers, V R; Wilkins, R J; Wheeler, T T

    1996-12-01

    Pasture bloat is a serious economic and animal welfare problem in cattle grazed on legumes in New Zealand. Analysis of salivary proteins from dairy cattle in herds bred for either low or high susceptibility to bloat has resulted in the identification of a 30 kilodalton protein, which we term bSP30, whose relative abundance is negatively correlated with bloat score (r = -0.40 +/- 0.12). From 74 animals sampled, relative abundance of bSP30 was 66 +/- 15% higher in the low-susceptibility herd than in the high-susceptibility herd. Relative abundance of bSP30 also varied significantly within individuals, according to feeding or time of day, and from day to day. A sequence homology search of 38 amino acids derived from three tryptic fragments of the protein suggests that the amino acid sequence of bSP30 has not been described previously. Amino acid analysis indicates that bSP30 is not a member of the proline-rich family of salivary proteins. The function of bSP30 is unknown but it is conceivable that it plays a role in the aetiology of bloat. PMID:9022155

  12. 9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identification and disposal of cattle... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.18 Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart must travel from...

  13. 9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification and disposal of cattle... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.18 Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart must travel from...

  14. 9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Identification and disposal of cattle... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.18 Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart must travel from...

  15. 9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Identification and disposal of cattle... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.18 Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart must travel from...

  16. 9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identification and disposal of cattle... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.18 Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart must travel from...

  17. ISOLATION OF AN ANTI-SALMONELLA BACTERIUM THAT MAY CONTROL PATHOGEN LOAD IN PERSISTENTLY-INFECTED CATTLE HERDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella is a foodborne pathogen that is persistently present in some cattle herds. Some animals are carriers while other animals appear resistant to colonization, despite their constant exposure to this pathogen. One explanation for this phenomenon may be that the microbiota of resistant animal...

  18. Salmonella Dublin faecal excretion probabilities in cattle with different temporal antibody profiles in 14 endemically infected dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, L R

    2013-09-01

    This longitudinal field study investigated the hypothesis that persistently high antibody levels indicate a high risk of Salmonella Dublin shedding in animals in 14 endemically infected dairy herds. A hierarchical multivariable logistic regression was used to analyse 6614 paired faecal cultures and four types of temporal antibody profiles from cattle aged ≥180 days. Age and repeated measurements on animals nested within herds were taken into account. Overall, the prevalence of faecal shedders was low (0·3% and 2·8% in the lowest and highest risk groups, respectively). An important predictor of faecal shedding was young age. There was a significant, but modest increase in risk in cattle with persistently high or recently increased antibody levels, but no difference between these two groups. Contrary to previous recommendations, the detection of carriers by the use of repeated antibody testing is not likely to be a plausible control option in most Salmonella Dublin-infected dairy herds. PMID:23158650

  19. Prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in persistently infected cattle and BVDV subtypes in affected cattle in beef herds in south central United States.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Robert W; Whitley, Evan M; Johnson, Bill J; Ridpath, Julia F; Kapil, Sanjay; Burge, Lurinda J; Cook, Billy J; Confer, Anthony W

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in persistently infected (PI) cattle in beef breeding herds was determined using 30 herds with 4530 calves. The samples were collected by ear notches and tested for BVDV antigens using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACE). Animals with initial positives on both IHC and ACE were sampled again using both tests and serums were collected for viral propagation and sequencing of a viral genomic region, 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) for viral subtyping. Samples were also collected from the dams of PI calves. There were 25 PI calves from 4530 samples (0.55%) and these PI calves were from 5 of the 30 herds (16.7%). Two herds had multiple PI calves and 3 herds had only 1 PI calf. Only 1 of the 25 dams with a PI calf was also PI (4.0%). The subtype of all the PI isolates was BVDV1b. Histories of the ranches indicated 23 out of 30 had herd additions of untested breeding females. Twenty-four of the 30 herds had adult cowherd vaccinations against BVDV, primarily using killed BVDV vaccines at pregnancy examination. PMID:20046630

  20. Costs and returns of camels, cattle and small ruminants in pastoral herds in eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Baars, R M

    2000-04-01

    Two questionnaire surveys (2 x 44) were conducted among pastoral households, using three grazing management systems. The average number of Tropical Livestock Units (250 kg) was 4.0 per member of the household. Milk production was the most important source of revenue (66% of the total) followed by sale of livestock (17%) and transport (16%). High mortality rates were recorded for all livestock. About 27% of the milk was sold fresh or as butter. Sedentary and transhumant grazing management systems showed similar levels of income, but nomads had a 2.6-fold higher overall net income. The average total gross income from the entire herd amounted to US$ 6382 per household per year. The calculated costs were 29% of the gross returns. The contribution to the total gross revenues of camels, cattle and small ruminants was 58%, 25% and 17%, respectively. PMID:10726300

  1. Prolonged persistence of bovine herpesvirus in small cattle herds: a model-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Mollema, L; de Jong, M C M; van Boven, M

    2005-02-01

    Herpesviruses can remain dormant in once-infected hosts and, upon reactivation, cause such hosts to become infectious. This phenomenon of latency and reactivation may enable herpesviruses to persist for a long time in small host populations. To quantify the effect of reactivation on persistence, the time to extinction of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) in small cattle populations was calculated. For realistic parameter values the mean time to extinction is already more than 100 years in a population of 10 animals. In a population of 20 animals the time to extinction is approximately 2000 years. The effects of vaccination on persistence were also studied, revealing that continued vaccination of the whole population could result in much faster eradication. For instance, in an isolated herd of 20 animals BHV-1 could be eradicated in 44 years. PMID:15724721

  2. A large seroprevalence survey of brucellosis in cattle herds under diverse production systems in northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study was carried out to investigate the status of brucellosis in cattle under various management systems in Adamawa, Kaduna and Kano states, northern Nigeria. Using multi-stage sampling, serum samples of 4,745 cattle from 271 herds were tested using the Rose-Bengal plate-agglutination test (RBPT) and positives were confirmed using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). Results Prevalence estimates were calculated by adjusting for sampling weights and where possible for test sensitivity and specificity. Thirty-seven percent of all animals were RBPT positive, and after confirmation with c-ELISA the overall animal-level prevalence, adjusted for sampling weights, was 26.3% (95% CI, 22.1%-31.0%). Of the herds sampled, 210 (77.5%; 95% CI, 68.6%-84.5%) had at least one animal positive to both tests; this did not differ significantly between states (P = 0.538). Mean within-herd seroprevalence in positive herds was 30.2% (95% CI, 25.3%-35.1%) and ranged from 3.1% to 85.7%. Overall animal-level seroprevalences of 29.2% (95% CI, 22.5%-36.9%) n = 1,827, 23.3% (95% CI, 18.9%-28.3%) n = 1,870 and 26.7% (95% CI, 18.8%-36.7%) n = 1,048 were observed in Adamawa, Kaduna and Kano states, respectively (P = 0.496). A significantly higher seroprevalence was found in males (38.2%; 95% CI, 31.7%-45.2%) than in females (24.7%; 95% CI, 20.4%-29.5%) (P < 0.001) and in non-pregnant females (27.8%; 95% CI, 22.9%-33.5%) than in pregnant females (17.2%; 95% CI, 13.6%-21.5%) (P < 0.001). Seroprevalence increased with increasing age (P < 0.001), from 13.5% (95% CI, 8.9%-19.9%) in cattle <4 years to 35.0% (95% CI, 28.5%-42.3%) in cattle >7 years. Seroprevalence also varied between management systems (P < 0.001): pastoral systems 45.1% (95% CI, 38.6%-51.9%), zero-grazing systems 23.8% (95% CI, 6.8%-59.2%), agro-pastoral systems 22.0% (95% CI, 17.3%-27.8%), and commercial farms 15.9% (95% CI, 9.5%-25.5%). Seroprevalence did not differ

  3. Production of recombinant albumin by a herd of cloned transgenic cattle.

    PubMed

    Echelard, Yann; Williams, Jennifer L; Destrempes, Margaret M; Koster, Julie A; Overton, Susan A; Pollock, Daniel P; Rapiejko, Karen T; Behboodi, Esmail; Masiello, Nicholas C; Gavin, William G; Pommer, Jerry; Van Patten, Scott M; Faber, David C; Cibelli, Jose B; Meade, Harry M

    2009-06-01

    Purified plasma derived human albumin has been available as a therapeutic product since World War II. However, cost effective recombinant production of albumin has been challenging due to the amount needed and the complex folding pattern of the protein. In an effort to provide an abundant source of recombinant albumin, a herd of transgenic cows expressing high levels of rhA in their milk was generated. Expression cassettes efficiently targeting the secretion of human albumin to the lactating mammary gland were obtained and tested in transgenic mice. A high expressing transgene was transfected in primary bovine cell lines to produce karyoplasts for use in a somatic cell nuclear transfer program. Founder transgenic cows were produced from four independent cell lines. Expression levels varying from 1-2 g/l to more than 40 g/l of correctly folded albumin were observed. The animals expressing the highest levels of rhA exhibited shortened lactation whereas cows yielding 1-2 g/l had normal milk production. This herd of transgenic cattle is an easily scalable and well characterized source of rhA for biomedical uses. PMID:19031005

  4. Evaluation of pathogenic serovars of Leptospira interrogans in dairy cattle herds of Shahrekord by PCR

    PubMed Central

    Jafari Dehkordi, A; Shahbazkia, HR; Ronagh, N

    2011-01-01

    Background and objectives Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Leptospira interrogans. Leptospirosis leads to economical losses in dairy farm industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenic serovars of Leptospira interrogans in dairy cattle herds of Shahrekord by PCR. Materials and Methods Two hundred samples (100 urine and 100 blood) were collected from 100 cows randomly and delivered to the laboratory. Samples were stored at -20 °C. DNA was extracted and purified from the plasma and urine samples and concentrated on diatoms in the presence of guanidine thiocyanate (GuSCN). PCR products were detected and identified as Leptospira by ilumination of the expected size of DNA bands after staining of the agarose gel with ethidium bromide gels. PCR products were purified and sequenced. Results The results showed that 28% of urine samples and 23% of plasma samples were contaminated. The major serotypes were Icterohaemorrhagiae (50%) and Pomona (37.5%). The urine samples of 17 cows were positive for Leptospira without positive plasma samples. This indicated that these cows are reservoirs in dairy herds of Shahrekord and dangerous for human health. The plasma samples of twelve cows were positive for Leptospira without positive urine samples. Conclusions Leptospira serotypes can be maintained in relatively dry regions and must be considered when dealing with leptospirosis in dairy farms of Shahrekord and human health. PMID:22347596

  5. Comparison of whole genome sequencing typing results and epidemiological contact information from outbreaks of Salmonella Dublin in Swedish cattle herds

    PubMed Central

    Ågren, Estelle C. C.; Wahlström, Helene; Vesterlund-Carlson, Catrin; Lahti, Elina; Melin, Lennart; Söderlund, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is becoming a routine tool for infectious disease outbreak investigations. The Swedish situation provides an excellent opportunity to test the usefulness of WGS for investigation of outbreaks with Salmonella Dublin (S. Dublin) as epidemiological investigations are always performed when Salmonella is detected in livestock production, and index isolates from all detected herds are stored and therefore available for analysis. This study was performed to evaluate WGS as a tool in forward and backward tracings from herds infected with S. Dublin. Material and methods In this study, 28 isolates from 26 cattle herds were analysed and the WGS results were compared with results from the epidemiological investigations, for example, information on contacts between herds. The isolates originated from herds in three different outbreaks separated geographically and to some extent also in time, and from the only region in Sweden where S. Dublin is endemic (Öland). Results The WGS results of isolates from the three non-endemic regions were reliably separated from each other and from the endemic isolates. Within the outbreaks, herds with known epidemiological contacts generally showed smaller differences between isolates as compared to when there were no known epidemiological contacts. Conclusion The results indicate that WGS can provide valuable supplemental information in S. Dublin outbreak investigations. The resolution of the WGS was sufficient to distinguish isolates from the different outbreaks and provided additional information to the investigations within an outbreak. PMID:27396609

  6. Relative associations of cattle movements, local spread, and biosecurity with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) seropositivity in beef and dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Gates, M C; Woolhouse, M E J; Gunn, G J; Humphry, R W

    2013-11-01

    The success of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) eradication campaigns can be undermined by spread through local transmission pathways and poor farmer compliance with biosecurity recommendations. This work combines recent survey data with cattle movement data to explore the issues likely to impact on the success of BVDV control in Scotland. In this analysis, data from 249 beef suckler herds and 185 dairy herds in Scotland were studied retrospectively to determine the relative influence of cattle movements, local spread, and biosecurity on BVDV seropositivity. Multivariable logistic regression models revealed that cattle movement risk factors had approximately 3 times greater explanatory power than risk factors for local spread amongst beef suckler herds, but approximately the same explanatory power as risk factors for local spread amongst dairy herds. These findings are most likely related to differences in cattle husbandry practices and suggest that where financial prioritization is required, focusing on reducing movement-based risk is likely to be of greatest benefit when applied to beef suckler herds. The reported use of biosecurity measures such as purchasing cattle from BVDV accredited herds only, performing diagnostic screening at the time of sale, implementing isolation periods for purchased cattle, and installing double fencing on shared field boundaries had minimal impact on the risk of beef or dairy herds being seropositive for BVDV. Only 28% of beef farmers and 24% of dairy farmers with seropositive herds recognized that their cattle were affected by BVDV and those that did perceive a problem were no less likely to sell animals as replacement breeding stock and no more likely to implement biosecurity measures against local spread than farmers with no perceived problems. In relation to the current legislative framework for BVDV control in Scotland, these findings emphasize the importance of requiring infected herds take appropriate biosecurity measures

  7. Association of herd BRSV and BHV-1 seroprevalence with respiratory disease and reproductive performance in adult dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to detect the associations between bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) status of a herd and respiratory disease (BRD) occurrence and reproductive performance in pregnant heifers and cows. The association between management-related factors and higher BRD occurrence was also estimated. Methods Serum samples, collected from cows and youngstock from 103 dairy cattle herds, were analyzed for antibodies against BHV-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), and Mycoplasma bovis. A questionnaire was used to collect data concerning herd management factors and reproductive performance, as well as the occurrence of clinical signs of respiratory disease in the last two years, as evaluated by the veterinarian or farm manager. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) and logistic regression analysis were performed to identify and quantify the risk factors. Results A low to moderate prevalence (1-49%) of BRSV antibodies among youngstock was associated with a high occurrence of respiratory disease (OR = 6.2, p = 0.010) in cows and in-calf heifers. Employees of the farm may participate in the spread of such disease. Larger herd size, loose-housing of cows, housing youngstock separately from cows until pregnancy, and purchasing new animals were factors possibly related to a high occurrence of respiratory disease symptoms in pregnant heifers and cows. The highest risk of abortions (> 1.3%) and increased insemination index (number of inseminations per pregnancy) (> 1.9) occurred in herds with a moderate prevalence of BHV-1 antibodies (1-49%) in cows. Conclusions BHV-1 was not associated with acute respiratory disease in adult dairy cattle, however was significantly related to reproductive performance. BRSV possesses the main role in respiratory disease complex in adult dairy cattle. PMID:22289165

  8. Anthrax outbreak in a Swedish beef cattle herd--1st case in 27 years: Case report.

    PubMed

    Lewerin, Susanna Sternberg; Elvander, Marianne; Westermark, Therese; Hartzell, Lisbeth Nisu; Norström, Agneta Karlsson; Ehrs, Sara; Knutsson, Rickard; Englund, Stina; Andersson, Ann-Christin; Granberg, Malin; Bäckman, Stina; Wikström, Per; Sandstedt, Karin

    2010-01-01

    After 27 years with no detected cases, an outbreak of anthrax occurred in a beef cattle herd in the south of Sweden. The outbreak was unusual as it occurred in winter, in animals not exposed to meat-and-bone meal, in a non-endemic country. The affected herd consisted of 90 animals, including calves and young stock. The animals were kept in a barn on deep straw bedding and fed only roughage. Seven animals died during 10 days, with no typical previous clinical signs except fever. The carcasses were reportedly normal in appearance, particularly as regards rigor mortis, bleeding and coagulation of the blood. Subsequently, three more animals died and anthrax was suspected at necropsy and confirmed by culture and PCR on blood samples. The isolated strain was susceptible to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and ampicillin. Subtyping by MLVA showed the strain to cluster with isolates in the A lineage of Bacillus anthracis. Environmental samples from the holding were all negative except for two soil samples taken from a spot where infected carcasses had been kept until they were picked up for transport. The most likely source of the infection was concluded to be contaminated roughage, although this could not be substantiated by laboratory analysis. The suspected feed was mixed with soil and dust and originated from fields where flooding occurred the previous year, followed by a dry summer with a very low water level in the river allowing for the harvesting on soil usually not exposed. In the early 1900s, animal carcasses are said to have been dumped in this river during anthrax outbreaks and it is most likely that some anthrax spores could remain in the area. The case indicates that untypical cases in non-endemic areas may be missed to a larger extent than previously thought. Field tests allowing a preliminary risk assessment of animal carcasses would be helpful for increased sensitivity of detection and prevention of further exposure to the causative agent. PMID:20122147

  9. Gross margin losses due to Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy cattle herds estimated by simulation modelling.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, T D; Kudahl, A B; Østergaard, S; Nielsen, L R

    2013-08-01

    Salmonella Dublin affects production and animal health in cattle herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the gross margin (GM) losses following introduction and spread of S. Dublin within dairy herds. The GM losses were estimated using an age-structured stochastic, mechanistic and dynamic simulation model. The model incorporated six age groups (neonatal, pre-weaned calves, weaned calves, growing heifers, breeding heifers and cows) and five infection stages (susceptible, acutely infected, carrier, super shedder and resistant). The effects of introducing one S. Dublin infectious heifer were estimated through 1000 simulation iterations for 12 scenarios. These 12 scenarios were combinations of three herd sizes (85, 200 and 400 cows) and four management levels (very good, good, poor and very poor). Input parameters for effects of S. Dublin on production and animal health were based on literature and calibrations to mimic real life observations. Mean annual GMs per cow stall were compared between herds experiencing within-herd spread of S. Dublin and non-infected reference herds over a 10-year period. The estimated GM losses were largest in the first year after infection, and increased with poorer management and herd size, e.g. average annual GM losses were estimated to 49 euros per stall for the first year after infection, and to 8 euros per stall annually averaged over the 10 years after herd infection for a 200 cow stall herd with very good management. In contrast, a 200 cow stall herd with very poor management lost on average 326 euros per stall during the first year, and 188 euros per stall annually averaged over the 10-year period following introduction of infection. The GM losses arose from both direct losses such as reduced milk yield, dead animals, treatment costs and abortions as well as indirect losses such as reduced income from sold heifers and calves, and lower milk yield of replacement animals. Through sensitivity analyses it was found that the

  10. Management characteristics, lameness, and body injuries of dairy cattle housed in high-performance dairy herds in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Cook, N B; Hess, J P; Foy, M R; Bennett, T B; Brotzman, R L

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to benchmark the prevalence of lameness, hock and knee injuries, and neck and back injuries among high-performance, freestall-housed dairy herds in Wisconsin. A random selection of 66 herds with 200 or more cows was derived from herds that clustered with high performance in year 2011 Dairy Herd Improvement records for milk production, udder health, reproduction, and other health parameters. Herds were surveyed to collect information about management, facilities, and well-being. Well-being measures were obtained through direct observation of the high-producing mature cow group, surveying 9,690 cows in total. Total herd size averaged (mean ± standard deviation) 851±717 cows, ranging 203 to 2,966 cows, with an energy-corrected milk production of 40.1±4.4kg/cow per day. Prevalence of clinical lameness (5-point scale, locomotion score ≥3) and severe lameness (locomotion score ≥4) averaged 13.2±7.3 and 2.5±2.7%, respectively. The prevalence of all hock and knee injuries, including hair loss, swelling, and ulceration, was similar at 50.3±28.3 and 53.0±24.0%, respectively. Severe (swelling and ulceration) hock and knee injury prevalence were 12.2±15.3 and 6.2±5.5%, respectively. The prevalence of all neck injuries (including hair loss, swelling and ulceration) was 8.6±16.3%; whereas the prevalence of swollen or abraded necks was low, averaging 2.0±4.1%. Back injuries (proportion of cows with missing or abraded spinous processes, hooks, or pins) followed a similar trend with a low mean prevalence of 3.6±3.4%. Overall, physical well-being characteristics of this selection of high-producing, freestall-housed dairy herds provide evidence that lameness and injury are not inevitable consequences of the confinement housing of large numbers of dairy cattle. In particular, lameness prevalence rivals that of lower-production grazing systems. However, hock and other injury risk remains a concern that can be addressed through a choice in

  11. Cattle on pastures do align along the North-South axis, but the alignment depends on herd density.

    PubMed

    Slaby, P; Tomanova, K; Vacha, M

    2013-08-01

    Alignment is a spontaneous behavioral preference of particular body orientation that may be seen in various vertebrate or invertebrate taxa. Animals often optimize their positions according to diverse directional environmental factors such as wind, stream, slope, sun radiation, etc. Magnetic alignment represents the simplest directional response to the geomagnetic field and a growing body of evidence of animals aligning their body positions according to geomagnetic lines whether at rest or during feedings is accumulating. Recently, with the aid of Google Earth application, evidence of prevailing North-South (N-S) body orientation of cattle on pastures was published (Begall et al. PNAS 105:13451-13455, 2008; Burda et al. PNAS 106:5708-5713, 2009). Nonetheless, a subsequent study from a different laboratory did not confirm this phenomenon (Hert et al. J Comp Physiol A 197:677-682, 2011). The aim of our study was to enlarge the pool of independently gained data on this remarkable animal behavior. By satellite snapshots analysis and using blinded protocol we scored positions of 2,235 individuals in 74 herds. Our results are in line with the original findings of prevailing N-S orientation of grazing cattle. In addition, we found that mutual distances between individual animals within herds (herd density) affect their N-S preference-a new phenomenon giving some insight into biological significance of alignment. PMID:23700176

  12. Predicting fadeout versus persistence of paratuberculosis in a dairy cattle herd for management and control purposes: a modelling study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological models enable to better understand the dynamics of infectious diseases and to assess ex-ante control strategies. For Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), possible transmission routes have been described, but Map spread in a herd and the relative importance of the routes are currently insufficiently understood to prioritize control measures. We aim to predict early after Map introduction in a dairy cattle herd whether infection is likely to fade out or persist, when no control measures are implemented, using a modelling approach. Both vertical transmission and horizontal transmission via the ingestion of colostrum, milk, or faeces present in the contaminated environment were modelled. Calf-to-calf indirect transmission was possible. Six health states were represented: susceptible, transiently infectious, latently infected, subclinically infected, clinically affected, and resistant. The model was partially validated by comparing the simulated prevalence with field data. Housing facilities and contacts between animals were specifically considered for calves and heifers. After the introduction of one infected animal in a naive herd, fadeout occurred in 66% of the runs. When Map persisted, the prevalence of infected animals increased to 88% in 25 years. The two main transmission routes were via the farm's environment and in utero transmission. Calf-to-calf transmission was minor. Fadeout versus Map persistence could be differentiated with the number of clinically affected animals, which was rarely above one when fadeout occurred. Therefore, early detection of affected animals is crucial in preventing Map persistence in dairy herds. PMID:21324117

  13. Schmallenberg virus antibody development and decline in a naturally infected dairy cattle herd in Germany, 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Wernike, Kerstin; Holsteg, Mark; Sasserath, Michael; Beer, Martin

    2015-12-31

    In late 2011, the novel insect-transmitted orthobunyavirus Schmallenberg virus (SBV) emerged in Central Europe. Since that year, a dairy cattle herd kept in the German region in which the virus was initially detected was continuously monitored. In order to evaluate the development of the within-herd seroprevalence, but also to assess the long-term persistence of antibodies against SBV in individual animals, blood samples of all cows older than 24 months were taken yearly after the respective vector season and serologically analyzed. In December 2011, in 74% of the tested animals SBV-specific antibodies were detectable. Additional scattered seroconversions were observed between the 2011 and 2012 vector seasons, thereafter all seronegative animals remained negative. Until December 2014, the intra-herd seroprevalence decreased to 58%. A total of 122 cows infected presumable in autumn 2011 were sampled every year, 9 of them became seronegative until December 2014. Consequently, though SBV-specific antibodies were detected in about 90% of the monitored animals for more than three years, a lifelong antibody-based immunity is not expected in every animal. The loss of anti-SBV antibodies in individual animals combined with the missing infection of young stock results in a declining herd seroprevalence and increases the risk of a renewed virus circulation to a greater extent within the next years. PMID:26518458

  14. Reappearance of Mecistocirrus digitatus in cattle from the Mexican tropics: prevalence, molecular, and scanning electron microscopy identification.

    PubMed

    von Son-de Fernex, Elke; Alonso-Díaz, Miguel Ángel; Mendoza-de-Gives, Pedro; Valles-de la Mora, Braulio; Liébano-Hernández, Enrique; López-Arellano, María Eugenia; Aguilar-Marcelino, Liliana

    2014-06-01

    Mecistocirrus digitatus is a hematophagous abomasal nematode which causes significant blood and production losses in cattle. The objectives of the present study were to: (1) report the reappearance of M. digitatus in cattle from the Mexican tropics using microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and molecular identification, and (2) determine the prevalence of M. digitatus in slaughtered adult cattle from the Mexican tropics. Gastroinestinal nematodes (GIN) were recovered from the abomasum of an 8-yr-old cow (Holstein × Zebu) previously diagnosed with Johne's disease. Of 1,254 GIN, 98.8% were identified as M. digitatus and 1.2% as Haemonchus sp. SEM was used to identify ultrastructure features of M. digitatus (oral cavity, cervical papillae, bursa, bursa lobes papillae, male spicules, anus, and female vulva). A conventional PCR method was used to corroborate the morphological findings. The prevalence of adult cattle infected with M. digitatus and Haemonchus sp., determined from 68 adult cattle from different grazing tropical herds, was 38.2% and 8.8%, respectively. Ninety-eight percent of animals infected with M. digitatus presented lesions in their abomasum such as mucosal inflammation, hemorrhage, and ulcers; some of them had necrosis. The current reappearance of M. digitatus in a Mexican herd suggests the possibility of an underestimated prevalence of this nematode amongst grazing cattle. PMID:24433062

  15. Severe disease in adult dairy cattle in three UK dairy herds associated with BVD virus infection.

    PubMed

    David, G P; Crawshaw, T R; Gunning, R F; Hibberd, R C; Lloyd, G M; Marsh, P R

    1994-04-30

    During 1993 outbreaks of diarrhoea in adult dairy cows in three geographically unrelated herds were found to be caused by bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). The affected animals showed signs of acute watery diarrhoea, agalactia and pyrexia (39.4 to 42 degrees C). Ulceration of the buccal mucosa, a mucoid nasal discharge and stiffness were inconsistent signs. The disease spread rapidly in each case. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of non-cytopathic BVDV from blood and tissues and by the demonstration of significantly rising titres to BVDV by an ELISA. The highest morbidity recorded was 40 per cent with one herd experiencing a 10 per cent mortality. There was no increased incidence of abortion in any of the herds, either at the time of or subsequent to the outbreaks of diarrhoea. In one herd the purchase of a persistently viraemic heifer 14 days before the outbreak was thought to be the source of infection, but in the other two herds the source was not established. PMID:8059512

  16. Herd-level prevalence and associated risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Chlamydia abortus and bovine viral diarrhoea virus in commercial dairy and beef cattle in eastern, northern and northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wu-Wen; Meng, Qing-Feng; Cong, Wei; Shan, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Chun-Feng; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2015-11-01

    Although the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Chlamydia abortus and bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in cattle have been reported in some areas in China, most of them were conducted with small number of cattle samples and very limited districts and neglected the assessment of herd management factors associated with herd-level prevalence of these pathogen infections. Thus, from September 2013 to December 2014, a large-scale seroprevalence study was conducted to determine the animal-level and herd-level seroprevalence and identify herd-level risk factors associated with these pathogen infections in 4487 cattle from 134 herds in five provinces (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Shandong, Hebei) and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. At animal level, the true prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum, C. abortus and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was 10.48, 17.14, 11.92 and 50.10%, respectively. At herd level, the true prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum, C. abortus and BVDV was 27.16, 29.10, 37.31 and 40.30%, respectively. Multivariate analysis of these characteristics showed that source of water and presence of felids were significantly associated with T. gondii infection in the studied cattle herds. Source of water was significantly associated with N. caninum infection in the studied cattle herds. While herd size and management system were significantly associated with BVDV infection in the studied cattle herds, this is the first report of herd-level prevalence and associated risk factors of T. gondii, N. caninum, C. abortus and BVDV infection in cattle in China. PMID:26231838

  17. Urolithiasis in a Herd of Beef Cattle Associated with Oxalate Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Waltner-Toews, D.; Meadows, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    An unusually high incidence of urinary calculi in a group of feeder cattle is described. Necropsy findings in one affected animal suggested that oxalates in the feed, specifically in fescue (Festuca spp.) seed screenings, may have been the cause. Low dietary calcium and decreased water intake by the cattle appear to have been predisposing factors. Control measures are discussed. PMID:7363261

  18. An evaluation of Irish cattle herds with inconclusive serological evidence of bovine brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Hayes, M; Ashe, S; Collins, Dm; Power, S; Kenny, K; Sheahan, M; O'Hagan, G; More, Sj

    2009-01-01

    Since 1998, there has been a steady decline in herd restrictions and de-populations in Ireland due to bovine brucellosis. There is concern that the interpretation of laboratory results may become increasingly problematic, as brucellosis prevalence falls in Ireland. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the infection status of Irish herds and animals with inconclusive serological evidence of bovine brucellosis. During 12 months from September 1, 2004, laboratory and observational epidemiological data were collected from all Irish herds where animal testing identified at least one animal with a complement fixation test (CFT) reading greater than zero and/or a positive result to the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). Due to the observational nature of the study, we have robust estimates of the relative, but not the absolute, performance of the CFT, iELISA and brucellin skin test (BST). Herds were divided into three categories (Group A, B or C) on the basis of test results at initial assessment. A total of 639 herds were enrolled into the study, and observed for at least two years following enrolment. A rising CFT titre, with a CFT reading of 111 International CFT Units (IU) or greater at the subsequent blood test, was generally associated with herds where other evidence of infection was also available. Knowledge of the CFT reading at the initial and a subsequent blood test proved useful in distinguishing false-positive and true-positive brucellosis results. There was poor correlation between the CFT and iELISA results, and between the CFT and BST results. As a result of this study, national policy has been modified to include re-sampling of all animals with CFT readings of 20 IU or greater. This project has also led to a reduction in the number of herds restricted, as well as restriction duration. It has also contributed to a reduction in the number of herds listed for contiguous tests, and therefore the potential for contiguity

  19. Maximizing Use of Extension Beef Cattle Benchmarks Data Derived from Cow Herd Appraisal Performance Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, Jennifer M.; Hanna, Lauren L. Hulsman; Ringwall, Kris A.

    2016-01-01

    One goal of Extension is to provide practical information that makes a difference to producers. Cow Herd Appraisal Performance Software (CHAPS) has provided beef producers with production benchmarks for 30 years, creating a large historical data set. Many such large data sets contain useful information but are underutilized. Our goal was to create…

  20. Cattle rabies vaccination--A longitudinal study of rabies antibody titres in an Israeli dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Yakobson, Boris; Taylor, Nick; Dveres, Nelli; Rozenblut, Shira; Tov, Boris Even; Markos, Majid; Gallon, Nadav; Homer, David; Maki, Joanne

    2015-09-01

    In contrast to many regions of the world where rabies is endemic in terrestrial wildlife species, wildlife rabies has been controlled in Israel by oral rabies vaccination programs, but canine rabies is re-emerging in the northern area of the Golan Heights. From 2009 to 2014 there were 208 animal rabies cases in Israel; 96 (46%) were considered introduced primary cases in dogs, triggering 112 secondary cases. One third (37/112) of the secondary cases were in cattle. Rabies vaccination is voluntary for cattle in Israel, except those on public exhibit. Rabies vaccination schedules for cattle vary based on farm practices and perception of risk. In this study 59 cattle from a dairy farm which routinely vaccinates against rabies were assigned into six groups according to age and vaccination histories. Four groups contained adult cows which had received one previous rabies vaccination, one group of adults had received two previous vaccinations, and one group was unvaccinated calves. Serum samples were collected and the cows were vaccinated with a commercial rabies vaccine. Sera were again collected 39 days later and the calf group re-vaccinated and re-sampled 18 days later. Sera were analyzed for the presence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies using the rapid immunofluorescent antibody test. Cattle with antibody titres ≥ 0.5 IU/ml were considered to be protected against rabies. Twenty-six of 27 adult cattle (96%) vaccinated once at less than five months old did not have protective titres. Sixty percent (6/10) cattle vaccinated once at around six months of age did have adequate titres. Cattle previously vaccinated twice (n=10; 100%) with an 18 month interval between inoculations, had protective titres and protective antibody titres following booster vaccination (n=51; 100%). The anamnestic response of cattle to a killed rabies vaccine was not affected by the time interval between vaccinations, which ranged from 12 to 36 months. These results suggest that calves from

  1. Herd level approach to high bulk milk somatic cell count problems in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Barkema, Herman W; De Vliegher, Sarne; Piepers, Sofie; Zadoks, Ruth N

    2013-06-01

    Since the introduction of the standard mastitis prevention program in the late 1960s, enormous progress has been made in decreasing the average bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC). In many countries, reduction of BMSCC has been encouraged through premium payments or penalty systems. However, the success of the program depends heavily on consistent implementation of management practices. The approach to problem solving in a herd with high BMSCC must include the following elements: (1) problem definition using primary udder health parameters; (2) detection of cows causing the problem; (3) definition of short- and long-term goals; (4) formulation and implementation of a herd management plan; and (5) evaluation of the results. Findings and plans are recorded for use at follow-up visits. Every high BMSCC problem can be solved if farmers are sufficiently motivated, if farm advisors are sufficiently knowledgeable, and if farmer and advisors work together according to a jointly determined plan. PMID:23706026

  2. Longitudinal study of udder cleft dermatitis in 5 Dutch dairy cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Bouma, A; Nielen, M; van Soest, E; Sietsma, S; van den Broek, J; Dijkstra, T; van Werven, T

    2016-06-01

    Udder cleft dermatitis (UCD) is a skin lesion in dairy cows, most often located between anterior parts of the udder and abdomen, but also found between the front quarters. A few recent studies have investigated the prevalence of UCD, but relatively little is known about its pathogenesis, clinical course, and duration. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and recovery of UCD on high-prevalence herds. Five Dutch dairy herds with a UCD prevalence of at least 6% were visited weekly for 19 wk, followed by visits every other week for 26 wk. During each visit, all dry and lactating cows were inspected for the presence of UCD signs. If a UCD case was detected, the affected skin was photographed and the photo was subsequently examined by a research assistant. Cows were then classified according to the appearance of the skin into 3 categories: healthy (no photo: no signs), mild (photo: affected skin but no wound), or severe (photo: open wound). The overall mean within-herd prevalence of UCD was 38% and the overall mean incidence was 1.94 UCD episodes per 100 cow-weeks at risk. Incidence of UCD was significantly higher in cows in third or higher parity and significantly increased with DIM. Median observed duration of UCD was 16 wk. The UCD recovery was 3 times more likely for mild than for severe lesions. The probability of moving from one category to another between 2 consecutive visits was very low, indicating that rapid changes in appearance did not occur. The observed incidence of UCD was rather low, and the relatively high prevalence in the selected herds was most likely due to the long duration of lesions rather than a high incidence of new UCD cases. PMID:27016832

  3. Effect of the inoculation site of bovine purified protein derivative (PPD) on the skin fold thickness increase in cattle from officially tuberculosis free and tuberculosis-infected herds.

    PubMed

    Casal, Carmen; Alvarez, Julio; Bezos, Javier; Quick, Harrison; Díez-Guerrier, Alberto; Romero, Beatriz; Saez, Jose L; Liandris, Emmanouil; Navarro, Alejandro; Perez, Andrés; Domínguez, Lucas; de Juan, Lucía

    2015-09-01

    The official technique for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) worldwide is the tuberculin skin test, based on the evaluation of the skin thickness increase after the intradermal inoculation of a purified protein derivative (PPD) in cattle. A number of studies performed on experimentally infected or sensitized cattle have suggested that the relative sensitivity of the cervical test (performed in the neck) may vary depending on the exact location in which the PPD is injected. However, quantitative evidence on the variation of the test accuracy associated to changes in the site of inoculation in naturally infected animals (the population in which performance of the test is most critical for disease eradication) is lacking. Here, the probability of obtaining a positive reaction (>2 or 4 millimeters and/or presence of local clinical signs) after multiple inoculations of bovine PPD in different cervical and scapular locations was assessed in animals from five bTB-infected herds (818 cattle receiving eight inoculations) using a hierarchical Bayesian logistic regression model and adjusting for the potential effect of age and sex. The effect of the inoculation site was also assessed qualitatively in animals from four officially tuberculosis free (OTF) herds (two inoculations in 210 animals and eight inoculations in 38 cattle). Although no differences in the qualitative outcome of the test were observed in cattle from OTF herds, a statistically important association between the test outcome and the inoculation site in animals from infected herds was observed, with higher probabilities of positive results when the test was performed in the neck anterior area. Our results suggest that test sensitivity may be maximized by considering the area of the neck in which the test is applied, although lack of effect of the inoculation site in the specificity of the test should be confirmed in a larger sample. PMID:26189005

  4. Optic neuropathy in a herd of beef cattle in Alberta associated with consumption of moldy corn

    PubMed Central

    Sandmeyer, Lynne S.; Vujanovic, Vladimir; Petrie, Lyall; Campbell, John R.; Bauer, Bianca S.; Allen, Andrew L.; Grahn, Bruce H.

    2015-01-01

    A group of beef cattle in eastern Alberta was investigated due to sudden onset of blindness after grazing on standing corn in mid-winter. Fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. were isolated from the corn. Blindness was due to an optic nerve degeneration suspected to be secondary to fumonisin mycotoxin. PMID:25750444

  5. Lack of association between the occurrence of Crohn's disease and occupational exposure to dairy and beef cattle herds infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Qual, D A; Kaneene, J B; Varty, T J; Miller, R; Thoen, C O

    2010-06-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to identify associations between Crohn's disease (CD) and Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Map) exposure. A questionnaire was used to collect information on exposure to cattle infected with Map, and personal and family history of CD in dairy and beef cattle producers with and without Map-infected herds, and in veterinarians who did or did not have contact with Map-infected herds. Cases of CD were selected from respondents and matched 1:4 with controls on occupation, age, and sex. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to assess associations between Map exposure and CD. There were 3 cases of CD in 702 producers and 4 cases in 774 veterinarians, yielding a prevalence of 0.47%. No association was found between exposure to JD and CD in any phase of the analysis. However, the number of cases of CD is not large and limits the power to detect important differences. PMID:20494145

  6. Herding the U.S. cattle industry toward a paradigm shift in parasite control.

    PubMed

    McArthur, M J; Reinemeyer, C R

    2014-07-30

    Contemporary management of nematode parasitism in cattle relies heavily on a single class of drugs, the macrocyclic lactones (MLs). The potency and convenience of the MLs, along with the low cost of generic formulations, have largely supplanted the need for critical thinking about parasite control, and rote treatment has become the default 'strategy'. This approach to parasite control has exerted substantial pressure to select populations of nematodes that can survive recommended dosages of ML products. Although macrocyclic lactones have been available for over 30 years, putative ML resistance in U.S. cattle was not reported until fairly recently. This pattern begs the question, "Is this a new, emergent problem, or an old issue that is finally commanding some attention?" The implications of bovine anthelmintic resistance should stimulate a paradigm shift for U.S. cattle producers and their advisors. However, there are significant obstacles to changes in current thinking. It is anticipated that cattle producers will be extremely reluctant to abandon historical practices unless they can be convinced of the value of alternatives that are communicated through targeted education, practical demonstrations, economic analyses, and scientific evidence. Historically, the management advice of practitioners has not relied strongly on parasite epidemiology, and practitioners may not have the knowledge to implement evidence-based recommendations. Pharmaceutical companies could play a significant role in helping to shape and shift the thinking about sustainable use of anthelmintics. However, their primary responsibility is to stockholders, and they have strong economic incentives for maintaining the status quo. It is complicated and difficult to change attitudes and practices, and it will take more than logic or fear to shift the parasite control paradigm in the U.S. cattle industry. Achieving that goal will require collaboration among stakeholders, a consistent, straightforward

  7. Comparison of piecewise Weibull baseline survival models for estimation of true and functional longevity in Brown cattle raised in small herds.

    PubMed

    Jenko, J; Ducrocq, V; Kovač, M

    2013-10-01

    Piecewise Weibull proportional hazard models were used to investigate the effect of genetic and nongenetic factors on functional and true longevity traits of the Slovenian Brown cattle breed. Records of 37 908 Brown cows from 2401 Slovenian herds were used. As these herds were characterised by a relatively small average herd size starting from 6.7 in 1999 and increasing to 8.7 Brown cows per herd in 2008, milk yield classification was made within different herd size groups. The hazard rate was the lowest in the first part of each lactation and was increasing for later stages. Culling risk was lower for cows from herds increasing in size, for cows with higher milk production and for cows from a region with smaller herd sizes and tougher conditions for cattle breeding. The latter result is surprising and may be related to better attention to maintain the animals, despite their lower milk production. The introduction of the milk quota system and drought was found to have an important effect on culling policy between the last seasons of the years 2001 and 2003. Seasonal effects were not related to the milk quota year (from April to March), but to the effect of shortage in fodder during the winter time. The effect of age at first calving and the interaction between year and milk yield class were not found to be significant. Heritability for functional and for true longevity were similar at around 10% each. Inclusion of a correction for class of milk yield to approximate functional longevity increased the herd-year random effect variance by 53%, whereas the sire variance increased by only 14%. The correlation coefficient between ranks of breeding values for functional and true longevity was high (0.91), whereas genetic trends were not found to be significant. To assess their predictive ability, models were compared looking at the survival rate of 4212 second-crop daughters not included in the initial models. The average correlation between estimated breeding values and

  8. Progression of Coxiella burnetii infection after implementing a two-year vaccination program in a naturally infected dairy cattle herd

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The high prevalence of Coxiella burnetii infection in dairy cattle herds recently reported and the long survival time of the bacterium in the environment pose a risk to human and animal health that calls for the implementation of control measures at herd level. This study presents the results of a 2-year vaccination program with an inactivated phase I vaccine in a Spanish dairy herd naturally infected with C. burnetii. Calves older than 3 months and non-pregnant heifers and cows were vaccinated in April 2011 and the farm was subsequently visited at a monthly basis for vaccination of recently calved cows and calves that reached the age of 3 months. Annual booster doses were given to previous vaccinated animals as well. The effectiveness of the vaccine was assessed in terms of level of C. burnetii shedding through milk and uterine fluids and environmental contamination as determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results The percentage of shedder animals through uterine fluids and milk progressively decreased, and C. burnetii DNA load in bulk-tank milk samples was low at the end of the study. The average seroconversion rate in not yet vaccinated animals, which acted as control group, was 8.6% during the first year and 0% in the second year. DNA of C. burnetii was found in aerosols and dust samples taken in the calving area only at the beginning of the study, whereas slurry samples remained C. burnetii PCR positive for at least 18 months. Multiple Locus Variable number tandem-repeat Analysis identified the same genotype in all C. burnetii DNA positive samples. Conclusions In the absence of any changes in biosecurity, the overall reduction of C. burnetii infection in animals to 1.2% milk shedders and the reduced environment contamination found at the end of the study was ascribed to the effects of vaccination together with the culling of milk shedders. Vaccination has to be planned as a medium-long term strategy to suppress risks of re

  9. Species identification of cattle and buffalo fat through PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Vaithiyanathan, S; Kulkarni, V V

    2016-04-01

    A method was standardized to isolate quality DNA from cattle and buffalo fat for species identification using QIAamp DNA stool mini kit. The quality of the DNA was sufficient enough to amplify universal primers viz., mt 12S rRNA and mt 16S rRNA, and species specific D loop primers for cattle and buffalo. The sensitivity of the PCR assay in the species specific D loop primer amplification was with a detection level of 0. 47 ng cattle DNA and 0.23 ng buffalo DNA in simplex and, 0. 47 ng cattle DNA and 0.12 ng buffalo DNA in duplex PCR. It is a potentially reliable method for DNA detection to authenticate animal fat. PMID:27413237

  10. A cross sectional observational study to estimate herd level risk factors for Leptospira spp. serovars in small holder dairy cattle farms in southern Chile

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The south of Chile constitutes the main cattle milk producing area of the country. Regarding leptospirosis control in Chile, there is neither an official program nor an epidemiological characterization of smallholder dairy farms. This study was carried out to determine Leptospira seroprevalence and to evaluate risk factors associated with seropositivity at herd level in smallholder bovine dairy herds in southern Chile. A cross-sectional study was conducted, and a convenient sample of 1,537 apparently healthy dairy cows was included in the study. Individual blood samples were taken and examined for six selected reference Leptospira serovars by the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). Results Of the included herds 75% (52/69) showed serological titers against one or more Leptospira serovar. Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo was the serovar most frequently (81%) reported from animals with positive results. The variables considered risk factors for Leptospira seropositivity were calve natural breeding system, using a specific calving area and vaccination against Leptospira. Adult cows in contact with calves weaned, proved to be a protective factor against infection. Conclusions Herds neglecting the management practices mentioned in this study could represent an important source of Leptospira infection for other herds in the same geographic area, as well as for other animal species. PMID:24906684

  11. Estimation of the time of seroconversion to the New Jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus in sentinel cattle of dairy herds located at high and low elevations in southern Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To estimate time to seroconversion to vesicular stomatitis 1 New Jersey virus (VSNJV) in sentinel cattle in southern Mexico, ninety-two sentinel cattle in four free-ranging dairy herds at high- (=500 mts) and low-elevation (<500 mts) locations in southern Mexico were studied. A prospective cohort s...

  12. Herd-level prevalence and risk factors for bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in cattle in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Leise Gomes; Nogueira, Adriana Hellmeister de Campos; De Stefano, Eliana; Pituco, Edviges Maristela; Ribeiro, Cláudia Pestana; Alves, Clebert José; Oliveira, Tainara Sombra; Clementino, Inácio José; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos

    2016-01-01

    Serological surveys based on a planned sampling on bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in Brazilian cattle herds are scarce. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine herd- and animal-level seroprevalences and to identify risk factors associated with herd-level seroprevalence for BVDV infection in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil, from September 2012 to January 2013. The state was divided into three sampling strata, and for each stratum, the prevalence of herds infected with BVDV and the prevalence of seropositive animals was estimated by a two-stage sampling survey. In total, 2443 animals were sampled from 478 herds. A virus-neutralization test was used for BVDV antibody detection. A herd was considered positive when at least one seropositive animal was detected. The herd- and animal-level prevalences in the State of Paraíba were 65.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 61.1-69.7%) and 39.1% (95% CI = 33.1-45.6%), respectively. The frequency of seropositive animals per herd ranged from 10 to 100% (median of 50%). The risk factors identified were as follows: more than six calves aged ≤12 months (odds ratio (OR) = 3.72; 95% CI = 2.08-6.66), animal purchasing (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.08-2.55), pasture rental (OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.35-3.55), and presence of veterinary assistance (OR = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.10-3.79). Our findings suggest that the implementation of control and prevention measures among farmers, with the aim of preventing dissemination of the agent in the herds, is necessary. Special attention should be given to addressing the identified risk factors, such as sanitary control prior to animal purchasing and to discourage the pasture rental, as well as to encourage the vaccination in the herds. PMID:26498460

  13. Size Reduction in Early European Domestic Cattle Relates to Intensification of Neolithic Herding Strategies.

    PubMed

    Manning, Katie; Timpson, Adrian; Shennan, Stephen; Crema, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Our analysis of over 28,000 osteometric measurements from fossil remains dating between c. 5600 and 1500 BCE reveals a substantial reduction in body mass of 33% in Neolithic central European domestic cattle. We investigate various plausible explanations for this phenotypic adaptation, dismissing climatic change as a causal factor, and further rejecting the hypothesis that it was caused by an increase in the proportion of smaller adult females in the population. Instead we find some support for the hypothesis that the size decrease was driven by a demographic shift towards smaller newborns from sub-adult breeding as a result of intensifying meat production strategies during the Neolithic. PMID:26630287

  14. Size Reduction in Early European Domestic Cattle Relates to Intensification of Neolithic Herding Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Katie; Timpson, Adrian; Shennan, Stephen; Crema, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Our analysis of over 28,000 osteometric measurements from fossil remains dating between c. 5600 and 1500 BCE reveals a substantial reduction in body mass of 33% in Neolithic central European domestic cattle. We investigate various plausible explanations for this phenotypic adaptation, dismissing climatic change as a causal factor, and further rejecting the hypothesis that it was caused by an increase in the proportion of smaller adult females in the population. Instead we find some support for the hypothesis that the size decrease was driven by a demographic shift towards smaller newborns from sub-adult breeding as a result of intensifying meat production strategies during the Neolithic. PMID:26630287

  15. A longitudinal study of risk factors for shedding of VTEC O157 by young cattle in herds with known E. coli O157 carriage.

    PubMed

    Smith, R P; Pollitt, W J; Paiba, G A

    2016-07-01

    A longitudinal study in England and Wales of two dairy, five beef-fattener and three beef-suckler herds was carried out to identify risk factors for young cattle excreting verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 (VTEC O157). A total of 1383 cattle, selected into cohorts at 0-24 months were sampled between March 2000 and February 2001. Mixed-effects logistic regression was employed to identify significant associations between VTEC O157 isolation from rectal faecal samples and explanatory factors (P < 0·001 unless shown). The results revealed a positive association with feeding root crops and a negative association with animals fed silage, milk (P = 0·001) or grain (P = 0·027). Cattle in suckler herds (P = 0·001) and those changing group between sampling visits were identified as negatively associated with VTEC O157 presence. The recovery of VTEC O157 varied throughout the year. However, the winter period from December to February was a risk factor in the multivariable analysis. Cattle in pens were 4·7 times more likely to shed VTEC O157 than those group-housed or at pasture. VTEC O157 detected in pooled environmental faecal pats and biofilm of the water supply within a group's enclosure were positively associated with an animal's VTEC O157 status in the multivariable logistic regression, as was detection of VTEC O157 in the pooled faecal pats at the previous visit. PMID:26830233

  16. Quantification of antimicrobial consumption in adult cattle on dairy herds in Flanders, Belgium, and associations with udder health, milk quality, and production performance.

    PubMed

    Stevens, M; Piepers, S; Supré, K; Dewulf, J; De Vliegher, S

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to quantify the (compound-specific) antimicrobial consumption (AMC) in adult cattle in a convenience sample of Flemish dairy herds. Antimicrobial consumption data were obtained between 2012 and 2013 by "garbage can audits" and expressed as antimicrobial treatment incidence (ATI), with the unit of the ATI being the number of defined daily doses animal (DDDA) used per 1,000 cow-days. Herds were stratified by DDDA into low-, medium-, and high-consuming herds to study the AMC per route of administration, and associations with parameters reflecting udder health, milk quality, and production performances were examined. The average ATI in adult dairy cattle for all compounds was 20.78 DDDA (per 1,000 cow-days). Large variation existed between herds (ranging from 8.68 to 41.62 DDDA). Fourth-generation cephalosporins were used most (4.99 DDDA), followed by penicillins (3.70 DDDA) and third-generation cephalosporins (2.95 DDDA). The average ATI of the critically important antimicrobials for human health (i.e., third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones according to the World Organisation for Animal Health classification) was somewhat lower than the average ATI of the other antimicrobials (8.59 and 12.18 DDDA, respectively). The average ATI for intramammary treatment of (sub)clinical mastitis, for dry-cow therapy, and for systemically administered antimicrobials was 6.30, 6.89, and 7.44 DDDA, respectively. In low-consuming herds, most antimicrobials were being used for dry-cow therapy, whereas in high-consuming herds, most antimicrobials were being used as injectable or intramammary mastitis therapy. The incidence rate of treated mastitis was positively associated with ATI. Herds that applied blanket dry-cow therapy tended to have a higher ATI than herds in which cows were selectively dried off with long-acting antimicrobials. The ATI decreased with an increasing prevalence of primiparous cows. PMID:26778315

  17. No seasonal effect on culturable pseudomonads in fresh milks from cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Leriche, F; Fayolle, K

    2012-05-01

    Freshly drawn raw milk from 37 single herds on farms manufacturing raw cow cheese under the Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) label were sampled over 13 mo for pseudomonad counts. Coliforms, somatic cells, and coagulase-positive staphylococci were counted and total fat and protein contents measured. For pseudomonad counts, the overall mean value was 3.60×10(3) cfu/mL. We observed very high variation between different producers and within the same producers (average standard deviation 1.30×10(4) cfu/mL), but we did not detect a seasonal effect. The only statistical correlation with other milk quality parameters was with coliforms. A survey of milking practices and milking machine sanitation together with environmental and milk sampling for pseudomonad counts in 7 cheese workshops showed that no real negligence or error could be imputed to producers. The main problems were the presence of non-aeruginosa pseudomonads in potable water and a few isolated failures during the cleaning and rinsing phases of sanitation. PMID:22541458

  18. Genetic diversity of bovine papillomavirus types, including two putative new types, in teat warts from dairy cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Lunardi, Michele; de Camargo Tozato, Claudia; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; de Alcântara, Brígida Kussumoto; Vilas-Boas, Laurival Antonio; Otonel, Rodrigo Alejandro Arellano; Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2016-06-01

    Teat papillomatosis affects dairy cows worldwide. Milking can become difficult due to teat warts, and maintaining affected cows in the herds may diminish economic profit in the dairy industry. Currently, 13 bovine papillomavirus (BPV) types have been fully characterized, and numerous putative BPV types have been identified through partial L1 gene PCR. In order to identify the viral types present in warts on the udders of dairy cows, 40 teat lesions from 24 cows from 13 cattle farms in three States of Brazil were evaluated by PV L1 gene PCR. The warts that were evaluated contained sequences from BPVs 6-10, the putative BPV types BAPV9 and BAPV4, and two unreported putative papillomavirus (PV) types, named BPV/BR-UEL6 and BPV/BR-UEL7. In addition, mixed infections and coinfections were identified, since more than one lesion was observed on the udders of 13 cows. Phylogenetic analysis showed that BPV/BR-UEL6 is closely related to BPVs belonging to the genus Xipapillomavirus, while BPV/BR-UEL7 clustered with the previously reported strains Cervus timorensis and Pudu puda PVs, which represent a putative new PV type, and it was only distantly related to xi-, epsilon-, delta- and dyoxi-PVs. These results provide information that will assist in the understanding of the association of BPVs 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10, as well as putative BPV types BAPV4 and BAPV9, with mammary papillomatosis. This is the first characterization of putative novel PV types BPV/BR-UEL6 and BPV/BR-UEL7 in teat warts of dairy cows, highlighting the high genetic diversity of BPVs associated with teat papillomatosis. PMID:26997614

  19. Association between cow reproduction and calf growth traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in a multibreed herd of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Elzo, M A; Rae, D O; Lanhart, S E; Hembry, F G; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the association between 4 cow reproductive and weight traits, and 2 preweaning calf traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis (0 = negative, 1 = suspect, 2 = weak-positive, and 3 = positive) in a multibreed herd of cows ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman (B). Cow data were 624 gestation lengths (GL), 358 records of time open (TO), 605 calving intervals (CI), and 1240 weight changes from November to weaning in September (WC) from 502 purebred and crossbred cows. Calf data consisted of 956 birth weights (BWT), and 923 weaning weights adjusted to 205 d of age (WW205) from 956 purebred and crossbred calves. Traits were analyzed individually using multibreed mixed models that assumed homogeneity of variances across breed groups. Covariances among random effects were assumed to be zero. Fixed effects were year, age of cow, sex of calf, year x age of cow interaction (except WC), age of cow x sex of calf interaction (only for WC), and covariates for B fraction of sire and cow, heterosis of cow and calf, and ELISA score. Random effects were sire (except for TO and CI), dam, and residual. Regression estimates of cow and calf traits on ELISA scores indicated that lower cow fertility (longer TO), lower ability of cows to maintain weight (negative WC), lower calf BWT, and lower calf WW205 were associated with higher cow ELISA scores. Further research on the effects of subclinical paratuberculosis in beef cattle at regional and national levels seems advisable considering the large potential economic cost of this disease. PMID:18998232

  20. Risk factors for failure to detect bovine tuberculosis in cattle from infected herds across Northern Ireland (2004-2010).

    PubMed

    Lahuerta-Marin, Angela; McNair, James; Skuce, Robin; McBride, Stewart; Allen, Michelle; Strain, Sam A J; Menzies, Fraser D; McDowell, Stanley J W; Byrne, Andrew W

    2016-08-01

    Correctly identifying animals that are truly infected with a pathogen using ante-mortem tests is the cornerstone of any disease eradication programme. Failure to identify all infected animals will impede the progress towards controlling and eradicating disease and may also have unforeseen consequences when specific prevention measures are in place to avoid animal-to-animal transmission. In the case of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), the screening ante-mortem test, the Single Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Test (SCITT), can exhibit moderate sensitivity which can result in a "hidden burden" of infection residing within the population. Using an animal-level dataset relating to the disclosure of infected cattle with Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bTB within infected herds in Northern Ireland, we investigated what factors influenced the probability of an animal being a false-negative when truly infected (using post-mortem (PM) microbiological culture confirmation results to assess infection status). We found that different risk factors affected the probability of a test-negative outcome on infected animals depending on the ante-mortem test or their combination (SICTT and/or interferon gamma (IFN-ɣ) testing). Using multivariable models, SCITT disclosure performance varied significantly by age, location (region), and production type. The IFN-ɣ tests were significantly affected by region or season, but these effects depended on the cut-off used during interpretation of the test which affected the tests characteristics. Parallel use of SCITT and IFN-ɣ tests resulted in the least number of false-negatives, and their disclosure was affected by season and age-class. Understanding the factors that lead to the non-disclosure of infected animals is essential to optimise large-scale bTB disease eradication programmes. PMID:27474001

  1. Dairy farms testing positive for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis have poorer hygiene practices and are less cautious when purchasing cattle than test-negative herds.

    PubMed

    Wolf, R; Barkema, H W; De Buck, J; Orsel, K

    2016-06-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne's disease, is present on most dairy farms in Alberta, causing economic losses and presenting a potential public health concern. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify risk factors for Alberta dairy herds being MAP-positive based on environmental samples (ES). Risk assessments were conducted and ES were collected on 354 Alberta dairy farms (62% of eligible producers) voluntarily participating in the Alberta Johne's Disease Initiative. In univariate logistic regression, risk factors addressing animal and pen hygiene, as well as the use of feeding equipment to remove manure and manure application on pastures, were all associated with the number of positive ES. Furthermore, based on factor analysis, risk factors were clustered and could be summarized as 4 independent factors: (1) animal, pen, and feeder contamination; (2) shared equipment and pasture contamination; (3) calf diet; and (4) cattle purchase. Using these factor scores as independent variables in multivariate logistic regression models, a 1-unit increase in animal, pen, and feeder contamination resulted in 1.31 times higher odds of having at least 1 positive ES. Furthermore, a 1-unit increase in cattle purchase also resulted in 1.31 times the odds of having at least 1 positive ES. Finally, a 100-cow increase in herd size resulted in an odds ratio of 2.1 for having at least 1 positive ES. In conclusion, cleanliness of animals, pens, and feeders, as well as cattle purchase practices, affected risk of herd infection with MAP. Therefore, improvements in those management practices should be the focus of effective tools to control MAP on dairy farms. PMID:26995127

  2. Relationships between age at first calving, herd management criteria and lifetime milk, fat, and protein production in holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from 69,145 Holstein cows that calved for the first time in 2005 were evaluated to determine the influence of age at first calving (AFC) on first lactation and lifetime production in commercial dairy herds. A DHI database was divided into four herd management criteria (HMC). The four HMC were: ...

  3. Are white-tailed deer compromising efforts to maintain eradication of cattle fever ticks from cattle herds in the U.S.?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From 1907 when the fever tick eradication campaign began until 1933, the two tick eradication methods of either dipping cattle in an acaricide or “pasture vacation” were enormously successful in eradicating cattle ticks [CT, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (Say)] and southern cattle ticks [SCT, ...

  4. The association between calfhood bovine respiratory disease complex and subsequent departure from the herd, milk production, and reproduction in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Aaron P; Larson, Robert L; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Hanzlicek, Gregg A; Bartle, Steven J; Thomson, Daniel U

    2016-05-15

    OBJECTIVE To describe the frequency of calfhood producer-identified bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in Holstein replacement heifers on 1 large farm and determine associations between development of BRDC at ≤ 120 days of age (BRDC120) with milk production estimate, calving interval, and risk of departure from the herd (DFH). DESIGN Retrospective, observational study. ANIMALS 14,024 Holstein heifer calves born on 1 farm. PROCEDURES Data were obtained from herd management records. Cox proportional hazard and generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to assess associations for variables of interest (BRDC120 status, demographic data, and management factors) with DFH, milk production estimate, and calving interval. RESULTS Except for the year 2007, animals identified as having BRDC120 were 1.62 to 4.98 times as likely to leave the herd before first calving, compared with those that did not have this designation. Calves identified as having BRDC prior to weaning were 2.62 times as likely to have DFH before first calving as those classified as developing BRDC after weaning. Cows identified as having BRDC120 were 1.28 times as likely to have DFH between the first and second calving as were other cows. The BRDC120 designation was associated with a 233-kg (513-lb) lower 305-day mature equivalent value for first lactation milk production, but was not associated with longer or shorter calving intervals at maturity. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Dairy cattle identified as having BRDC120 had increased risk of DFH before the first or second calving and lower first-lactation milk production estimates, compared with results for cattle without this finding. Further investigation of these associations is warranted. PMID:27135672

  5. Herd-scale measurements of methane emissions from cattle grazing extensive sub-tropical grasslands using the open-path laser technique.

    PubMed

    Tomkins, N W; Charmley, E

    2015-12-01

    Methane (CH4) emissions associated with beef production systems in northern Australia are yet to be quantified. Methodologies are available to measure emissions, but application in extensive grazing environments is challenging. A micrometeorological methodology for estimating herd-scale emissions using an indirect open-path spectroscopic technique and an atmospheric dispersion model is described. The methodology was deployed on five cattle properties across Queensland and Northern Territory, with measurements conducted during two occasions at one site. On each deployment, data were collected every 10 min for up to 7 h a day over 4 to 16 days. To increase the atmospheric concentration of CH4 to measurable levels, cattle were confined to a known area around water points from ~0800 to 1600 h, during which time measurements of wind statistics and line-averaged CH4 concentration were taken. Filtering to remove erroneous data accounted for 35% of total observations. For five of the six deployments CH4 emissions were within the expected range of 0.4 to 0.6 g/kg BW. At one site, emissions were ~2 times expected values. There was small but consistent variation with time of day, although for some deployments measurements taken early in the day tended to be higher than at the other times. There was a weak linear relationship (R 2=0.47) between animal BW and CH4 emission per kg BW. Where it was possible to compare emissions in the early and late dry season at one site, it was speculated that higher emissions at the late dry season may have been attributed to poorer diet quality. It is concluded that the micrometeorological methodology using open-path lasers can be successfully deployed in extensive grazing conditions to directly measure CH4 emissions from cattle at a herd scale. PMID:26290115

  6. Electronic identification of cattle: interference in the reading of ceramic bolus transponders in the presence of ruminal magnets.

    PubMed

    Ferri, N; Marchi, E; Di Mattia, T

    2004-01-01

    The authors assess the reading performances of electronic transponders encased in ceramic boluses, utilised as identification (ID) instruments for production ruminants, and the possible influence of the magnet, which is located in the fore-stomach of ruminants. Research has been conducted in free-range Friesian dairy herds in the Teramo Province. The use of the electronic bolus to identify cattle appears to provide better guarantees than the traditional methods used and meets the requirements of identifying individual animals at the farm level. Results demonstrate how the presence of both the magnet and the ceramic bolus, equipped with a transponder, makes it difficult, and sometimes impossible, to read the code. However, the electronic ID system is the best instrument currently available. The authors confirm the validity of this method and highlight some problems that still need to be solved. PMID:20437387

  7. A survey of abortifacient infectious agents in livestock in Luzon, the Philippines, with emphasis on the situation in a cattle herd with abortion problems.

    PubMed

    Konnai, Satoru; Mingala, Claro N; Sato, Misako; Abes, Nancy S; Venturina, Fe A; Gutierrez, Charito A; Sano, Takafumi; Omata, Yoshitaka; Cruz, Libertado C; Onuma, Misao; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2008-03-01

    In the Philippines, insufficient consideration has been given to the implementation of systematic control measures against major abortifacient infectious agents in livestock. To elucidate the epidemiology of abortifacient infectious agents in livestock, the prevalence of four abortifacient agents was assessed. Initially, a total of 96 cattle including 17 cows with history of abortion were examined in a herd in Luzon at the request of the farm owner. Six (35.3%) of the 17 aborting cows were found to be serologically positive for Neospora caninum (N. caninum), whereas the seroprevalence in non-aborting cows was 15.9% (10/63). Four of the 6 serologically positive aborting cows were also RT-PCR-positive for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Two (12.5%) of the 16 bulls examined were also found to be infected with BVDV, suggesting a putative risk factor of transmission via semen. Based on sequence analysis, the isolates detected belong to BVDV type 1b group. Furthermore, an epidemiological survey of abortifacient infectious agents was conducted with various species of livestock from herds located in Luzon. Out of the 105 water buffalo samples collected, 4 (3.8%) were indicated positive to N. caninum, 2 (1.9%) to Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) and 2 (1.9%) to Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi). The overall seroprevalence of N. caninum in goat and sheep were 23.6% (21/89) and 26.3% (10/38), respectively. BVDV was not detected in these herds. The findings of this exploratory study indicate a relationship between infection and bovine abortion and that a lager study is required to statistically confirm this relationship. PMID:18243149

  8. Reconstruction of the late Holocene climate in the Minusink Hollow, south-central Siberia, and its potential influence on settled farming versus nomadic cattle herding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchebakova, N. M.; Blyakharchuk, T.; Parfenova, E. I.; Soja, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction. Prehistoric and early historic human cultures are known to be closely connected to and dependent on their natural environments. Gumilev (2000) developed a theory relating the rise, development and fall of human cultures (ethnos) to the changing environment. This theory improved our understanding of human history as the natural interactions the biosphere and sociosphere. We test the hypothesis that climate change altered the means of subsistence of ancient tribes and forced them to choose agricultural or cattle herding economic strategies. Our study area is the Khakass-Minusinsk Hollow located at the foothills of the Sayan Mountains, south-central Siberia, which was, for a few millennia, a buffer zone for human migrations across the Great Eurasian Steppe. Methods. Three different methods (the Montane Bioclimatic Model; the biomization method; and the actualizm method) were employed to reconstruct vegetation from the fossil pollen of sediment cores of two mountain lakes in the study area at eleven time slices relating to successive human cultures back to the midHolocene. Our bioclimatic model was used inversely to convert site paleovegetation into site paleoclimates. Climate-based regression models were developed and applied to reconstructed climates to evaluate possible pasture and grain crops for these time slices. Results. Our pollen-based reconstructions of the climate fluctuations uncovered several dry periods with steppe and forest-steppe lands dominating up to 85% of the area and four wetter periods with forests dominating up to 60% of the area since 6000 BP. Grasslands increased one order of magnitude during the dry periods and provided extensive open space likely suitable for pastoralism; however, both grain and pasture yields dropped during these dry periods. During wetter climates, both grain and pasture yields could increase twofold and support more fixed human settlements centered around farming and herding cattle. Thus, the dry periods

  9. Potential influence of the late Holocene climate on settled farming versus nomadic cattle herding in the Minusinsk Hollow, south-central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blyakharchuk, T. A.; Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E. I.; Soja, A. J.

    2014-05-01

    Prehistoric and early historic human cultures are known to be closely connected to and dependent on their natural environments. We test the hypothesis that climate change influenced the means of subsistence of ancient tribes and favored agricultural or cattle herding economic strategies. Our study area is the Khakass-Minusinsk Hollow, located in the foothills of the Sayan Mountains, south-central Siberia, which was, for a few millennia, a buffer zone for human migrations across the Great Eurasian Steppe. Three different methods (the Montane BioClimatic Model, MontBCliM; the biomization method; and the actualizm method) are employed to reconstruct vegetation taken from the fossil pollen of sediment cores in two mountain lakes at eleven time slices related to successive human cultures back to the mid-Holocene. MontBCliM model is used inversely to convert site paleo-vegetation into site paleo-climates. Climate-based regression models are developed and applied to reconstructed climates to evaluate possible pasture and grain crops for these time slices. Pollen-based reconstructions of the climate fluctuations uncovered several dry periods with steppe and forest-steppe and wetter periods with forests since 6000 BP. Grasslands increased by an order of magnitude during the dry periods and provided extensive open space suitable for pastoralism; however, both grain and pasture yields decreased during these dry periods. During wetter climates, both grain and pasture yields increased twofold and supported more fixed human settlements centered around farming and cattle herding. Thus, the dry periods favored pastoralist rather than farming activities. Conversely, tribes that practiced agriculture had some advantage in the wet periods.

  10. 9 CFR 77.17 - Interstate movement of cattle and bison that are exposed, reactors, or suspects, or from herds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...” and the following statement: “This conveyance must be cleaned and disinfected in accordance with 9 CFR... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Cattle and Bison... conveyance containing any animals susceptible to tuberculosis unless all of the animals are being...

  11. 9 CFR 77.17 - Interstate movement of cattle and bison that are exposed, reactors, or suspects, or from herds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...” and the following statement: “This conveyance must be cleaned and disinfected in accordance with 9 CFR... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Cattle and Bison... conveyance containing any animals susceptible to tuberculosis unless all of the animals are being...

  12. 9 CFR 77.17 - Interstate movement of cattle and bison that are exposed, reactors, or suspects, or from herds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...” and the following statement: “This conveyance must be cleaned and disinfected in accordance with 9 CFR... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Cattle and Bison... conveyance containing any animals susceptible to tuberculosis unless all of the animals are being...

  13. 9 CFR 77.17 - Interstate movement of cattle and bison that are exposed, reactors, or suspects, or from herds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...” and the following statement: “This conveyance must be cleaned and disinfected in accordance with 9 CFR... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Cattle and Bison... conveyance containing any animals susceptible to tuberculosis unless all of the animals are being...

  14. 9 CFR 77.17 - Interstate movement of cattle and bison that are exposed, reactors, or suspects, or from herds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... following statement: “This conveyance must be cleaned and disinfected in accordance with 9 CFR 77.17(a)(5... accordance with 9 CFR part 86. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Cattle and...

  15. Genetic Structure of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Population in Cattle Herds in Quebec as Revealed by Using a Combination of Multilocus Genomic Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Sohal, Jagdip Singh; Arsenault, Julie; Labrecque, Olivia; Fairbrother, Julie-Hélène; Roy, Jean-Philippe; Fecteau, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the etiological agent of paratuberculosis, a granulomatous enteritis affecting a wide range of domestic and wild ruminants worldwide. A variety of molecular typing tools are used to distinguish M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains, contributing to a better understanding of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis epidemiology. In the present study, PCR-based typing methods, including mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units/variable-number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) and small sequence repeats (SSR) in addition to IS1311 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PCR-REA), were used to investigate the genetic heterogeneity of 200 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains from dairy herds located in the province of Quebec, Canada. The majority of strains were of the “cattle type,” or type II, although 3 strains were of the “bison type.” A total of 38 genotypes, including a novel one, were identified using a combination of 17 genetic markers, which generated a Simpson's index of genetic diversity of 0.876. Additional analyses revealed no differences in genetic diversity between environmental and individual strains. Of note, a spatial and spatiotemporal cluster was evidenced regarding the distribution of one of the most common genotypes. The population had an overall homogeneous genetic structure, although a few strains stemmed out of the consensus cluster, including the bison-type strains. The genetic structure of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis populations within most herds suggested intraherd dissemination and microevolution, although evidence of interherd contamination was also revealed. The level of genetic diversity obtained by combining MIRU-VNTR and SSR markers shows a promising avenue for molecular epidemiology investigations of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis transmission patterns. PMID:24829229

  16. A Preliminary Study of Genetic Factors That Influence Susceptibility to Bovine Tuberculosis in the British Cattle Herd

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Erin E.; Hoffman, Joseph I.; Green, Laura E.; Medley, Graham F.; Amos, William

    2011-01-01

    Associations between specific host genes and susceptibility to Mycobacterial infections such as tuberculosis have been reported in several species. Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) impacts greatly the UK cattle industry, yet genetic predispositions have yet to be identified. We therefore used a candidate gene approach to study 384 cattle of which 160 had reacted positively to an antigenic skin test (‘reactors’). Our approach was unusual in that it used microsatellite markers, embraced high breed diversity and focused particularly on detecting genes showing heterozygote advantage, a mode of action often overlooked in SNP-based studies. A panel of neutral markers was used to control for population substructure and using a general linear model-based approach we were also able to control for age. We found that substructure was surprisingly weak and identified two genomic regions that were strongly associated with reactor status, identified by markers INRA111 and BMS2753. In general the strength of association detected tended to vary depending on whether age was included in the model. At INRA111 a single genotype appears strongly protective with an overall odds ratio of 2.2, the effect being consistent across nine diverse breeds. Our results suggest that breeding strategies could be devised that would appreciably increase genetic resistance of cattle to bTB (strictly, reduce the frequency of incidence of reactors) with implications for the current debate concerning badger-culling. PMID:21533277

  17. Characterization of the cytopathic BVDV strains isolated from 13 mucosal disease cases arising in a cattle herd.

    PubMed

    Darweesh, Mahmoud F; Rajput, Mrigendra K S; Braun, Lyle J; Ridpath, Julia F; Neill, John D; Chase, Christopher C L

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a positive single stranded RNA virus belonging to the Pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. BVDV has a wide host range that includes most ruminants. Noncytopathic (ncp) BVDV may establish lifelong persistent infections in calves following infection of the fetus between 40 and 120 days of gestation. Cytopathic (cp) BVDV strains arise from ncp strains via mutations. The most common cp mutations are insertions of RNA derived from either host or a duplication of viral sequences into the region of the genome coding for the NS2/3 protein. Superinfection of a persistently infected animal with a cp virus can give rise to mucosal disease, a condition that is invariably fatal. A herd of 136 bred 3-year old cows was studied. These cows gave birth to 41 PI animals of which 23 succumbed to mucosal disease. In this study, we characterized the ncp and cp viruses isolated from 13 of these animals. All viruses belonged to the BVDV type 2a genotype and were highly similar. All the cp viruses contained an insertion in the NS2/3 coding region consisting of the sequences derived from the transcript encoding a DnaJ protein named Jiv90. Comparison of the inserted DnaJ regions along with the flanking viral sequences in the insertion 3' end of the 13 cp isolates revealed sequence identities ranging from 96% to 99% with common borders. This suggested that one animal likely developed a cp virus that then progressively spread to the other 12 animals. Interestingly, when the inserted mammalian gene replicated within viral genome, it showed conservation of the same conserved motifs between the different species, which may indicate a role for these motifs in the insertion function within the virus genome. This is the first characterization of multiple cp bovine viral diarrhea virus isolates that spread in a herd under natural conditions. PMID:25300803

  18. Subcutaneous electronic identification in cattle: a field study.

    PubMed

    Løken, T; Vatn, G; Kummen, E

    2011-09-01

    The use of injectable transponders in cattle for identification purposes, for up to 30 months, was investigated. Passive electronic transponders, encapsulated in either polymer or glass, were injected subcutaneously into either the ear base or the earlobe of 652 calves in three populations. The animals were clinically examined weekly, and transponder signalling was checked immediately before and after injection, after two weeks and after about eight months. About 10 per cent of animals in one population were also checked after 20 and 30 months. No severe clinical or visible pathological changes were observed, and the calves' welfare was not apparently affected by the procedure. None of the transponders migrated from their injection sites. Eight months after injection, a signal was detected from 98.2 per cent of transponders injected in the ear base and from 90.5 per cent of those in the earlobe. At 20 and 30 months after injection, 10.4 per cent and 2.6 per cent of transponders, respectively, had ceased to signal. Thus, most transponders in the calves' ear base demonstrated functionality for up to 30 months. PMID:21813580

  19. The bovine tuberculosis burden in cattle herds in zones with low dose radiation pollution in the Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, Richard E.; Skrypnyk, Artem; Zavgorodniy, Andriy; Stegniy, Borys; Gerilovych, Anton; Kutsan, Oleksandr; Pozmogova, Svitlana; Sapko, Svitlana

    2009-02-01

    The authors describe a study of the tuberculosis (TB) incidence in cattle exposed to low doses of radiation resulting from the Chernobyl (pronounced ‘Chornobyl’ in Ukrainian) nuclear plant catastrophe in 1986. The purpose of the study was to determine if ionising radiation influences the number of outbreaks of bovine TB and their severity on farms in the Kyiv, Cherkasy and Chernigiv regions of the Ukraine. These farms are all located within a 200 km radius of Chernobyl and have had low-dose radiation pollution. Pathological and blood samples were taken from cattle in those regions that had positive TB skin tests. Mycobacterium spp. were isolated, differentiated by PCR, analysed and tested in guinea pigs and rabbits. Species differentiation showed a significant percentage of atypical mycobacteria, which resulted in the allergic reactions to tuberculin antigen in the skin test. Mixed infection of M. bovis and M. avium subsp. hominissuis was found in three cases. The results concluded that low-dose radiation plays a major role in the occurrence of bovine TB in regions affected by the Chernobyl nuclear disaster.

  20. Incidences of and genetic parameters for mastitis, claw disorders, and common health traits recorded in dairy cattle contract herds.

    PubMed

    Gernand, E; Rehbein, P; von Borstel, U U; König, S

    2012-04-01

    Test-day records for protein yield, protein percent, fat percent and somatic cell score combined with diagnoses for health traits from 19,870 Holstein cows kept in 9 large-scale contract herds in the region of Thuringia, Germany, were used to infer genetic parameters. From an electronic database system for recording diagnoses, 15 health disorders with highest incidences were extracted and grouped into the following 5 disease categories: claw disorders, mastitis, female fertility, metabolism, and ectoparasites. In a bayesian approach, threshold methodology was applied for binary distributed health disorders and linear models were used for gaussian test-day observations. Variances and variance ratios for health disorders were from univariate and covariance components among health disorders and between health disorders, and test-day production traits were from bivariate repeatability models. Incidences of health disorders increased with increasing parity and were substantially higher at the beginning of lactation. Only incidences for ectoparasites slightly increased with increasing stage of lactation. Heritabilities ranged from 0.00 for ectoparasites to 0.22 for interdigital hyperplasia. Heritabilities of remaining health disorders were in a narrow range between 0.04 (corpus luteum persistent) and 0.09 (dermatitis digitalis). Clustering diseases into categories did not result in higher heritabilities. The variance ratio of the permanent environmental component was higher than the heritability for the same trait, pointing to the conclusion that non-genetic factors influence repeated occurrence of health problems during lactation. Repeatabilities were relatively high with values up to 0.49 for interdigital hyperplasia. Genetic correlations among selected health disorders were low and close to zero, disproving the assumption that a cow being susceptible for a specific disease is also susceptible for other types of health disorders. Antagonistic genetic relationships

  1. Identification of Cryptosporidium from Dairy Cattle in Pahang, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Hisamuddin, Nur Hazirah; Hashim, Najat; Soffian, Sharmeen Nellisa; Amin, Mohd Hishammfariz Mohd; Wahab, Ridhwan Abdul; Mohammad, Mardhiah; Isa, Muhammad Lokman Md; Yusof, Afzan Mat

    2016-01-01

    Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite, can cause cryptosporidiosis which is a gastrointestinal disease that can infect humans and livestock. Cattle are the most common livestock that can be infected with this protozoan. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia and to find out the association between the occurrence of infection and 3 different ages of cattle (calves less than 1 year, yearling, and adult cattle). The samples were processed by using formol-ether concentration technique and stained by modified Ziehl Neelsen. The results showed that 15.9% (24/151) of cattle were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium in calves less than 1 year was the highest with the percentage of 20.0% (11/55) followed by yearling and adult cattle, with the percentage occurrence of 15.6 % (7/45) and 11.8% (6/51), respectively. There was no significant association between the occurrence and age of cattle and presence of diarrhea. Good management practices and proper hygiene management must be taken in order to reduce the infection. It is highly important to control the infection since infected cattle may serve as potential reservoirs of the infection to other animals and humans, especially animal handlers. PMID:27180579

  2. Identification of Cryptosporidium from Dairy Cattle in Pahang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hisamuddin, Nur Hazirah; Hashim, Najat; Soffian, Sharmeen Nellisa; Amin, Mohd Hishammfariz Mohd; Wahab, Ridhwan Abdul; Mohammad, Mardhiah; Isa, Muhammad Lokman Md; Yusof, Afzan Mat

    2016-04-01

    Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite, can cause cryptosporidiosis which is a gastrointestinal disease that can infect humans and livestock. Cattle are the most common livestock that can be infected with this protozoan. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia and to find out the association between the occurrence of infection and 3 different ages of cattle (calves less than 1 year, yearling, and adult cattle). The samples were processed by using formol-ether concentration technique and stained by modified Ziehl Neelsen. The results showed that 15.9% (24/151) of cattle were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium in calves less than 1 year was the highest with the percentage of 20.0% (11/55) followed by yearling and adult cattle, with the percentage occurrence of 15.6 % (7/45) and 11.8% (6/51), respectively. There was no significant association between the occurrence and age of cattle and presence of diarrhea. Good management practices and proper hygiene management must be taken in order to reduce the infection. It is highly important to control the infection since infected cattle may serve as potential reservoirs of the infection to other animals and humans, especially animal handlers. PMID:27180579

  3. Identification of Different Bartonella Species in the Cattle Tail Louse (Haematopinus quadripertusus) and in Cattle Blood

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Cohen, Liron; Morick, Danny; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Harrus, Shimon

    2014-01-01

    Bartonella spp. are worldwide-distributed facultative intracellular bacteria that exhibit an immense genomic diversity across mammal and arthropod hosts. The occurrence of cattle-associated Bartonella species was investigated in the cattle tail louse Haematopinus quadripertusus and in dairy cattle blood from Israel. Lice were collected from cattle from two dairy farms during summer 2011, and both lice and cow blood samples were collected from additional seven farms during the successive winter. The lice were identified morphologically and molecularly using 18S rRNA sequencing. Thereafter, they were screened for Bartonella DNA by conventional and real-time PCR assays using four partial genetic loci (gltA, rpoB, ssrA, and internal transcribed spacer [ITS]). A potentially novel Bartonella variant, closely related to other ruminant bartonellae, was identified in 11 of 13 louse pools collected in summer. In the cattle blood, the prevalence of Bartonella infection was 38%, identified as B. bovis and B. henselae (24 and 12%, respectively). A third genotype, closely related to Bartonella melophagi and Bartonella chomelii (based on the ssrA gene) and to B. bovis (based on the ITS sequence) was identified in a single cow. The relatively high prevalence of these Bartonella species in cattle and the occurrence of phylogenetically diverse Bartonella variants in both cattle and their lice suggest the potential role of this animal system in the generation of Bartonella species diversity. PMID:24973066

  4. Evaluating results of the Welfare Quality multi-criteria evaluation model for classification of dairy cattle welfare at the herd level.

    PubMed

    de Vries, M; Bokkers, E A M; van Schaik, G; Botreau, R; Engel, B; Dijkstra, T; de Boer, I J M

    2013-10-01

    The Welfare Quality multi-criteria evaluation (WQ-ME) model aggregates scores of single welfare measures into an overall assessment for the level of animal welfare in dairy herds. It assigns herds to 4 welfare classes: unacceptable, acceptable, enhanced, or excellent. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the relative importance of single welfare measures for WQ-ME classification of a selected sample of Dutch dairy herds. Seven trained observers quantified 63 welfare measures of the Welfare Quality protocol in 183 loose housed- and 13 tethered Dutch dairy herds (herd size: 10 to 211 cows). First, values of welfare measures were compared among the 4 welfare classes, using Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-squared tests. Second, observed values of single welfare measures were replaced with a fictitious value, which was the median value of herds classified in the next highest class, to see if improvement of a single measure would enable a herd to reach a higher class. Sixteen herds were classified as unacceptable, 85 as acceptable, 78 as enhanced, and none as excellent. Classification could not be calculated for 17 herds because data were missing (15 herds) or data were deemed invalid because the stockperson disturbed behavioral observations (2 herds). Herds classified as unacceptable showed significantly more very lean cows, more severely lame cows, and more often an insufficient number of drinkers than herds classified as acceptable. Herds classified as acceptable showed significantly more cows with high somatic cell count, with lesions, that could not be approached closer than 1m, colliding with components of the stall while lying down, and lying outside the lying area, and showed fewer cows with diarrhea, more often had an insufficient number of drinkers, and scored lower for the descriptors "relaxed" and "happy" than herds classified as enhanced. Increasing the number of drinkers and reducing the percentage of cows colliding with components of the stall while lying down

  5. Factors associated with ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in an Angus-Brahman multibreed herd of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Elzo, M A; Rae, D O; Lanhart, S E; Wasdin, J G; Dixon, W P; Jones, J L

    2006-01-01

    Cow and calf genetic and environmental factors were evaluated for their association with ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in a multibreed population of beef cattle. The ELISA scores are a measure of the presence or absence of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine serum. The linear mixed-model analysis used 352 ELISA scores from 238 cows: 51 Angus (A); 34 Brahman (B); 41 (3/4 A 1/4 B); 45 (1/2 A 1/2 B); 34 (1/4 A 3/4 B); and 33 Brangus (5/8 A 3/8 B). Cows were assumed to be unrelated. Year affected (P < 0.001) ELISA scores, but age of cow did not, which was expected to be significant because of the chronic progressive nature of this disease. Important regressions on fixed effects associated with cows were 1) a positive estimate of cow B breed effect (0.59 +/- 0.24; P < 0.017), indicating an upward trend of ELISA scores toward 100% B cows; 2) a negative estimate for weight change from before calving (late November) to the date of the blood sample in May (-0.0062 +/- 0.0019 score/kg; P < 0.002), indicating that poorer maintenance of cow weights was associated with higher ELISA scores; and 3) a positive estimate for days in lactation of cow on the date of the blood sample (0.0086 +/- 0.0034 score/d; P < 0.021), indicating the production of larger amounts of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis as lactation progressed. Relevant regressions on fixed effects associated with calves were 1) calf birth weight (-0.022 +/- 0.010 score/kg; P < 0.035), and 2) calf gain from birth to the date of the cow blood sample (-0.0092 +/- 0.0027 score/kg; P < 0.001). These estimates indicate that cows that produced lighter calves at birth and/or calves with slower preweaning growth tended to have greater ELISA scores. Although the sensitivity (percentage of infected animals detected) of ELISA was only 50%, these results suggest that subclinical paratuberculosis may be negatively affecting cows and their offspring. Factors

  6. Prevalence of contagious and environmental mastitis-causing bacteria in bulk tank milk and its relationships with milking practices of dairy cattle herds in São Miguel Island (Azores).

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Carla; Pacheco, Diana; Soares, Luísa; Romão, Ricardo; Moitoso, Mónica; Maldonado, Jaime; Guix, Roger; Simões, João

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the degree of contamination of bulk tank milk (BTM) by Staphylococcus spp. and coliform bacteria and to identify major milking practices that help perpetuate them in dairy cattle herds in São Miguel Island. In July 2014, BTM was sampled and a survey concerning local milking practices was conducted on 100 herds. Semi quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction detected coagulase-negative staphylococci, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and other coliform bacteria (Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens) in 100, 75, 59, and 35 % of BTM, respectively. According to multivariable univariate models, on herds not using hot water for cleaning the milking machine and teat liners, there was at least 3.4 more odds (P < 0.01) to have S. aureus or coliform bacteria contamination in BTM. The likelihood of finding S. aureus in BTM was higher (P < 0.001) on herds without high hygiene during milking, when milking mastitic cows at the end, on abrupt cessation of milking at dry-off, and official milk control implementation. The glove use also favored (odds ratio (OR) 5.8; P < 0.01) the detection of coliform bacteria in BTM. Poor milking practices identified in this study should be avoided in order to decrease S. aureus and coliform bacteria contamination of BTM. Other factors associated with milk quality in São Miguel Island also should be further investigated. PMID:26719295

  7. Identification of copy number variable gene families in Holstein and Jersey cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copy number variants (CNV) represent a large proportion of genetic variation within the cattle genome that has yet to be accurately characterized by SNP genotyping arrays. While significant progress has been made in the identification of CNVs within individual animals using next generation sequence ...

  8. 9 CFR 55.24 - Herd status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... available for testing (i.e., a trace animal from a known positive herd died and was not tested) or for other... with program requirements for animal identification, animal testing, and recordkeeping, the herd will... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Herd status. 55.24 Section...

  9. Genomic prediction of dry matter intake in dairy cattle from an international data set consisting of research herds in Europe, North America, and Australasia.

    PubMed

    de Haas, Y; Pryce, J E; Calus, M P L; Wall, E; Berry, D P; Løvendahl, P; Krattenmacher, N; Miglior, F; Weigel, K; Spurlock, D; Macdonald, K A; Hulsegge, B; Veerkamp, R F

    2015-09-01

    With the aim of increasing the accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values for dry matter intake (DMI) in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle, data from 10 research herds in Europe, North America, and Australasia were combined. The DMI records were available on 10,701 parity 1 to 5 records from 6,953 cows, as well as on 1,784 growing heifers. Predicted DMI at 70 d in milk was used as the phenotype for the lactating animals, and the average DMI measured during a 60- to 70-d test period at approximately 200 d of age was used as the phenotype for the growing heifers. After editing, there were 583,375 genetic markers obtained from either actual high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes or imputed from 54,001 marker SNP genotypes. Genetic correlations between the populations were estimated using genomic REML. The accuracy of genomic prediction was evaluated for the following scenarios: (1) within-country only, by fixing the correlations among populations to zero, (2) using near-unity correlations among populations and assuming the same trait in each population, and (3) a sharing data scenario using estimated genetic correlations among populations. For these 3 scenarios, the data set was divided into 10 sub-populations stratified by progeny group of sires; 9 of these sub-populations were used (in turn) for the genomic prediction and the tenth was used for calculation of the accuracy (correlation adjusted for heritability). A fourth scenario to quantify the benefit for countries that do not record DMI was investigated (i.e., having an entire country as the validation population and excluding this country in the development of the genomic predictions). The optimal scenario, which was sharing data, resulted in a mean prediction accuracy of 0.44, ranging from 0.37 (Denmark) to 0.54 (the Netherlands). Assuming near-unity among-country genetic correlations, the mean accuracy of prediction dropped to 0.40, and the mean within-country accuracy was 0.30. If no

  10. Herd-level prevalence and associated risk factors for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in cattle in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Ana L T; Santos, Carolina S A B; Pimenta, Carla L R M; Freitas, Theonys D; Brasil, Arthur W L; Clementino, Inácio J; Alves, Clebert J; Bezerra, Camila S; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Oliveira, Taynara S; Azevedo, Sérgio S

    2015-09-01

    A cross-sectional study based on a planned sampling was carried out to determine herd-level and animal-level prevalences, and to identify risk factors associated with herd-level prevalence for bovine paratuberculosis in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. The state was divided into three sampling groups: sampling stratum 1 (mesoregion of Sertão), sampling stratum 2 (mesoregion of Borborema), and sampling stratum 3 (mesoregions of Zona da Mata and Agreste). For each sampling stratum, herd-level and animal-level prevalences were estimated by a two-stage sampling survey. In the first stage, a pre-established number of herds (primary sampling units) were randomly selected; in the second stage, a pre-established number of cows aged ≥24 months were randomly selected (secondary sampling units). Ten animals were sampled in herds with up to 99 cows aged over 24 months; 15 animals were sampled in herds with 100 or more cows aged over 24 months; and all animals were sampled in those with up to 10 cows aged over 24 months. In total, 2504 animals were sampled from 480 herds. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) test kits were used for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) antibody detection. A herd was deemed positive for the presence of MAP if it included at least one positive animal in herds of up to 24 females, and two positive animals in herds with more than 24 females. The herd-level prevalence in the State of Paraíba was 34.5% (95% CI=30.2-39.1%), 26.6% (95% CI=20.2-34.2%) in the region of Borborema, 30.5% (95% CI=23.9-38.0%) in Agreste/Mata, and 41.4% (95% CI=34.0-49.1%) in Sertão. The animal-level prevalence was 10.7% (95% CI=7.3-15.4%) in the State of Paraíba, 7.9% (95% CI=5.2-11.7%) in the region of Borborema, 9.4% (95% CI=7.3-12.1%) in Sertão, and 13.9% (95% CI=6.2--28.3%) in Agreste/Mata. The frequency of seropositive animals per herd ranged from 6.7% to 100% (median of 20%). The risk factors identified were as follows: Sertão region

  11. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC)1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Alba, Patricia; Feltrin, Fabiola; Cordaro, Gessica; Porrero, María Concepción; Kraushaar, Britta; Argudín, María Angeles; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Monaco, Monica; Stegger, Marc; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Battisti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Sequence Type (ST)1, Clonal Complex(CC)1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA-) lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (≥90% to 100%) similarity with human isolates and carried the same SCCmec type IVa. They often showed genetic features typical of human adaptation or present in human-associated CC1: Immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes sak and scn, or sea; sat and aphA3-mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Contrary, typical markers of porcine origin in Italy and Spain, like erm(A) mediated macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB, and of vga(A)-mediated pleuromutilin resistance were always absent in human and bovine isolates. Most of ST(CC)1 MRSA from dairy cattle were multidrug-resistant and contained virulence and immunomodulatory genes associated with full capability of colonizing humans. As such, these strains may represent a greater human hazard than the porcine strains. The zoonotic capacity of CC1 LA-MRSA from livestock must be taken seriously and measures should be implemented at farm-level to prevent spill-over. PMID:26322785

  12. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC)1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans.

    PubMed

    Alba, Patricia; Feltrin, Fabiola; Cordaro, Gessica; Porrero, María Concepción; Kraushaar, Britta; Argudín, María Angeles; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Monaco, Monica; Stegger, Marc; Aarestrup, Frank M; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Battisti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Sequence Type (ST)1, Clonal Complex(CC)1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA-) lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (≥90% to 100%) similarity with human isolates and carried the same SCCmec type IVa. They often showed genetic features typical of human adaptation or present in human-associated CC1: Immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes sak and scn, or sea; sat and aphA3-mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Contrary, typical markers of porcine origin in Italy and Spain, like erm(A) mediated macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB, and of vga(A)-mediated pleuromutilin resistance were always absent in human and bovine isolates. Most of ST(CC)1 MRSA from dairy cattle were multidrug-resistant and contained virulence and immunomodulatory genes associated with full capability of colonizing humans. As such, these strains may represent a greater human hazard than the porcine strains. The zoonotic capacity of CC1 LA-MRSA from livestock must be taken seriously and measures should be implemented at farm-level to prevent spill-over. PMID:26322785

  13. Quantifying the risk of spread of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) between contiguous herds in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Graham, D A; Clegg, T A; Thulke, H-H; O'Sullivan, P; McGrath, G; More, S J

    2016-04-01

    The control of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) mainly focuses on the identification and restriction of persistently infected (PI) animals. However, other transmission pathways can also result in new breakdowns, including the movement of animals pregnant with PI calves (Trojan animals) and the spread of infection between contiguous farms. Contiguous spread is likely an important problem in the BVD eradication programme in Ireland, given the spatial distribution of residual infection, and the highly fragmented nature of land holdings on many Irish farms. In this study, we seek to quantify the risk of BVD spread between contiguous herds in Ireland. Multivariable logistic models were used to estimate the risk of a herd having BVD positive calves in January to June 2014 (the study period) when contiguous to a herd that had at least one BVD positive calf born in 2013. The models included risk factors relating to the study herd and to neighbouring herds. Separate multivariable models were built for each of four "PI-neighbour" factors relating to the presence of BVD+ animals and/or the presence of offspring of PI breeding animals. In total, 58,483 study herds were enrolled. The final model contained the province, the log of the number of calf births born during the study period, the number of cattle purchased between January 2013 and January 2014, and with a two-way interaction between the number of animals of unknown BVD status in the study herd and the PI-neighbour risk factor. When the number of PI-neighbour herds was used as the PI-neighbour risk factor, the odds ratio (OR) associated with the number of PI-neighbour herds ranged from 1.07 to 3.02, depending on the number of unknown animals present. To further explore the risk associated with PI-neighbour factors, the models were repeated using a subset of the study herds (n=7440) that contained no animals of unknown status. The best fitting model including "any PI-neighbour" as the PI-neighbour factor and also

  14. Exploration of the power of routine surveillance data to assess the impacts of industry-led badger culling on bovine tuberculosis incidence in cattle herds

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, C. A.; Bento, A. I.; Goodchild, A. V.; Downs, S. H.

    2015-01-01

    In the UK, badgers (Meles meles) are a well-known reservoir of infection, and there has been lively debate about whether badger culling should play a role within the British Government's strategy to control and eventually eradicate tuberculosis (TB) in cattle. The key source of information on the potential for badger culling to reduce cattle TB in high-cattle-TB-incidence areas remains the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT). In late 2013, two pilot areas were subjected to industry-led badger culls. These culls differed importantly from RBCT culling in that free-ranging as well as cage-trapped badgers were shot, and culling took place over a longer time period. Their impacts will be harder to evaluate because culling was not randomised between comparable areas for subsequent comparisons of culling versus no culling. However, the authors present calculations that explore the power of routine surveillance data to assess the impacts of industry-led badger culling on cattle TB incidence. The rollout of industry-led culling as a component of a national cattle TB control policy would be controversial. The best possible estimates of the effects of such culling on confirmed cattle TB incidence should be made available to inform all stakeholders and policy-makers. PMID:26374782

  15. Exploration of the power of routine surveillance data to assess the impacts of industry-led badger culling on bovine tuberculosis incidence in cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, C A; Bento, A I; Goodchild, A V; Downs, S H

    2015-10-24

    In the UK, badgers (Meles meles) are a well-known reservoir of infection, and there has been lively debate about whether badger culling should play a role within the British Government's strategy to control and eventually eradicate tuberculosis (TB) in cattle. The key source of information on the potential for badger culling to reduce cattle TB in high-cattle-TB-incidence areas remains the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT). In late 2013, two pilot areas were subjected to industry-led badger culls. These culls differed importantly from RBCT culling in that free-ranging as well as cage-trapped badgers were shot, and culling took place over a longer time period. Their impacts will be harder to evaluate because culling was not randomised between comparable areas for subsequent comparisons of culling versus no culling. However, the authors present calculations that explore the power of routine surveillance data to assess the impacts of industry-led badger culling on cattle TB incidence. The rollout of industry-led culling as a component of a national cattle TB control policy would be controversial. The best possible estimates of the effects of such culling on confirmed cattle TB incidence should be made available to inform all stakeholders and policy-makers. PMID:26374782

  16. Molecular identification of Sarcocystis hominis in native cattle of central Iran: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hajimohammadi, B; Eslami, G; Oryan, A; Zohourtabar, A; Pourmirzaei Tafti, H; Moghaddam Ahmadi, M

    2014-03-01

    Sarcocystis spp. are two-host protozoan parasites belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa. Among different known species of Sarcocystis in cattle, only Sarcocystis hominis is important from the public health viewpoint, because of its zoonotic characteristics. This study presents the first molecular identification of S. hominis in native cattle in central Iran. A sample of diaphragm muscle from a 6-year-old native cow slaughtered at Yazd Slaughterhouse, Yazd, central Iran, was collected in May 2013. DNA extraction was performed, using the salting-out method. DNA purification and precipitation were performed consecutively. The amplicon and digestion results were analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis. A PCR product with 926 bp in length was obtained after amplification, and 376 bp and 550 bp in length after digestion that identified S. hominis. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first of its kind to be reported from Iran. PMID:24862059

  17. Sarcocystis cruzi: First Molecular Identification from Cattle in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kalantari, Narges; Bayani, Masomeh; Ghaffari, Salman

    2013-01-01

    Sarcocystis is a genus of cyst-forming parasites infecting both animals and human. This study aimed to isolate coccidian tissue cysts from muscle of infected animals by a simple method in addition to molecular identification of Sarcocystis cruzi from the samples. The samples were obtained from commercial source in Babol, Northern Iran. Five grams of calf muscle was cut into 2-3 pieces in 30 ml of phosphate-buffered saline containing 0.1% Tween 80 and homogenized with IKA T25, DIGITAL ULTRA-TURRAX. The homogenate was filtrated twice and used for microscopy examination and molecular analysis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and partial sequence analysis of the 18S ribosomal gene were used to identify the Sarcocystis species. Giemsa stain of the filtrated calf muscle samples showed that the sample had ellipse to around tissue cysts contained crescent-shaped bodies. The PCR of the 18SrDNA yielded an 1100 bp DNA band on agarose gel and sequence analysis of the DNA confirmed the isolate as S. cruzi. The sequence was deposited in GenBank by Accession No.KC508514. This is the first molecular identification of an isolate of S. cruzi in Iran. PMID:24551802

  18. Quantitative single serum-dilution liquid phase competitive blocking ELISA for the assessment of herd immunity and expected protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in vaccinated cattle.

    PubMed

    Robiolo, Blanca; La Torre, José; Duffy, Sergio; Leon, Emilio; Seki, Cristina; Torres, Adriana; Mattion, Nora

    2010-06-01

    A single serum-dilution liquid phase ELISA (slpELISA) was standardized to be used for serological evaluation of herd immunity against foot-and-mouth disease. The absorbance value at a dilution 1:64 of each serum sample was interpolated in a standard curve by plotting the antibody titers of six control sera determined by end point dilution liquid phase ELISA (lpELISA), against the absorbance values for the same control sera at 1:64 dilutions. A straight line was obtained by linear regression analysis (r>0.90) in the titer range of 1.40-2.40. The reliability of the antibody titers was confirmed by the simultaneous titration of 60 cattle sera by slpELISA and lpELISA, which showed an acceptable correlation (R(2)>0.87) for viral strains A24/Cruzeiro, A/Argentina/01, O1/Campos and C3/Indaial. Titers obtained by both methods were not significantly different (p>0.05), thus confirming that slpELISA could be used successfully to replace the conventional serial dilution ELISA for the assessment of protection status of cattle in epidemiological studies. In addition, this quantitative slpELISA provides an adequate method for monitoring the effectiveness of vaccination campaigns and is also suitable for the assessment of seroconversion of naive animals during early stages of infection. PMID:20170683

  19. Identification of two genotype subgroups of porcine circovirus type 2 in swine herds of the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sporadic cases of high mortality postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) were observed in 10- to 16-week-old growing pigs among several swine herds of the United States in late 2005. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) was consistently detected in the affected pigs from Kansas, Iowa, and Nor...

  20. Cost-benefit analysis model of badger (Meles meles) culling to reduce cattle herd tuberculosis breakdowns in Britain, with particular reference to badger perturbation.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, D; Bennett, R; McFarlane, I; Rushton, S; Shirley, M; Smith, G C

    2009-10-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is an important economic disease. Badgers (Meles meles) are the wildlife source implicated in many cattle outbreaks of TB in Britain, and extensive badger control is a controversial option to reduce the disease. A badger and cattle population model was developed, simulating TB epidemiology; badger ecology, including postcull social perturbation; and TB-related farm management. An economic cost-benefit module was integrated into the model to assess whether badger control offers economic benefits. Model results strongly indicate that although, if perturbation were restricted, extensive badger culling could reduce rates in cattle, overall an economic loss would be more likely than a benefit. Perturbation of the badger population was a key factor determining success or failure of control. The model highlighted some important knowledge gaps regarding both the spatial and temporal characteristics of perturbation that warrant further research. PMID:19901382

  1. Beef cattle welfare in the USA: identification of priorities for future research.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Cassandra B; Coetzee, Johann F; Stookey, Joseph M; Thomson, Daniel U; Grandin, Temple; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, Karen S

    2015-12-01

    This review identifies priorities for beef cattle welfare research in the USA. Based on our professional expertise and synthesis of existing literature, we identify two themes in intensive aspects of beef production: areas where policy-based actions are needed and those where additional research is required. For some topics, considerable research informs best practice, yet gaps remain between scientific knowledge and implementation. For example, many of the risk factors and management strategies to prevent respiratory disease are understood, but only used by a relatively small portion of the industry. This is an animal health issue that will require leadership and discussion to gain widespread adoption of practices that benefit cattle welfare. There is evidence of success when such actions are taken, as illustrated by the recent improvements in handling at US slaughter facilities. Our highest priorities for additional empirical evidence are: the effect of technologies used to either promote growth or manage cattle in feedlots, identification of management risk factors for disease in feedlots, and management decisions about transport (rest stops, feed/water deprivation, climatic conditions, stocking density). Additional research is needed to inform science-based recommendations about environmental features such as dry lying areas (mounds), shade, water and feed, as well as trailer design. PMID:26459152

  2. 9 CFR 93.427 - Cattle from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... tailhead (over the junction of the sacral and first coccygeal vertebrae). (2) Cattle from a herd or herds... vertebrae); or (ii) A tattoo with the letters “MX” applied to the inside of one ear of the animal; or...

  3. Identification of a bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 isolated from cattle in China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, L Q; Ren, M; Lin, Y Q; Ding, X Y; Zhang, G P; Zhao, X; Zhu, G Q

    2009-01-01

    The identification and characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2) strain SD-06 isolated from cattle in China is reported. We performed sequence analysis of 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) and E2 sequences and the identity at the nucleotide and amino acid level indicated that the isolate was closely related to BVDV-2. The BVDV-2 strain New York'93 showed the highest sequence homology with the isolate SD-06. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolate SD-06 belonged to BVDV-2a subtype. Furthermore, immunofluorescence assay with the monoclonal antibody specific for BVDV-2 glycoprotein E2 confirmed this identification. Thus, the strain SD-06 was the first isolate of BVDV-2 identified in China. PMID:19537915

  4. Sero-positivity and associated risk factors for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia under two cattle production systems in North Central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Alhaji, Nma Bida; Babalobi, Olutayo Olajide

    2016-02-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 765 cattle in 125 nomadic and 375 cattle in 125 sedentary herds was conducted to investigate prevalence and risk factors for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in the two production systems of Niger State in North Central Nigeria, between January and August 2013. Data on herd characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires administered on herd owners. Serological analysis was conducted using competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) test. Descriptive, univariate, and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted with OpenEpi version 2.3.1 software. Statistical significance was held at P < 0.05. CBPP sero-prevalence in nomadic cattle was 16.2 % (confidence interval (CI) 13.7-19.0) and 9.6 % (CI 6.9-12.9) in sedentary cattle. The overall cattle-level sero-prevalence for two the cattle production systems was 14.0 % (CI 12.1-16.1). Age and agro-ecological zones were significantly (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively) associated with sero-positivity to Mmm in nomadic production. Agro-ecological zone C had the highest sero-prevalence (25.3 %, CI 20.2-31.0). No significant cattle factors were detected in sedentary production. Factors significantly associated with CBPP occurrence at herd-level were contacts with other herds during grazing (P < 0.001) and at watering points (P < 0.001). Others were introduction of new cattle into herd (P < 0.001), outbreaks of CBPP in an area (P < 0.001), socio-cultural factors of cattle gifts and dowry payment (P < 0.001), herd composition of keeping cattle and small ruminants together (P < 0.001), and long trekking during migrations (P = 0.0009). This study had shown the burden of CBPP in the two production systems. Sero-diagnosis and risk factor identification should be institutionalized as elements of epidemio-surveillance and control strategies for CBPP, especially in resource-poor pastoralists' settlements in Nigeria. PMID

  5. 9 CFR 73.5 - Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. 73.5 Section 73.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.5 Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. Cattle of any herd in any quarantined area, which herd is...

  6. 9 CFR 73.5 - Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. 73.5 Section 73.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.5 Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. Cattle of any herd in any quarantined area, which herd is...

  7. 9 CFR 73.5 - Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. 73.5 Section 73.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.5 Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. Cattle of any herd in any quarantined area, which herd is...

  8. 9 CFR 73.5 - Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. 73.5 Section 73.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.5 Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. Cattle of any herd in any quarantined area, which herd is...

  9. 9 CFR 73.5 - Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. 73.5 Section 73.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.5 Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. Cattle of any herd in any quarantined area, which herd is...

  10. Y are you not pregnant: identification of Y chromosome segments in female cattle with decreased reproductive efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproductive efficiency is of economic importance in commercial beef cattle production, as failure to achieve pregnancy reduces the number of calves marketed. Identification of genetic markers with predictive merit for reproductive success would facilitate early selection of females and avoid ineff...

  11. Benchmarking dairy herd health status using routinely recorded herd summary data.

    PubMed

    Parker Gaddis, K L; Cole, J B; Clay, J S; Maltecca, C

    2016-02-01

    Genetic improvement of dairy cattle health through the use of producer-recorded data has been determined to be feasible. Low estimated heritabilities indicate that genetic progress will be slow. Variation observed in lowly heritable traits can largely be attributed to nongenetic factors, such as the environment. More rapid improvement of dairy cattle health may be attainable if herd health programs incorporate environmental and managerial aspects. More than 1,100 herd characteristics are regularly recorded on farm test-days. We combined these data with producer-recorded health event data, and parametric and nonparametric models were used to benchmark herd and cow health status. Health events were grouped into 3 categories for analyses: mastitis, reproductive, and metabolic. Both herd incidence and individual incidence were used as dependent variables. Models implemented included stepwise logistic regression, support vector machines, and random forests. At both the herd and individual levels, random forest models attained the highest accuracy for predicting health status in all health event categories when evaluated with 10-fold cross-validation. Accuracy (SD) ranged from 0.61 (0.04) to 0.63 (0.04) when using random forest models at the herd level. Accuracy of prediction (SD) at the individual cow level ranged from 0.87 (0.06) to 0.93 (0.001) with random forest models. Highly significant variables and key words from logistic regression and random forest models were also investigated. All models identified several of the same key factors for each health event category, including movement out of the herd, size of the herd, and weather-related variables. We concluded that benchmarking health status using routinely collected herd data is feasible. Nonparametric models were better suited to handle this complex data with numerous variables. These data mining techniques were able to perform prediction of health status and could add evidence to personal experience in herd

  12. Estimated BVDV-prevalence, -contact and -vaccine use in dairy herds in Northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Niza-Ribeiro, J; Pereira, Adelaide; Souza, João; Madeira, Helena; Barbosa, Abigaíl; Afonso, Carla

    2005-11-15

    A study to evaluate BVDV-prevalence, recent -contact and -vaccine use in dairy herds in the "Entre Douro e Minho" (EDM) region in North Portugal was carried out in 124 dairy herds in 2003. Herds were visited to ascertain BVDV-vaccine use and to collect a bulk tank milk (BTM) sample and serum from 1268 cattle to analyse BVDV-antibodies using an NS2-3 ELISA. Fifty-three percent of farmers used inactivated BVDV-vaccines whilst the remaining farmers were not presently using BVDV-vaccines. BMT-antibody results included 35% positives, 25% negative and 39% inconclusive, and were similar in vaccinated and non-vaccinated herds (p>0.05) and allowed estimating a 10% BVDV herd-prevalence from prior knowledge of the relationship between BMT-antibody results and probability of PI cattle in the herd. Overall individual seroprevalence was 27% and was 23% in non-vaccinated and 36% in vaccinated cattle (p<0.05). Contact of the herd with BVDV was assessed according to seroprevalence in young and adult cattle in the herd and it was estimated that 35% of herds were infected or had recent contact with BVDV, 40% were not infected and did not have recent contact with BVDV and the BVDV-infection and -contact status of remaining herds was undetermined. The results from this study indicate BVDV is endemic and BVDV-vaccines are widespread in the dairy-cattle population in EDM region in Portugal. PMID:16216353

  13. Identification of Tropomyosin and Its Immunological Properties from Larvae of Cattle Tick, Boophilus annulatus

    PubMed Central

    Nabian, S; Taheri, M; Fard, R Mazaheri Nezhad; Aramoon, M

    2013-01-01

    Background Boophilus annulatus is an obligate blood feeder tick that can cause great losses in animals due to anemia and its ability to injure its host skin directly. The aim of this study was identification of cattle humoral immune response to some tick proteins during experimental infestation. Methods Immune sera against tick were collected from experimentally infested cattle with ticks. One and two-dimensional electrophoresis and Western blotting methods were used for the detection of immunogenic proteins in larval tick extract and eight of these proteins were identified by MALDITOF and MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. Results In non-reducing one-dimensional SDS-PAGE, some bounds between 12 to more than 250-kDa appeared. In two-dimensional SDS-PAGE, numerous spot appeared and the identified immunogenic proteins by parallel immunoblotting weighted between 14 and 97 kDa. Amino acid sequences of protein spot with 37-kDa molecular weight had identity to tropomyosin based on Mascot search in NCBI. Conclusion Anti tropomyosin antibodies can be induced in experimentally infested hosts with ticks and it seems that tropomyosin can be useful for the development of anti tick vaccines. PMID:23914237

  14. [Detection of short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms by microchip electrophoresis for individual identification of cattle].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Shimizu, Kaori; Mishima, Takashi; Hattori, Hideki; Katsuda, Shin-ichi; Sato, Hidetaka; Ueda, Nobuo; Sato, Noriyuki

    2006-12-01

    A simple and rapid detection of short tandem repeat (STR) markers was studied as a screening test for individual identification of cattle. DNAs were extracted from eight commercial beef samples by a proteinase K-boil method followed by purification with 2-propanol precipitation. Five STR markers, known to be highly polymorphic, were amplified by PCR and analyzed both by a conventional sequencing analysis (SEQ) and by a proposed microchip electrophoresis (MEP). Every marker revealed high polymorphism, such as 5-9 alleles in SEQ analysis, and 4-6 alleles in MEP analysis. This simple and rapid MEP analysis is expected to be an effective screening tool with use of confirmatory SEQ analysis. PMID:17228791

  15. Genetic Analysis of the Henry Mountains Bison Herd.

    PubMed

    Ranglack, Dustin H; Dobson, Lauren K; du Toit, Johan T; Derr, James

    2015-01-01

    Wild American plains bison (Bison bison) populations virtually disappeared in the late 1800s, with some remnant animals retained in what would become Yellowstone National Park and on private ranches. Some of these private bison were intentionally crossbred with cattle for commercial purposes. This forced hybridization resulted in both mitochondrial and nuclear introgression of cattle genes into some of the extant bison genome. As the private populations grew, excess animals, along with their history of cattle genetics, provided founders for newly established public bison populations. Of the US public bison herds, only those in Yellowstone and Wind Cave National Parks (YNP and WCNP) appear to be free of detectable levels of cattle introgression. However, a small free-ranging population (~350 animals) exists on public land, along with domestic cattle, in the Henry Mountains (HM) of southern Utah. This isolated bison herd originated from a founder group translocated from YNP in the 1940s. Using genetic samples from 129 individuals, we examined the genetic status of the HM population and found no evidence of mitochondrial or nuclear introgression of cattle genes. This new information confirms it is highly unlikely for free-living bison to crossbreed with cattle, and this disease-free HM bison herd is valuable for the long-term conservation of the species. This bison herd is a subpopulation of the YNP/WCNP/HM metapopulation, within which it can contribute significantly to national efforts to restore the American plains bison to more of its native range. PMID:26673758

  16. Genetic Analysis of the Henry Mountains Bison Herd

    PubMed Central

    du Toit, Johan T.; Derr, James

    2015-01-01

    Wild American plains bison (Bison bison) populations virtually disappeared in the late 1800s, with some remnant animals retained in what would become Yellowstone National Park and on private ranches. Some of these private bison were intentionally crossbred with cattle for commercial purposes. This forced hybridization resulted in both mitochondrial and nuclear introgression of cattle genes into some of the extant bison genome. As the private populations grew, excess animals, along with their history of cattle genetics, provided founders for newly established public bison populations. Of the US public bison herds, only those in Yellowstone and Wind Cave National Parks (YNP and WCNP) appear to be free of detectable levels of cattle introgression. However, a small free-ranging population (~350 animals) exists on public land, along with domestic cattle, in the Henry Mountains (HM) of southern Utah. This isolated bison herd originated from a founder group translocated from YNP in the 1940s. Using genetic samples from 129 individuals, we examined the genetic status of the HM population and found no evidence of mitochondrial or nuclear introgression of cattle genes. This new information confirms it is highly unlikely for free-living bison to crossbreed with cattle, and this disease-free HM bison herd is valuable for the long-term conservation of the species. This bison herd is a subpopulation of the YNP/WCNP/HM metapopulation, within which it can contribute significantly to national efforts to restore the American plains bison to more of its native range. PMID:26673758

  17. Characterizing biosecurity, health, and culling during dairy herd expansions.

    PubMed

    Faust, M A; Kinsel, M L; Kirkpatrick, M A

    2001-04-01

    Our objectives were to investigate strategies for biosecurity, expansion, and culling for expanding dairy herds in the Upper Midwest. Eighteen dairies in Iowa and Wisconsin were visited, and dairy managers and veterinarians were interviewed to characterize five biosecurity practices, herd culling practices, vaccines administered, and ensuing disease status for the herds. The majority of herds that were interviewed failed to employ comprehensive biosecurity programs for incoming cattle. Nearly 60% of herds obtained cattle from sources for which it was difficult to document genetic backgrounds and health histories, fewer than half required health testing for incoming cattle, and approximately 50% quarantined new cattle on arrival. Despite high rates of vaccination for bovine viral diarrhea, all herd owners and managers indicated that herd biosecurity was compromised as a result of expansion. Half of the interviewed herds indicated that bovine viral diarrhea and papillomatous digital dermatitis were notable disease problems. Herds that obtained cattle with unknown backgrounds and health status experienced the largest number of diseases. Before expansion, the most frequently cited reasons for culling were reproductively unsound; low milk production; mastitis, poor udder health, and high SCC; during expansion, the strategic decision to cull cows for low milk production was used less often. In addition, the stochastic simulation model, DairyORACLE, was used to evaluate economic outcomes for several expansion alternatives. Five model scenarios studied were: base scenario (herd size was maintained) and four expansion scenarios--all paired combinations of heifer quality (high, low) and voluntary culling (implemented, not implemented). Culling for low milk production yielded an additional $23.29 annually (6-yr annuity) per cow, but on the basis of purchased replacements, no voluntary culling was most profitable. Purchasing high versus low quality replacement heifers for

  18. Using routinely recorded herd data to predict and benchmark herd and cow health status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic improvement of dairy cattle health using producer-recorded data is feasible. Estimates of heritability are low, indicating that genetic progress will be slow. Improvement of health traits may also be possible with the incorporation of environmental and managerial aspects into herd health pro...

  19. Economics of gastrointestinal parasitism of cattle.

    PubMed

    Corwin, R M

    1997-11-01

    cost and labor in administration of AH. Return is based on performance. Again, nematode parasites can disturb the equation enough to make production less profitable or even unprofitable. Most USA beef cattle producers believe that worm parasites do have an effect on cattle health and production so that 77% use AH and the market impact is that AH have become integrated into cattle herd health programs. However, to be most cost-effective, programs must be strategic but flexible with scheduling tailored for the region and the cattle operation. Other technologies should eventually provide rapid identification of worm populations by species and numbers and recognition of individual animal response to parasites and inheritance of that trait by their progeny. Computerized programs for analysis of seasonality of the epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasites and of herd performance could predict appropriate timing and cost benefit for control measures. Modes of AH administration are being developed which are more reliable and convenient in terms of delivery and labor. Control measures must also include better pasture management with less impact on the environment and to justify investment in land. In addition, successful producers are better educated, more cost-conscious, consumer-oriented, sensitive to the environment and attuned to the economics of parasitism. PMID:9460211

  20. Detection of bovine leukemia virus in cattle by the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Murtaugh, M P; Lin, G F; Haggard, D L; Weber, A F; Meiske, J C

    1991-06-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is widely distributed in U.S. cattle herds. It infects B lymphocytes and causes neoplastic disease in 5-10% of infected animals. Direct economic losses are incurred as a result of death, reduced milk production and condemnation at slaughter. Thus the identification of cattle infected with BLV is of significant concern to the U.S. cattle industry. For this reason, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was used to examine seropositive and seronegative cattle for the presence of BLV DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Using an amplification protocol able to detect 1 viral genome in 100,000 cells, BLV was not detected in 7 seronegative cattle in an infected herd. BLV sequences were detected in 13 of 18 seropositive animals with various levels of infection as determined by in vitro lymphocyte culture and electron microscopy. An active infection was demonstrated in one animal, based on the presence of viral RNA. These findings indicate that PCR is a sensitive method for the detection of BLV in cattle and provides new information regarding the dynamics of the infection. PMID:1658030

  1. Haematological investigation of a multiple case leucosis herd.

    PubMed

    Dimmock, C K; Waugh, P D; Rogers, R J

    1979-06-01

    Adult cattle in a Queensland dairy herd with a history of deaths from lymphosarcoma were sampled regularly over a 4 year period for the identification of animals with persistent lymphocytosis (PL). Twenty-one of 94 animals that were sampled at least 6 times had PL. At the initial sampling 27% of the animals had lymphocytosis. Culling of haematologically positive animals in the first 18 months of the investigation reduced this to 5.3%, but cessation of the culling programme resulted in a gradual increase in the percentage of animals with lymphocytosis. Four deaths from lymphosarcoma occurred in adult animals, but only in the first 18 months of the investigation. Two of these animals had lymphocytosis and two lymphoblastic leukaemia. The calf of one of the latter cows developed lymphoblastic leukaemia and lymphosarcoma by the time it was 6 months of age. Although histological evidence of lymphosarcoma was lacking in a number of clinically normal animals with lymphocytosis, haematological investigation identified a group of animals within the herd that may develop lymphosarcoma. PMID:293162

  2. Bovine besnoitiosis (Besnoitia besnoiti) in an Irish dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Ryan, E G; Lee, A; Carty, C; O'Shaughnessy, J; Kelly, P; Cassidy, J P; Sheehan, M; Johnson, A; de Waal, T

    2016-06-11

    Bovine besnoitiosis, caused by the apicomplexan protozoan parasite Besnoitia besnoiti, was diagnosed in an Irish dairy herd. This is the first diagnosis of besnoitiosis in Ireland or the UK and the most northerly European outbreak yet described. The diagnosis occurred following a farm investigation in June 2015 into an unusual dermatological problem that had been ongoing since 2010. On an annual basis, 1-2 per cent of cows in the herd exhibited clinical signs, including skin thickening, alopecia, weight loss and poor performance. Others displayed pyrexia, limb oedema, respiratory distress and reduced milk yield. Histopathological examination of skin revealed granulomatous and eosinophilic dermatitis, with characteristic intradermal protozoal cysts, consistent with cutaneous besnoitiosis. Follow-up serological testing and clinical examination of cattle (n=228) on the farm found that 68 per cent (144/212) were seropositive for B. besnoiti In addition, 51 per cent (117/228) had characteristic scleral conjunctival cysts and 68 per cent (134/198) had vulval cysts. Postmortem examination of a severely affected animal revealed typical gross and histopathological lesions of B. besnoiti infection. These results confirmed endemic infection with B. besnoiti The identification of this exotic disease highlights the importance of veterinary surveillance at both local and national level, particularly in relation to emerging diseases. PMID:27122500

  3. Epidemiology, diagnostics, and management of tuberculosis in domestic cattle and deer in New Zealand in the face of a wildlife reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Buddle, BM; de Lisle, GW; Griffin, JFT; Hutchings, SA

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The control of tuberculosis (TB) in cattle and farmed deer in New Zealand has been greatly influenced by the existence of a wildlife reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis infection, principally the Australian brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). The reduction in possum numbers in areas with endemic M. bovis infection through vigorous vector control operations has been a major contributor to the marked reduction in the number of infected cattle and farmed deer herds in the past two decades. Management of TB in cattle and farmed deer in New Zealand has involved a combination of vector control, regionalisation of diagnostic testing of cattle and deer herds, abattoir surveillance and movement control from vector risk areas. Accurate diagnosis of infected cattle and deer has been a crucial component in the control programme. As the control programme has evolved, test requirements have changed and new tests have been introduced or test interpretations modified. Subspecific strain typing of M. bovis isolates has proved to be a valuable component in the epidemiological investigation of herd breakdowns to identify whether the source of infection was domestic livestock or wildlife. New initiatives will include the use of improved models for analysing diagnostic test data and characterising disease outbreaks leading to faster elimination of infection from herds. The introduction of the National Animal Identification Tracing programme will allow better risk profiling of individual herds and more reliable tracing of animal movements. TB in cattle and farmed deer in New Zealand can only be controlled by eliminating the disease in both domestic livestock and the wildlife reservoir. PMID:24992203

  4. Proteomic identification of plasma proteins as markers of growth promoter abuse in cattle.

    PubMed

    Kinkead, Ruth A; Elliott, Christopher T; Cannizzo, Francesca T; Biolatti, Bartolomeo; Mooney, Mark H

    2015-06-01

    Growth-promoting agents are continually misused for increasing animal growth and fraudulent gain in the meat industry, yet detection rates from conventional targeted testing for drug residues do not reflect this. This is because testing currently relies on direct detection of drugs or related metabolites and administrators of such compounds can take adaptive measures to avoid detection through the use of endogenous or unknown drugs, and low dose or combined mixtures. New detection methods are needed which focus on the screening of biological responses of an animal to such growth-promoting agents as it has been demonstrated that genomic, proteomic and metabolomics profiles are altered by xenobiotic intake. Therefore, an untargeted proteomics approach using comparative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) was carried out to identify putative proteins altered in plasma after treatment with oestradiol, dexamethasone or prednisolone. Twenty-four male cattle were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 6) for experimental treatment over 40 days, namely a control group of non-treated cattle, and three groups administered 17β-oestradiol-3-benzoate (0.01 mg/kg, intramuscular), dexamethasone sodium phosphate (0.7 mg/day, per os) or prednisolone acetate (15 mg/day, per os), respectively. Plasma collected from each animal at day 25 post study initiation was subjected to proteomic analysis by 2DE for comparison of protein expression between treated and untreated animals. Analysis of acquired gel images revealed 22 plasma proteins which differed in expression by more than 50% (p < 0.05) in treated animals compared to untreated animals. Proteins of interest underwent identification by LC-MS/MS analysis and were found to have associated roles in transport, blood coagulation, immune response and metabolism pathways. In this way, seven proteins are highlighted as novel biomarker candidates including transthyretin which is shown to be significantly increased in all

  5. Identification of genomic regions associated with feed efficiency in Nelore cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed efficiency is jointly determined by productivity and feed requirements, both of which are economically relevant traits in beef cattle production systems. The objective of this study was to identify genes/QTLs associated with components of feed efficiency in Nelore cattle using Illumina BovineHD...

  6. Assessing the potential impact of Salmonella vaccines in an endemically infected dairy herd

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella spp. in cattle are contributing to bacterial foodborne disease for humans. Reduction of Salmonella prevalence in herds is important to prevent human Salmonella infections. Typical control measures are culling of infectious animals, vaccination, and improved hygiene management. Vaccines ha...

  7. Stochastic Transmission of Multiple Genotypically Distinct Anaplasma marginale Strains in a Herd with High Prevalence of Anaplasma Infection

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Guy H.; Knowles, Donald P.; Rodriguez, Jose-Luis; Gnad, David P.; Hollis, Larry C.; Marston, Twig; Brayton, Kelly A.

    2004-01-01

    Multiple genotypically unique strains of the tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma marginale occur and are transmitted within regions where the organism is endemic. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that specific A. marginale strains are preferentially transmitted. The study herd of cattle (n = 261) had an infection prevalence of 29% as determined by competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PCR, with complete concordance between results of the two assays. Genotyping revealed the presence of 11 unique strains within the herd. Although the majority of the individuals (70 of 75) were infected with only a single A. marginale strain, five animals each carried two strains with markedly distinct genotypes, indicating that superinfection does occur with distinct A. marginale strains, as has been reported with A. marginale and A. marginale subsp. centrale strains. Identification of strains in animals born into and infected within the herd during the period from 1998 to 2003 revealed no significant difference from the overall strain prevalence in the herd, results that do not support the occurrence of preferential strain transmission within a population of persistently infected animals and are most consistent with pathogen strain transmission being stochastic. PMID:15528749

  8. Seroprevalence of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 and type 2 in non-vaccinated cattle herds in the Pacific Region of Central Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Raizman, Eran A; Pogranichniy, Roman; Negron, Maria; Schnur, Megan; Tobar-Lopez, Diego E

    2011-04-01

    The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to estimate the seroprevalence of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR, BHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a population of non-vaccinated, double purpose, dairy and beef herds in the Pacific Region of Central Costa Rica. Blood samples were collected from a total of 496 animals from 35 herds. Sera were tested for antibodies against BHV-1(IBR) and BVDV types 1 and 2 using serum neutralization test. The average number of animals tested in each herd for each of the viruses was 14. Overall individual seroprevalence was 48%, 27%, and 19% for IBR, BVDV type 1, and BVDV type 2, respectively. Median within-herd seroprevalence for IBR, BVDV type 1 and type 2 were 43%, 27%, and 24%, respectively. PMID:21128116

  9. Effectiveness of genetic evaluations in predicting daughter performance in individual herds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Response to genetic selection has been demonstrated nationally for US dairy cattle, but producers are more likely to appreciate the value of genetic selection if trends within their own herds can be shown. Responses from 2004 through 2008 in individual herds by Holstein and Jersey cows were document...

  10. Tritrichomonas foetus Prevention and Control in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Ondrak, Jeff D

    2016-07-01

    Bovine trichomoniasis has been recognized as a pathogen of the bovine reproductive tract for nearly 100 years. Although characteristics of the causative organism, Tritrichomonas foetus lend to control and there are examples of disease eradication, cattle producers are still faced with this disease. This article highlights the clinical presentation, magnitude of effect, risk factors, epidemiology, and sample collection and suggests applications in developing herd-level control measures for beef cattle producers including testing strategies for control, testing strategies for surveillance, strategies to eliminate trichomoniasis from infected herds, and strategies for prevention in uninfected herds. PMID:27039692

  11. The art in getting flocks and herds to flerds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flerds (small ruminants that consistently stay near cattle under free-ranging conditions) offer four distinct advantages over stocking simply flocks and herds to carry out mixed species stocking. One of the main advantages flerds offer is added protection from canine predation, reduced time in loca...

  12. Photosensitization of cattle in southeast Texas: identification of phototoxic activity associated with Cooperia pedunculata.

    PubMed

    Rowe, L D; Norman, J O; Corrier, D E; Casteel, S W; Rector, B S; Bailey, E M; Schuster, J L; Reagor, J C

    1987-11-01

    A microbiological assay (Candida albicans) was used to screen plants in southeast Texas where bovine photosensitization (PS) of unknown cause was a recurring problem. Phototoxic activity was identified associated with dead leaf tips of Cooperia pedunculata, a native, perennial forb of the Amaryllis family (Amaryllidaceae) from central, southeast, and south Texas and parts of Mexico. A syndrome compatible with naturally occurring PS in cattle was induced in laboratory mice after oral administration of dead leaf material from C pedunculata. Availability and phototoxic activity of dead leaf material of C pedunculata corresponded with occurrence of PS in cattle. Seemingly, C pedunculata was involved in recurring PS. PMID:3434912

  13. Dynamic changes in antibody levels as an early warning of Salmonella Dublin in bovine dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Stockmarr, A; Bødker, R; Nielsen, L R

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella Dublin is a bacterium that causes disease and production losses in cattle herds. In Denmark, a surveillance and control program was initiated in 2002 to monitor and reduce the prevalence of Salmonella Dublin. In dairy herds, the surveillance includes herd classification based on bulk tank milk measurements of antibodies directed against Salmonella Dublin at 3-mo intervals. In this study, an "alarm herd" concept, based on the dynamic progression of these repeated measurements, was formulated such that it contains predictive power for Salmonella Dublin herd classification change from "likely free of infection" to "likely infected" in the following quarter of the year, thus warning the farmer 3 mo earlier than the present system. The alarm herd concept was defined through aberrations from a stable development over time of antibody levels. For suitable parameter choices, alarm herd status was a positive predictor for Salmonella Dublin status change in dairy herds, in that alarm herds had a higher risk of changing status in the following quarter compared with nonalarm herds. This was despite the fact that both alarm and nonalarm herds had antibody levels that did not indicate the herds being "likely infected" according to the existing classification system in the present quarter. The alarm herd concept can be used as a new early warning element in the existing surveillance program. Additionally, to improve accuracy of herd classification, the alarm herd concept could be incorporated into a model including other known risk factors for change in herd classification. Furthermore, the model could be extended to other diseases monitored in similar ways. PMID:24140322

  14. Quality of bulk tank milk samples from Danish dairy herds based on real-time polymerase chain reaction identification of mastitis pathogens.

    PubMed

    Katholm, J; Bennedsgaard, T W; Koskinen, M T; Rattenborg, E

    2012-10-01

    Results of a commercial real-time PCR analysis for 11 mastitis pathogens from bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from all 4,258 Danish dairy herds in November 2009 to January 2010 were compared with somatic cell count (SCC) and total bacteria count (TBC) estimates in BTM. For Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Streptococcus uberis, a low real-time PCR cycle threshold (Ct) value (corresponding to high bacterial DNA quantity) was correlated with higher SCC and higher TBC. For Staphylococcus aureus, low Ct values were correlated only with higher SCC. For the environmental mastitis pathogens Klebsiella spp., Enterococcus spp., and Escherichia coli, low Ct values had a correlation with higher TBC. Staphylococcus spp. were found in the BTM from all herds, Strep. uberis in 95%, Staph. aureus in 91%, and Strep. dysgalactiae in 86%, whereas E. coli, Klebsiella, and Strep. agalactiae were found in 61, 13, and 7% of the herds. It is concluded that the real-time PCR used provides results that are related to the milk quality in the herds. Real-time PCR can be used in the same way as culture for monitoring BTM samples, and is especially useful for bacteria with low prevalence (e.g., Strep. agalactiae). PMID:22921631

  15. Environmental sampling to predict fecal prevalence of Salmonella in an intensively monitored dairy herd

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although dairy cattle are known reservoirs for salmonellae, cattle that are shedding this organism are often asymptomatic and difficult to identify. A dairy herd that was experiencing an outbreak of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Cerro was monitored for two years. Fecal samples from the lacta...

  16. Case Report: Emergence of bovine viral diarrhea virus persistently infected calves in a closed herd

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) continues to have significant economic impact on the cattle industry worldwide. The virus is primarily maintained in the cattle population due to persistently infected animals. Herd surveillance along with good vaccination programs and biosecurity practices are the...

  17. 9 CFR 93.432 - Cattle from the Republic of Ireland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle from the Republic of Ireland... Cattle from the Republic of Ireland. (a) All cattle to be imported from the Republic of Ireland shall be... that the cattle originated from a herd which is officially certified by the Republic of Ireland as...

  18. Identification of a nonsense mutation in CWC15 associated with decreased reproductive efficiency in Jersey cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the recent advent of genomic tools for cattle, several recessive conditions affecting fertility have been identified and selected against, such as deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase, complex vertebral malformation, and brachyspina. The current report refines the location of a recessiv...

  19. Genomic evaluation, breed identification, and discovery of a haplotype affecting fertility for Ayrshire dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic evaluations of dairy cattle in the US have been available for Brown Swiss, Holstein and Brown Swiss since 2009. As of February 2013, there were 1,100 genotyped Ayrshires in the North American database, including 646 bulls with traditional evaluations, permitting the investigation and impleme...

  20. Resistance to Gastrointestinal nematodse of cattle: Identification of genomic regions affecting resistance and potential mechanisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal nematode infections remain a major economic drain on the efficient raising of cattle throughout the world. The recent demonstrations of the appearance of drug resistance in these parasites underscores the problems associated with a complete reliance on anthelmintics to control econ...

  1. Genomic evaluation, breed identification, and population structure of North American, English and Island Guernsey dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic evaluations of dairy cattle in the United States have been available for Brown Swiss, Holsteins, and Jerseys since 2009 and for Ayrshires since 2013. As of February 2015, 2,281 Guernsey bulls and cows had genotypes from collaboration between the United States, Canada, England, and the island...

  2. Genome-wide identification of signatures of positive selection in African admixed zebu cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The introduction of humped zebu to the African continent has led to genetic introgression with the local African humpless taurine. A mosaic of zebu x taurine cattle populations adapted to the local environments (e.g., semi-dry desert, humid and sub-humid forested areas) has arisen as a result of thi...

  3. Identification of Genetic Regions Associated with Bovine Viral Diarrhea-Persistently Infected Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the etiologies involved in bovine respiratory disease (BRD). BVDV infection can also cause reproductive disorders and acute fatal hemorrhagic disease resulting in poor performance and economic losses to the cattle industry. Infection with BVDV can be tra...

  4. Identification of candidate transcription factor binding sites in the cattle genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A resource that provides candidate transcription factor binding sites does not currently exist for cattle. Such data is necessary, as predicted sites may serve as excellent starting locations for future 'omics studies to develop transcriptional regulation hypotheses. In order to generate this resour...

  5. Identification of a nonsense mutation in APAF1 that is likely causal for a decrease in reproductive efficiency in Holstein dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A haplotype on cattle chromosome 5 carrying a recessive lethal allele was found to originate in a Holstein-Friesian foundation sire. Resequencing led to the identification of a stop-gain mutation in exon 11 of APAF1, a gene known to cause embryonic lethality and neurodevelopmental abnormalities in ...

  6. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate...

  7. Prevalence and first molecular identification of Sarcocystis species in cattle and water buffaloes in India.

    PubMed

    Daptardar, Monal; Singh, Balbir Bagicha; Aulakh, Rabinder Singh; Gill, Jatinder Paul Singh

    2016-09-01

    The importance of Sarcocystis hominis in causing zoonotic infections is well known. Recently, S. hominis like cysts have been reported from water buffalo in China. Previous studies indicate prevalence of Sarcocystis species in bovine populations in India but molecular evidence is required for proper species differentiation. We examined two hundred and ninety six cardiac tissue samples of Indian water buffaloes and cattle from northern and western parts of the country. Tissues were examined for Sarcocystis using intact cyst isolation method, pepsin acid digestion method and Sarcocystis 18S rRNA PCR. The combination of primers was used for 18S rRNA PCR amplification followed by sequencing. Twenty five representative samples were sent for sequencing and 19 readable sequences were obtained for phylogenetic analysis. Overall, the Sarcocystis cysts/zoites were recorded in 44% (95% CI 38-49%), 58% (95% CI 53-64%) and 68% (95% CI 63-73%) from both cattle and buffalo samples using intact cyst isolation, pepsin-HCl digestion method and conventional PCR, respectively. The results indicate that pepsin-HCl digestion method and conventional PCR are more sensitive than intact cyst isolation for detection of Sarcocystis species in tissue samples. The prevalence of Sarcocystis species was high in buffalo as compared to cattle intermediate hosts. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that more than one Sarcocystis species are circulating in cattle and water buffaloes in India. The results further indicate that experimental transmission studies are required to re-confirm the identities and host ranges of the Sarcocystis species in cattle and water buffaloes in India. PMID:27447215

  8. Copper toxicity in a New Zealand dairy herd

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chronic copper toxicity was diagnosed in a Jersey herd in the Waikato region of New Zealand following an investigation into the deaths of six cattle from a herd of 250 dry cows. Clinical signs and post-mortem examination results were consistent with a hepatopathy, and high concentrations of copper in liver and blood samples of clinically affected animals confirmed copper toxicity. Liver copper concentrations and serum gamma-glutamyl transferase activities were both raised in a group of healthy animals sampled at random from the affected herd, indicating an ongoing risk to the remaining cattle; these animals all had serum copper concentrations within normal limits. Serum samples and liver biopsies were also collected and assayed for copper from animals within two other dairy herds on the same farm; combined results from all three herds showed poor correlation between serum and liver copper concentrations. To reduce liver copper concentrations the affected herd was drenched with 0.5 g ammonium molybdate and 1 g sodium sulphate per cow for five days, and the herd was given no supplementary feed or mineral supplements. Liver biopsies were repeated 44 days after the initial biopsies (approximately 1 month after the end of the drenching program); these showed a significant 37.3% decrease in liver copper concentrations (P <0.02). Also there were no further deaths after the start of the drenching program. Since there was no control group it is impossible to quantify the effect of the drenching program in this case, and dietary changes were also made that would have depleted liver copper stores. Historical analysis of the diet was difficult due to poor record keeping, but multiple sources of copper contributed to a long term copper over supplementation of the herd; the biggest source of copper was a mineral supplement. The farmer perceived this herd to have problems with copper deficiency prior to the diagnosis of copper toxicity, so this case demonstrates the importance of

  9. Influence of herd structure and type of virus introduction on the spread of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) within a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Ezanno, Pauline; Fourichon, Christine; Seegers, Henri

    2008-01-01

    A herd is a population structured into groups not all equally in contact, which may influence within-herd spread of pathogens. Herd structure varies among cattle herds. However, published models of the spread of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) assume no herd structure or a unique structure chosen as a representative. Our objective was to identify--for different index cases introduced into an initially BVDV--free dairy herd - risky (favourable) herd structures, which increased (decreased) BVDV spread and persistence compared to a reference structure. Classically, dairy herds are divided into calves, young heifers, bred heifers, lactating cows and dry cows. In the reference scenario, groups are all equally in contact. We evaluated the effect of isolating or merging groups. Three index cases were tested: an open persistently-infected (PI) heifer, an open transiently-infected heifer, an immune heifer carrying a PI foetus. Merging all groups and merging calves and lactating cows were risky scenarios. Isolating each group, isolating lactating cows from other groups, and merging calves and young heifers were favourable scenarios. In most structures, the most risky index cases were the following: first, the entry of a PI heifer; second, the birth of a PI calf; last, the entry of a transiently-infected heifer. Recommendations for dairy herds are to raise young animals together before breeding and to isolate lactating cows from others as much as possible. These recommendations will be less efficient if a PI adult enters into the herd. PMID:18346451

  10. Risk Factors for Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) in Cattle in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Lemma, Fitsum A.; Mekonnen, Daniel A.; Alemu, Zelalem E.; Kelkay, Tessema Z.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) infection is generally correlated with individual cattle’s age, sex, body condition, and with husbandry practices such as herd composition, cattle movement, herd size, production system and proximity to wildlife—including bTB maintenance hosts. We tested the correlation between those factors and the prevalence of bTB, which is endemic in Ethiopia’s highland cattle, in the Afar Region and Awash National Park between November 2013 and April 2015. A total of 2550 cattle from 102 herds were tested for bTB presence using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CITT). Data on herd structure, herd movement, management and production system, livestock transfer, and contact with wildlife were collected using semi-structured interviews with cattle herders and herd owners. The individual overall prevalence of cattle bTB was 5.5%, with a herd prevalence of 46%. Generalized Linear Mixed Models with a random herd-effect were used to analyse risk factors of cattle reactors within each herd. The older the age of the cattle and the lower the body condition the higher the chance of a positive bTB test result, but sex, lactation status and reproductive status were not correlated with bTB status. At herd level, General Linear Models showed that pastoral production systems with transhumant herds had a higher bTB prevalence than sedentary herds. A model averaging analysis identified herd size, contact with wildlife, and the interaction of herd size and contact with wildlife as significant risk factors for bTB prevalence in cattle. A subsequent Structural Equation Model showed that the probability of contact with wildlife was influenced by herd size, through herd movement. Larger herds moved more and grazed in larger areas, hence the probability of grazing in an area with wildlife and contact with either infected cattle or infected wildlife hosts increased, enhancing the chances for bTB infection. Therefore, future bTB control strategies in cattle in

  11. Survey of Ticks Collected from Tennessee Cattle and Their Pastures for Anaplasma and Ehrlichia Species.

    PubMed

    Pompo, K; Mays, S; Wesselman, C; Paulsen, D J; Fryxell, R T Trout

    2016-02-01

    Anaplasma marginale is the causative agent for bovine anaplasmosis (BA) and Ehrlichia ruminantium is the causative agent for heartwater, 2 devastating diseases of cattle. BA is common in the United States and frequently reported in western Tennessee cattle; however, cases of heartwater are not yet established in the continental United States. Because both pathogens are transmitted via the bites of infected ticks, the objective of this study was to survey cattle and pastures for ticks and for each pathogen. University of Tennessee AgResearch has 7 research and education centers (REC) located throughout the state at which they manage cattle. Ticks were collected from selected cattle (every fourth to sixth animal) and pastures (via dragging) associated with the herd from each REC during the summer of 2013. A total of 512 ticks were collected from cattle (n = 386) and pastures (n = 126) and were PCR-screened for Anaplasma and Ehrlichia using genus-specific primers. Collections consisted of 398 (77.7%) Amblyomma americanum, 84 (16.4%) Amblyomma maculatum, and 30 (5.9%) Dermacentor variabilis. Ticks were not recovered from pastures or cattle east of the Tennessee Plateau. The North American vectors for An. marginale and E. ruminantium were identified (D. variabilis and A. maculatum, respectively), but neither pathogen was recovered. A large proportion of ticks were collected from cattle and, of these, a majority were attached to their host (compared to questing on their host or engorged on the host). Four A. americanum were positive for Ehrlichia spp. (Ehrlichia ewingii, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Panola Mountain Ehrlichia), all in western Tennessee. With the identification of a few Ehrlichia infections in cattle-associated ticks and current A. marginale rates in Tennessee beef cattle nearing 11%, additional research is needed to establish baseline tick, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia data for future management studies. PMID:26348980

  12. New findings of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in beef and dairy cattle in Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva Fiuza, Vagner Ricardo; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues; Fayer, Ronald; Santin, Monica

    2016-01-30

    Microsporidia are widely recognized as important human pathogens with Enterocytozoon bieneusi as the most common species infecting humans and animals, including cattle. Although Brazil has the second largest cattle herd in the world and it is the largest exporter of beef there are no data on the presence or impact of E. bieneusi on this important population. To fill this knowledge gap, fecal specimens were collected from 452 cattle from pre-weaned calves to adult cattle in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Host factors including age, gender, dairy/beef, body composition, and fecal consistency were included in the study. Using molecular methods, E. bieneusi was found in 79/452 (17.5%) fecal specimens. This represents the first report of this parasite in Brazilian cattle. A significantly higher prevalence was found in calves less than 2 months of age (27.6%) and those 3-8 months of age (28.8%) versus heifers (14.1%) and adults (1.4%) (P<0.05). Dairy cattle (26.2%) had a higher prevalence than beef cattle (9.7%) (P<0.001). No correlation was found between infection and gender, body composition, and fecal consistency. Molecular characterization of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) revealed 12 genotypes; five previously reported in cattle (BEB4, BEB8, D, EbpA and I), and seven novel genotypes (BEB11-BEB17). A phylogenetic analysis showed that 6 genotypes (D, EbpA, BEB12, BEB13, BEB15, and BEB16) identified in 18 animals clustered within the designated zoonotic Group 1 while the other 6 genotypes (I, BEB4, BEB8, BEB11, BEB14, BEB17) identified in 61 animals clustered within Group 2. The identification of genotypes in Brazilian cattle that have previously been reported in humans highlights the potential risk of zoonotic transmission and suggests that the role of cattle in transmission of human infections requires further study. PMID:26801594

  13. 9 CFR 93.432 - Cattle from the Republic of Ireland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... importation. In addition: (1) Such herd unit may include cattle which were born and raised within such herd.... Any animal exhibiting a prozone serological reaction is ineligible for export to the United States. (5) Cattle showing a serological titer more than 60 IU to the Plate or Tube agglutination test, or a...

  14. Genetic variation in bison (bison bison) subspecies and cattle (Bos taurus) breeds and subspecies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic variation was quantified at 29 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci in nine herds of plains bison (Bison bison bison), three herds of wood bison (B.b. athabascae), fourteen breeds of taurine cattle (Bos Taurus Taurus), and two breeds of indicine cattle (Bos Taurus indicus). Genetic distances,...

  15. Genetic variation and differentiation of bison (Bison bison) subspecies and cattle (Bos taurus) breeds and subspecies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic variation was quantified at 29 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci in nine herds of plains bison (Bison bison bison), three herds of wood bison (B. b. athabascae), fourteen breeds of taurine cattle (Bos taurus taurus), and two breeds of indicine cattle (Bos taurus indicus). Genetic distances...

  16. Chlorate poisoning in beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Blakley, Barry R.; Fraser, Lorrie M.; Waldner, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    A disease syndrome characterized by hemolysis, methemoglobinemia, methemoglobinuria, and death was observed in a herd of purebred Limousin beef cattle grazing on pasture in November in Alberta. Improper disposal of the nonselective herbicide, sodium chlorate, was identified as the causal agent. Highly variable blood methemoglobin levels reflected differences in herbicide consumption. PMID:17987970

  17. Community Immunity (Herd Immunity)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ​Community Immunity ("Herd" Immunity) Vaccines can prevent outbreaks of disease and save ... disease is contained. This is known as "community immunity." In the illustration below, the top box depicts ...

  18. Ticks on Deer and Cattle in the Cattle Fever Tick Permanent Quarantine Zone, 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ticks were sampled from hosts in the cattle fever tick permanent quarantine zone along the Texas-Mexico border on five occasions in 2012. Three sample events involved white-tailed deer populations in Zapata and Starr Counties and two were from a cattle herd in Kinney County. Six species of ticks (n ...

  19. Identification of genome-wide selection signatures in the Limousin beef cattle breed.

    PubMed

    Gurgul, A; Szmatoła, T; Ropka-Molik, K; Jasielczuk, I; Pawlina, K; Semik, E; Bugno-Poniewierska, M

    2016-08-01

    The study is aimed at identifying selection footprints within the genome of Limousin cattle. With the use of Extended Haplotype Homozygosity test, supplemented with correction for variation in recombination rates across the genome, we created map of selection footprints and detected 173 significant (p < 0.01) core haplotypes being potentially under positive selection. Within these regions, a number of candidate genes associated inter alia with skeletal muscle growth (GDF15, BMP7, BMP4 and TGFB3) or postmortem proteolysis and meat maturation (CAPN1 and CAPN5) were annotated. Noticeable clusters of selection footprints were detected on chromosomes 1, 4, 8 and 14, which are known to carry several quantitative trait loci for growth traits and meat quality. The study provides information about the genes and metabolic pathways potentially modified under the influence of directional selection, aimed at improving beef production characteristics in Limousin cattle. PMID:26611546

  20. Dairy Herd Management Program.

    PubMed

    Lehenbauer, T W

    1987-11-01

    The Dairy Herd Management Program has served both dairymen and veterinarians very well over the past several years under a variety of conditions. A number of veterinarians have used the Dairy Herd Management Program to provide computerized dairy record service to their clients. In many of these situations, clients have decided to purchase a computer system of their own after discovering the value of having improved, computerized dairy records. The Dairy Herd Management Program is able to efficiently handle data from large dairies without disrupting daily record-keeping routines. With this data, useful reports are generated that measure actual reproductive performance against target levels or goals. Because the Dairy Herd Management Program focuses on specific time intervals and includes data from culled cows, trends or drops in reproductive performance are more quickly detected so that corrective action can be taken to minimize economic losses. The Dairy Herd Management Program's strong points include batch entry of data, an inclusive yet flexible Vet Check List of cows to be examined, and a detailed, comprehensive Reproductive Summary report. Its major weakness is the lack of a custom report generator for specific situations or conditions. This problem is being addressed in the new version. With the improvements scheduled for the new version, the Dairy Herd Management Program should be able to meet all of the needs of dairy managers and veterinarians alike, as well as become a powerful tool for conducting dairy reproductive field trials and research. PMID:3319081

  1. Identification of Dermatophilus congolensis from lower leg dermatitis of cattle in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Tresamol, P V; Saseendranath, M R; Subramanian, H; Pillai, U N; Mini, M; Ajithkumar, S

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to identify the aetiological agents associated with a particular type of lower leg dermatitis, locally called pododermatitis, among dairy cattle in Kerala. Skin scabs and scrapings were collected aseptically from 82 naturally occurring cases of lower leg dermatitis in cattle and were subjected to direct microscopical examination and bacterial and fungal culture. Microscopical examination of the skin scrapings with 10% potassium hydroxide revealed fungal spores in hair shafts from only two samples and did not reveal the presence of mites or other parasites. Fungal culture yielded dermatophytes from only five samples; these were identified as Trichophyton mentagrophytes in two cases, T verrucosum in one case, Epidermophyton floccosum in one case and Microsporum nanum in one case. Microscopical examination of Giemsa- and Gram-stained smears of the scab material from the lesions from 72 cases revealed characteristic Gram-positive septate branching filaments with multiple rows of spherical to ovoid cocci, with a typical 'tram-track' appearance suggestive of Dermatophilus congolensis. Culture of the scab materials on sheep blood agar in the presence of 10% carbon dioxide yielded typical beta haemolytic colonies of D. congolensis from 75 samples. The isolates were further confirmed by the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of the colonies, and biochemical test results. This study confirmed the presence of dermatophilosis caused by D. congolensis in cattle in Kerala. PMID:27044156

  2. Management practices on organic and conventional dairy herds in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Sorge, U S; Moon, R; Wolff, L J; Michels, L; Schroth, S; Kelton, D F; Heins, B

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to describe and compare husbandry practices on organic and conventional dairy farms of similar sizes in Minnesota. Organic (ORG, n=35), same-sized conventional (SC, n=15, <200 cows) and medium-sized conventional (MC, n=13, ≥200 cows) dairy herds were visited in 2012, and farmers were interviewed once about their farm, herd demographics, and herd management practices concerning nutrition, housing, and reproductive programs. Organic farms had been established as long as conventional farms, and ORG producers had most commonly selected ORG farming because of a negative perception of pesticides for human health. The distribution of cattle breeds and ages differed across farm types. Organic farms had more crossbred cows and a greater number of older cows than conventional farms, who had mainly Holstein cattle. Organic farms did not dock tails, were more likely to use breeding bulls, and were less likely to conduct pregnancy diagnoses in cattle. All conventional farmers fed corn, corn silage, and hay, but no forage or feed supplement was fed by all ORG farms with the exception of pasture. Kelp was supplemented on most ORG farms but on none of the conventional farms. In summary, although there were differences across farm types regarding the use of pasture, feeds, and feed additives, breed and age distribution, reproductive management, and the use of tail docking, observations in other management areas showed large overlap across herd types. PMID:26830734

  3. Low prevalence of Salmonella in Swedish dairy herds highlight differences between serotypes.

    PubMed

    Ågren, Estelle C C; Sternberg Lewerin, Susanna; Wahlström, Helene; Emanuelson, Ulf; Frössling, Jenny

    2016-03-01

    Legislated Salmonella control in Sweden has been in place since the 1960s. The purpose of this study was to investigate presence of Salmonella antibodies in dairy cattle herds and to provide a basis for decisions on how surveillance and control can be improved. Bulk milk samples from all Swedish dairy herds (n=4 683) were analysed with two different ELISAs; one detecting antibodies against Salmonella Dublin (Dublin ELISA), and one detecting antibodies against several of the serotypes causing bovine salmonellosis including S. Dublin (Bovine ELISA). Information about herds, i.e. geographical location, local animal density, number of test positive herds within 5km, animal trade and herd size, was based on register data. The results confirm a very low prevalence of Salmonella in Swedish dairy herds throughout the country with the exception of an island in the southeast. The test positive herds split into two groups; 41 herds (1%) positive in the Dublin ELISA, and 101 herds (2%) positive in the Bovine ELISA but negative in the Dublin ELISA. Geographical location of positive herds, and comparison of the results of the screening with serotypes previously isolated from some of the herds, indicated that the first group represents herds presently or previously infected with S. Dublin while the second group represents herds presently or previously infected with other serotypes. Differences in serological status between herds in different regions, of different size, with different animal purchase patterns et cetera, were tested using logistic regression. Presence of positive herds within 5km was significantly associated to testing positive. For herds testing positive in the Dublin ELISA, significant associations were also seen with herd size. Purchase of animals during the last year was not significantly associated with the outcome in the final models. We conclude that for future surveillance, the Bovine ELISA can be used to help in identifying infected herds, and the Dublin

  4. A screening sampling plan to detect Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis-positive dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Serraino, A; Arrigoni, N; Ostanello, F; Ricchi, M; Marchetti, G; Bonilauri, P; Bonfante, E; Giacometti, F

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of paratuberculosis, a chronic contagious bacterial disease primarily affecting dairy cattle. Paratuberculosis represents a dual problem for the milk production chain: in addition to economic losses to affected herds, MAP may have zoonotic potential. Infected herds must be identified in order to implement programs designed to reduce the incidence of disease within and between herds and to prevent MAP from entering the food chain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a screening sampling plan (SSP) to detect MAP-positive dairy herds by repetitive analysis of bulk tank milk (BTM) samples by ELISA and in-line milk filter (ILMF) samples by PCR. Samples from BTM and ILMF were collected twice from 569 dairy herds in southern Italy. Additionally, 12,016 individual milk samples were collected: 9,509 from 102 SSP-positive herds (SSP MAP-positive) and 2,507 from 21 randomly selected SSP-negative herds (SSP MAP-negative). There was a total of 126 SSP MAP-positive herds (i.e., 21.3% SSP MAP-positive herds; 95% confidence interval=18.0-24.9); the within-herd apparent prevalence (AP) ranged between 0.00 and 22.73% (mean 6.07%). A significant difference in within-herd AP was shown between SSP MAP-positive herds and SSP MAP-negative herds. A highly significant association was shown between the median AP herd status (>5%) and positivity to at least one ILMF or BTM sample. The SSP detected a minimum of 56.25% of low AP herds (AP ≤ 2.0%) up to a maximum of 100% of herds with a within-herd AP ≥ 8.0%. Overall, the SSP detected 85.57% of herds in which at least one individual milk sample was positive by ELISA. The proposed SSP was an inexpensive and useful tool to detect MAP-positive herds with a higher risk of infection diffusion and milk contamination. Although the SSP cannot be used for MAP-free certification of herds, it could be useful to prioritize appropriate

  5. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine Toll-like receptor 1 gene and association with health traits in cattle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Bovine mastitis remains the most common and costly disease of dairy cattle worldwide. A complementary control measure to herd hygiene and vaccine development would be to selectively breed cattle with greater resistance to mammary infection. Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1) has an integral role for the initiation and regulation of the immune response to microbial pathogens, and has been linked to numerous inflammatory diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the bovine TLR1 gene (boTLR1) are associated with clinical mastitis (CM). Selected boTLR1 SNPs were analysed within a Holstein Friesian herd. Significant associations were found for the tagging SNP -79 T > G and the 3'UTR SNP +2463 C > T. We observed favourable linkage of reduced CM with increased milk fat and protein, indicating selection for these markers would not be detrimental to milk quality. Furthermore, we present evidence that some of these boTLR1 SNPs underpin functional variation in bovine TLR1. Animals with the GG genotype (from the tag SNP -79 T > G) had significantly lower boTLR1 expression in milk somatic cells when compared with TT or TG animals. In addition, stimulation of leucocytes from GG animals with the TLR1-ligand Pam3csk4 resulted in significantly lower levels of CXCL8 mRNA and protein. SNPs in boTLR1 were significantly associated with CM. In addition we have identified a bovine population with impaired boTLR1 expression and function. This may have additional implications for animal health and warrants further investigation to determine the suitability of identified SNPs as markers for disease susceptibility. PMID:22417166

  6. The Heritage of Herding and Southern Homicide: Examining the Ecological Foundations of the Code of Honor Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baller, Robert D.; Zevenbergen, Matthew P.; Messner, Steven F.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examine the ecological foundations of the thesis of a "code of honor" as an explanation for southern homicide. Specifically, they consider the effects of indicators of ethnic groups that migrated from herding economies (the Scotch-Irish), cattle and pig herding, and the relative importance of agricultural production across different…

  7. Eradication of bovine tuberculosis at a herd-level in Madrid, Spain: study of within-herd transmission dynamics over a 12 year period

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Eradication of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) through the application of test-and-cull programs is a declared goal of developed countries in which the disease is still endemic. Here, longitudinal data from more than 1,700 cattle herds tested during a 12 year-period in the eradication program in the region of Madrid, Spain, were analyzed to quantify the within-herd transmission coefficient (β) depending on the herd-type (beef/dairy/bullfighting). In addition, the probability to recover the officially bTB free (OTF) status in infected herds depending on the type of herd and the diagnostic strategy implemented was assessed using Cox proportional hazard models. Results Overall, dairy herds showed higher β (median 4.7) than beef or bullfighting herds (2.3 and 2.2 respectively). Introduction of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) as an ancillary test produced an apparent increase in the β coefficient regardless of production type, likely due to an increase in diagnostic sensitivity. Time to recover OTF status was also significantly lower in dairy herds, and length of bTB episodes was significantly reduced when the IFN-γ was implemented to manage the outbreak. Conclusions Our results suggest that bTB spreads more rapidly in dairy herds compared to other herd types, a likely cause being management and demographic-related factors. However, outbreaks in dairy herds can be controlled more rapidly than in typically extensive herd types. Finally, IFN-γ proved its usefulness to rapidly eradicate bTB at a herd-level. PMID:22748007

  8. Compilation of a panel of informative single nucleotide polymorphisms for bovine identification in the Northern Irish cattle population

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Animal identification is pivotal in governmental agricultural policy, enabling the management of subsidy payments, movement of livestock, test scheduling and control of disease. Advances in bovine genomics have made it possible to utilise inherent genetic variability to uniquely identify individual animals by DNA profiling, much as has been achieved with humans over the past 20 years. A DNA profiling test based on bi-allelic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers would offer considerable advantages over current short tandem repeat (STR) based industry standard tests, in that it would be easier to analyse and interpret. In this study, a panel of 51 genome-wide SNPs were genotyped across panels of semen DNA from 6 common breeds for the purposes of ascertaining allelic frequency. For SNPs on the same chromosome, the extent of linkage disequilbrium was determined from genotype data by Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm. Minimum probabilities of unique identification were determined for each breed panel. The usefulness of this SNP panel was ascertained by comparison to the current bovine STR Stockmarks II assay. A statistically representative random sampling of bovine animals from across Northern Ireland was assembled for the purposes of determining the population allele frequency for these STR loci and subsequently, the minimal probability of unique identification they conferred in sampled bovine animals from Northern Ireland. Results 6 SNPs exhibiting a minor allele frequency of less than 0.2 in more than 3 of the breed panels were excluded. 2 Further SNPs were found to reside in coding areas of the cattle genome and were excluded from the final panel. The remaining 43 SNPs exhibited genotype frequencies which were in Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium. SNPs on the same chromosome were observed to have no significant linkage disequilibrium/allelic association. Minimal probabilities of uniquely identifying individual animals from each of the breeds were

  9. Rapid identification of some Leptospira isolates from cattle by random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Corney, B G; Colley, J; Djordjevic, S P; Whittington, R; Graham, G C

    1993-11-01

    We compared random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting with cross-absorption agglutination and restriction enzyme analysis for typing bovine leptospires. Using RAPD fingerprinting, we examined a number of Leptospira serovars, namely, hardjo genotypes bovis and prajitno, pomona, balcanica, tarassovi, swajizak, kremastos, australis, and zanoni, which are likely to be isolated from Australian cattle. Each serovar and genotype had a unique RAPD profile. Of 26 field isolates of Leptospira, 23 were identified as hardjo genotype bovis subtype A, 2 were identified as zanoni, and 1 was identified as pomona by RAPD fingerprinting, and their types were confirmed by cross-absorption agglutination and restriction enzyme analysis. PMID:8263177

  10. Rapid identification of some Leptospira isolates from cattle by random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting.

    PubMed Central

    Corney, B G; Colley, J; Djordjevic, S P; Whittington, R; Graham, G C

    1993-01-01

    We compared random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting with cross-absorption agglutination and restriction enzyme analysis for typing bovine leptospires. Using RAPD fingerprinting, we examined a number of Leptospira serovars, namely, hardjo genotypes bovis and prajitno, pomona, balcanica, tarassovi, swajizak, kremastos, australis, and zanoni, which are likely to be isolated from Australian cattle. Each serovar and genotype had a unique RAPD profile. Of 26 field isolates of Leptospira, 23 were identified as hardjo genotype bovis subtype A, 2 were identified as zanoni, and 1 was identified as pomona by RAPD fingerprinting, and their types were confirmed by cross-absorption agglutination and restriction enzyme analysis. Images PMID:8263177

  11. Detection of bovine leukemia virus and identification of its genotype in Mongolian cattle.

    PubMed

    Ochirkhuu, Nyamsuren; Konnai, Satoru; Odbileg, Raadan; Nishimori, Asami; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have indicated that bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection is globally distributed. However, no information regarding the disease and genetic diversity of the virus in the cattle of Mongolia is currently available. In this study, the prevalence of BLV was assessed using PCR, and the genetic diversity was analyzed through DNA sequencing. Of the 517 samples tested, 20 positives were identified. Phylogenetic analysis showed that six, one, and four isolates were classified into genotype 4, 7, and 1, respectively. Most isolates were clustered with isolates from Eastern Europe and Russia. This study is the first to investigate the BLV genotype in Mongolia. PMID:26711456

  12. BEEF SPECIES SYMPOSIUM: Economic considerations related to U.S. beef herd expansion.

    PubMed

    Tonsor, G T; Schulz, L L

    2015-09-01

    Significant attention perpetually surrounds possible changes in breeding herd inventories in the U.S. beef cattle industry. This article outlines economic considerations of U.S. herd expansion. Factors restricting expansion include land availability, increasing production efficiency, operator demographics, capital requirements, and commodity price volatility. Several offsetting factors support herd expansion including unprecedented cow-calf returns, ongoing global beef demand growth, and timing within the current cattle cycle. In addition to these industry-wide factors, several important variations in individual ranch considerations are outlined. The authors' expectations on future herd dynamics are provided, highlighting broader implications for individual operations, industry leaders, and the entire beef-cattle supply chain. The substantial economic impact and importance of the cow-calf sector warrants broader appreciation of these economic factors impacting herd expansion. The future size of the U.S. cattle industry is determined by the individual decisions of over 70,000 cattle owners, making this issue worthy of review by all industry stakeholders. PMID:26440321

  13. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or...) of this chapter, shall be moved in interstate commerce other than in accordance with the...

  14. Apparent seroprevalence, isolation and identification of risk factors for brucellosis among dairy cattle in Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Ajay D; Dubal, Z B; Karunakaran, M; Doijad, Swapnil P; Raorane, Abhay V; Dhuri, R B; Bale, M A; Chakurkar, Eaknath B; Kalorey, Dewanand R; Kurkure, Nitin V; Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo B

    2016-08-01

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonotic infection affecting livestock and human beings. The disease has been reported worldwide except in few countries where it has been eradicated. The prevalence of brucellosis among cattle from 11 farms having a history of abortions was studied. A total of 481 samples comprising of blood, milk, vaginal swabs, vaginal discharges, placental tissues and fetal tissues were collected from 296 animals. Clinical samples were processed for the isolation of Brucella. Serum samples (n=296) were tested by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and indirect ELISA. A total of 90 (30.40%) and 123 (41.55%) samples were positive by RBPT and indirect ELISA, respectively. Also 27.02% samples were positive by both the tests. Brucella isolates (n= 8) were recovered from clinical samples using Brucella selective media. All the isolates demonstrated PCR amplification for the bcsp31 and IS711 genes. Amplification of Brucella abortus specific primer was demonstrated by all the isolates in AMOS PCR indicating isolates to be of either B. abortus biotype 1, 2 or 4. Risk factors for transmission of brucellosis among cattle population were studied by field surveys. It was observed that lack of awareness about brucellosis (OR=8.739, P=0.138) and inadequate floor space (OR=0.278, P=0.128) were crucial risk factors for transmission of bovine brucellosis. PMID:27477501

  15. Evaluation of milk yield losses associated with Salmonella antibodies in bulk tank milk in bovine dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, T D; Green, L E; Kudahl, A B; Østergaard, S; Nielsen, L R

    2012-09-01

    The effect of Salmonella on milk production is not well established in cattle. The objective of this study was to investigate whether introduction of Salmonella into dairy cattle herds was associated with reduced milk yield and determine the duration of any such effect. Longitudinal data from 2005 through 2009 were used, with data from 12 mo before until 18 mo after the estimated date of infection. Twenty-eight case herds were selected based on an increase in the level of Salmonella-specific antibodies in bulk-tank milk from <10 corrected optical density percentage (ODC%) to ≥70 ODC% between 2 consecutive three-monthly measurements in the Danish Salmonella surveillance program. All selected case herds were conventional Danish Holstein herds. Control herds (n=40) were selected randomly from Danish Holstein herds with Salmonella antibody levels consistently <10 ODC%. A date of herd infection was randomly allocated to the control herds. Hierarchical mixed effect models with the outcome test-day yield of energy-corrected milk (ECM)/cow were used to investigate daily milk yield before and after the estimated herd infection date for cows in parities 1, 2, and 3+. Control herds were used to evaluate whether the effects in the case herds could be reproduced in herds without Salmonella infection. Herd size, days in milk, somatic cell count, season, and year were included in the models. Yield in first-parity cows was reduced by a mean of 1.4 kg (95% confidence interval: 0.5 to 2.3) of ECM/cow per day from 7 to 15 mo after the estimated herd infection date, compared with that of first-parity cows in the same herds in the 12 mo before the estimated herd infection date. Yield for parity 3+ cows was reduced by a mean of 3.0 kg (95% confidence interval: 1.3 to 4.8) of ECM/cow per day from 7 to 15 mo after herd infection compared with that of parity 3+ cows in the 12 mo before the estimated herd infection. We observed minor differences in yield in second-parity cows before and

  16. Identification of atypical strains of Malassezia spp. from cattle and dog.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Eduardo Robson; Lachance, Marc-André; Hamdan, Júnia Soares

    2002-08-01

    Yeast species in the genus Malassezia are lipophilic with the exception of Malassezia pachydermatis. During a study of the occurrence of Malassezia species in the external ear of 964 cattle and 6 dogs in Minas Gerais, Brazil, six lipid-dependent isolates could not be identified to known species. Four isolates came from healthy cows, one from a cow with otitis, and one from a healthy dog. When tested with Tweens and Cremophor EL as single sources of lipids, the strains grew on all sources except Cremophor EL. None of the six strains hydrolyzed esculin, and all produced catalase. Pigment production from tryptophan was variable. Partial large subunit rRNA sequences were obtained for two isolates that remained viable in culture. The strain from the cow with otitis was identified as a lipid-dependent variant of M. pachydermatis, and the strain from the dog was an atypical variant of Malassezia furfur. PMID:12381031

  17. An outbreak of Brucella abortus biovar 2 in Canadian cattle.

    PubMed

    Forbes, L B; Steele, T B

    1989-11-01

    An outbreak of brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus biovar 2 was identified in cattle in Alberta in December 1986. This was the only clinical infection discovered since the national cattle herd was declared brucellosisfree in 1985. It was the first report of B. abortus biovar 2 in Canadian cattle. The outbreak, involving three herds containing purebred Hereford cattle, was spread by the private treaty sale of untested cattle, and was identified following investigation of an abortion. The source of infection for the outbreak was not established, but several possibilities were identified including infected herds present in the area during the mid-1970's, latent infection originating in a Saskatchewan herd during the early 1960's, American cattle imported during the early 1970's, and brucellosis-infected bison in Wood Buffalo National Park. The containment and elimination of this nidus of infection appears to have been successful, and the national cattle herd at the time of writing is free of the disease. PMID:17423457

  18. Association between bovine-leukosis virus seroprevalence and herd-level productivity on US dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Ott, S L; Johnson, R; Wells, S J

    2003-12-12

    Bovine-leukosis virus (BLV; also termed 'bovine-leukemia virus') is a retrovirus that primarily affects lymphoid tissue of dairy and beef cattle. Our objective was to investigate the association between BLV infection and annual value of production (AVP) on dairy herds within the United States, as part of the USDA National Animal Health Monitoring System's 1996 dairy study. 1006 herds (in 20 states) with at least 30 dairy cows were interviewed during 1996. The agar-gel immunodiffusion test was used to detect serum antibodies to BLV. 10-40 cows from each herd were tested and each tested cow was classified as negative or positive based on results of a single test. A multivariable regression model was used with the 976 herds with complete data for analysis. When compared to herds with no test-positive cows, herds with test-positive cows produced 218 kg per cow (i.e. 3%) less milk. The average reduction in AVP was $59 per cow for test-positive herds relative to test-negative herds. For the dairy industry as a whole, BLV seropositivity was associated with loss to producers of $285 million and $240 million for consumers. Most of this $525 million industry loss was due to reduced milk production in test-positive herds. PMID:14623410

  19. The effects of pre-slaughter restraint (for the purpose of cattle identification) on post-slaughter responses and carcass quality following the electrical stun/killing of cattle in a Jarvis Beef stunner.

    PubMed

    Mpamhanga, C J; Wotton, S B

    2015-09-01

    This study compared normal post-Jarvis stun/kill responses and carcass quality with those occurring when crush restraint was not used during pre-slaughter. The carcasses of 1065 cattle slaughtered during one week at a commercial abattoir were evaluated for quality. The post-stun/kill responses of 788 of these animals were also assessed. An additional study of data from the carcasses of 6061 cattle was further evaluated for quality findings. A significant reduction in post-stun/kill limb movement, muscle tone and the expression of brainstem functions was recorded when restraint was not used. Abolishing crush restraint pre-slaughter also produced a significant reduction in the incidence of blood splash. In addition, the study also showed that animal identification post-slaughter could be successfully implemented with no negative consequences to food safety or traceability. It is suggested that abolishing the use of pre-slaughter crush restraint of cattle would enhance animal welfare and operator safety in plants whether electrical, or mechanical stunning was employed. PMID:26002177

  20. Identification and location of the cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) in the abomasum of cattle.

    PubMed

    Janiuk, Izabela; Młynek, Krzysztof; Wysocki, Jarosław

    2013-05-01

    The cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) belongs to the group of peptides with anorexigenic properties and is present in many areas of the central and peripheral nervous systems of numerous mammalian species. Research has suggested an effect on the feeling of appetite and satiety; however, there are no clear clues as to the role of CART in specific organs, including the stomach. Considering the specificity of cattle feeding and digestion, CART may play a highly significant role possibly associated with the option of administering greater amounts of high-volume feeds. Based on the results of immunohistochemical staining of abomasum samples prepared from hybrid bulls, the presence of CART-positive structures and CART distribution were determined in the mucosa, submucosa and muscularis layers of the stomach. Abundant sites of CART were found in the myenteric plexus, nerve fibers innervating the myocytes of the myenteron, neuroendocrine cells of the diffuse neuroendocrine system and the submucous plexus. The preliminary stage of abomasal CART detection suggests that CART is an agent that strongly affects the regulation of motor activity involved in stomach emptying and in secretory functions of the stomach. However, further research is necessary to explain the relationship. PMID:23084786

  1. The identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria from pneumonic cattle lungs.

    PubMed Central

    Chirino-Trejo, J M; Prescott, J F

    1983-01-01

    One hundred and forty-four lungs obtained postmortem from cattle with pneumonia were cultured for anaerobic bacteria. Forty-five lungs yielded 73 anaerobic isolates belonging to 20 species. The number of isolations of anaerobes from acute fibrinous or suppurative bronchopneumonias (32.5%) was slightly lower than from similar chronic bronchopneumonias (36.5%). Anaerobes were not recovered from 15 lungs showing macroscopic changes not of bacterial origin, nor from 13 healthy lungs. The predominant genera isolated were Bacteroides, Peptococcus, Fusobacterium and Clostridium. The most common species were P. indolicus (15 isolates), B. asaccharolyticus (nine), F. necrophorum (six), C. perfringens (four) and B. fragilis (four). There was a significant correlation between the presence of Corynebacterium pyogenes (p less than 0.001) or Escherichia coli (p less than 0.01) and the presence of anaerobes in the lungs. The isolated anaerobic bacteria were generally susceptible to ampicillin, penicillin G, cefoxitin, cephalothin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, tetracycline and metronidazole. The B. fragilis and C. perfringens isolates showed multiple antibiotic resistance, and five P. indolicus isolates were resistant to tetracycline. PMID:6640410

  2. [Genotype identification by kappa-casein and BLAD mutation using the polymerase chain reaction in cattle. Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency].

    PubMed

    Kirilenko, S D; Glazko, V I

    1995-01-01

    The investigation of BLAD mutation and genotypes for kappa-casein locus in groups of imported Holstein and Simmentals, as well as in Ukrainian Black-and-White cattle was carried out. The carriers of BLAD mutation were not detected. The frequencies of allelic B variant of kappa-casein (valuable trait associated with high the production of top quality cheese) were similar in both groups of imported cattle and substantially higher in Ukrainian cattle. PMID:8713837

  3. Minimum cost to control bovine tuberculosis in cow-calf herds

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rebecca L.; Tauer, Loren W.; Sanderson, Michael W.; Grohn, Yrjo T.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) outbreaks in US cattle herds, while rare, are expensive to control. A stochastic model for bTB control in US cattle herds was adapted to more accurately represent cow-calf herd dynamics and was validated by comparison to 2 reported outbreaks. Control cost calculations were added to the model, which was then optimized to minimize costs for either the farm or the government. The results of the optimization showed that test-and-removal costs were minimized for both farms and the government if only 2 negative whole-herd tests were required to declare a herd free of infection, with a 2–3 month testing interval. However, the optimal testing interval for governments was increased to 2–4 months if the model was constrained to reject control programs leading to an infected herd being declared free of infection. Although farms always preferred test-and-removal to depopulation from a cost standpoint, government costs were lower with depopulation more than half the time in 2 of 8 regions. Global sensitivity analysis showed that indemnity costs were significantly associated with a rise in the cost to the government, and that low replacement rates were responsible for the long time to detection predicted by the model, but that improving the sensitivity of slaughterhouse screening and the probability that a slaughtered animal’s herd of origin can be identified would result in faster detection times. PMID:24703601

  4. Minimum cost to control bovine tuberculosis in cow-calf herds.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rebecca L; Tauer, Loren W; Sanderson, Michael W; Gröhn, Yrjo T

    2014-07-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) outbreaks in US cattle herds, while rare, are expensive to control. A stochastic model for bTB control in US cattle herds was adapted to more accurately represent cow-calf herd dynamics and was validated by comparison to 2 reported outbreaks. Control cost calculations were added to the model, which was then optimized to minimize costs for either the farm or the government. The results of the optimization showed that test-and-removal costs were minimized for both farms and the government if only 2 negative whole-herd tests were required to declare a herd free of infection, with a 2-3 month testing interval. However, the optimal testing interval for governments was increased to 2-4 months if the model was constrained to reject control programs leading to an infected herd being declared free of infection. Although farms always preferred test-and-removal to depopulation from a cost standpoint, government costs were lower with depopulation more than half the time in 2 of 8 regions. Global sensitivity analysis showed that indemnity costs were significantly associated with a rise in the cost to the government, and that low replacement rates were responsible for the long time to detection predicted by the model, but that improving the sensitivity of slaughterhouse screening and the probability that a slaughtered animal's herd of origin can be identified would result in faster detection times. PMID:24703601

  5. Molecular epidemiology and strain-specific characteristics of Streptococcus agalactiae at the herd and cow level.

    PubMed

    Mahmmod, Y S; Klaas, I C; Katholm, J; Lutton, M; Zadoks, R N

    2015-10-01

    Host-adaptation of Streptococcus agalactiae subpopulations has been described whereby strains that are commonly associated with asymptomatic carriage or disease in people differ phenotypically and genotypically from those causing mastitis in dairy cattle. Based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST), the most common strains in dairy herds in Denmark belong to sequence types (ST) that are also frequently found in people. The aim of this study was to describe epidemiological and diagnostic characteristics of such strains in relation to bovine mastitis. Among 1,199 cattle from 6 herds, cow-level prevalence of S. agalactiae was estimated to be 27.4% based on PCR and 7.8% based on bacteriological culture. Quarter-level prevalence was estimated at 2.8% based on bacteriological culture. Per herd, between 2 and 26 isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and MLST. Within each herd, a single PFGE type and ST predominated, consistent with a contagious mode of transmission or point source infection within herds. Evidence of within-herd evolution of S. agalactiae was detected with both typing methods, although ST belonged to a single clonal complex (CC) per herd. Detection of CC23 (3 herds) was associated with significantly lower approximate count (colony-forming units) at the quarter level and significantly lower cycle threshold value at the cow level than detection of CC1 (2 herds) or CC19 (1 herd), indicating a lower bacterial load in CC23 infections. Median values for the number of infected quarters and somatic cell count (SCC) were numerically but not significantly lower for cows infected with CC23 than for cows with CC1 or CC19. For all CC, an SCC threshold of 200,000 cells/mL was an unreliable indicator of infection status, and prescreening of animals based on SCC as part of S. agalactiae detection and eradication campaigns should be discouraged. PMID:26233443

  6. 'Conceptualizing' the Endometrium: Identification of Conceptus-Derived Proteins During Early Pregnancy in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Forde, Niamh; Bazer, Fuller W; Spencer, Thomas E; Lonergan, Pat

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify conceptus-derived proteins, in addition to IFNT, that may facilitate pregnancy recognition in cattle. Analysis of the protein content of the uterine luminal fluid (ULF) from cyclic heifers on Day 16 by nano liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry identified 334 proteins. Comparison of these data with 299 proteins identified in the ULF of pregnant heifers on Day 16 identified 85 proteins only present in the ULF of pregnant heifers. Analysis of Day 16 conceptus-conditioned culture medium revealed the presence of 1005 proteins of which 30 proteins were unique to ULF from Day 16 pregnant heifers. Of these 30 proteins, 12 had mRNA expression values at least 2-fold higher in abundance (P < 0.05) in the conceptus compared to the endometrium (ARPC5L, CAPG, CKMT1, CSTB, HSPA8, HSPE1, LGALS3, MSN, NUTF2, P4HB, PRKAR2A, TKT) as determined by RNA sequencing. In addition, genes that have a significant biological interaction with the proteins (ACO2, CKMT1, CSTB, EEF2, GDI1, GLB1, GPLD1, HNRNPA1, HNRNPA2B1, HNRNPF, HSPA8, HSPE1, IDH2, KRT75, LGALS3, MSN, NUTF2, P4HB, PRKAR2A, PSMA4, PSMB5, PSMC4, SERPINA3, TKT) were differentially expressed in the endometrium of pregnant compared to cyclic heifers during the pregnancy recognition period (Days 16-18). These results indicate that 30 proteins unique to ULF from pregnant heifers and produced by short-term in vitro cultured Day 16 conceptuses could potentially be involved in facilitating the interactions between the conceptus and the endometrium during the pregnancy recognition period. PMID:25947061

  7. BeefTracker: Spatial Tracking and Geodatabase for Beef Herd Sustainability and Lifecycle Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oltjen, J. W.; Stackhouse, J.; Forero, L.; Stackhouse-Lawson, K.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a web-based mapping platform named "BeefTracker" to provide beef cattle ranchers a tool to determine how cattle production fits within sustainable ecosystems and to provide regional data to update beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial identification and mapping of pastures, herd data (class and number of animals) are input on a mobile device in the field with a graphical pasture interface, stored in the cloud, and linked via the web to a personal computer for inventory tracking and analysis. Pasture use calculated on an animal basis provides quantifiable data regarding carrying capacity and subsequent beef production to provide more accurate data inputs for beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial testing by university range scientists and ranchers we have enhanced the BeefTracker application to work when cell service is unavailable and to improve automation for increased ease of use. Thus far experiences with BeefTracker have been largely positive, due to livestock producers' perception of the need for this type of software application and its intuitive interface. We are now in the process of education to increase its use throughout the U.S.

  8. Cattle and pastoralism: survival and production in arid lands

    SciTech Connect

    Western, D.; Finch, V.

    1986-03-01

    Traditional subsistence pastoralists in East Africa tend to keep large herds, milk cattle in preference to eating them, and subject them to long foraging treks. Such practices are widely considered ill-suited to arid lands and are believed to arise because cattle are raised more for social prestige than food production. Whether this is true can only be judged by considering the responses of cattle to arid zones and, given the herder's goals and options, his management practices. In considering these factors, we show that indigenous East African cattle demonstrate energy-sparing capabilities during drought. Pastoralists can therefore herd cattle at great distances from water at little more cost than animals on the normal maintenance diet and watered more frequently. The physiological response of cattle to drought, the ecological constraints imposed by livestock and wildlife competition, and the energetic efficiency of mixed milk and meat pastoralism explain why herders traditionally select their characteristic management practices.

  9. Identification and molecular characterization of novel and divergent HoBi-like pestiviruses from naturally infected cattle in India.

    PubMed

    Mishra, N; Rajukumar, K; Pateriya, A; Kumar, M; Dubey, P; Behera, S P; Verma, A; Bhardwaj, P; Kulkarni, D D; Vijaykrishna, D; Reddy, N D

    2014-11-01

    HoBi-like pestiviruses have been sporadically reported from naturally infected cattle in South America, Asia and Europe. While the closely related bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1) and BVDV-2 have been reported from cattle in India, the prevalence and diversity of HoBi-like viruses have not yet been studied. Here we report the genetic diversity and molecular characteristics of HoBi-like viruses, through systematic surveillance in cattle (n=1049) from 21 dairy farms across India during 2012-2013. On the basis of real-time RT-PCR, virus isolation and nucleotide sequencing results, of the 20 pestivirus positive cattle, HoBi-like viruses were identified in 19 cattle from four farms in three states and BVDV-1b in one cattle. Phylogenetic analysis of 5'-UTR and N(pro) region identified the circulation of two lineages of HoBi-like viruses in India, that were distinct to those circulating globally, highlighting the independent evolution of at least three lineages of HoBi-like viruses globally. Antigenic differences were also evident between the two Indian lineages. In addition to revealing that HoBi-like virus may be more widespread in Indian cattle than previously reported, this study shows greater genetic divergence of HoBi-like viruses indicating a need for continued pestivirus surveillance in cattle. PMID:25301283

  10. Survival analysis of factors affecting incidence risk of Salmonella Dublin in Danish dairy herds during a 7-year surveillance period.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dohoo, Ian

    2012-12-01

    A national surveillance programme for Salmonella Dublin, based on regular bulk-tank milk antibody screening and movements of cattle, was initiated in Denmark in 2002. From 2002 to end of 2009 the prevalence of test-positive dairy herds was reduced from 26% to 10%. However, new infections and spread of S. Dublin between herds continued to occur. The objective of this study was to investigate factors affecting incidence risk of S. Dublin infection in Danish dairy herds between 2003 and 2009. Herds were considered at risk when they had been test-negative for at least four consecutive year-quarters (YQs), either at the start of the study period or after recovery from infection. Survival analysis was performed on a dataset including 6931 dairy herds with 118,969 YQs at risk, in which 1523 failures (new infection events) occurred. Predictors obtained from register data were tested in a multivariable, proportional hazard model allowing for recurrence within herds. During October to December the hazard of failures was higher (hazard ratio HR=3.4, P=0.0005) than the rest of the year. Accounting for the delay in bulk-tank milk antibody responses to S. Dublin infection, this indicates that introduction of bacteria was most frequent between July and October. Purchase from test-positive cattle herds within the previous 6 months was associated with higher hazard of failures (HR=2.5, P<0.0001) compared to no purchase and purchase from test-negative herds. Increasing local prevalence, herd size and bulk-tank milk somatic cell counts were also associated with increasing hazard of failures. The effect of prior infection was time-dependent; the hazard of failures was reduced following a logarithmic decline with increasing time at risk. The hazard was markedly higher in herds with prior infections the first year after becoming at risk again, and then approached the hazard in herds without known prior infections 2-3 years after becoming test-negative. This showed that herds with prior

  11. Ruminal paramphistomosis in cattle from northeastern Algeria: prevalence, parasite burdens and species identification

    PubMed Central

    Titi, Amal; Mekroud, Abdeslam; Chibat, Mohamed el Hadi; Boucheikhchoukh, Mehdi; Zein-Eddine, Rima; Djuikwo-Teukeng, Félicité F.; Vignoles, Philippe; Rondelaud, Daniel; Dreyfuss, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Slaughterhouse samples were analysed over a two-year period (September 2010–August 2012) in Jijel (northeastern Algeria) in order to determine seasonal variations in the prevalence and intensity of bovine paramphistomosis in a Mediterranean climate and identify paramphistome species using molecular biology. In spring and summer, significantly higher prevalences and lower parasite burdens were noted in bull calves, thus indicating an effect of season on these parameters. In contrast, the differences among seasonal prevalences or among seasonal parasite burdens were not significant in the case of old cows. Eleven adult worms from the slaughterhouses of Jijel and three neighbouring departments (Constantine, El Tarf and Setif) were analysed using molecular markers for species identification. Two different species, Calicophoron daubneyi and C. microbothrium, were found. The presence of these two paramphistomids raises the question of their respective frequency in the definitive host and local intermediate hosts. PMID:25279553

  12. Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA) class I allele typing of Danish swine herds and identification of commonly occurring haplotypes using sequence specific low and high resolution primers.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Jungersen, Gregers; Sorensen, Maria Rathmann; Ho, Chak-Sum; Vadekær, Dorte Fink

    2014-12-15

    The swine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genomic region (SLA) is extremely polymorphic comprising high numbers of different alleles, many encoding a distinct MHC class I molecule, which binds and presents endogenous peptides to circulating T cells of the immune system. Upon recognition of such peptide-MHC complexes (pMHC) naïve T cells can become activated and respond to a given pathogen leading to its elimination and the generation of memory cells. Hence SLA plays a crucial role in maintaining overall adaptive immunologic resistance to pathogens. Knowing which SLA alleles that are commonly occurring can be of great importance in regard to future vaccine development and the establishment of immune protection in swine through broad coverage, highly specific, subunit based vaccination against viruses such as swine influenza, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, foot-and-mouth-disease virus and others. Here we present the use of low- and high-resolution PCR-based typing methods to identify individual and commonly occurring SLA class I alleles in Danish swine. A total of 101 animals from seven different herds were tested, and by low resolution typing the top four most frequent SLA class I alleles were those of the allele groups SLA-3*04XX, SLA-1*08XX, SLA-2*02XX, and SLA-1*07XX, respectively. Customised high resolution primers were used to identify specific alleles within the above mentioned allele groups as well as within the SLA-2*05XX allele group. Our studies also suggest the most common haplotype in Danish pigs to be Lr-4.0 expressing the SLA-1*04XX, SLA-2*04XX, and SLA-3*04XX allele combination. PMID:25457547

  13. Dairy Herd Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolanyk, Alison M.; Bishop, Natalie

    This monograph, designed to help secondary students recognize symptoms of major dairy cattle diseases, stresses the need for preventative management practices and cooperation between the dairy farmer and the veterinarian. The first of three parts, The Healthy Animal, is divided into five units: body parts, vital signs, excretions, behavior, and…

  14. Identification of Recently Selected Mutations Driven by Artificial Selection in Hanwoo (Korean Cattle)

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Dajeong; Gondro, Cedric; Park, Hye Sun; Cho, Yong Min; Chai, Han Ha; Seong, Hwan Hoo; Yang, Bo Suk; Hong, Seong Koo; Chang, Won Kyung; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Hanwoo have been subjected over the last seventy years to intensive artificial selection with the aim of improving meat production traits such as marbling and carcass weight. In this study, we performed a signature of selection analysis to identify recent positive selected regions driven by a long-term artificial selection process called a breeding program using whole genome SNP data. In order to investigate homozygous regions across the genome, we estimated iES (integrated Extended Haplotype Homozygosity SNP) for the each SNPs. As a result, we identified two highly homozygous regions that seem to be strong and/or recent positive selection. Five genes (DPH5, OLFM3, S1PR1, LRRN1 and CRBN) were included in this region. To go further in the interpretation of the observed signatures of selection, we subsequently concentrated on the annotation of differentiated genes defined according to the iES value of SNPs localized close or within them. We also described the detection of the adaptive evolution at the molecular level for the genes of interest. As a result, this analysis also led to the identification of OLFM3 as having a strong signal of selection in bovine lineage. The results of this study indicate that artificial selection which might have targeted most of these genes was mainly oriented towards improvement of meat production. PMID:25049829

  15. Herd health status and management practices on 16 Irish suckler beef farms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There have been few studies published internationally which document herd health management practices in suckler beef herds and no published Irish studies. The study objective was to document herd health status and management practices on sixteen Irish suckler beef herds over a two year period (2009–2010). The farms used in the study were part of the Teagasc BETTER farm beef programme. The mean (s.d.) herd size, stocking rate and farm size was 68 cows (27.6), 2.0 LU/ha (0.3) and 64.3 (21.6) adjusted hectares, respectively. Two questionnaires were designed; 1) a farmer questionnaire to collect information on farm background and current herd health control practices and 2) a veterinary questionnaire to collect information on the extent of animal health advice given by veterinarians to their clients and identification of any on-farm herd health issues. Results Dystocia, calf pneumonia, and calf diarrhoea, in that order, were identified as the primary herd health issues in these Irish suckler beef herds. In addition, substantial deficiencies in biosecurity practices were also identified on these farms. Conclusions The findings of this study may serve as the focus for future research in animal health management practices in Irish suckler beef herds. PMID:24195997

  16. Questionnaire identifying management practices surrounding calving on spring-calving dairy farms and their associations with herd size and herd expansion.

    PubMed

    Cummins, C; Berry, D P; Sayers, R; Lorenz, I; Kennedy, E

    2016-05-01

    Healthy calves are fundamental to any profitable dairy enterprise. Research to-date, has focused on year-round calving systems which experience many different challenges compared to spring-calving systems. The objective of the present study was to determine the on-farm dry cow, calving, and colostrum management practices of spring-calving dairy production systems, and quantify their associations with herd size and herd expansion status (i.e. expanding or not expanding). Information on these management practices was available from a survey of 262 Irish spring-calving dairy farmers, representative of the Irish national population. Herd expansion in the 2 years before, and the year that the survey was conducted was not associated with any of the management practices investigated. Fifty-three percent of respondents had an average calving season length of 10 to14 weeks with 35% of herds having a longer calving season. Previous research in cattle has documented that both colostrum source and feeding management are associated with the transmission of infectious disease from cow to calf. In the present study 60% of respondents fed calves colostrum from their own dam; however, 66% of those respondents allowed the calf to suckle the dam, 23% of survey respondents fed calves pooled colostrum. Larger herds were more likely (P<0.01) to use pooled colostrum supplies, while smaller herds were more likely (P<0.05) to allow the calf to suckle the dam. The majority (86%) of respondents had stored supplies of colostrum; average-sized herds had the greatest likelihood of storing colostrum (P<0.05), compared to other herd sizes; larger sized herds had a lesser likelihood (P<0.05) of storing colostrum in a freezer, compared to other herd sizes. Although freezing colostrum was the most common method used to store colostrum (54% of respondents), 17% of respondents stored colostrum at room temperature, 29% of which stored it at room temperature for greater than 4 days. The results from the

  17. Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in endemically infected dairy herds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is thought to be the primary source of infection for dairy cattle. The exact link between fecal shedding of MAP by individual cows and environmental contamination levels at the herd level was explored with a cross-se...

  18. The view from above: The potential of aerial surveillance in identifying CWD infected herds.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background/Introduction. Large mammals such as domestic cattle and red deer have been reported to align themselves with the magnetic North Pole. Since chronic wasting disease (CWD) affects the behavior of infected cervids, it may be possible to estimate the infection rate, at a herd level, by det...

  19. Evaluation of an O antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening of milk samples for Salmonella dublin infection in dairy herds.

    PubMed Central

    Hoorfar, J; Lind, P; Bitsch, V

    1995-01-01

    Levels of antibodies to the O antigens (O:1,9,12) of Salmonella dublin were tested in 1355 serum, 1143 cow milk and 160 bulk milk samples from dairy herds using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In order to define the background reaction, milk samples from all lactating cows and serum samples from 9 animals were collected in each of 20 salmonellosis-free herds located on the island of Bornholm, where cattle salmonellosis has not been reported. Similar samples were collected from all stalled animals in 10 herds with recent (< 6 months) outbreaks of salmonellosis located in Jutland, where salmonella infection is enzootic. Using herd history of salmonellosis, herd location and clinical status of the herds as criteria, the optimal cutoff in the milk ELISA was determined as being at least 5% of the samples having optical density > 0.5, resulting in herd sensitivity of 1.0 and herd specificity of 0.95. While none of the sera in the herds from Bornholm was ELISA positive, 2 herds had a few reactors in the milk ELISA. Using the same cutoff, all but 1 bulk milk sample from 150 herds on Bornholm was ELISA-negative, and all 10 salmonellosis-positive herds from Jutland were ELISA-positive. A significant correlation was found between ELISA reactions in milk and in serum of cows (34% and 32% respectively, rs = 0.69, P < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7648527

  20. Hemochromatosis in Salers cattle.

    PubMed

    House, J K; Smith, B P; Maas, J; Lane, V M; Anderson, B C; Graham, T W; Pino, M V

    1994-01-01

    Two 2-year-old Salers cattle from different herds raised on pasture were evaluated for retarded growth and diarrhea. Increase of liver enzyme activities and prolonged sulfobromophothalein (BSP) half life (T1/2) indicated liver disease with impaired liver function. Histopathologic examination of liver biopsies revealed a micronodular cirrhosis with marked deposition of hemosiderin in hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, and arterioles. Transferrin saturation (TS) and liver iron content were markedly increased, consistent with a diagnosis of hemochromatosis. Both animals were euthanatized due to deterioration in their condition. Necropsy findings included hepatomegaly and hemosiderin accumulation in the liver, lymph nodes, pancreas, spleen, thyroid, kidney, brain and other glandular tissue. Continued surveillance of the second herd (serum iron, total iron binding capacity [TIBC], unsaturated iron binding capacity [UIBC], and TS), identified a heifer as a hemochromatosis suspect in a subsequent generation. Liver biopsies from that animal revealed the same histopathologic changes as the previous 2 animals, and similar increases in liver iron content (8,700 ppm, normal range 45 to 300 ppm). The 3 affected cattle were all products of line breeding programs and shared a common ancestor. The absence of dietary iron loading in conjunction with the histopathologic and metabolic findings were consistent with a diagnosis of primary hemochromatosis. The reported disease is similar to idiopathic hemochromatosis in human beings in which there is a hereditary defect in iron metabolism. PMID:8046672

  1. Prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in cattle farms in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Szabára, Ágnes; Lang, Zsolt; Földi, József; Hornyák, Ákos; Abonyi, Tamás; Ózsvári, László

    2016-06-01

    A study was performed to survey the virological prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus (BVDV) in cattle herds in Hungary between 2008 and 2012. A total of 40,413 samples for BVDV detection and 24,547 samples for antibody testing were collected from 3,247 herds (570,524 animals), thus representing approximately 75% of the cattle population in Hungary. Retrospective Bayesian analysis demonstrated that (1) the herd-level true virus prevalence was 12.4%, (2) the mean individual (within-herd) true virus prevalence was 7.2% in the herds having at least one virus-positive animal and 0.89% for all investigated herds with a mean apparent prevalence of 1.15% for the same population. This is the first study about BVDV prevalence in Hungary. PMID:27342097

  2. Implementation of immunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples in diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus in persistently infected cattle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bovine viral diarrhea is a contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants and one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. Bovine viral diarrhea virus belongs to the genus Pestivirus, within the family Flaviviridae. The identification and elimination of the persistently infected animals from herds is the initial step in the control and eradication programs. It is therefore necessary to have reliable methods for diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus. One of those methods is immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue is a routine technique in diagnosis of persistently infected cattle from ear notch tissue samples. However, such technique is inappropriate due to complicated tissue fixation process and it requires more days for preparation. On the contrary, immunohistochemistry on frozen tissue was usually applied on organs from dead animals. In this paper, for the first time, the imunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples was described. Findings Seventeen ear notch tissue samples were obtained during the period 2008-2009 from persistently infected cattle. Samples were fixed in liquid nitrogen and stored on -20°C until testing. Ear notch tissue samples from all persistently infected cattle showed positive results with good section quality and possibility to determinate type of infected cells. Conclusions Although the number of samples was limited, this study indicated that immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue can be successfully replaced with immunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples in diagnosis of persistently infected cattle. PMID:22142412

  3. Parasites and parasite management practices of organic and conventional dairy herds in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Sorge, U S; Moon, R D; Stromberg, B E; Schroth, S L; Michels, L; Wolff, L J; Kelton, D F; Heins, B J

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence and practices used to manage internal helminth parasites and external arthropod parasites on organic and conventional dairy herds in Minnesota. All organic (ORG) dairy herds in Minnesota (n=114) and a convenience sample of conventional herds were invited to participate in the study. Thirty-five ORG herds and 28 conventional herds were visited once in summer and fall of 2012. Conventional dairy herds were split into small conventional (SC,<200 cows) and medium-sized conventional herds (MC, ≥200 cows) so that SC herds were comparable in size to the ORG herds. Dairy managers were surveyed to assess their farm management practices and perceptions about parasites, hygiene scores were recorded for adult stock, and fecal samples were collected from a nominal 20 breeding-age heifers to characterize abundance of internal parasites. Nonparametric tests were used to compare fecal egg counts per gram (FEC) among farms grouped by management systems and practices. Organic farms had more designated pasture and were more likely to use rotational grazing compared with conventional farms, but the stocking densities of animals on pasture were similar among farm types. The overall FEC were very low, and only a few individual ORG heifers had FEC >500 eggs/gram. Samples from heifers on ORG farms had significantly more strongyle-type eggs than those on SC and MC farms (ORG: 6.6±2.1; SC: 0.5±0.3; MC: 0.8±0.7), but egg counts of other types of gastrointestinal parasites did not differ significantly among the 3 herd groups. Fly control measures were applied mainly to milking cows and preweaned calves and were used on 88.6% of ORG herds, 60.0% of SC herds, and 91.7% of MC herds. Approximately half of the producers reported having seen skin conditions suggestive of lice or tail mange in their cattle during the previous winter (ORG: 48.6%, SC: 57.1%, MC: 53.9%). Although most conventional producers reported treating these skin

  4. 9 CFR 55.25 - Animal identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Database. The second animal identification must be unique for the individual animal within the herd and also must be linked to that animal and herd in the CWD National Database. (Approved by the Office...

  5. Molecular Identification of Mycobacterium Species of Public Health Importance in Cattle in Zimbabwe by 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Padya, Leah; Chin'ombe, Nyasha; Magwenzi, Marcelyn; Mbanga, Joshua; Ruhanya, Vurayai; Nziramasanga, Pasipanodya

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium species are naturally found in the environment as well as in domestic animals such as cattle. So far, more than 150 species of Mycobacterium, some of which are pathogenic, have been identified. Laboratory isolation, detection and identification of Mycobacterium species are therefore critical if human and animal infections are to be controlled. The objective of this study was to identify Mycobacterium species isolated in cattle in Zimbabwe using 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplification and sequencing. A total of 134 cow dung samples were collected throughout Zimbabwe and mycobacteria were isolated by culture. Only 49 culture isolates that were found to be acid-fast bacilli positive by Ziehl-Neelsen staining. The 16S rRNA gene was successfully amplified by PCR in 41 (84%) of the samples. There was no amplification in 8 (16%) of the samples. Out of the 41 samples that showed amplification, 26 (63%) had strong PCR bands and were selected for DNA sequencing. Analysis of the DNA sequences showed that 7 (27%) belonged to Mycobacterium neoaurum, 6 (23%) belonged to Mycobacterium fortuitum, 3 (12%) to Mycobacterium goodii, 2 (1%) to Mycobacterium arupense, 2 (1%) to Mycobacterium peregrinum or M. septicum and 1 isolate (0.04%) to Mycobacterium elephantis. There were 5 (19%) isolates that were non-mycobacteria and identified as Gordonia terrae, a close relative of Mycobacterium. The study therefore provided a molecular basis for detection and identification of Mycobacterium species in animals and humans. PMID:26668660

  6. Control and eradication programme of enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) from selected dairy herds in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Burgu, I; Alkan, F; Karaoglu, T; Bilge-Dagalp, S; Can-Sahna, K; Güngör, B; Demir, B

    2005-07-01

    Serum samples of 15,909 cattle from 31 dairy herds located in various regions of Turkey were tested for the presence of antibodies against bovine leucosis virus (BLV) using Agar Gel Immuno-diffusion technique (AGID). 48.3% (15/31) of the herds had seropositive animals and positivity rates were detected from 0.5-34.4% in these herds. In an EBL control/eradication programme all seropositive animals were culled in the infected herds. Thereafter, a total of 74,347 sera were tested for the presence of BLV specific antibodies. The serological results and detail of EBL control/eradication programme were shown in this paper. PMID:16124702

  7. The relationship between Salmonella detection from milk filters and bulk milk and the fecal shedding prevalence of Salmonella in a dairy herd

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although dairy cattle are known reservoirs for salmonellae, cattle that are shedding this organism are often asymptomatic and difficult to identify. A dairy herd that was experiencing an outbreak of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Cerro was monitored for two years. Fecal samples from the lacta...

  8. Like herding cats.

    PubMed

    Muller-Smith, P

    1997-12-01

    In an effort to be a good manager, it is easy to lose sight of the fact that knowledge workers require a unique approach from their manager. Because nurses are independent and capable individuals that prosper in an environment that recognizes them as knowledge workers, nurse managers often find that traditional management techniques are not sufficient. Trying to manage all of the nurses on a unit as a single group is much like trying to herd cats. It might be less frustrating for the nurse manager to lead gently rather than manage with a firm hand. Warren Bennis suggests that this approach may provide a valuable key to successfully managing in a world of constant change. PMID:9464034

  9. Dairy Cattle: Breeding and Genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five primary factors affect breeding genetically improved dairy cattle: 1) identification, 2) pedigree, 3) performance recording, 4) artificial insemination, and 5) genetic evaluation systems (traditional and genomic). Genetic progress can be measured as increased efficiency (higher performance with...

  10. 9 CFR 55.24 - Herd status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program § 55.24 Herd status. (a) Initial and subsequent status... provided animals for the new herd. If the herd continues to meet the requirements of the CWD...

  11. Herd-level bovine tuberculosis risk factors: assessing the role of low-level badger population disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Wright, David M.; Reid, Neil; Ian Montgomery, W.; Allen, Adrian R.; Skuce, Robin A.; Kao, Rowland R.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine TB (bTB) is endemic in Irish cattle and has eluded eradication despite considerable expenditure, amid debate over the relative roles of badgers and cattle in disease transmission. Using a comprehensive dataset from Northern Ireland (>10,000 km2; 29,513 cattle herds), we investigated interactions between host populations in one of the first large-scale risk factor analyses for new herd breakdowns to combine data on both species. Cattle risk factors (movements, international imports, bTB history, neighbours with bTB) were more strongly associated with herd risk than area-level measures of badger social group density, habitat suitability or persecution (sett disturbance). Highest risks were in areas of high badger social group density and high rates of persecution, potentially representing both responsive persecution of badgers in high cattle risk areas and effects of persecution on cattle bTB risk through badger social group disruption. Average badger persecution was associated with reduced cattle bTB risk (compared with high persecution areas), so persecution may contribute towards sustaining bTB hotspots; findings with important implications for existing and planned disease control programmes. PMID:26279310

  12. Mycoplasma bovis infections in Swiss dairy cattle: a clinical investigation.

    PubMed

    Aebi, Marlis; van den Borne, Bart H P; Raemy, Andreas; Steiner, Adrian; Pilo, Paola; Bodmer, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis causes mastitis in dairy cows and is associated with pneumonia and polyarthritis in cattle. The present investigation included a retrospective case-control study to identify potential herd-level risk factors for M. bovis associated disease, and a prospective cohort study to evaluate the course of clinical disease in M. bovis infected dairy cattle herds in Switzerland. Eighteen herds with confirmed M. bovis cases were visited twice within an average interval of 75 d. One control herd with no history of clinical mycoplasmosis, matched for herd size, was randomly selected within a 10 km range for each case herd. Animal health data, production data, information on milking and feeding-management, housing and presence of potential stress- factors were collected. Composite quarter milk samples were aseptically collected from all lactating cows and 5% of all animals within each herd were sampled by nasal swabs. Organ samples of culled diseased cows were collected when logistically possible. All samples were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In case herds, incidence risk of pneumonia, arthritis and clinical mastitis prior to the first visit and incidence rates of clinical mastitis and clinical pneumonia between the two visits was estimated. Logistic regression was used to identify potential herd-level risk factors for M. bovis infection. In case herds, incidence risk of M. bovis mastitis prior to the first visit ranged from 2 to 15%, whereas 2 to 35% of the cows suffered from clinical pneumonia within the 12 months prior to the first herd visit. The incidence rates of mycoplasmal mastitis and clinical pneumonia between the two herd visits were low in case herds (0-0.1 per animal year at risk and 0.1-0.6 per animal year at risk, respectively). In the retrospective-case-control study high mean milk production, appropriate stimulation until milk-let-down, fore-stripping, animal movements (cattle shows and trade), presence of stress

  13. An estimation of the clinical mastitis incidence per 100 cows per year based on routinely collected herd data.

    PubMed

    Santman-Berends, I M G A; Lam, T J G M; Keurentjes, J; van Schaik, G

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether it was possible to (1) estimate the clinical mastitis incidence rate (CMI) for all Dutch dairy herds and (2) to detect farms with a high CMI based on routinely collected herd data. For this study, 240 dairy farms with a conventional milking system that participated in the milk recording program every 4 to 6 wk were randomly selected and agreed to participate. From the initial 240 herds, data of clinical mastitis (CM) registrations and routinely collected herd data of 227 herds were complete and could be used for analysis. Routinely collected herd data consisted of identification and registration records, antimicrobial usage, test-day records from the milk recording program, bulk tank milk (BTM) somatic cell count data and results of diagnostic tests on BTM samples. For each of the 227 herds, the CMI per 100 cows per year was calculated per quarter of the year and was combined with the available herd data. Two models were developed to predict the CMI for all dairy herds and to detect individual herds that belonged to the 25% herds with the highest CMI. Records of 156 (67%) herds were used for development of the models and the remaining 71 (33%) were used for validation. The model that estimated the CMI in all herds consisted of 11 explanatory variables. The observed and predicted averages of the validation herds were not significantly different. The model estimated a CMI per 100 cows per year of 32.5 cases (95% confidence interval=30.2-34.8), whereas the farmers registered 33.4 cases (95% confidence interval=29.5-37.4). The model that aimed at detecting individual herds with a high CMI contained 6 explanatory variables and could correctly classify 77% of all validation herds at the quarter-year level. The most important variables in the model were antibiotic usage for treating CM and BTM somatic cell count. In conclusion, models based on routinely collected herd data gave an accurate prediction of CMI for all Dutch dairy

  14. Veterinary dairy herd health management in Europe: constraints and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cannas da Silva, J; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Vagneur, M; Bexiga, R; Gelfert, C C; Baumgartner, W

    2006-03-01

    The nature of veterinary work in dairy health management in Europe has changed over the past years and will change even more dramatically in the near future. The consumers and the media show increasing concern about animal welfare, safety of products of animal origin and traceability of animal products. Farmers in Europe have to produce under strict, often expensive and laborious regulations, while still commercially competing with farmers outside the EU and not subject to the same rules. Veterinarians should adapt their knowledge and skills to the new challenges and developments of the dairy sector. Dairy farmers nowadays ask for support in areas that go beyond clinical activities: environmental protection, welfare, nutrition, grassland management, economics and business management. Bovine practitioners should be able to advise in many different areas and subjects--that is the challenge to our profession. Veterinary education with regards to cattle health management should start with individual animal clinical work, which constitutes the basis of herd health advisory programmes. The bovine practitioner should then look beyond that and regard the herd as the unit. Each diseased cow or group of cows should be detected early enough to avoid financial losses or such losses should be prevented altogether by detecting and managing risk factors contributing to disease occurrence. Herd health and production management programmes represent the first level to optimise dairy farm performance. Expansions to that should further be considered, comprising both animal health and welfare issues, as well as food safety and public health issues. The latter could be addressed by quality risk management programmes following the HACCP-principles. Cattle veterinarians should follow recent developments and invest in new skills and knowledge in order to maintain their usefulness to the modern dairy farmer. Finally we are convinced that the cattle practitioner should evolve into this

  15. Genomic evaluation, breed identification, and population structure of Guernsey cattle in North America, Great Britain, and the Isle of Guernsey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic evaluations of dairy cattle in the United States have been available for Brown Swiss, Holsteins, and Jerseys since 2009 and for Ayrshire since 2013. As of January 2015, 2,263 Guernsey bulls and cows had genotypes from collaboration between the United States, Canada, England and the Isle of G...

  16. Identification and genetic effect of a variable duplication in the promoter region of the cattle ADIPOQ gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ADIPOQ gene of cattle, is located in the vicinity of the quantitative trait locus (QTL) wich effects marbling, the rib eye muscle area and fat thickness on BTA1. In our study, a novel variable duplication (NW_003103812.1:g.9232067_9232133 dup) in the bovine ADIPOQ promoter region was identified ...

  17. Genome-wide association mapping for identification of quantitative trait loci for rectal temperature during heat stress in Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress negatively affects the production, fertility, and health of dairy cattle. One strategy to reduce the magnitude of heat stress is to select individuals that are genetically resistant to heat stress. Most of the negative effects of heat stress on animal performance are a consequence of eit...

  18. Identification and characterization of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus candidate protective antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations.

    PubMed

    Almazán, Consuelo; Lagunes, Rodolfo; Villar, Margarita; Canales, Mario; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Jongejan, Frans; de la Fuente, José

    2010-01-01

    The cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp., affect cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. The recombinant Rhipicephalus microplus Bm86 antigen has been shown to protect cattle against tick infestations. However, variable efficacy of Bm86-based vaccines against geographic tick strains has encouraged the research for additional tick-protective antigens. Herein, we describe the analysis of R. microplus glutathione-S transferase, ubiquitin (UBQ), selenoprotein W, elongation factor-1 alpha, and subolesin (SUB) complementary DNAs (cDNAs) by RNA interference (RNAi) in R. microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus. Candidate protective antigens were selected for vaccination experiments based on the effect of gene knockdown on tick mortality, feeding, and fertility. Two cDNA clones encoding for UBQ and SUB were used for cattle vaccination and infestation with R. microplus and R. annulatus. Control groups were immunized with recombinant Bm86 or adjuvant/saline. The highest vaccine efficacy for the control of tick infestations was obtained for Bm86. Although with low immunogenic response, the results with the SUB vaccine encourage further investigations on the use of recombinant subolesin alone or in combination with other antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations. The UBQ peptide showed low immunogenicity, and the results of the vaccination trial were inconclusive to assess the protective efficacy of this antigen. These experiments showed that RNAi could be used for the selection of candidate tick-protective antigens. However, vaccination trials are necessary to evaluate the effect of recombinant antigens in the control of tick infestations, a process that requires efficient recombinant protein production and formulation systems. PMID:19943063

  19. Neospora caninum seroprevalence in dairy and beef cattle from the northwest region of Spain, Galicia.

    PubMed

    Eiras, C; Arnaiz, I; Alvarez-García, G; Ortega-Mora, L M; Sanjuánl, M L; Yus, E; Diéguez, F J

    2011-02-01

    Herd and individual animal seroprevalence for Neospora caninum (N. caninum) in dairy, beef and mixed cattle were obtained in all populations within the Galician Farmer Sanitary Defence Associations (ADSG) in 2004. All animals ≥1 year of age were examined serologically by indirect ELISA. 1147 dairy herds (37,090 animals), 1464 beef herds (20,206 animals) and 141 mixed herds (2292 animals) were surveyed. True herd seroprevalence was estimated to be 80.6% (87.7% dairy, 76.7% beef and 78.4% mixed herds), true animal seroprevalence was estimated to be 23.2% (21.9% dairy, 25.1% beef and 24.9% animal to mixed herds), and within-herd seroprevalence was estimated to be 25.4% (23.6% dairy, 28.3% beef and 28.6% to mixed herds). Seropositivity was significantly associated with herd type (higher in dairies), herd size (increased when herd size increases), animal type (higher in beef) and age (lineal increase with the age). Results obtained in this study will be used for the development of a N. caninum control programme in the ADSG in Galicia. PMID:21145605

  20. Risk factors for Coxiella burnetii antibodies in bulk tank milk from Danish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Agger, Jens Frederik; Paul, Suman; Christoffersen, Anna-Bodil; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to identify risk factors associated with Coxiella burnetii antibody positivity in bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from 100 randomly selected Danish dairy cattle herds. Antibody levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay. Before testing the herds, the farm managers were interviewed about hired labour, biosecurity, housing and herd health during the 12 months prior to the study. Variables considered important for C. burnetii antibody positivity in multivariable logistic regression analysis included the sharing of machines between farms (OR = 3.6), human contacts (OR = 4.2), artificial insemination by other people than artificial insemination technicians (OR = 7.7), routine herd health contract with the veterinarian (OR = 4.3) and hygiene precautions taken by veterinarians (OR = 5). In addition, herd size, hired labour, trading of cattle between farms, quarantine and use of calving and disease pens also showed significant association in univariable analysis. This study demonstrates that strict biosecurity is important for the prevention of infections with C. burnetii. PMID:24228845

  1. Risk factors associated with Neospora caninum abortion in Ontario Holstein dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Hobson, J C; Duffield, T F; Kelton, D; Lissemore, K; Hietala, S K; Leslie, K E; McEwen, B; Peregrine, A S

    2005-02-28

    The objective of this epidemiological study was to identify risk factors for Neospora caninum-related abortions in Ontario Holstein dairy herds. A total of 88 herds, consisting of 5080 cattle, and utilizing Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) services, were divided into three groups. Case (n = 30) and first control (n = 31) herds were selected from 1998 and 1999 fetal abortion submissions to the Animal Health Laboratory, University of Guelph, that were histopathologically positive or negative, respectively, for N. caninum. A second control group (n = 27) was selected from multiple sources of herds sampled within the previous 4 years that had a low seroprevalence (<7%) to N. caninum. Between May and December 1999, all available cows on all farms, in parity one or greater, were blood sampled. The sera were then analyzed for antibody to N. caninum using a kinetic ELISA. A survey administered at the time of sampling recorded information on housing, animal species present, manure management, reproduction, biosecurity practices, wildlife observations, peri-parturient cow management, herd disease history and nutrition. Production and other herd parameters were obtained from DHI records. Logistic regression indicated that the following parameters were positively associated with a N. caninum abortion in a herd: the N. caninum herd seroprevalence (OR = 1.1), the total number of dogs on a farm (OR = 2.8), the frequency that dogs were observed defecating in mangers (OR = 2.8), the number of horses on a farm (OR = 3.1), the observed annual rate of retained fetal membranes (OR = 1.2) and the observed annual rate of cows returning to estrus after pregnancy confirmation (OR = 1.2). Factors negatively associated were the frequency of stray cats and wild canids observed on a farm (OR = 0.4 and OR = 0.7, respectively) and the housing of heifers on loafing packs (a housing pen divided into feed manger, scrape alley and bedded pack areas, OR = 0.1). PMID:15710518

  2. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in three dairy herds in southwest Germany.

    PubMed

    Spohr, M; Rau, J; Friedrich, A; Klittich, G; Fetsch, A; Guerra, B; Hammerl, J A; Tenhagen, B-A

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in three dairy herds in the southwest of Germany that had experienced individual cases of clinical and subclinical mastitis associated with MRSA. The herds were identified by the detection of MRSA during routine resistance testing of mastitis pathogens. All quarters of all cows in the herds that were positive on California Mastitis Test were sampled for bacteriological analysis on two occasions. Bulk tank milk samples were also tested. Furthermore, nasal swabs were collected from people working on the farms and from cattle. Environmental samples were collected from associated pig holdings. Isolates were characterized using spa-typing and testing for antimicrobial resistance. Our results revealed a substantial spread of MRSA in the three dairy herds. In the first of the two investigations carried out on all cows in the three herds, milk samples of 5.1-16.7% of dairy cows were found positive for MRSA. The respective proportions in the second herd level investigation were 1.4-10.0%. Quarters harbouring MRSA had higher somatic cell counts than quarters that were negative on culture. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were also detected in nasal swabs of staff (7/9), cows (7/15) and calves (4/7), bulk tank milk samples (3/3) and environmental samples from pig premises (4/5) on the farm. Herds B and C had no contact to herd A. However, in all three herds MRSA of spa-type t011 were detected in milk samples. Results show that MRSA of spa-type t011 is a problem in dairy farms that needs urgent attention. PMID:20630047

  3. Dental pathology in conventionally fed and pasture managed dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Fadden, A N; Poulsen, K P; Vanegas, J; Mecham, J; Bildfell, R; Stieger-Vanegas, S M

    2016-01-01

    Healthy teeth are important in the first stages of digestion for dairy cattle, yet little is known about bovine dental disease. This study aimed to investigate dental pathology of dairy cattle in two parts. First dairy cattle cadaver heads (n=11) were examined at the time of culling. Second, the authors performed oral exams in cattle fed a total mixed ration (TMR) (n=200) and pasture-based (n=71) grazing cattle. Cadaver heads were imaged using radiography and computed tomography before gross dissection to study dental anatomy and pathology. The most prevalent dental abnormalities were excessive transverse ridging of the occlusal surface, the presence of diastemas and third molar dental overgrowths (M3DO) in cadaver heads. Average thickness of subocclusal dentine ranged from 3.5 mm to 5.8 mm in cheek teeth but was >10 mm in maxillary teeth with M3DO. Radiographic findings were compared with oral examinations in live cattle. Prevalence of M3DO upon oral examination was 19 per cent and 28 per cent in herds of cattle fed a TMR diet and 0 per cent in a herd of grazing cattle. Dental abnormalities are prevalent in dairy cattle but due to thin subocclusal dentine in the cheek teeth, established equine dental treatment methodology is not appropriate for bovine cheek teeth with the exception of those that have developed M3DO. PMID:26700105

  4. Seroprevalence of Leptospira Hardjo in the Irish suckler cattle population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prior to the present study, the seroprevalence of leptospirosis in Irish suckler herds was unknown. In this study, we describe the herd and animal-level prevalence of Leptospira Hardjo infection in the Irish suckler cattle population. For the purposes of the study, the 26 counties of the Republic of Ireland were divided into 6 regions from which a representative number of herds were selected. A herd was considered eligible for sampling if it was not vaccinating against leptospirosis and if it contained ≥ 9 breeding animals of beef breed ≥ 12 months of age. In total, 288 randomly selected herds were eligible for inclusion in the seroprevalence dataset analysis. Serological testing was carried out using a commercially available monoclonal antibody-capture ELISA, (sensitivity 100%; specificity 86.67%). Results Herds were categorised as either “Free from Infection” or “Infected” using the epidemiological software tool, FreeCalc 2.0. Using this classification, 237 herds were “Infected” (82.29%). The South West and South East regions had the highest herd prevalence. The regional effect on herd prevalence was largely mirrored by breeding herd size. A true animal-level prevalence of 41.75% was calculated using the epidemiological software tool, TruePrev. There was a statistically significant regional trend, with true prevalence being highest in the South East (P < 0.05). The median Breeding Herd Size (BHS), when categorised into quartiles, had a statistically significant influence on individual animal true seroprevalence (P < 0.001); true seroprevalence increased with increasing BHS. Conclusions Leptospirosis is a widespread endemic disease in the Republic of Ireland. It is possible that economic losses due to leptospirosis in unvaccinated Irish suckler herds may be underestimated. PMID:22546216

  5. Latent class analysis of bulk tank milk PCR and ELISA testing for herd level diagnosis of Mycoplasma bovis.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Per Kantsø; Petersen, Mette Bisgaard; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils

    2015-10-01

    The bacterium Mycoplasma bovis causes disease in cattle of all ages. An apparent increase in the occurrence of M. bovis associated outbreaks among Danish dairy cattle herds since 2011 has prompted a need for knowledge regarding herd-level diagnostic performance. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the herd-level diagnostic performance of an indirect ELISA test by comparison to a real-time PCR test when diagnosing M. bovis in cattle herds of bulk tank milk. Bulk tank milk samples from Danish dairy herds (N=3437) were analysed with both the antibody detecting BIO K 302 M. bovis ELISA kit and the antigen detecting PathoProof Mastitis Major-3 kit. As none of these are considered a gold standard test for herd-level diagnostics we applied a series of Bayesian latent class analyses for a range of ELISA cut-off values. The negative and positive predictive values were calculated for hypothetical true national prevalences (1, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) of infected herds. We estimated that the ELISA test had a median sensitivity and specificity of 60.4 [37.5-96.2 95% Posterior Credibility Interval] and 97.3 [94.0-99.8 95% PCI] at the currently recommended cut-off (37% Optical density Coefficient). These changed to 43.5 [21.1-92.5 95% PCI] and 99.6 [98.8-100 95% PCI] if the cut-off was increased to 50 ODC%. In addition, herd-level diagnosis by ELISA would result in fewer false positives at a cut-off value of 50 ODC% compared to 37 ODC% without compromising the negative predictive value. PMID:26342789

  6. Spatiotemporal Incidence of Acaracide Resistance among Outbreaks of Cattle Fever Ticks in the US

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp, were eradicated from the U.S. but regularly make incursions along the border with Mexico. The USDA maintains a quarantine buffer zone with surveillance for stray Mexican cattle and inspection of herds in the counties along the Rio Grande. The year 2...

  7. New findings of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in beef and dairy cattle in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsporidia are widely recognized as important human pathogens with Enterocytozoon bieneusi as the most common species infecting humans and animals, including cattle. Although Brazil has the second largest cattle herd in the world and it is the largest exporter of beef there are no data on the pre...

  8. Cattle Fever Ticks in the U.S.: Back to 1906?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Keeping cattle fever ticks (CFT), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. annulatus, eradicated from the United States and thus keeping the national cattle herd free of bovine babesiosis is a current and critical agricultural biosecurity issue of national relevance. Also known as “Texas fever”, ...

  9. Management of the calving pen is a crucial factor for paratuberculosis control in large dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Donat, Karsten; Schmidt, Mandy; Köhler, Heike; Sauter-Louis, Carola

    2016-05-01

    Improvement of hygiene and herd management to reduce the contact of calves with adult cow feces to prevent new infections is one of the basic strategies to manage paratuberculosis-affected dairy herds. Control programs should recommend an evidence-based selection of factors that demonstrably reduce the transmission of the infectious agent and decrease the prevalence of infected cattle to improve acceptance and implementation of the recommended measures among farmers. This study aimed to assess the influence of several management measures on control success in a longitudinal study in 28 large dairy herds with a median size of 415 cows in Thuringia, Germany. The cumulative incidence of cows shedding Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) per year was determined by individual fecal culture of all cows during 5 consecutive years. Relevant management practices as well as herd size, milk yield, and purchase of cattle were recorded by on-farm risk assessment. Mean holding time of MAP shedders within the herd was calculated from individual data of each shedding cow. Using multiple regression models, separate calving pens for shedders and disinfection of the pen after use were identified as significant risk factors that reduced the cumulative incidence of MAP shedders per year on the herd level. The results provide evidence that, in addition to other factors, calving hygiene and management of the calving pens are crucial for paratuberculosis control, particularly in large dairy herds. Considered together with the outcome from other studies, these results might be important to weight various risk factors and to avoid overburdening and overwhelming farmers and keeping them committed. PMID:26947285

  10. BoLA antigens are associated with increased frequency of persistent lymphocytosis in bovine leukaemia virus infected cattle and with increased incidence of antibodies to bovine leukaemia virus.

    PubMed

    Stear, M J; Dimmock, C K; Newman, M J; Nicholas, F W

    1988-01-01

    The association between bovine major histocompatibility system (BoLA) type and persistent lymphocytosis in cattle with antibodies to bovine leukaemia virus was examined by comparing antigen frequencies in cattle with persistent lymphocytosis to controls matched for age, sex, breed and presence of antibodies to BLV. The cattle came from nine dairy herds in south-east Queensland, Australia; six herds were Australian Illawarra Shorthorn (AIS), two herds were Jersey and one herd was Friesian. Antigen W6 and Eu28R were more common in cattle with persistent lymphocytosis than in controls. Antigen W8 was less common in AIS cattle with persistent lymphocytosis. A study of 24 offspring from one sire, heterozygous for W10 and Eu28R, showed that offspring inheriting Eu28R from the sire were significantly more likely to have antibodies to BLV than offspring inheriting the opposing W10 haplotype. PMID:2843067

  11. New World cattle show ancestry from multiple independent domestication events.

    PubMed

    McTavish, Emily Jane; Decker, Jared E; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F; Hillis, David M

    2013-04-01

    Previous archeological and genetic research has shown that modern cattle breeds are descended from multiple independent domestication events of the wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) ∼10,000 y ago. Two primary areas of domestication in the Middle East/Europe and the Indian subcontinent resulted in taurine and indicine lines of cattle, respectively. American descendants of cattle brought by European explorers to the New World beginning in 1493 generally have been considered to belong to the taurine lineage. Our analyses of 47,506 single nucleotide polymorphisms show that these New World cattle breeds, as well as many related breeds of cattle in southern Europe, actually exhibit ancestry from both the taurine and indicine lineages. In this study, we show that, although European cattle are largely descended from the taurine lineage, gene flow from African cattle (partially of indicine origin) contributed substantial genomic components to both southern European cattle breeds and their New World descendants. New World cattle breeds, such as Texas Longhorns, provide an opportunity to study global population structure and domestication in cattle. Following their introduction into the Americas in the late 1400s, semiferal herds of cattle underwent between 80 and 200 generations of predominantly natural selection, as opposed to the human-mediated artificial selection of Old World breeding programs. Our analyses of global cattle breed population history show that the hybrid ancestry of New World breeds contributed genetic variation that likely facilitated the adaptation of these breeds to a novel environment. PMID:23530234

  12. New World cattle show ancestry from multiple independent domestication events

    PubMed Central

    McTavish, Emily Jane; Decker, Jared E.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Hillis, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous archeological and genetic research has shown that modern cattle breeds are descended from multiple independent domestication events of the wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) ∼10,000 y ago. Two primary areas of domestication in the Middle East/Europe and the Indian subcontinent resulted in taurine and indicine lines of cattle, respectively. American descendants of cattle brought by European explorers to the New World beginning in 1493 generally have been considered to belong to the taurine lineage. Our analyses of 47,506 single nucleotide polymorphisms show that these New World cattle breeds, as well as many related breeds of cattle in southern Europe, actually exhibit ancestry from both the taurine and indicine lineages. In this study, we show that, although European cattle are largely descended from the taurine lineage, gene flow from African cattle (partially of indicine origin) contributed substantial genomic components to both southern European cattle breeds and their New World descendants. New World cattle breeds, such as Texas Longhorns, provide an opportunity to study global population structure and domestication in cattle. Following their introduction into the Americas in the late 1400s, semiferal herds of cattle underwent between 80 and 200 generations of predominantly natural selection, as opposed to the human-mediated artificial selection of Old World breeding programs. Our analyses of global cattle breed population history show that the hybrid ancestry of New World breeds contributed genetic variation that likely facilitated the adaptation of these breeds to a novel environment. PMID:23530234

  13. Management practices as risk factors for the presence of bulk milk antibodies to Salmonella, Neospora caninum and Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in Irish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    O' Doherty, E; Berry, D P; O' Grady, L; Sayers, R

    2014-06-01

    A survey of management practices in 309 Irish dairy herds was used to identify risk factors for the presence of antibodies to Salmonella, Neospora caninum and Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in extensively managed unvaccinated dairy herds. A previous study documented a herd-level seroprevalence in bulk milk of 49%, 19% and 86% for Salmonella, Neospora caninum and leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo, respectively in the unvaccinated proportion of these 309 herds in 2009. Association analyses in the present study were carried out using multiple logistic regression models. Herds where cattle were purchased or introduced had a greater likelihood of being positive to leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo (P<0.01) and Salmonella (P<0.01). Larger herds had a greater likelihood of recording a positive bulk milk antibody result to leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo (P<0.05). Herds that practiced year round calving were more likely to be positive to Neospora caninum (P<0.05) compared to herds with a spring-calving season, with no difference in risk between herds that practiced split calving compared to herds that practiced spring calving. No association was found between presence of dogs on farms and prevalence of Neospora caninum possibly due to limited access of dogs to infected materials including afterbirths. The information from this study will assist in the design of suitable control programmes for the diseases under investigation in pasture-based livestock systems. PMID:24661904

  14. The effect of alternative testing strategies and bio-exclusion practices on Johne's disease risk in test-negative herds.

    PubMed

    More, S J; Sergeant, E S G; Strain, S; Cashman, W; Kenny, Kevin; Graham, D

    2013-03-01

    Herd classification is a key component of national Johne's disease (JD) control programs. Herds are categorized on the basis of test results, and separate sub-programs are followed for test-positive and test-negative herds. However, a test-negative herd result does not necessarily equate to JD freedom for reasons relating to disease pathogenesis and available diagnostic tests. Thus, in several countries, JD control programs define test-negative herds as having a "low risk" of infection below a specified prevalence. However, the approach is qualitative, and little quantitative work is available on herd-level estimates of probability of freedom in test-negative herds. This paper examines the effect over time of alternative testing strategies and bio-exclusion practices on JD risk in test-negative herds. A simulation model was developed in the programming language R. Key model inputs included sensitivity and specificity estimates for 3 individual animal diagnostic tests (serum ELISA, milk ELISA, and fecal culture), design prevalence, testing options, and testing costs. Key model outputs included the probability that infection will be detected if present at the design prevalence or greater (herd sensitivity; SeH), the probability that infection in the herd is either absent or at very low prevalence (i.e., less than the design prevalence; ProbF), the probability of an uninfected herd producing a false-positive result [P(False+)], and mean testing cost (HerdCost) for different testing strategies. The output ProbF can be updated periodically, incorporating data from additional herd testing and information on cattle purchases, and could form the basis for an output-based approach to herd classification. A high ProbF is very difficult to achieve, reflecting the low sensitivity of the evaluated tests. Moreover, ProbF is greatly affected by any risk of introduction of infection, decreasing in herds with poor bio-exclusion practices despite ongoing negative test results. The

  15. Genome-Wide Mapping of Loci Explaining Variance in Scrotal Circumference in Nellore Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Utsunomiya, Yuri T.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Neves, Haroldo H. R.; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Matos, Márcia C.; Zavarez, Ludmilla B.; Ito, Pier K. R. K.; Pérez O'Brien, Ana M.; Sölkner, Johann; Porto-Neto, Laercio R.; Schenkel, Flávio S.; McEwan, John; Cole, John B.; da Silva, Marcos V. G. B.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Garcia, José Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The reproductive performance of bulls has a high impact on the beef cattle industry. Scrotal circumference (SC) is the most recorded reproductive trait in beef herds, and is used as a major selection criterion to improve precocity and fertility. The characterization of genomic regions affecting SC can contribute to the identification of diagnostic markers for reproductive performance and uncover molecular mechanisms underlying complex aspects of bovine reproductive biology. In this paper, we report a genome-wide scan for chromosome segments explaining differences in SC, using data of 861 Nellore bulls (Bos indicus) genotyped for over 777,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Loci that excel from the genome background were identified on chromosomes 4, 6, 7, 10, 14, 18 and 21. The majority of these regions were previously found to be associated with reproductive and body size traits in cattle. The signal on chromosome 14 replicates the pleiotropic quantitative trait locus encompassing PLAG1 that affects male fertility in cattle and stature in several species. Based on intensive literature mining, SP4, MAGEL2, SH3RF2, PDE5A and SNAI2 are proposed as novel candidate genes for SC, as they affect growth and testicular size in other animal models. These findings contribute to linking reproductive phenotypes to gene functions, and may offer new insights on the molecular biology of male fertility. PMID:24558400

  16. Microarray chip based identification of a mixed infection of bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhea 2 from Indian cattle.

    PubMed

    Ratta, Barkha; Yadav, Brijesh Singh; Pokhriyal, Mayank; Saxena, Meeta; Sharma, Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVD2) are endemic in India although no mixed infection with these viruses has been reported from India. We report first mixed infection of these viruses in cattle during routine screening with a microarray chip. 62 of the 69 probes of BHV1 and 42 of the 57 BVD2 probes in the chip gave positive signals for the virus. The virus infections were subsequently confirmed by RT-PCR. We also discuss the implications of these findings. PMID:24026447

  17. Identification of newly isolated Babesia parasites from cattle in Korea by using the Bo-RBC-SCID mice

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Hyeong-Woo; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Ishihara, Chiaki; Kim, Jong-Taek; Wee, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Chung-Gil

    2002-01-01

    Attempts were made to isolate and identify Korean bovine Babesia parasite. Blood samples were collected from Holstein cows in Korea, and Babesia parasites were propagated in SCID mice with circulating bovine red blood cells for isolation. The isolate was then antigenically and genotypically compared with several Japanese isolates. The Korean parasite was found to be nearly identical to the Oshima strain isolated from Japanese cattle, which was recently designated as Babesia ovata oshimensis n. var. Haemaphysalis longicornis was the most probable tick species that transmited the parasite. PMID:11949211

  18. Characterisation of mycobacteria isolated from slaughter cattle in pastoral regions of Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Oloya, J; Kazwala, R; Lund, A; Opuda-Asibo, J; Demelash, B; Skjerve, E; Johansen, TB; Djønne, B

    2007-01-01

    Background Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic problem in pastoral cattle and communities in Uganda. Tuberculin tests in pastoral cattle had shown a high herd but low animal prevalence, with a high proportion of avian reactors. No work had been done to identify the mycobacterial species involved. The objective of the study was to isolate and characterise Mycobacterial species causing tuberculous lesions in slaughtered animals. Lesioned organs compatible with bovine tuberculosis in slaughtered cattle from pastoral areas in Uganda were collected and cultured to isolate mycobacteria. AccuProbe culture identification kits for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, M. avium complex and M. avium were used to identify the isolates. Spoligotyping and Insertion Sequence (IS) 1311 and IS1245 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis (RFLP) were used to further characterise the isolates. Results Of the 61 lesioned organs and tissues cultured, 19 isolates were identified as M. bovis, 3 as M. avium subsp.hominissuis, 1 as M. intracellulare, 1 as a mixed culture of M. bovis and M. avium sp. and 1 as M. avium sp. and unidentified mycobacteria. Eleven other mycobacteria outside the tuberculosis and avium complex groups were also isolated. Ten new spoligopatterns grouped into three clusters were identified from M. bovis isolates. Two of the three M. avium subsp.hominissuis isolates showed similar patterns on the IS1311 RFLP but all were different on the IS1245 RFLP. Conclusion The isolation of M. bovis confirms the ongoing infection with spoligotypes unique to Uganda. Isolation of environmental mycobacteria could explain the high avian or non specific tuberculin reactor patterns commonly observed in pastoral cattle and suggests their pathogenic or opportunistic role in the infection of cattle with disseminated bovine tuberculous lesions. PMID:17961243

  19. Bovine Tuberculosis Risk Factors for British Herds Before and After the 2001 Foot-and-Mouth Epidemic: What have we Learned from the TB99 and CCS2005 Studies?

    PubMed

    Vial, F; Miguel, E; Johnston, W T; Mitchell, A; Donnelly, C A

    2015-10-01

    Over the last couple of decades, the UK experienced a substantial increase in the incidence and geographical spread of bovine tuberculosis (TB), in particular since the epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in 2001. The initiation of the Randomized Badger Culling Trial (RBCT) in 1998 in south-west England provided an opportunity for an in-depth collection of questionnaire data (covering farming practices, herd management and husbandry, trading and wildlife activity) from herds having experienced a TB breakdown between 1998 and early 2006 and randomly selected control herds, both within and outside the RBCT (the so-called TB99 and CCS2005 case-control studies). The data collated were split into four separate and comparable substudies related to either the pre-FMD or post-FMD period, which are brought together and discussed here for the first time. The findings suggest that the risk factors associated with TB breakdowns may have changed. Higher Mycobacterium bovis prevalence in badgers following the FMD epidemic may have contributed to the identification of the presence of badgers on a farm as a prominent TB risk factor only post-FMD. The strong emergence of contact/trading TB risk factors post-FMD suggests that the purchasing and movement of cattle, which took place to restock FMD-affected areas after 2001, may have exacerbated the TB problem. Post-FMD analyses also highlighted the potential impact of environmental factors on TB risk. Although no unique and universal solution exists to reduce the transmission of TB to and among British cattle, there is an evidence to suggest that applying the broad principles of biosecurity on farms reduces the risk of infection. However, with trading remaining as an important route of local and long-distance TB transmission, improvements in the detection of infected animals during pre- and post-movement testing should further reduce the geographical spread of the disease. PMID:24330476

  20. Herd-level risk factors associated with fecal shedding of Shiga toxin-encoding bacteria on dairy farms in Minnesota, USA

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Seongbeom; Fossler, Charles P.; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Wells, Scott J.; Hedberg, Craig W.; Kaneene, John B.; Ruegg, Pamela L.; Warnick, Lorin D.; Bender, Jeffrey B.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify herd-level risk factors associated with fecal shedding of Shiga toxin-encoding bacteria (STB) on dairy cattle farms in Minnesota, USA. After adjustment for farm size, risk factors included: use of total mixed ration (TMR) for lactating dairy cows [odds ratio (OR) = 3.0; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8 to 5.1], no use of monensin for weaned calves (OR = 4.8, 95% CI: 2.5, 9.3), and no use of decoquinate for preweaned calves (OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.4, 3.6). Fecal shedding of STB was more common in small herds (< 100 cows, OR = 3.6, 95% CI: 2.1, 6.2) than in large herds (≥ 100 cows). Herd management factors related to cattle feeding practices were associated with fecal shedding of STB. PMID:24155466

  1. Frequency of BLAD and CVM alleles in sires and elite heifers of Czech Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Cítek, J; Rehout, V; Schröffelová, D; Hradecká, E

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we analyse the occurrence of BLAD and CVM heterozygous animals in Holstein cattle in the Czech Republic in 1993-2005. The occurrence of BLAD heterozygous sires and heifers (BL) during the period 1993-1998 in Czech Holsteins was 13.9% and 10.7%. Radical measures have been taken to restore the population. Evidently, the measures have been efficient, in 2005 one BLAD heterozygous sire of 101 was found. Continuous testing is necessary, because in commercial herds, the eradication process is not short-term. The found occurrence ofCVM heterozygous sires (CV) decreased from 20% in 2001 to 8% (7 positive of 85) in 2005.This is still quite a high frequency. The occurrence in CV females of 20% remains higher. Therefore, the use of CV sires should be restricted thoroughly. Identification of the molecular basis for inherited diseases, should lead to control measures which would enable the quick recovery of the population. PMID:19113030

  2. 9 CFR 55.24 - Herd status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... required, but other requirements of the program will remain in force. (b) Loss or suspension of herd status... loss or suspension of herd status by writing to the Administrator within 10 days after being informed... adopted by the Administrator. However, cancellation of enrollment or loss or suspension of herd...

  3. Identification of a Novel Enterovirus E Isolates HY12 from Cattle with Severe Respiratory and Enteric Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sujing; San, Zhihao; Wang, Xinping

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a virus strain designated as HY12 was isolated from cattle with a disease of high morbidity and mortality in Jilin province. Biological and physiochemical properties showed that HY12 isolates is cytopathic with an extremely high infectivity. HY12 is resistant to treatment of organic solvent and acid, and unstable at 60°C for 1 h. Electron microscopy observation revealed the virus is an approximately 22–28 nm in diameter. The complete genome sequence of HY12 consists of 7416 nucleotides, with a typical picornavirus genome organization including a 5′-untranslated region (UTR), a large single ORF encoding a polyprotein of 2176 amino acids, and a 3′-UTR. Phylogenetic analysis clustered HY12 isolates to a new serotype/genotype within the clade of enterovirus E (formerly BEV-A). Alignment analysis revealed a unique insertion of 2 amino acid residues (NF) at the C-terminal of VP1 protein between aa 825 and 826, and several rare mutations in VP1 and VP4 of HY12 isolates in relation to known bovine enterovirus (BEV) strains. This is the first report of an enterovirus E in China, which is potentially associated with an outbreak in cattle with severe respiratory and enteric diseases. PMID:24830424

  4. Identification of Genetic Associations and Functional Polymorphisms of SAA1 Gene Affecting Milk Production Traits in Dairy Cattle.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shaohua; Gao, Yahui; Zhang, Shengli; Zhang, Qin; Sun, Dongxiao

    2016-01-01

    Our initial RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed that the Serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) gene was differentially expressed in the mammary glands of lactating Holstein cows with extremely high versus low phenotypic values of milk protein and fat percentage. To further validate the genetic effect and potential molecular mechanisms of SAA1 gene involved in regulating milk production traits in dairy cattle, we herein performed a study through genotype-phenotype associations. Six identified SNPs were significantly associated with one or more milk production traits (0.00002< P < 0.0025), providing additional evidence for the potential role of SAA1 variants in milk production traits in dairy cows. Subsequently, both luciferase assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) clearly demonstrated that the allele A of g.-963C>A increased the promoter activity by binding the PARP factor while allele C did not. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the secondary structure of SAA protein changed by the substitution A/G in the locus c. +2510A>G. Our findings were the first to reveal the significant associations of the SAA1 gene with milk production traits, providing basis for further biological function validation, and two identified SNPs, g.-963C>A and c. +2510A>G, may be considered as genetic markers for breeding in dairy cattle. PMID:27610623

  5. Q Fever Dairy Herd Status Determination Based on Serological and Molecular Analysis of Bulk Tank Milk.

    PubMed

    Anastácio, S; Carolino, N; Sidi-Boumedine, K; da Silva, G J

    2016-04-01

    Ruminants are recognized as the main reservoirs of Coxiella burnetii. EFSA highlighted the lack of knowledge about Q fever prevalence in many European countries. A cross-sectional study was carried out in randomly selected dairy herds (n = 109) from central Portugal to screen for C. burnetii infection and to correlate it with herd factors. Bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from cattle (n = 45) and small ruminant (n = 64) herds were tested by ELISA and PCR. The apparent seroprevalence of Q fever was estimated in 45.9% (95% CI: 36.3-55.7) being higher in small ruminants (51.6; 95% CI: 39.6-63.4) than in cattle (37.8; 95% CI: 25.1-52.4). The shedding of C. burnetii in BTM was detected in 11.9% (95% CI: 7.1-19.4) of BTM, and it was higher in cattle (20%; 95% CI: 10.9-33.8) than in sheep and mixed herds (6.3%; 95% CI: 2.5-15). A high bacterial load (≥ 3 × 10(3) bacteria/ml) was observed in 85% of PCR-positive BTM. A significant correlation was found between the bacterial load and positive samples on ELISA (P < 0.001). Antibody positivity was significantly associated with the increased herd size (P < 0.01) and the occurrence of abortion (P < 0.05), whereas the shedding of C. burnetii was significantly associated with the report of infertility (P < 0.05). The results highlight that serological and molecular methods in combination are a useful tool to screen for Q fever and to clarify the herd infection status. The shedding of C. burnetii through milk is important, especially in dairy cattle, and thus, the role of milk as a potential source of infection among dairy workers should not be neglected. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting C. burnetii infection in dairy livestock in Portugal showing that Q fever is significant in dairy herds, leading to economic losses and being a risk for public health, which highlights the need of implementation of control measures. PMID:25208655

  6. Mathematical Modeling of the Dynamics of Salmonella Cerro Infection in a US Dairy Herd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapagain, Prem; van Kessel, Jo Ann; Karns, Jeffrey; Wolfgang, David; Schukken, Ynte; Grohn, Yrjo

    2006-03-01

    Salmonellosis has been one of the major causes of human foodborne illness in the US. The high prevalence of infections makes transmission dynamics of Salmonella in a farm environment of interest both from animal and human health perspectives. Mathematical modeling approaches are increasingly being applied to understand the dynamics of various infectious diseases in dairy herds. Here, we describe the transmission dynamics of Salmonella infection in a dairy herd with a set of non-linear differential equations. Although the infection dynamics of different serotypes of Salmonella in cattle are likely to be different, we find that a relatively simple SIR-type model can describe the observed dynamics of the Salmonella enterica serotype Cerro infection in the herd.

  7. Development and testing of real-time PCR assays for determining fecal loading and source identification (cattle, human, etc.) in surface water and groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, L. D.; Layton, A.; Gentry, R.

    2004-12-01

    A multi-disciplinary group of researchers at the University of Tennessee is developing and testing a series of microbial assay methods based on real-time PCR to detect fecal bacterial concentrations and host sources in water samples. Real-time PCR is an enumeration technique based on the unique and conserved nucleic acid sequences present in all organisms. The first research task was development of an assay (AllBac) to detect total amount of Bacteroides, which represents up to 30 percent of fecal mass. Subsequent assays were developed to detect Bacteroides from cattle (BoBac) and humans (HuBac) using 16sRNA genes based on DNA sequences in the national GenBank, as well as sequences from local fecal samples. The assays potentially have significant advantages over conventional bacterial source tracking methods because: 1. unlike traditional enumeration methods, they do not require bacterial cultivation; 2. there are no known non-fecal sources of Bacteroides; 3. the assays are quantitative with results for total concentration and for each species expressed in mg/l; and 4. they show little regional variation within host species, meaning that they do not require development of extensive local gene libraries. The AllBac and BoBac assays have been used in a study of fecal contamination in a small rural watershed (Stock Creek) near Knoxville, TN, and have proven useful in identification of areas where cattle represent a significant fecal input and in development of BMPs. It is expected that these types of assays (and future assays for birds, hogs, etc.) could have broad applications in monitoring fecal impacts from Animal Feeding Operations, as well as from wildlife and human sources.

  8. The clearance of delphinium alkaloids from the serum of cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larkspurs (Delphinium spp.) (figure 1) commonly poison cattle in many western rangelands of North America. Yearly herd mortality can be as high as 10% with annual economic losses of several millions of dollars in animal deaths, increased management, treatment costs, and the loss of the use of otherw...

  9. Biomarker Discovery in Subclinical Mycobacterial Infections of Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Bovine tuberculosis is a highly prevalent infectious disease of cattle worldwide; however, infection in the United States is limited to 0.01% of dairy herds. Thus detection of bovine TB is confounded by high background infection with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The present study a...

  10. Breed Composition of the United States Dairy Cattle Herd

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breed composition of the gene pool of all cows (purebred and crossbred) with pedigree data in the USDA national dairy database was summarized by birth year of cow. Partial breed contributions were assigned for individual cows. For cows born in 2005, 1.1% of all genes and 35.1% of genes in crossbreds...

  11. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.18 Individual identification of... purpose other than slaughter and are identified in a manner acceptable to the appropriate...

  12. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.18 Individual identification of... purpose other than slaughter and are identified in a manner acceptable to the appropriate...

  13. Pre-Calving and Calving Management Practices in Dairy Herds with a History of High or Low Bovine Perinatal Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Mee, John F.; Grant, Jim; Sánchez-Miguel, Cosme; Doherty, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Mortality of full-term calves at calving is an increasing problem in dairy industries internationally. Multiple herd management factors contribute to such losses. This case-control study identified factors which differed between herds with high and low calf mortality. These included breeding, dietary, health and calving factors. It was concluded that calving, not pre-calving, management appears to be the most important area of concern in herds with high perinatal mortality. This indicates that farmers and their veterinarians need to focus on calving management when investigating such problems and when attempting to reduce losses in herds with high rates of bovine perinatal mortality. Abstract Bovine perinatal mortality is an increasing problem in dairy industries internationally. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with high and low herd-level calf mortality. Thirty herds with a history of either high (case) or low (control) calf mortality were recruited. A herd-level questionnaire was used to gather information on management practices likely to impact bovine perinatal mortality. The questionnaire was divided into four subsections dealing with pre-calving (breeding, diet and body condition score, endemic infectious diseases) and calving factors. Most of the significant differences between case and control herds were found in calving management. For example, in case herds, pregnant cattle were less likely to be moved to the calving unit two or more days and more likely to be moved less than 12 hours pre-calving, they were also less likely to calve in group-calving facilities and their calves were more likely to receive intranasal or hypothermal resuscitation. These management procedures may cause social isolation and periparturient psychogenic uterine atony leading to dystocia, more weak calves requiring resuscitation and high perinatal calf mortality. The key finding is that calving, not pre-calving, management

  14. Bovine tuberculosis in Northern Ireland: risk factors associated with time from post-outbreak test to subsequent herd breakdown.

    PubMed

    Doyle, L P; Gordon, A W; Abernethy, D A; Stevens, K

    2014-09-01

    Compulsory bovine tuberculosis testing has been implemented since 1959 in Northern Ireland. Initial rapid progress in the eradication of the disease was followed by a situation where disease levels tended to fluctuate around a low level. This study explores recrudescence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Northern Ireland herds by assessing risk factors associated with time from the six-month post-outbreak skin test until a further herd breakdown. Bovine herds (n=3377) were recruited in 2002 and 2003 and their survival analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and a Cox proportional hazards model, with follow-up extending to August 2008. Exclusion criteria applied for study entry were bTB infection in a contiguous herd, changing of post restriction test to one of a higher risk status or chronic infection. Chronic infection was defined as any situation where disclosure preceded the post-outbreak test by two years or more. The application of these exclusion criteria meant that herds recruited to the study were largely cleared of infection and not directly contiguous to other infected herds. Of the 3377 herds, 1402 (41.5%) suffered a further herd breakdown before the end of follow-up. Median survival time was 582 days (interquartile range=336-1002 days). Breakdown severity (defined as the number of Single Intradermal Comparative Tuberculin Test (SICTT) reactors at disclosure test), local bTB prevalence, herd size and type were identified as significant risk factors (p<0.05), as was the purchase of higher numbers (n>27.38 per year) of cattle. Consistent with other studies this work shows bTB confirmation to not be predictive of a future herd breakdown. This work shows bTB history as not being a risk factor for a future breakdown. This result could be reflective of the exclusion criteria used in the study, which may have selected for incidents where historical status was of less importance. PMID:25023906

  15. Spatiotemporal patterns, annual baseline and movement-related incidence of Streptococcus agalactiae infection in Danish dairy herds: 2000-2009.

    PubMed

    Mweu, Marshal M; Nielsen, Søren S; Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils

    2014-02-01

    Several decades after the inception of the five-point plan for the control of contagious mastitis pathogens, Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) persists as a fundamental threat to the dairy industry in many countries. A better understanding of the relative importance of within- and between-herd sources of new herd infections coupled with the spatiotemporal distribution of the infection, may aid in effective targeting of control efforts. Thus, the objectives of this study were: (1) to describe the spatiotemporal patterns of infection with S. agalactiae in the population of Danish dairy herds from 2000 to 2009 and (2) to estimate the annual herd-level baseline and movement-related incidence risks of S. agalactiae infection over the 10-year period. The analysis involved registry data on bacteriological culture of all bulk tank milk samples collected as part of the mandatory Danish S. agalactiae surveillance scheme as well as live cattle movements into dairy herds during the specified 10-year period. The results indicated that the predicted risk of a herd becoming infected with S. agalactiae varied spatiotemporally; the risk being more homogeneous and higher in the period after 2005. Additionally, the annual baseline risks yielded significant yet distinctive patterns before and after 2005 - the risk of infection being higher in the latter phase. On the contrary, the annual movement-related risks revealed a non-significant pattern over the 10-year period. There was neither evidence for spatial clustering of cases relative to the population of herds at risk nor spatial dependency between herds. Nevertheless, the results signal a need to beef up within-herd biosecurity in order to reduce the risk of new herd infections. PMID:24269038

  16. [Coxiella burnetii infections and infections with bacteria of the genus Chlamydia in dairy cattle].

    PubMed

    Sting, R; Simmert, J; Mandl, J; Seemann, G; Bay, F; Müller, K F; Schmitt, K; Mentrup, T

    2000-01-01

    Comparative studies on the prevalence of infections caused by Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) and Chlamydia were carried out with 592 cattle older than 2 years and 234 cattle younger than 2 years. Of these 477 originated from 24 dairy herds with considerable fertility problems (positive herds) and 349 from 14 dairy herds without major fertility problems (control herds). For the direct detection of these pathogens in the genitals capture ELISAs were employed, for the demonstration of antibodies the complement fixation test (CFT). Direct detection of C. burnetii and Chlamydia single as well as mixed infection revealed significant higher values for cattle from positive herds compared with those from the control herds. Animals revealing insemination ratios of > or = 2 showed significantly more frequent excretion of Chlamydia via the genitals and antibodies against C. burnetii than cattle with an insemination ratio of < 2. Investigations of cows which had had an abortion showed no indications of significantly more frequent C. burnetii or chlamydial infections. Inseminated but non-pregnant cows excreted significantly more C. burnetii and Chlamydia than pregnant cows. Clinical signs of endometritis were associated with an enhanced excretion of Chlamydia. Animals younger than 2 years excreted significantly more frequently C. burnetii but not Chlamydia via the genitals than animals older than 2 years. Indirect test showed results vice versa. PMID:11153221

  17. Annual incidence, prevalence and transmission characteristics of Streptococcus agalactiae in Danish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Mweu, Marshal M; Nielsen, Søren S; Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils

    2012-10-01

    Contagious mastitis pathogens continue to pose an economic threat to the dairy industry. An understanding of their frequency and transmission dynamics is central to evaluating the effectiveness of control programmes. The objectives of this study were twofold: (1) to estimate the annual herd-level incidence rates and apparent prevalences of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in the population of Danish dairy cattle herds over a 10-year period from 2000 to 2009 inclusive and (2) to estimate the herd-level entry and exit rates (demographic parameters), the transmission parameter, β, and recovery rate for S. agalactiae infection. Data covering the specified period, on bacteriological culture of all bulk tank milk samples collected annually as part of the mandatory Danish S. agalactiae surveillance scheme, were extracted from the Danish Cattle Database and subsequently analysed. There was an increasing trend in both the incidence and prevalence of S. agalactiae over the study period. Per 100 herd-years the value of β was 54.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 46.0-63.7); entry rate 0.3 (95% CI 0.2-0.4); infection-related exit rate 7.1 (95% CI 5.6-8.9); non-infection related exit rate 9.2 (95% CI 7.4-11.5) and recovery rate 40.0 (95% CI 36.8-43.5). This study demonstrates a need to tighten the current controls against S. agalactiae in order to lower its incidence. PMID:22560559

  18. Effect of the association of cattle and rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) on populations of cattle ticks (Boophilus microplus).

    PubMed

    Barre, N; Bianchi, M; De Garine-Wichatitsky, M

    2002-10-01

    The wild population of rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in New Caledonia (South Pacific) is nearly as large as the cattle population. The cattle tick is widespread and occurs all year round. Opinions are divided on the role of deer in the biological cycle of the tick: i) Do they maintain a sustainable tick population that is secondarily available for cattle? ii) Do they decrease the infestation of the environment by collecting larvae on the pasture, but preventing their development to the engorged female stage? or iii) Do they contribute to both situations? An experiment was conducted in three groups of pastures, each seeded with 450 000 larvae/ha and allowed to be grazed only by cattle, only by deer, and by a mixed herd of deer and cattle (deer representing 30% of the biomass), at approximately the same stocking rate (470-510 kg/ha). After 15 months of exposure, the tick burden per weight unit of host was 42 ticks/kg for the steers-only herd and 0.01/kg for the deer-only herd. The steers in the "mixed group" harbored 7 times fewer ticks (6.2/kg) than the cattle-only group, and the deer in the "mixed group," 130 times more (1.3/kg) than the deer-only group. Five emergency acaricide treatments had to be applied in the cattle-only group, but none in the other groups. The long-term sustainability of a viable tick population on deer as well as the potential benefit resulting from the association of deer and susceptible cattle in the tick control of cattle are highlighted. PMID:12381606

  19. Identification of Neospora antigens recognized by CD4+ T cells and immune sera from experimentally infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Marks, J; Lundén, A; Harkins, D; Innes, E

    1998-07-01

    Neospora caninum is recognized as a major cause of infectious abortion in cattle. Very little is known about immunity to Neospora. Cell mediated responses have previously been shown to be important in the development of protective immunity to the closely related parasite Toxoplasma gondii, and may therefore be an important component in the immune response to Neospora. In this paper we report that a group of low molecular weight NCI strain tachyzoite antigens (< or = 30 kDa) separated by SDS PAGE and bound to nitrocellulose membrane stimulated proliferation in vitro of CD4+ T cells from calves experimentally infected with N. caninum. Proliferation was accompanied by production of high concentrations of IFN-gamma. Several of these antigens were also recognized by antibody produced in these animals. As the most effective vaccines require the stimulation of both humoral and cell mediated immune responses, these antigens may be important in the development of a vaccine against neosporosis. PMID:9717191

  20. Peanut by-products fed to cattle.

    PubMed

    Hill, Gary M

    2002-07-01

    Peanut by-products supply substantial quantities of feedstuffs to beef cattle grown in the same region where peanuts are produced. Included in the list of products fed to cattle are peanuts and peanut meal, peanut skins, peanut hulls, peanut hay, and silages. Residual peanut hay is by far the most widely used peanut by-product fed to beef cattle, and if it is properly harvested with minimal leaf shatter, it is comparable to good-quality grass hays in nutrient content. Peanut skins are often included in small quantities in cattle and pet foods, supplying both protein and energy. High tannin content of peanut skins can cause severe performance depressions in beef cattle if peanut skins are included at levels higher than 10% of the diet, unless diets contain relatively high CP (above 15% CP), or additional N sources are added such as ammonia or urea. Because dairy cattle diets are often above 16% CP in the total dietary DM, peanut skins may increase milk production when added at levels up to 16% of the dry matter. Peanut hulls are effectively used as a roughage source at levels up to 20% of beef finishing diets, for bedding in dairy cattle loafing sheds (if tested and found to contain low aflatoxin levels), and in a variety of manufactured products. Peanut hulls are economically priced because of their quantity, their inherent high fiber, and low CP content, and they should not be fed as a primary feedstuffs for beef cattle. Peanut by-products are generally priced below other by-products, and they can be incorporated into a variety of supplements and diets for cow herds, growing-finishing cattle, and dairy cattle. PMID:12235662

  1. Toxic hepatopathy and photosensitization in cattle fed moldy alfalfa hay.

    PubMed

    Scruggs, D W; Blue, G K

    1994-01-15

    Cattle in 2 herds developed type-3 photosensitization after eating moldy alfalfa hay. Clinical signs included severe epidermal necrosis of unpigmented skin and marked decrease of milk production (herd 1). One herd had 18% mortality. Values for serum gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, and serum bilirubin were high in affected cows. Biliary epithelial degeneration and necrosis affecting the smaller bile ductules is the most consistent histologic lesion. Biliary hyperplasia, early portal fibroplasia, hepatocellular vacuolar degeneration and necrosis, and cholestasis were commonly seen. Mold growth on the alfalfa hay associated with prolonged wet weather prior to harvest was common to both herds. The cases reported here document hepatoxicosis and photosensitization associated with feeding moldy alfalfa hay grown in southeastern United States. PMID:7908282

  2. Toxicology of oil field pollutants in cattle: a review.

    PubMed

    Coppock, R W; Mostrom, M S; Khan, A A; Semalulu, S S

    1995-12-01

    Cattle are poisoned by petroleum and substances used in drilling and operating oil and gas wells. The most common reported route of exposure for non-gaseous material is oral. Exposures occur when the petroleum or chemicals used in oil and gas field activities are available to cattle and when water and feed-stuffs are contaminated. Cattle, as a leisure activity, explore and ingest crude oil. Based on morbidity patterns in cattle herds, the amount of toxic substance ingested is variable. When water and feedstuffs are contaminated, a larger number in a herd generally are affected. Cattle have been poisoned by a wide variety of chemical mixtures. For substances high in volatile hydrocarbons, the lung is a target organ. Hydrocarbons also target the kidney, liver and brain. Exposure-linked abortions have been reported in cattle. Diethylene glycol targets the brain, liver and kidney. The reported threshold dose of unweathered oil for cattle ranges from 2.5 to 5.0 ml/kg bw, and the reported threshold dose for weathered oil is 8.0 ml/kg. PMID:8588300

  3. Simulation-model evaluation of bovine tuberculosis-eradication strategies in Argentine dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Perez, Andres M; Ward, Michael P; Ritacco, Viviana

    2002-08-30

    We used stochastic modification of the Reed-Frost model to assess the impact of 14 different eradication strategies on bovine tuberculosis, under three scenarios of disease introduction, in Argentine dairy herds. All strategies investigated were based on a test-and-cull approach using either the caudal-fold test (CFT), the single cervical test (SCT), the gamma-interferon (gamma-IFN) test or a combination of these tests. The maximum, minimum and most-likely sensitivity and specificity were investigated in three scenarios simulating different epidemiological conditions. Simulation results were highly variable; therefore, it is difficult to predict the effect of disease-control strategies within individual herds. On average, the use of the SCT was less efficient in eradicating tuberculosis from the simulated herd than the CFT. Eradication would be achieved most efficiently by strategies in which the CFT was used assuming maximum possible sensitivity and specificity (difficult to achieve in the field) and/or the gamma-IFN test-which has both economical and logistical limitations to its widespread application in Argentina. When disease-control was simulated in situations in which herd tuberculosis prevalence is > or = 22%, all strategies we simulated were less efficient than herd depopulation. Considering that Argentine dairy producers are not compensated financially for cattle culled because of tuberculosis, eradication strategies currently used in the Argentine national tuberculosis eradication might not succeed. PMID:12163251

  4. Development and Evaluation of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Use in the Detection of Bovine Tuberculosis in Cattle ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Waters, W. R.; Buddle, B. M.; Vordermeier, H. M.; Gormley, E.; Palmer, M. V.; Thacker, T. C.; Bannantine, J. P.; Stabel, J. R.; Linscott, R.; Martel, E.; Milian, F.; Foshaug, W.; Lawrence, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    As a consequence of continued spillover of Mycobacterium bovis into cattle from wildlife reservoirs and increased globalization of cattle trade with associated transmission risks, new approaches such as vaccination and novel testing algorithms are seriously being considered by regulatory agencies for the control of bovine tuberculosis. Serologic tests offer opportunities for identification of M. bovis-infected animals not afforded by current diagnostic techniques. The present study describes assay development and field assessment of a new commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects antibody to M. bovis antigens MPB83 and MPB70 in infected cattle. Pertinent findings include the following: specific antibody responses were detected at ∼90 to 100 days after experimental M. bovis challenge, minimal cross-reactive responses were elicited by infection/sensitization with nontuberculous Mycobacterium spp., and the apparent sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA with naturally infected cattle were 63% and 98%, respectively, with sensitivity improving as disease severity increased. The ELISA also detected infected animals missed by the routine tuberculin skin test, and antibody was detectable in bulk tank milk samples from M. bovis-infected dairy herds. A high-throughput ELISA could be adapted as a movement, border, or slaughter surveillance test, as well as a supplemental test to tuberculin skin testing. PMID:21918115

  5. Induced Parturition in Swine Herds

    PubMed Central

    King, G. J.; Robertson, H. A.; Elliot, J. I.

    1979-01-01

    Intramuscular injections of various levels of prostaglandin F2α were administered to 116 pregnant swine in three commercial herds and the University research unit on Day 111, 112 or 113 of gestation. Sixty-three percent of the treated animals farrowed during the working day immediately following treatment. The parturition time, birth weight, litter size, number of piglets weaned, growth of the piglets to weaning and subsequent rebreeding of the dams were comparable with the expected performance in the herds. The results indicated that prostaglandin F2α in doses ranging from 5 to 12.5 mg per animal were effective for induction of parturition in a substantial proportion of the treated animals. Successful induction of parturition could reduce the farrowing interval for batches, allow more supervision of farrowing, facilitate transfer of piglets from large to small litters and generally increase efficiency in the farrowing unit. This technique could have practical application in intensive swine production units. PMID:466637

  6. Controlling Herds of Cooperative Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quadrelli, Marco B.

    2006-01-01

    A document poses, and suggests a program of research for answering, questions of how to achieve autonomous operation of herds of cooperative robots to be used in exploration and/or colonization of remote planets. In a typical scenario, a flock of mobile sensory robots would be deployed in a previously unexplored region, one of the robots would be designated the leader, and the leader would issue commands to move the robots to different locations or aim sensors at different targets to maximize scientific return. It would be necessary to provide for this hierarchical, cooperative behavior even in the face of such unpredictable factors as terrain obstacles. A potential-fields approach is proposed as a theoretical basis for developing methods of autonomous command and guidance of a herd. A survival-of-the-fittest approach is suggested as a theoretical basis for selection, mutation, and adaptation of a description of (1) the body, joints, sensors, actuators, and control computer of each robot, and (2) the connectivity of each robot with the rest of the herd, such that the herd could be regarded as consisting of a set of artificial creatures that evolve to adapt to a previously unknown environment. A distributed simulation environment has been developed to test the proposed approaches in the Titan environment. One blimp guides three surface sondes via a potential field approach. The results of the simulation demonstrate that the method used for control is feasible, even if significant uncertainty exists in the dynamics and environmental models, and that the control architecture provides the autonomy needed to enable surface science data collection.

  7. Survey on infection rate, vectors and molecular identification of Theileria annulata in cattle from North West, Iran.

    PubMed

    Arjmand Yamchi, Jafar; Tavassoli, Mousa

    2016-09-01

    Tropical theileriosis is a progressive bovine lymphoproliferative disease caused by the intracellular protozoan parasite Theileria annulata. In this study 138 blood samples and 289 ticks were collected and examined from cattle that belonged to 10 randomly selected flocks. The Tbs-S/Tbs-A primer set was used for PCR amplification of Theileria spp. and the Ta-S/Tbs-A specific primer set was used in semi-nested PCR technique for detection of T. annulata. Blood smears of each case were examined by Giemsa staining method. The semi-nested PCR accurately revealed 22 (15.94 %) positive samples; whereas Giemsa staining method could detect 15 (10.86 %) out of 138 blood samples. The examination of 289 ticks by semi-nested PCR revealed that, 32.86 % of Hyalomma anatulicum anatulicum, 26.47 % of Hyalomma anatulicum excavatum and 22.42 % of Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum, were infected with T. annulata. The results suggest that H. anatulicum anatolicum may play a major role in transmission of T. annulata infection in Iran. The results indicated that the Giemsa staining method, having low sensitivity, while the semi-nested PCR technique can be used as a gold standard method for this purpose. PMID:27605839

  8. Identification of potential plant extracts for anti-tick activity against acaricide resistant cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Srikanta; Tiwari, Shashi Shankar; Kumar, Bhanu; Srivastava, Sharad; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Sachin; Bandyopadhyay, A; Julliet, Sanis; Kumar, Rajesh; Rawat, A K S

    2015-05-01

    To develop an eco-friendly tick control method, seven plant extracts were prepared using 50 and 95% ethanol and evaluated for acaricidal activity against cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The adult immersion test was adopted for testing different extracts. Based on 72 h screening criterion, 95% ethanolic extracts of Datura metel fruits and Argemone mexicana whole plant were found effective showing more than 50% mortality of treated ticks. The 95% ethanolic extracts of D. metel fruits and A. mexicana whole plant exhibited acaricidal and reproductive inhibitory effects on treated ticks. The LC90 values of D. metel and A. mexicana extracts were determined as 7.13 and 11.3%, respectively. However, although both the extracts were found efficacious against deltamethrin-resistant IVRI-4 and multi-acaricide resistant IVRI-5 lines of R. (B.) microplus, they caused less mortality than treated ticks of the reference IVRI-I line. Phytochemical studies indicated the presence of alkaloids and glucosides in D. metel fruits and alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids and phenolics in A. mexicana whole plant extracts. The results indicated that these botanicals may play an important role in reducing the use of chemicals for tick control and possibly to manage resistant tick population in environment friendly manner. PMID:25717008

  9. Identification of alternatively spliced mRNAs encoding potential new regulatory proteins in cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Alexandersen, S; Carpenter, S; Christensen, J; Storgaard, T; Viuff, B; Wannemuehler, Y; Belousov, J; Roth, J A

    1993-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction was used to detect and characterize low-abundance bovine leukemia virus (BLV) mRNAs. In infected cattle we could detect spliced mRNA with a splice pattern consistent with a Tax/Rex mRNA, as well as at least four alternatively spliced RNAs. Two of the alternatively spliced mRNAs encoded hitherto unrecognized BLV proteins, designated RIII and GIV. The Tax/Rex and alternatively spliced mRNAs could be detected at their highest levels in BLV-infected cell cultures; the next highest levels were found in samples from calves experimentally infected at 6 weeks postinoculation. Alternatively spliced mRNAs were also expressed, albeit at lower levels, in naturally infected animals; they were detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction. Interestingly, the GIV mRNA was specifically detected in naturally infected cows with persistent lymphocytosis and in two of five calves at 6 months after experimental infection with BLV. Furthermore, the calf with the strongest signal for GIV had the highest lymphocyte counts. These data may suggest a correlation between expression of the GIV product and development of persistent lymphocytosis. Some of the donor and acceptor sites in the alternatively spliced mRNAs were highly unusual. The biological mechanisms and significance of such a choice of unexpected splice sites are currently unknown. Images PMID:8380084

  10. Identification of potential biomarkers of disease progression in bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Federico Carlos; Bigi, Fabiana; Soria, Marcelo Abel

    2014-08-15

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains an important animal and zoonotic disease in many countries. The diagnosis of bTB is based on tuberculin skin test and IFN-γ release assays (IGRA). Positive animals are separated from the herd and sacrificed. The cost of this procedure is difficult to afford for developing countries with high prevalence of bTB; therefore, the improvement of diagnostic methods and the identification of animals in different stages of the disease will be helpful to control the infection. To identify biomarkers that can discriminate between tuberculin positive cattle with and without tuberculosis lesions (ML+ and ML-, respectively), we assessed a group of immunological parameters with three different classification methods: lineal discriminant analysis (LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA) and K nearest neighbors (k-nn). For this purpose, we used data from 30 experimentally infected cattle. All the classifiers (LDA, QDA and k-nn) selected IL-2 and IL-17 as the most discriminatory variables. The best classification method was LDA using IL-17 and IL-2 as predictors. The addition of IL-10 to LDA improves the performance of the classifier to discriminate ML-individuals (93.3% vs. 86.7%). Thus, the expression of IL-17, IL-2 and, in some cases, IL-10 would serve as an additional tool to study disease progression in herds with a history of bTB. PMID:24856732

  11. [Control measures in officially acknowledged brucellosis-free and leukosis unsuspected dairy herds on the basis of bulk milk samples in combination with ELISA tests].

    PubMed

    Forschner, E; Bünger, I; Krause, H P; Küttler, D

    1989-01-01

    1. EC- and National Regulations. Since 1988 the EC-regulations accept in addition to the on Agar Gel Immunodiffusion test (AGIDT) based blood serum testing of cattle herds that are filed as "free from Enzootic Bovine Leucosis" the use of ELISA for this purpose. The regular testings in dairy cattle herds can be done alternatively with single or pooled milk samples, in other herds with pooled blood sera using ELISA. General condition is only a minimal sensitivity of the test to detect the European EBL Antibody Standard ("E4") in a dilution of 1:10 in negative serum or 1:250 in negative milk. Adequate national regulations are in preparation. The present limitation of pool sizes, blood maximum 50 animals without preparation steps 20, and milk after concentration treatment 50 cows is neutralized by proceedings in development of higher sensitive ELISA tests. This limitation should be canceled. Herd bulk milk samples without size limitations are accepted to be tested with "Milk Ring Test" by EC for the regular testings in filed "Brucellosis Free Dairy Cattle Herds". The alternative use of more sensitive (and more specific) ELISA tests for this purpose including the technical conditions is in a final discussion. 2. Scientific-Technical Base for Using the Chances of the Proceeding in the EC-Regulations. The realisation of the EC accepted or final discussed ELISA based bulk milk testing to control filed "EBL- and/or Brucellosis Free Herds" depends on some basic conditions like sensitivity, specificity, and variability of the ELISA systems. Field trials of more than 20,000 bulk milk samples in case of Brucellosis and more than 2,000 in case of EBL show the feasibilities and the limits of the ELISA systems in defining the status of the herds. The Brucellosis respectively the EBL situations of the dairy cattle herds tested in this trail were well known by history and by investigation of single animal blood samples using conventional tests. Special test run variations of

  12. Comparison of bovine tuberculosis recurrence in Irish herds between 1998 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, M J; Higgins, I M; Clegg, T A; Williams, D H; More, S J

    2013-09-01

    During the last several decades in Ireland, there has been substantial scientific progress in our understanding and related policy changes in the bovine tuberculosis (bTB) eradication programme. A range of performance measurements are routinely available, each highlighting a steadily improving situation in Ireland. However, recent research has highlighted an on-going problem of residual infection, contributing to recurrent breakdowns. In light of this general improvement, but also cognisant of residual infection, a critical evaluation of changes in effectiveness of managing recurrence is particularly valuable. Therefore, the objective of the study was to compare the herd-level risk of recurrence of bTB in Ireland between 1998 and 2008. A retrospective cohort study was carried out, using a Cox proportional-hazards model, to compare the risk of restriction recurrence in herds derestricted during 1998 and 2008. These herds were observed for up to 3 years from the end of the 'index restriction'. At the univariable level, 46.4% and 34.8% of study herds derestricted in 1998 and 2008, respectively, had a subsequent breakdown during the study period (χ(2)=70.6, P<0.001). In the multivariable analysis, there has been a significant reduction in bTB recurrence in Ireland, with 2008-derestricted herds being 0.74 times (95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.81) as likely to be restricted during the subsequent study period compared with 1998-derestricted herds. In the final Cox model, the rate of a future breakdown increased with increasing herd size, increasing number of standard reactors in the index restriction, increasing percentage of newly restricted herds within the District Electoral Division (DED) and if the herd had a previous bTB episode in the previous 5 years. The risk varied across herd type. The results from the current study provide further reassurance of an improved national situation, both in terms of limiting the establishment of new infection (bTB incidence) and

  13. A systematic, functional genomics, and reverse vaccinology approach to the identification of vaccine candidates in the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Maritz-Olivier, Christine; van Zyl, Willem; Stutzer, Christian

    2012-06-01

    In the post-genomic era, reverse vaccinology is proving promising in the development of vaccines against bacterial and viral diseases, with limited application in ectoparasite vaccine design. In this study, we present a systematic approach using a combination of functional genomics (DNA microarrays) techniques and a pipeline incorporating in silico prediction of subcellular localization and protective antigenicity using VaxiJen for the identification of novel anti-tick vaccine candidates. A total of 791 candidates were identified using this approach, of which 176 are membrane-associated and 86 secreted soluble proteins. A preliminary analysis on the antigenicity of selected membrane proteins using anti-gut antisera yielded candidates with an IgG binding capacity greater than previously identified epitopes of Bm86. Subsequent vaccination trials using recombinant proteins will not only validate this approach, but will also improve subsequent reverse vaccinology approaches for the identification of novel anti-tick vaccine candidates. PMID:22521592

  14. ‘Conceptualizing’ the Endometrium: Identification of Conceptus-Derived Proteins During Early Pregnancy in Cattle1

    PubMed Central

    Forde, Niamh; Bazer, Fuller W.; Spencer, Thomas E.; Lonergan, Pat

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify conceptus-derived proteins, in addition to IFNT, that may facilitate pregnancy recognition in cattle. Analysis of the protein content of the uterine luminal fluid (ULF) from cyclic heifers on Day 16 by nano liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry identified 334 proteins. Comparison of these data with 299 proteins identified in the ULF of pregnant heifers on Day 16 identified 85 proteins only present in the ULF of pregnant heifers. Analysis of Day 16 conceptus-conditioned culture medium revealed the presence of 1005 proteins of which 30 proteins were unique to ULF from Day 16 pregnant heifers. Of these 30 proteins, 12 had mRNA expression values at least 2-fold higher in abundance (P < 0.05) in the conceptus compared to the endometrium (ARPC5L, CAPG, CKMT1, CSTB, HSPA8, HSPE1, LGALS3, MSN, NUTF2, P4HB, PRKAR2A, TKT) as determined by RNA sequencing. In addition, genes that have a significant biological interaction with the proteins (ACO2, CKMT1, CSTB, EEF2, GDI1, GLB1, GPLD1, HNRNPA1, HNRNPA2B1, HNRNPF, HSPA8, HSPE1, IDH2, KRT75, LGALS3, MSN, NUTF2, P4HB, PRKAR2A, PSMA4, PSMB5, PSMC4, SERPINA3, TKT) were differentially expressed in the endometrium of pregnant compared to cyclic heifers during the pregnancy recognition period (Days 16–18). These results indicate that 30 proteins unique to ULF from pregnant heifers and produced by short-term in vitro cultured Day 16 conceptuses could potentially be involved in facilitating the interactions between the conceptus and the endometrium during the pregnancy recognition period. PMID:25947061

  15. Identification and Structural-Functional Analysis of Cyclin-Dependent Kinases of the Cattle Tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Helga; Romeiro, Nelilma C.; Braz, Gloria R. C.; de Oliveira, Eduardo Alves Gamosa; Rodrigues, Camilla; da Fonseca, Rodrigo Nunes; Githaka, Naftaly; Isezaki, Masayoshi; Konnai, Satoru; Ohashi, Kazuhiko; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Logullo, Carlos; Moraes, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are a family of serine/threonine kinases essential for cell cycle progression. Herein, we describe the participation of CDKs in the physiology of Rhipicephalus microplus, the southern cattle tick and an important disease vector. Firstly, amino acid sequences homologous with CDKs of other organisms were identified from a R. microplus transcriptome database in silico. The analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of CDK1 and CDK10 from R. microplus showed that both have caspase-3/7 cleavage motifs despite their differences in motif position and length of encoded proteins. CDK1 has two motifs (DKRGD and SAKDA) located opposite to the ATP binding site while CDK10 has only one motif (SLLDN) for caspase 3–7 near the ATP binding site. Roscovitine (Rosco), a purine derivative that inhibits CDK/cyclin complexes by binding to the catalytic domain of the CDK molecule at the ATP binding site, which prevents the transfer of ATP's γphosphoryl group to the substrate. To determine the effect of Rosco on tick CDKs, BME26 cells derived from R. microplus embryo cells were utilized in vitro inhibition assays. Cell viability decreased in the Rosco-treated groups after 24 hours of incubation in a concentration-dependent manner and this was observed up to 48 hours following incubation. To our knowledge, this is the first report on characterization of a cell cycle protein in arachnids, and the sensitivity of BME26 tick cell line to Rosco treatment suggests that CDKs are potential targets for novel drug design to control tick infestation. PMID:24146826

  16. Salmonella Dublin infection in dairy cattle: risk factors for becoming a carrier.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, L R; Schukken, Y H; Gröhn, Y T; Ersbøll, A K

    2004-08-30

    Long-term Salmonella Dublin carrier animals harbor the pathogen in lymph nodes and internal organs and can periodically shed bacteria through feces or milk, and contribute to transmission of the pathogen within infected herds. Thus, it is of great interest to reduce the number of new carrier animals in cattle herds. An observational field study was performed to evaluate factors affecting the risk that dairy cattle become carrier animals after infection with Salmonella Dublin. Based on repeated sampling, cattle in 12 Danish dairy herds were categorized according to course of infection, as either carriers (n = 157) or transiently infected (n = 87). The infection date for each animal was estimated from fecal excretion and antibody responses. The relationship between the course of infection (carrier versus transiently infected) and risk factors were analyzed using a random effect multilevel, multivariable logistic regression model. The animals with the highest risk of becoming carriers were heifers infected between the age of 1 year and 1st calving, and cows infected around the time of calving. The risk was higher in the first two quarters of the year (late Winter to Spring), and when the prevalence of potential shedders in the herd was low. The risk also varied between herds. The herds with the highest risk of carrier development were herds with clinical disease outbreaks during the study period. These findings are useful for future control strategies against Salmonella Dublin, because they show the importance of optimized calving management and management of heifers, and because they show that even when the herd prevalence is low, carriers are still being produced. The results raise new questions about the development of the carrier state in cattle after infection with low doses of Salmonella Dublin. PMID:15454326

  17. The Successful Management of Leptospirosa hardjo Infection in a Beef Herd in Northern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Kingscote, Barbara F.; Proulx, Julien

    1986-01-01

    Abortion, premature calving, hemolytic anemia and fatal hematuria were associated with high levels (titer > 10−4) of antibody to Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo and with isolation of hardjo in a herd of 265 beef cattle in the Great Clay Belt of northern Ontario. This herd was bred by artificial insemination, after heat detection by vasectomized bulls. The antibody prevalence rate in the herd was 54 to 60% over a five year period. The rate tended to reach 100% by age three years and to be below 5% in yearlings, which were raised in isolation from older cattle. Hardjo was isolated from the urine of a cow that aborted in the eighth month of pregnancy, and from kidneys of yearling steers which had been exposed to an older cow. Maternal antibody levels in calves paralleled those in their dams, protecting calves while they were being naturally exposed to infection, thus contributing to the achievement of balance between host and parasite. A controlled vaccination trial was conducted in 50 initially seronegative yearling steers and heifers. Serological response to vaccine was limited to a maximum agglutinin titer of 10−2 in 8% of vaccinated cattle. Vaccination reduced the infection rate from 86% in the controls to 46% in the treated group, indirectly reducing the number of calves for which colostral antibody against hardjo would be available. A vaccination program was not implemented in the herd. Hardjo infection appeared to die out over a period of six years following the initial five year study period, with antibody prevalence falling from 60% to 0.7% and reactors persisting only in two eight year old cows. Decline in infection was coincident with changes in management which protected heifers from exposure to infection until their third pregnancy, and which probably lowered the reservoir of infection by increased culling from older age classes. PMID:17422716

  18. Consequence of changing standards for somatic cell count on US Dairy Herd Improvement herds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consequence of noncompliance with European Union (EU) and current US standards for somatic cell count (SCC) as well as SCC standards proposed by the National Milk Producers Federation was examined for US herds. Somatic cell scores (SCS) from 14,854 Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) herds were analyzed. H...

  19. Trends in noncompliance with milk quality standards for Dairy Herd Improvement herds in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frequency of herd noncompliance for somatic cell count (SCC) based on current US and European Union (EU) standards as well as for standards proposed by the National Milk Producers Federation (NMPF) was examined for US Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) herds. For current US standards, regulatory action is...

  20. Short Communication: Variance estimates among herds stratified by individual herd heritability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare genetic parameter estimates among herds stratified by high, medium and low individual herd heritability estimates. A regression model was applied to milk yield, fat yield, protein yield and somatic cell score (SCS) records from 20,902 herds to generate indi...

  1. Death Losses for Lactating Cows in Herds Enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement Test Plans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Factors that affect frequency of death were investigated for lactating cows in 45,032 herds for lactations from 1995 through 2005. Analyses included effects of herd, year, month, and stage of lactation in which lactation ended, parity, breed, and milk yield. A sample of 1,645 herds was employed to ...

  2. Somatic cell counts of milk from Dairy Herd Improvement herds during 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Test-day data from all herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) somatic cell testing during 2010 were examined to assess the status of national milk quality. Somatic cell score (SCS) is reported to AIPL and was converted to somatic cell count (SCC) for calculating herd and State averages. The ...

  3. Factors affecting death rate of lactating cows in Dairy Herd Improvement herds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frequencies of deaths of lactating cows of all breeds during 2001 to 2005 were estimated from an approximate 10% sample of national DHI herds (based on units position of herd code). Herds with <400 lactations across years were excluded. Because the trait is binomially distributed, PROC GENMOD of SAS...

  4. Seroprevalence and association with abortion of leptospirosis in cattle in Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, J F; Miller, R B; Nicholson, V M; Martin, S W; Lesnick, T

    1988-01-01

    Sera were collected using a systematic random sampling from 348 cattle herds in Ontario, in proportion to the cattle population in different areas. One cow in five from 296 dairy herds and one in three from 52 beef herds were sampled. The sera were analyzed for prevalence of antibodies to Leptospira interrogans serovar grippotyphosa, hardjo, icterohaemorhagiae and pomona using the microscopic agglutination test. Herd seroprevalence (one or more animals with titer greater than or equal to 80) in beef and dairy herds combined was grippotyphosa 2%, hardjo 13.8%, icterohaemorrhagiae 10.1% and pomona 25.8%; 39% of all herds showed evidence of leptospiral infection with one or more serovars; 44.2% of 52 beef herds had serological evidence of infection with serovar hardjo compared to 8.4% of 296 dairy herds (P less than 0.0001). Seroprevalence of other serovars was not significantly different between beef and dairy herds. The proportion of beef animals seropositive for hardjo and for pomona increased with age, particularly for hardjo; 26.5% of beef animals aged nine years or over were seropositive for hardjo. Dairy animals showed a significant rise of hardjo but not pomona titers with age. The seroprevalence of pomona infection was significantly higher in dairy cattle in eastern Ontario than in other regions. Thirty-four (6.1%) of 553 aborted bovine fetuses had leptospires detected by immunofluorescence techniques. Sixty-five percent of these fetuses were from submissions made between November and January. Leptospires were identified as serovar hardjo by specific immunofluorescence. There appeared, however, to be a paradoxical serological response in that eight aborting cows had antibody titers to pomona rather than hardjo.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3370556

  5. Identification of Gene Networks for Residual Feed Intake in Angus Cattle Using Genomic Prediction and RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Kristina L.; Welly, Bryan T.; Van Eenennaam, Alison L.; Young, Amy E.; Porto-Neto, Laercio R.; Reverter, Antonio; Rincon, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    Improvement in feed conversion efficiency can improve the sustainability of beef cattle production, but genomic selection for feed efficiency affects many underlying molecular networks and physiological traits. This study describes the differences between steer progeny of two influential Angus bulls with divergent genomic predictions for residual feed intake (RFI). Eight steer progeny of each sire were phenotyped for growth and feed intake from 8 mo. of age (average BW 254 kg, with a mean difference between sire groups of 4.8 kg) until slaughter at 14–16 mo. of age (average BW 534 kg, sire group difference of 28.8 kg). Terminal samples from pituitary gland, skeletal muscle, liver, adipose, and duodenum were collected from each steer for transcriptome sequencing. Gene expression networks were derived using partial correlation and information theory (PCIT), including differentially expressed (DE) genes, tissue specific (TS) genes, transcription factors (TF), and genes associated with RFI from a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Relative to progeny of the high RFI sire, progeny of the low RFI sire had -0.56 kg/d finishing period RFI (P = 0.05), -1.08 finishing period feed conversion ratio (P = 0.01), +3.3 kg^0.75 finishing period metabolic mid-weight (MMW; P = 0.04), +28.8 kg final body weight (P = 0.01), -12.9 feed bunk visits per day (P = 0.02) with +0.60 min/visit duration (P = 0.01), and +0.0045 carcass specific gravity (weight in air/weight in air—weight in water, a predictor of carcass fat content; P = 0.03). RNA-seq identified 633 DE genes between sire groups among 17,016 expressed genes. PCIT analysis identified >115,000 significant co-expression correlations between genes and 25 TF hubs, i.e. controllers of clusters of DE, TS, and GWAS SNP genes. Pathway analysis suggests low RFI bull progeny possess heightened gut inflammation and reduced fat deposition. This multi-omics analysis shows how differences in RFI genomic breeding values can impact other

  6. Identification of Gene Networks for Residual Feed Intake in Angus Cattle Using Genomic Prediction and RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Weber, Kristina L; Welly, Bryan T; Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Young, Amy E; Porto-Neto, Laercio R; Reverter, Antonio; Rincon, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    Improvement in feed conversion efficiency can improve the sustainability of beef cattle production, but genomic selection for feed efficiency affects many underlying molecular networks and physiological traits. This study describes the differences between steer progeny of two influential Angus bulls with divergent genomic predictions for residual feed intake (RFI). Eight steer progeny of each sire were phenotyped for growth and feed intake from 8 mo. of age (average BW 254 kg, with a mean difference between sire groups of 4.8 kg) until slaughter at 14-16 mo. of age (average BW 534 kg, sire group difference of 28.8 kg). Terminal samples from pituitary gland, skeletal muscle, liver, adipose, and duodenum were collected from each steer for transcriptome sequencing. Gene expression networks were derived using partial correlation and information theory (PCIT), including differentially expressed (DE) genes, tissue specific (TS) genes, transcription factors (TF), and genes associated with RFI from a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Relative to progeny of the high RFI sire, progeny of the low RFI sire had -0.56 kg/d finishing period RFI (P = 0.05), -1.08 finishing period feed conversion ratio (P = 0.01), +3.3 kg^0.75 finishing period metabolic mid-weight (MMW; P = 0.04), +28.8 kg final body weight (P = 0.01), -12.9 feed bunk visits per day (P = 0.02) with +0.60 min/visit duration (P = 0.01), and +0.0045 carcass specific gravity (weight in air/weight in air-weight in water, a predictor of carcass fat content; P = 0.03). RNA-seq identified 633 DE genes between sire groups among 17,016 expressed genes. PCIT analysis identified >115,000 significant co-expression correlations between genes and 25 TF hubs, i.e. controllers of clusters of DE, TS, and GWAS SNP genes. Pathway analysis suggests low RFI bull progeny possess heightened gut inflammation and reduced fat deposition. This multi-omics analysis shows how differences in RFI genomic breeding values can impact other

  7. Copper poisoning in a dairy herd fed a mineral supplement

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Charles H.

    1993-01-01

    Copper poisoning in a dairy herd resulted in the death of 9 of 63 (14%) adult Holstein cows. Clinical signs were acute anorexia, weakness, mental dullness, poor pupillary light reflexes, and scant nasal discharge. These were followed by recumbency, chocolate-colored blood, jaundice, and death. Four animals exhibited signs of hyperesthesia and/or rumen stasis prior to death. At necropsy there was generalized icterus of body tissues, with the liver appearing orange and the kidneys dark blue. Histologically, there was accumulation of hemosiderin in Kupffer cells, and severe to moderate hepatocellular necrosis in all cases. Ammonium molybdate added to the ration, combined with the cessation of mineral supplementation, arrested the outbreak. These cases illustrate significant mortality, due to copper poisoning, in adult cattle fed a low-dose mineral dietary supplement for over two years. Dietary copper intake of the herd (on a dry matter basis) was 37.5 mg/kg for lactating cows and 22.6 mg/kg for dry cows. PMID:17424221

  8. Prevalence of paratuberculosis infection in dairy cattle in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Pozzato, N; Capello, K; Comin, A; Toft, N; Nielsen, S S; Vicenzoni, G; Arrigoni, N

    2011-10-01

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic granulomatous infection caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) that affects multiple ruminant species causing important economic losses. Therefore, control programmes at herd and regional levels have been established worldwide and prevalence estimates are needed for their implementation. Although different herd-level prevalence estimations for paratuberculosis have been reported in Europe, very few studies provided comparable and interpretable values, due to poor study designs and lack of knowledge about the accuracy of the diagnostic tests used. To overcome these problems we applied a latent class analysis to the results of two prevalence studies carried out in two neighbouring Northern Italian regions (Lombardy and Veneto) that account for over 50% of the Italian dairy cattle population. Serum samples from a randomly selected number of farms in the two regions were analyzed by different ELISA tests. The herd-level Apparent Prevalences (AP) were 48% (190/391) for Lombardy and 65% (272/419) for Veneto. Median within-herd APs were 2.6% and 4.0% for Lombardy and Veneto, respectively. Posterior estimates for the herd-level True Prevalences (TP) based on a Bayesian model were very similar between the two regions (70% for Lombardy and 71% for Veneto) and close to previous estimates of infected herds in Europe. The two 95% credibility intervals overlap each other, virtually showing only one distribution of the herd-level true prevalence for both regions. On the contrary, estimates of the within-herd TP distributions differed between the two regions (mean values: 6.7% for Lombardy and 14.3% for Veneto), possibly due to the different age distribution within the herds from the two regions. PMID:21807432

  9. 43 CFR 4710.3-1 - Herd management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.3-1 Herd management areas. Herd management areas shall be established for the maintenance of wild horse and burro herds. In delineating...

  10. A structural equation model to evaluate direct and indirect factors associated with a latent measure of mastitis in Belgian dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Detilleux, J; Theron, L; Beduin, J-M; Hanzen, C

    2012-12-01

    In dairy cattle, many farming practices have been associated with occurrence of mastitis but it is often difficult to disentangle the causal threads. Structural equation models may reduce the complexity of such situations. Here, we applied the method to examine the links between mastitis (subclinical and clinical) and risk factors such as herd demographics, housing conditions, feeding procedures, milking practices, and strategies of mastitis prevention and treatment in 345 dairy herds from the Walloon region of Belgium. During the period January 2006 to October 2007, up to 110 different herd management variables were recorded by two surveyors using a questionnaire for the farm managers and during a farm visit. Monthly somatic cell counts of all lactating cows were collected by the local dairy herd improvement association. Structural equation models were created to obtain a latent measure of mastitis and to reduce the complexity of the relationships between farming practices, between indicators of herd mastitis and between both. Robust maximum likelihood estimates were obtained for the effects of the herd management variables on the latent measure of herd mastitis. Variables associated directly (p<0.05) with the latent measure of herd mastitis were the addition of urea in the rations; the practices of machine stripping, of pre-and post-milking teat disinfection; the presence of cows with hyperkeratotic teats, of cubicles for housing and of dirty liners before milking; the treatment of subclinical cases of mastitis; and the age of the herd (latent variable for average age and parity of cows, and percentage of heifers in the herd). Treatment of subclinical mastitis was also an intermediate in the association between herd mastitis and post-milking teat disinfection. The study illustrates how structural equation model provides information regarding the linear relationships between risk factors and a latent measure of mastitis, distinguishes between direct relationships

  11. Estimating epidemiological parameters for bovine tuberculosis in British cattle using a Bayesian partial-likelihood approach

    PubMed Central

    O'Hare, A.; Orton, R. J.; Bessell, P. R.; Kao, R. R.

    2014-01-01

    Fitting models with Bayesian likelihood-based parameter inference is becoming increasingly important in infectious disease epidemiology. Detailed datasets present the opportunity to identify subsets of these data that capture important characteristics of the underlying epidemiology. One such dataset describes the epidemic of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in British cattle, which is also an important exemplar of a disease with a wildlife reservoir (the Eurasian badger). Here, we evaluate a set of nested dynamic models of bTB transmission, including individual- and herd-level transmission heterogeneity and assuming minimal prior knowledge of the transmission and diagnostic test parameters. We performed a likelihood-based bootstrapping operation on the model to infer parameters based only on the recorded numbers of cattle testing positive for bTB at the start of each herd outbreak considering high- and low-risk areas separately. Models without herd heterogeneity are preferred in both areas though there is some evidence for super-spreading cattle. Similar to previous studies, we found low test sensitivities and high within-herd basic reproduction numbers (R0), suggesting that there may be many unobserved infections in cattle, even though the current testing regime is sufficient to control within-herd epidemics in most cases. Compared with other, more data-heavy approaches, the summary data used in our approach are easily collected, making our approach attractive for other systems. PMID:24718762

  12. Estimating epidemiological parameters for bovine tuberculosis in British cattle using a Bayesian partial-likelihood approach.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, A; Orton, R J; Bessell, P R; Kao, R R

    2014-05-22

    Fitting models with Bayesian likelihood-based parameter inference is becoming increasingly important in infectious disease epidemiology. Detailed datasets present the opportunity to identify subsets of these data that capture important characteristics of the underlying epidemiology. One such dataset describes the epidemic of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in British cattle, which is also an important exemplar of a disease with a wildlife reservoir (the Eurasian badger). Here, we evaluate a set of nested dynamic models of bTB transmission, including individual- and herd-level transmission heterogeneity and assuming minimal prior knowledge of the transmission and diagnostic test parameters. We performed a likelihood-based bootstrapping operation on the model to infer parameters based only on the recorded numbers of cattle testing positive for bTB at the start of each herd outbreak considering high- and low-risk areas separately. Models without herd heterogeneity are preferred in both areas though there is some evidence for super-spreading cattle. Similar to previous studies, we found low test sensitivities and high within-herd basic reproduction numbers (R0), suggesting that there may be many unobserved infections in cattle, even though the current testing regime is sufficient to control within-herd epidemics in most cases. Compared with other, more data-heavy approaches, the summary data used in our approach are easily collected, making our approach attractive for other systems. PMID:24718762

  13. Management practices associated with presence of Staphylococcus aureus in bulk tank milk from Ohio dairy herds.

    PubMed

    da Costa, L B; Rajala-Schultz, P J; Schuenemann, G M

    2016-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common contagious mastitis pathogen affecting cows worldwide. Practices to control this organism have been advocated for decades, and identification of risk factors in individual herds is crucial in prevention and control of Staph. aureus. The objectives of this paper were to estimate prevalence of Staph. aureus in Ohio dairies and to determine a potential association of herd characteristics and management practices with isolation of Staph. aureus in bulk tank milk. A questionnaire about herd characteristics, milking procedures, udder health, mastitis control, and biosecurity practices was mailed to 780 dairy producers; the response rate for the survey was 49%. Staphylococcus aureus prevalence was 48, 64, and 69% when 1, 2, or 3 samples of bulk tank milk from each herd were considered, respectively. Herds practicing prestrip, pre- and postmilking teat dip, and using a single towel per cow as part of the milking routine as well as herds where owners were involved in milking were at significantly reduced odds for detection of Staph. aureus in their bulk tank milk. PMID:26686713

  14. Liver copper concentrations in cull cattle in the UK: are cattle being copper loaded?

    PubMed

    Kendall, N R; Holmes-Pavord, H R; Bone, P A; Ander, E L; Young, S D

    2015-11-14

    With the release of the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs/Advisory Committee on Animal Feed Guidance Note for Supplementing Copper to Bovines it was noted that the current copper status of the national herd was not known. Liver samples were recovered from 510 cull cattle at a single abattoir across a period of three days. The samples were wet-ashed and liver copper concentrations determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Breed, age and previous location information were obtained from the British Cattle Movement Service. Dairy breeds had higher liver copper concentrations than beef breeds. Holstein-Friesian and 'other' dairy breeds had 38.3 per cent and 40 per cent of cattle above the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency (AHVLA) reference range (8000 µmol/kg dry matter), respectively, whereas only 16.9 per cent of animals in the combined beef breeds exceeded this value. It was found that underlying topsoil copper concentration was not related to liver copper content and that age of the animal also had little effect on liver concentration. In conclusion, over 50 per cent of the liver samples tested had greater-than-normal concentrations of copper with almost 40 per cent of the female dairy cattle having liver copper concentrations above the AHVLA reference range, indicating that a significant proportion of the UK herd is at risk of chronic copper toxicity. PMID:26489996

  15. Liver copper concentrations in cull cattle in the UK: are cattle being copper loaded?

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, N. R.; Holmes-Pavord, H. R.; Bone, P. A.; Ander, E. L.; Young, S. D.

    2015-01-01

    With the release of the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs/Advisory Committee on Animal Feed Guidance Note for Supplementing Copper to Bovines it was noted that the current copper status of the national herd was not known. Liver samples were recovered from 510 cull cattle at a single abattoir across a period of three days. The samples were wet-ashed and liver copper concentrations determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Breed, age and previous location information were obtained from the British Cattle Movement Service. Dairy breeds had higher liver copper concentrations than beef breeds. Holstein-Friesian and ‘other’ dairy breeds had 38.3 per cent and 40 per cent of cattle above the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency (AHVLA) reference range (8000 µmol/kg dry matter), respectively, whereas only 16.9 per cent of animals in the combined beef breeds exceeded this value. It was found that underlying topsoil copper concentration was not related to liver copper content and that age of the animal also had little effect on liver concentration. In conclusion, over 50 per cent of the liver samples tested had greater-than-normal concentrations of copper with almost 40 per cent of the female dairy cattle having liver copper concentrations above the AHVLA reference range, indicating that a significant proportion of the UK herd is at risk of chronic copper toxicity. PMID:26489996

  16. The contribution of badgers to confirmed tuberculosis in cattle in high-incidence areas in England.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Christl A; Nouvellet, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The role of badgers in the transmission and maintenance of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in British cattle is widely debated as part of the wider discussions on whether badger culling and/or badger vaccination should play a role in the government's strategy to eradicate cattle TB. The key source of information on the contribution from badgers within high-cattle-TB-incidence areas of England is the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT), with two analyses providing estimates of the average overall contribution of badgers to confirmed cattle TB in these areas. A dynamical model characterizing the association between the estimated prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of bovine TB) among badgers culled in the initial RBCT proactive culls and the incidence among sympatric cattle herds prior to culling is used to estimate the average overall contribution of badgers to confirmed TB herd breakdowns among proactively culled areas. The resulting estimate based on all data (52%) has considerable uncertainty (bootstrap 95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-100%). Separate analyses of experimental data indicated that the largest estimated reduction in confirmed cattle TB achieved inside the proactive culling areas was 54% (overdispersion-adjusted 95% CI: 38-66%), providing a lower bound for the average overall contribution of badgers to confirmed cattle TB. Thus, taking into account both results, the best estimate of the average overall contribution of badgers is roughly half, with 38% being a robustly estimated lower bound. However, the dynamical model also suggested that only 5.7% (bootstrap 95% CI: 0.9-25%) of the transmission to cattle herds is badger-to-cattle with the remainder of the average overall contribution from badgers being in the form of onward cattle-to-cattle transmission. These estimates, confirming that badgers do play a role in bovine TB transmission, inform debate even if they do not point to a single way forward. PMID:24761309

  17. Impact of changes in cattle movement regulations on the risks of bovine tuberculosis for Scottish farms.

    PubMed

    Gates, M C; Volkova, V V; Woolhouse, M E J

    2013-02-01

    Legislation requiring the pre- and post-movement testing of cattle imported to Scotland from regions with high bovine tuberculosis (bTB) incidence was phased in between September 2005 and May 2006 as part of efforts to maintain Officially Tuberculosis Free (OTF) status. In this analysis, we used centralized cattle movement records to investigate the influence of the legislative change on import movement patterns and the movement-based risk factors associated with new bTB herd breakdowns identified through routine testing or slaughter surveillance. The immediate reduction in the number of import movements from high incidence regions of England and Wales into Scotland suggests that pre- and post-movement testing legislation has had a strong deterrent effect on cattle import trade. Combined with the direct benefits of a more stringent testing regime, this likely explains the observed decrease in the odds of imported cattle subsequently being identified as reactors in herd breakdowns detected through routine surveillance compared to Scottish cattle. However, at the farm-level, herds that recently imported cattle from high incidence regions were still at increased risk of experiencing bTB breakdowns, which highlights the delay between the introduction of disease control measures and detectable changes in incidence. With the relative infrequency of routine herd tests and the insidious nature of clinical signs, past import movements were likely still important in determining the present farm-level risk for bTB breakdown. However, the possibility of low-level transmission between Scottish cattle herds cannot be ruled out given the known issues with test sensitivity, changes in import animal demographics, and the potential for on-farm transmission. Findings from this analysis emphasize the importance of considering how farmer behavioural change in response to policy interventions may influence disease transmission dynamics. PMID:22897858

  18. Prevalence of trichomoniasis among California beef herds.

    PubMed

    BonDurant, R H; Anderson, M L; Blanchard, P; Hird, D; Danaye-Elmi, C; Palmer, C; Sischo, W M; Suther, D; Utterback, W; Weigler, B J

    1990-05-15

    Sixty cow-half herds of more than 50 cows each were randomly selected for a prevalence survey of bovine trichomoniasis in California. Herd size, as judged by the number of bulls, ranged from 1 to 210 bulls (median = 8; mean = 59 +/- 15.8). Preputial smegma was collected from 729 bulls (median = 6 bulls/herd) and cultured for Tritrichomonas foetus. Of 57 herds from which samples were collected, 9 (15.8%) had at least one infected bull. Of the 729 bulls from which samples were cultured, 30 (4.1%) were infected. Correcting for sensitivity of the diagnostic test yielded a prevalence of 5.0%. Infection rates for bulls greater than 3 years old and less than or equal to 3 years old were 6.7% and 2.0%, respectively (P less than 0.025). Median herd sizes were 14 bulls (range, 6 to 114) for infected herds and 7 (range, 1 to 210) for uninfected herds. These findings suggest that trichomoniasis is common in California beef herds. Because several bulls less than 4 years old were infected, we suggest that control measures stressing replacement of older bulls with younger ones should be combined with diagnostic procedures in those younger replacements, to ensure that they are not already infected. PMID:2347750

  19. Spatial predictors of bovine tuberculosis infection and Brucella spp. exposure in pastoralist and agropastoralist livestock herds in the Ruaha ecosystem of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Roug, Annette; Clifford, Deana; Mazet, Joana; Kazwala, Rudovick; John, Julius; Coppolillo, Peter; Smith, Woutrina

    2014-06-01

    While many studies investigate animal-related risk factors for disease, few have considered environmental or spatial risk factors in the dynamics of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and brucellosis. In the Ruaha ecosystem of Tanzania, we investigated the role of household location as a predictor for infection with Mycobacterium bovis and exposure to Brucella in pastoralist and agropastoralist cattle herds in a typical African wildlife-livestock-human interface. ArcGIS was utilized to calculate Euclidian distances between households and the nearest river, village center, protected area, and other infected households, followed by multivariate logistic regression to assess the association between risk factors and herd-level bTB and Brucella outcomes. Global and local spatial clustering of bTB-infected and Brucella-exposed herds was explored using the Cuzick-Edward’s test and SaTScan spatial scan statistics. Households located farther from rivers and closer to village centers and herds belonging to agropastoralists were more likely to have bTB-positive cattle. Risk of Brucella exposure increased with proximity to protected areas. One spatial cluster of households with Brucella spp. seropositive cattle was identified. Spatial factors may be useful for assessing disease risk and for formulating intervention and control strategies for households that manage cattle in ecosystems characterized by seasonally limited resources and intense wildlife-livestock interfaces. PMID:24659301

  20. Evaluation of a protocol to reduce the incidence of neonatal calf diarrhoea on dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Meganck, V; Hoflack, G; Piepers, S; Opsomer, G

    2015-01-01

    Calf diarrhoea causes substantial economic losses in cattle herds worldwide. Neonatal calves are particularly sensitive to infections with enteropathogens. The present study focused on prevention against the main infectious causes of neonatal calf diarrhoea i.e. Escherichia coli, rota- and coronavirus, and Cryptosporidium parvum. Dairy herds (n=24) with a high percentage of neonatal calves scouring (>10%) were included and calves were sampled for the presence of these four enteropathogens. To decrease diarrhoea problems among neonatal calves, a standard protocol was tested on 13 herds (treatment group) where both C. parvum and either E. coli or rota- or coronavirus were identified as being involved, the other 11 herds served as control group. The protocol consisted of 2 points of action: preventive vaccination of dams against E. coli, rota- and coronavirus, and preventive administration of halofuginone lactate to newborn calves. The average percentage of calves suffering from neonatal diarrhoea (39.7% versus 14.3%, P<0.01) and the average percentage of faecal samples positive for C. parvum (34% versus 11%, P<0.05) differed significantly between control herds and treatment herds after implementation of the protocol. No significant differences between control and treatment group were observed in the percentage of calves excreting E. coli, rotavirus and coronavirus, both before and at the end of the trial. Furthermore, risk factors potentially associated with the development of neonatal calf scours were determined. Non-significant results were obtained for the effect of the protocol on duration of diarrhoea and the effect of the colostral IgG quantity on the risk of diarrhoea. Passive immunity transfer status of the calves, measured both before the onset and at the end of the study, were non-significant between groups. PMID:25475689

  1. Concentration of anti-Müllerian hormone in dairy heifers is positively associated with productive herd life.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Krassel, F; Scheetz, D M; Neuder, L M; Ireland, J L H; Pursley, J R; Smith, G W; Tempelman, R J; Ferris, T; Roudebush, W E; Mossa, F; Lonergan, P; Evans, A C O; Ireland, J J

    2015-05-01

    Reliable biomarkers predictive of productive herd life (time in herd after birth of first calf) have heretofore not been discovered in dairy cattle. However, circulating concentrations of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) are positively associated with number of follicles or antral follicle count (AFC), ovarian function, and fertility, and approximately 25% of cows have a relatively low AFC and low AMH concentrations. The present study tested the hypothesis that heifers with the lowest AMH concentrations have suboptimal fertility and are removed from a herd for poor reproductive performance at a greater rate, and therefore have a shorter productive herd life compared with age-matched herdmates with higher AMH. To test this hypothesis, 11- to 15-mo-old Holstein heifers (n=281) were subjected to a single measurement of AMH. All heifers not removed from the herd had the opportunity to complete 2 lactations and start their third lactation after calving. During this time, performance and health parameters for each individual were recorded daily by herd managers. Results showed that the quartile of heifers with the lowest AMH concentration also had, on average, a shorter productive herd life (by 196 d), a reduced survival rate after birth of the first calf, the lowest level of milk production (first lactation), the lowest total percentage of cows pregnant (across all lactations), the highest culling rates (first and second lactations and overall), and the highest culling rate for poor reproduction (first lactation) compared with age-matched herdmates with higher AMH. We concluded that a single determination of AMH concentration in young adult dairy heifers may be a simple diagnostic method to predict herd longevity, and AMH may be a useful phenotypic marker to improve longevity of dairy cows. PMID:25726106

  2. Genetic variation and differentiation of bison (Bison bison) subspecies and cattle (Bos taurus) breeds and subspecies.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Matthew A; MacNeil, Michael D; Vu, Ninh; Leesburg, Vicki; Blackburn, Harvey D; Derr, James N

    2013-01-01

    The genetic relationship of American plains bison (Bison bison bison) and wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) was quantified and compared with that among breeds and subspecies of cattle. Plains bison from 9 herds (N = 136), wood bison from 3 herds (N = 65), taurine cattle (Bos taurus taurus) from 14 breeds (N = 244), and indicine cattle (Bos taurus indicus) from 2 breeds (N = 53) were genotyped for 29 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Bayesian cluster analyses indicate 3 groups, 2 of which are plains bison and 1 of which is wood bison with some admixture, and genetic distances do not show plains bison and wood bison as distinct groups. Differentiation of wood bison and plains bison is also significantly less than that of cattle breeds and subspecies. These and other genetic data and historical interbreeding of bison do not support recognition of extant plains bison and wood bison as phylogenetically distinct subspecies. PMID:23667052

  3. The first identification of a blood-sucking abomasal nematode Ashworthius sidemi in cattle (Bos taurus) using simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    PubMed

    Moskwa, Bożena; Bień, Justyna; Cybulska, Aleksandra; Kornacka, Aleksandra; Krzysiak, Michał; Cencek, Tomasz; Cabaj, Władysław

    2015-06-30

    A simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was used to identify Ashworthius sidemi, a blood-sucking gastrointestinal nematode that commonly infects bison, red and roe deer, and moose in Poland. The present study uses this technique to confirm the possibility of transmission of A. sidemi infection from wildlife to domestic animals, such as cattle and sheep, grazing on the same natural pastures. A 406 bp fragment of genomic A. sidemi DNA was actually detected in DNA isolated from larval cultures derived from feces from cattle. A. sidemi DNA has been detected in cattle which represent a new host for this parasite. This is the first evidence of A. sidemi in cattle. The results reveal that a PCR test based on DNA from L3 larvae can be used for in vivo detection of A. sidemi invasions in breeding animals. In conclusion, the transfer of A. sidemi infection from wildlife to the farm animals sharing the same pastures appears possible. PMID:25981105

  4. Synchronization of E. coli O157 shedding in a grass-fed beef herd: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Lammers, G A C; McCONNEL, C S; Jordan, D; Ayton, M S; Morris, S; Patterson, E I; Ward, M P; Heller, J

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to describe in detail the temporal dynamics of E. coli O157 shedding and risk factors for shedding in a grass-fed beef herd. During a 9-month period, 23 beef cows were sampled twice a week (58 sampling points) and E. coli O157 was enumerated from faecal samples. Isolates were screened by PCR for presence of rfbE, stx 1 and stx 2 . The prevalence per sampling day ranged from 0% to 57%. This study demonstrates that many members of the herd were concurrently shedding E. coli O157. Occurrence of rainfall (P < 0·01), feeding silage (P < 0·01) and lactating (P < 0·01) were found to be predictors of shedding. Moving cattle to a new paddock had a negative effect on shedding. This approach, based on short-interval sampling, confirms the known variability of shedding within a herd and highlights that high shedding events are rare. PMID:25823915

  5. Epidemiology and impact of Fasciola hepatica exposure in high-yielding dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Alison; Baylis, Matthew; Smith, Rob; Pinchbeck, Gina; Williams, Diana

    2015-01-01

    The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a trematode parasite with a worldwide distribution and is the cause of important production losses in the dairy industry. The aim of this observational study was to assess the prevalence of exposure to F. hepatica in a group of high yielding dairy herds, to determine the risk factors and investigate their associations with production and fertility parameters. Bulk milk tank samples from 606 herds that supply a single retailer with liquid milk were tested with an antibody ELISA for F. hepatica. Multivariable linear regression was used to investigate the effect of farm management and environmental risk factors on F. hepatica exposure. Higher rainfall, grazing boggy pasture, presence of beef cattle on farm, access to a stream or pond and smaller herd size were associated with an increased risk of exposure. Univariable regression was used to look for associations between fluke exposure and production-related variables including milk yield, composition, somatic cell count and calving index. Although causation cannot be assumed, a significant (p < 0.001) negative association was seen between F. hepatica exposure and estimated milk yield at the herd level, representing a 15% decrease in yield for an increase in F. hepatica exposure from the 25th to the 75th percentile. This remained significant when fertility, farm management and environmental factors were controlled for. No associations were found between F. hepatica exposure and any of the other production, disease or fertility variables. PMID:26093971

  6. Epidemiology and impact of Fasciola hepatica exposure in high-yielding dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Howell, Alison; Baylis, Matthew; Smith, Rob; Pinchbeck, Gina; Williams, Diana

    2015-09-01

    The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a trematode parasite with a worldwide distribution and is the cause of important production losses in the dairy industry. The aim of this observational study was to assess the prevalence of exposure to F. hepatica in a group of high yielding dairy herds, to determine the risk factors and investigate their associations with production and fertility parameters. Bulk milk tank samples from 606 herds that supply a single retailer with liquid milk were tested with an antibody ELISA for F. hepatica. Multivariable linear regression was used to investigate the effect of farm management and environmental risk factors on F. hepatica exposure. Higher rainfall, grazing boggy pasture, presence of beef cattle on farm, access to a stream or pond and smaller herd size were associated with an increased risk of exposure. Univariable regression was used to look for associations between fluke exposure and production-related variables including milk yield, composition, somatic cell count and calving index. Although causation cannot be assumed, a significant (p<0.001) negative association was seen between F. hepatica exposure and estimated milk yield at the herd level, representing a 15% decrease in yield for an increase in F. hepatica exposure from the 25th to the 75th percentile. This remained significant when fertility, farm management and environmental factors were controlled for. No associations were found between F. hepatica exposure and any of the other production, disease or fertility variables. PMID:26093971

  7. Herd prevalence and incidence of Streptococcus agalactiae in the dairy industry of Prince Edward Island.

    PubMed

    Keefe, G P; Dohoo, I R; Spangler, E

    1997-03-01

    Herd prevalence and incidence of mastitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae was determined for dairy cattle on Prince Edward Island during December 1992 and June 1994. For each census, bulk tank milk samples from all dairy herds (n = 452) in the province were tested on two occasions, and the results were interpreted in parallel. The combined sensitivity of the testing protocol was estimated to be 91%. The confirmatory latex agglutination test had previously reported specificities approaching 100%. Therefore, the estimated specificity of the testing protocol was assumed to be 100%. The apparent prevalence of S. agalactiae in December 1992 and in June 1994 was 17.7 and 13.1%, respectively. Based on the characteristics of the test, the estimated true prevalence was 18.9% in December 1992 and 14.4% in June 1994. Infection with S. agalactiae was associated with elevated bulk tank somatic cell count (SCC) and elevated standard plate counts. Economic losses associated with S. agalactiae were attributed to production losses (associated with bulk tank SCC), milk quality penalties (associated with bulk tank SCC and standard plate count), and decreases in milk quality (associated with bulk tank SCC). For herds that had been negative for S. agalactiae in December 1992, evaluation in June 1994 yielded an incidence of new infections of 3.51 per 100 herds per year. PMID:9098795

  8. Epidemiological aspects of field intoxication by Amorimia pubiflora (Malpighiaceae) in cattle in Mato Grosso and experimental reproduction of intoxication in cattle and sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the county of Colniza, Mato Grosso, the main limitation for livestock production is the occurrence of "sudden death" in cattle, which affects in some farms up to 50% of the herd. In visits to some of the farms where the problem occurred, in 2004, 2011 and 2012, the presence of Amorimia pubiflora ...

  9. Review of pathogenesis and diagnostic methods of immediate relevance for epidemiology and control of Salmonella Dublin in cattle.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2013-02-22

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin (S. Dublin) receives increasing attention in cattle production. It is host-adapted to cattle, and leads to unacceptable levels of morbidity, mortality and production losses in both newly and persistently infected herds. Cattle health promoting institutions in several countries are currently constructing active surveillance programmes or voluntary certification programmes, and encourage control and eradication of S. Dublin infected cattle herds. There is a need to understand the underlying pathogenesis of the infection at both animal and herd level to design successful programmes. Furthermore, knowledge about and access to diagnostic tests for use in practice including information about test accuracy and interpretation of available diagnostic test methods are requested. The aim is to synthesise the abundant literature on elements of pathogenesis and diagnosis of immediate relevance for epidemiology and control of S. Dublin at animal and herd level. Relatively few in vivo studies on S. Dublin pathogenesis in cattle included more than a few animals and often showed varying result. It makes it difficult to draw conclusions about mechanisms that affect dissemination in cattle and that might be targets for control methods directed towards improving resistance against the bacteria, e.g. new vaccines. It is recommended to perform larger studies to elucidate dose-response relationships and age- and genetic effects of immunity. Furthermore, it is recommended to attempt to develop faster and more sensitive methods for detection of S. Dublin for diagnosis of infectious animals. PMID:22925272

  10. Factors associated with infection by Campylobacter fetus in beef herds in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, D F; Perez, A M; Carpenter, T E; Martinez, A

    2011-09-01

    Campylobacter fetus is a major venereal pathogen of cattle that is considered to be widespread among the livestock population of Argentina. The disease accounts for a 10% reduction in the weaning rate of Argentine infected herds and annual losses of $165 million. A case-control, questionnaire-based study was developed with the objective of quantifying the association between C. fetus infection and demographic, husbandry, and sanitary factors in 196 herds located in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Abortions observed in the herd (OR=3.08, 95% CI=1.52, 6.23), and trespassing of bulls from neighboring herds (OR=2.03, 95% CI=0.98, 4.20), were positively associated with the risk of finding C. fetus-infected bulls, whereas buying bulls was a protective factor for the disease (OR=0.53, 95% CI=0.26, 1.08). Results presented here will help to develop and implement actions aimed at preventing the spread and reducing the incidence of C. fetus infection in the beef cattle population of Argentina. PMID:21737166

  11. Descriptive Epidemiology and Whole Genome Sequencing Analysis for an Outbreak of Bovine Tuberculosis in Beef Cattle and White-Tailed Deer in Northwestern Minnesota

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Linda; Carstensen, Michelle; Shaw, Sheryl; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Wunschmann, Arno; Grear, Dan; Stuber, Tod; Thomsen, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) was discovered in a Minnesota cow through routine slaughter surveillance in 2005 and the resulting epidemiological investigation led to the discovery of infection in both cattle and white-tailed deer in the state. From 2005 through 2009, a total of 12 beef cattle herds and 27 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were found infected in a small geographic region of northwestern Minnesota. Genotyping of isolates determined both cattle and deer shared the same strain of bTB, and it was similar to types found in cattle in the southwestern United States and Mexico. Whole genomic sequencing confirmed the introduction of this infection into Minnesota was recent, with little genetic divergence. Aggressive surveillance and management efforts in both cattle and deer continued from 2010–2012; no additional infections were discovered. Over 10,000 deer were tested and 705 whole herd cattle tests performed in the investigation of this outbreak. PMID:26785113

  12. Descriptive Epidemiology and Whole Genome Sequencing Analysis for an Outbreak of Bovine Tuberculosis in Beef Cattle and White-Tailed Deer in Northwestern Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Linda; Carstensen, Michelle; Shaw, Sheryl; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Wunschmann, Arno; Grear, Dan; Stuber, Tod; Thomsen, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) was discovered in a Minnesota cow through routine slaughter surveillance in 2005 and the resulting epidemiological investigation led to the discovery of infection in both cattle and white-tailed deer in the state. From 2005 through 2009, a total of 12 beef cattle herds and 27 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were found infected in a small geographic region of northwestern Minnesota. Genotyping of isolates determined both cattle and deer shared the same strain of bTB, and it was similar to types found in cattle in the southwestern United States and Mexico. Whole genomic sequencing confirmed the introduction of this infection into Minnesota was recent, with little genetic divergence. Aggressive surveillance and management efforts in both cattle and deer continued from 2010-2012; no additional infections were discovered. Over 10,000 deer were tested and 705 whole herd cattle tests performed in the investigation of this outbreak. PMID:26785113

  13. An abattoir study of tuberculosis in a herd of farmed elk.

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, T L; Tessaro, S V

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and distribution of grossly visible lesions of tuberculosis in a herd of 344 North American elk (Cervus elaphus) depopulated during a three-month period in 1991. Abattoir inspection detected mycobacterial lesions in 134 (39.8%) of the 337 animals received for slaughter. The prevalence of lesions increased with the age of the animals. Lesions were predominantly suppurative rather than caseous, and mineralization was less evident than in tuberculous lesions in cattle. Lesions occurred predominantly in lymph nodes, and lungs were the only organs in which mycobacterial lesions were found. The distribution of lesions suggested that aerosol transmission was the most significant means of spread of the disease within the herd. Giant liver flukes (Fascioloides magna) were observed in approximately 80% of the adult elk. PMID:7954222

  14. Validation of Deleterious Mutations in Vorderwald Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Reinartz, Sina; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-01-01

    In Montbéliarde cattle two candidate mutations on bovine chromosomes 19 and 29 responsible for embryonic lethality have been detected. Montbéliarde bulls have been introduced into Vorderwald cattle to improve milk and fattening performance. Due to the small population size of Vorderwald cattle and the wide use of a few Montbéliarde bulls through artificial insemination, inbreeding on Montbéliarde bulls in later generations was increasing. Therefore, we genotyped an aborted fetus which was inbred on Montbéliarde as well as Vorderwald x Montbéliarde crossbred bulls for both deleterious mutations. The abortion was observed in an experimental herd of Vorderwald cattle. The objectives of the present study were to prove if one or both lethal mutations may be assumed to have caused this abortion and to show whether these deleterious mutations have been introduced into the Vorderwald cattle population through Montbéliarde bulls. The aborted fetus was homozygous for the SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation (ss2019324563) on BTA29 and both parents as well as the paternal and maternal grandsire were heterozygous for this mutation. In addition, the parents and the paternal grandsire were carriers of the MH2-haplotype linked with the T-allele of the SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation. For the SHBG:g.27956790C>T mutation (rs38377500) on BTA19 (MH1), the aborted fetus and its sire were heterozygous. Among all further 341 Vorderwald cattle genotyped we found 27 SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T heterozygous animals resulting in an allele frequency of 0.0396. Among the 120 male Vorderwald cattle, there were 12 heterozygous with an allele frequency of 0.05. The SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation could not be found in further nine cattle breeds nor in Vorderwald cattle with contributions from Ayrshire bulls. In 69 Vorderwald cattle without genes from Montbéliarde bulls the mutated allele of SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T could not be detected. The SHBG:g.27956790C>T mutation appeared unlikely to be responsible

  15. Validation of Deleterious Mutations in Vorderwald Cattle.

    PubMed

    Reinartz, Sina; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-01-01

    In Montbéliarde cattle two candidate mutations on bovine chromosomes 19 and 29 responsible for embryonic lethality have been detected. Montbéliarde bulls have been introduced into Vorderwald cattle to improve milk and fattening performance. Due to the small population size of Vorderwald cattle and the wide use of a few Montbéliarde bulls through artificial insemination, inbreeding on Montbéliarde bulls in later generations was increasing. Therefore, we genotyped an aborted fetus which was inbred on Montbéliarde as well as Vorderwald x Montbéliarde crossbred bulls for both deleterious mutations. The abortion was observed in an experimental herd of Vorderwald cattle. The objectives of the present study were to prove if one or both lethal mutations may be assumed to have caused this abortion and to show whether these deleterious mutations have been introduced into the Vorderwald cattle population through Montbéliarde bulls. The aborted fetus was homozygous for the SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation (ss2019324563) on BTA29 and both parents as well as the paternal and maternal grandsire were heterozygous for this mutation. In addition, the parents and the paternal grandsire were carriers of the MH2-haplotype linked with the T-allele of the SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation. For the SHBG:g.27956790C>T mutation (rs38377500) on BTA19 (MH1), the aborted fetus and its sire were heterozygous. Among all further 341 Vorderwald cattle genotyped we found 27 SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T heterozygous animals resulting in an allele frequency of 0.0396. Among the 120 male Vorderwald cattle, there were 12 heterozygous with an allele frequency of 0.05. The SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation could not be found in further nine cattle breeds nor in Vorderwald cattle with contributions from Ayrshire bulls. In 69 Vorderwald cattle without genes from Montbéliarde bulls the mutated allele of SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T could not be detected. The SHBG:g.27956790C>T mutation appeared unlikely to be responsible

  16. Incidence and economic impact of rabies in the cattle population of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Jibat, Tariku; Mourits, Monique C M; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-08-01

    Rabies is a viral disease that can cause fatal encephalomyelitis both in animals and humans. Although incidences of the disease in cattle have been reported, insight in the economic impact of the disease in livestock remains limited. By affecting cattle in subsistence systems, rabies may have extensive economic impacts at household and country levels, in addition to the effects on human health. This study presents estimates of the direct economic impact of rabies at herd level in two representative subsistence cattle-farming systems in Ethiopia, the mixed crop-livestock and pastoral production systems. The economic impacts were assessed by a structured questionnaire administered to 532 cattle-owning households. These households were selected from four districts within two administrative zones; each zone representing a cattle production system. Rabies incidence rates of 21% and 11% at herd level were calculated for the mixed crop-livestock and pastoral production systems, respectively. The incidence rate at cattle level was the same in both systems., i.e. 2%. Herd-level incidence rates were higher in the mixed crop-livestock system than in the pastoral system (P<0.05). Average economic losses per herd due to rabies were estimated at 49 USD per year for the mixed-crop livestock system, and at 52 USD per year for the pastoral system; whereas in affected herds the average losses per year were 228 USD (range 48-1016 USD) in the mixed crop-livestock system, and 477 USD (range 173-1140 USD) in the pastoral system. The average herd-level economic losses were not significantly different between the farming systems; however once the herd was affected, the losses were significantly higher for the pastoral system than for the mixed crop-livestock system (P<0.01). The losses due to rabies in cattle are relatively high for pastoral households, due to their complete dependency on livestock for their livelihoods. Although the current estimates only account for the direct losses

  17. Epidemiological investigation of bovine tuberculosis herd breakdowns in Spain 2009/2011.

    PubMed

    Guta, Sintayehu; Casal, Jordi; Napp, Sebastian; Saez, Jose Luis; Garcia-Saenz, Ariadna; Perez de Val, Bernat; Romero, Beatriz; Alvarez, Julio; Allepuz, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the most likely cause of 687 bovine tuberculosis (bTB) breakdowns detected in Spain between 2009 and 2011 (i.e., 22% of the total number of breakdowns detected during this period). Seven possible causes were considered: i) residual infection; ii) introduction of infected cattle from other herds; iii) sharing of pastures with infected herds; iv) contiguous spread from infected neighbor herds; v) presence of infected goats in the farm; vi) interaction with wildlife reservoirs and vii) contact with an infected human. For each possible cause a decision tree was developed and key questions were included in each of them. Answers to these key questions lead to different events within each decision tree. In order to assess the likelihood of occurrence of the different events a qualitative risk assessment approach was used. For this purpose, an expert opinion workshop was organized and ordinal values, ranging from 0 to 9 (i.e., null to very high likelihood of occurrence) were assigned. The analysis identified residual infection as the most frequent cause of bTB breakdowns (22.3%; 95%CI: 19.4-25.6), followed by interaction with wildlife reservoirs (13.1%; 95%CI: 10.8-15.8). The introduction of infected cattle, sharing of pastures and contiguous spread from infected neighbour herds were also identified as relevant causes. In 41.6% (95%CI: 38.0-45.4) of the breakdowns the origin of infection remained unknown. Veterinary officers conducting bTB breakdown investigations have to state their opinion about the possible cause of each breakdown. Comparison between the results of our analysis and the opinion from veterinary officers revealed a slight concordance. This slight agreement might reflect a lack of harmonized criteria to assess the most likely cause of bTB breakdowns as well as different perceptions about the importance of the possible causes. This is especially relevant in the case of the role of wildlife reservoirs. PMID:25127254

  18. Aflatoxicosis in cattle pastured in a field of sweet corn.

    PubMed

    Hall, R F; Harrison, L R; Colvin, B M

    1989-04-01

    Aflatoxicosis was diagnosed in a small herd of cattle having access to moldy, unharvested sweet corn. Necropsy of 1 cow that died revealed anasarca and a pale tan liver. In this cow, microscopic examination revealed edema of all soft tissues and liver lesions consistent with aflatoxicosis. Samples of corn taken from the field contained 2,365 ng of aflatoxin/g of corn. Weather conditions were conducive to the formation of aflatoxins by Aspergillus flavus and A parasiticus. PMID:2703428

  19. Time-to-event analysis of predictors for recovery from Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy herds between 2002 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dohoo, Ian

    2013-07-01

    Salmonella Dublin infections reduce gross margins and compromise animal health and welfare in dairy cattle herds. Despite on-going control efforts in several countries the duration and risk factors of a persistent infection have been difficult to study due to a lack of suitable data. This study utilised the unique opportunity to extract systematically collected repeated bulk-tank milk antibody measurements from all the Danish dairy herds during a 10-year period to perform a time-to-event analysis of the factors that affect the duration of test-positivity and the hazards of recovery from S. Dublin at herd level. Recovery was defined as a shift from test-positive to test-negative between two year-quarters followed by at least three more test-negative year-quarters. The average duration of infection was approximately 2 years. Predictors of recovery were tested in a multivariable Cox proportional hazard model allowing herds to recover from infection multiple times over the 10-year surveillance period. The model results were based on 36,429 observations with data on all the predictors, representing 3563 herds with a total of 3246 recoveries. Sixty-seven herds (2.4%) remained test-positive throughout the study period. The rest of the 317 herds that did not have any recoveries were censored, mainly due to a cessation of milk production. Prior recovery from test-positivity turned out not to be a significant predictor of recovery in the model. The effect of the duration of infection on the conditional probability of recovery (i.e. the hazard) was time-dependent: early in the study period, long durations of infection were predictive of a low hazard of recovery. Later in the control programme the effect of duration of infection was reduced indicating a desired effect of an intensified control programme. There was an increasing tendency towards longer durations and lower hazard of recovery with: (i) increasing herd sizes, (ii) increasing bulk-tank milk somatic cell counts

  20. Ancient mtDNA Analysis of Early 16th Century Caribbean Cattle Provides Insight into Founding Populations of New World Creole Cattle Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Speller, Camilla F.; Burley, David V.; Woodward, Robyn P.; Yang, Dongya Y.

    2013-01-01

    The Columbian Exchange resulted in a widespread movement of humans, plants and animals between the Old and New Worlds. The late 15th to early 16th century transfer of cattle from the Iberian Peninsula and Canary Islands to the Caribbean laid the foundation for the development of American creole cattle (Bos taurus) breeds. Genetic analyses of modern cattle from the Americas reveal a mixed ancestry of European, African and Indian origins. Recent debate in the genetic literature centers on the ‘African’ haplogroup T1 and its subhaplogroups, alternatively tying their origins to the initial Spanish herds, and/or from subsequent movements of taurine cattle through the African slave trade. We examine this problem through ancient DNA analysis of early 16th century cattle bone from Sevilla la Nueva, the first Spanish colony in Jamaica. In spite of poor DNA preservation, both T3 and T1 haplogroups were identified in the cattle remains, confirming the presence of T1 in the earliest Spanish herds. The absence, however, of “African-derived American” haplotypes (AA/T1c1a1) in the Sevilla la Nueva sample, leaves open the origins of this sub-haplogroup in contemporary Caribbean cattle. PMID:23894505

  1. Update on Controlling Herds of Cooperative Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quadrelli, Marco; Chang, Johnny

    2007-01-01

    A document presents further information on the subject matter of "Controlling Herds of Cooperative Robots". The document describes the results of the computational simulations of a one-blimp, three-surface-sonde herd in various operational scenarios, including sensitivity studies as a function of distributed communication and processing delays between the sondes and the blimp. From results of the simulations, it is concluded that the methodology is feasible, even if there are significant uncertainties in the dynamical models.

  2. Assessment of cattle owner's perceptions and expectations, and identification of constraints on production in a peri-urban, resource-poor environment.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, K; Fourie, L J; Kok, D J

    1999-06-01

    This questionnaire survey was conducted amongst 200 farmers in the resource-poor, urban and per-urban environments of Botshabelo and Thaba Nchu towns in the Free State Province of South Africa. The questionnaire was divided into seven sections, namely demography, livestock, cattle, parasites, parasite control, livestock diseases and problems experienced. A total of 87.5% of the livestock owners were not employed (unemployed or pensioner). Cattle constituted more than 50% of the live-stock units owned in the area and farmers owned an average of 9.33 +/- 0.812 head of cattle. A total of 193 (96.5%) of the farmers indicated that milk was the most important product from their cattle. Only 26% of them slaughtered their own cattle for meat consumption. Eighty-eight percent of them indicated that external parasites on their livestock presented a problem, but only 72.9% of farmers implemented any tick control measures. Less than half (45.5%) of the farmers who attempted to control ticks used commercial acaricides. The remainder used various other methods, including the application of used engine oil and household detergents. Amongst the clinical diseases observed in their cattle, dry gallsickness was mentioned most often (20%). This figure, however, is believed to be inaccurate because dry gallsickness may be a clinical manifestation of some of the other diseases mentioned by the farmers, such as anaplasmosis, foreign body obstruction of the gastro-intestinal tract by plastic bags, pneumonia and mastitis. Animal husbandry problems experienced by the farmers included pollution (i.e. ingestion of plastic bags and string by their livestock), availability of water and theft. PMID:10486825

  3. Fecal Shedding of Campylobacter and Arcobacter spp. in Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Wesley, I. V.; Wells, S. J.; Harmon, K. M.; Green, A.; Schroeder-Tucker, L.; Glover, M.; Siddique, I.

    2000-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Arcobacter spp. were detected in feces of healthy dairy cows by highly specific multiplex-PCR assays. For C. jejuni, at this one-time sampling, cows from 80.6% of farm operations (n = 31) and 37.7% of individual dairy cattle fecal samples (n = 2,085) were positive. Farm management factors were correlated with prevalence in herds in which >25% of cows were positive for C. jejuni. Statistical significance was set at a P of 0.20. Using these criteria, application of manure with broadcast spreaders (P = 0.17), feeding of whole cottonseed or hulls (P = 0.17) or alfalfa (P = 0.15), and accessibility of feed to birds (P = 0.17) were identified as possible risk factors for C. jejuni infection. C. coli was detected in at least one animal in 19.4% of operations and 1.8% of individual cows (n = 2,085). At the herd level, use of broadcaster spreaders was not a risk factor for C. coli infection. For Arcobacter, cows from 71% of dairy operations (n = 31) and 14.3% of individual dairy cattle fecal samples (n = 1,682) were positive. At the herd level, for Arcobacter spp., feeding of alfalfa (P = 0.11) and use of individual waterers (P = 0.19) were protective. This is the first description of Arcobacter spp. in clinically healthy dairy cattle and the first attempt to correlate their presence with C. jejuni. PMID:10788372

  4. Applications of sexed semen in cattle production.

    PubMed

    Hohenboken, W D

    1999-12-01

    Sexed semen will contribute to increased profitability of dairy and beef cattle production in a variety of ways. It could be used to produce offspring of the desired sex from a particular mating to take advantage of differences in value of males and females for specific marketing purposes. Commercial dairy farmers, those who produce and market milk, could use sexed semen to produce replacement daughters from genetically superior cows and beef crossbred sons from the remainder of their cow population. To increase the rate of response to selection, seedstock dairy cattle breeders could produce bulls for progeny testing from a smaller number of elite dams by using sexed semen to ensure that all of them produced a son. Using sexed semen could then reduce the cost of progeny testing those bulls, because fewer matings would be necessary to produce any required number of daughters. Commercial beef cattle farmers, producing animals for eventual slaughter, could use sexed semen to capitalize on the higher value of male than female offspring for meat production. They could also use sexed semen to produce specialized, genetically superior replacement heifers from as small a proportion of the herd as possible. This would allow the remainder of the herd to produce male calves from bulls or breeds with superior genetic merit for growth, feed conversion efficiency, and carcass merit. Single-sex, bred-heifer systems, in which each female is sold for slaughter soon after weaning her replacement daughter, would be possible with the use of X-chromosome-sorted semen. Use of sexed semen would make terminal crossbreeding systems more efficient and sustainable in beef cattle. Fewer females would be required to produce specialized maternal crossbred daughters, and more could be devoted to producing highly efficient, terminal crossbred sons. PMID:10735086

  5. Salmonella Muenster infection in a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Radke, Brian R; McFall, Margaret; Radostits, Steve M

    2002-06-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to provide information on animal and occupational health associated with the infection of a diary herd with Salmonella Muenster that would be useful in the management of dairy herds so infected. This retrospective, longitudinal report records a 2-year infection of a 140-cow dairy herd with S. Muenster, which was likely introduced by additions to the herd. Six cows aborted or had diarrhea due to salmonellosis in the last trimester of pregnancy. Additions to the herd and the presence of animals that had not received an Escherichia coli bacterin-toxoid were risk factors for salmonellosis. One neonate died, and 24 of 36 calves born between November 1998 and May 1999 had diarrhea by 1 mo of age. Initially, over 60% of the cows were fecal positive; within 6 months, all cows but I had become infected. The intermittent shedding of the organism and the eventual zero prevalence highlight the inappropriateness of extensive culling as an eradication strategy. Cultures of the bulk-tank milk filters were more sensitive than cultures of the bulk-tank milk samples at detecting S. Muenster. Two months after the index case, S. Muenster was cultured from the milk of 7.8% of the cows. Positive fecal or milk cultures were not associated with impaired health or production. The herd's milk was a zoonotic risk, but contact with infected animals was not. The organism spread easily between operations, likely via manure-contaminated clothing and footwear. PMID:12058570

  6. Bovine tuberculosis in domestic and wild mammals in an area of Dorset. I. Tuberculosis in cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Wilesmith, J. W.; Little, T. W.; Thompson, H. V.; Swan, C.

    1982-01-01

    A major outbreak of tuberculosis occurred in cattle on a farm in Dorset between 1970 and 1976. Six hundred and twenty-six cattle were slaughtered either because they reacted to the tuberculin test or had been exposed to infection. No source of infection was found until 1974 when badgers infected with Mycobacterium bovis were first discovered. An analysis of the tuberculin test records of this herd and the six surrounding herds indicated that tuberculosis had been a sporadic problem since the early 1960's. Two peaks of infection occurred in the most severely affected herd in 1970 and 1974 when 20.8% and 27.3% of animals, respectively, reacted to the tuberculin test. These figures are exceptionally high. During the last 20 years there have been two periods when all the herds in the area had synchronous outbreaks consistent with a common source. Analysis indicated that cattle were at greatest risk in April and May and suggest that there was re-exposure to infection at this time each year. In addition the cattle were apparently exposed to M bovis, at sufficiently high levels for transmission to occur, for only a relatively short period of time. PMID:6752270

  7. REPRODUCTIVE, GROWTH, FEEDLOT, AND CARCASS TRAITS OF TWIN VERSUS SINGLE BIRTHS IN CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annual frequency of fraternal twins increased 3.1% per year to 50 to 55% in a selected herd of cattle at the U. S. Meat Animal Research Center. Because twin ovulations are the first prerequisite for fraternal twins, breeding value for twinning was predicted by repeated measures of ovulation rate in ...

  8. [Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD)--a hereditary disease in cattle].

    PubMed

    Heckert, H P; Wittstatt, U; Hofmann, W

    1997-07-01

    Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) is an autosomal recessive and lethal disease of Holstein-Friesian cattle. It is characterized by leukocytosis with more than 30,000 cells/microliter blood and decreased resistance to infectious diseases. Details of the history and pathological findings in three patients, the situation in the herd and breeding aspects are described. PMID:9312893

  9. The effect of Jonhe's Disease status on reproduction and culling in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among the costs attributed to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in dairy cattle, the impacts on reproduction and culling are the least documented. In order to properly estimate the cost of MAP infections in a dairy herd, the rates of calving and culling were calculated for...

  10. Spatial-temporal interactions of beef cattle and wolves on a western Idaho rangeland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this experiment was to detect and evaluate interactions between free-roaming beef cattle (Bos taurus) and wolves (Canis lupus) using GPS technology. Ten mature, lactating beef cows from a herd of about 450 cow-calf pairs and 1 wolf from a pack of 13 wolves were GPS collared and trac...

  11. Associations Between Cytokine Gene Expression and Pathology in Mycobacterium bovis Infected Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium bovis infection results in the development of tuberculosis in many mammalian species including humans. In the US, infected white-tailed deer (WTD) represent a reservoir of infection that threatens cattle in endemic areas. This continued threat to herd health emphasizes the need for the...

  12. [Food safety achieved through herd management].

    PubMed

    Stärk, K D

    2000-12-01

    Most animal-derived food products originate from production chains consisting of a series of well-defined, separate production steps. Undesired events affecting food safety can principally occur at any point within the production chain. The principle of integrated food safety assurance from stable to table has therefore been established. The livestock holding has thus to be understood as a fix element of the production chain, and the producer has to accept a part of the responsibility for food safety. On a farm, food safety can be negatively affected by animal feed (microbiological or toxicological contamination), management (hygiene, stocking density, cleaning and disinfecting), veterinary treatments (use of antibiotics) and recycling of slurry. Most relevant practices can be summarised under the standard of "good farming practice". HACCP programmes as they are applied in the processing industries could in principle also be used at the farm level. Influential management steps would need to be identified and controlled. This approach is, however, still in its infancy at present. Using the current monitoring systems, microbiological and toxicological problems in food are difficult to be identified before the end of the production chain. As the cause of a problem can be found at the farm level, traceability of products through the production chain is essential. In Switzerland, traceability of animals is realised using compulsory animal identification and the animal movement database. Using this link, information on the health status of a herd could be made available to the slaughterhouse in order to classify animals into food-safety risk categories. This principle is a key element in the ongoing discussion about visual meat inspection in Europe and elsewhere. PMID:11189835

  13. Herd behavior in designer genes.

    PubMed

    Huang, P H

    1999-01-01

    The ability of individuals to choose their children's genes has increased over time and may ultimately culminate in a world involving free market reprogenetic technologies. Reprogenetic technologies combine advances in reproductive biology and genetics to provide humans increased control over their children's genes. This Article offers economic perspectives that are helpful in understanding the possibly unexpected ethical, legal, and social issues at stake in using reprogenetic technologies for trait enhancement selection. The Appendix analyzes two competitive games that might arise in such a biotechnological society. Specifically, the Article focuses on herd behavior, caused by either a popularity contest or positional competition, in the choice of genetic traits. The analytical game-theoretic models in the Appendix can have several equilibrium outcomes in terms of individual reprogenetic technological choices and corresponding beliefs about such choices by others. This multiplicity of potential social outcomes suggests that a society can attain efficiency if the state or some private organization transforms individual parents' beliefs over the choices of other parents regarding their children's traits and, thus, coordinates parental reprogenetic decisions by selecting, as focal, certain beliefs over parents' reprogenetic decisions. PMID:12664907

  14. Serum C-reactive protein in dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wen-Chuan; Hsiao, Huo-Cheng; Wu, Ying-Ling; Lin, Jyh-Hung; Lee, Yen-Pai; Fung, Hang-Poung; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Chu, Rea-Min

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the serum level of C-reactive protein (CRP) and lactation and health status. Blood samples were collected every 2 wk for 12 mo from 29 randomly selected dairy cattle on 3 farms. At the time the blood samples were collected, the stage of pregnancy, lactation status, breeding records, general health condition, reproductive status, and body condition score were recorded for each cow. Serum CRP was detected with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western immunoblotting. C-reactive protein levels were measured with a densitometer and expressed as an optimal dose value. C-reactive protein levels were correlated with the body condition score, lactation status, and animal health (P < 0.05), but not with ambient temperature, animal age, or parity. C-reactive protein levels increased with milk production, peaking during high lactation (2 to 4 mo of pregnancy), and decreased when lactation ceased. In addition, the CRP level was highest during naturally occurring infections, such as mastitis and other tissue inflammation. Thus, the CRP level can confirm the presence of inflammation. The stress effect of taking blood samples as measured by the CRP level, was also examined. The CRP level became rapidly elevated 12 h after the blood samples were taken but returned to normal 36 h later. In conclusion, the stresses resulting from overall poor health, heavy lactation, and blood sampling caused the elevation of serum CRP. C-reactive protein is a marker or tool for evaluating the health status of a herd. C-reactive protein should also be considered as a useful criteria to assess the stress levels and may be useful in early surveillance of disease conditions in a dairy herd. PMID:12760474

  15. Genomic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus strains associated with high within-herd prevalence of intramammary infections in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cremonesi, P; Pozzi, F; Raschetti, M; Bignoli, G; Capra, E; Graber, H U; Vezzoli, F; Piccinini, R; Bertasi, B; Biffani, S; Castiglioni, B; Luini, M

    2015-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important causes of mastitis in dairy cattle. Based on previous research, Staph. aureus genotypes with different pathogenic and contagious properties can cause intramammary infection (IMI) and coexist in the same herd. Our study aimed to compare Staph. aureus strains from herds that differed in IMI prevalence using different molecular approaches such as ribosomal spacer (RS)-PCR, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, ribotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multiplex PCR. For this purpose, 31 dairy herds with Staph. aureus IMI were selected, and 16 of these were chosen for a comparison study: the 8 high-prevalence (HP) herds had Staph. aureus IMI prevalence >28% and the 8 low-prevalence (LP) herds had an IMI prevalence <4%. A total of 650 isolates of Staph. aureus from mammary quarters of all positive cows were genotyped with RS-PCR, a technique based on amplification of a portion of the intergenic spacer 16S-23S rRNA, and a subset of 54 strains was also analyzed by multiplex PCR, ribotyping, PFGE, MLST, and spa typing. The RS-PCR analysis revealed 12 different profiles. Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from 5 out of 8 HP herds showed a profile identical to the genotype B (GTB), described in previous studies as being strongly associated with high within-herd prevalence of Staph. aureus mastitis and the presence of the genes coding for enterotoxins sea, sed, and sej, a long x-region of spa gene, and 3 lukE fragments. Moreover, all strains isolated in the HP herds possessed genes coding for staphylococcal enterotoxins. In LP herds, a limited number of strains of 6 genotypes, different from those isolated in HP herds, were identified and GTB was not found. Within these genotypes, 4 strains were positive for the mecA gene. Preliminary results and comparison with other genotyping methods confirmed that genotyping by RS-PCR is an accurate, rapid, and inexpensive tool for future field studies on Staph

  16. Seroprevalence of infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, bovine leukemia virus, and bovine viral diarrhea virus in maritime Canada dairy cattle.

    PubMed Central

    VanLeeuwen, J A; Keefe, G P; Tremblay, R; Power, C; Wichtel, J J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey the seroprevalence of infection with the agents of production-limiting diseases in dairy cattle in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. In 30 randomly selected herds per province, 30 cattle per herd were randomly selected and tested for antibodies to bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis), while 5 unvaccinated cattle over 6 months of age were tested for antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). For BLV, 20.8% (15.8% to 27.0%) of cows were positive, and 70.0% (60.3% to 79.7%) of herds had at least one positive cow. In BLV-positive herds, the average BLV prevalence was 30.9% (24.8% to 37.2%). For M. paratuberculosis, 2.6% (1.8% to 3.9%) of cows were positive, and 16.7% (8.8% to 24.5%) of herds had at least 2 M. paratuberculosis-positive cows. In M. paratuberculosis-positive herds, the average M. paratuberculosis prevalence was 8.5% (6.9% to 10.1%). For BVDV, 46.1% (35.5% to 56.7%) of herds had at least 1 BVDV-positive animal with a titer greater than or equal to 1:64. PMID:11265187

  17. A rapid sequence-based method for comprehensive polymorphism identification within a 25.2-kb region of the bovine prion gene in BSE-affected cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal neurological disorder characterized by abnormal deposits of a protease-resistant isoform of the prion protein. Typical and atypical BSEs have been identified in cattle and the relationships of prion gene (PRNP) variation with susceptibility to these...

  18. The early pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in cattle after aerosol innoculation: identification of the nasopharynx as the primary site of infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to characterize the early events of foot–and–mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in cattle subsequent to simulated natural exposure, steers were aerosol-inoculated with FMDV and euthanized at various times post aerosolization (hpa). Tissues that tested positive for FMDV or viral RNA were e...

  19. Control of the bush tick (Haemaphysalis longicornis) with Zebu x European cattle.

    PubMed

    Dicker, R W; Sutherst, R W

    1981-02-01

    Brahman x Hereford cattle carried only one-quarter as many engorging adult bush ticks (Haemaphysalis (Kaiseriana) longicornis) as Hereford. Simmental x Hereford or Friesian x Hereford cattle when grazed together on the north coast of New South Wales. Fourteen percent of a Brahman x Hereford herd carried half of the engorging ticks suggesting that infestation levels would be further reduced by culling procedures. The results indicate an additional advantage to those already established for Brahman x Hereford cattle on the north coast of New South Wales and have important implications for tick control. PMID:7259646

  20. Somatic Cell Counts of Milk from Dairy Herd Improvement Herds during 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Test-day data from all herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) somatic cell testing during 2006 were examined to assess the status of national milk quality. Cows with records failing some AIPL editing procedures were excluded. Somatic cell score (SCS) is reported to AIPL and was converted to ...

  1. Somatic cell counts of milk from Dairy Herd Improvement herds during 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Test-day data from all herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) somatic cell testing during 2009 were examined to assess the status of national milk quality. Cows with records failing some AIPL editing procedures were excluded. Somatic cell score (SCS) is reported to AIPL and was converted to ...

  2. Somatic Cell Counts of Milk from Dairy Herd Improvement Herds during 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Test-day data from all herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) somatic cell testing during 2007 were examined to assess the status of national milk quality. Cows with records failing some AIPL editing procedures were excluded. Somatic cell score (SCS) is reported to AIPL and was converted to ...

  3. Somatic cell counts of milk from Dairy Herd Improvement herds during 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Test-day data from all herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) somatic cell testing during 2008 were examined to assess the status of national milk quality. Cows with records failing some AIPL editing procedures were excluded. Somatic cell score (SCS) is reported to AIPL and was converted to ...

  4. Reasons That Cows in Dairy Herd Improvement Programs Exit the Herd

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This new Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory Research Report was initiated to provide the US industry more comprehensive information on a routine basis on why dairy cows leave Dairy Herd Improvement herds. AIPL had previously published some information on culling rate, but the method used did not...

  5. Evaluating the cost implications of a radio frequency identification feeding system for early detection of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Wolfger, Barbara; Manns, Braden J; Barkema, Herman W; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, Karen S; Dorin, Craig; Orsel, Karin

    2015-03-01

    New technologies to identify diseased feedlot cattle in early stages of illness have been developed to reduce costs and welfare impacts associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). However, the economic value of early BRD detection has never been assessed. The objective was to simulate cost differences between two BRD detection methods during the first 61 d on feed (DOF) applied in moderate- to large-sized feedlots using an automated recording system (ARS) for feeding behavior and the current industry standard, pen-checking (visual appraisal confirmed by rectal temperature). Economic impact was assessed with a cost analysis in a simple decision model. Scenarios for Canadian and US feedlots with high- and low-risk cattle were modeled, and uncertainty was estimated using extensive sensitivity analyses. Input costs and probabilities were mainly extracted from publicly accessible market observations and a large-scale US feedlot study. In the baseline scenario, we modeled high-risk cattle with a treatment rate of 20% within the first 61 DOF in a feedlot of >8000 cattle in Canada. Early BRD detection was estimated to result in a relative risk of 0.60 in retreatment and 0.66 in mortality compared to pen-checking (based on previously published estimates). The additional cost of monitoring health with ARS in Canadian dollar (CAD) was 13.68 per steer. Scenario analysis for similar sized US feedlots and low-risk cattle with a treatment rate of 8% were included to account for variability in costs and probabilities in various cattle populations. Considering the cost of monitoring, all relevant treatment costs and sale price, ARS was more costly than visual appraisal during the first 61 DOF by CAD 9.61 and CAD 9.69 per steer in Canada and the US, respectively. This cost difference increased in low-risk cattle in Canada to CAD 12.45. Early BRD detection with ARS became less expensive if the costs for the system decreased to less than CAD 4.06/steer, or if the underlying true

  6. Analysis of cattle movements in Argentina, 2005.

    PubMed

    Aznar, M N; Stevenson, M A; Zarich, L; León, E A

    2011-02-01

    We describe the movement of cattle throughout Argentina in 2005. Details of farm-to-farm and farm-to-slaughter movements of cattle were obtained from the Sanitary Management System database (Sistema de Gestión Sanitaria, SGS), maintained by the National Service for Agrifood Health and Quality (SENASA). Movements were described at the regional and district level in terms of frequency, the number of stock transported, the district of origin and destination and Euclidean distance traveled. Social network analysis was used to characterize the connections made between regions and districts as a result of cattle movement transactions, and to show how these characteristics might influence disease spread. Throughout 2005 a total of 1.3 million movement events involving 32 million head of cattle (equivalent to approximately 57% of the national herd) were recorded in the SGS database. The greatest number of farm-to-farm movements occurred from April to June whereas numbers of farm-to-slaughter movement events were relatively constant throughout the year. Throughout 2005 there was a 1.1-1.6-fold increase in the number of farm-to-farm movements of cattle during April-June, compared with other times of the year. District in-degree and out-degree scores varied by season, with higher maximum scores during the autumn and winter compared with summer and spring. Districts with high in-degree scores were concentrated in the Finishing region of the country whereas districts with high out-degree scores were concentrated not only in the Finishing region but also in Mesopotamia, eastern Border and southern Central regions. Although movements of cattle from the Border region tended not to be mediated via markets, the small number of districts in this area with relatively high out-degree scores is a cause for concern as they have the potential to distribute infectious disease widely, in the event of an incursion. PMID:21122931

  7. Within-herd prevalence of Salmonella Dublin in endemically infected dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, L R

    2013-10-01

    In this study within-herd prevalence of Salmonella Dublin was investigated in three age groups (calves, young stock, adult cows) during five herd visits at 3-month intervals of 14 endemically infected dairy herds. A total of 10162 paired faecal cultures and antibody measurements were used to calculate the age and temporal dynamics of seroprevalence and prevalence of positive faecal cultures. Faecal culture-positive prevalence was generally low. It was highest (5.4%) in calves during December to February. Seroprevalence varied from 0% to 70% between herds, but was generally more stable in young stock and adult cows than in calves. Hierarchical mixed-model results showed that seroprevalence was associated with the bacteriological status in calves and cows, but not in young stock. These results can be used to develop and validate theoretical infection dynamics models and to design effective control programmes for Salmonella Dublin in dairy herds. PMID:23328264

  8. Seroprevalences of vector-transmitted infections of small-holder dairy cattle in coastal Kenya.

    PubMed

    Maloo, S H; Thorpe, W; Kioo, G; Ngumi, P; Rowlands, G J; Perry, B D

    2001-11-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out from July to September 1989 in Kaloleni Division, Coast Province, Kenya to estimate the prevalence of vector-transmitted diseases in small-holder dairy cattle and to identify the risk factors associated with different management systems. One hundred and thirty of the 157 herds with dairy cattle in Kaloleni Division were surveyed. These were from three agro-ecological zones (coconut-cassava, cashew nut-cassava and livestock-millet), comprised two management systems (stall-feeding and herded grazing) and were herds with either dairy cattle only or with Zebu and dairy cattle. A formal questionnaire sought answers to questions on cattle health and management practices. A total of 734 dairy and 205 Zebu cattle in 78 dairy and 52 mixed (dairy and Zebu) herds were sampled and screened for haemoparasites (Trypanosoma, Anaplasma, Babesia, and Theileria infections). Sera were tested for antibodies to Theileria parva, using the schizonts-antigen indirect fluorescent-antibody (IFA) test and to antibodies for Babesia bigemina and antigens to Anaplasma marginale by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Packed-cell volume (PCV) also was measured. Tick-control measures were practised by all except three of the farmers. Despite this, overall seroprevalence to T. parva was >70%--suggesting either that control practices were not strictly implemented or they were ineffective. The seroprevalence of T. parva in adult cattle kept in stall-feeding systems in the coconut-cassava zone was significantly lower (57+/-8% (S.E.)) than in herded-grazing systems (79+/-3%) and there was no association between antibody prevalence and age of cattle in this zone. Antibody prevalences in cattle in the cashew nut-cassava and the drier livestock-millet zone increased with age. Cattle in herded-grazing systems had an overall lower seroprevalence of T. parva infection in the livestock-millet zone (45+/-6%) than in the other two zones. Analysis was confined to

  9. A multiplex PCR to simultaneously distinguish Cryptosporidium species of veterinary and public health concern in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four species of Cryptosporidium are routinely found in cattle: Cryptosporidium parvum, C. bovis, C. ryanae, and C. andersoni. It is important to determine the species of Cryptosporidium in infected cattle because C. parvum is the only serious pathogen, for humans as well as cattle. Identification of...

  10. Simulated livestock dynamics--effects of pastoral offtake practices and drift on cattle wealth.

    PubMed

    Baptist, R

    1990-05-01

    Pastoral cattle herds were simulated to demonstrate a species-independent package (DADAS) for the analysis and simulation of livestock dynamics. A cow culling age of 11 years was expected to maximise offtake rate and to stabilise the cattle population. This threshold was derived by the deterministic module of the package used. A closer look at six offtake patterns using the stochastic module of the simulation program revealed that those who cull cows at an age limit would fare less well than those who cull cows only when sterile. Within each offtake pattern the cumulative effects of chance fluctuations in sex-ratio of calves, mortality, sterility, age at first calving and calving interval resulted in cattle wealth indicators varying widely between replicate herds. The example shows that livestock dynamics simulation on personal computers is feasible for planning, teaching and research purposes. PMID:2371755

  11. Exploring cattle movements in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Ensoy, Chellafe; Faes, Christel; Welby, Sarah; Van der Stede, Yves; Aerts, Marc

    2014-09-01

    Movement of animals from one farm to another is a potential risk and can lead to the spreading of livestock diseases. Therefore, in order to implement effective control measures, it is important to understand the movement network in a given area. Using the SANITEL data from 2005 to 2009, around 2 million cattle movements in Belgium were traced. Exploratory analysis revealed different spatial structures for the movement of different cattle types: fattening calves are mostly moved to the Antwerp region, adult cattle are moved to different parts in Belgium. Based on these differences, movement of cattle would more likely cause a spread of disease to a larger number of areas in Belgium as compared to the fattening calves. A closer inspection of the spatial and temporal patterns of cattle movement using a weighted negative binomial model, revealed a significant short-distance movement of bovine which could be an important factor contributing to the local spreading of a disease. The model however revealed hot spot areas of movement in Belgium; four areas in the Walloon region (Luxembourg, Hainaut, Namur and Liege) were found as hot spot areas while East and West Flanders are important "receivers" of movement. This implies that an introduction of a disease to these Walloon regions could result in a spread toward the East and West Flanders regions, as what happened in the case of Bluetongue BTV-8 outbreak in 2006. The temporal component in the model also revealed a linear trend and short- and long-term seasonality in the cattle movement with a peak around spring and autumn. The result of this explorative analysis enabled the identification of "hot spots" in time and space which is important in enhancing any existing monitoring and surveillance system. PMID:24881483

  12. Risk factors of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in rural livestock production systems of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tschopp, Rea; Schelling, Esther; Hattendorf, Jan; Aseffa, Abraham; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    This study shows a representative stratified cluster sample survey of the prevalence of comparative intradermal tuberculin test in cattle from four regions in Ethiopia. Using a cut-off for positivity of 2 mm, it assesses possible risk factors for tuberculin-positive reaction in cattle. Seventy-three villages in 24 kebeles (administrative units) were randomly selected, from which 2216 cattle from 780 owners were tested. In addition, 450 of these cattle owners were interviewed for risk factor assessment. Ninety-nine percent of the tested cattle in this rural livestock production system were traditional zebus. The individual overall prevalence of cattle bovine tuberculosis (BTB)e was 3%, with the highest found in Meskan Mareko, in Central Ethiopia (7.9%) and the lowest in Woldia, in the North East edge of the Rift Valley (1.2%). Generalised Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) with random effect on kebeles was used to analyse risk factors of cattle reactors and human tuberculosis (TB) infection. Purchase of cattle and presence of other livestock in the herd were statistically significant, with OR: 1.7, p-values of 0.03 and OR: 2, p = 0.05, respectively. Family members diagnosed with TB or showing clinical signs of extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) were reported in 86 households (19%). None of the assessed potential risk factors of disease transmission between cattle and human (food consumption, livestock husbandry and presence of BTB-positive cattle) were statistically significant. PMID:19339066

  13. Parasite diversity and anthelmintic resistance in two herds of horses.

    PubMed

    Young, K E; Garza, V; Snowden, K; Dobson, R J; Powell, D; Craig, T M

    1999-08-31

    Diversity of parasite populations was compared between two herds of horses, one a regularly treated herd the other a feral herd which has bad no anthelmintic treatment for at least 25 years. Eggs obtained from fecal samples of both herds were tested for anthelmintic resistance by use of an in-vitro larval hatch/development assay (LDA), DrenchRite. A fecal egg reduction test was also performed with the domesticated herd using fenbendazole, pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin. Cyathostomes were the predominant group of worms present in both herds. Trichostrongylus axei was seen in both herds, but Strongylus equinus, Strongylus vulgaris, Gyalocephalus capitatus, Poteriostomum spp. and Strongyloides westeri were only found in the feral horses. Larvae of Strongylus edentatus were found in a single domesticated horse. Fecal egg reduction tests with the domesticated herd showed a 32% egg count reduction for fenbendazole, a 93% reduction with pyrantel, and a 99% reduction with ivermectin. From the LDA, anthelmintic resistance was evaluated by determining the resistance ratio of the domesticated herd compared with the feral herd. For benzimidazoles in the domesticated herd, 45% of the cyathostome population was 9.4 times more tolerant than the feral herd's parasite population. The parasite population in the domesticated herd was 1.5 times more tolerant to Levamisole, and 1.7 times more tolerant to the benzimidazole/levamisole combination than the parasite population within the feral herd. 9% of the parasite population in the domesticated herd was 90 times more tolerant to avermectins than the feral herd's parasite population, even though a subpopulation of worms in the feral herd were tolerant to low concentrations of avermectins despite never being previously exposed to this class of anthelmintic. PMID:10485366

  14. Tuberculosis in cattle: the results of the four-area project

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The four-area project was undertaken to further assess the impact of badger removal on the control of tuberculosis in cattle herds in Ireland. It was conducted between 1997 and 2002 in matched removal and reference areas in four counties, namely Cork, Donegal, Kilkenny and Monaghan, representing a wide range of Irish farming environments. In the removal areas, a proactive programme of badger removal was conducted, on two or three occasions each year, whereas in the reference areas, badger removal was entirely reactive following severe outbreaks of tuberculosis amongst cattle. A detailed statistical analysis of this study has already been presented by Griffin et al. [13]; this paper presents further, mainly descriptive, findings from the study. In total, 2,360 badgers were captured in the removal areas of which 450 (19.5%) were considered positive for tuberculosis and 258 badgers were captured in the reference areas, with 57 (26.1%) positive for tuberculosis. The annual incidence of confirmed herd restrictions was lower in the removal area compared to the reference area in every year of the study period in each of the four counties. These empirical findings were consistent with the hazard ratios found by Griffin et al. [13]. Further, the effect of proactive badger removal on cattle tuberculosis in the four-area project and in the earlier east-Offaly project, as measured using the number of reactors per 1,000 cattle tested, were very similar, providing compelling evidence of the role of badgers in the epidemiology of tuberculosis in Irish cattle herds. The validity of the four-area project was discussed in detail. Efforts to minimise badger-to-cattle transmission in Ireland must be undertaken in association with the current comprehensive control programme, which has effectively minimised opportunities for cattle-to-cattle transmission. PMID:21851665

  15. Assessment of the probability of introduction of bovine tuberculosis to Danish cattle farms via imports of live cattle from abroad and immigrant workers.

    PubMed

    Foddai, Alessandro; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Krogh, Kaspar; Alban, Lis

    2015-12-01

    Denmark has been recognized as officially free (OTF) from bovine tuberculosis (bTB) since 1980. In this study, we estimated the annual probability (PIntro) of introducing Mycobacterium bovis into the Danish cattle population, through (a) imports of cattle and (b) foreign personnel working in Danish cattle herds. Data from 2000 to 2013 with date, number and origin of imported live cattle were obtained from the Danish Cattle Federation. Information on immigrants working in Danish cattle herds was obtained through a questionnaire sent by email to a sample of Danish cattle farmers (N=460). Inputs obtained from data analysis, expert opinion, the questionnaire and literature were fed into three stochastic scenario tree models used to simulate the effect of import trade patterns, and contact between immigrant workers and cattle. We also investigated the opportunity of testing animals imported from OTF countries by tuberculin skin test and animals from non-OTF countries by interferon-γ test (IFN-γ), exemplified by using year 2009 where the number of imported animals was higher than usual. Results showed that PIntro is driven mainly by importation of live cattle. The combined median annual probability of introducing M. bovis into the Danish cattle population by either imported live cattle or infectious immigrant workers, ranged from 0.3% (90% prediction interval (P.I.): 0.04%:1.4%) in 2001 to 4.9% (90% P.I.: 0.6%; 19.2%) in 2009. The median of the median PIntro estimates from the 14 years was 0.7% (median of 90% P.I.: 0.08%; 3.5%). Hence, on average, at least one introduction each 143 years could be expected, if the annual number of imported animals does not change remarkably in the future. If the number of imported animals increases, compared to the years we analyzed, additional testing of imported cattle might be considered. For example, in 2009, PIntro would have been reduced from 4.9% to 0.8% (90% P.I.: 0.1%; 4.7%) if animals from OTF countries had been tested with

  16. Some factors affecting the number of days open in Argentinean dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Piccardi, M; Funes, A Capitaine; Balzarini, M; Bó, G A

    2013-03-15

    The objective of this study was to estimate the relative contribution of factors affecting how quickly cattle become pregnant in Argentine dairy herds. Data from 76,401 cows from 249 dairy herds were analyzed. A hazard model was used to explore days open (DO). The factors considered were milk yield, lactation number, calving season, and breeding technique (i.e., type of service: artificial insemination [AI], or combined service). Cows with lower milk yield had 1.09 to 1.38 higher likelihood to become pregnant than those with higher milk yield (P < 0.0001). The number of DO increased linearly with an increasing number of lactations (P < 0.0001). Cows calving in fall-winter had a shorter interval to conception than those calving in summer. The hazard rate for combined service was 1.27; therefore, cows with combined service were more likely to become pregnant during the observation period than those bred by AI. The difference in DO between cows of high versus low milk yield was smaller when dairies used AI as the main breeding technique than when they used combined service. Furthermore, dairies using mainly combined service had lower milk yield (5693.7 L) than those using mainly AI (7684.4 L). Although lactation number and calving season contributed to explain the number of DO, the influence of production level, the type of service, and the interaction between them was also associated with reproductive efficiency in Argentine dairy herds. PMID:23290433

  17. Hot topic: Bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected cows with low proviral load are not a source of infection for BLV-free cattle.

    PubMed

    Juliarena, Marcela A; Barrios, Clarisa N; Ceriani, M Carolina; Esteban, Eduardo N

    2016-06-01

    The bovine leukemia virus (BLV) causes leukemia or lymphoma in cattle. Although most BLV-infected animals do not develop the disease, they maintain the transmission chain of BLV at the herd level. As a feasible approach to control the virus, selection of cattle carrying the BoLA-DRB3*0902 allele has been proposed, as this allele is strongly associated with a BLV infection profile or the low proviral load (LPL) phenotype. To test whether these cattle affect the BLV transmission chain under natural conditions, selected BLV-infected LPL-BoLA-DRB3*0902 heterozygous cows were incorporated into a BLV-negative dairy herd. An average ratio of 5.4 (range 4.17-6.37) BLV-negative cows per BLV-infected cow was maintained during the 20mo of the experiment, and no BLV-negative cattle became infected. The BLV incidence rate in this herd was thus zero, whereas BLV incidence rates in different local herds varied from 0.06 to 0.17 cases per 100 cattle-days. This finding strongly suggests that LPL-BoLA-DRB3*0902 cattle disrupted the BLV-transmission chain in the study period. PMID:27085403

  18. Detection of Haplotypes Associated with Prenatal Death in Dairy Cattle and Identification of Deleterious Mutations in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Sébastien; Capitan, Aurelien; Djari, Anis; Rodriguez, Sabrina C.; Barbat, Anne; Baur, Aurélia; Grohs, Cécile; Weiss, Bernard; Boussaha, Mekki; Esquerré, Diane; Klopp, Christophe; Rocha, Dominique; Boichard, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The regular decrease of female fertility over time is a major concern in modern dairy cattle industry. Only half of this decrease is explained by indirect response to selection on milk production, suggesting the existence of other factors such as embryonic lethal genetic defects. Genomic regions harboring recessive deleterious mutations were detected in three dairy cattle breeds by identifying frequent haplotypes (>1%) showing a deficit in homozygotes among Illumina Bovine 50k Beadchip haplotyping data from the French genomic selection database (47,878 Holstein, 16,833 Montbéliarde, and 11,466 Normande animals). Thirty-four candidate haplotypes (p<10−4) including previously reported regions associated with Brachyspina, CVM, HH1, and HH3 in Holstein breed were identified. Haplotype length varied from 1 to 4.8 Mb and frequencies from 1.7 up to 9%. A significant negative effect on calving rate, consistent in heifers and in lactating cows, was observed for 9 of these haplotypes in matings between carrier bulls and daughters of carrier sires, confirming their association with embryonic lethal mutations. Eight regions were further investigated using whole genome sequencing data from heterozygous bull carriers and control animals (45 animals in total). Six strong candidate causative mutations including polymorphisms previously reported in FANCI (Brachyspina), SLC35A3 (CVM), APAF1 (HH1) and three novel mutations with very damaging effect on the protein structure, according to SIFT and Polyphen-2, were detected in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2 genes. In conclusion, this study reveals a yet hidden consequence of the important inbreeding rate observed in intensively selected and specialized cattle breeds. Counter-selection of these mutations and management of matings will have positive consequences on female fertility in dairy cattle. PMID:23762392

  19. Prevalence of Neospora caninum antibodies in dairy cattle and water buffaloes and associated abortions in the plateau of Southern Peninsular India.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, P P; Balumahendiran, M; Raghavendra, A G; Honnappa, T G; Gajendragad, M R; Prabhudas, K

    2013-01-01

    A seroprevalence study of bovine neosporosis was conducted among 1,927 dairy cattle and 341 water buffaloes from Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh states in plateau of southern peninsular India by employing competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 12.61 and 9.97 % sera samples were found positive for the presence of Neospora caninum antibody, respectively, among cattle and water buffaloes. Out of 1,927 sera samples from cattle, 912 and 1,015 samples were collected from unorganized and organized herds, respectively. The cattle screened were of upgraded Holstein-Friesian and water buffaloes were of graded Surti breed. Significantly (p < 0.05) higher prevalence was found in the cattle in unorganized herds (16.66 %) in comparison to organized herds (8.96 %). The highest seroprevalence was recorded in the age group of 4 years and above in both type of cattle herds and water buffaloes. There was a significant variation of seroprevalence (p < 0.05) observed between different age groups of cattle. The rate of seroprevalence increased with the increment in the age of the animals suggesting a possibility of horizontal mode of transmission of the infection from the environment. The percentage of abortion history was more in seropositive group (51.65 %) in comparison to the seronegative group (5.84 %) and the seropositive cattle were 8.84 times more likely to experience abortion than the seronegative cattle. The occurrence of abortion among different age groups varied significantly (p < 0.05). The findings revealed the presence of neosporosis in the southern peninsular India among cattle and water buffaloes and a strong association between the seroprevalence and abortion. PMID:22644733

  20. An analysis of herding behavior in security analysts’ networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zheng; Zhang, YongJie; Feng, Xu; Zhang, Wei

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we build undirected weighted networks to study herding behavior among analysts and to analyze the characteristics and the structure of these networks. We then construct a new indicator based on the average degree of nodes and the average weighted clustering coefficient to research the various types of herding behavior. Our findings suggest that every industry has, to a certain degree, herding behavior among analysts. While there is obvious uninformed herding behavior in real estate and certain other industries, industries such as mining and nonferrous metals have informed herding behavior caused by analysts’ similar reactions to public information. Furthermore, we relate the two types of herding behavior to stock price and find that uninformed herding behavior has a positive effect on market prices, whereas informed herding behavior has a negative effect.

  1. Serratia marcescens mastitis in a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D J; Kirk, J H; Walker, R D; Bosworth, Q W

    1990-04-01

    Serratia marcescens caused clinical mastitis in 5 cows and nonclinical mastitis in 21 cows of a 190-cow herd. Repeated bacteriologic culture of specimens from the cows, postmilking teat dip, environment, and equipment was performed. Serratia marcescens was not isolated from the dip, environment, or equipment. Progress of the infection in cows was monitored for 10 months. Some cows remained infected with S marcescens for at least 10 months. Economic loss estimates were based on Dairy Herd Improvement Association linear score reports. The average nonclinical loss was about $22/cow. PMID:2184155

  2. Seroprevalence estimation and management factors associated with high herd seropositivity for Anaplasma marginale in commercial dairy farms of Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Urdaz-Rodríguez, J H; Fosgate, G T; Alleman, A R; Rae, D O; Donovan, G A; Melendez, P

    2009-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine individual cow seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in adult lactating dairy cattle of Puerto Rico (PR) and to assess the associations of farm management factors on herd seroprevalence. Antibody activity against A. marginale was determined using the MSP-5 competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum samples were obtained from 2,414 adult lactating dairy cattle from 76 randomly selected commercial dairy farms. Herd seroprevalence ranged from 3 to 100% with an overall individual cow seroprevalence for A. marginale of 27.4%. Factors associated with high herd seropositivity were pasture grazing as the main feed source (OR = 6.5, 95% CI = 1.2-34), observed monkeys on the premises (OR = 13, 95% CI = 1.2-138), use of 11% permethrin (OR = 17, 95% CI = 2.2-129), farmers who attended an acaricide certification program (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.04-0.74), and lack of a fly control program (OR = 5.6, 95% CI = 1.3-24). PMID:19337849

  3. 43 CFR 4710.3-1 - Herd management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.3-1 Herd management areas. Herd... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Herd management areas. 4710.3-1...

  4. Use of the Intradermal Tuberculin Test in a Herd of Captive Elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) Naturally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tuberculosis of captive Cervidae, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, attracted attention in 1991 in the United States when investigations, prompted by the identification of a tuberculous elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) in Canada, revealed infected captive elk herds in 8 different states. Based on methods u...

  5. Prevalence of and factors associated with Brucella sero-positivity in cattle in urban and peri-urban Gulu and Soroti towns of Uganda

    PubMed Central

    MUGIZI, Denis Rwabiita; BOQVIST, Sofia; NASINYAMA, George William; WAISWA, Charles; IKWAP, Kokas; ROCK, Kim; LINDAHL, Elisabeth; MAGNUSSON, Ulf; ERUME, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is a key zoonosis of major public health, animal welfare and economic significance, and is endemic in livestock in Uganda. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out to estimate the sero-prevalence of brucellosis and identify factors associated with sero-positivity in cattle in urban and peri-urban Gulu and Soroti towns of Northern and Eastern Uganda, respectively. A total of 1007 sera and data on biologically plausible risk factors from 166 herds and their spatial locations, were collected from cattle reared in urban and peri-urban Gulu and Soroti towns of Uganda. The sera were analyzed using indirect ELISA and sero-positive reactors confirmed by competitive ELISA. Multivariable models were used to investigate for risk factors. The overall animal-level and herd-level sero-prevalence was 7.5% (76/1007, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 6.15–9.4%) and 27.1% (45/166, 95% CI: 20.9–34.3%), respectively. Herd-level sero-prevalence was significantly (P<0.001) higher in Soroti than Gulu. In Gulu town, sero-positivity increased with an increase in herd size (P=0.03) and age (P=0.002), and was higher in cattle brought in from western Uganda (P<0.0001). In Soroti town, introduction of new cattle into a herd was significantly (P=0.027) associated with herd sero-positivity. There was a geographically differential risk (clustering) of Brucella sero- positivity in herds in Soroti, while sero-positivity was homogeneously distributed in Gulu. The data highlight brucellosis occurrence and major risk factors for its transmission in cattle in urban and peri-urban areas. PMID:25716482

  6. Prevalence of and factors associated with Brucella sero-positivity in cattle in urban and peri-urban Gulu and Soroti towns of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mugizi, Denis Rwabiita; Boqvist, Sofia; Nasinyama, George William; Waiswa, Charles; Ikwap, Kokas; Rock, Kim; Lindahl, Elisabeth; Magnusson, Ulf; Erume, Joseph

    2015-05-01

    Brucellosis is a key zoonosis of major public health, animal welfare and economic significance, and is endemic in livestock in Uganda. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out to estimate the sero-prevalence of brucellosis and identify factors associated with sero-positivity in cattle in urban and peri-urban Gulu and Soroti towns of Northern and Eastern Uganda, respectively. A total of 1007 sera and data on biologically plausible risk factors from 166 herds and their spatial locations, were collected from cattle reared in urban and peri-urban Gulu and Soroti towns of Uganda. The sera were analyzed using indirect ELISA and sero-positive reactors confirmed by competitive ELISA. Multivariable models were used to investigate for risk factors. The overall animal-level and herd-level sero-prevalence was 7.5% (76/1007, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 6.15-9.4%) and 27.1% (45/166, 95% CI: 20.9-34.3%), respectively. Herd-level sero-prevalence was significantly (P<0.001) higher in Soroti than Gulu. In Gulu town, sero-positivity increased with an increase in herd size (P=0.03) and age (P=0.002), and was higher in cattle brought in from western Uganda (P<0.0001). In Soroti town, introduction of new cattle into a herd was significantly (P=0.027) associated with herd sero-positivity. There was a geographically differential risk (clustering) of Brucella sero- positivity in herds in Soroti, while sero-positivity was homogeneously distributed in Gulu. The data highlight brucellosis occurrence and major risk factors for its transmission in cattle in urban and peri-urban areas. PMID:25716482

  7. Breeding for resistance to Boophilus microplus in Australian Illawarra Shorthorn and Brahman x Australian Illawarra Shorthorn cattle.

    PubMed

    Utech, K B; Wharton, R H

    1982-02-01

    Breeding for resistance to the cattle tick Boophilus microplus was undertaken in a herd of Australian Illawarra Shorthorn (AIS) cattle from 1961 to 1978 and in a herd of Braham x AIS cattle from 1970 to 1979. Breeder cows and their progeny were assessed for tick resistance during October to January. Resistance levels were determined as the average percentage mortality of female ticks from two artificial infestations with cohorts of c 20,000 larvae. Resistance increased from 89.2% to 99% in the AIS breeding herd, as a result of the yearly introductions of more resistant individuals and culling of less resistant ones. Concurrently resistance in the AIS progeny increased from 93.7% to 97.7%, thus demonstrating that the selection and breeding of the cows and bulls resulted in genetic improvement in the resistance of the progeny. Milk production tests on heifers from the selected AIS herd during 1975 to 79 indicated that selection for tick resistance did not select against milk production. Resistance of the Brahman x AIS increased from 98.4% to 99.3% in the breeding herd and from 97.6% to 99.6% in the progeny. Female calves of both breeds were more resistant than males. PMID:7082236

  8. Bovine tuberculosis in Northern Ireland: Risk factors associated with duration and recurrence of chronic herd breakdowns.

    PubMed

    Doyle, L P; Courcier, E A; Gordon, A W; O'Hagan, M J H; Menzies, F D

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated 8058 bovine tuberculosis (bTB) confirmed breakdowns occurring in Northern Ireland during the period 2005-2010 inclusive. The methodology used two case-control studies; one determined the risk factors associated with long duration bTB breakdowns and the other with recurrent bTB breakdowns. The analyses were implemented using a generalized linear mixed model analysis with variables relating to repeated measures on herds, locality and year of breakdown included as random effects. The case definition for long duration breakdowns (n=679) was any confirmed bTB disclosure with duration greater than one year. The case definition for recurrent breakdowns (n=657) was any confirmed bTB disclosure with duration less than one year, followed by two or more bTB breakdowns within 2 years from the end of the initial bTB breakdown. In the multivariable model based on duration of bTB breakdowns, significant factors were local area bTB prevalence, number of associated cattle herds, total years restricted in the previous five years, total number of bTB reactors during the breakdown and the presence of a bTB lesion at routine slaughter (LRS). The number of bTB reactors at the disclosing test was also significant; with increased numbers associated to reduced odds of a long duration breakdown. In the second analysis based on recurrence of bTB breakdowns, high local area prevalence, movement intensity into the herd, total years restricted in the previous five years, herd size, total number of TB reactors during the restricted breakdown and presence of a LRS were all statistically significant. PMID:27544245

  9. Evidence of birth seasonality and clustering of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in US dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Zare, Y; Shook, G E; Collins, M T; Kirkpatrick, B W

    2013-11-01

    Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) is a contagious intestinal infection of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). In cattle, young calves are at the highest risk for acquiring the infection which occurs mainly through ingestion of MAP from contaminated milk, colostrum and feces or environmental contacts. Data consisted of birth dates and ELISA results of 8000 mature cows from 24 Jersey herds from throughout the US and 4 Wisconsin Holstein herds. Some herds also had complete fecal culture (FC) results. The first infection (case) definition (CD1) relied on only ELISA results. A second case definition (CD2) was used in which results of both ELISA and FC tests were considered: animals testing positive to either test were considered "test-positives" and cows testing negative to ELISA or to both ELISA and FC were regarded as "test-negatives". Objective one was to assess seasonality in birth of MAP-infected animals. The effects of age, breed, herd and season of birth (expressed as the sine and cosine functions of birth days within year) were examined using logistic regression. Age was significantly associated with the MAP infection status of dairy cows for both CDs (OR=1.11; 95% CI 1.09, 1.14; P<0.0001 for CD1; OR=1.16; 95% CI 1.08, 1.24; P<0.0001 for CD2). Season of birth had a significant effect on the risk of MAP infection based on CD1 (OR=0.79; 95% CI 0.71, 0.89; P<0.001 for cosine of birth days) with a peak in summer and a trough in winter based on the fitted model. Objective two was to assess whether test-positive animals were randomly distributed or were clustered by date of birth within herds. A temporal cluster analysis approach (scan statistic) implemented in SaTScan software was used for each case definition to detect clusters of birth cohorts using birthdates. Results identified significant clustering of MAP infection cases for CD1 in multiple herds (P<0.05). These results necessitate matching cases and controls of MAP

  10. Improving cow herd production through early weaning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early weaning, in spring calving production systems, has intrigued many producers to consider this alternative management practice especially during extended droughts and as a tool to promote stayability within a cow herd for young developing cows. The first objective of this study was to evaluate ...

  11. An interpretive review of selective sweep studies in Bos taurus cattle populations: identification of unique and shared selection signals across breeds

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Gil, Beatriz; Arranz, Juan J.; Wiener, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    This review compiles the results of 21 genomic studies of European Bos taurus breeds and thus provides a general picture of the selection signatures in taurine cattle identified by genome-wide selection-mapping scans. By performing a comprehensive summary of the results reported in the literature, we compiled a list of 1049 selection sweeps described across 37 cattle breeds (17 beef breeds, 14 dairy breeds, and 6 dual-purpose breeds), and four different beef-vs.-dairy comparisons, which we subsequently grouped into core selective sweep (CSS) regions, defined as consecutive signals within 1 Mb of each other. We defined a total of 409 CSSs across the 29 bovine autosomes, 232 (57%) of which were associated with a single-breed (Single-breed CSSs), 134 CSSs (33%) were associated with a limited number of breeds (Two-to-Four-breed CSSs) and 39 CSSs (9%) were associated with five or more breeds (Multi-breed CSSs). For each CSS, we performed a candidate gene survey that identified 291 genes within the CSS intervals (from the total list of 5183 BioMart-extracted genes) linked to dairy and meat production, stature, and coat color traits. A complementary functional enrichment analysis of the CSS positional candidates highlighted other genes related to pathways underlying behavior, immune response, and reproductive traits. The Single-breed CSSs revealed an over-representation of genes related to dairy and beef production, this was further supported by over-representation of production-related pathway terms in these regions based on a functional enrichment analysis. Overall, this review provides a comparative map of the selection sweeps reported in European cattle breeds and presents for the first time a characterization of the selection sweeps that are found in individual breeds. Based on their uniqueness, these breed-specific signals could be considered as “divergence signals,” which may be useful in characterizing and protecting livestock genetic diversity. PMID:26029239

  12. Degnala disease in buffaloes and cattle: epidemiological investigations.

    PubMed

    Kalra, D S; Bhatia, K C

    1990-01-01

    An attempt was made to identify the epizootiological features associated with Degnala disease occurring in the rice-growing areas of the Indian subcontinent and believed to be associated with mycotoxins. Epizootiological studies were made on disease outbreaks involving 370 herds from 136 villages of Haryana, India, during the years 1968 to 1978. They revealed that the disease, besides being seasonal and regional in occurrence, has a tendency to confine itself to a particular herd or field. All the disease outbreaks occurred during the winter and were associated with the feeding of rice straw. The incidence of the disease, varied from year to year, assuming serious proportions in certain years. The morbidity and mortality rates were 61.61% and 13.93%, respectively, in buffaloes and 13.49% and 2.41% in cattle, with no sex and age differences. Factors such as housing conditions of animals, shape of rice straw stacks, feeding practices, and use of pesticides and fertilizers had no bearing on the occurrence of the disease. Inadequate postharvest drying of rice plants before stacking and stacking at low-lying places or near water channels were the factors identified with occurrence of the disease. In the case of affected herds, 72.07% of the owners stacked rice straw immediately after harvesting, without allowing the plants to dry adequately, versus 10.60% of the owners of unaffected herds. Similarly, 72.97% of the farmers owning affected herds were found to stack rice straw either in low-lying areas or near canals and other water channels, versus 22.73% of the farmers of control herds. PMID:2254859

  13. Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis and Bovine Leukemia Virus Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors in Commercial Dairy and Beef Cattle in Northern and Northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wu-Wen; Lv, Wen-Fa; Cong, Wei; Meng, Qing-Feng; Wang, Chun-Feng; Shan, Xiao-Feng; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) are important pathogens, commonly responsible for economical loss to cattle farms all over the world, yet their epidemiology in commercial dairy and beef cattle in China is still unknown. Thus, from September 2013 to December 2014, a large-scale seroprevalence study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and identify herd-level risk factors associated with MAP and BLV infection. The source sample was 3674 cattle from 113 herds in northern and northeastern China. Antibodies against MAP and BLV were detected using ELISA tests. At animal-level, the seroprevalence of antibodies against MAP and BLV was 11.79% (433/3674) and 18.29% (672/3674), respectively. At herd-level, the seroprevalence of antibodies against MAP and BLV was 20.35% and 21.24% (24/113), respectively. Herd size was identified to be associated with MAP infection while herd size and presence of cattle introduced from other farms were significantly associated with BLV infection. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and improve the knowledge of the epidemiology of these two pathogens in these regions and elsewhere in China. PMID:26504798

  14. Dynamics of Cattle Production in Brazil.

    PubMed

    McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim; Formenton, Bruna Krummenauer; Hermuche, Potira Meirelles; Carvalho, Osmar Abílio de; Guimarães, RenatoFontes; Gianezini, Miguelangelo; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Lampert, Vinícius do Nascimento; Zago, Daniele; Neto, José Braccini

    2016-01-01

    Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region) to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region). This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, "traditional" cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates. PMID:26814797

  15. Dynamics of Cattle Production in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim; Formenton, Bruna Krummenauer; Hermuche, Potira Meirelles; de Carvalho, Osmar Abílio; Guimarães, RenatoFontes; Gianezini, Miguelangelo; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Lampert, Vinícius do Nascimento; Zago, Daniele; Neto, José Braccini

    2016-01-01

    Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region) to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region). This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, “traditional” cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates. PMID:26814797

  16. Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed) poisoning in cattle.

    PubMed

    Casteel, S W; Johnson, G C; Miller, M A; Chudomelka, H J; Cupps, D E; Haskins, H E; Gosser, H S

    1994-04-01

    Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed)-induced nephrotoxicity was diagnosed in 6 herds of cattle from 3 counties in southwest Missouri. Forty-eight cows and calves died and another 35 were clinically affected. Serum urea nitrogen concentration, determined in 4 affected calves, was between 55 and 284 mg/dl, and serum creatinine concentration was between 6.7 and 29.9 mg/dl. Postmortem examination of affected cows and calves revealed amber-colored fluid in peritoneal cavities and retroperitoneal perirenal edema. Histologic examination of kidney sections revealed widespread degeneration and necrosis of proximal and distal tubules. Compared with archived kidney sections from cattle with Quercus (oak) poisoning, distal renal tubules were more severely affected. Oak poisoning also was associated with a higher prevalence of interstitial fibrosis and renal tubular oxalosis. We concluded that ingestion of the aerial and leafy portions of pigweed by cattle in drought situations does not necessarily lead to nitrate-induced sudden death associated with consumption of the nitrate-containing stems. PMID:8045809

  17. Standardized analysis of German cattle mortality using national register data.

    PubMed

    Pannwitz, Gunter

    2015-03-01

    In a retrospective cohort study of national register data, 1946 randomly selected holdings, with 286,912 individual cattle accumulating 170,416 animal-years were analyzed. The sample was considered to represent the national herd in Germany 2012. Within each holding, individual cattle records were stratified by current age (≤21 days, 3-6 weeks, 6-12 weeks, 3-6 months, 6-12 months, 1-2, 2-4, 4-8, and >8 years), sex, breed (intensive milk, less intensive milk, and beef), and mean monthly air temperature (<10°C and ≥10°C). Holdings were categorized by size (<100 and ≥100 animal-years), calving rate, slaughter rate, and federal state. 8027 on-site deaths (excluding slaughter for human consumption) were recorded, with cattle aged <6 months, 6-24 months, and >2 years contributing 50.0%, 15.4%, and 34.6% of deaths, respectively. Poisson regression and generalized estimating equations (gee) accounting for intra-herd clustering were used to model the number of deaths. In both models, most age bands differed significantly, with highest rates in calves ≤21 days, falling to lowest rates in 1-2 year olds, and rising again thereafter in females. Males exhibited higher mortality than females from birth to 2 years. All breed categories differed significantly with lowest rates in beef and highest in intensive milk breeds. Larger holdings, temperatures ≤10°C, calving rates >0-0.5 per animal year were all associated with higher mortality. Via interaction, intensive and less intensive milk breed cattle aging 6 weeks to 6 months and intensive milk breed females >4 years were associated with higher mortality. There were no significant differences between federal states and slaughter rates. The standardized deviations of modeled dead cattle numbers from occurred deaths per calendar year per holding were calculated and a 95% reference range of deviations constructed. This approach makes a standardized active monitoring and surveillance system regardless of herd size possible

  18. Identification of Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase (SCD) Gene Interactions in Korean Native Cattle Based on the Multifactor-dimensionality Reduction Method

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Dong-yep; Jin, Me-hyun; Lee, Yoon-seok; Ha, Jae-jung; Kim, Byung-ki; Yeo, Jung-sou; Lee, Jea-young

    2013-01-01

    Fat quality is determined by the composition of fatty acids. Genetic relationships between this composition and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the stearoyl-CoA desaturase1 (SCD1) gene were examined using 513 Korean native cattle. Single and epistatic effects of 7 SNP genetic variations were investigated, and the multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method was used to investigate gene interactions in terms of oleic acid (C18:1), mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and marbling score (MS). The g.6850+77 A>G and g.14047 C>T SNP interactions were identified as the statistically optimal combination (C18:1, MUFAs and MS permutation p-values were 0.000, 0.000 and 0.001 respectively) of two-way gene interactions. The interaction effects of g.6850+77 A>G, g.10213 T>C and g.14047 C>T reflected the highest training-balanced accuracy (63.76%, 64.70% and 61.85% respectively) and was better than the individual effects for C18:1, MUFAs and MS. In addition, the superior genotype groups were AATTCC, AGTTCC, GGTCCC, AGTCCT, GGCCCT and AGCCTT. These results suggest that the selected SNP combination of the SCD1 gene and superior genotype groups can provide useful inferences for the improvement of the fatty acid composition in Korean native cattle. PMID:25049903

  19. Identification of a null allele in genetic tests for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency in Pakistani Bos indicus × Bos taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    Nasreen, Fozia; Malik, Naveed A; Qureshi, Javed A; Raadsma, Herman W; Tammen, Imke

    2012-12-01

    Two clinically healthy mature Pakistani Bos indicus × Bos taurus cattle were genotyped as homozygous affected for the lethal immunodeficiency disorder bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) using previously described PCR-RFLP based DNA tests which was confirmed by sequencing. Sequencing of Bos taurus and B. indicus × B. taurus genomic DNA surrounding the disease causing mutation (c.383A > G) in the ITGB2 gene identified numerous variations in exonic and intronic regions within and between species, including substantial variation in primer annealing sites for three PCR-RFLP tests for one of the B. indicus allelic variants. These variations in the primer annealing sites resulted in a null allele in the DNA tests causing the misdiagnosis of some heterozygous B. taurus × B. indicus cattle to be classified as homozygous affected. New primers were designed and a modified test was developed which simultaneously identified the disease mutation and the Pakistani B. indicus allelic variant associated with the null allele in the previous test. PMID:22374219

  20. MLVA genotyping of Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus isolates from different animal species and humans and identification of Brucella suis vaccine strain S2 from cattle in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hai; Wang, Heng; Xu, Liqing; Hu, Guiying; Ma, Junying; Xiao, Pei; Fan, Weixing; Di, Dongdong; Tian, Guozhong; Fan, Mengguang; Mi, Jingchuan; Yu, Ruiping; Song, Litao; Zhao, Hongyan; Piao, Dongri; Cui, Buyun

    2013-01-01

    In China, brucellosis is an endemic disease and the main sources of brucellosis in animals and humans are infected sheep, cattle and swine. Brucella melitensis (biovars 1 and 3) is the predominant species, associated with sporadic cases and outbreak in humans. Isolates of B. abortus, primarily biovars 1 and 3, and B. suis biovars 1 and 3 are also associated with sporadic human brucellosis. In this study, the genetic profiles of B. melitensis and B. abortus isolates from humans and animals were analyzed and compared by multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). Among the B. melitensis isolates, the majority (74/82) belonged to MLVA8 genotype 42, clustering in the 'East Mediterranean' group. Two B. melitensis biovar 1 genotype 47 isolates, belonging to the 'Americas' group, were recovered; both were from the Himalayan blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur, a wild animal). The majority of B. abortus isolates (51/70) were biovar 3, genotype 36. Ten B. suis biovar 1 field isolates, including seven outbreak isolates recovered from a cattle farm in Inner Mongolia, were genetically indistinguishable from the vaccine strain S2, based on MLVA cluster analysis. MLVA analysis provided important information for epidemiological trace-back. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to associate Brucella cross-infection with the vaccine strain S2 based on molecular comparison of recovered isolates to the vaccine strain. MLVA typing could be an essential assay to improve brucellosis surveillance and control programs. PMID:24124546

  1. Control of bovine trypanosomosis by restricted application of insecticides to cattle using footbaths.

    PubMed

    Bouyer, J; Stachurski, F; Gouro, A S; Lancelot, R

    2009-05-12

    African animal trypanosomoses are the main parasitological constraints to livestock production in many sub-Saharan African countries infested with tsetse flies. A prospective survey was implemented in Dafinso (Burkina Faso) to assess the effect of deltamethrin 0.005% (Vectocid(ND), CEVA Santé Animale) impregnation of cattle on trypanosomes transmission in cattle. Two herds were involved in the survey. They were watered at two different waterpoints located on the same river harboring a Guinean riparian forest infested with two different species of tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae), Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank and G. tachinoides Westwood. Animals belonging to one of the herds were impregnated with deltamethrin applied with a footbath whereas the other herd was used as control. The overall incidence of cattle trypanosomoses was reduced (p=0.01) from 0.76 (control group) to 0.11 (footbath-treated group). A positive effect of the footbath treatment on packed-cell volume was observed (p<0.001). The conditions requested to use a footbath to prevent cattle trypanosomoses are discussed. PMID:19231084

  2. Alternative programs for synchronizing and resynchronizing ovulation in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Bó, Gabriel A; de la Mata, José Javier; Baruselli, Pietro S; Menchaca, Alejo

    2016-07-01

    Fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) has been regarded as the most useful method to increase the number of cows inseminated in a given herd. The main treatments for FTAI in beef cattle are based on the use of progesterone-releasing devices and GnRH or estradiol to synchronize follicle wave emergence, with a mean pregnancy per AI (P/AI) around 50%. However, more recent protocols based on GnRH (named 5-day Co-Synch) or estradiol (named J-Synch) that reduce the period of progesterone device insertion and extend the period from device removal to FTAI have been reported to improve P/AI in beef cattle. Furthermore, treatments to resynchronize ovulation for a second FTAI in nonpregnant cows have provided the opportunity to do sequential inseminations and achieve high P/AI in a breeding season, reducing or even eliminating the need for clean-up bulls. In summary, FTAI protocols have facilitated the widespread application of AI in beef cattle, primarily by eliminating the necessity of estrus detection in beef herds. PMID:27180326

  3. Epidemiological Investigation of Bovine Tuberculosis Herd Breakdowns in Spain 2009/2011

    PubMed Central

    Guta, Sintayehu; Casal, Jordi; Napp, Sebastian; Saez, Jose Luis; Garcia-Saenz, Ariadna; Perez de Val, Bernat; Romero, Beatriz; Alvarez, Julio; Allepuz, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the most likely cause of 687 bovine tuberculosis (bTB) breakdowns detected in Spain between 2009 and 2011 (i.e., 22% of the total number of breakdowns detected during this period). Seven possible causes were considered: i) residual infection; ii) introduction of infected cattle from other herds; iii) sharing of pastures with infected herds; iv) contiguous spread from infected neighbor herds; v) presence of infected goats in the farm; vi) interaction with wildlife reservoirs and vii) contact with an infected human. For each possible cause a decision tree was developed and key questions were included in each of them. Answers to these key questions lead to different events within each decision tree. In order to assess the likelihood of occurrence of the different events a qualitative risk assessment approach was used. For this purpose, an expert opinion workshop was organized and ordinal values, ranging from 0 to 9 (i.e., null to very high likelihood of occurrence) were assigned. The analysis identified residual infection as the most frequent cause of bTB breakdowns (22.3%; 95%CI: 19.4–25.6), followed by interaction with wildlife reservoirs (13.1%; 95%CI: 10.8–15.8). The introduction of infected cattle, sharing of pastures and contiguous spread from infected neighbour herds were also identified as relevant causes. In 41.6% (95%CI: 38.0–45.4) of the breakdowns the origin of infection remained unknown. Veterinary officers conducting bTB breakdown investigations have to state their opinion about the possible cause of each breakdown. Comparison between the results of our analysis and the opinion from veterinary officers revealed a slight concordance. This slight agreement might reflect a lack of harmonized criteria to assess the most likely cause of bTB breakdowns as well as different perceptions about the importance of the possible causes. This is especially relevant in the case of the role of wildlife reservoirs. PMID:25127254

  4. Stochastic modeling of imperfect Salmonella vaccines in an adult dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhao; Gröhn, Yrjö T; Smith, Rebecca L; Karns, Jeffrey S; Hovingh, Ernest; Schukken, Ynte H

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella is a major cause of bacterial foodborne disease. Human salmonellosis results in significant public health concerns and a considerable economic burden. Dairy cattle are recognized as a key source of several Salmonella serovars that are a threat to human health. To lower the risk of Salmonella infection, reduction of Salmonella prevalence in dairy cattle is important. Vaccination as a control measure has been applied for reduction of preharvest Salmonella prevalence on dairy farms. Salmonella vaccines are usually imperfect (i.e., vaccines may provide a partial protection for susceptible animals, reduce the infectiousness and shedding level, shorten the infectious period of infected animals, and/or curb the number of clinical cases), and evaluation of the potential impacts of imperfect Salmonella vaccines at the farm level is valuable to design effective intervention strategies. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of imperfect Salmonella vaccines on the stochastic transmission dynamics in an adult dairy herd. To this end, we developed a semi-stochastic and individual-based continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) vaccination model with both direct and indirect transmission, and applied the CTMC vaccination model to Salmonella Cerro transmission in an adult dairy herd. Our results show that vaccines shortening the infectious period are most effective in reducing prevalence, and vaccines decreasing host susceptibility are most effective in reducing the outbreak size. Vaccines with multiple moderate efficacies may have the same effectiveness as vaccines with a single high efficacy in reducing prevalence, time to extinction, and outbreak size. Although the environment component has negligible contributions to the prevalence, time to extinction, and outbreak size for Salmonella Cerro in the herd, the relative importance of environment component was not assessed. This study indicates that an effective vaccination program against Salmonella Cerro

  5. Bull breeding soundness, semen evaluation and cattle productivity.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, P J; McPherson, F J

    2016-06-01

    The bull breeding soundness evaluation (BBSE) has evolved as a cost-effective veterinary procedure which provides benefits such as risk-reduction and improvements in strategic bull usage, herd fertility and economics. Semen evaluation is an important component of the BBSE when performed appropriately; a consideration that is increasingly addressed by third party andrology laboratories. The combination of competent physical/reproductive exams (including scrotal circumference measurements) and semen evaluations can contribute greatly to the fertility and economics of individual herds as well as adding to understanding of those factors which affect cattle fertility. Despite such advantages, there remain challenges in achieving full acceptance of BBSEs, particularly by the dairy industry and in developing countries. PMID:27091815

  6. Seroepidemiology of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in cattle and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jinhai; Xia, Zhaofei; Liu, Qun; Liu, Jing; Ding, Jun; Zhang, Wei

    2007-01-19

    A seroepidemiological survey of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in cattle and water buffaloes was carried out in the People's Republic of China. Serum samples were obtained from dairy (n=262, 9 herds in 9 provinces) and beef cattle (n=10, 1 herd) and water buffaloes (n=40) in China. All sera were tested for antibodies to N. caninum and T. gondii by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an indirect agglutination test (IAT), respectively. The overall seroprevalence of N. caninum in dairy cattle was 17.2% (45/262), and the herds seroprevalence of N. caninum was 88.9% (8/9), and antibodies to T. gondii were present in 6 cows (2.3%). None of the cows had antibodies against both T. gondii and N. caninum. Antibodies to T. gondii or N. caninum were not found in beef cattle or water buffaloes. The seroprevalence of N. caninum in aborting cows (20.2%) was higher than that in non-aborting cows (16.6%) with an odds ratio of 1.26 (95% CI, 0.54-2.95), but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). There was no apparent association of N. caninum seropositivity with age or number of pregnancies. This is the first report on the seroprevalence of N. caninum in cattle and water buffaloes in China. PMID:17010521

  7. Identification of epitopes recognised by mucosal CD4(+) T-cell populations from cattle experimentally colonised with Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Corbishley, Alexander; Connelley, Timothy K; Wolfson, Eliza B; Ballingall, Keith; Beckett, Amy E; Gally, David L; McNeilly, Tom N

    2016-01-01

    Vaccines targeting enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 shedding in cattle are only partially protective. The correlates of protection of these vaccines are unknown, but it is probable that they reduce bacterial adherence at the mucosal surface via the induction of blocking antibodies. Recent studies have indicated a role for cellular immunity in cattle during colonisation, providing an impetus to understand the bacterial epitopes recognised during this response. This study mapped the epitopes of 16 EHEC O157:H7 proteins recognised by rectal lymph node CD4(+) T-cells from calves colonised with Shiga toxin producing EHEC O157:H7 strains. 20 CD4(+) T-cell epitopes specific to E. coli from 7 of the proteins were identified. The highly conserved N-terminal region of Intimin, including the signal peptide, was consistently recognised by mucosal CD4(+) T-cell populations from multiple animals of different major histocompatibility complex class II haplotypes. These T-cell epitopes are missing from many Intimin constructs used in published vaccine trials, but are relatively conserved across a range of EHEC serotypes, offering the potential to develop cross protective vaccines. Antibodies recognising H7 flagellin have been consistently identified in colonised calves; however CD4(+) T-cell epitopes from H7 flagellin were not identified in this study, suggesting that H7 flagellin may act as a T-cell independent antigen. This is the first time that the epitopes recognised by CD4(+) T-cells following colonisation with an attaching and effacing pathogen have been characterised in any species. The findings have implications for the design of antigens used in the next generation of EHEC O157:H7 vaccines. PMID:27590451

  8. Identification of Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin-specific sequences by subtractive hybridization and analysis of their role in intestinal colonization and systemic translocation in cattle.

    PubMed

    Pullinger, Gillian D; Dziva, Francis; Charleston, Bryan; Wallis, Timothy S; Stevens, Mark P

    2008-11-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin is a host-restricted serovar associated with typhoidal disease in cattle. In contrast, the fowl-associated serovar S. enterica serovar Gallinarum is avirulent in calves, yet it invades ileal mucosa and induces enteritis at levels comparable to those induced by S. enterica serovar Dublin. Suppression subtractive hybridization was employed to identify S. enterica serovar Dublin strain SD3246 genes absent from S. enterica serovar Gallinarum strain SG9. Forty-one S. enterica serovar Dublin fragments were cloned and sequenced. Among these, 24 mobile-element-associated genes were identified, and 12 clones exhibited similarity with sequences of known or predicted function in other serovars. Three S. enterica serovar Dublin-specific regions were homologous to regions from the genome of Enterobacter sp. strain 638. Sequencing of fragments adjacent to these three sequences revealed the presence of a 21-kb genomic island, designated S. enterica serovar Dublin island 1 (SDI-1). PCR analysis and Southern blotting showed that SDI-1 is highly conserved within S. enterica serovar Dublin isolates but rarely found in other serovars. To probe the role of genes identified by subtractive hybridization in vivo, 24 signature-tagged S. enterica serovar Dublin SD3246 mutants lacking loci not present in Salmonella serovar Gallinarum SG9 were created and screened by oral challenge of cattle. Though attenuation of tagged SG9 and SD3246 Salmonella pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1) and SPI-2 mutant strains was detected, no obvious defects of these 24 mutants were detected. Subsequently, a DeltaSDI-1 mutant was found to exhibit weak but significant attenuation compared with the parent strain in coinfection of calves. SDI-1 mutation did not impair invasion, intramacrophage survival, or virulence in mice, implying that SDI-1 does not influence fitness per se and may act in a host-specific manner. PMID:18794283

  9. MLVA Genotyping of Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus Isolates from Different Animal Species and Humans and Identification of Brucella suis Vaccine Strain S2 from Cattle in China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liqing; Hu, Guiying; Ma, Junying; Xiao, Pei; Fan, Weixing; Di, Dongdong; Tian, Guozhong; Fan, Mengguang; Mi, Jingchuan; Yu, Ruiping; Song, Litao; Zhao, Hongyan; Piao, Dongri; Cui, Buyun

    2013-01-01

    In China, brucellosis is an endemic disease and the main sources of brucellosis in animals and humans are infected sheep, cattle and swine. Brucella melitensis (biovars 1 and 3) is the predominant species, associated with sporadic cases and outbreak in humans. Isolates of B. abortus, primarily biovars 1 and 3, and B. suis biovars 1 and 3 are also associated with sporadic human brucellosis. In this study, the genetic profiles of B. melitensis and B. abortus isolates from humans and animals were analyzed and compared by multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). Among the B. melitensis isolates, the majority (74/82) belonged to MLVA8 genotype 42, clustering in the ‘East Mediterranean’ group. Two B. melitensis biovar 1 genotype 47 isolates, belonging to the ‘Americas’ group, were recovered; both were from the Himalayan blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur, a wild animal). The majority of B. abortus isolates (51/70) were biovar 3, genotype 36. Ten B. suis biovar 1 field isolates, including seven outbreak isolates recovered from a cattle farm in Inner Mongolia, were genetically indistinguishable from the vaccine strain S2, based on MLVA cluster analysis. MLVA analysis provided important information for epidemiological trace-back. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to associate Brucella cross-infection with the vaccine strain S2 based on molecular comparison of recovered isolates to the vaccine strain. MLVA typing could be an essential assay to improve brucellosis surveillance and control programs. PMID:24124546

  10. Molecular survey of trichostrongyle nematodes in a Bison bison herd experiencing clinical parasitism, and effects of avermectin treatment.

    PubMed

    Eljaki, A A; Al Kappany, Y M; Grosz, D D; Smart, A J; Hildreth, M B

    2016-08-30

    North American bison (Bison bison) producers face many challenges, including the potential clinical and economics problems caused by trichostrongyle nematodes within their herds. Little is known about the prevalence, intensity, geographical distribution and clinical significance of these parasites in commercial bison herds, even from regions where bison production has become popular. This study involved a large herd of bison from eastern South Dakota that was experiencing clinical parasitism due to a temporary over-stocking problem. After documenting fecal egg counts (FECs) and trichostrongyle genera present among the 3 main age-categories (i.e. adults, yearlings, calves) of bison during this heavily infected grazing season, the effects of doramectin treatment on the different age groups was also evaluated. This is the first bison study using PCR to identify genera of trichostrongyles in fecal samples. Virtually all 103 bison fecal samples from all 3 age classes were shedding trichostrongyle eggs by the end of the season, and the mean FECs were 34 eggs/g (EPG) among the cows, 125 EPG in the yearlings, and 186 EGP among calves. Based upon this heavily-infected herd, there is evidence that the susceptibility of bison to trichostrongyles is more similar to beef cattle than to sheep. Other parasites such as Moniezia, Nematodirus, Trichuris, and coccidians were also identified in these samples. All but 3 of the 51 samples analyzed with PCR shown at least 1 trichostrongyle genera. Ostertagia was detected in 68.6% of the samples, Cooperia in 80.39%, Haemonchus in at least 73% and Trichostrongylus in 16% of the herd. Most commonly, bison were infected with combinations of Haemonchus/Ostertagia/Cooperia. After treatment with doramectin, the mean FECs dropped by 99.9% for all of the bison age classes. PMID:27523937

  11. Serological evidence implicating Neospora species as a cause of abortion in British cattle.

    PubMed

    Trees, A J; Guy, F; Low, J C; Roberts, L; Buxton, D; Dubey, J P

    1994-04-16

    By means of an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), using in vitro cultured parasites as antigen, antibodies to Neospora species at titres > or = 1/1280 were found in 11 of 120 Scottish cattle that had recently aborted but in only one of 97 cattle from herds in which there had been no recent abortions (P < 0.01). The specificity of the antibodies was confirmed by the lack of cross reactivity between samples with high titres to Neospora and toxoplasma antigen in a direct agglutination test, and by the absence of reactivity at > or = 1/640 in the IFAT of convalescent sera from cattle infected experimentally with Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis cruzi, Eimeria bovis, E alabamensis, Cryptosporidium parvum and Babesia divergens. These results demonstrate that Neospora species infection occurs commonly in aborting cattle in Britain, and that the IFAT may be a useful tool for investigating the infection. PMID:8036769

  12. Serological survey of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic cattle breeds (Bos indicus) of North-central Nigeria: Potential risk factors and zoonotic implications.

    PubMed

    Alhaji, N B; Wungak, Y S; Bertu, W J

    2016-01-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic herds in the 3 agro-ecological zones of Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and August 2013. A total of 672 cattle in 113 herds were screened for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and confirmed by Lateral flow Assay (LFA). Data on herd characteristics and zoonotic factors were collected using structured questionnaire administered on Fulani herd owners. Factors associated with Brucella infection were tested using Chi-square test and multivariable logistic model. The overall cattle-level seroprevalence was 1.9% (95% CI: 1.1-3.2) with highest in agro-zone C (3.2%). Herd-level seroprevalence was 9.7% (95% CI: 5.23-16.29) and highest in agro-zone C (13.5%). Sex and agro-ecological zones were significantly (P<0.006 and P<0.01, respectively) associated with Brucella abortus seropositivity. Herd composition, abortion in herd, exchange of bulls for mating, introduction of new cattle, and socio-cultural practices were significantly associated with brucellosis occurrence. Inhalation of droplets from milk of infected cows, and drinking raw milk were less likely [OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.09-0.82 and OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.08-0.99, respectively] not to predisposed to brucellosis in humans. Eating infected raw meat, and contact with infected placenta were more likely [OR 7.49; 95% CI: 2.06-28.32 and OR 5.74; 95% CI: 1.78-18.47, respectively] to be risks for the disease in humans. These results highlighted the important risk factors for bovine brucellosis in Fulani herds. Thus, brucellosis control programs which take these factors into consideration will be beneficial. PMID:26464048

  13. Seroprevalence of brucellosis and its associated risk factors in cattle from smallholder dairy farms in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Matope, Gift; Bhebhe, Evison; Muma, John Bwalya; Oloya, James; Madekurozwa, Rachel L; Lund, Arve; Skjerve, Eystein

    2011-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence of brucellosis and the associated risk factors in cattle from smallholder dairy farms in Gokwe, Marirangwe, Mushagashe, Nharira, Rusitu and Wedza areas of Zimbabwe. A total of 1,440 cattle from 203 herds were tested serially for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal test and the competitive ELISA. Weighted seroprevalence estimates were calculated and risk factors in individual cattle investigated using logistic regression analysis. The overall individual animal brucellosis seroprevalence was low, with mean of 5.6% (95% confidence interval (CI), 4.4%, 6.8%). Gokwe had the highest individual (12.6%; 95% CI, 3.9%, 21.4%) and herd-level (40.0%; 95% CI, 22.1%, 58.0%), while Wedza had the lowest individual (2.3%; 95% CI, 0%, 5.3%) and herd-level (8.0%; 95% CI, 0.0%, 18.9%) brucellosis seroprevalence, respectively. In individual cattle, the area of origin, age and history of abortion were independently associated with brucellosis seroprevalence. While the seroprevalence was independent of sex, it decreased with increasing age. Cattle 2-4 years old had higher odds (odds ratio (OR) = 3.2; 95% CI, 1.1%, 9.1%) of being seropositive compared to those >7 years. Cows with a history of abortion were more likely to be seropositive (OR = 7.9; 95% CI, 3.1, 20.1) than controls. In conclusion, the area-to-area variation of brucellosis may be linked to ecological factors and differences in management practices. The implementation of stamping out policy, bleeding and testing animals before movement and promoting the use self-contained units are likely to significantly reduce the public health risks associated with Brucella infections in cattle. PMID:21327714

  14. Economic effects of foot and mouth disease outbreaks along the cattle marketing chain in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Baluka, Sylvia Angubua

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Disease outbreaks increase the cost of animal production; reduce milk and beef yield, cattle sales, farmers’ incomes, and enterprise profitability. The study assessed the economic effects of foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks along the cattle marketing chain in selected study districts in Uganda. Materials and Methods: The study combined qualitative and quantitative study designs. Respondents were selected proportionally using simple random sampling from the sampling frame comprising of 224, 173, 291, and 185 farmers for Nakasongola, Nakaseke, Isingiro, and Rakai, respectively. Key informants were selected purposively. Data analysis combined descriptive, modeling, and regression analysis. Data on the socio-economic characteristics and how they influenced FMD outbreaks, cattle markets revenue losses, and the economic cost of the outbreaks were analyzed using descriptive measures including percentages, means, and frequencies. Results: Farmers with small and medium herds incurred higher control costs, whereas large herds experienced the highest milk losses. Total income earned by the actors per month at the processing level reduced by 23%. In Isingiro, bulls and cows were salvage sold at 83% and 88% less market value, i.e., a loss of $196.1 and $1,552.9 in small and medium herds, respectively. Conclusion: All actors along the cattle marketing chain incur losses during FMD outbreaks, but smallholder farmers are most affected. Control and prevention of FMD should remain the responsibility of the government if Uganda is to achieve a disease-free status that is a prerequisite for free movement and operation of cattle markets throughout the year which will boost cattle marketing. PMID:27397974

  15. Short communication: Bulk milk somatic cell penalties in herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement programs.

    PubMed

    Hand, K J; Godkin, M A; Kelton, D F

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of somatic cell count (SCC) monitoring at the cow level through Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) programs on the risk of bulk tank SCC (BTSCC) penalties. For the year 2009, BTSCC for all producers in Ontario were examined, for a total of 2,898 DHI herds, 1,186 non-DHI herds, and 48,250 BTSCC records. Two penalty levels were examined, where BTSCC exceeded 499,000 (P500) and 399,000 (P400) cells/mL. Data were modeled first to determine the odds of a BTSCC exceeding a set penalty threshold and second to determine the odds of incurring a penalty under the Ontario Milk Act. All data were modeled as a generalized mixed model with a binary link function. Random effects included herd, fixed effects included season of BTSCC (summer, May to September, and winter, October to April), total milk shipped per month (L), fat paid per month (kg), protein paid per month (kg), and participation or not in the DHI program. The likelihood of a BTSCC exceeding a penalty threshold in a non-DHI herd compared with a DHI herd was significantly greater than 1 at both penalty levels, where the odds ratios were estimated to be 1.42 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19 to 1.69] and 1.38 (95% CI: 1.25 to 1.54) for P500 and P400, respectively. The likelihood of incurring a BTSCC penalty (where 3 out of 4 consecutive BTSCC exceeded penalty thresholds) was not significantly different at P500; however, it was significantly different for P400, where the odds ratio was estimated to be 1.42 (95% CI: 1.12 to 1.81). PMID:22192202

  16. The bacteriological prevalence of leptospiral infection in cattle and buffaloes in West Malaysia.

    PubMed Central

    Bahaman, A. R.; Ibrahim, A. L.; Stallman, N. D.; Tinniswood, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    A cross-sectional bacteriological survey of cattle in West Malaysia revealed 14.4% (32/222) had leptospiral infection. Isolates were obtained from all except one herd with prevalence of infection in herds ranging from 0-44.8%. A small number of buffalo urine samples were examined and all of them were found to be negative. A leptospiral isolate obtained from a bovine kidney proved to be a new serovar of Leptospira interrogans and the name unipertama was assigned to it. Six other leptospiral serovars were isolated, namely canicola, australis, javanica, ballum, pomona and hardjo. All six serovars were isolated for the first time in cattle in Malaysia. Cattle in Malaysia appear to be the maintenance host for serovar hardjo. The presence of the other serovars in cattle was probably due to contact with the maintenance hosts, pigs for serovar pomona and rodents for the other three serovars. It appears that the epidemiology of leptospiral infection in cattle in Malaysia is similar to that reported overseas. PMID:3356222

  17. [Experience with simple ELISA test systems for Brucella serology in cattle, sheep and goats].

    PubMed

    Sting, R; Ortmann, G

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work was to use the ELISA technique for the serological surveillance for freedom of brucellosis of cattle, sheep and goats. By comparing 28 cattle sera taken after a brucellosis outbreak, 15 bovine sera supplied by the Federal Institute for Health Protection of Consumers and Veterinary Medicine (BgVV) and 497 serum slow agglutination test (SSAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) negative bovine sera from herds officially declared free of brucellosis, the ELISA technique not only shows higher sensitivity as compared to SSAT and CFT but also distinguishes clearly between positive and negative reactions. The serological comparison by SSAT, CFT and ELISA of 615 cattle, 624 sheep and 630 goat sera from herds acknowledged as brucellosis free showed equivalent specificities for both CFT and ELISA. The specificity of the SSAT was much lower, 81.1% in cattle and 96.2% in goat sera. The examination of 5796 cattle, 1337 calf, 5031 sheep and 1796 goat sera demonstrates the advantage of the ELISA technique as routine method. The possible application of the ELISA technique as a screening method for serological brucellosis tests in sheep, goats and possibly also in pigs is discussed. PMID:10684180

  18. First Confirmation of Schmallenberg Virus in Cattle in Spain: Tissue Distribution and Pathology.

    PubMed

    Balseiro, A; Royo, L J; Gómez Antona, A; García Marín, J F

    2015-10-01

    Between January and June 2013, nine stillborn bovine foetuses with congenital malformations from nine cattle herds located in Salamanca (central Spain) were detected. Necropsy was performed on two calves. Pathological lesions together with molecular genetics and serological results allowed a definitive diagnosis: first confirmation of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) infection in cattle in Spain. SBV was detected in different tissues and organic fluids in both animals including blood, suggesting a possible viraemia. The umbilical cord was also positive for the presence of SBV in both animals. The former tissue provides an easy to obtain sample and might be a sample of choice when necropsy is carried out in the field. PMID:24191854

  19. Management of Wisconsin dairy herds enrolled in milk quality teams.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, A C O; Caraviello, D Z; Ruegg, P L

    2005-07-01

    A study was conducted to characterize Wisconsin dairy herds that enrolled in a team-based milk quality improvement program and to assess association of specific management practices with milking efficiency and milk quality. Management and financial data were obtained from dairy farms (n = 180) that participated in the program. Upon enrollment, herds reported a median bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC) of 333,500 cells/mL, an average of 125 lactating cows, and a mean rolling-herd average of 10,100 kg. Many management practices and bulk milk SCC were strongly associated with herd size and facility type. Managers of herds housed in freestall barns adopted more standardized procedures and recommended management practices compared with managers of herds housed in stall barns. Those managers also reported less bulk milk SCC and greater milk yields, and had a tendency for lower prevalence of subclinical mastitis and reduced estimates of the incidence of clinical mastitis. Managers of freestall herds received more quality premiums for milk shipped, estimated that they had fewer financial losses related to mastitis, and reported more efficient milking performance. A more efficient milking performance did not increase estimates of clinical mastitis or bulk milk SCC. In herds having freestalls, frequent training of employees seemed to be the fundamental factor that increased milking efficiency. Bulk milk SCC was positively associated with standard plate count, estimated rate of clinical mastitis, prevalence of subclinical mastitis, numbers of cows culled for mastitis, and estimated financial losses attributable to mastitis. Herds reporting high bulk milk SCC had an increased prevalence of subclinical mastitis, but incidence did not differ among bulk milk SCC categories. Overall, herds did not discuss milk quality frequently with dairy professionals, and herds having greater bulk milk SCC reported less consultation with their herd veterinarian. PMID:15956328

  20. Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo Infection in Cattle in the South Okanagan District of British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Kingscote, Barbara F.

    1985-01-01

    An outbreak of leptospirosis due to Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in the South Okanagan District of British Columbia was investigated. The infection was associated primarily with bulls, but serovar hardjo was isolated from both bulls and cows at slaughter. Kidney and cerebrospinal fluid were found to contain leptospires, independently of the presence and level of serum agglutinins. Treatment of a bull twice in six months with dihydrostreptomycin failed to diminish an agglutinin titer (1/200) which persisted for two years without reexposure of the bull. A serological survey of cull cows sold through a central auction mart revealed the presence of hardjo agglutinins in 15.4% of 1300 sera representing 163 herds in 20 locations. Thirty percent of these herds contained reactor cattle. The number of premises from which reactor cattle came in a given locality varied from 4% to 67.7%. Measures to control leptospirosis in the study are suggested. PMID:17422584

  1. Prevalence of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in cattle and dogs from Western Amazon, Brazil, in association with some possible risk factors.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Daniel M; Cavalcante, Guacyara T; Rodrigues, Aline A R; Labruna, Marcelo B; Camargo, Luis Marcelo A; Camargo, Erney P; Gennari, Solange M

    2006-11-30

    For evaluation of the prevalence of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies and its associated risk factors, serum samples from 2109 cattle (11 beef, 50 dairy and 25 mixed farms) and 174 dogs were examined in the State of Rondônia, Western Amazon, Brazil. An inquiry was applied in each farm. Sera were examined by the Indirect Fluorescence Antibody Test (IFAT) using cut off dilution of 1:25 for cattle and 1:50 for dogs. Statistical association between the serologic status and several variables were analyzed by linear and logistic regression. The overall herd prevalence of anti-N. caninum antibodies for 86 farms was 72% (61.3-81.2%). Prevalence values were 100, 70 and 64% in beef, dairy and mixed herds, respectively. Herd prevalence in beef herds was significantly different (P<0.05) from dairy and mixed herds. The overall animal prevalence of N. caninum in cattle was 8.8%. Prevalence values by animal were similar in different production types (P>0.05), with values of 9.5, 11.2 and 9.7% for beef, dairy or mixed cattle, respectively. Antibodies were found in 12.6% of the 174 examined dogs. Sixteen (22.8%) out of 70 farms with dogs had at least one dog with anti-N. caninum antibodies. The occurrence of antibodies in cattle was statistically associated with farms having more than 25 cows (OR 9.7, 95% IC 2.9-32.2; P=0.0002). There was no significant association between the presence of the dogs, jungle contact or reproductive variables with the occurrence of antibodies in cattle. PMID:16857319

  2. Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis assemblages among dairy herds in the New York City Watershed.

    PubMed

    Mark-Carew, Miguella P; Wade, Susan E; Chang, Yung-Fu; Schaaf, Stephanie; Mohammed, Hussni O

    2012-04-30

    A longitudinal herd-level study was carried out to determine the cumulative incidence of Giardia duodenalis infections in dairy cattle in the New York City Watershed. We also sought to assess the changes in infection pattern of animals diagnosed as shedding Giardia over time, determine risk factors that may be associated with G. duodenalis infections, and identify potentially zoonotic infections. A total of 2109 fecal samples were randomly collected from dairy cattle at 34 farms in the New York City Watershed on a seasonal basis. A total of 504 Giardia-positive samples were identified by zinc sulfate flotation. The overall cumulative incidence of G. duodenalis based on flotation results was 23.9% with 73.8% of all infections occurring in animals under 180 days of age (372/504). The intensity of infection ranged from 2 to 563,200 cysts/gram of feces. Cattle shedding Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were twice as likely to shed G. duodenalis cysts in comparison to the animals that did not shed oocysts (1.81 95% CI 1.26-2.60 p=0.0012). In the multivariate analysis, only the age of the animal and the presence of dogs on the farm were significantly associated with the likelihood of shedding G. duodenalis. DNA was extracted from positive samples and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the beta-giardin and triosephosphate isomerase genes of Giardia spp. 304 samples were analyzed by PCR of which 131 were sequenced. 22.1% of sequenced samples were identified as assemblage A and 77.9% were identified as assemblage E. Interestingly, 100% of specimens identified as assemblage A were from calves under 84 days of age indicating that younger cattle are important reservoirs for potentially zoonotic assemblages of G. duodenalis. PMID:21993211

  3. Bayesian modeling of animal- and herd-level prevalences.

    PubMed

    Branscum, A J; Gardner, I A; Johnson, W O

    2004-12-15

    We reviewed Bayesian approaches for animal-level and herd-level prevalence estimation based on cross-sectional sampling designs and demonstrated fitting of these models using the WinBUGS software. We considered estimation of infection prevalence based on use of a single diagnostic test applied to a single herd with binomial and hypergeometric sampling. We then considered multiple herds under binomial sampling with the primary goal of estimating the prevalence distribution and the proportion of infected herds. A new model is presented that can be used to estimate the herd-level prevalence in a region, including the posterior probability that all herds are non-infected. Using this model, inferences for the distribution of prevalences, mean prevalence in the region, and predicted prevalence of herds in the region (including the predicted probability of zero prevalence) are also available. In the models presented, both animal- and herd-level prevalences are modeled as mixture distributions to allow for zero infection prevalences. (If mixture models for the prevalences were not used, prevalence estimates might be artificially inflated, especially in herds and regions with low or zero prevalence.) Finally, we considered estimation of animal-level prevalence based on pooled samples. PMID:15579338

  4. The selenium status of dairy herds in Prince Edward Island

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Bulk tank milk selenium (Se) concentration was compared with mean serum Se concentration in 15 herds and was found to be an accurate reflection of the herd Se status. The Se status of 109 Prince Edward Island (PEI) dairy herds was monitored for 1 year using bulk tank milk Se concentration. Fifty-nine percent of the herds surveyed were, at some point, found to be marginal or deficient in Se, putting them at risk of disease and suboptimal production. The periods of greatest risk of deficiency were fall and winter, at which time 5% and 4%, respectively, of herds sampled fell in the range considered truly deficient in Se. Herds in which Se supplementation was provided in the form of a commercial dairy concentrate were over 4 times more likely to be Se-adequate than herds not using this method, and adjusted average daily milk yield was 7.6% greater in herds determined to be Se-adequate when compared with Se-marginal herds. We conclude that many dairy producers in PEI are providing insufficient supplementary Se in the ration to meet the recommended Se intake for lactating cows. PMID:15025148

  5. Survey of smallholder beef cattle production systems in different agro-ecological zones of Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Samkol, Pok; Sath, Keo; Patel, Mikaela; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Holtenius, Kjell

    2015-10-01

    A survey was conducted to better understand the contribution of farm productivity to rural household income and identify differences in production systems, feeding practices and development constraints to smallholder beef cattle producers in the four agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Cambodia. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 360 households in the four AEZs: I, the Great Lake Floodplain; II, the Mekong Floodplain; III, the Coastal and IV, the Plateau/Mountainous. In addition, samples of common nutritional resources used for cattle feed were collected for nutrient composition analysis, plus cattle were scored for body condition. Rice farming and cattle production were the most common sources of income in all AEZs. The average cattle herd size was 3.7 (SD = 2.4), but the majority of households raised 1-3 animals. The most common cattle management system was grazing with supplementation, mainly with rice straw and 'cut-and-carry' natural grasses fed during the wet season in all AEZs. The body condition score of all cattle types was 3.2 (SD = 0.8), except for cows in lactation that were 1.8. Major constraints to cattle production in AEZs I, II and III were lack of quality feed resources, capital for cattle production and concerns on breed quality, whereas in AEZ IV, diseases were identified as the main constraint. This survey confirms the importance of cattle to smallholders in the four AEZs. Interventions including farmer education to improve husbandry skills, increase the utilisation of forages and crop residues and address disease issues are necessary to enhance cattle production and rural livelihoods in Cambodia. PMID:26055891

  6. Paramphistomum spp. in Dairy Cattle in Québec

    PubMed Central

    Bouvry, M.; Rau, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    Few cases of infection with Paramphistomum spp. have been reported from cattle in Canada. During the course of a recent study of bovine fascioliasis both P. microbothrioides and P. liorchis were found in the rumen of dairy cattle slaughtered in a Quebec abattoir. Eggs in feces were distinguished on the basis of their size. Coprological analysis of 932 samples from 601 cows on 17 selected farms in Portneuf County (Quebec) revealed that 34% of the animals were infected with P. microbothrioides and 1% with P. liorchis. Based on data from one herd there appears to be significant seasonal variation in egg passage for P. microbothrioides. Furthermore, old cows exhibited a higher prevalence of infection. PMID:17422453

  7. Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) poisoning of cattle in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Torres, M B; Kommers, G D; Dantas, A F; de Barros, C L

    1997-04-01

    Two outbreaks of Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed) poisoning occurring in cattle in southern Brazil in late summer and early autumn are described. In both instances too many cattle were held in small paddocks heavily invaded by A retroflexus in its seeding stage. In 1 herd 8/28 heifers and in the other 15/45 adult cows died. Clinical courses ranged from 3 to 7 d. Clinical signs included depression, loss of weight, mild serous nasal discharge, foul smelling liquid feces tinged with blood, subcutaneous dependent edema, and laborious and incoordinated walking. Main necropsy findings were subcutaneous, cavitary and perirenal edemas, renal subcapsular hematomas, and ulcerative lesions in the alimentary tract. The kidneys were swollen and pale. Histopathological findings were in the kidneys and consisted of tubular degeneration, necrosis and regeneration with interstitial fibrosis and tubular proteinosis. PMID:9080636

  8. A Financial Market Model Incorporating Herd Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Herd behaviour in financial markets is a recurring phenomenon that exacerbates asset price volatility, and is considered a possible contributor to market fragility. While numerous studies investigate herd behaviour in financial markets, it is often considered without reference to the pricing of financial instruments or other market dynamics. Here, a trader interaction model based upon informational cascades in the presence of information thresholds is used to construct a new model of asset price returns that allows for both quiescent and herd-like regimes. Agent interaction is modelled using a stochastic pulse-coupled network, parametrised by information thresholds and a network coupling probability. Agents may possess either one or two information thresholds that, in each case, determine the number of distinct states an agent may occupy before trading takes place. In the case where agents possess two thresholds (labelled as the finite state-space model, corresponding to agents’ accumulating information over a bounded state-space), and where coupling strength is maximal, an asymptotic expression for the cascade-size probability is derived and shown to follow a power law when a critical value of network coupling probability is attained. For a range of model parameters, a mixture of negative binomial distributions is used to approximate the cascade-size distribution. This approximation is subsequently used to express the volatility of model price returns in terms of the model parameter which controls the network coupling probability. In the case where agents possess a single pulse-coupling threshold (labelled as the semi-infinite state-space model corresponding to agents’ accumulating information over an unbounded state-space), numerical evidence is presented that demonstrates volatility clustering and long-memory patterns in the volatility of asset returns. Finally, output from the model is compared to both the distribution of historical stock returns and the

  9. A Financial Market Model Incorporating Herd Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Wray, Christopher M; Bishop, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Herd behaviour in financial markets is a recurring phenomenon that exacerbates asset price volatility, and is considered a possible contributor to market fragility. While numerous studies investigate herd behaviour in financial markets, it is often considered without reference to the pricing of financial instruments or other market dynamics. Here, a trader interaction model based upon informational cascades in the presence of information thresholds is used to construct a new model of asset price returns that allows for both quiescent and herd-like regimes. Agent interaction is modelled using a stochastic pulse-coupled network, parametrised by information thresholds and a network coupling probability. Agents may possess either one or two information thresholds that, in each case, determine the number of distinct states an agent may occupy before trading takes place. In the case where agents possess two thresholds (labelled as the finite state-space model, corresponding to agents' accumulating information over a bounded state-space), and where coupling strength is maximal, an asymptotic expression for the cascade-size probability is derived and shown to follow a power law when a critical value of network coupling probability is attained. For a range of model parameters, a mixture of negative binomial distributions is used to approximate the cascade-size distribution. This approximation is subsequently used to express the volatility of model price returns in terms of the model parameter which controls the network coupling probability. In the case where agents possess a single pulse-coupling threshold (labelled as the semi-infinite state-space model corresponding to agents' accumulating information over an unbounded state-space), numerical evidence is presented that demonstrates volatility clustering and long-memory patterns in the volatility of asset returns. Finally, output from the model is compared to both the distribution of historical stock returns and the market

  10. Variables Associated with Infections of Cattle by Brucella abortus., Leptospira spp. and Neospora spp. in Amazon Region in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Chiebao, D P; Valadas, S Y O B; Minervino, A H H; Castro, V; Romaldini, A H C N; Calhau, A S; De Souza, R A B; Gennari, S M; Keid, L B; Soares, R M

    2015-10-01

    The frequency of Neospora spp., Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus infections in adult cattle was determined in herds of the State of Pará, Brazil, which is an important region for cattle production located in the Amazon region. A total of 3466 adult female cattle from 176 herds were tested, leading to a frequency of seropositive animals of 14.7%, 3.7% and 65.5% and a herd positivity of 87.4%, 41.3% and 98.8% for infections caused by Neospora spp., B. abortus and Leptospira spp., respectively. The five most frequently diagnosed serologic responses to Leptospira spp. were those against serovars hardjo, wolfii, grippotyphosa, hebdomadis and shermani. The following associations were found: practice of artificial insemination, large farm size, large herd size, large number of dogs and high number of total abortions per year with the presence of antibodies against serovar hardjo; positive results to serovar grippotyphosa with the presence of dogs; inappropriate disposal of aborted foetuses with positivity to serovar hebdomadis. Serovar grippotyphosa was also associated with number of episodes of abortions. Neospora spp. positive herds were associated with episodes of abortion and B. abortus infection with the disposal of dead animals and aborted foetuses on pastures and with the use of artificial insemination. In conclusion, the high frequency of brucellosis, leptospirosis and neosporosis in the region may be a consequence of social, natural and raising conditions as: (i) climate conditions that favour the survival and spread of pathogens in the environment; (ii) farms located in regions bordering forest areas; (iii) farms in areas of difficult access to the veterinary service; (iv) extensive beef herds raised at pastures with different age and productive groups inter-mingled; and (v) minimal concerns regarding hygiene practices and disease prevention measures. PMID:26302373

  11. Cattle producers' economic incentives for preventing bovine brucellosis under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Trenton W; Peck, Dannele E; Ritten, John P

    2012-12-01

    Cattle in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem occasionally contract bovine brucellosis from free-ranging elk and bison. Cattle producers use a variety of brucellosis prevention activities to reduce their herds' risk of contracting brucellosis, such as: (1) having state agency personnel haze elk off private land, (2) fencing haystacks, (3) administering adult booster vaccination, (4) spaying heifers, (5) altering the winter-feeding schedule of cattle, (6) hiring riders to prevent cattle-elk commingling, and (7) delaying grazing on high-risk allotments. Their brucellosis prevention decisions are complicated, however, by several sources of uncertainty, including the following: a cattle herd's baseline risk of contracting brucellosis, the inherent randomness of brucellosis outbreaks, the cost of implementing prevention activities, and the activities' effectiveness. This study eliminates one source of uncertainty by estimating the cost of implementing brucellosis prevention activities on a representative cow/calf-long yearling operation in the southern GYE. It then reports the minimum level of effectiveness each prevention activity must achieve to justify investment by a risk-neutral producer. Individual producers face different levels of baseline risk, however, and the US government's brucellosis-response policy is constantly evolving. We therefore estimate breakeven levels of effectiveness for a range of baseline risks and government policies. Producers, animal health experts, and policymakers can use this study's results to determine which brucellosis prevention activities are unlikely to generate sufficient expected benefits to cover their cost of implementation. Results also demonstrate the influence of government policy on producers' incentives to prevent brucellosis. Policies that increase the magnitude of economic loss a producer incurs when their herd contracts brucellosis subsequently decrease prevention activities' breakeven levels of effectiveness, and

  12. Utilization of multiple diagnostic tests to identify cattle with bovine viral diarrhea virus infections and persistence of positive tests in persistently infected cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections have a significant impact on the cattle population and production. Persistently infected (PI) cattle represent the principal reservoir of infection. Identification and removal of PI animals are critical to the control of BVDV. There are numerous assays f...

  13. Identification of Exonic Nucleotide Variants of the Thyroid Hormone Responsive Protein Gene Associated with Carcass Traits and Fatty Acid Composition in Korean Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Dong-yep; Lee, Yoon-seok; La, Boo-mi; Lee, Jea-young; Park, Yong-soo; Lee, Ji-hong; Ha, Jae-jung; Yi, Jun-koo; Kim, Byung-ki; Yeo, Jung-sou

    2014-01-01

    The thyroid hormone responsive protein (THRSP) gene is a functional gene that can be used to indicate the fatty acid compositions. This study investigates the relationships of exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the THRSP gene and fatty acid composition of muscle fat and marbling score in the 612 Korean cattle. The relationships between fatty acid composition and eight SNPs in the THRSP gene (g.78 G>A, g.173 C>T, g.184 C>T, g.190 C>A, g.194 C>T, g.277 C>G, g.283 T>G and g.290 T>G) were investigated, and according to the results, two SNPs (g.78 G>A and g.184 C>T) in exon 1 were associated with fatty acid composition. The GG and CC genotypes of g.78 G>A and g.184 C>T had higher unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content (p<0.05). In addition, the ht1*ht1 group (Val/Ala haplotype) in a linkage disequilibrium increased MUFAs and marbling scores for carcass traits (p<0.05). As a result, g.78 G>A and g.184 C>T had significantly relationships with UFAs and MUFAs. Two SNPs in the THRSP gene affected fatty acid composition, suggesting that GG and CC genotypes and the ht1*ht1 group (Val/Ala haplotype) can be markers to genetically improve the quality and flavor of beef. PMID:25178286

  14. A stochastic model to determine the economic value of changing diagnostic test characteristics for identification of cattle for treatment of bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Theurer, M E; White, B J; Larson, R L; Schroeder, T C

    2015-03-01

    Bovine respiratory disease is an economically important syndrome in the beef industry, and diagnostic accuracy is important for optimal disease management. The objective of this study was to determine whether improving diagnostic sensitivity or specificity was of greater economic value at varied levels of respiratory disease prevalence by using Monte Carlo simulation. Existing literature was used to populate model distributions of published sensitivity, specificity, and performance (ADG, carcass weight, yield grade, quality grade, and mortality risk) differences among calves based on clinical respiratory disease status. Data from multiple cattle feeding operations were used to generate true ranges of respiratory disease prevalence and associated mortality. Input variables were combined into a single model that calculated estimated net returns for animals by diagnostic category (true positive, false positive, false negative, and true negative) based on the prevalence, sensitivity, and specificity for each iteration. Net returns for each diagnostic category were multiplied by the proportion of animals in each diagnostic category to determine group profitability. Apparent prevalence was categorized into low (<15%) and high (≥15%) groups. For both apparent prevalence categories, increasing specificity created more rapid, positive change in net returns than increasing sensitivity. Improvement of diagnostic specificity, perhaps through a confirmatory test interpreted in series or pen-level diagnostics, can increase diagnostic value more than improving sensitivity. Mortality risk was the primary driver for net returns. The results from this study are important for determining future research priorities to analyze diagnostic techniques for bovine respiratory disease and provide a novel way for modeling diagnostic tests. PMID:26020916

  15. Identification of a nonsense mutation in APAF1 that is likely causal for a decrease in reproductive efficiency in Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Adams, Heather A; Sonstegard, Tad S; VanRaden, Paul M; Null, Daniel J; Van Tassell, Curt P; Larkin, Denis M; Lewin, Harris A

    2016-08-01

    The HH1 haplotype on chromosome 5 is associated with a reduced conception rate and a deficit of homozygotes at the population level in Holstein cattle. The source HH1 haplotype was traced to the bull Pawnee Farm Arlinda Chief (Chief), who was born in 1962 and has sired more than 16,000 daughters. We identified a nonsense mutation in APAF1 (apoptotic protease activating factor 1;APAF1 p.Q579X) within HH1 using whole-genome resequencing of Chief and 3 of his sons. This mutation is predicted to truncate 670 AA (53.7%) of the encoded APAF1 protein that contains a WD40 domain critical to protein-protein interactions. Initial screening revealed no homozygous individuals for the mutation in 758 animals previously genotyped, whereas all 497 HH1 carriers possessed 1 copy of the mutant allele. Subsequent commercial genotyping of 246,773 Holsteins revealed 5,299 APAF1 heterozygotes and zero homozygotes for the mutation. The causative role of this mutation is also supported by functional data in mice that have demonstrated Apaf1 to be an essential molecule in the cytochrome-c-mediated apoptotic cascade and directly implicated in developmental and neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, most Apaf1 homozygous knockouts die by day 16.5 of development. We thus propose that the APAF1 p.Q579X nonsense mutation is the functional equivalent of the Apaf1 knockout. This mutation has caused an estimated 525,000 spontaneous abortions worldwide over the past 35 years, accounting for approximately $420 million in losses. With the mutation identified, selection against the deleterious allele in breeding schemes has aided in eliminating this defect from the population, reducing carrier frequency from 8% in past decades to 2% in 2015. PMID:27289157

  16. Proteomic Identification of Immunodiagnostic Antigens for Trypanosoma vivax Infections in Cattle and Generation of a Proof-of-Concept Lateral Flow Test Diagnostic Device.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Jennifer R; Sastry, Lalitha; Wall, Steven J; Sullivan, Lauren; Ferguson, Michael A J

    2016-09-01

    Trypanosoma vivax is one of the causative agents of Animal African Trypanosomosis in cattle, which is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and transmitted primarily by the bite of the tsetse fly vector. The parasite can also be mechanically transmitted, and this has allowed its spread to South America. Diagnostics are limited for this parasite and in farm settings diagnosis is mainly symptom-based. We set out to identify, using a proteomic approach, candidate diagnostic antigens to develop into an easy to use pen-side lateral flow test device. Two related members the invariant surface glycoprotein family, TvY486_0045500 and TvY486_0019690, were selected. Segments of these antigens, lacking N-terminal signal peptides and C-terminal transmembrane domains, were expressed in E. coli. Both were developed into ELISA tests and one of them, TvY486_0045500, was developed into a lateral flow test prototype. The tests were all evaluated blind with 113 randomised serum samples, taken from 37 calves before and after infection with T. vivax or T. congolense. The TvY486_0045500 and TvY486_0019690 ELISA tests gave identical sensitivity and specificity values for T. vivax infection of 94.5% (95% CI, 86.5% to 98.5%) and 88.0% (95% CI, 75.7% to 95.5%), respectively, and the TvY486_0045500 lateral flow test prototype a sensitivity and specificity of 92.0% (95% CI, 83.4% to 97.0%) and 89.8% (95% CI, 77.8% to 96.6%), respectively. These data suggest that recombinant TvY486_0045500 shows promise for the development of a pen-side lateral flow test for the diagnosis of T. vivax animal African trypanosomosis. PMID:27606593

  17. Antimicrobial resistance in beef and dairy cattle production.

    PubMed

    Call, Douglas R; Davis, Margaret A; Sawant, Ashish A

    2008-12-01

    Observational studies of cattle production systems usually find that cattle from conventional dairies harbor a higher prevalence of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) enteric bacteria compared to organic dairies or beef-cow operations; given that dairies usually use more antimicrobials, this result is not unexpected. Experimental studies have usually verified that application of antimicrobials leads to at least a transient expansion of AMR bacterial populations in treated cattle. Nevertheless, on dairy farms the majority of antibiotics are used to treat mastitis and yet AMR remains relatively low in mastitis pathogens. Other studies have shown no correlation between antimicrobial use and prevalence of AMR bacteria including documented cases where the prevalence of AMR bacteria is non-responsive to antimicrobial applications or remains relatively high in the absence of antimicrobial use or any other obvious selective pressures. Thus, there are multi-factorial events and pressures that influence AMR bacterial populations in cattle production systems. We introduce a heuristic model that illustrates how repeated antimicrobial selection pressure can increase the probability of genetic linkage between AMR genes and niche- or growth-specific fitness traits. This linkage allows persistence of AMR bacteria at the herd level because subpopulations of AMR bacteria are able to reside long-term within the host animals even in the absence of antimicrobial selection pressure. This model highlights the need for multiple approaches to manage herd health so that the total amount of antimicrobials is limited in a manner that meets animal welfare and public health needs while reducing costs for producers and consumers over the long-term. PMID:18983724

  18. Vaccination of Cattle Persistently Infected with BVDV Does Not Cause a Change in the Consensus Sequence of the Structural Proteins of the Quasispecies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a ubiquitous viral pathogen of cattle worldwide. An interesting aspect of these viruses is the great amount of sequence diversity that exists amongst strains in circulation in livestock herds that can impact diagnostic testing. The driving force behind change in...

  19. MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION TO ASSESS THE VALIDITY OF BONNIER'S EQUATION FOR ESTIMATING THE FREQUENCY OF MONOZYGOUS TWINNING IN A POPULATION OF HOLSTEIN CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twin calving records (n = 96,069) collected from 1996 to 2004 were extracted from Minnesota Dairy Herd Improvement archives to estimate the incidence of monozygous (MZ) twinning in a population of Holstein cattle and to evaluate how varying the twin sex ratio and frequency of same-sex twins affects ...

  20. A survey to detect Toxocara vitulorum and other gastrointestinal parasites in bison (Bison bison) herds from Manitoba and Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Woodbury, Murray R.; Wagner, Brent; Ben-Ezra, Elad; Douma, Dale; Wilkins, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    An egg count survey using environmental fecal samples obtained in spring or early summer was conducted to estimate the apparent prevalence of Toxocara vitulorum in unweaned bison calves and of other intestinal parasites in adult bison on 98 farms in Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Calf samples were pooled (maximum 5 samples per pool) by farm and positive pools were examined to determine individual T. vitulorum counts. Toxocara vitulorum eggs were found on 4 farms in Manitoba and none in Saskatchewan. Apparent herd-level prevalence estimates were 12% [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 3.4% to 28.2%] and 0% (95% CI: 0% to 5.7%) respectively. Samples from adult bison contained eggs/oocysts from trichostrongyle species, Eimeria sp., Monieza sp., Capillaria sp., Nematodirus sp. and Trichuris sp. in 100%, 95%, 72%, 13%, 13%, and 5% of herds, respectively. Strongyloides sp. were not found in any herd. Further studies are needed to assess parasite distribution patterns in bison and to evaluate the risk that T. vitulorum may pose to bison, cattle, and wildlife. PMID:25183895

  1. [The occurrence of antibodies to the glycoprotein antigen (gp70) of the enzootic leukemia virus in a leukemic herd].

    PubMed

    Hofírek, B

    1980-08-01

    The serological examination of 175 head of cattle in a herd suffering from leucosis included the study of the occurrence of antibodies to the glycoprotein antigen (gp70) of the virus of enzootic leucosis (BLV). At the same time, these antibodies were studied, as occurring in the F1 generation of the progeneis of 51 positive and 38 negative cows. The results demonstrate two important facts: increasing age brings about a higher percentage of animals having precipitating antibodies in the leucosis-affected herd; the other important finding is that the positive reaction of a cow has no significant influence on the occurrence of the antibodies in the progeny. It was found that under the actual conditions of the mentioned herd, the horizontal transmission of enzootic leucosis was predominant and that precipitating antibodies were detected by the immunodiffusion method in animals at the age from 9 to 12 months. It is desirable from the viewpoint of diagnostics and eradication of enzootic bovine leucosis to apply with utmost consistency the serological methods of examination and individual diagnostics. There is no reason for destroying whole families of animals in which the disease occurred, because no genetically conditioned occurrence of enzootic leucosis was demonstrated in the progenies of cows suffering from the disease. These facts should be respected in amending the instructions for controlling enzootic bovine leucosis. PMID:6252677

  2. Antibiotic use in dairy herds in the Netherlands from 2005 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, A; Koops, W J; Wemmenhove, H

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the variation in antibiotic use and the effects of external factors on trends in antibiotic use at the herd level by using the number of daily dosages as an indicator for antibiotic use. For this purpose, antibiotic use was analyzed in 94 dairy herds in the Netherlands from 2005 to 2012. The herds were divided into 3 groups of farmers: one group was guided in their antibiotic use from 2008 to 2010 as part of the project, whereas the other 2 groups were not actively guided. The farms were located in 10 of the 12 provinces and were clients of 32 of the 300 veterinary practices that treat cattle. Sales invoices from the veterinary practices provided the antibiotic and cost data for the participating farmers. The number of animal-defined daily dosages (ADDD) indicates the number of days per year that the average cow in a herd is given antibiotic treatment. The average ADDD for all farms from 2005 to 2012 was 5.86 (standard deviation=2.14); 68% of ADDD were used for udder health, 24% for clinical mastitis and 44% for dry-cow therapy. Variation in ADDD among herds decreased during the study period. The trend in ADDD can be described as having 3 phases: (1) a period of increasing use coinciding with little public concern about antibiotic use (2005-2007), (2) a period of growing awareness and stabilization of use (2007-2010), and (3) a period of decreasing use coinciding with increasing societal concerns (2010-2012). The greatest reduction in use was for drugs other than those used to treat the udder. Drug use for mastitis treatment fell considerably in the final year of the study period, whereas farmers were reluctant to reduce use for dry-cow therapy. Almost 40% of the herds were given less than 2.5 ADDD for dry-cow therapy, which is equivalent to 2.5 tubes per average cow in the herd, and 20% used more than 3 tubes per cow. Use of third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones dropped from 18% of ADDD during 2005 to

  3. Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium andersoni infection in naturally infected cattle of northwest Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mirzai, Yousef; Yakhchali, Mohammad; Mardani, Karim

    2014-01-01

    The protozoan intestinal parasite Cryptosporidium commonly infects cattle throughout the world and Iran. The present study was undertaken to determine the abundance and associated risk factors of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle herds of northwestern Iran. A total number of 246 fecal samples from 138 (56.1%) diarrheic (D) and 108 (43.9%) non-diarrheic (ND) cattle were randomly collected and examined by fecal smears stained with Ziehl-Neelsen. For molecular specification, DNA was extracted from collected Cryptosporidium oocysts and a fragment of 1325 bp in size from 18S rRNA gene was amplified. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection was 22.3% (55/246). The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in examined calves less than 6 month-old was significantly higher than adult cattle. C. parvum and C. andersoni were identified in 20.3% (50/246) and 2.03% (5/246) of examined cattle, respectively. The highest prevalence of C. parvum infection was found in D calves < 6 month-old (13.4%, 33/246), while C. andersoni was only detected in ND cattle (8.9%, 22/246). There was significant difference in the prevalence between male than female cattle. There was no significant difference between prevalence and seasons of investigation. It was concluded that C. parvum was the prevalent species in younger animals compared to older ones as a potentially zoonotic agent in the region. PMID:25568693

  4. Two-phase phenomena, minority games, and herding models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, B.; Qiu, T.; Ren, F.

    2004-04-01

    The recently discovered two-phase phenomenon in financial markets [Nature 421, 130 (2003)] is examined with the German financial index DAX, minority games, and dynamic herding models. It is observed that the two-phase phenomenon is an important characteristic of financial dynamics, independent of volatility clustering. An interacting herding model correctly produces the two-phase phenomenon.

  5. Reproductive trends of dairy herds in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trends for reproductive traits were examined for U.S. Holstein and Jersey herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Information testing. Traits were days from calving to first service (DFS) and to last service, 70-d nonreturn rates (NRR) and conception rates (CR) for first through fifth services, days open, gest...

  6. Controlling herding in minority game systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ji-Qiang; Huang, Zi-Gang; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Su, Riqi; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Resource allocation takes place in various types of real-world complex systems such as urban traffic, social services institutions, economical and ecosystems. Mathematically, the dynamical process of resource allocation can be modeled as minority games. Spontaneous evolution of the resource allocation dynamics, however, often leads to a harmful herding behavior accompanied by strong fluctuations in which a large majority of agents crowd temporarily for a few resources, leaving many others unused. Developing effective control methods to suppress and eliminate herding is an important but open problem. Here we develop a pinning control method, that the fluctuations of the system consist of intrinsic and systematic components allows us to design a control scheme with separated control variables. A striking finding is the universal existence of an optimal pinning fraction to minimize the variance of the system, regardless of the pinning patterns and the network topology. We carry out a generally applicable theory to explain the emergence of optimal pinning and to predict the dependence of the optimal pinning fraction on the network topology. Our work represents a general framework to deal with the broader problem of controlling collective dynamics in complex systems with potential applications in social, economical and political systems. PMID:26883398

  7. Controlling herding in minority game systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ji-Qiang; Huang, Zi-Gang; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Su, Riqi; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2016-02-01

    Resource allocation takes place in various types of real-world complex systems such as urban traffic, social services institutions, economical and ecosystems. Mathematically, the dynamical process of resource allocation can be modeled as minority games. Spontaneous evolution of the resource allocation dynamics, however, often leads to a harmful herding behavior accompanied by strong fluctuations in which a large majority of agents crowd temporarily for a few resources, leaving many others unused. Developing effective control methods to suppress and eliminate herding is an important but open problem. Here we develop a pinning control method, that the fluctuations of the system consist of intrinsic and systematic components allows us to design a control scheme with separated control variables. A striking finding is the universal existence of an optimal pinning fraction to minimize the variance of the system, regardless of the pinning patterns and the network topology. We carry out a generally applicable theory to explain the emergence of optimal pinning and to predict the dependence of the optimal pinning fraction on the network topology. Our work represents a general framework to deal with the broader problem of controlling collective dynamics in complex systems with potential applications in social, economical and political systems.

  8. Herd health and management of dairy cow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćaǧlayan, Alper; Yüca, Songül

    2016-04-01

    Herd management requires multidisciplinary practices including animal feeding, gynecology, artificial insemination, immunology, and similar topics. Animal feeding is the most delicate subject as the fodder expense is 70% of the farm cost and as nearly all of the metabolic diseases arising out as health problem are because of misfeeding. However, a business organization's being able to maintain making profit will be possible by taking a healthy calf from breeding herd every year. For this reason, precision registrations of birth and artificial insemination, following-up pregnant state of animals, and making the other animals pregnant as soon as possible should be primary aim. It should not be forgotten that diarrhea and pneumonia in calves are among the most frequently witnessed infection related health problems. Mastitis, metritis and foot diseases take an important place in mature cows. These diseases can be minimized by vaccinations that are done properly and in suitable time, in-service training of staffs, making shelters suitable for animals welfare, and improving the hygienic conditions.

  9. Identification of a two-marker-haplotype on Bos taurus autosome 18 associated with somatic cell score in German Holstein cattle

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Bodo; Baes, Christine; Mayer, Manfred; Reinsch, Norbert; Kühn, Christa

    2009-01-01

    density and multiple-trait and multiple-QTL models are required to narrow down the position of the causal mutation or mutations affecting SCS in German Holstein cattle. PMID:19725965

  10. Combining mouse mammary gland gene expression and comparative mapping for the identification of candidate genes for QTL of milk production traits in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Ron, Micha; Israeli, Galit; Seroussi, Eyal; Weller, Joel I; Gregg, Jeffrey P; Shani, Moshe; Medrano, Juan F

    2007-01-01

    Background Many studies have found segregating quantitative trait loci (QTL) for milk production traits in different dairy cattle populations. However, even for relatively large effects with a saturated marker map the confidence interval for QTL location by linkage analysis spans tens of map units, or hundreds of genes. Combining mapping and arraying has been suggested as an approach to identify candidate genes. Thus, gene expression analysis in the mammary gland of genes positioned in the confidence interval of the QTL can bridge the gap between fine mapping and quantitative trait nucleotide (QTN) determination. Results We hybridized Affymetrix microarray (MG-U74v2), containing 12,488 murine probes, with RNA derived from mammary gland of virgin, pregnant, lactating and involuting C57BL/6J mice in a total of nine biological replicates. We combined microarray data from two additional studies that used the same design in mice with a total of 75 biological replicates. The same filtering and normalization was applied to each microarray data using GeneSpring software. Analysis of variance identified 249 differentially expressed probe sets common to the three experiments along the four developmental stages of puberty, pregnancy, lactation and involution. 212 genes were assigned to their bovine map positions through comparative mapping, and thus form a list of candidate genes for previously identified QTLs for milk production traits. A total of 82 of the genes showed mammary gland-specific expression with at least 3-fold expression over the median representing all tissues tested in GeneAtlas. Conclusion This work presents a web tool for candidate genes for QTL (cgQTL) that allows navigation between the map of bovine milk production QTL, potential candidate genes and their level of expression in mammary gland arrays and in GeneAtlas. Three out of four confirmed genes that affect QTL in livestock (ABCG2, DGAT1, GDF8, IGF2) were over expressed in the target organ. Thus, cg

  11. [Possible causes of unspecific reduced productivity in dairy herds in SchIeswig-Holstein: an explorative case-control study].

    PubMed

    Campe, Amely; Hohmeier, Stefan; Koesters, Sarah; Hartmann, Maria; Ruddat, Inga; Mahlkow-Nerge, Katrin; Heilemann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Recently unspecific productivity losses were observed in dairy herds in Schleswig Holstein, Germany. This case-control study on cattle health investigated the possible association between a multifactorial event and the occurrence of unspecific productivity losses. 35 dairy farms were defined as cases and 65 farms as controls, when they met two out of three eligibility criteria, respectively (cell count, mortality and life production of cows). Case farms had relevantly more often problems with forage collection (too low cutting height), feed storage (no foil used), and energy supply of dairy cattle (insufficient feeding of corn silage and lowered energy content of grass silage). Case farms had relevantly more often dirty lying areas, feeding and walking alleys, feed bunks and watering places as well as more cows with dirty udders, flanks and legs than control farms. Farm individual self-control as well as veterinarian and agricultural consultancy should focus on these management areas. Furthermore, the health situation should be checked regularly on an individual animal level for diseases of the locomotor (especially by intensifying claw care), metabolic and reproductive systems. Additionally, 22 so-called intermediate farms with considerable herd health problem during the study period were investigated for possible exogenous influences on the farm performance. There were no indications for influences by the soil type, weather conditions at harvesting or wild bird occurrence on cropland, which might be as well due to the explorative nature of the study. However, herd health problems were apparent in case and intermediate farms more often and more diversely than in control farms. PMID:27169149

  12. The seal tuberculosis agent, Mycobacterium pinnipedii, infects domestic cattle in New Zealand: epidemiologic factors and DNA strain typing.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, Scott H; de Lisle, Geoffrey W; Neill, Mark A; Collins, Desmond M; Price-Carter, Marian; Paterson, Brent; Crews, Kevin B

    2014-04-01

    The fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri), which is abundant in coastal areas of New Zealand, harbors several zoonotic pathogens, including Mycobacterium pinnipedii, a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. We describe the microbiology and epidemiology of seven cases of M. pinnipedii infection in beef cattle (Bos primigenius) in coastal areas of New Zealand in 1991-2011. Epidemiologic factors were analyzed on six case farms and a telephone survey of 55 neighboring farms. A DNA-strain typing, using analysis of variable number tandem repeats and the direct repeats (VNTR/DR) of those isolates, was used to compare them to M. bovis isolates commonly found in New Zealand cattle and wildlife. In all cases of M. pinnipedii in cattle, only one animal in the herd was found to be infected. In six of seven cases, the lesions were in the thoracic lymph nodes, indicating a likely aerosol pathway. The lack of multiple cases within a herd suggests that cow-to-cow transmission is uncommon, if it occurs at all. There was no significant difference between case and control farms in distance to sea, herd size, herd type, or farming practice. The odds ratio for access to the beach for cattle on the Chatham Islands was significantly higher than it was for farms on the mainland coastal areas (odds ratio [OR] = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.1-11.4) Likewise, the odds ratio for acquiring tuberculosis was increased when farmers had seen seals on the property (OR =  9, 95% CI = 1.4-56.1 ). In all case farms, cattle had access to seals by beach grazing areas or waterways connecting directly with the ocean. The VNTR/DR typing of the isolates showed some variation in the M. pinnipedii isolates, with only two being identical; all isolates were easily distinguishable from M. bovis isolates. PMID:24484478

  13. Suspicion of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis transmission between cattle and wild-living red deer (Cervus elaphus) by multitarget genotyping.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Isabel; Luyven, Gabriele; Köhler, Heike; Lutz, Walburga; Möbius, Petra

    2012-02-01

    Multitarget genotyping of the etiologic agent Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is necessary for epidemiological tracing of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). The study was undertaken to assess the informative value of different typing techniques and individual genome markers by investigation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis transmission between wild-living red deer and farmed cattle with known shared habitats. Fifty-three M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis type II isolates were differentiated by short sequence repeat analysis (SSR; 4 loci), mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MIRU-VNTR; 8 loci), and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis based on IS900 (IS900-RFLP) using BstEII and PstI digestion. Isolates originated from free-living red deer (Cervus elaphus) from Eifel National Park (n = 13), six cattle herds living in the area of this park (n = 23), and five cattle herds without any contact with these red deer (n = 17). Data based on individual herds and genotypes verified that SSR G2 repeats did not exhibit sufficient stability for epidemiological studies. Two common SSR profiles (without G2 repeats), nine MIRU-VNTR patterns, and nine IS900-RFLP patterns were detected, resulting in 17 genotypes when combined. A high genetic variability was found for red deer and cattle isolates within and outside Eifel National Park, but it was revealed only by combination of different typing techniques. Results imply that within this restricted area, wild-living and farmed animals maintain a reservoir for specific M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genotypes. No host relation of genotypes was obtained. Results suggested that four genotypes had been transmitted between and within species and that one genotype had been transmitted between cattle herds only. Use of multitarget genotyping for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis type II strains and sufficiently stable genetic markers is essential for reliable

  14. Suspicion of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Transmission between Cattle and Wild-Living Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) by Multitarget Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Fritsch, Isabel; Luyven, Gabriele; Köhler, Heike; Lutz, Walburga

    2012-01-01

    Multitarget genotyping of the etiologic agent Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is necessary for epidemiological tracing of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). The study was undertaken to assess the informative value of different typing techniques and individual genome markers by investigation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis transmission between wild-living red deer and farmed cattle with known shared habitats. Fifty-three M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis type II isolates were differentiated by short sequence repeat analysis (SSR; 4 loci), mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit–variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MIRU-VNTR; 8 loci), and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis based on IS900 (IS900-RFLP) using BstEII and PstI digestion. Isolates originated from free-living red deer (Cervus elaphus) from Eifel National Park (n = 13), six cattle herds living in the area of this park (n = 23), and five cattle herds without any contact with these red deer (n = 17). Data based on individual herds and genotypes verified that SSR G2 repeats did not exhibit sufficient stability for epidemiological studies. Two common SSR profiles (without G2 repeats), nine MIRU-VNTR patterns, and nine IS900-RFLP patterns were detected, resulting in 17 genotypes when combined. A high genetic variability was found for red deer and cattle isolates within and outside Eifel National Park, but it was revealed only by combination of different typing techniques. Results imply that within this restricted area, wild-living and farmed animals maintain a reservoir for specific M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genotypes. No host relation of genotypes was obtained. Results suggested that four genotypes had been transmitted between and within species and that one genotype had been transmitted between cattle herds only. Use of multitarget genotyping for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis type II strains and sufficiently stable genetic markers is essential for reliable

  15. NEOSPOROSIS IN CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neospora caninum is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs that occasionally causes clinical infections in horses, goats, sheep, and deer. The domestic dog is the only known definitive host for N. caninum. In cattle N. caninum is a major cause of bovine abortion in many countries and is one of the mo...

  16. Survey of infectious etiologies of bovine abortion during mid- to late gestation in dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Barkallah, Mohamed; Gharbi, Yaakoub; Hassena, Amal Ben; Slima, Ahlem Ben; Mallek, Zouhir; Gautier, Michel; Greub, Gilbert; Gdoura, Radhouane; Fendri, Imen

    2014-01-01

    Bovine abortion of unknown infectious etiology still remains a major economic problem. Thus, we investigated whether Brucella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Coxiella burnetii are associated with abortion and/or stillbirth in Tunisian dairy cattle. Using a pan-Chlamydiales PCR, we also investigated the role of Chlamydiaceae, Waddlia chondrophila, Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and other members of the Chlamydiales order in this setting. Veterinary samples taken from mid to late-term abortions from twenty dairy herds were tested. From a total of 150 abortion cases collected, infectious agents were detected by PCR in 73 (48.66%) cases, 13 (8.66%) of which represented co-infections with two infectious agents. Detected pathogens include Brucella spp (31.3%), Chlamydiaceae (4.66%), Waddlia chondrophila (8%), Parachlamydia acanthamoebae (5.33%), Listeria monocytogenes (4.66%) and Salmonella spp. (3.33%). In contrast, Campylobacter spp. and Coxiella burnetii DNA were not detected among the investigated veterinary samples. This demonstrates that different bacterial agents may cause bovine abortion in Tunisia. This is the first report suggesting the role of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae in bovine abortion in Africa. Further studies with a larger number of samples are necessary to confirm whether this emerging pathogen is directly linked to abortion in cattle. PMID:24662769

  17. 9 CFR 55.25 - Animal identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal identification. 55.25 Section 55.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... DISEASE Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program § 55.25 Animal identification. Each...

  18. 9 CFR 55.25 - Animal identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal identification. 55.25 Section 55.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... DISEASE Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program § 55.25 Animal identification. Each...

  19. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Dairy Cattle with Reproductive Problems in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Elfahal, Abdelghafar M; Elhassan, Amira M; Hussien, Mohammed O; Enan, Khalid A; Musa, Azza B; El Hussein, Abdelrahim M

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the most common parasitic infections of humans and other warm-blooded animals in most parts of the world. The disease is common among sheep and goats and it is recognized as one of the major causes of reproductive failure in these animals. Cattle, on the other hand, can be infected, but abortion or perinatal mortality has not been recorded. This survey was carried out to study the prevalence of this disease in cattle in Khartoum and Gazira States (Sudan). 181 sera samples collected from dairy cattle with reproductive problems were assayed for antibodies to T. gondii by ELISA. The prevalence rate of T. gondii antibodies in cattle at herd level was 44.8% (13/29). Herd level infection rates were 50% and 33.3% in Khartoum and Gazira States, respectively. The overall prevalence of T. gondii at individual level in both states was 13.3% (24/181). The prevalence was 12.7% (17/134), was 14.9% (7/47) in Khartoum and Gazira State, respectively. There was significantly higher (P < 0.05) prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in the age group less than one year old (36.4%) than in other age groups and in males (30.8%) than in females (11.9%) while no significant relationship was discerned regarding breed, location, season, or signs of reproductive disease. PMID:24171116

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Dairy Cattle with Reproductive Problems in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Elfahal, Abdelghafar M.; Elhassan, Amira M.; Hussien, Mohammed O.; Enan, Khalid A.; Musa, Azza B.; El Hussein, Abdelrahim M.

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the most common parasitic infections of humans and other warm-blooded animals in most parts of the world. The disease is common among sheep and goats and it is recognized as one of the major causes of reproductive failure in these animals. Cattle, on the other hand, can be infected, but abortion or perinatal mortality has not been recorded. This survey was carried out to study the prevalence of this disease in cattle in Khartoum and Gazira States (Sudan). 181 sera samples collected from dairy cattle with reproductive problems were assayed for antibodies to T. gondii by ELISA. The prevalence rate of T. gondii antibodies in cattle at herd level was 44.8% (13/29). Herd level infection rates were 50% and 33.3% in Khartoum and Gazira States, respectively. The overall prevalence of T. gondii at individual level in both states was 13.3% (24/181). The prevalence was 12.7% (17/134), was 14.9% (7/47) in Khartoum and Gazira State, respectively. There was significantly higher (P < 0.05) prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in the age group less than one year old (36.4%) than in other age groups and in males (30.8%) than in females (11.9%) while no significant relationship was discerned regarding breed, location, season, or signs of reproductive disease. PMID:24171116

  1. Bayesian spatio-temporal modelling of national milk-recording data of seasonal-calving New Zealand dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Clements, A C A; Pfeiffer, D U; Hayes, D

    2005-10-12

    A spatio-temporal analysis was undertaken with the aim of identifying the dynamics of herd mean individual cow SCCs (MICSCC) in seasonally calving New Zealand dairy herds. Two datasets were extracted from the Livestock Improvement Corporation's extensive national dairy recording database: (1) milk-recording data aggregated at the herd-level and (2) sales questionnaire data containing information on the size, location and infrastructure of each farm. A Bayesian spatio-temporal modelling approach was applied to the analysis. The data were aggregated by 10 km(2) grid cells and linear regression models were developed with spatially structured and unstructured random effects, a linear temporal trend random effect and spatial-temporal interactions for log-transformed median MISCC (ln(median MISCC)). Significant associations were found between ln(median MISCC) and milk yield, milk fat, milk protein, farm area and number of cups in the dairy. This led us to suggest that SCCs should be adjusted for volume and constituents prior to determining a threshold MISCC for identification of subclinical mastitis (SCM) problem herds. Part, or all, of the temporal trend in MISCC in the spatio-temporal model was accounted for by inclusion of yield and milk constituents as independent variables. This supports the hypothesis of a dilution effect with potential consequences for misdiagnosis of SCM, particularly in late lactation. Unmeasured covariates were similarly likely to be spatially structured and unstructured. PMID:16107283

  2. Specific pathogen-free pig herds also free from Campylobacter?

    PubMed

    Kolstoe, E M; Iversen, T; Østensvik, Ø; Abdelghani, A; Secic, I; Nesbakken, T

    2015-03-01

    As Specific Pathogen-Free (SPF) pig herds are designed and managed to prevent specific pig diseases, it might be feasible to expand the list of micro-organisms also including zoonotic pathogens such as Campylobacter coli as this agent has its origin in pigs. In a previous survey, 15 of 16 of SPF herds were found free from human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica. Accordingly, three nucleus and seven multiplying herds were surveyed for Campylobacter to investigate whether the Norwegian SPF pig pyramid also might be free from this agent. In conclusion, the intervention of Campylobacter at the herd level might be possible as four of 10 SPF herds tested negative in two sets of samples from both autumn 2008 and summer/early autumn 2010. The four negative herds were all located in remote areas several kilometres away from conventional pig farming while the positive SPF farms were all situated in neighbourhoods with conventional pig production. It seems more difficult to control Campylobacter than some specific animal disease agents and another significant zoonotic agent, Y. enterocolitica, in pig herds. PMID:24798507

  3. The role of infrasounds in maintaining whale herds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Roger S.

    2001-05-01

    For whales and dolphins a basic social unit is the herd. In several species, herds have been observed to maintain the same speed, direction, and membership overnight, and while swimming in waters of near-zero visibility-evidence that individuals can stay together using nonvisual cues. The most likely such cue is sound. If whale herds are held together with sound, yet we define herds as groups of whales seen moving together, then we are using visual criteria to judge what is an acoustic phenomenon, and our conclusions about a most basic unit of cetacean social structure, the herd, are at least incomplete, and, quite possibly, worthless. By calling herds, heards, we remind ourselves that sound controls herd size. We then consider that some whale infrasound can propagate across deep water at useful intensities (even in today's ship-noise-polluted ocean) for thousands of kilometers. The distance to which blue and fin whale sounds propagate before falling below background noise is given, and the possible advantages these whales obtain from such sounds is explored. The conclusion is that by sharing information on food finds infrasonically, fin and blue whales may have developed a way to divide up the food resources of an entire ocean.

  4. Survey of facility and management characteristics of large, Upper Midwest dairy herds clustered by Dairy Herd Improvement records.

    PubMed

    Brotzman, R L; Döpfer, D; Foy, M R; Hess, J P; Nordlund, K V; Bennett, T B; Cook, N B

    2015-11-01

    A survey of management practices was conducted to investigate potential associations with groupings of herds formed by cluster analysis (CA) of Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) data of 557 Upper Midwest herds of 200 cows or greater. Differences in herd management practices were identified between the groups, despite underlying similarities; for example, freestall housing and milking in a parlor. Group 6 comprised larger herds with a high proportion of primiparous cows and most frequently utilized practices promoting increased production [e.g., 84.4% used recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST)], decreased lameness (e.g., 96.9% used routine hoof trimming for cows), and improved efficiency in reproduction [e.g., 93.8% synchronized the first breeding in cows (SYNCH)] and labor (e.g., mean ± SD, 67 ± 19 cows per 50-h per week full-time equivalent worker). Group 1 had the best mean DHI performances and followed most closely group 6 for the rate of adoption of intensive management practices while tending to outperform group 6 despite a generally smaller mean herd size (e.g., 42.3 ± 3.6 kg vs. 39.9 ± 3.6 kg of energy-corrected milk production; 608 ± 352 cows vs. 1,716 ± 1,405 cows). Group 2 were smaller herds with relatively high levels of performance that used less intensive management (e.g., 100% milked twice daily) and less technology (33.3 vs. 73.0% of group 1 used rbST). Group 4 were smaller but poorer-performing herds with low turnover and least frequently used intensive management practices (e.g., 39.1% SYNCH; 30.4% allowed mature, high-producing cows access to pasture). Group 5 used modern technologies and practices associated with improved production, yet had the least desirable mean DHI performance of all 6 groups. This group had the lowest proportion of deep loose-bedded stalls (only 52.2% used sand bedding) and the highest proportion (34.8%) of herds not using routine hoof trimming. The survey of group 3 herds did not reveal strong trends in management. The

  5. Evaluation of laboratory tests for SAT serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus with specimens collected from convalescent cattle in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Sammin, D J; Paton, D J; Parida, S; Ferris, N P; Hutchings, G H; Reid, S M; Shaw, A E; Holmes, C; Gibson, D; Corteyn, M; Knowles, N J; Valarcher, J-F; Hamblin, P A; Fleming, L; Gwaze, G; Sumption, K J

    2007-05-12

    During a field study in Zimbabwe, clinical specimens were collected from 403 cattle in six herds, in which the history of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccination and infection appeared to be known with some certainty. Five herds had reported outbreaks of disease one to five months previously but clinical FMD had not been observed in the sixth herd. A trivalent vaccine (South African Territories [SAT] types 1, 2 and 3) had been used in some of the herds at various times either before and/or after the recent outbreaks of FMD. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of serological tests for the detection of SAT-type FMD virus infection, particularly elisas for antibodies to non-structural proteins (NSPs) of FMD virus and solid phase competition ELISAS (SPCEs) for serotypes SAT1 and SAT2. Secondary aims were to examine NSP seroconversion rates in cattle that had been exposed to infection and to compare virus detection rates by virus isolation and real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR (rtRT-PCR) tests on both oesophagopharyngeal fluids and nasopharyngeal brush swabbings. In addition, the hooves of sampled animals were examined for growth arrest lines as clinical evidence of FMD convalescence. Laboratory tests provided evidence of FMD virus infection in all six herds; SAT2 viruses were isolated from oesophagopharyngeal fluids collected from two herds in northern Zimbabwe, and SAT1 viruses were isolated from three herds in southern Zimbabwe. Optimised rtRT-PCR was more sensitive than virus isolation at detecting FMD virus persistence and when the results of the two methods were combined for oesophagopharyngeal fluids, between 12 and 35 per cent of the cattle sampled in the convalescent herds were deemed to be carriers. In contrast, nasopharyngeal swabs yielded only two virus-positive specimens. The overall seroprevalence in the five affected herds varied with the different NSPS from 56 per cent to 75 per cent, compared with 81 per cent and 91 per cent

  6. Inbreeding and purging at the genomic Level: the Chillingham cattle reveal extensive, non-random SNP heterozygosity.

    PubMed

    Williams, J L; Hall, S J G; Del Corvo, M; Ballingall, K T; Colli, L; Ajmone Marsan, P; Biscarini, F

    2016-02-01

    Local breeds of livestock are of conservation significance as components of global biodiversity and as reservoirs of genetic variation relevant to the future sustainability of agriculture. One such rare historic breed, the Chillingham cattle of northern England, has a 350-year history of isolation and inbreeding yet shows no diminution of viability or fertility. The Chillingham cattle have not been subjected to selective breeding. It has been suggested previously that the herd has minimal genetic variation. In this study, high-density SNP genotyping with the 777K SNP chip showed that 9.1% of loci on the chip are polymorphic in the herd, compared with 62-90% seen in commercial cattle breeds. Instead of being homogeneously distributed along the genome, these loci are clustered at specific chromosomal locations. A high proportion of the Chillingham individuals examined were heterozygous at many of these polymorphic loci, suggesting that some loci are under balancing selection. Some of these frequently heterozygous loci have been implicated as sites of recessive lethal mutations in cattle. Linkage disequilibrium equal or close to 100% was found to span up to 1350 kb, and LD was above r(2) = 0.25 up to more than 5000 kb. This strong LD is consistent with the lack of polymorphic loci in the herd. The heterozygous regions in the Chillingham cattle may be the locations of genes relevant to fitness or survival, which may help elucidate the biology of local adaptation in traditional breeds and facilitate selection for such traits in commercial cattle. PMID:26559490

  7. Role of Cattle Movements in Bovine Tuberculosis Spread in France between 2005 and 2014

    PubMed Central

    Palisson, Aurore; Courcoul, Aurélie; Durand, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Live animal movements are a major transmission route for the spread of infectious agents such as Mycobacterium bovis, the main agent of bovine Tuberculosis (bTB). France became officially bTB-free in 2001, but M. bovis is still circulating in the cattle population, with about a hundred of outbreaks per year, most located in a few geographic areas. The aim of this study was to analyse the role of cattle movements in bTB spread in France between 2005 and 2014, using social network analysis and logistic regression models. At a global scale, the trade network was studied to assess the association between several centrality measures and bTB infection though a case-control analysis. The bTB infection status was associated with a higher in-degree (odds-ratio [OR] = 2.4 [1.1–5.4]) and with a higher ingoing contact chain (OR = 2.2 [1.0–4.7]). At a more local scale, a second case-control analysis was conducted to estimate the relative importance of cattle movements and spatial neighbourhood. Only direct purchase from infected herds was shown to be associated with bTB infection (OR = 2.9 [1.7–5.2]), spatial proximity to infected herds being the predominant risk factor, with decreasing ORs when distance increases. Indeed, the population attributable fraction was 12% [5%–18%] for cattle movements and 73% [68%–78%] for spatial neighbourhood. Based on these results, networks of potential effective contacts between herds were built and analysed for the three major spoligotypes reported in France. In these networks, the links representing cattle movements were associated with higher edge betweenness than those representing the spatial proximity between infected herds. They were often links connecting distinct communities and sometimes distinct geographical areas. Therefore, although their role was quantitatively lower than the one of spatial neighbourhood, cattle movements appear to have been essential in the French bTB dynamics between 2005 and 2014. PMID:27019291

  8. Role of Cattle Movements in Bovine Tuberculosis Spread in France between 2005 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Palisson, Aurore; Courcoul, Aurélie; Durand, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Live animal movements are a major transmission route for the spread of infectious agents such as Mycobacterium bovis, the main agent of bovine Tuberculosis (bTB). France became officially bTB-free in 2001, but M. bovis is still circulating in the cattle population, with about a hundred of outbreaks per year, most located in a few geographic areas. The aim of this study was to analyse the role of cattle movements in bTB spread in France between 2005 and 2014, using social network analysis and logistic regression models. At a global scale, the trade network was studied to assess the association between several centrality measures and bTB infection though a case-control analysis. The bTB infection status was associated with a higher in-degree (odds-ratio [OR] = 2.4 [1.1-5.4]) and with a higher ingoing contact chain (OR = 2.2 [1.0-4.7]). At a more local scale, a second case-control analysis was conducted to estimate the relative importance of cattle movements and spatial neighbourhood. Only direct purchase from infected herds was shown to be associated with bTB infection (OR = 2.9 [1.7-5.2]), spatial proximity to infected herds being the predominant risk factor, with decreasing ORs when distance increases. Indeed, the population attributable fraction was 12% [5%-18%] for cattle movements and 73% [68%-78%] for spatial neighbourhood. Based on these results, networks of potential effective contacts between herds were built and analysed for the three major spoligotypes reported in France. In these networks, the links representing cattle movements were associated with higher edge betweenness than those representing the spatial proximity between infected herds. They were often links connecting distinct communities and sometimes distinct geographical areas. Therefore, although their role was quantitatively lower than the one of spatial neighbourhood, cattle movements appear to have been essential in the French bTB dynamics between 2005 and 2014. PMID:27019291

  9. Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern) toxicity in cattle in the humid Chaco of Tarija, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Marrero, E; Bulnes, C; Sánchez, L M; Palenzuela, I; Stuart, R; Jacobs, F; Romero, J

    2001-06-01

    We studied the toxicity caused by chronic ingestion of Pteridium aquilinum (bracken) in cattle in the humid Chaco of Tarija, Bolivia. Bovine enzootic haematuria (BEH) and Carcinoma of the esophagus (CE) affected the herds. Sick animals showed caquexia, anemia, leucopenia and urine that turned from pink to intense red color with the presence of blood clots. Cattle grazed in the humid forests of the mountains where P aquilinum represented more than 50% of the plants. P aquilinum var arachnoideum and P aquilinum var Caudatum were present. Toxic norsesquiterpene, ptaquiloside, was identified in both varieties. Carcinomas were in the urinary bladders and esophagus of 100% and 50% of the cattle, respectively. Control of the intoxication could be difficult due to geographic characteristics of this Bolivian region. PMID:11383656

  10. Paratuberculosis sero-status and milk production, SCC and calving interval in Irish dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of paratuberculosis sero-status on milk yield, fat, protein, somatic cell count and calving interval in Irish dairy herds. Serum from all animals over 12 months of age (n = 2,602) in 34 dairy herds was tested for antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis using an ELISA. Herds were categorised by sero-status into positive, non-negative and negative, where a positive herd contained two or more positive cows, a non-negative herd contained only one positive cow and a negative herd contained no positive cows. Data at animal, parity and herd-level were analysed by multiple regression using general linear models. Positive herds (mean herd size = 129 cows) and non-negative herds (81 cows) were larger than negative herds (72 cows) (P < 0.01). Negative herds had the highest economic breeding index (EBI), while positive herds had the highest estimated breeding value (EBV) for milk yield. There was no significant effect of paratuberculosis sero-status at animal, parity or herd-level on milk yield, milk fat or protein production, somatic cell count score (SCCS) or calving interval. Negative herds tended to have a lower SCCS than positive and nonnegative herds (P = 0.087). This study only examined the effects of paratuberculosis sero-status but did not examine the clinical effects of Johne's disease at the farm or dairy industry levels. PMID:21851733

  11. Use of molecular and milk production information for the cost-effective diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhoea infection in New Zealand dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Hill, F I; Reichel, M P; Tisdall, D J

    2010-04-21

    An increase in veterinary and farmer interest in bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) in New Zealand over recent years led to requests for cost-effective identification of BVD virus (BVDV) infected herds and individuals. This study was undertaken to determine if the use of real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technology and dairy cow production data could identify persistently infected (PI) animals in milking herds. Milk samples were collected from the vats of dairy herds and tested for the presence of BVDV by RT-PCR till four herds were found containing PI animals. Individual serum samples were then collected from every cow in the herd and tested by both RT-PCR and antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ACE) to identify the PI animals. Individual animal testing found 1/223, 1/130, 2/800 and 1/275 PI's respectively in the four herds. Based on these results a maximum pool size of 400 cows contributing to the bulk tank milk was selected. After removal of the PI from the herds, further bulk milk samples were shown to be BVDV negative by RT-PCR. All the PI animals identified by this method were found in the lowest producing 10-20% of herd. This approach of targeted testing of dairy herds using PCR technology, in conjunction with animal production information, markedly reduced the cost of diagnostic testing for BVDV in dairy herds in New Zealand. Questionnaire follow-up on 81 BVDV-positive herds (15% of those tested) indicated the stratification approach identified milking PIs successfully over 90% of the time and reduced the number of individual tests to 12% of the milking herd. PMID:19837521

  12. Evaluation of single nucleotide polymorphisms in chromosomal regions impacting pregnancy status in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproductive success is an important component of commercial beef cattle production, and identification of DNA markers with predictive merit for reproductive success would facilitate accurate prediction of mean daughter pregnancy rate, enabling effective selection of bulls to improve female fertilit...

  13. Knowledge of Bovine Tuberculosis, Cattle Husbandry and Dairy Practices amongst Pastoralists and Small-Scale Dairy Farmers in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Robert F.; Hamman, Saidou M.; Morgan, Kenton L.; Nkongho, Egbe F.; Ngwa, Victor Ngu; Tanya, Vincent; Andu, Walters N.; Sander, Melissa; Ndip, Lucy; Handel, Ian G.; Mazeri, Stella; Muwonge, Adrian; Bronsvoort, Barend M. de. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and zoonotic tuberculosis (zTB) has relied upon surveillance and slaughter of infected cattle, milk pasteurisation and public health education. In Cameroon, like many other sub-Saharan African countries, there is limited understanding of current cattle husbandry or milk processing practices or livestock keepers awareness of bTB. This paper describes husbandry and milk processing practices within different Cameroonian cattle keeping communities and bTB awareness in comparison to other infectious diseases. Study design A population based cross-sectional sample of herdsmen and a questionnaire were used to gather data from pastoralists and dairy farmers in the North West Region and Vina Division of Cameroon. Results Pastoralists were predominately male Fulanis who had kept cattle for over a decade. Dairy farmers were non-Fulani and nearly half were female. Pastoralists went on transhumance with their cattle and came into contact with other herds and potential wildlife reservoirs of bTB. Dairy farmers housed their cattle and had little contact with other herds or wildlife. Pastoralists were aware of bTB and other infectious diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease and fasciolosis. These pastoralists were also able to identify clinical signs of these diseases. A similar proportion of dairy farmers were aware of bTB but fewer were aware of foot-and-mouth and fasciolosis. In general, dairy farmers were unable to identify any clinical signs for any of these diseases. Importantly most pastoralists and dairy farmers were unaware that bTB could be transmitted to people by consuming milk. Conclusions Current cattle husbandry practices make the control of bTB in cattle challenging especially in mobile pastoralist herds. Routine test and slaughter control in dairy herds would be tractable but would have profound impact on dairy farmer livelihoods. Prevention of transmission in milk offers the best approach for human risk mitigation

  14. Influence of cattle wastes on nitrous oxide and methane fluxes in pasture land

    SciTech Connect

    Flessa, H.; Doersch, P.; Beese, F.

    1996-11-01

    Agricultural practices are assumed to contribute significantly to the increase in atmospheric N{sub 2}O concentrations observed in the last decades, and they might influence the consumption of atmospheric CH{sub 4}. We report on measurements of N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} exchange of a pasture soil, as influenced by droppings of a grazing cattle (Bos taurus) herd. Nitrous oxide and methane fluxes in pasture soil were largely determined by the emission rates from cattle excrement with dung patches being hot spots of CH{sub 4} production and urine-affected areas showing extremely high N{sub 2}O release rates. Methane emissions from dung patches (0.778 g CH{sub 4}-C per animal and day) were insignificant when compared with those from the rumen of the cattle. Total N{sub 2}O-N losses from the droppings were equivalent to 3.2% of the nitrogen excreted. Based on global data of total nitrogen excretion by dairy cattle, non-dairy cattle, buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and bison during grazing, we estimate the global N{sub 2}O emission from this source to be {approximately}1.18 teragrams N{sub 2}O-N per year, indicating that grazing cattle excretory products are one of the most important sources of atmospheric nitrous oxide. Our work suggests that these sources have been drastically underestimated. 27 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Analyses of the correlation between dermal and blood carotenoids in female cattle by optical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Julia; Darvin, Maxim E.; Meinke, Martina C.; Schweigert, Florian J.; Müller, Kerstin E.; Lademann, Jürgen

    2013-06-01

    Herd health programs for the maintenance of welfare and productivity in cattle need efficient tools for monitoring the health of individual animals. Recent reports demonstrate that the oxidative status is related to various stress conditions in dairy cows. Biomarkers, among other carotenoids, could serve as indicators of stress originating from the environment (e.g., heat stress or sun radiation) or from the animal itself (e.g., disease). To date, only invasive in vitro tests are available to assess the oxidative status in cattle. The present study compares the results of optical noninvasive in vivo measurements of dermal carotenoids in cattle udder skin using an LED-based miniaturized spectroscopic system (MSS) with those obtained by photometric analysis of beta carotene in whole blood samples using a portable device. Correlations between the concentrations of dermal and blood carotenoids were calculated under consideration of the nutritional status of the animals. Significant correlation (R=0.86) was found for cattle with a moderate to obese body condition. Thus, the blood and skin concentrations of the marker substance beta carotene are comparable under stable stress conditions of the cattle. This demonstrates that the MSS is suitable for noninvasive assessment of dermal carotenoid concentrations in cattle.

  16. Evaluation of udder health parameters and risk factors for clinical mastitis in Dutch dairy herds in the context of a restricted antimicrobial usage policy.

    PubMed

    Santman-Berends, I M G A; Swinkels, J M; Lam, T J G M; Keurentjes, J; van Schaik, G

    2016-04-01

    Recently, many changes have been implemented in Dutch dairy herds. Herd sizes have increased and antimicrobial use has been reduced. Certain types of antimicrobials can only be used in specific circumstances, and the preventive use of antimicrobials in dry cows is prohibited. The aim of this study was to quantify clinical mastitis (CM), subclinical mastitis (SCM), and risk factors associated with CM in Dutch dairy herds in 2013, in the context of these changes. For this study, 240 dairy herds were randomly selected from farms that participated in test-day milk recording, used a conventional milking system, and agreed to participate in the study. Eventually, 233 Dutch dairy farmers had complete records of CM in their herds in 2013 and 224 of these farmers completed a questionnaire on management factors potentially associated with CM. All participating farmers gave consent to use their routinely collected herd data such as test-day records and cow identification and registration data. Clinical and subclinical mastitis incidence rate (CMI and SCMI, respectively) per 100 cows per year, subclinical mastitis prevalence, and average bulk tank milk somatic cell count were obtained for 2013. The risk factor analysis was conducted using a generalized linear model with a log link function and a negative binomial distribution on herd level in Stata 13.1. A median CMI of 28.6 per 100 cows at risk per year, SCMI of 70.1 per 100 cows at risk per year, SCM prevalence of 15.8%, and bulk tank milk somatic cell count of 171 × 10(3) cells/mL were observed in 2013. Factors that were significantly associated with a higher CMI were cleaning slatted floors only once per day compared with more than 4 times a day (i.e., mechanical), a higher percentage of Holstein Friesian cows present in the herd, treating less than 50% of the cows with CM with antimicrobials, postmilking teat disinfection, and treatment of cows with elevated somatic cell count with antimicrobials. The results of this

  17. High Prevalence of Bovine Tuberculosis in Dairy Cattle in Central Ethiopia: Implications for the Dairy Industry and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Sombo, Melaku; Hailu, Elena; Erenso, Girume; Kiros, Teklu; Yamuah, Lawrence; Vordermeier, Martin; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Young, Douglas; Gordon, Stephen V.; Sahile, Mesfin; Aseffa, Abraham; Berg, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethiopia has the largest cattle population in Africa. The vast majority of the national herd is of indigenous zebu cattle maintained in rural areas under extensive husbandry systems. However, in response to the increasing demand for milk products and the Ethiopian government's efforts to improve productivity in the livestock sector, recent years have seen increased intensive husbandry settings holding exotic and cross breeds. This drive for increased productivity is however threatened by animal diseases that thrive under intensive settings, such as bovine tuberculosis (BTB), a disease that is already endemic in Ethiopia. Methodology/Principal Findings An extensive study was conducted to: estimate the prevalence of BTB in intensive dairy farms in central Ethiopia; identify associated risk factors; and characterize circulating strains of the causative agent, Mycobacterium bovis. The comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT), questionnaire survey, post-mortem examination, bacteriology, and molecular typing were used to get a better understanding of the BTB prevalence among dairy farms in the study area. Based on the CIDT, our findings showed that around 30% of 2956 tested dairy cattle from 88 herds were positive for BTB while the herd prevalence was over 50%. Post-mortem examination revealed gross tuberculous lesions in 34/36 CIDT positive cattle and acid-fast bacilli were recovered from 31 animals. Molecular typing identified all isolates as M. bovis and further characterization by spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing indicated low strain diversity within the study area. Conclusions/Significance This study showed an overall BTB herd prevalence of 50% in intensive dairy farms in Addis Ababa and surroundings, signalling an urgent need for intervention to control the disease and prevent zoonotic transmission of M. bovis to human populations consuming dairy products coming from these farms. It is suggested